WorldWideScience

Sample records for human eye bank

  1. Ethical Issues in Transnational Eye Banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Dominique E; Kelly, Richard; Jones, Gary L A; Machin, Heather; Pollock, Graeme A

    2017-02-01

    To review ethical issues that may arise in the setting of transnational eye banking activities, such as when exporting or importing corneal tissue for transplantation. A principle-based normative analysis of potential common dilemmas in transnational eye banking activities was performed. Transnational activities in eye banking, like those in other fields involving procurement and use of medical products of human origin, may present a number of ethical issues for policy makers and professionals. Key ethical concerns include the potential impact of export or import activities on self-sufficiency of corneal tissue supply within exporting and importing countries; potential disclosure requirements when obtaining consent or authorization for ocular tissue donation when donations may be exported; and difficulties inherent in assuring equity in the allocation of tissues available for export and in establishing and respecting standards of safety and quality across different jurisdictions. Further analysis of specific ethical issues in eye banking is necessary to inform development of guidelines and other governance tools that will assist policy makers and professionals to support ethical practice.

  2. Holographic interferometry of intact and radially incised human eye-bank corneas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolek, M K

    1994-05-01

    Many methods to measure corneal elasticity destroy the tissue and thereby produce erroneous results. Holographic interferometry, a highly precise nondestructive optical comparison technique, was used to evaluate corneal elasticity of intact eye-bank eyes. A double-pulse holographic interferometer operating at 632.8 nm was used to measure corneal deformation in 20 whole-globe eyes from donors 45 to 83 years of age for intraocular pressures from 16 mm Hg to 21 mm Hg. Stress was computed from LaPlace's law, and arc length strain was derived from z-axis distention of the central cornea. The stress-strain relationship in the normal physiological range of intraocular pressure was linear with a Young's elastic modulus of 1.03 gigapascals for the central cornea (r = 0.999). During interferometry of radial keratotomy of the cornea, interference fringe patterns developed in association with each incision as it was made. When four incisions were placed deep along each of the primary semimeridians, the fringe pattern developed as expected, based on current keratotomy models. When incisions were shallow (approximately 50% depth) and placed asymmetrically along the nasal, temporal, and superior semimeridians, the resulting surface strain was symmetrical about the central cornea, forming an annular pattern of interference fringes. These results indicate that when the cornea was stressed at physiological pressures as part of the intact whole globe, it was less elastic than excised corneal tissue tested by strip extensiometry. Radially incised corneas demonstrated strain patterns suggestive of inherent structural anisotropy with a possible inferior quadrant weakness.

  3. The East Anglian Eye Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knights, P

    1991-07-01

    The first Corneal Bank in East Anglia is located at the BUPA Hospital in Norwich, a joint venture between NHS, BUPA and the Lions Clubs International (District 101 EA). There was insufficient space to accommodate the Bank at the West Norwich Hospital where the Ophthalmic Department is situated and so, at the suggestion of the BUPA Hospital Manager, Mr Paul Hanke, It came to the BUPA Colney Lane site.

  4. Eye irritation: updated reference chemicals data bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, D M; Gardner, J R; Holland, G; Lewis, R W; Vrijhof, H; Walker, A P

    1999-06-01

    A list of 55 chemicals for which comprehensive rabbit eye irritation data were available was published by ECETOC in 1992. Similar data for a further 77 chemicals are now available. The total of chemicals included in the enlarged data bank is 132, assessed in 149 in vivo studies in rabbits. 28 of the chemicals were tested as solids, 24 as aqueous solutions. No new in vivo testing was carried out in order to qualify a chemical for inclusion in the data bank. The chemicals are available at known, high, consistent purity and are expected to be stable in storage. The in vivo data have been generated since 1981 in studies carried out according to OECD Test Guideline 405 and following the principles of Good Laboratory Practice. The data were obtained from tests normally using at least three animals evaluated at the same time, involving instillation of 0.1ml (or equivalent weight) into the conjunctival sac, and in which observations were made at least 1, 2 and 3 days after instillation. The chemicals are ranked for eye irritation potential on the basis of a 'modified maximum average score'. The reference chemicals data bank should be of use in validation tests of promising alternatives to the in vivo rabbit eye irritation test.

  5. Analysis of Schwalbe′s Line (Limbal Smooth Zone by Scanning Electron Microscopy and Optical Coherence Tomography in Human Eye Bank Eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark P Breazzano

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Implantation of intraocular devices may become critical as they decrease in size in the future. Therefore, it is desirable to evaluate the relationship between radial location and Schwalbe′s line (smooth zone by examining its width with scanning electron microscopy (SEM and to correlate this with observations by optical coherence tomography (OCT. Methods: Full corneoscleral rings were obtained from twenty-six formalin-fixed human phakic donor eyes. SEM of each eye yielded a complete montage of the smooth zone, from which the area was measured, and width was determined in each quadrant. In three different eyes, time domain anterior segment OCT (Visante, Carl Zeiss Meditec Inc., Dublin, CA, USA and spectral domain OCT (Cirrus 4.0, Carl Zeiss Meditec Inc., Dublin, CA, USA were used to further characterize Schwalbe′s line. Results: The overall smooth zone width was 79±22 μm, (n=15 ranging from 43 to 115 μm. The superior quadrant (103±8 μm, n=19, demonstrated significantly wider smooth zone than both the nasal (71±5 μm, n=19, P0.05. SEM findings of the smooth zone were correlated with visualization of Schwalbe′s line by Cirrus and Visante OCT imaging. Conclusion: The smooth zone appears widest superiorly and thinnest inferonasally, suggesting that as glaucoma surgical devices become smaller, their placement could be targeted clinically by using OCT with preference to the superior quadrant, to minimize damage to the corneal endothelium.

  6. Human Milk Banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiden, Nadja; Ziegler, Ekhard E

    2016-01-01

    Human milk banks play an essential role by providing human milk to infants who would otherwise not be able to receive human milk. The largest group of recipients are premature infants who derive very substantial benefits from it. Human milk protects premature infants from necrotizing enterocolitis and from sepsis, two devastating medical conditions. Milk banks collect, screen, store, process, and distribute human milk. Donating women usually nurse their own infants and have a milk supply that exceeds their own infants' needs. Donor women are carefully selected and are screened for HIV-1, HIV-2, human T-cell leukemia virus 1 and 2, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and syphilis. In the milk bank, handling, storing, processing, pooling, and bacterial screening follow standardized algorithms. Heat treatment of human milk diminishes anti-infective properties, cellular components, growth factors, and nutrients. However, the beneficial effects of donor milk remain significant and donor milk is still highly preferable in comparison to formula.

  7. [Ten years of work of Lions Croatian Eye Bank].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekaris, Iva; Gabrić, Nikica; Karaman-Martinović, Zeljka; Bosnar, Damir; Barisić, Ante; Predović, Jurica

    2007-12-01

    Lions Croatian Eye Bank (LCEB) was founded in December 1995 under the leadership of Professor Nikica Gabric, to grow into the Reference Center for Corneal Transplantation of the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare of Republic of Croatia in 2001. The work of LCEB is coordinated according to the European and International Tissue Bank Association directives and laws (TBI). All donor tissues to be tested in the eye bank to ensure safe clinical usage. During the 1996-2006 period, 796 co have rneas were collected and 592 natio(74.37%) transplanted. Among patients that underwent corneal transplantation, only 26% were from local district, which reflects thenal character of LCEB. Currently there are 235 ients on the waiting list for corneal transplantation, 56 (23.8%) of them from Zagreb County and 179 (76.2%) from other parts of Croatia.

  8. Preference for human eyes in human infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupierrix, Eve; de Boisferon, Anne Hillairet; Méary, David; Lee, Kang; Quinn, Paul C; Di Giorgio, Elisa; Simion, Francesca; Tomonaga, Masaki; Pascalis, Olivier

    2014-07-01

    Despite evidence supporting an early attraction to human faces, the nature of the face representation in neonates and its development during the first year after birth remain poorly understood. One suggestion is that an early preference for human faces reflects an attraction toward human eyes because human eyes are distinctive compared with other animals. In accord with this proposal, prior empirical studies have demonstrated the importance of the eye region in face processing in adults and infants. However, an attraction for the human eye has never been shown directly in infants. The current study aimed to investigate whether an attraction for human eyes would be present in newborns and older infants. With the use of a preferential looking time paradigm, newborns and 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month-olds were simultaneously presented with a pair of nonhuman primate faces (chimpanzees and Barbary macaques) that differed only by the eyes, thereby pairing a face with original nonhuman primate eyes with the same face in which the eyes were replaced by human eyes. Our results revealed that no preference was observed in newborns, but a preference for nonhuman primate faces with human eyes emerged from 3months of age and remained stable thereafter. The findings are discussed in terms of how a preference for human eyes may emerge during the first few months after birth.

  9. Survey of Italian human milk banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nisi, Giuseppe; Moro, Guido E; Arslanoglu, Sertac; Ambruzzi, Amalia M; Biasini, Augusto; Profeti, Claudio; Tonetto, Paola; Bertino, Enrico

    2015-05-01

    At present, the Italian Association of Donor Human Milk Banks (Associazione Italiana Banche del Latte Umano Donato, AIBLUD) consists of 31 milk banks, whose management is based on Italian Guidelines. In 2013, AIBLUD performed a systematic survey to collect data on the activities of banks operating in Italy in the years previous to this date. The purpose of this survey was to evaluate the operational procedures of Italian Human Milk Banks in order to identify both areas of strength and room for improvement. A questionnaire was utilized to obtain national data from the 28 banks active in the year 2012 in order to evaluate the number of donors, volume of human milk collected, and other information relating to the period 2007 to 2012. In all, 89% of the banks (25/28) responded to the survey. Data received primarily concerned the number of donors, volume of milk collected, and average amount of milk from each donor in the period 2007 to 2012. It was evident that in 2012 human milk banks collected a higher volume of milk than in 2007. Further, the average amount of milk from each donor was higher. Most of the milk banks were following the Italian Guidelines for traceability, control of donors, bacteriological checks, method of pasteurization, storage, thawing, type of containers, and utilization of the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points system. This survey identified both areas of strength and room for improvement in the Italian human milk banks. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Humane mlečne banke

    OpenAIRE

    Ćosić, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Humane mlečne banke zbirajo, nadzorujejo, obdelujejo, shranjujejo in razdeljujejo darovano mleko. Namenjene so nedonošenčkom in bolnim novorojenčkom, katerih matere nimajo mleka. Namen raziskave je bil ugotoviti osveščenost mater o pomembnosti humanih mlečnih bank. Uporabili smo deskriptivno metodo raziskovanja. Ugotovili smo, da so matere osveščene o pomembnosti humanih mlečnih bank in zato tudi posledično čimprejšnja ustanovitev humane mlečne banke v Sloveniji.

  11. Eye bank issues: II. Preservation techniques: warm versus cold storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pels, Elisabeth; Beele, Hilde; Claerhout, Ilse

    2008-06-01

    Most of the tissue used for penetrating keratoplasty is issued through eye banks that store the corneoscleral button either in hypothermic storage at 2-6 degrees C or in organ culture at 31-37 degrees C. These two preservation techniques differ in technical aspects, tissue evaluation possibilities, storage time and microbiological safety. Hypothermic storage is simple and requires little expensive equipment. In general a pre-storage evaluation of the endothelium is performed by specular microscopy and storage time is usually around 7-10 days. Organ culture is a relatively complicated technique requiring more expertise and well-equipped facilities. Evaluation of the endothelium is not only performed before storage, but is routinely performed after storage through the use of light microscopy. With organ culture the allowed storage period is longer, up to four weeks. The vulnerability of organ culture to microbial contamination can be turned into an advantage because it allows the detection of residual micro-organisms on the cornea before surgery. Both preservation techniques seem to result in similar graft survival. The method of choice for preservation of the donor cornea is dictated by a number of factors mentioned in this review and this helps to explain the geographical differences in the use of the different techniques.

  12. A Model of the Human Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colicchia, G.; Wiesner, H.; Waltner, C.; Zollman, D.

    2008-01-01

    We describe a model of the human eye that incorporates a variable converging lens. The model can be easily constructed by students with low-cost materials. It shows in a comprehensible way the functionality of the eye's optical system. Images of near and far objects can be focused. Also, the defects of near and farsighted eyes can be demonstrated.

  13. The grave necessity to make eye bank specular microscopy mandatory in all eye banks in the subcontinent to improve utilization of scarce donor corneas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagruti N Jadeja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Donor tissue scarcity, Eye Bank Specular Microscopy as yet not made mandatory and tissue utilization often based on clinical judgment only. Aims: Prospectively analyze alteration in clinical grading of donor corneas and hence utilization, based on Eye Bank Specular Microscopy (EBSM and to infer if EBSM should be mandatory in all eye banks. Materials and Methods: 200 consecutive otherwise ′suitable for surgery′ donor eyes were graded clinically. On quantitative and qualitative analysis of endothelial cells by EBSM, final grading was adjusted. Impact on subsequent utilization for various surgeries was analyzed with regard to Age of Donor, Death to Enucleation Time, Death to Preservation Time and Lens Status of Donor Eye. Results: 76 eyes (38% (P 60 years showed CD >= 2500. From donor >=81 years, 2/13 (15.3% eyes showed CD between 2501-3000 and 1 (7.6% eye showed CD > 3000. Owing to better grading after EBSM, 13/14 (92.85% tissues with DTET >6 hours and 5/5 (100% tissues with DTPT > 16 hours were transplanted. Out of 45 (22.5% pseudo-phakic tissues, 21 (46.67% tissues were used for Therapeutic/Tectonic Penetrating Keratoplasty (PKP while 24 (53.33% tissues were used for Optical PKP. Conclusions: EBSM significantly alters final grading of tissues and its subsequent utilization. Acquiring huge importance in areas where adequate supply of corneas is lacking, EBSM becomes an indispensable tool for optimizing availability of qualified tissues for surgery. EBSM should be made a mandatory analysis.

  14. Upgradation and modernization of eye banking services: Integrating tradition with innovative policies and current best practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Radhika; Singh, Archita; Gupta, Noopur; Vanathi, M; Gupta, Vivek

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to review the history and evolution of the National Eye Bank (NEB) and analyze the impact over the years and report the outcome of the invested resources. Review of archival material, records, project reports, policy and procedures' manuals, and publications was done. Descriptive and analytical processing of data obtained was undertaken. Parameters evaluated included total collection, transplantation, utilization rates of donor cornea, changing trends over time in terms of numbers and duration of recipients waiting, impactful research translated into changes in standard operating protocols, new facilities, and subsequent effects on numbers or quality assurance measures and overview of major achievements. Periodic situational analysis with contextual relevance and interpretation of outcomes was done pertaining to national goals and international standards. The NEB and cornea services have played a key leadership role in furthering the development of eye banking and corneal transplantation services. The contribution extends beyond routine patient care to education, training, generation of resources, advocacy, and policymaking. In quantifiable terms, the overall performance has steadily increased over the years. Major contributions include training of doctors, eye bank staff and corneal surgeons, introduction of innovative techniques for corneal transplantation, setting of national standards for eye banking and provision of preservation media, customized corneal, and ocular surface cell replacement therapy in collaboration with other departments and institutes. The eye banking and corneal transplantation facilities have evolved with time providing quality services, modernized as appropriate with updated knowledge and incorporating technological advances supported by the systematic evidence-based approach.

  15. Precut cornea for Descemet's stripping endothelial keratoplasty: experience at a single eye bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Ashik; Chaurasia, Sunita; Chandragiri, Venkataswamy; Kandhibanda, Srinivas; Gunnam, Srinivas; Garg, Prashant

    2016-07-20

    The aim of the study is to describe the experience with precut facility for endothelial keratoplasty at a single eye bank affiliated to a tertiary eye care center in India. Data on precut tissues from Nov 2012 to Dec 2014 were retrospectively reviewed from the electronic database of the eye bank of a tertiary eye care center in South India. Donor characteristic data including donor age, precut and postcut endothelial cell density (ECD), recipient age, and thickness of graft were collected. The number of precuts increased from 42 in 2012 (Nov and Dec) and 422 in 2013 to 584 in 2014. Of the total of 1048 precuts, seven (0.67 %) were miscut and could not be utilized for transplants. The donor age ranged from 2 to 89 years. A mean change of 43.6 ± 325.2 cells/mm(2) in ECD was noted after cut, proportional increase in mean being 1.9 %. The change in ECD after cut was negatively correlated with ECD before cut. The recipient age ranged from 1 to 89 years. The median thickness of donor lenticule after cut was 148 µm (interquartile range 131-166 µm). Analysis of precut donor corneas from a single eye bank shows that the ECD of the processed tissues was excellent for transplantation. The tissue wastage in the hands of eye bank personal was minimal.

  16. Upgradation and modernization of eye banking services: Integrating tradition with innovative policies and current best practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Radhika; Singh, Archita; Gupta, Noopur; Vanathi, M; Gupta, Vivek

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to review the history and evolution of the National Eye Bank (NEB) and analyze the impact over the years and report the outcome of the invested resources. Methods: Review of archival material, records, project reports, policy and procedures' manuals, and publications was done. Descriptive and analytical processing of data obtained was undertaken. Parameters evaluated included total collection, transplantation, utilization rates of donor cornea, changing trends over time in terms of numbers and duration of recipients waiting, impactful research translated into changes in standard operating protocols, new facilities, and subsequent effects on numbers or quality assurance measures and overview of major achievements. Periodic situational analysis with contextual relevance and interpretation of outcomes was done pertaining to national goals and international standards. Results: The NEB and cornea services have played a key leadership role in furthering the development of eye banking and corneal transplantation services. The contribution extends beyond routine patient care to education, training, generation of resources, advocacy, and policymaking. In quantifiable terms, the overall performance has steadily increased over the years. Major contributions include training of doctors, eye bank staff and corneal surgeons, introduction of innovative techniques for corneal transplantation, setting of national standards for eye banking and provision of preservation media, customized corneal, and ocular surface cell replacement therapy in collaboration with other departments and institutes. Conclusion: The eye banking and corneal transplantation facilities have evolved with time providing quality services, modernized as appropriate with updated knowledge and incorporating technological advances supported by the systematic evidence-based approach. PMID:28345565

  17. Human Milk-Treatment and Quality of Banked Human Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picaud, Jean-Charles; Buffin, Rachel

    2017-03-01

    The aim of human milk banks is to deliver safe and high quality donor human milk. Treatment of human milk has to destroy most microorganisms while preserving immunological and nutrient components, which is obtained when using low time low temperature pasteurization. However it destroys bile-simulated lipase, reduces lactoferrin, lysozyme, immunoglobulins, and bactericidal capacity of human milk. New methods are under investigation such as high temperature short time pasteurization, high pressure processing, or ultraviolet irradiation. They have been tested in experimental conditions and there are promising results, but they have to be tested in real conditions in human milk bank.

  18. Outcomes of Descemet Stripping Endothelial Keratoplasty Using Eye Bank-Prepared Preloaded Grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palioura, Sotiria; Colby, Kathryn

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of Descemet stripping endothelial keratoplasty using grafts preloaded by an eye bank in a commercially available insertion device. In this retrospective case series, a series of 35 eyes in 34 consecutive patients who underwent Descemet stripping endothelial keratoplasty for Fuchs endothelial dystrophy or previously failed full-thickness grafts at a single tertiary care center from March 2013 to March 2014 was included. The donor tissue had undergone pre-lamellar dissection, trephination, and loading into EndoGlide Ultrathin inserters at the Lions Eye Institute for Transplant and Research (Tampa, FL) and was shipped overnight in Optisol GS to the surgeon (K.C.). Surgery was performed within 24 hours from tissue preparation and loading by the eye bank. Donor and recipient characteristics, endothelial cell density (ECD), best-corrected visual acuity, and central corneal thickness were recorded. The main outcome measures were intraoperative and postoperative complications and ECD loss at 3, 6, and 12 months. One primary graft failure (2.8%), 2 rebubblings (5.7%), and 1 graft rejection (2.8%) occurred. Mean preoperative donor ECD was 2821 ± 199 cells/mm. Six months postoperatively, the mean endothelial cell loss was 25.3% ± 17.2% (n = 32), which remained stable at 1 year (31.5% ± 17.9%, n = 32). Mean best-corrected visual acuity improved from 20/100 preoperatively to 20/25 at a mean follow-up of 1 year (n = 32). Mean central corneal thickness was reduced from 711 ± 110 μm to 638 ± 66 μm at the last follow-up visit. Donor graft tissue preloaded by an eye bank can be used successfully for endothelial keratoplasty. Preloading reduces intraoperative tissue manipulation.

  19. Human-eye versus computerized color matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, A U; Sim, C P; Loh, W L; Teo, J H

    1999-01-01

    This project compared the difference in color matching between human-eye assessment and computerized colorimetry. Fifty dental personnel were asked to color match Vita Lumin shade tabs to seven different randomly arranged test tabs from the Z100 shade guide. All evaluators were blinded to the shades of the test tabs and were asked to match only body shade of the Vita Lumin tab to the middle third or body of each test tab. The results obtained were subsequently computed into L*a*b* values and compared with results obtained by computerized colorimetry. Results indicate that the difference in color matching between human-eye assessment and computerized colorimetry is shade dependent. Discrepancy was significant for b* coordinates for shades A1 and B2 and L* and b* coordinates for shade C4. For all shades evaluated, color difference between human-eye and computerized color matching is perceivable under clinical settings, as delta E values are greater than 3. There is a need for correction factors in the formal specification of the color-matching software due to the discrepancy between human-eye and computerized colorimetric color matching.

  20. Zoonotic helminths affecting the human eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eberhard Mark L

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nowaday, zoonoses are an important cause of human parasitic diseases worldwide and a major threat to the socio-economic development, mainly in developing countries. Importantly, zoonotic helminths that affect human eyes (HIE may cause blindness with severe socio-economic consequences to human communities. These infections include nematodes, cestodes and trematodes, which may be transmitted by vectors (dirofilariasis, onchocerciasis, thelaziasis, food consumption (sparganosis, trichinellosis and those acquired indirectly from the environment (ascariasis, echinococcosis, fascioliasis. Adult and/or larval stages of HIE may localize into human ocular tissues externally (i.e., lachrymal glands, eyelids, conjunctival sacs or into the ocular globe (i.e., intravitreous retina, anterior and or posterior chamber causing symptoms due to the parasitic localization in the eyes or to the immune reaction they elicit in the host. Unfortunately, data on HIE are scant and mostly limited to case reports from different countries. The biology and epidemiology of the most frequently reported HIE are discussed as well as clinical description of the diseases, diagnostic considerations and video clips on their presentation and surgical treatment. Homines amplius oculis, quam auribus credunt Seneca Ep 6,5 Men believe their eyes more than their ears

  1. New perspectives in human milk banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Bertino

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Mother’s own milk (MOM is the first choice in preterm infant feeding, and when it is not available or is insufficient, donor human milk (DHM is recommended. It has been shown that feeding preterm infants with human milk is less related to major morbidities, enhances feeding tolerance and prevents metabolic syndrome in childhood. As The Committee on Nutrition of the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition (ESPGHAN states, specific guidelines for Human Milk Banks (HMB are needed to guarantee the best possible compromise between microbiological safety and nutritional/biological quality of human milk (HM. Currently, Holder pasteurization (HoP: pasteurization process at 62.5-63°C for 30 minutes is recommended by all international guidelines: this method inactivates bacterial and viral pathogens but it also affects some nutritional and biological properties of human milk. New methods to ameliorate the biological quality and safety of DHM are under investigation in the last years. High Pressure Processing (HPP is a non- thermal process used in food industries: this technology inactivates pathogenic microorganisms by applying hydrostatic high pressure, however further researches are required before applying this technology in milk banking. Ultraviolet-C irradiation (UV-C is another non-thermal method capable of reducing vegetative bacteria in human milk and it also seems to preserve higher levels of immunological proteins than HoP. High-temperature short-time pasteurization (HTST: flash pasteurization, 72°C for 5-15 seconds currently is available only at industrial level, but it could represent an alternative to HoP seeming to maintain the protein profile and some of the key active components of DHM. Further researches are needed to define the optimal treatment of DHM. Proceedings of the 11th International Workshop on Neonatology and Satellite Meetings · Cagliari (Italy · October 26th-31st, 2015 · From the womb

  2. [Characteristics of the Chinese human milk banks' operation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-02

    Objective: To assess the operation status of human milk banks in the mainland of China. Method: This retrospective study included a consecutive series of 14 human milk banks in the mainland of China from March 2013 to December 2016. The opened date, condition of donated breast milk, characteristics of donors and clinical application of donated breast milk were analyzed. Result: There were 14 human milk banks successively founded in mainland China from March 2013 to December 2016. The number of human milk banks, the amount of donated breast milk, the number of eligible donors and the times of donation had increased each year. Howere, the operation status among these milk banks varied greatly. Among them, one human milk bank has newly opened without relevant data, 6 banks could accept frozen breast milk, and the remaining 7 banks could only collect breast milk by the nurses in the bank. Among the 3 121 eligible donors, 1 404 (45.0%) donated less than 3 times, 2 553 (81.8%) aged 25 to 35 years, 2 828 (90.6%) had term delivery, 2 409 (77.2%) began donation one month after birth, 1 798 (57.6%) were company employees and housewives and 1 891 (60.6%) had bachelor or higher degree. The use of donor breast milk, the number of recipients and the average received amount of breast milk every person varied greatly among these banks. Conclusion: The human milk banking developed quickly in the mainland of China. Howere, the number of donors and the amount of donated breast milk which could not meet the clinical demands should be improved. And it was urgent to establish the standards or guidelines of the human milk banking as soon as possible in China.

  3. Human milk banks: lights and shadows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianna Aceti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Breastfeeding is the most appropriate source of nutrition also for preterm infants. When mother’s own milk is not available, donor human milk (DHM, provided from a human milk bank (HMB, or formula can be used. Infants fed DHM grow at a slower rate than formula-fed infants. However, DHM has the advantage over formula to retain some of the bioactive properties of naïve human milk. Given the wide variability of DHM content and its generally low macronutrient content, individualised fortification represents a more valid option than standard fortification in order to meet the high nutritional requirements of preterm infants. Pasteurization is necessary to reduce bacterial count in DHM. Holder pasteurization, which is recommended in most HMB guidelines, has several limitations, because it impairs macronutrient and functional components of DHM. Alternative methods of pasteurization, which would be capable of retaining the bioactive properties of DHM with the highest level of microbiological safety, are currently under investigation. Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 22nd-25th, 2014 · The last ten years, the next ten years in Neonatology Guest Editors: Vassilios Fanos, Michele Mussap, Gavino Faa, Apostolos Papageorgiou 

  4. Variation in macronutrients in human bank milk: influencing factors and implications for human milk banking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michaelsen, K F; Skafte, L; Badsberg, J H;

    1990-01-01

    Protein (P), fat (F), and carbohydrate (C) concentration in expressed human bank milk was determined by infrared analysis of 2,554 samples from 224 mothers. The mean contents of P, F, C, and energy (E, calculated from P, F, and C) were 9.0 g/L, 39.0 g/L, 71.9 g/L, and 696 kcal/L, respectively...... with a high P content, we have developed a "high-protein" milk with a P content of about 12 g/L (true protein) and an E content of about 725 kcal/L. Thus, by continuous monitoring of macronutrient content in human bank milk it is possible to develop a "high-protein" milk with sufficient P and E content....... The main results were as follows: the P and F contents increased slightly with increasing body mass index of the mother, the P content decreased with increasing amounts of milk delivered to the milk bank, and the F content was higher in mothers delivering large amounts of milk. By selecting incoming milk...

  5. Cyclooxygenase-2 expression in the normal human eye and its expression pattern in selected eye tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jinmei; Wu, Yazhen; Heegaard, Steffen;

    2011-01-01

    using antibodies against COX-2 was performed on paraffin sections of normal human eyes and selected eye tumours arising from cells expressing COX-2. Results: Cyclooxygenase-2 expression was found in various structures of the normal eye. Abundant expression was seen in the cornea, iris, ciliary body......Purpose: Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is an enzyme involved in neoplastic processes. The purpose of the present study is to investigate COX-2 expression in the normal human eye and the expression pattern in selected eye tumours involving COX-2 expressing cells. Methods: Immunohistochemical staining...... and retina. The COX-2 expression was less in tumours deriving from the ciliary epithelium and also in retinoblastoma. Conclusion: Cyclooxygenase-2 is constitutively expressed in normal human eyes. The expression of COX-2 is much lower in selected eye tumours involving COX-2 expressing cells....

  6. Nonprofit Human Milk Banking in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Updegrove, Kimberly

    2013-01-01

    Human milk, widely understood to be beneficial for infants, can be lifesaving for preterm neonates, especially in reducing the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis. Donor human milk (DHM) is an option when mothers are unable to provide milk or have an inadequate supply for their infants. Nonprofit donor human milk banks are established to provide safe, processed human milk from milk donated by healthy lactating mothers who have undergone a rigorous screening process. These milk banks, operating under the auspices of the Human Milk Banking Association of North America, obtain, process, and dispense human milk under strict guidelines set by the association. Increasing the supply of donor human milk to meet a dramatic increase in demand poses a significant challenge for nonprofit milk banks. Efforts to increase supply nationwide include education of providers, use of social media to engage potential donors, and outreach to news media. In parallel, milk banks are establishing regional depots to collect donations, and additional milk banks are being developed. This article describes the current nonprofit milk bank industry in the United States, its challenges, and its future prospects. © 2013 by the American College of Nurse‐Midwives.

  7. Characteristics of the First Human Milk Bank in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang-Yuan Chang

    2013-02-01

    Conclusion: Proper management and operation of a human milk bank can support breastfeeding, and provide a safe alternative to artificial formula for feeding preterm or ill infants in Taiwan. Sustainability of the milk bank needs more propagation and financial support by health authorities.

  8. Modeling and simulation of the human eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, R.; Ventura, L.; Nonato, L.; Bruno, O.

    2007-02-01

    The computational modeling of the human eye has been wide studied for different sectors of the scientific and technological community. One of the main reasons for this increasing interest is the possibility to reproduce eye optic properties by means of computational simulations, becoming possible the development of efficient devices to treat and to correct the problems of the vision. This work explores this aspect still little investigated of the modeling of the visual system, considering a computational sketch that make possible the use of real data in the modeling and simulation of the human visual system. This new approach makes possible the individual inquiry of the optic system, assisting in the construction of new techniques used to infer vital data in medical investigations. Using corneal topography to collect real data from patients, a computational model of cornea is constructed and a set of simulations were build to ensure the correctness of the system and to investigate the effect of corneal abnormalities in retinal image formation, such as Plcido Discs, Point Spread Function, Wave front and the projection of a real image and it's visualization on retina.

  9. Human secretory phospholipase A(2), group IB in normal eyes and in eye diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prause, Jan U; Bazan, Nicolas G; Heegaard, Steffen

    2007-01-01

    study was to identify human GIB (hGIB) in the normal human eye and investigate the pattern of expression in patients with eye diseases involving hGIB-rich cells. METHODS: Human GIB mRNA was identified in the human retina by means of in situ hybridization and polymerase chain reaction. Antibodies against...... hGIB were obtained and immunohistochemical staining was performed on paraffin-embedded sections of normal and pathological eyes. Donor eyes from patients with descemetization of the cornea, Fuchs' corneal endothelial dystrophy, age-related macular degeneration, malignant choroidal melanoma......, retinitis pigmentosa and glaucoma were evaluated. RESULTS: Expression of hGIB was found in various cells of the eye. The most abundant expression was found in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells, the inner photoreceptor segments, ganglion cells and the corneal endothelium. We explored diseases involving...

  10. The Minnesota Grading System Using Fundus Autofluorescence of Eye Bank Eyes: A Correlation To Age-Related Macular Degeneration (An AOS Thesis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Timothy W.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To establish a grading system of eye bank eyes using fundus autofluorescence (FAF) and identify a methodology that correlates FAF to age-related macular degeneration (AMD) with clinical correlation to the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS). Methods Two hundred sixty-two eye bank eyes were evaluated using a standardized analysis of FAF. Measurements were taken with the confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope (cSLO). First, high-resolution, digital, stereoscopic, color images were obtained and graded according to AREDS criteria. With the neurosensory retina removed, mean FAF values were obtained from cSLO images using software analysis that excludes areas of atrophy and other artifact, generating an FAF value from a grading template. Age and AMD grade were compared to FAF values. An internal fluorescence reference standard was tested. Results Standardization of the cSLO machine demonstrated that reliable data could be acquired after a 1-hour warm-up. Images obtained prior to 1 hour had falsely elevated levels of FAF. In this initial analysis, there was no statistical correlation of age to mean FAF. There was a statistically significant decrease in FAF from AREDS grade 1, 2 to 3, 4 (P < .0001). An internal fluorescent standard may serve as a quantitative reference. Conclusions The Minnesota Grading System (MGS) of FAF (MGS-FAF) establishes a standardized methodology for grading eye bank tissue to quantify FAF compounds in the retinal pigment epithelium and correlate these findings to the AREDS. Future studies could then correlate specific FAF to the aging process, histopathology AMD phenotypes, and other maculopathies, as well as to analyze the biochemistry of autofluorescent fluorophores. PMID:19277247

  11. Cyclooxygenase-2 expression in the normal human eye and its expression pattern in selected eye tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jinmei; Wu, Yazhen; Heegaard, Steffen;

    2011-01-01

    and retina. The COX-2 expression was less in tumours deriving from the ciliary epithelium and also in retinoblastoma. Conclusion: Cyclooxygenase-2 is constitutively expressed in normal human eyes. The expression of COX-2 is much lower in selected eye tumours involving COX-2 expressing cells....

  12. Aquaporins 6-12 in the human eye

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Thuy Linh; Bek, Toke; Holm, Lars;

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Aquaporins (AQPs) are widely expressed and have diverse distribution patterns in the eye. AQPs 0-5 have been localized at the cellular level in human eyes. We investigated the presence of the more recently discovered AQPs 6-12 in the human eye. Methods: RT-PCR was performed on fresh tissue...... from two human eyes divided into the cornea, corneal limbus, ciliary body and iris, lens, choroid, optic nerve, retina and sclera. Each structure was examined to detect the mRNA of AQPs 6-12. Twenty-one human eyes were examined using immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence techniques to determine...... in the nonpigmented ciliary epithelium and retinal ganglion cells. AQP11 immunolabelling was detected in the corneo-limbal epithelium, nonpigmented ciliary epithelium and inner limiting membrane of the retina. Conclusion: Selective expression of AQP7, AQP9 and AQP11 was found within various structures of the human...

  13. Multi-View Algorithm for Face, Eyes and Eye State Detection in Human Image- Study Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latesh Kumari

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available For fatigue detection such as in the application of driver‟s fatigue monitoring system, the eye state analysis is one of the important and deciding steps to determine the fatigue of driver‟s eyes. In this study, algorithms for face detection, eye detection and eye state analysis have been studied and presented as well as an efficient algorithm for detection of face, eyes have been proposed. Firstly the efficient algorithm for face detection method has been presented which find the face area in the human images. Then, novel algorithms for detection of eye region and eye state are introduced. In this paper we propose a multi-view based eye state detection to determine the state of the eye. With the help of skin color model, the algorithm detects the face regions in an YCbCr color model. By applying the skin segmentation which normally separates the skin and non-skin pixels of the images, it detects the face regions of the image under various lighting and noise conditions. Then from these face regions, the eye regions are extracted within those extracted face regions. Our proposed algorithms are fast and robust as there is not pattern match.

  14. Eye movement-invariant representations in the human visual system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimoto, Shinji; Huth, Alexander G; Bilenko, Natalia Y; Gallant, Jack L

    2017-01-01

    During natural vision, humans make frequent eye movements but perceive a stable visual world. It is therefore likely that the human visual system contains representations of the visual world that are invariant to eye movements. Here we present an experiment designed to identify visual areas that might contain eye-movement-invariant representations. We used functional MRI to record brain activity from four human subjects who watched natural movies. In one condition subjects were required to fixate steadily, and in the other they were allowed to freely make voluntary eye movements. The movies used in each condition were identical. We reasoned that the brain activity recorded in a visual area that is invariant to eye movement should be similar under fixation and free viewing conditions. In contrast, activity in a visual area that is sensitive to eye movement should differ between fixation and free viewing. We therefore measured the similarity of brain activity across repeated presentations of the same movie within the fixation condition, and separately between the fixation and free viewing conditions. The ratio of these measures was used to determine which brain areas are most likely to contain eye movement-invariant representations. We found that voxels located in early visual areas are strongly affected by eye movements, while voxels in ventral temporal areas are only weakly affected by eye movements. These results suggest that the ventral temporal visual areas contain a stable representation of the visual world that is invariant to eye movements made during natural vision.

  15. A novel algorithm for automatic localization of human eyes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Tao (陶亮); Juanjuan Gu (顾涓涓); Zhenquan Zhuang (庄镇泉)

    2003-01-01

    Based on geometrical facial features and image segmentation, we present a novel algorithm for automatic localization of human eyes in grayscale or color still images with complex background. Firstly, a determination criterion of eye location is established by the prior knowledge of geometrical facial features. Secondly,a range of threshold values that would separate eye blocks from others in a segmented face image (I.e.,a binary image) are estimated. Thirdly, with the progressive increase of the threshold by an appropriate step in that range, once two eye blocks appear from the segmented image, they will be detected by the determination criterion of eye location. Finally, the 2D correlation coefficient is used as a symmetry similarity measure to check the factuality of the two detected eyes. To avoid the background interference, skin color segmentation can be applied in order to enhance the accuracy of eye detection. The experimental results demonstrate the high efficiency of the algorithm and correct localization rate.

  16. Report of the Eye Bank Association of America medical advisory board subcommittee on fungal infection after corneal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldave, Anthony J; DeMatteo, Jennifer; Glasser, David B; Tu, Elmer Y; Iliakis, Bernardino; Nordlund, Michael L; Misko, Jachin; Verdier, David D; Yu, Fei

    2013-02-01

    To investigate the incidence of fungal infections after corneal transplantation to determine whether storage media supplementation with an antifungal should be considered. Adverse reactions reported to the Eye Bank Association of America through the online adverse reaction reporting system between January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2010, were reviewed to identify cases of recipient fungal infection. Data were collected regarding the donor, the donor cornea, recovery and processing, and mate culture and clinical course of the recipients. Thirty-one cases of culture-proven fungal keratitis (n = 14) and endophthalmitis (n = 17) were reported out of 221,664 corneal transplants performed using corneal tissue distributed by domestic eye banks (1.4 cases per 10,000 transplants performed). Although the annual incidence of postkeratoplasty fungal infection has not increased significantly since 2005, a trend toward an increasing rate of fungal infection has been observed. Fungal infections were more commonly reported after endothelial keratoplasty procedures (0.022%) than penetrating keratoplasty procedures (0.012%), but the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.076). Additionally, no association was found between fungal infection after endothelial keratoplasty and whether the lamellar tissue cut was performed by the surgeon or the eye bank technician. Seventy-three percent (16 of 22) of the fungal cultures performed on the mate corneas were positive, with infection developing in 67% (10 of 15) of recipient eyes (endophthalmitis in 6 eyes and keratitis in 4 eyes). Although a nonsignificant increasing trend in the rate of fungal infection has been observed over the past 6 years, it is not sufficiently compelling to pursue antifungal supplementation of donor storage media.

  17. People deliver eye care: managing human resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayode Odusote

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available People deliver health. Effective health care needs an efficient and motivated health workforce, which is the totality of individuals who directly or indirectly contribute to the promotion, protection and improvement of the health of the population.Community eye health is about providing eye health care to the people as close as possible to where they live and as much as possible at a price they can afford. It promotes people-centred care rather than the traditional disease-centred eye care services. In order to provide effective and efficient eye care services, we need an adequate number of well-qualified, well-motivated and equitably distributed eye health workers (EHWs.

  18. Human milk banking-facts and issues to resolve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corpeleijn, Willemijn E; Vermeulen, Marijn J; van Vliet, Ineke; Kruger, Caroline; van Goudoever, Johannes B

    2010-07-01

    The number of human milk banks is increasing worldwide. Although the beneficial effects of feeding premature infants with their mother's milk are well documented, less is known about the effects of feeding these infants with pasteurized donor milk. We propose a randomized trial comparing the effects of a 100% human milk-based diet (human milk supplemented with a human milk-derived fortifier) and a diet (partially) based on bovine milk. In theory, human milk has a beneficial effect on various aspects of human physiology, most of which become apparent after infancy. We therefore propose an extensive follow-up program that takes this aspect into consideration. Other issues concerning the practice of human milk banks need to be addressed as well as optimization of the feeding strategies for preterm infants.

  19. Wide-angle chromatic aberration corrector for the human eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benny, Yael; Manzanera, Silvestre; Prieto, Pedro M; Ribak, Erez N; Artal, Pablo

    2007-06-01

    The human eye is affected by large chromatic aberration. This may limit vision and makes it difficult to see fine retinal details in ophthalmoscopy. We designed and built a two-triplet system for correcting the average longitudinal chromatic aberration of the eye while keeping a reasonably wide field of view. Measurements in real eyes were conducted to examine the level and optical quality of the correction. We also performed some tests to evaluate the effect of the corrector on visual performance.

  20. Cornea donors who have had prior refractive surgery: data from the Eye Bank Association of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fargione, Robert A; Channa, Prabjot

    2016-07-01

    Millions of Americans have undergone refractive surgeries, including radial keratotomy, photorefractive keratectomy, and laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis. Eye Bank Association of America medical standards do not permit corneas from patients who have undergone refractive procedures to be used in penetrating keratoplasty, anterior lamellar keratoplasty, or tectonic grafting procedures. Such corneas, can, however, be used for endothelial corneal transplantation. The objective of this article is to provide an update on current trends for the screening and usage of corneas that have undergone refractive surgery. Several case reports have highlighted the difficulty in using postrefractive surgery corneas in penetrating keratoplasty. However, tissue with anterior stromal flaws, including a history of refractive surgery, has been used in endothelial keratoplasty with equivalent outcomes in topography, endothelial cell count, and visual acuity. Many modalities for proper identification of postmortem donor corneas that have undergone refractive surgery have been studied. Corneas with a history of refractive surgery have found use in endothelial keratoplasty. Multiple objective methods of tissue identification have been investigated to avoid the use of these corneas in penetrating or anterior keratoplasty surgeries.

  1. Donor human milk banking and the emergence of milk sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landers, Susan; Hartmann, Ben T

    2013-02-01

    Donor human milk has emerged as the preferred substrate to feed extremely preterm infants, when mother's own milk is unavailable. This article summarizes the clinical data demonstrating the safety, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness of feeding donor human milk to premature babies. It describes the current state of milk banking in North America, as well as other parts of the world, and the differing criteria for donor selection, current pasteurization techniques, and quality control measures. A risk assessment methodology is proposed, which would allow milk banks globally to assess the safety of their process and respond appropriately to differing risk environments.

  2. A comparative review between the updated models of Brazilian, United Kingdom and American eye banks and lamellar transplants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Victor

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The corneal transplantation (CT is the most commonly performed type of transplant in the world and the Eye Banks are organizations whose capture, evaluate, preserve, store and distribute ocular tissues. With the evolution of surgical techniques and equipment for CT, the BOs had to evolve to keep up with these requirements. This evolution goes from tissues capture techniques, donating money and clarification to the patient (e.g. internet-based, use of current equipment for more adequate tissues supply for the most current surgical techniques, integration of BOs of certain country and real-time management of stocks of ocular tissues, and adequacy of laws that manage the entire process. This review aims to make a comparative review between the updated models of Brazilian, United Kingdon and American Eye Banks. Like, check what the trend towards lamellar transplants in these three countries.

  3. Human eye and the sun hot and cold light

    CERN Document Server

    Vavilov, S I

    1965-01-01

    The Human Eye and the Sun, """"Hot"""" and """"Cold"""" Light is a translation from the Russian language and is a reproduction of texts from Volume IV of S.I. Vavilov, president of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. The book deals with theoretical and practical developments in lighting techniques. The text gives a brief introduction on the relationship of the human eye and the sun, describing the properties of light, of the sun, and of the human eye. The book describes hot (incandescence) and cold light (luminescence) as coming from different sources. These two types of light are compared. The

  4. Longitudinal chromatic aberration of the human infant eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingyun; Candy, T Rowan; Teel, Danielle F W; Jacobs, Robert J

    2008-09-01

    Although the longitudinal chromatic aberration (LCA) of the adult eye has been studied, there are no data collected from the human infant eye. A chromatic retinoscope was used to measure cyclopleged infant and adult refractions with four pseudomonochromatic sources (centered at 472, 538, 589, and 652 nm) and with polychromatic light. The LCA of the infant eyes between 472 and 652 nm was a factor of 1.7 greater than the LCA found in the adult group: infant mean=1.62 D, SD+/- 0.14 D; adult mean=0.96 D, SD+/- 0.17 D. The elevated level of LCA in infant eyes is consistent with the greater optical power of the immature eye and indicates similar chromatic dispersion in infant and adult eyes. The implications for visual performance, defocus detection, and measurement of refraction are discussed.

  5. Human eye colour and HERC2, OCA2 and MATP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mengel-From, Jonas; Børsting, Claus; Sanchez, Juan J.

    2010-01-01

    Prediction of human eye colour by forensic genetic methods is of great value in certain crime investigations. Strong associations between blue/brown eye colour and the SNP loci rs1129038 and rs12913832 in the HERC2 gene were recently described. Weaker associations between eye colour and other...... value of typing either the HERC2 SNPs rs1129038 and/or rs12913832 that are in strong linkage disequilibrium was observed when eye colour was divided into two groups, (1) blue, grey and green (light) and (2) brown and hazel (dark). Sequence variations in rs11636232 and rs7170852 in HERC2, rs1800407...... in OCA2 and rs16891982 in MATP showed additional association with eye colours in addition to the effect of HERC2 rs1129038. Diplotype analysis of three sequence variations in HERC2 and one sequence variation in OCA2 showed the best discrimination between light and dark eye colours with a likelihood ratio...

  6. Eye contact elicits bodily self-awareness in human adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltazar, Matias; Hazem, Nesrine; Vilarem, Emma; Beaucousin, Virginie; Picq, Jean-Luc; Conty, Laurence

    2014-10-01

    Eye contact is a typical human behaviour known to impact concurrent or subsequent cognitive processing. In particular, it has been suggested that eye contact induces self-awareness, though this has never been formally proven. Here, we show that the perception of a face with a direct gaze (that establishes eye contact), as compared to either a face with averted gaze or a mere fixation cross, led adult participants to rate more accurately the intensity of their physiological reactions induced by emotional pictures. Our data support the view that bodily self-awareness becomes more acute when one is subjected to another's gaze. Importantly, this effect was not related to a particular arousal state induced by eye contact perception. Rejecting the arousal hypothesis, we suggest that eye contact elicits a self-awareness process by enhancing self-focused attention in humans. We further discuss the implications of this proposal. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Study of Optical Models Regarding the Human Eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Abolmasoomi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Until now, many models have been presented for optical study of the human eye. In recent years, surgery on the anterior section of the eye (such as cataract and photo-refractive surgery has increased, so a study on the optics of the eye and evaluation of vision quality has become more important. Material and Methods: In this article, some of these models are considered. They include models with spherical and conic-section surfaces (for cornea and lens, simple models and new models with complex surfaces. Results: Evaluation of the optical models of the eye provides the possibility of enhancing the representation of human vision and also increasing the accuracy of surgery on the anterior section of the eye to enable higher quality vision.

  8. Human milk banking-facts and issues to resolve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.E. Corpeleijn (Willemijn); M. Vermeulen (Mark); I. van Vliet (Ineke); C. Kruger (Caroline); J.B. van Goudoever (Hans)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe number of human milk banks is increasing worldwide. Although the beneficial effects of feeding premature infants with their mother's milk are well documented, less is known about the effects of feeding these infants with pasteurized donor milk. We propose a randomized trial comparing

  9. Human milk banking-facts and issues to resolve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.E. Corpeleijn (Willemijn); M. Vermeulen (Mark); I. van Vliet (Ineke); C. Kruger (Caroline); J.B. van Goudoever (Hans)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe number of human milk banks is increasing worldwide. Although the beneficial effects of feeding premature infants with their mother's milk are well documented, less is known about the effects of feeding these infants with pasteurized donor milk. We propose a randomized trial comparing

  10. Human Milk Banking-Facts and Issues to Resolve

    OpenAIRE

    Willemijn E. Corpeleijn; Vermeulen, Marijn J.; Ineke van Vliet; I. Caroline Kruger; van Goudoever, Johannes B.

    2010-01-01

    The number of human milk banks is increasing worldwide. Although the beneficial effects of feeding premature infants with their mother’s milk are well documented, less is known about the effects of feeding these infants with pasteurized donor milk. We propose a randomized trial comparing the effects of a 100% human milk-based diet (human milk supplemented with a human milk-derived fortifier) and a diet (partially) based on bovine milk. In theory, human milk has a beneficial effect on various ...

  11. Human eye haptics-based multimedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velandia, David; Uribe-Quevedo, Alvaro; Perez-Gutierrez, Byron

    2014-01-01

    Immersive and interactive multimedia applications offer complementary study tools in anatomy as users can explore 3D models while obtaining information about the organ, tissue or part being explored. Haptics increases the sense of interaction with virtual objects improving user experience in a more realistic manner. Common eye studying tools are books, illustrations, assembly models, and more recently these are being complemented with mobile apps whose 3D capabilities, computing power and customers are increasing. The goal of this project is to develop a complementary eye anatomy and pathology study tool using deformable models within a multimedia application, offering the students the opportunity for exploring the eye from up close and within with relevant information. Validation of the tool provided feedback on the potential of the development, along with suggestions on improving haptic feedback and navigation.

  12. The influence of Australian eye banking practices on corneal graft survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Miriam C; Lowe, Marie T; Coster, Douglas J; Pollock, Graeme A; Williams, Keryn A

    2013-08-19

    To identify eye banking practices that influence corneal graft survival. Prospective cohort study of records of 19,254 followed corneal grafts in 15160 patients, submitted to the Australian Corneal Graft Registry between May 1985 and July 2012. Influence of corneal preservation method (organ culture, moist pot, Optisol, other); death-to-enucleation, death-to-preservation and enucleation-to-graft times; transportation by air; graft era; and indication for graft on probability of graft survival at most recent follow-up. In multivariate analysis, 919 penetrating grafts performed using corneas transported interstate by air exhibited worse survival than 14,684 grafts performed using corneas retrieved and used locally (hazard ratio [HR], 1.44; 95% CI, 1.21-1.73; P = 0.001). This was also the case for traditional lamellar grafts (64 corneas transported by air and 813 used locally; HR, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.03-2.78; P = 0.038). Indication for graft influenced survival of penetrating grafts (4611 keratoconus, 727 emergency or high-risk, 10,265 other indication; global P < 0.001) and traditional lamellar grafts (65 keratoconus, 212 emergency or high-risk, 600 other indication; global P < 0.001). The preservation medium in which corneas used for traditional lamellar grafts were stored exerted a marginal influence on graft survival (global P = 0.047). Donor corneas transported interstate exhibited poorer survival after transplantation than those retrieved and grafted locally. Higher proportions of emergency procedures involving transported corneas did not account for this difference. Where possible, efforts to avoid transportation of corneal tissue by air freight within Australia may be warranted.

  13. The knowns and unknowns of human milk banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmer, Karen; Hartmann, Ben

    2009-11-01

    The PREM Bank has been providing pasteurised donor human milk (PDHM) to very preterm for the past 3 years. It is the first human milk bank (HMB) to operate in Australia in over 20 years. Our community has rapidly embraced the concept of human milk banking, with both donations and demand for PDHM exceeding expectations. Providing PDHM in 'exceptional circumstances' where a mothers' own milk is unavailable is supported by the WHO and UNICEF. We submit that neonatal intensive care is an exceptional circumstance. Although evidence supporting PDHM use from randomised control trial (RCT) is limited, the latest systematic reviews suggest a lower risk of necrotising enterocolitis with PDHM as opposed to artificial formula. Study design and ethical issues may limit future evidence from RCT. We therefore support the ongoing use of PDHM in neonatal care, where provided by an appropriately managed HMB. Internationally many HMBs operate unregulated, and this is also the case in Australia. To ensure safety the PREM Bank has committed to meet the appropriate standards recommended in the Code of Good Manufacturing Practices (Blood and Tissues) in Australia and models risk management during processing on Codex HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point) requirements. There is scope to continually re-evaluate the screening of donors and quality standards recommended during HMB. This will be most effective if strong networks of HMBs are developed with regional reference laboratories to encourage compliance with safety guidelines. HMB networks will facilitate collection of evidence for refining HMB practice and improving outcomes for preterm and sick infants.

  14. El banco de ojos y el donante idóneo The ideal eye bank and donor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Omar Mokey Castellanos

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available El acelerado crecimiento y desarrollo de la Oftalmología en tecnología y formación de recursos humanos se extiende también a las actividades relacionadas con bancos de ojos y trasplantes de córnea. Por eso, se necesita fomentar una cultura de la donación en oftalmólogos, trabajadores de la salud y en la sociedad en sentido general. Constituyen objetivos de este trabajo: describir en qué se sustenta la actitud de la sociedad cubana ante la donación de órganos y tejidos para solucionar las crecientes demandas de pacientes que requieren de trasplante de córnea; informar las normas de la Asociación Panamericana de Bancos de Ojos, procedimientos y metodología seguidos ante un donante cadavérico de bulbos oculares. En el Servicio de Oftalmología de Hospital “Hermanos Ameijeiras” se han obtenido 2 395 bulbos oculares, con los que se han realizado 723 trasplantes de córnea y distribuido córneas y otros tejidos a distintas instituciones. Los bulbos oculares no útiles para fines ópticos se utilizaron para trasplantes lamelares predesceméticos o no, práctica quirúrgica e investigaciones. Se detectaron donantes positivos a VIH, hepatitis B y C en 3, 30 y 23 de ellos, respectivamente. No se reportaron enfermedades trasmitidas por el trasplante y, muy pocas oculares posquirúrgicas. Aunque las necesidades de córneas para trasplantes actualmente no se satisfacen, llenar esta demanda no puede conducirnos al incumplimiento de normas y procederes que nos alejarían del donante idóneo.The accelerated growth and development of ophthalmology in terms of technology and formation of human resources also embraces eye banks and corneal transplantation. Therefore, it is necessary to promote a culture of eye donation among ophthalmologists, health workers and the general society. The objectives of this paper were to describe the basis of the Cuban society attitudes towards organ and tissue donation as a way of meeting the growing demands of

  15. A real-life illusion of assimilation in the human face: eye size illusion caused by eyebrows and eye shadow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morikawa, Kazunori; Matsushita, Soyogu; Tomita, Akitoshi; Yamanami, Haruna

    2015-01-01

    Does an assimilative illusion like the Delboeuf illusion occur in the human face? We investigated factors that might influence the perceived size of the eyes in a realistic face. Experiment 1 manipulated the position of the eyebrows (high or low), the presence/absence of eye shadow, and the viewing distance (0.6 m or 5 m), then measured the perceived eye size using a psychophysical method. The results showed that low eyebrows (i.e., closer to the eyes) make the eyes appear larger, suggesting that the assimilation of eyes into the eyebrows is stronger when the eye-eyebrow distance is shorter. The results also demonstrated that the application of eye shadow also makes the eyes look larger. Moreover, the effect of eye shadow is more pronounced when viewed from a distance. In order to investigate the mechanism of the eye size illusion demonstrated in Experiment 1, Experiment 2 measured the magnitude of the Delboeuf illusion at a viewing distance of 0.6 m or 5 m, with or without gray gradation simulating the eye shadow that was used in Experiment 1. The experiment demonstrated that the Delboeuf illusion is modulated by viewing distance and gradation in the same way as the eye size illusion. These results suggest that the eye size illusion induced by the eyebrows and the Delboeuf illusion involve the same mechanism, and that eye shadow causes the assimilation of the eyes into itself and enhances assimilation between the eyes and the eyebrows.

  16. Establishment, operation and development of a donor human milk bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biasini, Augusto; Stella, Marcello; Malaigia, Laura; China, Mariachiara; Azzalli, Milena; Laguardia, Maria Chiara; Rizzo, Vittoria

    2013-10-01

    Human milk is very valuable in premature infant nutrition. The collection, screening, processing and distribution of donor human milk are described in this report. These activities take place in the Donor Human Milk Bank (DHMB) of the Large Romagna Area (LRA) in Italy, the development of which is also described here. Over the years, the activities of this bank, which is located in Cesena Hospital, in the center of the LRA, have developed from an informal and domestic-level activity to become a multistep controlled process designed to prevent the possibility of disease transmission. This little food-supply industry, run by a multi-disciplinary team with strict rules and diverse responsibilities, complies with the Hazards Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) system.

  17. Anatomy of the lamina cribrosa in human eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radius, R L; Gonzales, M

    1981-12-01

    Light microscopy of specimens of human eyes cut in cross section at the level of the lamina cribrosa showed variation in structural anatomy, as demonstrated previously in certain primate eyes. Connective tissue and glial cell structural elements were greater in nasal-temporal as compared with inferior and superior quadrants of the disc. This regional variation suggests a hypothesis for the specificity of early patterns of optic nerve dysfunction characteristic of glaucomatous optic neuropathy. In glaucomatous eyes, nerve head regions with relatively less structural tissue elements may yield early to detrimental effects of persistent pressure elevation.

  18. Global health policies that support the use of banked donor human milk: a human rights issue

    OpenAIRE

    Arnold Lois DW

    2006-01-01

    Abstract This review examines the role of donor human milk banking in international human rights documents and global health policies. For countries looking to improve child health, promotion, protection and support of donor human milk banks has an important role to play for the most vulnerable of infants and children. This review is based on qualitative triangulation research conducted for a doctoral dissertation. The three methods used in triangulation were 1) writing as a method of inquiry...

  19. Human resource management and organizational performance: Evidence from retail banking.

    OpenAIRE

    Ann P. Bartel

    2004-01-01

    Studies of the relationship between human resource management and establishment performance have heretofore focused on the manufacturing sector. Using a unique longitudinal dataset collected through site visits to branch operations of a large bank, the author extends that research to the service sector. Because branch managers had considerable discretion in managing their operations and employees, the HRM environment could vary greatly across branches and over time. Site visits provided speci...

  20. banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva

    2017-01-01

    The thaw period was a kind of bank from which our country set sail towards unexplored horizons. The series on the Moscow Palace of Young Pioneers is continued by the article by Felix Novikov (144-151, who writes about the history of the design of this wonderful building, today’s monument of architecture of Soviet modernism.

  1. Face and eye scanning in gorillas (Gorilla gorilla), orangutans (Pongo abelii), and humans (Homo sapiens): unique eye-viewing patterns in humans among hominids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kano, Fumihiro; Call, Josep; Tomonaga, Masaki

    2012-11-01

    Because the faces and eyes of primates convey a rich array of social information, the way in which primates view faces and eyes reflects species-specific strategies for facial communication. How are humans and closely related species such as great apes similar and different in their viewing patterns for faces and eyes? Following previous studies comparing chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) with humans (Homo sapiens), this study used the eye-tracking method to directly compare the patterns of face and eye scanning by humans, gorillas (Gorilla gorilla), and orangutans (Pongo abelii). Human and ape participants freely viewed pictures of whole bodies and full faces of conspecifics and allospecifics under the same experimental conditions. All species were strikingly similar in that they viewed predominantly faces and eyes. No particular difference was identified between gorillas and orangutans, and they also did not differ from the chimpanzees tested in previous studies. However, humans were somewhat different from apes, especially with respect to prolonged eye viewing. We also examined how species-specific facial morphologies, such as the male flange of orangutans and the black-white contrast of human eyes, affected viewing patterns. Whereas the male flange of orangutans affected viewing patterns, the color contrast of human eyes did not. Humans showed prolonged eye viewing independently of the eye color of presented faces, indicating that this pattern is internally driven rather than stimulus dependent. Overall, the results show general similarities among the species and also identify unique eye-viewing patterns in humans.

  2. Investigation of ultrasound axially traversing the human eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chivers, R C; Round, W H; Zieniuk, J K

    1984-01-01

    A ray tracing model for ultrasonic propagation through the human eye, including the lens, has been developed on the assumptions of lossless media and non-reflecting interfaces. Measurement of the distribution of an ultrasonic beam before and after traversing specimens of human eyes in vitro, and of the velocity of ultrasound in the various dissected media, has permitted some comparison of the predictions of the model with experiment. The agreement is good although there are significant limitations involved and these are discussed. For imaging systems the effect of the eye arises largely from the lens which acts as a defocussing lens of focal length approx. 13.5 cm. Although the experiments were performed at approx. 4 MHz, the validity of the ray tracing model is largely frequency independent and will be appropriate at the higher frequencies commonly used in ophthalmology.

  3. Using the human eye to characterize displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gille, Jennifer; Larimer, James O.

    2001-06-01

    Monitor characterization has taken on new importance for non-professional users, who are not usually equipped to make photometric measurements. Our purpose was to examine some of the visual judgements used in characterization schemes that have been proposed for web users. We studied adjusting brightness to set the black level, banding effects du to digitization, and gamma estimation in the light an din the dark, and a color-matching tasks in the light, on a desktop CRT and a laptop LCD. Observers demonstrated the sensitivity of the visual system for comparative judgements in black- level adjustment, banding visibility, and gamma estimation. The results of the color-matching task were ambiguous. In the brightness adjustment task, the action of the adjustment was not as presumed; however, perceptual judgements were as expected under the actual conditions. Whenthe gamma estimates of observers were compared to photometric measurements, pro9blems with the definition of gamma were identified. Information about absolute light levels that would be important for characterizing a display, given the shortcomings of gamma in measuring apparent contrast, are not measurable by eye alone. The LCD was not studied as extensively as the CRT because of viewing-angle problems, and its transfer function did not follow a power law, rendering gamma estimation meaningless.

  4. Human volunteer study with PGME: Eye irritation during vapour exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmen, H.H.; Muijser, H.; Arts, J.H.E.; Prinsen, M.K.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to establish the possible occurrence of eye irritation and subjective symptoms in human volunteers exposed to propylene glycol monomethyl ether (PGME) vapour at concentrations of 0, 100 and 150 ppm. Testing was conducted in 12 healthy male volunteers using a repeated

  5. Human volunteer study with PGME: Eye irritation during vapour exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmen, H.H.; Muijser, H.; Arts, J.H.E.; Prinsen, M.K.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to establish the possible occurrence of eye irritation and subjective symptoms in human volunteers exposed to propylene glycol monomethyl ether (PGME) vapour at concentrations of 0, 100 and 150 ppm. Testing was conducted in 12 healthy male volunteers using a repeated

  6. The milk of human kindness: the story of the Mothers Milk Bank at Austin

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson-Clay Barbara

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Increased scientific study of human milk and awareness of the special nutritional needs of the premature infant have stimulated interest in human donor milk banking. Yet only three donor human milk banks existed in the United States in 1998. Having observed better outcomes in human milk-fed neonatal intensive care patients, two neonatologists in Austin, Texas, founded The Mothers Milk Bank at Austin (MMBA). Since opening in 1999, the MMBA has expanded rapidly as the result of careful...

  7. Quality of human milk expressed in a human milk bank and at home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Mayla S; Oliveira, Angela M de M; Hattori, Wallisen T; Abdallah, Vânia O S

    2017-08-30

    To evaluate the quality of the human milk expressed at home and at a human milk bank. This a retrospective, analytical, and observational study, performed by assessing titratable acidity records and the microbiological culture of 100 human milk samples expressed at home and at a human milk bank, in 2014. For the statistical analysis, generalized estimating equations (GEE) and the chi-squared test were used. When comparing the two sample groups, no significant difference was found, with 98% and 94% of the samples being approved among those collected at the milk bank and at home, respectively. No main interaction effect between local and titratable acidity records (p=0.285) was observed, and there was no statistically significant difference between the expected and observed values for the association between the collection place and the microbiological culture results (p=0.307). The quality of human milk expressed at home and at the milk bank are in agreement with the recommended standards, confirming that the expression of human milk at home is as safe as expression at the human milk bank, provided that the established hygiene, conservation, storage, and transport standards are followed. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparison of in situ excision and whole-globe recovery of corneal tissue in a large, single eye bank series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Hyung; Kim, Myoung Joon; Stoeger, Christopher; Clover, Jameson; Kim, Jae Yong; Tchah, Hungwon

    2010-09-01

    To compare the quality of corneal tissue after 2 different procurement techniques, whole-globe enucleation and in situ excision. Cross-sectional study. Data in the interval 2005 to 2008 were collected from the Lions Eye Bank of Oregon. A total of 3618 eyes underwent whole-globe enucleation (enucleation group) and 2048 eyes were subject to in situ excision (in situ group). Endothelial cell density (ECD) and death-to-preservation time (D-to-P) were analyzed. Grading scores ranging from 0 (excellent) to 4 (unacceptable for transplantation) were used to evaluate the epithelium, stroma, Descemet fold, and overall endothelium. The incidences of ECD less than 2000 cells/mm(2) (ECD .999), PGF rates were 0.72% and 0.68% (P > .999), and postoperative infection levels were 0.14% and 0.39% (P = .080). Although there were minor differences in parameters related to the endothelium, in situ excision seemed equivalent to whole-globe enucleation when various parameters were evaluated. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Human rights: eye for cultural diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y.M. Donders

    2012-01-01

    The relationship and interaction between international human rights law and cultural diversity is a current topic, as is shown by the recent debates in The Netherlands on, for instance, the proposed ban on wearing facial coverage, or burqas, and the proposed ban on ritual slaughter without anaesthes

  10. Prediction of human eye fixations using symmetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kootstra, Gert; Schomaker, Lambert

    2009-01-01

    Humans are very sensitive to symmetry in visual patterns. Reaction time experiments show that symmetry is detected and recognized very rapidly. This suggests that symmetry is a highly salient feature. Existing computational models of saliency, however, have mainly focused on contrast as a measure of

  11. Banked preterm versus banked term human milk to promote growth and development in very low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Eugene; Miletin, Jan

    2010-06-16

    Human milk banking has been available in many countries for the last three decades. The milk provided from milk banking is predominantly term breast milk, but some milk banks provide preterm breast milk. There are a number of differences between donor term and donor preterm human milk. To determine the effect of banked preterm milk compared with banked term milk regarding growth and developmental outcome in very low birth weight infants (infants weighing less than 1500 g). We used the standard methods of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group, including a search of the Cochrane Neonatal Group specialized register and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, January 2010). We searched the computerised bibliographic databases MEDLINE (1966 to February 2010), EMBASE (1988 to February 2010) and Web of Science (1975 to February 2010). We searched reference lists of all selected articles, review articles and the Oxford Database of Perinatal Trials. We also searched abstracts from neonatal and pediatric meetings (PAS electronic version from 2000 to 2009, ESPR hand search from 2000 to 2009). We applied no language restrictions. Randomised and quasi-randomised trials comparing banked donor preterm milk with banked donor term milk regarding growth and developmental outcomes in very low birth weight infants We planned to perform assessment of methodology regarding blinding of randomisation, intervention and outcome measurements as well as completeness of follow-up. We planned to evaluate treatment effect using a fixed-effect model using relative risk (RR), relative risk reduction, risk difference (RD) and number needed to treat (NNT) for categorical data and using mean, standard deviation and weighted mean difference (WMD) for continuous data. We planned an evaluation of heterogeneity. No studies met the inclusion criteria. There are no randomised trials that compare preterm banked milk to banked term milk to promote growth and

  12. Banked preterm versus banked term human milk to promote growth and development in very low birth weight infants.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dempsey, Eugene

    2012-01-31

    BACKGROUND: Human milk banking has been available in many countries for the last three decades. The milk provided from milk banking is predominantly term breast milk, but some milk banks provide preterm breast milk. There are a number of differences between donor term and donor preterm human milk. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of banked preterm milk compared with banked term milk regarding growth and developmental outcome in very low birth weight infants (infants weighing less than 1500 g). SEARCH STRATEGY: We used the standard methods of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group, including a search of the Cochrane Neonatal Group specialized register and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, January 2010). We searched the computerised bibliographic databases MEDLINE (1966 to February 2010), EMBASE (1988 to February 2010) and Web of Science (1975 to February 2010). We searched reference lists of all selected articles, review articles and the Oxford Database of Perinatal Trials. We also searched abstracts from neonatal and pediatric meetings (PAS electronic version from 2000 to 2009, ESPR hand search from 2000 to 2009). We applied no language restrictions. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised and quasi-randomised trials comparing banked donor preterm milk with banked donor term milk regarding growth and developmental outcomes in very low birth weight infants DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We planned to perform assessment of methodology regarding blinding of randomisation, intervention and outcome measurements as well as completeness of follow-up. We planned to evaluate treatment effect using a fixed-effect model using relative risk (RR), relative risk reduction, risk difference (RD) and number needed to treat (NNT) for categorical data and using mean, standard deviation and weighted mean difference (WMD) for continuous data. We planned an evaluation of heterogeneity. MAIN RESULTS: No studies met the inclusion criteria. AUTHORS

  13. Human eye visual hyperacuity: Controlled diffraction for image resolution improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagunas, A.; Domínguez, O.; Martinez-Conde, S.; Macknik, S. L.; Del-Río, C.

    2017-09-01

    The Human Visual System appears to be using a low number of sensors for image capturing, and furthermore, regarding the physical dimensions of cones—photoreceptors responsible for the sharp central vision—we may realize that these sensors are of a relatively small size and area. Nonetheless, the human eye is capable of resolving fine details thanks to visual hyperacuity and presents an impressive sensitivity and dynamic range when set against conventional digital cameras of similar characteristics. This article is based on the hypothesis that the human eye may be benefiting from diffraction to improve both image resolution and acquisition process. The developed method involves the introduction of a controlled diffraction pattern at an initial stage that enables the use of a limited number of sensors for capturing the image and makes possible a subsequent post-processing to improve the final image resolution.

  14. Multiphoton tomography of the human eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Karsten; Batista, Ana; Hager, Tobias; Seitz, Berthold

    2017-02-01

    Multiphoton tomography (MPT) is a novel label-free clinical imaging method for non-invasive tissue imaging with high spatial (300 nm) and temporal (100 ps) resolutions. In vivo optical histology can be realized due to the nonlinear excitation of endogenous fluorophores and second-harmonic generation (SHG) of collagen. Furthermore, optical metabolic imaging (OMI) is performed by two-photon autofluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM). So far, applications of the multiphoton tomographs DermaInspect and MPTflex were limited to dermatology. Novel applications include intraoperative brain tumor imaging as well as cornea imaging. In this work we describe two-photon imaging of ex vivo human corneas unsuitable for transplantation. Furthermore, the cross-linking (CXL) process of corneal collagen based on UVA exposure and 0.1 % riboflavin was studied. The pharmacokinetics of the photosensitizer could be detected with high spatial resolution. Interestingly, an increase in the stromal autofluorescence intensity and modifications of the autofluorescence lifetimes were observed in the human corneal samples within a few days following CXL.

  15. Global health policies that support the use of banked donor human milk: a human rights issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnold Lois DW

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This review examines the role of donor human milk banking in international human rights documents and global health policies. For countries looking to improve child health, promotion, protection and support of donor human milk banks has an important role to play for the most vulnerable of infants and children. This review is based on qualitative triangulation research conducted for a doctoral dissertation. The three methods used in triangulation were 1 writing as a method of inquiry, 2 an integrative research review, and 3 personal experience and knowledge of the topic. Discussion of the international human rights documents and global health policies shows that there is a wealth of documentation to support promotion, protection and support of donor milk banking as an integral part of child health and survival. By utilizing these policy documents, health ministries, professional associations, and donor milk banking associations can find rationales for establishing, increasing or continuing to provide milk banking services in any country, and thereby improve the health of children and future generations of adults.

  16. Eye-Hand-Mouth Coordination in the Human Newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futagi, Yasuyuki

    2017-10-01

    There have been several studies concerning rudimentary coordination of the eyes, hands, and mouth in the human newborn. The author attempted to clarify the ontogenetic significance of the coordination during the earliest period of human life through a systematic review. The neural mechanism underlying the coordination was also discussed based on the current knowledge of cognitive neuroscience. Searches were conducted on PubMed and Google Scholar from their inception through March 2017. Studies have demonstrated that the coordination is a visually guided goal-directed motor behavior with intension and emotion. Current cognitive research has proved that feeding requires a large-scale neural network extending over several cortices. The eye-hand-mouth coordination in the newborn can be regarded as a precursor of subsequent self-feeding, and the coordination is very likely mediated through the underdeveloped but essentially the same network interconnecting cortices as in the adult. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Elastic hysteresis in human eyes is age dependent value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Kotaro; Saito, Kei; Kameda, Toshihiro; Oshika, Tetsuro

    2012-06-19

    Background:  The elastic hysteresis phenomenon is observed when cyclic loading is applied to a viscoelastic system. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively evaluate elastic hysteresis in living human eyes against an external force. Design:  Prospective case series. Participants:  Twenty-four eyes of 24 normal human subjects (mean age: 41.5 ± 10.6 years) were recruited. Methods:  A non-contact tonometry process was recorded with a high-speed camera. Central corneal thickness (CCT), corneal thickness at 4 mm from the center, corneal curvature, and anterior chamber depth (ACD) were measured. Intraocular pressure (IOP) was also measured using Goldmann applanation tonometry (GAT) and dynamic contour tonometer (DCT). Main Outcome Measures:  Energy loss due to elastic hysteresis was calculated and graphed. Results:  The mean CCT was 552.5 ± 36.1 µm, corneal curvature was 7.84 ± 0.26 mm, and ACD was 2.83 ± 0.29 mm. The mean GAT-IOP was 14.2 ± 2.7 mmHg and DCT-IOP was 16.3 ± 3.5 mmHg. The mean energy loss due to elastic hysteresis was 3.90 × 10(-6) ± 2.49 × 10(-6) Nm. Energy loss due to elastic hysteresis correlated significantly with age (Pearson correlation coefficient = 0.596, p = 0.0016). There were no significant correlations between energy loss due to elastic hysteresis and other measurements. Conclusion:  Energy loss due to elastic hysteresis in the eyes of subjects was found to positively correlate with age, independent of anterior eye structure or IOP. Therefore, it is believed that the viscosity of the eye increases with age. © 2010 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology © 2010 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  18. Best practice guidelines for the operation of a donor human milk bank in an Australian NICU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, B T; Pang, W W; Keil, A D; Hartmann, P E; Simmer, K

    2007-10-01

    Until the establishment of the PREM Bank (Perron Rotary Express Milk Bank) donor human milk banking had not occurred in Australia for the past 20 years. In re-establishing donor human milk banking in Australia, the focus of the PREM Bank has been to develop a formal and consistent approach to safety and quality in processing during the operation of the human milk bank. There is currently no existing legislation in Australia that specifically regulates the operation of donor human milk banks. For this reason the PREM Bank has utilised existing and internationally recognised management practices for managing hazards during food production. These tools (specifically HACCP) have been used to guide the development of Standard Operating Procedures and Good Manufacturing Practice for the screening of donors and processing of donor human milk. Donor screening procedures are consistent with those recommended by other human milk banks operating internationally, and also consistent with the requirements for blood and tissue donation in Australia. Controlled documentation and record keep requirements have also been developed that allow complete traceability from individual donation to individual feed dispensed to recipient and maintain a record of all processing and storage conditions. These operational requirements have been developed to reduce any risk associated with feeding pasteurised donor human milk to hospitalised preterm or ill infants to acceptable levels.

  19. Chinese state-owned commercial banks issue of Human Resource Management Analysis and Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Hongquan

    2016-01-01

    In the information age, market competition in the financial sector increasingly incandescent, after carrying out the shares of state-owned commercial bank reform, human resource management determines the success of state-owned commercial banks, the rise and fall[1]. Thus, in the face of China's financial market is fully open to the great challenges of state-owned commercial banks must look for their own lack of human resource management, learn from the advanced experience at home and abroad, the establishment of state-owned commercial banks need to meet their own development, but also to actively cope with fierce competition modern human resources management system to meet the challenges.

  20. An Introduction to The Royan Human Ovarian Tissue Bank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abtahi, Naeimeh Sadat; Ebrahimi, Bita; Fathi, Rouhollah; Khodaverdi, Sepideh; Mehdizadeh Kashi, Abolfazl; Valojerdi, Mojtaba Rezazadeh

    2016-01-01

    From December 2000 until 2010, the researchers at Royan Institute conducted a wide range of investigations on ovarian tissue cryopreservation with the intent to provide fertility pres- ervation to cancer patients that were considered to be candidates for these services. In 2010, Royan Institute established the Royan Human Ovarian Tissue Bank as a subgroup of the Embryology Department. Since its inception, approximately 180 patients between the ages of 747 years have undergone consultations. Ovarian samples were cryopreserved from 47 patients (age: 7-35 years) diagnosed with cervical adenocarcinoma (n=9); breast carcinoma (n=7), Ewing’s sarcoma (n=7), opposite side ovarian tumor (n=7), endometrial adenocarci- noma (n=4), malignant colon tumors (n=3), as well as Hodgkin’s lymphoma, major thalas- semia and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (n=1-2 patients for each disease). Additionally, two patients requested ovarian tissue transplantation after completion of their treatments. PMID:27441061

  1. The knowns and unknowns of human milk banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmer, Karen

    2011-01-01

    The provision of donor human milk instead of formula is an important contribution to the nutrition and protection from infections for preterm infants. Systematic reviews suggest a lower risk of necrotizing enterocolitis with pasteurized donor human milk (PDHM) as opposed to artificial formula, although evidence supporting PDHM use from randomized control trials is limited. Human milk banks (HMBs) must have a risk management system to maintain a safe product especially as many operate in an unregulated environment. To ensure safety, the HMB in Australia has committed to meet the appropriate standards recommended in the Code of Good Manufacturing Practices (Blood and Tissues) and models risk management during processing on Codex HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point) requirements. There is scope to continually reevaluate the screening of donors and quality standards recommended during HMB. This will be most effective if strong networks of HMBs are developed with regional reference laboratories to encourage compliance with safety guidelines. Further research and development is needed to refine technology for treating donor milk such as thermal ultrasound and ultraviolet light, aimed at the retention of full bioactivity. HMB networks will facilitate collection of evidence for refining HMB practice which should translate to improved outcomes for preterm and sick infants. Cost effectiveness is most likely when HMBs are associated with large neonatal intensive care units.

  2. Amendment to 2010 Italian guidelines for the establishment and operation of a donor human milk bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslanoglu, S; Bertino, E; Tonetto, P; De Nisi, G; Ambruzzi, A M; Biasini, A; Profeti, C; Spreghini, M R; Moro, G E

    2012-01-01

    The present paper is an amendment to the recent Italian Guidelines of human milk banking published in 2010. Working Group on Guidelines (Panel) of the Italian Association of Human Milk Banks (AIBLUD) states, in accordance with the European Union Comission's Amending Directive of January 2011, that the hard plastic feeding bottles used in the collection, storage and pasteurization of the human milk should be Bisphenol A (BPA) free. Until new evidence are available polycarbonate feeding bottles should not be used for collection, storage and pasteurization of human milk. The paper summarizes the former and current European Commission Directives and shows the related amending changes to the 2010 Italian Human Milk Banking Guidelines.

  3. BrainBank Metadata Specification for the Human Brain Project and Neuroinformatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Lianglin

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Many databases and platforms for human brain data have been established in China over the years, and metadata plays an important role in understanding and using them. The BrainBank Metadata Specification for the Human Brain Project and Neuroinformatics provides a structure for describing the context and content information of BrainBank databases and services. It includes six parts: identification, method, data schema, distribution of the database, metadata extension, and metadata reference The application of the BrainBank Metadata Specification will promote conservation and management of BrainBank databases and platforms. it will also greatly facilitate the retrieval, evaluation, acquisition, and application of the data.

  4. The New Zealand National Eye Bank study 1991-2003: a review of the source and management of corneal tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Hussain Y; Brookes, Nigel H; Moffatt, Louise; Sherwin, Trevor; Ormonde, Sue; Clover, Gillian M; McGhee, Charles N J

    2005-07-01

    To evaluate donor demographics and source, donor tissue processing and storage, biologic contamination, and the utilization and distribution of corneal tissue procured by the New Zealand National Eye Bank. As part of a prospective longitudinal study, the electronic records of the NZNEB for the 13-year period 1991-2003 were analyzed for each year with respect to donor demographics, donor source and cause of death, death-to-preservation interval, storage methods, endothelial assessment, biologic contamination, corneal tissue utilization, and distribution. During the study period, 3221 corneas were retrieved from 1628 donors (69.8% male, 30.2% female), with the mean age of donors 59.4 years (SD 18.3 years) and range 4 to 95 years. No significant correlation was identified between donor age group (using 10-year intervals) and the proportion of corneas suitable for transplantation. Donors were procured from the Coroner's service (67.6%), public hospitals, (23.5%) and multiorgan donors (7.1%). The most common causes of donor death were cardiovascular disease, trauma, and cerebrovascular disease. Average storage duration increased from 3.5 to 11.8 days when organ culture replaced hypothermic storage in 1992. Biologic contamination occurred in 5% of all donor corneas. The most common bacterial and fungal isolates were coagulase-negative staphylococci and Candida spp, respectively. A significant decrease in contamination rate over the years of the study was identified. Overall, 79.4% of corneal tissue procured was used for corneal transplantation (75.8% for penetrating keratoplasty, 2.1% for lamellar keratoplasty, and 1.5% for unspecified transplants), and 21.6% was discarded. Most common reasons for discarding tissue were biologic contamination, abnormal serology, and failed endothelial assessment. Analysis of the NZNEB database provides valuable information in relation to eye banking and corneal transplantation in New Zealand. Significant trends were identified in donor

  5. Reconstituted human corneal epithelium: a new alternative to the Draize eye test for the assessment of the eye irritation potential of chemicals and cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucet, O; Lanvin, M; Thillou, C; Linossier, C; Pupat, C; Merlin, B; Zastrow, L

    2006-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the interest of a new three-dimensional epithelial model cultivated from human corneal cells to replace animal testing in the assessment of eye tolerance. To this end, 65 formulated cosmetic products and 36 chemicals were tested by means of this in vitro model using a simplified toxicokinetic approach. The chemicals were selected from the ECETOC data bank and the EC/HO International validation study list. Very satisfactory results were obtained in terms of concordance with the Draize test data for the formulated cosmetic products. Moreover, the response of the corneal model appeared predictive of human ocular response clinically observed by ophthalmologists. The in vitro scores for the chemicals tested strongly correlated with their respective scores in vivo. For all the compounds tested, the response of the corneal model to irritants was similar regardless of their chemical structure, suggesting a good robustness of the prediction model proposed. We concluded that this new three-dimensional epithelial model, developed from human corneal cells, could be promising for the prediction of eye irritation induced by chemicals and complex formulated products, and that these two types of materials should be tested using a similar protocol. A simple shortening of the exposure period was required for the chemicals assumed to be more aggressively irritant to the epithelial tissues than the cosmetic formulae.

  6. Irreversible electroporation of human primary uveal melanoma in enucleated eyes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yossi Mandel

    Full Text Available Uveal melanoma (UM is the most common primary intraocular tumor in adults and is characterized by high rates of metastatic disease. Although brachytherapy is the most common globe-sparing treatment option for small- and medium-sized tumors, the treatment is associated with severe adverse reactions and does not lead to increased survival rates as compared to enucleation. The use of irreversible electroporation (IRE for tumor ablation has potential advantages in the treatment of tumors in complex organs such as the eye. Following previous theoretical work, herein we evaluate the use of IRE for uveal tumor ablation in human ex vivo eye model. Enucleated eyes of patients with uveal melanoma were treated with short electric pulses (50-100 µs, 1000-2000 V/cm using a customized electrode design. Tumor bioimpedance was measured before and after treatment and was followed by histopathological evaluation. We found that IRE caused tumor ablation characterized by cell membrane disruption while sparing the non-cellular sclera. Membrane disruption and loss of cellular capacitance were also associated with significant reduction in total tumor impedance and loss of impedance frequency dependence. The effect was more pronounced near the pulsing electrodes and was dependent on time from treatment to fixation. Future studies should further evaluate the potential of IRE as an alternative method of uveal melanoma treatment.

  7. Human ResourceManagement Practices and Employee Performance in Banking Sector of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Abdus Salam Sarker

    2017-01-01

    In the first growing banking sector like Bangladesh, there are 56 banks offered financial services with different stratagem and always looking for faster growth through employee performance by all means. Performance assessment is highly important while achieving the goals of the organization and determining the individual contributions to the organization. The purpose is to measure the effect of human resource (HR) practices on the employee performance in banking sector of Bangladesh. The res...

  8. Eye movements reveal epistemic curiosity in human observers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranes, Adrien; Oudeyer, Pierre-Yves; Gottlieb, Jacqueline

    2015-12-01

    Saccadic (rapid) eye movements are primary means by which humans and non-human primates sample visual information. However, while saccadic decisions are intensively investigated in instrumental contexts where saccades guide subsequent actions, it is largely unknown how they may be influenced by curiosity - the intrinsic desire to learn. While saccades are sensitive to visual novelty and visual surprise, no study has examined their relation to epistemic curiosity - interest in symbolic, semantic information. To investigate this question, we tracked the eye movements of human observers while they read trivia questions and, after a brief delay, were visually given the answer. We show that higher curiosity was associated with earlier anticipatory orienting of gaze toward the answer location without changes in other metrics of saccades or fixations, and that these influences were distinct from those produced by variations in confidence and surprise. Across subjects, the enhancement of anticipatory gaze was correlated with measures of trait curiosity from personality questionnaires. Finally, a machine learning algorithm could predict curiosity in a cross-subject manner, relying primarily on statistical features of the gaze position before the answer onset and independently of covariations in confidence or surprise, suggesting potential practical applications for educational technologies, recommender systems and research in cognitive sciences. With this article, we provide full access to the annotated database allowing readers to reproduce the results. Epistemic curiosity produces specific effects on oculomotor anticipation that can be used to read out curiosity states.

  9. Domestic Banks in Bangladesh Could Ensure Efficiency by Improving Human Resource Management Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masum, Abdul Kadar Muhammad; Azad, Md Abul Kalam; Hoque, Kazi Enamul; Beh, Loo-See

    2015-01-01

    The paper aims to examine the influence of human resource management (HRM) practices on bank efficiency using Malmquist index of total factor productivity. The model comprises HRM index that represents the quality of HRM practices. The results are decomposed into three efficiency scores, namely, technical efficiency, pure efficiency, and scale efficiency. In this study, panel data for 44 banks in Bangladesh are used for the period 2008-2013. This paper reveals that foreign banks are ahead in converting the influence of HRM practices into efficiency scores (0.946>0.833). On the other hand, domestic banks performed better than foreign banks in terms of pure efficiency and scale efficiency. But, in terms of technical efficiency, the domestic banks are regressed by 6.7% annually whereas foreign banks are progressed with a yearly value of 5.8%. The results are robust, because the Mann-Whitney test and Kruskall-Wallis test (non-parametric tests) also confirm the same results. This study emphasizes HRM practices in the banking industry to ensure efficiency in the long-term scenario. Domestic banks are suggested to ensure continuous development in HRM practices in order to compete with foreign banks.

  10. Ensuring Safety in Donor Human Milk Banking in Neonatal Intensive Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Ben T

    2017-03-01

    The provision of donor human milk avoids the risks associated with early infant formula feeding only when maternal milk is unavailable. Donor human milk-banking services (DHMBS) should provide an effective clinical service that causes no harm to donors or recipients. This article aims to begin the process of defining the minimum acceptable standard required for safe donor human milk banking in the neonatal unit. An assessment process is established to consider the potential risks and benefits of milk banking to both recipients and donors. These risks and benefits define the clinical responsibility of DHMBS and their social responsibility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Establishing an integrated human milk banking approach to strengthen newborn care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMarchis, A; Israel-Ballard, K; Mansen, Kimberly Amundson; Engmann, C

    2016-11-10

    The provision of donor human milk can significantly reduce morbidity and mortality among vulnerable infants and is recommended by the World Health Organization as the next best option when a mother's own milk is unavailable. Regulated human milk banks can meet this need, however, scale-up has been hindered by the absence of an appropriate model for resource-limited settings and a lack of policy support for human milk banks and for the operational procedures supporting them. To reduce infant mortality, human milk banking systems need to be scaled up and integrated with other components of newborn care. This article draws on current guidelines and best practices from human milk banks to offer a compilation of universal requirements that provide a foundation for an integrated model of newborn care that is appropriate for low- and high-resource settings alike.Journal of Perinatology advance online publication, 10 November 2016; doi:10.1038/jp.2016.198.

  12. Genetic analyses of the human eye colours using a novel objective method for eye colour classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jeppe D.; Johansen, Peter; Harder, Stine

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we present a new objective method for measuring the eye colour on a continuous scale that allows researchers to associate genetic markers with different shades of eye colour. With the use of the custom designed software Digital Iris Analysis Tool (DIAT), the iris was automatically......-score ranged from −1 to 1 (brown to blue). The software eliminated the need for user based interpretation and qualitative eye colour categories. In 94% (570) of 605 analyzed eye images, the iris region was successfully extracted and a PIE-score was calculated. A very high correlation between the PIE...... identified and extracted from high resolution digital images. DIAT was made user friendly with a graphical user interface. The software counted the number of blue and brown pixels in the iris image and calculated a Pixel Index of the Eye (PIE-score) that described the eye colour quantitatively. The PIE...

  13. A Comparative Analysis of Contribution of Human Resource Management to Organizational Performance of Banks in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vemic-Djurkovic Jelena

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of this paper is in identification, proving and presentation of practice quality of human resource management as an important factor for achieving organizational effectiveness of banks. A group of correlations has been defined in this paper to be measured in order to reflect the impact of HRM practice on the effectiveness of banks in Serbia, which can lead to better functioning of not only banking organizations, but also of all other organizations in our environment and under current circumstances. The results of this study showed that banking organizations that have better HRM practices possess a more competitive workforce and better organizational performances, which further highlight the need for a more systematized and institutionalized use of human resources within commercial banking sector in Serbia

  14. The milk of human kindness: the story of the Mothers Milk Bank at Austin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson-Clay Barbara

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Increased scientific study of human milk and awareness of the special nutritional needs of the premature infant have stimulated interest in human donor milk banking. Yet only three donor human milk banks existed in the United States in 1998. Having observed better outcomes in human milk-fed neonatal intensive care patients, two neonatologists in Austin, Texas, founded The Mothers Milk Bank at Austin (MMBA. Since opening in 1999, the MMBA has expanded rapidly as the result of careful planning, innovative procedures, fiscal stability, and widespread community support. The non-profit organizational structure, diversity and progressive vision of the board of directors and staff, and creative on-going public relations efforts have contributed to the success of the project. The MMBA demonstrates a model for 21st century milk banking.

  15. Temperature distribution simulation of the human eye exposed to laser radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirnezami, Seyyed Abbas; Rajaei Jafarabadi, Mahdi; Abrishami, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    Human eye is a sensitive part of human body with no direct protection and due to its lack of protection against the external heat waves, studying the temperature distribution of heat waves on the human eye is of utmost importance. Various lasers are widely used in medical applications such as eye surgeries. The most significant issue in the eye surgeries with laser is estimation of temperature distribution and its increase in eye tissues due to the laser radiation intensity. Experimental and invasive methods to measure the eye temperature usually have high risks. In this paper, human eye has been modeled through studying the temperature distribution of three different laser radiations, using the finite element method. We simulated human eye under 1064 nm Neodymium-Doped Yttrium Aluminium Garnet (Nd: YAG) laser, 193 nm argon fluoride (ArF) excimer laser, and 1340 nm Neodymium doped Yttrium Aluminum Perovskite (Nd: YAP) laser radiation. The results show that these radiations cause temperature rise in retina, lens and cornea region, which will in turn causes serious damages to the eye tissues. This simulation can be a useful tool to study and predict the temperature distribution in laser radiation on the human eye and evaluate the risk involved in using laser to perform surgery.

  16. Optical coherence tomography-based topography determination of corneal grafts in eye bank cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damian, Angela; Seitz, Berthold; Langenbucher, Achim; Eppig, Timo

    2017-01-01

    Vision loss due to corneal injuries or diseases can be treated by transplantation of human corneal grafts (keratoplasty). However, quality assurance in retrieving and cultivating the tissue transplants is confined to visual and microbiological testing. To identify previous refractive surgery or morphological alterations, an automatic, noncontact, sterile screening procedure is required. Twenty-three corneal grafts have been measured in organ culture with a clinical spectral-domain optical coherence tomographer. Employing a biconic surface fit with 10 degrees of freedom, the radii of curvature and conic constants could be estimated for the anterior and posterior corneal surfaces. Thereupon, central corneal thickness, refractive values, and astigmatism have been calculated. Clinical investigations are required to elaborate specific donor-host matching in the future.

  17. BrainBank Metadata Specification for the Human Brain Project and Neuroinformatics

    OpenAIRE

    Lianglin, Hu; Yufang, Hou; Jianhui, Li; Ling, Yin; Wenwen, Shi

    2007-01-01

    Many databases and platforms for human brain data have been established in China over the years, and metadata plays an important role in understanding and using them. The BrainBank Metadata Specification for the Human Brain Project and Neuroinformatics provides a structure for describing the context and content information of BrainBank databases and services. It includes six parts: identification, method, data schema, distribution of the database, metadata extension, and metadata reference Th...

  18. Report of the Eye Bank Association of America Medical Review Subcommittee on Adverse Reactions Reported From 2007 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelstein, Sean L; DeMatteo, Jennifer; Stoeger, Christopher G; Macsai, Marian S; Wang, Chi-Hsiung

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the incidence of adverse reactions after corneal transplantation, reported to the Eye Bank Association of America. Incidence of adverse reactions from January 1, 2007, to December 31, 2014, was analyzed. Of the 354,930 transplants performed in the United States, adverse reactions were reported in 494 cases (0.139%). Primary graft failure (PGF) predominated (n = 319; 0.09%) followed by endophthalmitis (n = 99; 0.028%) and keratitis (n = 66; 0.019%). The procedure type predominantly associated with PGF was endothelial keratoplasty (EK) in 56% (n = 180; 11 per 10,000 grafts), followed by penetrating keratoplasty (PK) in 42% (n = 135; 6.9 per 10,000 grafts). The procedure type predominantly associated with endophthalmitis and keratitis was EK in 63% (n = 104; 6.3 per 10,000 grafts) followed by PK in 34% (n = 56; 2.8 per 10,000 grafts), anterior lamellar keratoplasty in 1% (n = 2; 2.7 per 10,000 grafts), and keratoprosthesis in 1% (n = 2; 12.4 per 10,000 grafts). Although the incidence of PGF and endophthalmitis between PK and EK was noteworthy, the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.098). Endophthalmitis-associated pathogens were isolated in 78% of cases: predominantly Candida species (65%), gram-positive organisms (33%), and gram-negative rods (2%). Keratitis-associated pathogens were isolated in 64% of cases: predominantly Candida species (81%), Herpes simplex virus (7%), gram-negative organisms (7%), and gram-positive organisms (5%). PGF was the most commonly reported adverse reaction, disproportionately associated with EK. An increasingtrend in the rate of endophthalmitis and keratitis was observed, disproportionately associated with EK and Candida species.

  19. Can human eyes prevent perceptual narrowing for monkey faces in human infants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damon, Fabrice; Bayet, Laurie; Quinn, Paul C; Hillairet de Boisferon, Anne; Méary, David; Dupierrix, Eve; Lee, Kang; Pascalis, Olivier

    2015-07-01

    Perceptual narrowing has been observed in human infants for monkey faces: 6-month-olds can discriminate between them, whereas older infants from 9 months of age display difficulty discriminating between them. The difficulty infants from 9 months have processing monkey faces has not been clearly identified. It could be due to the structural characteristics of monkey faces, particularly the key facial features that differ from human faces. The current study aimed to investigate whether the information conveyed by the eyes is of importance. We examined whether the presence of Caucasian human eyes in monkey faces allows recognition to be maintained in 6-month-olds and facilitates recognition in 9- and 12-month-olds. Our results revealed that the presence of human eyes in monkey faces maintains recognition for those faces at 6 months of age and partially facilitates recognition of those faces at 9 months of age, but not at 12 months of age. The findings are interpreted in the context of perceptual narrowing and suggest that the attenuation of processing of other-species faces is not reversed by the presence of human eyes.

  20. Genetic analyses of the human eye colours using a novel objective method for eye colour classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jeppe D.; Johansen, Peter; Harder, Stine

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we present a new objective method for measuring the eye colour on a continuous scale that allows researchers to associate genetic markers with different shades of eye colour. With the use of the custom designed software Digital Iris Analysis Tool (DIAT), the iris was automatically ...

  1. Gazing-detection of human eyes based on SVM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Su-mei; ZHANG Yan-xin; CHANG Sheng-jiang; SHEN Jin-yuan

    2005-01-01

    A method for gazing-detection of human eyes using Support Vector Machine (SVM) based on statistic learning theory (SLT) is proposed.According to the criteria of structural risk minimization of SVM,the errors between sample-data and model-data are minimized and the upper bound of predicting error of the model is also reduced.As a result,the generalization ability of the model is much improved.The simulation results show that,when limited training samples are used,the correct recognition rate of the tested samples can be as high as 100%,which is much better than some previous results obtained by other methods.The higher processing speed enables the system to distinguish gazing or not-gazing in real-time.

  2. Genetic analyses of the human eye colours using a novel objective method for eye colour classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jeppe D.; Johansen, Peter; Harder, Stine;

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we present a new objective method for measuring the eye colour on a continuous scale that allows researchers to associate genetic markers with different shades of eye colour. With the use of the custom designed software Digital Iris Analysis Tool (DIAT), the iris was automatically...... and TYR rs1393350) on the eye colour. We evaluated the two published prediction models for eye colour (IrisPlex [1] and Snipper[2]) and compared the predictions with the PIE-scores. We found good concordance with the prediction from individuals typed as HERC2 rs12913832 G. However, both methods had...... by different studies and to perform large meta-studies that may reveal loci with small effects on the eye colour....

  3. Blue eyes in lemurs and humans: same phenotype, different genetic mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bradley, Brenda J; Pedersen, Anja; Mundy, Nicholas I

    2009-01-01

    Almost all mammals have brown or darkly-pigmented eyes (irises), but among primates, there are some prominent blue-eyed exceptions. The blue eyes of some humans and lemurs are a striking example of convergent evolution of a rare phenotype on distant branches of the primate tree. Recent work...... on humans indicates that blue eye color is associated with, and likely caused by, a single nucleotide polymorphism (rs12913832) in an intron of the gene HERC2, which likely regulates expression of the neighboring pigmentation gene OCA2. This raises the immediate question of whether blue eyes in lemurs might...... have a similar genetic basis. We addressed this by sequencing the homologous genetic region in the blue-eyed black lemur (Eulemur macaco flavifrons; N = 4) and the closely-related black lemur (Eulemur macaco macaco; N = 4), which has brown eyes. We then compared a 166-bp segment corresponding...

  4. Entrepreneurship and Social Innovation in Training and Human Capital Development: the Case of the Bank Palmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Lopes de Sousa Diniz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze an entrepreneurial experience, social innovation and human capital; the object of the study is the Bank Palmas, located in Fortaleza, in Ceará, Brazil. This bank was created to address the need to promote the income generation and job, making use of a corporate economic system, which allows to overcome the poverty axis located in a suburb called Conjunto Palmeiras, with a population of 30 thousand inhabitants. For this, we used the descriptive and exploratory research with fieldwork conducted in the locality of Bank Palmas. These actions serve as a benchmark for innovative practices and have meaningful participation and involvement of local inhabitants. A population sample consisted of 207 individuals, associates and employees of the Bank Palmas and was used to analyze the descriptive and inferential statistics. The data suggest that the entrepreneurship development concepts and social innovation and human capital are implemented by the Bank Palmas with relevant results in the local community. Members and employees of the Bank Palmas through these various actions felt themselves as active players in transforming their reality. Investment in human development is considered as a major source of innovation, the organizations of various sectors of the economy need to incorporate the strategic management of human capital, as recommended in the literature on this topic, which considers the human capital as the set of all the skills, knowledge and experience of employees or managers, involving also the creativity and innovation.

  5. Status quo of management of the human tissue banks in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Ching-Pang; Chou, Szu-Cheng; Chen, Ying-Hua; Chen, Yu-Hsuan; Lee, Ming-Shin

    2017-03-01

    As the technologies associated with transplantation and biological tissue engineering continue to advance, human cells and tissues form an integral part to the practice of regenerative medicine. The patient's use of tissues entails the risk of introducing, transmitting and spreading communicable diseases. To prevent such risk and to ensure that the human organs, tissues and cells remain intact and functional after being handled and processed, the transplanted tissues must be subject to good management standards through all stages of collection, screening, processing, storage and distribution as the safety of the users is of the utmost importance. On February 2009, the government of Taiwan promulgated the Regulations for Administration on Human Organ Bank that requires all human tissues banks to adhere to the Good Tissue Practice for Human Organ, Tissue and Cell in terms of establishment and operation in order to cope with the international management trend and the development and management need of the domestic industry. Six years have passed since the law became effective. This article seeks to introduce the current management mechanism and status quo of management of human tissue banks in Taiwan. We also conducted statistical analysis of the data relating to the tissue banks to identify potential risks and the room for improvement. The study concludes that human tissue banks in Taiwan are on the right track with their management practice, leading to a state of steady development and progress.

  6. Innovative Human Resource Practices In Indian Banks: A Study From Hr Manager’s Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teju kujur

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Banking sector is one of the vital financial pillars of Indian economy. The liberalization policy has affected the competitiveness of banks due to the global pressures resulting into combination of Human Resource Management with business policies. The survey by Boston Consulting Group (BCG and Indian Bank’s Association (IBA report that the Indian banking industry will face two upcoming challenges that is an economically viable solution for financial inclusion and human resources framework in next one decade. While the first challenge demands unusual innovation and experimentation, the second threatens to cripple the ability of the largest segment of the banking industry from being able to innovate and stay competitive. The unique complexities of the public sector make conventional HR solutions ineffective. The initiatives like “Pradhan Mantri Jan-Dhan Yojana” by the Honourable Prime Minister of India, banks contribution in the financial inclusion has boosted up, but the employee’s expectations from the industry have also arisen. This calls for a need to innovate the earlier HR practices of the banks so that the employee productivity can be enhanced. This paper aims to provide an insight to such innovations, related to Human Resource Management with the help of a primary study based on the viewpoints of HR managers of six different Indian banks both from public and private sector. These innovative HRM practices have been listed under seven different heads of HRM namely recruitment & selection, training and development, performance management, compensation management, career development, employee motivation and employee security. A few of the earlier studies have also been referred for the final conclusions. The level of implementation of these innovations may not be satisfactory, yet the implementation has been started and the favourable results in the productivity will make these banks feel how important these are for their growth. It

  7. Repeatability and reliability of human eye in visual shade selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özat, P B; Tuncel, İ; Eroğlu, E

    2013-12-01

    Deficiencies in the human visual percep-tion system have challenged the efficiency of the visual shade-matching protocol. The aim of this study was to evaluate the repeatability and reliability of human eye in visual shade selection. Fifty-four volunteering dentists were asked to match the shade of an upper right central incisor tooth of a single subject. The Vita 3D-Master shade guide was used for the protocol. Before each shade-matching procedure, the definitive codes of the shade tabs were hidden by an opaque strip and the shade tabs were placed into the guide randomly. The procedure was repeated 1 month later to ensure that visual memory did not affect the results. The L*, a* and b* values of the shade tabs were measured with a dental spectrophotometer (Vita Easyshade) to produce quantitative values to evaluate the protocol. The paired samples t-test and Pearson correlation test were used to compare the 1st and 2nd selections. The Yates-corrected chi-square test was use to compare qualitative values. Statistical significance was accepted at P shade matching, but they are able to select clinically acceptable shades.

  8. 21 CFR 607.7 - Establishment registration and product listing of blood banks and other firms manufacturing human...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... blood banks and other firms manufacturing human blood and blood products. 607.7 Section 607.7 Food and... Provisions § 607.7 Establishment registration and product listing of blood banks and other firms... permit any blood bank or similar establishment to ship blood products in interstate commerce. (b)...

  9. Implicit prosody mining based on the human eye image capture technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Pei-pei; Liu, Feng

    2013-08-01

    The technology of eye tracker has become the main methods of analyzing the recognition issues in human-computer interaction. Human eye image capture is the key problem of the eye tracking. Based on further research, a new human-computer interaction method introduced to enrich the form of speech synthetic. We propose a method of Implicit Prosody mining based on the human eye image capture technology to extract the parameters from the image of human eyes when reading, control and drive prosody generation in speech synthesis, and establish prosodic model with high simulation accuracy. Duration model is key issues for prosody generation. For the duration model, this paper put forward a new idea for obtaining gaze duration of eyes when reading based on the eye image capture technology, and synchronous controlling this duration and pronunciation duration in speech synthesis. The movement of human eyes during reading is a comprehensive multi-factor interactive process, such as gaze, twitching and backsight. Therefore, how to extract the appropriate information from the image of human eyes need to be considered and the gaze regularity of eyes need to be obtained as references of modeling. Based on the analysis of current three kinds of eye movement control model and the characteristics of the Implicit Prosody reading, relative independence between speech processing system of text and eye movement control system was discussed. It was proved that under the same text familiarity condition, gaze duration of eyes when reading and internal voice pronunciation duration are synchronous. The eye gaze duration model based on the Chinese language level prosodic structure was presented to change previous methods of machine learning and probability forecasting, obtain readers' real internal reading rhythm and to synthesize voice with personalized rhythm. This research will enrich human-computer interactive form, and will be practical significance and application prospect in terms of

  10. Comparison of in vitro eye irritation potential by bovine corneal opacity and permeability (BCOP) assay to erythema scores in human eye sting test of surfactant-based formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cater, Kathleen C; Harbell, John W

    2008-01-01

    The bovine corneal opacity and permeability (BCOP) assay can be used to predict relative eye irritation potential of surfactant-based personal care formulations relative to a corporate benchmark. The human eye sting test is typically used to evaluate product claims of no tears/no stinging for children's bath products. A preliminary investigation was conducted to test a hypothesis that the BCOP assay could be used as a prediction model for relative ranking of human eye irritation responses under conditions of a standard human eye sting test to surfactant-based formulations. BCOP assays and human eye sting tests were conducted on 4 commercial and 1 prototype body wash (BW) developed specifically for children or as mild bath products. In the human eye sting test, 10 mul of a 10% dosing solution is instilled into one eye of each panelist (n = 20), and the contralateral eye is dosed with sterile water as a control. Bulbar conjunctival erythema responses of each eye are graded at 30 seconds by an ophthalmologist. The BCOP assay permeability values (optical density at 490 nm [OD(490)]) for the 5 BWs ranged from 0.438 to 1.252 (i.e., least to most irritating). By comparison, the number of panelists exhibiting erythema responses (mild to moderately pink) ranged from 3 of 20 panelists for the least irritating BW to 10 of 20 panelists for the most irritating BW tested. The relative ranking of eye irritation potential of the 5 BWs in the BCOP assay compares favorably with the relative ranking of the BWs in the human eye sting test. Based on these findings, the permeability endpoint of the BCOP assay, as described for surfactant-based formulations, showed promise as a prediction model for relative ranking of conjunctival erythema responses in the human eye. Consequently, screening of prototype formulations in the BCOP assay would allow for formula optimization of mild bath products prior to investment in a human eye sting test.

  11. Evaluation of home collection performed by a human milk bank in a university hospital in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glória Menezes

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Evaluation of procedures during household milking and transport of human milk associated with their quality control. Materials and methods. 48 donors registered in the Human Milk Bank of the Clinics Hospital of the Federal University at Uberlândia. Observations were made during home visits. A checklist was elaborated according to the technical standards for human milk banks, been associated with  physical-chemical, and microbiological controls. The chi-square test, logistic regression and Spearman test (p menor que 0.05 were used for data analysis. Results. The results suggest that most donors assimilated the guidelines of the milk bank staff and procedures were satisfactorily performed. Conclusion. It could be demonstrated that milking and home collection are safe and effective ways for obtaining donated human milk.

  12. Human ResourceManagement Practices and Employee Performance in Banking Sector of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdus Salam Sarker

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the first growing banking sector like Bangladesh, there are 56 banks offered financial services with different stratagem and always looking for faster growth through employee performance by all means. Performance assessment is highly important while achieving the goals of the organization and determining the individual contributions to the organization. The purpose is to measure the effect of human resource (HR practices on the employee performance in banking sector of Bangladesh. The research has performed through a sample survey on convenience sampling based data set about 328 different levels of employees from the banks in different locations of Bangladesh. A structured questionnaire was used to collect primary data related to some HR issues namely- institutional Commitment and motivation, Employee relations, Compensation, Physical Work Environment, Training & Development, Promotion, Job Satisfaction (independent variables and the employee performance (dependent variable of the designed banks. The study revealed that all the HR practices except compensation and training & development have significant impact on the employee performance in the banking industry of Bangladesh. The findings of study provide a clear guidance to the banking practitioners/policy makers to take further steps in achieving the organizational goal through the employee performance.

  13. Composition and Variation of Macronutrients, Immune Proteins, and Human Milk Oligosaccharides in Human Milk From Nonprofit and Commercial Milk Banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith-Dennis, Laura; Xu, Gege; Goonatilleke, Elisha; Lebrilla, Carlito B; Underwood, Mark A; Smilowitz, Jennifer T

    2017-06-01

    When human milk is unavailable, banked milk is recommended for feeding premature infants. Milk banks use processes to eliminate pathogens; however, variability among methods exists. Research aim: The aim of this study was to compare the macronutrient (protein, carbohydrate, fat, energy), immune-protective protein, and human milk oligosaccharide (HMO) content of human milk from three independent milk banks that use pasteurization (Holder vs. vat techniques) or retort sterilization. Randomly acquired human milk samples from three different milk banks ( n = 3 from each bank) were analyzed for macronutrient concentrations using a Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy human milk analyzer. The concentrations of IgA, IgM, IgG, lactoferrin, lysozyme, α-lactalbumin, α antitrypsin, casein, and HMO were analyzed by mass spectrometry. The concentrations of protein and fat were significantly ( p milk samples that had undergone retort sterilization had significantly less immune-protective proteins and total and specific HMOs compared with samples that had undergone Holder and vat pasteurization. These data suggest that further analysis of the effect of retort sterilization on human milk components is needed prior to widespread adoption of this process.

  14. Digital quantification of human eye color highlights genetic association of three new loci.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Liu (Fan); A. Wollstein (Andreas); P.G. Hysi (Pirro); G.A. Ankra-Badu (Georgina); T.D. Spector (Timothy); D.J. Park (Daniel); G. Zhu; M. Larsson (Mats); D.L. Duffy (David); G.W. Montgomery (Grant); D.A. Mackey (David); S. Walsh (Susan); O. Lao Grueso (Oscar); A. Hofman (Albert); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); J.R. Vingerling (Hans); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); N.G. Martin (Nicholas); C.J. Hammond (Christopher); M.H. Kayser (Manfred)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractPrevious studies have successfully identified genetic variants in several genes associated with human iris (eye) color; however, they all used simplified categorical trait information. Here, we quantified continuous eye color variation into hue and saturation values using high-resolution

  15. Measurement of the mechanical stiffness in cyclotorsion of the human eye

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J. Simonsz (Huib)

    1984-01-01

    textabstractWe have measured the stiffness in cyclotorsion of the human eye using a scleral suction contact ring mounted on a shaft fitted with an eddy current motor to provide the torque to turn the eye and a shaft-position-encoder to register the torsion. The relation proved to be almost linear wi

  16. High-speed adaptive optics line scan confocal retinal imaging for human eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jing; Gu, Boyu; Wang, Xiaolin; Zhang, Yuhua

    2017-01-01

    Continuous and rapid eye movement causes significant intraframe distortion in adaptive optics high resolution retinal imaging. To minimize this artifact, we developed a high speed adaptive optics line scan confocal retinal imaging system. A high speed line camera was employed to acquire retinal image and custom adaptive optics was developed to compensate the wave aberration of the human eye's optics. The spatial resolution and signal to noise ratio were assessed in model eye and in living human eye. The improvement of imaging fidelity was estimated by reduction of intra-frame distortion of retinal images acquired in the living human eyes with frame rates at 30 frames/second (FPS), 100 FPS, and 200 FPS. The device produced retinal image with cellular level resolution at 200 FPS with a digitization of 512×512 pixels/frame in the living human eye. Cone photoreceptors in the central fovea and rod photoreceptors near the fovea were resolved in three human subjects in normal chorioretinal health. Compared with retinal images acquired at 30 FPS, the intra-frame distortion in images taken at 200 FPS was reduced by 50.9% to 79.7%. We demonstrated the feasibility of acquiring high resolution retinal images in the living human eye at a speed that minimizes retinal motion artifact. This device may facilitate research involving subjects with nystagmus or unsteady fixation due to central vision loss.

  17. EyeFrame: Real-time memory aid improves human multitasking via domain-general eye tracking procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. eTaylor

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We developed an extensively general closed-loop system to improve human interaction in various multitasking scenarios, with semi-autonomous agents, processes, and robots. BACKGROUND: Much technology is converging toward semi-independent processes with intermittent human supervision distributed over multiple computerized agents. Human operators multitask notoriously poorly, in part due to cognitive load and limited working memory. To multitask optimally, users must remember task order, e.g., the most neglected task, since longer times not monitoring an element indicates greater probability of need for user input. The secondary task of monitoring attention history over multiple spatial tasks requires similar cognitive resources as primary tasks themselves. Humans can not reliably make more than ~2 decisions/s. METHODS: Participants managed a range of 4-10 semi-autonomous agents performing rescue tasks. To optimize monitoring and controlling multiple agents, we created an automated short term memory aid, providing visual cues from users' gaze history. Cues indicated when and where to look next, and were derived from an inverse of eye fixation recency. RESULTS: Contingent eye tracking algorithms drastically improved operator performance, increasing multitasking capacity. The gaze aid reduced biases, and reduced cognitive load, measured by smaller pupil dilation. CONCLUSIONS: Our eye aid likely helped by delegating short-term memory to the computer, and by reducing decision making load. Past studies used eye position for gaze-aware control and interactive updating of displays in application-specific scenarios, but ours is the first to successfully implement domain-general algorithms. Procedures should generalize well to: process control, factory operations, robot control, surveillance, aviation, air traffic control, driving, military, mobile search and rescue, and many tasks where probability of utility is predicted by duration since last

  18. Imaging shear stress distribution and evaluating the stress concentration factor of the human eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph Antony, S.

    2015-03-01

    Healthy eyes are vital for a better quality of human life. Historically, for man-made materials, scientists and engineers use stress concentration factors to characterise the effects of structural non-homogeneities on their mechanical strength. However, such information is scarce for the human eye. Here we present the shear stress distribution profiles of a healthy human cornea surface in vivo using photo-stress analysis tomography, which is a non-intrusive and non-X-ray based method. The corneal birefringent retardation measured here is comparable to that of previous studies. Using this, we derive eye stress concentration factors and the directional alignment of major principal stress on the surface of the cornea. Similar to thermometers being used for monitoring the general health in humans, this report provides a foundation to characterise the shear stress carrying capacity of the cornea, and a potential bench mark for validating theoretical modelling of stresses in the human eye in future.

  19. Sodium and potassium changes in blood bank stored human erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallas, C H

    1979-01-01

    Storage of red cells for three weeks at 4 C under blood bank conditions resulted in a rise in intracellular Na+ and a fall in intracellular K+ with concomitant opposite changes in Na+ and K+ levels in the suspending plasma. A decline in red blood cell ATP during the storage period did not appear to be contributing to the changes. Increasing red blood cell ATP to levels 2 to 3 times normal did not prevent the cation changes from occurring. When assayed at 37 C in the presence of added Mg++, ouabain-sensitive membrane ATPase activity and kinetics of activation by Na+ were unaffected by the three week period of cold storage. However, when assayed at 4 C without added Mg++, simulating the conditions of storage, ATPase activity was negligible. Sodium and potassium did not change when red blood cells with normal ATP content were stored at 20 to 24 C even in the absence of added Mg++. Thus, a major cause for the development of cation changes in the red blood cell during blood bank storage in the temperature which inhibits membrane ATPase, allowing cations to leak unopposed into and out of the red blood cells.

  20. Efficient Avoidance of the Penalty Zone in Human Eye Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theeuwes, Jan

    2016-01-01

    People use eye movements extremely effectively to find objects of interest in a cluttered visual scene. Distracting, task-irrelevant attention capturing regions in the visual field should be avoided as they jeopardize the efficiency of search. In the current study, we used eye tracking to determine whether people are able to avoid making saccades to a predetermined visual area associated with a financial penalty, while making fast and accurate saccades towards stimuli placed near the penalty area. We found that in comparison to the same task without a penalty area, the introduction of a penalty area immediately affected eye movement behaviour: the proportion of saccades to the penalty area was immediately reduced. Also, saccadic latencies increased, but quite modestly, and mainly for saccades towards stimuli near the penalty area. We conclude that eye movement behaviour is under efficient cognitive control and thus quite flexible: it can immediately be adapted to changing environmental conditions to improve reward outcome. PMID:27930724

  1. A longitudinal study of human milk composition in the second year postpartum: implications for human milk banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Maryanne T; Fogleman, April D; Newburg, David S; Allen, Jonathan C

    2017-01-01

    While the composition of human milk has been studied extensively in the first year of lactation, there is a paucity of data regarding human milk composition beyond one year postpartum. Policies vary at milk banks around the world regarding how long lactating women are eligible to donate their milk. The primary purpose of this study is to describe longitudinal changes in human milk composition in the second year postpartum to support the development of evidence based guidelines regarding how long lactating women can donate human milk to a milk bank. Nineteen lactating women in North Carolina provided monthly milk samples from 11 months to 17 months postpartum (N = 131), and two non-profit milk banks provided (N = 33) pooled, unpasteurized milk samples from 51 approved donors less than one year postpartum. There was a significant increase (P milk between 11 and 17 months postpartum, while zinc and calcium concentrations declined, and no changes were observed in lactose, fat, iron and potassium. Human milk in the second year postpartum contained significantly higher concentrations of total protein, lactoferrin, lysozyme and Immunoglobulin A, than milk bank samples, and significantly lower concentrations of zinc, calcium, iron and oligosaccharides. Accepting milk bank donations beyond one year postpartum is a potential strategy for increasing the supply of donor milk, but may require mineral fortification.

  2. Preparation of pre-cut corneas from fresh donated whole globes for Descemet's stripping automated keratoplasty: 3-year results at the Central Eye Bank of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanavi, Mozhgan Rezaei; Javadi, Mohammad Ali; Javadi, Fatemeh; Chamani, Tahereh

    2014-09-01

    To describe the technique and the results of the preparation of pre-cut corneas for Descemet's stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) during a 3-year period at the Central Eye Bank of Iran (CEBI). The method of preparation of pre-cut corneas from donated whole globes at the CEBI is described and the frequency and percentage of pre-cut corneas prepared for DSAEK, between April 2009 and March 2012, are specified. Moreover, post-operative reports are reviewed for any complaints about using pre-cut tissues for DSAEK. Out of the 1,518 donated whole globes appropriate for DSAEK, 1,478 (97.4 %) pre-cut corneas were successfully prepared. The method of preparation failed in 40 (2.6 %) cases. Based on the eye bank post-operative reports, thickness of pre-cut tissues for DSAEK was deemed unacceptable in only 6 (0.4 %) cases prior to surgery; five of these were too thick and one was too thin. Preparation of pre-cut corneas, for DSAEK from donated whole globes, in the CEBI is a safe and easy method, with very good preservation of endothelial cells after the preparation of the pre-cut corneas and reduced risks from corneal manipulation.

  3. Demographic Characteristics of Voluntary Donors Registered in Beijing Tongren Hospital Eye Bank of China: A Retrospective Study From 2007 to 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Zhang, Y N; Liu, Y; Zhang, J; Li, A P; Liang, Q F; Pan, Z Q

    2017-10-01

    Lack of willingness to pledge eyes among the general population is the main cause for the shortage of cornea tissue in China. A few studies have implied that general-population adults with specific demographics showed more willingness to donate their eyes. In this study, we analyzed the demographic characteristics of 918 voluntary donors registered in Beijing Tongren Hospital Eye Bank in the past 10 years for possible predictors that might help us to identify potential donors in Beijing and increase the donation rate. All copies of voluntary eye donation application forms filled by the registrants from 2007 to 2016 were collected. Basic demographics listed in the application form were extracted for analysis. Demographics were described as proportions and compared by means of a χ(2) test. Besides that, donor counts and proportions of combining 2 demographics from the 4 main demographics were described and compared. Voluntary donors greater than 50 years of age (n = 477, 53.0%) predominated the proportions. Regarding education level and occupation, donors with tertiary education (n = 484, 57.4%) were more numerous than donors with primary and secondary education (n = 355, 42.1%); office clerks, workers, and government officers were more willing to pledge eyes than were donors engaged in other occupations. In addition, donors of the Han race (n = 856, 94.9%) made up the majority and mainly were distributed in 5 central administrative districts of Beijing (n = 629, 77.5%). The present study suggests that older women (>50 years of age), living in a central district, with higher education level and engaged in white-collar work, were possible predictors for potential donors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. NMR Spectroscopy of Human Eye Tissues: A New Insight into Ocular Biochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Kryczka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The human eye is a complex organ whose anatomy and functions has been described very well to date. Unfortunately, the knowledge of the biochemistry and metabolic properties of eye tissues varies. Our objective was to reveal the biochemical differences between main tissue components of human eyes. Methods. Corneas, irises, ciliary bodies, lenses, and retinas were obtained from cadaver globes 0-1/2 hours postmortem of 6 male donors (age: 44–61 years. The metabolic profile of tissues was investigated with HR MAS 1H NMR spectroscopy. Results. A total of 29 metabolites were assigned in the NMR spectra of the eye tissues. Significant differences between tissues were revealed in contents of the most distant eye-tissues, while irises and ciliary bodies showed minimal biochemical differences. ATP, acetate, choline, glutamate, lactate, myoinositol, and taurine were identified as the primary biochemical compounds responsible for differentiation of the eye tissues. Conclusions. In this study we showed for the first time the results of the analysis of the main human eye tissues with NMR spectroscopy. The biochemical contents of the selected tissues seemed to correspond to their primary anatomical and functional attributes, the way of the delivery of the nutrients, and the location of the tissues in the eye.

  5. Human milk banks – The benefits and issues in an Islamic setting

    OpenAIRE

    Ramli, Noraida; Ibrahim, Nor Roshidah; Hans, Van Rostenberghe

    2013-01-01

      Abstract. The benefits of human milk for both infants and mothers have been well established. Especially preterm infants benefit from breast milk. However barriers to breast milk expression in mothers with preterm babies result in a relatively low availability of human milk for these particularly vulnerable infants. To overcome this problem, human milk banks have been established in many parts of the world. The Muslim countries have been not participating in these milk sharing activities fo...

  6. Simple, inexpensive technique for high-quality smartphone fundus photography in human and animal eyes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Haddock, Luis J; Kim, David Y; Mukai, Shizuo

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. We describe in detail a relatively simple technique of fundus photography in human and rabbit eyes using a smartphone, an inexpensive app for the smartphone, and instruments that are readily...

  7. Simple, Inexpensive Technique for High-Quality Smartphone Fundus Photography in Human and Animal Eyes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Haddock, Luis J; Kim, David Y; Mukai, Shizuo

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. We describe in detail a relatively simple technique of fundus photography in human and rabbit eyes using a smartphone, an inexpensive app for the smartphone, and instruments that are readily...

  8. The importance of ethic in the field of human tissue banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales Pedraza, Jorge; Herson, Marisa Roma

    2012-03-01

    A tissue bank is accountable before the community in fulfilling the expectations of tissue donors, their families and recipients. The expected output from the altruistic donation is that safe and high quality human tissue grafts will be provided for the medical treatment of patients. Thus, undertakings of tissue banks have to be not only authorised and audited by national competent health care authorities, but also comply with a strong ethical code, a code of practices and ethical principles. Ethical practice in the field of tissue banking requires the setting of principles, the identification of possible deviations and the establishment of mechanisms that will detect and hinder abuses that may occur during the procurement, processing and distribution of human tissues for transplantation. The opinions and suggestions manifested by the authors in this paper may not be necessarily a reflection of those within the institutions or community they are linked to.

  9. Feeding premature infants banked human milk homogenized by ultrasonic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayol, M R; Martinez, F E; Jorge, S M; Gonçalves, A L; Desai, I D

    1993-12-01

    Premature neonates fed ultrasonically homogenized human milk had better weight gain and triceps skin-fold thickness than did a control group given untreated human milk (p homogenization of human milk appears to minimize loss of fat and thus allows better growth of premature infants.

  10. Pharmacokinetics of bevacizumab after topical and intravitreal administration in human eyes

    OpenAIRE

    Moisseiev, Elad; Waisbourd, Michael; Ben-Artsi, Elad; Levinger, Eliya; Barak, Adiel; Daniels, Tad; Csaky, Karl; Loewenstein, Anat; Barequet, Irina S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Topical bevacizumab is a potential treatment modality for corneal neovascularization, and several recent studies have demonstrated its efficacy. No previous study of the pharmacokinetics of topical bevacizumab has been performed in human eyes. The purpose of this study is to investigate the pharmacokinetics of topical administration of bevacizumab in human eyes, and also to compare the pharmacokinetics of intravitreal bevacizumab injections with previously reported data. Methods Tw...

  11. Dating the time of birth: a radiocarbon calibration curve for human eye lens crystallines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Henrik; Heinemeier, Jan; Heegaard, Steffen

    2010-01-01

    Radiocarbon bomb-pulse dating has been used to measure the formation age of human eye-lens crystallines. Lens crystallines are special proteins in the eye-lens that consist of virtually inert tissue. The experimental data show that the radiocarbon ages to a large extent reflect the time of birth......, in accordance with expectations. Moreover, it has been possible to develop an age model for the formation of the eye-lens crystallines. From this model a radiocarbon calibration curve for lens crystallines has been calculated. As a consequence, the time of birth of humans can be determined with an accuracy...

  12. Measuring Human Performance in Simulated Nuclear Power Plant Control Rooms Using Eye Tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovesdi, Casey Robert [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rice, Brandon Charles [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bower, Gordon Ross [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Spielman, Zachary Alexander [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hill, Rachael Ann [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); LeBlanc, Katya Lee [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Control room modernization will be an important part of life extension for the existing light water reactor fleet. As part of modernization efforts, personnel will need to gain a full understanding of how control room technologies affect performance of human operators. Recent advances in technology enables the use of eye tracking technology to continuously measure an operator’s eye movement, which correlates with a variety of human performance constructs such as situation awareness and workload. This report describes eye tracking metrics in the context of how they will be used in nuclear power plant control room simulator studies.

  13. A study on the effects of productivity of human resources in banking network and work ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Vazifeh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Today, human resources are considered as the most important assets of any organization. Generally, human being has specific ethical features on personality characteristics forming the attitude, speech and behavior. It is possible that some factors create different attitudes, speech and behavior among people who are in one particular position. These human characteristics influence the efficiency and effectiveness of organization. The present study aims to investigate the relationship between work ethics and human resources productivity in banking network of city of Zahedan, Iran. The study chooses a sample of 236 employees who worked for different banks in city of Zahedan, Iran in 2013. To analyze the data, Pearson correlation test, Friedman ranking and independent t-test were used. The results show that there was a significant association between work ethics components and productivity (efficiency and effectiveness of human resources.

  14. High-speed adaptive optics line scan confocal retinal imaging for human eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaolin; Zhang, Yuhua

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Continuous and rapid eye movement causes significant intraframe distortion in adaptive optics high resolution retinal imaging. To minimize this artifact, we developed a high speed adaptive optics line scan confocal retinal imaging system. Methods A high speed line camera was employed to acquire retinal image and custom adaptive optics was developed to compensate the wave aberration of the human eye’s optics. The spatial resolution and signal to noise ratio were assessed in model eye and in living human eye. The improvement of imaging fidelity was estimated by reduction of intra-frame distortion of retinal images acquired in the living human eyes with frame rates at 30 frames/second (FPS), 100 FPS, and 200 FPS. Results The device produced retinal image with cellular level resolution at 200 FPS with a digitization of 512×512 pixels/frame in the living human eye. Cone photoreceptors in the central fovea and rod photoreceptors near the fovea were resolved in three human subjects in normal chorioretinal health. Compared with retinal images acquired at 30 FPS, the intra-frame distortion in images taken at 200 FPS was reduced by 50.9% to 79.7%. Conclusions We demonstrated the feasibility of acquiring high resolution retinal images in the living human eye at a speed that minimizes retinal motion artifact. This device may facilitate research involving subjects with nystagmus or unsteady fixation due to central vision loss. PMID:28257458

  15. Nonlinear solution for radiation boundary condition of heat transfer process in human eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, A; Moradi, A; Dehghani, M; Ahani, A

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we propose a new method based on finite element method for solving radiation boundary condition of heat equation inside the human eye and other applications. Using this method, we can solve heat equation inside human eye without need to model radiation boundary condition to a robin boundary condition. Using finite element method we can obtain a nonlinear equation, and finally we use nonlinear algorithm to solve it. The human eye is modeled as a composition of several homogeneous regions. The Ritz method in the finite element method is used for solving heat differential equation. Applying the boundary conditions, the heat radiation condition and the robin condition on the cornea surface of the eye and on the outer part of sclera are used, respectively. Simulation results of solving nonlinear boundary condition show the accuracy of the proposed method.

  16. Concept of a human eye camera to assess laser dazzling interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koerber, Michael; Eberle, Bernd

    2016-10-01

    The increase in availability and application of various laser sources poses an increasing threat to the human eye. Not only the actual damage dealt to the retina or other parts of the eye, but also dazzling during critical tasks has to be faced. However, experiments to verify the actual threat due to dazzling are quite critical, as it is almost never possible or even reasonable, to dazzle human observers. Based on this dilemma, we propose to construct a camera that mimics the perception of laser dazzle by the human eye as close as possible. The human eye camera consists of hardware and a software component, which perform the several tasks of the eye. The hardware controls the eye-movement (saccadic viewing), the adaption of the iris (irradiance control) and the projection of the image onto a sensor. The software receives the image taken by the sensor and includes the density of receptors, the retinal neural operations and a feedback to the hardware. The processed images by the virtual retina are meant to be used to evaluate the degree of dazzling, as it would occur to a human observer.

  17. Excelência em bancos de leite humano: uma visão do futuro--the First International Congress on Human Milk Banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, M R

    2001-02-01

    The first International Congress of Human Milk Banks--Excellence in Human Milk Banking: A Vision of the Future, held in Brazil in June 2000 and sponsored by the Brazilian Association of Milk Banks, had representation from milk banks in Argentina, Chile, Costa Rica, Venezuela, France, the United Kingdom, and North America as well as Brazil. A recurring theme in the discussion of donor milk banking was the role of each country's milk banks in the promotion and support of breastfeeding. The Brazilian National Reference Milk Bank and the growth of donor milk banking in Brazil over the past 15 years were described, including federal regulation that all milk bank directors be trained and certified. Milk banking systems in France, the United Kingdom, Venezuela and the Caribbean, and North America were also discussed. Similarities and differences in the donor screening process and the regulation of milk banks in the countries is presented.

  18. The Experience of Human Milk Banking for 8 Years: Korean Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hye Lim; Cho, Jung Yoon; Kim, Mi Jin; Kim, Eun Jeong; Park, Eun Young; Park, Sung Ae; Kim, In Young; Choi, Yong Sung; Bae, Chong Woo; Chung, Sung Hoon

    2016-11-01

    Human milk banks are a solution for mothers who cannot supply their own breast milk to their sick or hospitalized infants; premature infants, in particular, are unable to receive a full volume of breast milk for numerous reasons. As of December 2015, there was only one milk bank in a university hospital in Korea. We reviewed the basic characteristics of donors and recipients, and the amounts and contamination of breast milk donated at the Human Milk Bank in Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong in Korea from 2008 to 2015. The donor pool consisted of 463 first-time donors and 452 repeat donors who made 1,724 donations. A total of 10,820 L of breast milk was collected, and 9,541.6 L were processed. Detectable bacteria grew in 12.6% after pasteurization and 52.5% had cytomegalovirus DNA before pasteurization in donated milk. There were 836 infant and 25 adult recipients; among new infant recipients, 48.5% were preterm; the groups received 8,009 and 165.7 L of donor milk, respectively. There was an increase in the percentage of preterm infants among new infant recipients in 2015 (93.1%) compared to 2008 (8.5%). Based on the number of premature infants in Korea, the number of potential recipients is not likely to diminish anytime soon, despite efforts to improve the breastfeeding rate. Sustainability and quality improvement of the milk bank need long-term financial support by health authorities and a nationwide network similar to blood banking will further contribute to the progress of milk banking.

  19. The expression of Mas-receptor of the renin-angiotensin system in the human eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaajanen, A; Kalesnykas, G; Vapaatalo, H; Uusitalo, H

    2015-07-01

    The local renin-angiotensin system has been held to be expressed in many organs, including the eye. It has an important role in the regulation of local fluid homeostasis, cell proliferation, fibrosis, and vascular tone. Mas-receptor (Mas-R) is a potential receptor acting mainly opposite to the well-known angiotensin II receptor type 1. The aim of this study was to determine if Mas-R is expressed in the human eye. Seven enucleated human eyes were used in immunohistochemical detection of Mas-R and its endogenous ligand angiotensin (1-7) [Ang(1-7)]. Both light microscopy and immunofluorescent detection methods were used. A human kidney preparation sample was used as control. The Mas-R was found to have nuclear localization, and localized in the retinal nuclear layers and in the structures of the anterior segment of the eye. A cytoplasmic immunostaining pattern of Ang(1-7) was found in the inner and outer nuclear and plexiform layers of the retina and in the ciliary body. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report showing Mas-R expression in the human eye. Its localization suggests that it may have a role in physiological and pathological processes in the anterior part of the eye and in the retina.

  20. Research of the Exploitation of Human Resources in Blind Prevention and Primary Eye Care

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JingxianWei; YonglongZhao

    1995-01-01

    Purpose:This research studied how to establish a relatively advanced blindness prevention and eye care cause in economically underdeveloped countryside.Methods:Ophthalmic vocational schools and professional lectures were held to train“practical type”primary eye care workers for the coumtryside.Further study in high-level(above provincial)hospitals was taken to train blindness preention &eye care backbones and leaders.Results:In 1986,the ratio of the number of the eye care workers of all levels to the number of the whole population in the prefecture was1:26000.In1992,it roseto1:17000.Aneye care network of 222stations had been established in tb countryside.Ten in the 13county hospitals had a seperated ophthalmology ed- partment,in which 3were awarded“National advanced blindness prevention County”.Twenty one hospitals were appointed as the Unit of Surgical Vision-Rehabilitation of Cataract.Blindness prevention and eye care convered1000000population(eye care avaliable within 5kilometers),23.5%of the whol popula-tion.Conclusions:In a demographically large but economically underdexeloped country-side area,the key to wide-range blindness prevention and eye oare is to exploti human resources effectively.We should train“Practical type”primary eye care workers,and have a number of edpartment leaders who are authoritive,influential in this field and ready to sacrifice to this cause.

  1. Effect of tissue and atmosphere's parameters on human eye temperature distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firoozan, Mohammad Sadegh; Porkhial, Soheil; Nejad, Ali Salmani

    2015-01-01

    A three dimensional finite element method analysis was employed to investigate the effect of tissue and atmosphere parameters namely, ambient temperature, ambient convection coefficient, local blood temperature, and blood convection coefficient upon temperature distribution of human eyes. As a matter of simplification, only eye ball and skull bone are considered as the system of eye modeling. Decreasing the local blood temperature and keeping it cool is one of the most important ways to control bleeding during surgeries. By lower temperature of body organs such as the eye, the need for oxygenated blood is reduced, allowing for an extension in time for surgery. With this in mind, this study is done to see which one of parameters, such as ambient temperature, ambient convection coefficient, local blood temperature, and blood convection coefficient, has an effective role in decreasing the temperature of the eye. To this end, 3 different paths were employed to find out about the temperature distribution through the eye. The analysis of the three paths demonstrates the interaction of ambient and blood temperature in modeling temperature changes in specific locations of the eye. These data will be important in applications such as eye surgery, relaxation, and sleep therapy.

  2. Activation of neural progenitor cells in human eyes with proliferative vitreoretinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsen, Erik O; Frøen, Rebecca C; Albert, Réka; Omdal, Bente K; Sarang, Zsolt; Berta, András; Nicolaissen, Bjørn; Petrovski, Goran; Moe, Morten C

    2012-05-01

    In addition to the ability for self-renewal and functional differentiation, neural stem/progenitor cells (NSCs) can respond to CNS injuries by targeted migration. In lower vertebrates, retinal injury is known to activate NSCs in the ciliary marginal zone (CMZ). Cells expressing markers of NSCs are also present in the ciliary body epithelium (CE) and in Müller glia in the peripheral retina (PR) of the adult human eye. However, these cells seem to be quiescent in the adult human eye and recent reports have shown that CE cells have limited properties of NSCs. In order to further clarify whether NSCs exist in the adult human eye, we tested whether NSC-like cells could be activated in eyes with proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). The PR and CE were studied for NSC-associated markers in human enucleated control eyes and eyes with confirmed PVR, as well as in a mouse model of PVR. Furthermore, cells isolated from vitreous samples obtained during vitrectomies for retinal detachment were directly fixed or cultured in a stem cell-promoting medium and compared to cells cultured from the post-mortem retina and CE. In situ characterization of the normal eyes revealed robust expression of markers present in NSCs (Nestin, Sox2, Pax6) only around peripheral cysts of the proximal pars plana region and the PR, the latter population also staining for the glial marker GFAP. Although there were higher numbers of dividing cells in the CE of PVR eyes than in controls, we did not detect NSC-associated markers in the CE except around the proximal pars plana cysts. In the mice PVR eyes, Nestin activation was also found in the CE. In human PVR eyes, proliferation of both non-glial and glial cells co-staining NSC-associated markers was evident around the ora serrata region. Spheres formed in 7/10 vitreous samples from patients with PVR compared to 2/15 samples from patients with no known PVR, and expressed glial - and NSC-associated markers both after direct fixation and repetitive

  3. Early visual evoked potentials are modulated by eye position in humans induced by whole body rotations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petit Laurent

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To reach and grasp an object in space on the basis of its image cast on the retina requires different coordinate transformations that take into account gaze and limb positioning. Eye position in the orbit influences the image's conversion from retinotopic (eye-centered coordinates to an egocentric frame necessary for guiding action. Neuroimaging studies have revealed eye position-dependent activity in extrastriate visual, parietal and frontal areas that is along the visuo-motor pathway. At the earliest vision stage, the role of the primary visual area (V1 in this process remains unclear. We used an experimental design based on pattern-onset visual evoked potentials (VEP recordings to study the effect of eye position on V1 activity in humans. Results We showed that the amplitude of the initial C1 component of VEP, acknowledged to originate in V1, was modulated by the eye position. We also established that putative spontaneous small saccades related to eccentric fixation, as well as retinal disparity cannot explain the effects of changing C1 amplitude of VEP in the present study. Conclusions The present modulation of the early component of VEP suggests an eye position-dependent activity of the human primary visual area. Our findings also evidence that cortical processes combine information about the position of the stimulus on the retinae with information about the location of the eyes in their orbit as early as the stage of primary visual area.

  4. The Human Eye Position Control System in a Rehabilitation Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Nolan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Our work at Ireland’s National Rehabilitation Hospital involves designing communication systems for people suffering from profound physical disabilities. One such system uses the electro-oculogram, which is an (x,y system of voltages picked up by pairs of electrodes placed, respectively, above and below and on either side of the eyes. The eyeball has a dc polarisation between cornea and back, arising from the photoreceptor rods and cones in the retina. As the eye rotates, the varying voltages projected onto the electrodes drive a cursor over a mimic keyboard on a computer screen. Symbols are selected with a switching action derived, for example, from a blink. Experience in using this mode of communication has given us limited facilities to study the eye position control system. We present here a resulting new feedback model for rotation in either the vertical or the horizontal plane, which involves the eyeball controlled by an agonist-antagonist muscle pair, modelled by a single equivalent bidirectional muscle with torque falling off linearly with angular velocity. We have incorporated muscle spindles and have tuned them by pole assignment associated with an optimum stability criterion.

  5. Human finger-prick induced pluripotent stem cells facilitate the development of stem cell banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hong-Kee; Toh, Cheng-Xu Delon; Ma, Dongrui; Yang, Binxia; Liu, Tong Ming; Lu, Jun; Wong, Chee-Wai; Tan, Tze-Kai; Li, Hu; Syn, Christopher; Tan, Eng-Lee; Lim, Bing; Lim, Yoon-Pin; Cook, Stuart A; Loh, Yuin-Han

    2014-05-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from somatic cells of patients can be a good model for studying human diseases and for future therapeutic regenerative medicine. Current initiatives to establish human iPSC (hiPSC) banking face challenges in recruiting large numbers of donors with diverse diseased, genetic, and phenotypic representations. In this study, we describe the efficient derivation of transgene-free hiPSCs from human finger-prick blood. Finger-prick sample collection can be performed on a "do-it-yourself" basis by donors and sent to the hiPSC facility for reprogramming. We show that single-drop volumes of finger-prick samples are sufficient for performing cellular reprogramming, DNA sequencing, and blood serotyping in parallel. Our novel strategy has the potential to facilitate the development of large-scale hiPSC banking worldwide.

  6. Elastic modulus of orbicularis oculi muscle in normal humans, humans with Graves' eye disease, and cynomolgus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oestreicher, J H; Frueh, B R

    1995-06-01

    We built an experimental apparatus to investigate the passive elastic characteristics of orbicularis oculi muscle and examined specimens from normal humans, humans with stable Graves' eye disease, and cynomolgus monkeys. Stress-strain curves were determined and found to be exponential. The elastic modulus (Young's modulus), analogous to the stiffness of the material, was calculated as a function of strain. Elastic modulus as a function of instantaneous stress was linear. Monkey elastic modulus values were determined, but did not allow meaningful interspecies comparison because of the small sample size. No significant difference was found between normal humans and humans with Graves' eye disease with respect to elastic modulus values.

  7. To Estimate the Axial Elastic Modulus of Eye and Posterior Wall Thickness in Healthy Human Eye by Ultrasound Images and their Relation with Age and Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Shahbazi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Based on the invasive studies it has been shown that factors such as age, the progress of eye disorders, lens fibers compression and the biochemical changes of ocular matrix alter the physical characteristics and elastic properties of eye. In this study, a noninvasive method of estimating human eye elasticityis proposed and its relation with age and gender is evaluated using ultrasound images. Materials and Methods: To estimate eye elasticity, an especial loading system was designed and an external stress of 2614 ± 146 Pa which is less than the intraocular pressure of eye was applied to 20 eyes in an in vivo study. The pressure was measured using digital force gauge. The ultrasound images of B-mode were acquired prior to and post applying the stress. For the offline study throughout the loading process, the ultrasound images were saved as multi-frames into the computer by video grabber board. Monitoring, saving and further study of images were provided for the extraction of eye axial length and posterior wall thickness (PWT. The elasticity was estimated by measuring the relative changes of the axial length of eye, the posterior wall thickness and the applied stress. The statistical correlation of elastic modulus was analyzed based on age and gender. Results: The elastic modulus of the eye and the posterior wall thickness was estimated to be 51,777 ± 27304 and 14603 ± 4636 Pa, respectively. The obtained results indicated that there was no significant difference between the elastic parameters of the eye and the posterior wall thickness based on gender in both male and female group. The correlation analysis of the elastic parameter showed that there was significant difference between the eye and the posterior wall thickness based on age with a 95% confidence interval. Discussion and Conclusion: Based on the results obtained in this study the ultrasonic instruments might be used to estimate the hardness of eye lesions as well as eye

  8. Proton Dose Assessment to the Human Eye Using Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code (MCNPX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    objective of this project was to develop a simple MCNPX model of the human eye to approximate dose delivered from proton therapy. The calculated dose...computer code MCNPX that approximates dose delivered during proton therapy. The calculations considered proton interactions and secondary interactions...Volume Calculation The MCNPX code has limited ability to compute the volumes of defined cells. The dosimetric volumes in the outer wall of the eye are

  9. Contemporary ethical issues in human milk-banking in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miracle, Donna J; Szucs, Kinga A; Torke, Alexia M; Helft, Paul R

    2011-12-01

    Donor human milk has been used in the United States for >90 years, but recent advances in human milk science and laboratory techniques have led to increasing use of this resource. Pediatricians began using donor human milk in the 1900s in response to anecdotal observation that premature infants had better health outcomes when receiving their own mothers' milk. Since then, a formalized human milk-banking system developed in the mid-1980s and distributed >1 million ounces of pasteurized donor human milk in 2008. Despite growth in the use of pasteurized donor human milk, there is little discussion in the medical literature regarding the ethical considerations of collection and use of this resource. Key ethical considerations include issues surrounding medical decision-making and informed consent, increasing the limited supply of human milk, how ethically to allocate this scarce resource, and concerns linked to the marketing of a human milk.

  10. Human eye analytical and mesh-geometry models for ophthalmic dosimetry using MCNP6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelocci, Lucas V.; Fonseca, Gabriel P.; Yoriyaz, Helio, E-mail: hyoriyaz@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Eye tumors can be treated with brachytherapy using Co-60 plaques, I-125 seeds, among others materials. The human eye has regions particularly vulnerable to ionizing radiation (e.g. crystalline) and dosimetry for this region must be taken carefully. A mathematical model was proposed in the past [1] for the eye anatomy to be used in Monte Carlo simulations to account for dose distribution in ophthalmic brachytherapy. The model includes the description for internal structures of the eye that were not treated in previous works. The aim of this present work was to develop a new eye model based on the Mesh geometries of the MCNP6 code. The methodology utilized the ABAQUS/CAE (Simulia 3DS) software to build the Mesh geometry. For this work, an ophthalmic applicator containing up to 24 model Amersham 6711 I-125 seeds (Oncoseed) was used, positioned in contact with a generic tumor defined analytically inside the eye. The absorbed dose in eye structures like cornea, sclera, choroid, retina, vitreous body, lens, optical nerve and optical nerve wall were calculated using both models: analytical and MESH. (author)

  11. Curvature sensor for the measurement of the static corneal topography and the dynamic tear film topography in the human eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruppetta, Steve; Koechlin, Laurent; Lacombe, François; Puget, Pascal

    2005-10-01

    A system to measure the topography of the first optical surface of the human eye noninvasively by using a curvature sensor is described. The static corneal topography and the dynamic topography of the tear film can both be measured, and the topographies obtained are presented. The system makes possible the study of the dynamic aberrations introduced by the tear film to determine their contribution to the overall ocular aberrations in healthy eyes, eyes with corneal pathologies, and eyes wearing contact lenses.

  12. A Proactive Approach of Robotic Framework for Making Eye Contact with Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Moshiul Hoque

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Making eye contact is a most important prerequisite function of humans to initiate a conversation with others. However, it is not an easy task for a robot to make eye contact with a human if they are not facing each other initially or the human is intensely engaged his/her task. If the robot would like to start communication with a particular person, it should turn its gaze to that person and make eye contact with him/her. However, such a turning action alone is not enough to set up an eye contact phenomenon in all cases. Therefore, the robot should perform some stronger actions in some situations so that it can attract the target person before meeting his/her gaze. In this paper, we proposed a conceptual model of eye contact for social robots consisting of two phases: capturing attention and ensuring the attention capture. Evaluation experiments with human participants reveal the effectiveness of the proposed model in four viewing situations, namely, central field of view, near peripheral field of view, far peripheral field of view, and out of field of view.

  13. Goat′s eye integrated with a human cataractous lens: A training model for phacoemulsification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabyasachi Sengupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A relatively simple and inexpensive technique to train surgeons in phacoemulsification using a goat′s eye integrated with a human cataractous nucleus is described. The goat′s eye is placed on a bed of cotton within the lumen of a cylindrical container. This is then mounted on a rectangular thermocol so that the limbus is presented at the surgical field. After making a clear corneal entry with a keratome, the trainer makes a 5-5.5 mm continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis in the anterior lens capsule, creates a crater of adequate depth in the cortex and inserts the human nucleus within this crater in the goat′s capsular bag. The surgical wound is sutured, and the goat′s eye is ready for training. Creating the capsulorhexis with precision and making the crater of adequate depth to snugly accommodate the human nucleus are the most important steps to prevent excessive wobbling of the nucleus while training.

  14. Optimized Cryopreservation and Banking of Human Bone-Marrow Fragments and Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevale, Gianluca; Pisciotta, Alessandra; Riccio, Massimo; De Biasi, Sara; Gibellini, Lara; Ferrari, Adriano; La Sala, Giovanni B; Bruzzesi, Giacomo; Cossarizza, Andrea; de Pol, Anto

    2016-04-01

    Adult mesenchymal stem cells are a promising source for cell therapies and tissue engineering applications. Current procedures for banking of human bone-marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs) require cell isolation and expansion, and thus the use of large amounts of animal sera. However, animal-derived culture supplements have the potential to trigger infections and severe immune reactions. The aim of this study was to investigate an optimized method for cryopreservation of human bone-marrow fragments for application in cell banking procedures where stem-cell expansion and use are not immediately needed. Whole trabecular fragments enclosing the bone marrow were stored in liquid nitrogen for 1 year in a cryoprotective solution containing a low concentration of dimethyl sulfoxide and a high concentration of human serum (HuS). After thawing, the isolation, colony-forming-unit ability, proliferation, morphology, stemness-related marker expression, cell senescence, apoptosis, and multi-lineage differentiation potential of hBM-MSCs were tested in media containing HuS compared with hBM-MSCs isolated from fresh fragments. Human BM-MSCs isolated from cryopreserved fragments expressed MSC markers until later passages, had a good proliferation rate, and exhibited the capacity to differentiate toward osteogenic, adipogenic, and myogenic lineages similar to hBM-MSCs isolated from fresh fragments. Moreover, the cryopreservation method did not induce cell senescence or cell death. These results imply that minimal processing may be adequate for the banking of tissue samples with no requirement for the immediate isolation and use of hBM-MSCs, thus limiting cost and the risk of contamination, and facilitating banking for clinical use. Furthermore, the use of HuS for cryopreservation and expansion/differentiation has the potential for clinical application in compliance with good manufacturing practice standards.

  15. Representations of women milk donors on donations for the human milk bank

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda,Wanessa Debôrtoli de; Passos,Maria Cristina; Freitas,Maria Imaculada de Fátima; Bonolo,Palmira de Fátima

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Human milk banks (HMBs) have difficulty maintaining and increasing their stocks, and the number of women enrolling as members remains low. The present qualitative study, based on social representation theory, aimed to understand women’s representations of the milk donation experience. The data were collected through semi-structured interviews conducted in 2013. In total, 12 women aged 18 to 39 years old participated in the study. Most were primiparous, married or living with a ...

  16. Identification of lymphatics in the ciliary body of the human eye: a novel "uveolymphatic" outflow pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yücel, Yeni H; Johnston, Miles G; Ly, Tina; Patel, Manoj; Drake, Brian; Gümüş, Ersin; Fraenkl, Stephan A; Moore, Sara; Tobbia, Dalia; Armstrong, Dianna; Horvath, Eva; Gupta, Neeru

    2009-11-01

    Impaired aqueous humor flow from the eye may lead to elevated intraocular pressure and glaucoma. Drainage of aqueous fluid from the eye occurs through established routes that include conventional outflow via the trabecular meshwork, and an unconventional or uveoscleral outflow pathway involving the ciliary body. Based on the assumption that the eye lacks a lymphatic circulation, the possible role of lymphatics in the less well defined uveoscleral pathway has been largely ignored. Advances in lymphatic research have identified specific lymphatic markers such as podoplanin, a transmembrane mucin-type glycoprotein, and lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor-1 (LYVE-1). Lymphatic channels were identified in the human ciliary body using immunofluorescence with D2-40 antibody for podoplanin, and LYVE-1 antibody. In keeping with the criteria for lymphatic vessels in conjunctiva used as positive control, D2-40 and LYVE-1-positive lymphatic channels in the ciliary body had a distinct lumen, were negative for blood vessel endothelial cell marker CD34, and were surrounded by either discontinuous or no collagen IV-positive basement membrane. Cryo-immunogold electron microscopy confirmed the presence D2-40-immunoreactivity in lymphatic endothelium in the human ciliary body. Fluorescent nanospheres injected into the anterior chamber of the sheep eye were detected in LYVE-1-positive channels of the ciliary body 15, 30, and 45 min following injection. Four hours following intracameral injection, Iodine-125 radio-labeled human serum albumin injected into the sheep eye (n = 5) was drained preferentially into cervical, retropharyngeal, submandibular and preauricular lymph nodes in the head and neck region compared to reference popliteal lymph nodes (P human ciliary body, and that fluid and solutes flow at least partially through this system. The discovery of a uveolymphatic pathway in the eye is novel and highly relevant to studies of glaucoma and other eye diseases.

  17. Robot Arm Control and Having Meal Aid System with Eye Based Human-Computer Interaction (HCI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Kohei; Mardiyanto, Ronny

    Robot arm control and having meal aid system with eye based HCI is proposed. The proposed system allows disabled person to select desirable food from the meal tray by their eyes only. Robot arm which is used for retrieving the desirable food is controlled by human eye. At the tip of the robot arm, tiny camera is equipped. Disabled person wear a glass of which a single Head Mount Display: HMD and tiny camera is mounted so that disabled person can take a look at the desired food and retrieve it by looking at the food displayed onto HMD. Experimental results show that disabled person can retrieve the desired food successfully. It also is confirmed that robot arm control by eye based HCI is much faster than that by hands.

  18. Human Resource Management Practices and Employees’ Satisfaction Towards Private Banking Sector in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Tofael Hossain Majumder

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dramatic advances of Information and Communication Technology (ICT, changing mix and personal values of the workforce, emergence of the knowledge economy and increasing global competition have created enormous challenges on organizations. To cope with the challenges efficiently, human resource has been considered as one of the most important factors in today’s hyper-competitive market place. The focus of this study is to gain an insight into the current HRM practices and its impact on employee’s satisfaction on the private banking sector in Bangladesh. For conducting this research, 100 bank employees are selected from the chosen banks and out of this 88 employees responses properly, the response rate is 88 percent. The questionnaire consists of different questions on nine HRM dimensions such as recruitment and selection systems, compensation package, job security, career growth, training and development, management style, job design and responsibilities, reward and motivation and working environment. The questionnaire was developed by using a five point Likert scale. In this study, some statistical measures such as Z-test, mean and proportion analysis is used to examine employee’s satisfaction. The study reveals that all HRM dimensions exercised in the private banking sector of Bangladesh does not satisfied to the employees equally. Most of the employees are dissatisfied with compensation package followed by reward and motivation, career growth, training and development, management style, and job design and responsibilities. So, these HRM dimensions quality should be improved for the betterment of the bank’s success.

  19. Basement membrane abnormalities in human eyes with diabetic retinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljubimov, A V; Burgeson, R E; Butkowski, R J

    1996-01-01

    discontinuously for laminin-1, entactin/nidogen, and alpha3-alpha4 Type IV collagen, in contrast to non-DR corneas. Major BM alterations were found in DR retinas compared to normals and non-DR diabetics. The inner limiting membrane (retinal BM) of DR eyes had accumulations of fibronectin (including cellular......) and Types I, III, IV (alpha1-alpha2), and V collagen. The BM zone of new retinal blood vessels in neovascularized areas accumulated tenascin and Type XII collagen, whereas normal, diabetic, and adjacent DR retinas showed only weak and irregular staining. In preretinal membranes, perlecan, bamacan, and Types...... VI, VIII, XII, and XIV collagen were newly identified. Diabetic BM thickening appears to involve qualitative alterations of specific BM markers at an advanced disease stage, with the appearance of DR....

  20. DISTANCE MEASURING MODELING AND ERROR ANALYSIS OF DUAL CCD VISION SYSTEM SIMULATING HUMAN EYES AND NECK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xuanyin; Xiao Baoping; Pan Feng

    2003-01-01

    A dual-CCD simulating human eyes and neck (DSHEN) vision system is put forward. Its structure and principle are introduced. The DSHEN vision system can perform some movements simulating human eyes and neck by means of four rotating joints, and realize precise object recognizing and distance measuring in all orientations. The mathematic model of the DSHEN vision system is built, and its movement equation is solved. The coordinate error and measure precision affected by the movement parameters are analyzed by means of intersection measuring method. So a theoretic foundation for further research on automatic object recognizing and precise target tracking is provided.

  1. APPLICATION OF EYE TRACKING FOR MEASUREMENT AND EVALUATION IN HUMAN FACTORS STUDIES IN CONTROL ROOM MODERNIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovesdi, C.; Spielman, Z.; LeBlanc, K.; Rice, B.

    2017-05-01

    An important element of human factors engineering (HFE) pertains to measurement and evaluation (M&E). The role of HFE-M&E should be integrated throughout the entire control room modernization (CRM) process and be used for human-system performance evaluation and diagnostic purposes with resolving potential human engineering deficiencies (HEDs) and other human machine interface (HMI) design issues. NUREG-0711 describes how HFE in CRM should employ a hierarchical set of measures, particularly during integrated system validation (ISV), including plant performance, personnel task performance, situation awareness, cognitive workload, and anthropometric/ physiological factors. Historically, subjective measures have been primarily used since they are easier to collect and do not require specialized equipment. However, there are pitfalls with relying solely on subjective measures in M&E such that negatively impact reliability, sensitivity, and objectivity. As part of comprehensively capturing a diverse set of measures that strengthen findings and inferences made of the benefits from emerging technologies like advanced displays, this paper discusses the value of using eye tracking as an objective method that can be used in M&E. A brief description of eye tracking technology and relevant eye tracking measures is provided. Additionally, technical considerations and the unique challenges with using eye tracking in full-scaled simulations are addressed. Finally, this paper shares preliminary findings regarding the use of a wearable eye tracking system in a full-scale simulator study. These findings should help guide future full-scale simulator studies using eye tracking as a methodology to evaluate human-system performance.

  2. An Empirical Research on the Correlation between Human Capital and Career Success: Serbian and Macedonian Banking Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Boskov, Tatjana; Bishev, Gligor; Radjenovic, Zarko; Zezova, Aleksandra

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the impact of human capital on the achievement of career success is essential for each individual in turbulent times on the labor market. Banking sector also is human capital intensive and plays a critical role for the banks in meeting their goals and offering services to its clients. In the current era of technology, globalization and the general progress principles of "knowledge economy" are ruling. So, each individual in the labor market who wants to build own career, shou...

  3. Dose conversion coefficients for neutron exposure to the lens of the human eye

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manger, Ryan P [ORNL; Bellamy, Michael B [ORNL; Eckerman, Keith F [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Dose conversion coefficients for the lens of the human eye have been calculated for neutron exposure at energies from 1 x 10{sup -9} to 20 MeV and several standard orientations: anterior-to-posterior, rotational and right lateral. MCNPX version 2.6.0, a Monte Carlo-based particle transport package, was used to determine the energy deposited in the lens of the eye. The human eyeball model was updated by partitioning the lens into sensitive and insensitive volumes as the anterior portion (sensitive volume) of the lens being more radiosensitive and prone to cataract formation. The updated eye model was used with the adult UF-ORNL mathematical phantom in the MCNPX transport calculations.

  4. The effect of human image in B2C website design: an eye-tracking study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiuzhen; Yang, Yi; Wang, Qi; Ma, Qingguo

    2014-09-01

    On B2C shopping websites, effective visual designs can bring about consumers' positive emotional experience. From this perspective, this article developed a research model to explore the impact of human image as a visual element on consumers' online shopping emotions and subsequent attitudes towards websites. This study conducted an eye-tracking experiment to collect both eye movement data and questionnaire data to test the research model. Questionnaire data analysis showed that product pictures combined with human image induced positive emotions among participants, thus promoting their attitudes towards online shopping websites. Specifically, product pictures with human image first produced higher levels of image appeal and perceived social presence, thus stimulating higher levels of enjoyment and subsequent positive attitudes towards the websites. Moreover, a moderating effect of product type was demonstrated on the relationship between the presence of human image and the level of image appeal. Specifically, human image significantly increased the level of image appeal when integrated in entertainment product pictures while this relationship was not significant in terms of utilitarian products. Eye-tracking data analysis further supported these results and provided plausible explanations. The presence of human image significantly increased the pupil size of participants regardless of product types. For entertainment products, participants paid more attention to product pictures integrated with human image whereas for utilitarian products more attention was paid to functional information of products than to product pictures no matter whether or not integrated with human image.

  5. Mathematical models of the dynamics of the human eye

    CERN Document Server

    Collins, Richard

    1980-01-01

    A rich and abundant literature has developed during the last half century dealing with mechanical aspects of the eye, mainly from clinical and, experimental points of view. For the most part, workers have attempted to shed light on the complex set of conditions known by the general term glaucoma. These conditions are characterised by an increase in intraocular pressure sufficient to cause de­ generation of the optic disc and concomitant defects in the visual field, which, if not controlled, lead to inevitable permanent blindness. In the United States alone, an estimated 50,000 persons are blind as a result of glaucoma, which strikes about 2% of the population over 40 years of age (Vaughan and Asbury, 1974). An understanding of the underlying mechanisms of glaucoma is hindered by the fact that elevated intraocular pressure, like a runny nose, is but a symptom which may have a variety of causes. Only by turning to the initial pathology can one hope to understand this important class of medical problems.

  6. Structural and Biochemical Analyses of Choroidal Thickness in Human Donor Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Elliott H.; Khanna, Aditi; Tucker, Budd A.; Abràmoff, Michael D.; Stone, Edwin M.; Mullins, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. The choroid plays a vital role in the health of the outer retina. While measurements of choroid using optical coherence tomography show altered thickness in aging and macular disease, detailed histopathologic and proteomic analyses are lacking. In this study we sought to evaluate biochemical differences in human donor eyes between very thin and thick choroids. Methods. One hundred forty-one eyes from 104 donors (mean age ± standard deviation, 81.5 ± 12.2) were studied. Macular sections were collected, and the distance between Bruch's membrane and the inner surface of the sclera was measured in control, early/dry age-related macular degeneration (AMD), neovascular AMD, and geographic atrophy eyes. Proteins from the RPE-choroid of eyes with thick and thin choroids were analyzed using two-dimensional electrophoresis and/or mass spectrometry. Two proteins with altered abundance were confirmed using Western blot analysis. Results. Donor eyes showed a normal distribution of thicknesses. Eyes with geographic atrophy had significantly thinner choroids than age-matched controls or early AMD eyes. Proteomic analysis showed higher levels of the serine protease SERPINA3 in thick choroids and increased levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-3 (TIMP3) in thin choroids. Conclusions. Consistent with clinical imaging observations, geographic atrophy was associated with choroidal thinning. Biochemical data suggest an alteration in the balance between proteases and protease inhibitors in eyes that lie at the extremes of choroidal thickness. An improved understanding of the basic mechanisms associated with choroidal thinning may guide the development of new therapies for AMD. PMID:24519422

  7. Importance of non-synonymous OCA2 variants in human eye colour prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jeppe Dyrberg; Pietroni, Carlotta; Johansen, Peter

    2016-01-01

    in the promotor region of OCA2 (OMIM #611409). Nevertheless, many eye colors cannot be explained by only considering rs12913832:A>G. Methods: In this study, we searched for additional variants in OCA2 to explain human eye color by sequencing a 500 kbp region, encompassing OCA2 and its promotor region. Results: We......Background: The color of the eyes is one of the most prominent phenotypes in humans and it is often used to describe the appearance of an individual. The intensity of pigmentation in the iris is strongly associated with one single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs12913832:A>G that is located...... identified three nonsynonymous OCA2 variants as important for eye color, including rs1800407:G>A (p.Arg419Gln) and two variants, rs74653330:A>T (p.Ala481Thr) and rs121918166:G>A (p.Val443Ile), not previously described as important for eye color variation. It was shown that estimated haplotypes consisting...

  8. Controlled delivery of antiangiogenic drug to human eye tissue using a MEMS device

    KAUST Repository

    Pirmoradi, Fatemeh Nazly

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate an implantable MEMS drug delivery device to conduct controlled and on-demand, ex vivo drug transport to human eye tissue. Remotely operated drug delivery to human post-mortem eyes was performed via a MEMS device. The developed curved packaging cover conforms to the eyeball thereby preventing the eye tissue from contacting the actuating membrane. By pulsed operation of the device, using an externally applied magnetic field, the drug released from the device accumulates in a cavity adjacent to the tissue. As such, docetaxel (DTX), an antiangiogenic drug, diffuses through the eye tissue, from sclera and choroid to retina. DTX uptake by sclera and choroid were measured to be 1.93±0.66 and 7.24±0.37 μg/g tissue, respectively, after two hours in pulsed operation mode (10s on/off cycles) at 23°C. During this period, a total amount of 192 ng DTX diffused into the exposed tissue. This MEMS device shows great potential for the treatment of ocular posterior segment diseases such as diabetic retinopathy by introducing a novel way of drug administration to the eye. © 2013 IEEE.

  9. Two eyes, one vision: binocular motion perception in human visual cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barendregt, M.

    2016-01-01

    An important aspect of human vision is the fact that it is binocular, i.e. that we have two eyes. As a result, the brain nearly always receives two slightly different images of the same visual scene. Yet, we only perceive a single image and thus our brain has to actively combine the binocular visual

  10. Two eyes, one vision: binocular motion perception in human visual cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barendregt, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/371576792

    2016-01-01

    An important aspect of human vision is the fact that it is binocular, i.e. that we have two eyes. As a result, the brain nearly always receives two slightly different images of the same visual scene. Yet, we only perceive a single image and thus our brain has to actively combine the binocular visual

  11. Relation between Local Acoustic Parameters and Protein Distribution in Human and Porcine Eye Lenses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korte, de C.L.; Steen, van der A.F.W.; Thijssen, J.M.; Duindam, J.J.; Otto, Cees; Puppels, G.J.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to characterize the eye lens (human, porcine) by acoustic measurements and to investigate whether relations exist with the local protein content. The acoustic measurements were performed with a 'scanning acoustic microscope' (SAM), operating at a frequency of 20 MHz. At

  12. Towards a human eye behavior model by applying Data Mining Techniques on Gaze Information from IEC

    CERN Document Server

    Pallez, Denis; Baccino, Thierry

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we firstly present what is Interactive Evolutionary Computation (IEC) and rapidly how we have combined this artificial intelligence technique with an eye-tracker for visual optimization. Next, in order to correctly parameterize our application, we present results from applying data mining techniques on gaze information coming from experiments conducted on about 80 human individuals.

  13. Social interactions through the eyes of macaques and humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard McFarland

    Full Text Available Group-living primates frequently interact with each other to maintain social bonds as well as to compete for valuable resources. Observing such social interactions between group members provides individuals with essential information (e.g. on the fighting ability or altruistic attitude of group companions to guide their social tactics and choice of social partners. This process requires individuals to selectively attend to the most informative content within a social scene. It is unclear how non-human primates allocate attention to social interactions in different contexts, and whether they share similar patterns of social attention to humans. Here we compared the gaze behaviour of rhesus macaques and humans when free-viewing the same set of naturalistic images. The images contained positive or negative social interactions between two conspecifics of different phylogenetic distance from the observer; i.e. affiliation or aggression exchanged by two humans, rhesus macaques, Barbary macaques, baboons or lions. Monkeys directed a variable amount of gaze at the two conspecific individuals in the images according to their roles in the interaction (i.e. giver or receiver of affiliation/aggression. Their gaze distribution to non-conspecific individuals was systematically varied according to the viewed species and the nature of interactions, suggesting a contribution of both prior experience and innate bias in guiding social attention. Furthermore, the monkeys' gaze behavior was qualitatively similar to that of humans, especially when viewing negative interactions. Detailed analysis revealed that both species directed more gaze at the face than the body region when inspecting individuals, and attended more to the body region in negative than in positive social interactions. Our study suggests that monkeys and humans share a similar pattern of role-sensitive, species- and context-dependent social attention, implying a homologous cognitive mechanism of

  14. Provision of Human Capital by Business Schools of Pakistan: A Need for the Sustainability of the Pakistani Banking Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauman, Sarwat; Hussain, Nasreen

    2017-01-01

    Economic growth of Pakistan through the banking sector relies heavily on the human capital dispensed to them by the Pakistani business schools. A conceptual model of the continuous improvement cycle for building human capital is developed through a literature review, with the aim of helping to generate human capital. Six semistructured interviews…

  15. Provision of Human Capital by Business Schools of Pakistan: A Need for the Sustainability of the Pakistani Banking Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauman, Sarwat; Hussain, Nasreen

    2017-01-01

    Economic growth of Pakistan through the banking sector relies heavily on the human capital dispensed to them by the Pakistani business schools. A conceptual model of the continuous improvement cycle for building human capital is developed through a literature review, with the aim of helping to generate human capital. Six semistructured interviews…

  16. HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT AND EMPLOYEE JOB SATISFACTION: EVIDENCE FROM THE NIGERIAN BANKING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omotayo Adewale OSIBANJO

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the effect of human resources management (factors on employees’ job satisfaction using data collected from two banks in the Nigerian banking industry. The study attempts to determine the effect of training and development on employee job satisfaction; to determine the influence of working conditions on employee job satisfaction; and to determine the impact of human resources factors on employee job satisfaction. The survey instrument used in the collection of data was the questionnaire. The population of the study covered the entire staff of Intercontinental and Ecobank and the sample size of 200 employees were selected, using the simple random sampling techniques. Correlation and Regression analysis was adopted and the data generated was in line with the objectives of the study. The hypotheses were tested, and valid result was achieved i.e. Human Resources Management has an effect on employee job satisfaction. This suggests that for organization to develop, it must invest more in the human capital. The business environment is dynamic and there is need for organizations to adopt strategies to motivate and equip their staff, so as to ensure their loyalty and be source of competitive advantage.

  17. Human Resource Management and Employee Job Satisfaction: Evidence from the Nigerian Banking Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osibanjo, Omotayo Adewale

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the effect of human resources management (factors on employees’ job satisfaction using data collected from two banks in the Nigerian banking industry. The study attempts to determine the effect of training and development on employee job satisfaction; to determine the influence of working conditions on employee job satisfaction and to determine the impact of human resources factors on employee job satisfaction. The survey instrument used in the collection of data was the questionnaire. The population of the study covered the entire staff of Intercontinental and Ecobank and the sample size of 200 employees were selected, using the simple random sampling techniques. Correlation and Regression analysis was adopted and the data generated was in line with the objectives of the study. The hypotheses were tested, and valid result was achieved i.e. Human Resources Management has an effect on employee job satisfaction. This suggests that for organization to develop, it must invest more in the human capital. The business environment is dynamic and there is need for organizations to adopt strategies to motivate and equip their staff, so as to ensure their loyalty and be source of competitive advantage.

  18. [Detection of carotenoids in the vitreous body of the human eye during prenatal development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakovleva, M A; Panova, I G; Fel'dman, T B; Zak, P P; Tatikolov, A S; Sukhikh, G T; Ostrovskiĭ, M A

    2007-01-01

    Carotenoids were found for the first time in the vitreous body of human eye during the fetal period from week 15 until week 28. Their maximum content was timed to week 16-22. No carotenoids were found the vitreous body of 31-week fetuses, as well as adult humans, which corresponds to the published data. It was shown using HPLC that chromatographic characteristics of these carotenoids correspond to those of lutein and zeaxanthin, characteristic pigments of the retinal yellow macula.

  19. Coherent fiber optic sensor for early detection of cataractogenesis in a human eye lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhadwal, Harbans S.; Ansari, Rafat R.; Dellavecchia, Michael A.

    1993-01-01

    A lensless backscatter fiber optic probe is used to measure the size distribution of protein molecules inside an excised, but intact, human eye lens. The fiber optic probe, about 5 mm in diameter, can be positioned arbitrarily close to the anterior surface of the eye; it is a trans-receiver, which delivers a Gaussian laser beam into a small region inside the lens and provides a coherent detection of the laser light scattered by the protein molecules in the backward direction. Protein sizes determined from the fast and slow diffusion coefficients show good correlation with the age of the lens and cataractogenesis.

  20. [THE STRUCTURE OF LYMPHATIC CAPILLARIES OF THE CILIARY BODY OF THE HUMAN EYE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borodin, Yu I; Bgatova, N P; Chernykh, V V; Trunov, A N; Pozhidayeva, A A; Konenkov, V I

    2015-01-01

    Using light microscopy, immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy, the structural organization of interstitial spaces and vessels of the ciliary body of the human eye (n = 5) were studied. The ciliary body was found to contain wide interstitial spaces--tissue clefts bound by collagen fibers and fibroblasts. Organ-specific lymphatic capillaries were also demonstrated in the ciliary body. According to the present findings and the lymphatic region concept, the first 2 elements of the lymphatic region of the eye were described: tissue clefts--prelymphatics and lymphatic capillaries of the ciliary body. The third element of the lymphatic region are the lymph nodes of the head and neck.

  1. Donor human milk bank data collection in north america: an assessment of current status and future needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownell, Elizabeth A; Lussier, Mary M; Herson, Victor C; Hagadorn, James I; Marinelli, Kathleen A

    2014-02-01

    The Human Milk Banking Association of North America (HMBANA) is a nonprofit association that standardizes and facilitates the establishment and operation of donor human milk (DHM) banks in North America. Each HMBANA milk bank in the network collects data on the DHM it receives and distributes, but a centralized data repository does not yet exist. In 2010, the Food and Drug Administration recognized the need to collect and disseminate systematic, standardized DHM bank data and suggested that HMBANA develop a DHM data repository. This study aimed to describe data currently collected by HMBANA DHM banks and evaluate feasibility and interest in participating in a centralized data repository. We conducted phone interviews with individuals in different HMBANA milk banks and summarized descriptive statistics. Eight of 13 (61.5%) sites consented to participate. All respondents collected donor demographics, and half (50%; n = 4) rescreened donors after 6 months of continued donation. The definition of preterm milk varied between DHM banks (≤ 32 to ≤ 40 weeks). The specific computer program used to house the data also differed. Half (50%; n = 4) indicated that they would consider participation in a centralized repository. Without standardized data across all HMBANA sites, the creation of a centralized data repository is not yet feasible. Lack of standardization and transparency may deter implementation of donor milk programs in the neonatal intensive care unit setting and hinder benchmarking, research, and quality improvement initiatives.

  2. Human Response to Ductless Personalised Ventilation: Impact of Air Movement, Temperature and Cleanness on Eye Symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalewski, Mariusz; Fillon, Maelys; Bivolarova, Maria;

    2013-01-01

    The performance of ductless personalized ventilation (DPV) in conjunction with displacement ventilation (DV) was studied in relation to peoples’ health, comfort and performance. This paper presents results on the impact of room air temperature, using of DPV and local air filtration on eye blink...... rate and tear film quality. In a test room with DV and six workstations 30 human subjects were exposed for four hours to each of the following 5 experimental conditions: 23 °C and DV only, 23 °C and DPV with air filter, 29 °C and DV only, 29 °C and DPV, and 29 °C and DPV with air filter. At warm...... environment facially applied individually controlled air movement of room air, with or without local filtering, did not have significant impact on eye blink frequency and tear film quality. The local air movement and air cleaning resulted in increased eye blinking frequency and improvement of tear film...

  3. [Profile of human milk bank donors and relationship with the length of the donation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra Colomina, G; García Lara, N; Escuder Vieco, D; Vázquez Román, S; Cabañes Alonso, E; Pallás Alonso, C R

    2014-04-01

    The promotion of Human Milk Banks is an important social service. The Human Milk Banks depend on donors, and knowing the profile of donors seems quite important. To study the demographics and lifestyles of the donors, the reasons or influences for donating, and to associate these variables with the length of the donation. This is a descriptive, cross-sectional study conducted on 168 mothers who answered the written questionnaire when they agreed to become donors. 98 (58%) responded to the telephone interview. The mean age was 33.1 ± 4.5 years. Of the total 27.9% lived outside Madrid and 21.4% were immigrants, with 23.7% working full time, 65.3% had a university education, and 96.2% had a stable partner. The main reasons for donating were too much milk (77%), and to help others (75%). The main obstacle was transportation to the Human Milk Bank for 20% of the donors, and for 61% the main reason for terminating donation was due to reaching the end of lactation. A longer donation is associated with: having a term newborn, with birth weight over 1500 g, starting donating early and reconciling the donation to the work situation. The most common donor profile was a young woman, with university education and a stable partner. Having a term new born, starting donating early, and the conciliation with work is associated with longer donations. Milk pick-up at home would make donation easier. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Fibrin glue from stored human plasma. An inexpensive and efficient method for local blood bank preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spotnitz, W D; Mintz, P D; Avery, N; Bithell, T C; Kaul, S; Nolan, S P

    1987-08-01

    European surgeons have used fibrin glue extensively during thoracic, cardiovascular, and general surgical operations. Until now, however, it has been available only as a commercial preparation made from pooled human plasma, and it has not been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for use in the United States because of a high associated risk of hepatitis and acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Methods of obtaining fibrinogen, an essential component of fibrin glue, from cryoprecipitate or fresh frozen plasma have been published recently. However, the cryoprecipitate method results in relatively low concentrations of fibrinogen, which can reduce glue effectiveness. The fresh frozen plasma method is more expensive and does not meet the standards of the American Association of Blood Banks for the "closed" system required for safe handling and management of blood component products. Both the cryoprecipitate and the fresh frozen plasma methods result in waste of unstable clotting factors. These factors are necessary to replace human plasma clotting deficiencies but are not necessary for the production of fibrin glue. The authors have developed an efficient, high-concentration blood bank method for producing and maintaining a local supply of a safer and less expensive but equally effective material derived from stored human plasma. This material is produced using approved blood bank techniques for a "closed" system in blood component production, thus reducing the risks of contamination and infection, and its fibrinogen concentration is higher than that of standard cryoprecipitate. The cost of 1 unit of this fibrin glue is comparable to that for 1 unit of cryoprecipitate and less than that for 1 unit of fresh frozen plasma.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Principal component analysis of Draize eye Irritation tissue scores from 72 samples of 55 chemicals in the ECETOC data bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, D P

    1996-10-01

    The multivariate statistical method Principal Component Analysis (PCA) has been applied to a set of data from the ECETOC reference chemical data bank. PCA is a multivariate method that can be used to explore a complex data set. The results of the analysis show that most of the variability in the values for tissue damage scores for the 55 chemicals can be described by a single principal component which explains nearly 80% of the variability. This component is derived by giving approximately equal weight to each of the 18 individual measures made on the tissues over the 24-, 48- and 72-hr observation period. The principal component scores on the first component (PC I) are very highly correlated with the maximum individual weighted Draize scores or total Draize scores (TDS) derived using the Draize scoring method. A second principal component, describing about 7% of the variability, contrasts damage measured on the iris and cornea with that measured on the conjunctiva. Plots of principal component scores show the overall pattern of responses. In general, low measures of the TDS and a positive (PC I) score are associated with iris and conjunctival damage (damage to the iris was never recorded in the absence of damage to the conjunctiva). High TDS and negative PC I scores are associated with corneal and/or iris and conjunctiva damage. Plots of the principal component scores identify some chemicals that appear to cause unusual patterns of damage and identify some individual animals as having outlying or idiosyncratic responses. However, the analysis suggests that (i) there is only limited evidence for differential responses of different tissues and (ii) that attempts to identify alternative tests which predict specific types of tissue damage based on the results collected in a Draize test are likely to be unsuccessful. It indicates that further refinement of the results of the in vivo Draize test will not arise from more detailed analysis of the tissue scores but by

  6. Islamic Economics and Happiness Economics a Case Study on the Role of Central Banks in Approaching Human Wellbeing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fouad H. Beseiso

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the role played by the Islamic Economics in approaching Happiness Economics with a case study on the role of central banks in achieving human wellbeing. The study concluded that while a revolution emerged in the economic sciences field which is more effective and efficient, if accurately followed, in approaching human wellbeing, Central banking and the financial sector remained within its traditional role and functions aiming at economic and monetary stability. Only Islamic Banking and Finance and within the Islamic Economics from conceptual and pragmatic basis could be considered a welcomed development which might be building a corner stone for enabling a new role for banking and finance sector for approaching happiness economics from national to global perspective. 

  7. Potential and Limitation of HLA-Based Banking of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells for Cell Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casimir de Rham

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Great hopes have been placed on human pluripotent stem (hPS cells for therapy. Tissues or organs derived from hPS cells could be the best solution to cure many different human diseases, especially those who do not respond to standard medication or drugs, such as neurodegenerative diseases, heart failure, or diabetes. The origin of hPS is critical and the idea of creating a bank of well-characterized hPS cells has emerged, like the one that already exists for cord blood. However, the main obstacle in transplantation is the rejection of tissues or organ by the receiver, due to the three main immunological barriers: the human leukocyte antigen (HLA, the ABO blood group, and minor antigens. The problem could be circumvented by using autologous stem cells, like induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells, derived directly from the patient. But iPS cells have limitations, especially regarding the disease of the recipient and possible difficulties to handle or prepare autologous iPS cells. Finally, reaching standards of good clinical or manufacturing practices could be challenging. That is why well-characterized and universal hPS cells could be a better solution. In this review, we will discuss the interest and the feasibility to establish hPS cells bank, as well as some economics and ethical issues.

  8. Edge detection of iris of the eye for human biometric identification system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateryna O. Tryfonova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Method of human biometric identification by iris of the eye is considered as one of the most accurate and reliable methods of identification. Aim of the research is to solve the problem of edge detection of digital image of the human eye iris to be able to implement human biometric identification system by means of mobile device. To achieve this aim the algorithm of edge detection by Canny is considered in work. It consists of the following steps: smoothing, finding gradients, non-maximum suppression, double thresholding with hysteresis. The software implementation of the Canny algorithm is carried out for the Android mobile platform with the use of high level programming language Java.

  9. Thermal behavior of human eye in relation with change in blood perfusion, porosity, evaporation and ambient temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiq, Aasma; Khanday, M A

    2016-12-01

    Extreme environmental and physiological conditions present challenges for thermal processes in body tissues including multi-layered human eye. A mathematical model has been formulated in this direction to study the thermal behavior of the human eye in relation with the change in blood perfusion, porosity, evaporation and environmental temperatures. In this study, a comprehensive thermal analysis has been performed on the multi-layered eye using Pennes' bio-heat equation with appropriate boundary and interface conditions. The variational finite element method and MATLAB software were used for the solution purpose and simulation of the results. The thermoregulatory effect due to blood perfusion rate, porosity, ambient temperature and evaporation at various regions of human eye was illustrated mathematically and graphically. The main applications of this model are associated with the medical sciences while performing laser therapy and other thermoregulatory investigation on human eye.

  10. Intraoperative length and tension curves of human eye muscles. Including stiffness in passive horizontal eye movement in awake volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J. Simonsz (Huib); G.H. Kolling (Gerold); H. Kaufmann (Herbert); B. van Dijk (Bob)

    1986-01-01

    textabstractIntraoperative continuous-registration length and tension curves of attached and detached eye muscles were made in 18 strabismic patients under general anesthesia. For relaxed eye muscles, we found an exponential relation between length and tension. An increased stiffness was quantified

  11. [Financial aspects of tissue bank activities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrić, Nikica; Dekaris, Iva

    2007-12-01

    Nowadays, we are faced with increasing challenges in the field of tissue banking. New technologies and scientific advances have resulted in new standards designed by European Union in the form of Directives. Our ophthalmologists have also participated in this process, Professor Nikica Gabrić as member of the European Eye Bank Association Committee (1999-2005) and Associate Professor Iva Dekaris as member of the same Committee (2005-2006). Since this year, Associate Professor Iva Dekaris has been appointed actual vice-president and future president of this general European organization in charge of corneal tissue banking. She will hold the position for the next three years by automatism. New regulations made to enhance tissue banking in order to provide greater amount of safety and contentment for patients necessitate increased costs. Taking eye bank as an example, we showed financial problems that each tissue bank is faced with every day. Taking care of all the costs needed for processing human corneal tissue in Croatia that will be used for transplantation, we calculated approximate costs required for this process and compared them with other countries.

  12. [Study of the effects of the implementation of a human milk donor bank in preterm newborns in Aragon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larena Fernández, Israel; Vara Callau, Marta; Royo Pérez, Delia; López Bernués, Ricardo; Cortés Sierra, Jesús; Samper Villagrasa, María Pilar

    2015-01-01

    Numerous obstacles may prevent a premature or sick neonate receiving their mother's milk. In these cases, pediatric scientific societies recommend feeding with donor human milk. In this article, it is explained what a milk bank is, how it works, the donors' selection method, and the benefits. We also describe the current situation in Aragon (Spain) is also described. A retrospective and descriptive study was conducted on the perinatal sample characteristics, as well as an analytical observational study, comparing two sample groups: pre- and post-human milk bank. Finally, differences in the post-bank stage between those patients fed with own-mother's or donor human milk were determined. The study included a total of 234 patients: 104 females and 130 males. Two groups: pre and post-bank, with 152 and 82 patients, respectively, which had similar characteristics at birth; length and head circumference were significantly higher in the post-bank group and a lower rate of necrotizing enterocolitis was also found. No statistically significant differences were found in other variables between subgroups fed with own-mother's milk and donor human milk. The establishment of the human milk donor bank has a beneficial effect, as it reduces neonatal morbidity in cases of necrotizing enterocolitis. Human milk feeding could be a protective factor against neonatal sepsis due to improve immunity. The incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis is lower after the establishment of the milk bank. Studies with more patients may demonstrate differences in other variables. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. A bird’s eye view of human language evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert eBerwick

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Comparative studies of linguistic faculties in animals pose an evolutionary paradox: language involves certain perceptual and motor abilities, but it is not clear that this serves as more than an input-output channel for the externalization of language proper. Strikingly, the capability for auditory-vocal learning is not shared with our closest relatives, the apes, but is present in such remotely related groups as songbirds and marine mammals. There is increasing evidence for behavioural, neural and genetic similarities between speech acquisition and birdsong learning. At the same time, researchers have applied formal linguistic analysis to the vocalizations of both primates and songbirds. What have all these studies taught us about the evolution of language? Is the comparative study of an apparently species-specific trait like language feasible? We argue that comparative analysis remains an important method for the evolutionary reconstruction and causal analysis of the mechanisms underlying language. On the one hand, common descent has been important in the evolution of the brain, such that avian and mammalian brains may be largely homologous, particularly in the case of brain regions involved in auditory perception, vocalization and auditory memory. On the other hand, there has been convergent evolution of the capacity for auditory-vocal learning, and possibly for structuring of external vocalizations, such that apes lack the abilities that are shared between songbirds and humans. However, significant limitations to this comparative analysis remain. While all birdsong may be classified in terms of a particularly simple kind of concatenation system, the regular languages, there is no compelling evidence to date that birdsong matches the characteristic syntactic complexity of human language, arising from the composition of smaller forms like words and phrases into larger ones.

  14. Transverse chromatic aberration across the visual field of the human eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Simon; Sabesan, Ramkumar; Tiruveedhula, Pavan; Privitera, Claudio; Unsbo, Peter; Lundström, Linda; Roorda, Austin

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the transverse chromatic aberration (TCA) across the visual field of the human eye objectively. TCA was measured at horizontal and vertical field angles out to ±15° from foveal fixation in the right eye of four subjects. Interleaved retinal images were taken at wavelengths 543 nm and 842 nm in an adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AOSLO). To obtain true measures of the human eye's TCA, the contributions of the AOSLO system's TCA were measured using an on-axis aligned model eye and subtracted from the ocular data. The increase in TCA was found to be linear with eccentricity, with an average slope of 0.21 arcmin/degree of visual field angle (corresponding to 0.41 arcmin/degree for 430 nm to 770 nm). The absolute magnitude of ocular TCA varied between subjects, but was similar to the resolution acuity at 10° in the nasal visual field, encompassing three to four cones. Therefore, TCA can be visually significant. Furthermore, for high-resolution imaging applications, whether visualizing or stimulating cellular features in the retina, it is important to consider the lateral displacements between wavelengths and the variation in blur over the visual field.

  15. From time series analysis to a biomechanical multibody model of the human eye

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pascolo, P. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Universita di Udine, Udine (Italy); Dipartimento di Bioingegneria, CISM, Udine (Italy)], E-mail: paolo.pascolo@uniud.it; Carniel, R. [Dipartimento di Georisorse e Territorio, Universita di Udine, Udine (Italy)], E-mail: roberto.carniel@uniud.it

    2009-04-30

    A mechanical model of the human eye is presented aimed at estimating the level of muscular activation. The applicability of the model in the biomedical field is discussed. Human eye movements studied in the laboratory are compared with the ones produced by a virtual eye described in kinematical terms and subject to the dynamics of six actuators, as many as the muscular systems devoted to the eye motion control. The definition of an error function between the experimental and the numerical response and the application of a suitable law that links activation and muscular force are at the base of the proposed methodology. The aim is the definition of a simple conceptual tool that could help the specialist in the diagnosis of potential physiological disturbances of saccadic and nystagmic movements but can also be extended in a second phase when more sophisticated data become available. The work is part of a collaboration between the Functional Mechanics Laboratory of the University and the Neurophysiopatology Laboratory of the 'S. Maria della Misericordia' Hospital in Udine, Italy.

  16. Effects of aqueous humor hydrodynamics on human eye heat transfer under external heat sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiang, Kor L; Ooi, Ean H

    2016-08-01

    The majority of the eye models developed in the late 90s and early 00s considers only heat conduction inside the eye. This assumption is not entirely correct, since the anterior and posterior chambers are filled aqueous humor (AH) that is constantly in motion due to thermally-induced buoyancy. In this paper, a three-dimensional model of the human eye is developed to investigate the effects AH hydrodynamics have on the human eye temperature under exposure to external heat sources. If the effects of AH flow are negligible, then future models can be developed without taking them into account, thus simplifying the modeling process. Two types of external thermal loads are considered; volumetric and surface irradiation. Results showed that heat convection due to AH flow contributes to nearly 95% of the total heat flow inside the anterior chamber. Moreover, the circulation inside the anterior chamber can cause an upward shift of the location of hotspot. This can have significant consequences to our understanding of heat-induced cataractogenesis. Copyright © 2016 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Simulated human eye retina adaptive optics imaging system based on a liquid crystal on silicon device

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Bao-Guang; Cao Zhao-Liang; Mu Quan-Quan; Hu Li-Fa; Li Chao; Xuan Li

    2008-01-01

    In order to obtain a clear image of the retina of model eye, an adaptive optics system used to correct the wave-front error is introduced in this paper. The spatial light modulator that we use here is a liquid crystal on a silicon device instead of a conversional deformable mirror. A paper with carbon granule is used to simulate the retina of human eye. The pupil size of the model eye is adjustable (3-7 mm). A Shack-Hartman wave-front sensor is used to detect the wave-front aberration. With this construction, a value of peak-to-valley is achieved to be 0.086 λ, where A is wavelength.The modulation transfer functions before and after corrections are compared. And the resolution of this system after correction (691p/m) is very close to the diffraction limit resolution. The carbon granule on the white paper which has a size of 4.7μm is seen clearly. The size of the retina cell is between 4 and 10 μm. So this system has an ability to image the human eye's retina.

  18. Cryopreservation of human vascular umbilical cord cells under good manufacturing practice conditions for future cell banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polchow Bianca

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In vitro fabricated tissue engineered vascular constructs could provide an alternative to conventional substitutes. A crucial factor for tissue engineering of vascular constructs is an appropriate cell source. Vascular cells from the human umbilical cord can be directly isolated and cryopreserved until needed. Currently no cell bank for human vascular cells is available. Therefore, the establishment of a future human vascular cell bank conforming to good manufacturing practice (GMP conditions is desirable for therapeutic applications such as tissue engineered cardiovascular constructs. Materials and methods A fundamental step was the adaption of conventional research and development starting materials to GMP compliant starting materials. Human umbilical cord artery derived cells (HUCAC and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC were isolated, cultivated, cryopreserved (short- and long-term directly after primary culture and recultivated subsequently. Cell viability, expression of cellular markers and proliferation potential of fresh and cryopreserved cells were studied using trypan blue staining, flow cytometry analysis, immunofluorescence staining and proliferation assays. Statistical analyses were performed using Student’s t-test. Results Sufficient numbers of isolated cells with acceptable viabilities and homogenous expression of cellular markers confirmed that the isolation procedure was successful using GMP compliant starting materials. The influence of cryopreservation was marginal, because cryopreserved cells mostly maintain phenotypic and functional characteristics similar to those of fresh cells. Phenotypic studies revealed that fresh cultivated and cryopreserved HUCAC were positive for alpha smooth muscle actin, CD90, CD105, CD73, CD29, CD44, CD166 and negative for smoothelin. HUVEC expressed CD31, CD146, CD105 and CD144 but not alpha smooth muscle actin. Functional analysis demonstrated acceptable

  19. What interests them in the pictures?--differences in eye-tracking between rhesus monkeys and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ying-Zhou; Jiang, Hui-Hui; Liu, Ci-Rong; Wang, Jian-Hong; Yu, Cheng-Yang; Carlson, Synnöve; Yang, Shang-Chuan; Saarinen, Veli-Matti; Rizak, Joshua D; Tian, Xiao-Guang; Tan, Hen; Chen, Zhu-Yue; Ma, Yuan-Ye; Hu, Xin-Tian

    2013-10-01

    Studies estimating eye movements have demonstrated that non-human primates have fixation patterns similar to humans at the first sight of a picture. In the current study, three sets of pictures containing monkeys, humans or both were presented to rhesus monkeys and humans. The eye movements on these pictures by the two species were recorded using a Tobii eye-tracking system. We found that monkeys paid more attention to the head and body in pictures containing monkeys, whereas both monkeys and humans paid more attention to the head in pictures containing humans. The humans always concentrated on the eyes and head in all the pictures, indicating the social role of facial cues in society. Although humans paid more attention to the hands than monkeys, both monkeys and humans were interested in the hands and what was being done with them in the pictures. This may suggest the importance and necessity of hands for survival. Finally, monkeys scored lower in eye-tracking when fixating on the pictures, as if they were less interested in looking at the screen than humans. The locations of fixation in monkeys may provide insight into the role of eye movements in an evolutionary context.

  20. Category processing and the human likeness dimension of the Uncanny Valley Hypothesis: Eye-tracking data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus eCheetham

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Uncanny Valley Hypothesis (Mori, 1970 predicts that perceptual difficulty distinguishing between a humanlike object (e.g., lifelike prosthetic hand, mannequin and its human counterpart evokes negative affect. Research has focussed on affect, with inconsistent results, but little is known about how objects along the hypothesis’ dimension of human likeness (DHL are actually perceived. This study used morph continua based on human and highly realistic computer-generated (avatar faces to represent the DHL. Total number and dwell time of fixations to facial features were recorded while participants (N=60 judged avatar vs. human category membership of the faces in a forced choice categorisation task. Fixation and dwell data confirmed the face feature hierarchy (eyes, nose and mouth in this order of importance across the DHL. There were no further findings for fixation. A change in the relative importance of these features was found for dwell time, with greater preferential processing of eyes and mouth of categorically ambiguous faces compared with unambiguous avatar faces. There were no significant differences between ambiguous and human faces. These findings applied for men and women, though women generally dwelled more on the eyes to the disadvantage of the nose. The mouth was unaffected by gender. In summary, the relative importance of facial features changed on the DHL’s nonhuman side as a function of categorisation ambiguity. This change was indicated by dwell time only, suggesting greater depth of perceptual processing of the eyes and mouth of ambiguous faces compared with these features in unambiguous avatar faces.

  1. Machine vision based on the concept of contrast sensitivity of the human eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezzubik, Vitali; Belashenkov, Nikolai; Vdovin, Gleb

    2014-09-01

    The model of contrast sensitivity function (CSF) of machine vision system, based on the CSF of the human visual system is proposed. By analogy with the human eye, we employ the concept of ganglion cell receptive field to the artificial light-sensitive elements. By further following this concept, we introduced quantative metrics of local and global contrast of digital image. We suggested that the contrast sensitivity threshold forms an iso-line in the parameter space contrast - spatial frequency. The model, implemented in a computer vision system, has been compared to the results of contrast sensitivity research, conducted directly with the human visual system, and demonstrated a good match.

  2. Design and experiments of a self-charged power bank by harvesting sustainable human motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longhan Xie

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a self-charged power bank integrated with an energy harvester was developed to harness human biomechanical energy and sustainably recharge a power bank. In the energy harvester, a spring–mass damping system is used to transform the human body’s movement during walking into the rotation of a gear train and drive rotary generators to produce electricity to recharge the battery through a rectifying circuit. A mathematical model was built to examine the power output of the energy harvester under different excitation conditions. A prototype was built to test the performances of the harvester, and experiments on the prototype fixed on the ankle, wrist, and torso were conducted, which indicated that the measured power output was 0.35 W, 0.16 W, and 10 mW, respectively, when testers walked at 2.0 m/s (the circular frequency of foot step is about 14.5 rad/s. The experiments indicate that a higher walking velocity as well as excitation amplitude and frequency could result in higher output power.

  3. Effect of human milk as a treatment for dry eye syndrome in a mouse model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diego, Jose L.; Bidikov, Luke; Pedler, Michelle G.; Kennedy, Jeffrey B.; Quiroz-Mercado, Hugo; Gregory, Darren G.; Petrash, J. Mark

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Dry eye syndrome (DES) affects millions of people worldwide. Homeopathic remedies to treat a wide variety of ocular diseases have previously been documented in the literature, but little systematic work has been performed to validate the remedies’ efficacy using accepted laboratory models of disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of human milk and nopal cactus (prickly pear), two widely used homeopathic remedies, as agents to reduce pathological markers of DES. Methods The previously described benzalkonium chloride (BAK) dry eye mouse model was used to study the efficacy of human milk and nopal cactus (prickly pear). BAK (0.2%) was applied to the mouse ocular surface twice daily to induce dry eye pathology. Fluorescein staining was used to verify that the animals had characteristic signs of DES. After induction of DES, the animals were treated with human milk (whole and fat-reduced), nopal, nopal extract derivatives, or cyclosporine four times daily for 7 days. Punctate staining and preservation of corneal epithelial thickness, measured histologically at the end of treatment, were used as indices of therapeutic efficacy. Results Treatment with BAK reduced the mean corneal epithelial thickness from 36.77±0.64 μm in the control mice to 21.29±3.2 μm. Reduction in corneal epithelial thickness was largely prevented by administration of whole milk (33.2±2.5 μm) or fat-reduced milk (36.1±1.58 μm), outcomes that were similar to treatment with cyclosporine (38.52±2.47 μm), a standard in current dry eye therapy. In contrast, crude or filtered nopal extracts were ineffective at preventing BAK-induced loss of corneal epithelial thickness (24.76±1.78 μm and 27.99±2.75 μm, respectively), as were solvents used in the extraction of nopal materials (26.53±1.46 μm for ethyl acetate, 21.59±5.87 μm for methanol). Epithelial damage, as reflected in the punctate scores, decreased over 4 days of treatment with whole and fat

  4. The effects of metamaterial on electromagnetic fields absorption characteristics of human eye tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasmelseed, Akram; Yunus, Jasmy

    2014-01-01

    The interaction of a dipole antenna with a human eye model in the presence of a metamaterial is investigated in this paper. The finite difference time domain (FDTD) method with convolutional perfectly matched layer (CPML) formulation have been used. A three-dimensional anatomical model of the human eye with resolution of 1.25 mm × 1.25 mm × 1.25 mm was used in this study. The dipole antenna was driven by modulated Gaussian pulse and the numerical study is performed with dipole operating at 900 MHz. The analysis has been done by varying the size and value of electric permittivity of the metamaterial. By normalizing the peak SAR (1 g and 10 g) to 1 W for all examined cases, we observed how the SAR values are not affected by the different permittivity values with the size of the metamaterial kept fixed.

  5. Eye-hand Hybrid Gesture Recognition System for Human Machine Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. R. Raajan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Gesture Recognition has become a way for computers to recognise and understand human body language. They bridge the gap between machines and human beings and make the primitive interfaces like keyboards and mice redundant. This paper suggests a hybrid gesture recognition system for computer interface and wireless robot control. The real-time eye-hand gesture recognition system can be used for computer drawing, navigating cursors and simulating mouse clicks, playing games, controlling a wireless robot with commands and more. The robot illustrated in this paper is controlled by RF module. Playing a PING-PONG game has also been demonstrated using the gestures. The Haar cascade classifiers and template matching are used to detect eye gestures and convex hull for finding the defects and counting the number of fingers in the given region.

  6. Generating a non-integrating human induced pluripotent stem cell bank from urine-derived cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanting Xue

    Full Text Available Induced pluripotent stem cell (iPS cell holds great potential for applications in regenerative medicine, drug discovery, and disease modeling. We describe here a practical method to generate human iPS cells from urine-derived cells (UCs under feeder-free, virus-free, serum-free condition and without oncogene c-MYC. We showed that this approach could be applied in a large population with different genetic backgrounds. UCs are easily accessible and exhibit high reprogramming efficiency, offering advantages over other cell types used for the purpose of iPS generation. Using the approach described in this study, we have generated 93 iPS cell lines from 20 donors with diverse genetic backgrounds. The non-viral iPS cell bank with these cell lines provides a valuable resource for iPS cells research, facilitating future applications of human iPS cells.

  7. Optics of the human cornea influence the accuracy of stereo eye-tracking methods: a simulation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barsingerhorn, A.D.; Boonstra, F.N.; Goossens, H.H.L.M.

    2017-01-01

    Current stereo eye-tracking methods model the cornea as a sphere with one refractive surface. However, the human cornea is slightly aspheric and has two refractive surfaces. Here we used ray-tracing and the Navarro eye-model to study how these optical properties affect the accuracy of different

  8. On the plausible association between environmental conditions and human eye damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feretis, Elias; Theodorakopoulos, Panagiotis; Varotsos, Costas; Efstathiou, Maria; Tzanis, Christos; Xirou, Tzina; Alexandridou, Nancy; Aggelou, Michael

    2002-01-01

    The increase in solar ultraviolet radiation can have various direct and indirect effects on human health, like the incidence of ocular damage. Data of eye damage in residents of three suburban regions in Greece and in two groups of monks/nuns and fishermen are examined here. The statistics performed on these data provides new information about the plausible association between increased levels of solar ultraviolet radiation, air-pollution at ground level, and the development of ocular defects.

  9. Sensory eye irritation in humans exposed to mixtures of volatile organic compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hempel-Jørgensen, Anne Hempel; Kjærgaard, Søren K.; Mølhave, Lars;

    1999-01-01

    Eight subjects participated in a controlled eyes-only exposure study of human sensory irritation in ocular mucosal tissue. The authors investigated dose-response properties and the additive effects of three mixtures of volatile organic compounds. The dose-response relationships for these mixtures...... to as simple agonism. Finally, the authors addressed the comparability of two methods to measure sensory irritation intensity (visual analogue scale and a comparative scale). The results indicated that the two rating methods produced highly comparable results....

  10. Simple, Inexpensive Technique for High-Quality Smartphone Fundus Photography in Human and Animal Eyes

    OpenAIRE

    Haddock, Luis J.; Kim, David Y.; Shizuo Mukai

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. We describe in detail a relatively simple technique of fundus photography in human and rabbit eyes using a smartphone, an inexpensive app for the smartphone, and instruments that are readily available in an ophthalmic practice. Methods:. Fundus images were captured with a smartphone and a 20D lens with or without a Koeppe lens. By using the coaxial light source of the phone, this system works as an indirect ophthalmoscope that creates a digital image of the fundus. The application wh...

  11. Apnea-Induced Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Disruption Impairs Human Spatial Navigational Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Varga, Andrew W.; Kishi, Akifumi; Mantua, Janna; Lim, Jason; Koushyk, Viachaslau; Leibert, David P.; Osorio, Ricardo S.; David M. Rapoport; Ayappa, Indu

    2014-01-01

    Hippocampal electrophysiology and behavioral evidence support a role for sleep in spatial navigational memory, but the role of particular sleep stages is less clear. Although rodent models suggest the importance of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in spatial navigational memory, a similar role for REM sleep has never been examined in humans. We recruited subjects with severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) who were well treated and adherent with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Restric...

  12. Assessment of Thermal Dehydration Using the Human Eye: What is the Potential?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    multifunctional neuroendocrine gland. Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 26, 239–262. Connors, B.W., 2009. Sensory transduction. In: Boron , W.F., Boulpaep, E.L. (Eds.), Medical ...relevant physiological basis for testing the merit of ocular measures for human hydration assessment and recent data indicate that Tosm and IOP may have...Rudolf Foundation Clinic, Vienna, Austria d Centre of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria a r t

  13. Presence of human milk bank is associated with elevated rate of exclusive breastfeeding in VLBW infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslanoglu, Sertac; Moro, Guido E; Bellù, Roberto; Turoli, Daniela; De Nisi, Giuseppe; Tonetto, Paola; Bertino, Enrico

    2013-03-01

    Human milk confers health benefits of vital importance for the sick and preterm infants in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). Mother's own milk is the first choice in preterm infant feeding, and every effort should be made to promote lactation. When mother's milk is not available or is insufficient, donor human milk (DHM) is recommended. Yet, occasionally, the concern that the use of DHM might decrease breastfeeding is being raised. The present data collection planned by the Italian Association of Human Milk Banks (AIBLUD) in collaboration with the Italian Neonatal Network (INN) attempted to address this concern. A total of 4277 very low birth weight (VLBW) infants from 83 Italian NICUs were evaluated for this comparative analysis. The 83 Italian NICUs were divided into two groups: centers with a human milk bank (HMB) and centers without a HMB; the available parameters in the network--"any and exclusive breastfeeding rates" and "exclusive formula rate" at discharge--were compared. Exclusive breastfeeding rate at discharge was significantly higher in NICUs with a HMB than in NICUs without (29.6% vs. 16.0%, respectively). Any breastfeeding rate at discharge tended to be higher in the NICUs with HMB (60.4% vs. 52.8%, P = 0.09), and exclusive formula rate was lower in the NICUs with HMB (26.5% vs. 31.3%), but this difference was not significant. This report shows that the presence of a HMB and the use of DHM in NICU are associated with increased breastfeeding rate at discharge from the hospital for VLBW infants.

  14. Distribution of the neuro-regulatory peptide galanin in the human eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaser-Eichberger, Alexandra; Trost, Andrea; Strohmaier, Clemens; Bogner, Barbara; Runge, Christian; Bruckner, Daniela; Hohberger, Bettina; Jünemann, Anselm; Kofler, Barbara; Reitsamer, Herbert A; Schrödl, Falk

    2016-11-25

    Galanin (GAL) is a neuro-regulatory peptide involved in many physiological and pathophysiological processes. While data of GAL origin/distribution in the human eye are rather fragmentary and since recently the presence of GAL-receptors in the normal human eye has been reported, we here systematically search for sources of ocular GAL in the human eye. Human eyes (n=14) were prepared for single- and double-immunohistochemistry of GAL and neurofilaments (NF). Cross- and flat-mount sections were achieved; confocal laser-scanning microscopy was used for documentation. In the anterior eye, GAL-immunoreactivity (GAL-IR) was detected in basal layers of corneal epithelium, endothelium, and in nerve fibers and keratinocytes of the corneal stroma. In the conjunctiva, GAL-IR was seen throughout all epithelial cell layers. In the iris, sphincter and dilator muscle and endothelium of iris vessels displayed GAL-IR. It was also detected in stromal cells containing melanin granules, while these were absent in others. In the ciliary body, ciliary muscle and pigmented as well as non-pigmented ciliary epithelium displayed GAL-IR. In the retina, GAL-IR was detected in cells associated with the ganglion cell layer, and in endothelial cells of retinal blood vessels. In the choroid, nerve fibers of the choroidal stroma as well as fibers forming boutons and surrounding choroidal blood vessels displayed GAL-IR. Further, the majority of intrinsic choroidal neurons were GAL-positive, as revealed by co-localization-experiments with NF, while a minority displayed NF- or GAL-IR only. GAL-IR was also detected in choroidal melanocytes, as identified by the presence of intracellular melanin-granules, as well as in cells lacking melanin-granules, most likely representing macrophages. GAL-IR was detected in numerous cells and tissues throughout the anterior and posterior eye and might therefore be an important regulatory peptide for many aspects of ocular control. Upcoming studies in diseased tissue

  15. Visual exploration patterns of human figures in action: an eye tracker study with art paintings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villani, Daniela; Morganti, Francesca; Cipresso, Pietro; Ruggi, Simona; Riva, Giuseppe; Gilli, Gabriella

    2015-01-01

    Art exploration is a complex process conditioned by factors at different levels and includes both basic visual principles and complex cognitive factors. The human figure is considered a critical factor attracting the attention in art painting. Using an eye-tracking methodology, the goal of this study was to explore different elements of the human figure performing an action (face and body parts in action) in complex social scenes characterized by different levels of social interaction between agents depicted in scenes (individual vs. social). The sample included 44 laypersons, and the stimuli consisted of 10 fine art paintings representing the figurative style of classical art. The results revealed different scanning patterns of the human figure elements related to the level of social interaction of agents depicted in the scene. The agents' face attracted eye movements in social interaction scenes while the agents' body parts attracted eye movements only when the agents were involved in individual actions. These processes were confirmed specifically in participants with high empathic abilities who became immediately fixated on faces to develop a mimetic engagement with other agents. Future studies integrating other measures would help confirm the results obtained and strengthen their implication for embodiment processes.

  16. EyeGENE

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The eyeGENE® Biorepository and corresponding Database contain family history and clinical eye exam data from subjects enrolled in eyeGENE® Program coupled to...

  17. GenBank

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — GenBank is the NIH genetic sequence database, an annotated collection of all publicly available DNA sequences. GenBank is designed to provide and encourage access...

  18. Comparing the accuracy of video-oculography and the scleral search coil system in human eye movement analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Takao; Sekine, Kazunori; Hattori, Kousuke; Takeda, Noriaki; Koizuka, Izumi; Nakamae, Koji; Miura, Katsuyoshi; Fujioka, Hiromu; Kubo, Takeshi

    2005-03-01

    The measurement of eye movements in three dimensions is an important tool to investigate the human vestibular and oculomotor system. The primary methods for three dimensional eye movement measurement are the scleral search coil system (SSCS) and video-oculography (VOG). In the present study, we compare the accuracy of VOG with that of SSCS using an artificial eye. We then analyzed the Y (pitch) and Z (yaw) component of human eye movements during saccades, smooth pursuit and optokinetic nystagmus, and the X (roll) component of human eye movement during the torsional vestibulo-ocular reflex induced by rotation in normal subjects, using simultaneous VOG and SSCS measures. The coefficients of the linear relationship between the angle of a simulated eyeball and the angle measured by both VOG and SSCS was almost unity with y-intercepts close to zero for torsional (X), vertical (Y) and horizontal (Z) movements, indicating that the in vitro accuracy of VOG was similar to that of SSCS. The average difference between VOG and SSCS was 0.56 degrees , 0.78 degrees and 0.18 degrees for the X, Y and Z components of human eye movements, respectively. Both the in vitro and in vivo comparisons demonstrate that VOG has accuracy comparable to SSCS, and is a reliable method for measurement of three dimensions (3D) human eye movements.

  19. Novel genotype of Ehrlichia canis detected in samples of human blood bank donors in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouza-Mora, Laura; Dolz, Gaby; Solórzano-Morales, Antony; Romero-Zuñiga, Juan José; Salazar-Sánchez, Lizbeth; Labruna, Marcelo B; Aguiar, Daniel M

    2017-01-01

    This study focuses on the detection and identification of DNA and antibodies to Ehrlichia spp. in samples of blood bank donors in Costa Rica using molecular and serological techniques. Presence of Ehrlichia canis was determined in 10 (3.6%) out of 280 blood samples using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the ehrlichial dsb conserved gene. Analysis of the ehrlichial trp36 polymorphic gene in these 10 samples revealed substantial polymorphism among the E. canis genotypes, including divergent tandem repeat sequences. Nucleotide sequences of dsb and trp36 amplicons revealed a novel genotype of E. canis in blood bank donors from Costa Rica. Indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) detected antibodies in 35 (35%) of 100 serum samples evaluated. Thirty samples showed low endpoint titers (64-256) to E. canis, whereas five sera yielded high endpoint titers (1024-8192); these five samples were also E. canis-PCR positive. These findings represent the first report of the presence of E. canis in humans in Central America.

  20. Human Resource Management Practices and Employee Satisfaction in Microfinance Banks in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chijioke Esogwa Nwachukwu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Committed employees are important for firms to achieve and sustain competitive advantage. HRM practices are tools used by organisations to get the best out of their workers and hence, achieve superior business performance. The goal of this study is to investigate HRM practices and employee satisfaction in microfinance banks in Nigeria. A purposive sample of 60 senior employees of 10 microfinance banks in Nigeria was used for this study. 60 questionnaires were returned but 59 were found usable for the analysis. In analyzing our data, Pearson correlation, ANOVA, and multiple regression techniques were used. The result shows that a significant positive association exists between human resource planning, training and development, employee compensation and employee satisfaction. However, an insignificant positive relationship exists between work environment and employee satisfaction. Only three out of the four hypotheses are supported. The authors, therefore, recommend that organizations that want to remain competitive must ensure that various stakeholders are satisfied (including employees by implementing a robust HRM practices

  1. Haplotype-based banking of human pluripotent stem cells for transplantation: potential and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Anna; Preynat-Seauve, Olivier; Tiercy, Jean-Marie; Krause, Karl-Heinz; Villard, Jean

    2012-09-01

    High expectations surround the area of stem cells therapeutics. However, the cells' source-adult or embryonic-and the cells' origin-patient-derived autologous or healthy donor genetically unrelated-remain subjects of debate. Autologous origins have the advantage of a theoretical absence of immune rejection by the recipient. However, this approach has several limitations with regard to the disease of the recipient and to potential problems with the generation, expansion, and manipulation of autologous induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells) preparation. An alternative to using autologous cells is the establishment of a bank of well-characterized adult cells that would be used to generate iPS cells and their derivatives. In the context of transplantation, such cells would come from genetically unrelated donors and the immune system of the recipient would reject the graft without immunosuppressive therapy. To minimize the risk of rejection, human leukocyte antigen (HLA) compatibility is certainly the best option, and the establishment of an HLA-organized bank would mean having a limited number of stem cells that would be sufficient for a large number of recipients. The concept of haplobanking with HLA homozygous cell lines would also limit the number of HLA mismatches, but such an approach will not necessarily be less immunogenic in terms of selection criteria, because of the limited number of HLA-compatible loci and the level of HLA typing resolution.

  2. Chromatic aberration correction of the human eye for retinal imaging in the near infrared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Enrique J; Unterhuber, Angelika; Povazay, Boris; Hermann, Boris; Artal, Pablo; Drexler, Woflgang

    2006-06-26

    An achromatizing lens has been designed for the human eye in the near infrared range, from 700 to 900 nm, for retinal imaging purposes. Analysis of the performance of the lens, including tolerance to misalignments, has been mathematically accomplished by using an existing eye model. The calculations have shown a virtually perfect correction of the ocular longitudinal chromatic aberration, while still keeping a high optical quality. Ocular aberrations in five subjects have been measured with and without the achromatizing lens by using a Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor and a broad bandwidth femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser in the spectral range of interest with a set of interference filters, studying the benefits and limits in the use of the achromatizing lens. Ocular longitudinal chromatic aberration has been experimentally demonstrated to be fully corrected by the proposed lens, with no induction of any other parasitic aberration. The practical implementation of the achromatizing lens for Ophthalmoscopy, specifically for optical coherence tomography where the use of polychromatic light sources in the near infrared portion of the spectrum is mandatory, has been considered. The potential benefits of using this lens in combination with adaptive optics to achieve a full aberration correction of the human eye for retinal imaging have also been discussed.

  3. Learning robotic eye-arm-hand coordination from human demonstration: a coupled dynamical systems approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukic, Luka; Santos-Victor, José; Billard, Aude

    2014-04-01

    We investigate the role of obstacle avoidance in visually guided reaching and grasping movements. We report on a human study in which subjects performed prehensile motion with obstacle avoidance where the position of the obstacle was systematically varied across trials. These experiments suggest that reaching with obstacle avoidance is organized in a sequential manner, where the obstacle acts as an intermediary target. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the notion of workspace travelled by the hand is embedded explicitly in a forward planning scheme, which is actively involved in detecting obstacles on the way when performing reaching. We find that the gaze proactively coordinates the pattern of eye-arm motion during obstacle avoidance. This study provides also a quantitative assessment of the coupling between the eye-arm-hand motion. We show that the coupling follows regular phase dependencies and is unaltered during obstacle avoidance. These observations provide a basis for the design of a computational model. Our controller extends the coupled dynamical systems framework and provides fast and synchronous control of the eyes, the arm and the hand within a single and compact framework, mimicking similar control system found in humans. We validate our model for visuomotor control of a humanoid robot.

  4. Three-dimensional ray tracing for refractive correction of human eye ametropies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Hernandez, J. A.; Diaz-Gonzalez, G.; Trujillo-Romero, F.; Iturbe-Castillo, M. D.; Juarez-Salazar, R.; Santiago-Alvarado, A.

    2016-09-01

    Ametropies of the human eye, are refractive defects hampering the correct imaging on the retina. The most common ways to correct them is by means of spectacles, contact lenses, and modern methods as laser surgery. However, in any case it is very important to identify the ametropia grade for designing the optimum correction action. In the case of laser surgery, it is necessary to define a new shape of the cornea in order to obtain the wanted refractive correction. Therefore, a computational tool to calculate the focal length of the optical system of the eye versus variations on its geometrical parameters is required. Additionally, a clear and understandable visualization of the evaluation process is desirable. In this work, a model of the human eye based on geometrical optics principles is presented. Simulations of light rays coming from a punctual source at six meter from the cornea are shown. We perform a ray-tracing in three dimensions in order to visualize the focusing regions and estimate the power of the optical system. The common parameters of ametropies can be easily modified and analyzed in the simulation by an intuitive graphic user interface.

  5. Association of physical properties and maintenance of sterility of primary teeth in human tooth bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitika Bajaj

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was carried out to evaluate the sterility and structural integrity of stored primary teeth in artificial saliva over a storage period of 12 weeks (3 months in human tooth bank (HTB. Materials and Methods: A total of 80 freshly extracted teeth were taken and were categorized into four groups of 20 each. The samples were stored at 4°C for 12 weeks (3 months in the refrigerator. During their storage time of 3 months, they were repetitively evaluated for their sterility, enamel hardness, calcium and phosphate solubility and color stability at regular intervals of 3 weeks. Observations and Results: That teeth stored in artificial saliva maintained their sterility throughout the storage time of 12 weeks, but changes in their physical and chemical properties occurred with an increase in storage time. Conclusion: Storage time not more than 9 weeks is recommended for deciduous teeth to be stored in artificial saliva in a HTB.

  6. Postural And Eye-Positional Effects On Human Biting Force: An Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altay Tabancacı

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Muscle groups affected on biting force are called temporal muscle as a major and masseter muscle as a minor. According to the human posture stability, forces of these muscles vary with the force directions. In this case, experimental investigation is strictly important such that biting force under different postural and eye- positional situations is changed. In this study, seven-male and seven-female within the age-range of 17-24 are considered corresponding to having with restorated molar tooth and without that type of tooth. With the help of specially designed biting fork, different posture- and eye-positions are investigated for experimental biting force analysis. Changes in eye-positions are not indicated significant difference for all postural positions. On one hand, it is obtained that biting force of no-filling tooth in men becomes maximum if facial muscles give full effort to biting. On the other hand, effect of facial muscles for women is not clearly noticed depending on the postural differences.

  7. Model propagation of a femtosecond laser radiation in the vitreous of the human eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogov, P. Y.; Bespalov, V. G.

    2016-04-01

    The paper presents a mathematical model of linear and nonlinear processes occurring due to propagation of femtosecond laser pulses in vitreous of the human eye. By methods of numerical simulation, we have solved a nonlinear spectral equation describing dynamics of two-dimensional TE-polarized radiation. The solution was performed in a homogeneous isotropic medium with instantaneous cubic nonlinearity without using slowly varying envelope approximation. For simulation we used medium with parameters close to the optical media of the eye. The model of femtosecond radiation takes into account the dynamics of the process of dispersion pulse broadening in time and occurrence of self-focusing of the retina when passing through vitreous body of the eye. The dependence between pulse duration on the retina and duration of the input pulse was found, as well as the values of power density at which self-focusing occurs. It was shown that the main mechanism of radiation damage caused while using Ti-sapphire laser is photoionization. The results coincide with the results obtained by other scientists. They can be used to create Russian laser safety standards for femtosecond laser systems.

  8. Homology of the eyeless gene of Drosophila to the Small eye gene in mice and Aniridia in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiring, R; Walldorf, U; Kloter, U; Gehring, W J

    1994-08-05

    A Drosophila gene that contains both a paired box and a homeobox and has extensive sequence homology to the mouse Pax-6 (Small eye) gene was isolated and mapped to chromosome IV in a region close to the eyeless locus. Two spontaneous mutations, ey2 and eyR, contain transposable element insertions into the cloned gene and affect gene expression, particularly in the eye primordia. This indicates that the cloned gene encodes ey. The finding that ey of Drosophila, Small eye of the mouse, and human Aniridia are encoded by homologous genes suggests that eye morphogenesis is under similar genetic control in both vertebrates and insects, in spite of the large differences in eye morphology and mode of development.

  9. Optics of the human cornea influence the accuracy of stereo eye-tracking methods: a simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsingerhorn, A D; Boonstra, F N; Goossens, H H L M

    2017-02-01

    Current stereo eye-tracking methods model the cornea as a sphere with one refractive surface. However, the human cornea is slightly aspheric and has two refractive surfaces. Here we used ray-tracing and the Navarro eye-model to study how these optical properties affect the accuracy of different stereo eye-tracking methods. We found that pupil size, gaze direction and head position all influence the reconstruction of gaze. Resulting errors range between ± 1.0 degrees at best. This shows that stereo eye-tracking may be an option if reliable calibration is not possible, but the applied eye-model should account for the actual optics of the cornea.

  10. Human head orientation and eye visibility as indicators of attention for goats (Capra hircus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawroth, Christian; McElligott, Alan G

    2017-01-01

    Animals domesticated for working closely with humans (e.g. dogs) have been shown to be remarkable in adjusting their behaviour to human attentional stance. However, there is little evidence for this form of information perception in species domesticated for production rather than companionship. We tested domestic ungulates (goats) for their ability to differentiate attentional states of humans. In the first experiment, we investigated the effect of body and head orientation of one human experimenter on approach behaviour by goats. Test subjects (N = 24) significantly changed their behaviour when the experimenter turned its back to the subjects, but did not take into account head orientation alone. In the second experiment, goats (N = 24) could choose to approach one of two experimenters, while only one was paying attention to them. Goats preferred to approach humans that oriented their body and head towards the subject, whereas head orientation alone had no effect on choice behaviour. In the third experiment, goats (N = 32) were transferred to a separate test arena and were rewarded for approaching two experimenters providing a food reward during training trials. In subsequent probe test trials, goats had to choose between the two experimenters differing in their attentional states. Like in Experiments 1 and 2, goats did not show a preference for the attentive person when the inattentive person turned her head away from the subject. In this last experiment, goats preferred to approach the attentive person compared to a person who closed their eyes or covered the whole face with a blind. However, goats showed no preference when one person covered only the eyes. Our results show that animals bred for production rather than companionship show differences in their approach and choice behaviour depending on human attentive state. However, our results contrast with previous findings regarding the use of the head orientation to attribute attention and show the importance

  11. Dry Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eye > Facts About Dry Eye Facts About Dry Eye This information was developed by the National Eye ... the best person to answer specific questions. Dry Eye Defined What is dry eye? Dry eye occurs ...

  12. Eye Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Eye Allergies Sections What Are Eye Allergies? Eye Allergy Symptoms ... allergy diagnosis Eye allergy treatment What Are Eye Allergies? Written by: David Turbert Reviewed by: Brenda Pagan- ...

  13. Speed and Vibration Performance as well as Obstacle Avoidance Performance of Electric Wheel Chair Controlled by Human Eyes Only

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Arai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Speed and vibration performance as well as obstacle avoidance performance of the previously proposed Electric Wheel Chair: EWC controlled by human eyes only is conducted. Experimental results show acceptable performances of speed vibration performance as well as obstacle avoidance performance for disabled persons. More importantly, disabled persons are satisfied with the proposed EWC because it works by their eyes only. Without hands and finger, they can control EWC freely.

  14. Expression of transforming growth factor-β2in vitreous body and adjacent tissues during prenatal development of human eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhikh, G T; Panova, I G; Smirnova, Yu A; Milyushina, L A; Firsova, N V; Markitantova, Yu V; Poltavtseva, R A; Zinov'eva, R D

    2010-12-01

    Expression of transforming growth factor-β2 was detected by PCR in the vitreous body, lens, retina, and ciliary-iris complex of human eye at early stages of fetal development. Immunochemical assay of the corresponding protein in eye tissues revealed a correlation between the localization of transforming growth factor-β2 and the development of intraocular hyaloid vascular network, its regression, formation of the vitreous body, and development of definite retinal vessels.

  15. Spatiotemporal Filter for Visual Motion Integration from Pursuit Eye Movements in Humans and Monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Trishna; Liu, Bing; Simoncini, Claudio; Osborne, Leslie C

    2017-02-08

    Despite the enduring interest in motion integration, a direct measure of the space-time filter that the brain imposes on a visual scene has been elusive. This is perhaps because of the challenge of estimating a 3D function from perceptual reports in psychophysical tasks. We take a different approach. We exploit the close connection between visual motion estimates and smooth pursuit eye movements to measure stimulus-response correlations across space and time, computing the linear space-time filter for global motion direction in humans and monkeys. Although derived from eye movements, we find that the filter predicts perceptual motion estimates quite well. To distinguish visual from motor contributions to the temporal duration of the pursuit motion filter, we recorded single-unit responses in the monkey middle temporal cortical area (MT). We find that pursuit response delays are consistent with the distribution of cortical neuron latencies and that temporal motion integration for pursuit is consistent with a short integration MT subpopulation. Remarkably, the visual system appears to preferentially weight motion signals across a narrow range of foveal eccentricities rather than uniformly over the whole visual field, with a transiently enhanced contribution from locations along the direction of motion. We find that the visual system is most sensitive to motion falling at approximately one-third the radius of the stimulus aperture. Hypothesizing that the visual drive for pursuit is related to the filtered motion energy in a motion stimulus, we compare measured and predicted eye acceleration across several other target forms.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT A compact model of the spatial and temporal processing underlying global motion perception has been elusive. We used visually driven smooth eye movements to find the 3D space-time function that best predicts both eye movements and perception of translating dot patterns. We found that the visual system does not appear to use

  16. Application of Fourier Domain OCT Imaging Technology to the Anterior Segment of the Human Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtkowski, Maciej; Marcos, Susana; Ortiz, Sergio; Grulkowski, Ireneusz

    The anterior segment is the front part of the human eye, which forms the optical system and hence directly impacts vision. Traumatic or pathological changes in the anterior segment may lead to vision loss and, in some cases, even blindness. Since the eighteenth century, optical instrumentation for measuring and imaging the anterior segment of the human eye has been developing along with modern ophthalmology. The application of OCT to the anterior segment imaging is particularly of interest, since this could potentially provide substantial complementary information regarding the large-scale architecture of the cornea and the crystalline lens, or on small portions of tissue imaged with high spatial resolutions comparable to regular microscopy. Especially an introduction of Fourier domain detection in OCT has opened new frontiers in OCT ophthalmic applications. The resultant substantial speed improvement enables rapid image acquisition, helping to reduce artifacts due to patient motion. Thus, it is currently possible to perform high-speed, in vivo, three-dimensional volumetric imaging over large scales within a reasonable time limit and without reducing system sensitivity. This chapter describes the state-of the art OCT technology dedicated to anterior segment imaging and indicates all important parameters which are required for optimization of the performance of OCT instrument.

  17. Mothers' perception of the use of banked human milk for feeding of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-05-18

    May 18, 2015 ... banking. Objective: To determine the per- ception of mothers towards breast milk banking in Benin .... Fear of Spouse and in-laws. 4. 2.4. Others. 26. 15.5 ... study, however, Mackenzie et al11 in South Australia recorded that ...

  18. FRACTIONAL BANKING

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Klimikova

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the reasons of the present financial problems lies In understanding the substance of fractional reserve banking. The substance of fractional banking is in lending more money than the bankers have. Banking of partial reserves is an alternative form which links deposit banking and credit banking. Fractional banking is causing many unfavorable economic impacts in the worldwide system, specifically an inflation.

  19. FRACTIONAL BANKING

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Klimikova

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the reasons of the present financial problems lies In understanding the substance of fractional reserve banking. The substance of fractional banking is in lending more money than the bankers have. Banking of partial reserves is an alternative form which links deposit banking and credit banking. Fractional banking is causing many unfavorable economic impacts in the worldwide system, specifically an inflation.

  20. [The management strategy of the Brazilian National Network of Human Milk Banks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Paulo Ricardo da Silva; Novak, Franz Reis; Almeida, João Aprígio Guerra de; Silva, Danielle Aparecida da

    2004-01-01

    The Brazilian National Network of Human Milk Banks (REDEBLH), with its headquarters in the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation in Rio de Janeiro, is experiencing rapid growth. The Network's activity has been acknowledged by the World Health Organization and received the Sasakawa Health Award in 2001 for best public health project. One of the main challenges is to ensure continuing development of competencies to respond to the needs arising from such growth. A new strategy is being pursued to deal with the Network's management issues. This article aims to develop a conceptual framework to contribute to the elaboration of a theoretical framework for new management strategies in the REDEBLH. Using such concepts, the aim is to draw on the typology of networks described in the specialized literature to identify the institutional profile of the REDEBLH. Based on the understanding that it is necessary to identify and understand the processes occurring within networks, and after which to consider management-related issues, the study used a proposal developed for the formation of innovation networks as its analytical tool.

  1. Objective straylight assessment of the human eye with a novel device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, Stefan; Schikowski, Patrick; Lerm, Elena; Kaeding, André; Klemm, Matthias; Haueisen, Jens; Baumgarten, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    Forward scattered light from the anterior segment of the human eye can be measured by Shack-Hartmann (SH) wavefront aberrometers with limited visual angle. We propose a novel Point Spread Function (PSF) reconstruction algorithm based on SH measurements with a novel measurement devise to overcome these limitations. In our optical setup, we use a Digital Mirror Device as variable field stop, which is conventionally a pinhole suppressing scatter and reflections. Images with 21 different stop diameters were captured and from each image the average subaperture image intensity and the average intensity of the pupil were computed. The 21 intensities represent integral values of the PSF which is consequently reconstructed by derivation with respect to the visual angle. A generalized form of the Stiles-Holladay-approximation is fitted to the PSF resulting in a stray light parameter Log(IS). Additionaly the transmission loss of eye is computed. For the proof of principle, a study on 13 healthy young volunteers was carried out. Scatter filters were positioned in front of the volunteer's eye during C-Quant and scatter measurements to generate straylight emulating scatter in the lens. The straylight parameter is compared to the C-Quant measurement parameter Log(ISC) and scatter density of the filters SDF with a partial correlation. Log(IS) shows significant correlation with the SDF and Log(ISC). The correlation is more prominent between Log(IS) combined with the transmission loss and the SDF and Log(ISC). Our novel measurement and reconstruction technique allow for objective stray light analysis of visual angles up to 4 degrees.

  2. Measuring higher order optical aberrations of the human eye: techniques and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Alberto V. Carvalho

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper we discuss the development of "wave-front", an instrument for determining the lower and higher optical aberrations of the human eye. We also discuss the advantages that such instrumentation and techniques might bring to the ophthalmology professional of the 21st century. By shining a small light spot on the retina of subjects and observing the light that is reflected back from within the eye, we are able to quantitatively determine the amount of lower order aberrations (astigmatism, myopia, hyperopia and higher order aberrations (coma, spherical aberration, etc.. We have measured artificial eyes with calibrated ametropia ranging from +5 to -5 D, with and without 2 D astigmatism with axis at 45º and 90º. We used a device known as the Hartmann-Shack (HS sensor, originally developed for measuring the optical aberrations of optical instruments and general refracting surfaces in astronomical telescopes. The HS sensor sends information to a computer software for decomposition of wave-front aberrations into a set of Zernike polynomials. These polynomials have special mathematical properties and are more suitable in this case than the traditional Seidel polynomials. We have demonstrated that this technique is more precise than conventional autorefraction, with a root mean square error (RMSE of less than 0.1 µm for a 4-mm diameter pupil. In terms of dioptric power this represents an RMSE error of less than 0.04 D and 5º for the axis. This precision is sufficient for customized corneal ablations, among other applications.

  3. Measurement of the topography of human cadaver lenses using the PAR corneal topography system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Viviana; Manns, Fabrice; Zipper, Stanley; Sandadi, Samith; Hamaoui, Marie; Tahi, Hassan; Ho, Arthur; Parel, Jean-Marie A.

    2001-06-01

    To measure the radius of curvature and asphericity of the anterior and posterior surfaces of crystalline lenses of human Eye-Bank eyes using the PAR Corneal Topography System. The measured values will be used in an optical model of the eye for lens refilling procedures.

  4. EyePhy: Detecting Dependencies in Cyber-Physical System Apps due to Human-in-the-Loop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirajum Munir

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available As app based paradigms are becoming popular, millions of apps are developed from many domains including energy, health, security, and entertainment. The US FDA expects that there will be 500 million smart phone users downloading healthcare related apps by 2015. Many of these apps are Cyber-Physical System (CPS apps. In addition to sensing, communication, and computation, they perform interventions to control human physiological parameters, which can cause dependency problems as multiple interventions of multiple apps can increase or decrease each others effects, some of which can be harmful to the user. Such dependency problems occur mainly because each app is unaware about how other apps work and when an app performs an intervention to control its target parameters, it may affect other physiological parameters without even knowing it. We present EyePhy, a system that detects dependencies across interventions by having a closer eye on the physiological parameters of the human in the loop. To do that, EyePhy uses a physiological simulator HumMod that can model the complex interactions of the human physiology using over 7800 variables. EyePhy reduces app developers’ efforts in specifying dependency metadata compared to state of the art solutions and offers personalized dependency analysis for the user. We demonstrate the magnitude of dependencies that arise during multiple interventions in a human body and the significant ability of detecting these dependencies using EyePhy.

  5. FDTD Computation of Human Eye Exposure to Ultra-wideband Electromagnetic Pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Simicevic, Neven

    2007-01-01

    With an increase in the application of ultra-wideband (UWB) electromagnetic pulses in the communications industry, radar, biotechnology and medicine, comes an interest in UWB exposure safety standards. Despite an increase of the scientific research on bioeffects of exposure to non-ionizing UWB pulses, characterization of those effects is far from complete. A numerical computational approach, such as a finite-difference time domain (FDTD) method, is required to visualize and understand the complexity of broadband electromagnetic interactions. The FDTD method has almost no limits in the description of the geometrical and dispersive properties of the simulated material, it is numerically robust and appropriate for current computer technology. In this paper, a complete calculation of exposure of the human eye to UWB electromagnetic pulses in the frequency range of 3.1-10.6, 22-29, and 57-64 GHz is performed. Computation in this frequency range required a geometrical resolution of the eye of $\\rm 0.1 \\: mm$ and an...

  6. Ion therapy for uveal melanoma in new human eye phantom based on GEANT4 toolkit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahdipour, Seyed Ali [Physics Department, Hakim Sabzevari University, Sabzevar (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mowlavi, Ali Asghar, E-mail: amowlavi@hsu.ac.ir [Physics Department, Hakim Sabzevari University, Sabzevar (Iran, Islamic Republic of); ICTP, Associate Federation Scheme, Medical Physics Field, Trieste (Italy)

    2016-07-01

    Radiotherapy with ion beams like proton and carbon has been used for treatment of eye uveal melanoma for many years. In this research, we have developed a new phantom of human eye for Monte Carlo simulation of tumors treatment to use in GEANT4 toolkit. Total depth−dose profiles for the proton, alpha, and carbon incident beams with the same ranges have been calculated in the phantom. Moreover, the deposited energy of the secondary particles for each of the primary beams is calculated. The dose curves are compared for 47.8 MeV proton, 190.1 MeV alpha, and 1060 MeV carbon ions that have the same range in the target region reaching to the center of tumor. The passively scattered spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP) for each incident beam as well as the flux curves of the secondary particles including neutron, gamma, and positron has been calculated and compared for the primary beams. The high sharpness of carbon beam's Bragg peak with low lateral broadening is the benefit of this beam in hadrontherapy but it has disadvantages of dose leakage in the tail after its Bragg peak and high intensity of neutron production. However, proton beam, which has a good conformation with tumor shape owing to the beam broadening caused by scattering, can be a good choice for the large-size tumors.

  7. Use of Eye Tracking as an Innovative Instructional Method in Surgical Human Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Ferrer, María Luísa; Grima-Murcia, María Dolores; Sánchez-Ferrer, Francisco; Hernández-Peñalver, Ana Isabel; Fernández-Jover, Eduardo; Sánchez Del Campo, Francisco

    Tobii glasses can record corneal infrared light reflection to track pupil position and to map gaze focusing in the video recording. Eye tracking has been proposed for use in training and coaching as a visually guided control interface. The aim of our study was to test the potential use of these glasses in various situations: explanations of anatomical structures on tablet-type electronic devices, explanations of anatomical models and dissected cadavers, and during the prosection thereof. An additional aim of the study was to test the use of the glasses during laparoscopies performed on Thiel-embalmed cadavers (that allows pneumoinsufflation and exact reproduction of the laparoscopic surgical technique). The device was also tried out in actual surgery (both laparoscopy and open surgery). We performed a pilot study using the Tobii glasses. Dissection room at our School of Medicine and in the operating room at our Hospital. To evaluate usefulness, a survey was designed for use among students, instructors, and practicing physicians. The results were satisfactory, with the usefulness of this tool supported by more than 80% positive responses to most questions. There was no inconvenience for surgeons and that patient safety was ensured in the real laparoscopy. To our knowledge, this is the first publication to demonstrate the usefulness of eye tracking in practical instruction of human anatomy, as well as in teaching clinical anatomy and surgical techniques in the dissection and operating rooms. Copyright © 2017 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Tissue Distribution of trans-Resveratrol and Its Metabolites after Oral Administration in Human Eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuaishuai Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This study was performed to measure the concentration of trans-resveratrol and its three metabolites in human eyes. Methods. The patients who underwent pars plana vitrectomy for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment were included. The participants were orally given trans-resveratrol-based supplement (Longevinex®. A suitable amount of conjunctiva, aqueous humor, and vitreous humor were obtained during the operation. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC with mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS was used to detect the concentration of trans-resveratrol and its three metabolites in the various samples. Results. The average concentration of resveratrol in the conjunctiva was 17.19 ± 15.32 nmol/g (mean ± SD. The concentration of resveratrol in the aqueous humor was close to the limit of detection, but its metabolites could be quantified. The concentrations of resveratrol metabolites in the aqueous humor can be detected. In the vitreous humor, the average concentration of resveratrol-3-O-sulfate was 62.95 ± 41.97 nmol/L. The sulfate conjugations of resveratrol were recovered in the conjunctiva, aqueous humor, and vitreous humor. Conclusions. Resveratrol and its three metabolites can be detected in the ocular tissues after oral administration. Although the concentration of parent resveratrol was low in the eyes, its metabolites could be detected and may have a role in the treatment of ocular diseases.

  9. Simple, inexpensive technique for high-quality smartphone fundus photography in human and animal eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddock, Luis J; Kim, David Y; Mukai, Shizuo

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. We describe in detail a relatively simple technique of fundus photography in human and rabbit eyes using a smartphone, an inexpensive app for the smartphone, and instruments that are readily available in an ophthalmic practice. Methods. Fundus images were captured with a smartphone and a 20D lens with or without a Koeppe lens. By using the coaxial light source of the phone, this system works as an indirect ophthalmoscope that creates a digital image of the fundus. The application whose software allows for independent control of focus, exposure, and light intensity during video filming was used. With this app, we recorded high-definition videos of the fundus and subsequently extracted high-quality, still images from the video clip. Results. The described technique of smartphone fundus photography was able to capture excellent high-quality fundus images in both children under anesthesia and in awake adults. Excellent images were acquired with the 20D lens alone in the clinic, and the addition of the Koeppe lens in the operating room resulted in the best quality images. Successful photodocumentation of rabbit fundus was achieved in control and experimental eyes. Conclusion. The currently described system was able to take consistently high-quality fundus photographs in patients and in animals using readily available instruments that are portable with simple power sources. It is relatively simple to master, is relatively inexpensive, and can take advantage of the expanding mobile-telephone networks for telemedicine.

  10. Ion therapy for uveal melanoma in new human eye phantom based on GEANT4 toolkit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdipour, Seyed Ali; Mowlavi, Ali Asghar

    2016-01-01

    Radiotherapy with ion beams like proton and carbon has been used for treatment of eye uveal melanoma for many years. In this research, we have developed a new phantom of human eye for Monte Carlo simulation of tumors treatment to use in GEANT4 toolkit. Total depth-dose profiles for the proton, alpha, and carbon incident beams with the same ranges have been calculated in the phantom. Moreover, the deposited energy of the secondary particles for each of the primary beams is calculated. The dose curves are compared for 47.8MeV proton, 190.1MeV alpha, and 1060MeV carbon ions that have the same range in the target region reaching to the center of tumor. The passively scattered spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP) for each incident beam as well as the flux curves of the secondary particles including neutron, gamma, and positron has been calculated and compared for the primary beams. The high sharpness of carbon beam׳s Bragg peak with low lateral broadening is the benefit of this beam in hadrontherapy but it has disadvantages of dose leakage in the tail after its Bragg peak and high intensity of neutron production. However, proton beam, which has a good conformation with tumor shape owing to the beam broadening caused by scattering, can be a good choice for the large-size tumors.

  11. Fast ray-tracing of human eye optics on Graphics Processing Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qi; Patkar, Saket; Pai, Dinesh K

    2014-05-01

    We present a new technique for simulating retinal image formation by tracing a large number of rays from objects in three dimensions as they pass through the optic apparatus of the eye to objects. Simulating human optics is useful for understanding basic questions of vision science and for studying vision defects and their corrections. Because of the complexity of computing such simulations accurately, most previous efforts used simplified analytical models of the normal eye. This makes them less effective in modeling vision disorders associated with abnormal shapes of the ocular structures which are hard to be precisely represented by analytical surfaces. We have developed a computer simulator that can simulate ocular structures of arbitrary shapes, for instance represented by polygon meshes. Topographic and geometric measurements of the cornea, lens, and retina from keratometer or medical imaging data can be integrated for individualized examination. We utilize parallel processing using modern Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) to efficiently compute retinal images by tracing millions of rays. A stable retinal image can be generated within minutes. We simulated depth-of-field, accommodation, chromatic aberrations, as well as astigmatism and correction. We also show application of the technique in patient specific vision correction by incorporating geometric models of the orbit reconstructed from clinical medical images. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Simple, Inexpensive Technique for High-Quality Smartphone Fundus Photography in Human and Animal Eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis J. Haddock

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. We describe in detail a relatively simple technique of fundus photography in human and rabbit eyes using a smartphone, an inexpensive app for the smartphone, and instruments that are readily available in an ophthalmic practice. Methods. Fundus images were captured with a smartphone and a 20D lens with or without a Koeppe lens. By using the coaxial light source of the phone, this system works as an indirect ophthalmoscope that creates a digital image of the fundus. The application whose software allows for independent control of focus, exposure, and light intensity during video filming was used. With this app, we recorded high-definition videos of the fundus and subsequently extracted high-quality, still images from the video clip. Results. The described technique of smartphone fundus photography was able to capture excellent high-quality fundus images in both children under anesthesia and in awake adults. Excellent images were acquired with the 20D lens alone in the clinic, and the addition of the Koeppe lens in the operating room resulted in the best quality images. Successful photodocumentation of rabbit fundus was achieved in control and experimental eyes. Conclusion. The currently described system was able to take consistently high-quality fundus photographs in patients and in animals using readily available instruments that are portable with simple power sources. It is relatively simple to master, is relatively inexpensive, and can take advantage of the expanding mobile-telephone networks for telemedicine.

  13. Characterization of human retinal vessel arborisation in normal and amblyopic eyes using multifractal analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Tălu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To characterize the human retinal vessel arborisation in normal and amblyopic eyes using multifractal geometry and lacunarity parameters.METHODS:Multifractal analysis using a box counting algorithm was carried out for a set of 12 segmented and skeletonized human retinal images, corresponding to both normal (6 images and amblyopia states of the retina (6 images.RESULTS:It was found that the microvascular geometry of the human retina network represents geometrical multifractals, characterized through subsets of regions having different scaling properties that are not evident in the fractal analysis. Multifractal analysis of the amblyopia images (segmented and skeletonized versions show a higher average of the generalized dimensions (Dq for q=0, 1, 2 indicating a higher degree of the tree-dimensional complexity associated with the human retinal microvasculature network whereas images of healthy subjects show a lower value of generalized dimensions indicating normal complexity of biostructure. On the other hand, the lacunarity analysis of the amblyopia images (segmented and skeletonized versions show a lower average of the lacunarity parameter Λ than the corresponding values for normal images (segmented and skeletonized versions.CONCLUSION:The multifractal and lacunarity analysis may be used as a non-invasive predictive complementary tool to distinguish amblyopic subjects from healthy subjects and hence this technique could be used for an early diagnosis of patients with amblyopia.

  14. Characterization of human retinal vessel arborisation in normal and amblyopic eyes using multifractal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tălu, Stefan; Vlăduţiu, Cristina; Lupaşcu, Carmen A

    2015-01-01

    To characterize the human retinal vessel arborisation in normal and amblyopic eyes using multifractal geometry and lacunarity parameters. Multifractal analysis using a box counting algorithm was carried out for a set of 12 segmented and skeletonized human retinal images, corresponding to both normal (6 images) and amblyopia states of the retina (6 images). It was found that the microvascular geometry of the human retina network represents geometrical multifractals, characterized through subsets of regions having different scaling properties that are not evident in the fractal analysis. Multifractal analysis of the amblyopia images (segmented and skeletonized versions) show a higher average of the generalized dimensions (Dq ) for q=0, 1, 2 indicating a higher degree of the tree-dimensional complexity associated with the human retinal microvasculature network whereas images of healthy subjects show a lower value of generalized dimensions indicating normal complexity of biostructure. On the other hand, the lacunarity analysis of the amblyopia images (segmented and skeletonized versions) show a lower average of the lacunarity parameter Λ than the corresponding values for normal images (segmented and skeletonized versions). The multifractal and lacunarity analysis may be used as a non-invasive predictive complementary tool to distinguish amblyopic subjects from healthy subjects and hence this technique could be used for an early diagnosis of patients with amblyopia.

  15. Eye Dominance Predicts fMRI Signals in Human Retinotopic Cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Mendola, Janine D; Conner, Ian P.

    2006-01-01

    There have been many attempts to define eye dominance in normal subjects, but limited consensus exists, and relevant physiological data is scarce. In this study, we consider two different behavioral methods for assignment of eye dominance, and how well they predict fMRI signals evoked by monocular stimulation. Sighting eye dominance was assessed with two standard tests, the Porta Test, and a ‘hole in hand’ variation of the Miles Test. Acuity dominance was tested with a standard eye chart and ...

  16. An exploratory study on the driving method of speech synthesis based on the human eye reading imaging data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Pei-pei; Liu, Feng

    2016-10-01

    With the development of information technology and artificial intelligence, speech synthesis plays a significant role in the fields of Human-Computer Interaction Techniques. However, the main problem of current speech synthesis techniques is lacking of naturalness and expressiveness so that it is not yet close to the standard of natural language. Another problem is that the human-computer interaction based on the speech synthesis is too monotonous to realize mechanism of user subjective drive. This thesis introduces the historical development of speech synthesis and summarizes the general process of this technique. It is pointed out that prosody generation module is an important part in the process of speech synthesis. On the basis of further research, using eye activity rules when reading to control and drive prosody generation was introduced as a new human-computer interaction method to enrich the synthetic form. In this article, the present situation of speech synthesis technology is reviewed in detail. Based on the premise of eye gaze data extraction, using eye movement signal in real-time driving, a speech synthesis method which can express the real speech rhythm of the speaker is proposed. That is, when reader is watching corpora with its eyes in silent reading, capture the reading information such as the eye gaze duration per prosodic unit, and establish a hierarchical prosodic pattern of duration model to determine the duration parameters of synthesized speech. At last, after the analysis, the feasibility of the above method is verified.

  17. Bona fide colour: DNA prediction of human eye and hair colour from ancient and contemporary skeletal remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draus-Barini, Jolanta; Walsh, Susan; Pośpiech, Ewelina; Kupiec, Tomasz; Głąb, Henryk; Branicki, Wojciech; Kayser, Manfred

    2013-01-14

    DNA analysis of ancient skeletal remains is invaluable in evolutionary biology for exploring the history of species, including humans. Contemporary human bones and teeth, however, are relevant in forensic DNA analyses that deal with the identification of perpetrators, missing persons, disaster victims or family relationships. They may also provide useful information towards unravelling controversies that surround famous historical individuals. Retrieving information about a deceased person's externally visible characteristics can be informative in both types of DNA analyses. Recently, we demonstrated that human eye and hair colour can be reliably predicted from DNA using the HIrisPlex system. Here we test the feasibility of the novel HIrisPlex system at establishing eye and hair colour of deceased individuals from skeletal remains of various post-mortem time ranges and storage conditions. Twenty-one teeth between 1 and approximately 800 years of age and 5 contemporary bones were subjected to DNA extraction using standard organic protocol followed by analysis using the HIrisPlex system. Twenty-three out of 26 bone DNA extracts yielded the full 24 SNP HIrisPlex profile, therefore successfully allowing model-based eye and hair colour prediction. HIrisPlex analysis of a tooth from the Polish general Władysław Sikorski (1881 to 1943) revealed blue eye colour and blond hair colour, which was positively verified from reliable documentation. The partial profiles collected in the remaining three cases (two contemporary samples and a 14th century sample) were sufficient for eye colour prediction. Overall, we demonstrate that the HIrisPlex system is suitable, sufficiently sensitive and robust to successfully predict eye and hair colour from ancient and contemporary skeletal remains. Our findings, therefore, highlight the HIrisPlex system as a promising tool in future routine forensic casework involving skeletal remains, including ancient DNA studies, for the prediction of

  18. Adaptive correction of human-eye aberrations in a subjective feedback loop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vdovin, G; Loktev, M; Simonov, A; Kijko, V; Volkov, S

    2005-04-01

    An adaptive optical system with a subjective feedback loop is used to improve the visual acuity and to determine the aberrations of the human eye. Corrections of as many as 12 low-order aberration modes were made, based on the perceived sharpness of the test object observed through the adaptive optical system. The acuity of vision was improved by adjustment of the weights of the orthogonal modes produced by a deformable mirror. Objective measurements of the correcting aspherical figures, obtained in independent subjective correction cycles for one person, demonstrated good repeatability. Participants in the study with strong ocular aberrations reported moderate to significant improvement of their visual acuity, estimated with the U.S. Air Force 1951 acuity chart.

  19. Particulate matter contamination in the corneal stroma of severe eye burns in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrage, N.F.; Reim, M.; Burchard, W.G. (Department of Ophthalmology, RWTH-Aachen (Germany))

    1990-01-01

    Corneal buttons obtained from keratoplasty were examined by energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDXA) combined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). This method enables to assay the mineral composition of minute parts of tissue samples identified in SEM images. Samples were cut from paraffin embedded corneae, deparaffinized in xylol, dried in aceton, critical-point desiccated, covered by evaporating with a thin layer of carbon and examined by SEM. In healthy human donor eyes, only some iron particles had been found. In the 22 patients samples high amounts of different particles were identified, materials from rubber stoppers, chromesteel, titanium pigments, talcum, barium and glass. Furthermore a lot of different metal particles containing varying amounts of Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Cr, Zn, La and Ce were detected. Some particles may be caused by the initial trauma, others by therapy. Such contaminations might have supported leucocyte and fibrocyte invasion increasing the inflammatory reaction in the burnt cornea.

  20. Radiocarbon dating of the human eye lens crystallines reveal proteins without carbon turnover throughout life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, Niels; Kjeldsen, Henrik; Heegaard, Steffen

    2008-01-01

    , there is no subsequent remodelling of these fibers, nor removal of degraded lens fibers. Human tissue ultimately derives its (14)C content from the atmospheric carbon dioxide. The (14)C content of the lens proteins thus reflects the atmospheric content of (14)C when the lens crystallines were formed. Precise radiocarbon...... on a yearly basis this allows very accurate dating. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our results allow us to conclude that the crystalline formation in the lens nucleus almost entirely takes place around the time of birth, with a very small, and decreasing, continuous formation throughout life. The close...... that the eye lens is a soft structure, subjected to almost continuous deformation, due to lens accommodation, yet its most important constituent, the lens crystalline, is never subject to turnover or remodelling once formed. The determination of the (14)C content of various tissues may be used to assess...

  1. Human exposure to acrolein: Time-dependence and individual variation in eye irritation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claeson, Anna-Sara; Lind, Nina

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the time dependence on sensory irritation detection following exposure to threshold levels of acrolein, in humans. The exposures occurred in an exposure chamber and the subjects were breathing fresh air through a mask that covered the nose and mouth. All participants participated in four exposure conditions, of which three consisted of a mixture of acrolein and heptane and one of only heptane. Exposure to acrolein at a concentration half of the TLV-C lead to sensory irritation. The perceived sensory irritation resulted in both increased detectability and sensory irritation after about 6.8min of exposure in 58% of the participants. The study confirm the previously suggested LOAEL of about 0.34mg/m(3) for eye irritation due to acrolein exposure. The sensory irritation was still significant 10min after exposure. These results have implications for risk assessment and limit setting in occupational hygiene.

  2. Computer-aided geometric modeling of the human eye and orbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parshall, R F

    1991-01-01

    The author advocates, as a long-term development agenda for the profession, a shift in the working methods of medical illustrators from a two-dimensional image processing mode to a computer-aided design and drafting (CADD) mode. Existing CADD technology, which can make short work of the complex graphic construction problems of anatomical visualization, performs virtually all of its manipulations through systematic exercise of graphic geometry which illustrators tend to reduce to an intuitive, almost vestigial supplement to 2D image processing methods. The primary barrier to the immediate use of CADD is a lack of geometric database materials on anatomical component systems of the body. An on-going experimental project in modeling the human eye and orbit, utilizing a Silicon Graphics Iris workstation and Control Data Corporation's Integrated Computerized Engineering and Manufacturing (ICEM) software, exemplifies the preparatory work needed to create such database materials.

  3. Effects of Different Zernike Terms on Optical Quality and Vision of Human Eyes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Hao-Xin; XU Bing; LI Jing; DAI Yun; YU Xiang; ZHANG Yu-Dong; JIANG Wen-Han

    2009-01-01

    The visual quality of human eyes is much restricted by high-order aberrations as well as low-order aberrations (defocus and astigmatism), but each term of high-order aberrations contributes differently. The visual acuity and contrast of the image on the retina can be gained by inducing aberrations to each term of high orders. Based on an adaptive optics system, the visual acuity of four subjects is tested by inducing aberrations to each Zernike term after correcting all the aberrations of the subjects. Zernike terms near the center of the Zernike tree affect visual quality more than those near the edge both theoretically and experimentally, and 0.1-μm aberration of these terms can clearly degrade the optical quality and vision. The results suggest that correcting the terms near the center of Zernike tree can improve the visual quality effectively in practice.

  4. Human regional cerebral glucose metabolism during non-rapid eye movement sleep in relation to waking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nofzinger, Eric A; Buysse, Daniel J; Miewald, Jean M; Meltzer, Carolyn C; Price, Julie C; Sembrat, Robert C; Ombao, Hernando; Reynolds, Charles F; Monk, Timothy H; Hall, Martica; Kupfer, David J; Moore, Robert Y

    2002-05-01

    Sleep is an essential human function. Although the function of sleep has generally been regarded to be restorative, recent data indicate that it also plays an important role in cognition. The neurobiology of human sleep is most effectively analysed with functional imaging, and PET studies have contributed substantially to our understanding of both rapid eye movement (REM) and non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. In this study, PET was used to determine patterns of regional glucose metabolism in NREM sleep compared with waking. We hypothesized that brain structures related to waking cognitive function would show a persistence of function into the NREM sleep state. Fourteen healthy subjects (age range 21-49 years; 10 women, 4 men) underwent concurrent EEG sleep studies and [(18)F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose PET scans during waking and NREM sleep. Whole-brain glucose metabolism declined significantly from waking to NREM sleep. Relative decreases in regional metabolism from waking to NREM sleep occurred in wide areas of frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital association cortex, primary visual cortex, and in anterior/dorsomedial thalamus. After controlling for the whole-brain declines in absolute metabolism, relative increases in regional metabolism from waking to NREM were found bilaterally in the dorsal pontine tegmentum, hypothalamus, basal forebrain, ventral striatum, anterior cingulate cortex and extensive regions of the mesial temporal lobe, including the amygdala and hippocampus, and in the right dorsal parietal association cortex and primary somatosensory and motor cortices. The reductions in relative metabolism in NREM sleep compared with waking are consistent with prior findings from blood flow studies. The relative increases in glucose utilization in the basal forebrain, hypothalamus, ventral striatum, amygdala, hippocampus and pontine reticular formation are new observations that are in accordance with the view that NREM sleep is important to brain

  5. Tissue banking in australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Lynette; McKelvie, Helen

    2003-01-01

    The legal structure for the regulation of tissue banking has existed for many years. In Australia, the donation of human tissue is regulated by legislation in each of the eight States and Territories. These substantially uniform Acts were passed in the late 1970's and early 1980's, based on model legislation and underpinned by the concept of consensual giving. However, it was not until the early 1990's that tissue banking came under the notice of regulatory authorities. Since then the Australian Government has moved quickly to oversee the tissue banking sector in Australia. Banked human tissue has been deemed to be a therapeutic good under the Therapeutic Goods Act 1989, and tissue banks are required to be licensed by the Therapeutic Goods Administration and are audited for compliance with the Code of Good Manufacturing Practice- Human Blood and Tissues. In addition, tissue banks must comply with a myriad of other standards, guidelines and recommendations.

  6. Radiocarbon dating of the human eye lens crystallines reveal proteins without carbon turnover throughout life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Lynnerup

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lens crystallines are special proteins in the eye lens. Because the epithelial basement membrane (lens capsule completely encloses the lens, desquamation of aging cells is impossible, and due to the complete absence of blood vessels or transport of metabolites in this area, there is no subsequent remodelling of these fibers, nor removal of degraded lens fibers. Human tissue ultimately derives its (14C content from the atmospheric carbon dioxide. The (14C content of the lens proteins thus reflects the atmospheric content of (14C when the lens crystallines were formed. Precise radiocarbon dating is made possible by comparing the (14C content of the lens crystallines to the so-called bomb pulse, i.e. a plot of the atmospheric (14C content since the Second World War, when there was a significant increase due to nuclear-bomb testing. Since the change in concentration is significant even on a yearly basis this allows very accurate dating. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our results allow us to conclude that the crystalline formation in the lens nucleus almost entirely takes place around the time of birth, with a very small, and decreasing, continuous formation throughout life. The close relationship may be further expressed as a mathematical model, which takes into account the timing of the crystalline formation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Such a life-long permanence of human tissue has hitherto only been described for dental enamel. In confront to dental enamel it must be held in mind that the eye lens is a soft structure, subjected to almost continuous deformation, due to lens accommodation, yet its most important constituent, the lens crystalline, is never subject to turnover or remodelling once formed. The determination of the (14C content of various tissues may be used to assess turnover rates and degree of substitution (for example for brain cell DNA. Potential targets may be nervous tissues in terms of senile or pre

  7. OCT Study of Mechanical Properties Associated with Trabecular Meshwork and Collector Channel Motion in Human Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Chen; Johnstone, Murray; Wang, Ningli; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2016-01-01

    We report the use of a high-resolution optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging platform to identify and quantify pressure-dependent aqueous outflow system (AOS) tissue relationships and to infer mechanical stiffness through examination of tissue properties in ex vivo human eyes. Five enucleated human eyes are included in this study, with each eye prepared with four equal-sized quadrants, each encompassing 90 degrees of the limbal circumference. In radial limbal segments perfusion pressure within Schlemm’s canal (SC) is controlled by means of a perfusion cannula inserted into the canal lumen, while the other end of the cannula leads to a reservoir at a height that can control the pressure in the cannula. The OCT system images the sample with a spatial resolution of about 5 μm from the trabecular meshwork (TM) surface. Geometric parameters are quantified from the 2D OCT images acquired from the sample subjected to controlled changes in perfusion pressures; parameters include area and height of the lumen of SC, collector channel entrances (CCE) and intrascleral collector channels (ISCC). We show that 3D OCT imaging permits the identification of 3-D relationships of the SC, CCE and ISCC lumen dimensions. Collagen flaps or leaflets are found at CCE that are attached or hinged at only one end, whilst the flaps are connected to the TM by cylindrical structures spanning SC. Increasing static SC pressures resulted in SC lumen enlargement with corresponding enlargement of the CCE and ISCC lumen. Pressure-dependent SC lumen area and height changes are significant at the 0.01 levels for ANOVA, and at the 0.05 for both polynomial curves and Tukey paired comparisons. Dynamic measurements demonstrate a synchronous increase in SC, CCE and ISCC lumen height in response to pressure changes from 0 to 10, 30 or 50 mm Hg, respectively, and the response time is within the 50-millisecond range. From the measured SC volume and corresponding IOP values, we demonstrate that an

  8. A new measurement method for color discrimination thresholds of human eyes based on PWM light-mixing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiyan; Dong, Jinxin

    2016-09-01

    The color discrimination is a powerful tool for detection of eye diseases, and it is is necessary to produce different kinds of color rapidly and precisely for testing color discrimination thresholds of human eyes. Three channels' pulse-width modulation (PWM) and light-mixing technology is a new way to mixing color, and a new measurement method for color discrimination thresholds of human eyes based on PWM light-mix technology can generate kinds of color stimuli. In this study, 5 youth volunteers were measured via this equipment after the test for the stability of the device's illumination and chrominance. Though the theory of Macadam ellipses and the interleaved staircase method, a psychophysical experiment was made to study the color discrimination threshold of the human eyes around a basic color center. By analyzing the data of the chromatic ellipse and the color discrimination threshold, the result shows that each color is not uniform in a single color region and the color difference threshold of normal human is around the third Macadam ellipses. The experimental results show that the repeatability and accuracy of the observer can meet the accuracy requirements of the relevant experiments, and the data is reliable and effective, which means the measurement method is an effective way to measure the color discrimination thresholds of human visual system.

  9. Towards free 3D end-point control for robotic-assisted human reaching using binocular eye tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maimon-Dror, Roni O; Fernandez-Quesada, Jorge; Zito, Giuseppe A; Konnaris, Charalambos; Dziemian, Sabine; Faisal, A Aldo

    2017-07-01

    Eye-movements are the only directly observable behavioural signals that are highly correlated with actions at the task level, and proactive of body movements and thus reflect action intentions. Moreover, eye movements are preserved in many movement disorders leading to paralysis (or amputees) from stroke, spinal cord injury, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, and muscular dystrophy among others. Despite this benefit, eye tracking is not widely used as control interface for robotic interfaces in movement impaired patients due to poor human-robot interfaces. We demonstrate here how combining 3D gaze tracking using our GT3D binocular eye tracker with custom designed 3D head tracking system and calibration method enables continuous 3D end-point control of a robotic arm support system. The users can move their own hand to any location of the workspace by simple looking at the target and winking once. This purely eye tracking based system enables the end-user to retain free head movement and yet achieves high spatial end point accuracy in the order of 6 cm RMSE error in each dimension and standard deviation of 4 cm. 3D calibration is achieved by moving the robot along a 3 dimensional space filling Peano curve while the user is tracking it with their eyes. This results in a fully automated calibration procedure that yields several thousand calibration points versus standard approaches using a dozen points, resulting in beyond state-of-the-art 3D accuracy and precision.

  10. Visual attention to plain and ornamented human bodies: an eye-tracking study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlrab, Silke; Fink, Bernhard; Pyritz, Lennart W; Rahlfs, Moritz; Kappeler, Peter M

    2007-06-01

    Signaling mate quality through visual adornments is a common phenomenon in animals and humans. However, humans are probably the only species who applies artificial ornaments. Such deliberate alterations of the skin, e.g., tattoos and scarring patterns, have been discussed by researchers as potential handicap signals, but there is still very little information about a potential biological signaling value of body modification. In this study eye-tracking was employed to investigate the signaling value of tattoos and other body modification. Measurement of gaze duration of 50 individuals while watching plain, scarred, accessorized, and tattooed bodies of artificial human images indicated that participants looked significantly longer at tattooed than at scarred, accessorized, and plain bodies. Generally, male participants paid more attention to tattooed stimuli of both sexes. More detailed analyses showed that particularly female tattooed stimuli were looked at longer. These findings are discussed within an evolutionary framework by suggesting that tattoos might have some signaling value which influences the perception of both male and female conspecifics and may hence also affect mating decisions.

  11. Retail Banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Szafarczyk

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The retail banking plays more and more important role in polish banking sector. There are several targets of this article. First of all is retail banking identification, both in Euroland and Poland. The next one trends, especially household deposits and credits and last retail banking in particular banks.

  12. Profile of Heart Donors from the Human Valve Bank of the Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Curitiba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Renata Maria; Costa, Marise Teresinha Brenner Affonso da; Canciglieri Junior, Osiris; Sant'Anna, Ângelo Márcio Oliveira

    2016-04-01

    Human heart valves are used as replacement valves and have satisfactory functional results compared with conventional prostheses. Characterize the profile of effective heart donors from the human valve bank of the santa casa de misericórdia de curitiba and analyze the association between the profile variables. It consists of a retrospective and quantitative study of electronic medical records from heart donors for heart valves. every heart donation made to the bank between january 2004 and december 2014 was studied. 2,149 donations were analyzed, from donors aged 0 to 71 years old, with an average of 34.9 ± 15.03 years old. most donors were male 65.7% (n=1,411) and 34.3% (n=738) were female. among the most frequent causes of the donors' death are trauma at 53% (n=1,139) and cerebral vascular accident at 34.2% (n=735). there was significant statistical association between the analyzed variables. There has been an improvement in brazil's donation rate, being essential that the tissue banks work together with the state and federal district centers for notification, procurement and distribution of organs in order to increase the number of donors.

  13. Investigating the impact of performance management on human resource performance across head offices of Agricultural bank branches in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir Hamid Reza Torabi Shahidi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Human resource is one of the most precious assets across contemporary organizations and companies. For this reason, enterprises have to invest on them to promote and improve their employees’ performance. An effective mechanism to develop corporate and human performance is to design and establish a system of performance management so that it improves employees’ performance by determining explicit organizational objectives and coordinating them with individual goals.Current work aims to determine the impact of performance management on human resource performance across head offices of Agricultural Bank branches in Tehran (the main goal and prioritize among performance management components and human resource performance components and also present some procedures to improve human performance using performance management components (sub-goals.

  14. A study on the effects of human resource management on making change within organization: A case study of banking industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Eyvazi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study to find the effects of human resource management on empowering employees in banking industry. The proposed study designs a questionnaire and distributes it among 243 randomly selected employees of the first Iranian private banks called Saman. There are four hypotheses in this survey. The first hypothesis investigates whether employment type influences customer satisfaction or not. The second hypothesis of the survey studies whether training as well as empowering employees could increase organizational commitment or not. The third hypothesis of the survey investigates whether there is a positive relationship between creating motivation as well as job security and profitability. Finally, the last hypothesis of this survey tries to find out whether there is a positive and meaningful relationship between leadership style and supplier satisfaction. The implementation of some statistical tests confirms all four hypotheses of the survey.

  15. Simultaneous recordings of human microsaccades and drifts with a contemporary video eye tracker and the search coil technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael B McCamy

    Full Text Available Human eyes move continuously, even during visual fixation. These "fixational eye movements" (FEMs include microsaccades, intersaccadic drift and oculomotor tremor. Research in human FEMs has grown considerably in the last decade, facilitated by the manufacture of noninvasive, high-resolution/speed video-oculography eye trackers. Due to the small magnitude of FEMs, obtaining reliable data can be challenging, however, and depends critically on the sensitivity and precision of the eye tracking system. Yet, no study has conducted an in-depth comparison of human FEM recordings obtained with the search coil (considered the gold standard for measuring microsaccades and drift and with contemporary, state-of-the art video trackers. Here we measured human microsaccades and drift simultaneously with the search coil and a popular state-of-the-art video tracker. We found that 95% of microsaccades detected with the search coil were also detected with the video tracker, and 95% of microsaccades detected with video tracking were also detected with the search coil, indicating substantial agreement between the two systems. Peak/mean velocities and main sequence slopes of microsaccades detected with video tracking were significantly higher than those of the same microsaccades detected with the search coil, however. Ocular drift was significantly correlated between the two systems, but drift speeds were higher with video tracking than with the search coil. Overall, our combined results suggest that contemporary video tracking now approaches the search coil for measuring FEMs.

  16. Simultaneous recordings of human microsaccades and drifts with a contemporary video eye tracker and the search coil technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCamy, Michael B; Otero-Millan, Jorge; Leigh, R John; King, Susan A; Schneider, Rosalyn M; Macknik, Stephen L; Martinez-Conde, Susana

    2015-01-01

    Human eyes move continuously, even during visual fixation. These "fixational eye movements" (FEMs) include microsaccades, intersaccadic drift and oculomotor tremor. Research in human FEMs has grown considerably in the last decade, facilitated by the manufacture of noninvasive, high-resolution/speed video-oculography eye trackers. Due to the small magnitude of FEMs, obtaining reliable data can be challenging, however, and depends critically on the sensitivity and precision of the eye tracking system. Yet, no study has conducted an in-depth comparison of human FEM recordings obtained with the search coil (considered the gold standard for measuring microsaccades and drift) and with contemporary, state-of-the art video trackers. Here we measured human microsaccades and drift simultaneously with the search coil and a popular state-of-the-art video tracker. We found that 95% of microsaccades detected with the search coil were also detected with the video tracker, and 95% of microsaccades detected with video tracking were also detected with the search coil, indicating substantial agreement between the two systems. Peak/mean velocities and main sequence slopes of microsaccades detected with video tracking were significantly higher than those of the same microsaccades detected with the search coil, however. Ocular drift was significantly correlated between the two systems, but drift speeds were higher with video tracking than with the search coil. Overall, our combined results suggest that contemporary video tracking now approaches the search coil for measuring FEMs.

  17. An Interactive Method for Teaching Anatomy of the Human Eye for Medical Students in Ophthalmology Clinical Rotations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivell, Tracy L.; Doyle, Sara K.; Madden, Richard H.; Mitchell, Terry L.; Sims, Ershela L.

    2009-01-01

    Much research has shown the benefits of additional anatomical learning and dissection beyond the first year of medical school human gross anatomy, all the way through postgraduate medical training. We have developed an interactive method for teaching eye and orbit anatomy to medical students in their ophthalmology rotation at Duke University…

  18. Oxygen Tension in the Aqueous Humor of Human Eyes under Different Oxygenation Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Sharifipour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To measure oxygen tension in the aqueous humor of human eyes under different oxygenation conditions. Methods: This prospective comparative interventional case series consisted of two parts. In the first part, 120 consecutive patients scheduled for cataract surgery were randomized into group I (control group in which surgery was performed under local anesthesia inhaling 21% oxygen; group II in whom general anesthesia using 50% oxygen was employed; and group III receiving general anesthesia with 100% oxygen. After aspirating 0.2 ml aqueous humor under sterile conditions, the aqueous sample and a simultaneously drawn arterial blood sample were immediately analyzed using a blood gas analyzer. In part II the same procedures were performed in 10 patients after fitting a contact lens and patching the eye for 20 minutes (group IV and in 10 patients after transcorneal delivery of oxygen at a flow rate of 5 L/min (group V. Results: Mean aqueous PO2 in groups I, II and III was 112.3±6.2, 141.1±20.4, and 170.1±27 mmHg, respectively (P values <0.001 and mean arterial PO2 was 85.7±7.9, 184.6±46, and 379.1±75.9 mmHg, respectively (P values <0.001. Aqueous PO2 was 77.2±9.2 mmHg in group IV and 152.3±10.9 mmHg in group V (P values <0.001. There was a significant correlation between aqueous and blood PO2 (r=0.537, P<0.001. The contribution of atmospheric oxygen to aqueous PO2 was 23.7%. Conclusion: Aqueous oxygen tension is mostly dependent on the systemic circulation and in part on the atmosphere. Increasing inspiratory oxygen and transcorneal oxygen delivery both increase aqueous PO2 levels.

  19. Optical imaging of the chorioretinal vasculature in the living human eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae Yu; Fingler, Jeff; Zawadzki, Robert J; Park, Susanna S; Morse, Lawrence S; Schwartz, Daniel M; Fraser, Scott E; Werner, John S

    2013-08-27

    Detailed visualization of microvascular changes in the human retina is clinically limited by the capabilities of angiography imaging, a 2D fundus photograph that requires an intravenous injection of fluorescent dye. Whereas current angiography methods enable visualization of some retinal capillary detail, they do not adequately reveal the choriocapillaris or other microvascular features beneath the retina. We have developed a noninvasive microvascular imaging technique called phase-variance optical coherence tomography (pvOCT), which identifies vasculature three dimensionally through analysis of data acquired with OCT systems. The pvOCT imaging method is not only capable of generating capillary perfusion maps for the retina, but it can also use the 3D capabilities to segment the data in depth to isolate vasculature in different layers of the retina and choroid. This paper demonstrates some of the capabilities of pvOCT imaging of the anterior layers of choroidal vasculature of a healthy normal eye as well as of eyes with geographic atrophy (GA) secondary to age-related macular degeneration. The pvOCT data presented permit digital segmentation to produce 2D depth-resolved images of the retinal vasculature, the choriocapillaris, and the vessels in Sattler's and Haller's layers. Comparisons are presented between en face projections of pvOCT data within the superficial choroid and clinical angiography images for regions of GA. Abnormalities and vascular dropout observed within the choriocapillaris for pvOCT are compared with regional GA progression. The capability of pvOCT imaging of the microvasculature of the choriocapillaris and the anterior choroidal vasculature has the potential to become a unique tool to evaluate therapies and understand the underlying mechanisms of age-related macular degeneration progression.

  20. Internet Banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felician ALECU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Internet Banking (known also as online banking allows performing transactions and payments over the internet through a bank's secure website. This can be very useful, especially for banking outside bank hours (which tend to be very short and banking from anywhere where internet access is available. In most cases a web browser such as Internet Explorer or Mozilla Firefox is utilized and any normal internet connection is suitable. No special software or hardware is usually needed.

  1. Analysis of the learning curve for pre-cut corneal specimens in preparation for lamellar transplantation: a prospective, single-centre, consecutive case series prepared at the Lions New South Wales Eye Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Aifric Isabel; Devasahayam, Rajnesh; Hodge, Christopher; Cooper, Simon; Sutton, Gerard L

    2017-03-06

    This study is the first paper to establish a learning curve by a single technician. Preparation of pre-cut corneal endothelial grafts commenced at Lions New South Wales Eye Bank in December 2014. The primary objective of this study was to review the safety and reliability of the preparation method during the first year of production. This is a hospital-based, prospective case series. There were 234 consecutive donor corneal lenticules. Donor lenticules were prepared by a single operator using a linear cutting microkeratome. Immediately prior to cutting, central corneal thickness values were recorded. Measurements of the corneal bed were taken immediately following lenticule preparation. Outcomes were separated by blade sizes, and intended thickness was compared to actual thickness for each setting. Early specimens were compared to later ones to assess for a learning curve within the technique. The main parameter measured is the mean difference from intended lamellar cut thickness. The mean final cut thickness was 122.36 ± 20.35 μm, and the mean difference from intended cut was 30.17 ± 37.45 μm. No significant difference was found between results achieved with early specimens versus those achieved with later specimens (P = 0.425). Thin, reproducible endothelial grafts can routinely be produced by trained technicians at their respective eye banks without significant concerns for an extended learning curve. This service can reduce perioperative surgical complexity, required surgical paraphernalia and theatre times. The consistent preparation of single-pass, ultrathin pre-cut corneas may have additional advantages for surgeons seeking to introduce lamellar techniques. © 2017 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  2. A novel device for head gesture measurement system in combination with eye-controlled human machine interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chern-Sheng; Ho, Chien-Wa; Chang, Kai-Chieh; Hung, San-Shan; Shei, Hung-Jung; Yeh, Mau-Shiun

    2006-06-01

    This study describes the design and combination of an eye-controlled and a head-controlled human-machine interface system. This system is a highly effective human-machine interface, detecting head movement by changing positions and numbers of light sources on the head. When the users utilize the head-mounted display to browse a computer screen, the system will catch the images of the user's eyes with CCD cameras, which can also measure the angle and position of the light sources. In the eye-tracking system, the program in the computer will locate each center point of the pupils in the images, and record the information on moving traces and pupil diameters. In the head gesture measurement system, the user wears a double-source eyeglass frame, so the system catches images of the user's head by using a CCD camera in front of the user. The computer program will locate the center point of the head, transferring it to the screen coordinates, and then the user can control the cursor by head motions. We combine the eye-controlled and head-controlled human-machine interface system for the virtual reality applications.

  3. Eye redness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloodshot eyes; Red eyes; Scleral injection; Conjunctival injection ... There are many causes of a red eye or eyes. Some are medical emergencies. Others are a cause for concern, but not an emergency. Many are nothing to worry about. Eye ...

  4. Genetic defects of GDF6 in the zebrafish out of sight mutant and in human eye developmental anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    den Hollander Anneke I

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The size of the vertebrate eye and the retina is likely to be controlled at several stages of embryogenesis by mechanisms that affect cell cycle length as well as cell survival. A mutation in the zebrafish out of sight (out locus results in a particularly severe reduction of eye size. The goal of this study is to characterize the outm233 mutant, and to determine whether mutations in the out gene cause microphthalmia in humans. Results In this study, we show that the severe reduction of eye size in the outm233 mutant is caused by a mutation in the zebrafish gdf6a gene. Despite the small eye size, the overall retinal architecture appears largely intact, and immunohistochemical studies confirm that all major cell types are present in outm233 retinae. Subtle cell fate and patterning changes are present predominantly in amacrine interneurons. Acridine orange and TUNEL staining reveal that the levels of apoptosis are abnormally high in outm233 mutant eyes during early neurogenesis. Mutation analysis of the GDF6 gene in 200 patients with microphthalmia revealed amino acid substitutions in four of them. In two patients additional skeletal defects were observed. Conclusions This study confirms the essential role of GDF6 in the regulation of vertebrate eye size. The reduced eye size in the zebrafish outm233 mutant is likely to be caused by a transient wave of apoptosis at the onset of neurogenesis. Amino acid substitutions in GDF6 were detected in 4 (2% of 200 patients with microphthalmia. In two patients different skeletal defects were also observed, suggesting pleitrophic effects of GDF6 variants. Parents carrying these variants are asymptomatic, suggesting that GDF6 sequence alterations are likely to contribute to the phenotype, but are not the sole cause of the disease. Variable expressivity and penetrance suggest a complex non-Mendelian inheritance pattern where other genetic factors may influence the outcome of the phenotype.

  5. Procurement of Human Tissues for Research Banking in the Surgical Pathology Laboratory: Prioritization Practices at Washington University Medical Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernock, Rebecca D.; Leach, Tracey A.; Kahn, Ajaz A.; Yip, James H.; Rossi, Joan; Pfeifer, John D.

    2011-01-01

    Academic hospitals and medical schools with research tissue repositories often derive many of their internal human specimen acquisitions from their site's surgical pathology service. Typically, such acquisitions come from appropriately consented tissue discards sampled from surgical resections. Because the practice of surgical pathology has patient care as its primary mission, competing needs for tissue inevitably arise, with the requirement to preserve adequate tissue for clinical diagnosis being paramount. A set of best-practice gross pathology guidelines are summarized here, focused on the decision for tissue banking at the time specimens are macroscopically evaluated. These reflect our collective experience at Washington University School of Medicine, and are written from the point of view of our site biorepository. The involvement of trained pathology personnel in such procurements is very important. These guidelines reflect both good surgical pathology practice (including the pathologic features characteristic of various anatomic sites) and the typical objectives of research biorepositories. The guidelines should be helpful to tissue bank directors, and others charged with the procurement of tissues for general research purposes. We believe that appreciation of these principles will facilitate the partnership between surgical pathologists and biorepository directors, and promote both good patient care and strategic, value-added banking procurements. PMID:23386925

  6. What the human eye tells the brain: a new approach toward a hardware-based modeling of mental functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauinger, N.

    2007-09-01

    A better understanding of intelligent information processing in human vision can be reached through a closer look at the macro- and micro-hardware available in the hierarchy of cortical processors along the main visual pathway connecting the retina, the CGL (corpus geniculatum laterale) and area V1 (cortical visual area 17). The building of the eye is driven by the brain and the engineering of the main visual pathway back to V1 seems to be driven by the eyes. The human eye offers to the brain much more intelligent information about the outer visible world than a camera producing flat 2D images on a CCD. Intelligent processing of visual information in human vision - a strong cooperation between eyes and brain - relays on axes related symmetry operations relevant for navigation in 4D spectral space-times, on a hierarchy of dynamically balanced equilibrium states, on diffractive-optical transformation of the Visible into RGB space, on range mapping based on RGB data (monocular and binocular 3D vision), on illuminant-adaptive optical correlations of local onto global RGB data (color constancy performances) and on invariant fourier-optical log-polar processing of image data (generic object classification; identification of objects). These performances are more compatible with optical processing of modern diffractive-optical sensors and interference-optical correlators than with cameras. The R+D project NAMIROS (Nano- and Micro-3D gratings for Optical Sensors) [8], coordinated by an interdisciplinary team of specialists at Corrsys 3D Sensors AG, describes the roadmap towards a technical realization of outstanding high-tech performances corresponding to human eye-brain co-processing.

  7. Lipid-protein interactions in plasma membranes of fiber cells isolated from the human eye lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raguz, Marija; Mainali, Laxman; O'Brien, William J; Subczynski, Witold K

    2014-03-01

    The protein content in human lens membranes is extremely high, increases with age, and is higher in the nucleus as compared with the cortex, which should strongly affect the organization and properties of the lipid bilayer portion of intact membranes. To assess these effects, the intact cortical and nuclear fiber cell plasma membranes isolated from human lenses from 41- to 60-year-old donors were studied using electron paramagnetic resonance spin-labeling methods. Results were compared with those obtained for lens lipid membranes prepared from total lipid extracts from human eyes of the same age group [Mainali, L., Raguz, M., O'Brien, W. J., and Subczynski, W. K. (2013) Biochim. Biophys. Acta]. Differences were considered to be mainly due to the effect of membrane proteins. The lipid-bilayer portions of intact membranes were significantly less fluid than lipid bilayers of lens lipid membranes, prepared without proteins. The intact membranes were found to contain three distinct lipid environments termed the bulk lipid domain, boundary lipid domain, and trapped lipid domain. However, the cholesterol bilayer domain, which was detected in cortical and nuclear lens lipid membranes, was not detected in intact membranes. The relative amounts of bulk and trapped lipids were evaluated. The amount of lipids in domains uniquely formed due to the presence of membrane proteins was greater in nuclear membranes than in cortical membranes. Thus, it is evident that the rigidity of nuclear membranes is greater than that of cortical membranes. Also the permeability coefficients for oxygen measured in domains of nuclear membranes were significantly lower than appropriate coefficients measured in cortical membranes. Relationships between the organization of lipids into lipid domains in fiber cells plasma membranes and the organization of membrane proteins are discussed.

  8. Influence of Misalignment on High-Order Aberration Correction for Normal Human Eyes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Hao-Xin; XU Bing; XUE Li-Xia; DAI Yun; LIU Qian; RAO Xue-Jun

    2008-01-01

    @@ Although a compensation device can correct aberrations of human eyes, the effect will be degraded by its misalignment, especially for high-order aberration correction. We caJculate the positioning tolerance of correction device for high-order aberrations, and within what degree the correcting effect is better than low-order aberration (defocus and astigmatism) correction. With fixed certain misalignment within the positioning tolerance, we calculate the residual wavefront rms aberration of the first-6 to first-35 terms along with the 3rd-5th terms of aberrations corrected, and the combined first-13 terms of aberrations are also studied under the same quantity of misalignment. However, the correction effect of high-order aberrations does not meliorate along with the increase of the high-order terms under some misalignment, moreover, some simple combined terms correction can achieve similar result as complex combinations. These results suggest that it is unnecessary to correct too much the terms of high-order aberrations which are diffcult to accomplish in practice, and gives confdence to correct high-order aberrations out of the laboratory.

  9. Femtosecond laser-induced cavitations in the lens of the human eye

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessel, Line; Nymand, Jose; Harbst, Michael;

    2007-01-01

    Ultrafast femtosecond lasers are used increasingly for a wide range of medicai purposes. The immediate tissue response to pulses above a certain threshold is optically or laser induced breakdown, which is often visible as gas-filled cavities that persist for some time. In the present study, we at...... laser effects in the len s that have a potential for therapeutic application and treatment of eye dis ease though further studies are needed to shed light on the nature of the formation of delayed cavitations.......Ultrafast femtosecond lasers are used increasingly for a wide range of medicai purposes. The immediate tissue response to pulses above a certain threshold is optically or laser induced breakdown, which is often visible as gas-filled cavities that persist for some time. In the present study, we...... attempted to define the cavitation threshold in the human lens in vitro using multiphoton effects base d on radiation from a femtosecond 800 nm Ti:Sapphire laser. Cavitations were observed from pulse energy densities exceeding 16 mJ/cm2, but only after several minutes of exposure and not as a result...

  10. Femtosecond laser-induced cavitations in the lens of the human eye

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessel, Line; Nymand, Jose; Harbst, Michael;

    Ultrafast femtosecond lasers are used increasingly for a wide range of medicai purposes. The immediate tissue response to pulses above a certain threshold is optically or laser induced breakdown, which is often visible as gas-filled cavities that persist for some time. In the present study, we at...... laser effects in the len s that have a potential for therapeutic application and treatment of eye dis ease though further studies are needed to shed light on the nature of the formation of delayed cavitations.......Ultrafast femtosecond lasers are used increasingly for a wide range of medicai purposes. The immediate tissue response to pulses above a certain threshold is optically or laser induced breakdown, which is often visible as gas-filled cavities that persist for some time. In the present study, we...... attempted to define the cavitation threshold in the human lens in vitro using multiphoton effects base d on radiation from a femtosecond 800 nm Ti:Sapphire laser. Cavitations were observed from pulse energy densities exceeding 16 mJ/cm2, but only after several minutes of exposure and not as a result...

  11. Ab interno trabeculectomy: ultrastructural evidence and early tissue response in a human eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Ettore; Ortolani, Fulvia; Petrelli, Lucia; Contin, Magali; Pognuz, Derri Roman; Marchini, Maurizio; Bandello, Francesco

    2007-10-01

    To report the results of ultrastructural analysis of the postoperative effects of ab interno trabeculectomy in a human eye. Department of Ophthalmology, Palmanova Hospital, Palmanova, Udine, Italy. A 60-year-old woman with cataract and glaucoma had enucleation for a choroidal melanoma 10 days after ab interno trabeculectomy combined with phacoemulsification. A second ab interno trabeculectomy was performed after enucleation to evaluate the outcomes of the previous trabeculectomy. Light and transmission electron microscopy analyses were performed on samples excised from areas (1) not subjected to a procedure (control samples), (2) that had ab interno trabeculectomy before enucleation, and (3) that had ab interno trabeculectomy immediately after enucleation. Control samples showed normal trabecular features. Semithin sections of all ab interno trabeculectomy samples showed full-thickness removal of trabeculum segments, with Schlemm's canal lumen opening into the anterior chamber and apparent preservation of the adjacent structures. On ultrathin sections of samples that had ab interno trabeculectomy before enucleation, the endothelium lining the outer wall of Schlemm's canal and other angle components showed intact ultrastructural features. In trabecular beams that were not removed, the extracellular matrix appeared to have maintained its fine texture and was free of activated fibroblasts or leucocyte infiltrates. Observations confirm that ab interno trabeculectomy causes direct communication between Schlemm's canal lumen and the anterior chamber in vivo and immediately after enucleation during the early postoperative period. The absence of an evident inflammatory reaction in the examined case should be considered with caution because of possible tumor-induced immune suppression.

  12. Anterior corneal and internal contributions to peripheral aberrations of human eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atchison, David A.

    2004-03-01

    Anterior corneal and internal component contributions to overall peripheral aberrations of five human eyes were determined, based on corneal topography and overall aberration measurements. Anterior corneal position and orientation (tilt) were referenced to the line of sight. Ray tracing was performed through the anterior cornea for 6-mm-diameter pupils at angles out to 40° in both the temporal and the nasal visual fields. In general, both component and overall Zernike aberrations were greater for the nasal than for the temporal visual field. In general, the anterior corneal aberration components were considerably higher than the overall aberrations across the visual field and were balanced to a considerable degree by the internal ocular aberration components. The component and overall levels of Zernike third-order aberrations showed linear trends away from the fixation axis, and the component levels of Zernike fourth-order aberrations showed quadratic trends away from the fixation axis. The second-order, but not higher-order, aberration components were susceptible to the choice of image radius of curvature, while disregarding corneal position and orientation affected second- and higher-order aberration components.

  13. Wide field OCT based microangiography in living human eye (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qinqin; Chen, Chieh-Li; Chu, Zhongdi; Zhang, Anqi; An, Lin; Durbin, Mary; Sharma, Utkarsh; Rosenfeld, Philip J.; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the application of optical microangiography (OMAG) in living human eye. Patients with different macular diseases were recruited, including diabetic retinopathy (DR), geographic atrophy (GA), retinitis pigmentosa (RP), and venous occlusion, et al. Wide field OCT angiography images can be generated by montage scanning protocol based on the tracking system. OMAG algorithm based on complex differentiation was used to extract the blood flow and removed the bulk motion by 2D cross-correlation method. The 3D angiography was segmented into 3 layers in the retina and 2 layers in the choroid. The en-face maximum projection was used to obtain 2-dimensional angiograms of different layers coded with different colors. Flow and structure images were combined for cross-sectional view. En face OMAG images of different macular diseases showed a great agreement with FA. Meanwhile, OMAG gave more distinct vascular network visions that were less affected by hemorrhage and leakage. The MAs were observed in both superficial and middle retinal layers based on OMAG angiograms in different layers of DR patients. The contour line of FAZ was extracted as well, which can be quantitative the retinal diseases. For GA patient, the damage of RPE layer enhanced the penetration of light and enabled the acquisition of choriocapillaries and choroidal vessels. The wide field OMAG angiogram enabled the capability of capturing the entire geographic atrophy. OMAG provides depth-resolved information and detailed vascular images of DR and GA patients, providing a better visualization of vascular network compared to FA.

  14. The Sydney Heart Bank: improving translational research while eliminating or reducing the use of animal models of human heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Remedios, C G; Lal, S P; Li, A; McNamara, J; Keogh, A; Macdonald, P S; Cooke, R; Ehler, E; Knöll, R; Marston, S B; Stelzer, J; Granzier, H; Bezzina, C; van Dijk, S; De Man, F; Stienen, G J M; Odeberg, J; Pontén, F; Linke, W; van der Velden, J

    2017-08-14

    The Sydney Heart Bank (SHB) is one of the largest human heart tissue banks in existence. Its mission is to provide high-quality human heart tissue for research into the molecular basis of human heart failure by working collaboratively with experts in this field. We argue that, by comparing tissues from failing human hearts with age-matched non-failing healthy donor hearts, the results will be more relevant than research using animal models, particularly if their physiology is very different from humans. Tissue from heart surgery must generally be used soon after collection or it significantly deteriorates. Freezing is an option but it raises concerns that freezing causes substantial damage at the cellular and molecular level. The SHB contains failing samples from heart transplant patients and others who provided informed consent for the use of their tissue for research. All samples are cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen within 40 min of their removal from the patient, and in less than 5-10 min in the case of coronary arteries and left ventricle samples. To date, the SHB has collected tissue from about 450 failing hearts (>15,000 samples) from patients with a wide range of etiologies as well as increasing numbers of cardiomyectomy samples from patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. The Bank also has hearts from over 120 healthy organ donors whose hearts, for a variety of reasons (mainly tissue-type incompatibility with waiting heart transplant recipients), could not be used for transplantation. Donor hearts were collected by the St Vincent's Hospital Heart and Lung transplantation team from local hospitals or within a 4-h jet flight from Sydney. They were flushed with chilled cardioplegic solution and transported to Sydney where they were quickly cryopreserved in small samples. Failing and/or donor samples have been used by more than 60 research teams around the world, and have resulted in more than 100 research papers. The tissues most commonly requested are

  15. Apnea-induced rapid eye movement sleep disruption impairs human spatial navigational memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Andrew W; Kishi, Akifumi; Mantua, Janna; Lim, Jason; Koushyk, Viachaslau; Leibert, David P; Osorio, Ricardo S; Rapoport, David M; Ayappa, Indu

    2014-10-29

    Hippocampal electrophysiology and behavioral evidence support a role for sleep in spatial navigational memory, but the role of particular sleep stages is less clear. Although rodent models suggest the importance of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in spatial navigational memory, a similar role for REM sleep has never been examined in humans. We recruited subjects with severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) who were well treated and adherent with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Restricting CPAP withdrawal to REM through real-time monitoring of the polysomnogram provides a novel way of addressing the role of REM sleep in spatial navigational memory with a physiologically relevant stimulus. Individuals spent two different nights in the laboratory, during which subjects performed timed trials before and after sleep on one of two unique 3D spatial mazes. One night of sleep was normally consolidated with use of therapeutic CPAP throughout, whereas on the other night, CPAP was reduced only in REM sleep, allowing REM OSA to recur. REM disruption via this method caused REM sleep reduction and significantly fragmented any remaining REM sleep without affecting total sleep time, sleep efficiency, or slow-wave sleep. We observed improvements in maze performance after a night of normal sleep that were significantly attenuated after a night of REM disruption without changes in psychomotor vigilance. Furthermore, the improvement in maze completion time significantly positively correlated with the mean REM run duration across both sleep conditions. In conclusion, we demonstrate a novel role for REM sleep in human memory formation and highlight a significant cognitive consequence of OSA. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3414571-07$15.00/0.

  16. Characterization of the vitreous body of the human eye using a cyanine dye as a spectral and fluorescent probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panova, Ina G.; Tatikolov, Alexander S.

    2009-02-01

    We used one of cyanine dyes as a spectral and fluorescent probe in the study of the composition of the extracellular matrix of the human eye (its vitreous body). Owing to the unique ability of the dye to bind to collagens and human serum albumin, we revealed the simultaneous presence of both types of biomacromolecules in the vitreous body. The formation of the dye complex with human serum albumin leads to appearance of a long-wavelength absorption band (~612 nm) and a steep rise of fluorescence, whereas in the presence of collagens the dye forms J-aggregates with a longer-wavelength absorption band (640-660 nm) and moderate fluorescence. In this work we studied the composition of the human fetus vitreous body and its dynamics from 9 to 31 gestation weeks. On the basis of the data obtained by this method, we may assume that albumin, being a carrier protein, probably provides the vitreous body and surrounding tissues with necessary growth factors, hormones, lipids, vitamins, and some other biomolecules. The data show that the dye is promising not only for study of albumin functions in eye development, but also for characterization of some eye diseases and for analysis of other extracellular media.

  17. The Effect of Selected Human Resource Management Practices on Employees' Job Satisfaction in Ethiopian Public Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amare Werku Ijigu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Most of the research has been conducted in the job satisfaction of employees’ on employees job related outcomes but there is little well comprehensive research done that shows  the influence of HRM practices on the satisfaction of employees towards a job.This study is correlational type of research design which is aimed to describe or ascertain if there are significant associations between selected HRM practices and employees’ job satisfaction.In addition to Correlation and Regression, Descriptive statistics, frequencies and percentages were utilized to analyze the data. Interpretation is made on the mean, frequency, and percentage of the data and summarized by bar graphs and pie charts.The study result has implied that recruitment and selection is found to have moderate but positive correlation with employees’ job satisfaction and the remaining, training and development, performance appraisal and compensation package found to have strong positive correlation with employees’ job satisfaction. Moreover, the regression result shows that recruitment and selection, training and development, performance appraisal and compensation package have a significant positive impact on job satisfaction.Each HRM practices in the banks should be a source for employees’ satisfaction and then employees will be loyal and willing to stay in those organizations (Banks because, employees’ satisfaction on the job will reduce absenteeism and turn over intentions in public banks.

  18. Eye-movement study and human performance using telepathology virtual slides: implications for medical education and differences with experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupinski, Elizabeth A; Tillack, Allison A; Richter, Lynne; Henderson, Jeffrey T; Bhattacharyya, Achyut K; Scott, Katherine M; Graham, Anna R; Descour, Michael R; Davis, John R; Weinstein, Ronald S

    2006-12-01

    A core skill in diagnostic pathology is light microscopy. Remarkably little is known about human factors that affect the proficiency of pathologists as light microscopists. The cognitive skills of pathologists have received relatively little attention in comparison with the large literature on human performance studies in radiology. One reason for this lack of formal visual search studies in pathology has been the physical restrictions imposed by the close positioning of a microscope operator's head to the microscope's eyepieces. This blocks access to the operator's eyes and precludes assessment of the microscopist's eye movements. Virtual slide microscopy now removes this barrier and opens the door for studies on human factors and visual search strategies in light microscopy. The aim of this study was to assess eye movements of medical students, pathology residents, and practicing pathologists examining virtual slides on a digital display monitor. Whole histopathology glass slide digital images, so-called virtual slides, of 20 consecutive breast core biopsy cases were used in a retrospective study. These high-quality virtual slides were produced with an array-microscope equipped DMetrix DX-40 ultrarapid virtual slide processor (DMetrix, Tucson, Ariz). Using an eye-tracking device, we demonstrated for the first time that when a virtual slide reader initially looks at a virtual slide his or her eyes are very quickly attracted to regions of interest (ROIs) within the slide and that these ROIs are likely to contain diagnostic information. In a matter of seconds, critical decisions are made on the selection of ROIs for further examination at higher magnification. We recorded: (1) the time virtual slide readers spent fixating on self-selected locations on the video monitor; (2) the characteristics of the ways the eyes jumped between fixation locations; and (3) x and y coordinates for each virtual slide marking the sites the virtual slide readers manually selected for

  19. Dependences between kinetics of the human eye pupil and blood pulsation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szmigiel, Marta A.; Kasprzak, Henryk; Klysik, Anna

    2016-09-01

    The study presents measurement and numerical analysis of time variability of the eye pupil geometry and its position, as well as their correlations with blood pulsation. The image of the eye pupil was recorded by use of the fast CCD camera with 200 fps rates. Blood pulsation was synchronously recorded by use of pulse transducer with the sampling frequency of 200 Hz. Each single image from a sequence was numerically processed. Contour of the eye pupil was approximated, and its selected geometrical parameters as well as center positions were calculated. Spectral and coherence analysis of time variability of calculated pupil parameters and blood pulsation were determined.

  20. The establishment of 20 different human embryonic stem cell lines and subclones; a report on derivation, culture, characterisation and banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englund, Mikael C O; Caisander, Gunilla; Noaksson, Karin; Emanuelsson, Katarina; Lundin, Kersti; Bergh, Christina; Hansson, Charles; Semb, Henrik; Strehl, Raimund; Hyllner, Johan

    2010-04-01

    This report summarises our efforts in deriving, characterising and banking of 20 different human embryonic stem cell lines. We have derived a large number of human embryonic stem cell lines between 2001 and 2005. One of these cell lines was established under totally xeno-free culture conditions. In addition, several subclones have been established, including a karyoptypical normal clone from a trisomic mother line. A master cell banking system has been utilised in concert with an extensive characterisation programme, ensuring a supply of high quality pluripotent stem cells for further research and development. In this report we also present the first data on a proprietary novel antibody, hES-Cellect, that exhibits high specificity for undifferentiated hES cells. In addition to the traditional manual dissection approach of propagating hES cells, we here also report on the successful approaches of feeder-free cultures as well as single cell cultures based on enzymatic digestion. All culture systems used as reported here have maintained the hES cells in a karyotypical normal and pluripotent state. These systems also have the advantage of being the principal springboards for further scale up of cultures for industrial or clinical applications that would require vastly more cells that can be produced by mechanical means.

  1. Method for 3D Image Representation with Reducing the Number of Frames based on Characteristics of Human Eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Arai

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Method for 3D image representation with reducing the number of frames based on characteristics of human eyes is proposed together with representation of 3D depth by changing the pixel transparency. Through experiments, it is found that the proposed method allows reduction of the number of frames by the factor of 1/6. Also, it can represent the 3D depth through visual perceptions. Thus, real time volume rendering can be done with the proposed method.

  2. A novel EOG/EEG hybrid human-machine interface adopting eye movements and ERPs: application to robot control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jiaxin; Zhang, Yu; Cichocki, Andrzej; Matsuno, Fumitoshi

    2015-03-01

    This study presents a novel human-machine interface (HMI) based on both electrooculography (EOG) and electroencephalography (EEG). This hybrid interface works in two modes: an EOG mode recognizes eye movements such as blinks, and an EEG mode detects event related potentials (ERPs) like P300. While both eye movements and ERPs have been separately used for implementing assistive interfaces, which help patients with motor disabilities in performing daily tasks, the proposed hybrid interface integrates them together. In this way, both the eye movements and ERPs complement each other. Therefore, it can provide a better efficiency and a wider scope of application. In this study, we design a threshold algorithm that can recognize four kinds of eye movements including blink, wink, gaze, and frown. In addition, an oddball paradigm with stimuli of inverted faces is used to evoke multiple ERP components including P300, N170, and VPP. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed system, two different online experiments are carried out. One is to control a multifunctional humanoid robot, and the other is to control four mobile robots. In both experiments, the subjects can complete tasks effectively by using the proposed interface, whereas the best completion time is relatively short and very close to the one operated by hand.

  3. Protein Data Bank (PDB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Protein Data Bank (PDB) archive is the single worldwide repository of information about the 3D structures of large biological molecules, including proteins and...

  4. Differentiating of banked human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells into insulin-secreting cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuc, Pham Van; Nhung, Truong Hai; Loan, Dang Thi Tung; Chung, Doan Chinh; Ngoc, Phan Kim

    2011-01-01

    Umbilical cord blood (UCB)-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells. They are able to differentiate into functional cells from not only mesoderm but also endoderm. Many researches showed that cells derived from fresh human UCB could transdifferentiate into insulin-secreting cells. In this study, transdifferentiating potential of cryopreserved human UCB-derived MSCs into insulin-secreting cell was investigated. Fresh human UCB was enriched the mononuclear cells by Ficoll-Paque centrifugation. The mononuclear cell population was cryopreserved in cryo-medium containing Iscove's modified Dulbecco's media (IMDM) with 10% DMSO at -196°C for 1 yr. After thawing, mononuclear cells were cultured to isolate MSCs in medium IMDM with 20% FBS supplemented with growth factors. At the fifth passages, MSCs were confirmed by flow cytometry about expression of CD13, CD14, CD34, CD45, CD166, and HLA-DR markers; after that, they were induced to differentiate into adipocytes and osteoblasts. After inducing with specific medium for islet differentiation, there were many clusters of cell like islet at day 14-28. Using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to analyze the expression of functional genes, the result showed that Nestin, Pdx-1, Ngn3, Ils-1, Pax6, Pax4, Nkx2.2, Nkx6.1, Glut-2, Insulin genes expressed. The results showed that MSCs derived from banked cord blood can differentiate into functional pancreatic islet-like cells in vitro. If human MSCs, especially MSCs from banked cord blood of diabetes patients themselves can be isolated, proliferated, differentiated into functional pancreatic islet-like cells, and transplanted back into them (autologous transplantation), their high-proliferation potency and rejection avoidance will provide one promising therapy for diabetes.

  5. Healthy Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... los Ojos Cómo hablarle a su oculista Healthy Eyes Having a comprehensive dilated eye exam is one ... or contact lenses. What is a comprehensive dilated eye exam? A comprehensive dilated eye exam is a ...

  6. Expression profile of the matricellular protein osteopontin in primary open-angle glaucoma and the normal human eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Uttio Roy; Jea, Seung-Youn; Oh, Dong-Jin; Rhee, Douglas J; Fautsch, Michael P

    2011-08-16

    PURPOSE. To characterize the role of osteopontin (OPN) in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and normal eyes. METHODS. OPN quantification was performed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in aqueous humor (AH) obtained from human donor eyes (POAG and normal) and surgical samples (POAG and elective cataract removal). OPN expression and localization in whole eye tissue sections and primary normal human trabecular meshwork (NTM) cells were studied by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Latanoprost-free acid (LFA)-treated NTM cells were analyzed for OPN gene and protein expression. Intraocular pressure was measured by tonometry, and central corneal thickness was measured by optical coherence tomography in young OPN(-/-) and wild-type mice. RESULTS. OPN levels were significantly reduced in donor POAG AH compared with normal AH (0.54 ± 0.18 ng/μg [n = 8] vs. 0.77 ± 0.23 ng/μg [n = 9]; P = 0.039). A similar trend was observed in surgical AH (1.05 ± 0.31 ng/μg [n = 20] vs. 1.43 ± 0.88 ng/μg [n = 20]; P = 0.083). OPN was present in the trabecular meshwork, corneal epithelium and endothelium, iris, ciliary body, retina, vitreous humor, and optic nerve. LFA increased OPN gene expression, but minimal change in OPN protein expression was observed. No difference in intraocular pressure (17.5 ± 2.0 mm Hg [n = 56] vs. 17.3 ± 1.9 mm Hg [n = 68]) but thinner central corneal thickness (91.7 ± 3.6 μm [n = 50] vs. 99.2 ± 5.5 μm [n = 70]) was noted between OPN(-/-) and wild-type mice. CONCLUSIONS. OPN is widely distributed in the human eye and was found in lower concentrations in POAG AH. Reduction of OPN in young mice does not affect IOP.

  7. The Toxicity of Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Eye Drops against Human Corneal Epithelial Cells in Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong Soo; Kim, Young Hi; Park, Young Min

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the toxicity of commercial non-steroid anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) eye solutions against corneal epithelial cells in vitro. The biologic effects of 1/100-, 1/50-, and 1/10-diluted bromfenac sodium, pranoprofen, diclofenac sodium, and the fluorometholone on corneal epithelial cells were evaluated after 1-, 4-, 12-, and 24-hr of exposure compared to corneal epithelial cell treated with balanced salt solution as control. Cellular metabolic activity, cellular damage, and morphology were assessed. Corneal epithelial cell migration was quantified by the scratch-wound assay. Compared to bromfenac and pranoprofen, the cellular metabolic activity of diclofenac and fluorometholone significantly decreased after 12-hr exposure, which was maintained for 24-hr compared to control. Especially, at 1/10-diluted eye solution for 24-hr exposure, the LDH titers of fluorometholone and diclofenac sodium markedly increased more than those of bromfenac and pranoprofen. In diclofenac sodium, the Na(+) concentration was lower and amount of preservatives was higher than other NSAIDs eye solutions tested. However, the K(+) and Cl(-) concentration, pH, and osmolarity were similar for all NSAIDs eye solutions. Bromfenac and pranoprofen significantly promoted cell migration, and restored wound gap after 48-hr exposure, compared with that of diclofenac or fluorometholone. At 1/50-diluted eye solution for 48-hr exposure, the corneal epithelial cellular morphology of diclofenac and fluorometholone induced more damage than that of bromfenac or pranoprofen. Overall, the corneal epithelial cells in bromfenac and pranoprofen NSAID eye solutions are less damaged compared to those in diclofenac, included fluorometholone as steroid eye solution.

  8. Eye dominance predicts fMRI signals in human retinotopic cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendola, Janine D; Conner, Ian P

    2007-02-27

    There have been many attempts to define eye dominance in normal subjects, but limited consensus exists, and relevant physiological data is scarce. In this study, we consider two different behavioral methods for assignment of eye dominance, and how well they predict fMRI signals evoked by monocular stimulation. Sighting eye dominance was assessed with two standard tests, the Porta Test, and a 'hole in hand' variation of the Miles Test. Acuity dominance was tested with a standard eye chart and with a computerized test of grating acuity. We found limited agreement between the sighting and acuity methods for assigning dominance in our individual subjects. We then compared the fMRI response generated by dominant eye stimulation to that generated by non-dominant eye, according to both methods, in 7 normal subjects. The stimulus consisted of a high contrast hemifield stimulus alternating with no stimulus in a blocked paradigm. In separate scans, we used standard techniques to label the borders of visual areas V1, V2, V3, VP, V4v, V3A, and MT. These regions of interest (ROIs) were used to analyze each visual area separately. We found that percent change in fMRI BOLD signal was stronger for the dominant eye as defined by the acuity method, and this effect was significant for areas located in the ventral occipital territory (V1v, V2v, VP, V4v). In contrast, assigning dominance based on sighting produced no significant interocular BOLD differences. We conclude that interocular BOLD differences in normal subjects exist, and may be predicted by acuity measures.

  9. Blue eye color in humans may be caused by a perfectly associated founder mutation in a regulatory element located within the HERC2 gene inhibiting OCA2 expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiberg, Hans; Troelsen, Jesper; Boyd, Mette

    2008-01-01

    The human eye color is a quantitative trait displaying multifactorial inheritance. Several studies have shown that the OCA2 locus is the major contributor to the human eye color variation. By linkage analysis of a large Danish family, we finemapped the blue eye color locus to a 166 Kbp region...... within the HERC2 gene. By association analyses, we identified two SNPs within this region that were perfectly associated with the blue and brown eye colors: rs12913832 and rs1129038. Of these, rs12913832 is located 21.152 bp upstream from the OCA2 promoter in a highly conserved sequence in intron 86...... of HERC2. The brown eye color allele of rs12913832 is highly conserved throughout a number of species. As shown by a Luciferase assays in cell cultures, the element significantly reduces the activity of the OCA2 promoter and electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrate that the two alleles bind...

  10. In Vivo Non-Invasive Measurement of Young's Modulus of Elasticity in Human Eyes: A Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sit, Arthur J; Lin, Shuai-Chun; Kazemi, Arash; McLaren, Jay W; Pruet, Christopher M; Zhang, Xiaoming

    2017-08-28

    Abnormal ocular biomechanical properties may be important for understanding the risk of glaucoma. However, there are no clinical methods for measuring standard material properties in patients. In this feasibility study we demonstrated proof-of-principle for a novel method, ultrasound surface wave elastography (USWE), to determine the in vivo Young's modulus of elasticity of corneas in normal human eyes. Twenty eyes of 10 healthy subjects (mean age 51.4±7.2;±SD, range 43-64 y) were studied. A spherical-tipped probe (3-mm diameter) was placed on closed eyelids and generated a gentle harmonic vibration at 100 Hz for 0.1 second. Wave speed propagation in the cornea was measured by USWE, and Young's modulus was calculated from the wave speed. Associations between Young's modulus and intraocular pressure (IOP), age, central corneal thickness, and axial length were explored by Pearson correlation. Statistical significance was determined by using generalized estimating equation models to account for possible correlation between fellow eyes. Mean IOP was 12.8±2.7 mm Hg. Mean wave speed in the cornea was 1.82±0.10 m/s. Young's modulus of elasticity was 696±113 kPa and was correlated with IOP (r=0.57; P=0.004), but none of the other variables (P>0.1). USWE is a novel non-invasive technique for measuring ocular biomechanical properties. Corneal Young's modulus in normal eyes is associated with IOP, consistent with measurements in cadaver eyes. Further work is needed to determine elasticity in other ocular tissues, particularly the sclera, and if elasticity is altered in glaucoma patients.

  11. Trehalose-Based Eye Drops Preserve Viability and Functionality of Cultured Human Corneal Epithelial Cells during Desiccation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Hill-Bator

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the evaluation of cytoprotective ability of trehalose-based eye drops in comparison with commercially available preparations during the experimental desiccation of cultured human corneal epithelial cells. Cultured human corneal epithelial cells (hCEC underwent incubation with 7 different, commercially available medicaments used commonly in dry eye syndrome treatment, followed by desiccation trial performed on air under the flow hood for 5, 15, 30, and 45 minutes. Cell viability was quantified by live/dead fluorescent assay, while the presence of apoptotic cells was estimated by immunofluorescent staining for active caspase 3 protein. The preservation of membrane functions was evaluated using neutral red staining, while the preservation of proper morphology and phenotype was determined by fluorescent staining for actin filaments, nuclei, and p63 protein. The trehalose-based eye drops showed the highest efficiency in prevention of cell death from desiccation; moreover, this preparation preserved the normal cellular morphology, functions of cell membrane, and proliferative activity more effectively than other tested medicaments.

  12. Optical study on the vision correction and supernormal vision based on the wave-front aberrations of human eye

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MU GuoGuang; WANG ZhaoQi; LIU YongJi; QUAN Wei; WANG Yang; WANG Wei

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present the recent research results in the field of vision correction and supernormal vision according to the actual measurements of the wave-front aberrations and the corneal surface topography, the clinical detection of the visual function and the laser corneal refractive surgery, and the optimization of the optical system. These include the features of the aberrations of human eye with different pupil sizes, different fields of view and temporal accommodation, the influence of the polychromatic illumination of the visible wavelength on the supernormal vision,and the effect of the existing laser corneal refractive surgery on the wave-front aberrations of the eye. It is shown that the wave-front aberration of human eye is of temporal variation and of synthesis with multi impact factors. To achieve supernormal vision, an optimum engineering data for the customized laser corneal surgery should be firstly acquired, which may involve the dynamic free-form optical surface. Although the myopia can be corrected by the laser in situ keratomileusis (LASlK) in a certain degree, it brings about negative effects under scotopic conditions.

  13. Optical study on the vision correction and supernormal vision based on the wave-front aberrations of human eye

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present the recent research results in the field of vision correction and supernormal vision according to the actual measurements of the wave-front aberrations and the corneal surface topography,the clinical detection of the visual function and the laser corneal refractive surgery,and the optimization of the optical system. These include the features of the aberrations of human eye with different pupil sizes,different fields of view and temporal accommodation,the influence of the polychromatic illumination of the visible wavelength on the supernormal vision,and the effect of the existing laser corneal refractive surgery on the wave-front ab-errations of the eye. It is shown that the wave-front aberration of human eye is of temporal variation and of synthesis with multi impact factors. To achieve super-normal vision,an optimum engineering data for the customized laser corneal sur-gery should be firstly acquired,which may involve the dynamic free-form optical surface. Although the myopia can be corrected by the laser in situ keratomileusis(LASIK) in a certain degree,it brings about negative effects under scotopic condi-tions.

  14. Comparative spectral analysis between the functionality of the human eye and of the optical part of a digital camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toadere, Florin

    2015-02-01

    A software that comparatively analysis the spectral functionality of the optical part of the human eye and of the optical image acquisition system of the digital camera, is presented. Comparisons are done using demonstrative images which present the spectral color transformations of an image that is considered the test object. To perform the simulations are presented the spectral models and are computed their effects on the colors of the spectral image, during the propagation of the D48 sun light through the eye and the optics of the digital camera. The simulations are made using a spectral image processing algorithm which converts the spectral image into XYZ color space, CIE CAM02 color appearance model and then into RGB color space.

  15. Attention to irrelevant contexts decreases as training increases: Evidence from eye-fixations in a human predictive learning task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aristizabal, José A; Ramos-Álvarez, Manuel M; Callejas-Aguilera, José E; Rosas, Juan M

    2016-03-01

    Participants were trained in a human predictive learning task in which they had to predict whether the ingestion of a given food (cue) by the imaginary customer of an imaginary restaurant (context) was followed by gastric malaise (outcome). One food was always followed by gastric malaise in one of the contexts, while other foods were not followed by gastric malaise in the same, or in an alternative context. Predictive responses and eye-fixations were recorded throughout the 48 training trials with each cue involved in the task. In agreement with the predictions of the Attentional Theory of Context Processing, attention to the contexts measured through eye-fixations decreased while attention to the cues increased as training progressed. The results of this study give support to the idea that contexts are actively processed at the beginning of acquisition, and that this processing decreases as training increases.

  16. Personal Identification by Eyes

    OpenAIRE

    Marinović, Dunja; Čoklo, Miran; Njirić, Sanja; Mužić, Vedrana

    2011-01-01

    Identification of persons through the eyes is in the field of biometrical science. Many security systems are based on biometric methods of personal identification, to determine whether a person is presenting itself truly. The human eye contains an extremely large number of individual characteristics that make it particularly suitable for the process of identifying a person. Today, the eye is considered to be one of the most reliable body parts for human identification. Systems usi...

  17. Quick-Eye: Examination of Human Performance Characteristics Using Eye Tracking and Manual-Based Control Systems for Monitoring Multiple Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    integration effort to combine eye - tracking technology into a multiple display information system, validation of the resulting system, and results of...studies conducted to determine the performance impact to response time, accuracy, and user workload by using eye - tracking input instead of manual controls to switch control among multiple displays.

  18. How Research on Charitable Giving Can Inform Strategies to Promote Human Milk Donations to Milk Banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Jack; Keim, Sarah A

    2015-08-01

    Many hospitalized preterm infants do not exclusively receive mother's own milk, so milk from another mother may be sought. Previous research indicated that just 1% of US women who express breast milk actually donate it for another family. Therefore, strategies to boost donation rates should be identified. We draw upon the experimental literature on charitable giving of monetary donations to offer 6 strategies to promote breast milk donations to milk banks in North America. These strategies include (1) highlighting a potential identifiable recipient of donated breast milk as opposed to highlighting groups of potential recipients; (2) emphasizing similarities between the potential donor and potential beneficiaries; (3) emphasizing similarities between the potential donor and previous donors; (4) using negative arousal to promote donations; (5) emphasizing the self-interest of those asking for breast milk donations; and (6) highlighting the specific effect of breast milk donations. Potential limitations of these strategies are discussed.

  19. Age- and fatigue-related markers of human faces: an eye-tracking study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Huy Tu; Isaacowitz, Derek M; Rubin, Peter A D

    2009-02-01

    To investigate the facial cues that are used when making judgments about how old or tired a face appears. Experimental study. Forty-seven subjects: 15 male and 32 female participants, ranging from age 18 to 30 years. Forty-eight full-face digital images of "normal-appearing" patients were collected and uploaded to an eye-tracking system. We used an Applied Science Laboratories (Bedford, MA) Eye Tracker device associated with gaze-tracking software to record and calculate the gaze and fixation of the participants' left eye as they viewed images on a computer screen. After seeing each picture, participants were asked to assess the age of the face in the picture by making a selection on a rating scale divided into 5-year intervals; for fatigue judgments we used a rating scale from 1 (not tired) to 7 (most tired). The main outcome measure was gaze fixation, as assessed by tracking the eye movements of participants as they viewed full-face digital pictures. For fatigue judgments, participants spent the most time looking at the eye region (31.81%), then the forehead and the nose regions (14.99% and 14.12%, respectively); in the eye region, participants looked most at the brows (13.1%) and lower lids (9.4%). Participants spent more time looking at the cheeks on faces they rated as least tired than they did on those they rated as most tired (t = 2.079, Peye region (27.22%) and then the forehead (15.71%) and the nose (14.30%) had the highest frequencies of interest; in the eye region, the brows and lower lids also had the highest frequencies of interest (11.40% and 8.90%, respectively). Participants looked more at the brows (t = -2.63, Peye region. Consequently, these results suggest that aesthetic or functional surgery to the eye region may be one of the most effective interventions in enhancing the appearance of an individual. The author(s) have no proprietary or commercial interest in any materials discussed in this article.

  20. A Bio-Inspired Polymeric Gradient Refractive Index (GRIN) Human Eye Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-19

    optical model of the crystalline lens and eye of the octopus ,” Vision Res. 39(17), 2841–2852 (1999). 5. D. E. Nilsson, L. Gislén, M. M. Coates, C...aberrations [1]. Biological examples of GRIN lenses include spherical eye lenses found in aquatic creatures such as fish, octopus , squid, and jellyfish [2–5...µATR-FTIR examination by exhuming cross sections of adjacent sheet material. The µATR-FTIR technique can map the relative composition across the cross

  1. The effect on human eye blink frequency of exposure to limonene oxidation products and methacrolein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøjgaard, Jacob Klenø; Christensen, Karl Bang; Wolkoff, Peder

    2005-01-01

    to LOPs and methacrolein compared to the baseline of clean air, and the findings coincided with weak eye irritation symptoms. Lowest observed effect levels were 286 ppb methacrolein and a 10-min-old LOPs mixture of initially 92 ppb limonene and 101 ppb ozone (O3), which increased the BF comparably by 18......% (p=0.001) and 17% (p=0.003), respectively. The increase in BF was smaller, although not significantly different, during exposure to LOPs at 50% RH to 20% RH in mixtures prepared from ca. 350 ppb limonene and 300 ppb O3. LOPs may cause trigeminal stimulation and possibly eye irritation at O3...

  2. 'An eye, for eyes - mission' - From dream to reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parikumar P

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Corneal transplantation has been in routine practice to treat corneal endothelial diseases like Bullous Keratopathy, in which either the whole cornea or the partial cornea (the endothelium alone is transplanted from the cadaver donor to the recipient with the endothelial disease [1]. In whole corneal or partial corneal transplant one cadaver donor's cornea can be used to treat one recipient cornea only, which leads to a huge global shortage of donor corneas [2]. At this juncture Yokoo et al isolated and expanded corneal endothelial precursors using the sphere forming assay in vitro [3] and demonstrated the in vivo transplantation of these corneal endothelial precursors in a rabbit model of bullous keratopathy [4]. Following this, we studied the transportation of cadaver donor derived corneal endothelial tissue (CET from human cadaver donors in a thermoreversible gelation polymer (TGP (4 based transportation cocktail without cool preservation and demonstrated the viability of human corneal endothelial precursor (HCEP cells isolated from these CETs even after 72 hours of transportation without cool preservation [5]. This was done to suit the conditions existing in developing nations like India where hospitals might be located far from eye banks and maintaining cold chain preservation is relatively difficult. Further, these HCEPs were expanded in vitro using a polymer based expansion protocol [5]. This was the first step in the realisation of the dream of 'Eye for eyes' in a manner suitable for Indian conditions. Corneal transplantation has been in routine practice to treat corneal endothelial diseases like Bullous Keratopathy, in which either the whole cornea or the partial cornea (the endothelium alone is transplanted from the cadaver donor to the recipient with the endothelial disease [1]. In whole corneal or partial corneal transplant one cadaver donor's cornea can be used to treat one recipient cornea only, which leads to a huge global

  3. The active components of milk in human milk bank%人乳库人乳有效成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢恩萍

    2011-01-01

    人乳是新生儿喂养的最佳选择。人乳除了含乳糖、乳清蛋白、脂肪等营养物质,还含有免疫球蛋白、乳铁蛋白、溶菌酶、维生素等有效成分,但人乳库的保存和消毒等处理过程对人乳中的有效成分产生影响。许多研究对不同保存和消毒条件下人乳库中人乳的有效成分进行检测,希望能找到影响最小的保存和消毒方法,尽可能的保留人乳中的有效成分。%Human milk is the optimal feeding choice for neonats, especialy for premature infants. Besides lactose, protein and fat, human milk also contains many kinds of active components, such as immunoglobins,lacferrins, lysozymes, vitamins and so on. Human milk bank has been well developed worldwide, but after cold storage and Pasteurization, many different microcomponents in milk have been affected. There is still controversy on how to preserve and sterilize human milk

  4. Iron supplementation in pregnancy and breastfeeding and iron, copper and zinc status of lactating women from a human milk bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello-Neto, Julio; Rondó, Patricia Helen Carvalho; Oshiiwa, Marie; Morgano, Marcelo Antonio; Zacari, Cristiane Zago; dos Santos, Mariana Lima

    2013-04-01

    This study evaluated the influence of iron supplementation in pregnancy and breastfeeding on iron status of lactating women from a Brazilian Human Milk Bank. Blood and mature breast milk samples were collected from 145 women for assessment of iron status, as well as copper and zinc status. Haemoglobin, serum iron and ferritin were determined, respectively, by electronic counting, colorimetry and chemiluminescence. Transferrin and ceruloplasmin were analysed by nephelometry. Serum copper and zinc were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, and serum alkaline phosphatase was measured by a colorimetric method. Iron, zinc and copper in breast milk were determined by spectrometry. Mean values of iron, copper and zinc (blood and breast milk) were compared by ANOVA, followed by Tukey's test. Iron supplementation was beneficial to prevent anaemia in pregnancy but not effective to treat anaemia. During breastfeeding, iron supplementation had a negative effect on maternal copper status, confirming an interaction between these micronutrients.

  5. Cytoarchitectonic identification and probabilistic mapping of two distinct areas within the anterior ventral bank of the human intraparietal sulcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hi-Jae; Zilles, Karl; Mohlberg, Hartmut; Schleicher, Axel; Fink, Gereon R; Armstrong, Este; Amunts, Katrin

    2006-03-01

    Anatomical studies in the macaque cortex and functional imaging studies in humans have demonstrated the existence of different cortical areas within the intraparietal sulcus (IPS). Such functional segregation, however, does not correlate with presently available architectonic maps of the human brain. This is particularly true for the classical Brodmann map, which is still widely used as an anatomical reference in functional imaging studies. The aim of this cytoarchitectonic mapping study was to use previously defined algorithms to determine whether consistent regions and borders can be found within the cortex of the anterior IPS in a population of 10 post-mortem human brains. Two areas, the human intraparietal area 1 (hIP1) and the human intraparietal area 2 (hIP2), were delineated in serial histological sections of the anterior, lateral bank of the human IPS. The region hIP1 is located posterior and medial to hIP2, and the former is always within the depths of the IPS. The latter, on the other hand, sometimes reaches the free surface of the superior parietal lobule. The delineations were registered to standard reference space, and probabilistic maps were calculated, thereby quantifying the intersubject variability in location and extent of both areas. In the future, they can be a tool for analyzing structure-function relationships and a basis for determining degrees of homology in the IPS among anthropoid primates. We conclude that the human IPS has a more finely grained parcellation than shown in Brodmann's map. J. Comp. Neurol. 495:53-69, 2006. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Banking Bank Charge Debates Continue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG PEI

    2006-01-01

    @@ The saying, "There's no such thing as a free lunch" is one that can be applied to the charges increasingly being imposed on savers by Chinese banks.Ranging from managementfees for small deposit accounts to charges for withdrawals of large amounts of cash, from ATM cross-bank withdrawal charges to annual fees for bank payment cards, charges by banks are becoming a unstoppable trend. But it is not a trend the general public is so keen to accept.

  7. Is shadow banking really banking?

    OpenAIRE

    Bryan J. Noeth; Rajdeep Sengupta

    2011-01-01

    To those who don't know, the term "shadow banking" probably has a negative connotation. This primer draws parallels between what has been termed the shadow banking sector and the traditional banking sector—showing that they are similar in many ways.

  8. Bank regulation and banking stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, A.; Thakor, A.V.

    2014-01-01

    This note discusses some issues in bank closure policy from a financial stability standpoint and how these issues have evolved since we first raised the question of how a reputation-driven divergence of interests between bank regulators and taxpayers may distort bank closure policy in our 1993 paper

  9. Eye-head stabilization mechanism for a humanoid robot tested on human inertial data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vannucci, Lorenzo; Falotico, Egidio; Tolu, Silvia;

    2016-01-01

    they keep the image stationary on the retina. In this work we present the first complete model of eye-head stabilization based on the coordination of VCR and VOR. The model is provided with learning and adaptation capabilities based on internal models. Tests on a simulated humanoid platform replicating...

  10. Investigation of High Power, Pulsed, Neodymium-YAG Lasers for Correcting Opacities of the Human Eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    system to breaking vitreous strands, a condition consisting of cellular strands in the vitreous humor, generally caused by disease or trauma to the eye...input beam and the output plane is at a distance -z2 from the waist of the output beam. From the ABCD law of Gaussian optics, A (-Z1 + jZR1) +B[-5

  11. Remote control of mobile robots through human eye gaze: the design and evaluation of an interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, Hemin Omer; Sherkat, Nasser; Lotfi, Ahmad

    2008-10-01

    Controlling mobile robots remotely requires the operator to monitor the status of the robot through some sort of feedback. Assuming a vision based feedback system is used the operator is required to closely monitor the images while navigating the robot in real time. This will engage the eyes and the hands of the operator. Since the eyes are engaged in the monitoring task anyway, their gaze can be used to navigate the robot in order to free the hands of the operator. However, the challenge here lies in developing an interaction interface that enables an intuitive distinction to be made between monitoring and commanding. This paper presents a novel means of constructing a user interface to meet this challenge. A range of solutions are constructed by augmenting the visual feedback with command regions to investigate the extent to which a user can intuitively control the robot. An experimental platform comprising a mobile robot together with cameras and eye-gaze system is constructed. The design of the system allows control of the robot, control of onboard cameras and control of the interface through eye-gaze. A number of tasks are designed to evaluate the proposed solutions. This paper presents the design considerations and the results of the evaluation. Overall it is found that the proposed solutions provide effective means of successfully navigating the robot for a range of tasks.

  12. Guidelines for the establishment and operation of a donor human milk banking in 2013%2013年北美母乳库的建立和运行管理指南

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩树萍; 余章斌; 陈小慧

    2014-01-01

    The Human Milk Banking Association of North America(HMBANA) is a professional association for supporters of non-profit donor human milk banking.HMBANA develops guidelines for donor human milk banking practices.The construction of China's human milk bank has just begun in few areas in 2013.To further promote the development and implementation of donor human milk banking in our country,this review introduce the guideline for establishment and operation of a donor human milk bank which drafted by HMBANA in 2013.The guideline can provide the basis for the development of human milk bank in our country.%北美母乳库协会(The Human Milk Banking Association of North America,HMBANA)是一个推进母乳库的建立和运行的非盈利性组织,致力于制定管理母乳库的标准和规范.我国母乳库的建设于2013年在极少地区刚刚开始,为进一步推广母乳库在我国的开展和实施,将2013年北美母乳库的建立和运行管理指南介绍如下,为建立符合我国国情的母乳库提供参考.

  13. Dose conversion coefficients for electron exposure of the human eye lens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behrens, R [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Bundesallee 100, D-38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Dietze, G [Paracelsusstrasse 7, D-38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Zankl, M [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany)], E-mail: rolf.behrens@ptb.de

    2009-07-07

    Recent epidemiological studies suggest a rather low dose threshold (below 0.5 Gy) for the induction of a cataract of the eye lens. Some other studies even assume that there is no threshold at all. Therefore, protection measures have to be optimized and current dose limits for the eye lens may be reduced in the future. Two questions arise from this situation: first, which dose quantity is related to the risk of developing a cataract, and second, which personal dose equivalent quantity is appropriate for monitoring this dose quantity. While the dose equivalent quantity H{sub p}(0.07) has often been seen as being sufficiently accurate for monitoring the dose to the lens of the eye, this would be questionable in the case when the dose limits were reduced and, thus, it may be necessary to generally use the dose equivalent quantity H{sub p}(3) for this purpose. The basis for a decision, however, must be the knowledge of accurate conversion coefficients from fluence to equivalent dose to the lens. This is especially important for low-penetrating radiation, for example, electrons. Formerly published values of conversion coefficients are based on quite simple models of the eye. In this paper, quite a sophisticated model of the eye including the inner structure of the lens was used for the calculations and precise conversion coefficients for electrons with energies between 0.2 MeV and 12 MeV, and for angles of radiation incidence between 0 deg. and 45 deg. are presented. Compared to the values adopted in 1996 by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), the new values are up to 1000 times smaller for electron energies below 1 MeV, nearly equal at 1 MeV and above 4 MeV, and by a factor of 1.5 larger at about 1.5 MeV electron energy.

  14. Dose conversion coefficients for electron exposure of the human eye lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, R.; Dietze, G.; Zankl, M.

    2009-07-01

    Recent epidemiological studies suggest a rather low dose threshold (below 0.5 Gy) for the induction of a cataract of the eye lens. Some other studies even assume that there is no threshold at all. Therefore, protection measures have to be optimized and current dose limits for the eye lens may be reduced in the future. Two questions arise from this situation: first, which dose quantity is related to the risk of developing a cataract, and second, which personal dose equivalent quantity is appropriate for monitoring this dose quantity. While the dose equivalent quantity Hp(0.07) has often been seen as being sufficiently accurate for monitoring the dose to the lens of the eye, this would be questionable in the case when the dose limits were reduced and, thus, it may be necessary to generally use the dose equivalent quantity Hp(3) for this purpose. The basis for a decision, however, must be the knowledge of accurate conversion coefficients from fluence to equivalent dose to the lens. This is especially important for low-penetrating radiation, for example, electrons. Formerly published values of conversion coefficients are based on quite simple models of the eye. In this paper, quite a sophisticated model of the eye including the inner structure of the lens was used for the calculations and precise conversion coefficients for electrons with energies between 0.2 MeV and 12 MeV, and for angles of radiation incidence between 0° and 45° are presented. Compared to the values adopted in 1996 by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), the new values are up to 1000 times smaller for electron energies below 1 MeV, nearly equal at 1 MeV and above 4 MeV, and by a factor of 1.5 larger at about 1.5 MeV electron energy.

  15. RESEARCH OF LINEAR AND NONLINEAR PROCESSES AT FEMTOSECOND LASER RADIATION PROPAGATION IN THE MEDIUM SIMULATING THE HUMAN EYE VITREOUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Y. Rogov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with mathematical model of linear and nonlinear processes occurring at the propagation of femtosecond laser pulses in the vitreous of the human eye. Methods of computing modeling are applied for the nonlinear spectral equation solution describing the dynamics of a two-dimensional TE-polarized radiation in a homogeneous isotropic medium with cubic fast-response nonlinearity without the usage of slowly varying envelope approximation. Environments close to the optical media parameters of the eye were used for the simulation. The model of femtosecond radiation propagation takes into account the process dynamics for dispersion broadening of pulses in time and the occurence of the self-focusing near the retina when passing through the vitreous body of the eye. Dependence between the pulse duration on the retina has been revealed and the duration of the input pulse and the values of power density at which there is self-focusing have been found. It is shown that the main mechanism of radiation damage with the use of titanium-sapphire laser is photoionization. The results coincide with those obtained by the other scientists, and are usable for creation Russian laser safety standards for femtosecond laser systems.

  16. The modelling of the influence of a corneal geometry on the pupil image of the human eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczesna, D. H.; Kasprzak, H. T.

    2006-07-01

    In normal conditions, a pupil of the eye is observed through the optical system of the cornea. The cornea is the anterior surface of the eye and is the major refractive element of the human eye. The influence of the corneal shape should not be neglected in measurements of the pupil size. The purpose of this study was to estimate the influence of the corneal geometry, the diameter of the pupil and its position in the anterior chamber on the magnification and position of the image of the pupil. The numerical calculations presented in the paper assume infinitely thin cornea, and the corneal topography was approximated by the elongated ellipsoid. The ray tracing procedure was used in our numerical modelling. The magnification of the pupil image amounted to about 10% and increases with decrease of radius of curvature and eccentricity of the corneal profile and decreases for the largest pupil. The results show also that the pupil image is placed nearer the corneal apex than the real pupil. The image of the pupil is always blurred, which limits the sharp observation of the pupil.

  17. Design and analysis of an adaptive lens that mimics the performance of the crystalline lens in the human eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago-Alvarado, Agustin; Cruz-Félix, Angel S.; Iturbide-Jiménez, F.; Martínez-López, M.; Ramírez-Como, M.; Armengol-Cruz, V.; Vásquez-Báez, I.

    2014-09-01

    Tunable lenses are optical systems that have attracted much attention due to their potential applications in such areas like ophthalmology, machine vision, microscopy and laser processing. In recent years we have been working in the analysis and performance of a liquid-filled variable focal length lens, this is a lens that can modify its focal length by changing the amount of water within it. Nowadays we extend our study to a particular adaptive lens known as solid elastic lens (SEL) that it is formed by an elastic main body made of Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS Sylgard 184). In this work, we present the design, simulation and analysis of an adaptive solid elastic lens that in principle imitates the accommodation process of the crystalline lens in the human eye. For this work, we have adopted the parameters of the schematic eye model developed in 1985 by Navarro et al.; this model represents the anatomy of the eye as close as possible to reality by predicting an acceptable and accurate quantity of spherical and chromatic aberrations without any shape fitting. An opto-mechanical analysis of the accommodation process of the adaptive lens is presented, by simulating a certain amount of radial force applied onto the SEL using the finite element method with the commercial software SolidWorks®. We also present ray-trace diagrams of the simulated compression process of the adaptive lens using the commercial software OSLO®.

  18. Setting targets for human resources for eye health in sub-Saharan Africa: what evidence should be used?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtright, Paul; Mathenge, Wanjiku; Kello, Amir Bedri; Cook, Colin; Kalua, Khumbo; Lewallen, Susan

    2016-03-16

    With a global target set at reducing vision loss by 25% by the year 2019, sub-Saharan Africa with an estimated 4.8 million blind persons will require human resources for eye health (HReH) that need to be available, appropriately skilled, supported, and productive. Targets for HReH are useful for planning, monitoring, and resource mobilization, but they need to be updated and informed by evidence of effectiveness and efficiency. Supporting evidence should take into consideration (1) ever-changing disease-specific issues including the epidemiology, the complexity of diagnosis and treatment, and the technology needed for diagnosis and treatment of each condition; (2) the changing demands for vision-related services of an increasingly urbanized population; and (3) interconnected health system issues that affect productivity and quality. The existing targets for HReH and some of the existing strategies such as task shifting of cataract surgery and trichiasis surgery, as well as the scope of eye care interventions for primary eye care workers, will need to be re-evaluated and re-defined against such evidence or supported by new evidence.

  19. THE EFFECT OF GAZE ANGLE ON THE EVALUATIONS OF SAR AND TEMPERATURE RISE IN HUMAN EYE UNDER PLANE-WAVE EXPOSURES FROM 0.9 TO 10 GHZ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Yinliang; Leung, Sai-Wing; Chan, Kwok Hung; Sun, Weinong; Siu, Yun-Ming; Kong, Richard

    2016-12-01

    This article investigates the effect of gaze angle on the specific absorption rate (SAR) and temperature rise in human eye under electromagnetic exposures from 0.9 to 10 GHz. Eye models in different gaze angles are developed based on biometric data. The spatial-average SARs in eyes are investigated using the finite-difference time-domain method, and the corresponding maximum temperature rises in lens are calculated by the finite-difference method. It is found that the changes in the gaze angle produce a maximum variation of 35, 12 and 20 % in the eye-averaged SAR, peak 10 g average SAR and temperature rise, respectively. Results also reveal that the eye-averaged SAR is more sensitive to the changes in the gaze angle than peak 10 g average SAR, especially at higher frequencies. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. The safety of donor skin preserved with glycerol - Evaluating the Euro Skin Bank preservation procedures of human donor skin against the prEN 12442 standard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geertsma RE; Wassenaar C; LGM

    2000-01-01

    The procedures for preservation of human donor skin with glycerol, as applied by the Euro Skin Bank (ESB), were evaluated against the prEN 12442 standard: animal tissues and their derivatives used in the manufacture of medical devices. The focus chosen for this review is on risks related to the tran

  1. Prevalence and factors associated with breast milk donation in banks that receive human milk in primary health care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, Tatiana Mota Xavier de; Oliveira, Maria Inês Couto de; Boccolini, Cristiano Siqueira

    To estimate the prevalence and to analyze factors associated with breast milk donation at primary health care units in order to increase the human milk bank reserves. Cross-sectional study carried out in 2013 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A representative sample of 695 mothers of children younger than 1 year attended to at the nine primary health care units with human milk donation services were interviewed. A hierarchical approach was used to obtain adjusted prevalence ratios (APR) by Poisson regression with robust variance. The final model included the variables associated with breast milk donation (p≤0.05). 7.3% of the mothers had donated breast milk. Having been encouraged to donate breast milk by healthcare professionals, relatives, or friends (APR=7.06), receiving information on breast milk expression by the primary health care unit (APR=3.65), and receiving help from the unit professionals to breastfeed (APR=2.24) were associated with a higher prevalence of donation. Admission of the newborn to the neonatal unit was associated with a lower prevalence of donation (APR=0.09). Encouragement to breast milk donation, and information and help provided by primary health care unit professionals to breastfeeding were shown to be important for the practice of human milk donation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  2. Clinical Grade Human Adipose Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cell Banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagher Larijani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, our aim was to produce a generation of GMP-grade adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells for clinical applications. According to our results, we fulfill to establish consistent and also reproducible current good manufacturing practice (cGMP compliant adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells from five female donors. The isolated cells were cultured in DMEM supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum and characterized by standard methods. Moreover, karyotyping was performed to evaluate chromosomal stability. Mean of donors’ age was 47.6 ± 8.29 year, mean of cell viability was 95.6 ± 1.51%, and cell count was between 9×106 and 14×106 per microliter with the mean of 12.2×106 ± 2863564.21 per microliter. The main aim of this project was demonstrating the feasibility of cGMP-compliant and clinical grade adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells preparation and banking for clinical cell transplantation trials.

  3. Eye lrritation caused by Formaldehyde as an Indoor AIr Pollution—A Controlled Human Exposure Experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANGXU; ZHANGYUN-PING; 等

    2001-01-01

    The present study focuses on health assessment of wood based panels which are widely used in interior decoration practices over the recent years in China.Formaldehyde has been i-dentified as chemical indicator of (IAO) and an indoor air pollutant.To test its health effects experiment was undertaken.Method: A small environmental test chamber(60/L) was used as the genertor of emission gas from new panels,and was operating at a temperature of 22.7±0.6℃ and a humidity of 44.4±2.5% with an air exchange rate of 1.0±0.15h-1.On the three experimental days the values of product lodaing in chamber were 4,2 and 6m2/m3,respectively,Eight people were selected randomly from the students and employees of Wuhan Health and Anti-epidemic Station as subjects,with an average age of 21.9±5.9 years,and a gender ratio of 1:1,and two of them were smokders(one male and one female).The subjects' eyes were exposed to formaldehyde through a pair of googles.Each goggle had its flow inlet and outlet,and connected to chamber exhaust of emission gas and to an exhaust from the room.The exposure time was very short,just 5 minutes and the formaldehyde doses were at 1.65±0.01,2.99±0.07and 4.31±0.02ppm,A6-mm linear visual analogue rating scales was used to measure the intensity of sensory eye irritation and a video tape racorder was used to record eye blinking frequency.Results:the results demonstrated that tests of sensory eye irritation and eye blinking can be used for materials testing,and that a dose-effect as well as a time-variance of the effect can be measured.Conclusion:The tests showed that eye irritation was perceived at all of the three levels.±

  4. Population, Environmental, and Community Effects on Local Bank Vole (Myodes glareolus) Puumala Virus Infection in an Area with Low Human Incidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tersago, K; Schreurs, A; Linard, C

    2008-01-01

    regard the combination of a dilution effect, a possible threshold density that depends on local conditions, and a higher fragmentation of suitable bank vole habitat in our study area as plausible explanations for the sparse occurrence of PUUV infection and low prevalence detected. Thus, beside human...... habitat and tested for anti-PUUV IgG. Infection data were related to individual bank vole features, population demography, and environmental variables. Rare occurrence of PUUV infection was found and PUUV prevalence was low compared with data from the high NE incidence area in southern Belgium. Small...

  5. Establishment of a new in vitro test method for evaluation of eye irritancy using a reconstructed human corneal epithelial model, LabCyte CORNEA-MODEL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, Masakazu; Hamajima, Fumiyasu; Ogasawara, Takahiro; Hata, Ken-ichiro

    2013-12-01

    Finding in vitro eye irritation testing alternatives to animal testing such as the Draize eye test, which uses rabbits, is essential from the standpoint of animal welfare. It has been developed a reconstructed human corneal epithelial model, the LabCyte CORNEA-MODEL, which has a representative corneal epithelium-like structure. Protocol optimization (pre-validation study) was examined in order to establish a new alternative method for eye irritancy evaluation with this model. From the results of the optimization experiments, the application periods for chemicals were set at 1min for liquid chemicals or 24h for solid chemicals, and the post-exposure incubation periods were set at 24h for liquids or zero for solids. If the viability was less than 50%, the chemical was judged to be an eye irritant. Sixty-one chemicals were applied in the optimized protocol using the LabCyte CORNEA-MODEL and these results were evaluated in correlation with in vivo results. The predictions of the optimized LabCyte CORNEA-MODEL eye irritation test methods were highly correlated with in vivo eye irritation (sensitivity 100%, specificity 80.0%, and accuracy 91.8%). These results suggest that the LabCyte CORNEA-MODEL eye irritation test could be useful as an alternative method to the Draize eye test.

  6. An analysis of GAVI, the Global Fund and World Bank support for human resources for health in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vujicic, Marko; Weber, Stephanie E; Nikolic, Irina A; Atun, Rifat; Kumar, Ranjana

    2012-12-01

    Shortages, geographic imbalances and poor performance of health workers pose major challenges for improving health service delivery in developing countries. In response, multilateral agencies have increasingly recognized the need to invest in human resources for health (HRH) to assist countries in achieving their health system goals. In this paper we analyse the HRH-related activities of three agencies: the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunisation (GAVI); the Global Fund for Aids, Tuberculosis, and Malaria (the Global Fund); and the World Bank. First, we reviewed the type of HRH-related activities that are eligible for financing within each agency. Second, we reviewed the HRH-related activities that each agency is actually financing. Third, we reviewed the literature to understand the impact that GAVI, Global Fund and World Bank investments in HRH have had on the health workforce in developing countries. Our analysis found that by far the most common activity supported across all agencies is short-term, in-service training. There is relatively little investment in expanding pre-service training capacity, despite large health worker shortages in developing countries. We also found that the majority of GAVI and the Global Fund grants finance health worker remuneration, largely through supplemental allowances, with little information available on how payment rates are determined, how the potential negative consequences are mitigated, and how payments are to be sustained at the end of the grant period. Based on the analysis, we argue there is an opportunity for improved co-ordination between the three agencies at the country level in supporting HRH-related activities. Existing initiatives, such as the International Health Partnership and the Health Systems Funding Platform, could present viable and timely vehicles for the three agencies to implement this improved co-ordination.

  7. Experimental investigation of vitreous humour motion within a human eye model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Repetto, Rodolfo [Dipartimento di Ingegneria delle Strutture, delle Acque e del Terreno, University of L' Aquila (Italy); Stocchino, Alessandro [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Ambientale, University of Genova (Italy); Cafferata, Chiara [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Ambientale, University of Genova (Italy)

    2005-10-07

    We present an experimental study of the vitreous motion induced by saccadic eye movements. A magnified model of the vitreous chamber has been employed, consisting of a spherical cavity carved in a perspex cylindrical container, which is able to rotate with a prescribed time law. Care has been taken to correctly reproduce real saccadic eye movements. The spherical cavity is filled with glycerol and the flow field is measured on the equatorial plane orthogonal to the axis of rotation, through the PIV technique. Visualizations of the fully three-dimensional flow suggest that it essentially occurs on planes perpendicular to the axis of rotation, the motion orthogonal to such planes being smaller by three to four orders of magnitude. Theoretical results, based on a simplified solution, are in very good agreement with the experimental findings. The maximum value of the shear stress at the wall, which is thought to play a possibly important role in the pathogenesis of retinal detachment, does not significantly depend on the amplitude of saccadic movements. This suggests that relatively small eye rotations, being much more frequent than large movements, are mainly responsible for vitreous stresses on the retina. Results also illustrate the dependence of the maximum shear stress at the wall from the vitreous viscosity.

  8. Eye Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    The structure of your face helps protect your eyes from injury. Still, injuries can damage your eye, sometimes severely enough that you could lose your vision. Most eye injuries are preventable. If you play sports or ...

  9. Eye Wear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eye wear protects or corrects your vision. Examples are Sunglasses Safety goggles Glasses (also called eyeglasses) Contact ... jobs and some sports carry a risk of eye injury. Thousands of children and adults get eye ...

  10. Eye Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer of the eye is uncommon. It can affect the outer parts of the eye, such as the eyelid, which are made up ... adults are melanoma and lymphoma. The most common eye cancer in children is retinoblastoma, which starts in ...

  11. Eye Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the back of the eye Macular degeneration - a disease that destroys sharp, central vision Diabetic eye problems ... defense is to have regular checkups, because eye diseases do not always have symptoms. Early detection and ...

  12. Banks Sparkle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    There is no doubt that China’s banking system is a calm port in the global financial storm. Moreover, a great regulatory firewall and an easing monetary environment have enabled Chinese banks to increase lending and help shrug off the economic downturn. Yi Xianrong, a researcher at the Institute of Finance and Banking under the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, discussed this topic in a recent article in the Shanghai Securities Journal. Edited excerpts follow:

  13. Human Capital Management in Banking Institutions in Connection with the Population Ageing Process, Age Management Philosophy and the Concept of Corporate Social Responsibility in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Bejtkovský

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is, besides other things, to identify awareness of the Age Management philosophy in respect of the Corporate Social Responsibility concept in Czech banking institutions and further think about how to implement the philosophy in the process of human resource management so as to be targeted and efficient for all entities involved. From research methods, questionnaire survey and observation were used. These methods were further supplemented with a semi-structured interview with the employees of banking institutions. The obtained data were analyzed by statistical methods. In association with the conducted researches it can be generally stated that the addressed respondents agree with the statement that their banking institution does implement age diversity of employees in a certain form and Age Management principles – the idea of heterogeneous structure of employees, development of working conditions and environment for performance of required working conditions or cooperation on corporate projects.

  14. Estruturação de um Banco de Dentes Humanos Structuralization of a Human Teeth Bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Cristina da Silva Nassif

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Um Banco de Dentes Humanos (BDH é uma instituição sem fins lucrativos, vinculada a uma faculdade, universidade ou outra instituição. Seu propósito é suprir as necessidades acadêmicas, fornecendo dentes humanos para pesquisa ou para treinamento laboratorial pré-clínico dos alunos, dessa forma eliminando o comércio ilegal de dentes que ainda existe nas faculdades de Odontologia. Cabe também ao BDH zelar pela eliminação da infecção cruzada que existe no manuseio indiscriminado de dentes extraídos. Para o bom funcionamento de um BDH, é fundamental um controle severo de seus procedimentos internos, que incluem a separação e o estoque de dentes, assim como o cadastro e o arquivamento das fichas dos doadores ou beneficiários. Aqui, abordaremos as funções que um BDH pode desempenhar e a forma pela qual hoje o Banco de Dentes Humanos da Faculdade de Odontologia da Universidade de São Paulo (FOUSP funciona e organiza-se.A Human Teeth Bank (HTB is a nonprofit institution, associated to a college, to a university or to some other institution. Its purpose is to fulfill academic needs, by supplying human teeth for research or for preclinical laboratory training of students, thus eliminating the illegal commerce of teeth that still takes place in dental schools. It is also up to an HTB to work for the elimination of cross-infection caused by indiscriminate handling of extracted teeth. In order to work properly, an HTB should have a strict control of its internal procedures, which include separation and stocking of teeth, as well as an appropriate maintaining of donors' and beneficiaries' records. In this article, we discuss the functions that an HTB can perform, and how the Human Teeth Bank, School of Dentistry, University of São Paulo, works and organizes itself today.

  15. Genetic compendium of 1511 human brains available through the UK Medical Research Council Brain Banks Network Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, Michael J.; Wei, Wei; Wilson, Ian; Coxhead, Jon; Ryan, Sarah; Rollinson, Sara; Griffin, Helen; Kurzawa-Akanbi, Marzena; Santibanez-Koref, Mauro; Talbot, Kevin; Turner, Martin R.; McKenzie, Chris-Anne; Troakes, Claire; Attems, Johannes; Smith, Colin; Al Sarraj, Safa; Morris, Chris M.; Ansorge, Olaf; Pickering-Brown, Stuart; Ironside, James W.; Chinnery, Patrick F.

    2017-01-01

    Given the central role of genetic factors in the pathogenesis of common neurodegenerative disorders, it is critical that mechanistic studies in human tissue are interpreted in a genetically enlightened context. To address this, we performed exome sequencing and copy number variant analysis on 1511 frozen human brains with a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD, n = 289), frontotemporal dementia/amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FTD/ALS, n = 252), Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD, n = 239), Parkinson's disease (PD, n = 39), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB, n = 58), other neurodegenerative, vascular, or neurogenetic disorders (n = 266), and controls with no significant neuropathology (n = 368). Genomic DNA was extracted from brain tissue in all cases before exome sequencing (Illumina Nextera 62 Mb capture) with variants called by FreeBayes; copy number variant (CNV) analysis (Illumina HumanOmniExpress-12 BeadChip); C9orf72 repeat expansion detection; and APOE genotyping. Established or likely pathogenic heterozygous, compound heterozygous, or homozygous variants, together with the C9orf72 hexanucleotide repeat expansions and a copy number gain of APP, were found in 61 brains. In addition to known risk alleles in 349 brains (23.9% of 1461 undergoing exome sequencing), we saw an association between rare variants in GRN and DLB. Rare CNVs were found in genetic data are available, enabling the retrieval of specific frozen brains through the UK Medical Research Council Brain Banks Network. This allows direct access to pathological and control human brain tissue based on an individual's genetic architecture, thus enabling the functional validation of known genetic risk factors and potentially pathogenic alleles identified in future studies. PMID:28003435

  16. Genetic compendium of 1511 human brains available through the UK Medical Research Council Brain Banks Network Resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, Michael J; Wei, Wei; Wilson, Ian; Coxhead, Jon; Ryan, Sarah; Rollinson, Sara; Griffin, Helen; Kurzawa-Akanbi, Marzena; Santibanez-Koref, Mauro; Talbot, Kevin; Turner, Martin R; McKenzie, Chris-Anne; Troakes, Claire; Attems, Johannes; Smith, Colin; Al Sarraj, Safa; Morris, Chris M; Ansorge, Olaf; Pickering-Brown, Stuart; Ironside, James W; Chinnery, Patrick F

    2017-01-01

    Given the central role of genetic factors in the pathogenesis of common neurodegenerative disorders, it is critical that mechanistic studies in human tissue are interpreted in a genetically enlightened context. To address this, we performed exome sequencing and copy number variant analysis on 1511 frozen human brains with a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD, n = 289), frontotemporal dementia/amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FTD/ALS, n = 252), Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD, n = 239), Parkinson's disease (PD, n = 39), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB, n = 58), other neurodegenerative, vascular, or neurogenetic disorders (n = 266), and controls with no significant neuropathology (n = 368). Genomic DNA was extracted from brain tissue in all cases before exome sequencing (Illumina Nextera 62 Mb capture) with variants called by FreeBayes; copy number variant (CNV) analysis (Illumina HumanOmniExpress-12 BeadChip); C9orf72 repeat expansion detection; and APOE genotyping. Established or likely pathogenic heterozygous, compound heterozygous, or homozygous variants, together with the C9orf72 hexanucleotide repeat expansions and a copy number gain of APP, were found in 61 brains. In addition to known risk alleles in 349 brains (23.9% of 1461 undergoing exome sequencing), we saw an association between rare variants in GRN and DLB. Rare CNVs were found in <1.5% of brains, including copy number gains of PRPH that were overrepresented in AD. Clinical, pathological, and genetic data are available, enabling the retrieval of specific frozen brains through the UK Medical Research Council Brain Banks Network. This allows direct access to pathological and control human brain tissue based on an individual's genetic architecture, thus enabling the functional validation of known genetic risk factors and potentially pathogenic alleles identified in future studies. © 2017 Keogh et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  17. Teamwork for eye care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Babar Qureshi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Human resource development (HRD – the development of the people who deliver health care – has been identified as one of the key pillars of eye health delivery. HRD is one of the essential building blocks of the World Health Organization (WHO Global Action Plan: ‘Towards universal eye health’. The importance of HRD is also recognised beyond eye care, as can be seen in the WHO Health Systems approach.

  18. Infrared Eye: Prototype 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-07

    within the wide field and slaved to the operator’s line of sight by means of an eye- tracking system. The images from both cameras are fused and shown...simultaneously on a high resolution CRT display unit, interfaced with the eye- tracking unit in order to optimize the human-machine interface. The IR Eye...system was flight tested using the Advanced system Research Aircraft (Bell 412 helicopter) from the Flight Research Laboratory of the National Research

  19. Adaptive Optics Analysis of Visual Benefit with Higher-order Aberrations Correction of Human Eye - Poster Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Lixia; Dai, Yun; Rao, Xuejun; Wang, Cheng; Hu, Yiyun; Liu, Qian; Jiang, Wenhan

    2008-01-01

    Higher-order aberrations correction can improve visual performance of human eye to some extent. To evaluate how much visual benefit can be obtained with higher-order aberrations correction we developed an adaptive optics vision simulator (AOVS). Dynamic real time optimized modal compensation was used to implement various customized higher-order ocular aberrations correction strategies. The experimental results indicate that higher-order aberrations correction can improve visual performance of human eye comparing with only lower-order aberration correction but the improvement degree and higher-order aberration correction strategy are different from each individual. Some subjects can acquire great visual benefit when higher-order aberrations were corrected but some subjects acquire little visual benefit even though all higher-order aberrations were corrected. Therefore, relative to general lower-order aberrations correction strategy, customized higher-order aberrations correction strategy is needed to obtain optimal visual improvement for each individual. AOVS provides an effective tool for higher-order ocular aberrations optometry for customized ocular aberrations correction.

  20. Dez anos de doação de córneas no Banco de Olhos do Hospital São Paulo: perfil dos doadores de 1996 a 2005 Ten years of corneal donation to the Hospital São Paulo Eye Bank: characteristics of cornea donors from 1996 to 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consuelo Bueno Diniz Adán

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available HISTÓRICO: Apesar dos esforços que vêm sendo realizados mais recentemente, a falta de córneas para transplantes ainda é uma realidade no Brasil, principalmente em algumas regiões. O Banco de Olhos do Hospital São Paulo tem como objetivo garantir a qualidade e conservação dos tecidos oculares humanos para disponibilizá-los para transplantes. A qualidade do tecido encontra-se diretamente ligada a todos os processos realizados pela equipe do banco de olhos, a partir da seleção dos doadores. OBJETIVO: Conhecer o perfil dos doadores de córneas do Banco de Olhos do Hospital São Paulo num período de dez anos. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo de fichas de doadores, no período de janeiro de 1996 a dezembro de 2005. RESULTADOS: Chegaram ao Banco de Olhos do Hospital São Paulo 3.624 córneas. A idade média dos doadores foi de 56,8 anos. A faixa etária com maior doação foi de 70-79 anos. A causa mortis mais freqüente foi doença cardiovascular, seguida por neoplasias, doenças respiratórias e trauma. O tempo "enucleação" foi em média de 3,8 horas e o tempo "preservação" foi em média de 3,6 horas. A maioria dos tecidos foi preservada em meios Optisol GS®. Os doadores jovens tiveram maior proporção de córneas consideradas de qualidade "Excelente" ou "Boa". CONCLUSÃO: Ao longo do período estudado de 10 anos, houve tendência de redução no recebimento de tecidos de outros bancos de olhos e progressivo aumento na captação e preservação de tecidos pela equipe do próprio Banco, com redução significativa no tempo de preservação dos tecidos. Os doadores foram, na maioria, do sexo masculino e as doenças cardiovasculares lideraram as causas de óbito. Apesar da maioria das córneas serem provenientes de doadores acima de 60 anos, o maior percentual de aproveitamento de córneas para transplantes ópticos foi de doadores jovens.BACKGROUND: Despite all efforts towards the improvement of the eye bank system, the shortage of

  1. Heart research advances using database search engines, Human Protein Atlas and the Sydney Heart Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Amy; Estigoy, Colleen; Raftery, Mark; Cameron, Darryl; Odeberg, Jacob; Pontén, Fredrik; Lal, Sean; Dos Remedios, Cristobal G

    2013-10-01

    This Methodological Review is intended as a guide for research students who may have just discovered a human "novel" cardiac protein, but it may also help hard-pressed reviewers of journal submissions on a "novel" protein reported in an animal model of human heart failure. Whether you are an expert or not, you may know little or nothing about this particular protein of interest. In this review we provide a strategic guide on how to proceed. We ask: How do you discover what has been published (even in an abstract or research report) about this protein? Everyone knows how to undertake literature searches using PubMed and Medline but these are usually encyclopaedic, often producing long lists of papers, most of which are either irrelevant or only vaguely relevant to your query. Relatively few will be aware of more advanced search engines such as Google Scholar and even fewer will know about Quertle. Next, we provide a strategy for discovering if your "novel" protein is expressed in the normal, healthy human heart, and if it is, we show you how to investigate its subcellular location. This can usually be achieved by visiting the website "Human Protein Atlas" without doing a single experiment. Finally, we provide a pathway to discovering if your protein of interest changes its expression level with heart failure/disease or with ageing. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. World Bank Education Policy and Human Resource Development in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutamba, Charlene

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the intersection of education and training through societal development in the developing world, a concept linked to national human resource development (NHRD). In addition, education and training is known to correlate strongly with employment outcomes that are connected to economic success, health and family…

  3. Human eye cataract microstructure modeling and its effect on simulated retinal imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wen-Shuang; Chang, Chung-Hao; Horng, Chi-Ting; Yao, Hsin-Yu; Sun, Han-Ying; Huang, Shu-Fang; Wang, Hsiang-Chen

    2017-02-01

    We designed a crystalline microstructure during cataract lesions and calculated the aberration value of the eye by using ray trace modeling to identify the corresponding spherical aberration, coma aberration, and trefoil aberration value under different pathological-change degrees. The mutual relationship between microstructure and aberration was then discussed using these values. Calculation results showed that with increased layer number of microstructure, the influence of aberration value on spherical aberration was the greatest. In addition, the influence of a relatively compact microstructure on spherical aberration and coma aberration was small, but that on trefoil aberration was great.

  4. Human regional cerebral blood flow during rapid-eye-movement sleep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, P L; Holm, S; Vorstrup, S;

    1991-01-01

    Owing to the coupling between CBF and neuronal activity, regional CBF is a reflection of neural activity in different brain regions. In this study we measured regional CBF during polysomnographically well-defined rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep by the use of single photon emission computerized...... tomography and the new tracer 99mTc-dl-hexamethylpropyleneamine. Eleven healthy volunteers aged between 22 and 27 years were studied. CBF was measured on separate nights during REM sleep and during EEG-verified wakefulness. On awakening from REM sleep, all subjects reported visual dreams. During REM sleep...

  5. Ocular surface area and human eye blink frequency during VDU work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Pernille Kofoed; Søgaard, Karen; Skotte, Jørgen

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how the ocular surface area (OSA) and the eye blink frequency (BF) are affected by a high versus a low-monitor position during visual display unit (VDU) work with varying cognitive demands. In a balanced randomized (2 x 2) design ten healthy subjects....... The low BF during the active task was succeded by a burst with high BF after cessation of the active task, indicating a compensatory blinking process. This stresses that interchange of work tasks with different cognitive load is as important as the monitor position in the prevention of visual...

  6. ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE AND HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT INTERVENTIONS: AN INVESTIGATION OF THE NIGERIAN BANKING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adenike Anthonia Adeniji

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to study the relationship between human resource management interventionist strategies and organizational change; and flexibility that can make employees more adaptive and receptive to changes. Out of one hundred and sixty copies of questionnaire administered, one hundred and twenty three (123 were collected and analyzed. Structural Equation Modelling (SEM, a hypothesized relationship was tested using Amos 18 that allows test of complex relationships between variables. Our model shows that relationship exists among human resource management interventionist strategies and was consistent with organizational change in the studied industry. However, the study can be extended to other industries, for example manufacturing industry as well as industry within the merger and acquisition of companies.

  7. Pilot social feasibility study for the establishment of a public human umbilical cord blood stem cell bank in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner-Roloff, Madelein; Young, Wendy; Rangaka, Isabella; Lombaard, Hennie; Dhai, Ames; Tsotsi, Norma; Pepper, Michael S

    2012-12-01

    There is a large unmet need in South Africa for bone marrow transplantation. Umbilical cord blood (UCB) is an important source of stem cells for the treatment of haematological and non-haematological diseases. Access to the two existing private umbilical cord blood stem cell banks (UCB SCBs) in South Africa is limited to individuals that can afford it, which further aggravates the ever increasing divide between families from different socio-economic classes. The problem is compounded by a severe global shortage of genetically compatible samples, representative of the South African demographics. Establishing a public human UCB SCB in South Africa would provide more South Africans with access to previously unavailable treatment in the form of affordable, genetically compatible stem cells for bone marrow transplantation. A public UCB SCB has many facets to consider, one of which is public preparedness and support for the bank. This was assessed in a social feasibility pilot study which is reported here. In addition to the findings of this social feasibility study, other important considerations for establishing a public human UCB SCB in SA include; (a) testing the samples for HIV and other infectious diseases (required for compliance with international regulatory standards); (b) flow cytometric analysis for enumeration of CD34+ UCB stem cells; (c) mapping of HLA genotypes/alleles; and (d) a study of the economic feasibility of this endeavour.The social feasibility study was conducted to gauge public preparedness and support for a public SCB through patient interviews and questionnaires. The process was dynamic due to its novel nature for interviewers and interviewees alike. Many obstacles were met and dealt with which lead to the compilation of results discussed here in the form of a pilot social feasibility study.In the South African context, we are faced with unique and rich challenges relating to cultural and religious differences that are further augmented by

  8. Perception of eye positions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorteije, J.A.M.; Wezel, R.J.A. van; Lankheet, M.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    In a two-alternative forced-choice psychophysical test human subjects were tested for their ability to perceive their own viewing direction. A small red flash was presented at different horizontal positions left or right from the subjects' eye position on the screen. Eye positions were recorded with

  9. Relative size of the eye and orbit: an evolutionary and craniofacial constraint model for examining the etiology and disparate incidence of juvenile-onset myopia in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Michael P

    2012-05-01

    The principal aim of this research is to provide a new model for investigating myopia in humans, and contribute to an understanding of the degree to which modern variation and evolutionary change in orbital and overall craniofacial morphology may help explain the common eye form association with this condition. Recent research into long and short-term evolution of the human orbit reveals a number of changes in this feature, and particularly since the Upper Paleolithic. These include a reduction in orbital depth, a decrease in anterior projection of the upper and lower orbital margins, and most notably, a reduction in orbital volume since the Holocene in East Asia. Reduced orbital volume in this geographic region could exacerbate an existing trend in recent hominin evolution toward larger eyes in smaller orbits, and may help explain the unusually high frequency of myopia in East Asian populations. The objective of the current study is to test a null hypothesis of no relationship between a ratio of orbit to eye volume and spherical equivalent refractive error (SER) in a sample of Chinese adults, and examine how relative size of the eye within the orbit relates to SER between the sexes and across the sample population. Analysis of the orbit, eye, and SER reveals a strong relationship between relative size of the eye within the orbit and the severity of myopic refractive error. An orbit/eye ratio of 3 for females and 3.5 for males (or an eye that occupies approximately 34% and 29% of the orbit, respectively), designates a clear threshold at which myopia develops, and becomes progressively worse as the eye continues to occupy a greater proportion of the orbital cavity. These results indicate that relative size of the eye within the orbit is an important factor in the development of myopia, and suggests that individuals with large eyes in small orbits lack space for adequate development of ocular tissues, leading to compression and distortion of the lithesome globe

  10. Dietary Supplementation with a Combination of Lactoferrin, Fish Oil, and Enterococcus faecium WB2000 for Treating Dry Eye: A Rat Model and Human Clinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Motoko; Nakamura, Shigeru; Izuta, Yusuke; Inoue, Sachiko; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2016-04-01

    To examine the effect of a combined dietary supplement containing fish oil, lactoferrin, zinc, vitamin C, lutein, vitamin E, γ-aminobutanoic acid, and Enterococcus faecium WB2000 on dry eye. A preliminary study in a rat model and a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in humans were conducted. Forty Japanese volunteers aged 22 to 59 years were randomized into combined dietary supplement (2 capsules/day; 20 participants) and placebo (vehicle; 19 participants) groups and treated once daily for 8 weeks. Rats received the combined dietary supplement components (10 or 50 mg/kg orally) or vehicle (2% DMSO), and dry eye was mechanically induced for 2 days. Tear production was measured in rats after dry eye was induced. Humans were assessed at baseline and weeks 4 and 8 post-supplementation based on keratoconjunctival epithelial damage; fluorescein tear film breakup time; tear production; biochemical data; information regarding subjective dry eye symptoms by answering a questionnaire; and information regarding adverse events via medical interviews. Supplementation dose-dependently mitigated the decrease in tear production in rats. Among subjects with confirmed dry eye, clinical symptoms improved at weeks 4 and 8 more significantly in the supplementation group than in the placebo group (P<.05). The rate of increase in the Schirmer value was greater in the supplementation group. No adverse events occurred. Supplementation improved objective and subjective dry eye symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Vitrified sperm banks: the new aseptic technique for human spermatozoa allows cryopreservation at -86 °C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, R; Risopatrón, J; Schulz, M; Villegas, J V; Isachenko, V; Isachenko, E

    2012-12-01

    The vitrification technique is simple, quick, cost-effective and has showed a significantly stronger cryoprotective effect in contrast to conventional freezing. The method is based on the rapid cooling of the cell by direct immersion in liquid nitrogen (LN (2) ), thereby avoiding the formation of ice crystals, due to the lower risk of water thawing, which impairs cell function. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of storage at -86 °C compared to the conventional -196 °C (under LN (2) ) on essential parameters of the functioning of aseptically vitrified human sperm. Sperm motility, integrity of mitochondrial membrane potential and the rate of DNA fragmentation were determined. The comparison of -86 °C and -196 °C demonstrated no statistical difference in sperm progressive motility (73% vs. 77%), integrity of mitochondrial membrane potential (71% vs. 74%) or DNA fragmentation (3.1% vs. 2.9%). In conclusion, aseptically vitrified sperm can be preserved at -86 °C; eliminating the use of LN (2) simplifies and significantly reduces the costs associated with storage in sperm banks by decreasing the time and space needed for storage, the effort in finding stored samples, and by improving safety for the operator. However, for prolonged storage further studies are needed.

  12. Human eye-head gaze shifts in a distractor task. II. Reduced threshold for initiation of early head movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corneil, B D; Munoz, D P

    1999-09-01

    This study was motivated by the observation of early head movements (EHMs) occasionally generated before gaze shifts. Human subjects were presented with a visual or auditory target, along with an accompanying stimulus of the other modality, that either appeared at the same location as the target (enhancer condition) or at the diametrically opposite location (distractor condition). Gaze shifts generated to the target in the distractor condition sometimes were preceded by EHMs directed either to the side of the target (correct EHMs) or the side of the distractor (incorrect EHMs). During EHMs, the eyes performed compensatory eye movements to keep gaze stable. Incorrect EHMs were usually between 1 and 5 degrees in amplitude and reached peak velocities generally EHMs initially followed a trajectory typical of much larger head movements. These results suggest that incorrect EHMs are head movements that initially were planned to orient to the peripheral distractor. Furthermore gaze shifts preceded by incorrect EHMs had longer reaction latencies than gaze shifts not preceded by incorrect EHMs, suggesting that the processes leading to incorrect EHMs also serve to delay gaze-shift initiation. These results demonstrate a form of distraction analogous to the incorrect gaze shifts (IGSs) described in the previous paper and suggest that a motor program encoding a gaze shift to a distractor is capable of initiating either an IGS or an incorrect EHM. A neural program not strong enough to initiate an IGS nevertheless can initiate an incorrect EHM.

  13. [Importance of asferic treatment of intraocular lenses in contrast sensitivity of the human eye].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calţaru, Dana Cristina; Pop, Mihai

    2014-01-01

    Clinical study which follows the influence of asphericity of intraocular lenses on an important parameter of quality of vision in operated cataract patients - contrast sensibility. This is a pilot, prospective study with 131 eyes of 124 patients, which had cataract surgery by phacoemulsification between 2011-2012. All operations were done by the same surgeon. EXCLUSION CRITERIAS WERE: VA ( 0.7; postop refraction >0.75 D sf. or 0.75 D cyl, corneal diseases, optic nerv or retinal pathologies, atypical surgery, pupil diameter 3 mm. Postoperative control was done at six weeks and included : AV, optical correction, contrast sensibility testing, intraocular pressure, posterior pol exam. Contrast sensibility testing was done using a LCD device, in fotopic condition, CC-100 TOPCON. Contrast sensibility graphics were compared between spheric and aspheric lenses for Zeiss, AMO, Bausch&Lomb, Alcon. There were no statistically significant differences between aspherical lenses. Also, there were no differences for the same manufacturer between spherical and aspherical lenses.

  14. [Study of the content of alpha-fetoprotein and serum albumin in the vitreous body of the eye of human embryos].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panova, I G; Tatikolov, A S

    2011-01-01

    The content of serum albumin and alpha-fetoprotein in the vitreous body of the eyes of human embryos from the 16th through the 24th week was investigated. It was detected that albumin and alpha-fetoprotein in the vitreous body of human eyes are presented in equal molar concentrations in the 16th week. There is 1.5-fold increased concentration of alpha-fetoprotein in comparison to albumin during the 17th week. Seventeen weeks later, there was a reduction in the concentration of both proteins. It was reported that cyanine dye, used for detection of albumin, does not interact with alpha-fetoprotein.

  15. Prevalence of Chlamydophila psittaci infections in the eyes of cattle, buffaloes, sheep and goats in contact with a human population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, K M; Ali, H A; ElJakee, J A; Galal, H M

    2013-06-01

    This work is an example of cooperation between veterinary and human medicine being fully complementary and at the same time, indispensable to improve our knowledge on animal chlamydiosis. This study investigated the existence of ocular chlamydiae and determined the prevalence of its presence, chlamydiosis, in asymptomatic and diseased farm animals and adjacent humans. Data were obtained by the omp2 gene family Chlamydiaceae-specific PCR. Two hundred cattle, buffaloes, sheep and goats and 44 human specimens were also examined. Conjunctival swabs from both the eyes were collected from all animals and humans using cotton swabs. Samples were tested for chlamydiae by Vero cells tissue culture, chicken embryo, modified Gimenez staining, direct fluorescein-conjugated monoclonal antibody staining (FA), immunoperoxidase, CFT and PCR. The PCR-RFLP revealed that Chlamydophila psittaci demonstrated in the conjunctival samples of cattle (68% asymptomatic and 88% diseased), of buffalo (68% asymptomatic and 72% diseased), of sheep (68% asymptomatic and 80% diseased), of goat (76% asymptomatic and 92% diseased) and of humans (77% asymptomatic and 82% diseased). The Cp. psittaci was the only chlamydiae demonstrated in all of the ocular conjunctival samples, which confirms the prevalence of Cp. psittaci in this population of animals and adjacent humans. Statistically, the animal species factor was calculated and was found to be of no significance. Yet, there appeared to be a significant difference in the percentage of animal that tested positive using the different methods. Detection of Cp. psittaci in most samples confirms the prevalence of Cp. psittaci in this population of animals and adjacent humans.

  16. Numerical model of heat transfer in the human eye with consideration of fluid dynamics of the aqueous humour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karampatzakis, Andreas; Samaras, Theodoros, E-mail: theosama@auth.g [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2010-10-07

    In this work we present a new 3D numerical model for heat transfer in the human eye, which takes into account the aqueous humour flow in the anterior chamber. We show that consideration of this phenomenon in the calculations alters the temperature distribution on the corneal and lens surfaces, without, however, noticeably changing their absolute values. The most notable effect is that the coolest area of the cornea moves at a point of 2 mm inferior to its geometric centre. The maximum velocity of the fluid in the anterior chamber was found to be 3.36 x 10{sup -4} m s{sup -1}. The effect of the flow on displacing the cool area of the corneal surface temperature is counterbalanced by assuming anisotropic thermal conductivity. The model was implemented in the case of an artificial intraocular lens to show the resulting temperature variations.

  17. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips ... addressed to the NEI Website Manager . Department of Health and Human Services | The National Institutes of Health | ...

  18. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips ... addressed to the NEI Website Manager . Department of Health and Human Services | The National Institutes of Health | ...

  19. [Epidemiology of human schistosomiasis in Mauritania. The right bank of the Senegal River as model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouldabdallahi, M; Ouldbezeid, M; Diop, C; Dem, E; Lassana, K

    2010-12-01

    A study was performed to determine the transmission and prevalence of human schistosomiasis in the Mauritanian side of the Senegal River basin. Parasitological investigations by Kato-Katz and urine filtration conducted on 1,259 school children indicated a mean prevalence of S. haematobium--29.0%, 25.9% and 34.3%, respectively, in the children of the lower, middle and high valley. Only the school children of the lower delta valley were infected by S. mansoni with a mean prevalence rate of 21.5%. The malacological investigations carried out in the water points of each visited village highlighted the presence of B. pfeifferi, B. senegalensis, B. globosus, B. umbilicatus, B. truncatus and B. forskalii. The last three species are announced for the first time in the Mauritanian side of the Senegal River. The laboratory snail infection experiments indicate that B. senegalensis and B. globosus are the most important intermediate hosts for S. haematobium in the Mauritanian side of the Senegal River basin. However, an incompatibility between the oasis strains of S. haematobium and the snails of the lower valley was noted. In the middle valley and high valley, the infection of the school children takes place during the rainy season, because of the creation of the temporary water points, in the lower valley; the transmission seems to be continuous.

  20. Human Rights and the Ethno-Nationalist Problematic through the Eyes of Greek-Cypriot Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zembylas, Michalinos; Charalambous, Panayiota; Charalambous, Constadina; Lesta, Stalo

    2016-01-01

    The present article aims to examine the interplay between the transnational discourses of human rights and the particularities of local constructions and conceptualisations of human rights within the context of an ethnically divided society, Cyprus. Specifically, this interplay is examined through a qualitative study of Greek-Cypriot primary…

  1. Human Rights and the Ethno-Nationalist Problematic through the Eyes of Greek-Cypriot Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zembylas, Michalinos; Charalambous, Panayiota; Charalambous, Constadina; Lesta, Stalo

    2016-01-01

    The present article aims to examine the interplay between the transnational discourses of human rights and the particularities of local constructions and conceptualisations of human rights within the context of an ethnically divided society, Cyprus. Specifically, this interplay is examined through a qualitative study of Greek-Cypriot primary…

  2. Personal identification by eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinović, Dunja; Njirić, Sanja; Coklo, Miran; Muzić, Vedrana

    2011-09-01

    Identification of persons through the eyes is in the field of biometrical science. Many security systems are based on biometric methods of personal identification, to determine whether a person is presenting itself truly. The human eye contains an extremely large number of individual characteristics that make it particularly suitable for the process of identifying a person. Today, the eye is considered to be one of the most reliable body parts for human identification. Systems using iris recognition are among the most secure biometric systems.

  3. Retinal nerve fiber bundle tracing and analysis in human eye by polarization sensitive OCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugita, Mitsuro; Pircher, Michael; Zotter, Stefan; Baumann, Bernhard; Roberts, Philipp; Makihira, Tomoyuki; Tomatsu, Nobuhiro; Sato, Makoto; Vass, Clemens; Hitzenberger, Christoph K.

    2015-01-01

    We present a new semi-automatic processing method for retinal nerve fiber bundle tracing based on polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) data sets. The method for tracing is based on a nerve fiber orientation map that covers the fovea and optic nerve head (ONH) regions. In order to generate the orientation map, two types of information are used: optic axis orientation based on polarization data, and complementary information obtained from nerve fiber layer (NFL) local thickness variation to reveal fiber bundle structures around the fovea. The corresponding two orientation maps are fused into a combined fiber orientation map. En face maps of NFL retardation, thickness, and unit-depth-retardation (UDR, equivalent to birefringence) are transformed into “along-trace” maps by using the obtained traces of the nerve fiber bundles. The method is demonstrated in the eyes of healthy volunteers, and as an example of further analyses utilizing this method, maps illustrating the gradients of NFL retardation, thickness, and UDR are demonstrated. PMID:25798324

  4. 浅谈商业银行人力资源的优化配置%Discussion on the optimal allocation of human resources in commercial banks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    麦嘉华

    2016-01-01

    通过分析商业银行人力资源配置存在的问题,提出了优化商业银行人力资源配置的目标体系、建立人力资源配置的调整机制、优化人力资源内部管理结构、调整人力资源的优化配置、优化人力资源的组合配置方式和完善人力资源配置的保障体系等优化人力资源配置的措施和建议。%By analyzing the existing problems in human resource allocation of commercial banks, this paper puts forward the measures of optimizing objective system of human resources allocation of commercial banks, establishing adjustment mechanism, optimizing internal management structure of human resources, optimizing human resources allocation, optimizing combination configuration mode of human resources and improving security system of human resources.

  5. Space representation for eye movements is more contralateral in monkeys than in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Igor; Iyer, Asha; Lindner, Axel; Andersen, Richard A

    2010-04-27

    Contralateral hemispheric representation of sensory inputs (the right visual hemifield in the left hemisphere and vice versa) is a fundamental feature of primate sensorimotor organization, in particular the visuomotor system. However, many higher-order cognitive functions in humans show an asymmetric hemispheric lateralization--e.g., right brain specialization for spatial processing--necessitating a convergence of information from both hemifields. Electrophysiological studies in monkeys and functional imaging in humans have investigated space and action representations at different stages of visuospatial processing, but the transition from contralateral to unified global spatial encoding and the relationship between these encoding schemes and functional lateralization are not fully understood. Moreover, the integration of data across monkeys and humans and elucidation of interspecies homologies is hindered, because divergent findings may reflect actual species differences or arise from discrepancies in techniques and measured signals (electrophysiology vs. imaging). Here, we directly compared spatial cue and memory representations for action planning in monkeys and humans using event-related functional MRI during a working-memory oculomotor task. In monkeys, cue and memory-delay period activity in the frontal, parietal, and temporal regions was strongly contralateral. In putative human functional homologs, the contralaterality was significantly weaker, and the asymmetry between the hemispheres was stronger. These results suggest an inverse relationship between contralaterality and lateralization and elucidate similarities and differences in human and macaque cortical circuits subserving spatial awareness and oculomotor goal-directed actions.

  6. Eye Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News About Us Donate In This Section Eye Anatomy en Español email Send this article to a ... You at Risk For Glaucoma? Childhood Glaucoma Eye Anatomy Five Common Glaucoma Tests Glaucoma Facts and Stats ...

  7. Eye trauma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-02-02

    Feb 2, 2011 ... will invariably lead to lid swelling, making the examination far more difficult. ... protect the eye with a pad or shield, give tetanus prophylaxis and refer. ... A study on penetrating eye injuries in South African children found.

  8. Spherical aberration and other higher-order aberrations in the human eye : from summary wave-front analysis data to optical variables relevant to visual perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansonius, Nomdo M.

    2010-01-01

    Wave-front analysis data from the human eye are commonly presented using the aberration coefficient c(4)(0) (primary spherical aberration) together with an overall measure of all higher-order aberrations. If groups of subjects are compared, however, the relevance of an observed difference cannot eas

  9. Mapping human resources for eye health in 21 countries of sub-Saharan Africa: current progress towards VISION 2020

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Development of human resources for eye health (HReH) is a major focus of the Global Action Plan 2014 to 2019 to reduce the prevalence of avoidable visual impairment by 25% by the year 2019. The eye health workforce is thought to be much smaller in sub-Saharan Africa than in other regions of the world but data to support this for policy-making is scarce. We collected HReH and cataract surgeries data from 21 countries in sub-Sahara to estimate progress towards key suggested population-based VISION 2020 HReH indicators and cataract surgery rates (CSR) in 2011. Methods Routinely collected data on practitioner and surgery numbers in 2011 was requested from national eye care coordinators via electronic questionnaires. Telephone and e-mail discussions were used to determine data collection strategies that fit the national context and to verify reported data quality. Information was collected on six practitioner cadres: ophthalmologists, cataract surgeons, ophthalmic clinical officers, ophthalmic nurses, optometrists and ‘mid-level refractionists’ and combined with publicly available population data to calculate practitioner to population ratios and CSRs. Associations with development characteristics were conducted using Wilcoxon rank sum tests and Spearman rank correlations. Results HReH data was not easily available. A minority of countries had achieved the suggested VISION 2020 targets in 2011; five countries for ophthalmologists/cataract surgeons, four for ophthalmic nurses/clinical officers and two for CSR. All countries were below target for optometrists, even when other cadres who perform refractions as a primary duty were considered. The regional (sample) ratio for surgeons (ophthalmologists and cataract surgeons) was 2.9 per million population, 5.5 for ophthalmic clinical officers and nurses, 3.7 for optometrists and other refractionists, and 515 for CSR. A positive correlation between GDP and CSR as well as many practitioner ratios was observed

  10. The digital aqueous humor outflow meter: an alternative tool for screening of the human eye outflow facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassilios P Kozobolis

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Vassilios P Kozobolis, Eleftherios I Paschalis, Nikitas C Foudoulakis, Stavrenia C Koukoula, Georgios LabirisDepartment of Ophthalmology and Eye Institute of Thrace, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, GreecePurpose: To develop, characterize, and validate a prototype digital aqueous humor outflow tonographer (DAHOM.Material and methods: The DAHOM was developed, characterized, and validated in three phases. Phase 1 involved construction of the sensor. This was broadly based on the fundamental design of a typical Schiotz tonographer with a series of improvements, including corneal indentation, which was converted to an electrical signal via a linear variable differential transducer, an analog signal which was converted to digital via ADC circuitry, and digital data acquisition and processing which was made possible by a serial port interface. Phase 2 comprised development of software for automated assessment of the outflow facility. Automated outflow facility assessment incorporated a series of fundamental improvements in comparison with traditional techniques, including software-based filtering of ripple noise and extreme variations, rigidity impact analysis, and evaluation of the impact of patient age, central corneal thickness, and ocular axial length. Phase 3 comprised characterization and validation of DAHOM, for which we developed an experimental setup using porcine cadaver eyes. DAHOM’s repeatability was evaluated by means of Cronbach’s alpha and intraclass correlation coefficient. The level of agreement with a standard Schiotz tonographer was evaluated by means of paired t-tests and Bland-Altman analysis in human eyes.Results: The experimental setup provided the necessary data for the characterization of DAHOM. A fourth order polynomial equation provided excellent fit (R square >0.999. DAHOM demonstrated high repeatability (Cronbach’s alpha ≥0.997; intraclass correlation coefficient ≥0.987 and an adequate level of

  11. Accommodation in human eye models: a comparison between the optical designs of Navarro, Arizona and Liou-Brennan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoulinakis, Georgios; Esteve-Taboada, Jose Juan; Ferrer-Blasco, Teresa; Madrid-Costa, David; Montés-Micó, Robert

    2017-01-01

    AIM To simulate and compare accommodation in accommodative and non-accommodative human eye models. METHODS Ray tracing and optical design program was used. Three eye models were designed and studied: the Navarro, the Arizona and the Liou-Brennan. In order to make the Navarro and Liou-Brennan models to accommodate, specific geometric parameters of the models were altered with values that were chosen from the literature. For the Arizona model, its' mathematical functions for accommodation were used for the same accommodative demands. The simulation included four distances of accommodation for each model: at infinity, 3, 1 and 0.5 m.The results were diffraction images of a “letter F” for graphical comparison, spot diagrams on the retinal field and Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) graphs. RESULTS Zernike coefficients for the aberrations, Airy disk diameter, root mean square (RMS) error diameter and total axial length of the model were provided from the program. These were compared between them in all distances. The Navarro model had the smallest axial length change as a simple model. The Arizona did not change its axial length because it is designed to be accommodative. The Liou-Brennan model had different results concerning the aberrations because of the decentration of the pupil. The MTF graphs showed small differences between the models because of the differences in their designs. CONCLUSION All the three models are able to simulate accommodation with the expected results. There is no model that can be assumed as the best choice. Accommodation can be simulated in non-accommodativemodels and in customized ones. PMID:28149775

  12. Effects of Long-Term Exposure to 60 GHz Millimeter-Wavelength Radiation on the Genotoxicity and Heat Shock Protein (Hsp Expression of Cells Derived from Human Eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Koyama

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Human corneal epithelial (HCE-T and human lens epithelial (SRA01/04 cells derived from the human eye were exposed to 60 gigahertz (GHz millimeter-wavelength radiation for 24 h. There was no statistically significant increase in the micronucleus (MN frequency in cells exposed to 60 GHz millimeter-wavelength radiation at 1 mW/cm2 compared with sham-exposed controls and incubator controls. The MN frequency of cells treated with bleomycin for 1 h provided positive controls. The comet assay, used to detect DNA strand breaks, and heat shock protein (Hsp expression also showed no statistically significant effects of exposure. These results indicate that exposure to millimeter-wavelength radiation has no effect on genotoxicity in human eye cells.

  13. Immunohistochemical markers for corneal stem cells in the early developing human eye

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngholm, Mikkel; Høyer, Poul E; Vorum, Henrik;

    2008-01-01

    markers and potential markers for LSCs and early transient amplifying cells in human adults. In this study, we describe the development of the ectodermally derived LSCs and the mesodermally derived niche cells from the time at which the cornea is defined (week 6) until the formation of the early limbal...... niche (week 14) in human embryos and fetuses. The expression of SOD2 and CK15 was investigated together with other recently identified limbal proteins. Previously suggested LSC and differentiation markers (PAX6, aquaporin-1 and nestin) were also investigated. Both SOD2 and CK15 were present...

  14. The Chernobyl Tissue Bank — A Repository for Biomaterial and Data Used in Integrative and Systems Biology Modeling the Human Response to Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Geraldine; Unger, Kristian; Krznaric, Marko; Galpine, Angela; Bethel, Jackie; Tomlinson, Christopher; Woodbridge, Mark; Butcher, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    The only unequivocal radiological effect of the Chernobyl accident on human health is the increase in thyroid cancer in those exposed in childhood or early adolescence. In response to the scientific interest in studying the molecular biology of thyroid cancer post Chernobyl, the Chernobyl Tissue Bank (CTB: www.chernobyltissuebank.com) was established in 1998. Thus far it is has collected biological samples from 3,861 individuals, and provided 27 research projects with 11,254 samples. The CTB was designed from its outset as a resource to promote the integration of research and clinical data to facilitate a systems biology approach to radiation related thyroid cancer. The project has therefore developed as a multidisciplinary collaboration between clinicians, dosimetrists, molecular biologists and bioinformaticians and serves as a paradigm for tissue banking in the omics era. PMID:24704918

  15. Umbilical cord blood banks. Ethical aspects. Public versus private banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aznar Lucea, Justo

    2012-01-01

    The creation of umbilical cord blood (UCB) banks raises interesting medical, social, economic and ethical issues. This paper reviews the ethical problems specifically. In this respect, it evaluates: a) whether there are advantages to the use of UCB compared to bone marrow, b) whether or not it is ethical to create UCB banks, c) whether their creation is ethically acceptable in terms of their clinical usefulness or d) the use made of them for therapeutic purposes, and finally e) whether their creation is ethically justified from a cost/profitability point of view. We focus primarily on evaluating the ethical controversy between public and private banks, particularly on whether it is ethical to bank autologous blood in private UCB banks, on the basis of its limited possibilities for use by the cord blood donor. We can conclude that, from an ethical point of view, autologous blood banks have limited acceptance among specialised researchers, scientific societies and other public institutions. Therefore, we believe that it is ethically more acceptable to support the creation of public UCB banks for medical and social reasons and, above all, based on the principle of justice and human solidarity. Nevertheless, there is no definitive ethical argument why a couple, according to their autonomy and freedom, cannot bank their child's UCB in a private bank. An equally acceptable solution could be the creation of mixed banks, such as that proposed by the Virgin Health Bank or like the Spanish system where autologous samples can be stored in public banks but with the proviso that if at any time the stored sample is required by any person other than the donor, it would have to be given to them.

  16. Identifying photoreceptors in blind eyes caused by RPE65 mutations: Prerequisite for human gene therapy success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Samuel G; Aleman, Tomas S; Cideciyan, Artur V; Sumaroka, Alexander; Schwartz, Sharon B; Windsor, Elizabeth A M; Traboulsi, Elias I; Heon, Elise; Pittler, Steven J; Milam, Ann H; Maguire, Albert M; Palczewski, Krzysztof; Stone, Edwin M; Bennett, Jean

    2005-04-26

    Mutations in RPE65, a gene essential to normal operation of the visual (retinoid) cycle, cause the childhood blindness known as Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA). Retinal gene therapy restores vision to blind canine and murine models of LCA. Gene therapy in blind humans with LCA from RPE65 mutations may also have potential for success but only if the retinal photoreceptor layer is intact, as in the early-disease stage-treated animals. Here, we use high-resolution in vivo microscopy to quantify photoreceptor layer thickness in the human disease to define the relationship of retinal structure to vision and determine the potential for gene therapy success. The normally cone photoreceptor-rich central retina and rod-rich regions were studied. Despite severely reduced cone vision, many RPE65-mutant retinas had near-normal central microstructure. Absent rod vision was associated with a detectable but thinned photoreceptor layer. We asked whether abnormally thinned RPE65-mutant retina with photoreceptor loss would respond to treatment. Gene therapy in Rpe65(-/-) mice at advanced-disease stages, a more faithful mimic of the humans we studied, showed success but only in animals with better-preserved photoreceptor structure. The results indicate that identifying and then targeting retinal locations with retained photoreceptors will be a prerequisite for successful gene therapy in humans with RPE65 mutations and in other retinal degenerative disorders now moving from proof-of-concept studies toward clinical trials.

  17. Use of postmortem temperature decay response surface plots of heat transport in the human eye to predict time of death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Jimmy L

    2014-03-01

    A finite element heat transfer model of the human eye was previously constructed and applied to experimental postmortem temperature decay curves collected in eyeballs of ten human bodies. The model was applied in the early postmortem period of 0–24 h under conditions of natural convection–radiation. Based upon this previous model, response surfaces for postmortem temperature decay were constructed based upon variable ranges of the natural convective–radiation heat transfer coefficient from 7–13 W/m2 K, ambient temperatures of 10–33°C, and times of 0–24 h. Mathematical equations to describe these response surfaces have been developed. This response surface method is demonstrated for use by coroners/medical personnel to estimate time of death from recorded field temperature data collected over a 30-min period. Sensitivity of the model to small changes in the key variable of ambient temperature is explored. The response surface model is applied to two cases of previously collected experimental eyeball temperature data. This response surface model method is only valid for constant surrounding temperatures, conditions of natural convection, no radiation effects, and postmortem times of 0–24 h.

  18. Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Comprehensive, peer-reviewed toxicology data for about 5,000 chemicals. The data bank focuses on the toxicology of potentially hazardous chemicals. It is enhanced...

  19. Is there any difference in the photobiological properties of melanins isolated from human blue and brown eyes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, I A; Basu, P K; Persad, S; Avaria, M; Felix, C C; Kalyanaraman, B

    1987-01-01

    Investigations were carried out to determine whether the melanin present in the blue and brown eyes were eumelanin, the melanin present in black hair and dark skin, or pheomelanin, the melanin present in red hair and the skin of people with red hair. Our results showed that UV-visible irradiation of blue or brown eye melanin did not produce any superoxide. Irradiation of 51Cr-labelled Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells in the presence of blue or brown eye melanin did not produce significant cell lysis. The electron spin resonance (ESR) signals of blue and brown eye melanins were very similar to those of eumelanin. Comparison of these findings with our previous results indicated that the blue and brown eye melanins are essentially eumelanin. The ESR signals further suggested that in the case of both blue and brown eye melanins the iris, ciliary body, choroid, and retinal pigment epithelium did not differ. PMID:2820463

  20. Space representation for eye movements is more contralateral in monkeys than in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Kagan, Igor; Iyer, Asha; Lindner, Axel; Andersen, Richard A.

    2010-01-01

    Contralateral hemispheric representation of sensory inputs (the right visual hemifield in the left hemisphere and vice versa) is a fundamental feature of primate sensorimotor organization, in particular the visuomotor system. However, many higher-order cognitive functions in humans show an asymmetric hemispheric lateralization—e.g., right brain specialization for spatial processing—necessitating a convergence of information from both hemifields. Electrophysiological studies in monkeys and fun...

  1. Prevalidation of a new in vitro reconstituted human cornea model to assess the eye irritating potential of chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Goethem, F; Adriaens, E; Alépée, N; Straube, F; De Wever, B; Cappadoro, M; Catoire, S; Hansen, E; Wolf, A; Vanparys, P

    2006-02-01

    This multicentre study aimed at evaluating the reliability (reproducibility) and relevance (predictivity) of a new commercially available human corneal epithelial (HCE) model (SkinEthic Laboratories, Nice, France) to assess acute ocular irritation. A prevalidation approach (protocol optimisation, transfer and performance) was followed and at each of the four participating laboratories, 20 coded reference chemicals, covering the whole range of irritancy, were tested. The compounds were applied topically to the HCE cultures and the level of cytotoxicity (tissue viability and histological analysis) was determined. Once a standardised protocol was established, a high level of reproducibility between the laboratories was observed. In order to assess the capability of the HCE model to discriminate between irritants (I) and non-irritants (NI), a classification prediction model (PM) was defined based on a viability cut-off value of 60%. The obtained in vitro classifications were compared with different in vivo classifications (e.g. Globally Harmonised System) which were calculated from individual rabbit data described in the ECETOC data bank. Although an overall concordance of 80% was obtained (sensitivity = 100% and specificity = 56%), the predictivity of the HCE model substantially increased when other sources of in vivo and in vitro data were taken into account.

  2. Zebra Stripes through the Eyes of Their Predators, Zebras, and Humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda D Melin

    Full Text Available The century-old idea that stripes make zebras cryptic to large carnivores has never been examined systematically. We evaluated this hypothesis by passing digital images of zebras through species-specific spatial and colour filters to simulate their appearance for the visual systems of zebras' primary predators and zebras themselves. We also measured stripe widths and luminance contrast to estimate the maximum distances from which lions, spotted hyaenas, and zebras can resolve stripes. We found that beyond ca. 50 m (daylight and 30 m (twilight zebra stripes are difficult for the estimated visual systems of large carnivores to resolve, but not humans. On moonless nights, stripes are difficult for all species to resolve beyond ca. 9 m. In open treeless habitats where zebras spend most time, zebras are as clearly identified by the lion visual system as are similar-sized ungulates, suggesting that stripes cannot confer crypsis by disrupting the zebra's outline. Stripes confer a minor advantage over solid pelage in masking body shape in woodlands, but the effect is stronger for humans than for predators. Zebras appear to be less able than humans to resolve stripes although they are better than their chief predators. In conclusion, compared to the uniform pelage of other sympatric herbivores it appears highly unlikely that stripes are a form of anti-predator camouflage.

  3. [Medical application of breast milk banks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xi-Hong; Ding, Zong-Yi

    2014-07-01

    The history of breast milk banks is over 100 years. Most of the milk banks were closed because of HIV in the 80's. But more and more milk banks are re-opening and new ones are being established as the composition and superiority of breast milk are recognized again. The Human Milk Banking Association of North America and European Milk Bank Association have been set up and they have established and revised the standards and guidelines of breast milk banks. There is no doubt of the clinical effects of donor human milk on preterm infants worldwide. The Committee on Nutrition of the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition recommended that the preterm infants should use donor human milk when their own mothers' milk is not enough. The first breast milk bank was set up in China in 2013, and its clinical and social significance is worthy of further study.

  4. A General Education Course in Cultural Astronomy: Exploring the Universe Through Human Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Kristine

    2017-01-01

    Astronomy courses for non-science majors (often referred to as Astro 101) are the bread and butter of the general education service obligation of astronomy faculty and programs across the US. Their content has traditionally been a general survey of the solar system, stars and galaxies, or even the entire universe. However, because the audience is students who will not be continuing on in astronomy, there is actually no need to cover a broad range of specific topics. Rather, it is more important to concentrate on the scientific process, and hopefully leave the student with an understanding of the relevance of science in everyday life, regardless of his or her major. As a result, some faculty prefer a more interdisciplinary focus for their Astro 101 classes, for example courses on the search for extraterrestrial life. Another option for general education astronomy courses is what has become known as cultural astronomy. Cultural astronomy focuses on the ways in which astronomical knowledge and belief influences human behavior and social structures. Under this umbrella fall two important areas of study, archaeoastronomy (concentrating on ancient cultures) and enthoastronomy (focusing on extant cultures). Such interdisciplinary courses draw heavily upon archaeology, history, anthropology, art, and other fields more traditionally aligned with the humanities and social sciences than the natural sciences, and therefore can be attractive to students in these non-science majors. In such courses, students experience the “humanity” of science: the important connections between science and the human experience, and how experts in myriad fields contribute in meaningful ways to our understanding of how astronomical knowledge has been constructed and disseminated across time and space. This poster describes the content and pedagogy of a general education course in cultural astronomy for non-science majors that stresses hands-on and experiential learning, including the use of

  5. Status analysis of human milk bank research%母乳库研究的现状分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱华云; 黄君仪

    2015-01-01

    我国对母乳库的认知及技术的研究仍处于起步阶段,母乳库的发展缺乏国家政府制度支持和完善的管理运作规范,孕妇对母乳捐献接受程度较低,对于母乳喂养越来越受重视的今天,目前的现状不能满足医学发展的需要。本文通过介绍母乳库概念、母乳喂养的重要性、母乳库建立的必要性和可行性、母乳库的发展前景等方面对母乳库的认知情况形成系统的回顾,旨在提高人们对母乳库的认知程度,为相关部门制订母乳库建立规范化流程提供参考,使母乳捐献成为有法律保障的行为,也让越来越多的早产儿或患病新生儿受益于母乳库母乳喂养。%Cognition and technical study of human milk bank (HMB) is still at an initial stage in China.Development of HMB lacks of governmental system support and standardization of impeccable management and operation,and de-grees of donation and acceptance by pregnant women are relatively lower.Nowadays,breastfeeding being paid more and more attention,the current situation cannot meet the requirement of medical development.The paper systematically re-views cognition of HMB by introducing its concept,importance of breastfeeding,necessity and feasibility of establishing HMB,and prospect of HMB aiming at improving people’s cognition degree on HMB and providing a reference for the relevant departments to establish HMB and standardized processes,so that breast milk donation becomes a legal protec-tion act,and more and more premature children or illness newborns will benefit from breastfeeding from HMB.

  6. Bank development; bank development efficiency; bank management; bank.

    OpenAIRE

    Самородов, Б. В.

    2014-01-01

    In the paper the theoretical research of determination of the essence of “management of bank financial development” is realized. The analysis is performed on the basis of substantial considering and comparing the philosophy and economical definitions of the components of its definition.

  7. Visual Warning Signals Optimized for Human Perception: What the Eye Sees Fastest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. L. Gros

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to answer the question of how to design a visual warning signal that is most easily seen and produces the quickest reaction time. This is a classic problem of bionic optimization—if one knows the properties of the receiver one can most easily find a suitable solution. Because the peak of the spatio-temporal contrast sensitivity function of the human visual system occurs at non-zero spatial and temporal frequencies, it is likely that movement enhances the detectability of threshold visual signals. Earlier studies employing extended drifting sinewave gratings bear out this prediction. We have studied the ability of human observers to detect threshold visual signals for both moving and stationary stimuli. We used discrete, localized signals such as might be employed in aerospace or automotive warning signal displays. Moving stimuli show a superior detectability to non-moving stimuli of the same integrated energy. Moving stimuli at threshold detectability are seen faster than non-moving threshold stimuli. Under some conditions the speed advantage is over 0.25 seconds. Similar advantages have also been shown to occur for suprathreshold signals.

  8. CUE: counterfeit-resistant usable eye movement-based authentication via oculomotor plant characteristics and complex eye movement patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komogortsev, Oleg V.; Karpov, Alexey; Holland, Corey D.

    2012-06-01

    The widespread use of computers throughout modern society introduces the necessity for usable and counterfeit-resistant authentication methods to ensure secure access to personal resources such as bank accounts, e-mail, and social media. Current authentication methods require tedious memorization of lengthy pass phrases, are often prone to shouldersurfing, and may be easily replicated (either by counterfeiting parts of the human body or by guessing an authentication token based on readily available information). This paper describes preliminary work toward a counterfeit-resistant usable eye movement-based (CUE) authentication method. CUE does not require any passwords (improving the memorability aspect of the authentication system), and aims to provide high resistance to spoofing and shoulder-surfing by employing the combined biometric capabilities of two behavioral biometric traits: 1) oculomotor plant characteristics (OPC) which represent the internal, non-visible, anatomical structure of the eye; 2) complex eye movement patterns (CEM) which represent the strategies employed by the brain to guide visual attention. Both OPC and CEM are extracted from the eye movement signal provided by an eye tracking system. Preliminary results indicate that the fusion of OPC and CEM traits is capable of providing a 30% reduction in authentication error when compared to the authentication accuracy of individual traits.

  9. Genetic defects of GDF6 in the zebrafish out of sight mutant and in human eye developmental anomalies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollander, A.I. den; Biyanwila, J.; Kovach, P.; Bardakjian, T.; Traboulsi, E.I.; Ragge, N.K.; Schneider, A.; Malicki, J.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The size of the vertebrate eye and the retina is likely to be controlled at several stages of embryogenesis by mechanisms that affect cell cycle length as well as cell survival. A mutation in the zebrafish out of sight (out) locus results in a particularly severe reduction of eye size.

  10. Genetic defects of GDF6 in the zebrafish out of sight mutant and in human eye developmental anomalies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollander, A.I. den; Biyanwila, J.; Kovach, P.; Bardakjian, T.; Traboulsi, E.I.; Ragge, N.K.; Schneider, A.; Malicki, J.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The size of the vertebrate eye and the retina is likely to be controlled at several stages of embryogenesis by mechanisms that affect cell cycle length as well as cell survival. A mutation in the zebrafish out of sight (out) locus results in a particularly severe reduction of eye size. T

  11. Cord-Blood Banking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Be Smart About Social Media Cord-Blood Banking KidsHealth > For Parents > Cord-Blood Banking Print A ... for you and your family. About Cord-Blood Banking Cord-blood banking basically means collecting and storing ...

  12. Motivos do descarte de córneas captadas pelo banco de olhos do Hospital São Paulo em dois anos Discarding causes of cornea collected by eye bank of São Paulo hospital in two years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Galluzzi dos Santos

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar os motivos do descarte ou não utilização de córneas doadas, cujos tecidos foram captados, preservados e avaliados pelo Banco de Olhos do Hospital São Paulo no período de outubro de 2002 a setembro de 2004. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo analisando os prontuários com as seguintes informações sobre as doações: história clínica e ocular do doador, idade, causa mortis, resultados de exames sorológicos, avaliação do corpo do doador, avaliação biomicroscópica da morfologia do globo ocular e da córnea e contagem celular endotelial. RESULTADOS: De 1.116 córneas doadas no período, 518 (46,41% foram descartadas antes de serem preservadas, sendo 288 (25,80% devido à causa mortis, 56 (5,01% pelo histórico clínico do doador e 174 (15,59% pela avaliação do tecido. Das 598 córneas preservadas, 317 (28,40% foram destinadas ao transplante óptico e 168 (15,05% indicadas para transplantes tectônicos. CONCLUSÃO: A análise do prontuário hospitalar e história clínica do doador foi um importante fator de descarte de córneas antes da preservação. Já a avaliação biomicroscópica realizada na lâmpada de fenda é uma etapa fundamental para qualificação e classificação do tecido adequando-o para o paciente e garantindo um bom resultado cirúrgico.PURPOSE: To analyze causes of discarded donor corneas which were collected and preserved by São Paulo Hospital Eye Bank in a period of two years. METHODS: Retrospective study based in the investigation of donor's medical records, for clinical and ocular factors, age, death cause, serology results, body conditions, slit lamp corneal examination and endothelial cells counting. RESULTS: 1,116 corneas were donated and included in the study, 518 (46.41% were discarded before preservation, 168 (15.05% were not transplanted for optical purpose, but used for tectonic indication. The main reason of cornea discard was the cause of death in 288 (25.80% corneas, second the slit

  13. 12 CFR 619.9140 - Farm Credit bank(s).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Farm Credit bank(s). 619.9140 Section 619.9140 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9140 Farm Credit bank(s). Except as otherwise defined, the term Farm Credit bank(s) includes Farm Credit...

  14. Cryopreserved Human Precision-Cut Lung Slices as a Bioassay for Live Tissue Banking. A Viability Study of Bronchodilation with Bitter-Taste Receptor Agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yan; Krishnamoorthy, Nandini; Patel, Kruti R; Rosas, Ivan; Sanderson, Michael J; Ai, Xingbin

    2016-05-01

    Human precision-cut lung slices (hPCLSs) provide a unique ex vivo model for translational research. However, the limited and unpredictable availability of human lung tissue greatly impedes their use. Here, we demonstrate that cryopreservation of hPCLSs facilitates banking of live human lung tissue for routine use. Our results show that cryopreservation had little effect on overall cell viability and vital functions of immune cells, including phagocytes and T lymphocytes. In addition, airway contraction and relaxation in response to specific agonists and antagonists, respectively, were unchanged after cryopreservation. At the subcellular level, cryopreserved hPCLSs maintained Ca(2+)-dependent regulatory mechanisms for the control of airway smooth muscle cell contractility. To exemplify the use of cryopreserved hPCLSs in smooth muscle research, we provide evidence that bitter-taste receptor (TAS2R) agonists relax airways by blocking Ca(2+) oscillations in airway smooth muscle cells. In conclusion, the banking of cryopreserved hPCLSs provides a robust bioassay for translational research of lung physiology and disease.

  15. A macaque's-eye view of human insertions and deletions: differences in mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika M Kvikstad

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Insertions and deletions (indels cause numerous genetic diseases and lead to pronounced evolutionary differences among genomes. The macaque sequences provide an opportunity to gain insights into the mechanisms generating these mutations on a genome-wide scale by establishing the polarity of indels occurring in the human lineage since its divergence from the chimpanzee. Here we apply novel regression techniques and multiscale analyses to demonstrate an extensive regional indel rate variation stemming from local fluctuations in divergence, GC content, male and female recombination rates, proximity to telomeres, and other genomic factors. We find that both replication and, surprisingly, recombination are significantly associated with the occurrence of small indels. Intriguingly, the relative inputs of replication versus recombination differ between insertions and deletions, thus the two types of mutations are likely guided in part by distinct mechanisms. Namely, insertions are more strongly associated with factors linked to recombination, while deletions are mostly associated with replication-related features. Indel as a term misleadingly groups the two types of mutations together by their effect on a sequence alignment. However, here we establish that the correct identification of a small gap as an insertion or a deletion (by use of an outgroup is crucial to determining its mechanism of origin. In addition to providing novel insights into insertion and deletion mutagenesis, these results will assist in gap penalty modeling and eventually lead to more reliable genomic alignments.

  16. EFFECT OF HUMAN CAPITAL ELEMENTS ON ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT IN BUSINESSES AND A STUDY IN THE BANKING SECTOR IN KIRŞEHİR PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kürşad ZORLU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Organizational commitment of employees must be improved for the success of contemporary businesses. Employees are the driving force and human capital of businesses. In this study, to investigate the relationship between the elements constituting the human capital and elements constituting organizational commitment and the level of impact, a questionnaire was applied to businesses having activities in the banking sector of Kırşehir Province, Turkey. In the said questionnaire, the human capital scale consists of “quality of employees”, “working relationships”, and “development of employees” elements, while organizational scale consists of “affective commitment”, “continuance commitment” and “normative commitment” elements. In addition, whether or not assessments of the employees differed according to certain variables was analyzed using t-test and ANOVA test. As a result of these analyses, it was found that development of employees is the most important factor that affects the organizational commitment positively.

  17. Generation of eye field/optic vesicle-like structures from human embryonic stem cells under two-dimensional and chemically defined conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvini, Maryam; Parivar, Kazem; Safari, Fatemeh; Tondar, Mahdi

    2015-03-01

    Despite the enormous progress in studying retinal cell differentiation from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), none of the reported protocols have produced a cost-effective eye field cells with the capability to further differentiate into retinal derivatives. In this study, by drawing chemicals on our four-step differentiation strategy, we demonstrated the ability of hESCs in assembling such qualifications to follow human retinogenesis in a serum- and feeder-free adherent condition. Two-dimensional (2D) populations of eye field cells arose within early forebrain progeny upon hESCs differentiation. Gene expression analysis showed that the treatment of hESCs with a combination of selected small molecules (SMs) gave rise to the higher expressions of eye field-specific genes, PAX6, RX, and SIX3. Thereafter, a subset of cells gained the transient features of advancing retinal differentiation, including optic vesicle (OV)-like structures, which expressed MITF and CHX10 in a manner imitated in vivo human retinal development. The competency of derived cells in differentiation to retinal derivatives was further investigated. The gene analysis of the cells showed more propensity for generating retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) than neural retina (NR). The generation of OV-like structures in 2D cultures can shed light on molecular events governing retinal specification. It can also facilitate the study of human retinal development.

  18. Diabetes eye exams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetic retinopathy - eye exams; Diabetes - eye exams; Glaucoma - diabetic eye exam; Macular edema - diabetic eye exam ... if the doctor who takes care of your diabetes checks your eyes, you need an eye exam ...

  19. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Causes of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Written By: Kierstan Boyd Reviewed By: ... your eyes do not produce enough tears, it is called dry eye. Dry eye is also when ...

  20. Facts About Pink Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information > Pink Eye (Conjunctivitis) > Facts About Pink Eye Facts About Pink Eye Pink eye is one of ... for preventing eye infections. Last Reviewed: November 2015 Fact Sheet Blurb The National Eye Institute (NEI) is ...

  1. Dilating Eye Drops

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Corneal Abrasions Dilating Eye Drops Lazy eye (defined) Pink eye (defined) Retinopathy of Prematurity Strabismus Stye (defined) Vision ... Corneal Abrasions Dilating Eye Drops Lazy eye (defined) Pink eye (defined) Retinopathy of Prematurity Strabismus Stye (defined) Vision ...

  2. AN ANALYSIS OF STRUCTURE, BEHAVIOR AND BANKING PERFORMANCE OF ISLAMIC BANKING IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iqbal J. Permana

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the impact of market structure and market behavior on the Islamic banking performance in Indonesia. Using the SCP model framework, this study examines five largest Islamic banking in Indonesia. The result reveals that market behavior, Islamic banking performance, third party funds, the business scale and the target market of Islamic banking have a significant impact on the market structure of Islamic banking industry; the market structure, performance of Islamic banks, types of financing product, profit sharing rate and distribution scale have a significant impact on the behavior of Islamic banking industry; and the market structure, market behavior, human resources development, the quality of Islamic banks’ financing and the credibility of Islamic banking financing have a significant impact on Islamic banking performance in Indonesia.

  3. Investment Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Oana Mihaela Vãsioiu

    2008-01-01

    The economic, financial and monetary changes had serious consequences not only on the level of providing the finance necessary for the development process but also on the level of providing the finance required for importing the basic food needs and rendering necessary production inputs. All these problems show the importance of “Banks” generally and “Investment Banks” particularly in the emerging and underdeveloped countries. Banks as financial institution or intermediary mobilize either nat...

  4. A Simple Method for Establishing Adherent Ex Vivo Explant Cultures from Human Eye Pathologies for Use in Subsequent Calcium Imaging and Inflammatory Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofija Andjelic

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel, simple, and reproducible method for cultivating pathological tissues obtained from human eyes during surgery was developed using viscoelastic material as a tissue adherent to facilitate cell attachment and expansion and calcium imaging of cultured cells challenged by mechanical and acetylcholine (ACh stimulation as well as inflammatory studies. Anterior lens capsule-lens epithelial cells (aLC-LECs from cataract surgery and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR fibrovascular epiretinal membranes (fvERMs from human eyes were used in the study. We hereby show calcium signaling in aLC-LECs by mechanical and acetylcholine (ACh stimulation and indicate presence of ACh receptors in these cells. Furthermore, an ex vivo study model was established for measuring the inflammatory response in fvERMs and aLC-LECs upon TNFα treatment.

  5. Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus Types 1 and 2 Seropositivity among Blood Donors at Mbarara Regional Blood Bank, South Western Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchenna Tweteise, Patience; Natukunda, Bernard; Bazira, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Background. The human T-cell lymphotropic virus types 1 and 2 (HTLV 1/2) are retroviruses associated with different pathologies. HTLV-1 causes adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP); HTLV-2 is not clearly associated with a known clinical disease. Both viruses may be transmitted by whole blood transfusion, from mother to child predominantly through breastfeeding, and by sexual contact. Presently, none of the regional blood banks in Uganda perform routine pretransfusion screening for HTLV. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of anti-human T-cell lymphotropic virus types 1/2 (HTLV-1/2) antibodies among blood donors at Mbarara Regional Blood Bank in South Western Uganda. A cross-sectional study was conducted between June 2014 and September 2014. Methodology. Consecutive blood samples of 368 blood donors were screened for anti-HTLV-1/2 antibodies using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Samples reactive on a first HTLV-1/2 ELISA were further retested in duplicate using the same ELISA. Of the three hundred and sixty-eight blood donors (229 (62.2%) males and 139 (37.8%) females), only two male donors aged 20 and 21 years were HTLV-1/2 seropositive, representing a prevalence of 0.54%. Conclusion. HTLV-1/2 prevalence is low among blood donors at Mbarara Regional Blood Bank. Studies among other categories of people at risk for HTLV 1/2 infection should be carried out.

  6. Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus Types 1 and 2 Seropositivity among Blood Donors at Mbarara Regional Blood Bank, South Western Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patience Uchenna Tweteise

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The human T-cell lymphotropic virus types 1 and 2 (HTLV 1/2 are retroviruses associated with different pathologies. HTLV-1 causes adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP; HTLV-2 is not clearly associated with a known clinical disease. Both viruses may be transmitted by whole blood transfusion, from mother to child predominantly through breastfeeding, and by sexual contact. Presently, none of the regional blood banks in Uganda perform routine pretransfusion screening for HTLV. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of anti-human T-cell lymphotropic virus types 1/2 (HTLV-1/2 antibodies among blood donors at Mbarara Regional Blood Bank in South Western Uganda. A cross-sectional study was conducted between June 2014 and September 2014. Methodology. Consecutive blood samples of 368 blood donors were screened for anti-HTLV-1/2 antibodies using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Samples reactive on a first HTLV-1/2 ELISA were further retested in duplicate using the same ELISA. Of the three hundred and sixty-eight blood donors (229 (62.2% males and 139 (37.8% females, only two male donors aged 20 and 21 years were HTLV-1/2 seropositive, representing a prevalence of 0.54%. Conclusion. HTLV-1/2 prevalence is low among blood donors at Mbarara Regional Blood Bank. Studies among other categories of people at risk for HTLV 1/2 infection should be carried out.

  7. The feasibility of an automated eye-tracking-modified Fagan test of memory for human faces in younger Ugandan HIV-exposed children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhaya, Ronak; Weiss, Jonathan; Seffren, Victoria; Sikorskii, Alla; Winke, Paula M; Ojuka, Julius C; Boivin, Michael J

    2017-05-22

    The Fagan Test of Infant Intelligence (FTII) uses longer gaze length for unfamiliar versus familiar human faces to gauge visual-spatial encoding, attention, and working memory in infants. Our objective was to establish the feasibility of automated eye tracking with the FTII in HIV-exposed Ugandan infants. The FTII was administered to 31 perinatally HIV-exposed noninfected (HEU) Ugandan children 6-12 months of age (11 boys; M = 0.69 years, SD = 0.14; 19 girls; M = 0.79, SD = 0.15). A series of 10 different faces were presented (familiar face exposure for 25 s followed by a gaze preference trial of 15 s with both the familiar and unfamiliar faces). Tobii X2-30 infrared camera for pupil detection provided automated eye-tracking measures of gaze location and length during presentation of Ugandan faces selected to correspond to the gender, age (adult, child), face expression, and orientation of the original FTII. Eye-tracking gaze length for unfamiliar faces was correlated with performance on the Mullen Scales of Early Learning (MSEL). Infants gazed longer at the novel picture compared to familiar across 10 novelty preference trials. Better MSEL cognitive development was correlated with proportionately longer time spent looking at the novel faces (r(30) = 0.52, p = .004); especially for the Fine Motor Cognitive Sub-scale (r(30) = 0.54, p = .002). Automated eye tracking in a human face recognition test proved feasible and corresponded to the MSEL composite cognitive development in HEU infants in a resource-constrained clinical setting. Eye tracking may be a viable means of enhancing the validity and accuracy of other neurodevelopmental measures in at-risk children in sub-Saharan Africa.

  8. Your Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eyes to see millions of colors. Helping You See It All Rods and cones process the light to give you the total picture. You're ... get cloudy, causing a cataract . A cataract prevents light from reaching the retina and makes it difficult to see. The eyes you have will be yours forever — ...

  9. Eyes - bulging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... emotional support is important. When to Contact a Medical Professional Call your health care provider if: You have bulging eyes and the cause has not yet been diagnosed. Bulging eyes are accompanied by other symptoms. ... The provider will ask about your medical history and do a physical exam. Some questions ...

  10. Simulating Retail Banking for Banking Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supramaniam, Mahadevan; Shanmugam, Bala

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the implementation flow and development of retail bank management simulation based training system which could provide a comprehensive knowledge about the operations and management of banks for the banking students. The prototype of a Retail banking simulation based training system was developed based on…

  11. Spatial and temporal variations in prehistoric human settlement and their influencing factors on the south bank of the Xar Moron River, Northeastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xin; Yi, Shuangwen; Sun, Yonggang; Wu, Shuangye; Lee, Harry F.; Wang, Lin; Lu, Huayu

    2017-03-01

    The West Liao River Basin is the hub of ancient civilizations as well as the birthplace of rain-fed agriculture in Northern China. In the present study, based on 276 archaeological sites on the south bank of the Xar Moron River, Northeastern China, we trace the changes in prehistoric cultures as well as the shifts in the spatial and temporal patterns of human settlement in the West Liao River Basin. Location information for those sites was obtained from fieldwork. Factors such as climate change, landform evolution of the Horqin Dunefield, and subsistence strategies practiced at the sites were extracted via the meta-analysis of published literature. Our results show that the Holocene Optimum promoted the emergence of Neolithic Culture on the south bank of the Xar Moron River. Monsoon failure might have caused the periodic collapse or transformation of prehistoric cultures at (6.5, 4.7, 3.9, and 3.0) kyr B.P., leaving spaces for new cultural types to develop after these gaps. The rise and fall of different cultures was also determined by subsistence strategies. The Xiaoheyan Culture, with mixed modes of subsistence, weakened after 4.7 kyr B.P., whereas the Upper Xiajiadian Culture, supported by sheep breeding, expanded after 3.0 kyr B.P. Global positioning system data obtained from the archaeological sites reveal that cultures with different subsistence strategies occupied distinct geographic regions. Humans who subsisted on hunting and gathering resided at higher altitudes during the Paleolithic Age (1074 m a.s.l.). Mixed subsistence strategies led humans to settle down at 600-1000 m a.s.l. in the Neolithic Age. Agricultural activities caused humans to migrate to 400-800 m a.s.l. in the early Bronze Age, whereas livestock production shifted human activities to 800-1200 m a.s.l. in the late Bronze Age.

  12. Spatial and temporal variations in prehistoric human settlement and their influencing factors on the south bank of the Xar Moron River, Northeastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xin; Yi, Shuangwen; Sun, Yonggang; Wu, Shuangye; Lee, Harry F.; Wang, Lin; Lu, Huayu

    2016-05-01

    The West Liao River Basin is the hub of ancient civilizations as well as the birthplace of rain-fed agriculture in Northern China. In the present study, based on 276 archaeological sites on the south bank of the Xar Moron River, Northeastern China, we trace the changes in prehistoric cultures as well as the shifts in the spatial and temporal patterns of human settlement in the West Liao River Basin. Location information for those sites was obtained from fieldwork. Factors such as climate change, landform evolution of the Horqin Dunefield, and subsistence strategies practiced at the sites were extracted via the meta-analysis of published literature. Our results show that the Holocene Optimum promoted the emergence of Neolithic Culture on the south bank of the Xar Moron River. Monsoon failure might have caused the periodic collapse or transformation of prehistoric cultures at (6.5, 4.7, 3.9, and 3.0) kyr B.P., leaving spaces for new cultural types to develop after these gaps. The rise and fall of different cultures was also determined by subsistence strategies. The Xiaoheyan Culture, with mixed modes of subsistence, weakened after 4.7 kyr B.P., whereas the Upper Xiajiadian Culture, supported by sheep breeding, expanded after 3.0 kyr B.P. Global positioning system data obtained from the archaeological sites reveal that cultures with different subsistence strategies occupied distinct geographic regions. Humans who subsisted on hunting and gathering resided at higher altitudes during the Paleolithic Age (1074 m a.s.l.). Mixed subsistence strategies led humans to settle down at 600-1000 m a.s.l. in the Neolithic Age. Agricultural activities caused humans to migrate to 400-800 m a.s.l. in the early Bronze Age, whereas livestock production shifted human activities to 800-1200 m a.s.l. in the late Bronze Age.

  13. Making a photomap of the human eye based on the spherical shape of its sclera and the circular contour of its iris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethrog, U.

    Iridology was defined as a method of diagnostic used in alternative medicine to analyze health status by studying colors, marks and signs in the sclera of the eye which according to iridologists can be demarcated into zones corresponding to parts of the human body. These are then made into "iridology charts" for comparison with photo images of a patient's eyes. Due to the large tilt angles of the images relative to the eye's geometrical axis, accurate comparison is not possible, and this paper suggests the use of photogrammetric methods for making a photomap for each of the patient's eyes which is then compared to its respective iridology chart. Because of the small overlapping area between any two successive images (about 20%) and the lack of control points, we were prevented from using conventional photogrammetric methods and instead had to develop an alternative photogrammetric method based on the spherical shape of the sclera and the circular shape of the iris contour. Accuracy tests showed that this method is relatively accurate and has small residuals following the process of bundle adjustment.

  14. Optical Coherence Tomography Measurement of Macular and Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness in Normal and Glaucomatous Human Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Viviane; Schuman, Joel S.; Hertzmark, Ellen; Wollstein, Gadi; Correnti, Anthony; Mancini, Ronald; Lederer, David; Voskanian, Serineh; Velazquez, Leonardo; Pakter, Helena M.; Pedut-Kloizman, Tamar; Fujimoto, James G.; Mattox, Cynthia

    2007-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the hypothesis that macular thickness correlates with the diagnosis of glaucoma. Design Cross-sectional study. Participants We studied 367 subjects (534 eyes), including 166 eyes of 109 normal subjects, 83 eyes of 58 glaucoma suspects, 196 eyes of 132 early glaucoma patients, and 89 eyes of 68 advanced glaucoma patients. Methods We used optical coherence tomography (OCT) to measure macular and nerve fiber layer (NFL) thickness and to analyze their correlation with each other and with glaucoma status. We used both the commercial and prototype OCT units and evaluated correspondence between measurements performed on the same eyes on the same days. Main Outcome Measure Macular and NFL thickness as measured by OCT. Results All NFL parameters both in prototype and commercial OCT units were statistically significantly different comparing normal subjects and either early or advanced glaucoma (P < 0.001). Inner ring, outer ring, and mean macular thickness both in prototype and commercial OCT devices were found to be significantly different between normal subjects and advanced glaucomatous eyes (P < 0.001). The outer ring was the only macular parameter that could significantly differentiate between normal and early glaucoma with either the prototype or commercial OCT unit (P = 0.003, P = 0.008, respectively). The area under the receiver operator characteristic (AROC) curves comparing mean NFL thickness between normal and advanced glaucomatous eyes was 1.00 for both the prototype and commercial OCT devices for eyes scanned on both machines on the same day. The AROC comparing mean macular thickness in normal and advanced glaucomatous eyes scanned on both machines on the same day was 0.88 for the prototype OCT device and 0.80 for the commercial OCT. Conclusions Both macular and NFL thickness as measured by OCT showed statistically significant correlations with glaucoma, although NFL thickness showed a stronger association than macular thickness. There was

  15. 'Goats that stare at men'--revisited: do dwarf goats alter their behaviour in response to eye visibility and head direction of a human?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawroth, Christian; von Borell, Eberhard; Langbein, Jan

    2016-05-01

    Being able to recognise when one is being observed by someone else is thought to be adaptive during cooperative or competitive events. In particular for prey species, this ability should be of use in the context of predation. A previous study reported that goats (Capra aegagrus hircus) alter their behaviour according to the body and head orientation of a human experimenter. During a food anticipation task, an experimenter remained in a particular posture for 30 s before delivering a reward, and the goats' active anticipation and standing alert behaviour were analysed. To further evaluate the specific mechanisms at work, we here present two additional test conditions. In particular, we investigated the effects of the eye visibility and head orientation of a human experimenter on the behaviour of the goats (N = 7). We found that the level of the subjects' active anticipatory behaviour was highest in the conditions where the experimenter was directing his head and body towards the goat ('Control' and 'Eyes closed' conditions), but the anticipatory behaviour was significantly decreased when the body ('Head only') or the head and body of the experimenter were directed away from the subject ('Back' condition). For standing alert, we found no significant differences between the three conditions in which the experimenter was directing his head towards the subject ('Control', 'Eyes closed' and 'Head only'). This lack of differences in the expression of standing alert suggests that goats evaluate the direction of a human's head as an important cue in their anticipatory behaviour. However, goats did not respond to the visibility of the experimenter's eyes alone.

  16. Pathology and first report of natural infections of the eye trematode Philophthalmus lachrymosus Braun, 1902 (Digenea, Philophthalmidae in a non-human mammalian host

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Magalhães Pinto

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The avian eye trematode Philophthalmus lachrymosus Braun, 1902 is for the first time referred naturally occurring in a non-human mammalian host. Previously, natural infections with P. lachrymosus and other species of Philophthalmus have been occasionally reported from man, with few data on experimental infections of non-human mammals. Results presented here are related to the report of two cases of philophthalmosis due to natural infections of wild Brazilian capybaras, Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris L., 1766 with P. lachrymosus and associated pathology. Clinical signs, gross and microscopic lesions as well as new morphometric data on the parasite are presented.

  17. Banking on women's spirit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, M

    1993-11-01

    An interview with Professor Mummadad Yunus, Managing Director of the Grameen Bank, revealed that he has provided loans to poor women in Bangladesh since 1976 and that the Grameen Bank has continued his work since 1983. The idea behind the banking system is that poor people without traditionally accepted collateral are good credit risks. In 1993, the Grameen Bank had operations in 33,000 out of a possible 68,000 villages in Bangladesh. The operations include 1030 branches and a staff of 12,000 people. 1.6 million people are recipients of loans, of whom 94% are women. The population served is the poorest and has no experience in income generation. Conclusions drawn from this experience are that women are better managers of resources and are more serious entrepreneurs than men and that the benefits of loan programs for the poor go directly to children and households. Women's self-image suffers from negative social conceptions, and one task is to convince women of their value, skills, and possibility of advancement. The bank philosophy rests with the belief that all human beings are a "treasure of potential possibilities." Women are advised to protect their money and marriage and not to sacrifice one for the other. Husbands initially are against money going to wives, but eventually they understand that the family benefits. Over 200,000 loans have been made for the provision of housing. The loan requirement is that the woman must own the land on which the house is built. Husband's have the opportunity to transfer title of the land to the wife. Ownership of land provides security for the wife.

  18. Dose conversion coefficients for monoenergetic electrons incident on a realistic human eye model with different lens cell populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, P; Vaz, P [Technological and Nuclear Institute, Estrada Nacional No 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Zankl, M; Schlattl, H, E-mail: pedro.nogueira@helmholtz-muenchen.de [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen-German Research Center for Environmental Health, Research Unit Medical Radiation Physics and Diagnostics, Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany)

    2011-11-07

    The radiation-induced posterior subcapsular cataract has long been generally accepted to be a deterministic effect that does not occur at doses below a threshold of at least 2 Gy. Recent epidemiological studies indicate that the threshold for cataract induction may be much lower or that there may be no threshold at all. A thorough study of this subject requires more accurate dose estimates for the eye lens than those available in ICRP Publication 74. Eye lens absorbed dose per unit fluence conversion coefficients for electron irradiation were calculated using a geometrical model of the eye that takes into account different cell populations of the lens epithelium, together with the MCNPX Monte Carlo radiation transport code package. For the cell population most sensitive to ionizing radiation-the germinative cells-absorbed dose per unit fluence conversion coefficients were determined that are up to a factor of 4.8 higher than the mean eye lens absorbed dose conversion coefficients for electron energies below 2 MeV. Comparison of the results with previously published values for a slightly different eye model showed generally good agreement for all electron energies. Finally, the influence of individual anatomical variability was quantified by positioning the lens at various depths below the cornea. A depth difference of 2 mm between the shallowest and the deepest location of the germinative zone can lead to a difference between the resulting absorbed doses of up to nearly a factor of 5000 for electron energy of 0.7 MeV.

  19. Dose conversion coefficients for electron exposure of the human eye lens: calculations including a whole body phantom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, R

    2013-07-01

    In this work, conversion coefficients from electron fluence to absorbed dose to the eye lens were calculated using Monte Carlo simulations based on a detailed stylised eye model and a very simple but whole body phantom. These data supersede and complement data published earlier based on the simulation of only a single stylised eye. The new data differ from the old ones by not more than 3, 4, 7 and 16 % for angles of radiation incidence of α=0°, 15°, 30° and 45°, respectively, due to the inclusion of the whole body phantom. The data presented in the present work also complement those of a recent report of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) (ICRP Publication 116), where conversion coefficients from electron fluence to absorbed dose to the lens of the eye are shown for solely 0°, 180° and isotropic radiation incidence (but for a much broader range of energies). In this article, values are provided for angles of incidence of 0° up to 180° in steps of 15° and for rotational geometry; no systematic deviation was observed from the values given in ICRP Publication 116 for 0° (based on the application of a bare eye) and 180° (based on the application of a voxel whole body phantom). Data are given for monoenergetic electrons from 0.1 up to 10 MeV and for a broad parallel beam geometry in vacuum.

  20. Xeno-Free and Defined Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells Functionally Integrate in a Large-Eyed Preclinical Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Plaza Reyes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Human embryonic stem cell (hESC-derived retinal pigment epithelial (RPE cells could replace lost tissue in geographic atrophy (GA but efficacy has yet to be demonstrated in a large-eyed model. Also, production of hESC-RPE has not yet been achieved in a xeno-free and defined manner, which is critical for clinical compliance and reduced immunogenicity. Here we describe an effective differentiation methodology using human laminin-521 matrix with xeno-free and defined medium. Differentiated cells exhibited characteristics of native RPE including morphology, pigmentation, marker expression, monolayer integrity, and polarization together with phagocytic activity. Furthermore, we established a large-eyed GA model that allowed in vivo imaging of hESC-RPE and host retina. Cells transplanted in suspension showed long-term integration and formed polarized monolayers exhibiting phagocytic and photoreceptor rescue capacity. We have developed a xeno-free and defined hESC-RPE differentiation method and present evidence of functional integration of clinically compliant hESC-RPE in a large-eyed disease model.

  1. Banking system trust, bank trust, and bank loyalty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Esterik-Plasmeijer, P.; van Raaij, W.F.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to test a model of banking system trust as an antecedent of bank trust and bank loyalty. Six determinants of trust and loyalty are included: competence, stability, integrity, customer orientation, transparency, and value congruence. The study provides insights

  2. Imaging the Aqueous Humor Outflow Pathway in Human Eyes by Three-dimensional Micro-computed Tomography (3D micro-CT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C Hann; M Bentley; A Vercnocke; E Ritman; M Fautsch

    2011-12-31

    The site of outflow resistance leading to elevated intraocular pressure in primary open-angle glaucoma is believed to be located in the region of Schlemm's canal inner wall endothelium, its basement membrane and the adjacent juxtacanalicular tissue. Evidence also suggests collector channels and intrascleral vessels may have a role in intraocular pressure in both normal and glaucoma eyes. Traditional imaging modalities limit the ability to view both proximal and distal portions of the trabecular outflow pathway as a single unit. In this study, we examined the effectiveness of three-dimensional micro-computed tomography (3D micro-CT) as a potential method to view the trabecular outflow pathway. Two normal human eyes were used: one immersion fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde and one with anterior chamber perfusion at 10 mmHg followed by perfusion fixation in 4% paraformaldehyde/2% glutaraldehyde. Both eyes were postfixed in 1% osmium tetroxide and scanned with 3D micro-CT at 2 {mu}m or 5 {mu}m voxel resolution. In the immersion fixed eye, 24 collector channels were identified with an average orifice size of 27.5 {+-} 5 {mu}m. In comparison, the perfusion fixed eye had 29 collector channels with a mean orifice size of 40.5 {+-} 13 {mu}m. Collector channels were not evenly dispersed around the circumference of the eye. There was no significant difference in the length of Schlemm's canal in the immersed versus the perfused eye (33.2 versus 35.1 mm). Structures, locations and size measurements identified by 3D micro-CT were confirmed by correlative light microscopy. These findings confirm 3D micro-CT can be used effectively for the non-invasive examination of the trabecular meshwork, Schlemm's canal, collector channels and intrascleral vasculature that comprise the distal outflow pathway. This imaging modality will be useful for non-invasive study of the role of the trabecular outflow pathway as a whole unit.

  3. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye Sections What Is Dry Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms ... Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Written By: Kierstan Boyd Reviewed By: Brenda Pagan- ...

  4. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye Sections What Is Dry Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms ... Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué Es el Ojo Seco? ...

  5. Influência da lista única de uma regional de transplantes de córnea em um Banco de Olhos vinculado a um hospital escola Influence of a single regional list for corneal transplantation on the eye bank of a university hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauro Augusto de Oliveira

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar como a implantação do sistema de lista única para transplantes de córnea influenciou um Banco de Olhos vinculado a um hospital escola. Analisar sua interferência nas córneas (captação e destino, no número de transplantes realizados e também na média de tempo de espera pela cirurgia. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado estudo retrospectivo, avaliando os prontuários dos pacientes submetidos a ceratoplastia penetrante e também os dados do Banco de Olhos da Faculdade de Medicina de São José do Rio Preto - SP. O estudo comparou dados relativos ao funcionamento do serviço por um ano antes e após a criação da lista única. RESULTADOS: O número de cirurgias aumentou de 60 para 92 cirurgias. A média mensal de córneas retiradas aumentou de 13,83 ± 6,57 para 18,16 ± 4,80 (p=0,07. O número de córneas enviadas por esta instituição foi maior que o número de córneas recebidas de outros serviços (p=0,003. Não houve diferença significativa entre o tempo de espera pela cirurgia antes e após a criação da fila única (desconsiderando o período de cadastramento. CONCLUSÕES: Este Banco de Olhos funcionou como fornecedor de córneas para outras instituições. Após seu primeiro ano de funcionamento, a implantação da lista única não alterou o tempo de espera dos pacientes pela cirurgia. Apesar disso, evidenciou-se uma tendência à homogeneização do tempo de espera pela ceratoplastia penetrante entre os pacientes.PURPOSE: To evaluate how the implantation of a single regional list for corneal transplants influenced an eye bank of a university hospital. To analyze the influence of the regional list on the corneas (procurement and destiny, the number of transplantations made and the average waiting time for surgery. METHODS: A retrospective study was made to compare the records of patients who underwent penetrating keratoplasty and also the data of the eye bank of the Medical School of São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo

  6. A study of artificial eyes for the measurement of precision in eye-trackers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Mulvey, Fiona B; Pelz, Jeff B; Holmqvist, Kenneth

    2016-07-06

    The precision of an eye-tracker is critical to the correct identification of eye movements and their properties. To measure a system's precision, artificial eyes (AEs) are often used, to exclude eye movements influencing the measurements. A possible issue, however, is that it is virtually impossible to construct AEs with sufficient complexity to fully represent the human eye. To examine the consequences of this limitation, we tested currently used AEs from three manufacturers of eye-trackers and compared them to a more complex model, using 12 commercial eye-trackers. Because precision can be measured in various ways, we compared different metrics in the spatial domain and analyzed the power-spectral densities in the frequency domain. To assess how precision measurements compare in artificial and human eyes, we also measured precision using human recordings on the same eye-trackers. Our results show that the modified eye model presented can cope with all eye-trackers tested and acts as a promising candidate for further development of a set of AEs with varying pupil size and pupil-iris contrast. The spectral analysis of both the AE and human data revealed that human eye data have different frequencies that likely reflect the physiological characteristics of human eye movements. We also report the effects of sample selection methods for precision calculations. This study is part of the EMRA/COGAIN Eye Data Quality Standardization Project.

  7. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eye Symptoms Causes of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Written By: Kierstan Boyd ... your vision. Privacy Policy Related New Dry Eye Treatment is a Tear-Jerker Jul 21, 2017 Three ...

  8. Diabetic Eye Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other Dental Problems Diabetes & Sexual & Urologic Problems Diabetic Eye Disease What is diabetic eye disease? Diabetic eye disease is a group of ... loss can occur. How does diabetes affect my eyes? Diabetes affects your eyes when your blood glucose, ...

  9. Green banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Drobnjaković

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There is an urgent need to march towards “low - carbon economy”. Global challenges of diminishing fossil fuel reserves, climate change, environmental management and finite natural resources serving an expanding world population - these reasons mean that urgent action is required to transition to solutions which minimize environmental impact and are sustainable. We are at the start of the low - carbon revolution and those that have started on their low - carbon journey already are seeing benefits such as new markets and customers, improved economic, social and environmental performance, and reduced bills and risks. Green investment banks offer alternative financial services: green car loans, energy efficiency mortgages, alternative energy venture capital, eco - savings deposits and green credit cards. These items represent innovative financial products.

  10. Banking Reform in Georgia

    OpenAIRE

    Mercan, Metin

    2006-01-01

    Georgia's banking system restructure began in 1991 when Soviet Union collopsed.This paper tries to compare and constract the performance of banks and banking system between 1999 and 2004 with banks in other transition countries. Although Georgia banking system showed a long processing in banking sector, it is still lags behind other transition countries Central and Eastern Europe. Neverthless.An efficient financial institution and performance will not come without further economic development...

  11. Banking governance: New Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Mihăiţă Duţă

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Banks are companies like any other. However, banks are distinguished by certain intrinsic characteristics of companies that have a different impact on the motivation of stakeholders. Among these features, we mention:partnership and shareholders governance agreements; banks are heavily regulated companies; banking assets is the main source of haze banking and information asymmetry; between the bank and depositors there is a problem of moral hazard.

  12. ROMANIAN BANKS LIQUIDITY MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BATRANCEA MARIA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Most transactions or financial commitments have implications for a bank liquidity. Transactions are particularly vulnerable to liquidity problems at a specific institution. Therefore, one can deduce the importance of the correct calculation and liquidity indicator, not only for the bank concerned, but especially for NBR uses that bank risk management tool. That is why the authors took into consideration a sample of banks in Romania to show to what extent the banking crisis has influenced the development banks.

  13. Electronic Banking And Bank Performance In Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-01

    Mar 1, 2013 ... However, the revolution in the banking industry in Nigeria started .... with the banks overall strategic and business plans, and adequate expertise should be employed to operate and ..... 2010 from http://www.bis./pub/bcbs/pdf.

  14. Eye movement monitoring of memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Jennifer D; Riggs, Lily; McQuiggan, Douglas A; McQuiggan, Doug

    2010-08-15

    Explicit (often verbal) reports are typically used to investigate memory (e.g. "Tell me what you remember about the person you saw at the bank yesterday."), however such reports can often be unreliable or sensitive to response bias, and may be unobtainable in some participant populations. Furthermore, explicit reports only reveal when information has reached consciousness and cannot comment on when memories were accessed during processing, regardless of whether the information is subsequently accessed in a conscious manner. Eye movement monitoring (eye tracking) provides a tool by which memory can be probed without asking participants to comment on the contents of their memories, and access of such memories can be revealed on-line. Video-based eye trackers (either head-mounted or remote) use a system of cameras and infrared markers to examine the pupil and corneal reflection in each eye as the participant views a display monitor. For head-mounted eye trackers, infrared markers are also used to determine head position to allow for head movement and more precise localization of eye position. Here, we demonstrate the use of a head-mounted eye tracking system to investigate memory performance in neurologically-intact and neurologically-impaired adults. Eye movement monitoring procedures begin with the placement of the eye tracker on the participant, and setup of the head and eye cameras. Calibration and validation procedures are conducted to ensure accuracy of eye position recording. Real-time recordings of X,Y-coordinate positions on the display monitor are then converted and used to describe periods of time in which the eye is static (i.e. fixations) versus in motion (i.e., saccades). Fixations and saccades are time-locked with respect to the onset/offset of a visual display or another external event (e.g. button press). Experimental manipulations are constructed to examine how and when patterns of fixations and saccades are altered through different types of prior

  15. Presence of collagen IV in the ciliary zonules of the human eye : An immunohistochemical study by LM and TEM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Los, LI; van der Worp, RJ; van Luyn, MJA; Hooymans, JMM

    2004-01-01

    The ciliary zonules of the eye are composed of fibrillar and non-fibrillar components. Fibrils provide tensile strength and elasticity, whereas non-fibrillar components serve as a coating surrounding the fibrils. This coating behaves as a barrier to macromolecules. The present light and transmission

  16. Investigating Science Student Teachers' Ideas about Function and Anatomical Form of Two Human Sensory Organs, the Eye and the Ear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunt, Halil

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine science student teachers' level of knowledge about the anatomical structure of two sensory organs, the eye and the ear, in addition to vision and hearing processes. Conducted with 86 science student teachers, research utilized drawing methods and open-ended questions as data collection instruments. The…

  17. Internet Banking System Prototype

    CERN Document Server

    Alnaqeib, Rami; Jalab, Hamid A; Zaidan, M A; Hmood, Ali K

    2010-01-01

    Internet Banking System refers to systems that enable bank customers to access accounts and general information on bank products and services through a personal computer or other intelligent device. Internet banking products and services can include detailed account information for corporate customers as well as account summery and transfer money. Ultimately, the products and services obtained through Internet Banking may mirror products and services offered through other bank delivery channels. In this paper, Internet Banking System Prototype has been proposed in order to illustrate the services which is provided by the Bank online services.

  18. Eye care infrastructure and human resources for managing diabetic retinopathy in India: The India 11-city 9-state study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Clare E.; Babu, R. Giridhara; Gudlavalleti, Aashrai Sai Venkat; Anchala, Raghupathy; Shukla, Rajan; Ballabh, Pant Hira; Vashist, Praveen; Ramachandra, Srikrishna S.; Allagh, Komal; Sagar, Jayanti; Bandyopadhyay, Souvik; Murthy, G. V. S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is a paucity of information on the availability of services for diagnosis and management of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in India. Objectives: The study was undertaken to document existing healthcare infrastructure and practice patterns for managing DR. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 11 cities and included public and private eye care providers. Both multispecialty and stand-alone eye care facilities were included. Information was collected on the processes used in all steps of the program, from how diabetics were identified for screening through to policies about follow-up after treatment by administering a semistructured questionnaire and by using observational checklists. Results: A total of 86 eye units were included (31.4% multispecialty hospitals; 68.6% stand-alone clinics). The availability of a dedicated retina unit was reported by 68.6% (59) facilities. The mean number of outpatient consultations per year was 45,909 per responding facility, with nearly half being new registrations. A mean of 631 persons with sight-threatening-DR (ST-DR) were registered per year per facility. The commonest treatment for ST-DR was laser photocoagulation. Only 58% of the facilities reported having a full-time retina specialist on their rolls. More than half the eye care facilities (47; 54.6%) reported that their ophthalmologists would like further training in retina. Half (51.6%) of the facilities stated that they needed laser or surgical equipment. About 46.5% of the hospitals had a system to track patients needing treatment or for follow-up. Conclusions: The study highlighted existing gaps in service provision at eye care facilities in India. PMID:27144134

  19. E-BANKING- MODERN BANKING SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIRANDA PETRONELLA VLAD

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available E-banking is the first of those banking services that really economize time, because it allows to the user to accomplish from behind the computer many operations in the bank account, represents the computational solution that allows to the holder to have

  20. Wearable Computing System with Input-Output Devices Based on Eye-Based Human Computer Interaction Allowing Location Based Web Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Arai

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Wearable computing with Input-Output devices Base on Eye-Based Human Computer Interaction: EBHCI which allows location based web services including navigation, location/attitude/health condition monitoring is proposed. Through implementation of the proposed wearable computing system, all the functionality is confirmed. It is also found that the system does work well. It can be used easily and also is not expensive. Experimental results for EBHCI show excellent performance in terms of key-in accuracy as well as input speed. It is accessible to internet, obviously, and has search engine capability.

  1. Eye Irritation Caused by Formaldehyde as an Indoor Air Pollution——A Controlled Human Exposure Experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Obejective The present study focuses on health assessment of wood based panels which are widely used in interior decoration practices over the recent years in China. Formaldehyde has been identified as chemical indicator of (IAO) and an indoor air pollutant. To test its health effects experiment was undertaken. Method A small environmental test chamber (60/L) was used as the generator of emission gas from new panels, and was operating at a temperature of 22.7±0.6℃ and a humidity of 44.4±2.5 % with an air exchange rate of 1.0±0.15h-1. On the three experimental days the values of product loading in chamber were 4, 2 and 6 m2/m3, respectively. Eight people were selected randomly from the students and employees of Wuhan Health and Anti-epidemic Station as subjects, with an average age of 21.9±5.9 years, and a gender ratio of 1:1, and two of them were smokers (one male and one female). The subjects' eyes were exposed to formaldehyde through a pair of goggles. Each goggle had its flow inlet and outlet, and connected to chamber exhaust of emission gas and to an exhaust from the room. The exposure time was very short, just 5 minutes and the formaldehyde doses were at 1.65±0.01, 2.99±0.07 and 4.31±0.02 ppm. A 60-mm linear visual analogue rating scales was used to measure the intensity of sensory eye irritation and a video tape recorder was used to record eye blinking frequency. Results The results demonstrated that tests of sensory eye irritation and eye blinking can be used for materials testing, and that a dose-effect as well as a time-variance of the effect can be measured. Conclusion The tests showed that eye irritation was perceived at all of the three levels.

  2. Modern applications of high energy ion beams: From "single-event burnout" to human eye cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homeyer, H.; Mahnke, H.-E.

    1996-12-01

    Energetic ion beams, originally the domain of nuclear physics, become increasingly important tools in many other fields of research and development. The choice of ion species and ion energy allows an enormously wide variation of the penetration depth and of the amount of the electronic stopping power. These features are utilized to modify or damage materials and living tissues in a specific way. Materials modification with energetic ion beams is one of the central aims of research and development at the ion beam laboratory, ISL-Berlin, a center for ion-beam applications at the Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin. In particular, energetic protons will be used for eye cancer treatment. Selected topics such as the "single-event burnout" of high power diodes and the eye cancer therapy setup will be presented in detail.

  3. Your Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... people you know — like your grandparents — probably wear glasses. To the Brain! Think of the optic nerve as the great messenger in the back of your eye. The rods and cones of the retina change the colors and shapes you see into millions of nerve ...

  4. An eye model for uncalibrated eye gaze estimation under variable head pose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hnatow, Justin; Savakis, Andreas

    2007-04-01

    Gaze estimation is an important component of computer vision systems that monitor human activity for surveillance, human-computer interaction, and various other applications including iris recognition. Gaze estimation methods are particularly valuable when they are non-intrusive, do not require calibration, and generalize well across users. This paper presents a novel eye model that is employed for efficiently performing uncalibrated eye gaze estimation. The proposed eye model was constructed from a geometric simplification of the eye and anthropometric data about eye feature sizes in order to circumvent the requirement of calibration procedures for each individual user. The positions of the two eye corners and the midpupil, the distance between the two eye corners, and the radius of the eye sphere are required for gaze angle calculation. The locations of the eye corners and midpupil are estimated via processing following eye detection, and the remaining parameters are obtained from anthropometric data. This eye model is easily extended to estimating eye gaze under variable head pose. The eye model was tested on still images of subjects at frontal pose (0 °) and side pose (34 °). An upper bound of the model's performance was obtained by manually selecting the eye feature locations. The resulting average absolute error was 2.98 ° for frontal pose and 2.87 ° for side pose. The error was consistent across subjects, which indicates that good generalization was obtained. This level of performance compares well with other gaze estimation systems that utilize a calibration procedure to measure eye features.

  5. The Chinese Banking System

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The Chinese banking system is critical to the functioning of the Chinese economy, being the main conduit through which savings are allocated to investment opportunities. Banking activity in China has grown rapidly over the past decade in association with the expansion of the Chinese economy, and the Chinese banking system now includes some of the world’s largest banks. Chinese banks have become more commercially orientated over this period, although the Chinese Government retains considerable...

  6. Predicting Small Bank Failure

    OpenAIRE

    Heyliger, Wilton E.; Don P. Holdren

    1991-01-01

    There are many studies of bank performance and bank failure in the literature. Most of these studies used banking ratios as variables in their models without giving consideration to their appropriateness, nor was much consideration given to the stability of those ratios through time and across asset size. Many studies also failed to recognize that bank structure may differ by asset size. This study evaluates a large number of banking variables in order to identify stable ratios. These ratios ...

  7. Banking Around the World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Chinese banks expands its "going out" strategy but faces challenges in establishing a presence in foreign markets The world’s biggest lender by market value, the Industrial and Commercial Bank of China (ICBC), and the Hong Kong-based Bank of East Asia signed an agreement in which ICBC would pay $140.23 million to buy an 80-percent inter- est in Bank of East Asia USA, the Hong Kong bank said on January 23.

  8. Central bank Financial Independence

    OpenAIRE

    J.Ramon Martinez-Resano

    2004-01-01

    Central bank independence is a multifaceted institutional design. The financial component has been seldom analysed. This paper intends to set a comprehensive conceptual background for central bank financial independence. Quite often central banks are modelled as robot like maximizers of some goal. This perspective neglects the fact that central bank functions are inevitably deployed on its balance sheet and have effects on its income statement. A financially independent central bank exhibits ...

  9. Banking service in Germany

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余璐

    2014-01-01

    <正>Germany is the prototypical economy country.Banks in Germany’s economic life plays a very important role.Germany has a large number of Banks and very dense network of bank branches.Deutsche Bank is by far the biggest German bank and Commerzbank is the second biggest.But with all the economic turmoil in the world these days,such rankings can change within

  10. Outsourcing central banking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khoury, Sarkis Joseph; Wihlborg, Clas

    2005-01-01

    The literature on Currency Boards (CB) stops at the water edge in terms of dealing with the totality of the functions of a central bank. Monetary policy, and banking supervisioncan be "outsourced" in an open economy with substantial foreign direct investment (FDI)in the banking sector if political...... the feasibility of, and constraints on, outsourcing of central bank functions. A brief discussion of the Argentinian experience is used for contrast.Key words: Currency Board, Foreign Banks, Supervision, Regional Integration,outsourcing....

  11. Outsourcing central banking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khoury, Sarkis Joseph; Wihlborg, Clas

    2005-01-01

    The literature on Currency Boards (CB) stops at the water edge in terms of dealing with the totality of the functions of a central bank. Monetary policy, and banking supervisioncan be "outsourced" in an open economy with substantial foreign direct investment (FDI)in the banking sector if political...... the feasibility of, and constraints on, outsourcing of central bank functions. A brief discussion of the Argentinian experience is used for contrast.Key words: Currency Board, Foreign Banks, Supervision, Regional Integration,outsourcing....

  12. Why Do Eyes Water?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lifesaver Kids Talk About: Coaches Why Do Eyes Water? KidsHealth > For Kids > Why Do Eyes Water? Print ... out of your nose. continue Why Do Eyes Water? Eyes water for lots of different reasons besides ...

  13. Eye muscle repair - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lazy eye repair - discharge; Strabismus repair - discharge; Extraocular muscle surgery - discharge ... You or your child had eye muscle repair surgery to correct eye muscle ... term for crossed eyes is strabismus. Children most often ...

  14. Why Do Eyes Water?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Happens in the Operating Room? Why Do Eyes Water? KidsHealth > For Kids > Why Do Eyes Water? A ... out of your nose. continue Why Do Eyes Water? Eyes water for lots of different reasons besides ...

  15. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... eye behind the iris that helps to focus light on the retina. It allows the eye to ... of the eye. It regulates the amount of light entering the eye through the pupil. Pupil (PYOO- ...

  16. Recommended Sports Eye Protectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Financial Assistance Information Vision Screening and Eye Exams Zika Virus and Vision Eye Problems Eye Problems Amblyopia ( ... Eye Health Report Reports and External Resources The Cost of Vision Problems The Future of Vision Vision ...

  17. Eye Safety at Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Financial Assistance Information Vision Screening and Eye Exams Zika Virus and Vision Eye Problems Eye Problems Amblyopia ( ... Eye Health Report Reports and External Resources The Cost of Vision Problems The Future of Vision Vision ...

  18. Eye Safety at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Financial Assistance Information Vision Screening and Eye Exams Zika Virus and Vision Eye Problems Eye Problems Amblyopia ( ... Eye Health Report Reports and External Resources The Cost of Vision Problems The Future of Vision Vision ...

  19. Eye Movement Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... work properly. There are many kinds of eye movement disorders. Two common ones are Strabismus - a disorder in ... the eyes, sometimes called "dancing eyes" Some eye movement disorders are present at birth. Others develop over time ...

  20. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... eye behind the iris that helps to focus light on the retina. It allows the eye to ... of the eye. It regulates the amount of light entering the eye through the pupil. Pupil (PYOO- ...

  1. Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that can be embedded on web pages. Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye) One-Page Overview Pink, itchy eyes? Conjunctivitis – ... protect yourself from getting and spreading pink eye . Pink Eye: What To Do Discusses causes and treatment, ...

  2. Eye Disease Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... USAJobs Home > Eye Health Information > Eye Disease Simulations Eye Disease Simulations Age-Related Macular Degeneration Cataract Diabetic ... information page Back to top Diabetic Retinopathy Diabetic Eye Disease information page Back to top Glaucoma Glaucoma ...

  3. Eye Involvement in TSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Privacy Policy Sitemap Learn Engage Donate About TSC Eyes Campbell (1905) first described the eye involvement in ... some form of eye involvement. Nonretinal and Retinal Eye Findings Facial angiofibromas may involve the eyelids of ...

  4. Eye Complications in IBD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Resources > Eye Complications in IBD Go Back Eye Complications in IBD Email Print + Share Approximately 10% ... doctor’s attention sooner rather than later. TYPES OF EYE DISORDERS UVEITIS One of the most common eye ...

  5. REFORM, ORGANISATION AND CONSOLIDATION OF THE ROMANIAN BANKING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ION Gr. IONESCU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Banking system, making the economic environment and the resources it provides, the subsystem consists of macro economic and social. He is in continuous interaction with the economic environment, which takes "input" in various forms - human, financial, information they process into "outputs" - products and banking services, financial derivatives used in banking, financial and banking information, etc. In other words, and the banking system is now an open system. What is specific to open systems, and hence the banking system is that it regulates activity by reverse connection (feed back, so they are capable of self.

  6. Six Dimension Strategy As A Basis Of Banking Standard Contract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wulanmas Frederik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia banking based on Article 4 of Act No.10, 1998, aims at supporting the implementation of national development in order to improve equity, economic growth and national stability in the direction of improving people’s welfare. Therefore, to show how important is banking role in supporting the implementation of development, the 6 (six Strategic Dimensions as the foundation of Banking Standards Contract are: (1. Prudent Banking Supervision and Good Corporate Governance (GCG in banking activities, (2. Refunctionalization the principle of Contract Law in Banking Standards Contract, (3. Ethics Value in Business, (4. The Act No. 8, 1999 on Consumer Protection, (5. Enforcement of Human Rights Principles in banking activities, (6. Abuse of Circumstances implementations (Misbruik van Omstandigheden in banking Contract. Based on the 6 (six Strategic Dimension as the foundation of Banking Standard Contract, it will undoubtedly create justice, equity and assurance of the rights and obligations of the parties framed in the contractual and law bonds.

  7. "Shadow Banking: Policy Challenges for Central Banks"

    OpenAIRE

    Moe, Thorvald Grung

    2014-01-01

    Central banks responded with exceptional liquidity support during the financial crisis to prevent a systemic meltdown. They broadened their tool kit and extended liquidity support to nonbanks and key financial markets. Many want central banks to embrace this expanded role as "market maker of last resort" going forward. This would provide a liquidity backstop for systemically important markets and the shadow banking system that is deeply integrated with these markets. But how much liquidity su...

  8. Eye Contricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas J Wade

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Pictorial images are icons as well as eye-cons: they provide distillations of objects or ideas into simpler shapes. They create the impression of representing that which cannot be presented. Even at the level of the photograph, the links between icon and object are tenuous. The dimensions of depth and motion are missing from icons, and these alone introduce all manner of potential ambiguities. The history of art can be considered as exploring the missing link between icon and object. Eye-cons can also be illusions—tricks of vision so that what is seen does not necessarily correspond to what is physically presented. Pictorial images can be spatialised or stylised; spatialised images generally share some of the projective characteristics of the object represented. Written words are also icons, but they do not resemble the objects they represent—they are stylised or conventional. Icons as stylised words and spatialised images were set in delightful opposition by René Magritte in a series of pipe paintings, and this theme is here alluded to. Most of visual science is now concerned with icons—two-dimensional displays on computer monitors. Is vision now the science of eye-cons?

  9. Pengelolaan Likuiditas Bank Syariah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Ichsan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Islamic Banking Liquidity Management. This article is about management of liquidity which discuss about the position of cash money in the company and its ability to fulfill the obligation (pay the debt on time. Management of liquidity is one of the essential function which is done by banking institution and inside its efficient management, is needed instrument and finance market which is taking not only short term but also long term, and not only conventional banking but also syariat. Through that natural necessity (placement and fulfillment of short term need, for Islamic banking in Indonesia has been availabled some instruments such as (IMA certificate of Mudhorobah Investment between bank, (PUAS market banking regulations between syariat bank, (SWBI Bank of Indonesia Wadiah certificate, (FPJPS provision about short term cost facility for Islamic banks  DOI:10.15408/aiq.v6i1.1371

  10. Pelaksanaan Restrukturisasi Kredit Macet Berdasarkan Peraturan Bank Indonesia Dan Hambatannya Pada PT Bank Rakyat Indonesia Cabang Binjai

    OpenAIRE

    Novrilanimisy

    2015-01-01

    A Bank plays an important role in people’s life because banking institution, especially a commercial bank, becomes the essence of each country’s financial system. Banking system is functioned as the support for human needs through credit system. Unfortunately, not all debtors can pay off the debt to the Bank on time; consequently, there will be non-performing credit. Bank Rakyat Indonesia Cabang Binjai has its own way how to handle non-performing credit; that is, by credit restructuring in or...

  11. [Ethical aspects of human embryonic stem cell use and commercial umbilical cord blood stem cell banking. Ethical reflections on the occasion of the regulation of the European Council and Parliament on advanced therapy medicinal products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virt, G

    2010-01-01

    The regulation of the European Council and Parliament on advanced therapy medicinal products also includes therapies with human embryonic stem cells. The use of these stem cells is controversially and heavily discussed. Contrary to the use of adult stem cells, medical and ethical problems concerning the use of human embryonic stem cells persists, because this use is based on the destruction of human life at the very beginning. The regulation foresees, therefore, subsidiarity within the European Member States. Although there are no ethical problems in principle with the use of stem cells from the umbilical cord blood, there are social ethical doubts with the banking of these stem cells for autologous use without any currently foreseeable medical advantage by commercial blood banks. Also in this case subsidiarity is valid.

  12. Bank Syariah Sebagai Alternatif

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adang Sudjana

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The principle of not allowing interest practices (riba has saved the Syariah Bank and their customers from the effects of monetary crisis. In view of Islamic Principles, interest is forbidden. Therefore, all transactions of syariah banking are based on sale-purchase pattern. Besides, all good banking aspects as applied in conventional banking such as, 5 Cs (capital, collateral, capacity, character, and condition are also applied properly in the line of ukhrawi aspects in managing fund of syariah banking.  The practice of “mark-up” in project funded by syariah bank seems to be very difficult.

  13. A novel method for banking stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth: lentiviral TERT immortalization and phenotypical analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Yin, Zhanhai; Wang, Qi; Li, Ye; Wei, Hong; Shi, Jianfeng; Li, Ang

    2016-01-01

    Background Stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) have recently attracted attention as novel multipotential stem cell sources. However, their application is limited due to in vitro replicative senescence. Ectopic expression of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) is a promising strategy for overcoming this replicative senescence. Nevertheless, its potential application and the phenotype as well as tumorigenicity have never been assessed in SHED. Methods TERT expression was...

  14. Rede Nacional de Bancos de Leite Humano: gênese e evolução Human Milk Banks National Network: genesis and evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Ricardo da Silva Maia

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: analisar a gênese e evolução da Rede Nacional de Bancos de Leite Humano no Brasil. São destacados os elementos determinantes de sua reconhecida participação e influência na formulação da política estatal para o setor. MÉTODOS: foram realizadas análises de conteúdo de fontes documentais primárias geradas pelos órgãos oficiais e instituições mantenedoras de Bancos de Leite Humano, de teses, dissertações, livros e artigos científicos, que versam sobre a temática. Identificou-se que as percepções e construções sociais acerca destas unidades de serviço sofreram flutuações ao longo do tempo, e a depender do momento histórico que se considere, atores e grupos sociais lhes atribuíram diferentes significados. RESULTADOS: o conhecimento aparece como elemento que confere conectividade à Rede. Ou seja, a análise realizada, da gênese e evolução dos Bancos, permite identificar que além dos movimentos dos atores sociais envolvidos, há uma dinâmica da produção do conhecimento que deve ser entendida. CONCLUSÕES: é possível identificar a potencial contribuição da Rede para promoção de transformações sociais e para a formulação de políticas públicas voltadas para área da saúde da mulher e da criança.OBJECTIVES: establishment and progress analysis of the Human Milk Banks National Network in Brazil. Determinant elements are highlighted for their acknowledged participation and influence on the state policy for the sector. METHODS: content analysis of primary documental sources generated by official organizations and institutions offering Human Milk Banks services were analyzed, as well as thesis, dissertations, books and scientific articles focusing on the subject. Social perceptions and concerns were assessed and the conclusion was that with time they suffered changes and depending on the historical moment considered, actors and social groups have conveyed different meanings to the service. RESULTS

  15. Tumour banking: the Spanish design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morente, M M; de Alava, E; Fernandez, P L

    2007-01-01

    In the last decade the technical advances in high throughput techniques to analyze DNA, RNA and proteins have had a potential major impact on prevention, diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of many human diseases. Key pieces in this process, mainly thinking about the future, are tumour banks and tumour bank networks. To face these challenges, diverse suitable models and designs can be developed. The current article presents the development of a nationwide design of tumour banks in Spain based on a network of networks, specially focusing on its harmonization efforts mainly regarding technical procedures, ethical requirements, unified quality control policy and unique sample identification. We also describe our most important goals for the next years. This model does not correspond to a central tumour bank, but to a cooperative and coordinated network of national and regional networks. Independently from the network in which it is included, sample collections reside in their original institution, where it can be used for further clinical diagnosis, teaching and research activities of each independent hospital. The herein described 'network of networks' functional model could be useful for other countries and/or international tumour bank activities.

  16. Changes in the corneal Na-K ATPase levels in eyes stored in moist chamber at 4°C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi B

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available This report deals with a chronological measurement of Na-K ATPase enzyme activity in human and bovine corneas stored in a moist chamber at 4°C. Paired human and bovine eyes were sterilized by the standard eye bank procedure and stored up to 6 days. At the desired time, the corneal endothelium was assayed for Na-K ATPase activity. The protein content of each tissue sample was also determined. In a parallel set of experiments, the viability of identical stored corneas was determined by trypan blue and alizarin red staining technique, and morphometric analysis was done to quantify the extent of the corneal endothelial damage. The human corneas showed that there was a significant progressive decrease in the Na-K ATPase activity as the storage time increased. The decrease was related to morphological endothelial damage.

  17. 汽车照明人眼感受的仿真研究%Simulation Research on Automotive Lighting and Human Eyes Feeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晨; 刘春子; 万宏

    2014-01-01

    For analyzing quantitatively the subjective feeling of people and vision comfort during driving, the analysis and evaluation method of the lighting quality of automotive headlamps and the impact of light quality on hu-man eyes subjective feeling are described. In the experiment, the light intensity data of automotive headlamps is ob-tained through light fitting machine. The method of calculating luminous flux, ground illuminance and brightness by using the data is introduced in detail. The advantage and disadvantage analysis of automotive headlamps lighting quality through calculation are obtained. The correctness of the calculation method is verified in simulation. And the brightness correction for human eyes feeling is added to ground brightness simulation to get a better human eyes feeling. So it has an important meaning to automotive lamp production.%为了量化分析人们驾驶汽车时的主观感受,以及对视觉舒适度进行定量分析,描述了对汽车前照灯的灯光质量的分析评价方法,及灯光质量对人眼主观感受的影响。在实验中,通过配光机得到汽车前照灯的光强数据,详细介绍了使用配光机得到的光强数据计算光通量、地面照度、地面亮度的方法。通过计算得到汽车前照灯照明质量的优劣分析。在仿真中,很好地验证了计算方法的正确性,同时对地面亮度仿真中加入了人眼亮度的校正,很好的仿真了人眼感受,因此它对于车灯的生产过程有着很好的指导意义。

  18. Fundamental Evaluation of Adaptation and Human Capabilities in a Condition Using a System to Give a User an Artificial Oculomotor Function to Control Directions of Both Eyes Independently

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumio Mizuno

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available To investigate flexible adaptation of visual system, we developed a system to provide a user an artificial oculomotor function to control directions of both eyes. The system named “Virtual Chameleon” consists of two CCD cameras independently controlled and a head-mounted display. The user can control each tracking directions of two cameras with sensors set to both hands so that the user can get independent arbitrary view fields for both eyes. We performed fundamental experiments to evaluate capability to evaluate adaptation to use of Virtual Chameleon and effects on the user's capabilities. Eleven healthy volunteers with normal and corrected-to-normal vision participated in the experiments. The experiments were tests to find out each position of targets put in both side of a subject. In the experiments, a condition using Virtual Chameleon and a condition without it was adopted. We obtained accuracy rates and time intervals to find out target positions as experimental results. The experiments showed all of volunteers became able to actively control independent visual axes and correctly understood two different views by using Virtual Chameleon, even though two independent view fields yielded binocular rivalry to volunteers and binocular rivalry reduced human capabilities compared to cases without Virtual Chameleon.

  19. Questions Students Ask: The Red-Eye Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physics Teacher, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Addresses the question of why a dog's eyes appear red and glow when a flash photograph is taken. Conditions for the red-eye effect, light paths involved, structure of the eye, and typical cameras and lenses are discussed. Also notes differences between the eyes of nocturnal animals and humans. (JN)

  20. Gold nanoparticles-based brachytherapy enhancement in choroidal melanoma using a full Monte Carlo modelling of human eye

    CERN Document Server

    Asadi, Somayeh; Masoudi, S Farhad; Rahmani, Faezeh

    2014-01-01

    Materials of high atomic number such as gold, can provide a high probability for photon interaction by photoelectric effects during radiation therapy. In cancer therapy, the object of brachytherapy as a kind of radiotherapy is to deliver adequate radiation dose to tumor while sparing surrounding healthy tissue. Several studies demonstrated that the preferential accumulation of gold nanoparticles within the tumor can enhance the absorbed dose by the tumor without increasing the radiation dose delivered externally. Accordingly, the required time for tumor irradiation decreases as the estimated adequate radiation dose for tumor is provided following this method. The dose delivered to healthy tissue is reduced when the time of irradiation is decreased. Hear, GNPs effects on choroidal Melanoma dosimetry is discussed by Monte Carlo study. Monte Carlo Ophthalmic brachytherapy dosimetry usually, is studied by simulation of water phantom. Considering the composition and density of eye material instead of water in thes...