WorldWideScience

Sample records for human factors analyses

  1. SARDA HITL Preliminary Human Factors Measures and Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyashi, Miwa; Dulchinos, Victoria

    2012-01-01

    Human factors data collected during the SARDA HITL Simulation Experiment include a variety of subjective measures, including the NASA TLX, questionnaire questions regarding situational awareness, advisory usefulness, UI usability, and controller trust. Preliminary analysis of the TLX data indicate that workload may not be adversely affected by use of the advisories, additionally, the controller's subjective ratings of the advisories may suggest acceptance of the tool.

  2. IMPROVING CONTROL ROOM DESIGN AND OPERATIONS BASED ON HUMAN FACTORS ANALYSES OR HOW MUCH HUMAN FACTORS UPGRADE IS ENOUGH ?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HIGGINS,J.C.; OHARA,J.M.; ALMEIDA,P.

    2002-09-19

    THE JOSE CABRERA NUCLEAR POWER PLANT IS A ONE LOOP WESTINGHOUSE PRESSURIZED WATER REACTOR. IN THE CONTROL ROOM, THE DISPLAYS AND CONTROLS USED BY OPERATORS FOR THE EMERGENCY OPERATING PROCEDURES ARE DISTRIBUTED ON FRONT AND BACK PANELS. THIS CONFIGURATION CONTRIBUTED TO RISK IN THE PROBABILISTIC SAFETY ASSESSMENT WHERE IMPORTANT OPERATOR ACTIONS ARE REQUIRED. THIS STUDY WAS UNDERTAKEN TO EVALUATE THE IMPACT OF THE DESIGN ON CREW PERFORMANCE AND PLANT SAFETY AND TO DEVELOP DESIGN IMPROVEMENTS.FIVE POTENTIAL EFFECTS WERE IDENTIFIED. THEN NUREG-0711 [1], PROGRAMMATIC, HUMAN FACTORS, ANALYSES WERE CONDUCTED TO SYSTEMATICALLY EVALUATE THE CR-LA YOUT TO DETERMINE IF THERE WAS EVIDENCE OF THE POTENTIAL EFFECTS. THESE ANALYSES INCLUDED OPERATING EXPERIENCE REVIEW, PSA REVIEW, TASK ANALYSES, AND WALKTHROUGH SIMULATIONS. BASED ON THE RESULTS OF THESE ANALYSES, A VARIETY OF CONTROL ROOM MODIFICATIONS WERE IDENTIFIED. FROM THE ALTERNATIVES, A SELECTION WAS MADE THAT PROVIDED A REASONABLEBALANCE BE TWEEN PERFORMANCE, RISK AND ECONOMICS, AND MODIFICATIONS WERE MADE TO THE PLANT.

  3. Human factors evaluation of remote afterloading brachytherapy. Supporting analyses of human-system interfaces, procedures and practices, training and organizational practices and policies. Volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callan, J.R.; Kelly, R.T.; Quinn, M.L.

    1995-07-01

    A human factors project on the use of nuclear by-product material to treat cancer using remotely operated afterloaders was undertaken by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The purpose of the project was to identify factors that contribute to human error in the system for remote afterloading brachytherapy (RAB). This report documents the findings from the second, third, fourth, and fifth phases of the project, which involved detailed analyses of four major aspects of the RAB system linked to human error: human-system interfaces; procedures and practices; training practices and policies; and organizational practices and policies, respectively. Findings based on these analyses provided factual and conceptual support for the final phase of this project, which identified factors leading to human error in RAB. The impact of those factors on RAB performance was then evaluated and prioritized in terms of safety significance, and alternative approaches for resolving safety significant problems were identified and evaluated

  4. Human factors evaluation of remote afterloading brachytherapy. Supporting analyses of human-system interfaces, procedures and practices, training and organizational practices and policies. Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callan, J.R.; Kelly, R.T.; Quinn, M.L. [Pacific Science & Engineering Group, San Diego, CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-07-01

    A human factors project on the use of nuclear by-product material to treat cancer using remotely operated afterloaders was undertaken by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The purpose of the project was to identify factors that contribute to human error in the system for remote afterloading brachytherapy (RAB). This report documents the findings from the second, third, fourth, and fifth phases of the project, which involved detailed analyses of four major aspects of the RAB system linked to human error: human-system interfaces; procedures and practices; training practices and policies; and organizational practices and policies, respectively. Findings based on these analyses provided factual and conceptual support for the final phase of this project, which identified factors leading to human error in RAB. The impact of those factors on RAB performance was then evaluated and prioritized in terms of safety significance, and alternative approaches for resolving safety significant problems were identified and evaluated.

  5. INCORPORATION OF HUMAN FACTORS ENGINEERING ANALYSES AND TOOLS INTO THE DESIGN PROCESS FOR DIGITAL CONTROL ROOM UPGRADES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'HARA, J.M.; BROWN, W.

    2004-01-01

    Many nuclear power plants are modernizing with digital instrumentation and control systems and computer-based human-system interfaces (HSIs). The purpose of this paper is to summarize the human factors engineering (HFE) activities that can help to ensure that the design meets personnel needs. HFE activities should be integrated into the design process as a regular part of the engineering effort of a plant modification. The HFE activities will help ensure that human performance issues are addressed, that new technology supports task performance, and that the HSIs are designed in a manner that is compatible with human physiological, cognitive and social characteristics

  6. Human Factors Risk Analyses of a Doffing Protocol for Ebola-Level Personal Protective Equipment: Mapping Errors to Contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumma, Joel M; Durso, Francis T; Ferguson, Ashley N; Gipson, Christina L; Casanova, Lisa; Erukunuakpor, Kimberly; Kraft, Colleen S; Walsh, Victoria L; Zimring, Craig; DuBose, Jennifer; Jacob, Jesse T

    2018-03-05

    Doffing protocols for personal protective equipment (PPE) are critical for keeping healthcare workers (HCWs) safe during care of patients with Ebola virus disease. We assessed the relationship between errors and self-contamination during doffing. Eleven HCWs experienced with doffing Ebola-level PPE participated in simulations in which HCWs donned PPE marked with surrogate viruses (ɸ6 and MS2), completed a clinical task, and were assessed for contamination after doffing. Simulations were video recorded, and a failure modes and effects analysis and fault tree analyses were performed to identify errors during doffing, quantify their risk (risk index), and predict contamination data. Fifty-one types of errors were identified, many having the potential to spread contamination. Hand hygiene and removing the powered air purifying respirator (PAPR) hood had the highest total risk indexes (111 and 70, respectively) and number of types of errors (9 and 13, respectively). ɸ6 was detected on 10% of scrubs and the fault tree predicted a 10.4% contamination rate, likely occurring when the PAPR hood inadvertently contacted scrubs during removal. MS2 was detected on 10% of hands, 20% of scrubs, and 70% of inner gloves and the predicted rates were 7.3%, 19.4%, 73.4%, respectively. Fault trees for MS2 and ɸ6 contamination suggested similar pathways. Ebola-level PPE can both protect and put HCWs at risk for self-contamination throughout the doffing process, even among experienced HCWs doffing with a trained observer. Human factors methodologies can identify error-prone steps, delineate the relationship between errors and self-contamination, and suggest remediation strategies.

  7. Expression analyses of human cleft palate tissue suggest a role for osteopontin and immune related factors in palatal development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, L.P.; Borup, R.; Vestergaard, J.

    2009-01-01

    . Moreover, selected differentially expressed genes were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR, and by immunohistochemical staining of craniofacial tissue from human embryos. Osteopontin (SPP1) and other immune related genes were significantly higher expressed in palate tissue from patients with CLP compared to CP...... and palate (CLP). In order to understand the biological basis in these cleft lip and palate subgroups better we studied the expression profiles in human tissue from patients with CL/P. In each of the CL/P subgroups, samples were obtained from three patients and gene expression analysis was performed...... and immunostaining in palatal shelves against SPP1, chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) and serglycin (PRG1) in human embryonic craniofacial tissue were positive, supporting a role for these genes in palatal development. However, gene expression profiles are subject to variations during growth and therefore we recommend...

  8. Human factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, G.J.

    1991-01-01

    Recent reactor accidents have spurred the major review, described here, of the contribution of operator personnel to safety in Scottish Nuclear Power Stations. The review aims to identify factors leading to the Chernobyl accident and take preventative measures to avoid possible recurrence. Scottish Nuclear power stations aim to remove the operator from a position where failure to take correct action could lead to a safety hazard. Instead operators concentrate on routine and breakdown maintenance and measures are taken to minimize the probability of operator error. The review concluded that most safety procedures were satisfactory but safety analysis supported by good design practices may offer a significant reduction in the risk of operator error. (UK)

  9. Human reliability and human factors in complex organizations: epistemological and critical analysis - practical avenues to action; Fiabilite humaine et facteurs humains dans les organisations complexes: analyse epistemologique et critique voies pratiques pour l`action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llory, A

    1991-08-01

    This article starts out with comment on the existence of persistent problems inherent to probabilistic safety assessments (PSA). It first surveys existing American documents on the subject which make a certain number of criticisms on human reliability analyses, e.g. limitations due to the scant quantities of data available, lack of a basic theoretical model, non-reproducibility of analyses, etc. The article therefore examines and criticizes the epistemological bases of these analyses. One of the fundamental points stressed is that human reliability analyses do not take account of all the special features of the work situation which result in human error (so as to draw up statistical data from a sufficiently representative number of cases), and consequently lose all notion of the `relationships` between human errors and the different aspects of the working environment. The other key points of criticism concern the collective nature of work which is not taken into account, and the frequent confusion between what operatives actually do and their formally prescribed job-tasks. The article proposes aspects to be given thought in order to overcome these difficulties, e.g. quantitative assessment of the social environment within a company, non-linear model for assessment of the accident rate, analysis of stress levels in staff on off-shore platforms. The method approaches used in these three studies are of the same type, and could be transposed to human-reliability problems. The article then goes into greater depth on thinking aimed at developing a `positive` view of the human factor (and not just a `negative` one, i.e. centred on human errors and organizational malfunctions), applying investigation methods developed in the occupational human sciences (occupational psychodynamics, ergonomics, occupational sociology). The importance of operatives working as actors of a team is stressed.

  10. Human factors in training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutton, J.W.; Brown, W.R.

    1981-01-01

    The Human Factors concept is a focused effort directed at those activities which require human involvement. Training is, by its nature, an activity totally dependent on the Human Factor. This paper identifies several concerns significant to training situations and discusses how Human Factor awareness can increase the quality of learning. Psychology in the training arena is applied Human Factors. Training is a method of communication represented by sender, medium, and receiver. Two-thirds of this communications model involves the human element directly

  11. Human factor reliability program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoblochova, L.

    2017-01-01

    The human factor's reliability program was at Slovenske elektrarne, a.s. (SE) nuclear power plants. introduced as one of the components Initiatives of Excellent Performance in 2011. The initiative's goal was to increase the reliability of both people and facilities, in response to 3 major areas of improvement - Need for improvement of the results, Troubleshooting support, Supporting the achievement of the company's goals. The human agent's reliability program is in practice included: - Tools to prevent human error; - Managerial observation and coaching; - Human factor analysis; -Quick information about the event with a human agent; -Human reliability timeline and performance indicators; - Basic, periodic and extraordinary training in human factor reliability(authors)

  12. Design Guidelines and Criteria for User/Operator Transactions with Battlefield Automated Systems. Volume III-A. Human Factors Analyses of User/ Operator Transactions with TACFIRE - The Tactical Fire Direction System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-02-01

    7. Reseaarch Product 81-26 - DESIGN GUIDELINES AND CRITERIA FOR USER/ I;. I’OPERATOR TRANSACTIONS WITH BATTLEFIELD AUTOMIATED SYSTEMS I’ /HVtAN...FACTORS XWLYSES :’F K~R/ OPERATOR TRANSACTIONS WTHT TACFIRE - THE TACTICAL FIRE DiRECTION SY2T3EM A HUMAN FACTORS TECHNICAL AREA L~h~h K L-J 1’ U~~i~ ll...Battlefield Auto- Inter : Oct 1979-Feb 1981 mated Systems Volume III-A: Human Factors 4t C/ Analyses of User/Operator Transactions with 6. PERFORMING

  13. Conceptual aspects: analyses law, ethical, human, technical, social factors of development ICT, e-learning and intercultural development in different countries setting out the previous new theoretical model and preliminary findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kommers, Petrus A.M.; Smyrnova-Trybulska, Eugenia; Morze, Natalia; Issa, Tomayess; Issa, Theodora

    2015-01-01

    This paper, prepared by an international team of authors focuses on the conceptual aspects: analyses law, ethical, human, technical, social factors of ICT development, e-learning and intercultural development in different countries, setting out the previous and new theoretical model and preliminary

  14. Accidents and human factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiwaki, Y.; Kawai, H.; Morishima, H.; Terano, T.; Sugeno, M.

    1984-01-01

    When the TMI accident occurred it was 4 a.m., an hour when the error potential of the operators would have been very high. The frequency of car and train accidents in Japan is also highest between 4 a.m. and 6 a.m. The error potential may be classified into five phases corresponding to the electroencephalogramic pattern (EEG). At phase 0, when the delta wave appears, a person is unconscious and in deep sleep; at phase I, when the theta wave appears, he is very tired, sleepy and subnormal; at phase II, when the alpha wave appears, he is normal, relaxed and passive; at phase III, when the beta wave appears, he is normal, clear-minded and active; at phase IV, when the strong beta or epileptic wave appears, he is hypernormal, excited and incapable of normal judgement. Should an accident occur at phase II, the brain condition may jump to phase IV. At this phase the error or accident potential is maximum. The response of the human brain to different types of noises and signals may vary somewhat for different individuals and for different groups of people. Therefore, the possibility that such differences in brain functions may influence the mental structure would be worthy of consideration in human factors and in the design of man-machine systems. Human reliability and performance would be affected by many factors: medical, physiological and psychological, etc. The uncertainty involved in human factors may not necessarily be probabilistic, but fuzzy. Therefore, it would be important to develop a theory by which both non-probabilistic uncertainties, or fuzziness, of human factors and the probabilistic properties of machines can be treated consistently. From the mathematical point of view, probabilistic measure is considered a special case of fuzzy measure. Therefore, fuzzy set theory seems to be an effective tool for analysing man-machine systems. To minimize human error and the possibility of accidents, new safety systems should not only back up man and make up for his

  15. [Human factors in medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarovici, M; Trentzsch, H; Prückner, S

    2017-01-01

    The concept of human factors is commonly used in the context of patient safety and medical errors, all too often ambiguously. In actual fact, the term comprises a wide range of meanings from human-machine interfaces through human performance and limitations up to the point of working process design; however, human factors prevail as a substantial cause of error in complex systems. This article presents the full range of the term human factors from the (emergency) medical perspective. Based on the so-called Swiss cheese model by Reason, we explain the different types of error, what promotes their emergence and on which level of the model error prevention can be initiated.

  16. Molecular modeling of the human eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF5A) based on spectroscopic and computational analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa-Neto, Claudio M.; Parreiras-e-Silva, Lucas T.; Ruller, Roberto; Oliveira, Eduardo B.; Miranda, Antonio; Oliveira, Laerte; Ward, Richard J.

    2006-01-01

    The eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF5A) is a protein ubiquitously present in archaea and eukarya, which undergoes a unique two-step post-translational modification called hypusination. Several studies have shown that hypusination is essential for a variety of functional roles for eIF5A, including cell proliferation and synthesis of proteins involved in cell cycle control. Up to now neither a totally selective inhibitor of hypusination nor an inhibitor capable of directly binding to eIF5A has been reported in the literature. The discovery of such an inhibitor might be achieved by computer-aided drug design based on the 3D structure of the human eIF5A. In this study, we present a molecular model for the human eIF5A protein based on the crystal structure of the eIF5A from Leishmania brasiliensis, and compare the modeled conformation of the loop bearing the hypusination site with circular dichroism data obtained with a synthetic peptide of this loop. Furthermore, analysis of amino acid variability between different human eIF5A isoforms revealed peculiar structural characteristics that are of functional relevance

  17. Summary of the analyses for recovery factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Mahendra K.

    2017-07-17

    IntroductionIn order to determine the hydrocarbon potential of oil reservoirs within the U.S. sedimentary basins for which the carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) process has been considered suitable, the CO2 Prophet model was chosen by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to be the primary source for estimating recovery-factor values for individual reservoirs. The choice was made because of the model’s reliability and the ease with which it can be used to assess a large number of reservoirs. The other two approaches—the empirical decline curve analysis (DCA) method and a review of published literature on CO2-EOR projects—were deployed to verify the results of the CO2 Prophet model. This chapter discusses the results from CO2 Prophet (chapter B, by Emil D. Attanasi, this report) and compares them with results from decline curve analysis (chapter C, by Hossein Jahediesfanjani) and those reported in the literature for selected reservoirs with adequate data for analyses (chapter D, by Ricardo A. Olea).To estimate the technically recoverable hydrocarbon potential for oil reservoirs where CO2-EOR has been applied, two of the three approaches—CO2 Prophet modeling and DCA—do not include analysis of economic factors, while the third approach—review of published literature—implicitly includes economics. For selected reservoirs, DCA has provided estimates of the technically recoverable hydrocarbon volumes, which, in combination with calculated amounts of original oil in place (OOIP), helped establish incremental CO2-EOR recovery factors for individual reservoirs.The review of published technical papers and reports has provided substantial information on recovery factors for 70 CO2-EOR projects that are either commercially profitable or classified as pilot tests. When comparing the results, it is important to bear in mind the differences and limitations of these three approaches.

  18. Human factors in aviation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Salas, Eduardo; Maurino, Daniel E

    2010-01-01

    .... HFA offers a comprehensive overview of the topic, taking readers from the general to the specific, first covering broad issues, then the more specific topics of pilot performance, human factors...

  19. Human Factors Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The purpose of the Human Factors Laboratory is to further the understanding of highway user needs so that those needs can be incorporated in roadway design,...

  20. Introduction to human factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winters, J.M.

    1988-03-01

    Some background is given on the field of human factors. The nature of problems with current human/computer interfaces is discussed, some costs are identified, ideal attributes of graceful system interfaces are outlined, and some reasons are indicated why it's not easy to fix the problems

  1. Human factors information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, P.C.; DiPalo, C.A.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear power plant safety is dependent upon human performance related to plant operations. To provide improvements in human performance, data collection and assessment play key roles. This paper reports on the Human factors Information System (HFIS) which is designed to meet the needs of the human factors specialists of the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission. These specialists identify personnel errors and provide guidance designed to prevent such errors. HFIS is a simple and modular system designed for use on a personal computer. It is designed to contain four separate modules that provide information indicative of program or function effectiveness as well as safety-related human performance based on programmatic and performance data. These modules include the Human Factors Status module; the Regulatory Programs module; the Licensee Event Report module; and the Operator Requalification Performance module. Information form these modules can either be used separately or can be combined due to the integrated nature of the system. HFIS has the capability, therefore, to provide insights into those areas of human factors that can reduce the probability of events caused by personnel error at nuclear power plants and promote the health and safety of the public. This information system concept can be applied to other industries as well as the nuclear industry

  2. Human factors guides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penington, J.

    1995-10-01

    This document presents human factors guides, which have been developed in order to provide licensees of the AECB with advice as to how to address human factors issues within the design and assessment process. This documents presents the results of a three part study undertaken to develop three guides which are enclosed in this document as Parts B, C and D. As part of the study human factors standards, guidelines, handbooks and other texts were researched, to define those which would be most useful to the users of the guides and for the production of the guides themselves. Detailed specifications were then produced to outline the proposed contents and format of the three guides. (author). 100 refs., 3 tabs., 11 figs

  3. Human factors guides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penington, J [PHF Services Inc., (Canada)

    1995-10-01

    This document presents human factors guides, which have been developed in order to provide licensees of the AECB with advice as to how to address human factors issues within the design and assessment process. This documents presents the results of a three part study undertaken to develop three guides which are enclosed in this document as Parts B, C and D. As part of the study human factors standards, guidelines, handbooks and other texts were researched, to define those which would be most useful to the users of the guides and for the production of the guides themselves. Detailed specifications were then produced to outline the proposed contents and format of the three guides. (author). 100 refs., 3 tabs., 11 figs.

  4. Human Factors Review Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paramore, B.; Peterson, L.R.

    1985-12-01

    ''Human Factors'' is concerned with the incorporation of human user considerations into a system in order to maximize human reliability and reduce errors. This Review Plan is intended to assist in the assessment of human factors conditions in existing DOE facilities. In addition to specifying assessment methodologies, the plan describes techniques for improving conditions which are found to not adequately support reliable human performance. The following topics are addressed: (1) selection of areas for review describes techniques for needs assessment to assist in selecting and prioritizing areas for review; (2) human factors engineering review is concerned with optimizing the interfaces between people and equipment and people and their work environment; (3) procedures review evaluates completeness and accuracy of procedures, as well as their usability and management; (4) organizational interface review is concerned with communication and coordination between all levels of an organization; and (5) training review evaluates training program criteria such as those involving: trainee selection, qualification of training staff, content and conduct of training, requalification training, and program management

  5. Human Factors Review Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paramore, B.; Peterson, L.R. (eds.)

    1985-12-01

    ''Human Factors'' is concerned with the incorporation of human user considerations into a system in order to maximize human reliability and reduce errors. This Review Plan is intended to assist in the assessment of human factors conditions in existing DOE facilities. In addition to specifying assessment methodologies, the plan describes techniques for improving conditions which are found to not adequately support reliable human performance. The following topics are addressed: (1) selection of areas for review describes techniques for needs assessment to assist in selecting and prioritizing areas for review; (2) human factors engineering review is concerned with optimizing the interfaces between people and equipment and people and their work environment; (3) procedures review evaluates completeness and accuracy of procedures, as well as their usability and management; (4) organizational interface review is concerned with communication and coordination between all levels of an organization; and (5) training review evaluates training program criteria such as those involving: trainee selection, qualification of training staff, content and conduct of training, requalification training, and program management.

  6. Human oocyte chromosome analyses need a standardized ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Studies of DNA polymorphisms in human trisomic abor- tions and liveborn have ... Keywords. human oocyte chromosomes; cytogenetic analysis; aneuploidy; nondisjunction; predivision. Journal of .... oocytes and giant embryos. Hum. Reprod.

  7. Human and Organizational Factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eshiett, P.B.S.

    2016-01-01

    The Human and Organizational Factors Approach to Industrial Safety (HOFS) consists of identifying and putting in place conditions which encourage a positive contribution from operators (individually and in a team) with regards to industrial safety. The knowledge offered by the HOFS approach makes it possible better to understand what conditions human activity and to act on the design of occupational situations and the organization, in the aim of creating the conditions for safe work. Efforts made in this area can also lead to an improvement in results in terms of the quality of production or occupational safety (incidence and seriousness rates) (Daniellou, F., et al., 2011). Research on industrial accidents shows that they rarely happen as a result of a single event, but rather emerge from the accumulation of several, often seemingly trivial, malfunctions, misunderstandings, incorrect assumptions and other issues. The nuclear community has established rigorous international safety standards and concepts to ensure the protection of people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation (IAEA, 2014). A review of major human induced disasters in a number of countries and in different industries yields insights into several of the human and organizational factors involved in their occurrence. Some of these factors relate to failures in: • Design or technology; • Training; • Decision making; • Communication; • Preparation for the unexpected; • Understanding of organizational interdependencies

  8. Integrating human factors into process hazard analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kariuki, S.G.; Loewe, K.

    2007-01-01

    A comprehensive process hazard analysis (PHA) needs to address human factors. This paper describes an approach that systematically identifies human error in process design and the human factors that influence its production and propagation. It is deductive in nature and therefore considers human error as a top event. The combinations of different factors that may lead to this top event are analysed. It is qualitative in nature and is used in combination with other PHA methods. The method has an advantage because it does not look at the operator error as the sole contributor to the human failure within a system but a combination of all underlying factors

  9. Updated Human Health Risk Analyses for Chlorpyrifos

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has revised the human health hazard assessment and drinking water exposure assessment for chlorpyrifos that supported our October 2015 proposal to revoke all food residue tolerances for chlorpyrifos.

  10. Analysing human genomes at different scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Siyang

    The thriving of the Next-Generation sequencing (NGS) technologies in the past decade has dramatically revolutionized the field of human genetics. We are experiencing a wave of several large-scale whole genome sequencing studies of humans in the world. Those studies vary greatly regarding cohort...... will be reflected by the analysis of real data. This thesis covers studies in two human genome sequencing projects that distinctly differ in terms of studied population, sample size and sequencing depth. In the first project, we sequenced 150 Danish individuals from 50 trio families to 78x coverage....... The sophisticated experimental design enables high-quality de novo assembly of the genomes and provides a good opportunity for mapping the structural variations in the human population. We developed the AsmVar approach to discover, genotype and characterize the structural variations from the assemblies. Our...

  11. Human factoring administrative procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grider, D.A.; Sturdivant, M.H.

    1991-01-01

    In nonnuclear business, administrative procedures bring to mind such mundane topics as filing correspondence and scheduling vacation time. In the nuclear industry, on the other hand, administrative procedures play a vital role in assuring the safe operation of a facility. For some time now, industry focus has been on improving technical procedures. Significant efforts are under way to produce technical procedure requires that a validated technical, regulatory, and administrative basis be developed and that the technical process be established for each procedure. Producing usable technical procedures requires that procedure presentation be engineered to the same human factors principles used in control room design. The vital safety role of administrative procedures requires that they be just as sound, just a rigorously formulated, and documented as technical procedures. Procedure programs at the Tennessee Valley Authority and at Boston Edison's Pilgrim Station demonstrate that human factors engineering techniques can be applied effectively to technical procedures. With a few modifications, those same techniques can be used to produce more effective administrative procedures. Efforts are under way at the US Department of Energy Nuclear Weapons Complex and at some utilities (Boston Edison, for instance) to apply human factors engineering to administrative procedures: The techniques being adapted include the following

  12. Human factors in network security

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Francis B.

    1991-01-01

    Human factors, such as ethics and education, are important factors in network information security. This thesis determines which human factors have significant influence on network security. Those factors are examined in relation to current security devices and procedures. Methods are introduced to evaluate security effectiveness by incorporating the appropriate human factors into network security controls

  13. Human hematopoietic cell culture, transduction, and analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Jesper; Wirthlin, Louisa; Kohn, Donald B

    2008-01-01

    This unit provides methods for introducing genes into human hematopoietic progenitor cells. The Basic Protocol describes isolation of CD34(+) cells, transduction of these cells with a retroviral vector on fibronectin-coated plates, assaying the efficiency of transduction, and establishing long-te...

  14. Human factors reliability benchmark exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poucet, A.

    1989-08-01

    The Joint Research Centre of the European Commission has organised a Human Factors Reliability Benchmark Exercise (HF-RBE) with the aim of assessing the state of the art in human reliability modelling and assessment. Fifteen teams from eleven countries, representing industry, utilities, licensing organisations and research institutes, participated in the HF-RBE. The HF-RBE was organised around two study cases: (1) analysis of routine functional Test and Maintenance (TPM) procedures: with the aim of assessing the probability of test induced failures, the probability of failures to remain unrevealed and the potential to initiate transients because of errors performed in the test; (2) analysis of human actions during an operational transient: with the aim of assessing the probability that the operators will correctly diagnose the malfunctions and take proper corrective action. This report summarises the contributions received from the participants and analyses these contributions on a comparative basis. The aim of this analysis was to compare the procedures, modelling techniques and quantification methods used, to obtain insight in the causes and magnitude of the variability observed in the results, to try to identify preferred human reliability assessment approaches and to get an understanding of the current state of the art in the field identifying the limitations that are still inherent to the different approaches

  15. Human Factors in Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barshi, Immanuel; Byrne, Vicky; Arsintescu, Lucia; Connell, Erin

    2010-01-01

    Future space missions will be significantly longer than current shuttle missions and new systems will be more complex than current systems. Increasing communication delays between crews and Earth-based support means that astronauts need to be prepared to handle the unexpected on their own. As crews become more autonomous, their potential span of control and required expertise must grow to match their autonomy. It is not possible to train for every eventuality ahead of time on the ground, or to maintain trained skills across long intervals of disuse. To adequately prepare NASA personnel for these challenges, new training approaches, methodologies, and tools are required. This research project aims at developing these training capabilities. By researching established training principles, examining future needs, and by using current practices in space flight training as test beds, both in Flight Controller and Crew Medical domains, this research project is mitigating program risks and generating templates and requirements to meet future training needs. Training efforts in Fiscal Year 09 (FY09) strongly focused on crew medical training, but also began exploring how Space Flight Resource Management training for Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) Flight Controllers could be integrated with systems training for optimal Mission Control Center (MCC) operations. The Training Task addresses Program risks that lie at the intersection of the following three risks identified by the Project: 1) Risk associated with poor task design; 2) Risk of error due to inadequate information; and 3) Risk associated with reduced safety and efficiency due to poor human factors design.

  16. Human Factors in Marine Casualties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelenko Švetak

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Human factors play an important role in the origin of accidents,and it is commonly claimed that between seventy andninety-five percent of industrial and transport accidents involvehuman factors, see Figure 1.Some authorities, however, claim that ultimately, all accidentsinvolve human factors.

  17. Waste - the human factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaren, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    Waste is a human concept, referring to things that have no use to human beings and arising entirely from human activities. It is the useless residue of any human process that affects the economy or environment. The changes brought about by the industrial revolution are enormous; fossil fuels, not just photosynthesis, now provide energy and wastes at rates far exceeding the capacity of the ecosystem to absorb or recycle. Three major problems face the Planet: accelerated population growth, accelerated use of resources for energy and industry, and the disproportionate use of resources and waste between the northern and southern parts of the Planet. Knowledge and science are in a position to provide both human creativity and the directed technology to take remedial action and rediscover harmony between nature and mankind. Only social and political will is lacking

  18. Human factors influencing decision making

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobs, Patricia A.

    1998-01-01

    This report supplies references and comments on literature that identifies human factors influencing decision making, particularly military decision making. The literature has been classified as follows (the classes are not mutually exclusive): features of human information processing; decision making models which are not mathematical models but rather are descriptive; non- personality factors influencing decision making; national characteristics influencing decision makin...

  19. Human factors issues in fuel handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beattie, J.D.; Iwasa-Madge, K.M.; Tucker, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    The staff of the Atomic Energy Control Board wish to further their understanding of human factors issues of potential concern associated with fuel handling in CANDU nuclear power stations. This study contributes to that objective by analysing the role of human performance in the overall fuel handling process at Ontario Hydro's Darlington Nuclear Generating Station, and reporting findings in several areas. A number of issues are identified in the areas of design, operating and maintenance practices, and the organizational and management environment

  20. Effectiveness of human factors simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moragas, F.

    2015-01-01

    En 2011, ANAV started the exploitation of the Human Factors Simulator installed in TECNATOM Training Center located in L'Hospital de L'Infant Tarragona. AVAN's Strategic Plan includes the Action Plan for the improvement of human behavior. The plan includes improving the efficiency of the efficiency of the human factors simulator. It is proposed to improve the efficiency into two different terms: winning effectiveness in modeling behaviors, and interweaving the activities in the simulator with the actual strategy of promoting Safety culture and human behaviour. (Author)

  1. Human factors review of power plant maintainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seminara, J.L.; Parsons, S.O.; Schmidt, W.J.; Gonzalez, W.R.; Dove, L.E.

    1980-10-01

    Human factors engineering is an interdisciplinary science and technology concerned with shaping the design of machines, facilities, and operational environments to promote safe, efficient, and reliable performance on the part of operators and maintainers of equipment systems. The human factors aspects of five nuclear power plants and four fossil fuel plants were evaluated using such methods as a checklist guided observation system, structured interviews with maintenance personnel, direct observations of maintenance tasks, reviews of procedures, and analyses of maintenance errors or accidents by means of the critical incident technique. The study revealed a wide variety of human factors problem areas, most of which are extensively photodocumented. The study recommends that a more systematic and formal approach be adopted to ensure that future power plants are human engineered to the needs of maintenance personnel

  2. Qualitative and Quantitative Analyses of Glycogen in Human Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui-Yatsuhashi, Hiroko; Furuyashiki, Takashi; Takata, Hiroki; Ishida, Miyuki; Takumi, Hiroko; Kakutani, Ryo; Kamasaka, Hiroshi; Nagao, Saeko; Hirose, Junko; Kuriki, Takashi

    2017-02-22

    Identification as well as a detailed analysis of glycogen in human milk has not been shown yet. The present study confirmed that glycogen is contained in human milk by qualitative and quantitative analyses. High-performance anion exchange chromatography (HPAEC) and high-performance size exclusion chromatography with a multiangle laser light scattering detector (HPSEC-MALLS) were used for qualitative analysis of glycogen in human milk. Quantitative analysis was carried out by using samples obtained from the individual milks. The result revealed that the concentration of human milk glycogen varied depending on the mother's condition-such as the period postpartum and inflammation. The amounts of glycogen in human milk collected at 0 and 1-2 months postpartum were higher than in milk collected at 3-14 months postpartum. In the milk from mothers with severe mastitis, the concentration of glycogen was about 40 times higher than that in normal milk.

  3. Introduction to human factors engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derfuss, Ch.

    2010-01-01

    Some of the main aspects of human factors engineering are discussed. The following topics are considered: Integration into the design process; Identification and application of human-centered design requirements; Design of error-tolerant systems; Iterative process consisting of evaluations and feedback loops; Participation of operators/users; Utilization of an interdisciplinary design/ evaluation team; Documentation of the complete HFE-process: traceability

  4. Human factors in resuscitation teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Elizabeth M; Lockey, Andrew S

    2012-04-01

    There is an increasing interest in human factors within the healthcare environment reflecting the understanding of their impact on safety. The aim of this paper is to explore how human factors might be taught on resuscitation courses, and improve course outcomes in terms of improved mortality and morbidity for patients. The delivery of human factors training is important and this review explores the work that has been delivered already and areas for future research and teaching. Medline was searched using MESH terms Resuscitation as a Major concept and Patient or Leadership as core terms. The abstracts were read and 25 full length articles reviewed. Critical incident reporting has shown four recurring problems: lack of organisation at an arrest, lack of equipment, non functioning equipment, and obstructions preventing good care. Of these, the first relates directly to the concept of human factors. Team dynamics for both team membership and leadership, management of stress, conflict and the role of debriefing are highlighted. Possible strategies for teaching them are discussed. Four strategies for improving human factors training are discussed: team dynamics (including team membership and leadership behaviour), the influence of stress, debriefing, and conflict within teams. This review illustrates how human factor training might be integrated further into life support training without jeopardising the core content and lengthening the courses. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Activation of human factor V by factor Xa and thrombin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monkovic, D.D.; Tracy, P.B.

    1990-01-01

    The activation of human factor V by factor Xa and thrombin was studied by functional assessment of cofactor activity and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polycarylamide gel electrophoresis followed by either autoradiography of 125 I-labeled factor V activation products or Western blot analyses of unlabeled factor V activation products. Cofactor activity was measured by the ability of the factor V/Va peptides to support the activation of prothrombin. The factor Xa catalyzed cleavage of factor V was observed to be time, phospholipid, and calcium ion dependent, yielding a cofactor with activity equal to that of thrombin-activated factor V (factor Va). The cleavage pattern differed markedly from the one observed in the bovine system. The factor Xa activated factor V subunits expressing cofactor activity were isolated and found to consist of peptides of M r 220,000 and 105,000. Although thrombin cleaved the M r 220,000 peptide to yield peptides previously shown to be products of thrombin activation, cofactor activity did not increase. N-Terminal sequence analysis confirmed that both factor Xa and thrombin cleave factor V at the same bond to generate the M r 220,000 peptide. The factor Xa dependent functional assessment of 125 I-labeled factor V coupled with densitometric analyses of the cleavage products indicated that the cofactor activity of factor Xa activated factor V closely paralleled the appearance of the M r 220,000 peptide. The data indicate that factor Xa is as efficient an enzyme toward factor V as thrombin

  6. Radioimmunoassay of human Hageman factor (factor XII)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, H.; Ratnoff, O.D.; Pensky, J.

    1976-01-01

    A specific, sensitive, and reproducible radioimmunoassay for human Hageman factor (HF, factor XII) has been developed with purified human HF and monospecific rabbit antibody. Precise measurements of HF antigen were possible for concentrations as low as 0.1 percent of that in normal pooled plasma. A good correlation (correlation coefficient = 0.82) existed between the titers of HF measured by clot-promoting assays and radioimmunoassays among 42 normal adults. Confirming earlier studies, HF antigen was absent in Hageman trait plasma, but other congenital deficient plasmas, including those of individuals with Fletcher trait and Fitzgerald trait, contained normal amounts of HF antigen. HF antigen was reduced in the plasmas of patients with disseminated intravascular coagulation or advanced liver cirrhosis, but it was normal in those of patients with chronic renal failure or patients under treatment with warfarin. HF antigen was detected by this assay in plasmas of primates, but not detectable in plasmas of 11 nonprimate mammalian and one avian species

  7. A framework for human factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, R.D.G.

    As the complexity of industrial systems increases, the need for efficient integration of human beings into the systems that they design and operate grows more important. Human factors, or ergonomics, is concerned with the application of life science knowledge about human characteristics to maximise performance and well-being in any context. The most complex problem is to identify job demands in terms of different human dimensions and to apply established life science knowledge to determine optimum solutions. This requires the cooperation of many specialists

  8. HUMAN POTENTIAL AS A STRATEGIC FACTOR OF REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Korobeynikov

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The article gives an insight of human potential as the strategic factor of regional development. The matter of human potential and its role in regional reproducing process is considered; regional intellectual potential as an integral part of human potential is analysed. The author outlines major directions of active social policy, aimed to develop regional human potential.

  9. Design factors analyses of second-loop PRHRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Hongyan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the operating characteristics of a second-loop Passive Residual Heat Removal System (PRHRS, the transient thermal analysis code RELAP5 is used to build simulation models of the main coolant system and second-loop PRHRS. Transient calculations and comparative analyses under station blackout accident and one-side feed water line break accident conditions are conducted for three critical design factors of the second-loop PRHRS:design capacity, emergency makeup tank and isolation valve opening speed. The impacts of the discussed design factors on the operating characteristics of the second-loop PRHRS are summarized based on calculations and analyses. The analysis results indicate that the system safety and cooling rate should be taken into consideration in designing PRHRS's capacity,and water injection from emergency makeup tank to steam generator can provide advantage to system cooling in the event of accident,and system startup performance can be improved by reducing the opening speed of isolation valve. The results can provide references for the design of the second-loop PRHRS in nuclear power plants.

  10. Human Factors in Financial Trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaver, Meghan; Reader, Tom W.

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study tests the reliability of a system (FINANS) to collect and analyze incident reports in the financial trading domain and is guided by a human factors taxonomy used to describe error in the trading domain. Background Research indicates the utility of applying human factors theory to understand error in finance, yet empirical research is lacking. We report on the development of the first system for capturing and analyzing human factors–related issues in operational trading incidents. Method In the first study, 20 incidents are analyzed by an expert user group against a referent standard to establish the reliability of FINANS. In the second study, 750 incidents are analyzed using distribution, mean, pathway, and associative analysis to describe the data. Results Kappa scores indicate that categories within FINANS can be reliably used to identify and extract data on human factors–related problems underlying trading incidents. Approximately 1% of trades (n = 750) lead to an incident. Slip/lapse (61%), situation awareness (51%), and teamwork (40%) were found to be the most common problems underlying incidents. For the most serious incidents, problems in situation awareness and teamwork were most common. Conclusion We show that (a) experts in the trading domain can reliably and accurately code human factors in incidents, (b) 1% of trades incur error, and (c) poor teamwork skills and situation awareness underpin the most critical incidents. Application This research provides data crucial for ameliorating risk within financial trading organizations, with implications for regulation and policy. PMID:27142394

  11. HUMAN PROSTATE CANCER RISK FACTORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prostate cancer has the highest prevalence of any non-skin cancer in the human body, with similar likelihood of neoplastic foci found within the prostates of men around the world regardless of diet, occupation, lifestyle, or other factors. Essentially all men with circulating an...

  12. Human Factor in Therapeutic Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan Akdogan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available herapeutic relationship is a professional relationship that has been structured based on theoretical props. This relationship is a complicated, wide and unique relationship which develops between two people, where both sides' personality and attitudes inevitably interfere. Therapist-client relationship experienced through transference and counter transference, especially in psychodynamic approaches, is accepted as the main aspect of therapeutic process. However, the approaches without dynamic/deterministic tendency also take therapist-client relationship into account seriously and stress uniqueness of interaction between two people. Being a person and a human naturally sometimes may negatively influence the relationship between the therapist and client and result in a relationship going out of the theoretical frame at times. As effective components of a therapeutic process, the factors that stem from being human include the unique personalities of the therapist and the client, their values and their attitude either made consciously or subconsciously. Literature has shown that the human-related factors are too effective to be denied in therapeutic relationship process. Ethical and theoretical knowledge can be inefficient to prevent the negative effects of these factors in therapeutic process at which point a deep insight and supervision would have a critical role in continuing an acceptable therapeutic relationship. This review is focused on the reflection of some therapeutic factors resulting from being human and development of counter transference onto the therapeutic process.

  13. Human factors issues in fuel handling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beattie, J D; Iwasa-Madge, K M; Tucker, D A [Humansystems Inc., Milton, ON (Canada)

    1994-12-31

    The staff of the Atomic Energy Control Board wish to further their understanding of human factors issues of potential concern associated with fuel handling in CANDU nuclear power stations. This study contributes to that objective by analysing the role of human performance in the overall fuel handling process at Ontario Hydro`s Darlington Nuclear Generating Station, and reporting findings in several areas. A number of issues are identified in the areas of design, operating and maintenance practices, and the organizational and management environment. 1 fig., 4 tabs., 19 refs.

  14. Human Factors in Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Patricia M.; Fiedler, Edna

    2010-01-01

    The exploration of space is one of the most fascinating domains to study from a human factors perspective. Like other complex work domains such as aviation (Pritchett and Kim, 2008), air traffic management (Durso and Manning, 2008), health care (Morrow, North, and Wickens, 2006), homeland security (Cooke and Winner, 2008), and vehicle control (Lee, 2006), space exploration is a large-scale sociotechnical work domain characterized by complexity, dynamism, uncertainty, and risk in real-time operational contexts (Perrow, 1999; Woods et ai, 1994). Nearly the entire gamut of human factors issues - for example, human-automation interaction (Sheridan and Parasuraman, 2006), telerobotics, display and control design (Smith, Bennett, and Stone, 2006), usability, anthropometry (Chaffin, 2008), biomechanics (Marras and Radwin, 2006), safety engineering, emergency operations, maintenance human factors, situation awareness (Tenney and Pew, 2006), crew resource management (Salas et aI., 2006), methods for cognitive work analysis (Bisantz and Roth, 2008) and the like -- are applicable to astronauts, mission control, operational medicine, Space Shuttle manufacturing and assembly operations, and space suit designers as they are in other work domains (e.g., Bloomberg, 2003; Bos et al, 2006; Brooks and Ince, 1992; Casler and Cook, 1999; Jones, 1994; McCurdy et ai, 2006; Neerincx et aI., 2006; Olofinboba and Dorneich, 2005; Patterson, Watts-Perotti and Woods, 1999; Patterson and Woods, 2001; Seagull et ai, 2007; Sierhuis, Clancey and Sims, 2002). The human exploration of space also has unique challenges of particular interest to human factors research and practice. This chapter provides an overview of those issues and reports on sorne of the latest research results as well as the latest challenges still facing the field.

  15. Human Leptospirosis and risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanelis Emilia Tabío Henry

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The human leptospirosis is a zoonosis of world distribution, were risk factors exist that have favored the wild and domestic animal propagation and so man. A descpitive investigation was made with the objective of determining the behavior of risk factors in outpatients by human leptospirosis in “Camilo Cienfuegos“ University General Hospital from Sncti Spíritus In the comprised time period betwen december 1 st and 3 st , 2008.The sample of this study was conformed by 54 risk persons that keep inclusion criteria. Some variables were used:age, sex, risk factors and number of ill persons, according to the month. Some patients of masculine sex prevailed (61,9%, group of ages between 15-29 and 45-59 years (27,7%, patients treated since october to december (53,7%, the direct and indirect contact with animals (46,2 %. The risk factors cassually associated to human leptospirosis turned to be: the masculine sex, the contac with animals, the occupational exposition and the inmersion on sources of sweet water.

  16. Human Factors and Medical Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dick Sawyer

    1998-01-01

    Medical device hardware- and software-driven user interfaces should be designed to minimize the likelihood of use-related errors and their consequences. The role of design-induced errors in medical device incidents is attracting widespread attention. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is fully cognizant that human factors engineering is critical to the design of safe medical devices, and user interface design is receiving substantial attention by the agency. Companies are paying more attention to the impact of device design, including user instructions, upon the performance of those health professionals and lay users who operate medical devices. Concurrently, the FDA is monitoring human factors issues in its site inspections, premarket device approvals, and postmarket incident evaluations. Overall, the outlook for improved designs and safer device operation is bright

  17. Human factors reliability Benchmark exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poucet, A.

    1989-06-01

    The Joint Research Centre of the European Commission has organized a Human Factors Reliability Benchmark Exercise (HF-RBE) with the aim of assessing the state of the art in human reliability modelling and assessment. Fifteen teams from eleven countries, representing industry, utilities, licensing organisations and research institutes, participated in the HF-RBE. The HF-RBE was organized around two study cases: (1) analysis of routine functional Test and Maintenance (T and M) procedures: with the aim of assessing the probability of test induced failures, the probability of failures to remain unrevealed and the potential to initiate transients because of errors performed in the test; (2) analysis of human actions during an operational transient: with the aim of assessing the probability that the operators will correctly diagnose the malfunctions and take proper corrective action. This report contains the final summary reports produced by the participants in the exercise

  18. Theoretical Fundamentals of Human Factor

    OpenAIRE

    Nicoleta Maria Ienciu

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to identify the theoretical approaches presented by the literature on the human factor. In order to achieve such objective we have performed a qualitative research by analyzing the content of several papers published in internationally renowned journals, classified according to the list of journals' ranking provided by the Association of Business Schools (UK), in relation to the theories that have been approached within it. Our findings suggest that from all ident...

  19. Human factors in waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moray, N.

    1994-01-01

    This article examines the role of human factors in radioactive waste management. Although few problems and ergonomics are special to radioactive waste management, some problems are unique especially with long term storage. The entire sociotechnical system must be looked at in order to see where improvement can take place because operator errors, as seen in Chernobyl and Bhopal, are ultimately the result of management errors

  20. Human factors in RBNK plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demitrack, T.

    1995-01-01

    The Safety of RBMK nuclear power plants in the Russian Federation, The Ukraine and Lithuanian is a topic of concern to the European Union and other Western European countries. The European Commission, Sweden, Finland and Canada financed the project Safety Design Solutions and Operation of NPP with RBMK Reactors. The project examined nine issues and recommended safety improvements which will form the basis of future European Commission spending on these power plants. During its year of work, the project examined these issues: 1. Systems Engineering and progression of accidents 2. Protection System 3. Core Physics 4. External Events 5. Engineering Quality 6. Operating Experience 7. Human Factors 8. Regulatory Interface 9. Probabilistic Safety analysis Empresarios Agrupados, in collaboration with other western European firms, the Russian Federation and Lithuanian took part in two of these groups, Human Factors and Probabilistic Safety Analysis. This presentation gives a brief description of the most important aspects of human factors in RBMK plants, focusing on operations organization, training and education

  1. Findings from analysing and quantifying human error using current methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang, V.N.; Reer, B.

    1999-01-01

    In human reliability analysis (HRA), the scarcity of data means that, at best, judgement must be applied to transfer to the domain of the analysis what data are available for similar tasks. In particular for the quantification of tasks involving decisions, the analyst has to choose among quantification approaches that all depend to a significant degree on expert judgement. The use of expert judgement can be made more reliable by eliciting relative judgements rather than absolute judgements. These approaches, which are based on multiple criterion decision theory, focus on ranking the tasks to be analysed by difficulty. While these approaches remedy at least partially the poor performance of experts in the estimation of probabilities, they nevertheless require the calibration of the relative scale on which the actions are ranked in order to obtain the probabilities of interest. This paper presents some results from a comparison of some current HRA methods performed in the frame of a study of SLIM calibration options. The HRA quantification methods THERP, HEART, and INTENT were applied to derive calibration human error probabilities for two groups of operator actions. (author)

  2. Trefoil factors in human milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Else Marie; Nexø, Ebba; Wendt, A

    2008-01-01

    We measured concentrations of the gastrointestinal protective peptides Trefoil factors in human milk. By the use of in-house ELISA we detected high amounts of TFF3, less TFF1 and virtually no TFF2 in human breast milk obtained from 46 mothers with infants born extremely preterm (24-27 wk gestation......), preterm (28-37 wk gestation), and full term (38-42 wk gestation). Samples were collected during the first, second, third to fourth weeks and more than 4 wks postpartum. Median (range) TFF1 [TFF3] concentrations in human milk were 320 (30-34000) [1500 (150-27,000)] pmol/L in wk 1, 120 (30-720) [310 (50......-7100)] pmol/L in wk 2, 70 (20-670) [120 (20-650)] pmol/L in wks 3 to 4, and 60 (30-2500) [80 (20-540)] pmol/L in > 4 wks after delivery. The lowest concentrations of TFF1 and TFF3 were found later than 2 wks after birth. In conclusion, TFF was present in term and preterm human milk with rapidly declining...

  3. The human factor in maintenance work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansson, B.

    1996-01-01

    In most of the maintenance works performed at operating plants, the personnel is the warranty for both efficient performance and good quality. To reach the right quality level in performance, the personnel needs adequate tools and of course a maintenance strategy and an organisation that supports the efficient work. The human factor is mostly referred to when something went wrong and analyses are done. There is a great potential of doing preventive analysis. The presentation will focus on experience in this field and what has been done at Barsebaeck NPP to analyse and improve the maintenance work. As maintenance work can't be seen as an isolated area, the rest of the plant organisation is included in the presentation. (author) figs., tabs

  4. Habitability and Human Factors Contributions to Human Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumaya, Jennifer Boyer

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the work of the Habitability and Human Factors Branch in support of human space flight in two main areas: Applied support to major space programs, and Space research. The field of Human Factors applies knowledge of human characteristics for the design of safer, more effective, and more efficient systems. This work is in several areas of the human space program: (1) Human-System Integration (HSI), (2) Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle, (3) Extravehicular Activity (EVA), (4) Lunar Surface Systems, (5) International Space Station (ISS), and (6) Human Research Program (HRP). After detailing the work done in these areas, the facilities that are available for human factors work are shown.

  5. Double Shell Tank (DST) Human Factors Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CHAFFEE, G.A.

    1994-01-01

    This report documents the data collection and analyses that were performed in development of material to be used in the Human Factors chapter for the upgrade to the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) for the Double-Shell Tank Farms (DSTF). This study was conducted to collect the data that is necessary to prepare the Human Factors chapter for the upgrade of the SAR for the DSTF. Requirements for the HF chapter of the SAR generally dictate that the facility management describe how the consideration of operator capabilities and limitations and operating experience are used in ensuring the safe and effective operation of the facility. Additionally, analysis to indicate the contribution of human error to the safety basis accidents or events must be reported. Since the DSTF is a mature operating facility and the requirement to prepare a HF chapter is new, it was not expected that the consideration of HF principles would be an explicit part of DSTF operations. It can be expected, however, that the programs that guide the daily operations at the DSTF contain provisions for the consideration of the needs of their operating personnel and lessons learned from prior experience. Consideration of both the SAR requirements and the nature of the DSTF operations led to the following objectives being defined for the study: (1) to identify the programs at the OSTF where human performance may be considered; (2) to describe how HF principles and operating experience are used to ensure safe and reliable human performance at the DSTF; (3) to describe how HF principles and operating experience are considered as modifications or improvements are made at the DSTF; and (4) to perform task analysis sufficient to understand the potential for human error in OSTF operations

  6. Genetic, molecular and functional analyses of complement factor I deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, S.C.; Trouw, L.A.; Renault, N.

    2009-01-01

    Complete deficiency of complement inhibitor factor I (FI) results in secondary complement deficiency due to uncontrolled spontaneous alternative pathway activation leading to susceptibility to infections. Current genetic examination of two patients with near complete FI deficiency and three patie...

  7. Human factors in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swain, A.D.

    1981-01-01

    This report describes some of the human factors problems in nuclear power plants and the technology that can be employed to reduce those problems. Many of the changes to improve the human factors in existing plants are inexpensive, and the expected gain in human reliability is substantial. The human factors technology is well-established and there are practitioners in most countries that have nuclear power plants. (orig.) [de

  8. Human factors in nuclear power plant operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swain, A.D.

    1980-08-01

    This report describes some of the human factors problems in nuclear power plants and the technology that can be employed to reduce those problems. Many of the changes to improve the human factors in existing plants are inexpensive, and the expected gain in human reliability is substantial. The human factors technology is well-established and there are practitioners in most countries that have nuclear power plants

  9. Company culture and human factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rerucha, F.

    1999-01-01

    Human beings constitute an important factor for smooth operation and fulfilment of special safety requirements in the workplace environment of a nuclear power station. It is therefore important to carry out investigations and continual checks in order to prevent routine complacency of the employees, not only for their respective tasks but also with regard to the structure of the plant. Frantisek Rerucha reports on the investigation of procedural approaches, the methods thereby involved and the results obtained in the nuclear power station Dukovany. The investigation came to the conclusion that communication and information problems exist in many areas. The company goals are communicated inadequately, especially on the lower and middle levels, with the result that employees do not always comply exactly with the directives. On the other hand, the employees are often overstressed with additional, often useless, information. However, willingness to communicate is mostly absent, and the employees have a feeling that personal relationships in general tend to be unsatisfactory in the nuclear power station. Management personnel is experienced as highly qualified experts without qualifications for leadership. But the study came to the conclusion that communication on the operative sector functions very well, by virtue of a well-established personal network. (orig.) [de

  10. Human factors in agile manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsythe, C.

    1995-03-01

    As industries position themselves for the competitive markets of today, and the increasingly competitive global markets of the 21st century, agility, or the ability to rapidly develop and produce new products, represents a common trend. Agility manifests itself in many different forms, with the agile manufacturing paradigm proposed by the Iacocca Institute offering a generally accepted, long-term vision. In its many forms, common elements of agility or agile manufacturing include: changes in business, engineering and production practices, seamless information flow from design through production, integration of computer and information technologies into all facets of the product development and production process, application of communications technologies to enable collaborative work between geographically dispersed product development team members and introduction of flexible automation of production processes. Industry has rarely experienced as dramatic an infusion of new technologies or as extensive a change in culture and work practices. Human factors will not only play a vital role in accomplishing the technical and social objectives of agile manufacturing. but has an opportunity to participate in shaping the evolution of industry paradigms for the 21st century.

  11. Human capital – investing in man (intangible development factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Ziejewski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The main issue considered in the paper is a man, and his place and role in the work environment in the knowledge driven development. The author emphasises the significance of the human factor and analyses related terms against the background of the contemporary social economics. The human capital as a development factor is a modern strategy for achieving competitive advantages on the market.

  12. Human factors of safety: a few landmarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosneron Dupin, F.

    1992-06-01

    This paper discusses factors to be taken into account, and methods to be used. It concludes that more realistic and positive conceptions of Human Factors should be developed, and that Human Factors should be addressed at the very beginning of any technical project

  13. Parametric and factor analyses of dynamic scintigraphic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surova, H.; Samal, M.; Karny, M.

    1986-01-01

    Processing dynamic examinations in nuclear medicine is done as a rule with regard to the regions of interest and dynamic curves or by means of parametric images. The disadvantage of both methods is the processing of the summation of all processes in overlapping anatomical structures. This disadvantage is eliminated by processing using factor analysis. A different approach from those used formerly makes it possible to use information relating to both time and space, as well as direct quantification of the results in imp./pix./sec. (author)

  14. Application of principal component and factor analyses in electron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siuda, R.; Balcerowska, G.

    1998-01-01

    Fundamentals of two methods, taken from multivariate analysis and known as principal component analysis (PCA) and factor analysis (FA), are presented. Both methods are well known in chemometrics. Since 1979, when application of the methods to electron spectroscopy was reported for the first time, they became to be more and more popular in different branches of electron spectroscopy. The paper presents examples of standard applications of the method of Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). Advantages one can take from application of the methods, their potentialities as well as their limitations are pointed out. (author)

  15. Human factors methods for nuclear control room design. Volume I. Human factors enhancement of existing nuclear control rooms. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seminara, J.L.; Seidenstein, S.; Eckert, S.K.; Smith, D.L.

    1979-11-01

    Human factors engineering is an interdisciplinary specialty concerned with influencing the design of equipment systems, facilities, and operational environments to promote safe, efficient, and reliable operator performance. Human factors approaches were applied in the design of representative nuclear power plant control panels. First, methods for upgrading existing operational control panels were examined. Then, based on detailed human factors analyses of operator information and control requirements, designs of reactor, feedwater, and turbine-generator control panels were developed to improve the operator-control board interface, thereby reducing the potential for operator errors. In addition to examining present-generation concepts, human factors aspects of advanced systems and of hybrid combinations of advanced and conventional designs were investigated. Special attention was given to warning system designs. Also, a survey was conducted among control board designers to (1) develop an overview of design practices in the industry, and (2) establish appropriate measures leading to a more systematic concern for human factors in control board design

  16. Human factors methods in DOE nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, C.T.; Banks, W.W.; Waters, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of developing a series of guidelines for the use of human factors standards, procedures, and methods to be used in nuclear facilities. This paper discusses the philosophy and process being used to develop a DOE human factors methods handbook to be used during the design cycle. The following sections will discuss: (1) basic justification for the project; (2) human factors design objectives and goals; and (3) role of human factors engineering (HFE) in the design cycle

  17. Human Factors Military Lexicon: Auditory Displays

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Letowski, Tomasz

    2001-01-01

    .... In addition to definitions specific to auditory displays, speech communication, and audio technology, the lexicon includes several terms unique to military operational environments and human factors...

  18. Human factor problem in nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshino, Kenji; Fujimoto, Junzo

    1999-01-01

    Since a nuclear power plant accident at Threemile Island in U.S.A. occurred in March, 1979, twenty years have passed. After the accident, the human factor problem became focussed in nuclear power, to succeed its research at present. For direct reason of human error, most of factors at individual level or work operation level are often listed at their center. Then, it is natural that studies on design of a machine or apparatus suitable for various human functions and abilities and on improvement of relationship between 'human being and machine' and 'human being and working environment' are important in future. Here was, as first, described on outlines of the human factor problem in a nuclear power plant developed at a chance of past important accident, and then was described on educational training for its countermeasure. At last, some concrete researching results obtained by human factor research were introduced. (G.K.)

  19. Human Modeling for Ground Processing Human Factors Engineering Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stambolian, Damon B.; Lawrence, Brad A.; Stelges, Katrine S.; Steady, Marie-Jeanne O.; Ridgwell, Lora C.; Mills, Robert E.; Henderson, Gena; Tran, Donald; Barth, Tim

    2011-01-01

    There have been many advancements and accomplishments over the last few years using human modeling for human factors engineering analysis for design of spacecraft. The key methods used for this are motion capture and computer generated human models. The focus of this paper is to explain the human modeling currently used at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), and to explain the future plans for human modeling for future spacecraft designs

  20. Human factors and safe patient care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Beverley

    2009-03-01

    This paper aims to introduce the topic of human factors to nursing management and to identify areas where it can be applied to patient safety. Human factors is a discipline established in most safety critical industries and uses knowledge about human behaviour in the analysis and design of complex systems, yet it is relatively new to many in healthcare. Most safety critical industries have developed tools and techniques to apply human factors to system design, and these have been reviewed together with those resources already available for use in healthcare. Models of human behaviour such as the nature and patterns of human error, information processing, decision-making and team work have clear applications to healthcare. Human factors focus on a system view of safety, and propose that safety should, where possible, be 'designed in'. Other interventions such as building defences, mitigating hazards and education and training should only be used where design solutions cannot be found. Simple human factors principles such as: designing for standardization; the involvement of users and staff in designing services and procuring equipment; understanding how errors occur; and the workarounds that staff will inevitably take are vital considerations in improving patient safety. Opportunities for the application of human factors to healthcare and improved patient safety are discussed. Some existing tools and techniques for applying human factors in nursing management are also presented.

  1. Statistical methods for analysing responses of wildlife to human disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiganoush K. Preisler; Alan A. Ager; Michael J. Wisdom

    2006-01-01

    1. Off-road recreation is increasing rapidly in many areas of the world, and effects on wildlife can be highly detrimental. Consequently, we have developed methods for studying wildlife responses to off-road recreation with the use of new technologies that allow frequent and accurate monitoring of human-wildlife interactions. To illustrate these methods, we studied the...

  2. Analyses of the microbial diversity across the human microbiome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelvin Li

    Full Text Available Analysis of human body microbial diversity is fundamental to understanding community structure, biology and ecology. The National Institutes of Health Human Microbiome Project (HMP has provided an unprecedented opportunity to examine microbial diversity within and across body habitats and individuals through pyrosequencing-based profiling of 16 S rRNA gene sequences (16 S from habits of the oral, skin, distal gut, and vaginal body regions from over 200 healthy individuals enabling the application of statistical techniques. In this study, two approaches were applied to elucidate the nature and extent of human microbiome diversity. First, bootstrap and parametric curve fitting techniques were evaluated to estimate the maximum number of unique taxa, S(max, and taxa discovery rate for habitats across individuals. Next, our results demonstrated that the variation of diversity within low abundant taxa across habitats and individuals was not sufficiently quantified with standard ecological diversity indices. This impact from low abundant taxa motivated us to introduce a novel rank-based diversity measure, the Tail statistic, ("τ", based on the standard deviation of the rank abundance curve if made symmetric by reflection around the most abundant taxon. Due to τ's greater sensitivity to low abundant taxa, its application to diversity estimation of taxonomic units using taxonomic dependent and independent methods revealed a greater range of values recovered between individuals versus body habitats, and different patterns of diversity within habitats. The greatest range of τ values within and across individuals was found in stool, which also exhibited the most undiscovered taxa. Oral and skin habitats revealed variable diversity patterns, while vaginal habitats were consistently the least diverse. Collectively, these results demonstrate the importance, and motivate the introduction, of several visualization and analysis methods tuned specifically for

  3. Human factors in Big Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, J. de

    2016-01-01

    Since 2014 I am involved in various (research) projects that try to make the hype around Big Data more concrete and tangible for the industry and government. Big Data is about multiple sources of (real-time) data that can be analysed, transformed to information and be used to make 'smart' decisions.

  4. Human Factors Simulation in Construction Management Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, M.; Adair, D.

    2010-01-01

    Successful construction management depends primarily on the representatives of the involved construction project parties. In addition to effective application of construction management tools and concepts, human factors impact significantly on the processes of any construction management endeavour. How can human factors in construction management…

  5. In silico analyses of metagenomes from human atherosclerotic plaque samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitra, Suparna; Drautz-Moses, Daniela I; Alhede, Morten

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Through several observational and mechanistic studies, microbial infection is known to promote cardiovascular disease. Direct infection of the vessel wall, along with the cardiovascular risk factors, is hypothesized to play a key role in the atherogenesis by promoting an inflammatory ...

  6. Implementing human factors in clinical practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmons, Stephen; Baxendale, Bryn; Buttery, Andrew; Miles, Giulia; Roe, Bridget; Browes, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To understand whether aviation-derived human factors training is acceptable and useful to healthcare professionals. To understand whether and how healthcare professionals have been able to implement human factors approaches to patient safety in their own area of clinical practice. Methods Qualitative, longitudinal study using semi-structured interviews and focus groups, of a multiprofessional group of UK NHS staff (from the emergency department and operating theatres) who have received aviation-derived human factors training. Results The human factors training was evaluated positively, and thought to be both acceptable and relevant to practice. However, the staff found it harder to implement what they had learned in their own clinical areas, and this was principally attributed to features of the informal organisational cultures. Conclusions In order to successfully apply human factors approaches in hospital, careful consideration needs to be given to the local context and informal culture of clinical practice. PMID:24631959

  7. Human Factors in Cabin Accident Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chute, Rebecca D.; Rosekind, Mark R. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Human factors has become an integral part of the accident investigation protocol. However, much of the investigative process remains focussed on the flight deck, airframe, and power plant systems. As a consequence, little data has been collected regarding the human factors issues within and involving the cabin during an accident. Therefore, the possibility exists that contributing factors that lie within that domain may be overlooked. The FAA Office of Accident Investigation is sponsoring a two-day workshop on cabin safety accident investigation. This course, within the workshop, will be of two hours duration and will explore relevant areas of human factors research. Specifically, the three areas of discussion are: Information transfer and resource management, fatigue and other physical stressors, and the human/machine interface. Integration of these areas will be accomplished by providing a suggested checklist of specific cabin-related human factors questions for investigators to probe following an accident.

  8. Specifications for human factors guiding documents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhodes, W; Szlapetis, I; MacGregor, C [Rhodes and Associates Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada)

    1995-04-01

    This report specifies the content, function and appearance of three proposed human factors guiding documents to be used by the Atomic Energy Control board and its licensees. These three guiding documents, to be developed at a later date, are: (a) Human Factors Process Guide; (b) Human Factors Activities Guide; and (c) Human Factors Design Integration Guide. The specifications were developed by examining the best documents as identified in a previous contract with the AECB (Review of Human Factors Guidelines and Methods by W. Rhodes, I. Szlapetis et al. 1992), and a brief literature review. The best features and content were selected from existing documents and used to develop specifications for the guiding documents. The developer of the actual guides would use these specifications to produce comprehensive and consolidated documents at a later date. (author). 128 ref., 7 figs.

  9. Specifications for human factors guiding documents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhodes, W.; Szlapetis, I.; MacGregor, C.

    1995-04-01

    This report specifies the content, function and appearance of three proposed human factors guiding documents to be used by the Atomic Energy Control board and its licensees. These three guiding documents, to be developed at a later date, are: (a) Human Factors Process Guide; (b) Human Factors Activities Guide; and (c) Human Factors Design Integration Guide. The specifications were developed by examining the best documents as identified in a previous contract with the AECB (Review of Human Factors Guidelines and Methods by W. Rhodes, I. Szlapetis et al. 1992), and a brief literature review. The best features and content were selected from existing documents and used to develop specifications for the guiding documents. The developer of the actual guides would use these specifications to produce comprehensive and consolidated documents at a later date. (author). 128 ref., 7 figs

  10. Human factors in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pack, R.W.

    1978-01-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute has started research in human factors in nuclear power plants. One project, completed in March 1977, reviewed human factors problems in operating power plants and produced a report evaluating those problems. A second project developed computer programs for evaluating operator performance on training simulators. A third project is developing and evaluating control-room design approaches. A fourth project is reviewing human factors problems associated with power-plant maintainability and instrumentation and control technician activities. Human factors engineering is an interdisciplinary specialty concerned with influencing the design of equipment systems, facilities, and operational environments to promote safe, efficient, and reliable operator performance. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has undertaken four projects studying the application of human factors engineering principles to nuclear power plants. (author)

  11. Complementary Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analyses of the French WISC-V: Analyses Based on the Standardization Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecerf, Thierry; Canivez, Gary L

    2017-12-28

    Interpretation of the French Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fifth Edition (French WISC-V; Wechsler, 2016a) is based on a 5-factor model including Verbal Comprehension (VC), Visual Spatial (VS), Fluid Reasoning (FR), Working Memory (WM), and Processing Speed (PS). Evidence for the French WISC-V factorial structure was established exclusively through confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs). However, as recommended by Carroll (1995); Reise (2012), and Brown (2015), factorial structure should derive from both exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and CFA. The first goal of this study was to examine the factorial structure of the French WISC-V using EFA. The 15 French WISC-V primary and secondary subtest scaled scores intercorrelation matrix was used and factor extraction criteria suggested from 1 to 4 factors. To disentangle the contribution of first- and second-order factors, the Schmid and Leiman (1957) orthogonalization transformation (SLT) was applied. Overall, no EFA evidence for 5 factors was found. Results indicated that the g factor accounted for about 67% of the common variance and that the contributions of the first-order factors were weak (3.6 to 11.9%). CFA was used to test numerous alternative models. Results indicated that bifactor models produced better fit to these data than higher-order models. Consistent with previous studies, findings suggested dominance of the general intelligence factor and that users should thus emphasize the Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) when interpreting the French WISC-V. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Detailed semantic analyses of human error incidents occurring at domestic nuclear power plants to fiscal year 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuge, Tadashi; Hirotsu, Yuko; Takano, Kenichi; Ebisu, Mitsuhiro; Tsumura, Joji

    2003-01-01

    Analysing and evaluating observed cases of human error incidents with the emphasis on human factors and behavior involved was essential for preventing recurrence of those. CRIEPI has been conducting detailed and structures analyses of all incidents reported during last 35 year based on J-HPES, from the beginning of the first Tokai nuclear power operation till fiscal year of 2000, in which total 212 human error cases are identified. Results obtained by the analyses have been stored into the J-HPES data-base. This summarized the semantic analyses on all case-studies stored in the above data-base to grasp the practical and concrete contents and trend of more frequently observed human errors (as are called trigger actions here), causal factors and preventive measures. These semantic analyses have been executed by classifying all those items into some categories that could be considered as having almost the same meaning using the KJ method. Followings are obtained typical results by above analyses: (1) Trigger action-Those could be classified into categories of operation or categories of maintenance. Operational timing errors' and 'operational quantitative errors' were major actions in trigger actions of operation, those occupied about 20% among all actions. At trigger actions of maintenance, 'maintenance quantitative error' were major actions, those occupied quarter among all actions; (2) Causal factor- 'Human internal status' were major factors, as in concrete factors, those occupied 'improper persistence' and 'lack of knowledge'; (3) Preventive measure-Most frequent measures got were job management changes in procedural software improvements, which was from 70% to 80%. As for preventive measures of operation, software improvements have been implemented on 'organization and work practices' and 'individual consciousness'. Concerning preventive measures of maintenance, improvements have been implemented on 'organization and work practices'. (author)

  13. Human factors in safety and business management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Joachim; Leonhardt, Jorg; Koper, Birgit; Pennig, Stefan

    2010-02-01

    Human factors in safety is concerned with all those factors that influence people and their behaviour in safety-critical situations. In aviation these are, for example, environmental factors in the cockpit, organisational factors such as shift work, human characteristics such as ability and motivation of staff. Careful consideration of human factors is necessary to improve health and safety at work by optimising the interaction of humans with their technical and social (team, supervisor) work environment. This provides considerable benefits for business by increasing efficiency and by preventing incidents/accidents. The aim of this paper is to suggest management tools for this purpose. Management tools such as balanced scorecards (BSC) are widespread instruments and also well known in aviation organisations. Only a few aviation organisations utilise management tools for human factors although they are the most important conditions in the safety management systems of aviation organisations. One reason for this is that human factors are difficult to measure and therefore also difficult to manage. Studies in other domains, such as workplace health promotion, indicate that BSC-based tools are useful for human factor management. Their mission is to develop a set of indicators that are sensitive to organisational performance and help identify driving forces as well as bottlenecks. Another tool presented in this paper is the Human Resources Performance Model (HPM). HPM facilitates the integrative assessment of human factors programmes on the basis of a systematic performance analysis of the whole system. Cause-effect relationships between system elements are defined in process models in a first step and validated empirically in a second step. Thus, a specific representation of the performance processes is developed, which ranges from individual behaviour to system performance. HPM is more analytic than BSC-based tools because HPM also asks why a certain factor is

  14. ANALYSES ON DIFFERENTIALLY EXPRESSED GENES ASSOCIATED WITH HUMAN BREAST CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Xu-li; DING Xiao-wen; XU Xiao-hong

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the molecular etiology of breast cancer by way of studying the differential expression and initial function of the related genes in the occurrence and development of breast cancer. Methods: Two hundred and eighty-eight human tumor related genes were chosen for preparation of the oligochips probe. mRNA was extracted from 16 breast cancer tissues and the corresponding normal breast tissues, and cDNA probe was prepared through reverse-transcription and hybridized with the gene chip. A laser focused fluorescent scanner was used to scan the chip. The different gene expressions were thereafter automatically compared and analyzed between the two sample groups. Cy3/Cy5>3.5 meant significant up-regulation. Cy3/Cy5<0.25 meant significant down-regulation. Results: The comparison between the breast cancer tissues and their corresponding normal tissues showed that 84 genes had differential expression in the Chip. Among the differently expressed genes, there were 4 genes with significant down-regulation and 6 with significant up-regulation. Compared with normal breast tissues, differentially expressed genes did partially exist in the breast cancer tissues. Conclusion: Changes in multi-gene expression regulations take place during the occurrence and development of breast cancer; and the research on related genes can help understanding the mechanism of tumor occurrence.

  15. Comparative analyses of industrial-scale human platelet lysate preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Jan; Benedetti, Eric; Preslar, Amber; Jacobson, Pam; Jin, Ping; Stroncek, David F; Reems, Jo-Anna

    2017-12-01

    Efforts are underway to eliminate fetal bovine serum from mammalian cell cultures for clinical use. An emerging, viable replacement option for fetal bovine serum is human platelet lysate (PL) as either a plasma-based or serum-based product. Nine industrial-scale, serum-based PL manufacturing runs (i.e., lots) were performed, consisting of an average ± standard deviation volume of 24.6 ± 2.2 liters of pooled, platelet-rich plasma units that were obtained from apheresis donors. Manufactured lots were compared by evaluating various biochemical and functional test results. Comprehensive cytokine profiles of PL lots and product stability tests were performed. Global gene expression profiles of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) cultured with plasma-based or serum-based PL were compared to MSCs cultured with fetal bovine serum. Electrolyte and protein levels were relatively consistent among all serum-based PL lots, with only slight variations in glucose and calcium levels. All nine lots were as good as or better than fetal bovine serum in expanding MSCs. Serum-based PL stored at -80°C remained stable over 2 years. Quantitative cytokine arrays showed similarities as well as dissimilarities in the proteins present in serum-based PL. Greater differences in MSC gene expression profiles were attributable to the starting cell source rather than with the use of either PL or fetal bovine serum as a culture supplement. Using a large-scale, standardized method, lot-to-lot variations were noted for industrial-scale preparations of serum-based PL products. However, all lots performed as well as or better than fetal bovine serum in supporting MSC growth. Together, these data indicate that off-the-shelf PL is a feasible substitute for fetal bovine serum in MSC cultures. © 2017 AABB.

  16. Organizational root causes for human factor accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dougherty, D.T.

    1997-01-01

    Accident prevention techniques and technologies have evolved significantly throughout this century from the earliest establishment of standards and procedures to the safety engineering improvements the fruits of which we enjoy today. Most of the recent prevention efforts focused on humans and defining human factor causes of accidents. This paper builds upon the remarkable successes of the past by looking beyond the human's action in accident causation to the organizational factors that put the human in the position to cause the accident. This organizational approach crosses all functions and all career fields

  17. Human factors challenges for advanced process control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stubler, W.F.; O'Hara, J..M.

    1996-01-01

    New human-system interface technologies provide opportunities for improving operator and plant performance. However, if these technologies are not properly implemented, they may introduce new challenges to performance and safety. This paper reports the results from a survey of human factors considerations that arise in the implementation of advanced human-system interface technologies in process control and other complex systems. General trends were identified for several areas based on a review of technical literature and a combination of interviews and site visits with process control organizations. Human factors considerations are discussed for two of these areas, automation and controls

  18. Human Factor on Gravelines Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duboc, Gerard

    1998-01-01

    In a first part, the documents describes the commitments by EDF nuclear power plan operations to demands made by the Safety Authority regarding actions in the field of human factors (concerns expressed by the Authority, in-depth analysis, positions on different points raised by the Authority). In a second part, it presents the various actions undertaken in the Gravelines nuclear power station regarding human factors: creation of an 'operator club' (mission and objectives, methods and means, first meetings, tracking file), development of risk analysis strategy, setting up of a human factor engineering mission and example of action in case of a significant event

  19. ACSNI study group on human factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Organisational failures are now recognised as being as important as mechanical failures or individual human errors in causing major accidents such as the capsize of the Herald of Free Enterprise or the Pipa Alpha disaster. The Human Factors Study Group of the Advisory Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations was set up to look at the part played by human factors in nuclear risk and its reduction. The third report of the Study Group considers the role played by organisational factors and management in promoting nuclear safety. Actions to review and promote a safety culture are suggested. Three main conclusions are drawn and several recommendations made. (UK)

  20. Overview of EPRI's human factors research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, J.F.; Parris, H.L.

    1981-01-01

    The human factors engineering program in the Nuclear Power Division, EPRI is dedicated to the resolution of man-machine interface problems specific to the nuclear power industry. Particularly emphasis is placed on the capabilities and limitations of the people who operate and maintain the system, the tasks they must perform, and what they need to accomplish those tasks. Six human factors R and D projects are being conducted at the present time. In addition, technical consultation is being furnished to a study area, operator aids, being funded by another program area outside the human factors program area. All of these activities are summarized

  1. Human factors in nuclear safety oversight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, K.

    1989-01-01

    The mission of the nuclear safety oversight function at the Savannah River Plant is to enhance the process and nuclear safety of site facilities. One of the major goals surrounding this mission is the reduction of human error. It is for this reason that several human factors engineers are assigned to the Operations assessment Group of the Facility Safety Evaluation Section (FSES). The initial task of the human factors contingent was the design and implementation of a site wide root cause analysis program. The intent of this system is to determine the most prevalent sources of human error in facility operations and to assist in determining where the limited human factors resources should be focused. In this paper the strategy used to educate the organization about the field of human factors is described. Creating an awareness of the importance of human factors engineering in all facets of design, operation, and maintenance is considered to be an important step in reducing the rate of human error

  2. ObStruct: a method to objectively analyse factors driving population structure using Bayesian ancestry profiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velimir Gayevskiy

    Full Text Available Bayesian inference methods are extensively used to detect the presence of population structure given genetic data. The primary output of software implementing these methods are ancestry profiles of sampled individuals. While these profiles robustly partition the data into subgroups, currently there is no objective method to determine whether the fixed factor of interest (e.g. geographic origin correlates with inferred subgroups or not, and if so, which populations are driving this correlation. We present ObStruct, a novel tool to objectively analyse the nature of structure revealed in Bayesian ancestry profiles using established statistical methods. ObStruct evaluates the extent of structural similarity between sampled and inferred populations, tests the significance of population differentiation, provides information on the contribution of sampled and inferred populations to the observed structure and crucially determines whether the predetermined factor of interest correlates with inferred population structure. Analyses of simulated and experimental data highlight ObStruct's ability to objectively assess the nature of structure in populations. We show the method is capable of capturing an increase in the level of structure with increasing time since divergence between simulated populations. Further, we applied the method to a highly structured dataset of 1,484 humans from seven continents and a less structured dataset of 179 Saccharomyces cerevisiae from three regions in New Zealand. Our results show that ObStruct provides an objective metric to classify the degree, drivers and significance of inferred structure, as well as providing novel insights into the relationships between sampled populations, and adds a final step to the pipeline for population structure analyses.

  3. Human factors review of power plant maintainability. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seminara, J.L.; Parsons, S.O.

    1981-02-01

    Human factors engineering is an interdisciplinary science and technology concerned with shaping the design of machines, facilities, and operational environments to promote safe, efficient, and reliable performance on the part of operators and maintainers of equipment systems. The human factors aspects of five nuclear power plants and four fossil fuel plants were evaluated using such methods as a check list guided observation system, structured interviews with maintenance personnel, direct observation of maintenance tasks, reviews of procedures, and analyses of maintenance errors or accidents by means of the critical incident technique. The study revealed a wide variety of human factors problem areas, most of which are extensively photodocumented. The study recommends that a more systematic and formal approach to ensure that future power plants are human engineered to the needs of maintenance personnel

  4. Human factors issues for interstellar spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Marc M.; Brody, Adam R.

    1991-01-01

    Developments in research on space human factors are reviewed in the context of a self-sustaining interstellar spacecraft based on the notion of traveling space settlements. Assumptions about interstellar travel are set forth addressing costs, mission durations, and the need for multigenerational space colonies. The model of human motivation by Maslow (1970) is examined and directly related to the design of space habitat architecture. Human-factors technology issues encompass the human-machine interface, crew selection and training, and the development of spaceship infrastructure during transtellar flight. A scenario for feasible instellar travel is based on a speed of 0.5c, a timeframe of about 100 yr, and an expandable multigenerational crew of about 100 members. Crew training is identified as a critical human-factors issue requiring the development of perceptual and cognitive aids such as expert systems and virtual reality.

  5. Human Factors Evaluation Mentor, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To obtain valid and reliable data, Human Factors Engineering (HFE) evaluations are currently conducted by people with specialized training and experience in HF. HFE...

  6. Human Factors in Nuclear Reactor Accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustafa, M.E.

    2016-01-01

    While many people would blame nature for the disaster of the “Fukushima Daiichi” accident, experts considered this accident to be also a human-induced disaster. This confirmed the importance of human errors which have been getting a growing interest in the nuclear field after the Three Mile Island accident. Personnel play an important role in design, operation, maintenance, planning, and management. The interface between machine and man is known as a human factor. In the present work, the human factors that have to be considered were discussed. The effect of the control room configuration and equipment design effect on the human behavior was also discussed. Precise reviewing of person’s qualifications and experience was focused. Insufficient training has been a major cause of human error in the nuclear field. The effective training issues were introduced. Avoiding complicated operational processes and non responsive management systems was stressed. Distinguishing between the procedures for normal and emergency operations was emphasised. It was stated that human error during maintenance and testing activities could cause a serious accident. This is because safety systems do not cover much more risk probabilities in the maintenance and testing activities like they do in the normal operation. In nuclear industry, the need for a classification and identification of human errors has been well recognised. As a result of this, human reliability must be assessed. These errors are analyzed by a probabilistic safety assessment which deals with errors in reading, listening and implementing procedures but not with cognitive errors. Much efforts must be accomplished to consider cognitive errors in the probabilistic safety assessment. The ways of collecting human factor data were surveyed. The methods for identifying safe designs, helping decision makers to predict how proposed or current policies will affect safety, and comprehensive understanding of the relationship

  7. Human factors in waste management - potential and reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, J.S.

    1996-01-01

    There is enormous potential for human factors contributions in the realm of waste management. The reality, however, is very different from the potential. This is particularly true for low-level and low-level mixed-waste management. The hazards are less severe; therefore, health and safety requirements (including human factors) are not as rigorous as for high-level waste. High-level waste management presents its own unique challenges and opportunities. Waste management is strongly driven by regulatory compliance. When regulations are flexible and open to interpretation and the environment is driven so strongly by regulatory compliance, standard practice is to drop open-quotes nice to haveclose quotes features, like a human factors program, to save money for complying with other requirements. The challenge is to convince decision makers that human factors can help make operations efficient and cost-effective, as well as improving safety and complying with regulations. A human factors program should not be viewed as competing with compliance efforts; in fact, it should complement them and provide additional cost-effective means of achieving compliance with other regulations. Achieving this synergy of human factors with ongoing waste management operations requires educating program and facility managers and other technical specialists about human factors and demonstrating its value open-quotes through the back doorclose quotes on existing efforts. This paper describes ongoing projects at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in support of their waste management groups. It includes lessons learned from hazard and risk analyses, safety analysis reports, job and task analyses, operating procedure development, personnel qualification/certification program development, and facility- and job-specific training program and course development

  8. Development of human factors design review guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Oh, In Suk; Suh, Sang Moon; Lee, Hyun Chul [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1997-10-01

    The objective of this study is to develop human factors engineering program review guidelines and alarm system review guidelines in order to resolve the two major technical issues: 25. Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model and 26. Review Criteria for Human Factors Aspects of Advanced Controls and Instrumentation, which are related to the development of human factors safety regulation guides being performed by KINS. For the development of human factors program review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG-0711 and added our comments by considering Korean regulatory situation and reviewing the reference documents of NUREG-0711. We also computerized the Korean version of NUREG-0711, additional comments, and selected portion of the reference documents for the developer of safety regulation guides in KINS to see the contents comparatively at a glance and use them easily. For the development of alarm system review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG/CR-6105, which was published by NRC in 1994 as a guideline document for the human factors review of alarm systems. Then we will update the guidelines by reviewing the literature related to alarm design published after 1994. (author). 12 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Research on disaster prevention by human factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bok Youn; Kang, Chang Hee; Kang, Sun Duck; Jo, Young Do [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    Mining, by its very nature, requires workers and technology to function in an unpredictable environment that can not easily be engineered to accommodate human factors. Miners' physical and cognitive capabilities are sometimes stretched to the point that 'human error' in performance result. Mine safety researchers estimate that 50-85% of all mining injuries are due, in large part, to human error. Further research suggests that the primary causes of these errors in performance lie outside the individual and can be minimized by improvements in equipment design, work environments, work procedures and training. The human factors research is providing the science needed to determine which aspects of the mining environment can be made more worker-friendly and how miners can work more safely in environments that can not be improved. Underground mines have long been recognized as an innately hazardous and physically demanding work environment. Recently, mining is becoming a more complicated process as more sophisticated technologies are introduced. The more complicated or difficult the tasks to be performed, the more critical it is to have a systematic understanding of the humans, the technology, the environments, and how they interact. Human factors is a key component in solving most of today's mine safety and health problems. Human factors research primarily centered around solving problems in the following four areas: 1) How mining methods and equipment affect safety, 2) Evaluating the fit between miner's physical capabilities and the demands of their job, 3) Improving miner's ability to perceive and react to hazards, 4) Understanding how organizational and managerial variables influence safety. Human factor research was begun during the World war II. National Coal Board (British Coal) of Great Britain commenced ergonomics in 1969, and Bureau of Mine of United States started human factor researches in same year. Japan has very short history

  10. Human Factors in Aviation Maintenance. Phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-11-01

    solution is war- more effe-ctive use of human resoUrecs , the neat step Ls to ane- uassol o efogte.S a hr sn tes te de. Af piot progfctram can...and Subtitle 5. Report Date November 1991 Human Factors in Aviation Maintenance - Phase One Progress Report 6. Perfarng Oon z’on Code i8. Perfo-rrng...Independence Avenue, SW 14. Sponsor,mg Agency Code Washington, DC 20591 15. Supplementary Notes 16. Abstract "• This human factors research in aviation

  11. Human factors in atomic power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, Ryutaro

    1997-01-01

    To ensure safety should have priority over all other things in atomic power plants. In Chernobyl accident, however, various human factors including the systems for bulb check after inspection and communication, troubles in the interface between hardwares such as warning speakers and instruments, and their operators, those in education and training for operators and those in the general management of the plant have been pointed out. Therefore, the principles and the practical measures from the aspect of human factors in atomic power plants were discussed here. The word, ''human factor'' was given a definition in terms of the direct cause and the intellectual system. An explanatory model for human factors, model SHEL constructed by The Tokyo Electric Power Co., Ltd., Inc. was presented; the four letter mean software(S), hardware(H), environment(E) and liveware(L). In the plants of the company, systemic measures for human error factors are taken now in all steps not only for design, operation and repairing but also the step for safety culture. Further, the level required for the safety against atomic power is higher in the company than those in other fields. Thus, the central principle in atomic power plants is changing from the previous views that technology is paid greater importance to a view regarding human as most importance. (M.N.)

  12. Development of human factors design review guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Oh, In Suk; Suh, Sang Moon; Lee, Hyun Chul

    1997-10-01

    The Objective of this study is to develop human factors engineering program review guidelines and alarm system review guidelines in order to resolve the two major technical issues: '25, Human factors engineering program review model' and '26, Review criteria for human actors aspects of advanced controls and instrumentation', which are related to the development of human factors safety regulation guides be ing performed by KINS. For the development of human factors program review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG-0711 and added our comments by considering Korean regulatory situation and reviewing the reference documents of NUREG-0711. We also computerized the Korean version of NUREG-0711, additional comments, and selected portion of the reference documents for the developer of safety regulation guides in KINS to see the contents comparatively at a glance and use them easily. For the development of alarm system review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG/CR-6105, which was published by NRC in 1994 as a guideline document for the human factors review of alarm systems. Then we well update the guidelines by reviewing the literature related to alarm design published after 1994

  13. Human factors and safety in emergency medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, H. G.; Helmreich, R. L.; Scheidegger, D.

    1994-01-01

    A model based on an input process and outcome conceptualisation is suggested to address safety-relevant factors in emergency medicine. As shown in other dynamic and demanding environments, human factors play a decisive role in attaining high quality service. Attitudes held by health-care providers, organisational shells and work-cultural parameters determine communication, conflict resolution and workload distribution within and between teams. These factors should be taken into account to improve outcomes such as operational integrity, job satisfaction and morale.

  14. Validation of human factor engineering integrated system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Apart from hundreds of thousands of human-machine interface resources, the control room of a nuclear power plant is a complex system integrated with many factors such as procedures, operators, environment, organization and management. In the design stage, these factors are considered by different organizations separately. However, whether above factors could corporate with each other well in operation and whether they have good human factors engineering (HFE) design to avoid human error, should be answered in validation of the HFE integrated system before delivery of the plant. This paper addresses the research and implementation of the ISV technology based on case study. After introduction of the background, process and methodology of ISV, the results of the test are discussed. At last, lessons learned from this research are summarized. (authors)

  15. Human factors engineering checklists for application in the SAR process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overlin, T.K.; Romero, H.A.; Ryan, T.G.

    1995-03-01

    This technical report was produced to assist the preparers and reviewers of the human factors portions of the SAR in completing their assigned tasks regarding analysis and/or review of completed analyses. The checklists, which are the main body of the report, and the subsequent tables, were developed to assist analysts in generating the needed analysis data to complete the human engineering analysis for the SAR. The technical report provides a series of 19 human factors engineering (HFE) checklists which support the safety analyses of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) reactor and nonreactor facilities and activities. The results generated using these checklists and in the preparation of the concluding analyses provide the technical basis for preparing the human factors chapter, and subsequent inputs to other chapters, required by DOE as a part of the safety analysis reports (SARs). This document is divided into four main sections. The first part explains the origin of the checklists, the sources utilized, and other information pertaining to the purpose and scope of the report. The second part, subdivided into 19 sections, is the checklists themselves. The third section is the glossary which defines terms that could either be unfamiliar or have specific meanings within the context of these checklists. The final section is the subject index in which the glossary terms are referenced back to the specific checklist and page the term is encountered.

  16. Human factors engineering checklists for application in the SAR process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overlin, T.K.; Romero, H.A.; Ryan, T.G.

    1995-03-01

    This technical report was produced to assist the preparers and reviewers of the human factors portions of the SAR in completing their assigned tasks regarding analysis and/or review of completed analyses. The checklists, which are the main body of the report, and the subsequent tables, were developed to assist analysts in generating the needed analysis data to complete the human engineering analysis for the SAR. The technical report provides a series of 19 human factors engineering (HFE) checklists which support the safety analyses of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) reactor and nonreactor facilities and activities. The results generated using these checklists and in the preparation of the concluding analyses provide the technical basis for preparing the human factors chapter, and subsequent inputs to other chapters, required by DOE as a part of the safety analysis reports (SARs). This document is divided into four main sections. The first part explains the origin of the checklists, the sources utilized, and other information pertaining to the purpose and scope of the report. The second part, subdivided into 19 sections, is the checklists themselves. The third section is the glossary which defines terms that could either be unfamiliar or have specific meanings within the context of these checklists. The final section is the subject index in which the glossary terms are referenced back to the specific checklist and page the term is encountered

  17. An EDF perspective on human factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnino, A.

    1987-01-01

    Human factors are important in the reliability or unreliability of industrial processes. The study of how to improve human performers, and their working conditions to enable them to perform reliably is difficult. Some of the human characteristics of importance for understanding human behaviour in this context are described. These include such things as ''man is not a component, man functions through a single channel'', ''man biases risk estimation''. The Electricite de France programme for improving human reliability following the Three Mile Island accident is then discussed. This has many aspects, the man-machine interfaces, operator training, crew organization, operator experience analysis and emergency planning. The control room planned for a new plant, which is based on this program is described. The improvements are in communication, identification and labelling, stress, simulator tests and human performance data banks. (UK)

  18. Human factors and fuzzy set theory for safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiwaki, Y.

    1987-01-01

    Human reliability and performance is affected by many factors: medical, physiological and psychological, etc. The uncertainty involved in human factors may not necessarily be probabilistic, but fuzzy. Therefore, it is important to develop a theory by which both the non-probabilistic uncertainties, or fuzziness, of human factors and the probabilistic properties of machines can be treated consistently. In reality, randomness and fuzziness are sometimes mixed. From the mathematical point of view, probabilistic measures may be considered a special case of fuzzy measures. Therefore, fuzzy set theory seems to be an effective tool for analysing man-machine systems. The concept 'failure possibility' based on fuzzy sets is suggested as an approach to safety analysis and fault diagnosis of a large complex system. Fuzzy measures and fuzzy integrals are introduced and their possible applications are also discussed. (author)

  19. Implementing human factors in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmons, Stephen; Baxendale, Bryn; Buttery, Andrew; Miles, Giulia; Roe, Bridget; Browes, Simon

    2015-05-01

    To understand whether aviation-derived human factors training is acceptable and useful to healthcare professionals. To understand whether and how healthcare professionals have been able to implement human factors approaches to patient safety in their own area of clinical practice. Qualitative, longitudinal study using semi-structured interviews and focus groups, of a multiprofessional group of UK NHS staff (from the emergency department and operating theatres) who have received aviation-derived human factors training. The human factors training was evaluated positively, and thought to be both acceptable and relevant to practice. However, the staff found it harder to implement what they had learned in their own clinical areas, and this was principally attributed to features of the informal organisational cultures. In order to successfully apply human factors approaches in hospital, careful consideration needs to be given to the local context and informal culture of clinical practice. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. Human Factors Interface with Systems Engineering for NASA Human Spaceflights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Douglas T.

    2009-01-01

    This paper summarizes the past and present successes of the Habitability and Human Factors Branch (HHFB) at NASA Johnson Space Center s Space Life Sciences Directorate (SLSD) in including the Human-As-A-System (HAAS) model in many NASA programs and what steps to be taken to integrate the Human-Centered Design Philosophy (HCDP) into NASA s Systems Engineering (SE) process. The HAAS model stresses systems are ultimately designed for the humans; the humans should therefore be considered as a system within the systems. Therefore, the model places strong emphasis on human factors engineering. Since 1987, the HHFB has been engaging with many major NASA programs with much success. The HHFB helped create the NASA Standard 3000 (a human factors engineering practice guide) and the Human Systems Integration Requirements document. These efforts resulted in the HAAS model being included in many NASA programs. As an example, the HAAS model has been successfully introduced into the programmatic and systems engineering structures of the International Space Station Program (ISSP). Success in the ISSP caused other NASA programs to recognize the importance of the HAAS concept. Also due to this success, the HHFB helped update NASA s Systems Engineering Handbook in December 2007 to include HAAS as a recommended practice. Nonetheless, the HAAS model has yet to become an integral part of the NASA SE process. Besides continuing in integrating HAAS into current and future NASA programs, the HHFB will investigate incorporating the Human-Centered Design Philosophy (HCDP) into the NASA SE Handbook. The HCDP goes further than the HAAS model by emphasizing a holistic and iterative human-centered systems design concept.

  1. Modelling human factor with Petri nets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedreaga, Luminita; Constantinescu, Cristina; Guzun, Basarab

    2007-01-01

    The human contribution to risk and safety of nuclear power plant operation can be best understood, assessed and quantified using tools to evaluate human reliability. Human reliability analysis becomes an important part of every probabilistic safety assessment and it is used to demonstrate that nuclear power plants designed with different safety levels are prepared to cope with severe accidents. Human reliability analysis in context of probabilistic safety assessment consists in: identifying human-system interactions important to safety; quantifying probabilities appropriate with these interactions. Nowadays, the complex system functions can be modelled using special techniques centred either on states space adequate to system or on events appropriate to the system. Knowing that complex system model consists in evaluating the likelihood of success, in other words, in evaluating the possible value for that system being in some state, the inductive methods which are based on the system states can be applied also for human reliability modelling. Thus, switching to the system states taking into account the human interactions, the underlying basis of the Petri nets can be successfully applied and the likelihoods appropriate to these states can also derived. The paper presents the manner to assess the human reliability quantification using Petri nets approach. The example processed in the paper is from human reliability documentation without a detailed human factor analysis (qualitative). The obtained results by these two kinds of methods are in good agreement. (authors)

  2. Hematopoietic growth factors and human acute leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löwenberg, B; Touw, I

    1988-10-22

    The study of myelopoietic maturation arrest in acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) has been eased by availability of the human recombinant hemopoietic growth factors, macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF), granulocyte-(G-CSF), granulocyte-macrophage-(GM-CSF) and multilineage stimulating factor (IL-3). Nonphysiological expansion of the leukemic population is not due to escape from control by these factors. Proliferation in vitro of AML cells is dependent on the presence of one or several factors in most cases. The pattern of factor-dependency does not correlate with morphological criteria in individual cases, and may thus offer a new tool for classification of AML. Overproduction of undifferentiated cells is not due to abnormal expression of receptors for the stimulating factors acting at an immature level. Rather, autocrine secretion of early acting lymphokines maintains proliferation of the leukemic clone. When looking at causes of leukemic dysregulation, yet undefined inhibitors of differentiation probably are of equal importance as dysequilibrated stimulation by lymphokines.

  3. Human Research Program: Space Human Factors and Habitability Element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Dane M.

    2007-01-01

    The three project areas of the Space Human Factors and Habitability Element work together to achieve a working and living environment that will keep crews healthy, safe, and productive throughout all missions -- from Earth orbit to Mars expeditions. The Advanced Environmental Health (AEH) Project develops and evaluates advanced habitability systems and establishes requirements and health standards for exploration missions. The Space Human Factors Engineering (SHFE) Project s goal is to ensure a safe and productive environment for humans in space. With missions using new technologies at an ever-increasing rate, it is imperative that these advances enhance crew performance without increasing stress or risk. The ultimate goal of Advanced Food Technology (AFT) Project is to develop and deliver technologies for human centered spacecraft that will support crews on missions to the moon, Mars, and beyond.

  4. HUMAN FACTORS GUIDANCE FOR CONTROL ROOM EVALUATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OHARA, J.; BROWN, W.; STUBLER, W.; HIGGINS, J.; WACHTEL, J.; PERSENSKY, J.J.

    2000-01-01

    The Human-System Interface Design Review Guideline (NUREG-0700, Revision 1) was developed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to provide human factors guidance as a basis for the review of advanced human-system interface technologies. The guidance consists of three components: design review procedures, human factors engineering guidelines, and a software application to provide design review support called the ''Design Review Guideline.'' Since it was published in June 1996, Rev. 1 to NUREG-0700 has been used successfully by NRC staff, contractors and nuclear industry organizations, as well as by interested organizations outside the nuclear industry. The NRC has committed to the periodic update and improvement of the guidance to ensure that it remains a state-of-the-art design evaluation tool in the face of emerging and rapidly changing technology. This paper addresses the current research to update of NUREG-0700 based on the substantial work that has taken place since the publication of Revision 1

  5. Regulatory perspectives on human factors validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, F.; Staples, L.

    2001-01-01

    Validation is an important avenue for controlling the genesis of human error, and thus managing loss, in a human-machine system. Since there are many ways in which error may intrude upon system operation, it is necessary to consider the performance-shaping factors that could introduce error and compromise system effectiveness. Validation works to this end by examining, through objective testing and measurement, the newly developed system, procedure or staffing level, in order to identify and eliminate those factors which may negatively influence human performance. It is essential that validation be done in a high-fidelity setting, in an objective and systematic manner, using appropriate measures, if meaningful results are to be obtained, In addition, inclusion of validation work in any design process can be seen as contributing to a good safety culture, since such activity allows licensees to eliminate elements which may negatively impact on human behaviour. (author)

  6. Space operations and the human factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Adam R.

    1993-10-01

    Although space flight does not put the public at high risk, billions of dollars in hardware are destroyed and the space program halted when an accident occurs. Researchers are therefore applying human-factors techniques similar to those used in the aircraft industry, albeit at a greatly reduced level, to the spacecraft environment. The intent is to reduce the likelihood of catastrophic failure. To increase safety and efficiency, space human factors researchers have simulated spacecraft docking and extravehicular activity rescue. Engineers have also studied EVA suit mobility and aids. Other basic human-factors issues that have been applied to the space environment include antropometry, biomechanics, and ergonomics. Workstation design, workload, and task analysis currently receive much attention, as do habitability and other aspects of confined environments. Much work also focuses on individual payloads, as each presents its own complexities.

  7. Human and organizational factors in nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, A.; Barrientos, M.; Gil, B.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear installations are socio technical systems where human and organizational factors, in both utilities and regulators, have a significant impact on safety. Three Mile Island (TMI) accident, original of several initiatives in the human factors field, nevertheless became a lost opportunity to timely acquire lessons related to the upper tiers of the system. Nowadays, Spanish nuclear installations have integrated in their processes specialists and activities in human and organizational factors, promoted by the licensees After many years of hard work, Spanish installations have achieved a better position to face new challenges, such as those posed by Fukushima. With this experience, only technology-centered action plan would not be acceptable, turning this accident in yet another lost opportunity. (Author)

  8. Human Factors Engineering Guidelines for Overhead Cranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Faith; Delgado, H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This guideline provides standards for overhead crane cabs that can be applied to the design and modification of crane cabs to reduce the potential for human error due to design. This guideline serves as an aid during the development of a specification for purchases of cranes or for an engineering support request for crane design modification. It aids human factors engineers in evaluating existing cranes during accident investigations or safety reviews.

  9. HAMMLAB 2000 for human factor's studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvalem, J.

    1999-01-01

    The simulator-based Halden Man-Machine Laboratory (HAMMLAB) has, since its establishment in 1983, been the main vehicle for the human-machine systems research at the OECD Halden Reactor Project. The human factors programme relies upon HAMMLAB for performing experimental studies, but the laboratory is also utilised when evaluating computerised operator support systems, and for experimentation with advanced control room prototypes. The increased focus on experimentation as part of the research programme at the Halden Project, has led to a discussion whether today's laboratory will meet the demands of the future. A pre-project concluded with the need for a new laboratory, with extended simulation capabilities. Based upon these considerations, the HAMMLAB 2000 project was initiated with the goal of making HAMMLAB a global centre of excellence for the study of human-technology interaction in the management and control of industrial processes. This paper will focus on human factors studies to be performed in the new laboratory, and which requirements this will bring upon the laboratory infrastructure and simulation capabilities. The aim of the human factors research at the Halden Project is to provide knowledge which can be used by member organisations to enhance safety and efficiency in the operation of nuclear power plants by utilising research about the capabilities and limitations of the human operator in a control room environment. (author)

  10. Human factors review of nuclear power plant control room design. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seminara, J.L.; Gonzalez, W.R.; Parsons, S.O.

    1976-11-01

    The human factors aspects of five representative nuclear power plant control rooms were evaluated using such methods as a checklist guided observation system, structured interviews with operators and trainers, direct observations of operator behavior, task analyses and procedure evaluation, and historical error analyses. The human factors aspects of design practices are illustrated, and many improvements in current practices are suggested. The study recommends that a detailed set of applicable human factors standards be developed to stimulate a uniform and systematic concern for human factors in design considerations

  11. Annotated bibliography of human factors applications literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCafferty, D.B.

    1984-09-30

    This bibliography was prepared as part of the Human Factors Technology Project, FY 1984, sponsored by the Office of Nuclear Safety, US Department of Energy. The project was conducted by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, with Essex Corporation as a subcontractor. The material presented here is a revision and expansion of the bibliographic material developed in FY 1982 as part of a previous Human Factors Technology Project. The previous bibliography was published September 30, 1982, as Attachment 1 to the FY 1982 Project Status Report.

  12. Annotated bibliography of human factors applications literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCafferty, D.B.

    1984-01-01

    This bibliography was prepared as part of the Human Factors Technology Project, FY 1984, sponsored by the Office of Nuclear Safety, US Department of Energy. The project was conducted by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, with Essex Corporation as a subcontractor. The material presented here is a revision and expansion of the bibliographic material developed in FY 1982 as part of a previous Human Factors Technology Project. The previous bibliography was published September 30, 1982, as Attachment 1 to the FY 1982 Project Status Report

  13. Human factors reliability benchmark exercise: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphreys, P.

    1990-01-01

    The Human Factors Reliability Benchmark Exercise has addressed the issues of identification, analysis, representation and quantification of Human Error in order to identify the strengths and weaknesses of available techniques. Using a German PWR nuclear powerplant as the basis for the studies, fifteen teams undertook evaluations of a routine functional Test and Maintenance procedure plus an analysis of human actions during an operational transient. The techniques employed by the teams are discussed and reviewed on a comparative basis. The qualitative assessments performed by each team compare well, but at the quantification stage there is much less agreement. (author)

  14. Rapid Prototyping and the Human Factors Engineering Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-29

    conventional systems development techniques. It is not clear, however, exactly how rapid prototyping could be used in relation to conventional human...factors engineering analyses. Therefore, an investigation of the use of the V APS virtual prototyping system was carried out in five organizations. The...results show that a variety of task analysis approaches can be used to initiate rapid prototyping . Overall, it appears that rapid prototyping

  15. Human genetic factors in tuberculosis: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tong, Hoang; Velavan, Thirumalaisamy P; Thye, Thorsten; Meyer, Christian G

    2017-09-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a major threat to human health, especially in many developing countries. Human genetic variability has been recognised to be of great relevance in host responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and in regulating both the establishment and the progression of the disease. An increasing number of candidate gene and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have focused on human genetic factors contributing to susceptibility or resistance to TB. To update previous reviews on human genetic factors in TB we searched the MEDLINE database and PubMed for articles from 1 January 2014 through 31 March 2017 and reviewed the role of human genetic variability in TB. Search terms applied in various combinations were 'tuberculosis', 'human genetics', 'candidate gene studies', 'genome-wide association studies' and 'Mycobacterium tuberculosis'. Articles in English retrieved and relevant references cited in these articles were reviewed. Abstracts and reports from meetings were also included. This review provides a recent summary of associations of polymorphisms of human genes with susceptibility/resistance to TB. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Toward a unified method for analysing and teaching Human Robot Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dinesen, Jens Vilhelm

    , drawing on key theories and methods from both communications- and interaction-theory. The aim is to provide a single unified method for analysing interaction, through means of video analysis and then applying theories, with proven mutual compatibility, to reach a desired granularity of study.......This abstract aims to present key aspect of a future paper, which outlines the ongoing development ofa unified method for analysing and teaching Human-Robot-Interaction. The paper will propose a novel method for analysing both HRI, interaction with other forms of technologies and fellow humans...

  17. Human factors review for Severe Accident Sequence Analysis (SASA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krois, P.A.; Haas, P.M.; Manning, J.J.; Bovell, C.R.

    1984-01-01

    The paper will discuss work being conducted during this human factors review including: (1) support of the Severe Accident Sequence Analysis (SASA) Program based on an assessment of operator actions, and (2) development of a descriptive model of operator severe accident management. Research by SASA analysts on the Browns Ferry Unit One (BF1) anticipated transient without scram (ATWS) was supported through a concurrent assessment of operator performance to demonstrate contributions to SASA analyses from human factors data and methods. A descriptive model was developed called the Function Oriented Accident Management (FOAM) model, which serves as a structure for bridging human factors, operations, and engineering expertise and which is useful for identifying needs/deficiencies in the area of accident management. The assessment of human factors issues related to ATWS required extensive coordination with SASA analysts. The analysis was consolidated primarily to six operator actions identified in the Emergency Procedure Guidelines (EPGs) as being the most critical to the accident sequence. These actions were assessed through simulator exercises, qualitative reviews, and quantitative human reliability analyses. The FOAM descriptive model assumes as a starting point that multiple operator/system failures exceed the scope of procedures and necessitates a knowledge-based emergency response by the operators. The FOAM model provides a functionally-oriented structure for assembling human factors, operations, and engineering data and expertise into operator guidance for unconventional emergency responses to mitigate severe accident progression and avoid/minimize core degradation. Operators must also respond to potential radiological release beyond plant protective barriers. Research needs in accident management and potential uses of the FOAM model are described. 11 references, 1 figure

  18. Insight into the Stigma of Suicide Loss Survivors: Factor Analyses of Family Stereotypes, Prejudices, and Discriminations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, Patrick W; Sheehan, Lindsay; Al-Khouja, Maya A; Lewy, Stanley; Major, Deborah R; Mead, Jessica; Redmon, Megghun; Rubey, Charles T; Weber, Stephanie

    2018-01-01

    Families of individuals who die by suicide report public stigma that threatens their well-being. This study used a community-based participatory (CBPR) approach to describe a factor structure for the family stigma of suicide. Candidate items (n = 82) from a previous qualitative study were presented in an online survey format. Members of the public (n = 232) indicated how much they thought items represented public views and behaviors towards family members who lost a loved one to suicide. Factor analyses revealed two factors for stereotypes (dysfunctional, blameworthy), one factor for prejudice (fear and distrust), and three factors for discrimination (exclusion, secrecy, and avoidance).

  19. Integrating Data and Networks: Human Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, R. S.

    2012-12-01

    The development of technical linkages and interoperability between scientific networks is a necessary but not sufficient step towards integrated use and application of networked data and information for scientific and societal benefit. A range of "human factors" must also be addressed to ensure the long-term integration, sustainability, and utility of both the interoperable networks themselves and the scientific data and information to which they provide access. These human factors encompass the behavior of both individual humans and human institutions, and include system governance, a common framework for intellectual property rights and data sharing, consensus on terminology, metadata, and quality control processes, agreement on key system metrics and milestones, the compatibility of "business models" in the short and long term, harmonization of incentives for cooperation, and minimization of disincentives. Experience with several national and international initiatives and research programs such as the International Polar Year, the Group on Earth Observations, the NASA Earth Observing Data and Information System, the U.S. National Spatial Data Infrastructure, the Global Earthquake Model, and the United Nations Spatial Data Infrastructure provide a range of lessons regarding these human factors. Ongoing changes in science, technology, institutions, relationships, and even culture are creating both opportunities and challenges for expanded interoperability of scientific networks and significant improvement in data integration to advance science and the use of scientific data and information to achieve benefits for society as a whole.

  20. Concept of ground facilities and the analyses of the factors for cost estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. Y.; Choi, H. J.; Choi, J. W.; Kim, S. K.; Cho, D. K

    2007-09-15

    The geologic disposal of spent fuels generated from the nuclear power plants is the only way to protect the human beings and the surrounding environments present and future. The direct disposal of the spent fuels from the nuclear power plants is considered, and a Korean Reference HLW disposal System(KRS) suitable for our representative geological conditions have been developed. In this study, the concept of the spent fuel encapsulation process as a key of the above ground facilities for deep geological disposal was established. To do this, the design requirements, such as the functions and the spent fuel accumulations, were reviewed. Also, the design principles and the bases were established. Based on the requirements and the bases, the encapsulation process of the spent fuel from receiving spent fuel of nuclear power plants to transferring canister into the underground repository was established. Simulation for the above-ground facility in graphic circumstances through KRS design concept and disposal scenarios for spent nuclear fuel showed that an appropriate process was performed based on facility design concept and required for more improvement on construction facility by actual demonstration test. And, based on the concept of the above ground facilities for the Korean Reference HLW disposal System, the analyses of the factors for the cost estimation was carried out.

  1. Mitochondrial transcription factor A protects human retinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the impact of mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM), as a modulator of NF-κB, on proliferation of hypoxia-induced human retinal endothelial cell (HREC), and the probable mechanism. Methods: After exposure to hypoxia (1 % O2) for 5 days, cell proliferation and cell cycle of HREC were ...

  2. The human factors approach at EDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colas, A.

    2004-01-01

    At the dawn of the 21st century, French electricity utility EDF is facing a number of major changes, in particular the liberalisation of European energy markets and the restructuring needed to cope with this development. EDF's approach to human factors (HF) aspects is also undergoing major changes, since people obviously play a predominant role in any organisational structure. (author)

  3. Warranty claim analysis considering human factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Shaomin

    2011-01-01

    Warranty claims are not always due to product failures. They can also be caused by two types of human factors. On the one hand, consumers might claim warranty due to misuse and/or failures caused by various human factors. Such claims might account for more than 10% of all reported claims. On the other hand, consumers might not be bothered to claim warranty for failed items that are still under warranty, or they may claim warranty after they have experienced several intermittent failures. These two types of human factors can affect warranty claim costs. However, research in this area has received rather little attention. In this paper, we propose three models to estimate the expected warranty cost when the two types of human factors are included. We consider two types of failures: intermittent and fatal failures, which might result in different claim patterns. Consumers might report claims after a fatal failure has occurred, and upon intermittent failures they might report claims after a number of failures have occurred. Numerical examples are given to validate the results derived.

  4. Human factors in healthcare level two

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenorn-Lanng, Debbie

    2015-01-01

    This book builds on Human Factors in Healthcare Level One by delving deeper into the challenges of leadership, conflict resolution, and decision making that healthcare professionals currently face. It is written in an easy to understand style and includes a wealth of real-life examples of errors and patient safety issues.

  5. Cooperative mobility systems: The human factor challenges.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martens, Marieke; Kroon, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a vision on cooperative mobility systems from a human factors perspective. To create a common ground for future developments, it’s important to define the common research themes and knowledge gaps. This article presents what steps need to be taken in order to come to proper

  6. Review of human factors guidelines and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhodes, W.; Szlapetis, I.; Hay, T.; Weihrer, S.

    1995-04-01

    The review examines the use of human factors guidelines and methods in high technology applications, with emphasis on application to the nuclear industry. An extensive literature review was carried out identifying over 250 applicable documents, with 30 more documents identified during interviews with experts in human factors. Surveys were sent to 15 experts, of which 11 responded. The survey results indicated guidelines used and why these were favoured. Thirty-three of the most applicable guideline documents were described in detailed annotated bibliographies. A bibliographic list containing over 280 references was prepared. Thirty guideline documents were rated for their completeness, validity, applicability and practicality. The experts survey indicated the use of specific techniques. Ten human factors methods of analysis were described in general summaries, including procedures, applications, and specific techniques. Detailed descriptions of the techniques were prepared and each technique rated for applicability and practicality. Recommendations for further study of areas of importance to human factors in the nuclear field in Canada are given. (author). 8 tabs., 2 figs

  7. Review of human factors guidelines and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhodes, W; Szlapetis, I; Hay, T; Weihrer, S [Rhodes and Associates Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada)

    1995-04-01

    The review examines the use of human factors guidelines and methods in high technology applications, with emphasis on application to the nuclear industry. An extensive literature review was carried out identifying over 250 applicable documents, with 30 more documents identified during interviews with experts in human factors. Surveys were sent to 15 experts, of which 11 responded. The survey results indicated guidelines used and why these were favoured. Thirty-three of the most applicable guideline documents were described in detailed annotated bibliographies. A bibliographic list containing over 280 references was prepared. Thirty guideline documents were rated for their completeness, validity, applicability and practicality. The experts survey indicated the use of specific techniques. Ten human factors methods of analysis were described in general summaries, including procedures, applications, and specific techniques. Detailed descriptions of the techniques were prepared and each technique rated for applicability and practicality. Recommendations for further study of areas of importance to human factors in the nuclear field in Canada are given. (author). 8 tabs., 2 figs.

  8. Human factors considerations for reliability and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnino, A.

    1985-01-01

    Human factors in many industries have become an important issue, since the last few years. They should be considered during the whole life time of a plant: design, fabrication and construction, licensing, operation. Improvements have been performed in the field of man-machine interface such as procedures, control room lay-out, operator aids, training. In order to meet the needs of reliability and probabilistic risk studies, quantification of human errors has been developed but needs still improvements in the field of cognitive behaviour, diagnosis and representation errors. Data banks to support these quantifications are still in a development stage. This applies to nuclear power plants and several examples are given to illustrate the above ideas. In conclusion, human factors field is in a very quickly evolving process but the tendency is still to adapt the man to the machines whilst the reverse would be desirable

  9. The human factor in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colas, Armand

    1998-01-01

    After having evoked the progressive reduction and stabilization of significant incidents occurring every year in French nuclear power plants, and the challenges faced by nuclear energy (loss of public confidence, loss of competitiveness), and then outlined the importance of safety to overcome these challenges, the author comments EDF's approach to the human factor. He first highlights the importance of information and communication towards the population. He briefly discusses the meaning of human factors for the nuclear industry, sometimes perceived as the contribution people to the company's safety and performance. He comments the evolution observed in the perception of human error in different industrial or technical environments and situations, and outlines what is at stake to reduce the production of faults and organize a 'hunt for latent defects'

  10. An EDF perspective on human factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnino, A.

    1989-01-01

    The paper presents the main lines of the program undertaken by Electricite de France in the field of human factors as a result of the Three-Mile Island (TMI) accident. As it is important to be aware of some human characteristics to understand the difficulties and needs in the field, the following behaviour characteristics are described: man is not a component, man functions through a single channel, man has a continuous need of information, man biases risk estimation and man uses mental representations. The following actions taken after TMI to improve the man-machine interface, the operator training, the crew organisation, the operating experience analysis, the state approach development and the emergency planning, are all linked to human factors. The paper ends by presenting the new control room studies for the N4 project (a light water reactor) and some other actions aimed at improving plant operation. (author)

  11. Human Factors Principles in Information Dashboard Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hugo, Jacques V.; St. Germain, Shawn

    2016-06-01

    When planning for control room upgrades, nuclear power plants have to deal with a multitude of engineering and operational impacts. This will inevitably include several human factors considerations, including physical ergonomics of workstations, viewing angles, lighting, seating, new communication requirements, and new concepts of operation. In helping nuclear power utilities to deal with these challenges, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has developed effective methods to manage the various phases of the upgrade life cycle. These methods focus on integrating human factors engineering processes with the plant’s systems engineering process, a large part of which is the development of end-state concepts for control room modernization. Such an end-state concept is a description of a set of required conditions that define the achievement of the plant’s objectives for the upgrade. Typically, the end-state concept describes the transition of a conventional control room, over time, to a facility that employs advanced digital automation technologies in a way that significantly improves system reliability, reduces human and control room-related hazards, reduces system and component obsolescence, and significantly improves operator performance. To make the various upgrade phases as concrete and as visible as possible, an end-state concept would include a set of visual representations of the control room before and after various upgrade phases to provide the context and a framework within which to consider the various options in the upgrade. This includes the various control systems, human-system interfaces to be replaced, and possible changes to operator workstations. This paper describes how this framework helps to ensure an integrated and cohesive outcome that is consistent with human factors engineering principles and also provide substantial improvement in operator performance. The paper further describes the application of this integrated approach in the

  12. A quantitative method to analyse an open answer questionnaire: A case study about the Boltzmann Factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battaglia, Onofrio Rosario; Di Paola, Benedetto

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a quantitative method to analyse an openended questionnaire. Student responses to a specially designed written questionnaire are quantitatively analysed by not hierarchical clustering called k-means method. Through this we can characterise behaviour students with respect their expertise to formulate explanations for phenomena or processes and/or use a given model in the different context. The physics topic is about the Boltzmann Factor, which allows the students to have a unifying view of different phenomena in different contexts.

  13. Role of human factors in system safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, D. M.; Robert, C.; Graham, T.

    2008-01-01

    What happens when technology goes wrong? Three Mile Island, Chernobyl, space shuttles Challenger and Columbia, numerous airplane crashes, and other notable and newsworthy as well as many more incidents that are not reported on the news, have all been attributed to human error. Millions of dollars in fines are levied against industry under the General Duty clause for ergonomic violations, all avoidable. These incidents and situations indicate a lack of consideration for the humans in the system during the design phase. As a consequence, all of these organizations had to retrofit, had to redesign and had to pay countless dollars for medical costs, Worker's Compensation, OSHA fines and in some instances had irrecoverable damage to their public image. Human Factors, otherwise known as Engineering Psychology or Ergonomics, found its origins in loss, loss of life, loss of confidence, loss of technology, loss of property. Without loss, there would be no need for human factors. No one really 'attends' to discomfort...nor are errors attended to that have little consequence. Often it is ultimately the compilation and cumulative effects of these smaller and often ignored occurrences that lead to the bigger and more tragic incidents that make the evening news. When an incident or accident occurs, they are frequently attributed to accomplished, credible, experienced people. In reality however, the crisis was inevitable when a series of events happen such that a human is caught in the whirlwind of accident sequence. The world as known is becoming smaller and more complex. Highly technical societies have been hard at work for several centuries rebuilding the world out of cold steel that is very far removed from ancient instincts and traditions and is becoming more remote to human users. The growth of technology is more than exponential, and is virtually beyond comprehension for many people. Humans, feeling comfortable with the familiar, fulfill their propensity to implement new

  14. Beech Fructification and Bank Vole Population Dynamics--Combined Analyses of Promoters of Human Puumala Virus Infections in Germany.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Reil

    Full Text Available The transmission of wildlife zoonoses to humans depends, amongst others, on complex interactions of host population ecology and pathogen dynamics within host populations. In Europe, the Puumala virus (PUUV causes nephropathia epidemica in humans. In this study we investigated complex interrelations within the epidemic system of PUUV and its rodent host, the bank vole (Myodes glareolus. We suggest that beech fructification and bank vole abundance are both decisive factors affecting human PUUV infections. While rodent host dynamics are expected to be directly linked to human PUUV infections, beech fructification is a rather indirect predictor by serving as food source for PUUV rodent hosts. Furthermore, we examined the dependence of bank vole abundance on beech fructification. We analysed a 12-year (2001-2012 time series of the parameters: beech fructification (as food resource for the PUUV host, bank vole abundance and human incidences from 7 Federal States of Germany. For the first time, we could show the direct interrelation between these three parameters involved in human PUUV epidemics and we were able to demonstrate on a large scale that human PUUV infections are highly correlated with bank vole abundance in the present year, as well as beech fructification in the previous year. By using beech fructification and bank vole abundance as predictors in one model we significantly improved the degree of explanation of human PUUV incidence. Federal State was included as random factor because human PUUV incidence varies considerably among states. Surprisingly, the effect of rodent abundance on human PUUV infections is less strong compared to the indirect effect of beech fructification. Our findings are useful to facilitate the development of predictive models for host population dynamics and the related PUUV infection risk for humans and can be used for plant protection and human health protection purposes.

  15. Human factors estimation methods using physiological informations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takano, Ken-ichi; Yoshino, Kenji; Nakasa, Hiroyasu

    1984-01-01

    To enhance the operational safety in the nuclear power plant, it is necessary to decrease abnormal phenomena due to human errors. Especially, it is essential to basically understand human behaviors under the work environment for plant maintenance workers, inspectors, and operators. On the above stand point, this paper presents the results of literature survey on the present status of human factors engineering technology applicable to the nuclear power plant and also discussed the following items: (1) Application fields where the ergonomical evaluation is needed for workers safety. (2) Basic methodology for investigating the human performance. (3) Features of the physiological information analysis among various types of ergonomical techniques. (4) Necessary conditions for the application of in-situ physiological measurement to the nuclear power plant. (5) Availability of the physiological information analysis. (6) Effectiveness of the human factors engineering methodology, especially physiological information analysis in the case of application to the nuclear power plant. The above discussions lead to the demonstration of high applicability of the physiological information analysis to nuclear power plant, in order to improve the work performance. (author)

  16. Human Factors in the Management of Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Langå; Alting, Leo

    2006-01-01

    The ‘Human factor’ is a major issue when optimizing manufacturing systems. The development in recommendations on how to handle this factor in the management of production reflects the change in dominating challenges faced by production in society. Presently, industrial societies are meeting new...... challenges. Qualitative interviews with Danish stakeholders in the education of engineers (BA & MA) confirm the picture given in international literature. Therefore, the didactics concerning the ‘human factor’ in the curriculum on production management has to reflect these changes. This paper concludes...

  17. Study on human factor at NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nopp, I.

    1984-01-01

    Factors affecting the reliabilty of the reactor control by an NPP operator are considered on the base of the Czechoslovakia NPP operating experience. The reliability level of NPP operators depends on objective factors (conditions and regime of labour) determining the labour productivity and on subjective ones (psychological morale, physical and mental abilities and occupational level of personnel). Problems of the effect of physical and mental abilities and professional level on the reliability of personnel are considered to be the most important ones. The effect of individual abilities and specific features of the human body on changes in his occupational abilities can be estimated only to a certain degree

  18. Human factors engineering in nuclear plant rehabilitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernston, K.; Remisz, M.; Malcolm, S.

    2001-01-01

    There are several unique considerations when creating and maintaining a human factors program for a plant refurbishment. These consideration arise from a variety of sources, including budget and time constraints on life extension projects, working to existing plant protocols and current acceptable HFE practices, and issues relating to function and task analysis. This results in a need to streamline and carefully time HFE practices from project start up to completion. In order to perform this task adequately, a comprehensive Human Factors Engineering Program Plan should be designed and tailored to the project. Systems of planning and prioritization are essential, and the required HFE designer training needs to be established. HFE specialists need to be aware of the existing plant constraints, and he prepared to work within them when providing support. The current paper discusses these aspects in the context of major refurbishment work at CANDU stations. (author)

  19. A human factors approach to effective maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penington, J.; Shakeri, S.

    2006-01-01

    Traditionally in the field of Human Factors within the nuclear industry, the focus has been to identify the potential for human errors in operating tasks, and develop strategies to prevent their occurrence, provide recovery mechanisms, and mitigate the consequences of error as appropriate. Past experience has demonstrated however a significant number of human errors within the nuclear industry occur during maintenance tasks. It is for this reason, and the fact that our nuclear power plants are ageing and increasingly in need of maintenance, that the industry must pay more attention to maintenance tasks. The purpose of this paper is to present a framework for effective maintenance programs, and based upon this framework discuss an approach (an audit tool) that can be used to both design such a program, and to assess existing programs. In addition, this tool can form the basis of cost benefit decisions relating to priorities for improvements to existing programs. (author)

  20. Immune Defence Factors In Human Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Sanjeev

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available Scientific evidence is accumulating to prove the nutritional, anti-infective, anti-fertility, psychosomal and economic advantages of breast-feeding. A number of studies have shown that breast milk protects against diarrheal, respiratory and other infections. Its value in protecting against allergy has also been established. This article reviews the studies on various immune defence factors present in the human milk. The available scientific knowledge makes a very strong case in favour of promoting breast-feeding.

  1. The development of human factors technologies -The development of human factors experimental evaluation techniques-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, Bong Sik; Oh, In Suk; Cha, Kyung Hoh; Lee, Hyun Chul

    1995-07-01

    In this year, we studied the followings: 1) Development of operator mental workload evaluation techniques, 2) Development of a prototype for preliminary human factors experiment, 3) Suitability test of information display on a large scale display panel, 4) Development of guidelines for VDU-based control room design, 5) Development of integrated test facility (ITF). 6) Establishment of an eye tracking system, and we got the following results: 1) Mental workload evaluation techniques for MMI evaluation, 2) PROTOPEX (PROTOtype for preliminary human factors experiment) for preliminary human factors experiments, 3) Usage methods of APTEA (Analysis-Prototyping-Training-Experiment-Analysis) experiment design, 4) Design guidelines for human factors verification, 5) Detail design requirements and development plan of ITF, 6) Eye movement measurement system. 38 figs, 20 tabs, 54 refs. (Author)

  2. The Chinese Family Assessment Instrument (C-FAI): Hierarchical Confirmatory Factor Analyses and Factorial Invariance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T. L.; Ma, Cecilia M. S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This paper examines the dimensionality and factorial invariance of the Chinese Family Assessment Instrument (C-FAI) using multigroup confirmatory factor analyses (MCFAs). Method: A total of 3,649 students responded to the C-FAI in a community survey. Results: Results showed that there are five dimensions of the C-FAI (communication,…

  3. Improving Safety through Human Factors Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siewert, Bettina; Hochman, Mary G

    2015-10-01

    Human factors engineering (HFE) focuses on the design and analysis of interactive systems that involve people, technical equipment, and work environment. HFE is informed by knowledge of human characteristics. It complements existing patient safety efforts by specifically taking into consideration that, as humans, frontline staff will inevitably make mistakes. Therefore, the systems with which they interact should be designed for the anticipation and mitigation of human errors. The goal of HFE is to optimize the interaction of humans with their work environment and technical equipment to maximize safety and efficiency. Special safeguards include usability testing, standardization of processes, and use of checklists and forcing functions. However, the effectiveness of the safety program and resiliency of the organization depend on timely reporting of all safety events independent of patient harm, including perceived potential risks, bad outcomes that occur even when proper protocols have been followed, and episodes of "improvisation" when formal guidelines are found not to exist. Therefore, an institution must adopt a robust culture of safety, where the focus is shifted from blaming individuals for errors to preventing future errors, and where barriers to speaking up-including barriers introduced by steep authority gradients-are minimized. This requires creation of formal guidelines to address safety concerns, establishment of unified teams with open communication and shared responsibility for patient safety, and education of managers and senior physicians to perceive the reporting of safety concerns as a benefit rather than a threat. © RSNA, 2015.

  4. Stress intensity factor analyses of surface cracks in three-dimensional structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, Noriyuki; Shibata, Katsuyuki; Watanabe, Takayuki; Tagata, Kazunori.

    1983-11-01

    The stress intensity factor analyses of surface cracks in various three-dimensional structures were performed using the finite element computer program EPAS-J1. The results obtained by EPAS-J1 were compared with other finite element solutions or results obtained by the simplified estimation methods. Among the simplified estimation methods, the equations proposed by Newman and Raju give the distributions of the stress intensity factor along a crack front, which were compared with the result obtained by EPAS-J1. It was confirmed by comparing the results that EPAS-J1 gives reasonable stress intensity factors of surface cracks in three-dimensional structures. (author)

  5. Studies on human factors in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukuda, H.; Miyaoka, S.

    1988-01-01

    In order to raise the reliability and safety of nuclear power plants to the highest possible level, improvements to the mechanical system alone are not sufficient. Human factors must be systematically analysed and the causes and mechanisms of human error clarified to allow the development of countermeasures that will reduce error as much as possible. The paper introduces research in two areas, fundamental clarification of human behavioural, physiological and psychological characteristics to aid in the development of preventive measures for reducing error, and studies involving analysis of actual cases of accidents and failures related to man along with development of countermeasures to prevent the recurrence of such cases. The paper especially considers the latter area. The Human Performance Evaluation System (HPES) developed by the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) in the USA was applied on a trial basis to 31 recent accidents and failures at Japanese nuclear power plants. The effectiveness of and possible improvement to HPES were considered. Also, cases that were not directly linked to accidents or failures were analysed using a method developed independently in Japan using data collected from a survey of approximately 3,000 power plant personnel. Fundamental research on human behaviour, physiology and psychology are also introduced. (author). 4 figs

  6. Human reliability and human factors in complex organizations: epistemological and critical analysis - practical avenues to action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llory, A.

    1991-08-01

    This article starts out with comment on the existence of persistent problems inherent to probabilistic safety assessments (PSA). It first surveys existing American documents on the subject which make a certain number of criticisms on human reliability analyses, e.g. limitations due to the scant quantities of data available, lack of a basic theoretical model, non-reproducibility of analyses, etc. The article therefore examines and criticizes the epistemological bases of these analyses. One of the fundamental points stressed is that human reliability analyses do not take account of all the special features of the work situation which result in human error (so as to draw up statistical data from a sufficiently representative number of cases), and consequently lose all notion of the 'relationships' between human errors and the different aspects of the working environment. The other key points of criticism concern the collective nature of work which is not taken into account, and the frequent confusion between what operatives actually do and their formally prescribed job-tasks. The article proposes aspects to be given thought in order to overcome these difficulties, e.g. quantitative assessment of the social environment within a company, non-linear model for assessment of the accident rate, analysis of stress levels in staff on off-shore platforms. The method approaches used in these three studies are of the same type, and could be transposed to human-reliability problems. The article then goes into greater depth on thinking aimed at developing a 'positive' view of the human factor (and not just a 'negative' one, i.e. centred on human errors and organizational malfunctions), applying investigation methods developed in the occupational human sciences (occupational psychodynamics, ergonomics, occupational sociology). The importance of operatives working as actors of a team is stressed

  7. Seasonal variation in human reproduction: environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronson, F H

    1995-06-01

    Almost all human populations exhibit seasonal variation in births, owing mostly to seasonal variation in the frequency of conception. This review focuses on the degree to which environmental factors like nutrition, temperature and photoperiod contribute to these seasonal patterns by acting directly on the reproductive axis. The reproductive strategy of humans is basically that of the apes: Humans have the capacity to reproduce continuously, albeit slowly, unless inhibited by environmental influences. Two, and perhaps three, environmental factors probably act routinely as seasonal inhibitors in some human populations. First, it seems likely that ovulation is regulated seasonally in populations experiencing seasonal variation in food availability. More specifically, it seems likely that inadequate food intake or the increased energy expenditure required to obtain food, or both, can delay menarche, suppress the frequency of ovulation in the nonlactating adult, and prolong lactational amenorrhea in these populations on a seasonal basis. This action is most easily seen in tropical subsistence societies where food availability often varies greatly owing to seasonal variation in rainfall; hence births in these populations often correlate with rainfall. Second, it seems likely that seasonally high temperatures suppress spermatogenesis enough to influence the incidence of fertilization in hotter latitudes, but possibly only in males wearing clothing that diminishes scrotal cooling. Since most of our knowledge about this phenomenon comes from temperate latitudes, the sensitivity of spermatogenesis in both human and nonhuman primates to heat in the tropics needs further study. It is quite possible that high temperatures suppress ovulation and early embryo survival seasonally in some of these same populations. Since we know less than desired about the effect of heat stress on ovulation and early pregnancy in nonhuman mammals, and nothing at all about it in humans or any of the

  8. Quantitative risk analysis offshore-Human and organizational factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espen Skogdalen, Jon; Vinnem, Jan Erik

    2011-01-01

    Quantitative Risk Analyses (QRAs) are one of the main tools for risk management within the Norwegian and UK oil and gas industry. Much criticism has been given to the limitations related to the QRA-models and that the QRAs do not include human and organizational factors (HOF-factors). Norway and UK offshore legislation and guidelines require that the HOF-factors are included in the QRAs. A study of 15 QRAs shows that the factors are to some extent included, and there are large differences between the QRAs. The QRAs are categorized into four levels according to the findings. Level 1 QRAs do not describe or comment on the HOF-factors at all. Relevant research projects have been conducted to fulfill the requirements of Level 3 analyses. At this level, there is a systematic collection of data related to HOF. The methods are systematic and documented, and the QRAs are adjusted. None of the QRAs fulfill the Level 4 requirements. Level 4 QRAs include the model and describe the HOF-factors as well as explain how the results should be followed up in the overall risk management. Safety audits by regulatory authorities are probably necessary to point out the direction for QRA and speed up the development.

  9. International workshop on multimodal analyses enabling artificial agents in human-machine interaction (workshop summary)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Böck, Ronald; Bonin, Francesca; Campbell, Nick; Poppe, R.W.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper a brief overview of the third workshop on Multimodal Analyses enabling Artificial Agents in Human-Machine Interaction. The paper is focussing on the main aspects intended to be discussed in the workshop reflecting the main scope of the papers presented during the meeting. The MA3HMI

  10. Activated human neutrophils release hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCourt, M

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Hepatocyte growth factor or scatter factor (HGF\\/SF) is a pleiotropic cytokine that has potent angiogenic properties. We have previously demonstrated that neutrophils (PMN) are directly angiogenic by releasing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). We hypothesized that the acute inflammatory response can stimulate PMN to release HGF. AIMS: To examine the effects of inflammatory mediators on PMN HGF release and the effect of recombinant human HGF (rhHGF) on PMN adhesion receptor expression and PMN VEGF release. METHODS: In the first experiment, PMN were isolated from healthy volunteers and stimulated with tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and formyl methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP). Culture supernatants were assayed for HGF using ELISA. In the second experiment, PMN were lysed to measure total HGF release and HGF expression in the PMN was detected by Western immunoblotting. Finally, PMN were stimulated with rhHGF. PMN CD 11a, CD 11b, and CD 18 receptor expression and VEGF release was measured using flow cytometry and ELISA respectively. RESULTS: TNF-alpha, LPS and fMLP stimulation resulted in significantly increased release of PMN HGF (755+\\/-216, 484+\\/-221 and 565+\\/-278 pg\\/ml, respectively) compared to controls (118+\\/-42 pg\\/ml). IL-8 had no effect. Total HGF release following cell lysis and Western blot suggests that HGF is released from intracellular stores. Recombinant human HGF did not alter PMN adhesion receptor expression and had no effect on PMN VEGF release. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that pro-inflammatory mediators can stimulate HGF release from a PMN intracellular store and that activated PMN in addition to secreting VEGF have further angiogenic potential by releasing HGF.

  11. Human factors engineering program review model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    The staff of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission is performing nuclear power plant design certification reviews based on a design process plan that describes the human factors engineering (HFE) program elements that are necessary and sufficient to develop an acceptable detailed design specification and an acceptable implemented design. There are two principal reasons for this approach. First, the initial design certification applications submitted for staff review did not include detailed design information. Second, since human performance literature and industry experiences have shown that many significant human factors issues arise early in the design process, review of the design process activities and results is important to the evaluation of an overall design. However, current regulations and guidance documents do not address the criteria for design process review. Therefore, the HFE Program Review Model (HFE PRM) was developed as a basis for performing design certification reviews that include design process evaluations as well as review of the final design. A central tenet of the HFE PRM is that the HFE aspects of the plant should be developed, designed, and evaluated on the basis of a structured top-down system analysis using accepted HFE principles. The HFE PRM consists of ten component elements. Each element in divided into four sections: Background, Objective, Applicant Submittals, and Review Criteria. This report describes the development of the HFE PRM and gives a detailed description of each HFE review element

  12. Human Factors in Accidents Involving Remotely Piloted Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlin, Peter William

    2013-01-01

    This presentation examines human factors that contribute to RPA mishaps and provides analysis of lessons learned. RPA accident data from U.S. military and government agencies were reviewed and analyzed to identify human factors issues. Common contributors to RPA mishaps fell into several major categories: cognitive factors (pilot workload), physiological factors (fatigue and stress), environmental factors (situational awareness), staffing factors (training and crew coordination), and design factors (human machine interface).

  13. Human factors in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennig, J.; Bohr, E.

    1976-04-01

    This annotated bibliography is a first attempt to give a survey of the kind of literature which is relevant for the ergonomic working conditions in nuclear power plants. Such a survey seems to be useful in view of the fact that the 'factor human being' comes recently more and more to the fore in nuclear power plants. In this context, the necessity is often pointed out to systematically include our knowledge of the performance capacity and limits of human beings when designing the working conditions for the personnel of nuclear power plants. For this reason, the bibliography is so much intended for the ergonomics experts as for the experts of nuclear engineering. (orig./LN) [de

  14. Human factors in nuclear power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabri, Z.A.; Husseiny, A.A.

    1980-01-01

    An extensive effort is being devoted to developing a comprehensive human factor program that encompasses establishment of a data base for human error prediction using past operation experience in commercial nuclear power plants. Some of the main results of such an effort are reported including data retrieval and classification systems which have been developed to assist in estimation of operator error rates. Also, statistical methods are developed to relate operator error data to reactor type, age, and specific technical design features. Results reported in this paper are based on an analysis of LER's covering a six-year period for LWR's. Developments presently include a computer data management program, statistical model, and detailed error taxonomy

  15. Risky business: human factors in critical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laussen, Peter C; Allan, Catherine K; Larovere, Joan M

    2011-07-01

    Remarkable achievements have occurred in pediatric cardiac critical care over the past two decades. The specialty has become well defined and extremely resource intense. A great deal of focus has been centered on optimizing patient outcomes, particularly mortality and early morbidity, and this has been achieved through a focused and multidisciplinary approach to management. Delivering high-quality and safe care is our goal, and during the Risky Business symposium and simulation sessions at the Eighth International Conference of the Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Society in Miami, December 2010, human factors, systems analysis, team training, and lessons learned from malpractice claims were presented.

  16. Diabetes technology and the human factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberman, A; Buckingham, B; Phillip, M

    2011-02-01

    When developing new technologies for human use the developer should take into consideration not only the efficacy and safety of the technology but also the desire and capabilities of the potential user. Any chronic disease is a challenge for both the patient and his/her caregivers. This statement is especially true in the case of patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) where adherence to therapy is crucial 24 hours a day 365 days a year. No vacation days are possible for the T1DM patient. It is therefore obvious why any new technology which is developed for helping patients cope with the disease should take into consideration the 'human factor' before, during and after the production process starts. There is no doubt that technology has changed the life of patients with T1DM in the last few decades, but despite the availability of new meters, new syringes, new sophisticated insulin pumps and continuous glucose sensors and communication tools, these technologies have not been well utilised by many patients. It is therefore important to understand why the technology is not always utilised and to find new ways to maximise use and benefits from the technology to as many patients as possible. The present chapter will review papers published in the last year where the patient's ability or willingness was an important factor in the success of the technology. We will try to understand why insulin pumps, glucose sensors and self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) are not used enough or appropriately, whether there is a specific group that finds it more difficult than others to adopt new technologies and what can be done to overcome that issue. For this chapter we chose articles from a Public Medicine review of the literature related to human factors affecting the outcome of studies and of user acceptance of continuous glucose monitoring, insulin infusion pump therapy. We also searched the literature in the field of psychology in order to accurately define the problems

  17. Review of EPRI Nuclear Human Factors Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanes, L.F.; O'Brien, J.F.

    1996-01-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Human Factors Program, which is part of the EPRI Nuclear Power Group, was established in 1975. Over the years, the Program has changed emphasis based on the shifting priorities and needs of the commercial nuclear power industry. The Program has produced many important products that provide significant safety and economic benefits for EPRI member utilities. This presentation will provide a brief history of the Program and products. Current projects and products that have been released recently will be mentioned

  18. Applications of human factors engineering in the digital HMI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Bingjian

    2014-01-01

    In order to prevent and minimize human errors in the digital main control room, the principles of human factors engineering must be complied strictly in the design process of digital human-machine interface. This paper briefly describes the basic human factors engineering principles of designing main control room, introduces the main steps to implement the human factors engineering verification and validation of main control room, including HSI task support verification, human factors engineering design verification and integrated system validation. Meanwhile, according to the new digital human-machine interface characteristics, the development models of human error are analyzed. (author)

  19. Human factors review of nuclear power plant control room design. Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seminara, J.L.; Gonzalez, W.R.; Parsons, S.O.

    1976-11-01

    Human factors engineering is an interdisciplinary specialty concerned with influencing the design of equipment systems, facilities, and operational environments to promote safe, efficient, and reliable operator performance. The human factors aspects of five representative nuclear power plant control rooms were evaluated using such methods as a checklist-guided observation system, structured interviews with operators and trainers, direct observations of operator behavior, task analyses and procedure evaluation, and historical error analyses. The human factors aspects of design practices are illustrated, and many improvements in current practices are suggested. The study recommends that a detailed set of applicable human factors standards be developed to stimulate a uniform and systematic concern for human factors in design considerations

  20. Round Robin Analyses on Stress Intensity Factors of Inner Surface Cracks in Welded Stainless Steel Pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Gi Han

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Austenitic stainless steels (ASSs are widely used for nuclear pipes as they exhibit a good combination of mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. However, high tensile residual stresses may occur in ASS welds because postweld heat treatment is not generally conducted in order to avoid sensitization, which causes a stress corrosion crack. In this study, round robin analyses on stress intensity factors (SIFs were carried out to examine the appropriateness of structural integrity assessment methods for ASS pipe welds with two types of circumferential cracks. Typical stress profiles were generated from finite element analyses by considering residual stresses and normal operating conditions. Then, SIFs of cracked ASS pipes were determined by analytical equations represented in fitness-for-service assessment codes as well as reference finite element analyses. The discrepancies of estimated SIFs among round robin participants were confirmed due to different assessment procedures and relevant considerations, as well as the mistakes of participants. The effects of uncertainty factors on SIFs were deducted from sensitivity analyses and, based on the similarity and conservatism compared with detailed finite element analysis results, the R6 code, taking into account the applied internal pressure and combination of stress components, was recommended as the optimum procedure for SIF estimation.

  1. Psychosocial Factors Related to Lateral and Medial Epicondylitis: Results From Pooled Study Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiese, Matthew S; Hegmann, Kurt T; Kapellusch, Jay; Merryweather, Andrew; Bao, Stephen; Silverstein, Barbara; Tang, Ruoliang; Garg, Arun

    2016-06-01

    The goal is to assess the relationships between psychosocial factors and both medial and lateral epicondylitis after adjustment for personal and job physical exposures. One thousand eight hundred twenty-four participants were included in pooled analyses. Ten psychosocial factors were assessed. One hundred twenty-one (6.6%) and 34 (1.9%) participants have lateral and medial epicondylitis, respectively. Nine psychosocial factors assessed had significant trends or associations with lateral epicondylitis, the largest of which was between physical exhaustion after work and lateral epicondylitis with and odds ratio of 7.04 (95% confidence interval = 2.02 to 24.51). Eight psychosocial factors had significant trends or relationships with medial epicondylitis, with the largest being between mental exhaustion after work with an odds ratio of 6.51 (95% confidence interval = 1.57 to 27.04). The breadth and strength of these associations after adjustment for confounding factors demonstrate meaningful relationships that need to be further investigated in prospective analyses.

  2. [Interaction of human factor X with thromboplastin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiselev, S V; Zubairov, D M; Timarbaev, V N

    2003-01-01

    The binding of 125I-labeled human factor X to native and papaine-treated tissue tromboplastin in the presence of CaCl2 or EDTA was studied. The Scatchard analysis suggests the existence of high (Kd=l,8 x10(-9) M) and low affinity binding sites on the thromboplastin surface. The removal of Ca2+ reduced affinity of factor X to the high affinity sites. This was accompanied by some increase of their number. Proteolysis by papaine decreased affinity of high affinity sites and caused the increase of their number in the presence of Ca2+. In the absence of Ca2+ the affinity remained unchanged, but the number of sites decreased. At low concentrations of factor X positive cooperativity for high affinity binding sites was observed. It did not depend on the presence of Ca2+. The results indirectly confirm the role of hydrophobic interactons in Ca2+ dependent binding of factor X to thromboplastin and the fact that heterogeneity of this binding is determined by mesophase structure of the thromboplastin phospholipids.

  3. Integrative analyses of human reprogramming reveal dynamic nature of induced pluripotency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacchiarelli, Davide; Trapnell, Cole; Ziller, Michael J.; Soumillon, Magali; Cesana, Marcella; Karnik, Rahul; Donaghey, Julie; Smith, Zachary D.; Ratanasirintrawoot, Sutheera; Zhang, Xiaolan; Ho Sui, Shannan J.; Wu, Zhaoting; Akopian, Veronika; Gifford, Casey A.; Doench, John; Rinn, John L.; Daley, George Q.; Meissner, Alexander; Lander, Eric S.; Mikkelsen, Tarjei S.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Induced pluripotency is a promising avenue for disease modeling and therapy, but the molecular principles underlying this process, particularly in human cells, remain poorly understood due to donor-to-donor variability and intercellular heterogeneity. Here we constructed and characterized a clonal, inducible human reprogramming system that provides a reliable source of cells at any stage of the process. This system enabled integrative transcriptional and epigenomic analysis across the human reprogramming timeline at high resolution. We observed distinct waves of gene network activation, including the ordered reactivation of broad developmental regulators followed by early embryonic patterning genes and culminating in the emergence of a signature reminiscent of pre-implantation stages. Moreover, complementary functional analyses allowed us to identify and validate novel regulators of the reprogramming process. Altogether, this study sheds light on the molecular underpinnings of induced pluripotency in human cells and provides a robust cell platform for further studies. PMID:26186193

  4. Human factors in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohr, E.; Hennig, J.; Preuss, W.; Thau, G.

    1977-01-01

    This report describes the results of a study on the functions of operating and maintenance personnel in nuclear power plants. Since an effective power plant design must take into systematic account the possibilities and limitations of the human element, the basic aim of the study was to identify what the human operators are required to do and how they achieve it. Information was acquired by direct observation and by interviews as well as by evaluation of written documents (e.g. incident reports, procedures manuals, work regulations) and of working conditions (e.g. equipment and workplace design). A literature search and evaluation carried out within the scope of this study has been published as a separate document. The main part of the report is devoted to discussions and conclusions on selected areas of potential improvements. The topics include control room design, factors of the physical environment including radiation, problems of maintainability, design of written documents, problems in communicating information, design and control of tasks, placement and training. A separate section deals with problems of recording human errors. (orig.) [de

  5. Higher- and Lower-Order Factor Analyses of the Temperament in Middle Childhood Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotelnikova, Yuliya; Olino, Thomas M.; Klein, Daniel N.; Mackrell, Sarah V.M.; Hayden, Elizabeth P.

    2017-01-01

    The Temperament in Middle Childhood Questionnaire (TMCQ; Simonds & Rothbart, 2004) is a widely used parent-report measure of temperament. However, neither its lower- nor higher-order structures have been tested via a bottom-up, empirically based approach. We conducted higher- and lower-order exploratory factor analyses (EFAs) of the TMCQ in a large (N = 654) sample of 9-year-olds. Item-level EFAs identified 92 items as suitable (i.e., with loadings ≥.40) for constructing lower-order factors, only half of which resembled a TMCQ scale posited by the measure’s authors. Higher-order EFAs of the lower-order factors showed that a three-factor structure (Impulsivity/Negative Affectivity, Negative Affectivity, and Openness/Assertiveness) was the only admissible solution. Overall, many TMCQ items did not load well onto a lower-order factor. In addition, only three factors, which did not show a clear resemblance to Rothbart’s four-factor model of temperament in middle childhood, were needed to account for the higher-order structure of the TMCQ. PMID:27002124

  6. Biotechnologische Nutzung der Schwerelosigkeit für medizinische Forschung - Analyse humaner Zellen nach Schwerelosigkeit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimm, Daniela Gabriele; Bauer, Johann; Hemmersbach, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    For periods of time ranging from 22 seconds in parabolic flights and up to two weeks on sattilites, human cells were exposed to real or simulated weightlessness on a Random Positioning Machine and a 2D clinostat and analysed afterwards. By this approach we can increase our knowledge regarding...... health problems of space travellers and in parallel we get new information concerning several diseases of humans on Earth. Surprisingly, we also observed that single cells exposed to simulated microgravity assemble to three-dimensional aggregates resembling the tissues from which these cells...

  7. Ergonomics in nuclear and human factors engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muench, E.; Schultheiss, G.F.

    1988-01-01

    The work situation including man-machine-relationships in nuclear power plants is described. The overview gives only a compact summary of some important ergonomic parameters, i.e. human body dimension, human load, human characteristics and human knowledge. (DG)

  8. Validation of endogenous normalizing genes for expression analyses in adult human testis and germ cell neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svingen, T; Jørgensen, Anne; Rajpert-De Meyts, E

    2014-01-01

    to define suitable normalizing genes for specific cells and tissues. Here, we report on the performance of a panel of nine commonly employed normalizing genes in adult human testis and testicular pathologies. Our analyses revealed significant variability in transcript abundance for commonly used normalizers......, highlighting the importance of selecting appropriate normalizing genes as comparative measurements can yield variable results when different normalizing genes are employed. Based on our results, we recommend using RPS20, RPS29 or SRSF4 when analysing relative gene expression levels in human testis...... and associated testicular pathologies. OCT4 and SALL4 can be used with caution as second-tier normalizers when determining changes in gene expression in germ cells and germ cell tumour components, but the relative transcript abundance appears variable between different germ cell tumour types. We further...

  9. Human factors quantification via boundary identification of flight performance margin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Changpeng

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A systematic methodology including a computational pilot model and a pattern recognition method is presented to identify the boundary of the flight performance margin for quantifying the human factors. The pilot model is proposed to correlate a set of quantitative human factors which represent the attributes and characteristics of a group of pilots. Three information processing components which are influenced by human factors are modeled: information perception, decision making, and action execution. By treating the human factors as stochastic variables that follow appropriate probability density functions, the effects of human factors on flight performance can be investigated through Monte Carlo (MC simulation. Kernel density estimation algorithm is selected to find and rank the influential human factors. Subsequently, human factors are quantified through identifying the boundary of the flight performance margin by the k-nearest neighbor (k-NN classifier. Simulation-based analysis shows that flight performance can be dramatically improved with the quantitative human factors.

  10. Europe Chapter of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Meeting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    de

    2002-01-01

    The Final Proceedings for Europe Chapter of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Meeting, 7 November 2001 - 9 November 2001 This is an interdisciplinary conference in human factors and ergonomics...

  11. Metagenomic analyses of bacteria on human hairs: a qualitative assessment for applications in forensic science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tridico, Silvana R; Murray, Dáithí C; Addison, Jayne; Kirkbride, Kenneth P; Bunce, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian hairs are one of the most ubiquitous types of trace evidence collected in the course of forensic investigations. However, hairs that are naturally shed or that lack roots are problematic substrates for DNA profiling; these hair types often contain insufficient nuclear DNA to yield short tandem repeat (STR) profiles. Whilst there have been a number of initial investigations evaluating the value of metagenomics analyses for forensic applications (e.g. examination of computer keyboards), there have been no metagenomic evaluations of human hairs-a substrate commonly encountered during forensic practice. This present study attempts to address this forensic capability gap, by conducting a qualitative assessment into the applicability of metagenomic analyses of human scalp and pubic hair. Forty-two DNA extracts obtained from human scalp and pubic hairs generated a total of 79,766 reads, yielding 39,814 reads post control and abundance filtering. The results revealed the presence of unique combinations of microbial taxa that can enable discrimination between individuals and signature taxa indigenous to female pubic hairs. Microbial data from a single co-habiting couple added an extra dimension to the study by suggesting that metagenomic analyses might be of evidentiary value in sexual assault cases when other associative evidence is not present. Of all the data generated in this study, the next-generation sequencing (NGS) data generated from pubic hair held the most potential for forensic applications. Metagenomic analyses of human hairs may provide independent data to augment other forensic results and possibly provide association between victims of sexual assault and offender when other associative evidence is absent. Based on results garnered in the present study, we believe that with further development, bacterial profiling of hair will become a valuable addition to the forensic toolkit.

  12. Development of a Field Management Standard for Improving Human Factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Young Su; Son, Il Moon; Son, Byung Chang; Kwak, Hyo Yean

    2009-07-01

    This project is to develop a management guideline for improving human performances as a part of the Human Factors Management System of Kori unit 1 which is managing all of human factors items such as man-machine system interfaces, work procedures, work environments, and human reliabilities in nuclear power plants. Human factors engineering includes an human factors suitability analysis and improvement of human works, an analysis of accidents by human error, an improvement of work environment, an establishment of human factors management rules and a development of human resources to manage and perform those things consistently. For assisting these human factors engineering tasks, we developed human factors management guidelines, checklists and work procedures to be used in staffing, qualification, training, and human information requirements and workload. We also provided a software tool for managing the above items. Additionally, contents and an item pool for a human factors qualifying examination and training programs were developed. A procedures improvement and a human factors V and V on the Kori unit 1 have been completed as a part of this project, too

  13. Humanism Factors and Islam Viewpoint from Motahri's Point of View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Zargham; Yousefy, Alireza; Keshtiaray, Narges

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is to criticize liberal humanism based on Islam viewpoint emphasizing Motahri's point of view. In this paper, the researchers tried to identify liberalism humanism factors with analytical look in order to present a new categorization called "main factor of liberal humanism". Then, each factor was studied and…

  14. Organizational crisis management: the human factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Gerald

    2005-01-01

    While many professionals are quite competent when dealing with operational aspects of organizational continuity, often the "human factor" does not receive adequate attention. This article provides a brief overview of a soon to be published book by the same title. It provides a comprehensive understanding of the ubiquitous yet complex reactions of the workforce to a wide array of organizational disruptions. It goes beyond the short term intervention of debriefings to describe the more extensive pre and post incident strategies required to mitigate the impact of crises on the workforce. It is important to remember: "An organization can get its phone lines back up and have its computers backed up...but its workers may still be messed up."

  15. Human factors and ergonomics for primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowie, Paul; Jeffcott, Shelly

    2016-03-01

    In the second paper of this series, we provide a brief overview of the scientific discipline of human factors and ergonomics (HFE). Traditionally the HFE focus in healthcare has been in acute hospital settings which are perceived to exhibit characteristics more similar to other high-risk industries already applying related principles and methods. This paper argues that primary care is an area which could benefit extensively from an HFE approach, specifically in improving the performance and well-being of people and organisations. To this end, we define the purpose of HFE, outline its three specialist sub-domains (physical, cognitive and organisational HFE) and provide examples of guiding HFE principles and practices. Additionally, we describe HFE issues of significance to primary care education, improvement and research and outline early plans for building capacity and capability in this setting.

  16. Dosimetry of hands and human factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harr, R.

    2008-12-01

    The human factor in facilities where open radioactive sources are managed it can be controlled through the use of the ring dosimetry, however, that these devices only provide qualitative information that is not extrapolated to legislative limits. lt is present the case analysis of hands dosimetry of female person with responsibility for professional standards and a very high profile with ratings that allow her to have a high level of knowledge of the basic standards, and because with an attitude and a culture rooted of radiation protection, among other qualities. Their records reveal a trend in which monthly doses are below the 7 mSv, and only occasionally are between 7 and 12 mSv per month and hand. The other case correspond to a technician, trained in radiological techniques, also with a high profile, with two courses for occupationally exposed personnel more than 10 annual retraining, and work experience of over 10 years as occupationally exposed personnel, in which knowledge of standards and because of the entrenched culture of radiation protection and their interest degree in the care of their exposure is still in a phase half, in this case also shows a trend in the monthly dose where found registers between 7 and 11 mSv per month and hand. The third case is of a second technician with less experience and most basic knowledge, his dose register not show a real trend, sometimes be found reads of irregular values as if the dosimeter is not used and some other times as if misused by exposing to purpose (was observed at least one reading above the monthly 30 mSv). By way of conclusion, it is noted that the hands dosimetry is a useful tool to monitor transactions through the data compilation susceptible to analysis with variations which can be placed in the context of the human factor. (Author)

  17. Development of advanced methods and related software for human reliability evaluation within probabilistic safety analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosmowski, K.T.; Mertens, J.; Degen, G.; Reer, B.

    1994-06-01

    Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) is an important part of Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA). The first part of this report consists of an overview of types of human behaviour and human error including the effect of significant performance shaping factors on human reliability. Particularly with regard to safety assessments for nuclear power plants a lot of HRA methods have been developed. The most important of these methods are presented and discussed in the report, together with techniques for incorporating HRA into PSA and with models of operator cognitive behaviour. Based on existing HRA methods the concept of a software system is described. For the development of this system the utilization of modern programming tools is proposed; the essential goal is the effective application of HRA methods. A possible integration of computeraided HRA within PSA is discussed. The features of Expert System Technology and examples of applications (PSA, HRA) are presented in four appendices. (orig.) [de

  18. A human transcription factor in search mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Kevin; Essuman, Bernard; He, Yiqing; Coutsias, Evangelos; Garcia-Diaz, Miguel; Simmerling, Carlos

    2016-01-08

    Transcription factors (TF) can change shape to bind and recognize DNA, shifting the energy landscape from a weak binding, rapid search mode to a higher affinity recognition mode. However, the mechanism(s) driving this conformational change remains unresolved and in most cases high-resolution structures of the non-specific complexes are unavailable. Here, we investigate the conformational switch of the human mitochondrial transcription termination factor MTERF1, which has a modular, superhelical topology complementary to DNA. Our goal was to characterize the details of the non-specific search mode to complement the crystal structure of the specific binding complex, providing a basis for understanding the recognition mechanism. In the specific complex, MTERF1 binds a significantly distorted and unwound DNA structure, exhibiting a protein conformation incompatible with binding to B-form DNA. In contrast, our simulations of apo MTERF1 revealed significant flexibility, sampling structures with superhelical pitch and radius complementary to the major groove of B-DNA. Docking these structures to B-DNA followed by unrestrained MD simulations led to a stable complex in which MTERF1 was observed to undergo spontaneous diffusion on the DNA. Overall, the data support an MTERF1-DNA binding and recognition mechanism driven by intrinsic dynamics of the MTERF1 superhelical topology. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  19. Human factors paradigm and customer care perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Colin; Eales-Reynolds, Lesley-Jane

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine if customer care (CC) can be directly linked to patient safety through a human factors (HF) framework. Data from an online questionnaire, completed by a convenience healthcare worker sample (n=373), was interrogated using thematic analysis within Vincent et al.'s (1998) HF theoretical framework. This proposes seven areas affecting patient safety: institutional context, organisation and management, work environment, team factors, individual, task and patient. Analysis identified responses addressing all framework areas. Responses (597) principally focused on work environment 40.7 per cent (n=243), organisation and management 28.8 per cent (n=172). Nevertheless, reference to other framework areas were clearly visible within the data: teams 10.2 per cent (n=61), individual 6.7 per cent (n=40), patients 6.0 per cent (n=36), tasks 4.2 per cent (n=24) and institution 3.5 per cent (n=21). Findings demonstrate congruence between CC perceptions and patient safety within a HF framework. The questionnaire requested participants to identify barriers to rather than CC enablers. Although this was at a single site complex organisation, it was similar to those throughout the NHS and other international health systems. CC can be viewed as consonant with patient safety rather than the potentially dangerous consumerisation stance, which could ultimately compromise patient safety. This work provides an original perspective on the link between CC and patient safety and has the potential to re-focus healthcare perceptions.

  20. Human factors in the Canadian nuclear industry: future needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, F.

    2008-01-01

    Currently the industry is facing refurbishment and new builds. At present most licensees in Canada do not have sufficient numbers of Human Factors staff. As a result, the activities of the CNSC are too often focused on providing guidance regarding the application of Human Factors, in addition to reviewing work submitted by the licensee. Greater efficiencies for both the licensee and the CNSC could be realized if licensee staff had greater Human Factors expertise. Strategies for developing Human Factors expertise should be explored through cooperative partnerships with universities, which could be encouraged to include Human Factors courses specific to nuclear. (author)

  1. Sensitivity analyses of factors influencing CMAQ performance for fine particulate nitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimadera, Hikari; Hayami, Hiroshi; Chatani, Satoru; Morino, Yu; Mori, Yasuaki; Morikawa, Tazuko; Yamaji, Kazuyo; Ohara, Toshimasa

    2014-04-01

    Improvement of air quality models is required so that they can be utilized to design effective control strategies for fine particulate matter (PM2.5). The Community Multiscale Air Quality modeling system was applied to the Greater Tokyo Area of Japan in winter 2010 and summer 2011. The model results were compared with observed concentrations of PM2.5 sulfate (SO4(2-)), nitrate (NO3(-)) and ammonium, and gaseous nitric acid (HNO3) and ammonia (NH3). The model approximately reproduced PM2.5 SO4(2-) concentration, but clearly overestimated PM2.5 NO3(-) concentration, which was attributed to overestimation of production of ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3). This study conducted sensitivity analyses of factors associated with the model performance for PM2.5 NO3(-) concentration, including temperature and relative humidity, emission of nitrogen oxides, seasonal variation of NH3 emission, HNO3 and NH3 dry deposition velocities, and heterogeneous reaction probability of dinitrogen pentoxide. Change in NH3 emission directly affected NH3 concentration, and substantially affected NH4NO3 concentration. Higher dry deposition velocities of HNO3 and NH3 led to substantial reductions of concentrations of the gaseous species and NH4NO3. Because uncertainties in NH3 emission and dry deposition processes are probably large, these processes may be key factors for improvement of the model performance for PM2.5 NO3(-). The Community Multiscale Air Quality modeling system clearly overestimated the concentration of fine particulate nitrate in the Greater Tokyo Area of Japan, which was attributed to overestimation of production of ammonium nitrate. Sensitivity analyses were conducted for factors associated with the model performance for nitrate. Ammonia emission and dry deposition of nitric acid and ammonia may be key factors for improvement of the model performance.

  2. Multidomain analyses of a longitudinal human microbiome intestinal cleanout perturbation experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Fukuyama

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Our work focuses on the stability, resilience, and response to perturbation of the bacterial communities in the human gut. Informative flash flood-like disturbances that eliminate most gastrointestinal biomass can be induced using a clinically-relevant iso-osmotic agent. We designed and executed such a disturbance in human volunteers using a dense longitudinal sampling scheme extending before and after induced diarrhea. This experiment has enabled a careful multidomain analysis of a controlled perturbation of the human gut microbiota with a new level of resolution. These new longitudinal multidomain data were analyzed using recently developed statistical methods that demonstrate improvements over current practices. By imposing sparsity constraints we have enhanced the interpretability of the analyses and by employing a new adaptive generalized principal components analysis, incorporated modulated phylogenetic information and enhanced interpretation through scoring of the portions of the tree most influenced by the perturbation. Our analyses leverage the taxa-sample duality in the data to show how the gut microbiota recovers following this perturbation. Through a holistic approach that integrates phylogenetic, metagenomic and abundance information, we elucidate patterns of taxonomic and functional change that characterize the community recovery process across individuals. We provide complete code and illustrations of new sparse statistical methods for high-dimensional, longitudinal multidomain data that provide greater interpretability than existing methods.

  3. Multidomain analyses of a longitudinal human microbiome intestinal cleanout perturbation experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuyama, Julia; Rumker, Laurie; Sankaran, Kris; Jeganathan, Pratheepa; Dethlefsen, Les; Relman, David A; Holmes, Susan P

    2017-08-01

    Our work focuses on the stability, resilience, and response to perturbation of the bacterial communities in the human gut. Informative flash flood-like disturbances that eliminate most gastrointestinal biomass can be induced using a clinically-relevant iso-osmotic agent. We designed and executed such a disturbance in human volunteers using a dense longitudinal sampling scheme extending before and after induced diarrhea. This experiment has enabled a careful multidomain analysis of a controlled perturbation of the human gut microbiota with a new level of resolution. These new longitudinal multidomain data were analyzed using recently developed statistical methods that demonstrate improvements over current practices. By imposing sparsity constraints we have enhanced the interpretability of the analyses and by employing a new adaptive generalized principal components analysis, incorporated modulated phylogenetic information and enhanced interpretation through scoring of the portions of the tree most influenced by the perturbation. Our analyses leverage the taxa-sample duality in the data to show how the gut microbiota recovers following this perturbation. Through a holistic approach that integrates phylogenetic, metagenomic and abundance information, we elucidate patterns of taxonomic and functional change that characterize the community recovery process across individuals. We provide complete code and illustrations of new sparse statistical methods for high-dimensional, longitudinal multidomain data that provide greater interpretability than existing methods.

  4. The Nursing Performance Instrument: Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analyses in Registered Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagherian, Knar; Steege, Linsey M; Geiger-Brown, Jeanne; Harrington, Donna

    2018-04-01

    The optimal performance of nurses in healthcare settings plays a critical role in care quality and patient safety. Despite this importance, few measures are provided in the literature that evaluate nursing performance as an independent construct from competencies. The nine-item Nursing Performance Instrument (NPI) was developed to fill this gap. The aim of this study was to examine and confirm the underlying factor structure of the NPI in registered nurses. The design was cross-sectional, using secondary data collected between February 2008 and April 2009 for the "Fatigue in Nursing Survey" (N = 797). The sample was predominantly dayshift female nurses working in acute care settings. Using Mplus software, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were applied to the NPI data, which were divided into two equal subsamples. Multiple fit indices were used to evaluate the fit of the alternative models. The three-factor model was determined to fit the data adequately. The factors that were labeled as "physical/mental decrements," "consistent practice," and "behavioral change" were moderately to strongly intercorrelated, indicating good convergent validity. The reliability coefficients for the subscales were acceptable. The NPI consists of three latent constructs. This instrument has the potentialto be used as a self-monitoring instrument that addressesnurses' perceptions of performance while providing patient care.

  5. A human factor analysis of a radiotherapy accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thellier, S.

    2009-01-01

    Since September 2005, I.R.S.N. studies activities of radiotherapy treatment from the angle of the human and organizational factors to improve the reliability of treatment in radiotherapy. Experienced in nuclear industry incidents analysis, I.R.S.N. analysed and diffused in March 2008, for the first time in France, the detailed study of a radiotherapy accident from the angle of the human and organizational factors. The method used for analysis is based on interviews and documents kept by the hospital. This analysis aimed at identifying the causes of the difference recorded between the dose prescribed by the radiotherapist and the dose effectively received by the patient. Neither verbal nor written communication (intra-service meetings and protocols of treatment) allowed information to be transmitted correctly in order to permit radiographers to adjust the irradiation zones correctly. This analysis highlighted the fact that during the preparation and the carrying out of the treatment, various factors led planned controls to not be performed. Finally, this analysis highlighted the fact that unsolved areas persist in the report over this accident. This is due to a lack of traceability of a certain number of key actions. The article concluded that there must be improvement in three areas: cooperation between the practitioners, control of the actions and traceability of the actions. (author)

  6. [Surgeons can learn from pilots: human factors in surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sockeel, P; Chatelain, E; Massoure, M-P; David, P; Chapellier, X; Buffat, S

    2009-06-01

    Human factors (HF) study is mandatory to get air transport pilot licences. In aviation, crew resource management (CRM) and declaration of adverse events (feedback) result in improving of air safety. Air missions and surgical procedures have similarities. Bridging the gap is tempting, despite severe warnings against simplistic adaptation. Putting HF theory into surgical practice: how to? Educational principles derived from CRM improve professional attitudes of a team. We propose to translate concepts of CRM to clinical teams. CRM training applying in surgery could allow the work environment to be restructured to reduce human error. Feedback: in aviation, the Bureau of Flight Safety deals with investigations for air events. Pilots, air traffic controllers can anonymously declare nuisance, resulting in a feedback for the whole air force. Adverse events are analysed. Usually, multilevel problems are found, rather than the only responsibility of the last operator. Understanding the mechanisms of human failure finally improves safety. In surgery, CRM and feedback would probably be helpful. Anyway, it requires time; people have to change their mind. Nevertheless people such as fighter pilots, who were very unwilling at the beginning, now consider HF as a cornerstone for security. But it is difficult to estimate the extent of HF-related morbidity and mortality. We propose as a first step to consider CRM and feedback in surgical procedure. HF deals with the mechanisms of human errors and the ways to improve safety and probably improve the surgical team's efficacy.

  7. Information Presentation: Human Research Program - Space Human Factors and Habitability, Space Human Factors Engineering Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Kristina L.; Sandor, Aniko; Thompson, Shelby G.; Kaiser, Mary K.; McCann, Robert S.; Begault, D. R.; Adelstein, B. D.; Beutter, B. R.; Wenzel, E. M.; Godfroy, M.; hide

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the Information Presentation Directed Research Project (DRP) is to address design questions related to the presentation of information to the crew. The major areas of work, or subtasks, within this DRP are: 1) Displays, 2) Controls, 3) Electronic Procedures and Fault Management, and 4) Human Performance Modeling. This DRP is a collaborative effort between researchers atJohnson Space Center and Ames Research Center. T

  8. Relationships of Functional Tests Following ACL Reconstruction: Exploratory Factor Analyses of the Lower Extremity Assessment Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiFabio, Melissa; Slater, Lindsay V; Norte, Grant; Goetschius, John; Hart, Joseph M; Hertel, Jay

    2018-03-01

    After ACL reconstruction (ACLR), deficits are often assessed using a variety of functional tests, which can be time consuming. It is unknown whether these tests provide redundant or unique information. To explore relationships between components of a battery of functional tests, the Lower Extremity Assessment Protocol (LEAP) was created to aid in developing the most informative, concise battery of tests for evaluating ACLR patients. Descriptive, cross-sectional. Laboratory. 76 ACLR patients (6.86±3.07 months postoperative) and 54 healthy participants. Isokinetic knee flexion and extension at 90 and 180 degrees/second, maximal voluntary isometric contraction for knee extension and flexion, single leg balance, 4 hopping tasks (single, triple, crossover, and 6-meter timed hop), and a bilateral drop vertical jump that was scored with the Landing Error Scoring System (LESS). Peak torque, average torque, average power, total work, fatigue indices, center of pressure area and velocity, hop distance and time, and LESS score. A series of factor analyses were conducted to assess grouping of functional tests on the LEAP for each limb in the ACLR and healthy groups and limb symmetry indices (LSI) for both groups. Correlations were run between measures that loaded on retained factors. Isokinetic and isometric strength tests for knee flexion and extension, hopping, balance, and fatigue index were identified as unique factors for all limbs. The LESS score loaded with various factors across the different limbs. The healthy group LSI analysis produced more factors than the ACLR LSI analysis. Individual measures within each factor had moderate to strong correlations. Isokinetic and isometric strength, hopping, balance, and fatigue index provided unique information. Within each category of measures, not all tests may need to be included for a comprehensive functional assessment of ACLR patients due to the high amount of shared variance between them.

  9. Qualitative and quantitative methods for human factor analysis and assessment in NPP. Investigations and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hristova, R.; Kalchev, B.; Atanasov, D.

    2005-01-01

    We consider here two basic groups of methods for analysis and assessment of the human factor in the NPP area and give some results from performed analyses as well. The human factor is the human interaction with the design equipment, with the working environment and takes into account the human capabilities and limits. In the frame of the qualitative methods for analysis of the human factor are considered concepts and structural methods for classifying of the information, connected with the human factor. Emphasize is given to the HPES method for human factor analysis in NPP. Methods for quantitative assessment of the human reliability are considered. These methods allow assigning of probabilities to the elements of the already structured information about human performance. This part includes overview of classical methods for human reliability assessment (HRA, THERP), and methods taking into account specific information about human capabilities and limits and about the man-machine interface (CHR, HEART, ATHEANA). Quantitative and qualitative results concerning human factor influence in the initiating events occurrences in the Kozloduy NPP are presented. (authors)

  10. Validation of endogenous normalizing genes for expression analyses in adult human testis and germ cell neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svingen, T; Jørgensen, A; Rajpert-De Meyts, E

    2014-08-01

    The measurement of gene expression levels in cells and tissues typically depends on a suitable point of reference for inferring biological relevance. For quantitative (or real-time) RT-PCR assays, the method of choice is often to normalize gene expression data to an endogenous gene that is stably expressed across the samples analysed: a so-called normalizing or housekeeping gene. Although this is a valid strategy, the identification of stable normalizing genes has proved challenging and a gene showing stable expression across all cells or tissues is unlikely to exist. Therefore, it is necessary to define suitable normalizing genes for specific cells and tissues. Here, we report on the performance of a panel of nine commonly employed normalizing genes in adult human testis and testicular pathologies. Our analyses revealed significant variability in transcript abundance for commonly used normalizers, highlighting the importance of selecting appropriate normalizing genes as comparative measurements can yield variable results when different normalizing genes are employed. Based on our results, we recommend using RPS20, RPS29 or SRSF4 when analysing relative gene expression levels in human testis and associated testicular pathologies. OCT4 and SALL4 can be used with caution as second-tier normalizers when determining changes in gene expression in germ cells and germ cell tumour components, but the relative transcript abundance appears variable between different germ cell tumour types. We further recommend that such studies should be accompanied by additional assessment of histology and cellularity of each sample. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. The science of human factors: separating fact from fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ, Alissa L; Fairbanks, Rollin J; Karsh, Ben-Tzion; Militello, Laura G; Saleem, Jason J; Wears, Robert L

    2013-10-01

    Interest in human factors has increased across healthcare communities and institutions as the value of human centred design in healthcare becomes increasingly clear. However, as human factors is becoming more prominent, there is growing evidence of confusion about human factors science, both anecdotally and in scientific literature. Some of the misconceptions about human factors may inadvertently create missed opportunities for healthcare improvement. The objective of this article is to describe the scientific discipline of human factors and provide common ground for partnerships between healthcare and human factors communities. The primary goal of human factors science is to promote efficiency, safety and effectiveness by improving the design of technologies, processes and work systems. As described in this article, human factors also provides insight on when training is likely (or unlikely) to be effective for improving patient safety. Finally, we outline human factors specialty areas that may be particularly relevant for improving healthcare delivery and provide examples to demonstrate their value. The human factors concepts presented in this article may foster interdisciplinary collaborations to yield new, sustainable solutions for healthcare quality and patient safety.

  12. A methodology for analysing human errors of commission in accident scenarios for risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J. H.; Jung, W. D.; Park, J. K

    2003-01-01

    As the concern on the impact of the operator's inappropriate interventions, so-called Errors Of Commissions(EOCs), on the plant safety has been raised, the interest in the identification and analysis of EOC events from the risk assessment perspective becomes increasing accordingly. To this purpose, we propose a new methodology for identifying and analysing human errors of commission that might be caused from the failures in situation assessment and decision making during accident progressions given an initiating event. The proposed methodology was applied to the accident scenarios of YGN 3 and 4 NPPs, which resulted in about 10 EOC situations that need careful attention

  13. Characterization and functional analyses of the human G protein-coupled receptor kinase 4 gene promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasenkamp, Sandra; Telgmann, Ralph; Staessen, Jan A; Hagedorn, Claudia; Dördelmann, Corinna; Bek, Martin; Brand-Herrmann, Stefan-Martin; Brand, Eva

    2008-10-01

    The G protein-coupled receptor kinase 4 is involved in renal sodium handling and blood pressure regulation. Missense variants have already been tested functionally and are associated with hypertension, but no data on promoter analyses are yet available. We scanned 94 hypertensive white subjects for genetic variation and performed promoter reporter gene analyses in HEK293T, COS7, and SaOs-2 cells. Transient transfections with various full lengths and wild-type deletion constructs revealed that 1851 bp of the flanking region and 275 bp of the 5'-untranslated region were sufficient for transcriptional activities and composed a powerful cis-active element in the distal 293 bp. The -1702T and +2T alleles resulted in drastic general reductions of promoter function, whereas an activity increasing effect of +268C was cell type specific. Electrophoretic mobility-shift assay, supershift, and cotransfection analyses of transcription factor binding sites predicted in silico (Alibaba2.1/Transfac7) resulted in allele-specific binding patterns of nuclear proteins and identified the participation of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein transcription factor family members. The G protein-coupled receptor kinase 4 core promoter resides in the first 1851 bp upstream of its transcription start site. The 4 identified genetic variants within this region exert allele-specific impact on both cell type- and stimulation-dependent transcription and may affect the expression balance of renal G protein-coupled receptor kinase 4.

  14. Human Factors and Robotics: Current Status and Future Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, H. McIlvaine; Kearsley, Greg P.

    The principal human factors engineering issue in robotics is the division of labor between automation (robots) and human beings. This issue reflects a prime human factors engineering consideration in systems design--what equipment should do and what operators and maintainers should do. Understanding of capabilities and limitations of robots and…

  15. Inequality of obesity and socioeconomic factors in Iran: a systematic review and meta- analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djalalinia, Shirin; Peykari, Niloofar; Qorbani, Mostafa; Larijani, Bagher; Farzadfar, Farshad

    2015-01-01

    Socioeconomic status and demographic factors, such as education, occupation, place of residence, gender, age, and marital status have been reported to be associated with obesity. We conducted a systematic review to summarize evidences on associations between socioeconomic factors and obesity/overweight in Iranian population. We systematically searched international databases; ISI, PubMed/Medline, Scopus, and national databases Iran-medex, Irandoc, and Scientific Information Database (SID). We refined data for associations between socioeconomic factors and obesity/overweight by sex, age, province, and year. There were no limitations for time and languages. Based on our search strategy we found 151 records; of them 139 were from international databases and the remaining 12 were obtained from national databases. After removing duplicates, via the refining steps, only 119 articles were found related to our study domains. Extracted results were attributed to 146596 person/data from included studies. Increased ages, low educational levels, being married, residence in urban area, as well as female sex were clearly associated with obesity. RESULTS could be useful for better health policy and more planned studies in this field. These also could be used for future complementary analyses.

  16. Sequence and expression analyses of ethylene response factors highly expressed in latex cells from Hevea brasiliensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyanuch Piyatrakul

    Full Text Available The AP2/ERF superfamily encodes transcription factors that play a key role in plant development and responses to abiotic and biotic stress. In Hevea brasiliensis, ERF genes have been identified by RNA sequencing. This study set out to validate the number of HbERF genes, and identify ERF genes involved in the regulation of latex cell metabolism. A comprehensive Hevea transcriptome was improved using additional RNA reads from reproductive tissues. Newly assembled contigs were annotated in the Gene Ontology database and were assigned to 3 main categories. The AP2/ERF superfamily is the third most represented compared with other transcription factor families. A comparison with genomic scaffolds led to an estimation of 114 AP2/ERF genes and 1 soloist in Hevea brasiliensis. Based on a phylogenetic analysis, functions were predicted for 26 HbERF genes. A relative transcript abundance analysis was performed by real-time RT-PCR in various tissues. Transcripts of ERFs from group I and VIII were very abundant in all tissues while those of group VII were highly accumulated in latex cells. Seven of the thirty-five ERF expression marker genes were highly expressed in latex. Subcellular localization and transactivation analyses suggested that HbERF-VII candidate genes encoded functional transcription factors.

  17. Draft revision of human factors guideline HF-010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyun Chul; Lee, Yong Hee; Oh, In Seok; Lee, Jung Woon; Cha, Woo Chang; Lee, Dhong Ha

    2003-05-01

    The Application of Human Factors to the design of Man-Machine Interfaces System(MMIS) in the nuclear power plant is essential to the safety and productivity of the nuclear power plants, human factors standards and guidelines as well as human factors analysis methods and experiments are weightily used to the design application. A Korean engineering company has developed a human factors engineering guideline, so-call HF-010, and has used it for human factors design, however the revision of HF-010 is necessary owing to lack of the contents related to the advanced MMI(Man-Machine Interfaces). As the results of the reviews of HF-010, it is found out that the revision of Section 9. Computer Displays of HF-010 is urgent, thus the revision was drafted on the basis of integrated human factors design guidelines for VDT, human factors design guidelines for PMAS SPADES display, human factors design guidelines for PMAS alarm display, and human factors design guidelines for electronic displays developed by the surveillance and operation support project of KOICS. The draft revision of HF-010 Section 9 proposed in this report can be utilized for the human factors design of the advanced MMI, and the high practical usability of the draft can be kept up through the continuous revision according to the advancement of digital technology

  18. CAPTCHA Based on Human Cognitive Factor

    OpenAIRE

    Chowdhury, Mohammad Jabed Morshed; Chakraborty, Narayan Ranjan

    2013-01-01

    A CAPTCHA (Completely Automated Public Turing test to tell Computers and Humans Apart) is an automatic security mechanism used to determine whether the user is a human or a malicious computer program. It is a program that generates and grades tests that are human solvable, but intends to be beyond the capabilities of current computer programs. CAPTCHA should be designed to be very easy for humans but very hard for machines. Unfortunately, the existing CAPTCHA systems while trying to maximize ...

  19. Human factor analysis and preventive countermeasures in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ye

    2010-01-01

    Based on the human error analysis theory and the characteristics of maintenance in a nuclear power plant, human factors of maintenance in NPP are divided into three different areas: human, technology, and organization. Which is defined as individual factors, including psychological factors, physiological characteristics, health status, level of knowledge and interpersonal skills; The technical factors including technology, equipment, tools, working order, etc.; The organizational factors including management, information exchange, education, working environment, team building and leadership management,etc The analysis found that organizational factors can directly or indirectly affect the behavior of staff and technical factors, is the most basic human error factor. Based on this nuclear power plant to reduce human error and measures the response. (authors)

  20. Assessing an organizational culture instrument based on the Competing Values Framework: Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfrich, Christian D; Li, Yu-Fang; Mohr, David C; Meterko, Mark; Sales, Anne E

    2007-01-01

    Background The Competing Values Framework (CVF) has been widely used in health services research to assess organizational culture as a predictor of quality improvement implementation, employee and patient satisfaction, and team functioning, among other outcomes. CVF instruments generally are presented as well-validated with reliable aggregated subscales. However, only one study in the health sector has been conducted for the express purpose of validation, and that study population was limited to hospital managers from a single geographic locale. Methods We used exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses to examine the underlying structure of data from a CVF instrument. We analyzed cross-sectional data from a work environment survey conducted in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA). The study population comprised all staff in non-supervisory positions. The survey included 14 items adapted from a popular CVF instrument, which measures organizational culture according to four subscales: hierarchical, entrepreneurial, team, and rational. Results Data from 71,776 non-supervisory employees (approximate response rate 51%) from 168 VHA facilities were used in this analysis. Internal consistency of the subscales was moderate to strong (α = 0.68 to 0.85). However, the entrepreneurial, team, and rational subscales had higher correlations across subscales than within, indicating poor divergent properties. Exploratory factor analysis revealed two factors, comprising the ten items from the entrepreneurial, team, and rational subscales loading on the first factor, and two items from the hierarchical subscale loading on the second factor, along with one item from the rational subscale that cross-loaded on both factors. Results from confirmatory factor analysis suggested that the two-subscale solution provides a more parsimonious fit to the data as compared to the original four-subscale model. Conclusion This study suggests that there may be problems applying conventional

  1. Interactions between risk factors in the prediction of onset of eating disorders: Exploratory hypothesis generating analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Desjardins, Christopher D

    2018-06-01

    Because no study has tested for interactions between risk factors in the prediction of future onset of each eating disorder, this exploratory study addressed this lacuna to generate hypotheses to be tested in future confirmatory studies. Data from three prevention trials that targeted young women at high risk for eating disorders due to body dissatisfaction (N = 1271; M age 18.5, SD 4.2) and collected diagnostic interview data over 3-year follow-up were combined to permit sufficient power to predict onset of anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), binge eating disorder (BED), and purging disorder (PD) using classification tree analyses, an analytic technique uniquely suited to detecting interactions. Low BMI was the most potent predictor of AN onset, and body dissatisfaction amplified this relation. Overeating was the most potent predictor of BN onset, and positive expectancies for thinness and body dissatisfaction amplified this relation. Body dissatisfaction was the most potent predictor of BED onset, and overeating, low dieting, and thin-ideal internalization amplified this relation. Dieting was the most potent predictor of PD onset, and negative affect and positive expectancies for thinness amplified this relation. Results provided evidence of amplifying interactions between risk factors suggestive of cumulative risk processes that were distinct for each disorder; future confirmatory studies should test the interactive hypotheses generated by these analyses. If hypotheses are confirmed, results may allow interventionists to target ultra high-risk subpopulations with more intensive prevention programs that are uniquely tailored for each eating disorder, potentially improving the yield of prevention efforts. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Risk Factor Analyses for the Return of Spontaneous Circulation in the Asphyxiation Cardiac Arrest Porcine Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai-Jun Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Animal models of asphyxiation cardiac arrest (ACA are frequently used in basic research to mirror the clinical course of cardiac arrest (CA. The rates of the return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC in ACA animal models are lower than those from studies that have utilized ventricular fibrillation (VF animal models. The purpose of this study was to characterize the factors associated with the ROSC in the ACA porcine model. Methods: Forty-eight healthy miniature pigs underwent endotracheal tube clamping to induce CA. Once induced, CA was maintained untreated for a period of 8 min. Two minutes following the initiation of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR, defibrillation was attempted until ROSC was achieved or the animal died. To assess the factors associated with ROSC in this CA model, logistic regression analyses were performed to analyze gender, the time of preparation, the amplitude spectrum area (AMSA from the beginning of CPR and the pH at the beginning of CPR. A receiver-operating characteristic (ROC curve was used to evaluate the predictive value of AMSA for ROSC. Results: ROSC was only 52.1% successful in this ACA porcine model. The multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that ROSC significantly depended on the time of preparation, AMSA at the beginning of CPR and pH at the beginning of CPR. The area under the ROC curve in for AMSA at the beginning of CPR was 0.878 successful in predicting ROSC (95% confidence intervals: 0.773∼0.983, and the optimum cut-off value was 15.62 (specificity 95.7% and sensitivity 80.0%. Conclusions: The time of preparation, AMSA and the pH at the beginning of CPR were associated with ROSC in this ACA porcine model. AMSA also predicted the likelihood of ROSC in this ACA animal model.

  3. An investigation on factors influencing on human resources productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Seifi Divkolaii

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Human resources development is one of the most important components of any organization and detecting important factors influencing on human resources management plays essential role on the success of the firms. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to determine different factors influencing productivity of human resources of Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting (IRIB in province of Mazandaran, Iran. The study uses analytical hierarchy process (AHP to rank 17 important factors and determines that personal characteristics were the most important factors followed by management related factors and environmental factors. In terms of personal characteristics, job satisfaction plays essential role on human resources development. In terms of managerial factors, paying attention on continuous job improvement by receiving appropriate training is the most important factor followed by welfare facilities for employees and using a system of reward/punishment in organization. Finally, in terms of environmental factors, occupational safety is number one priority followed by organizational rules and regulations.

  4. Investigation of evaluation methods for human factors education effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimura, Seiichi; Fujimoto, Junzo; Sasou Kunihide; Hasegawa, Naoko

    2004-01-01

    Education effectiveness in accordance with investment is required in the steam of electric power regulation alleviation. Therefore, evaluation methods for human factors education effectiveness which can observe human factors culture pervading process were investigated through research activities on education effectiveness in universities and actual in house education in industry companies. As a result, the contents of evaluation were found to be the change of feeling for human factors and some improving proposals in work places when considering the purpose of human factors education. And, questionnaire is found to be suitable for the style of evaluation. In addition, the timing of evaluation is desirable for both just after education and after some period in work places. Hereafter, data will be collected using these two kinds of questionnaires in human factors education courses in CRIEPI and some education courses in utilities. Thus, education effectiveness evaluation method which is suitable for human factors will be established. (author)

  5. U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission human factors program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-04-01

    The purpose of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Human Factors Program Plan is to ensure that proper consideration is given to human factors in the design and operation of nuclear facilities. This revised plan addresses human factors issues related to the operation of nuclear power plants (NPPs). The three issues of concern are (1) the activities planned to provide the technical bases to resolve the remaining tasks related to human factors as described in NUREG-0660, The NRC Action Plan Developed as a Result of the TMI-2 Accident, and NUREG-0737, Clarification of TMI Action Plan Requirements; (2) the need to address the additional human factors efforts that were identified during implementation of the Action Plan; and (3) the actual fulfillment of those developmental activities specified in Revision 1 of this plan. The plan represents a systematic approach for addressing high priority human factors concerns important to NPP safety in FY 1986 through 1987

  6. Extraction of human factors issues caused by application of the advanced HSI technology and development of human factor issue management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Sang Moon; Lee, Jung Woon; Park, Jae Chang; Oh, In Seok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-01-01

    A comprehensive literature survey was performed in this study to collect human performance issues related to the advanced HSI design features. The literature from not only nuclear industry but also other industries was collected and reviewed. The issues were categorized into the following advanced HSI design features: devices characteristics, levels of automation, information design and management, display management, computerized controls, alarm systems, computerized procedures, staffing and crew coordination, and operator support systems. The classified issues were described with the description framework. Then, the relationship of issues to HSI design process such as human factors analyses, human factors design, and human factors verification and validation was investigated. Finally, the issue management system of server-client environment was developed using Microsoft's Active Server Page technology and Access 97. (author). 18 refs., 6 figs.

  7. Structural and functional analyses of DNA-sensing and immune activation by human cGAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Kazuki; Ishii, Ryohei; Goto, Eiji; Ishitani, Ryuichiro; Tokunaga, Fuminori; Nureki, Osamu

    2013-01-01

    The detection of cytosolic DNA, derived from pathogens or host cells, by cytosolic receptors is essential for appropriate host immune responses. Cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) is a newly identified cytosolic DNA receptor that produces cyclic GMP-AMP, which activates stimulator of interferon genes (STING), resulting in TBK1-IRF3 pathway activation followed by the production of type I interferons. Here we report the crystal structure of human cGAS. The structure revealed that a cluster of lysine and arginine residues forms the positively charged DNA binding surface of human cGAS, which is important for the STING-dependent immune activation. A structural comparison with other previously determined cGASs and our functional analyses suggested that a conserved zinc finger motif and a leucine residue on the DNA binding surface are crucial for the DNA-specific immune response of human cGAS, consistent with previous work. These structural features properly orient the DNA binding to cGAS, which is critical for DNA-induced cGAS activation and STING-dependent immune activation. Furthermore, we showed that the cGAS-induced activation of STING also involves the activation of the NF-κB and IRF3 pathways. Our results indicated that cGAS is a DNA sensor that efficiently activates the host immune system by inducing two distinct pathways.

  8. Structural and functional analyses of DNA-sensing and immune activation by human cGAS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuki Kato

    Full Text Available The detection of cytosolic DNA, derived from pathogens or host cells, by cytosolic receptors is essential for appropriate host immune responses. Cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS is a newly identified cytosolic DNA receptor that produces cyclic GMP-AMP, which activates stimulator of interferon genes (STING, resulting in TBK1-IRF3 pathway activation followed by the production of type I interferons. Here we report the crystal structure of human cGAS. The structure revealed that a cluster of lysine and arginine residues forms the positively charged DNA binding surface of human cGAS, which is important for the STING-dependent immune activation. A structural comparison with other previously determined cGASs and our functional analyses suggested that a conserved zinc finger motif and a leucine residue on the DNA binding surface are crucial for the DNA-specific immune response of human cGAS, consistent with previous work. These structural features properly orient the DNA binding to cGAS, which is critical for DNA-induced cGAS activation and STING-dependent immune activation. Furthermore, we showed that the cGAS-induced activation of STING also involves the activation of the NF-κB and IRF3 pathways. Our results indicated that cGAS is a DNA sensor that efficiently activates the host immune system by inducing two distinct pathways.

  9. A human factors needs assessment and planning study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, H.E.; Van Cott, H.P.

    1982-06-01

    A study was done to assess the need for human factors research, development, and regulatory action in the Atomic Energy Control Board. Further study or development in nine human factors areas is proposed. The urgency, schedule, and resources judged to be necessary for the proposed efforts are estimated. Special emphasis is placed on the need for task analysis information, for the evaluation of control room and maintenance human engineering, and for the development of an improved human error reporting system

  10. Discussing the Effective Factors on Maintenance of Human Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Bahare Shahriari

    2016-01-01

    In this research, the author has elaborated on detection of effective factors on maintenance and retention of human resources. Since human resources are the most resources for obtaining competitive advantage, it is essential to pay attention to different dimensions of human resources management. One of these dimensions is retention of human resources. Factors such as providing correct and valid information at the time of recruitment, assigning tasks based on competence, existence of a clear c...

  11. Development of human factors evaluation techniques for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, I.S.; Lee, Y.H.; Lee, J.W.; Sim, B.S.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes development of an operator task simulation analyzer and human factors evaluation techniques performed recently at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. The first is the SACOM (Simulation Analyzer with a Cognitive Operator Model) for the assessment of task performance by simulating control room operation. The latter has two objectives: to establish a human factors experiment facility, the Integrated Test Facility (ITF), and to establish techniques for human factors experiments. (author)

  12. A regulatory perspective on human factors in nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitfield, D.

    1987-01-01

    This paper sets out the approaches being taken by the United Kingdom Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (NII) to monitoring the application of human factors principles and practice in the UK industry. The role of NII is outlined, the development of human factors concerns is reviewed, the assessment of the Sizewell 'B' safety case is presented as a particular example, and pertinent future developments in the human factors discipline are proposed. (author)

  13. Gene expression analyses of the spatio-temporal relationships of human medulloblastoma subgroups during early human neurogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia M Hooper

    Full Text Available Medulloblastoma is the most common form of malignant paediatric brain tumour and is the leading cause of childhood cancer related mortality. The four molecular subgroups of medulloblastoma that have been identified - WNT, SHH, Group 3 and Group 4 - have molecular and topographical characteristics suggestive of different cells of origin. Definitive identification of the cell(s of origin of the medulloblastoma subgroups, particularly the poorer prognosis Group 3 and Group 4 medulloblastoma, is critical to understand the pathogenesis of the disease, and ultimately for the development of more effective treatment options. To address this issue, the gene expression profiles of normal human neural tissues and cell types representing a broad neuro-developmental continuum, were compared to those of two independent cohorts of primary human medulloblastoma specimens. Clustering, co-expression network, and gene expression analyses revealed that WNT and SHH medulloblastoma may be derived from distinct neural stem cell populations during early embryonic development, while the transcriptional profiles of Group 3 and Group 4 medulloblastoma resemble cerebellar granule neuron precursors at weeks 10-15 and 20-30 of embryogenesis, respectively. Our data indicate that Group 3 medulloblastoma may arise through abnormal neuronal differentiation, whereas deregulation of synaptic pruning-associated apoptosis may be driving Group 4 tumorigenesis. Overall, these data provide significant new insight into the spatio-temporal relationships and molecular pathogenesis of the human medulloblastoma subgroups, and provide an important framework for the development of more refined model systems, and ultimately improved therapeutic strategies.

  14. Analyse of the prevalence rate and risk factors of pulmonary embolism in the patients with dyspnea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Yanxia; Su Jian; Wang Bingsheng; Wu Songhong; Dai Ruiting; Cao Caixia

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To analyse the prevalence rate and risk factors of pulmonary embolism (PE) in patients with dyspnea and to explore the predisposing causes and its early clinical manifestations. Methods: Retrospective analysis was done in 461 patients with dyspnea performed 99 Tc m -macroaggregated albumin (MAA) lung perfusion imaging and 99 Tc m -DTPA ventilation imaging or 99 Tc m -MAA perfusion imaging and chest X-ray examination. Among them, 48 cases without apparent disease were considered as control group, whereas the remaining patients with other underlying illnesses as patients group. PEMS statistics software package was used for estimation of prevalence rate, χ 2 test and PE risk factor analysis. Results: There were 251 PE patients among 461 patients, the prevalence rate [ (π)=95% confidence interval (CI) ] was: lower extremity thrombosis and varicosity (80.79-95.47 ), post cesarean section (55.64-87.12), lower extremity bone surgery or fracture (52.76-87.27 ), cancer operation (52.19-78.19), atrial fibrillation or heart failure (53.30-74.88), obesity (23.14-50.20), post abdominal surgery (20.23-59.43), diabetes (19.12-63.95), chronic bronchitis (1.80-23.06), normal control group (3.47-22.66). Except chronic bronchitis, PE prevalence rate between patients group and control group had significant difference (P 99 Tc m -MAA and DTPA lung imaging should be done as early as possible. (authors)

  15. Importance of human factors on nuclear installations safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caruso, G.J.

    1990-01-01

    Actually, installations safety and, in particular the nuclear installations infer a strong incidence in human factors related to the design and operation of such installations. In general, the experience aims to that the most important accidents have happened as result of the components' failures combination and human failures in the operation of safety systems. Human factors in the nuclear installations may be divided into two areas: economy and human reliability. Human factors treatments for the safety evaluation of the nuclear installations allow to diagnose the weak points of man-machine interaction. (Author) [es

  16. Development of a draft of human factors safety review procedures for the Korean next generation reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Moon, B. S.; Park, J. C.; Lee, Y. H.; Oh, I. S.; Lee, H. C. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2000-02-01

    In this study, a draft of human factors engineering (HFE) safety review procedures (SRP) was developed for the safety review of KNGR based on HFE Safety and Regulatory Requirements and Guidelines (SRRG). This draft includes acceptance criteria, review procedure, and evaluation findings for the areas of review including HFE Program Management, Human Factors Analyses, Human Factors Design, and HFE Verification and Validation, based on Section 15.1 'Human Factors Engineering Design Process' and 15.2 'Control Room Human Factors Engineering' of KNGR Specific Safety Requirements and Chapter 15 'Human Factors Engineering' of KNGR Safety Regulatory Guides. For the effective review, human factors concerns or issues related to advanced HSI design that have been reported so far should be extensively examined. In this study, a total of 384 human factors issues related to the advanced HSI design were collected through our review of a total of 145 documents. A summary of each issue was described and the issues were identified by specific features of HSI design. These results were implemented into a database system. 8 refs., 2 figs. (Author)

  17. Development of a draft of human factors safety review procedures for the Korean Next Generation Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Moon, B. S.; Park, J. C.; Lee, Y. H.; Oh, I. S.; Lee, H. C.

    2000-02-01

    In this study, a draft of Human Factors Engineering (HFE) Safety Review Procedures (SRP) was developed for the safety review of KNGR based on HFE Safety and Regulatory Requirements and Guidelines (SRRG). This draft includes acceptance criteria, review procedure, and evaluation findings for the areas of review including HFE program management, human factors analyses, human factors design, and HFE verification and validation, based on section 15.1 'human factors engineering design process' and 15.2 'control room human factors engineering' of KNGR specific safety requirements and chapter 15 'human factors engineering' of KNGR safety regulatory guides. For the effective review, human factors concerns or issues related to advanced HSI design that have been reported so far should be extensively examined. In this study, a total of 384 human factors issues related to the advanced HSI design were collected through our review of a total of 145 documents. A summary of each issue was described and the issues were identified by specific features of HSI design. These results were implemented into a database system

  18. Risk factors for headache in the UK military: cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rona, Roberto J; Jones, Margaret; Goodwin, Laura; Hull, Lisa; Wessely, Simon

    2013-05-01

    To assess the importance of service demographic, mental disorders, and deployment factors on headache severity and prevalence, and to assess the impact of headache on functional impairment. There is no information on prevalence and risk factors of headache in the UK military. Recent US reports suggest that deployment, especially a combat role, is associated with headache. Such an association may have serious consequences on personnel during deployment. A survey was carried out between 2004 and 2006 (phase 1) and again between 2007 and 2009 (phase 2) of randomly selected UK military personnel to study the health consequences of the Iraq and Afghanistan wars. This study is based on those who participated in phase 2 and includes cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. Headache severity in the last month and functional impairment at phase 2 were the main outcomes. Forty-six percent complained of headache in phase 2, half of whom endorsed moderate or severe headache. Severe headache was strongly associated with probable post-traumatic stress disorder (multinomial odds ratio [MOR] 9.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 6.4-14.2), psychological distress (MOR 6.15, 95% CI 4.8-7.9), multiple physical symptoms (MOR 18.2, 95% CI 13.4-24.6) and self-reported mild traumatic brain injury (MOR 3.5, 95% CI 1.4-8.6) after adjustment for service demographic factors. Mild headache was also associated with these variables but at a lower level. Moderate and severe headache were associated with functional impairment, but the association was partially explained by mental disorders. Mental ill health was also associated with reporting moderate and severe headache at both phase 1 and phase 2. Deployment and a combat role were not associated with headache. Moderate and severe headache are common in the military and have an impact on functional impairment. They are more strongly associated with mental disorders than with mild traumatic brain injury. © 2013 American Headache Society.

  19. Analyses of associations between reactive oxygen metabolites and antioxidant capacity and related factors among healthy adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamae, Kazuyoshi; Eto, Toshiharu; Aoki, Kazuhiro; Nakamaru, Shingo; Koshikawa, Kazunori; Sakuma, Kazuhiko; Hirano, Takeshi

    2013-12-01

    Evidence based on epidemiologic investigations using biochemical parameter is meaningful for health promotion and administration among adolescents. We conducted Reactive Oxygen Metabolites (ROM) and Biological Antioxidant Potentials (BAP) tests, along with a questionnaire survey, for a sample of 74 high school students (16.51±0.11 years of aged mean±SE), to investigate the associations between ROM, BAP, and related factors, including BMI and blood biochemical data. Venous blood samples (approximately 7cc) were collected. At the same time, each individual's information was obtained from the questionnaire. The mental health status was investigated using the Center for Epidemiologic Study Depression scale (CES-D) included in the same questionnaire. The mean values and standard errors of all variables were calculated. In addition, the relationships between ROM and BAP with these factors were analyzed. The results revealed the preferred levels of ROM (261.95 ± 9.52 U.CARR) and, BAP (2429.89±53.39 µmol/L) and blood biochemical data. Few significant relationships between two markers and related factors were found. So, we detected a cluster with an imbalance between ROM and BAP, which means low antioxidant ability, whereas the other clusters had conditions with moderate balance or good balance between them. Moreover, we determined the Oxidative stress-Antioxidant capacity ratio (OAR), using the ROM and BAP values, in order to clarify the characteristic of the detected clusters.However, comparative analyses across the three clusters did not yield significant differences in all related factors. No correlations between ROM, BAP and related factors were indicated, although significant association between ROM and BAP was observed (R2=0.1156, R=0.340, P=0.013). The reason for these results can be explained by the influences of good health and young age. On the other hand, present study suggests that some latent problems among adolescents may be related to unhealthy

  20. Human factors inspection of current control room panel in Jose Cabrera NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, P.; O'Hara, J.; Higgins, J.

    2002-01-01

    Within the process of renewal of Exploitation Permit of Jose Cabrera Nuclear Power Plant, UNION FENOSA GENERACIO, S. A. (UFG) has carried out an analysis and evaluation project regarding human factors implications of current control room panel arrangement. The project has been developed in two phases. In the first phase, leaded by EPRI and carried out by experts from SAIC, an independent review from a double viewpoint of human reliability and human factors was developed. In the second phase, a multidisciplinary team (composed by human factors, risk analysis, operation, engineering, training and instrumentation and controls experts) has developed a study on human factors implications of current panel arrangement, following the methodology pointed out in NUREG-0711. The project has been developed under the direction of Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), organisation that has authored the aforementioned methodology, with the participation of UFG and SOLUZIONA Ingenieria. For the development of the second study the following steps were taken: Firstly, the potential effects of panel arrangement on crew performance were identified its real evidence was analysed and the goals for the improvement of control room operation were established; following NUREG-0711. After this, several design alternatives that addressed these goals were identified and were analysed along three dimensions: human factors, risk analysis and economic costs. Finally the results of these evaluations were combined using a multi-attribute decision method to arrive at a recommended alternative as he best proposal to incorporate human factors criteria and good practices in the design of control room panels. (Author)

  1. Human factors analysis of incident/accident report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroda, Isao

    1992-01-01

    Human factors analysis of accident/incident has different kinds of difficulties in not only technical, but also psychosocial background. This report introduces some experiments of 'Variation diagram method' which is able to extend to operational and managemental factors. (author)

  2. Design for human factors (DfHF): a grounded theory for integrating human factors into production design processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Village, Judy; Searcy, Cory; Salustri, Filipo; Patrick Neumann, W

    2015-01-01

    The 'design for human factors' grounded theory explains 'how' human factors (HF) went from a reactive, after-injury programme in safety, to being proactively integrated into each step of the production design process. In this longitudinal case study collaboration with engineers and HF Specialists in a large electronics manufacturer, qualitative data (e.g. meetings, interviews, observations and reflections) were analysed using a grounded theory methodology. The central tenet in the theory is that when HF Specialists acclimated to the engineering process, language and tools, and strategically aligned HF to the design and business goals of the organisation, HF became a means to improve business performance. This led to engineers 'pulling' HF Specialists onto their team. HF targets were adopted into engineering tools to communicate HF concerns quantitatively, drive continuous improvement, visibly demonstrate change and lead to benchmarking. Senior management held engineers accountable for HF as a key performance indicator, thus integrating HF into the production design process. Practitioner Summary: Research and practice lack explanations about how HF can be integrated early in design of production systems. This three-year case study and the theory derived demonstrate how ergonomists changed their focus to align with design and business goals to integrate HF into the design process.

  3. The contributions of human factors on human error in Malaysia aviation maintenance industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padil, H.; Said, M. N.; Azizan, A.

    2018-05-01

    Aviation maintenance is a multitasking activity in which individuals perform varied tasks under constant pressure to meet deadlines as well as challenging work conditions. These situational characteristics combined with human factors can lead to various types of human related errors. The primary objective of this research is to develop a structural relationship model that incorporates human factors, organizational factors, and their impact on human errors in aviation maintenance. Towards that end, a questionnaire was developed which was administered to Malaysian aviation maintenance professionals. Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) approach was used in this study utilizing AMOS software. Results showed that there were a significant relationship of human factors on human errors and were tested in the model. Human factors had a partial effect on organizational factors while organizational factors had a direct and positive impact on human errors. It was also revealed that organizational factors contributed to human errors when coupled with human factors construct. This study has contributed to the advancement of knowledge on human factors effecting safety and has provided guidelines for improving human factors performance relating to aviation maintenance activities and could be used as a reference for improving safety performance in the Malaysian aviation maintenance companies.

  4. Preliminary analyses of scenarios for potential human interference for repositories in three salt formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-10-01

    Preliminary analyses of scenarios for human interference with the performance of a radioactive waste repository in a deep salt formation are presented. The following scenarios are analyzed: (1) the U-Tube Connection Scenario involving multiple connections between the repository and the overlying aquifer system; (2) the Single Borehole Intrusion Scenario involving penetration of the repository by an exploratory borehole that simultaneously connects the repository with overlying and underlying aquifers; and (3) the Pressure Release Scenario involving inflow of water to saturate any void space in the repository prior to creep closure with subsequent release under near lithostatic pressures following creep closure. The methodology to evaluate repository performance in these scenarios is described and this methodology is applied to reference systems in three candidate formations: bedded salt in the Palo Duro Basin, Texas; bedded salt in the Paradox Basin, Utah; and the Richton Salt Dome, Mississippi, of the Gulf Coast Salt Dome Basin

  5. Genome-wide identification and function analyses of heat shock transcription factors in potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruimin eTang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Heat shock transcription factors (Hsfs play vital roles in the regulation of tolerance to various stresses in living organisms. To dissect the mechanisms of the Hsfs in potato adaptation to abiotic stresses, genome and transcriptome analyses of Hsf gene family were investigated in Solanum tuberosum L. Twenty-seven StHsf members were identified by bioinformatics and phylogenetic analyses and were classified into A, B and C groups according to their structural and phylogenetic features. StHsfs in the same class shared similar gene structures and conserved motifs. The chromosomal location analysis showed that 27 Hsfs were located in 10 of 12 chromosomes (except chromosome 1 and chromosome 5 and that 18 of these genes formed 9 paralogous pairs. Expression profiles of StHsfs in 12 different organs and tissues uncovered distinct spatial expression patterns of these genes and their potential roles in the process of growth and development. Promoter and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR detections of StHsfs were conducted and demonstrated that these genes were all responsive to various stresses. StHsf004, StHsf007, StHsf009, StHsf014 and StHsf019 were constitutively expressed under non-stress conditions, and some specific Hsfs became the predominant Hsfs in response to different abiotic stresses, indicating their important and diverse regulatory roles in adverse conditions. A co-expression network between StHsfs and StHsf-co-expressed genes was generated based on the publicly-available potato transcriptomic databases and identified key candidate StHsfs for further functional studies.

  6. A methodology to incorporate organizational factors into human reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Pengcheng; Chen Guohua; Zhang Li; Xiao Dongsheng

    2010-01-01

    A new holistic methodology for Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) is proposed to model the effects of the organizational factors on the human reliability. Firstly, a conceptual framework is built, which is used to analyze the causal relationships between the organizational factors and human reliability. Then, the inference model for Human Reliability Analysis is built by combining the conceptual framework with Bayesian networks, which is used to execute the causal inference and diagnostic inference of human reliability. Finally, a case example is presented to demonstrate the specific application of the proposed methodology. The results show that the proposed methodology of combining the conceptual model with Bayesian Networks can not only easily model the causal relationship between organizational factors and human reliability, but in a given context, people can quantitatively measure the human operational reliability, and identify the most likely root causes or the prioritization of root causes caused human error. (authors)

  7. Human factors/ergonomics as a systems discipline? "The human use of human beings" revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollnagel, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Discussions of the possible future of Human factors/ergonomics (HFE) usually take the past for granted in the sense that the future of HFE is assumed to be more of the same. This paper argues that the nature of work in the early 2010s is so different from the nature of work when HFE was formulated...

  8. Code conforming determination of cumulative usage factors for general elastic-plastic finite element analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudolph, Juergen; Goetz, Andreas; Hilpert, Roland

    2012-01-01

    The procedures of fatigue analyses of several relevant nuclear and conventional design codes (ASME, KTA, EN, AD) for power plant components differentiate between an elastic, simplified elastic-plastic and elastic-plastic fatigue check. As a rule, operational load levels will exclude the purely elastic fatigue check. The application of the code procedure of the simplified elastic-plastic fatigue check is common practice. Nevertheless, resulting cumulative usage factors may be overly conservative mainly due to high code based plastification penalty factors Ke. As a consequence, the more complex and still code conforming general elastic-plastic fatigue analysis methodology based on non-linear finite element analysis (FEA) is applied for fatigue design as an alternative. The requirements of the FEA and the material law to be applied have to be clarified in a first step. Current design codes only give rough guidelines on these relevant items. While the procedure for the simplified elastic-plastic fatigue analysis and the associated code passages are based on stress related cycle counting and the determination of pseudo elastic equivalent stress ranges, an adaptation to elastic-plastic strains and strain ranges is required for the elastic-plastic fatigue check. The associated requirements are explained in detail in the paper. If the established and implemented evaluation mechanism (cycle counting according to the peak and valley respectively the rainflow method, calculation of stress ranges from arbitrary load-time histories and determination of cumulative usage factors based on all load events) is to be retained, a conversion of elastic-plastic strains and strain ranges into pseudo elastic stress ranges is required. The algorithm to be applied is described in the paper. It has to be implemented in the sense of an extended post processing operation of FEA e.g. by APDL scripts in ANSYS registered . Variations of principal stress (strain) directions during the loading

  9. NAS Human Factors Safety Research Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory conducts an integrated program of research on the relationship of factors concerning individuals, work groups, and organizations as employees perform...

  10. Molecular cytogenetic analysis of human blastocysts andcytotrophoblasts by multi-color FISH and Spectra Imaging analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weier, Jingly F.; Ferlatte, Christy; Baumgartner, Adolf; Jung,Christine J.; Nguyen, Ha-Nam; Chu, Lisa W.; Pedersen, Roger A.; Fisher,Susan J.; Weier, Heinz-Ulrich G.

    2006-02-08

    Numerical chromosome aberrations in gametes typically lead to failed fertilization, spontaneous abortion or a chromosomally abnormal fetus. By means of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), we now can screen human embryos in vitro for aneuploidy before transferring the embryos to the uterus. PGD allows us to select unaffected embryos for transfer and increases the implantation rate in in vitro fertilization programs. Molecular cytogenetic analyses using multi-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of blastomeres have become the major tool for preimplantation genetic screening of aneuploidy. However, current FISH technology can test for only a small number of chromosome abnormalities and hitherto failed to increase the pregnancy rates as expected. We are in the process of developing technologies to score all 24 chromosomes in single cells within a 3 day time limit, which we believe is vital to the clinical setting. Also, human placental cytotrophoblasts (CTBs) at the fetal-maternal interface acquire aneuploidies as they differentiate to an invasive phenotype. About 20-50% of invasive CTB cells from uncomplicated pregnancies were found aneuploidy, suggesting that the acquisition of aneuploidy is an important component of normal placentation, perhaps limiting the proliferative and invasive potential of CTBs. Since most invasive CTBs are interphase cells and possess extreme heterogeneity, we applied multi-color FISH and repeated hybridizations to investigate individual CTBs. In summary, this study demonstrates the strength of Spectral Imaging analysis and repeated hybridizations, which provides a basis for full karyotype analysis of single interphase cells.

  11. An improvement of the applicability of human factors guidelines for coping with human factors issues in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y. H.; Lee, J. Y.

    2003-01-01

    Human factors have been well known as one of the key factors to the system effectiveness as well as the efficiency and safety of nuclear power plants(NPPs). Human factors engineering(HFE) are included in periodic safety review(PSR) on the existing NPPs and the formal safety assessment for the new ones. However, HFE for NPPs is still neither popular in practice nor concrete in methodology. Especially, the human factors guidelines, which are the most frequent form of human factors engineering in practice, reveal the limitations in their applications. We discuss the limitations and their casual factors found in human factors guidelines in order to lesson the workload of HFE practitioners and to improve the applicability of human factors guidelines. According to the purposes and the phases of HFE for NPPs, more selective items and specified criteria should be prepared carefully in the human factors guidelines for the each HFE applications in practice. These finding on the human factors guidelines can be transferred to the other HFE application field, such as military, aviation, telecommunication, HCI, and product safety

  12. Identification and expression analyses of MYB and WRKY transcription factor genes in Papaver somniferum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakeshpour, Tayebeh; Nayebi, Shadi; Rashidi Monfared, Sajad; Moieni, Ahmad; Karimzadeh, Ghasem

    2015-10-01

    Papaver somniferum L. is an herbaceous, annual and diploid plant that is important from pharmacological and strategic point of view. The cDNA clones of two putative MYB and WRKY genes were isolated (GeneBank accession numbers KP411870 and KP203854, respectively) from this plant, via the nested-PCR method, and characterized. The MYB transcription factor (TF) comprises 342 amino acids, and exhibits the structural features of the R2R3MYB protein family. The WRKY TF, a 326 amino acid-long polypeptide, falls structurally into the group II of WRKY protein family. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analyses indicate the presence of these TFs in all organs of P. somniferum L. and Papaver bracteatum L. Highest expression levels of these two TFs were observed in the leaf tissues of P. somniferum L. while in P. bracteatum L. the espression levels were highest in the root tissues. Promoter analysis of the 10 co-expressed gene clustered involved in noscapine biosynthesis pathway in P. somniferum L. suggested that not only these 10 genes are co-expressed, but also share common regulatory motifs and TFs including MYB and WRKY TFs, and that may explain their common regulation.

  13. Evolutionary and Expression Analyses of the Apple Basic Leucine Zipper Transcription Factor Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiao; Guo, Rongrong; Guo, Chunlei; Hou, Hongmin; Wang, Xiping; Gao, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) play essential roles in the regulatory networks controlling many developmental processes in plants. Members of the basic leucine (Leu) zipper (bZIP) TF family, which is unique to eukaryotes, are involved in regulating diverse processes, including flower and vascular development, seed maturation, stress signaling, and defense responses to pathogens. The bZIP proteins have a characteristic bZIP domain composed of a DNA-binding basic region and a Leu zipper dimerization region. In this study, we identified 112 apple (Malus domestica Borkh) bZIP TF-encoding genes, termed MdbZIP genes. Synteny analysis indicated that segmental and tandem duplication events, as well as whole genome duplication, have contributed to the expansion of the apple bZIP family. The family could be divided into 11 groups based on structural features of the encoded proteins, as well as on the phylogenetic relationship of the apple bZIP proteins to those of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana (AtbZIP genes). Synteny analysis revealed that several paired MdbZIP genes and AtbZIP gene homologs were located in syntenic genomic regions. Furthermore, expression analyses of group A MdbZIP genes showed distinct expression levels in 10 different organs. Moreover, changes in these expression profiles in response to abiotic stress conditions and various hormone treatments identified MdbZIP genes that were responsive to high salinity and drought, as well as to different phytohormones. PMID:27066030

  14. Logistic regression and multiple classification analyses to explore risk factors of under-5 mortality in bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhowmik, K.R.; Islam, S.

    2016-01-01

    Logistic regression (LR) analysis is the most common statistical methodology to find out the determinants of childhood mortality. However, the significant predictors cannot be ranked according to their influence on the response variable. Multiple classification (MC) analysis can be applied to identify the significant predictors with a priority index which helps to rank the predictors. The main objective of the study is to find the socio-demographic determinants of childhood mortality at neonatal, post-neonatal, and post-infant period by fitting LR model as well as to rank those through MC analysis. The study is conducted using the data of Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey 2007 where birth and death information of children were collected from their mothers. Three dichotomous response variables are constructed from children age at death to fit the LR and MC models. Socio-economic and demographic variables significantly associated with the response variables separately are considered in LR and MC analyses. Both the LR and MC models identified the same significant predictors for specific childhood mortality. For both the neonatal and child mortality, biological factors of children, regional settings, and parents socio-economic status are found as 1st, 2nd, and 3rd significant groups of predictors respectively. Mother education and household environment are detected as major significant predictors of post-neonatal mortality. This study shows that MC analysis with or without LR analysis can be applied to detect determinants with rank which help the policy makers taking initiatives on a priority basis. (author)

  15. Evolutionary and Expression Analyses of the Apple Basic Leucine Zipper Transcription Factor Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiao eZhao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Transcription factors (TFs play essential roles in the regulatory networks controlling many developmental processes in plants. Members of the basic leucine (Leu zipper (bZIP TF family, which is unique to eukaryotes, are involved in regulating diverse processes, including flower and vascular development, seed maturation, stress signaling and defense responses to pathogens. The bZIP proteins have a characteristic bZIP domain composed of a DNA-binding basic region and a Leu zipper dimerization region. In this study, we identified 112 apple (Malus domestica Borkh bZIP TF-encoding genes, termed MdbZIP genes. Synteny analysis indicated that segmental and tandem duplication events, as well as whole genome duplication, have contributed to the expansion of the apple bZIP family. The family could be divided into 11 groups based on structural features of the encoded proteins, as well as on the phylogenetic relationship of the apple bZIP proteins to those of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana (AtbZIP genes. Synteny analysis revealed that several paired MdbZIP genes and AtbZIP gene homologs were located in syntenic genomic regions. Furthermore, expression analyses of group A MdbZIP genes showed distinct expression levels in ten different organs. Moreover, changes in these expression profiles in response to abiotic stress conditions and various hormone treatments identified MdbZIP genes that were responsive to high salinity and drought, as well as to different phytohormones.

  16. Research of human factor in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nopp, I.

    1983-01-01

    The question is discussed of the study of the human factor with regard to the reliability of nuclear power plant operation. The reliability of the human factor is the result of the functional fitness, motivation, working conditions and working regime of personnel. (J.B.)

  17. Human Reliability Analysis for Design: Using Reliability Methods for Human Factors Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald Laurids Boring

    2010-11-01

    This paper reviews the application of human reliability analysis methods to human factors design issues. An application framework is sketched in which aspects of modeling typically found in human reliability analysis are used in a complementary fashion to the existing human factors phases of design and testing. The paper provides best achievable practices for design, testing, and modeling. Such best achievable practices may be used to evaluate and human system interface in the context of design safety certifications.

  18. Human Reliability Analysis for Design: Using Reliability Methods for Human Factors Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boring, Ronald Laurids

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the application of human reliability analysis methods to human factors design issues. An application framework is sketched in which aspects of modeling typically found in human reliability analysis are used in a complementary fashion to the existing human factors phases of design and testing. The paper provides best achievable practices for design, testing, and modeling. Such best achievable practices may be used to evaluate and human system interface in the context of design safety certifications.

  19. Human factors in design modifications: panel alternative stop in Almaraz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman, Y.; Bote, J.

    2015-01-01

    Human Factors Engineering has acquired a crucial role in the development of any design modification (DM), where every aspect relative to any interaction with the human user has to be taken into account at any stage thereof. Considering this, during the last years, Almaraz Nuclear Powe Plants has developed a program of Human Factors Engineering in order to reach the internationally recognized standards or systematic collected on NUREG 0711 Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model (NRC). One of the most important projects of this program at Almaraz Nuclear Power Plant has been the implementation of the Alternative Stop Panel and their corresponding Transfer Panels. (Author)

  20. Human Milk Composition: Nutrients and Bioactive Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Olivia; Morrow, Ardythe L.

    2013-01-01

    Synopsis The composition of human milk is the biologic norm for infant nutrition. Human milk also contains many hundreds to thousands of distinct bioactive molecules that protect against infection and inflammation and contribute to immune maturation, organ development, and healthy microbial colonization. Some of these molecules, e.g., lactoferrin, are being investigated as novel therapeutic agents. A dynamic, bioactive fluid, human milk changes in composition from colostrum to late lactation, and varies within feeds, diurnally, and between mothers. Feeding infants with expressed human milk is increasing. Pasteurized donor milk is now commonly provided to high risk infants and most mothers in the U.S. express and freeze their milk at some point in lactation for future infant feedings. Many milk proteins are degraded by heat treatment and freeze-thaw cycles may not have the same bioactivity after undergoing these treatments. This article provides an overview of the composition of human milk, sources of its variation, and its clinical relevance. PMID:23178060

  1. Analyses of musculoskeletal interactions in humans by quantitative computed tomography (QCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capiglioni, Ricardo; Cointry, Gustavo; Capozza, Ricardo; Gimenez, Carlos; Ferretti, Jose L.

    2001-01-01

    Bone and muscle cross-sectional properties were assessed by QCT at the L3 spinal level in normal women and men (n=93/5) aged 32-74 years and compared with the kyphosis angle (Ka) determined between T4 and T12 in lateral Rx's. The volumetric mineral density (vBMD) of trabecular bone, the bone mineral content (BMC) of the vertebral bodies and the fat-free areas of the peri spinal muscle (FFMA) varied in line and correlated negatively with the Ka. Multiple regression analyses showed that the trabecular vBMD and total BMC were the most significant independent determinants of the Ka, and that the FFMA and time since menopause were the only independent determinants of the bone properties, with no influence of the gender, age or anthropometric factors. (author)

  2. Accounting for human factor in QC and QA inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, J.

    1986-01-01

    Two types of human error during QC/QA inspection have been identified. The method of accounting for the effects of human error in QC/QA inspections was developed. The result of evaluation of the proportion of discrepant items in the population is affected significantly by human factor

  3. The human factor: enhancing women's rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinzor, N

    1995-01-01

    The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted by the UN in 1948, declares that all human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights, and that everyone has the right to life, liberty, and security of person. In practice, however, far from everyone has these rights, especially women. Many women worldwide have neither the awareness of nor access to family planning methods with which they could regulate their fertility and childbearing. Thus deprived of their reproductive freedom, these women cannot pursue education, employment, and other life options which would otherwise be readily available to them were they not saddled with poor reproductive health and too many children. Expanded choices enhance the status of women, which in turn helps them to reduce fertility rates and stabilize population growth. The author discusses how the wide range of cultural and social norms, and economic and political systems worldwide make it very difficult and complex to actually implement universal human rights.

  4. US Nuclear Regulatory Commission human-factors program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-08-01

    The purpose of the NRC Human Factors Program Plan is to ensure that proper consideration is given to human factors in the design, operation, and maintenance of nuclear facilities. This initial plan addresses nuclear power plants (NPP) and describes (1) the technical assistance and research activities planned to provide the technical bases for the resolution of the remaining human factors related tasks described in NUREG-0660, The NRC Action Plan Developed as a Result of the TMI-2 Accident, and NUREG-0737, Clarification of TMI Action Plan Requirements, and (2) the additional human factors efforts identified during implementation of the Action Plan that should receive NRC attention. The plan represents a systematic and comprehensive approach for addressing human factors concerns important to NPP safety in the FY-83 through FY-85 time frame

  5. Human factors aspects of advanced instrumentation in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    An important consideration in regards to the use of advanced instrumentation in the nuclear industry is the interface between the instrumentation system and the human. A survey, oriented towards identifying the human factors aspects of digital instrumentation, was conducted at a number of United States (US) and Canadian nuclear vendors and utilities. Human factors issues, subsumed under the categories of computer-generated displays, controls, organizational support, training, and related topics were identified. 20 refs., 2 tabs

  6. Research on the NPP human factors engineering operating experience review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Xiangchen; Miao Hongxing; Ning Zhonghe

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses the importance of the human factors engineering (HFE) for the design of nuclear power plant (NPP), especially for the design of human-machine interface in the NPP. It also summarizes the scope and content of the NPP HFE. The function, scope, content and process of the NPP human factors engineering operating experience review (OER) are mainly focused on, and significantly discussed. Finally, it briefly introduces the situation of the studies on the OER in China. (authors)

  7. Development of Human Factor Management Requirements and Human Error Classification for the Prevention of Railway Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwak, Sang Log; Park, Chan Woo; Shin, Seung Ryoung

    2008-08-01

    Railway accident analysis results show that accidents cased by human factors are not decreasing, whereas H/W related accidents are steadily decreasing. For the efficient management of human factors, many expertise on design, conditions, safety culture and staffing are required. But current safety management activities on safety critical works are focused on training, due to the limited resource and information. In order to improve railway safety, human factors management requirements for safety critical worker and human error classification is proposed in this report. For this accident analysis, status of safety measure on human factor, safety management system on safety critical worker, current safety planning is analysis

  8. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors for Human Immunodeficiency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study sought to determine the seroprevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) among blood donors at Bolga-tanga Regional Hospital, Ghana by blood group type, sex and age and also determining the asso-ciation, if any, in the occurrence of the ...

  9. Status of human factors research program in Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabetani, Tetsuji

    1989-01-01

    The Human Factors Research Center was established within CRIEPI on July 1, 1987 as its research efforts to reduce human error during operation and maintenance at Japanese nuclear power plants. The Research Program has seven subjects, composed of the original subjects that include the human behavior monitoring method, and the subjects requested by the Federation of Electric Power Companies that include the establishment of techniques of analysing and evaluating information on human error. Some results of the activity are applied in nuclear power plants. We plan to obtain good results to apply to plants, and to improve the results already obtained. (author)

  10. Human factors analysis of U.S. Navy afloat mishaps

    OpenAIRE

    Lacy, Rex D.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of maritime mishaps, which include loss of life as well as environmental and economic considerations, are significant. It has been estimated that over 80percent of maritime accidents areat least partially attributable to human error. Human error has been extensively studied in a number of fields, particularly aviation. The present research involves application of the Human Factors Accident Classification System (HFACS), developed by the Naval Safety Center, to human error causal f...

  11. Human-automation collaboration in manufacturing: identifying key implementation factors

    OpenAIRE

    Charalambous, George; Fletcher, Sarah; Webb, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Human-automation collaboration refers to the concept of human operators and intelligent automation working together interactively within the same workspace without conventional physical separation. This concept has commanded significant attention in manufacturing because of the potential applications, such as the installation of large sub-assemblies. However, the key human factors relevant to human-automation collaboration have not yet been fully investigated. To maximise effective implement...

  12. Analyses of the stability and core taxonomic memberships of the human microbiome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelvin Li

    Full Text Available Analyses of the taxonomic diversity associated with the human microbiome continue to be an area of great importance. The study of the nature and extent of the commonly shared taxa ("core", versus those less prevalent, establishes a baseline for comparing healthy and diseased groups by quantifying the variation among people, across body habitats and over time. The National Institutes of Health (NIH sponsored Human Microbiome Project (HMP has provided an unprecedented opportunity to examine and better define what constitutes the taxonomic core within and across body habitats and individuals through pyrosequencing-based profiling of 16S rRNA gene sequences from oral, skin, distal gut (stool, and vaginal body habitats from over 200 healthy individuals. A two-parameter model is introduced to quantitatively identify the core taxonomic members of each body habitat's microbiota across the healthy cohort. Using only cutoffs for taxonomic ubiquity and abundance, core taxonomic members were identified for each of the 18 body habitats and also for the 4 higher-level body regions. Although many microbes were shared at low abundance, they exhibited a relatively continuous spread in both their abundance and ubiquity, as opposed to a more discretized separation. The numbers of core taxa members in the body regions are comparatively small and stable, reflecting the relatively high, but conserved, interpersonal variability within the cohort. Core sizes increased across the body regions in the order of: vagina, skin, stool, and oral cavity. A number of "minor" oral taxonomic core were also identified by their majority presence across the cohort, but with relatively low and stable abundances. A method for quantifying the difference between two cohorts was introduced and applied to samples collected on a second visit, revealing that over time, the oral, skin, and stool body regions tended to be more transient in their taxonomic structure than the vaginal body region.

  13. Ecogeographical associations between climate and human body composition: analyses based on anthropometry and skinfolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Jonathan C K

    2012-02-01

    In the 19th century, two "ecogeographical rules" were proposed hypothesizing associations of climate with mammalian body size and proportions. Data on human body weight and relative leg length support these rules; however, it is unknown whether such associations are attributable to lean tissue (the heat-producing component) or fat (energy stores). Data on weight, height, and two skinfold thickness were obtained from the literature for 137 nonindustrialized populations, providing 145 male and 115 female individual samples. A variety of indices of adiposity and lean mass were analyzed. Preliminary analyses indicated secular increases in skinfolds in men but not women, and associations of age and height with lean mass in both sexes. Decreasing annual temperature was associated with increasing body mass index (BMI), and increasing triceps but not subscapular skinfold. After adjusting for skinfolds, decreasing temperature remained associated with increasing BMI. These results indicate that colder environments favor both greater peripheral energy stores, and greater lean mass. Contrasting results for triceps and subscapular skinfolds might be due to adaptive strategies either constraining central adiposity in cold environments to reduce cardiovascular risk, or favoring central adiposity in warmer environments to maintain energetic support of the immune system. Polynesian populations were analyzed separately and contradicted all of the climate trends, indicating support for the hypothesis that they are cold-adapted despite occupying a tropical region. It is unclear whether such associations emerge through natural selection or through trans-generational and life-course plasticity. These findings nevertheless aid understanding of the wide variability in human physique and adiposity. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Usability: Human Research Program - Space Human Factors and Habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandor, Aniko; Holden, Kritina L.

    2009-01-01

    The Usability project addresses the need for research in the area of metrics and methodologies used in hardware and software usability testing in order to define quantifiable and verifiable usability requirements. A usability test is a human-in-the-loop evaluation where a participant works through a realistic set of representative tasks using the hardware/software under investigation. The purpose of this research is to define metrics and methodologies for measuring and verifying usability in the aerospace domain in accordance with FY09 focus on errors, consistency, and mobility/maneuverability. Usability metrics must be predictive of success with the interfaces, must be easy to obtain and/or calculate, and must meet the intent of current Human Systems Integration Requirements (HSIR). Methodologies must work within the constraints of the aerospace domain, be cost and time efficient, and be able to be applied without extensive specialized training.

  15. Human factors and training the partnership agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macris, A.C.; Fleming, S.T.

    1987-01-01

    Four fundamental activities directly affect human performance in operating nuclear power plants: Control Room Design Reviews (CRDR's); Operating Procedures; Training Curriculum Materials; Simulator Training. Typically it was believed that multi-disciplined core teams, for each activity, provided an integration of all activities. Representatives of each discipline (CRDR, Engineering, Training, Simulator Project) provided real time inputs during team deliberations. While these inputs affected team decisions, there were no assurances that any functional follow-up would result. Furthermore, no mechanism existed for systematic integration between activities. Now, with a majority of the Control Room Design Reviews complete, plant specific simulators becoming a reality, and the incorporation of Safety Parameter Display System (SPDS) and Symptom Based EOP's; the reality is that these activities require more systematic integration than was previously recognized. This paper presents an innovative approach for integrating the above four activities using Computer Aided Drafting (CAD) and computerized Data Base Management (DBM) to synergistically optimize human performance

  16. siRNA Transfection and EMSA Analyses on Freshly Isolated Human Villous Cytotrophoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokossou, Adjimon Gatien; Toufaily, Chirine; Vargas, Amandine; Barbeau, Benoit

    2016-09-20

    Human primary villous cytotrophoblasts are a very useful source of primary cells to study placental functions and regulatory mechanisms, and to comprehend diseases related to pregnancy. In this protocol, human primary villous cytotrophoblasts freshly isolated from placentas through a standard DNase/trypsin protocol are microporated with small interfering RNA (siRNA). This approach provided greater efficiency for siRNA transfection when compared to a lipofection-based method. Transfected cells can subsequently be analyzed by standard Western blot within a time frame of 3-4 days post-transfection. In addition, using cultured primary villous cytotrophoblasts, Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay (EMSA) analysis was optimized and performed on extracts from days 1 to 4. The use of these cultured primary cells and the protocol described allow for an evaluation of the implication of specific genes and transcription factors in the process of villous cytotrophoblast differentiation into a syncytiotrophoblast-like cell layer. However, the limited time span allowable in culture precludes the use of methods requiring more time, such as generation of a stable cell population. Therefore testing of this cell population requires highly optimized gene transfer protocols.

  17. Nature vs. nurture in human sociality: multi-level genomic analyses of social conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Biqing; Zhu, Zijian; Wang, Yingying; Ding, Xiaohu; Guo, Xiaobo; He, Mingguang; Fang, Wan; Zhou, Qin; Zhou, Shanbi; Lei, Han; Huang, Ailong; Chen, Tingmei; Ni, Dongsheng; Gu, Yuping; Liu, Jianing; Rao, Yi

    2018-05-01

    Social conformity is fundamental to human societies and has been studied for more than six decades, but our understanding of its mechanisms remains limited. Individual differences in conformity have been attributed to social and cultural environmental influences, but not to genes. Here we demonstrate a genetic contribution to conformity after analyzing 1,140 twins and single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based studies of 2,130 young adults. A two-step genome-wide association study (GWAS) revealed replicable associations in 9 genomic loci, and a meta-analysis of three GWAS with a sample size of ~2,600 further confirmed one locus, corresponding to the NAV3 (Neuron Navigator 3) gene which encodes a protein important for axon outgrowth and guidance. Further multi-level (haplotype, gene, pathway) GWAS strongly associated genes including NAV3, PTPRD (protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type D), ARL10 (ADP ribosylation factor-like GTPase 10), and CTNND2 (catenin delta 2), with conformity. Magnetic resonance imaging of 64 subjects shows correlation of activation or structural features of brain regions with the SNPs of these genes, supporting their functional significance. Our results suggest potential moderate genetic influence on conformity, implicate several specific genetic elements in conformity and will facilitate further research on cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying human conformity.

  18. Analyses of human exposures to alpha-emitting radionuclides from nuclear fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuddihy, R.G.; McClellan, R.O.; Griffith, W.C.; Hoover, M.D.

    1977-01-01

    Human populations may potentially be exposed to alpha-emitting radionuclides released to the environment from a variety of activities associated with nuclear fuel cycles. Generally, the most important exposure pathway is by way of inhalation. This can occur soon after release of these substances or after they have been deposited on ground surfaces and resuspended with soil particles. Estimating the potential magnitude of these exposures is usually done through the use of mathematical models accounting for the dispersion of the released material through the environment and its uptake by people living near the nuclear facilities. Studies described in this paper suggest that these exposures can probably be estimated within a factor of 10 based upon our previous experience with measured human organ levels of other trace metals taken up from the environment. It should also be noted that variability among individuals within the population may result in a few percent accumulating more than 10 times the geometric mean of the internal organ radionuclide burdens

  19. Human Factors in Web-Authentication

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-06

    questions is vulnerable to man-in-the-middle ( MITM ) attacks [113, 144]. Since these attacks exploit similar human tendencies as attacks against...researchers have discovered a “Universal Man-in-the-Middle Phishing Kit” [75], a hacker toolkit which enables a phisher to easily set up a MITM ...the-middle ( MITM ) attacker spoofing the login page of the target Web site [113, 144]. 1 When a user attempts to login 1Challenge questions also have

  20. Human factor in the problem of Russian nuclear industry safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramova, V.

    2002-01-01

    The approach to human factor definition, considered in the paper, consists of recognition of as many as possible factors for developing a complete list of factors, which have influence on mistakes or successful work of NPP personnel. Safety culture is considered as the main factor. The enhancement in nuclear power industry includes an optimization of organizational structures and development of personnel safety attitudes. The organizational factors, as possible root causes for human errors, need to be identified, assessed and improved. The organizational activities taken in Russia are presented

  1. Identification of the human factors contributing to maintenance failures in a petroleum operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonovsky, Ari; Pollock, Clare; Straker, Leon

    2014-03-01

    This research aimed to identify the most frequently occurring human factors contributing to maintenance-related failures within a petroleum industry organization. Commonality between failures will assist in understanding reliability in maintenance processes, thereby preventing accidents in high-hazard domains. Methods exist for understanding the human factors contributing to accidents. Their application in a maintenance context mainly has been advanced in aviation and nuclear power. Maintenance in the petroleum industry provides a different context for investigating the role that human factors play in influencing outcomes. It is therefore worth investigating the contributing human factors to improve our understanding of both human factors in reliability and the factors specific to this domain. Detailed analyses were conducted of maintenance-related failures (N = 38) in a petroleum company using structured interviews with maintenance technicians. The interview structure was based on the Human Factor Investigation Tool (HFIT), which in turn was based on Rasmussen's model of human malfunction. A mean of 9.5 factors per incident was identified across the cases investigated.The three most frequent human factors contributing to the maintenance failures were found to be assumption (79% of cases), design and maintenance (71%), and communication (66%). HFIT proved to be a useful instrument for identifying the pattern of human factors that recurred most frequently in maintenance-related failures. The high frequency of failures attributed to assumptions and communication demonstrated the importance of problem-solving abilities and organizational communication in a domain where maintenance personnel have a high degree of autonomy and a wide geographical distribution.

  2. Human factor engineering applied to nuclear power plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manrique, A.; Valdivia, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    Advantages of implementing adequate Human Factor Engineering techniques in the design of nuclear reactors have become not only a fact recognized by the majority of engineers and operators but also an explicit requirement regulated and mandatory for the new designs of the so called advanced reactors. The first step for this is preparing a plan to incorporate all the Human Factor Engineering principles and developing an integral design of the Instrumentation and Control and Man-machine interface systems. Such a plan should state: -) Activities to be performed, and -) Creation of a Human Factor Engineering team adequately qualified. The Human Factor Engineering team is an integral part of the design team and is strongly linked to the engineering organizations but simultaneously has independence to act and is free to evaluate designs and propose changes in order to enhance human behavior. TECNATOM S.A. (a Spanish company) has been a part of the Design and Human Factor Engineering Team and has collaborated in the design of an advanced Nuclear Power Plant, developing methodologies and further implementing those methodologies in the design of the plant systems through the development of the plant systems operational analysis and of the man-machine interface design. The methodologies developed are made up of the following plans: -) Human Factor Engineering implementation in the Man-Machine Interface design; -) Plant System Functional Requirement Analysis; -) Allocation of Functions to man/machine; -) Task Analysis; -) Human-System Interface design; -) Control Room Verification and -) Validation

  3. Proteomics analyses of human optic nerve head astrocytes following biomechanical strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Ronan S; Dharsee, Moyez; Ackloo, Suzanne; Sivak, Jeremy M; Flanagan, John G

    2012-02-01

    We investigate the role of glial cell activation in the human optic nerve caused by raised intraocular pressure, and their potential role in the development of glaucomatous optic neuropathy. To do this we present a proteomics study of the response of cultured, optic nerve head astrocytes to biomechanical strain, the magnitude and mode of strain based on previously published quantitative models. In this case, astrocytes were subjected to 3 and 12% stretches for either 2 h or 24 h. Proteomic methods included nano-liquid chromatography, tandem mass spectrometry, and iTRAQ labeling. Using controls for both stretch and time, a six-plex iTRAQ liquid chromatography- tandem MS (LC/MS/MS) experiment yielded 573 proteins discovered at a 95% confidence limit. The pathways included transforming growth factor β1, tumor necrosis factor, caspase 3, and tumor protein p53, which have all been implicated in the activation of astrocytes and are believed to play a role in the development of glaucomatous optic neuropathy. Confirmation of the iTRAQ analysis was performed by Western blotting of various proteins of interest including ANXA 4, GOLGA2, and αB-Crystallin.

  4. Proteomics Analyses of Human Optic Nerve Head Astrocytes Following Biomechanical Strain*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Ronan S.; Dharsee, Moyez; Ackloo, Suzanne; Sivak, Jeremy M.; Flanagan, John G.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the role of glial cell activation in the human optic nerve caused by raised intraocular pressure, and their potential role in the development of glaucomatous optic neuropathy. To do this we present a proteomics study of the response of cultured, optic nerve head astrocytes to biomechanical strain, the magnitude and mode of strain based on previously published quantitative models. In this case, astrocytes were subjected to 3 and 12% stretches for either 2 h or 24 h. Proteomic methods included nano-liquid chromatography, tandem mass spectrometry, and iTRAQ labeling. Using controls for both stretch and time, a six-plex iTRAQ liquid chromatography- tandem MS (LC/MS/MS) experiment yielded 573 proteins discovered at a 95% confidence limit. The pathways included transforming growth factor β1, tumor necrosis factor, caspase 3, and tumor protein p53, which have all been implicated in the activation of astrocytes and are believed to play a role in the development of glaucomatous optic neuropathy. Confirmation of the iTRAQ analysis was performed by Western blotting of various proteins of interest including ANXA 4, GOLGA2, and αB-Crystallin. PMID:22126795

  5. Dose Assessment using Chromosome Aberration Analyses in Human Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Tae Ho; Kim, Jin-Hong; Kim, Jin Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The healthy five donors were recruited to establish the dose-response calibration curve for chromosomal aberrations by ionizing radiation exposure. Our cytogenetic results revealed that the mean frequency of chromosome aberration increased with increasing radiation dose. In this study, dicentric assay and CBMN assay were compared considering the sensitivity and accuracy of dose estimation. Therefore, these chromosome aberration analyses will be the foundation for biological dosimetric analysis with additional research methods such as translocation and PCC assay. The conventional analysis of dicentric chromosomes in HPBL was suggested by Bender and Gooch in 1962. This assay has been for many years, the golden standard and the most specific method for ionizing radiation damage. The dicentric assay technique in HPBL has been shown as the most sensitive biological method and reliable bio-indicator of quantifying the radiation dose. In contrast, the micronucleus assay has advantages over the dicentric assay since it is rapid and requires less specialized expertise, and accordingly it can be applied to monitor a big population. The cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay is a suitable method for micronuceli measurement in cultured human as well as mammalian cells. The aim of our study was to establish the dose response curve of radiation-induced chromosome aberrations in HPBL by analyzing the frequency of dicentrics and micronuclei.

  6. Microarray analyses of glucocorticoid and vitamin D3 target genes in differentiating cultured human podocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiwen Cheng

    Full Text Available Glomerular podocytes are highly differentiated epithelial cells that are key components of the kidney filtration units. Podocyte damage or loss is the hallmark of nephritic diseases characterized by severe proteinuria. Recent studies implicate that hormones including glucocorticoids (ligand for glucocorticoid receptor and vitamin D3 (ligand for vitamin D receptor protect or promote repair of podocytes from injury. In order to elucidate the mechanisms underlying hormone-mediated podocyte-protecting activity from injury, we carried out microarray gene expression studies to identify the target genes and corresponding pathways in response to these hormones during podocyte differentiation. We used immortalized human cultured podocytes (HPCs as a model system and carried out in vitro differentiation assays followed by dexamethasone (Dex or vitamin D3 (VD3 treatment. Upon the induction of differentiation, multiple functional categories including cell cycle, organelle dynamics, mitochondrion, apoptosis and cytoskeleton organization were among the most significantly affected. Interestingly, while Dex and VD3 are capable of protecting podocytes from injury, they only share limited target genes and affected pathways. Compared to VD3 treatment, Dex had a broader and greater impact on gene expression profiles. In-depth analyses of Dex altered genes indicate that Dex crosstalks with a broad spectrum of signaling pathways, of which inflammatory responses, cell migration, angiogenesis, NF-κB and TGFβ pathways are predominantly altered. Together, our study provides new information and identifies several new avenues for future investigation of hormone signaling in podocytes.

  7. Impacts of Genome-Wide Analyses on Our Understanding of Human Herpesvirus Diversity and Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Daniel W; Szpara, Moriah L

    2018-01-01

    Until fairly recently, genome-wide evolutionary dynamics and within-host diversity were more commonly examined in the context of small viruses than in the context of large double-stranded DNA viruses such as herpesviruses. The high mutation rates and more compact genomes of RNA viruses have inspired the investigation of population dynamics for these species, and recent data now suggest that herpesviruses might also be considered candidates for population modeling. High-throughput sequencing (HTS) and bioinformatics have expanded our understanding of herpesviruses through genome-wide comparisons of sequence diversity, recombination, allele frequency, and selective pressures. Here we discuss recent data on the mechanisms that generate herpesvirus genomic diversity and underlie the evolution of these virus families. We focus on human herpesviruses, with key insights drawn from veterinary herpesviruses and other large DNA virus families. We consider the impacts of cell culture on herpesvirus genomes and how to accurately describe the viral populations under study. The need for a strong foundation of high-quality genomes is also discussed, since it underlies all secondary genomic analyses such as RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq), chromatin immunoprecipitation, and ribosome profiling. Areas where we foresee future progress, such as the linking of viral genetic differences to phenotypic or clinical outcomes, are highlighted as well. Copyright © 2017 Renner and Szpara.

  8. Impacts of Genome-Wide Analyses on Our Understanding of Human Herpesvirus Diversity and Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Daniel W.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Until fairly recently, genome-wide evolutionary dynamics and within-host diversity were more commonly examined in the context of small viruses than in the context of large double-stranded DNA viruses such as herpesviruses. The high mutation rates and more compact genomes of RNA viruses have inspired the investigation of population dynamics for these species, and recent data now suggest that herpesviruses might also be considered candidates for population modeling. High-throughput sequencing (HTS) and bioinformatics have expanded our understanding of herpesviruses through genome-wide comparisons of sequence diversity, recombination, allele frequency, and selective pressures. Here we discuss recent data on the mechanisms that generate herpesvirus genomic diversity and underlie the evolution of these virus families. We focus on human herpesviruses, with key insights drawn from veterinary herpesviruses and other large DNA virus families. We consider the impacts of cell culture on herpesvirus genomes and how to accurately describe the viral populations under study. The need for a strong foundation of high-quality genomes is also discussed, since it underlies all secondary genomic analyses such as RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq), chromatin immunoprecipitation, and ribosome profiling. Areas where we foresee future progress, such as the linking of viral genetic differences to phenotypic or clinical outcomes, are highlighted as well. PMID:29046445

  9. The development of human factors experimental evaluation techniques -The development of human factors technologies-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sim, Bong Shick; Oh, In Seok; Cha, Kyeong Ho; Lee, Hyun Chul

    1994-04-01

    In the 2nd year of the research project for the development of human factors evaluation techniques, we first defined the experimental target systems by the comparison study of the advanced control rooms proposed by foreign countries in order to make the experiment feasible and realistic for the 10 experimental items selected in the first year of the project. Then we have decided to confine our research on the big board overview panel and operator workstations. Following the development of selection criteria for our research interest, we have identified the design variables which may influence the performance of the operator by the functional analysis. The experimental variables which will be used for the evaluation of the proposed items are then defined by the relational analysis between evaluation items and design variables and they are classified by the characteristics of the measurement data. The functional requirements of ITF are developed to accommodate the necessary functions for carrying out the 10 evaluation items. The functional requirements for each sub-system of ITF have been developed with the experimental paradigm of APTEA. Finally we have reviewed the compact nuclear simulator (CNS) at KAERI from the point of view of jyman factors guidelines/principles and proposed the two possible layouts for the experimental apparatus for the evaluation of display alternative and operational procedure. (Author)

  10. Studying risk factors associated with Human Leptospirosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramachandra Kamath

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Leptospirosis is one of the most under diagnosed and underreported disease in both developed and developing countries including India. It is established that environmental conditions and occupational habit of the individuals put them at risk of acquiring disease, which varies from community to community. Various seroprevalence studies across the world have documented emerging situation of this neglected tropical disease, but limited have probed to identify the risk factors, especially in India. Objectives: The objective of this study was to identify the environmental and occupational risk factors associated with the disease in Udupi District. Materials and Methods: This population-based case-control study was carried out in Udupi, a District in Southern India from April 2012 until August 2012. Udupi is considered to be endemic for Leptospirosis and reported 116 confirmed cases in the year 2011. Seventy of 116 laboratory confirmed cases and 140 sex matched neighborhood healthy controls participated in the study. A predesigned, semi-structured and validated questionnaire was used for data collection through house to house visit and observations were noted about environmental conditions. Univariate analysis followed by multivariate analysis (back ward conditional logistic regression was performed by using STATA version 9.2 (StataCorp, College Station, TX, USA to identify potential risk factors. Results: Occupational factors such as outdoor activities (matched odds ratio [OR] of 3.95, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.19-13.0, presence of cut or wound at body parts during work (matched OR: 4.88, CI: 1.83-13.02 and environmental factors such as contact with rodents through using the food materials ate by rat (matched OR: 4.29, CI: 1.45-12.73 and contact with soil or water contaminated with urine of rat (matched OR: 4.58, CI: 1.43-14.67 were the risk factors identified to be associated with disease. Conclusion: Leptospirosis is still

  11. Recent technology products from Space Human Factors research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, James P.

    1991-01-01

    The goals of the NASA Space Human Factors program and the research carried out concerning human factors are discussed with emphasis given to the development of human performance models, data, and tools. The major products from this program are described, which include the Laser Anthropometric Mapping System; a model of the human body for evaluating the kinematics and dynamics of human motion and strength in microgravity environment; an operational experience data base for verifying and validating the data repository of manned space flights; the Operational Experience Database Taxonomy; and a human-computer interaction laboratory whose products are the display softaware and requirements and the guideline documents and standards for applications on human-computer interaction. Special attention is given to the 'Convoltron', a prototype version of a signal processor for synthesizing the head-related transfer functions.

  12. Status of human factors engineering system design in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ives, G.

    1990-01-01

    A review of the European status of human factors engineering has been carried out covering a wide scope of activities which includes psychology, cognitive science, ergonomics, design, training, procedure writing, operating, artificial intelligence and expert systems. There is an increasing awareness of the part that human factors play in major nuclear power plant accidents. The emphasis of attention in human factors is changing. In some areas there are encouraging signs of progress and development, but in other areas there is still scope for improvement

  13. Information Technology: A challenge to the Human Factors Society?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens

    1988-01-01

    In his presidential address at the annual meeting of the Human Factors Society, Julian Christensen urged the members of the society to spread the gospel and to persuade the members of other professional societies such as psychologists,sociologists and engineers to join the Human Factors Society......, the argument being that advanced technology requires a cross-disciplinary approach to human factors problems. In the present note, I would like to support this presidential effort. In fact, I will go further in that direction and argue that the present fast pace of information technology threatens to overrun...

  14. Effectiveness of a selective alcohol prevention program targeting personality risk factors: Results of interaction analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammers, Jeroen; Goossens, Ferry; Conrod, Patricia; Engels, Rutger; Wiers, Reinout W; Kleinjan, Marloes

    2017-08-01

    To explore whether specific groups of adolescents (i.e., scoring high on personality risk traits, having a lower education level, or being male) benefit more from the Preventure intervention with regard to curbing their drinking behaviour. A clustered randomized controlled trial, with participants randomly assigned to a 2-session coping skills intervention or a control no-intervention condition. Fifteen secondary schools throughout The Netherlands; 7 schools in the intervention and 8 schools in the control condition. 699 adolescents aged 13-15; 343 allocated to the intervention and 356 to the control condition; with drinking experience and elevated scores in either negative thinking, anxiety sensitivity, impulsivity or sensation seeking. Differential effectiveness of the Preventure program was examined for the personality traits group, education level and gender on past-month binge drinking (main outcome), binge frequency, alcohol use, alcohol frequency and problem drinking, at 12months post-intervention. Preventure is a selective school-based alcohol prevention programme targeting personality risk factors. The comparator was a no-intervention control. Intervention effects were moderated by the personality traits group and by education level. More specifically, significant intervention effects were found on reducing alcohol use within the anxiety sensitivity group (OR=2.14, CI=1.40, 3.29) and reducing binge drinking (OR=1.76, CI=1.38, 2.24) and binge drinking frequency (β=0.24, p=0.04) within the sensation seeking group at 12months post-intervention. Also, lower educated young adolescents reduced binge drinking (OR=1.47, CI=1.14, 1.88), binge drinking frequency (β=0.25, p=0.04), alcohol use (OR=1.32, CI=1.06, 1.65) and alcohol use frequency (β=0.47, p=0.01), but not those in the higher education group. Post hoc latent-growth analyses revealed significant effects on the development of binge drinking (β=-0.19, p=0.02) and binge drinking frequency (β=-0.10, p=0

  15. Human Factors Regulatory Research Program Plan, FY 1989--FY 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffman, F.; Persensky, J.; Ryan, T.; Ramey-Smith, A.; Goodman, C.; Serig, D.; Trager, E; Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC; Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC; Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC

    1989-10-01

    This report describes the currently ongoing (FY 1989) and planned (FY 1989-1992) Human Factors Regulatory Research Program in the NRC Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES). Examples of the influence of human factors on nuclear safety are presented, and the role of personnel is discussed. Current regulatory issues associated with human factors in the nuclear system and the purpose of the research plan are provided. The report describes the research process applied to the human factors research issues and the program activities: Personnel Performance Measurement, Personnel Subsystem, Human-System Interface. Organization and Management, and Reliability Assessment. The research being conducted within each activity is summarized along with the objectives, background information, and expected regulatory products. Budget and personnel forecasts are provided along with a summary of contractors performing some of the ongoing research. Appendices contain a chronology of human factors research at NRC, a description of the research approach, an update on human factors programs and initiatives in RES and other NRC offices, and the integration among these programs. 46 refs., 5 tabs

  16. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Human Factors Program Plan. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-04-01

    This document is the Second Annual Revision to the NRC Human Factors Program Plan. The first edition was published in August 1983. Revision 1 was published in July of 1984. Purpose of the NRC Human Factors Program is to ensure that proper consideration is given to human factors in the design and operation of nuclear power plants. This document describes the plans of the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation to address high priority human factors concerns of importance to reactor safety in FY 1986 and FY 1987. Revision 2 of the plan incorporates recent Commission decisions and policies bearing on the human factors aspects of reactor safety regulation. With a few exceptions, the principal changes from prior editions reflect a shift from developing new requirements to staff evaluation of industry progress in resolving human factors issues. The plan addresses seven major program elements: (1) Training, (2) Licensing Examinations, (3) Procedures, (4) Man-Machine Interface, (5) Staffing and Qualifications, (6) Management and Organization, and (7) Human Performance

  17. Human factors in resuscitation: Lessons learned from simulator studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunziker S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Medical algorithms, technical skills, and repeated training are the classical cornerstones for successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR. Increasing evidence suggests that human factors, including team interaction, communication, and leadership, also influence the performance of CPR. Guidelines, however, do not yet include these human factors, partly because of the difficulties of their measurement in real-life cardiac arrest. Recently, clinical studies of cardiac arrest scenarios with high-fidelity video-assisted simulations have provided opportunities to better delineate the influence of human factors on resuscitation team performance. This review focuses on evidence from simulator studies that focus on human factors and their influence on the performance of resuscitation teams. Similar to studies in real patients, simulated cardiac arrest scenarios revealed many unnecessary interruptions of CPR as well as significant delays in defibrillation. These studies also showed that human factors play a major role in these shortcomings and that the medical performance depends on the quality of leadership and team-structuring. Moreover, simulated video-taped medical emergencies revealed that a substantial part of information transfer during communication is erroneous. Understanding the impact of human factors on the performance of a complex medical intervention like resuscitation requires detailed, second-by-second, analysis of factors involving the patient, resuscitative equipment such as the defibrillator, and all team members. Thus, high-fidelity simulator studies provide an important research method in this challenging field.

  18. Development of a Body Image Concern Scale using both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses in Chinese university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He W

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Wenxin He, Qiming Zheng, Yutian Ji, Chanchan Shen, Qisha Zhu, Wei Wang Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychiatry, School of Public Health, Zhejiang University College of Medicine, Hangzhou, People’s Republic of China Background: The body dysmorphic disorder is prevalent in general population and in psychiatric, dermatological, and plastic-surgery patients, but there lacks a structure-validated, comprehensive self-report measure of body image concerns, which is established through both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Methods: We have composed a 34-item matrix targeting the body image concerns and trialed it in 328 male and 365 female Chinese university students. Answers to the matrix dealt with treatments including exploratory factor analyses, reserve of qualified items, and confirmatory factor analyses of latent structures. Results: Six latent factors, namely the Social Avoidance, Appearance Dissatisfaction, Preoccupation with Reassurance, Perceived Distress/Discrimination, Defect Hiding, and Embarrassment in Public, were identified. The factors and their respective items have composed a 24-item questionnaire named as the Body Image Concern Scale. Each factor earned a satisfactory internal reliability, and the intercorrelations between these factors were in a median level. Women scored significantly higher than men did on the Appearance Dissatisfaction, Preoccupation with Reassurance, and Defect Hiding. Conclusion: The Body Image Concern Scale has displayed its structure validation and gender preponderance in Chinese university students. Keywords: body dysmorphic disorder, body image, factor analysis, questionnaire development

  19. Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analyses of the WISC-IV with Gifted Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Ellen W.; Dandridge, Jessica; Pawlush, Alexandra; Thompson, Dawna F.; Ferrier, David E.

    2014-01-01

    These 2 studies investigated the factor structure of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-4th edition (WISC-IV; Wechsler, 2003a) with exploratory factor analysis (EFA; Study 1) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA; Study 2) among 2 independent samples of gifted students. The EFA sample consisted of 225 children who were referred for a…

  20. Systematic assessment of environmental risk factors for bipolar disorder: an umbrella review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolato, Beatrice; Köhler, Cristiano A; Evangelou, Evangelos; León-Caballero, Jordi; Solmi, Marco; Stubbs, Brendon; Belbasis, Lazaros; Pacchiarotti, Isabella; Kessing, Lars V; Berk, Michael; Vieta, Eduard; Carvalho, André F

    2017-03-01

    The pathophysiology of bipolar disorder is likely to involve both genetic and environmental risk factors. In our study, we aimed to perform a systematic search of environmental risk factors for BD. In addition, we assessed possible hints of bias in this literature, and identified risk factors supported by high epidemiological credibility. We searched the Pubmed/MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycInfo databases up to 7 October 2016 to identify systematic reviews and meta-analyses of observational studies that assessed associations between putative environmental risk factors and BD. For each meta-analysis, we estimated its summary effect size by means of both random- and fixed-effects models, 95% confidence intervals (CIs), the 95% prediction interval, and heterogeneity. Evidence of small-study effects and excess of significance bias was also assessed. Sixteen publications met the inclusion criteria (seven meta-analyses and nine qualitative systematic reviews). Fifty-one unique environmental risk factors for BD were evaluated. Six meta-analyses investigated associations with a risk factor for BD. Only irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) emerged as a risk factor for BD supported by convincing evidence (k=6; odds ratio [OR]=2.48; 95% CI=2.35-2.61; P<.001), and childhood adversity was supported by highly suggestive evidence. Asthma and obesity were risk factors for BD supported by suggestive evidence, and seropositivity to Toxoplasma gondii and a history of head injury were supported by weak evidence. Notwithstanding that several environmental risk factors for BD were identified, few meta-analyses of observational studies were available. Therefore, further well-designed and adequately powered studies are necessary to map the environmental risk factors for BD. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Analysing inter-relationships among water, governance, human development variables in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dondeynaz, C.; Carmona Moreno, C.; Céspedes Lorente, J. J.

    2012-10-01

    The "Integrated Water Resources Management" principle was formally laid down at the International Conference on Water and Sustainable development in Dublin 1992. One of the main results of this conference is that improving Water and Sanitation Services (WSS), being a complex and interdisciplinary issue, passes through collaboration and coordination of different sectors (environment, health, economic activities, governance, and international cooperation). These sectors influence or are influenced by the access to WSS. The understanding of these interrelations appears as crucial for decision makers in the water sector. In this framework, the Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the European Commission (EC) has developed a new database (WatSan4Dev database) containing 42 indicators (called variables in this paper) from environmental, socio-economic, governance and financial aid flows data in developing countries. This paper describes the development of the WatSan4Dev dataset, the statistical processes needed to improve the data quality, and finally, the analysis to verify the database coherence is presented. Based on 25 relevant variables, the relationships between variables are described and organised into five factors (HDP - Human Development against Poverty, AP - Human Activity Pressure on water resources, WR - Water Resources, ODA - Official Development Aid, CEC - Country Environmental Concern). Linear regression methods are used to identify key variables having influence on water supply and sanitation. First analysis indicates that the informal urbanisation development is an important factor negatively influencing the percentage of the population having access to WSS. Health, and in particular children's health, benefits from the improvement of WSS. Irrigation is also enhancing Water Supply service thanks to multi-purpose infrastructure. Five country profiles are also created to deeper understand and synthetize the amount of information gathered. This new

  2. Analysing inter-relationships among water, governance, human development variables in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Dondeynaz

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The "Integrated Water Resources Management" principle was formally laid down at the International Conference on Water and Sustainable development in Dublin 1992. One of the main results of this conference is that improving Water and Sanitation Services (WSS, being a complex and interdisciplinary issue, passes through collaboration and coordination of different sectors (environment, health, economic activities, governance, and international cooperation. These sectors influence or are influenced by the access to WSS. The understanding of these interrelations appears as crucial for decision makers in the water sector. In this framework, the Joint Research Centre (JRC of the European Commission (EC has developed a new database (WatSan4Dev database containing 42 indicators (called variables in this paper from environmental, socio-economic, governance and financial aid flows data in developing countries. This paper describes the development of the WatSan4Dev dataset, the statistical processes needed to improve the data quality, and finally, the analysis to verify the database coherence is presented. Based on 25 relevant variables, the relationships between variables are described and organised into five factors (HDP – Human Development against Poverty, AP – Human Activity Pressure on water resources, WR – Water Resources, ODA – Official Development Aid, CEC – Country Environmental Concern. Linear regression methods are used to identify key variables having influence on water supply and sanitation. First analysis indicates that the informal urbanisation development is an important factor negatively influencing the percentage of the population having access to WSS. Health, and in particular children's health, benefits from the improvement of WSS. Irrigation is also enhancing Water Supply service thanks to multi-purpose infrastructure. Five country profiles are also created to deeper understand and synthetize the amount of information gathered

  3. Human Factors Engineering Aspects of Modifications in Control Room Modernization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hugo, Jacques [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Clefton, Gordon [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Joe, Jeffrey [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-06-01

    This report describes the basic aspects of control room modernization projects in the U.S. nuclear industry and the need for supplementary guidance on the integration of human factors considerations into the licensing and regulatory aspects of digital upgrades. The report pays specific attention to the integration of principles described in NUREG-0711 (Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model) and how supplementary guidance can help to raise general awareness in the industry regarding the complexities of control room modernization projects created by many interdependent regulations, standards and guidelines. The report also describes how human factors engineering principles and methods provided by various resources and international standards can help in navigating through the process of licensing digital upgrades. In particular, the integration of human factors engineering guidance and requirements into the process of licensing digital upgrades can help reduce uncertainty related to development of technical bases for digital upgrades that will avoid the introduction of new failure modes.

  4. Human factors survey of advanced instrumentation and controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    A survey oriented towards identifying the human factors issues in regard to the use of advanced instrumentation and controls (I ampersand C) in the nuclear industry was conducted. A number of United States (US) and Canadian nuclear vendors and utilities were participants in the survey. Human factors items, subsumed under the categories of computer-generated displays (CGD), controls, organizational support, training, and related topics, were discussed. The survey found the industry to be concerned about the human factors issues related to the implementation of advanced I ampersand C. Fifteen potential human factors problems were identified. They include: the need for an advanced I ampersand C guideline equivalent to NUREG-0700; a role change in the control room from operator to supervisor; information overload; adequacy of existing training technology for advanced I ampersand C; and operator acceptance and trust. 11 refs., 1 tab

  5. Human Factors Science: Brief History and Applications to Healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Sarah Henrickson

    2015-12-01

    This section will define the science of human factors, its origins, its impact on safety in other domains, and its impact and potential for impact on patient safety. Copyright © 2015 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. FAA airborne data link human factors research plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-07-01

    This report contains a five-year plan to perform research of human factors issues and topics : related to Data Link implementations in general aviation and transport category aircraft. : Elements such as resource allocation and management and coordin...

  7. Factors associated with pentosidine accumulation in the human vitreous

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Deemter, Marielle; Bank, Ruud A.; Vehof, Jelle; Hooymans, Johanna M. M.; Los, Leonoor I.

    Purpose: To explore factors associated with pentosidine accumulation in the human vitreous. Methods: Vitreous samples were obtained during trans pars plana vitrectomy for macular hole or rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. Patient characteristics included age, gender, and diabetes mellitus. Ocular

  8. Local Risk Factors in Genital Human Papilloma Virus Infection in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Genital human papilloma virus, Pap smear, Risk factors. Access this article online .... their Pap smears taken and questionnaires on sexual attitudes, .... the high‑risk types, which mediate the response of the enhancer to steroid ...

  9. Traditional Values, Socio-Cultural Factors and Human Resource ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Values, Socio-Cultural Factors and Human Resource Management Practices in ... Ghanaian worker in general and the HR manager in particular is influenced ... face -to-face interview methods were used to obtain information for the study.

  10. Human factors methods for nuclear control room design. Volume 2. Human factors survey of control room design practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seminara, J.L.; Parsons, S.O.

    1979-11-01

    An earlier review of the control rooms of operating nuclear power plants identified many design problems having potential for degrading operator performance. As a result, the formal application of human factors principles was found to be needed. This report demonstrates the use of human factors in the design of power plant control rooms. The approaches shown in the report can be applied to operating power plants, as well as to those in the design stage. This study documents human factors techniques required to provide a sustained concern for the man-machine interface from control room concept definition to system implementation

  11. Human factor as nuclear safety element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valeca, S.C.; Preda, M.; Valeca, M.; Ana, E. M.; Popescu, D.

    2008-01-01

    National nuclear power system is based on western technology, it covers almost 20% from national need and could be briefly described by: - Safety and economic performances of Cernavoda NPP Unit 1; - Reduced influence on environment, population and workers; - Excellent ranking (place 4) among CANDU units from all over the world. Also, the national nuclear power system plays a major role in Romanian power policy accomplishment: - Energy safety and independence assurance; - Decrease of production of greenhouse effect gases; - Preserve the stability and adequacy of energy cost. 'Nuclear Safety' concept covers all the activities resulting from nuclear fuel cycle. By taking into account the international experience, the related activities are estimated to last around 70 years in Romania: - 10 years for site description and selection, design, manufacturing and commissioning activities; - 40 years for Nuclear Power Plant operation, maintenance and modernization activities; - 20 years for preservation and decommissioning activities. The above mentioned activities requires human resources, qualified and specialized in the following areas: - research and development; - equipment design, manufacturing and operation; - components construction and assembly, operation and maintenance. (authors)

  12. A report on human factors in nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-03-01

    Following the Three Mile Island incident of 1979, studies were undertaken by the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB), in-house and through outside consultants, to address the role of human factors in the regulatory process. This report by the Advisory Committee on Nuclear Safety (ACNS) comments briefly on these studies and offers suggestions which would promote a more formal treatment of human factors by the AECB

  13. Human factors at the Department of Energy National Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pond, D.J.; Waters, R.M.

    1991-01-01

    After World War II, a system of national laboratories was created to foster a suitable environment for scientific research. This paper reports that today, human factors activities are in evidence at most of the nine U.S. Department of Energy multi-program national laboratories as well as at a number of special program facilities. This paper provides historical and future perspectives on the DOE's human factors programs

  14. Development of human factors engineering guide for nuclear power project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Dangshi; Sheng Jufang

    1997-01-01

    'THE PRACTICAL GUIDE FOR APPLICATION OF HUMAN FACTORS ENGINEERING TO NUCLEAR POWER PROJECT (First Draft, in Chinese)', which was developed under a research program sponsored by National Nuclear Safety Administration (NNSA) is described briefly. It is hoped that more conscious, more systematical and more comprehensive application of Human Factors Engineering to the nuclear power projects from the preliminary feasibility studies up to the commercial operation will benefit the safe, efficient and economical operations of nuclear power plants in China

  15. Improving human performance: Industry factors influencing the ability to perform

    OpenAIRE

    Güera Massyn Romo

    2013-01-01

    Learning interventions and new technologies that aim to improve human performance must take cognisance of industry factors inhibiting human performance. The dynamic and fast pace nature of the Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) and the engineering industries do not lend themselves to proper skills planning and management. These industries experience real skills gaps, to some of which they contribute by themselves. This study reports on these performance-inhibiting factors such a...

  16. Human Factors for Situation Assessment in Grid Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guttromson, Ross T.; Schur, Anne; Greitzer, Frank L.; Paget, Mia L.

    2007-08-08

    Executive Summary Despite advances in technology, power system operators must assimilate overwhelming amounts of data to keep the grid operating. Analyses of recent blackouts have clearly demonstrated the need to enhance the operator’s situation awareness (SA). The long-term objective of this research is to integrate valuable technologies into the grid operator environment that support decision making under normal and abnormal operating conditions and remove non-technical barriers to enable the optimum use of these technologies by individuals working alone and as a team. More specifically, the research aims to identify methods and principles to increase SA of grid operators in the context of system conditions that are representative or common across many operating entities and develop operationally relevant experimental methods for studying technologies and operational practices which contribute to SA. With increasing complexity and interconnectivity of the grid, the scope and complexity of situation awareness have grown. New paradigms are needed to guide research and tool development aimed to enhance and improve operations. In reviewing related research, operating practices, systems, and tools, the present study established a taxonomy that provides a perspective on research and development surrounding power grid situation awareness and clarifies the field of human factors/SA for grid operations. Information sources that we used to identify critical factors underlying SA included interviews with experienced operational personnel, available historical summaries and transcripts of abnormal conditions and outages (e.g., the August 14, 2003 blackout), scientific literature, and operational policies/procedures and other documentation. Our analysis of August 2003 blackout transcripts and interviews adopted a different perspective than previous analyses of this material, and we complemented this analysis with additional interviews. Based on our analysis and a broad

  17. Investigation of the factor structure of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV): exploratory and higher order factor analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canivez, Gary L; Watkins, Marley W

    2010-12-01

    The present study examined the factor structure of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV; D. Wechsler, 2008a) standardization sample using exploratory factor analysis, multiple factor extraction criteria, and higher order exploratory factor analysis (J. Schmid & J. M. Leiman, 1957) not included in the WAIS-IV Technical and Interpretation Manual (D. Wechsler, 2008b). Results indicated that the WAIS-IV subtests were properly associated with the theoretically proposed first-order factors, but all but one factor-extraction criterion recommended extraction of one or two factors. Hierarchical exploratory analyses with the Schmid and Leiman procedure found that the second-order g factor accounted for large portions of total and common variance, whereas the four first-order factors accounted for small portions of total and common variance. It was concluded that the WAIS-IV provides strong measurement of general intelligence, and clinical interpretation should be primarily at that level.

  18. Human Factors: Spanning the Gap between OM & HRM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.P. Neumann (Patrick); J. Dul (Jan)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: This paper examines the claim that the application of human factors (HF) knowledge can improve both human well-being and operations system performance. Methodology: A systematic review was conducted using a general and two specialist databases to identify empirical studies

  19. Prevalence of malaria and human blood factors among patients in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Malaria has been and is still a major protozoan disease affecting the human population. Erythrocyte polymorphisms (mainly in blood groups and genotypes) influence the susceptibility to severe malaria. Aim: This study is aimed at assessing the prevalence malaria in relation to human blood factor and to ...

  20. Bringing organizational factors to the fore of human error management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Embrey, D.

    1991-01-01

    Human performance problems account for more than half of all significant events at nuclear power plants, even when these did not necessarily lead to severe accidents. In dealing with the management of human error, both technical and organizational factors need to be taken into account. Most important, a long-term commitment from senior management is needed. (author)

  1. Development of human factors design review guidelines(III)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Oh, In Suk; Suh, Sang Moon; Lee, Hyun Chul [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-02-15

    The objective of this study is to develop human factors engineering program review guidelines and alarm system review guidelines in order to resolve the two major technical issues: '25, human factors engineering program review model' and '26, review criteria for human factors aspects of advanced controls and instrumentation', which are related to the development of human factors safety regulation guides being performed by KINS. For the development of human factors program review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG-0711 and added our comments by considering Korean regulatory situation and reviewing the reference documents NUREG--0711, additional comments, and selected portion of the reference documents for the developer of safety regulation guides in KINS to see the contents comparatively at a glance and use them easily. For the development of alarm system review guides in KINS to see the contents comparatively at a glance and use them easily. For the development of alarm system review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG/CR-6105, which was published by NRC in 1994 as a guideline document for the human factors review of alarm system. Then we will update the guidelines by reviewing the literature related to alarm design published after 1994.

  2. Development of human factors design review guidelines(II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Oh, In Suk; Suh, Sang Moon; Lee, Hyun Chul [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-06-01

    The objective of this study is to develop human factors engineering program review guidelines and alarm system review guidelines in order to resolve the two major technical issues: 25. Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model and 26. Review Criteria for Human Factors Aspects of Advanced Controls and Instrumentation, which are related to the development of human factors safety regulation guides being performed by KINS. For the development of human factors program review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG-0711 and added our comments by considering Korean regulatory situation and reviewing the reference documents of NUREG-0711. We also computerized the Korean version of NUREG-0711, additional comments, and selected portion of the reference documents for the developer of safety regulation guides in KINS to see the contents comparatively at a glance and use them easily. For the development of alarm system review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG/CR-6105, which was published by NRC in 1994 as a guideline document for the human factors review of alarm systems. Then we will update the guidelines by reviewing the literature related to alarm design published after 1994. (author). 11 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Development of human factors design review guidelines(III)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Oh, In Suk; Suh, Sang Moon; Lee, Hyun Chul

    1999-02-01

    The objective of this study is to develop human factors engineering program review guidelines and alarm system review guidelines in order to resolve the two major technical issues: '25, human factors engineering program review model' and '26, review criteria for human factors aspects of advanced controls and instrumentation', which are related to the development of human factors safety regulation guides being performed by KINS. For the development of human factors program review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG-0711 and added our comments by considering Korean regulatory situation and reviewing the reference documents NUREG--0711, additional comments, and selected portion of the reference documents for the developer of safety regulation guides in KINS to see the contents comparatively at a glance and use them easily. For the development of alarm system review guides in KINS to see the contents comparatively at a glance and use them easily. For the development of alarm system review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG/CR-6105, which was published by NRC in 1994 as a guideline document for the human factors review of alarm system. Then we will update the guidelines by reviewing the literature related to alarm design published after 1994

  4. Development of human factors design review guidelines(II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Oh, In Suk; Suh, Sang Moon; Lee, Hyun Chul

    1998-06-01

    The objective of this study is to develop human factors engineering program review guidelines and alarm system review guidelines in order to resolve the two major technical issues: '25, human factors engineering program review model' and '26, review criteria for human factors aspects of advanced controls and instrumentation', which are related to the development of human factors safety regulation guides being performed by KINS. For the development of human factors program review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG-0711 and added our comments by considering Korean regulatory situation and reviewing the reference documents NUREG--0711, additional comments, and selected portion of the reference documents for the developer of safety regulation guides in KINS to see the contents comparatively at a glance and use them easily. For the development of alarm system review guides in KINS to see the contents comparatively at a glance and use them easily. For the development of alarm system review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG/CR-6105, which was published by NRC in 1994 as a guideline document for the human factors review of alarm system. Then we will update the guidelines by reviewing the literature related to alarm design published after 1994

  5. Development of human factors design review guidelines(III)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Oh, In Suk; Suh, Sang Moon; Lee, Hyun Chul [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-02-15

    The objective of this study is to develop human factors engineering program review guidelines and alarm system review guidelines in order to resolve the two major technical issues: '25, human factors engineering program review model' and '26, review criteria for human factors aspects of advanced controls and instrumentation', which are related to the development of human factors safety regulation guides being performed by KINS. For the development of human factors program review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG-0711 and added our comments by considering Korean regulatory situation and reviewing the reference documents NUREG--0711, additional comments, and selected portion of the reference documents for the developer of safety regulation guides in KINS to see the contents comparatively at a glance and use them easily. For the development of alarm system review guides in KINS to see the contents comparatively at a glance and use them easily. For the development of alarm system review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG/CR-6105, which was published by NRC in 1994 as a guideline document for the human factors review of alarm system. Then we will update the guidelines by reviewing the literature related to alarm design published after 1994.

  6. Human Factors Throughout the Life Cycle: Lessons Learned from the Shuttle Program. [Human Factors in Ground Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanki, Barbara G.

    2011-01-01

    With the ending of the Space Shuttle Program, it is critical that we not forget the Human Factors lessons we have learned over the years. At every phase of the life cycle, from manufacturing, processing and integrating vehicle and payload, to launch, flight operations, mission control and landing, hundreds of teams have worked together to achieve mission success in one of the most complex, high-risk socio-technical enterprises ever designed. Just as there was great diversity in the types of operations performed at every stage, there was a myriad of human factors that could further complicate these human systems. A single mishap or close call could point to issues at the individual level (perceptual or workload limitations, training, fatigue, human error susceptibilities), the task level (design of tools, procedures and aspects of the workplace), as well as the organizational level (appropriate resources, safety policies, information access and communication channels). While we have often had to learn through human mistakes and technological failures, we have also begun to understand how to design human systems in which individuals can excel, where tasks and procedures are not only safe but efficient, and how organizations can foster a proactive approach to managing risk and supporting human enterprises. Panelists will talk about their experiences as they relate human factors to a particular phase of the shuttle life cycle. They will conclude with a framework for tying together human factors lessons-learned into system-level risk management strategies.

  7. The human failure factors during emergency operating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Bingji

    1994-01-01

    In the case of emergency operating, operating staff usually are in the limit state of mind, so the operating mistake rate will go up sharply, and the disastrous accidents usually will happen at this moment. So to study and resolve the problem is very important and imperative. Basing on raising the reliability of man-machine system, the psychology and pathology of operating staff under the limit state and the behavior characteristic of operating staff in the emergency operation have been expounded here, and the operating staff's psychological gradation partitioned by foreign experts also has been introduced, and the influence factors of psychology and equipment which lead to the limit state of mind also have been analyzed. In addition, taking the emergency operation of the nuclear power plant as a example, The authors has studied the countermeasures to prevent the limit state from occurring, which includes countermeasures to environment effects, measures to improve the technical equipment and the measures that the operating staff should be taken

  8. Impact of cardiovascular risk factors on medical expenditure: evidence from epidemiological studies analysing data on health checkups and medical insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Koshi

    2014-01-01

    Concerns have increasingly been raised about the medical economic burden in Japan, of which approximately 20% is attributable to cardiovascular disease, including coronary heart disease and stroke. Because the management of risk factors is essential for the prevention of cardiovascular disease, it is important to understand the relationship between cardiovascular risk factors and medical expenditure in the Japanese population. However, only a few Japanese epidemiological studies analysing data on health checkups and medical insurance have provided evidence on this topic. Patients with cardiovascular risk factors, including obesity, hypertension, and diabetes, may incur medical expenditures through treatment of the risk factors themselves and through procedures for associated diseases that usually require hospitalization and sometimes result in death. Untreated risk factors may cause medical expenditure surges, mainly due to long-term hospitalization, more often than risk factors preventively treated by medication. On an individual patient level, medical expenditures increase with the number of concomitant cardiovascular risk factors. For single risk factors, personal medical expenditure may increase with the severity of that factor. However, on a population level, the medical economic burden attributable to cardiovascular risk factors results largely from a single, particularly prevalent risk factor, especially from mildly-to-moderately abnormal levels of the factor. Therefore, cardiovascular risk factors require management on the basis of both a cost-effective strategy of treating high-risk patients and a population strategy for reducing both the ill health and medical economic burdens that result from cardiovascular disease.

  9. Tissue factor-dependent activation of tritium-labeled factor IX and factor X in human plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, S.A.; Jesty, J.

    1984-01-01

    A comparism was made of the tissue factor-dependent activation of tritium-labeled factor IX and factor X in a human plasma system and a study was made of the role of proteases known to stimulate factor VII activity. Plasma was defibrinated by heating and depleted of its factors IX and X by passing it through antibody columns. Addition of human brain thromboplastin, Ca2+, and purified 3H-labeled factor X to the plasma resulted, after a short lag, in burst-like activation of the factor X, measured as the release of radiolabeled activation peptide. The progress of activation was slowed by both heparin and a specific inhibitor of factor Xa but factor X activation could not be completely abolished by such inhibitors. In the case of 3H-factor IX activation, the rate also increased for approximately 3 min after addition of thromboplastin, but was not subsequently curtailed. A survey of proteases implicated as activators of factor VII in other settings showed that both factor Xa and factor IXa could accelerate the activation of factor IX. However, factor Xa was unique in obliterating activation when present at concentrations greater than approximately 1 nM. Heparin inhibited the tissue factor-dependent activation of factor IX almost completely, apparently through the effect of antithrombin on the feedback reactions of factors Xa and IXa on factor VII. These results suggest that a very tight, biphasic control of factor VII activity exists in human plasma, which is modulated mainly by factor Xa. At saturation of factor VIIa/tissue factor, factor IX activation was significantly more rapid than was previously found in bovine plasma under similar conditions. The activation of factor X at saturation was slightly more rapid than in bovine plasma, despite the presence of heparin

  10. Factors for analysing and improving performance of R&D in Malaysian universities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramli, Mohammad Shakir; de Boer, S.J.; de Bruijn, E.J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a model for analysing and improving performance of R&D in Malaysian universities. There are various general models for R&D analysis, but none is specific for improving the performance of R&D in Malaysian universities. This research attempts to fill a gap in the body of knowledge

  11. The Measure of Human Error: Direct and Indirect Performance Shaping Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald L. Boring; Candice D. Griffith; Jeffrey C. Joe

    2007-08-01

    The goal of performance shaping factors (PSFs) is to provide measures to account for human performance. PSFs fall into two categories—direct and indirect measures of human performance. While some PSFs such as “time to complete a task” are directly measurable, other PSFs, such as “fitness for duty,” can only be measured indirectly through other measures and PSFs, such as through fatigue measures. This paper explores the role of direct and indirect measures in human reliability analysis (HRA) and the implications that measurement theory has on analyses and applications using PSFs. The paper concludes with suggestions for maximizing the reliability and validity of PSFs.

  12. Detailed semantic analyses of human error incidents occurring at nuclear power plants. Extraction of periodical transition of error occurrence patterns by applying multivariate analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirotsu, Yuko; Suzuki, Kunihiko; Takano, Kenichi; Kojima, Mitsuhiro

    2000-01-01

    It is essential for preventing the recurrence of human error incidents to analyze and evaluate them with the emphasis on human factor. Detailed and structured analyses of all incidents at domestic nuclear power plants (NPPs) reported during last 31 years have been conducted based on J-HPES, in which total 193 human error cases are identified. Results obtained by the analyses have been stored into the J-HPES database. In the previous study, by applying multivariate analysis to above case studies, it was suggested that there were several occurrence patterns identified of how errors occur at NPPs. It was also clarified that the causes related to each human error are different depending on age of their occurrence. This paper described the obtained results in respects of periodical transition of human error occurrence patterns. By applying multivariate analysis to the above data, it was suggested there were two types of error occurrence patterns as to each human error type. First type is common occurrence patterns, not depending on the age, and second type is the one influenced by periodical characteristics. (author)

  13. Human-factor operating concept for Borssele Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieman, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    The safety level in the operation of a reactor is determined basically by human beings. The Borssele Nuclear Power Station has carried out measures for improving the man-machine interface through training and operating instructions for the shift personnel. The retrofitting of control technology relevant to safety engineering should avoid operating instructions which can cause potential failures. A safety study has shown that the remaining risk following all retrofitting measures remains dependent to the extent of 80% on human factors and that human factors as a whole have a positive effect on reactor safety. (orig.) [de

  14. Human Factor Modelling in the Risk Assessment of Port Manoeuvers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Abramowicz-Gerigk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The documentation of human factor influence on the scenario development in maritime accidents compared with expert methods is commonly used as a basis in the process of setting up safety regulations and instructions. The new accidents and near misses show the necessity for further studies in determining the human factor influence on both risk acceptance criteria and development of risk control options for the manoeuvers in restricted waters. The paper presents the model of human error probability proposed for the assessment of ship masters and marine pilots' error decision and its influence on the risk of port manoeuvres.

  15. Human factors evaluation of the engineering test reactor control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banks, W.W.; Boone, M.P.

    1981-03-01

    The Reactor and Process Control Rooms at the Engineering Test Reactor were evaluated by a team of human factors engineers using available human factors design criteria. During the evaluation, ETR, equipment and facilities were compared with MIL-STD-1472-B, Human Engineering design Criteria for Military Systems. The focus of recommendations centered on: (a) displays and controls; placing displays and controls in functional groups; (b) establishing a consistent color coding (in compliance with a standard if possible); (c) systematizing annunciator alarms and reducing their number; (d) organizing equipment in functional groups; and (e) modifying labeling and lines of demarcation

  16. Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analyses of Delirium Symptoms in a Sample of Nursing Home Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyo, Patience; Huang, Ting-Ying; Simoni-Wastila, Linda; Harrington, Donna

    2018-02-01

    This study examined the latent constructs of delirium symptoms among nursing home (NH) residents in the United States. Cross-sectional NH assessment data (Minimum Data Set 2.0) from the 2009 Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey were used. Data from two independent, randomly selected subsamples of residents ≥65 years were analyzed using exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). There were 367 and 366 individuals in the EFA and CFA, respectively. Assessment of multiple model fit statistics in CFA indicated that the two-factor structure provided better fit for the data than a one-factor solution. The two factors represented cognitive and behavioral latent constructs as suggested by the related literature. A correlation of .72 between these constructs suggested moderate discriminant validity. This finding emphasizes the importance of health care providers to be attentive to both cognitive and behavioral symptoms when diagnosing, treating, and managing delirium.

  17. The productivity from a human perspective: Dimensions and factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirza Marvel Cequea

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review the literature, for both theoretical foundations and empirical research, in order to establish relationships between the variables related to human factors and their impact on productivity.Design/methodology/approach: The strategy employed corresponds to a descriptive non-experimental design, which is the establishment of three criteria for the literature review, in order to narrow down the topic to research works relating productivity with the human factor. This was investigated in databases and journals dealing with related topics, in addition to consulting doctoral theses and published books concerning the influence of human factors on productivity. About 250 papers which were considered the most relevant for the research were selected.Findings:  As a result of this exploration the classification of the factors in two dimensions that are manifested in people when they act in organizations was highlighted: the psychological and the psychosocial dimension. Human factors included in these dimensions are: individual factors (motivation, skills, job satisfaction, identification, commitment and involvement with the organization, group factors (participation, cohesion and management conflict and organizational factors (organizational culture, organizational climate and leadership. All these factors have an impact on the productivity of the organization and are addressed in this research.Originality/value: The selected variables were used to formulate a model that incorporates the human factors identified and considers the phenomenon in a comprehensive manner. It will be addressed through multivariate analysis, with the possible application of structural equations in order to assess the causal relationships that may exist between factors and productivity.

  18. Assessment factors for human health risk assessment: A discussion paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeire, T.; Stevenson, H.; Pieters, M.N.; Rennen, M.; Slob, W.; Hakkert, B.C.

    1999-01-01

    The general goal of this discussion paper is to contribute toward the further harmonization of human health risk assessment. It first discusses the development of a formal, harmonized set of assessment factors. The status quo with regard to assessment factors is reviewed, that is, the type of

  19. Assessment factors for human health risk assessment: a discussion paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeire TG; Stevenson H; Pieters MN; Rennen M; Slob W; Hakkert BC; Nederlandse organisatie voor; CSR; LEO; TNO-ITV

    1998-01-01

    The general goal of this discussion paper is to contribute towards further harmonisation of the human health risk assessment. It discusses the development of a formal, harmonised set of default assessment factors. The status quo with regard to assessment factors is reviewed. Options are presented

  20. Kinetics of the Factor XIa catalyzed activation of human blood coagulation Factor IX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, P.N.; Bradford, H.; Sinha, D.; Piperno, J.R.; Tuszynski, G.P.

    1984-01-01

    The kinetics of activation of human Factor IX by human Factor XIa was studied by measuring the release of a trichloroacetic acid-soluble tritium-labeled activation peptide from Factor IX. Initial rates of trichloroacetic acid-soluble 3 H-release were linear over 10-30 min of incubation of Factor IX (88 nM) with CaCl 2 (5 mM) and with pure (greater than 98%) Factor XIa (0.06-1.3 nM), which was prepared by incubating human Factor XI with bovine Factor XIIa. Release of 3 H preceded the appearance of Factor IXa activity, and the percentage of 3 H released remained constant when the mole fraction of 3 H-labeled and unlabeled Factor IX was varied and the total Factor IX concentration remained constant. A linear correlation (r greater than 0.98, P less than 0.001) was observed between initial rates of 3 H-release and the concentration of Factor XIa, measured by chromogenic assay and by radioimmunoassay and added at a Factor IX:Factor XIa molar ratio of 70-5,600. Kinetic parameters, determined by Lineweaver-Burk analysis, include K/sub m/ (0.49 microM) of about five- to sixfold higher than the plasma Factor IX concentration, which could therefore regulate the reaction. The catalytic constant (k/sub cat/) (7.7/s) is approximately 20-50 times higher than that reported by Zur and Nemerson for Factor IX activation by Factor VIIa plus tissue factor. Therefore, depending on the relative amounts of Factor XIa and Factor VIIa generated in vivo and other factors which may influence reaction rates, these kinetic parameters provide part of the information required for assessing the relative contributions of the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways to Factor IX activation, and suggest that the Factor XIa catalyzed reaction is physiologically significant

  1. Production and properties of monoclonal antibodies to human blood coagulation factor VII and factor VIIa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, P.; Nesbitt, J.A.; Ge, M.; Kisiel, W.

    1986-01-01

    Human factor VII is a trace vitamin K-dependent protein that circulates in blood as a single-chain precursor to a serine protease. Upon activation, two-chain factor VIIa activates factor x in the presence of tissue factor and calcium. Purified preparations of single-chain (SC) human factor VII and two-chain (TC) factor VIIa were utilized to immunize Balb/c mice. Spleen cells from these immunized mice were fused to a non-secreting NS-1 derivative of X63-Ag8 myeloma cells and grown in selective medium. Analysis of culture supernatants by EIA revealed several hybridomas that were secreting IgG specific for Sc-factor VII and TC-factor VIIa. In addition, several hybridomas secreted IgG that reacted equally well with factor VII and factor VIIa. One of the latter McAb (A-29) reacted with the heavy chain of factor VIIa and the intact factor VII molecule equally as judged by Western blotting. A-29 was produced in ascites fluid, purified and coupled to activated CH-Sepharose. Application of one liter of normal human plasma to 10 ml of this immunoadsorbent column, elution of factor VII and subsequent Western blot using 125 I-rabbit anti-human factor VII indicated a single species of factor VII(M/sub r/ = 50 KDa) in normal plasma. These specific factor VII/VIIa McAbs may prove useful in the analysis of these factors, and in the separation of SC-factor VII from TC-factor VIIa

  2. Taking account of human factors in control-room design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dien, Y.; Montmayeul, R.

    1995-07-01

    Since the Three Mile Island accident two ways for improving the Human-Machine Interface have mainly been followed: the development of computerized operator aids in existing control-rooms and the design of advanced control-rooms. Insufficient attention paid to human factors in the design of operator aids has generally led to these aids being neglected or unused by their potential users. While for the design of advanced control-rooms efforts have been made for dealing with human factors in more extensive way. Based upon this experience, a general method for taking account of human factors in a control-room design has been devised and is described in this paper. (author)

  3. Socializing the human factors analysis and classification system: incorporating social psychological phenomena into a human factors error classification system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paletz, Susannah B F; Bearman, Christopher; Orasanu, Judith; Holbrook, Jon

    2009-08-01

    The presence of social psychological pressures on pilot decision making was assessed using qualitative analyses of critical incident interviews. Social psychological phenomena have long been known to influence attitudes and behavior but have not been highlighted in accident investigation models. Using a critical incident method, 28 pilots who flew in Alaska were interviewed. The participants were asked to describe a situation involving weather when they were pilot in command and found their skills challenged. They were asked to describe the incident in detail but were not explicitly asked to identify social pressures. Pressures were extracted from transcripts in a bottom-up manner and then clustered into themes. Of the 28 pilots, 16 described social psychological pressures on their decision making, specifically, informational social influence, the foot-in-the-door persuasion technique, normalization of deviance, and impression management and self-consistency motives. We believe accident and incident investigations can benefit from explicit inclusion of common social psychological pressures. We recommend specific ways of incorporating these pressures into theHuman Factors Analysis and Classification System.

  4. Cytokines and Growth Factors Expressed by Human Cutaneous Melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elias, Elias G., E-mail: george.elias@medstar.net; Hasskamp, Joanne H.; Sharma, Bhuvnesh K. [Maryland Melanoma Center, Weinberg Cancer Institute, Franklin Square Hospital Center, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2010-05-07

    Cytokines and growth factors have biologic effects that could stimulate tumor growth, invasion and angiogenesis. The incidence of 24 factors was investigated in 25 cultured human melanoma cell lines and in 62 fixed tissues at different stages of the disease. Over 80% of the human melanoma cell lines expressed TGF-β, IL-8, IL-6, VEGF, PDGF-AA and OPN. Significantly higher TGF-β, IGF-1 and IL-15 were determined in primary lesions compared to distant metastases by immunohistochemistry. Illustrating the complexity of the milieu of the tumor microenvironment, some of these factors may have to be considered in targeted therapy.

  5. Cytokines and Growth Factors Expressed by Human Cutaneous Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias G. Elias

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Cytokines and growth factors have biologic effects that could stimulate tumor growth, invasion and angiogenesis. The incidence of 24 factors was investigated in 25 cultured human melanoma cell lines and in 62 fixed tissues at different stages of the disease. Over 80% of the human melanoma cell lines expressed TGF-β, IL-8, IL-6, VEGF, PDGF-AA and OPN. Significantly higher TGF-β, IGF-1 and IL-15 were determined in primary lesions compared to distant metastases by immunohistochemistry. Illustrating the complexity of the milieu of the tumor microenvironment, some of these factors may have to be considered in targeted therapy.

  6. Human Factors evaluation of LCS 254 and 255

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goffe, L.; Held, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    This report includes the results of the Human Factors evaluation of the local control stations (LCS) 254 and 255 performed by Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) Human Factors. Recommendations are included in order that the panel designs will be upgraded to comply with human engineering design guidelines. Figures 1 and 2 are included as examples of recommended changes. Also, consideration was given to including the proposed engineering changes which are currently on-going for LCS 255. Appendix A identifies the human engineering requirements from NUREG-0700 which were used in the evaluation process, and the areas of the design which do not comply with the guidelines. Those areas of the panel design which fail to comply with the human engineering guidelines are label location, label content, location aids, panel layout, and control display integration. Each of these design deficiencies and proposed corrections are described in this report

  7. The role of host genetic factors in respiratory tract infectious diseases: systematic review, meta-analyses and field synopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patarčić, Inga; Gelemanović, Andrea; Kirin, Mirna; Kolčić, Ivana; Theodoratou, Evropi; Baillie, Kenneth J.; de Jong, Menno D.; Rudan, Igor; Campbell, Harry; Polašek, Ozren

    2015-01-01

    Host genetic factors have frequently been implicated in respiratory infectious diseases, often with inconsistent results in replication studies. We identified 386 studies from the total of 24,823 studies identified in a systematic search of four bibliographic databases. We performed meta-analyses of

  8. Human factors: A major issue in plant aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widrig, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    Humans play a significant role in the effects of aging on safe and reliable operation of nuclear power plants. These human issues may be more important than the issues of materials and component degradation with age. Human actions can accelerate or decelerate physical aging of a plant. And an aging plant can have a significant negative impact on staff quality and performance. The purpose of this paper is to provide some insights into the nature of these human factors issues and their relationship to plant aging. An early awareness of these issues facilitates timely action to at least mitigate these problems before they become insurmountable

  9. Who will volunteer? Analysing individual and structural factors of volunteering in Swiss sports clubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlesinger, Torsten; Nagel, Siegfried

    2013-01-01

    This article analyses the conditions influencing volunteering in sports clubs. It focuses not only on individual characteristics of volunteers but also on the corresponding structural conditions of sports clubs. It proposes a model of voluntary work in sports clubs based on economic behaviour theory. The influences of both the individual and context levels on the decision to engage in voluntary work are estimated in different multilevel models. Results of these multilevel analyses indicate that volunteering is not just an outcome of individual characteristics such as lower workloads, higher income, children belonging to the sports club, longer club memberships, or a strong commitment to the club. It is also influenced by club-specific structural conditions; volunteering is more probable in rural sports clubs whereas growth-oriented goals in clubs have a destabilising effect.

  10. Transferring aviation human factors technology to the nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montemerlo, M.D.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the availability of aviation safety technology and research on problems which are sufficiently similar to those faced by the nuclear power industry that an agressive effort to adapt and transfer that technology and research is warranted. Because of time and space constraints, the scope of this paper is reduced from a discussion of all of aviation safety technology to the human factors of air carrier safety. This area was selected not only because of similarities in the human factors challenges shared by both industries (e.g. selection, training, evaluation, certification, etc.) but because experience in aviation has clearly demonstrated that human error contributes to a substantially greater proportion of accidents and incidents than does equipment failure. The Congress of the United States has placed a great deal of emphasis on investigating and solving human factors problems in aviation. A number of recent examples of this interest and of the resulting actions are described. The opinions of prominent aviation organizations as to the human factors problems most in need of research are presented, along with indications of where technology transfer to the nuclear power industry may be viable. The areas covered include: fatigue, crew size, information transfer, resource management, safety data-bases, the role of automation, voice and data recording systems, crew distractions, the management of safety regulatory agencies, equipment recertification, team training, crew work-load, behavioural factors, human factors of equipment design, medical problems, toxicological factors, the use of simulators for training and certification, determining the causes of human errors, the politics of systems improvement, and importance of both safety and public perception of safety if the industry is to be viable. (author)

  11. Analysing Factors That Drives Customer Loyalty Of Shoes Laundry Quickcares Manado

    OpenAIRE

    Mawa, Maria; Tumbuan, Willem J.F.Alfa; Tielung, Maria V.J

    2017-01-01

    This research is to analyzing what are the factors that drive customer loyalty of shoe laundry Quickcares Manado. Shoe Laundry is the services that offer to clean and taking care shoe, Customer Loyalty is the result of consistently positive emotional experience, physical attribute-based satisfaction and perceived value of an experience, which includes the product or services. It is important to know factors that drive customer Loyalty in business, in order to guarantee business continuity and...

  12. The Self-Description Inventory+, Part 1: Factor Structure and Convergent Validity Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    measures 12 scales of personality. The current report examines the possibility of replacing the EQ with a Five Factor Model ( FFM ) measure of...Checklist. Our results show that the SDI + has scales that are intercorrelated in a manner consistent with the FFM (Experiment 1), a factor structure...met the criteria showing it to be an FFM instrument, we will conduct concurrent validity research to determine if the SDI+ has greater predictive

  13. Environmental risk factors of pregnancy outcomes: a summary of recent meta-analyses of epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Dadvand, Payam; Grellier, James; Martinez, David; Vrijheid, Martine

    2013-01-15

    Various epidemiological studies have suggested associations between environmental exposures and pregnancy outcomes. Some studies have tempted to combine information from various epidemiological studies using meta-analysis. We aimed to describe the methodologies used in these recent meta-analyses of environmental exposures and pregnancy outcomes. Furthermore, we aimed to report their main findings. We conducted a bibliographic search with relevant search terms. We obtained and evaluated 16 recent meta-analyses. The number of studies included in each reported meta-analysis varied greatly, with the largest number of studies available for environmental tobacco smoke. Only a small number of the studies reported having followed meta-analysis guidelines or having used a quality rating system. Generally they tested for heterogeneity and publication bias. Publication bias did not occur frequently.The meta-analyses found statistically significant negative associations between environmental tobacco smoke and stillbirth, birth weight and any congenital anomalies; PM2.5 and preterm birth; outdoor air pollution and some congenital anomalies; indoor air pollution from solid fuel use and stillbirth and birth weight; polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) exposure and birth weight; disinfection by-products in water and stillbirth, small for gestational age and some congenital anomalies; occupational exposure to pesticides and solvents and some congenital anomalies; and agent orange and some congenital anomalies. The number of meta-analyses of environmental exposures and pregnancy outcomes is small and they vary in methodology. They reported statistically significant associations between environmental exposures such as environmental tobacco smoke, air pollution and chemicals and pregnancy outcomes.

  14. Environmental risk factors of pregnancy outcomes: a summary of recent meta-analyses of epidemiological studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieuwenhuijsen Mark J

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Various epidemiological studies have suggested associations between environmental exposures and pregnancy outcomes. Some studies have tempted to combine information from various epidemiological studies using meta-analysis. We aimed to describe the methodologies used in these recent meta-analyses of environmental exposures and pregnancy outcomes. Furthermore, we aimed to report their main findings. Methods We conducted a bibliographic search with relevant search terms. We obtained and evaluated 16 recent meta-analyses. Results The number of studies included in each reported meta-analysis varied greatly, with the largest number of studies available for environmental tobacco smoke. Only a small number of the studies reported having followed meta-analysis guidelines or having used a quality rating system. Generally they tested for heterogeneity and publication bias. Publication bias did not occur frequently. The meta-analyses found statistically significant negative associations between environmental tobacco smoke and stillbirth, birth weight and any congenital anomalies; PM2.5 and preterm birth; outdoor air pollution and some congenital anomalies; indoor air pollution from solid fuel use and stillbirth and birth weight; polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB exposure and birth weight; disinfection by-products in water and stillbirth, small for gestational age and some congenital anomalies; occupational exposure to pesticides and solvents and some congenital anomalies; and agent orange and some congenital anomalies. Conclusions The number of meta-analyses of environmental exposures and pregnancy outcomes is small and they vary in methodology. They reported statistically significant associations between environmental exposures such as environmental tobacco smoke, air pollution and chemicals and pregnancy outcomes.

  15. Mitochondrial genome analyses suggest multiple Trichuris species in humans, baboons, and pigs from different geographical regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hawash, Mohamed B. F.; Andersen, Lee O.; Gasser, Robin B.

    2015-01-01

    Trichuris from françois' leaf monkey, suggesting multiple whipworm species circulating among non-human primates. The genetic and protein distances between pig Trichuris from Denmark and other regions were roughly 9% and 6%, respectively, while Chinese and Ugandan whipworms were more closely related......) suggesting that they represented different species. Trichuris from the olive baboon in US was genetically related to human Trichuris in China, while the other from the hamadryas baboon in Denmark was nearly identical to human Trichuris from Uganda. Baboon-derived Trichuris was genetically distinct from......BACKGROUND: The whipworms Trichuris trichiura and Trichuris suis are two parasitic nematodes of humans and pigs, respectively. Although whipworms in human and non-human primates historically have been referred to as T. trichiura, recent reports suggest that several Trichuris spp. are found...

  16. Human papillomavirus infection and anxiety: analyses in women with low-grade cervical cytological abnormalities unaware of their infection status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candice Y Johnson

    Full Text Available Women testing positive for human papillomavirus (HPV infection experience increased levels of anxiety that have been attributed to fears of stigmatization and developing cervical cancer. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between HPV infection and anxiety in women who were unaware they had been tested specifically for HPV, to determine if any anxiety experienced by HPV-positive women could be due to causes other than learning of test results.This study was nested within a randomised controlled trial of management of women with abnormal cervical cytology conducted in the United Kingdom with recruitment between 1999 and 2002. At baseline, prior to having a sample taken for HPV testing, the results of which were not disclosed, women were assessed for anxiety using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and asked about fears of developing cervical cancer ("cancer worries"; this assessment was repeated at 12, 18, 24, and 30 months of follow-up. Logistic regression and generalized estimating equations were used for the cross-sectional (baseline and longitudinal analyses, respectively.Among the 2842 participants, there was no association between HPV status and anxiety among white women. Among non-white women, however, anxiety was less common among HPV-positive than HPV-negative women (adjusted odds ratio 0.41, 95% confidence interval 0.22 to 0.77. Among non-smokers, cancer worry was more common in HPV-positive than HPV-negative women; the opposite association was observed among ex-smokers.Associations between HPV status and anxiety may be explained by factors other than learning of test results and may vary by ethnicity and lifestyle factors.

  17. Effectiveness of human factors simulator; Eficiencia del simulador de factores humanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moragas, F.

    2015-07-01

    En 2011, ANAV started the exploitation of the Human Factors Simulator installed in TECNATOM Training Center located in L'Hospital de L'Infant Tarragona. AVAN's Strategic Plan includes the Action Plan for the improvement of human behavior. The plan includes improving the efficiency of the efficiency of the human factors simulator. It is proposed to improve the efficiency into two different terms: winning effectiveness in modeling behaviors, and interweaving the activities in the simulator with the actual strategy of promoting Safety culture and human behaviour. (Author)

  18. Lessons for public health campaigns from analysing commercial food marketing success factors: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Commercial food marketing has considerably shaped consumer food choice behaviour. Meanwhile, public health campaigns for healthier eating have had limited impact to date. Social marketing suggests that successful commercial food marketing campaigns can provide useful lessons for public sector activities. The aim of the present study was to empirically identify food marketing success factors that, using the social marketing approach, could help improve public health campaigns to promote healthy eating. Methods In this case-study analysis, 27 recent and successful commercial food and beverage marketing cases were purposively sampled from different European countries. The cases involved different consumer target groups, product categories, company sizes and marketing techniques. The analysis focused on cases of relatively healthy food types, and nutrition and health-related aspects in the communication related to the food. Visual as well as written material was gathered, complemented by semi-structured interviews with 12 food market trend experts and 19 representatives of food companies and advertising agencies. Success factors were identified by a group of experts who reached consensus through discussion structured by a card sorting method. Results Six clusters of success factors emerged from the analysis and were labelled as "data and knowledge", "emotions", "endorsement", "media", "community" and "why and how". Each cluster subsumes two or three success factors and is illustrated by examples. In total, 16 factors were identified. It is argued that the factors "nutritional evidence", "trend awareness", "vertical endorsement", "simple naturalness" and "common values" are of particular importance in the communication of health with regard to food. Conclusions The present study identified critical factors for the success of commercial food marketing campaigns related to the issue of nutrition and health, which are possibly transferable to the public health

  19. Lessons for public health campaigns from analysing commercial food marketing success factors: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Perez-Cueto, Federico J A; Niedzwiedzka, Barbara; Verbeke, Wim; Bech-Larsen, Tino

    2012-02-21

    Commercial food marketing has considerably shaped consumer food choice behaviour. Meanwhile, public health campaigns for healthier eating have had limited impact to date. Social marketing suggests that successful commercial food marketing campaigns can provide useful lessons for public sector activities. The aim of the present study was to empirically identify food marketing success factors that, using the social marketing approach, could help improve public health campaigns to promote healthy eating. In this case-study analysis, 27 recent and successful commercial food and beverage marketing cases were purposively sampled from different European countries. The cases involved different consumer target groups, product categories, company sizes and marketing techniques. The analysis focused on cases of relatively healthy food types, and nutrition and health-related aspects in the communication related to the food. Visual as well as written material was gathered, complemented by semi-structured interviews with 12 food market trend experts and 19 representatives of food companies and advertising agencies. Success factors were identified by a group of experts who reached consensus through discussion structured by a card sorting method. Six clusters of success factors emerged from the analysis and were labelled as "data and knowledge", "emotions", "endorsement", "media", "community" and "why and how". Each cluster subsumes two or three success factors and is illustrated by examples. In total, 16 factors were identified. It is argued that the factors "nutritional evidence", "trend awareness", "vertical endorsement", "simple naturalness" and "common values" are of particular importance in the communication of health with regard to food. The present study identified critical factors for the success of commercial food marketing campaigns related to the issue of nutrition and health, which are possibly transferable to the public health sector. Whether or not a particular

  20. From sexless to sexy: Why it is time for human genetics to consider and report analyses of sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Matthew S; Smith, Phillip H; McKee, Sherry A; Ehringer, Marissa A

    2017-01-01

    Science has come a long way with regard to the consideration of sex differences in clinical and preclinical research, but one field remains behind the curve: human statistical genetics. The goal of this commentary is to raise awareness and discussion about how to best consider and evaluate possible sex effects in the context of large-scale human genetic studies. Over the course of this commentary, we reinforce the importance of interpreting genetic results in the context of biological sex, establish evidence that sex differences are not being considered in human statistical genetics, and discuss how best to conduct and report such analyses. Our recommendation is to run stratified analyses by sex no matter the sample size or the result and report the findings. Summary statistics from stratified analyses are helpful for meta-analyses, and patterns of sex-dependent associations may be hidden in a combined dataset. In the age of declining sequencing costs, large consortia efforts, and a number of useful control samples, it is now time for the field of human genetics to appropriately include sex in the design, analysis, and reporting of results.

  1. Incorporating Human Factors into design change processes - a regulator's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staples, L.; McRobbie, H.

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear power plants in Canada must receive written approval from the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) when making certain changes that are defined in their licenses. The CNSC expects the design change process to include a method for ensuring that the human-machine interface and workplace design support the safe and reliable performance of required tasks. When reviewing design changes for approval, the CNSC looks for evidence of analysis work, use of appropriate human factors design guide-lines, and verification and validation testing of the design. In addition to reviewing significant design changes, evaluations are conducted to ensure design change processes adequately address human performance. Findings from reviews and evaluations highlight the need to integrate human factors into the design change process, provide human factors training and support to engineering staff, establish processes to ensure coordination between the various groups with a vested interest in human factors, and develop more rigorous methods to validate changes to maintenance, field operations and testing interfaces. (author)

  2. US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Human Factors Program Plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-09-01

    The purpose of the NRC Human Factors Program Plan (NUREG-0985) is to ensure that proper consideration is given to human factors in the design, operation, and maintenance of nuclear facilities. This revised plan addresses nuclear power plants (NPPs) and describes (1) the technical assistance and research activities planned to provide the technical bases for the resolution of the remaining human factors related tasks described in NUREG-0660, THE NRC Action Plan developed as a result of the TMI-2 Accident, and NUREG-0737, Clarification of TMI Action Plan Requirements; (2) the additional human factors efforts identified during implementation of the Action Plan that should receive NRC attention; (3) conduct of developmental activities specified in NUREG-0985 during FY-83; and (4) the impact of Section 306 of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, PL 97-425. The plan represents a systematic and comprehensive approach for addressing human factors concerns important to NPP safety in the FY-84 through FY-86 time frame

  3. Human factors reliability benchmark exercise, report of the SRD participation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waters, Trevor

    1988-01-01

    Within the scope of the Human Factors Reliability Benchmark Exercise, organised by the Joint Research Centre, Ispra, Italy, the Safety and Reliability Directorate (SRD) team has performed analysis of human factors in two different activities - a routine test and a non-routine operational transient. For both activities, an 'FMEA-like' task, potential errors, and the factors which affect performance. For analysis of the non-routine activity, which involved a significant amount of cognitive processing, such as diagnosis and decision making, a new approach for qualitative analysis has been developed. Modelling has been performed using both event trees and fault trees and examples are provided. Human error probabilities were estimated using the methods Absolute Probability Judgement (APJ), Human Cognitive Reliability Method (HCR), Human Error and Assessment and Reduction Technique (HEART), Success-Likelihood Index Method (SLIM), Technica Empiriza Stima Eurori Operatori (TESEO), and Technique for Human Error Rate Prediction (THERP). A discussion is provided of the lessons learnt in the course of the exercise and unresolved difficulties in the assessment of human reliability. (author)

  4. Air Force Officer Qualifying Test Form T: Initial Item-, Test-, Factor-, and Composite-Level Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    used to qualify applicants for ROTC and OTS officer commissioning programs. The Pilot, Combat Systems Officer (CSO), and Air Battle Manager ( ABM ...AIR FORCE RESEARCH LABORATORY 711 HUMAN PERFORMANCE WING, AIRMAN SYSTEMS DIRECTORATE, WRIGHT-PATTERSON AIR FORCE BASE, OH 45433 AIR FORCE MATERIEL...Warfighter Interface Division Airman Systems Directorate This report is published in the interest of scientific and technical information exchange, and

  5. Pioneering the human development revolution: Analysing the trajectory of Mahbub ul Haq

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractMahbub ul Haq's work to coordinate, establish and propagate the human development approach offers an example of effective leadership in promoting more ethical socio-economic development. This article reviews Pioneering the Human Development Revolution-An Intellectual Biography of Mahbub

  6. Analysing an academic field through the lenses of Internet Science : Digital Humanities as a Virtual Community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akdag Salah, A.; Scharnhorst, Andrea; Wyatt, S.; Tiropanis, Thanassis; Vakali, Athena; Sartori, Laura; Burnap, Pete

    2015-01-01

    Digital Humanities (DH) has been depicted as an innovative engine for humanities, as a challenge for Data Science, and as an area where libraries, archives and providers of e-research infrastructures join forces with research pioneers. However DH is defined, one thing is cer- tain: DH is a new

  7. Interactive analysis of human error factors in NPP operation events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Li; Zou Yanhua; Huang Weigang

    2010-01-01

    Interactive of human error factors in NPP operation events were introduced, and 645 WANO operation event reports from 1999 to 2008 were analyzed, among which 432 were found relative to human errors. After classifying these errors with the Root Causes or Causal Factors, and then applying SPSS for correlation analysis,we concluded: (1) Personnel work practices are restricted by many factors. Forming a good personnel work practices is a systematic work which need supports in many aspects. (2)Verbal communications,personnel work practices, man-machine interface and written procedures and documents play great roles. They are four interaction factors which often come in bundle. If some improvements need to be made on one of them,synchronous measures are also necessary for the others.(3) Management direction and decision process, which are related to management,have a significant interaction with personnel factors. (authors)

  8. An analysis on human factor issues in criticality accident at a uranium processing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasou, Kunihide; Goda, Hidenori; Hirotsu, Yuko

    2000-01-01

    This report analyses latent factors of a human behavior directly contributing to the criticality accident. It is pouring some 16 kg-U with an enrichment of 18.8% into the precipitation tank. It is the fact that the direct cause of this accident is the workers' unsafe act. However, the authors find lots of latent factors relating to the production-biased company's policy, the poor climate for safety in the work place, the inadequate safety management and the unsuitable equipment. This accident was caused by many organizational factors. This paper also discusses lessons learned from this accident. (author)

  9. Demographic, socioeconomic, and behavioral factors affecting patterns of tooth decay in the permanent dentition: principal components and factor analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, John R; Polk, Deborah E; Feingold, Eleanor; Wang, Xiaojing; Cuenco, Karen T; Weeks, Daniel E; DeSensi, Rebecca S; Weyant, Robert J; Crout, Richard; McNeil, Daniel W; Marazita, Mary L

    2013-08-01

    Dental caries of the permanent dentition is a multifactorial disease resulting from the complex interplay of endogenous and environmental risk factors. The disease is not easily quantitated due to the innumerable possible combinations of carious lesions across individual tooth surfaces of the permanent dentition. Global measures of decay, such as the DMFS index (which was developed for surveillance applications), may not be optimal for studying the epidemiology of dental caries because they ignore the distinct patterns of decay across the dentition. We hypothesize that specific risk factors may manifest their effects on specific tooth surfaces leading to patterns of decay that can be identified and studied. In this study, we utilized two statistical methods of extracting patterns of decay from surface-level caries data to create novel phenotypes with which to study the risk factors affecting dental caries. Intra-oral dental examinations were performed on 1068 participants aged 18-75 years to assess dental caries. The 128 tooth surfaces of the permanent dentition were scored as carious or not and used as input for principal components analysis (PCA) and factor analysis (FA), two methods of identifying underlying patterns without a priori knowledge of the patterns. Demographic (age, sex, birth year, race/ethnicity, and educational attainment), anthropometric (height, body mass index, waist circumference), endogenous (saliva flow), and environmental (tooth brushing frequency, home water source, and home water fluoride) risk factors were tested for association with the caries patterns identified by PCA and FA, as well as DMFS, for comparison. The ten strongest patterns (i.e. those that explain the most variation in the data set) extracted by PCA and FA were considered. The three strongest patterns identified by PCA reflected (i) global extent of decay (i.e. comparable to DMFS index), (ii) pit and fissure surface caries and (iii) smooth surface caries, respectively. The

  10. Analyses of Digman's child-personality data: derivation of Big-Five factor scores from each of six samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, L R

    2001-10-01

    One of the world's richest collections of teacher descriptions of elementary-school children was obtained by John M. Digman from 1959 to 1967 in schools on two Hawaiian islands. In six phases of data collection, 88 teachers described 2,572 of their students, using one of five different sets of personality variables. The present report provides findings from new analyses of these important data, which have never before been analyzed in a comprehensive manner. When factors developed from carefully selected markers of the Big-Five factor structure were compared to those based on the total set of variables in each sample, the congruence between both types of factors was quite high. Attempts to extend the structure to 6 and 7 factors revealed no other broad factors beyond the Big Five in any of the 6 samples. These robust findings provide significant new evidence for the structure of teacher-based assessments of child personality attributes.

  11. Significance of functional disease-causal/susceptible variants identified by whole-genome analyses for the understanding of human diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitomi, Yuki; Tokunaga, Katsushi

    2017-01-01

    Human genome variation may cause differences in traits and disease risks. Disease-causal/susceptible genes and variants for both common and rare diseases can be detected by comprehensive whole-genome analyses, such as whole-genome sequencing (WGS), using next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology and genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Here, in addition to the application of an NGS as a whole-genome analysis method, we summarize approaches for the identification of functional disease-causal/susceptible variants from abundant genetic variants in the human genome and methods for evaluating their functional effects in human diseases, using an NGS and in silico and in vitro functional analyses. We also discuss the clinical applications of the functional disease causal/susceptible variants to personalized medicine.

  12. Employing the Five-Factor Mentoring Instrument: Analysing Mentoring Practices for Teaching Primary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Peter; Usak, Muhammet; Savran-Gencer, Ayse

    2009-01-01

    Primary science education is a concern around the world and quality mentoring within schools can develop pre-service teachers' practices. A five-factor model for mentoring has been identified, namely, personal attributes, system requirements, pedagogical knowledge, modelling, and feedback. Final-year pre-service teachers (mentees, n = 211) from…

  13. Comparative Factor Analyses of the Personal Attributes Questionnaire and the Bem Sex-Role Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antill, John K.; Cunningham, John D.

    1982-01-01

    Compared the Personal Attributes Questionnaire (PAQ) and the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) as measures of androgyny. Results showed that femininty (Concern for Others) and masculinity (Dominance) accounted for most of the variance, but for PAQ, clusters of male- and female-valued items (i.e., Extroversion and Insecurity) formed subsidiary factors.…

  14. Statistical Analyses of Scatterplots to Identify Important Factors in Large-Scale Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleijnen, J.P.C.; Helton, J.C.

    1999-04-01

    The robustness of procedures for identifying patterns in scatterplots generated in Monte Carlo sensitivity analyses is investigated. These procedures are based on attempts to detect increasingly complex patterns in the scatterplots under consideration and involve the identification of (1) linear relationships with correlation coefficients, (2) monotonic relationships with rank correlation coefficients, (3) trends in central tendency as defined by means, medians and the Kruskal-Wallis statistic, (4) trends in variability as defined by variances and interquartile ranges, and (5) deviations from randomness as defined by the chi-square statistic. The following two topics related to the robustness of these procedures are considered for a sequence of example analyses with a large model for two-phase fluid flow: the presence of Type I and Type II errors, and the stability of results obtained with independent Latin hypercube samples. Observations from analysis include: (1) Type I errors are unavoidable, (2) Type II errors can occur when inappropriate analysis procedures are used, (3) physical explanations should always be sought for why statistical procedures identify variables as being important, and (4) the identification of important variables tends to be stable for independent Latin hypercube samples.

  15. Infrastructural and Human Factors Affecting Safety Outcomes of Cyclists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Useche

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing number of registered road crashes involving cyclists during the last decade and the high proportion of road crashes resulting in severe injuries and fatalities among cyclists constitutes a global issue for community health, urban development and sustainability. Nowadays, the incidence of many risk factors for road crashes of cyclists remains largely unexplained. Given the importance of this issue, the present study has been conducted with the aim of determining relationships between infrastructural, human factors and safety outcomes of cyclists. Objectives: This study aimed, first, to examine the relationship between key infrastructural and human factors present in cycling, bicycle-user characteristics and their self-reported experience with road crashes. And second, to determine whether a set of key infrastructural and human factors may predict their self-reported road crashes. Methods: For this cross-sectional study, a total of 1064 cyclists (38.8% women, 61.2% men; M = 32.8 years of age from 20 different countries across Europe, South America and North America, participated in an online survey composed of four sections: demographic data and cycling-related factors, human factors, perceptions on infrastructural factors and road crashes suffered. Results: The results of this study showed significant associations between human factors, infrastructural conditions and self-reported road crashes. Also, a logistic regression model found that self-reported road crashes of cyclists could be predicted through variables such as age, riding intensity, risky behaviours and problematic user/infrastructure interactions. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that self-reported road crashes of cyclists are influenced by features related to the user and their interaction with infrastructural characteristics of the road.

  16. A method for analysing incidents due to human errors on nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffon, M.

    1980-01-01

    This paper deals with the development of a methodology adapted to a detailed analysis of incidents considered to be due to human errors. An identification of human errors and a search for their eventual multiple causes is then needed. They are categorized in eight classes: education and training of personnel, installation design, work organization, time and work duration, physical environment, social environment, history of the plant and performance of the operator. The method is illustrated by the analysis of a handling incident generated by multiple human errors. (author)

  17. Human Rights, Privacy and Medical Research; Analysing UK Policy on Tissue and Data

    OpenAIRE

    Gillott, John

    2006-01-01

    This report is one outcome of a study into privacy and human genetics initiated by John Gillott and staff and trustees of the Genetic Interest Group. \\ud \\ud The initial focus was on genetics and human rights, with an emphasis on legal aspects and policy decisions informed by law and rights ideology. Article 8 of the Human Rights Act 1998, the right to respect for private and family life,1 is of most relevance to this study, though other Articles are considered.\\ud \\ud The study as a whole co...

  18. Human factors engineering plan for reviewing nuclear plant modernization programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hara, John; Higgins, James

    2004-12-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate reviews the human factors engineering (HFE) aspects of nuclear power plants (NPPs) involved in the modernization of the plant systems and control rooms. The purpose of a HFE review is to help ensure personnel and public safety by verifying that accepted HFE practices and guidelines are incorporated into the program and nuclear power plant design. Such a review helps to ensure the HFE aspects of an NPP are developed, designed, and evaluated on the basis of a structured top-down system analysis using accepted HFE principles. The review addresses eleven HFE elements: HFE Program Management, Operating Experience Review, Functional Requirements Analysis and Allocation, Task Analysis, Staffing, Human Reliability Analysis, Human-System Interface Design, Procedure Development, Training Program Development, Human Factors Verification and Validation, and Design Implementation

  19. Human factors engineering plan for reviewing nuclear plant modernization programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Hara, John; Higgins, James [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)

    2004-12-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate reviews the human factors engineering (HFE) aspects of nuclear power plants (NPPs) involved in the modernization of the plant systems and control rooms. The purpose of a HFE review is to help ensure personnel and public safety by verifying that accepted HFE practices and guidelines are incorporated into the program and nuclear power plant design. Such a review helps to ensure the HFE aspects of an NPP are developed, designed, and evaluated on the basis of a structured top-down system analysis using accepted HFE principles. The review addresses eleven HFE elements: HFE Program Management, Operating Experience Review, Functional Requirements Analysis and Allocation, Task Analysis, Staffing, Human Reliability Analysis, Human-System Interface Design, Procedure Development, Training Program Development, Human Factors Verification and Validation, and Design Implementation.

  20. Immunolocalization of transforming growth factor alpha in normal human tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, M E; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1996-01-01

    anchorage-independent growth of normal cells and was, therefore, considered as an "oncogenic" growth factor. Later, its immunohistochemical presence in normal human cells as well as its biological effects in normal human tissues have been demonstrated. The aim of the present investigation was to elucidate...... the distribution of the growth factor in a broad spectrum of normal human tissues. Indirect immunoenzymatic staining methods were used. The polypeptide was detected with a polyclonal as well as a monoclonal antibody. The polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies demonstrated almost identical immunoreactivity. TGF......-alpha was found to be widely distributed in cells of normal human tissues derived from all three germ layers, most often in differentiated cells. In epithelial cells, three different kinds of staining patterns were observed, either diffuse cytoplasmic, cytoplasmic in the basal parts of the cells, or distinctly...

  1. Meeting Human Reliability Requirements through Human Factors Design, Testing, and Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. L. Boring

    2007-06-01

    In the design of novel systems, it is important for the human factors engineer to work in parallel with the human reliability analyst to arrive at the safest achievable design that meets design team safety goals and certification or regulatory requirements. This paper introduces the System Development Safety Triptych, a checklist of considerations for the interplay of human factors and human reliability through design, testing, and modeling in product development. This paper also explores three phases of safe system development, corresponding to the conception, design, and implementation of a system.

  2. NASA Space Flight Human-System Standard Human Factors, Habitability, and Environmental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holubec, Keith; Connolly, Janis

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the history, and development of NASA-STD-3001, NASA Space Flight Human-System Standard Human Factors, Habitability, and Environmental Health, and the related Human Integration Design Handbook. Currently being developed from NASA-STD-3000, this project standard currently in review will be available in two volumes, (i.e., Volume 1 -- VCrew Health and Volume 2 -- Human Factors, Habitability, and Environmental Health) and the handbook will be both available as a pdf file and as a interactive website.

  3. Human factor engineering applied to nuclear power plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manrique, A.; Valdivia, J.C.; Jimenez, A.

    2001-01-01

    For the design and construction of new nuclear power plants as well as for maintenance and operation of the existing ones new man-machine interface designs and modifications are been produced. For these new designs Human Factor Engineering must be applied the same as for any other traditional engineering discipline. Advantages of implementing adequate Human Factor Engineering techniques in the design of nuclear reactors have become not only a fact recognized by the majority of engineers and operators but also an explicit requirement regulated and mandatory for the new designs of the so called advanced reactors. Additionally, the big saving achieved by a nuclear power plant having an operating methodology which significantly decreases the risk of operating errors makes it necessary and almost vital its implementation. The first step for this is preparing a plan to incorporate all the Human Factor Engineering principles and developing an integral design of the Instrumentation and Control and Man-machine interface systems. (author)

  4. Human Factors and Safety Culture in Maritime Safety (revised

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinz Peter Berg

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available As in every industry at risk, the human and organizational factors constitute the main stakes for maritime safety. Furthermore, several events at sea have been used to develop appropriate risk models. The investigation on maritime accidents is, nowadays, a very important tool to identify the problems related to human factor and can support accident prevention and the improvement of maritime safety. Part of this investigation should in future also be near misses. Operation of ships is full of regulations, instructions and guidelines also addressing human factors and safety culture to enhance safety. However, even though the roots of a safety culture have been established, there are still serious barriers to the breakthrough of the safety management. One of the most common deficiencies in the case of maritime transport is the respective monitoring and documentation usually lacking of adequacy and excellence. Nonetheless, the maritime area can be exemplified from other industries where activities are ongoing to foster and enhance safety culture.

  5. The significance of human factors in nuclear activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weil, L.; Berg, H.P.

    1999-01-01

    Human factors is an aspect increasingly investigated in the last few years in efforts and programmes for enhancing the operational safety of nuclear systems. Methodology has been elaborated for analysis and evaluation of human reliability, or development of instruments supporting the decisions to be taken by the operators at the man-control room interface of nuclear installations, as well as initial approaches to introduce organisational factors which may influence the man-machine function allocation, and thus are an element of the safety culture concept. The significance of human factors in nuclear activities, as well as activities at the national and international level for optimisation of the man-machine interface and the man-organisation interface are discussed. (orig./CB) [de

  6. Quality management in the nuclear industry: the human factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    In the nuclear industry it is vital to understand the 'human factor' with regard to plant performance and plant safety. A proper management system ensures that personnel perform their duties correctly. 'Quality Management in the Nuclear Industry: the Human Factor', was a conference organized by the Institution of Mechanical Engineers in October 1990. The conference covered a wide range of topics on an international level including: standards, licensing and regulatory procedures; selection assessment and training of personnel; feedback from experience of good practice and of deviations; management and support of personnel performance; modelling and evaluation of human factors. The papers presented at the conference are contained in this volume. All twenty papers are indexed separately. (author)

  7. A human factors design of a nuclear plant analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byeon, Seung Nam; Lee, Dong Hoon; Park, Chan Woo [Kyounghee Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-12-15

    The project consists of four key stages as follows : based on the review of various literature, human factors design principles and processes are identified, the literature reviewed in the project includes NUREG-0700, research papers for MMI, human factors handbooks, and laboratory reports, after the design principles and processes are determined, a design checklist is developed to evaluate the user interface of NPA, the design checklist consists of seven different categories such as display screen, menu interface, form-fillin, alphanumeric characters, symbols, color, and highlighting, NPA was tested with the design checklist for conformance to the human factors design principles, the expert reviews are performed to evaluate a graphic user interface of NPA, the application of the design checklist and the subjective opinion of the expert identify the design included in the user interface of NPA, based on the thorough analysis of design defects, design guidelines are recommended to improve the user interface of NPA.

  8. A human factors design of a nuclear plant analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byeon, Seung Nam; Lee, Dong Hoon; Park, Chan Woo

    2000-12-01

    The project consists of four key stages as follows : based on the review of various literature, human factors design principles and processes are identified, the literature reviewed in the project includes NUREG-0700, research papers for MMI, human factors handbooks, and laboratory reports, after the design principles and processes are determined, a design checklist is developed to evaluate the user interface of NPA, the design checklist consists of seven different categories such as display screen, menu interface, form-fillin, alphanumeric characters, symbols, color, and highlighting, NPA was tested with the design checklist for conformance to the human factors design principles, the expert reviews are performed to evaluate a graphic user interface of NPA, the application of the design checklist and the subjective opinion of the expert identify the design included in the user interface of NPA, based on the thorough analysis of design defects, design guidelines are recommended to improve the user interface of NPA

  9. Human Factors and Habitability Challenges for Mars Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, Mihriban

    2015-01-01

    As NASA is planning to send humans deeper into space than ever before, adequate crew health and performance will be critical for mission success. Within the NASA Human Research Program (HRP), the Space Human Factors and Habitability (SHFH) team is responsible for characterizing the risks associated with human capabilities and limitations with respect to long-duration spaceflight, and for providing mitigations (e.g., guidelines, technologies, and tools) to promote safe, reliable and productive missions. SHFH research includes three domains: Advanced Environmental Health (AEH), Advanced Food Technology (AFT), and Space Human Factors Engineering (SHFE). The AEH portfolio focuses on understanding the risk of microbial contamination of the spacecraft and on the development of standards for exposure to potential toxins such as chemicals, bacteria, fungus, and lunar/Martian dust. The two risks that the environmental health project focuses on are adverse health effects due to changes in host-microbe interactions, and risks associated with exposure to dust in planetary surface habitats. This portfolio also proposes countermeasures to these risks by making recommendations that relate to requirements for environmental quality, foods, and crew health on spacecraft and space missions. The AFT portfolio focuses on reducing the mass, volume, and waste of the entire integrated food system to be used in exploration missions, and investigating processing methods to extend the shelf life of food items up to five years, while assuring that exploration crews will have nutritious and palatable foods. The portfolio also delivers improvements in both the food itself and the technologies for storing and preparing it. SHFE sponsors research to establish human factors and habitability standards and guidelines in five risk areas, and provides improved design concepts for advanced crew interfaces and habitability systems. These risk areas include: Incompatible vehicle/habitat design

  10. Human Health/Human Factors Considerations in Trans-Lunar Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, E. Cherice; Howard, Robert; Mendeck, Gavin

    2014-01-01

    The human factors insights of how they are incorporated into the vehicle are crucial towards designing and planning the internal designs necessary for future spacecraft and missions. The adjusted mission concept of supporting the Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission will drive some human factors changes on how the Orion will be used and will be reassessed so as to best contribute to missions success. Recognizing what the human factors and health functional needs are early in the design process and how to integrate them will improve this and future generations of space vehicles to achieve mission success and continue to minimize risks.

  11. Lessons for public health campaigns from analysing commercial food marketing success factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; JA Perez-Cueto, Federico; Niedzwiedzka, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Background: Commercial food marketing has considerably shaped consumer food choice behaviour. Meanwhile, public health campaigns for healthier eating have had limited impact to date. Social marketing suggests that successful commercial food marketing campaigns can provide useful lessons for public...... sector activities. The aim of the present study was to empirically identify food marketing success factors that, using the social marketing approach, could help improve public health campaigns to promote healthy eating. Methods: In this case-study analysis, 27 recent and successful commercial food...... in the communication related to the food. Visual as well as written material was gathered, complemented by semi-structured interviews with 12 food market trend experts and 19 representatives of food companies and advertising agencies. Success factors were identified by a group of experts who reached consensus through...

  12. Monte Carlo analyses of the source multiplication factor of the YALINA booster facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talamo, Alberto; Gohar, Y.; Kondev, F.; Aliberti, Gerardo [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Bolshinsky, I. [Idaho National Laboratory, P. O. Box 2528, Idaho Falls, Idaho 83403 (United States); Kiyavitskaya, Hanna; Bournos, Victor; Fokov, Yury; Routkovskaya, Christina; Serafimovich, Ivan [Joint Institute for Power and Nuclear Research-Sosny, National Academy of Sciences, Minsk, acad. Krasin, 99, 220109 (Belarus)

    2008-07-01

    The multiplication factor of a subcritical assembly is affected by the energy spectrum and spatial distribution of the neutron source. In a critical assembly, neutrons emerge from the fission reactions with an average energy of approx2 MeV; in a deuteron accelerator driven subcritical assembly, neutrons emerge from the fusion target with a fixed energy of 2.45 or 14.1 MeV, from the Deuterium-Deuterium (D-D) and Deuterium-Tritium (D-T) reactions respectively. This study aims at generating accurate neutronics models for the YALINA Booster facility, based on the use of different Monte Carlo neutron transport codes, at defining the facility key physical parameters, and at comparing the neutron multiplication factor for three different neutron sources: fission, D-D and D-T. The calculated values are compared with the experimental results. (authors)

  13. Monte Carlo analyses of the source multiplication factor of the YALINA booster facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talamo, Alberto; Gohar, Y.; Kondev, F.; Aliberti, Gerardo; Bolshinsky, I.; Kiyavitskaya, Hanna; Bournos, Victor; Fokov, Yury; Routkovskaya, Christina; Serafimovich, Ivan

    2008-01-01

    The multiplication factor of a subcritical assembly is affected by the energy spectrum and spatial distribution of the neutron source. In a critical assembly, neutrons emerge from the fission reactions with an average energy of ∼2 MeV; in a deuteron accelerator driven subcritical assembly, neutrons emerge from the fusion target with a fixed energy of 2.45 or 14.1 MeV, from the Deuterium-Deuterium (D-D) and Deuterium-Tritium (D-T) reactions respectively. This study aims at generating accurate neutronics models for the YALINA Booster facility, based on the use of different Monte Carlo neutron transport codes, at defining the facility key physical parameters, and at comparing the neutron multiplication factor for three different neutron sources: fission, D-D and D-T. The calculated values are compared with the experimental results. (authors)

  14. A model for analysing factors which may influence quality management procedures in higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin MAICAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In all universities, the Office for Quality Assurance defines the procedure for assessing the performance of the teaching staff, with a view to establishing students’ perception as regards the teachers’ activity from the point of view of the quality of the teaching process, of the relationship with the students and of the assistance provided for learning. The present paper aims at creating a combined model for evaluation, based on Data Mining statistical methods: starting from the findings revealed by the evaluations teachers performed to students, using the cluster analysis and the discriminant analysis, we identified the subjects which produced significant differences between students’ grades, subjects which were subsequently subjected to an evaluation by students. The results of these analyses allowed the formulation of certain measures for enhancing the quality of the evaluation process.

  15. Human Factors Engineering and Ergonomics Analysis for the Canister Storage Building (CSB) Results and Findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GARVIN, L.J.

    1999-09-20

    The purpose for this supplemental report is to follow-up and update the information in SNF-3907, Human Factors Engineering (HFE) Analysis: Results and Findings. This supplemental report responds to applicable U.S. Department of Energy Safety Analysis Report review team comments and questions. This Human Factors Engineering and Ergonomics (HFE/Erg) analysis was conducted from April 1999 to July 1999; SNF-3907 was based on analyses accomplished in October 1998. The HFE/Erg findings presented in this report and SNF-3907, along with the results of HNF-3553, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project, Final Safety Analysis Report, Annex A, ''Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report,'' Chapter A3.0, ''Hazards and Accidents Analyses,'' provide the technical basis for preparing or updating HNF-3553. Annex A, Chaptex A13.0, ''Human Factors Engineering.'' The findings presented in this report allow the HNF-3553 Chapter 13.0, ''Human Factors,'' to respond fully to the HFE requirements established in DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports.

  16. Human Factors Engineering and Ergonomics Analysis for the Canister Storage Building (CSB) Results and Findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GARVIN, L.J.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose for this supplemental report is to follow-up and update the information in SNF-3907, Human Factors Engineering (HFE) Analysis: Results and Findings. This supplemental report responds to applicable U.S. Department of Energy Safety Analysis Report review team comments and questions. This Human Factors Engineering and Ergonomics (HFE/Erg) analysis was conducted from April 1999 to July 1999; SNF-3907 was based on analyses accomplished in October 1998. The HFE/Erg findings presented in this report and SNF-3907, along with the results of HNF-3553, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project, Final Safety Analysis Report. Annex A, ''Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report,'' Chapter A3.0, ''Hazards and Accidents Analyses,'' provide the technical basis for preparing or updating HNF-3553, Annex A, Chapter A13.0, ''Human Factors Engineering.'' The findings presented in this report allow the HNF-3553 Chapter 13.0, ''Human Factors,'' to respond fully to the HFE requirements established in DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports

  17. Human Factors Engineering and Ergonomics Analysis for the Canister Storage Building (CSB): Results and Findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GARVIN, L.J.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose for this supplemental report is to follow-up and update the information in SNF-3907, Human Factors Engineering (HFE) Analysis: Results and Findings. This supplemental report responds to applicable U.S. Department of Energy Safety Analysis Report review team comments and questions. This Human Factors Engineering and Ergonomics (HFE/Erg) analysis was conducted from April 1999 to July 1999; SNF-3907 was based on analyses accomplished in October 1998. The HFE/Erg findings presented in this report and SNF-3907, along with the results of HNF-3553, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project, Final Safety Analysis Report, Annex A, ''Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report,'' Chapter A3.0, ''Hazards and Accidents Analyses,'' provide the technical basis for preparing or updating HNF-3553. Annex A, Chaptex A13.0, ''Human Factors Engineering.'' The findings presented in this report allow the HNF-3553 Chapter 13.0, ''Human Factors,'' to respond fully to the HFE requirements established in DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports

  18. Education Factor and Human Resources Development - Albania Case

    OpenAIRE

    Sonila Berdo

    2010-01-01

    The article gives a general view of the actual situation and the potential importance that the education factor plays in the formation and development of human resources in Albania, based on the Albanian education system applied as well as the strategies undertaken regarding the development of human resources by transforming it in an important asset and an unstoppable source of values for all the society. In particular, the article is focused in analyzing and evaluating the link between the l...

  19. Electronic cigarettes: incorporating human factors engineering into risk assessments

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Ling; Rudy, Susan F; Cheng, James M; Durmowicz, Elizabeth L

    2014-01-01

    Objective A systematic review was conducted to evaluate the impact of human factors (HF) on the risks associated with electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) and to identify research gaps. HF is the evaluation of human interactions with products and includes the analysis of user, environment and product complexity. Consideration of HF may mitigate known and potential hazards from the use and misuse of a consumer product, including e-cigarettes. Methods Five databases were searched through Januar...

  20. Heritable patterns of tooth decay in the permanent dentition: principal components and factor analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, John R; Feingold, Eleanor; Wang, Xiaojing; Tcuenco, Karen T; Weeks, Daniel E; DeSensi, Rebecca S; Polk, Deborah E; Wendell, Steve; Weyant, Robert J; Crout, Richard; McNeil, Daniel W; Marazita, Mary L

    2012-03-09

    Dental caries is the result of a complex interplay among environmental, behavioral, and genetic factors, with distinct patterns of decay likely due to specific etiologies. Therefore, global measures of decay, such as the DMFS index, may not be optimal for identifying risk factors that manifest as specific decay patterns, especially if the risk factors such as genetic susceptibility loci have small individual effects. We used two methods to extract patterns of decay from surface-level caries data in order to generate novel phenotypes with which to explore the genetic regulation of caries. The 128 tooth surfaces of the permanent dentition were scored as carious or not by intra-oral examination for 1,068 participants aged 18 to 75 years from 664 biological families. Principal components analysis (PCA) and factor analysis (FA), two methods of identifying underlying patterns without a priori surface classifications, were applied to our data. The three strongest caries patterns identified by PCA recaptured variation represented by DMFS index (correlation, r = 0.97), pit and fissure surface caries (r = 0.95), and smooth surface caries (r = 0.89). However, together, these three patterns explained only 37% of the variability in the data, indicating that a priori caries measures are insufficient for fully quantifying caries variation. In comparison, the first pattern identified by FA was strongly correlated with pit and fissure surface caries (r = 0.81), but other identified patterns, including a second pattern representing caries of the maxillary incisors, were not representative of any previously defined caries indices. Some patterns identified by PCA and FA were heritable (h(2) = 30-65%, p = 0.043-0.006), whereas other patterns were not, indicating both genetic and non-genetic etiologies of individual decay patterns. This study demonstrates the use of decay patterns as novel phenotypes to assist in understanding the multifactorial nature of dental caries.

  1. Lessons for public health campaigns from analysing commercial food marketing success factors: a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Perez-Cueto, Federico JA; Niedzwiedzka, Barbara; Verbeke, Wim; Bech-Larsen, Tino

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Commercial food marketing has considerably shaped consumer food choice behaviour. Meanwhile, public health campaigns for healthier eating have had limited impact to date. Social marketing suggests that successful commercial food marketing campaigns can provide useful lessons for public sector activities. The aim of the present study was to empirically identify food marketing success factors that, using the social marketing approach, could help improve public health campaig...

  2. Psychometric Properties of the Heart Disease Knowledge Scale: Evidence from Item and Confirmatory Factor Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Bee Chiu; Kueh, Yee Cheng; Arifin, Wan Nor; Ng, Kok Huan

    2016-07-01

    Heart disease knowledge is an important concept for health education, yet there is lack of evidence on proper validated instruments used to measure levels of heart disease knowledge in the Malaysian context. A cross-sectional, survey design was conducted to examine the psychometric properties of the adapted English version of the Heart Disease Knowledge Questionnaire (HDKQ). Using proportionate cluster sampling, 788 undergraduate students at Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia, were recruited and completed the HDKQ. Item analysis and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were used for the psychometric evaluation. Construct validity of the measurement model was included. Most of the students were Malay (48%), female (71%), and from the field of science (51%). An acceptable range was obtained with respect to both the difficulty and discrimination indices in the item analysis results. The difficulty index ranged from 0.12-0.91 and a discrimination index of ≥ 0.20 were reported for the final retained 23 items. The final CFA model showed an adequate fit to the data, yielding a 23-item, one-factor model [weighted least squares mean and variance adjusted scaled chi-square difference = 1.22, degrees of freedom = 2, P-value = 0.544, the root mean square error of approximation = 0.03 (90% confidence interval = 0.03, 0.04); close-fit P-value = > 0.950]. Adequate psychometric values were obtained for Malaysian undergraduate university students using the 23-item, one-factor model of the adapted HDKQ.

  3. With eloquence and humanity? Human factors/ergonomics in sustainable human development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Dave; Barnard, Tim

    2012-12-01

    This article is based on a keynote presentation given at the 18th Congress of the International Ergonomics Association in Recife, Brazil, February 2012. It considers new, and not so new, approaches and practical roles for the emerging field of human factors/ergonomics (HFE) in sustainable development (SD).The material for this article was largely drawn from the literature in the fields of human development, sustainability, climate change mitigation and adaptation, and social/environmental impact assessment. Identifying the role of HFE in SD is not a simple one and from the outset is complicated by the widely differing ideas in the sustainability literature about what exactly it is we are hoping to sustain. Is it individual companies, business models, cultures, or the carrying capacity of our planet? Or combinations of these? For the purposes of this article, certain assumptions are made, and various emerging opportunities and responsibilities associated with our changing world of work are introduced. First, there are new versions of traditional tasks for us, such as working with the people and companies in the renewable energy sectors. Beyond this, however, it is suggested that there are emerging roles for HFE professionals in transdisciplinary work where we might play our part, for example, in tackling the twinned issues of climate change and human development in areas of significant poverty. In particular we have the tools and capabilities to help define and measure what groups have reason to value, and wish to sustain. It is suggested, that to do this effectively, however, will require a philosophical shift, or perhaps just a philosophical restatement at a collective level, regarding who and what we ultimately serve.

  4. 77 FR 3500 - VTECH Communications, Inc., Human Factors Department, Beaverton, OR; Amended Certification...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-24

    ... firm should read VTech Communications, Inc., Human Factors Department, Beaverton, Oregon. New... Communications, Inc., Human Factors Department, Beaverton, Oregon. The intent of the Department's certification... workers from VTech Communications, Inc., Human Factors Department, Beaverton, Oregon, who became totally...

  5. Human factors guidelines for nuclear power plant applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketchel, J.

    1993-01-01

    In 1989, Waters et al. reported to the Human Factors Society on developing human factors criteria for a new reactor plant. They correctly indicated that much of the guidance documentation in human factors engineering has derived from MIL-STD-1472 and its antecedents. Guidelines for human-computer interface have sprung primarily from the Smith and Mosier compendium and its source documents. NUREG-0700, which is currently being updated, was developed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as a general evaluation guide for inspecting control rooms. In addition, the Electric Power Research Institute, Institute of Nuclear Power Operations, US Department of Energy, the NRC, and others have published a number of specialized documents on a range of subjects. The number of guidelines and standards has grown in the past few years to an impressive number, including those published by international organizations and professional societies. This paper provides an update on current efforts to provide appropriate guidance for the power industry and, perhaps more importantly, offers a perspective on how users should think about using the available materials and what else is needed. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) continues to be one of the principal participants in providing guidance to the utilities. Human factors guidelines is indeed a timely topic, currently of great interest to EPRI's constituents and to designers of new and upgraded nuclear power plants (NPMs) in the Advanced Light Water Reactor and the Instrumentation and Control Upgrade Initiative programs

  6. Human factors engineering report for the cold vacuum drying facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    IMKER, F.W.

    1999-06-30

    The purpose of this report is to present the results and findings of the final Human Factors Engineering (HFE) technical analysis and evaluation of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF). Ergonomics issues are also addressed in this report, as appropriate. This report follows up and completes the preliminary work accomplished and reported by the Preliminary HFE Analysis report (SNF-2825, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Human Factors Engineering Analysis: Results and Findings). This analysis avoids redundancy of effort except for ensuring that previously recommended HFE design changes have not affected other parts of the system. Changes in one part of the system may affect other parts of the system where those changes were not applied. The final HFE analysis and evaluation of the CVDF human-machine interactions (HMI) was expanded to include: the physical work environment, human-computer interface (HCI) including workstation and software, operator tasks, tools, maintainability, communications, staffing, training, and the overall ability of humans to accomplish their responsibilities, as appropriate. Key focal areas for this report are the process bay operations, process water conditioning (PWC) skid, tank room, and Central Control Room operations. These key areas contain the system safety-class components and are the foundation for the human factors design basis of the CVDF.

  7. Overview of NRC's human factors regulatory research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffman, F.D. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The human factors research program is divided into distinct and interrelated program activities: (1) Personnel Performance measurement, (2) Personnel Subsystem, (3) Human-System Interface, (4) Organization and Management, and (5) a group of Reliability Assessment activities. The purpose of the Personnel Performance Measurement activity is to improve the Agency's understanding of the factors influencing personnel performance and the effects on the safety of nuclear operations and maintenance by developing improvements to methods for collecting and managing personnel performance data. Personnel Subsystem research will broaden the understanding of such factors as staffing, qualifications, and training that influence human performance in the nuclear system and will develop the technical basis for regulatory guidance to reduce any adverse impact of these influences on nuclear safety. Research in the Human-System Interface activity will provide the technical basis for ensuring that the interface between the system and the human user supports safe operations and maintenance. Organization and Management research will result in the development of tools for evaluating organization and management issues within the nuclear industry. And finally, the Reliability Assessment group of activities includes multidisciplinary research that will integrate human and hardware considerations for evaluating reliability and risk in NRC licensing, inspection, and regulatory decisions

  8. Human factors engineering report for the cold vacuum drying facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IMKER, F.W.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to present the results and findings of the final Human Factors Engineering (HFE) technical analysis and evaluation of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF). Ergonomics issues are also addressed in this report, as appropriate. This report follows up and completes the preliminary work accomplished and reported by the Preliminary HFE Analysis report (SNF-2825, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Human Factors Engineering Analysis: Results and Findings). This analysis avoids redundancy of effort except for ensuring that previously recommended HFE design changes have not affected other parts of the system. Changes in one part of the system may affect other parts of the system where those changes were not applied. The final HFE analysis and evaluation of the CVDF human-machine interactions (HMI) was expanded to include: the physical work environment, human-computer interface (HCI) including workstation and software, operator tasks, tools, maintainability, communications, staffing, training, and the overall ability of humans to accomplish their responsibilities, as appropriate. Key focal areas for this report are the process bay operations, process water conditioning (PWC) skid, tank room, and Central Control Room operations. These key areas contain the system safety-class components and are the foundation for the human factors design basis of the CVDF

  9. Human factors questionnaire as a tool for risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Isaac J.A.L.; Grecco, Claudio H.S.; Carvalho, Paulo V.R.; Mol, Antonio C.A.; Oliveira, Mauro V.; Augusto, Silas C.

    2009-01-01

    The human factors engineering (HFE) as a discipline, and as a process, seeks to discover and to apply knowledge about human capabilities and limitations to system and equipment design, ensuring that the system design, human tasks and work environment are compatible with the sensory, perceptual, cognitive and physical attributes of the personnel who operates systems and equipment. Risk significance considers the magnitude of the consequences (loss of life, material damage, environmental degradation) and the frequency of occurrence of a particular adverse event. The questionnaire design was based on the following definitions: the score and the classification of the nuclear safety risk. The principal benefit of applying an approach based on the risk significance in the development of the questionnaire is to ensure the identification and evaluation of the features of the projects, related to human factors, which affect the nuclear safety risk, the human actions and the safety of the nuclear plant systems. The human factors questionnaire developed in this study will provide valuable support for risk assessment, making possible the identification of design problems that can influence the evaluation of the nuclear safety risk. (author)

  10. Patient safety - the role of human factors and systems engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carayon, Pascale; Wood, Kenneth E

    2010-01-01

    Patient safety is a global challenge that requires knowledge and skills in multiple areas, including human factors and systems engineering. In this chapter, numerous conceptual approaches and methods for analyzing, preventing and mitigating medical errors are described. Given the complexity of healthcare work systems and processes, we emphasize the need for increasing partnerships between the health sciences and human factors and systems engineering to improve patient safety. Those partnerships will be able to develop and implement the system redesigns that are necessary to improve healthcare work systems and processes for patient safety.

  11. Patient Safety: The Role of Human Factors and Systems Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carayon, Pascale; Wood, Kenneth E.

    2011-01-01

    Patient safety is a global challenge that requires knowledge and skills in multiple areas, including human factors and systems engineering. In this chapter, numerous conceptual approaches and methods for analyzing, preventing and mitigating medical errors are described. Given the complexity of healthcare work systems and processes, we emphasize the need for increasing partnerships between the health sciences and human factors and systems engineering to improve patient safety. Those partnerships will be able to develop and implement the system redesigns that are necessary to improve healthcare work systems and processes for patient safety. PMID:20543237

  12. Human factors engineering evaluation of the UTR-10 Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahti, D.; Nilius, D.; Heithoff, D.; Roche, G.; Sage, S.

    1982-01-01

    This paper is a description of a student design team's review and evaluation of Iowa State University's University Test Reactor (UTR-10). The review was based on how well the control room of the UTR-10 measured up to selected portions of NUREG-0800, chapter 18, Human Factor Engineering/Standard Review Plan Development. The review was conducted by inspecting the reactor and interviewing reactor operators. The control room workspace, instrumentation controls and other equipment were evaluated from a human factors engineering point of view that takes into account both system demands and operator capabilities. Identification, assessment, and suggestion for control room design modifications that correct inadequate or unsuitable items was made

  13. A human factors data bank for French nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villemeur, A.; Mosneron-Dupin, F.; Bouissou, M.; Meslin, T.

    1986-01-01

    CONFUCIUS is a computerized data bank developed by Electricite de France to study human factors in nuclear power plants. A detailed and homogeneous grouping of described operation and maintenance errors as well as of performance times is possible with CONFUCIUS. It also incorporates a selection of statistical treatment softwares. Readily usable and modifiable, the system can easily evolve. It allows a wide range of applications (safety analysis, event analysis, training, human factors engineering, probabilistic analysis). Data derived from the analysis of significant events reported in power plants and from the analysis of simulator tests are used as inputs into this data bank

  14. Battelle's human factors program for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shikiar, R.

    1983-10-01

    Battelle has been involved in a programmatic effort of technical assistance to the Division of Human Factors Safety of the NRC. This program involves the efforts of over 75 professionals engaged in over 20 projects. These projects span the areas of human factors engineering, procedures, examinations, training, staffing and qualifications, and utility management and organization. All of these bear, one way or another, on the role of operators in nuclear power plants. This programmatic effort can be viewed as part of an integrative approach to system safety

  15. Genetic and environmental factors in experimental and human cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takayama, S.; Takebe, H.; Gelboin, H.V.; MaChahon, B.; Matsushima, T.; Sugimura, T.

    1980-01-01

    Recently technological advances in assaying mutagenic principles have revealed that there are many mutagens in the environment, some of which might be carcinogenic to human beings. Other advances in genetics have shown that genetic factors might play an important role in the induction of cancer in human beings, e.g., the high incidence of skin cancers in patients with xeroderma pigmentosum. These proceedings deal with the relationships between genetic and environmental factors in carcinogenesis. The contributors cover mixed-function oxidases, pharmacogenetics, twin studies, DNA repair, immunology, and epidemiology.

  16. Human factors evaluation of teletherapy: Literature review. Volume 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriksen, K.; Kaye, R.D.; Jones, R. [Hughes Training, Inc., Falls Church, VA (United States); Morisseau, D.S.; Serig, D.L. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Div. of Systems Technology

    1995-07-01

    A series of human factors evaluations were undertaken to better understand the contributing factors to human error in the teletherapy environment. Teletherapy is a multidisciplinary methodology for treating cancerous tissue through selective exposure to an external beam of ionizing radiation. A team of human factors specialists, assisted by a panel of radiation oncologists, medical physicists, and radiation therapists, conducted site visits to radiation oncology departments at community hospitals, university centers, and free-standing clinics. A function and task analysis was performed initially to guide subsequent evaluations in the areas of workplace environment, system-user interfaces, procedures, training, and organizational practices. To further acquire an in-depth and up-to-date understanding of the practice of teletherapy in support of these evaluations, a systematic literature review was conducted. Factors that have a potential impact on the accuracy of treatment delivery were of primary concern. The present volume is the literature review. The volume starts with an overview of the multiphased nature of teletherapy, and then examines the requirement for precision, the increasing role of quality assurance, current conceptualizations of human error, and the role of system factors such as the workplace environment, user-system interfaces, procedures, training, and organizational practices.

  17. Human factors evaluation of teletherapy: Literature review. Volume 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriksen, K.; Kaye, R.D.; Jones, R.; Morisseau, D.S.; Serig, D.L.

    1995-07-01

    A series of human factors evaluations were undertaken to better understand the contributing factors to human error in the teletherapy environment. Teletherapy is a multidisciplinary methodology for treating cancerous tissue through selective exposure to an external beam of ionizing radiation. A team of human factors specialists, assisted by a panel of radiation oncologists, medical physicists, and radiation therapists, conducted site visits to radiation oncology departments at community hospitals, university centers, and free-standing clinics. A function and task analysis was performed initially to guide subsequent evaluations in the areas of workplace environment, system-user interfaces, procedures, training, and organizational practices. To further acquire an in-depth and up-to-date understanding of the practice of teletherapy in support of these evaluations, a systematic literature review was conducted. Factors that have a potential impact on the accuracy of treatment delivery were of primary concern. The present volume is the literature review. The volume starts with an overview of the multiphased nature of teletherapy, and then examines the requirement for precision, the increasing role of quality assurance, current conceptualizations of human error, and the role of system factors such as the workplace environment, user-system interfaces, procedures, training, and organizational practices

  18. Revolutions and shifting paradigms in human factors & ergonomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boff, Kenneth R

    2006-07-01

    The "Revolution in Information Technology" has spawned a series of transformational revolutions in the nature and practice of human factors and ergonomics (HFE). "Generation 1" HFE evolved with a focus on adapting equipment, workplace and tasks to human capabilities and limitations. Generation 2, focused on cognitive systems integration, arose in response to the need to manage automation and dynamic function allocation. Generation 3 is focused on symbiotic technologies that can amplify human physical and cognitive capabilities. Generation 4 is emergent and is focused on biological enhancement of physical or cognitive capabilities. The shift from HFE Generations 1 and 2 to Generations 3 and 4 profoundly alters accepted boundary constraints on the adaptability of humans in complex systems design. Furthermore, it has opened an ethical divide between those that see cognitive and physical enhancement as a great benefit to society and those who perceive this as tampering with the fundamentals of human nature.

  19. Tissue localization of human trefoil factors 1, 2, and 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jens; Nielsen, Ole; Tornøe, Ida

    2007-01-01

    Trefoil factors (TTFs) are small, compact proteins coexpressed with mucins in the gastrointestinal tract. Three trefoil factors are known in mammals: TFF1, TFF2, and TFF3. They are implicated to play diverse roles in maintenance and repair of the gastrointestinal channel. We compared the expression...... pattern of the three trefoil factors analyzing mRNA from a panel of 20 human tissues by conventional reverse transcriptase (RT) PCR and, in addition, by real-time PCR. These findings were supported by immunohistochemical analysis of paraffin-embedded human tissues using rabbit polyclonal antibodies raised...... against these factors. TFF1 showed highest expression in the stomach and colon, whereas TFF2 and TFF3 showed highest expression in stomach and colon, respectively. All three TFFs were found in the ducts of pancreas. Whereas TFF2 was found to be restricted to these two tissues, the structurally more...

  20. Meta-Analyses of Human Cell-Based Cardiac Regeneration Therapies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyöngyösi, Mariann; Wojakowski, Wojciech; Navarese, Eliano P

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to multiple publication-based meta-analyses involving clinical cardiac regeneration therapy in patients with recent myocardial infarction, a recently published meta-analysis based on individual patient data reported no effect of cell therapy on left ventricular function or clinical...

  1. Supplemental Performance Analyses for Igneous Activity and Human Intrusion at the Potential High-Level Nuclear Waste Repository at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swift, P.; Gaither, K.; Freeze, G.; McCord, J.; Kalinich, D.; Saulnier, G.; Statham, W.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is considering the possible recommendation of a site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for the potential development of a geologic repository for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel. Consequences of hypothetical disruption of the Yucca Mountain site by igneous activity or human intrusion have been evaluated in the Yucca Mountain Science and Engineering Report (S and ER) (1), which presents technical information supporting the consideration of the possible site recommendation. Since completion of the S and ER, supplemental analyses have examined possible impacts of new information and alternative assumptions on the estimates of the consequences of these events. Specifically, analyses of the consequences of igneous disruption address uncertainty regarding: (1) the impacts of changes in the repository footprint and waste package spacing on the probability of disruption; (2) impacts of alternative assumptions about the appropriate distribution of future wind speeds to use in the analysis; (3) effects of alternative assumptions about waste particle sizes; and (4) alternative assumptions about the number of waste packages damaged by igneous intrusion; and (5) alternative assumptions about the exposure pathways and the biosphere dose conversion factors used in the analysis. Additional supplemental analyses, supporting the Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS), have examined the results for both igneous disruption and human intrusion, recalculated for a receptor group located 18 kilometers (km) from the repository (the location specified in 40 CFR 197), rather than at the 20 km distance used in the S and ER analyses

  2. Human factors in safety assessment. Safety culture assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Li; Deng Zhiliang; Wang Yiqun; Huang Weigang

    1996-01-01

    This paper analyses the present conditions and problems in enterprises safety assessment, and introduces the characteristics and effects of safety culture. The authors think that safety culture must be used as a 'soul' to form the pattern of modern safety management. Furthermore, they propose that the human safety and synthetic safety management assessment in a system should be changed into safety culture assessment. Finally, the assessment indicators are discussed

  3. Multicollinearity in prognostic factor analyses using the EORTC QLQ-C30: identification and impact on model selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Steen, Kristel; Curran, Desmond; Kramer, Jocelyn; Molenberghs, Geert; Van Vreckem, Ann; Bottomley, Andrew; Sylvester, Richard

    2002-12-30

    Clinical and quality of life (QL) variables from an EORTC clinical trial of first line chemotherapy in advanced breast cancer were used in a prognostic factor analysis of survival and response to chemotherapy. For response, different final multivariate models were obtained from forward and backward selection methods, suggesting a disconcerting instability. Quality of life was measured using the EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire completed by patients. Subscales on the questionnaire are known to be highly correlated, and therefore it was hypothesized that multicollinearity contributed to model instability. A correlation matrix indicated that global QL was highly correlated with 7 out of 11 variables. In a first attempt to explore multicollinearity, we used global QL as dependent variable in a regression model with other QL subscales as predictors. Afterwards, standard diagnostic tests for multicollinearity were performed. An exploratory principal components analysis and factor analysis of the QL subscales identified at most three important components and indicated that inclusion of global QL made minimal difference to the loadings on each component, suggesting that it is redundant in the model. In a second approach, we advocate a bootstrap technique to assess the stability of the models. Based on these analyses and since global QL exacerbates problems of multicollinearity, we therefore recommend that global QL be excluded from prognostic factor analyses using the QLQ-C30. The prognostic factor analysis was rerun without global QL in the model, and selected the same significant prognostic factors as before. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Critical human-factors issues in nuclear-power regulation and a recommended comprehensive human-factors long-range plan. Critical discussion of human factors areas of concern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkins, C.O.; Snyder, H.L.; Price, H.E.; Hornick, R.J.; Mackie, R.R.; Smillie, R.J.; Sugarman, R.C.

    1982-08-01

    This comprehensive long-range human factors plan for nuclear reactor regulation was developed by a Study Group of the Human Factors Society, Inc. This Study Group was selected by the Executive Council of the Society to provide a balanced, experienced human factors perspective to the applications of human factors scientific and engineering knowledge to nuclear power generation. The report is presented in three volumes. Volume 1 contains an Executive Summary of the 18-month effort and its conclusions. Volume 2 summarizes all known nuclear-related human factors activities, evaluates these activities wherever adequate information is available, and describes the recommended long-range (10-year) plan for human factors in regulation. Volume 3 elaborates upon each of the human factors issues and areas of recommended human factors involvement contained in the plan, and discusses the logic that led to the recommendations

  5. Molecular and biochemical analyses of spontaneous and X-ray-induced mutants in human lymphoblastoid cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liber, H L; Call, K M; Little, J B

    1987-05-01

    The authors have isolated a series of 14 spontaneously arising and 28 X-ray-induced mutants at the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (hgprt) locus in human lymphoblastoid cells. Among the spontaneous mutants, 5/14 (36%) had detectable alterations in their restriction fragment pattern after hybridization with a human cDNA probe for hgprt. Of the 10 remaining mutants, 4 had partial HGPRT enzyme activity, which suggested that they contained point mutations. Among the 28 mutants induced by 150 rad of X-rays, 15 (54%) had deletions of part or all of the hgprt gene. Of the remaining 13 (18% overall) 5 had partial HGPRT enzyme activity, which suggested that they contained point mutations. These data imply that in this human cell system, X-rays induce both point mutants which have residual enzyme activity as well as mutations involving relatively large deletions of DNA. 48 reference, 1 figure, 4 tables.

  6. Metabolomics analyses identify platelet activating factors and heme breakdown products as Lassa fever biomarkers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor V Gale

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Lassa fever afflicts tens of thousands of people in West Africa annually. The rapid progression of patients from febrile illness to fulminant syndrome and death provides incentive for development of clinical prognostic markers that can guide case management. The small molecule profile of serum from febrile patients triaged to the Viral Hemorrhagic Fever Ward at Kenema Government Hospital in Sierra Leone was assessed using untargeted Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry. Physiological dysregulation resulting from Lassa virus (LASV infection occurs at the small molecule level. Effects of LASV infection on pathways mediating blood coagulation, and lipid, amino acid, nucleic acid metabolism are manifest in changes in the levels of numerous metabolites in the circulation. Several compounds, including platelet activating factor (PAF, PAF-like molecules and products of heme breakdown emerged as candidates that may prove useful in diagnostic assays to inform better care of Lassa fever patients.

  7. Integrating human factors and artificial intelligence in the development of human-machine cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maanen, P.P. van; Lindenberg, J.; Neericx, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    Increasing machine intelligence leads to a shift from a mere interactive to a much more complex cooperative human-machine relation requiring a multidisciplinary development approach. This paper presents a generic multidisciplinary cognitive engineering method CE+ for the integration of human factors

  8. Human factors with nonhumans - Factors that affect computer-task performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, David A.

    1992-01-01

    There are two general strategies that may be employed for 'doing human factors research with nonhuman animals'. First, one may use the methods of traditional human factors investigations to examine the nonhuman animal-to-machine interface. Alternatively, one might use performance by nonhuman animals as a surrogate for or model of performance by a human operator. Each of these approaches is illustrated with data in the present review. Chronic ambient noise was found to have a significant but inconsequential effect on computer-task performance by rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Additional data supported the generality of findings such as these to humans, showing that rhesus monkeys are appropriate models of human psychomotor performance. It is argued that ultimately the interface between comparative psychology and technology will depend on the coordinated use of both strategies of investigation.

  9. GENE EXPRESSION IN THE TESTES OF NORMOSPERMIC VERSUS TERATOSPERMIC DOMESTIC CATS USING HUMAN CDNA MICROARRAY ANALYSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    GENE EXPRESSION IN THE TESTES OF NORMOSPERMIC VERSUS TERATOSPERMIC DOMESTIC CATS USING HUMAN cDNA MICROARRAY ANALYSESB.S. Pukazhenthi1, J. C. Rockett2, M. Ouyang3, D.J. Dix2, J.G. Howard1, P. Georgopoulos4, W.J. J. Welsh3 and D. E. Wildt11Department of Reproductiv...

  10. Performance study of K{sub e} factors in simplified elastic plastic fatigue analyses with emphasis on thermal cyclic loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, Hermann, E-mail: hermann.lang@areva.com [AREVA NP GmbH, PEEA-G, Henri-Dunant-Strasse 50, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Rudolph, Juergen; Ziegler, Rainer [AREVA NP GmbH, PEEA-G, Henri-Dunant-Strasse 50, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2011-08-15

    As code-based fully elastic plastic code conforming fatigue analyses are still time consuming, simplified elastic plastic analysis is often applied. This procedure is known to be overly conservative for some conditions due to the applied plastification (penalty) factor K{sub e}. As a consequence, less conservative fully elastic plastic fatigue analyses based on non-linear finite element analyses (FEA) or simplified elastic plastic analysis based on more realistic K{sub e} factors have to be used for fatigue design. The demand for more realistic K{sub e} factors is covered as a requirement of practical fatigue analysis. Different code-based K{sub e} procedures are reviewed in this paper with special regard to performance under thermal cyclic loading conditions. Other approximation formulae such as those by Neuber, Seeger/Beste or Kuehnapfel are not evaluated in this context because of their applicability to mechanical loading excluding thermal cyclic loading conditions typical for power plant operation. Besides the current code-based K{sub e} corrections, the ASME Code Case N-779 (e.g. Adam's proposal) and its modification in ASME Section VIII is considered. Comparison of elastic plastic results and results from the Rules for Nuclear Facility Components and Rules for Pressure Vessels reveals a considerable overestimation of usage factor in the case of ASME III and KTA 3201.2 for the examined examples. Usage factors according to RCC-M, Adams (ASME Code Case N-779), ASME VIII (alternative) and EN 13445-3 are essentially comparable and less conservative for these examples. The K{sub v} correction as well as the applied yield criterion (Tresca or von Mises) essentially influence the quality of the more advanced plasticity corrections (e.g. ASME Code Case N-779 and RCC-M). Hence, new proposals are based on a refined K{sub v} correction.

  11. Performance study of Ke factors in simplified elastic plastic fatigue analyses with emphasis on thermal cyclic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, Hermann; Rudolph, Juergen; Ziegler, Rainer

    2011-01-01

    As code-based fully elastic plastic code conforming fatigue analyses are still time consuming, simplified elastic plastic analysis is often applied. This procedure is known to be overly conservative for some conditions due to the applied plastification (penalty) factor K e . As a consequence, less conservative fully elastic plastic fatigue analyses based on non-linear finite element analyses (FEA) or simplified elastic plastic analysis based on more realistic K e factors have to be used for fatigue design. The demand for more realistic K e factors is covered as a requirement of practical fatigue analysis. Different code-based K e procedures are reviewed in this paper with special regard to performance under thermal cyclic loading conditions. Other approximation formulae such as those by Neuber, Seeger/Beste or Kuehnapfel are not evaluated in this context because of their applicability to mechanical loading excluding thermal cyclic loading conditions typical for power plant operation. Besides the current code-based K e corrections, the ASME Code Case N-779 (e.g. Adam's proposal) and its modification in ASME Section VIII is considered. Comparison of elastic plastic results and results from the Rules for Nuclear Facility Components and Rules for Pressure Vessels reveals a considerable overestimation of usage factor in the case of ASME III and KTA 3201.2 for the examined examples. Usage factors according to RCC-M, Adams (ASME Code Case N-779), ASME VIII (alternative) and EN 13445-3 are essentially comparable and less conservative for these examples. The K v correction as well as the applied yield criterion (Tresca or von Mises) essentially influence the quality of the more advanced plasticity corrections (e.g. ASME Code Case N-779 and RCC-M). Hence, new proposals are based on a refined K v correction.

  12. A Virtual Campus Based on Human Factor Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuting; Kang, Houliang

    2014-01-01

    Three Dimensional or 3D virtual reality has become increasingly popular in many areas, especially in building a digital campus. This paper introduces a virtual campus, which is based on a 3D model of The Tourism and Culture College of Yunnan University (TCYU). Production of the virtual campus was aided by Human Factor and Ergonomics (HF&E), an…

  13. Expression of human soluble tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR NJ TONUKARI

    2011-06-06

    Jun 6, 2011 ... bio-technique in bacterial (Lin et al., 2007), yeast (Xu et al., 2003) ... biological activity, such as human somatotropin (hST) .... sion way with chloroplast transit peptide (Wang et al., .... chloroplast protein synthesis capacity by massive expression of a ... necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand in vivo.

  14. SafetyNet. Human factors safety training on the Internet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauland, G.; Pedrali, M.

    2002-01-01

    This report describes user requirements to an Internet based distance learning system of human factors training, i.e. the SafetyNet prototype, within the aviation (pilots and air traffic control), maritime and medical domains. User requirements totraining have been elicited through 19 semi...

  15. Human Factors Evaluation of Advanced Electric Power Grid Visualization Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Dauenhauer, Peter M.; Wierks, Tamara G.; Podmore, Robin

    2009-04-01

    This report describes initial human factors evaluation of four visualization tools (Graphical Contingency Analysis, Force Directed Graphs, Phasor State Estimator and Mode Meter/ Mode Shapes) developed by PNNL, and proposed test plans that may be implemented to evaluate their utility in scenario-based experiments.

  16. Sexual orientation and risk factors for Human Immunodeficiency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The issue of homosexuality attracts global debate, given that this constitutes risk factor for sexually transmitted diseases. An exploration of socio-cultural, religious and sexual activities of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex sector would inform future Human Immunodeficiency Virus programming.

  17. The future of intelligent manufacturing systems and human factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, P.; Stahre, J.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper the results of a 3 year European project are described. In this project 20 experts in the field of human factors define the most promising way of using the European work force in manufacturing in the future. Based on discussions between the experts and participating companies and

  18. Pattern of hormone receptors and human epidermal growth factor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women globally. With immunohistochemistry (IHC), breast cancer is classified into four groups based on IHC profile of estrogen receptor (ER)/progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2/neu) expression, positive (+) and/or ...

  19. Human intrinsic factor expressed in the plant Arabidopsis thaliana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedosov, Sergey N; Laursen, Niels B; Nexø, Ebba

    2003-01-01

    Intrinsic factor (IF) is the gastric protein that promotes the intestinal uptake of vitamin B12. Gastric IF from animal sources is used in diagnostic tests and in vitamin pills. However, administration of animal IF to humans becomes disadvantageous because of possible pathogenic transmission...

  20. Impacts of geo-physical factors and human disturbance on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We examined vegetation-disturbance-environment relationships in the Xiaomengyang Section of Xishuangbanna Nature Reserve (XNR) using multivariate analysis to understand the impacts of geo-physical factors and human disturbance on vegetation along the highway corridor. We found that native forests were the best ...

  1. The influence of marital factors on genital human papilloma virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To study the association between marital factors and human papilloma virus (HPV) infection of the cervix. Method: The subjects were 450 randomly selected sexually active women attending the antenatal, postnatal, gynaecology and family planning clinics in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of the ...

  2. Prevalence And Risk Factors For Human Pappiloma Virus Infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human Pappiloma Virus (HPV) infection is a disease of global public health importance, culminating into a high risk of cervical cancer. Most of the risk factors are modifiable, thus making HPV itself preventable. Efforts towards community HPV prevention and vaccination have not yielded the desired results, most especially ...

  3. Prevalence and Risk Factors of High Risk Human Papillomavirus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cervical cancer is the most common female cancer in northern Nigeria, yet the pattern of infection with human papillomavirus, the principal aetiologic agent is unknown. This was a preliminary study conducted in two referral hospitals in order to establish base-line data on the prevalence and risk factors for the infection in ...

  4. Human factors in organizational design and management VI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, P.; Koningsveld, E.A.P.; Dhondt, S.

    1998-01-01

    This book contains proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium on Human Factors in Organizational Design and Management held in The Hague, The Netherlands, August 19-22, 1998. The Symposium was sponsored jointly by the International Ergonomics Society, the Dutch Ergonomics Society, NIA TNO and

  5. The factor structure of the Maslach Burnout Inventory Human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kirstam

    The factor structure of the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Human Services Survey across a sample of client service employees. C. Steyn. 6ABSTRACT. 12The negative consequences of burnout in the client service environment point to the importance of further research into the manner in which the unique challenges faced by ...

  6. Improving human performance: Industry factors influencing the ability to perform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güera Massyn Romo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Learning interventions and new technologies that aim to improve human performance must take cognisance of industry factors inhibiting human performance. The dynamic and fast pace nature of the Information and Communication Technologies (ICT and the engineering industries do not lend themselves to proper skills planning and management. These industries experience real skills gaps, to some of which they contribute by themselves. This study reports on these performance-inhibiting factors such as the underutilisation of available skills, tolerance for individual preferences, and dynamically, and informally refining a role objective while an employee is occupying a certain role. The important professional skills required by individuals to cope with these real life factors are also explored in the skills gaps management context. Moreover, these industries need a profile they refer to as Special Forces, which denotes a high calibre of worker that possesses well-developed professional skills whilst having advanced technical expertise and sufficient experience. This resource profile is required largely due to the poor management of human resource processes in practice and the current reported lack of adequate skills. Furthermore, this study refers to the recent lack of a working definition for these Special Forces leading to the omitted active development of these profiles in industry today, which appears to become a key human performance inhibiting factor.

  7. Understanding human factors in cyber security as a dynamic system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Young, H.J.; Vliet, A.J. van; Ven, J.G.S. van de; Jol, S.C.; Broekman, C.C.M.T.

    2018-01-01

    The perspective of human factors is largely missing from the wider cyber security dialogue and its scope is often limited. We propose a framework in which we consider cyber security as a state of a system. System change is brought on by an entity’s behavior. Interventions are ways of changing

  8. Pattern Analyses Reveal Separate Experience-Based Fear Memories in the Human Right Amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braem, Senne; De Houwer, Jan; Demanet, Jelle; Yuen, Kenneth S L; Kalisch, Raffael; Brass, Marcel

    2017-08-23

    Learning fear via the experience of contingencies between a conditioned stimulus (CS) and an aversive unconditioned stimulus (US) is often assumed to be fundamentally different from learning fear via instructions. An open question is whether fear-related brain areas respond differently to experienced CS-US contingencies than to merely instructed CS-US contingencies. Here, we contrasted two experimental conditions where subjects were instructed to expect the same CS-US contingencies while only one condition was characterized by prior experience with the CS-US contingency. Using multivoxel pattern analysis of fMRI data, we found CS-related neural activation patterns in the right amygdala (but not in other fear-related regions) that dissociated between whether a CS-US contingency had been instructed and experienced versus merely instructed. A second experiment further corroborated this finding by showing a category-independent neural response to instructed and experienced, but not merely instructed, CS presentations in the human right amygdala. Together, these findings are in line with previous studies showing that verbal fear instructions have a strong impact on both brain and behavior. However, even in the face of fear instructions, the human right amygdala still shows a separable neural pattern response to experience-based fear contingencies. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT In our study, we addressed a fundamental problem of the science of human fear learning and memory, namely whether fear learning via experience in humans relies on a neural pathway that can be separated from fear learning via verbal information. Using two new procedures and recent advances in the analysis of brain imaging data, we localized purely experience-based fear processing and memory in the right amygdala, thereby making a direct link between human and animal research. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/378116-15$15.00/0.

  9. Evaluation of a modified 16-item Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale (RIPLS): Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tzu-Chieh; Jowsey, Tanisha; Henning, Marcus

    2018-04-18

    The Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale (RIPLS) was developed to assess undergraduate readiness for engaging in interprofessional education (IPE). It has become an accepted and commonly used instrument. To determine utility of a modified 16-item RIPLS instrument, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were performed. Data used were collected from a pre- and post-intervention study involving 360 New Zealand undergraduate students from one university. Just over half of the participants were enrolled in medicine (51%) while the remainder were in pharmacy (27%) and nursing (22%). The intervention was a two-day simulation-based IPE course focused on managing unplanned acute medical problems in hospital wards ("ward calls"). Immediately prior to the course, 288 RIPLS were collected and immediately afterwards, 322 (response rates 80% and 89%, respectively). Exploratory factor analysis involving principal axis factoring with an oblique rotation method was conducted using pre-course data. The scree plot suggested a three-factor solution over two- and four-factor solutions. Subsequent confirmatory factor analysis performed using post-course data demonstrated partial goodness-of-fit for this suggested three-factor model. Based on these findings, further robust psychometric testing of the RIPLS or modified versions of it is recommended before embarking on its use in evaluative research in various healthcare education settings.

  10. Human factors engineering review for CRT screen design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, S. M.; Joo, C. Y.; Ra, J. C.

    1999-01-01

    The information interface between man and machine may be more important than hardware and workplace layout considerations. Transmitting and receiving data through this information interface can be characterized as a communication or interface problem. Management of man-machine interface is essential for the enhancement of the information processing and decision-making capability of computer users working in real time, demanding task. The design of human-computer interface is not a rigid and static procedure. The content and context of each interface varies according to the specific application. So, the purpose of this study is to review the human factor design process for interfaces, to make human factor guidelines for CRT screen and to apply these to CRT screen design. (author)

  11. Residential Load Manageability Factor Analyses by Load Sensitivity Affected by Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Eskandari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Load side management is the basic and significant principle to keeping the balance between generation side and consumption side of electrical power energy. Load side management on typical medium voltage feeder is the power energy consumption control of connected loads with variation of essential parameters that loads do reaction to their variation. Knowing amount of load's reaction to each parameters variation in typical medium voltage feeder during the day, leads to gain Load Manageability Factor (LMF for that specific feeder that helps power utilities to manage their connected loads. Calculating this LMF needs to find out each types of load with unique inherent features behavior to each parameters variation. This paper results and future work results will help us to catch mentioned LMF. In this paper analysis of residential load behavior due to temperature variation with training artificial neural network will be done. Load behavior due to other essential parameters variations like energy pricing variation, major event happening, and power utility announcing to the customers, and etc will study in future works. Collecting all related works results in a unit mathematical equation or an artificial neural network will gain LMF.

  12. NASA-ONERA Collaboration on Human Factors in Aviation Accidents and Incidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Ashok N.; Fabiani, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    This is the first annual report jointly prepared by NASA and ONERA on the work performed under the agreement to collaborate on a study of the human factors entailed in aviation accidents and incidents, particularly focused on the consequences of decreases in human performance associated with fatigue. The objective of this agreement is to generate reliable, automated procedures that improve understanding of the levels and characteristics of flight-crew fatigue factors whose confluence will likely result in unacceptable crew performance. This study entails the analyses of numerical and textual data collected during operational flights. NASA and ONERA are collaborating on the development and assessment of automated capabilities for extracting operationally significant information from very large, diverse (textual and numerical) databases; much larger than can be handled practically by human experts.

  13. Human factors in the development of complications of airway management: preliminary evaluation of an interview tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flin, R; Fioratou, E; Frerk, C; Trotter, C; Cook, T M

    2013-08-01

    The 4th National Audit Project of the Royal College of Anaesthetists and the Difficult Airway Society (NAP4) analysed reports of serious events arising from airway management during anaesthesia, intensive care and the emergency department. We conducted supplementary telephone interviews with 12 anaesthetists who had reported to NAP4, aiming to identify causal factors using a method based on the Human Factors Investigation Tool (HFIT). We identified contributing human factors in all cases (median [range] 4.5 [1-10] per case). The most frequent related to: situation awareness (failures to anticipate, wrong decision) (nine cases); job factors (e.g. task difficulty; staffing, time pressure) (eight cases); and person factors (e.g. tiredness, hunger, stress) (six cases). Protective factors, such as teamwork and communication, were also revealed. The post-report HFIT interview method identified relevant human factors and this approach merits further testing as part of the investigation of anaesthetic incidents. Anaesthesia © 2013 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  14. First Annual Report: NASA-ONERA Collaboration on Human Factors in Aviation Accidents and Incidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Ashok; Fabiani, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    This is the first annual report jointly prepared by NASA and ONERA on the work performed under the agreement to collaborate on a study of the human factors entailed in aviation accidents and incidents particularly focused on consequences of decreases in human performance associated with fatigue. The objective of this Agreement is to generate reliable, automated procedures that improve understanding of the levels and characteristics of flight-crew fatigue factors whose confluence will likely result in unacceptable crew performance. This study entails the analyses of numerical and textual data collected during operational flights. NASA and ONERA are collaborating on the development and assessment of automated capabilities for extracting operationally significant information from very large, diverse (textual and numerical) databases much larger than can be handled practically by human experts. This report presents the approach that is currently expected to be used in processing and analyzing the data for identifying decrements in aircraft performance and examining their relationships to decrements in crewmember performance due to fatigue. The decisions on the approach were based on samples of both the numerical and textual data that will be collected during the four studies planned under the Human Factors Monitoring Program (HFMP). Results of preliminary analyses of these sample data are presented in this report.

  15. Posture Control—Human-Inspired Approaches for Humanoid Robot Benchmarking: Conceptualizing Tests, Protocols and Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Mergner

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Posture control is indispensable for both humans and humanoid robots, which becomes especially evident when performing sensorimotor tasks such as moving on compliant terrain or interacting with the environment. Posture control is therefore targeted in recent proposals of robot benchmarking in order to advance their development. This Methods article suggests corresponding robot tests of standing balance, drawing inspirations from the human sensorimotor system and presenting examples from robot experiments. To account for a considerable technical and algorithmic diversity among robots, we focus in our tests on basic posture control mechanisms, which provide humans with an impressive postural versatility and robustness. Specifically, we focus on the mechanically challenging balancing of the whole body above the feet in the sagittal plane around the ankle joints in concert with the upper body balancing around the hip joints. The suggested tests target three key issues of human balancing, which appear equally relevant for humanoid bipeds: (1 four basic physical disturbances (support surface (SS tilt and translation, field and contact forces may affect the balancing in any given degree of freedom (DoF. Targeting these disturbances allows us to abstract from the manifold of possible behavioral tasks. (2 Posture control interacts in a conflict-free way with the control of voluntary movements for undisturbed movement execution, both with “reactive” balancing of external disturbances and “proactive” balancing of self-produced disturbances from the voluntary movements. Our proposals therefore target both types of disturbances and their superposition. (3 Relevant for both versatility and robustness of the control, linkages between the posture control mechanisms across DoFs provide their functional cooperation and coordination at will and on functional demands. The suggested tests therefore include ankle-hip coordination. Suggested benchmarking

  16. Comparing sequencing assays and human-machine analyses in actionable genomics for glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrzeszczynski, Kazimierz O; Frank, Mayu O; Koyama, Takahiko; Rhrissorrakrai, Kahn; Robine, Nicolas; Utro, Filippo; Emde, Anne-Katrin; Chen, Bo-Juen; Arora, Kanika; Shah, Minita; Vacic, Vladimir; Norel, Raquel; Bilal, Erhan; Bergmann, Ewa A; Moore Vogel, Julia L; Bruce, Jeffrey N; Lassman, Andrew B; Canoll, Peter; Grommes, Christian; Harvey, Steve; Parida, Laxmi; Michelini, Vanessa V; Zody, Michael C; Jobanputra, Vaidehi; Royyuru, Ajay K; Darnell, Robert B

    2017-08-01

    To analyze a glioblastoma tumor specimen with 3 different platforms and compare potentially actionable calls from each. Tumor DNA was analyzed by a commercial targeted panel. In addition, tumor-normal DNA was analyzed by whole-genome sequencing (WGS) and tumor RNA was analyzed by RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). The WGS and RNA-seq data were analyzed by a team of bioinformaticians and cancer oncologists, and separately by IBM Watson Genomic Analytics (WGA), an automated system for prioritizing somatic variants and identifying drugs. More variants were identified by WGS/RNA analysis than by targeted panels. WGA completed a comparable analysis in a fraction of the time required by the human analysts. The development of an effective human-machine interface in the analysis of deep cancer genomic datasets may provide potentially clinically actionable calls for individual patients in a more timely and efficient manner than currently possible. NCT02725684.

  17. Transplantation of human amniotic epithelial cells repairs brachial plexus injury:pathological and biomechanical analyses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Yang; Min Luo; Peng Li; Hai Jin

    2014-01-01

    A brachial plexus injury model was established in rabbits by stretching the C6 nerve root. Imme-diately after the stretching, a suspension of human amniotic epithelial cells was injected into the injured brachial plexus. The results of tensile mechanical testing of the brachial plexus showed that the tensile elastic limit strain, elastic limit stress, maximum stress, and maximum strain of the injured brachial plexuses were signiifcantly increased at 24 weeks after the injection. The treat-ment clearly improved the pathological morphology of the injured brachial plexus nerve, as seen by hematoxylin eosin staining, and the functions of the rabbit forepaw were restored. These data indicate that the injection of human amniotic epithelial cells contributed to the repair of brachial plexus injury, and that this technique may transform into current clinical treatment strategies.

  18. Analysing the influence of human activity on runoff in the Weihe River basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Shen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Changing runoff patterns can have profound effects on the economic development of river basins. To assess the impact of human activity on runoff in the Weihe River basin, principal component analysis (PCA was applied to a set of 17 widely used indicators of economic development to construct general combined indicators reflecting different types of human activity. Grey relational analysis suggested that the combined indicator associated with agricultural activity was most likely to have influenced the changes in runoff observed within the river basin during 1994–2011. Curve fitting was then performed to characterize the relationship between the general agricultural indicator and the measured runoff, revealing a reasonably high correlation (R2 = 0.393 and an exponential relationship. Finally, a sensitivity analysis was performed to assess the influence of the 17 individual indicators on the measured runoff, confirming that indicators associated with agricultural activity had profound effects whereas those associated with urbanization had relatively little impact.

  19. Proteomics analyses for the global proteins in the brain tissues of different human prion diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Qi; Chen, Li-Na; Zhang, Bao-Yun; Xiao, Kang; Zhou, Wei; Chen, Cao; Zhang, Xiao-Mei; Tian, Chan; Gao, Chen; Wang, Jing; Han, Jun; Dong, Xiao-Ping

    2015-04-01

    Proteomics changes of brain tissues have been described in different neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. However, the brain proteomics of human prion disease remains less understood. In the study, the proteomics patterns of cortex and cerebellum of brain tissues of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, fatal familial insomnia, and G114V genetic CJD were analyzed with isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation combined with multidimensional liquid chromatography and MS analysis, with the brains from three normal individuals as controls. Global protein profiling, significant pathway, and functional categories were analyzed. In total, 2287 proteins were identified with quantitative information both in cortex and cerebellum regions. Cerebellum tissues appeared to contain more up- and down-regulated proteins (727 proteins) than cortex regions (312 proteins) of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, fatal familial insomnia, and G114V genetic CJD. Viral myocarditis, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, lysosome, oxidative phosphorylation, protein export, and drug metabolism-cytochrome P450 were the most commonly affected pathways of the three kinds of diseases. Almost coincident biological functions were identified in the brain tissues of the three diseases. In all, data here demonstrate that the brain tissues of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, fatal familial insomnia, and G114V genetic CJD have obvious proteomics changes at their terminal stages, which show the similarities not only among human prion diseases but also with other neurodegeneration diseases. This is the first study to provide a reference proteome map for human prion diseases and will be helpful for future studies focused on potential biomarkers for the diagnosis and therapy of human prion diseases. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. Proteomics Analyses of Human Optic Nerve Head Astrocytes Following Biomechanical Strain*

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, Ronan S.; Dharsee, Moyez; Ackloo, Suzanne; Sivak, Jeremy M.; Flanagan, John G.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the role of glial cell activation in the human optic nerve caused by raised intraocular pressure, and their potential role in the development of glaucomatous optic neuropathy. To do this we present a proteomics study of the response of cultured, optic nerve head astrocytes to biomechanical strain, the magnitude and mode of strain based on previously published quantitative models. In this case, astrocytes were subjected to 3 and 12% stretches for either 2 h or 24 h. Proteomic me...

  1. Optimisation of a machine learning algorithm in human locomotion using principal component and discriminant function analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Bisele, M; Bencsik, M; Lewis, MGC; Barnett, CT

    2017-01-01

    Assessment methods in human locomotion often involve the description of normalised graphical profiles and/or the extraction of discrete variables. Whilst useful, these approaches may not represent the full complexity of gait data. Multivariate statistical methods, such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Discriminant Function Analysis (DFA), have been adopted since they have the potential to overcome these data handling issues. The aim of the current study was to develop and optimise a ...

  2. Human intrinsic factor expressed in the plant Arabidopsis thaliana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedosov, Sergey N; Laursen, Niels B; Nexø, Ebba

    2003-01-01

    and contamination by other B12 binders. We tested the use of recombinant plants for large-scale production of pathogen-free human recombinant IF. Human IF was successfully expressed in the recombinant plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Extract from fresh plants possessed high B12-binding capacity corresponding to 70 mg...... to recombinant IF and gastric IF were alike, as was the interaction of recombinant and native IF with the specific receptor cubilin. The data presented show that recombinant plants have a great potential as a large-scale source of human IF for analytical and therapeutic purposes.......Intrinsic factor (IF) is the gastric protein that promotes the intestinal uptake of vitamin B12. Gastric IF from animal sources is used in diagnostic tests and in vitamin pills. However, administration of animal IF to humans becomes disadvantageous because of possible pathogenic transmission...

  3. Applying of factor analyses for determination of trace elements distribution in water from Vardar and its tributaries, Macedonia/Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Stanko Ilić; Stafilov, Trajče; Sajn, Robert; Tănăselia, Claudiu; Bačeva, Katerina

    2014-01-01

    A systematic study was carried out to investigate the distribution of fifty-six elements in the water samples from river Vardar (Republic of Macedonia and Greece) and its major tributaries. The samples were collected from 27 sampling sites. Analyses were performed by mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma (ICP-MS) and atomic emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma (ICP-AES). Cluster and R mode factor analysis (FA) was used to identify and characterise element associations and four associations of elements were determined by the method of multivariate statistics. Three factors represent the associations of elements that occur in the river water naturally while Factor 3 represents an anthropogenic association of the elements (Cd, Ga, In, Pb, Re, Tl, Cu, and Zn) introduced in the river waters from the waste waters from the mining and metallurgical activities in the country.

  4. Detailed semantic analyses of human error incidents occurring at nuclear power plant in USA (interim report). Characteristics of human error incidents occurring in the period from 1992 to 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirotsu, Yuko; Tsuge, Tadashi; Sano, Toshiaki; Takano, Kenichi; Gouda, Hidenori

    2001-01-01

    CRIEPI has been conducting detailed analyses of all human error incidents at domestic nuclear power plants (NPPs) collected from Japanese Licensee Event Reports (LERs) using J-HPES (Japanese version of HPES) as an analysis method. Results obtained by the analyses have been stored in J-HPES database. Since 1999, human error incidents have been selected from U.S. LERs, and they are analyzed using J-HPES. In this report, the results, which classified error action, cause, and preventive measure, are summarized for U.S. human error cases occurring in the period from 1992 to 1996. It was suggested as a result of classification that the categories of error action were almost the same as those of Japanese human error cases. Therefore, problems in the process of error action and checkpoints for preventing errors will be extracted by analyzing both U.S. and domestic human error cases. It was also suggested that the interrelations between error actions, causes, and organizational factors could be identified. While taking these suggestions into consideration, we will continue to analyze U.S. human error cases. (author)

  5. Analyses of Catharanthus roseus and Arabidopsis thaliana WRKY transcription factors reveal involvement in jasmonate signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schluttenhofer, Craig; Pattanaik, Sitakanta; Patra, Barunava; Yuan, Ling

    2014-06-20

    To combat infection to biotic stress plants elicit the biosynthesis of numerous natural products, many of which are valuable pharmaceutical compounds. Jasmonate is a central regulator of defense response to pathogens and accumulation of specialized metabolites. Catharanthus roseus produces a large number of terpenoid indole alkaloids (TIAs) and is an excellent model for understanding the regulation of this class of valuable compounds. Recent work illustrates a possible role for the Catharanthus WRKY transcription factors (TFs) in regulating TIA biosynthesis. In Arabidopsis and other plants, the WRKY TF family is also shown to play important role in controlling tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses, as well as secondary metabolism. Here, we describe the WRKY TF families in response to jasmonate in Arabidopsis and Catharanthus. Publically available Arabidopsis microarrays revealed at least 30% (22 of 72) of WRKY TFs respond to jasmonate treatments. Microarray analysis identified at least six jasmonate responsive Arabidopsis WRKY genes (AtWRKY7, AtWRKY20, AtWRKY26, AtWRKY45, AtWRKY48, and AtWRKY72) that have not been previously reported. The Catharanthus WRKY TF family is comprised of at least 48 members. Phylogenetic clustering reveals 11 group I, 32 group II, and 5 group III WRKY TFs. Furthermore, we found that at least 25% (12 of 48) were jasmonate responsive, and 75% (9 of 12) of the jasmonate responsive CrWRKYs are orthologs of AtWRKYs known to be regulated by jasmonate. Overall, the CrWRKY family, ascertained from transcriptome sequences, contains approximately 75% of the number of WRKYs found in other sequenced asterid species (pepper, tomato, potato, and bladderwort). Microarray and transcriptomic data indicate that expression of WRKY TFs in Arabidopsis and Catharanthus are under tight spatio-temporal and developmental control, and potentially have a significant role in jasmonate signaling. Profiling of CrWRKY expression in response to jasmonate treatment

  6. National plan to enhance aviation safety through human factors improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foushee, Clay

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this section of the plan is to establish a development and implementation strategy plan for improving safety and efficiency in the Air Traffic Control (ATC) system. These improvements will be achieved through the proper applications of human factors considerations to the present and future systems. The program will have four basic goals: (1) prepare for the future system through proper hiring and training; (2) develop a controller work station team concept (managing human errors); (3) understand and address the human factors implications of negative system results; and (4) define the proper division of responsibilities and interactions between the human and the machine in ATC systems. This plan addresses six program elements which together address the overall purpose. The six program elements are: (1) determine principles of human-centered automation that will enhance aviation safety and the efficiency of the air traffic controller; (2) provide new and/or enhanced methods and techniques to measure, assess, and improve human performance in the ATC environment; (3) determine system needs and methods for information transfer between and within controller teams and between controller teams and the cockpit; (4) determine how new controller work station technology can optimally be applied and integrated to enhance safety and efficiency; (5) assess training needs and develop improved techniques and strategies for selection, training, and evaluation of controllers; and (6) develop standards, methods, and procedures for the certification and validation of human engineering in the design, testing, and implementation of any hardware or software system element which affects information flow to or from the human.

  7. Human factors evaluation of man-machine interface for periodic safety review of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yong Hee; Lee, Jung Woon; Park, Jae Chang; Hwang, In Koo; Lee, Hyun Cheol; Jang, Tong Il; Ku, Jin Young; Kim, Soo Jin

    2004-12-01

    This report describes the research results of human factors assessment on the MMI(Man Machine Interface) equipment as part of Periodic Safety Review(PSR) of Nuclear Power Plants(NPPs). As MMI is a key factor among human factors to be reviewed in PSR, we reviewed the MMI components of nuclear power plants in aspect of human factors engineering. The availability, suitability, and effectiveness of the MMI devices were chosen to be reviewed. The MMI devices were investigated through the review of design documents related to the MMI, survey of control panels, evaluation of experts, and experimental assessment. Checklists were used to perform this assessment and record the review results. The items mentioned by the expert comments to review in detail in relation with task procedures were tested by experiments with operators' participation. For some questionable issues arisen during this MMI review, operator workload and possibility of errors in operator actions were analysed. The reviewed MMI devices contain MCR(Main Control Room), SPDS(Safety Parameter Display System), RSP(Remote Shutdown Panel), and the selected LCBs(Local Control Boards) importantly related to safety. As results of the assessments, any significant problem challenging the safety was not found on human factors in the MMI devices. However, several small items to be changed and improved in suitability of MMI devices were discovered. An action plan is recommended to accommodate the suggestions and review comments. It will enhance the plant safety on MMI area

  8. Human factors/ergonomics as a systems discipline? "The human use of human beings" revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollnagel, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Discussions of the possible future of Human factors/ergonomics (HFE) usually take the past for granted in the sense that the future of HFE is assumed to be more of the same. This paper argues that the nature of work in the early 2010s is so different from the nature of work when HFE was formulated 60-70 years ago that a critical reassessment of the basis for HFE is needed. If HFE should be a systems discipline, it should be a soft systems rather than a hard systems discipline. It is not enough for HFE to seek to improve performance and well-being through systems design, since any change to the work environment in principle alters the very basis for the change. Instead HFE should try to anticipate how the nature of work will change so that it can both foresee what work will be and propose what work should be. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  9. [Molecular analyses of human influenza viruses. Circulation of new variants since 1995/96].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biere, B; Schweiger, B

    2008-09-01

    The evolution of influenza viruses is increasingly pursued by molecular analyses that complement classical methods. The analyses focus on the two surface proteins hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) which determine the viral antigenic profile. Influenza A(H3N2) viruses are exceptionally variable, so that usually at least two virus variants cocirculate at the same time. Together with influenza B viruses they caused approximately 90% of influenza virus infections in Germany during the last 12 seasons, while influenza A(H1N1) viruses only played a subordinate part. Unexpectedly, reassorted viruses of subtype A(H1N2) appeared during the seasons 2001/02 and 2002/03, but were isolated only rarely and gained no epidemiological significance. Furthermore, during the season 2001/02 influenza B viruses of the Victoria-lineage reappeared in Germany and other countries of the northern hemisphere after 10 years of absence. These viruses reassorted with the cocirculating Yamagata-like influenza B viruses, as could be seen by the appearance of viruses with a Victoria-like HA and a Yamagata-like NA.

  10. A human error taxonomy for analysing healthcare incident reports: assessing reporting culture and its effects on safety perfomance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Itoh, Kenji; Omata, N.; Andersen, Henning Boje

    2009-01-01

    The present paper reports on a human error taxonomy system developed for healthcare risk management and on its application to evaluating safety performance and reporting culture. The taxonomy comprises dimensions for classifying errors, for performance-shaping factors, and for the maturity...

  11. The importance of residues 195-206 of human blood clotting factor VII in the interaction of factor VII with tissue factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wildgoose, P.; Kisiel, W.; Kazim, A.L.

    1990-01-01

    Previous studies indicated that human and bovine factor VII exhibit 71% amino acid sequence identity. In the present study, competition binding experiments revealed that the interaction of human factor VII with cell-surface human tissue factor was not inhibited by 100-fold molar excess of bovine factor VII. This finding indicated that bovine and human factor VII are not structurally homologous in the region(s) where human factor VII interacts with human tissue factor. On this premise, the authors synthesized three peptides corresponding to regions of human factor VII that exhibited marked structural dissimilarity to bovine factor VII; these regions of dissimilarity included residues 195-206, 263-274, and 314-326. Peptide 195-206 inhibited the interaction of factor VII with cell-surface tissue factor and the activation of factor X by a complex of factor VIIa and tissue factor half-maximally at concentrations of 1-2 mM. A structurally rearranged form of peptide 195-206 containing an aspartimide residue inhibited these reactions half-maximally at concentrations of 250-300 μM. In contrast, neither peptide 263-274 nor peptide 314-326, at 2 mM concentration, significantly affected either factor VIIa interaction with tissue factor or factor VIIa-mediated activation of factor X. The data provide presumptive evidence that residues 195-206 of human factor VII are involved in the interaction of human factor VII with the extracellular domain of human tissue factor apoprotein

  12. Evaluating the factor structure, item analyses, and internal consistency of hospital anxiety and depression scale in Iranian infertile patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payam Amini

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS is a common screening tool designed to measure the level of anxiety and depression in different factor structures and has been extensively used in non-psychiatric populations and individuals experiencing fertility problems. Objective: The aims of this study were to evaluate the factor structure, item analyses, and internal consistency of HADS in Iranian infertile patients. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study included 651 infertile patients (248 men and 403 women referred to a referral infertility Center in Tehran, Iran between January 2014 and January 2015. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to determine the underlying factor structure of the HADS among one, two, and threefactor models. Several goodness of fit indices were utilized such as comparative, normed and goodness of fit indices, Akaike information criterion, and the root mean squared error of approximation. In addition to HADS, the Satisfaction with Life Scale questionnaires as well as demographic and clinical information were administered to all patients. Results: The goodness of fit indices through CFAs exposed that three and onefactor model provided the best and worst fit to the total, male and female datasets compared to the other factor structure models for the infertile patients. The Cronbach’s alpha for anxiety and depression subscales were 0.866 and 0.753 respectively. The HADS subscales significantly correlated with SWLS, indicating an acceptable convergent validity. Conclusion: The HADS was found to be a three-factor structure screening instrument in the field of infertility.

  13. Space Flight Human System Standards (SFHSS). Volume 2; Human Factors, Habitability and Environmental Factors" and Human Integration Design Handbook (HIDH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.; Fitts, David J.

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the standards for space flight hardware based on human capabilities and limitations. The contents include: 1) Scope; 2) Applicable documents; 3) General; 4) Human Physical Characteristics and Capabilities; 5) Human Performance and Cognition; 6) Natural and Induced Environments; 7) Habitability Functions; 8) Architecture; 9) Hardware and Equipment; 10) Crew Interfaces; 11) Spacesuits; 12) Operatons: Reserved; 13) Ground Maintenance and Assembly: Reserved; 14) Appendix A-Reference Documents; 15) Appendix N-Acronyms and 16) Appendix C-Definition. Volume 2 is supported by the Human Integration Design Handbook (HIDH)s.

  14. The development of human factors technologies -The development of human behaviour analysis techniques-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Lee, Yong Heui; Park, Keun Ok; Chun, Se Woo; Suh, Sang Moon; Park, Jae Chang

    1995-07-01

    In order to contribute to human error reduction through the studies on human-machine interaction in nuclear power plants, this project has objectives to develop SACOM(Simulation Analyzer with a Cognitive Operator Model) and techniques for human error analysis and application. In this year, we studied the followings: 1) Site investigation of operator tasks, 2) Development of operator task micro structure and revision of micro structure, 3) Development of knowledge representation software and SACOM prototype, 4) Development of performance assessment methodologies in task simulation and analysis of the effects of performance shaping factors. 1) Classification of error shaping factors(ESFs) and development of software for ESF evaluation, 2) Analysis of human error occurrences and revision of analysis procedure, 3) Experiment for human error data collection using a compact nuclear simulator, 4) Development of a prototype data base system of the analyzed information on trip cases. 55 figs, 23 tabs, 33 refs. (Author)

  15. Human factors for the Moon: the gap in anthropometric data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lia Schlacht, Irene; Foing, Bernard H.; Rittweger, Joern; Masali, Melchiorre; Stevenin, Hervé

    2016-07-01

    Since the space era began, we learned first to survive and then to live in space. In the state of the art, we know how important human factors research and development is to guarantee maximum safety and performance for human missions. With the extension of the duration of space missions, we also need to learn how habitability and comfort factors are closely related to safety and performance. Humanities disciplines such as design, architecture, anthropometry, and anthropology are now involved in mission design from the start. Actual plans for building a simulated Moon village in order to simulate and test Moon missions are now being carried out using a holistic approach, involving multidisciplinary experts cooperating concurrently with regard to the interactions among humans, technology, and the environment. However, in order to implement such plans, we need basic anthropometrical data, which is still missing. In other words: to optimize performance, we need to create doors and ceilings with dimensions that support a natural human movement in the reduced gravity environment of the Moon, but we are lacking detailed anthropometrical data on human movement on the Moon. In the Apollo missions more than 50 years ago, no anthropometrical studies were carried in hypogravity out as far as we know. The necessity to collect data is very consistent with state-of-the-art research. We still have little knowledge of how people will interact with the Moon environment. Specifically, it is not known exactly which posture, which kind of walking and running motions astronauts will use both inside and outside a Moon station. Considering recent plans for a Moon mission where humans will spend extensive time in reduced gravity conditions, the need for anthropometric, biomechanics and kinematics field data is a priority in order to be able to design the right architecture, infrastructure, and interfaces. Objective of this paper: Bring knowledge on the relevance of anthropometrical and

  16. Human factors engineering measures taken by nuclear power plant owners/operators for optimisation of the man-machine interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisgruber, H.

    1996-01-01

    Both operating results and human factors studies show that man is able to meet the requirements in this working environment. Hence the degree of human reliability required by the design basis of nuclear power plants is ensured. This means: - Nuclear technology for electricity generation is justifiable from the human factors point of view. - The chief opponent is not right in saying that man is not able to cope with the risks and challenges brought about by nuclear technology applications. The human factors concept for optimisation or configuration of the man-machine systems represents an additional endeavor on the part of nuclear power plant operators within the framework of their responsibilities. Human factors analyses meet with good response by the personnel, as analysis results and clarification of causes of accident scenarios contribute to relieve the personnel (exoneration) and find ways for remedial action. (orig./DG) [de

  17. Human Factors Engineering: Current and Emerging Dual-Use Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandlee, G. O.; Goldsberry, B. S.

    1994-01-01

    Human Factors Engineering is a multidisciplinary endeavor in which information pertaining to human characteristics is used in the development of systems and machines. Six representatives considered to be experts from the public and private sectors were surveyed in an effort to identify the potential dual-use of human factors technology. Each individual was asked to provide a rating as to the dual-use of 85 identified NASA technologies. Results of the survey were as follows: nearly 75 percent of the technologies were identified at least once as high dual-use by one of the six survey respondents, and nearly 25 percent of the identified NASA technologies were identified as high dual-use technologies by a majority of the respondents. The perceived level of dual-use appeared to be independent of the technology category. Successful identification of dual-use technology requires expanded input from industry. As an adjunct, cost-benefit analysis should be conducted to identify the feasibility of the dual-use technology. Concurrent with this effort should be an examination of precedents established by other technologies in other industrial settings. Advances in human factors and systems engineering are critical to reduce risk in any workplace and to enhance industrial competitiveness.

  18. The development of human factors experimental evaluation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sim, Bong Shick; Oh, In Suk; Cha, Kyung Ho; Lee, Hyun Chul; Park, Geun Ok; Cheon, Se Woo; Suh, Sang Moon

    1997-07-01

    New human factors issues, such as evaluation of information navigation, the consideration of operator characteristics, and operator performance assessment, related to the HMI design based on VDUs are being risen. Thus, in order to solve these human factors issues, this project aims to establish the experimental technologies including the techniques for experimental design, experimental measurement, data collection and analysis, and to develop ITF (Integrated Test Facility) suitable for the experiment of HMI design evaluation. For the establish of the experimental data analysis and evaluation methodologies, we developed as the following: (1) a paradigm for human factors experimentation including experimental designs, procedures, and data analysis. (2) the methods for the assessment of operator`s mental workload (3) DAEXESS (data analysis and experiment evaluation supporting system). Also, we have established a experiment execution technologies through the preliminary experiments, such as the suitability evaluation of information display on a LSDP, the evaluation of information display on a LSDP, the evaluation of computerized operation procedure and an experiment of advanced alarm system (ADIOS). Finally, we developed the ITF including human machine simulator, telemetry system, an eye tracking system, an audio/video data measurement system, and three dimensional micro behaviour analysis system. (author). 81 refs., 68 tabs., 73 figs.

  19. Critical human-factors issues in nuclear-power regulation and a recommended comprehensive human-factors long-range plan. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkins, C.O.; Snyder, H.L.; Price, H.E.; Hornick, R.J.; Mackie, R.R.; Smillie, R.J.; Sugarman, R.C.

    1982-08-01

    This comprehensive long-range human factors plan for nuclear reactor regulation was developed by a Study Group of the Human Factors Society, Inc. This Study Group was selected by the Executive Council of the Society to provide a balanced, experienced human factors perspective to the applications of human factors scientific and engineering knowledge to nuclear power generation. The report is presented in three volumes. Volume 1 contains an Executive Summary of the 18-month effort and its conclusions. Volume 2 summarizes all known nuclear-related human factors activities, evaluates these activities wherever adequate information is available, and describes the recommended long-range (10-year) plan for human factors in regulation. Volume 3 elaborates upon each of the human factors issues and areas of recommended human factors involvement contained in the plan, and discusses the logic that led to the recommendations

  20. Improved analyses of human mtDNA sequences support a recent African origin for Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penny, D; Steel, M; Waddell, P J; Hendy, M D

    1995-09-01

    New quantitative methods are applied to the 135 human mitochondrial sequences from the Vigilant et al. data set. General problems in analyzing large numbers of short sequences are discussed, and an improved strategy is suggested. A key feature is to focus not on individual trees but on the general "landscape" of trees. Over 1,000 searches were made from random starting trees with only one tree (a local optimum) being retained each time, thereby ensuring optima were found independently. A new tree comparison metric was developed that is unaffected by rearrangements of trees around many very short internal edges. Use of this metric showed that downweighting hypervariable sites revealed more evolutionary structure than studies that weighted all sites equally. Our results are consistent with convergence toward a global optimum. Crucial features are that the best optima show very strong regional differentiation, a common group of 49 African sequences is found in all the best optima, and the best optima contain the 16 !Kung sequences in a separate group of San people. The other 86 sequences form a heterogeneous mixture of Africans, Europeans, Australopapuans, and Asians. Thus all major human lineages occur in Africa, but only a subset occurs in the rest of the world. The existence of these African-only groups strongly contradicts multiregional theories for the origin of Homo sapiens that require widespread migration and interbreeding over the entire range of H. erectus. Only when the multiregional model is rejected is it appropriate to consider the root, based on a single locus, to be the center of origin of a population (otherwise different loci could give alternative geographic positions for the root). For this data, several methods locate the root within the group of 49 African sequences and are thus consistent with the recent African origin of H. sapiens. We demonstrate that the time of the last common ancestor cannot be the time of major expansion in human numbers

  1. Analyses of natural resources in 10 CFR Part 60 as related to inadvertent human intrusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miklas, M.P.; Lefevre, H.E.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the intent of the regulatory language of the portions of 10 CFR Part 60 which deal with considerations of the natural resources of a proposed geologic repository for high-level radioactive wastes as they relate to inadvertent human intrusion. Four Potentially Adverse Conditions (PAC) the requirements of 10 CFR 60.21(c)(13) are shown to be related to natural resources. Groundwater is identified as a natural resource known to be present at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. For economic considerations of natural resources, the open-quotes foreseeable futureclose quotes is thought to be no more than 50 years. Two of the topics addressed by the PACs, subsurface mining and drilling at a proposed repository site, are pre-site-characterization activities which must be evaluated in the context of repository performance criteria set by the US EPA standard, 40 CFR Part 191. An alternative US DOE compliance demonstration to another PAC, 10 CFR 60.122(c)(17), might be to use an open-quotes explorationist perspectiveclose quotes of natural resource assessment. The Commission intends for DOE to evaluate the likelihood and consequence of inadvertent human intrusion into a geologic repository as a result of exploration or exploitation of natural resources within or near a proposed high-level radioactive waste geologic repository

  2. Optimisation of a machine learning algorithm in human locomotion using principal component and discriminant function analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisele, Maria; Bencsik, Martin; Lewis, Martin G C; Barnett, Cleveland T

    2017-01-01

    Assessment methods in human locomotion often involve the description of normalised graphical profiles and/or the extraction of discrete variables. Whilst useful, these approaches may not represent the full complexity of gait data. Multivariate statistical methods, such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Discriminant Function Analysis (DFA), have been adopted since they have the potential to overcome these data handling issues. The aim of the current study was to develop and optimise a specific machine learning algorithm for processing human locomotion data. Twenty participants ran at a self-selected speed across a 15m runway in barefoot and shod conditions. Ground reaction forces (BW) and kinematics were measured at 1000 Hz and 100 Hz, respectively from which joint angles (°), joint moments (N.m.kg-1) and joint powers (W.kg-1) for the hip, knee and ankle joints were calculated in all three anatomical planes. Using PCA and DFA, power spectra of the kinematic and kinetic variables were used as a training database for the development of a machine learning algorithm. All possible combinations of 10 out of 20 participants were explored to find the iteration of individuals that would optimise the machine learning algorithm. The results showed that the algorithm was able to successfully predict whether a participant ran shod or barefoot in 93.5% of cases. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study to optimise the development of a machine learning algorithm.

  3. Structural and functional analyses of human cerebral cortex using a surface-based atlas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Essen, D. C.; Drury, H. A.

    1997-01-01

    We have analyzed the geometry, geography, and functional organization of human cerebral cortex using surface reconstructions and cortical flat maps of the left and right hemispheres generated from a digital atlas (the Visible Man). The total surface area of the reconstructed Visible Man neocortex is 1570 cm2 (both hemispheres), approximately 70% of which is buried in sulci. By linking the Visible Man cerebrum to the Talairach stereotaxic coordinate space, the locations of activation foci reported in neuroimaging studies can be readily visualized in relation to the cortical surface. The associated spatial uncertainty was empirically shown to have a radius in three dimensions of approximately 10 mm. Application of this approach to studies of visual cortex reveals the overall patterns of activation associated with different aspects of visual function and the relationship of these patterns to topographically organized visual areas. Our analysis supports a distinction between an anterior region in ventral occipito-temporal cortex that is selectively involved in form processing and a more posterior region (in or near areas VP and V4v) involved in both form and color processing. Foci associated with motion processing are mainly concentrated in a region along the occipito-temporal junction, the ventral portion of which overlaps with foci also implicated in form processing. Comparisons between flat maps of human and macaque monkey cerebral cortex indicate significant differences as well as many similarities in the relative sizes and positions of cortical regions known or suspected to be homologous in the two species.

  4. Characterization of a human antigen specific helper factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, B.

    1986-01-01

    While antigen (Ag) specific helper factors have been characterized in mice, similar molecules have not been identified in humans. To characterize human antigen specific helper molecules, an IL-2 dependent tetanus toxoid (T.T.) reactive T cell line was fused with a 6-thioguanine resistant CEM line, and hybrids selected in medium containing hypoxanthine and azaserine. Hybrids were screened by culturing the cells with 35 S-Met then reacting the supernatants with T.T. or hepatitis vaccine immobilized on nitrocellulose. One hybrid, TT6BA-O, was identified which secreted a Met-containing molecule which bound T.T. but not hepatitis vaccine. Supernatants from TT6BA-O, but not the parent CEM line, when added to autologous peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC's) stimulated secretion of T.T. specific antibodies (Abs). Specificity controls demonstrated that TT6BA-O supernatant did not induce antibodies to diphtheria toxoid, hepatitis vaccine or pneumococcal polysaccharide, and total immunoglobulin (lg) synthesis was minimally increased. In contrast, pokeweed mitogen stimulated significant lg synthesis as well as Ab's to pneumococcal polysaccharide and T.T. TT6BA-O supernatant induced anti-T.T.Ab's in autologous PBMC's but not PBMC's from 3 unrelated donors, suggesting that the activity of the helper factor is restricted, possibly by the MHC. The molecular weight of the helper factor was estimated at 100,000-150,000 by Sephacryl S-300 chromatography. Finally, the helper factor could be demonstrated to bind and elute from sephorose-immobilized T.T. and anti-DR antisera, but not anti-lg antisera or the T40/25 monoclonal antibody, which binds a nonpolymorphic determinant on the human T cell receptor. These results demonstrate that human Ag specific helper factors exist, bind antigen and bear class II MHC determinants

  5. Intrinsic factor in human amniotic fluid as determined by radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlstedt, V.; Stenman, U.-H.; Ylinen, K.; Graesbeck, R.

    1983-01-01

    The intrinsic factor (IF) concentration in 55 human amniotic fluid specimens was determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA). The antiserum was produced by immunizing rabbits with the cobalamin-IF complex isolated from human gastric juice. The median concentration of IF was 0.17 nmol/l and the extreme values <0.07-2.51 nmol/l. Three specimens with a clearly elevated level (0.96, 1.11 and 2.51 nmol/l) were observed. The highest value was associated with a fetal malformation, viz. obstruction of the proximal gut. There was no evident correlation between the concentration of IF in amniotic fluid and gestational age. (author)

  6. The human factor in high-tech plant operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grassani, E

    1988-02-01

    The article develops a series of considerations on reliability standards applied to operators of technologically complex industrial installations. From research conducted within the field of cognitive psychology, significant indications are emerging relative to professional training within industry, as well as to the functional and human interface characteristics of automated control systems. Recent tragic incidents (Three Mile Island nuclear power plant, Bopal methyl isocynate storage, Mexico City petroleum tank farm and Chernobylsk-4 reactor) have evidenced the greater weight that should be given to human factors in plant safety and reliability assessments and planning.

  7. Research and development studies on human factors: new trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llory, M.; Larchier-Boulanger, J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper is aimed at describing where the research work on human factors undertaken at EDF stands in relation to this European trend and to define the problematics of cognitive phenomena in relation to all (non cognitive) human phenomena, on the one hand, and to individual aspects as compared to collective and organizational aspects, on the other. Some important trends in the research and development studies will thus be examined one lay one: - analysis of operators' activity; - analysis of the activity cognitive aspects; - problem of the impact of non-cognitive aspects

  8. Human and social factors in the transportation of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freudenburg, W.R.

    1991-01-01

    The main body of this report is a broad-based examination of human and social factors in the transportation of nuclear wastes. It deals with pair interested problems that, while familiar to the social science community, appear to have received little attention from the risk assessment community to data: The human and social attenuation of risk estimates, and the organizational amplification of risks. Second, given the special opportunities for learning that are presented by the recent Alaska oil spill, in particular, the Appendix to this report examines the issue of organizational foresight in the context of the Exxon oil spill

  9. Human factors: a major issue in plant aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widrig, R.D.

    1985-07-01

    Human factors issues will be of great significance in the safe and reliable operation of aging nuclear power plants, and they may be more important than materials/component-type issues. Human actions can accelerate or decelerate te physical aging process. And an aging plant can have significant negative implications on staff performance and actions. Some examples include difficulties in attracting and retaining good managers, financial decisions based on a short and uncertain remaining plant life, difficulties in replacing retiring staff, increased maintenance complexity, and increased burden on training. These problems can be dealt with more effectively by early recognition and a well conceived mitigation effort

  10. Environmental risk factors for autism: an evidence-based review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modabbernia, Amirhossein; Velthorst, Eva; Reichenberg, Abraham

    2017-01-01

    According to recent evidence, up to 40-50% of variance in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) liability might be determined by environmental factors. In the present paper, we conducted a review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses of environmental risk factors for ASD. We assessed each review for quality of evidence and provided a brief overview of putative mechanisms of environmental risk factors for ASD. Current evidence suggests that several environmental factors including vaccination, maternal smoking, thimerosal exposure, and most likely assisted reproductive technologies are unrelated to risk of ASD. On the contrary, advanced parental age is associated with higher risk of ASD. Birth complications that are associated with trauma or ischemia and hypoxia have also shown strong links to ASD, whereas other pregnancy-related factors such as maternal obesity, maternal diabetes, and caesarian section have shown a less strong (but significant) association with risk of ASD. The reviews on nutritional elements have been inconclusive about the detrimental effects of deficiency in folic acid and omega 3, but vitamin D seems to be deficient in patients with ASD. The studies on toxic elements have been largely limited by their design, but there is enough evidence for the association between some heavy metals (most important inorganic mercury and lead) and ASD that warrants further investigation. Mechanisms of the association between environmental factors and ASD are debated but might include non-causative association (including confounding), gene-related effect, oxidative stress, inflammation, hypoxia/ischemia, endocrine disruption, neurotransmitter alterations, and interference with signaling pathways. Compared to genetic studies of ASD, studies of environmental risk factors are in their infancy and have significant methodological limitations. Future studies of ASD risk factors would benefit from a developmental psychopathology approach, prospective design, precise exposure

  11. A clinical observational study analysing the factors associated with hyperventilation during actual cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang O; Shin, Dong Hyuk; Baek, Kwang Je; Hong, Dae Young; Kim, Eun Jung; Kim, Sang Chul; Lee, Kyeong Ryong

    2013-03-01

    This is the first study to identify the factors associated with hyperventilation during actual cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in the emergency department (ED). All CPR events in the ED were recorded by video from April 2011 to December 2011. The following variables were analysed using review of the recorded CPR data: ventilation rate (VR) during each minute and its associated factors including provider factors (experience, advanced cardiovascular life support (ACLS) certification), clinical factors (auscultation to confirm successful intubation, suctioning, and comments by the team leader) and time factors (time or day of CPR). Fifty-five adult CPR cases including a total of 673 min sectors were analysed. The higher rates of hyperventilation (VR>10/min) were delivered by inexperienced (53.3% versus 14.2%) or uncertified ACLS provider (52.2% versus 10.8%), during night time (61.0 versus 34.5%) or weekend CPR (53.1% versus 35.6%) and when auscultation to confirm successful intubation was performed (93.5% versus 52.8%) than not (all p<0.0001). However, experienced (25.3% versus 29.7%; p=0.448) or certified ACLS provider (20.6% versus 31.3%; p<0.0001) could not deliver high rate of proper ventilation (VR 8-10/min). Comment by the team leader was most strongly associated with the proper ventilation (odds ratio 7.035, 95% confidence interval 4.512-10.967). Hyperventilation during CPR was associated with inexperienced or uncertified ACLS provider, auscultation to confirm intubation, and night time or weekend CPR. And to deliver proper ventilation, comments by the team leader should be given regardless of providers' expert level. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Approaches for the integration of human factors into the upgrading and refurbishment of control rooms - Summary and conclusions - Principal Working Group 1 on Operating Experience and Human Factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    A modern approach to control room design, be it for upgrading or complete refurbishment, requires the integration of many disciplines and approaches. The integration of human factors into such a process continues to present challenges. How such a process should be conceived, planned, and carried out is of considerable interest to designers, operators and regulators. Many NPPs around the world have been, or will be faced with decisions concerning modernization of their control rooms. Such changes can be driven by a range of issues including; the need to replace outdated control and instrumentation systems; increasing regulatory concern about human performance; or the need to provide a better process control environment for NPPs whose life cycles extend beyond that originally intended. Considering the importance of operator performance for safe and profitable operations, a process for ensuring that human factors issues are properly addressed could be central to the success or failure of such a project. Human factors is of particular importance when a combination of existing and new systems are to be used, resulting in a so-called 'hybrid' control room. The workshop addressed this topical area by providing a forum where a number of important areas could be discussed and experiences and lessons shared. Topics identified before hand as important and worthy of discussion included: - Exploration of how human factors issues can be identified. - Consideration of those processes and techniques necessary to ensure that appropriate requirements are specified, and that suitable data is gathered and analysed. - Identification and discussion of issues related to the above topics together with lessons from utilities, vendors and regulators which have faced, or are currently facing, these challenges. The meeting itself focused on the state of knowledge and current best practices within these areas and provided a forum for the open discussion of the human factors issues, as seen by

  13. Generation and analyses of human synthetic antibody libraries and their application for protein microarrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Säll, Anna; Walle, Maria; Wingren, Christer

    2016-01-01

    in a high-throughput manner. To address this we designed and constructed two human synthetic antibody fragment (scFv) libraries denoted HelL-11 and HelL-13. By the use of phage display technology, in total 466 unique scFv antibodies specific for 114 different antigens were generated. The specificities......Antibody-based proteomics offers distinct advantages in the analysis of complex samples for discovery and validation of biomarkers associated with disease. However, its large-scale implementation requires tools and technologies that allow development of suitable antibody or antibody fragments...... for diagnostics and therapeutics. In addition, this work provides a great example on how a synthetic approach can be used to optimize library designs. By having precise control of the diversity introduced into the antigen-binding sites, synthetic libraries offer increased understanding of how different diversity...

  14. Surface and protein analyses of normal human cell attachment on PIII-modified chitosan membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saranwong, N.; Inthanon, K.; Wongkham, W.; Wanichapichart, P.; Suwannakachorn, D.; Yu, L.D.

    2012-01-01

    Surface of chitosan membrane was modified with argon (Ar) and nitrogen (N) plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) for human skin fibroblasts F1544 cell attachment. The modified surfaces were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Cell attachment patterns were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to quantify levels of focal adhesion kinase (FAK). The results showed that Ar PIII had an enhancement effect on the cell attachment while N-PIII had an inhibition effect. Filopodial analysis revealed more microfilament cytoplasmic spreading on the edge of cells attached on the Ar-treated membranes than N-treated membranes. Higher level FAK was found in Ar-treated membranes than that in N-treated membranes.

  15. Melanin fate in the human epidermis: a reassessment of how best to detect and analyse histologically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly-Tonetti, Nicolas; Wibawa, Judata I D; Bell, Mike; Tobin, Desmond

    2016-07-01

    Melanin is the predominant pigment responsible for skin colour and is synthesized by the melanocyte in the basal layer of the epidermis and then transferred to surrounding keratinocytes. Despite its optical properties, melanin is barely detectable in unstained sections of human epidermis. However, identification and localization of melanin is of importance for the study of skin pigmentation in health and disease. Current methods for the histologic quantification of melanin are suboptimal and are associated with significant risk of misinterpretation. The aim of this study was to reassess the existing literature and to develop a more effective histological method of melanin quantification in human skin. Moreover, we confirm that Warthin-Starry (WS) stain provides a much more sensitive and more specific melanin detection method than the commonplace Fontana-Masson (FM) stain. For example, WS staining sensitivity allowed the visualization of melanin even in very pale Caucasian skin that was missed by FM or Von Kossa (VK) stains. From our reassessment of the histology-related literature, we conclude that so-called melanin dust is most likely an artifact of discoloration due to non-specific silver deposition in the stratum corneum. Unlike FM and VK, WS was not associated with this non-specific stratum corneum darkening, misinterpreted previously as 'degraded' melanin. Finally, WS melanin particle counts were largely similar to previously reported manual counts by transmission electron microscopy, in contrast to both FM and VK. Together these findings allow us to propose a new histology/Image J-informed method for the accurate and precise quantification of epidermal melanin in skin. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Primary and secondary structural analyses of glutathione S-transferase pi from human placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, H; Wilson, D E; Fritz, R R; Singh, S V; Medh, R D; Nagle, G T; Awasthi, Y C; Kurosky, A

    1990-05-01

    The primary structure of glutathione S-transferase (GST) pi from a single human placenta was determined. The structure was established by chemical characterization of tryptic and cyanogen bromide peptides as well as automated sequence analysis of the intact enzyme. The structural analysis indicated that the protein is comprised of 209 amino acid residues and gave no evidence of post-translational modifications. The amino acid sequence differed from that of the deduced amino acid sequence determined by nucleotide sequence analysis of a cDNA clone (Kano, T., Sakai, M., and Muramatsu, M., 1987, Cancer Res. 47, 5626-5630) at position 104 which contained both valine and isoleucine whereas the deduced sequence from nucleotide sequence analysis identified only isoleucine at this position. These results demonstrated that in the one individual placenta studied at least two GST pi genes are coexpressed, probably as a result of allelomorphism. Computer assisted consensus sequence evaluation identified a hydrophobic region in GST pi (residues 155-181) that was predicted to be either a buried transmembrane helical region or a signal sequence region. The significance of this hydrophobic region was interpreted in relation to the mode of action of the enzyme especially in regard to the potential involvement of a histidine in the active site mechanism. A comparison of the chemical similarity of five known human GST complete enzyme structures, one of pi, one of mu, two of alpha, and one microsomal, gave evidence that all five enzymes have evolved by a divergent evolutionary process after gene duplication, with the microsomal enzyme representing the most divergent form.

  17. Molecular Analyses Reveal Inflammatory Mediators in the Solid Component and Cyst Fluid of Human Adamantinomatous Craniopharyngioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donson, Andrew M; Apps, John; Griesinger, Andrea M; Amani, Vladimir; Witt, Davis A; Anderson, Richard C E; Niazi, Toba N; Grant, Gerald; Souweidane, Mark; Johnston, James M; Jackson, Eric M; Kleinschmidt-DeMasters, Bette K; Handler, Michael H; Tan, Aik-Choon; Gore, Lia; Virasami, Alex; Gonzalez-Meljem, Jose Mario; Jacques, Thomas S; Martinez-Barbera, Juan Pedro; Foreman, Nicholas K; Hankinson, Todd C

    2017-09-01

    Pediatric adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma (ACP) is a highly solid and cystic tumor, often causing substantial damage to critical neuroendocrine structures such as the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and optic apparatus. Paracrine signaling mechanisms driving tumor behavior have been hypothesized, with IL-6R overexpression identified as a potential therapeutic target. To identify potential novel therapies, we characterized inflammatory and immunomodulatory factors in ACP cyst fluid and solid tumor components. Cytometric bead analysis revealed a highly pro-inflammatory cytokine pattern in fluid from ACP compared to fluids from another cystic pediatric brain tumor, pilocytic astrocytoma. Cytokines and chemokines with particularly elevated concentrations in ACPs were IL-6, CXCL1 (GRO), CXCL8 (IL-8) and the immunosuppressive cytokine IL-10. These data were concordant with solid tumor compartment transcriptomic data from a larger cohort of ACPs, other pediatric brain tumors and normal brain. The majority of receptors for these cytokines and chemokines were also over-expressed in ACPs. In addition to IL-10, the established immunosuppressive factor IDO-1 was overexpressed by ACPs at the mRNA and protein levels. These data indicate that ACP cyst fluids and solid tumor components are characterized by an inflammatory cytokine and chemokine expression pattern. Further study regarding selective cytokine blockade may inform novel therapeutic interventions. © 2017 American Association of Neuropathologists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Application of the CALUX bioassay for epidemiological study. Analyses of Belgian human plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wouwe, N. van; Debacker, N.; Sasse, A. [Scientific Institute of Public Health, Brussels (BE)] (and others)

    2004-09-15

    The CALUX bioassay is a promising screening method for the detection of dioxin-like compounds. The observed good sensitivity, low number of false negative results as well as the good correlations with the GC-HRMS TEQ-values in case of feed and food analyses allow this method to climb in the first assessment methods' scale. The low amount of sample needed in addition to those latest advantages suggest that the CALUX bioassay could be a good screening method for epidemiological studies. The Belgian epidemiological study concerning the possible effect of the dioxin incident on the body burden of the Belgian population was an opportunity to test this method in comparison to the gold reference one: the GC-HRMS. The first part of this abstract presents epidemiological parameters (sensibility, specificity,) of the CALUX bioassay using CALUX TEQ-values as estimators of the TEQ-values of the 17 PCDD/Fs. The second part examines epidemiological determinants observed for CALUX and GCHRMS TEQ-values.

  19. Sustainability Efficiency Factor: Measuring Sustainability in Advanced Energy Systems through Exergy, Exergoeconomic, Life Cycle, and Economic Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldon, Lauren

    The Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems defines sustainability or industrial ecology as "the wise use of resources through critical attention to policy, social, economic, technological, and ecological management of natural and human engineered capital so as to promote innovations that assure a higher degree of human needs fulfilment, or life support, across all regions of the world, while at the same time ensuring intergenerational equity" (Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems 1998). Developing and integrating sustainable energy systems to meet growing energy demands is a daunting task. Although the technology to utilize renewable energies is well understood, there are limited locations which are ideally suited for renewable energy development. Even in areas with significant wind or solar availability, backup or redundant energy supplies are still required during periods of low renewable generation. This is precisely why it would be difficult to make the switch directly from fossil fuel to renewable energy generation. A transition period in which a base-load generation supports renewables is required, and nuclear energy suits this need well with its limited life cycle emissions and fuel price stability. Sustainability is achieved by balancing environmental, economic, and social considerations, such that energy is produced without detriment to future generations through loss of resources, harm to the environment, etcetera. In essence, the goal is to provide future generations with the same opportunities to produce energy that the current generation has. This research explores sustainability metrics as they apply to a small modular reactor (SMR)-hydrogen production plant coupled with wind energy and storage technologies to develop a new quantitative sustainability metric, the Sustainability Efficiency Factor (SEF), for comparison of energy systems. The SEF incorporates the three fundamental aspects of sustainability and provides SMR or nuclear hybrid energy system

  20. Cognitive Factors Affecting Freeze-like Behavior in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alban, Michael W; Pocknell, Victoria

    2017-01-01

    Contemporary research on survival-related defensive behaviors has identified physiological markers of freeze/flight/fight. Our research focused on cognitive factors associated with freeze-like behavior in humans. Study 1 tested if an explicit decision to freeze is associated with the psychophysiological state of freezing. Heart rate deceleration occurred when participants chose to freeze. Study 2 varied the efficacy of freezing relative to other defense options and found "freeze" was responsive to variations in the perceived effectiveness of alternative actions. Study 3 tested if individual differences in motivational orientation affect preference for a "freeze" option when the efficacy of options is held constant. A trend in the predicted direction suggested that naturally occurring cognitions led loss-avoiders to select "freeze" more often than reward-seekers. In combination, our attention to the cognitive factors affecting freeze-like behavior in humans represents a preliminary step in addressing an important but neglected research area.