WorldWideScience

Sample records for human expert analysis

  1. Expert judgment in analysis of human and organizational behaviour at nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiman, L [Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, Helsinki (Finland). Dept. of Nuclear Safety

    1994-12-01

    Probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) of a nuclear power plant includes an assessment of the probability of each event sequence that can lead to a reactor core damage and of their consequences. Despite increasing maturity of PSA methods, there are still several problems in their use. These include the assessment of human reliability and the impact of organizational factors on plant safety. The assessment of both these issues is based on expert judgment. Therefore, the use of expert judgment in analysis of human and organizational behaviour was studied theoretically and in practical case studies in this thesis. Human errors were analysed in two case studies. In the first study cognitive actions of control room operators were analysed. For this purpose methods were developed for the qualitative and quantitative phases of the analysis. Errors of test and maintenance personnel were analysed in the second case study. Especially the dependence of errors between sequential tasks performed in redundant subsystems of a safety system was studied. A method to assess organizational behaviour was developed and applied in the third case study. The three case studies demonstrated that expert judgment can be used in the analysis of human reliability and organizational behaviour taking into account the observations made and the remarks presented in the study. However, significant uncertainties are related with expert judgment. Recommendations are presented concerning the use of different methods. Also, some insights are presented into how reliance on expert judgment could be reduced. (241 refs., 20 figs., 36 tabs.).

  2. Expert judgment in analysis of human and organizational behaviour at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiman, L.

    1994-12-01

    Probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) of a nuclear power plant includes an assessment of the probability of each event sequence that can lead to a reactor core damage and of their consequences. Despite increasing maturity of PSA methods, there are still several problems in their use. These include the assessment of human reliability and the impact of organizational factors on plant safety. The assessment of both these issues is based on expert judgment. Therefore, the use of expert judgment in analysis of human and organizational behaviour was studied theoretically and in practical case studies in this thesis. Human errors were analysed in two case studies. In the first study cognitive actions of control room operators were analysed. For this purpose methods were developed for the qualitative and quantitative phases of the analysis. Errors of test and maintenance personnel were analysed in the second case study. Especially the dependence of errors between sequential tasks performed in redundant subsystems of a safety system was studied. A method to assess organizational behaviour was developed and applied in the third case study. The three case studies demonstrated that expert judgment can be used in the analysis of human reliability and organizational behaviour taking into account the observations made and the remarks presented in the study. However, significant uncertainties are related with expert judgment. Recommendations are presented concerning the use of different methods. Also, some insights are presented into how reliance on expert judgment could be reduced. (241 refs., 20 figs., 36 tabs.)

  3. Computers Simulate Human Experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Steven K.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses recent progress in artificial intelligence in such narrowly defined areas as medical and electronic diagnosis. Also discusses use of expert systems, man-machine communication problems, novel programing environments (including comments on LISP and LISP machines), and types of knowledge used (factual, heuristic, and meta-knowledge). (JN)

  4. Comparing the treatment of uncertainty in Bayesian networks and fuzzy expert systems used for a human reliability analysis application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baraldi, Piero; Podofillini, Luca; Mkrtchyan, Lusine; Zio, Enrico; Dang, Vinh N.

    2015-01-01

    The use of expert systems can be helpful to improve the transparency and repeatability of assessments in areas of risk analysis with limited data available. In this field, human reliability analysis (HRA) is no exception, and, in particular, dependence analysis is an HRA task strongly based on analyst judgement. The analysis of dependence among Human Failure Events refers to the assessment of the effect of an earlier human failure on the probability of the subsequent ones. This paper analyses and compares two expert systems, based on Bayesian Belief Networks and Fuzzy Logic (a Fuzzy Expert System, FES), respectively. The comparison shows that a BBN approach should be preferred in all the cases characterized by quantifiable uncertainty in the input (i.e. when probability distributions can be assigned to describe the input parameters uncertainty), since it provides a satisfactory representation of the uncertainty and its output is directly interpretable for use within PSA. On the other hand, in cases characterized by very limited knowledge, an analyst may feel constrained by the probabilistic framework, which requires assigning probability distributions for describing uncertainty. In these cases, the FES seems to lead to a more transparent representation of the input and output uncertainty. - Highlights: • We analyse treatment of uncertainty in two expert systems. • We compare a Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) and a Fuzzy Expert System (FES). • We focus on the input assessment, inference engines and output assessment. • We focus on an application problem of interest for human reliability analysis. • We emphasize the application rather than math to reach non-BBN or FES specialists

  5. Monte Carlo simulation of expert judgments on human errors in chemical analysis--a case study of ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuselman, Ilya; Pennecchi, Francesca; Epstein, Malka; Fajgelj, Ales; Ellison, Stephen L R

    2014-12-01

    Monte Carlo simulation of expert judgments on human errors in a chemical analysis was used for determination of distributions of the error quantification scores (scores of likelihood and severity, and scores of effectiveness of a laboratory quality system in prevention of the errors). The simulation was based on modeling of an expert behavior: confident, reasonably doubting and irresolute expert judgments were taken into account by means of different probability mass functions (pmfs). As a case study, 36 scenarios of human errors which may occur in elemental analysis of geological samples by ICP-MS were examined. Characteristics of the score distributions for three pmfs of an expert behavior were compared. Variability of the scores, as standard deviation of the simulated score values from the distribution mean, was used for assessment of the score robustness. A range of the score values, calculated directly from elicited data and simulated by a Monte Carlo method for different pmfs, was also discussed from the robustness point of view. It was shown that robustness of the scores, obtained in the case study, can be assessed as satisfactory for the quality risk management and improvement of a laboratory quality system against human errors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Expert Approaches to Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-03-01

    analysis that takes place in anatomy or circuit diagrams. The goal is to break an entity down into a set of non- overlapping parts, and to specify the...components. For example, one subject in predicting the fate of different species, broke them into three types: animals that humans would save (e.g., gorillas

  7. Working group of experts on rare events in human error analysis and quantification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodstein, L.P.

    1977-01-01

    In dealing with the reference problem of rare events in nuclear power plants, the group has concerned itself with the man-machine system and, in particular, with human error analysis and quantification. The Group was requested to review methods of human reliability prediction, to evaluate the extent to which such analyses can be formalized and to establish criteria to be met by task conditions and system design which would permit a systematic, formal analysis. Recommendations are given on the Fessenheim safety system

  8. SLIM-MAUD: an approach to assessing human error probabilities using structured expert judgment. Volume II. Detailed analysis of the technical issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Embrey, D.E.; Humphreys, P.; Rosa, E.A.; Kirwan, B.; Rea, K.

    1984-07-01

    This two-volume report presents the procedures and analyses performed in developing an approach for structuring expert judgments to estimate human error probabilities. Volume I presents an overview of work performed in developing the approach: SLIM-MAUD (Success Likelihood Index Methodology, implemented through the use of an interactive computer program called MAUD-Multi-Attribute Utility Decomposition). Volume II provides a more detailed analysis of the technical issues underlying the approach

  9. Expert Judgement Assessment & SCENT Ontological Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICHERSU Iulian

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to provide insights in the starting point of the Horizon 2020 ECfunded project SCENT (Smart Toolbox for Εngaging Citizens into a People-Centric Observation Web Citizen Observatory (CO in terms of existing infrastructure, existing monitoring systems and some discussion on the existing legal and administrative framework that relate to flood monitoring and management in the area of Danube Delta. The methodology used in this approach is based on expert judgement and ontological analysis, using the information collected from the identified end-users of the SCENT toolbox. In this type of analysis the stages of flood monitoring and management that the experts are involved in are detailed. This is done through an Expert Judgement Assessment analysis. The latter is complemented by a set of Key Performance Indicators that the stakeholders have assessed and/or proposed for the evaluation of the SCENT demonstrations, for the impact of the project and finally for SCENT toolbox performance and usefulness. The second part of the study presents an analysis that attempts to map the interactions between different organizations and components of the existing monitoring systems in the Danube Delta case study. Expert Judgement (EJ allows to gain information from specialists in a specific field through a consultation process with one or more experts that have experience in similar and complementary topics. Expert judgment, expert estimates, or expert opinion are all terms that refer to the contents of the problem; estimates, outcomes, predictions, uncertainties, and their corresponding assumptions and conditions are all examples of expert judgment. Expert Judgement is affected by the process used to gather it. On the other hand, the ontological analysis comes to complete this study, by organizing and presenting the connections behind the flood management and land use systems in the three phases of the flood event.

  10. Application of expert elicitation techniques in human reliability, assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanyasi Rao, V.V.S.; Saraf, R.K.; Ghosh, A.K.; Kushwaha, H.S.

    2006-01-01

    Expert elicitation techniques are being used, in the area of technological forecasting, in estimating data needed for analysis when it is either difficult to arrive at the data by experimental means or when it is quite involved to plan and conduct the experiment. In this study, expert elicitation techniques are applied to the evaluation of the frequencies of the various accident sequences that can result from the initiating event (IE) 'High Pressure Process Water (HPPW) system failure' in typical Indian Pressurised Heavy Water Reactor (IPHWR) of the older generation. The Operating Procedure under Emergency Conditions (OPEC) for this IE involves human actions according to a pre-defined procedure. The Human Error Probabilities for all these human actions are obtained using expert elicitation techniques. These techniques aim at eliciting the opinion of the experts in the area of interest with regard to the issue in question. The uncertainty is analysed by employing the measure of dissonance and the most probable range of human error probabilities are arrived at by maximizing this measure. These values are combined using the same procedures mentioned above to yield a distribution representing the uncertainty associated with the predictions. (author)

  11. Experiment with expert system guidance of an engineering analysis task

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ransom, V.H.; Fink, R.K.; Callow, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    An experiment is being conducted in which expert systems are used to guide the performance of an engineering analysis task. The task chosen for experimentation is the application of a large thermal hydraulic transient simulation computer code. The expectation from this work is that the expert system will result in an improved analytical result with a reduction in the amount of human labor and expertise required. The code associated functions of model formulation, data input, code execution, and analysis of the computed output have all been identified as candidate tasks that could benefit from the use of expert systems. Expert system modules have been built for the model building and data input task. Initial results include the observation that human expectations of an intelligent environment rapidly escalate and structured or stylized tasks that are tolerated in the unaided system are frustrating within the intelligent environment

  12. NESSUS/EXPERT - An expert system for probabilistic structural analysis methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millwater, H.; Palmer, K.; Fink, P.

    1988-01-01

    An expert system (NESSUS/EXPERT) is presented which provides assistance in using probabilistic structural analysis methods. NESSUS/EXPERT is an interactive menu-driven expert system that provides information to assist in the use of the probabilistic finite element code NESSUS/FEM and the fast probability integrator. NESSUS/EXPERT was developed with a combination of FORTRAN and CLIPS, a C language expert system tool, to exploit the strengths of each language.

  13. Expert systems for space power supply: design, analysis, and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, R.S.; Thomson, M.K.; Hoshor, A.

    1987-01-01

    The authors evaluated the feasibility of applying expert systems to the conceptual design, analysis, and evaluation of space power supplies in particular, and complex systems in general. To do this, they analyzed the space power supply design process and in associated knowledge base, and characterized them in a form suitable for computer emulation of a human expert. The existing expert system tools and the results achieved with them were evaluated to assess their applicability to power system design. They applied some new concepts for combining program architectures (modular expert systems and algorithms) with information about the domain to create a deep system for handling the complex design problem. They authors developed, programmed and tested NOVICE, a code to solve a simplified version of a scoping study of a wide variety of power supply types for a broad range of missions, as a concrete feasibility demonstration

  14. Expert Coaching in Weight Loss: Retrospective Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Stefanie Lynn; Ahmed, Rezwan; Kushner, Robert F; Hill, James O; Lindquist, Richard; Brunning, Scott; Margulies, Amy

    2018-03-13

    Providing coaches as part of a weight management program is a common practice to increase participant engagement and weight loss success. Understanding coach and participant interactions and how these interactions impact weight loss success needs to be further explored for coaching best practices. The purpose of this study was to analyze the coach and participant interaction in a 6-month weight loss intervention administered by Retrofit, a personalized weight management and Web-based disease prevention solution. The study specifically examined the association between different methods of coach-participant interaction and weight loss and tried to understand the level of coaching impact on weight loss outcome. A retrospective analysis was performed using 1432 participants enrolled from 2011 to 2016 in the Retrofit weight loss program. Participants were males and females aged 18 years or older with a baseline body mass index of ≥25 kg/m², who also provided at least one weight measurement beyond baseline. First, a detailed analysis of different coach-participant interaction was performed using both intent-to-treat and completer populations. Next, a multiple regression analysis was performed using all measures associated with coach-participant interactions involving expert coaching sessions, live weekly expert-led Web-based classes, and electronic messaging and feedback. Finally, 3 significant predictors (Pcoaching session attendance (Pcoaching sessions, attending 60% of live weekly Web-based classes, and receiving a minimum of 1 food log feedback day per week were associated with clinically significant weight loss. Participant's one-on-one expert coaching session attendance, live weekly expert-led interactive Web-based class attendance, and the number of food log feedback days per week from expert coach were significant predictors of weight loss in a 6-month intervention. ©Stefanie Lynn Painter, Rezwan Ahmed, Robert F Kushner, James O Hill, Richard Lindquist, Scott

  15. Expert Coaching in Weight Loss: Retrospective Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushner, Robert F; Hill, James O; Lindquist, Richard; Brunning, Scott; Margulies, Amy

    2018-01-01

    Background Providing coaches as part of a weight management program is a common practice to increase participant engagement and weight loss success. Understanding coach and participant interactions and how these interactions impact weight loss success needs to be further explored for coaching best practices. Objective The purpose of this study was to analyze the coach and participant interaction in a 6-month weight loss intervention administered by Retrofit, a personalized weight management and Web-based disease prevention solution. The study specifically examined the association between different methods of coach-participant interaction and weight loss and tried to understand the level of coaching impact on weight loss outcome. Methods A retrospective analysis was performed using 1432 participants enrolled from 2011 to 2016 in the Retrofit weight loss program. Participants were males and females aged 18 years or older with a baseline body mass index of ≥25 kg/m², who also provided at least one weight measurement beyond baseline. First, a detailed analysis of different coach-participant interaction was performed using both intent-to-treat and completer populations. Next, a multiple regression analysis was performed using all measures associated with coach-participant interactions involving expert coaching sessions, live weekly expert-led Web-based classes, and electronic messaging and feedback. Finally, 3 significant predictors (Pcoaching session attendance (Pcoaching sessions, attending 60% of live weekly Web-based classes, and receiving a minimum of 1 food log feedback day per week were associated with clinically significant weight loss. Conclusions Participant’s one-on-one expert coaching session attendance, live weekly expert-led interactive Web-based class attendance, and the number of food log feedback days per week from expert coach were significant predictors of weight loss in a 6-month intervention. PMID:29535082

  16. ANAPPRES: An expert system for interference well-test analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arellano, V.M.; Iglesias, E.R.; Arellano, J.; Schwarzblat, M.

    1988-01-01

    We present ANAPPRES V1.0, the first version of a computerized expert system capable of analyzing constant- and variable-flowrate interference tests, in which there is one active well and an arbitrary number of observation wells, in liquid-saturated homogeneous reservoirs. ANAPPRES successfully couples mathematical models, optimization techniques, heuristic knowledge and computerized graphics, a combination not often found in published expert systems. Its main advantages are that it is user friendly, requires essentially no experience on the part of the analyst, eliminates subjectivity associated with earlier techniques of analysis, can handle complex cases and large data sets, completes the analysis of even the most complex cases (including plotting the results) in one run, and is significantly faster than a human expert.

  17. The interpretation of forensic biochemical expert test made in human body fluids: scientific - legal analysis in the research on sexual offenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaves Carballo, Diana

    2014-01-01

    The contributions of science and technology have covered the whole of human life, and relationships of coexistence are even found in the various disciplines of knowledge through legal forensics. Therefore, it is increasingly imperative that the law enforcement agents are interdisciplinary professionals, with knowledge beyond the legal knowledge to enable them make the most of the scientific knowledge in judicial proceedings. Among the natural sciences applied to right, forensic biochemistry has contributed an extremely relevant test for the investigation of various sexual offenses, much has been so, that the Organismo de Investigacion Judicial of Costa Rica has in its Departamento de Laboratorios de Ciencias Forenses with specialized sections in this discipline. A diversity of skills are performed of presumptive and confirmatory character for the presence of biological fluids, sexually transmitted diseases and identification of DNA by genetic markers. Updated information is given with respect to the correct interpretation of forensic biochemical expertises achievable for identification of semen, blood and human saliva in the investigation of sexual offenses. A scientific and legal language is used allowing the most of this information in the criminal process. The main objective has been to interpret, legal and scientifically, forensic biochemical expert evidence performed in human body fluids during the investigation of sexual offenses. A legal, doctrinal and scientific review is presented with compilation of related jurisprudence and criminology reports analysis of Seccion de Bioquimica of the Departamento de Laboratorios Forenses of the Organismo de Investigacion Juridica issued during the investigation of sexual offenses. Two types of attainable skills have existed for the identification of biological fluids, each with a different binding. In addition, it has been clear, due to the lexicon employed when making a forensic biochemist opinion, that to make a proper

  18. WES: A well test analysis expert system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mensch, A.

    1988-06-01

    This report describes part of the development of an expert system in the domain of well-test analysis. This work has been done during my final internship, completed at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The report is divided in three parts: the first one gives a description of the state of the project at the time I first began to work on it, and raises some problems that have to be solved. The second section shows the results that have been reached, and the last one draws conclusions from these results and proposes extensions that would be useful in the future

  19. Tools and technologies for expert systems: A human factors perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaram, Navaratna S.

    1987-01-01

    It is widely recognized that technologies based on artificial intelligence (AI), especially expert systems, can make significant contributions to the productivity and effectiveness of operations of information and knowledge intensive organizations such as NASA. At the same time, these being relatively new technologies, there is the problem of transfering technology to key personnel of such organizations. The problems of examining the potential of expert systems and of technology transfer is addressed in the context of human factors applications. One of the topics of interest was the investigation of the potential use of expert system building tools, particularly NEXPERT as a technology transfer medium. Two basic conclusions were reached in this regard. First, NEXPERT is an excellent tool for rapid prototyping of experimental expert systems, but not ideal as a delivery vehicle. Therefore, it is not a substitute for general purpose system implementation languages such a LISP or C. This assertion probably holds for nearly all such tools on the market today. Second, an effective technology transfer mechanism is to formulate and implement expert systems for problems which members of the organization in question can relate to. For this purpose, the LIghting EnGineering Expert (LIEGE) was implemented using NEXPERT as the tool for technology transfer and to illustrate the value of expert systems to the activities of the Man-System Division.

  20. Focusing on the human factor in future expert systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, S.E.

    1987-01-01

    Technological advances in the area of artificial intelligence have produced expert systems that hold much promise for the design, operation, and maintenance of complex systems such as nuclear power plants. Such systems have been designed and implemented in a wide variety of task settings. In spite of the gains that have been made in the application of expert systems, there are still several difficult problems which have yet to be resolved. One of these problems is a frequently noted lack of user acceptance of newly fielded intelligent systems. This lack of acceptance can be attributed to a variety of factors, including unfamiliarity with computer technology, difficulty in adjusting to interface mechanisms, fear that the system was designed to replace the human operator, and a feeling that the human can perform the job better than the system. Some of the problems may be related to the fact that expert system design is essentially in it's infancy

  1. Expert group formation using facility location analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neshati, M.; Beigy, H.; Hiemstra, Djoerd

    In this paper, we propose an optimization framework to retrieve an optimal group of experts to perform a multi-aspect task. While a diverse set of skills are needed to perform a multi-aspect task, the group of assigned experts should be able to collectively cover all these required skills. We

  2. Expert group formation using facility location analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neshati, Mahmood; Beigy, Hamid; Hiemstra, Djoerd

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an optimization framework to retrieve an optimal group of experts to perform a multi-aspect task. While a diverse set of skills are needed to perform a multi-aspect task, the group of assigned experts should be able to collectively cover all these required skills. We

  3. Human factors considerations for expert systems in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, W.R.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses the general human factors issues relative to the development and implementation of expert systems for the nuclear industry. It summarizes the relevant research that addresses these issues, and identifies those areas that need the most effort for success. Since much of the prominent work for the application of expert systems has focused on computerized aids for decision making in emergencies, this paper draws from this area for its examples. This area tends to highlight the issues because of the safety-critical nature of the application. The same issues, however, are relevant to other applications of expert systems in the nuclear industry as well, even though the consequences of failure may not be as dramatic

  4. Can human experts predict solubility better than computers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boobier, Samuel; Osbourn, Anne; Mitchell, John B O

    2017-12-13

    In this study, we design and carry out a survey, asking human experts to predict the aqueous solubility of druglike organic compounds. We investigate whether these experts, drawn largely from the pharmaceutical industry and academia, can match or exceed the predictive power of algorithms. Alongside this, we implement 10 typical machine learning algorithms on the same dataset. The best algorithm, a variety of neural network known as a multi-layer perceptron, gave an RMSE of 0.985 log S units and an R 2 of 0.706. We would not have predicted the relative success of this particular algorithm in advance. We found that the best individual human predictor generated an almost identical prediction quality with an RMSE of 0.942 log S units and an R 2 of 0.723. The collection of algorithms contained a higher proportion of reasonably good predictors, nine out of ten compared with around half of the humans. We found that, for either humans or algorithms, combining individual predictions into a consensus predictor by taking their median generated excellent predictivity. While our consensus human predictor achieved very slightly better headline figures on various statistical measures, the difference between it and the consensus machine learning predictor was both small and statistically insignificant. We conclude that human experts can predict the aqueous solubility of druglike molecules essentially equally well as machine learning algorithms. We find that, for either humans or algorithms, combining individual predictions into a consensus predictor by taking their median is a powerful way of benefitting from the wisdom of crowds.

  5. Generating human reliability estimates using expert judgment. Volume 2. Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comer, M.K.; Seaver, D.A.; Stillwell, W.G.; Gaddy, C.D.

    1984-11-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is conducting a research program to determine the practicality, acceptability, and usefulness of several different methods for obtaining human reliability data and estimates that can be used in nuclear power plant probabilistic risk assessments (PRA). One method, investigated as part of this overall research program, uses expert judgment to generate human error probability (HEP) estimates and associated uncertainty bounds. The project described in this document evaluated two techniques for using expert judgment: paired comparisons and direct numerical estimation. Volume 2 provides detailed procedures for using the techniques, detailed descriptions of the analyses performed to evaluate the techniques, and HEP estimates generated as part of this project. The results of the evaluation indicate that techniques using expert judgment should be given strong consideration for use in developing HEP estimates. Judgments were shown to be consistent and to provide HEP estimates with a good degree of convergent validity. Of the two techniques tested, direct numerical estimation appears to be preferable in terms of ease of application and quality of results

  6. Expert systems for assisting the analysis of hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evrard, J.M.; Martinez, J.M.; Souchet, Y.

    1990-01-01

    The advantage of applying expert systems in the analysis of safety in the operation of nuclear power plants is discussed. Expert systems apply a method based on a common representation of nuclear power plants. The main steps of the method are summarized. The applications given concern in the following fields: the analysis of hazards in the electric power supplies of a gas-graphite power plant; the evaluation of the availability of safety procedures in a PWR power plant; the search for the sources of leakage in a PWR power plant. The analysis shows that expert systems are a powerful tool in the study of safety of nuclear power plants [fr

  7. Embedding Human Expert Cognition Into Autonomous UAS Trajectory Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Pritesh; Meyer, Patrick; Campbell, Duncan

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents a new approach for the inclusion of human expert cognition into autonomous trajectory planning for unmanned aerial systems (UASs) operating in low-altitude environments. During typical UAS operations, multiple objectives may exist; therefore, the use of multicriteria decision aid techniques can potentially allow for convergence to trajectory solutions which better reflect overall mission requirements. In that context, additive multiattribute value theory has been applied to optimize trajectories with respect to multiple objectives. A graphical user interface was developed to allow for knowledge capture from a human decision maker (HDM) through simulated decision scenarios. The expert decision data gathered are converted into value functions and corresponding criteria weightings using utility additive theory. The inclusion of preferences elicited from HDM data within an automated decision system allows for the generation of trajectories which more closely represent the candidate HDM decision preferences. This approach has been demonstrated in this paper through simulation using a fixed-wing UAS operating in low-altitude environments.

  8. GOTRES: an expert system for fault detection and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, D.T.; Modarres, M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes a deep-knowledge expert system shell for diagnosing faults in process operations. The expert program shell is called GOTRES (GOal TRee Expert System) and uses a goal tree-success tree deep-knowledge structure to model its knowledge-base. To demonstrate GOTRES, we have built an on-line fault diagnosis expert system for an experimental nuclear reactor facility using this shell. The expert system is capable of diagnosing fault conditions using system goal tree as well as utilizing accumulated operating knowledge to predict plant causal and temporal behaviours. The GOTRES shell has also been used for root-cause detection and analysis in a nuclear plant. (author)

  9. Automated planning target volume generation: an evaluation pitting a computer-based tool against human experts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketting, Case H.; Austin-Seymour, Mary; Kalet, Ira; Jacky, Jon; Kromhout-Schiro, Sharon; Hummel, Sharon; Unger, Jonathan; Fagan, Lawrence M.; Griffin, Tom

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Software tools are seeing increased use in three-dimensional treatment planning. However, the development of these tools frequently omits careful evaluation before placing them in clinical use. This study demonstrates the application of a rigorous evaluation methodology using blinded peer review to an automated software tool that produces ICRU-50 planning target volumes (PTVs). Methods and Materials: Seven physicians from three different institutions involved in three-dimensional treatment planning participated in the evaluation. Four physicians drew partial PTVs on nine test cases, consisting of four nasopharynx and five lung primaries. Using the same information provided to the human experts, the computer tool generated PTVs for comparison. The remaining three physicians, designated evaluators, individually reviewed the PTVs for acceptability. To exclude bias, the evaluators were blinded to the source (human or computer) of the PTVs they reviewed. Their scorings of the PTVs were statistically examined to determine if the computer tool performed as well as the human experts. Results: The computer tool was as successful as the human experts in generating PTVs. Failures were primarily attributable to insufficient margins around the clinical target volume and to encroachment upon critical structures. In a qualitative analysis, the human and computer experts displayed similar types and distributions of errors. Conclusions: Rigorous evaluation of computer-based radiotherapy tools requires comparison to current practice and can reveal areas for improvement before the tool enters clinical practice

  10. The digital storytelling process: A comparative analysis from various experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Hashiroh; Shiratuddin, Norshuhada

    2016-08-01

    Digital Storytelling (DST) is a method of delivering information to the audience. It combines narrative and digital media content infused with the multimedia elements. In order for the educators (i.e the designers) to create a compelling digital story, there are sets of processes introduced by experts. Nevertheless, the experts suggest varieties of processes to guide them; of which some are redundant. The main aim of this study is to propose a single guide process for the creation of DST. A comparative analysis is employed where ten DST models from various experts are analysed. The process can also be implemented in other multimedia materials that used the concept of DST.

  11. An expert image analysis system for chromosome analysis application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Q.; Suetens, P.; Oosterlinck, A.; Van den Berghe, H.

    1987-01-01

    This paper reports a recent study on applying a knowledge-based system approach as a new attempt to solve the problem of chromosome classification. A theoretical framework of an expert image analysis system is proposed, based on such a study. In this scheme, chromosome classification can be carried out under a hypothesize-and-verify paradigm, by integrating a rule-based component, in which the expertise of chromosome karyotyping is formulated with an existing image analysis system which uses conventional pattern recognition techniques. Results from the existing system can be used to bring in hypotheses, and with the rule-based verification and modification procedures, improvement of the classification performance can be excepted

  12. Artificial intelligence and medical imaging. Expert systems and image analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wackenheim, A.; Zoellner, G.; Horviller, S.; Jacqmain, T.

    1987-01-01

    This paper gives an overview on the existing systems for automated image analysis and interpretation in medical imaging, especially in radiology. The example of ORFEVRE, the system for the analysis of CAT-scan images of the cervical triplet (c3-c5) by image analysis and subsequent expert-system is given and discussed in detail. Possible extensions are described [fr

  13. System reliability analysis with natural language and expert's subjectivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onisawa, T.

    1996-01-01

    This paper introduces natural language expressions and expert's subjectivity to system reliability analysis. To this end, this paper defines a subjective measure of reliability and presents the method of the system reliability analysis using the measure. The subjective measure of reliability corresponds to natural language expressions of reliability estimation, which is represented by a fuzzy set defined on [0,1]. The presented method deals with the dependence among subsystems and employs parametrized operations of subjective measures of reliability which can reflect expert 's subjectivity towards the analyzed system. The analysis results are also expressed by linguistic terms. Finally this paper gives an example of the system reliability analysis by the presented method

  14. Uncertainty Analysis and Expert Judgment in Seismic Hazard Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klügel, Jens-Uwe

    2011-01-01

    The large uncertainty associated with the prediction of future earthquakes is usually regarded as the main reason for increased hazard estimates which have resulted from some recent large scale probabilistic seismic hazard analysis studies (e.g. the PEGASOS study in Switzerland and the Yucca Mountain study in the USA). It is frequently overlooked that such increased hazard estimates are characteristic for a single specific method of probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA): the traditional (Cornell-McGuire) PSHA method which has found its highest level of sophistication in the SSHAC probability method. Based on a review of the SSHAC probability model and its application in the PEGASOS project, it is shown that the surprising results of recent PSHA studies can be explained to a large extent by the uncertainty model used in traditional PSHA, which deviates from the state of the art in mathematics and risk analysis. This uncertainty model, the Ang-Tang uncertainty model, mixes concepts of decision theory with probabilistic hazard assessment methods leading to an overestimation of uncertainty in comparison to empirical evidence. Although expert knowledge can be a valuable source of scientific information, its incorporation into the SSHAC probability method does not resolve the issue of inflating uncertainties in PSHA results. Other, more data driven, PSHA approaches in use in some European countries are less vulnerable to this effect. The most valuable alternative to traditional PSHA is the direct probabilistic scenario-based approach, which is closely linked with emerging neo-deterministic methods based on waveform modelling.

  15. Expert judgement on inadvertent human intrusion into the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hora, S.C.; von Winterfeldt, D.; Trauth, K.M.

    1991-12-01

    Four expert-judgment teams have developed analyses delineating possible future societies in the next 10,000 years in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Expert-judgment analysis was used to address the question of future societies because neither experimentation, observation, nor modeling can resolve such uncertainties. Each of the four, four-member teams, comprised of individuals with expertise in the physical, social, or political sciences, developed detailed qualitative assessments of possible future societies. These assessments include detailed discussions of the underlying physical and societal factors that would influence society and the likely modes of human-intrusion at the WIPP, as well as the probabilities of intrusion. Technological development, population growth, economic development, conservation of information, persistence of government control, and mitigation of danger from nuclear waste were the factors the teams believed to be most important. Likely modes of human-intrusion were categorized as excavation, disposal/storage, tunneling, drilling, and offsite activities. Each team also developed quantitative assessments by providing probabilities of various alternative futures, of inadvertent human intrusion, and in some cases, of particular modes of intrusion. The information created throughout this study will be used in conjunction with other types of information, including experimental data, calculations from physical principles and computer models, and perhaps other judgments, as input to ''performance assessment.'' The more qualitative results of this study will be used as input to another expert panel considering markers to deter inadvertent human intrusion at the WIPP

  16. Contribution of a fuzzy expert system to regulatory impact analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antônio da Cunha

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Regulatory Impact Analysis (RIA has been consolidating in Brazilian regulatory agencies throughout the last decades. The RIA methodology aims to examine the regulatory process, measure the costs and benefits generated, as well as other effects of social, political or economic nature caused by a new or an existing regulation. By analysing each regulatory option, the expert or regulator faces a myriad of variables, usually of qualitative nature, that are difficult to measure and with a high degree of uncertainty. This research complements the existing literature, given the scarcity of decision support models in RIA that – regardless of the problem treated – incorporate the tacit knowledge of the regulation expert. This paper proposes an exploratory approach using a Fuzzy Expert System, which therefore helps to enrich the decision process in the final stage of comparison of the regulatory options.

  17. A CLIPS expert system for clinical flow cytometry data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzman, G. C.; Duque, R. E.; Braylan, R. C.; Stewart, C. C.

    1990-01-01

    An expert system is being developed using CLIPS to assist clinicians in the analysis of multivariate flow cytometry data from cancer patients. Cluster analysis is used to find subpopulations representing various cell types in multiple datasets each consisting of four to five measurements on each of 5000 cells. CLIPS facts are derived from results of the clustering. CLIPS rules are based on the expertise of Drs. Stewart, Duque, and Braylan. The rules incorporate certainty factors based on case histories.

  18. Special Experts Meeting: Identifying and Overcoming Barriers to the Effective Consideration of Human and Organizational Factors in Event Analysis and Root Cause Analysis. Nuclear Energy Agency / Working Group on Human and Organizational Factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The main mission of the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) Working Group on Human and Organisational Factors (WGHOF) is to improve the understanding and treatment of human and organisational factors (HOF) within the nuclear industry in order to support the continued safety performance of nuclear installations and improve the effectiveness of regulatory practices in member countries. WGHOF developed a CSNI (Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations) Activity Proposal Sheet (CAPS) outlining the work and milestones necessary towards achieving the following objectives: - Identify barriers to analyzing and correctly identifying the Human and Organisational Factors (HOF) causes of events; - Identify barriers to implementing lessons learned from these analyses; and - Develop recommendations for overcoming these barriers to: improve the identification of HOF causes of events and support the successful implementation of appropriate corrective actions The CAPS can be found in Appendix A. The first activity under the plan was the development of a questionnaire. This was distributed to WGHOF members and their counterparts from the Working Group on Operating Experience (WGOE). The questionnaire was comprised of 20 questions based on the objectives of the CSNI Activity Proposed Sheet. The intended survey participants were licensees with previous experience conducting root cause analyses. Responses were received from 26 respondents from 11 different countries. The results of the questionnaire were analyzed to identify themes for further discussion during a specialist meeting planned for September 2009. The following themes were presented during the WGHOF meeting in March of 2009 and endorsed for further work: - Roles and Influence of Senior Management, - Skills and Knowledge of the Investigators, - Qualitative Nature of HOF, - Influence of the Regulator, - Systematic Approach to Investigation. A summary of the questionnaire responses is provided in Appendix B

  19. [Psychoanalysis and Psychiatrie-Enquete: expert interviews and document analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söhner, Felicitas Petra; Fangerau, Heiner; Becker, Thomas

    2017-12-01

    Background The purpose of this paper is to analyse the perception of the role of psychoanalysis and psychoanalysts in the coming about of the Psychiatrie-Enquete in the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany). Methods We performed a qualitative content analysis of expert interviews with persons involved in the Enquete (or witnessing the events as mental health professionals active at the time), a selective literature review and an analysis of documents on the Enquete process. Results Expert interviews, relevant literature and documents point to a role of psychoanalysis in the Enquete process. Psychoanalysts were considered to have been effective in the run-up to the Enquete and the work of the commission. Conclusion Psychoanalysis and a small number of psychoanalysts were perceived as being relevant in the overall process of the Psychiatrie-Enquete in West Germany. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of the expert and non-expert opinion in fire risk in buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanea, D.M.; Jagtman, H.M.; Alphen, L.L.M.M. van; Ale, B.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Expert judgment procedure is a method very often used in the area of risk assessments of complex systems or processes to fill in quantitative data. Although it has been proved to be a very reliable source of information when no other data are available, the choice of experts is always questioned. When the available data are limited, the seed questions cover only partially the domains of expertise, which may cause problems. Expertise is assessed not covering the full object of study but only those topics for which seed questions can be formulated. The commonly used quantitative analysis of an expert judgment exercise is combined with a qualitative analysis. The latter adds more insights to the relation between the assessor's field and statistical knowledge and their performance in an expert judgment. In addition the qualitative analysis identifies different types of seed questions. Three groups of assessors with different levels of statistical and domain knowledge are studied. The quantitative analysis shows no differences between field experts and non-experts and no differences between having advanced statistical knowledge or not. The qualitative analysis supports these findings. In addition it is found that especially technical questions are answered with larger intervals. Precaution is required when using seed questions for which the real value can be calculated, which was the case for one of the seed questions.

  1. Human-machine interactions: The human element of expert systems for the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, W.R.

    1989-01-01

    This paper will begin with a brief history of the development of expert systems in the nuclear industry. This discussion will serve to provide the reader with an understanding of how the field of artificial intelligence (AI) applications in the nuclear industry has developed. Next, this paper will discuss the general human factors issues relative to the development and implementation of expert systems for the nuclear industry. It will summarize the relevant research that addresses these issues and identify those areas that need the most effort for success. Since much of the prominent work for the application of expert systems has focused on computerized aids for decisionmaking in emergencies, this paper will draw from this area for its examples. This area tends to highlight the issues because of the safety-critical nature of the application. The same issues, however, are relevant to other applications of expert systems in the nuclear industry as well, even though the consequences of failure may not be as dramatic. (orig./GL)

  2. Apprenticeship Learning: Learning to Schedule from Human Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-09

    identified by the heuristic . A spectrum of problems (i.e. traveling salesman, job-shop scheduling, multi-vehicle routing) was represented , as task locations...caus- ing the codification of this knowledge to become labori- ous. We propose a new approach for capturing domain- expert heuristics through a...demonstrate that this approach accu- rately learns multi-faceted heuristics on both a synthetic data set incorporating job-shop scheduling and vehicle

  3. Factors influencing societal response of nanotechnology: an expert stakeholder analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Nidhi, E-mail: nidhi.gupta@wur.nl; Fischer, Arnout R. H., E-mail: arnout.fischer@wur.nl; Lans, Ivo A. van der, E-mail: Ivo.vanderLans@wur.nl [Wageningen University, Marketing and Consumer Behaviour Group (Netherlands); Frewer, Lynn J., E-mail: lynn.frewer@newcastle.ac.uk [Newcastle University, School of Agriculture, Food and Rural Development (United Kingdom)

    2012-05-15

    Nanotechnology can be described as an emerging technology and, as has been the case with other emerging technologies such as genetic modification, different socio-psychological factors will potentially influence societal responses to its development and application. These factors will play an important role in how nanotechnology is developed and commercialised. This article aims to identify expert opinion on factors influencing societal response to applications of nanotechnology. Structured interviews with experts on nanotechnology from North West Europe were conducted using repertory grid methodology in conjunction with generalized Procrustes analysis to examine the psychological constructs underlying societal uptake of 15 key applications of nanotechnology drawn from different areas (e.g. medicine, agriculture and environment, chemical, food, military, sports, and cosmetics). Based on expert judgement, the main factors influencing societal response to different applications of nanotechnology will be the extent to which applications are perceived to be beneficial, useful, and necessary, and how 'real' and physically close to the end-user these applications are perceived to be by the public.

  4. Factors influencing societal response of nanotechnology: an expert stakeholder analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Nidhi; Fischer, Arnout R. H.; Lans, Ivo A. van der; Frewer, Lynn J.

    2012-01-01

    Nanotechnology can be described as an emerging technology and, as has been the case with other emerging technologies such as genetic modification, different socio-psychological factors will potentially influence societal responses to its development and application. These factors will play an important role in how nanotechnology is developed and commercialised. This article aims to identify expert opinion on factors influencing societal response to applications of nanotechnology. Structured interviews with experts on nanotechnology from North West Europe were conducted using repertory grid methodology in conjunction with generalized Procrustes analysis to examine the psychological constructs underlying societal uptake of 15 key applications of nanotechnology drawn from different areas (e.g. medicine, agriculture and environment, chemical, food, military, sports, and cosmetics). Based on expert judgement, the main factors influencing societal response to different applications of nanotechnology will be the extent to which applications are perceived to be beneficial, useful, and necessary, and how 'real' and physically close to the end-user these applications are perceived to be by the public.

  5. Factors influencing societal response of nanotechnology: an expert stakeholder analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Nidhi; Fischer, Arnout R. H.; van der Lans, Ivo A.; Frewer, Lynn J.

    2012-05-01

    Nanotechnology can be described as an emerging technology and, as has been the case with other emerging technologies such as genetic modification, different socio-psychological factors will potentially influence societal responses to its development and application. These factors will play an important role in how nanotechnology is developed and commercialised. This article aims to identify expert opinion on factors influencing societal response to applications of nanotechnology. Structured interviews with experts on nanotechnology from North West Europe were conducted using repertory grid methodology in conjunction with generalized Procrustes analysis to examine the psychological constructs underlying societal uptake of 15 key applications of nanotechnology drawn from different areas (e.g. medicine, agriculture and environment, chemical, food, military, sports, and cosmetics). Based on expert judgement, the main factors influencing societal response to different applications of nanotechnology will be the extent to which applications are perceived to be beneficial, useful, and necessary, and how 'real' and physically close to the end-user these applications are perceived to be by the public.

  6. Expert system for the CPCS-initiated trip analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Sedo; Im, Inyoung; Kuh, Jungeui

    1991-01-01

    In Yonggwang nuclear units 3 and 4, the core protection calculator system (CPCS) performs various protection logics against many transients and certain accidents. The CPCS is a real-time computer system calculating the departure from nucleate boiling ratio (DNBR), and local power density, and other protection logics. It takes process variables such as neutron flux, hot-leg temperature, cold-leg temperature, control element assembly positions, and reactor coolant pump shaft speed. Since the CPCS protection logics are quite complex, it is difficult for an operator to tell immediately which parameter is the major cause of the reactor trip. Thus, whenever the reactor trip signal is generated, the process input variables and calculated results, including selected intermediate variables, are frozen in the specified computer memory for later analysis. These frozen variables are called the trip buffer. Analysis of the trip buffer requires an expert in the CPCS and related documents containing algorithms and a data base for algorithms. The Trip Buffer Analysis Program (TBAP) is an expert system that pinpoints the causes of the CPCS initiated reactor trip, thus relieving the operator from the burden of analyzing the trip buffer

  7. Dog Experts' Brains Distinguish Socially Relevant Body Postures Similarly in Dogs and Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Kujala, Miiamaaria; Kujala, Jan; Carlson, Synnove; Hari, Riitta

    2012-01-01

    We read conspecifics' social cues effortlessly, but little is known about our abilities to understand social gestures of other species. To investigate the neural underpinnings of such skills, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to study the brain activity of experts and non-experts of dog behavior while they observed humans or dogs either interacting with, or facing away from a conspecific. The posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) of both subject groups dissociated humans facin...

  8. An Analysis of the Working Memories of Expert Sport Instructors

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullick, Bryan; Schempp, Paul; Hsu, Shan-Hui; Jung, Jin Hong; Vickers, Brad; Schuknecht, Greg

    2006-01-01

    A distinguishing characteristic of expert teachers appears to be an excellent memory (Berliner, 1986; Tan, 1997). Possessing an excellent memory aids experts in building a substantial knowledge base relative to teaching and learning. Despite its importance, the memory skills of expert teachers have yet to be investigated. Therefore, the purpose of…

  9. Dog experts' brains distinguish socially relevant body postures similarly in dogs and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujala, Miiamaaria V; Kujala, Jan; Carlson, Synnöve; Hari, Riitta

    2012-01-01

    We read conspecifics' social cues effortlessly, but little is known about our abilities to understand social gestures of other species. To investigate the neural underpinnings of such skills, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to study the brain activity of experts and non-experts of dog behavior while they observed humans or dogs either interacting with, or facing away from a conspecific. The posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) of both subject groups dissociated humans facing toward each other from humans facing away, and in dog experts, a distinction also occurred for dogs facing toward vs. away in a bilateral area extending from the pSTS to the inferior temporo-occipital cortex: the dissociation of dog behavior was significantly stronger in expert than control group. Furthermore, the control group had stronger pSTS responses to humans than dogs facing toward a conspecific, whereas in dog experts, the responses were of similar magnitude. These findings suggest that dog experts' brains distinguish socially relevant body postures similarly in dogs and humans.

  10. A human error probability estimate methodology based on fuzzy inference and expert judgment on nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, C.S. do; Mesquita, R.N. de

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies point human error as an important factor for many industrial and nuclear accidents: Three Mile Island (1979), Bhopal (1984), Chernobyl and Challenger (1986) are classical examples. Human contribution to these accidents may be better understood and analyzed by using Human Reliability Analysis (HRA), which has being taken as an essential part on Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) of nuclear plants. Both HRA and PSA depend on Human Error Probability (HEP) for a quantitative analysis. These probabilities are extremely affected by the Performance Shaping Factors (PSF), which has a direct effect on human behavior and thus shape HEP according with specific environment conditions and personal individual characteristics which are responsible for these actions. This PSF dependence raises a great problem on data availability as turn these scarcely existent database too much generic or too much specific. Besides this, most of nuclear plants do not keep historical records of human error occurrences. Therefore, in order to overcome this occasional data shortage, a methodology based on Fuzzy Inference and expert judgment was employed in this paper in order to determine human error occurrence probabilities and to evaluate PSF's on performed actions by operators in a nuclear power plant (IEA-R1 nuclear reactor). Obtained HEP values were compared with reference tabled data used on current literature in order to show method coherence and valid approach. This comparison leads to a conclusion that this work results are able to be employed both on HRA and PSA enabling efficient prospection of plant safety conditions, operational procedures and local working conditions potential improvements (author)

  11. Framework for generating expert systems to perform computer security risk analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, S.T.; Lim, J.J.

    1985-01-01

    At Los Alamos we are developing a framework to generate knowledge-based expert systems for performing automated risk analyses upon a subject system. The expert system is a computer program that models experts' knowledge about a topic, including facts, assumptions, insights, and decision rationale. The subject system, defined as the collection of information, procedures, devices, and real property upon which the risk analysis is to be performed, is a member of the class of systems that have three identifying characteristics: a set of desirable assets (or targets), a set of adversaries (or threats) desiring to obtain or to do harm to the assets, and a set of protective mechanisms to safeguard the assets from the adversaries. Risk analysis evaluates both vulnerability to and the impact of successful threats against the targets by determining the overall effectiveness of the subject system safeguards, identifying vulnerabilities in that set of safeguards, and determining cost-effective improvements to the safeguards. As a testbed, we evaluate the inherent vulnerabilities and risks in a system of computer security safeguards. The method considers safeguards protecting four generic targets (physical plant of the computer installation, its hardware, its software, and its documents and displays) against three generic threats (natural hazards, direct human actions requiring the presence of the adversary, and indirect human actions wherein the adversary is not on the premises-perhaps using such access tools as wiretaps, dialup lines, and so forth). Our automated procedure to assess the effectiveness of computer security safeguards differs from traditional risk analysis methods

  12. Psychological scaling of expert estimates of human error probabilities: application to nuclear power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comer, K.; Gaddy, C.D.; Seaver, D.A.; Stillwell, W.G.

    1985-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Sandia National Laboratories sponsored a project to evaluate psychological scaling techniques for use in generating estimates of human error probabilities. The project evaluated two techniques: direct numerical estimation and paired comparisons. Expert estimates were found to be consistent across and within judges. Convergent validity was good, in comparison to estimates in a handbook of human reliability. Predictive validity could not be established because of the lack of actual relative frequencies of error (which will be a difficulty inherent in validation of any procedure used to estimate HEPs). Application of expert estimates in probabilistic risk assessment and in human factors is discussed

  13. [Social engineers--providers--bioethicists. Human genetics experts in West-Germany and Denmark between 1950 and 1990].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomaschke, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    The author compares the history of human genetics in the Federal Republic of Germany and Denmark from the 1950s to the 1980s. The paper combines a discourse analysis with the exploration of human genetics experts' subject forms along the lines of current considerations within cultural studies. In the 1950s and 1960s, human geneticists acted in close cooperation with other political, judicial and administrative expert groups. They monitored the 'overall genetic development' of the population and cautioned about 'genetic crises'. Laypersons were supposed to submit to 'objectively reasonable' behavioral patterns--to their own as well as society's benefit. In the 1970s, the experts turned into 'providers' of a 'precise, purely medical, diagnostic service'. The patients mainly appeared as 'de-personalized' sources of a common human demand for 'safe eugenic information'. In the 1980s, the demand and supply paradigm manifested psychological and ethical side effects. Human geneticists became aware of the social and historical interrelations of their research and practices. The results of this study contribute to a more complex understanding of the dominant 'individualization narrative' of human genetics history. In this context, the development in Germany and Denmark displays two complementary forms of a transnational discourse.

  14. Analysis of the application of decontamination technologies to radioactive metal waste minimization using expert systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayrakal, Suna [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1993-09-30

    Radioactive metal waste makes up a significant portion of the waste currently being sent for disposal. Recovery of this metal as a valuable resource is possible through the use of decontamination technologies. Through the development and use of expert systems a comparison can be made of laser decontamination, a technology currently under development at Ames Laboratory, with currently available decontamination technologies for applicability to the types of metal waste being generated and the effectiveness of these versus simply disposing of the waste. These technologies can be technically and economically evaluated by the use of expert systems techniques to provide a waste management decision making tool that generates, given an identified metal waste, waste management recommendations. The user enters waste characteristic information as input and the system then recommends decontamination technologies, determines residual contamination levels and possible waste management strategies, carries out a cost analysis and then ranks, according to cost, the possibilities for management of the waste. The expert system was developed using information from literature and personnel experienced in the use of decontamination technologies and requires validation by human experts and assignment of confidence factors to the knowledge represented within.

  15. Analysis of the application of decontamination technologies to radioactive metal waste minimization using expert systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayrakal, S.

    1993-01-01

    Radioactive metal waste makes up a significant portion of the waste currently being sent for disposal. Recovery of this metal as a valuable resource is possible through the use of decontamination technologies. Through the development and use of expert systems a comparison can be made of laser decontamination, a technology currently under development at Ames Laboratory, with currently available decontamination technologies for applicability to the types of metal waste being generated and the effectiveness of these versus simply disposing of the waste. These technologies can be technically and economically evaluated by the use of expert systems techniques to provide a waste management decision making tool that generates, given an identified metal waste, waste management recommendations. The user enters waste characteristic information as input and the system then recommends decontamination technologies, determines residual contamination levels and possible waste management strategies, carries out a cost analysis and then ranks, according to cost, the possibilities for management of the waste. The expert system was developed using information from literature and personnel experienced in the use of decontamination technologies and requires validation by human experts and assignment of confidence factors to the knowledge represented within

  16. Procedures for using expert judgment to estimate human-error probabilities in nuclear power plant operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seaver, D.A.; Stillwell, W.G.

    1983-03-01

    This report describes and evaluates several procedures for using expert judgment to estimate human-error probabilities (HEPs) in nuclear power plant operations. These HEPs are currently needed for several purposes, particularly for probabilistic risk assessments. Data do not exist for estimating these HEPs, so expert judgment can provide these estimates in a timely manner. Five judgmental procedures are described here: paired comparisons, ranking and rating, direct numerical estimation, indirect numerical estimation and multiattribute utility measurement. These procedures are evaluated in terms of several criteria: quality of judgments, difficulty of data collection, empirical support, acceptability, theoretical justification, and data processing. Situational constraints such as the number of experts available, the number of HEPs to be estimated, the time available, the location of the experts, and the resources available are discussed in regard to their implications for selecting a procedure for use

  17. Expert Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas, P.J.F.

    2005-01-01

    Expert systems mimic the problem-solving activity of human experts in specialized domains by capturing and representing expert knowledge. Expert systems include a knowledge base, an inference engine that derives conclusions from the knowledge, and a user interface. Knowledge may be stored as if-then rules, orusing other formalisms such as frames and predicate logic. Uncertain knowledge may be represented using certainty factors, Bayesian networks, Dempster-Shafer belief functions, or fuzzy se...

  18. Prediction of response to antiretroviral therapy by human experts and by the EuResist data-driven expert system (the EVE study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zazzi, M; Kaiser, R; Sönnerborg, A; Struck, D; Altmann, A; Prosperi, M; Rosen-Zvi, M; Petroczi, A; Peres, Y; Schülter, E; Boucher, C A; Brun-Vezinet, F; Harrigan, P R; Morris, L; Obermeier, M; Perno, C-F; Phanuphak, P; Pillay, D; Shafer, R W; Vandamme, A-M; van Laethem, K; Wensing, A M J; Lengauer, T; Incardona, F

    2011-04-01

    The EuResist expert system is a novel data-driven online system for computing the probability of 8-week success for any given pair of HIV-1 genotype and combination antiretroviral therapy regimen plus optional patient information. The objective of this study was to compare the EuResist system vs. human experts (EVE) for the ability to predict response to treatment. The EuResist system was compared with 10 HIV-1 drug resistance experts for the ability to predict 8-week response to 25 treatment cases derived from the EuResist database validation data set. All current and past patient data were made available to simulate clinical practice. The experts were asked to provide a qualitative and quantitative estimate of the probability of treatment success. There were 15 treatment successes and 10 treatment failures. In the classification task, the number of mislabelled cases was six for EuResist and 6-13 for the human experts [mean±standard deviation (SD) 9.1±1.9]. The accuracy of EuResist was higher than the average for the experts (0.76 vs. 0.64, respectively). The quantitative estimates computed by EuResist were significantly correlated (Pearson r=0.695, Pexperts. However, the agreement among experts was only moderate (for the classification task, inter-rater κ=0.355; for the quantitative estimation, mean±SD coefficient of variation=55.9±22.4%). With this limited data set, the EuResist engine performed comparably to or better than human experts. The system warrants further investigation as a treatment-decision support tool in clinical practice. © 2010 British HIV Association.

  19. Using Specification and Description Language (SDL) for capturing and reusing human experts' knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Far, B.H.; Koono, Zenya

    1994-01-01

    Conventional knowledge engineering techniques for acquiring experts' knowledge can not produce quality knowledge due to improper knowledge documentation and informal knowledge acquisition method. We propose a new method for knowledge documentation and acquisition using Specification and Description Language (SDL). SDL is used to describe both the target system and the reasoning process. The main idea is to follow deterministic problem solving behavior of human experts and document it. Then knowledge can be extracted by comparing documents of the successive steps. This knowledge is recorded and reused in similar or novel cases. We present an implementation of this method in a tool for software design. The implemented system consists of a SDL CASE tool and an expert system for applying the design knowledge. This system serves as an experimental platform for the study of human design by simulating the design at the lowest level. However, we have found that by acquiring enough domain knowledge, this system can simulate general problem solving of human experts. (author)

  20. Cognitive engineering in the design of human-computer interaction and expert systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvendy, G.

    1987-01-01

    The 68 papers contributing to this book cover the following areas: Theories of Interface Design; Methodologies of Interface Design; Applications of Interface Design; Software Design; Human Factors in Speech Technology and Telecommunications; Design of Graphic Dialogues; Knowledge Acquisition for Knowledge-Based Systems; Design, Evaluation and Use of Expert Systems. This demonstrates the dual role of cognitive engineering. On the one hand cognitive engineering is utilized to design computing systems which are compatible with human cognition and can be effectively and be easily utilized by all individuals. On the other hand, cognitive engineering is utilized to transfer human cognition into the computer for the purpose of building expert systems. Two papers are of interest to INIS

  1. Integrating Expert Knowledge with Statistical Analysis for Landslide Susceptibility Assessment at Regional Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos Chalkias

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an integration landslide susceptibility model by combining expert-based and bivariate statistical analysis (Landslide Susceptibility Index—LSI approaches is presented. Factors related with the occurrence of landslides—such as elevation, slope angle, slope aspect, lithology, land cover, Mean Annual Precipitation (MAP and Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA—were analyzed within a GIS environment. This integrated model produced a landslide susceptibility map which categorized the study area according to the probability level of landslide occurrence. The accuracy of the final map was evaluated by Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC analysis depending on an independent (validation dataset of landslide events. The prediction ability was found to be 76% revealing that the integration of statistical analysis with human expertise can provide an acceptable landslide susceptibility assessment at regional scale.

  2. Factors influencing societal response of nanotechnology : an expert stakeholder analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, N.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Lans, van der, I.A.; Frewer, L.J.

    2012-01-01

    Nanotechnology can be described as an emerging technology and, as has been the case with other emerging technologies such as genetic modification, different socio-psychological factors will potentially influence societal responses to its development and application. These factors will play an important role in how nanotechnology is developed and commercialised. This article aims to identify expert opinion on factors influencing societal response to applications of nanotechnology. Structured i...

  3. Factors influencing societal response of nanotechnology: an expert stakeholder analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Nidhi; Fischer, Arnout R. H.; van der Lans, Ivo A.; Frewer, Lynn J.

    2012-01-01

    Nanotechnology can be described as an emerging technology and, as has been the case with other emerging technologies such as genetic modification, different socio-psychological factors will potentially influence societal responses to its development and application. These factors will play an important role in how nanotechnology is developed and commercialised. This article aims to identify expert opinion on factors influencing societal response to applications of nanotechnology. Structured i...

  4. EXPERT SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Georgiana Marin; Mihai Catalin Andrei

    2011-01-01

    In recent decades IT and computer systems have evolved rapidly in economic informatics field. The goal is to create user friendly information systems that respond promptly and accurately to requests. Informatics systems evolved into decision assisted systems, and such systems are converted, based on gained experience, in expert systems for creative problem solving that an organization is facing. Expert systems are aimed at rebuilding human reasoning on the expertise obtained from experts, sto...

  5. Spectral information interpretation of X-ray analysis based on expert system approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drakunov, Yu.M.; Lezin, A.N.; Pukha, N.P.; Silachev, I.Yu.

    2000-01-01

    An expert subprogram for automated identification for element composition of the samples of different nature according to the result of energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis is elaborated, The flowchart of the subprogram is presented, brief description of expert system structure and its algorithm is given. (author)

  6. METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO EXPERT EVALUATION OF PRECLINICAL AND CLINICAL TRIALS OF HUMAN IMMUNOGLOBULIN PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Ivanov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the experience of Russian and leading foreign regulatory agencies in organisation and conduction of preclinical and clinical trials of human immunoglobulin products. The authors suggest a classification of human immunoglobulins and provide updated information on authorization of these products in Russia. The article summarizes methodological approaches, basic scientific principles and criteria relating to expert evaluation of preclinical and clinical trials of blood products. The authors further define the expert body’s requirements for data on preclinical and clinical trials of human normal immuniglobulins and human specific immunoglobulins for the prevention and/or treatment of infectious and non-infectious diseases which are submitted as part of applications for marketing authorization or marketing authorization variation. The article suggests programs of preclinical and clinical trials for human normal immunoglobulins and human specific immunoglobulins for the prevention and/or treatment of infectious and non-infectious diseases that are aligned with the Russian legislation and Eurasian Economic Union’s regulations on medicines circulation, and have been elaborated with respect to the guidelines of the European Medicines Agency.

  7. Prospective analysis of agricultural bioinoculants in Colombia: an expert consultation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Corina Zambrano Moreno

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Productivity and sustainability of agriculture in Colombia can be influenced positively through the use of biodiversity for the production of bioinoculants. They were analyzed in the medium and long term, the future scenarios generated by the regulations involved in the technological advancement of bio-products through the application of a Delphi survey, with the participation of 23 experts in bio-products, taking into account the three dimensions sustainable development. Based on this study, it was found that 65% of the experts believe that the impact of innovation and technological development of the use of bio- products in agricultural production, has a high economic impact with a significant level of agreement (≥0.05. Additionally, 65% selected as the best scenario, in which conditions that promote greater development, access and application of bio-products, so that the rate of adoption of technology is increased by the producers to make. In conclusion, beyond the level of technological development is necessary to revise the legislative process for the marketing of bio-products, it was clear that the future success of the industry in the production of biological products depend on the management of innovative enterprises, efficient marketing thereof, education and transfer to producers and the progress of the investigation.

  8. Common problems in the elicitation and analysis of expert opinion affecting probabilistic safety assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, M.A.; Booker, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    Expert opinion is frequently used in probabilistic safety assessment (PSA), particularly in estimating low probability events. In this paper, we discuss some of the common problems encountered in eliciting and analyzing expert opinion data and offer solutions or recommendations. The problems are: that experts are not naturally Bayesian. People fail to update their existing information to account for new information as it becomes available, as would be predicted by the Bayesian philosophy; that experts cannot be fully calibrated. To calibrate experts, the feedback from the known quantities must be immediate, frequent, and specific to the task; that experts are limited in the number of things that they can mentally juggle at a time to 7 {plus minus} 2; that data gatherers and analysts can introduce bias by unintentionally causing an altering of the expert's thinking or answers; that the level of detail the data, or granularity, can affect the analyses; and the conditioning effect poses difficulties in gathering and analyzing of the expert data. The data that the expert gives can be conditioned on a variety of factors that can affect the analysis and the interpretation of the results. 31 refs.

  9. Generating human reliability estimates using expert judgment. Volume 1. Main report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comer, M.K.; Seaver, D.A.; Stillwell, W.G.; Gaddy, C.D.

    1984-11-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is conducting a research program to determine the practicality, acceptability, and usefulness of several different methods for obtaining human reliability data and estimates that can be used in nuclear power plant probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). One method, investigated as part of this overall research program, uses expert judgment to generate human error probability (HEP) estimates and associated uncertainty bounds. The project described in this document evaluated two techniques for using expert judgment: paired comparisons and direct numerical estimation. Volume 1 of this report provides a brief overview of the background of the project, the procedure for using psychological scaling techniques to generate HEP estimates and conclusions from evaluation of the techniques. Results of the evaluation indicate that techniques using expert judgment should be given strong consideration for use in developing HEP estimates. In addition, HEP estimates for 35 tasks related to boiling water reactors (BMRs) were obtained as part of the evaluation. These HEP estimates are also included in the report

  10. Analysis of the drilling sound component from expert performance in a maxillo-facial surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Pablo F.; Gosselin, Florian; Taha, Farid

    2009-01-01

    Auditory displays can have a great potential in surgical simulators that aim at training skills associated to the correct interpretation of auditory information. Here, we present preliminary results in the analysis of the sound produced by the drilling procedure in a maxillo-facial surgery when...... performed by expert surgeons. The motivation of this work is to find relevant acoustic parameters that allow for an efficient synthesis method of auditory displays so that they can effectively convey information on expert surgical drilling....

  11. Specialized Accounting Expert Evidence on Economic and Financial Crimes: Analysis of the DMG Case

    OpenAIRE

    Ramírez, Maricela; Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia.; Robayo-Nieto, Natalia; Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia; Parra-Castiblanco, Lina María; Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia.

    2016-01-01

    Generally, in the cases related to economic and financial fraud crimes defined in the Code of Criminal Procedure the performance of accounting experts is necessary, as to assist the justice system. Thus, the appointed professional creates an expert report of its evidence analysis and research work, and comes before the court in a public oral trial as to be questioned and cross-examined. In this context, this study –derived from formal research activities– will determine the requirements of th...

  12. A data analysis expert system for large established distributed databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnacek, Anne-Marie; An, Y. Kim; Ryan, J. Patrick

    1987-01-01

    A design for a natural language database interface system, called the Deductively Augmented NASA Management Decision support System (DANMDS), is presented. The DANMDS system components have been chosen on the basis of the following considerations: maximal employment of the existing NASA IBM-PC computers and supporting software; local structuring and storing of external data via the entity-relationship model; a natural easy-to-use error-free database query language; user ability to alter query language vocabulary and data analysis heuristic; and significant artificial intelligence data analysis heuristic techniques that allow the system to become progressively and automatically more useful.

  13. Strategic Choice Analysis by Expert Panels for Migration Impact Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kourtit, K.; Nijkamp, P.

    2011-01-01

    International migration is a source of policy and research interest in many countries. This paper provides a review of experiences and findings from migration impact assessment worldwide. Various findings are briefly summarised in the context of a systematic migration SWOT analysis for five distinct

  14. Analysis of experts' perception of the effectiveness of teaching methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindra, Gurprit S.

    1984-03-01

    The present study attempts to shed light on the perceptions of business educators regarding the effectiveness of six methodologies in achieving Gagné's five learning outcomes. Results of this study empirically confirm the oft-stated contention that no one method is globally effective for the attainment of all objectives. Specifically, business games, traditional lecture, and case study methods are perceived to be most effective for the learning of application, knowledge acquisition, and analysis and application, respectively.

  15. Development of the Expert System Domain Advisor and Analysis Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    analysis. Typical of the current methods in use at this time is the " tarot metric". This method defines a decision rule whose output is whether to go...B - TAROT METRIC B. ::TTRODUCTION The system chart of ESEM, Figure 1, shows the following three risk-based decision points: i. At prolect initiation...34 decisions. B-I 201 PRELIMINARY T" B-I. Evaluais Factan for ES Deyelopsineg FACTORS POSSIBLE VALUE RATINGS TAROT metric (overall suitability) Poor, Fair

  16. Prototype of an expert system to help nuclide identification in gamma spectrum analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayanthi, Kasi Annapurna; Corcuera, Raquel Paviotti; Oliveira, Gina Maira B.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the development and use of IDENT, prototype of an expert system that helps the researcher to identify radionuclides in gamma-ray spectroscopy. Normally the method adopted by the researcher is iterative, time consuming and becomes complicated in the analysis of large and complex gamma-ray spectra. The present expert system is based on the knowledge transmitted by expert and specialists in this area and the results show that it is helpful for researches who perform nuclide identification through gamma-ray spectroscopy. The gamma-ray spectrum of a material sample with about 140 peaks would take about a week or two be analysed by a specialist. The same task can be done in a few minutes using this expert system. (author). 14 refs., 2 figs

  17. Human reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dougherty, E.M.; Fragola, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    The authors present a treatment of human reliability analysis incorporating an introduction to probabilistic risk assessment for nuclear power generating stations. They treat the subject according to the framework established for general systems theory. Draws upon reliability analysis, psychology, human factors engineering, and statistics, integrating elements of these fields within a systems framework. Provides a history of human reliability analysis, and includes examples of the application of the systems approach

  18. How Can Big Data Complement Expert Analysis? A Value Chain Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyungtae Kim

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In the world of big data, there is a need to investigate how data-driven approaches can support expert-based analyses during a technology planning process. To meet this goal, we examined opportunities and challenges for big data analytics in the social sciences, particularly with respect to value chain analysis. To accomplish this, we designed a value chain mapping experiment that aimed to compare the results of expert-based and data-based mappings. In the expert-based approach, we asked an industry expert to visually depict an industry value chain based on insights and collected data. We also reviewed a previously published value chain developed by a panel of industry experts during a national technology planning process. In the data-driven analysis, we used a massive number of business transaction records between companies under the assumption that the data would be useful in identifying relationships between items in a value chain. The case study results demonstrated that data-driven analysis can help researchers understand the current status of industry structures, enabling them to develop more realistic, although less flexible value chain maps. This approach is expected to provide more value when used in combination with other databases. It is important to note that significant effort is required to develop an elaborate analysis algorithm, and data preprocessing is essential for obtaining meaningful results, both of which make this approach challenging. Experts’ insights are still helpful for validating the analytic results in value chain mapping.

  19. Learning Over Time: Using Rapid Prototyping Generative Analysis Experts and Reduction of Scope to Operationalize Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    during the Vietnam Conflict. 67 David A. Kolb , Experiential Learning : Experience as the Source of Learning and Development. (Upper Saddle River, NJ...Essentials for Military Applications. Newport Paper #10. Newport: Newport War College Press. 1996. Kolb , David A. Experiential Learning : Experience... learning over analysis. A broad review of design theory suggests that four techniques - rapid prototyping, generative analysis, use of experts, and

  20. Choose and Book: a sociological analysis of 'resistance' to an expert system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhalgh, Trisha; Stones, Rob; Swinglehurst, Deborah

    2014-03-01

    In 2004, the English Department of Health introduced a technology (Choose and Book) designed to help general practitioners and patients book hospital outpatient appointments. It was anticipated that remote booking would become standard practice once technical challenges were overcome. But despite political pressure and financial incentives, Choose and Book remained unpopular and was generally used reluctantly if at all. Policymakers framed this as a problem of 'clinician resistance'. We considered Choose and Book from a sociological perspective. Our dataset, drawn from a qualitative study of computer use in general practice, comprised background documents, field notes, interviews, clinical consultations (directly observed and videotaped) and naturally occurring talk relating to referral to hospital in four general practices. We used strong structuration theory, Giddens' conceptualisation of expert systems, and sensitivity to other sociological perspectives on technology, institutions and professional values to examine the relationship between the external environment, the evolving technology and actions of human agents (GPs, administrators, managers and patients). Choose and Book had the characteristics of an expert system. It served to 'empty out' the content of the consultation as the abstract knowledge it contained was assumed to have universal validity and to over-ride the clinician's application of local knowledge and practical wisdom. Sick patients were incorrectly assumed to behave as rational choosers, able and willing to decide between potential options using abstracted codified information. Our analysis revealed four foci of resistance: to the policy of choice that Choose and Book symbolised and purported to deliver; to accommodating the technology's socio-material constraints; to interference with doctors' contextual judgements; and to adjusting to the altered social relations consequent on its use. We conclude that 'resistance' is a complex phenomenon

  1. Analysis of core damage frequency from internal events: Expert judgment elicitation. Part 1: Expert panel results. Part 2: Project staff results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheeler, T A; Cramond, W R [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hora, S C [University of Hawii at Hilo (United States); Unwin, S D [Brookhaven National Laboratory (United States)

    1989-04-01

    Quantitative modeling techniques have limitations as to the resolution of important issues in probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). Not all issues can be resolved via the existing set of methods such as fault trees, event trees, statistical analyses, data collection, and computer simulation. Therefore, an expert judgment process was developed to address issues perceived as important to risk in the NUREG-1150 analysis but which could not be resolved with existing techniques. This process was applied to several issues that could significantly affect the internal event core damage frequencies of the PRAs performed on six light water reactors. Detailed descriptions of these issues and the results of the expert judgment elicitation are reported here, as well as an explanation of the methodology used and the procedure followed in performing the overall elicitation task. The process is time-consuming and expensive. However, the results are very useful, and represent an improvement over the draft NUREG-1150 analysis in the areas of expert selection, elicitation training, issue selection and presentation, elicitation of judgment and aggregation of results. The results are presented in two parts. Part documents the expert panel elicitations, where the most important issues were presented to a panel of experts convened from throughout the nuclear power risk assessment community. Part 2 documents the process by which the project staff performed expert judgment on other important issues, using the project staff as panel members. (author)

  2. Expert judgment on markers to deter inadvertent human intrusion into the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trauth, K.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hora, S.C. [Hawaii Univ., Hilo, HI (United States); Guzowski, R.V. [Science Applications International Corp., San Diego, CA (United States)

    1993-11-01

    The expert panel identified basic principles to guide current and future marker development efforts: (1) the site must be marked, (2) message(s) must be truthful and informative, (3) multiple components within a marker system, (4) multiple means of communication (e.g., language, pictographs, scientific diagrams), (5) multiple levels of complexity within individual messages on individual marker system elements, (6) use of materials with little recycle value, and (7) international effort to maintain knowledge of the locations and contents of nuclear waste repositories. The efficacy of the markers in deterring inadvertent human intrusion was estimated to decrease with time, with the probability function varying with the mode of intrusion (who is intruding and for what purpose) and the level of technological development of the society. The development of a permanent, passive marker system capable of surviving and remaining interpretable for 10,000 years will require further study prior to implementation.

  3. Expert judgment on markers to deter inadvertent human intrusion into the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trauth, K.M.; Hora, S.C.; Guzowski, R.V.

    1993-11-01

    The expert panel identified basic principles to guide current and future marker development efforts: (1) the site must be marked, (2) message(s) must be truthful and informative, (3) multiple components within a marker system, (4) multiple means of communication (e.g., language, pictographs, scientific diagrams), (5) multiple levels of complexity within individual messages on individual marker system elements, (6) use of materials with little recycle value, and (7) international effort to maintain knowledge of the locations and contents of nuclear waste repositories. The efficacy of the markers in deterring inadvertent human intrusion was estimated to decrease with time, with the probability function varying with the mode of intrusion (who is intruding and for what purpose) and the level of technological development of the society. The development of a permanent, passive marker system capable of surviving and remaining interpretable for 10,000 years will require further study prior to implementation

  4. Naming it 'nano': Expert views on 'nano' terminology in informed consent forms of first-in-human nanomedicine trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satalkar, Priya; Elger, Bernice Simone; Shaw, David

    2016-04-01

    Obtaining valid informed consent (IC) can be challenging in first-in-human (FIH) trials in nanomedicine due to the complex interventions, the hype and hope concerning potential benefits, and fear of harms attributed to 'nano' particles. We describe and analyze the opinions of expert stakeholders involved in translational nanomedicine regarding explicit use of 'nano' terminology in IC documents. We draw on content analysis of 46 in-depth interviews with European and North American stakeholders. We received a spectrum of responses (reluctance, ambivalence, absolute insistence) on explicit mention of 'nano' in IC forms with underlying reasons. We conclude that consistent, clear and honest communication regarding the 'nano' dimension of investigational product is critical in IC forms of FIH trials.

  5. Use of an expert system data analysis manager for space shuttle main engine test evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abernethy, Ken

    1988-01-01

    The ability to articulate, collect, and automate the application of the expertise needed for the analysis of space shuttle main engine (SSME) test data would be of great benefit to NASA liquid rocket engine experts. This paper describes a project whose goal is to build a rule-based expert system which incorporates such expertise. Experiential expertise, collected directly from the experts currently involved in SSME data analysis, is used to build a rule base to identify engine anomalies similar to those analyzed previously. Additionally, an alternate method of expertise capture is being explored. This method would generate rules inductively based on calculations made using a theoretical model of the SSME's operation. The latter rules would be capable of diagnosing anomalies which may not have appeared before, but whose effects can be predicted by the theoretical model.

  6. Medical Expert Systems Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Abu-Nasser, Bassem S.

    2017-01-01

    International audience; There is an increased interest in the area of Artificial Intelligence in general and expert systems in particular. Expert systems are rapidly growing technology. Expert systems are a branch of Artificial Intelligence which is having a great impact on many fields of human life. Expert systems use human expert knowledge to solve complex problems in many fields such as Health, science, engineering, business, and weather forecasting. Organizations employing the technology ...

  7. Analysis and Lessons Learned from an Online, Consultative Dialogue between Community Leaders and Climate Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylak-Glassman, E.; Clavin, C.

    2016-12-01

    Common approaches to climate resilience planning in the United States rely upon participatory planning approaches and dialogues between decision-makers, science translators, and subject matter experts. In an effort to explore alternative approaches support community climate resilience planning, a pilot of a public-private collaboration called the Resilience Dialogues was held in February and March of 2016. The Resilience Dialogues pilot was an online, asynchronous conversation between community leaders and climate experts, designed to help communities begin the process of climate resilience planning. In order to identify lessons learned from the pilot, we analyzed the discourse of the facilitated dialogues, administered surveys and conducted interviews with participants. Our analysis of the pilot suggests that participating community leaders found value in the consultative dialogue with climate experts, despite limited community-originated requests for climate information. Community leaders most often asked for advice regarding adaptation planning, including specific engineering guidance and advice on how to engage community members around the topic of resilience. Community leaders that had access to downscaled climate data asked experts about how to incorporate the data into their existing planning processes. The guidance sought by community leaders during the pilot shows a large range of hurdles that communities face in using climate information to inform their decision-making processes. Having a forum that connects community leaders with relevant experts and other community leaders who have familiarity with both climate impacts and municipal planning processes would likely help communities accelerate their resilience efforts.

  8. Analysis of methods of processing of expert information by optimization of administrative decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churakov, D. Y.; Tsarkova, E. G.; Marchenko, N. D.; Grechishnikov, E. V.

    2018-03-01

    In the real operation the measure definition methodology in case of expert estimation of quality and reliability of application-oriented software products is offered. In operation methods of aggregation of expert estimates on the example of a collective choice of an instrumental control projects in case of software development of a special purpose for needs of institutions are described. Results of operation of dialogue decision making support system are given an algorithm of the decision of the task of a choice on the basis of a method of the analysis of hierarchies and also. The developed algorithm can be applied by development of expert systems to the solution of a wide class of the tasks anyway connected to a multicriteria choice.

  9. An expert system for integrated structural analysis and design optimization for aerospace structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-01

    The results of a research study on the development of an expert system for integrated structural analysis and design optimization is presented. An Object Representation Language (ORL) was developed first in conjunction with a rule-based system. This ORL/AI shell was then used to develop expert systems to provide assistance with a variety of structural analysis and design optimization tasks, in conjunction with procedural modules for finite element structural analysis and design optimization. The main goal of the research study was to provide expertise, judgment, and reasoning capabilities in the aerospace structural design process. This will allow engineers performing structural analysis and design, even without extensive experience in the field, to develop error-free, efficient and reliable structural designs very rapidly and cost-effectively. This would not only improve the productivity of design engineers and analysts, but also significantly reduce time to completion of structural design. An extensive literature survey in the field of structural analysis, design optimization, artificial intelligence, and database management systems and their application to the structural design process was first performed. A feasibility study was then performed, and the architecture and the conceptual design for the integrated 'intelligent' structural analysis and design optimization software was then developed. An Object Representation Language (ORL), in conjunction with a rule-based system, was then developed using C++. Such an approach would improve the expressiveness for knowledge representation (especially for structural analysis and design applications), provide ability to build very large and practical expert systems, and provide an efficient way for storing knowledge. Functional specifications for the expert systems were then developed. The ORL/AI shell was then used to develop a variety of modules of expert systems for a variety of modeling, finite element analysis, and

  10. Expert system for eddy current signal analysis: non destructive testing of steam generator tubings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benoist, B.

    1991-01-01

    Automatic analysis, by computer, of defect signals in steam generator tubes, based on Eddy current multifrequency technique, is must often inefficient due to pilgrim noise. The first step is to use a method that allows us to eleminate the noise: the adaptative interpolation. Thanks to this method, which ensures reliable data on each channel, the analysis can be realised by taking into account the data corresponding to each basic or mixed channel. By correlating these diverse data, we can class the signals according to two types of defects: single defects (symmetrical), multiple defects (several in the same place). The second step is to use an expert system which allows a reliable diagnosis for whatever family the defect belongs to. According to this classification, analysis is continued and results in the characterization of the defect. The expert system has already been developed with the general purpose application expert system shell SUPER, which is briefly described. The knowledge base (SOCRATE) and the specific tools developed for this application are thoroughly described. The first results obtained with signals corresponding to real defects, that have been recorded in different places, are presented and discussed. The expert system is revealed efficient in all the studied cases, even with signals obtained in very noisy environments [fr

  11. The objective assessment of experts' and novices' suturing skills using an image analysis program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frischknecht, Adam C; Kasten, Steven J; Hamstra, Stanley J; Perkins, Noel C; Gillespie, R Brent; Armstrong, Thomas J; Minter, Rebecca M

    2013-02-01

    To objectively assess suturing performance using an image analysis program and to provide validity evidence for this assessment method by comparing experts' and novices' performance. In 2009, the authors used an image analysis program to extract objective variables from digital images of suturing end products obtained during a previous study involving third-year medical students (novices) and surgical faculty and residents (experts). Variables included number of stitches, stitch length, total bite size, travel, stitch orientation, total bite-size-to-travel ratio, and symmetry across the incision ratio. The authors compared all variables between groups to detect significant differences and two variables (total bite-size-to-travel ratio and symmetry across the incision ratio) to ideal values. Five experts and 15 novices participated. Experts' and novices' performances differed significantly (P 0.8) for total bite size (P = .009, d = 1.5), travel (P = .045, d = 1.1), total bite-size-to-travel ratio (P algorithm can extract variables from digital images of a running suture and rapidly provide quantitative summative assessment feedback. The significant differences found between groups confirm that this system can discriminate between skill levels. This image analysis program represents a viable training tool for objectively assessing trainees' suturing, a foundational skill for many medical specialties.

  12. NEW PARADIGM OF ANALYSIS OF STATISTICAL AND EXPERT DATA IN PROBLEMS OF ECONOMICS AND MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Orlov A. I.

    2014-01-01

    The article is devoted to the methods of analysis of statistical and expert data in problems of economics and management that are discussed in the framework of scientific specialization "Mathematical methods of economy", including organizational-economic and economic-mathematical modeling, econometrics and statistics, as well as economic aspects of decision theory, systems analysis, cybernetics, operations research. The main provisions of the new paradigm of this scientific and practical fiel...

  13. Integrating clinicians, knowledge and data: expert-based cooperative analysis in healthcare decision support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Alonso Carlos

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Decision support in health systems is a highly difficult task, due to the inherent complexity of the process and structures involved. Method This paper introduces a new hybrid methodology Expert-based Cooperative Analysis (EbCA, which incorporates explicit prior expert knowledge in data analysis methods, and elicits implicit or tacit expert knowledge (IK to improve decision support in healthcare systems. EbCA has been applied to two different case studies, showing its usability and versatility: 1 Bench-marking of small mental health areas based on technical efficiency estimated by EbCA-Data Envelopment Analysis (EbCA-DEA, and 2 Case-mix of schizophrenia based on functional dependency using Clustering Based on Rules (ClBR. In both cases comparisons towards classical procedures using qualitative explicit prior knowledge were made. Bayesian predictive validity measures were used for comparison with expert panels results. Overall agreement was tested by Intraclass Correlation Coefficient in case "1" and kappa in both cases. Results EbCA is a new methodology composed by 6 steps:. 1 Data collection and data preparation; 2 acquisition of "Prior Expert Knowledge" (PEK and design of the "Prior Knowledge Base" (PKB; 3 PKB-guided analysis; 4 support-interpretation tools to evaluate results and detect inconsistencies (here Implicit Knowledg -IK- might be elicited; 5 incorporation of elicited IK in PKB and repeat till a satisfactory solution; 6 post-processing results for decision support. EbCA has been useful for incorporating PEK in two different analysis methods (DEA and Clustering, applied respectively to assess technical efficiency of small mental health areas and for case-mix of schizophrenia based on functional dependency. Differences in results obtained with classical approaches were mainly related to the IK which could be elicited by using EbCA and had major implications for the decision making in both cases. Discussion This

  14. Integrating clinicians, knowledge and data: expert-based cooperative analysis in healthcare decision support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibert, Karina; García-Alonso, Carlos; Salvador-Carulla, Luis

    2010-09-30

    Decision support in health systems is a highly difficult task, due to the inherent complexity of the process and structures involved. This paper introduces a new hybrid methodology Expert-based Cooperative Analysis (EbCA), which incorporates explicit prior expert knowledge in data analysis methods, and elicits implicit or tacit expert knowledge (IK) to improve decision support in healthcare systems. EbCA has been applied to two different case studies, showing its usability and versatility: 1) Bench-marking of small mental health areas based on technical efficiency estimated by EbCA-Data Envelopment Analysis (EbCA-DEA), and 2) Case-mix of schizophrenia based on functional dependency using Clustering Based on Rules (ClBR). In both cases comparisons towards classical procedures using qualitative explicit prior knowledge were made. Bayesian predictive validity measures were used for comparison with expert panels results. Overall agreement was tested by Intraclass Correlation Coefficient in case "1" and kappa in both cases. EbCA is a new methodology composed by 6 steps:. 1) Data collection and data preparation; 2) acquisition of "Prior Expert Knowledge" (PEK) and design of the "Prior Knowledge Base" (PKB); 3) PKB-guided analysis; 4) support-interpretation tools to evaluate results and detect inconsistencies (here Implicit Knowledg -IK- might be elicited); 5) incorporation of elicited IK in PKB and repeat till a satisfactory solution; 6) post-processing results for decision support. EbCA has been useful for incorporating PEK in two different analysis methods (DEA and Clustering), applied respectively to assess technical efficiency of small mental health areas and for case-mix of schizophrenia based on functional dependency. Differences in results obtained with classical approaches were mainly related to the IK which could be elicited by using EbCA and had major implications for the decision making in both cases. This paper presents EbCA and shows the convenience of

  15. NEPHRUS: model of intelligent multilayers expert system for evaluation of the renal system based on scintigraphic images analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Jose W.E. da; Schirru, Roberto; Boasquevisque, Edson M.

    1997-01-01

    This work develops a prototype for the system model based on Artificial Intelligence devices able to perform functions related to scintigraphic image analysis of the urinary system. Criteria used by medical experts for analysis images obtained with 99m Tc+DTPA and/or 99m Tc+DMSA were modeled and a multi resolution diagnosis technique was implemented. Special attention was given to the programs user interface design. Human Factor Engineering techniques were considered so as to ally friendliness and robustness. Results obtained using Artificial Neural Networks for the qualitative image analysis and the knowledge model constructed shows the feasibility of Artificial Intelligence implementation that use 'inherent' abilities of each technique in the resolution of diagnosis image analysis problems. (author). 12 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  16. The integration of expert-defined importance factors to enrich Bayesian Fault Tree Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darwish, Molham; Almouahed, Shaban; Lamotte, Florent de

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes an analysis of a hybrid Bayesian-Importance model for system designers to improve the quality of services related to Active Assisted Living Systems. The proposed model is based on two factors: failure probability measure of different service components and, an expert defined degree of importance that each component holds for the success of the corresponding service. The proposed approach advocates the integration of expert-defined importance factors to enrich the Bayesian Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) approach. The evaluation of the proposed approach is conducted using the Fault Tree Analysis formalism where the undesired state of a system is analyzed using Boolean logic mechanisms to combine a series of lower-level events.

  17. WWER expert system for fuel failure analysis using the RTOP-CA code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Likhanskii, V.; Evdokimov, I.; Sorokin, A.; Khromov, A.; Kanukova, V.; Apollonova, O.; Ugryumov, A.

    2008-01-01

    The computer expert system for fuel failure analysis of WWER during operation is presented. The diagnostics is based on the measurement of specific activity of reference nuclides in reactor primary coolant and application of a computer code for the data interpretation. The data analysis includes an evaluation of tramp uranium mass in reactor core, detection of failures by iodine and caesium spikes, evaluation of burnup of defective fuel. Evaluation of defective fuel burnup was carried out by applying the relation of caesium nuclides activity in spikes and relations of activities of gaseous fission products for steady state operational conditions. The method of burnup evaluation of defective fuel by use of fission gas activity is presented in details. The neural-network analysis is performed for determination of failed fuel rod number and defect size. Results of the expert system application are illustrated for several fuel campaigns on operating WWER NPPs. (authors)

  18. Human engineering in the design of expert systems for microcomputer system troubleshooting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easter, J.R.; Elm, W.C.

    1988-01-01

    The man-machine interfaces of the first generation of expert systems have usually received little or no explicit design effort. As a result, many of these systems when placed in their productive environment have only served to collect dust. One of the more aggravating attributes of such systems has been the demand that the user of such systems religiously follow the pre-determined and fixed problem solving path the domain expert designed in the expert system. Westinghouse has embarked on a program aimed at improving the productivity of the I and C maintenance staff responsible for caring for these new systems, the focus of which is the development of a computer based expert system to be used as a trouble-shooting aid. To date, Westinghouse has created a knowledge structure for such an expert system that describes the purposes or design objectives of the faulted microcomputer system

  19. SeTES, a Self-Teaching Expert System for the analysis, design and prediction of gas production from shales and a prototype for a new generation of Expert Systems in the Earth Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzma, H. A.; Boyle, K.; Pullman, S.; Reagan, M. T.; Moridis, G. J.; Blasingame, T. A.; Rector, J. W.; Nikolaou, M.

    2010-12-01

    A Self Teaching Expert System (SeTES) is being developed for the analysis, design and prediction of gas production from shales. An Expert System is a computer program designed to answer questions or clarify uncertainties that its designers did not necessarily envision which would otherwise have to be addressed by consultation with one or more human experts. Modern developments in computer learning, data mining, database management, web integration and cheap computing power are bringing the promise of expert systems to fruition. SeTES is a partial successor to Prospector, a system to aid in the identification and evaluation of mineral deposits developed by Stanford University and the USGS in the late 1970s, and one of the most famous early expert systems. Instead of the text dialogue used in early systems, the web user interface of SeTES helps a non-expert user to articulate, clarify and reason about a problem by navigating through a series of interactive wizards. The wizards identify potential solutions to queries by retrieving and combining together relevant records from a database. Inferences, decisions and predictions are made from incomplete and noisy inputs using a series of probabilistic models (Bayesian Networks) which incorporate records from the database, physical laws and empirical knowledge in the form of prior probability distributions. The database is mainly populated with empirical measurements, however an automatic algorithm supplements sparse data with synthetic data obtained through physical modeling. This constitutes the mechanism for how SeTES self-teaches. SeTES’ predictive power is expected to grow as users contribute more data into the system. Samples are appropriately weighted to favor high quality empirical data over low quality or synthetic data. Finally, a set of data visualization tools digests the output measurements into graphical outputs.

  20. The PWI [plutonium waste incinerator] expert system: Real time, PC-based process analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, K.G.; Smith, F.G.

    1987-01-01

    A real time, microcomputer-based expert system is being developed for a prototype plutonium waste incinerator (PWI) process at Du Pont's Savannah River Laboratory. The expert system will diagnose instrumentation problems, assist operator training, serve as a repository for engineering knowledge about the process, and provide continuous operation and performance information. A set of necessary operational criteria was developed from process and engineering constraints; it was used to define hardware and software needs. The most important criterion is operating speed because the analysis operates in real time. TURBO PROLOG by Borland International was selected. The analysis system is divided into three sections: the user-system interface, the inference engine and rule base, and the files representing the blackboard information center

  1. ADONIA, an expert help-system for the control of a data analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malvache, P.; Reissan, S.

    1986-04-01

    ADONIA is designed from pre-existing computer codes and integrates a know-how of the utilization of these tools and in the interpretation of their results. This system is aimed to users who are not experts in Data Analysis. This paper describes the original structure of such a system which couples symbolic and digital processing of data. The analysis of multidimensional data is used at the C.E.A. for the exploitation of experimental data sets and for the constitution of training tools aimed at application to Pattern Recognition. So ADONIA is the result of a joint work between the CEA and the GIA of Luminy who used to work with expert systems [fr

  2. Development of an expert system for analysis of plutonium processing operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeringter, S.T.; Fasel, J.H.; Kornreich, D.E.

    2001-01-01

    At Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) an expert system has been developed for the analysis and assessment of plutonium processing operations. This system is based upon an object-oriented simulation environment specifically developed for the needs of nuclear material processing. The simulation environment, called the ''Process Modeling System'' (ProMoS), contains a library of over 250 plutonium-based unit process operations ranging from analytical chemistry, oxide operations, recycle and recovery, waste management, and component fabrication. (author)

  3. Developing a PC-based expert system for fault analysis of reactor instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diwakar, M.P.; Rathod, N.C.; Bairi, B.R.; Darbhe, M.D.; Joglekar, S.S.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an expert system for fault analysis of electronic instruments in the CIRUS nuclear reactor. The system was developed in Prolog on an IBM PC-XT compatible computer. A 'model-based' approach (Button et al, 1986) was adopted combining 'frames' and 'rules' to provide flexible control over the inferencing mechanisms. Frames represent the domain-objects as well as the inter-object relationships. They include 'demons' or 'active values' for triggering actions. Rules, along with frames, are used for fault analysis. The rules can be activated either in a data-driven or a goal-driven manner. The use of frames makes rule management easier. It is felt that developing in-house shell proved advantageous, compared to using commercially available shells. Choosing the model-based approach was efficient compared to a production system architecture. Therefore, the use of hybrid representations for diagnostic applications is advocated. Based on the experience, some general recommendations for developing such systems are presented. The expert system helps novice operators to understand the process of diagnosis and achieve a significant required level of competence. The system may not achieve the required level of proficiency by itself, but it can be used to train operators to become experts. (author). 12 refs

  4. Development of a diagnostic expert system for eddy current data analysis using applied artificial intelligence methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadhyaya, B.R.; Yan, W.; Henry, G.

    1999-01-01

    A diagnostic expert system that integrates database management methods, artificial neural networks, and decision-making using fuzzy logic has been developed for the automation of steam generator eddy current test (ECT) data analysis. The new system, known as EDDYAI, considers the following key issues: (1) digital eddy current test data calibration, compression, and representation; (2) development of robust neural networks with low probability of misclassification for flaw depth estimation; (3) flaw detection using fuzzy logic; (4) development of an expert system for database management, compilation of a trained neural network library, and a decision module; and (5) evaluation of the integrated approach using eddy current data. The implementation to field test data includes the selection of proper feature vectors for ECT data analysis, development of a methodology for large eddy current database management, artificial neural networks for flaw depth estimation, and a fuzzy logic decision algorithm for flaw detection. A large eddy current inspection database from the Electric Power Research Institute NDE Center is being utilized in this research towards the development of an expert system for steam generator tube diagnosis. The integration of ECT data pre-processing as part of the data management, fuzzy logic flaw detection technique, and tube defect parameter estimation using artificial neural networks are the fundamental contributions of this research. (orig.)

  5. Development of a diagnostic expert system for eddy current data analysis using applied artificial intelligence methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upadhyaya, B.R.; Yan, W. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Behravesh, M.M. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Henry, G. [EPRI NDE Center, Charlotte, NC (United States)

    1999-09-01

    A diagnostic expert system that integrates database management methods, artificial neural networks, and decision-making using fuzzy logic has been developed for the automation of steam generator eddy current test (ECT) data analysis. The new system, known as EDDYAI, considers the following key issues: (1) digital eddy current test data calibration, compression, and representation; (2) development of robust neural networks with low probability of misclassification for flaw depth estimation; (3) flaw detection using fuzzy logic; (4) development of an expert system for database management, compilation of a trained neural network library, and a decision module; and (5) evaluation of the integrated approach using eddy current data. The implementation to field test data includes the selection of proper feature vectors for ECT data analysis, development of a methodology for large eddy current database management, artificial neural networks for flaw depth estimation, and a fuzzy logic decision algorithm for flaw detection. A large eddy current inspection database from the Electric Power Research Institute NDE Center is being utilized in this research towards the development of an expert system for steam generator tube diagnosis. The integration of ECT data pre-processing as part of the data management, fuzzy logic flaw detection technique, and tube defect parameter estimation using artificial neural networks are the fundamental contributions of this research. (orig.)

  6. Gendered use of experts in the media: Analysis of the gender gap in Finnish news journalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemi, Mari K; Pitkänen, Ville

    2017-04-01

    Several studies conducted in Western democracies have indicated that men continue to be overrepresented and women underrepresented as experts in the media. This article explores the situation in Finland, a progressive and 'female-friendly' Nordic country with highly educated women who are widely present in the job market. The analysis is based on three sets of research data featuring a wide set of media data, a survey and interviews. This study reveals that public expertise continues to be male dominated in Finland: less than 30% of the experts interviewed in the news media are women. While the distribution of work and power in the labour market may explain some of the observed gender gap, journalistic practices and a masculine tradition of public expertise are likely to play a role as well.

  7. A Computer Clone of Human Expert for Mobility Management Scheme (E-MMS): Step toward Green Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resdiansyah; O. K Rahmat, R. A.; Ismail, A.

    2018-03-01

    Green transportation refers to a sustainable transport that gives the least impact in terms of social and environmental but at the same time is able to supply energy sources globally that includes non-motorized transport strategies deployment to promote healthy lifestyles, also known as Mobility Management Scheme (MMS). As construction of road infrastructure cannot help solve the problem of congestion, past research has shown that MMS is an effective measure to mitigate congestion and to achieve green transportation. MMS consists of different strategies and policies that subdivided into categories according to how they are able to influence travel behaviour. Appropriate selection of mobility strategies will ensure its effectiveness in mitigating congestion problems. Nevertheless, determining appropriate strategies requires human expert and depends on a number of success factors. This research has successfully developed a computer clone system based on human expert, called E-MMS. The process of knowledge acquisition for MMS strategies and the next following process to selection of strategy has been encode in a knowledge-based system using a shell expert system. The newly developed computer cloning system was successfully verified, validated and evaluated (VV&E) by comparing the result output with the real transportation expert recommendation in which the findings suggested Introduction

  8. Expert systems for the analysis of transients on nuclear reactors: crisis analysis, sextant, a general purpose physical analyser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbet, N.; Dumas, M.; Mihelich, G.; Souchet, Y.; Thomas, J.B.

    1987-04-01

    Two developments of expert systems intended to work on line to the analysis of nuclear reactor transients are reported. During an hypothetical crisis occurring in a nuclear facility, a staff of the Institute for Protection and Nuclear Safety (IPSN) has to assess the risk to local population. The expert system is intended to work as an assistant to the staff. At the present time, it deals with the availability of the safety systems of the plant (e.g. ECCS), depending on the functional state of the support systems. A next step is to take into account the physical transient of the reactor (mass and energy balance, pressure, flows). In order to reach this goal as in the development of other similar expert systems, a physical analyser is required. This is the aim of SEXTANT, which combines several knowledge bases concerning measurements, models and qualitative behaviour of the plant with a mechanism of conjecture-refutation and a set of simplified models matching the current physical state. A prototype is under assessment by dealing with integral test facility transients. Both expert systems require powerful shells for their development. SPIRAL is such a toolkit for the development of expert systems devoted to the computer aided management of complex processes

  9. MERS-CoV at the Animal-Human interface: inputs on exposure pathways from an Expert-Opinion elicitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Funk

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Nearly four years after the first report of the emergence of Middle-East respiratory syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV and nearly 1800 human cases later, the ecology of MERS-CoV, its epidemiology, and risk factors of MERS-CoV transmission between camels are poorly understood. Knowledge about the pathways and mechanisms of transmission from animals to humans is limited; as of yet, transmission risks have not been quantified. Moreover the divergent sanitary situations and exposures to animals among populations in the Arabian Peninsula, where human primary cases appear to dominate, vs. other regions in the Middle East and Africa, with no reported human clinical cases and where the virus has been detected only in dromedaries, represents huge scientific and health challenges. Here, we have used expert opinion elicitation in order to obtain ideas on relative importance of MERS-CoV risk factors and estimates of transmission risks from various types of contact between humans and dromedaries. Fourteen (14 experts with diverse and extensive experience in MERS-CoV relevant fields were enrolled and completed an online questionnaire that examined pathways based on several scenarios e.g. camels-camels, camels-human, bats/other species to camels/humans and the role of diverse biological substances (milk, urine etc. and potential fomites.Experts believed that dromedary camels play the largest role in MERS-CoV infection of other dromedaries; however, they also indicated a significant influence of the season (i.e. calving or weaning periods on transmission risk. All experts thought that MERS-CoV infected dromedaries and asymptomatic humans play the most important role in infection of humans, with bats and other species presenting a possible, but yet undefined, risk. Direct and indirect contact of humans with dromedary camels were identified as the most risky types of contact, when compared to consumption of various camel products, with estimated 'most

  10. Conceptualizing physical activity parenting practices using expert informed concept mapping analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mâsse, Louise C; O'Connor, Teresia M; Tu, Andrew W; Hughes, Sheryl O; Beauchamp, Mark R; Baranowski, Tom

    2017-06-14

    Parents are widely recognized as playing a central role in the development of child behaviors such as physical activity. As there is little agreement as to the dimensions of physical activity-related parenting practices that should be measured or how they should be operationalized, this study engaged experts to develop an integrated conceptual framework for assessing parenting practices that influence multiple aspects of 5 to 12 year old children's participation in physical activity. The ultimate goal of this study is to inform the development of an item bank (repository of calibrated items) aimed at measuring physical activity parenting practices. Twenty four experts from 6 countries (Australia, Canada, England, Scotland, the Netherlands, & United States (US)) sorted 77 physical activity parenting practice concepts identified from our previously published synthesis of the literature (74 measures) and survey of Canadian and US parents. Concept Mapping software was used to conduct the multi-dimensional scaling (MDS) analysis and a cluster analysis of the MDS solution of the Expert's sorting which was qualitatively reviewed and commented on by the Experts. The conceptual framework includes 12 constructs which are presented using three main domains of parenting practices (neglect/control, autonomy support, and structure). The neglect/control domain includes two constructs: permissive and pressuring parenting practices. The autonomy supportive domain includes four constructs: encouragement, guided choice, involvement in child physical activities, and praises/rewards for their child's physical activity. Finally, the structure domain includes six constructs: co-participation, expectations, facilitation, modeling, monitoring, and restricting physical activity for safety or academic concerns. The concept mapping analysis provided a useful process to engage experts in re-conceptualizing physical activity parenting practices and identified key constructs to include in

  11. Expert assessments and content analysis of crew communication during ISS missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusupova, Anna

    During the last seven years, we have analyzed the communication patterns between ISS crewmembers and mission control personnel and identified a number of different communication styles between these two groups (Gushin et al, 2005). In this paper, we will report on an external validity check we conducted that compares our findings with those of another study using the same research material. For many years the group of psychologists at the Medical Center of Space Flight Control (TCUMOKO) at the Institute for Biomedical Problems (IBMP) in Moscow has been analyzing audio communication sessions of Russian space crews with the ground-based Mission Control during long-duration spaceflight conditions. We compared week by week texts of the standard weekly monitoring reports made by the TsUP psychological group and audiocommunication of space crews with mission control centers. Expert assessments of the crewmembers' psychological state are made by IBMP psychoneurologists on the basis of daily schedule fulfillment, video and audio materials, and psychophysiological data from board. The second approach was based on the crew-ground communication analysis. For both population of messages we applied two corresponding schemas of content analysis. All statements made in communication sessions and weekly reports were divided into three groups in terms of their communication function (Lomov, 1981): 1) informative function (e.g., demands for information, requests, professional slang); 2) socio-regulatory function (e.g., rational consent or discord, operational complaint, refusal to cooperate); and 3) affective (emotional) function (e.g., encouragement, sympathy, emotional consent or discord). Number of statements of the audiocommunication sessions correlated with corresponding functions (informative, regulatory, affective) of communication in weekly monitioring reports made by experts. Crewmembers verbal behavior expresses its psycho-emotional state which is formulated by expert

  12. Cost Reduction and Business Strategy Matters to Human Resource Outsourcing? A Validation by HR Experts from Government Link Companies (GLC’s.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansor Mohd Fitri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of outsourcing has spawned a rich body scholarly reseach in sveral decades. However, the answer to one of the pertinent question has remained elusive: Does cost reduction and business strategy really matters to the human resource outsourcing impacts. Looking at this question it is important for the organization to embark on the practice of human resource outsourcing to save operating cost and remain competitive. Therefore, the objective of this study is to investigate the effects of cost reduction and business starategy towards human resource outsourcing impacts. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were employed and the top management in Malaysian Government Link Companies (GLC’ is the unit of analysis. The findings revelaved that, both variables are significant statistically and non statically i.e from the experts opinion. Finally, the study also provides useful directions for future research, HR Practitioners and policy maker particularly in managing and organizing human reseouce matters.

  13. Development of expert system for fuel monitoring and analysis in WWER-1000 units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Likhanskii, V.; Evdokimov, I.; Sorokin, A.; Kanukova, V.; Zborovskii, V.; Aliev, T.; Sokolov, N.; Shishkin, A.

    2011-01-01

    At present, an expert system (software package) for fuel monitoring in WWER units is under development in Russia. It comprises several modules which cover analysis of coolant activity, detection of failures and estimation of failure parameters, predictions of activity level and some aspects of PCI analysis. This paper outlines the current version of the fuel monitoring system, its basic features and user interface. Advances in development of computer modules for PCI analysis are reported. At present two levels of PCI analysis are used. The first is estimation of probability for pellets to get in contact with cladding in fuel rods. Estimations are made with taking into account specifications and tolerances for fuel fabrication as well as fuel operation conditions. The second level of PCI analysis implies a simplified approach for on-line calculations of stresses in cladding depending on power ramping rates. The model for PCI calculations and its application within the computer system is demonstrated. (authors)

  14. Comparative analysis of nanotechnology awareness in consumers and experts in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim YR

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Yu-Ri Kim,1 Eun Jeong Lee,1 Sung Ha Park,2 Hyo Jin Kwon,3 Seong Soo A An,4 Sang Wook Son,5 Young Rok Seo,6 Jae-Eun Pie,7 Myoung Yoon,8 Ja Hei Kim,8 Meyoung-Kon Kim1 1Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Korea University Medical School and College, Seoul, South Korea; 2Department of Biochemistry, University of Bath, Bath, UK; 3Department of Medical Education, Korea University Medical School and College, Seoul, South Korea; 4Department of Bionanotechnology, Gachon University, Seongnam, Gyeonggi, South Korea; 5Department of Dermatology, Korea University Medical School and College, Seoul, South Korea; 6Department of Life Science, Institute of Environmental Medicine for Green Chemistry, Dongguk University, Seoul, South Korea; 7Department of Food and Nutrition, College of Science and Engineering, Anyang University, Anyang, Gyeonggi, South Korea; 8Consumers Korea, Seoul, South Korea Purpose: This study examined the need for public communication about nanotechnologies and nanoparticles by providing a comparative analysis of the differences in risk awareness of nanotechnologies and nanoparticles between consumers and experts. Methods: A total of 1,007 consumers and 150 experts participated in this study. A questionnaire was prepared examining their awareness of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials and their view of the necessity for information and education about the latest nanotechnologies and nanomaterials. Results: Our results indicated that the expert group recognized that they knew more than consumers about nanotechnology and that there was a need for relevant education in nanotechnology and nanomaterials among consumers. We found that the consumer group had a more positive attitude toward nanotechnology, even though they did not know much about it. Moreover, the consumer group was inconclusive about the type of information on nanotechnology deemed necessary for the public, as well as the suitable party to be responsible for education

  15. Tropospheric ozone. Formation, properties, effects. Expert opinion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elstner, E.F.

    1996-01-01

    The formation and dispersion of tropospheric ozone are discussed only marginally in this expert opinion; the key interest is in the effects of ground level ozone on plants, animals, and humans. The expert opinion is based on an analysis of the available scientific publications. (orig./MG) [de

  16. Safety analysis of an expert reactor protection system in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Kafas, A.A.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of the dissertation is to develop real time expert reactor protection system (ERPS) for operational safety of pressurized water reactor nuclear power plant. The system is developed to diagnose plant failures and for identification plant transients (with and without scram). For this erps, probabilistic safety analysis techniques are used to check the availability and priority of the recommended safety system in case of plant accidents. The real - time information during transients and accidents can be obtained to assess the operator in his decision - making. Also, the ERPS is able to give advice for the reactor operator to take the appropriate corrective action during abnormal situations. 5-15 figs., 42 refs

  17. An expert system-based aid for analysis of Emergency Operating Procedures in NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakubowski, Z.; Beraha, D.

    1996-01-01

    Emergency Operating Procedures (EOPs) generally and an accident management (AM) particularly play a significant part in the safety philosophy on NPPs since many years. A better methodology for development and validation of EOPs is desired. A prototype of an Emergency Operating Procedures Analysis System (EOPAS), which has been developed at GRS, is presented in the paper. The hardware configuration and software organisation of the system is briefly reviewed. The main components of the system such as the knowledge base of an expert system and the engineering simulator are described. (author)

  18. Information systems development of analysis company financial state based on the expert-statistical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Ivliev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The work is devoted to methods of analysis the company financial condition, including aggregated ratings. It is proposed to use the generalized solvency and liquidity indicator and the capital structure composite index. Mathematically, the generalized index is a sum of variables-characteristics and weighting factors characterizing the relative importance of individual characteristics composition. It is offered to select the significant features from a set of standard financial ratios, calculated according to enterprises balance sheets. To obtain the weighting factors values it is proposed to use one of the expert statistical approaches, the analytic hierarchy process. The method is as follows: we choose the most important characteristic and after the experts determine the degree of preference for the main feature based on the linguistic scale. Further, matrix of pairwise comparisons based on the assigned ranks is compiled, which characterizes the relative importance of attributes. The required coefficients are determined as elements of a vector of priorities, which is the first vector of the matrix of paired comparisons. The paper proposes a mechanism for finding the fields for rating numbers analysis. In addition, the paper proposes a method for the statistical evaluation of the balance sheets of various companies by calculating the mutual correlation matrices. Based on the considered mathematical methods to determine quantitative characteristics of technical objects financial and economic activities, was developed algorithms, information and software allowing to realize of different systems economic analysis.

  19. The impact of human-technology cooperation and distributed cognition in forensic science: biasing effects of AFIS contextual information on human experts*

    OpenAIRE

    Dror, Itiel E.; Wertheim, Kasey; Fraser-Mackenzie, Peter; Walajtys, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    Experts play a critical role in forensic decision making, even when cognition is offloaded and distributed between human and machine. In this paper, we investigated the impact of using Automated Fingerprint Identification Systems (AFIS) on human decision makers. We provided 3680 AFIS lists (a total of 55,200 comparisons) to 23 latent fingerprint examiners as part of their normal casework. We manipulated the position of the matching print in the AFIS list. The data showed that latent fingerpri...

  20. Conceptualizing physical activity parenting practices using expert informed concept mapping analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise C. Mâsse

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parents are widely recognized as playing a central role in the development of child behaviors such as physical activity. As there is little agreement as to the dimensions of physical activity-related parenting practices that should be measured or how they should be operationalized, this study engaged experts to develop an integrated conceptual framework for assessing parenting practices that influence multiple aspects of 5 to 12 year old children’s participation in physical activity. The ultimate goal of this study is to inform the development of an item bank (repository of calibrated items aimed at measuring physical activity parenting practices. Methods Twenty four experts from 6 countries (Australia, Canada, England, Scotland, the Netherlands, & United States (US sorted 77 physical activity parenting practice concepts identified from our previously published synthesis of the literature (74 measures and survey of Canadian and US parents. Concept Mapping software was used to conduct the multi-dimensional scaling (MDS analysis and a cluster analysis of the MDS solution of the Expert’s sorting which was qualitatively reviewed and commented on by the Experts. Results The conceptual framework includes 12 constructs which are presented using three main domains of parenting practices (neglect/control, autonomy support, and structure. The neglect/control domain includes two constructs: permissive and pressuring parenting practices. The autonomy supportive domain includes four constructs: encouragement, guided choice, involvement in child physical activities, and praises/rewards for their child’s physical activity. Finally, the structure domain includes six constructs: co-participation, expectations, facilitation, modeling, monitoring, and restricting physical activity for safety or academic concerns. Conclusion The concept mapping analysis provided a useful process to engage experts in re-conceptualizing physical activity

  1. Recommendations for probabilistic seismic hazard analysis: Guidance on uncertainty and use of experts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budnitz, R.J.; Apostolakis, G.; Boore, D.M.

    1997-04-01

    Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA) is a methodology that estimates the likelihood that various levels of earthquake-caused ground motion will be exceeded at a given location in a given future time period. Due to large uncertainties in all the geosciences data and in their modeling, multiple model interpretations are often possible. This leads to disagreement among experts, which in the past has led to disagreement on the selection of ground motion for design at a given site. In order to review the present state-of-the-art and improve on the overall stability of the PSHA process, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) co-sponsored a project to provide methodological guidance on how to perform a PSHA. The project has been carried out by a seven-member Senior Seismic Hazard Analysis Committee (SSHAC) supported by a large number other experts. The SSHAC reviewed past studies, including the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the EPRI landmark PSHA studies of the 1980's and examined ways to improve on the present state-of-the-art. The Committee's most important conclusion is that differences in PSHA results are due to procedural rather than technical differences. Thus, in addition to providing a detailed documentation on state-of-the-art elements of a PSHA, this report provides a series of procedural recommendations. The role of experts is analyzed in detail. Two entities are formally defined-the Technical Integrator (TI) and the Technical Facilitator Integrator (TFI)--to account for the various levels of complexity in the technical issues and different levels of efforts needed in a given study

  2. Sensory analysis of characterising flavours: evaluating tobacco product odours using an expert panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüsemann, Erna J Z; Lasschuijt, Marlou P; de Graaf, C; de Wijk, René A; Punter, Pieter H; van Tiel, Loes; Cremers, Johannes W J M; van de Nobelen, Suzanne; Boesveldt, Sanne; Talhout, Reinskje

    2018-05-23

    Tobacco flavours are an important regulatory concept in several jurisdictions, for example in the USA, Canada and Europe. The European Tobacco Products Directive 2014/40/EU prohibits cigarettes and roll-your-own tobacco having a characterising flavour. This directive defines characterising flavour as 'a clearly noticeable smell or taste other than one of tobacco […]'. To distinguish between products with and without a characterising flavour, we trained an expert panel to identify characterising flavours by smelling. An expert panel (n=18) evaluated the smell of 20 tobacco products using self-defined odour attributes, following Quantitative Descriptive Analysis. The panel was trained during 14 attribute training, consensus training and performance monitoring sessions. Products were assessed during six test sessions. Principal component analysis, hierarchical clustering (four and six clusters) and Hotelling's T-tests (95% and 99% CIs) were used to determine differences and similarities between tobacco products based on odour attributes. The final attribute list contained 13 odour descriptors. Panel performance was sufficient after 14 training sessions. Products marketed as unflavoured that formed a cluster were considered reference products. A four-cluster method distinguished cherry-flavoured, vanilla-flavoured and menthol-flavoured products from reference products. Six clusters subdivided reference products into tobacco leaves, roll-your-own and commercial products. An expert panel was successfully trained to assess characterising odours in cigarettes and roll-your-own tobacco. This method could be applied to other product types such as e-cigarettes. Regulatory decisions on the choice of reference products and significance level are needed which directly influences the products being assessed as having a characterising odour. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use

  3. A thematic analysis for how patients, prescribers, experts, and patient advocates view the prescription choice process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schommer, Jon C; Worley, Marcia M; Kjos, Andrea L; Pakhomov, Serguei V S; Schondelmeyer, Stephen W

    2009-06-01

    Typically, patients are unaware of the cost consequences regarding prescribing decisions during their clinical encounter and rarely talk with their physicians about costs of prescription drugs. Prescription medications that are deemed by patients to be too costly when the costs become known after purchase are discontinued or used at suboptimal doses compared to prescription medications that are deemed to be worth the cost. To learn more about the prescription choice process from several viewpoints, the purpose of this study was to uncover and describe how patients, prescribers, experts, and patient advocates view the prescription choice process. Data were collected via 9 focus group interviews held between April 24 and July 31, 2007 (3 with patients, 3 with prescribers, 2 with experts, and 1 with patient advocates). The interviews were audiotaped and transcribed. The resulting text was analyzed in a descriptive and interpretive manner. Theme extraction was based on convergence and external divergence; that is, identified themes were internally consistent but distinct from one and another. To ensure quality and credibility of analysis, multiple analysts and multiple methods were used to provide a quality check on selective perception and blind interpretive bias that could occur through a single person doing all of the analysis or through employment of a single method. The findings revealed 5 overall themes related to the prescription choice process: (1) information, (2) relationship, (3) patient variation, (4) practitioner variation, and (5) role expectations. The results showed that patients, prescribers, experts, and patient advocates viewed the themes within differing contexts. It appears that the prescription choice process entails an interplay among information, relationship, patient variation, practitioner variation, and role expectations, with each viewed within different contexts by individuals engaged in such decision making.

  4. Adaptive neuro-fuzzy and expert systems for power quality analysis and prediction of abnormal operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Wael Refaat Anis

    The present research involves the development of several fuzzy expert systems for power quality analysis and diagnosis. Intelligent systems for the prediction of abnormal system operation were also developed. The performance of all intelligent modules developed was either enhanced or completely produced through adaptive fuzzy learning techniques. Neuro-fuzzy learning is the main adaptive technique utilized. The work presents a novel approach to the interpretation of power quality from the perspective of the continuous operation of a single system. The research includes an extensive literature review pertaining to the applications of intelligent systems to power quality analysis. Basic definitions and signature events related to power quality are introduced. In addition, detailed discussions of various artificial intelligence paradigms as well as wavelet theory are included. A fuzzy-based intelligent system capable of identifying normal from abnormal operation for a given system was developed. Adaptive neuro-fuzzy learning was applied to enhance its performance. A group of fuzzy expert systems that could perform full operational diagnosis were also developed successfully. The developed systems were applied to the operational diagnosis of 3-phase induction motors and rectifier bridges. A novel approach for learning power quality waveforms and trends was developed. The technique, which is adaptive neuro fuzzy-based, learned, compressed, and stored the waveform data. The new technique was successfully tested using a wide variety of power quality signature waveforms, and using real site data. The trend-learning technique was incorporated into a fuzzy expert system that was designed to predict abnormal operation of a monitored system. The intelligent system learns and stores, in compressed format, trends leading to abnormal operation. The system then compares incoming data to the retained trends continuously. If the incoming data matches any of the learned trends, an

  5. Recommendations for probabilistic seismic hazard analysis: Guidance on uncertainty and use of experts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA) is a methodology that estimates the likelihood that various levels of earthquake-caused ground motion will be exceeded at a given location in a given future time period. Due to large uncertainties in all the geosciences data and in their modeling, multiple model interpretations are often possible. This leads to disagreement among experts, which in the past has led to disagreement on the selection of ground motion for design at a given site. In order to review the present state-of-the-art and improve on the overall stability of the PSHA process, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) co-sponsored a project to provide methodological guidance on how to perform a PSHA. The project has been carried out by a seven-member Senior Seismic Hazard Analysis Committee (SSHAC) supported by a large number other experts. The SSHAC reviewed past studies, including the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the EPRI landmark PSHA studies of the 1980`s and examined ways to improve on the present state-of-the-art. The Committee`s most important conclusion is that differences in PSHA results are due to procedural rather than technical differences. Thus, in addition to providing a detailed documentation on state-of-the-art elements of a PSHA, this report provides a series of procedural recommendations. The role of experts is analyzed in detail. Two entities are formally defined-the Technical Integrator (TI) and the Technical Facilitator Integrator (TFI)--to account for the various levels of complexity in the technical issues and different levels of efforts needed in a given study.

  6. Making a human right to tobacco control: expert and advocacy networks, framing and the right to health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reubi, David

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses the proliferation of human rights in international public health over the last 20 years by examining recent attempts at framing the global smoking epidemic as a human rights problem. Rather than advocating in favour or against human rights-based approaches, the article purports to understand how and why such approaches are being articulated and disseminated. First, it argues that the representation of the global smoking epidemic as a human rights issue has been the product of a small, international network of public health experts and lawyers: the human rights and tobacco control collective or community (HTC). The article describes in particular the HTC's membership, its style of thinking and its efforts to articulate and disseminate human rights-based approaches to tobacco control. Second, the article argues that the aim of the HTC when framing tobacco control as a human rights issue was not to generate public attention for and the political will to tackle the global smoking epidemic, as the literature on framing and human rights presupposes. Instead, as the article shows, the HTC framed tobacco control as a human rights problem to tap into the powerful, judicial monitoring and enforceability mechanisms that make up international human rights.

  7. Nephrus: expert system model in intelligent multilayers for evaluation of urinary system based on scintigraphic image analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Jorge Wagner Esteves da; Schirru, Roberto; Boasquevisque, Edson Mendes

    1999-01-01

    Renal function can be measured noninvasively with radionuclides in a extremely safe way compared to other diagnosis techniques. Nevertheless, due to the fact that radioactive materials are used in this procedure, it is necessary to maximize its benefits, therefore all efforts are justifiable in the development of data analysis support tools for this diagnosis modality. The objective of this work is to develop a prototype for a system model based on Artificial Intelligence devices able to perform functions related to cintilographic image analysis of the urinary system. Rules used by medical experts in the analysis of images obtained with 99m Tc+DTPA and /or 99m Tc+DMSA were modeled and a Neural Network diagnosis technique was implemented. Special attention was given for designing programs user-interface. Human Factor Engineering techniques were taking in account allowing friendliness and robustness. The image segmentation adopts a model based on Ideal ROIs, which represent the normal anatomic concept for urinary system organs. Results obtained using Artificial Neural Networks for qualitative image analysis and knowledge model constructed show the feasibility of Artificial Neural Networks for qualitative image analysis and knowledge model constructed show feasibility of Artificial Intelligence implementation that uses inherent abilities of each technique in the medical diagnosis image analysis. (author)

  8. Task Decomposition in Human Reliability Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boring, Ronald Laurids [Idaho National Laboratory; Joe, Jeffrey Clark [Idaho National Laboratory

    2014-06-01

    In the probabilistic safety assessments (PSAs) used in the nuclear industry, human failure events (HFEs) are determined as a subset of hardware failures, namely those hardware failures that could be triggered by human action or inaction. This approach is top-down, starting with hardware faults and deducing human contributions to those faults. Elsewhere, more traditionally human factors driven approaches would tend to look at opportunities for human errors first in a task analysis and then identify which of those errors is risk significant. The intersection of top-down and bottom-up approaches to defining HFEs has not been carefully studied. Ideally, both approaches should arrive at the same set of HFEs. This question remains central as human reliability analysis (HRA) methods are generalized to new domains like oil and gas. The HFEs used in nuclear PSAs tend to be top-down— defined as a subset of the PSA—whereas the HFEs used in petroleum quantitative risk assessments (QRAs) are more likely to be bottom-up—derived from a task analysis conducted by human factors experts. The marriage of these approaches is necessary in order to ensure that HRA methods developed for top-down HFEs are also sufficient for bottom-up applications.

  9. Ethical acceptability of research on human-animal chimeric embryos: summary of opinions by the Japanese Expert Panel on Bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Hiroshi; Akutsu, Hidenori; Kato, Kazuto

    2015-01-01

    Human-animal chimeric embryos are embryos obtained by introducing human cells into a non-human animal embryo. It is envisaged that the application of human-animal chimeric embryos may make possible many useful research projects including producing three-dimensional human organs in animals and verification of the pluripotency of human ES cells or iPS cells in vivo. The use of human-animal chimeric embryos, however, raises several ethical and moral concerns. The most fundamental one is that human-animal chimeric embryos possess the potential to develop into organisms containing human-derived tissue, which may lead to infringing upon the identity of the human species, and thus impairing human dignity. The Japanese Expert Panel on Bioethics in the Cabinet Office carefully considered the scientific significance and ethical acceptability of the issue and released its "Opinions regarding the handling of research using human-animal chimeric embryos". The Panel proposed a framework of case-by-case review, and suggested that the following points must be carefully reviewed from the perspective of ethical acceptability: (a) Types of animal embryos and types of animals receiving embryo transfers, particularly in dealing with non-human primates; (b) Types of human cells and organs intended for production, particularly in dealing with human nerve or germ cells; and (c) Extent of the period required for post-transfer studies. The scientific knowledge that can be gained from transfer into an animal uterus and from the production of an individual must be clarified to avoid unnecessary generation of chimeric animals. The time is ripe for the scientific community and governments to start discussing the ethical issues for establishing a global consensus.

  10. Expert estimation of human error probabilities in nuclear power plant operations: a review of probability assessment and scaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stillwell, W.G.; Seaver, D.A.; Schwartz, J.P.

    1982-05-01

    This report reviews probability assessment and psychological scaling techniques that could be used to estimate human error probabilities (HEPs) in nuclear power plant operations. The techniques rely on expert opinion and can be used to estimate HEPs where data do not exist or are inadequate. These techniques have been used in various other contexts and have been shown to produce reasonably accurate probabilities. Some problems do exist, and limitations are discussed. Additional topics covered include methods for combining estimates from multiple experts, the effects of training on probability estimates, and some ideas on structuring the relationship between performance shaping factors and HEPs. Preliminary recommendations are provided along with cautions regarding the costs of implementing the recommendations. Additional research is required before definitive recommendations can be made

  11. Executive summary and conclusions from the European Hydration Institute Expert Conference on human hydration, health, and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, D; Braun, H; Cobo, J C; Edmonds, C; Elmadfa, I; El-Sharkawy, A; Feehally, J; Gellert, R; Holdsworth, J; Kapsokefalou, M; Kenney, W L; Leiper, J B; Macdonald, I A; Maffeis, C; Maughan, R J; Shirreffs, S M; Toth-Heyn, P; Watson, P

    2015-09-01

    On April 7-8, 2014, the European Hydration Institute hosted a small group of experts at Castle Combe Manor House, United Kingdom, to discuss a range of issues related to human hydration, health, and performance. The meeting included 18 recognized experts who brought a wealth of experience and knowledge to the topics under review. Eight selected topics were addressed, with the key issues being briefly presented before an in-depth discussion. Presented here is the executive summary and conclusions from this meeting. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Consumers and Experts : An Econometric Analysis of the Demand for Water Heaters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartels, R.; Fiebig, D.G.; van Soest, A.H.O.

    2003-01-01

    Consumers can accumulate product information on the basis of a combination of searching, product advertising and expert advice.Examples of experts who provide product information include doctors advising patients on treatments, motor mechanics diagnosing car problems and recommending repairs,

  13. A kinematic and metabolic analysis of the first Lu of Tai Chi in experts and beginners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzi, Elena; Nardello, Francesca; Fracasso, Enrico; Franchi, Sara; Clauti, Anna; Cesari, Paola; Zamparo, Paola

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare movement kinematics, cocontraction times, and metabolic data in expert and nonexpert Tai Chi practitioners. Significant differences were observed for all kinematic parameters: experts moved smoothly (lower jerk) and with a lower frequency. No differences in metabolic and electromyography data were observed but for the breathing pattern (experts breathed slowly and deeply). Movement frequency and breathing pattern are thus the main features that distinguish expert and nonexpert practitioners.

  14. Visual Analysis of Humans

    CERN Document Server

    Moeslund, Thomas B

    2011-01-01

    This unique text/reference provides a coherent and comprehensive overview of all aspects of video analysis of humans. Broad in coverage and accessible in style, the text presents original perspectives collected from preeminent researchers gathered from across the world. In addition to presenting state-of-the-art research, the book reviews the historical origins of the different existing methods, and predicts future trends and challenges. This title: features a Foreword by Professor Larry Davis; contains contributions from an international selection of leading authorities in the field; includes

  15. Report [of the] Expert Meeting on Intercultural Education, Section of Education for Peace and Human Rights (UNESCO Headquarters, Paris, March 20-22, 2006)

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), 2006

    2006-01-01

    The Section of Education for Peace and Human Rights of the Division for the Promotion of Quality Education held an expert meeting on Intercultural Education from March 20-22, 2006 at UNESCO Headquarters, bringing together international experts from Australia, Bolivia, Egypt, Finland, Hungary, Korea, Lebanon, Mexico, Nigeria, South Africa and the…

  16. General purpose - expert system for the analysis and design of base plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Shawaf, T.D.; Hahn, W.F.; Ho, A.D.

    1987-01-01

    As an expert system, the IMPLATE program uses plant specific information to make decisions in modeling and analysis of baseplates. The user supplies a minimum of information which is checked for validity and reasonableness. Once this data is supplied, the program automatically generates a compatible mesh and finite element model from its data base accounting for the attachments, stiffeners, anchor bolts and plate/concrete interface. Based on the loading direction, the program deletes certain degrees of freedom and performs a linear or a nonlinear solution, whichever is appropriate. Load step sizes and equilibrium iteration are automatically selected by the program to ensure a convergent solution. Once the analysis is completed, a code check is then performed and a summary of results is produced. Plots of the plate deformation pattern and stress contours are also generated. (orig.)

  17. Regulating biobanking with children's tissue: a legal analysis and the experts' view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranendonk, Elcke J; Ploem, M Corrette; Hennekam, Raoul C M

    2016-01-01

    Many current paediatric studies concern relationships between genes and environment and discuss aetiology, treatment and prevention of Mendelian and multifactorial diseases. Many of these studies depend on collection and long-term storage of data and biological material from affected children in biobanks. Stored material is a source of personal information of the donor and his family and could be used in an undesirable context, potentially leading to discrimination and interfering with a child's right to an open future. Here, we address the normative framework regarding biobanking with residual tissue of children, protecting the privacy interests of young biobank donors (0-12 years). We analyse relevant legal documents concerning storage and use of children's material for research purposes. We explore the views of 17 Dutch experts involved in paediatric biobank research and focus on informed consent for donation of leftover tissue as well as disclosure of individual research findings resulting from biobank research. The results of this analysis show that experts have no clear consensus about the appropriate rules for storage of and research with children's material in biobanks. Development of a framework that provides a fair balance between fundamental paediatric research and privacy protection is necessary.

  18. Matrix Failure Modes and Effects Analysis as a Knowledge Base for a Real Time Automated Diagnosis Expert System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrin, Stephanie; Iverson, David; Spukovska, Lilly; Souza, Kenneth A. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Failure Modes and Effects Analysis contain a wealth of information that can be used to create the knowledge base required for building automated diagnostic Expert systems. A real time monitoring and diagnosis expert system based on an actual NASA project's matrix failure modes and effects analysis was developed. This Expert system Was developed at NASA Ames Research Center. This system was first used as a case study to monitor the Research Animal Holding Facility (RAHF), a Space Shuttle payload that is used to house and monitor animals in orbit so the effects of space flight and microgravity can be studied. The techniques developed for the RAHF monitoring and diagnosis Expert system are general enough to be used for monitoring and diagnosis of a variety of other systems that undergo a Matrix FMEA. This automated diagnosis system was successfully used on-line and validated on the Space Shuttle flight STS-58, mission SLS-2 in October 1993.

  19. Public opinions about human enhancement can enhance the expert-only debate. A review study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Anne M.; Schuijff, Mirjam

    2016-01-01

    Human enhancement, the non-medical use of biomedical technologies to improve the human body or performance beyond their ‘natural’ limitations, is a growing trend. At the same time, the use of these technologies has societal consequences. In societal debates about human enhancement, however, it is

  20. [Implementation of the National Expert Standard Prophylaxis of Pressure Ulcers in nurse practise - a cost-benefit analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolke, R; Hennings, D; Scheu, P

    2007-06-01

    By developing evidence-based, national Expert Standards, agreed-upon by an association of nursing professionals, the German Care Science participates in the international discussion. Up to now, five National Expert Standards on relevant care-related topics have been developed and have been widely implemented in Care Practice. However, sufficient evaluations of these Expert Standards are still required, especially from an economic perspective. The following paper addresses this topic by performing a cost-benefit analysis for the National Expert Standard Prophylaxis of Pressure Ulcers. The authors demonstrate which costs are caused by the implementation of this National Expert Standard for a residential care agency providing services. The benefit of the implementation of the Expert Standard is then being compared to its cost for a period of three years. The evaluation concludes that, in consideration of opportunity costs, the introduction of the National Expert Standard Prophylaxis of Pressure Ulcers appears economically viable for the residential care agency only if the rate of pressure ulcers in the reference agency can be lowered at least by 26.48%. In this case, when exclusively considering direct benefits and direct costs, a positive impact of the implementation will be achieved.

  1. Safety analysis of an expert reactor protection system in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-Kafas, A.E.A.E.

    1996-01-01

    the purpose of the dissertation is to develop a real time expert reactor protection system (ERPS) for operational safety of pressurized water reactor nuclear power plant. The system is developed to diagnose plant failures and for identification of plant transients (with and without scram). for this ERPS. probabilistic safety analysis techniques are used to check the availability and priority of the recommended safety system in case of plant accidents . the real- time information during transients and accidents can be obtained to asses the operator in his decision - making . Also, the ERPS is able to give advice for the reactor operator to take the appropriate corrective action during abnormal situations. The system model consists of the dynamic differential equations for reactor core, pressurizer, steam generator, turbine and generator, piping and plenums. The system of equations can be solved by appropriate codes also displayed directly from sensors of the plant. All scenarios of transients, accidents and fault tress for plant systems are learned to ERPS

  2. The impact of expert knowledge on natural hazard susceptibility assessment using spatial multi-criteria analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Caroline; Kalantari, Zahra; Mörtberg, Ulla; Olofsson, Bo; Lyon, Steve

    2016-04-01

    Road and railway networks are one of the key factors to a country's economic growth. Inadequate infrastructural networks could be detrimental to a society if the transport between locations are hindered or delayed. Logistical hindrances can often be avoided whereas natural hindrances are more difficult to control. One natural hindrance that can have a severe adverse effect on both infrastructure and society is flooding. Intense and heavy rainfall events can trigger other natural hazards such as landslides and debris flow. Disruptions caused by landslides are similar to that of floods and increase the maintenance cost considerably. The effect on society by natural disasters is likely to increase due to a changed climate with increasing precipitation. Therefore, there is a need for risk prevention and mitigation of natural hazards. Determining susceptible areas and incorporating them in the decision process may reduce the infrastructural harm. Spatial multi-criteria analysis (SMCA) is a part of decision analysis, which provides a set of procedures for analysing complex decision problems through a Geographic Information System (GIS). The objective and aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of expert judgements for inundation, landslide and debris flow susceptibility assessments through a SMCA approach using hydrological, geological and land use factors. The sensitivity of the SMCA model was tested in relation to each perspective and impact on the resulting susceptibility. A least cost path function was used to compare new alternative road lines with the existing ones. This comparison was undertaken to identify the resulting differences in the susceptibility assessments using expert judgements as well as historic incidences of flooding and landslides in order to discuss the usefulness of the model in road planning.

  3. An Efficient Expert System Generator for Qualitative Feed-Back Loop Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar Jain

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Quite often the variables used in system analysis are qualitative in nature. They cannot be defined precisely, whereas software development for system analysis needs a mathematical framework with precise computations. It is not trivial to capture the uncertainty in the system.
    Fuzzy sets provide us the facility to capture the uncertainty in the system. In normal crisp set where the membership of an element is always certain in a sense that it would be member or not of the given set. In contrast to this a membership functions or possibility (ranging from 0 to 1, including both values is assigned with each member. System analysis is done through system dynamics which is not very efficient. We present an efficient technique to generate expert system using fuzzy set. In our proposed approach five linguistic qualifiers are used for each variable, namely, Very Low (VL, Low (L, Medium (M, High (H, and Very High
    (VH. We capture the influence or feedback in the system with the help of if then else rules and matrices are generated for them which are used for analysis. Complete methodology and its applicability are presented here.

  4. A prototype expert system for fault analysis, alarm handling and operator advising in a PWR nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gondran, M.; Ancelin, J.; Hery, J.F.; Laleuf, J.C.; Legaud, P.

    1986-01-01

    This paper successively describes the methodological advantages of the expert-systems approach and then two major applications of it that are under development in Electricite de France: assistance in alarms and operational management, and computer-assisted reliability. Topics considered include man-machine systems, human factors engineering, reactor operation, artificial intelligence, and decision making

  5. Expert decisionmaking in risk analysis: The case of the Yucca Mountain facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrader-Frechette, K [University of Notre Dame, IN (United States)

    1999-12-01

    Thirty-five or forty centuries ago, there were probably Egyptian experts who argued that they could safeguard the tombs of the pharaohs for 10,000 or a million years. Six centuries ago, there were probably Italian experts who believed that they could secure their Renaissance art treasures. Neither the Egyptians nor the Italians succeeded completely in their efforts. Today's experts, working on permanent nuclear waste disposal, face no easier a task. To understand some of the most difficult problems of expert judgment regarding nuclear repositories, these remarks address, 10 problematic judgments of scientists about the proposed Yucca Mountain permanent nuclear repository for spent fuel and high-level nuclear waste; argue that legal constraints imposed by the US government exacerbate these problems of expert scientific judgment; and conclude that, for any permanent repository program to succeed, nations ought to avoid problems (in expert scientific judgment and in the law) that have dogged US repository efforts.

  6. Expert decisionmaking in risk analysis: The case of the Yucca Mountain facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrader-Frechette, K.

    1999-01-01

    Thirty-five or forty centuries ago, there were probably Egyptian experts who argued that they could safeguard the tombs of the pharaohs for 10,000 or a million years. Six centuries ago, there were probably Italian experts who believed that they could secure their Renaissance art treasures. Neither the Egyptians nor the Italians succeeded completely in their efforts. Today's experts, working on permanent nuclear waste disposal, face no easier a task. To understand some of the most difficult problems of expert judgment regarding nuclear repositories, these remarks address, 10 problematic judgments of scientists about the proposed Yucca Mountain permanent nuclear repository for spent fuel and high-level nuclear waste; argue that legal constraints imposed by the US government exacerbate these problems of expert scientific judgment; and conclude that, for any permanent repository program to succeed, nations ought to avoid problems (in expert scientific judgment and in the law) that have dogged US repository efforts

  7. Expert decisionmaking in risk analysis: The case of the Yucca Mountain facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrader-Frechette, K. [University of Notre Dame, IN (United States)

    1999-12-01

    Thirty-five or forty centuries ago, there were probably Egyptian experts who argued that they could safeguard the tombs of the pharaohs for 10,000 or a million years. Six centuries ago, there were probably Italian experts who believed that they could secure their Renaissance art treasures. Neither the Egyptians nor the Italians succeeded completely in their efforts. Today's experts, working on permanent nuclear waste disposal, face no easier a task. To understand some of the most difficult problems of expert judgment regarding nuclear repositories, these remarks address, 10 problematic judgments of scientists about the proposed Yucca Mountain permanent nuclear repository for spent fuel and high-level nuclear waste; argue that legal constraints imposed by the US government exacerbate these problems of expert scientific judgment; and conclude that, for any permanent repository program to succeed, nations ought to avoid problems (in expert scientific judgment and in the law) that have dogged US repository efforts.

  8. Expert systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haldy, P.A.

    1988-01-01

    The definitions of the terms 'artificial intelligence' and 'expert systems', the methodology, areas of employment and limits of expert systems are discussed. The operation of an expert system is described, especially the presentation and organization of knowledge as well as interference and control. Methods and tools for expert system development are presented and their application in nuclear energy are briefly addressed. 7 figs., 2 tabs., 6 refs

  9. [Cost of lost productivity in pharmacoeconomics analysis. Part II. Survey in the expert group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrona, Witold; Hermanowski, Tomasz; Jakubczyk, Michał; Golicki, Dominik; Czech, Marcin; Niewada, Maciej; Kolasa, Katarzyna

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the survey was to collect data on practice and preferences of decision-makers and experts in health economics concerning the role of indirect costs in Poland. The questionnaire contained 18 questions covering the need for indirect costs calculation in economic evaluations and measures used to calculate indirect cost. Fifty four respondents related to health economics returned completed questionnaires. Mean age of respondents was 33,3 years; mean experience in health economics 4.7 years; 43% (23/54) of responders had non-economic background; 30% each were users and doers of health technology assessment reports. All (excluding one) responders indicated that indirect costs should be calculated in pharmacoeconomic studies. Twenty three (i.e., 43%) responders indicated human capital approach as the best method to estimate costs from societal perspective; friction cost method came second best 11%; 42% respondents had no opinion. The doers of economics evaluations pointed to GDP per capita (61%, 11/18), average salary (61%, 11/18), and costs of sick pay or injury benefit (61%, 11/18) as measures which could be used to value production losses. Indirect costs are considered important component of economic evaluations of healthcare interventions in Poland. The lack of widely accepted methods for indirect cost evaluation support further research.

  10. ECG Rhythm Analysis with Expert and Learner-Generated Schemas in Novice Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blissett, Sarah; Cavalcanti, Rodrigo; Sibbald, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Although instruction using expert-generated schemas is associated with higher diagnostic performance, implementation is resource intensive. Learner-generated schemas are an alternative, but may be limited by increases in cognitive load. We compared expert- and learner-generated schemas for learning ECG rhythm interpretation on diagnostic accuracy,…

  11. Sextant: an expert system for transient analysis of nuclear reactors and integral test facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbet, N.; Dumas, M.; Mihelich, G.

    1987-01-01

    Expert systems provide a new way of dealing with the computer-aided management of nuclear plants by combining several knowledge bases and reasoning modes together with a set of numerical models for real-time analysis of transients. New development tools are required together with metaknowledge bases handling temporal hypothetical reasoning and planning. They have to be efficient and robust because during a transient, neither measurements nor models, nor scenarios are hold as absolute references. SEXTANT is a general purpose physical analyzer intended to provide a pattern and avoid duplication of general tools and knowledge bases for similar applications. It combines several knowledge bases concerning measurements, models and qualitative behavior of PWR with a mechanism of conjecture-refutation and a set of simplified models matching the current physical state. A prototype is under assessment by dealing with integral test facility transients. For its development, SEXTANT requires a powerful shell. SPIRAL is such a toolkit, oriented towards online analysis of complex processes and already used in several applications

  12. Technological change in Swiss thermal waste treatment: An expert-based socio-technical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spoerri, Andy; Lang, Daniel J.; Staeubli, Beat; Scholz, Roland W.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding technological change provides a crucial basis for governing sustainability transitions. In this paper we present an analysis of technological change using the example of Swiss thermal waste processing. In recent years, increased concerns about the low quality of residues from grate-firing systems led to the examination of alternative technologies. Yet despite clear indications of a potential better performance with respect to residue quality, none of these alternatives has been adopted. Based on a two-stage knowledge integration among 15 leading experts, in a retrospective analysis we identified factors that have significantly affected technological change in Swiss thermal waste processing. These factors were then related to three technological options representing different types of technological change, i.e., from incremental improvements of the existing to the implementation of a new technology. The results indicate that technological change is currently in a technological lock-in and provide detailed insights on the causes. The lock-in results in the step-wise further development of the status quo grate-firing system despite its limitations for improving the residue qualities. Almost all factors (legal, economic, societal, technological) of the existing 'thermal waste management' system have been well adapted to the cost- and energy-efficient grate-firing technology, blocking innovative technologies from entering the Swiss market. In addition, pressures from the context, e.g., societal pressure related to landfill risks, have not been strong enough to promote non-incremental change.

  13. Exploring the brains of Baduk (Go experts: gray matter morphometry, resting-state functional connectivity, and graph theoretical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wi Hoon eJung

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available One major characteristic of experts is intuitive judgment, which is an automatic process whereby patterns stored in memory through long-term training are recognized. Indeed, long-term training may influence brain structure and function. A recent study revealed that chess experts at rest showed differences in structure and functional connectivity (FC in the head of caudate, which is associated with rapid best next-move generation. However, less is known about the structure and function of the brains of Baduk experts compared with those of experts in other strategy games. Therefore, we performed voxel-based morphometry and FC analyses in Baduk experts to investigate structural brain differences and to clarify the influence of these differences on functional interactions. We also conducted graph theoretical analysis to explore the topological organization of whole-brain functional networks. Compared to novices, Baduk experts exhibited decreased and increased gray matter volume in the amygdala and nucleus accumbens, respectively. We also found increased FC between the amygdala and medial orbitofrontal cortex and decreased FC between the nucleus accumbens and medial prefrontal cortex. Further graph theoretical analysis revealed differences in measures of the integration of the network and in the regional nodal characteristics of various brain regions activated during Baduk. This study provides evidence for structural and functional differences as well as altered topological organization of the whole-brain functional networks in Baduk experts. Our findings also offer novel suggestions about the cognitive mechanisms behind Baduk expertise, which involves intuitive decision-making mediated by somatic marker circuitry and visuospatial processing.

  14. Automated Session-Quality Assessment for Human Tutoring Based on Expert Ratings of Tutoring Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nye, Benjamin D.; Morrison, Donald M.; Samei, Borhan

    2015-01-01

    Archived transcripts from tens of millions of online human tutoring sessions potentially contain important knowledge about how online tutors help, or fail to help, students learn. However, without ways of automatically analyzing these large corpora, any knowledge in this data will remain buried. One way to approach this issue is to train an…

  15. Consensus coding sequence (CCDS) database: a standardized set of human and mouse protein-coding regions supported by expert curation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujar, Shashikant; O'Leary, Nuala A; Farrell, Catherine M; Loveland, Jane E; Mudge, Jonathan M; Wallin, Craig; Girón, Carlos G; Diekhans, Mark; Barnes, If; Bennett, Ruth; Berry, Andrew E; Cox, Eric; Davidson, Claire; Goldfarb, Tamara; Gonzalez, Jose M; Hunt, Toby; Jackson, John; Joardar, Vinita; Kay, Mike P; Kodali, Vamsi K; Martin, Fergal J; McAndrews, Monica; McGarvey, Kelly M; Murphy, Michael; Rajput, Bhanu; Rangwala, Sanjida H; Riddick, Lillian D; Seal, Ruth L; Suner, Marie-Marthe; Webb, David; Zhu, Sophia; Aken, Bronwen L; Bruford, Elspeth A; Bult, Carol J; Frankish, Adam; Murphy, Terence; Pruitt, Kim D

    2018-01-04

    The Consensus Coding Sequence (CCDS) project provides a dataset of protein-coding regions that are identically annotated on the human and mouse reference genome assembly in genome annotations produced independently by NCBI and the Ensembl group at EMBL-EBI. This dataset is the product of an international collaboration that includes NCBI, Ensembl, HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee, Mouse Genome Informatics and University of California, Santa Cruz. Identically annotated coding regions, which are generated using an automated pipeline and pass multiple quality assurance checks, are assigned a stable and tracked identifier (CCDS ID). Additionally, coordinated manual review by expert curators from the CCDS collaboration helps in maintaining the integrity and high quality of the dataset. The CCDS data are available through an interactive web page (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/CCDS/CcdsBrowse.cgi) and an FTP site (ftp://ftp.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pub/CCDS/). In this paper, we outline the ongoing work, growth and stability of the CCDS dataset and provide updates on new collaboration members and new features added to the CCDS user interface. We also present expert curation scenarios, with specific examples highlighting the importance of an accurate reference genome assembly and the crucial role played by input from the research community. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research 2017.

  16. Expert views on societal responses to different applications of nanotechnology: a comparative analysis of experts in countries with different economic and regulatory environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, N.; Fischer, A.R.H.; George, S.; Frewer, L.J.

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of different applications of nanotechnology will be informed by expert views regarding which (types of) application will be most societally acceptable. Previous research in Northern Europe has indicated that experts believe that various factors will be influential, predominant among

  17. Expert Systems for the Analytical Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Monchy, Allan R.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Discusses two computer problem solving programs: rule-based expert systems and decision analysis expert systems. Explores the application of expert systems to automated chemical analyses. Presents six factors to consider before using expert systems. (MVL)

  18. Assessment of features for automatic CTG analysis based on expert annotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudácek, Vacláv; Spilka, Jirí; Lhotská, Lenka; Janku, Petr; Koucký, Michal; Huptych, Michal; Bursa, Miroslav

    2011-01-01

    Cardiotocography (CTG) is the monitoring of fetal heart rate (FHR) and uterine contractions (TOCO) since 1960's used routinely by obstetricians to detect fetal hypoxia. The evaluation of the FHR in clinical settings is based on an evaluation of macroscopic morphological features and so far has managed to avoid adopting any achievements from the HRV research field. In this work, most of the ever-used features utilized for FHR characterization, including FIGO, HRV, nonlinear, wavelet, and time and frequency domain features, are investigated and the features are assessed based on their statistical significance in the task of distinguishing the FHR into three FIGO classes. Annotation derived from the panel of experts instead of the commonly utilized pH values was used for evaluation of the features on a large data set (552 records). We conclude the paper by presenting the best uncorrelated features and their individual rank of importance according to the meta-analysis of three different ranking methods. Number of acceleration and deceleration, interval index, as well as Lempel-Ziv complexity and Higuchi's fractal dimension are among the top five features.

  19. Intelligent Integration between Human Simulated Intelligence and Expert Control Technology for the Combustion Process of Gas Heating Furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yucheng Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to being poor in control quality of the combustion process of gas heating furnace, this paper explored a sort of strong robust control algorithm in order to improve the control quality of the combustion process of gas heating furnace. The paper analyzed the control puzzle in the complex combustion process of gas heating furnace, summarized the cybernetics characteristic of the complex combustion process, researched into control strategy of the uncertainty complex control process, discussed the control model of the complex process, presented a sort of intelligent integration between human-simulated intelligence and expert control technology, and constructed the control algorithm for the combustion process controlling of gas heating furnace. The simulation results showed that the control algorithm proposed in the paper is not only better in dynamic and steady quality of the combustion process, but also obvious in energy saving effect, feasible, and effective in control strategy.

  20. Inclusion of task dependence in human reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Xiaoyan; Mahadevan, Sankaran; Xu, Peida; Deng, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Dependence assessment among human errors in human reliability analysis (HRA) is an important issue, which includes the evaluation of the dependence among human tasks and the effect of the dependence on the final human error probability (HEP). This paper represents a computational model to handle dependence in human reliability analysis. The aim of the study is to automatically provide conclusions on the overall degree of dependence and calculate the conditional human error probability (CHEP) once the judgments of the input factors are given. The dependence influencing factors are first identified by the experts and the priorities of these factors are also taken into consideration. Anchors and qualitative labels are provided as guidance for the HRA analyst's judgment of the input factors. The overall degree of dependence between human failure events is calculated based on the input values and the weights of the input factors. Finally, the CHEP is obtained according to a computing formula derived from the technique for human error rate prediction (THERP) method. The proposed method is able to quantify the subjective judgment from the experts and improve the transparency in the HEP evaluation process. Two examples are illustrated to show the effectiveness and the flexibility of the proposed method. - Highlights: • We propose a computational model to handle dependence in human reliability analysis. • The priorities of the dependence influencing factors are taken into consideration. • The overall dependence degree is determined by input judgments and the weights of factors. • The CHEP is obtained according to a computing formula derived from THERP

  1. The impact of human-technology cooperation and distributed cognition in forensic science: biasing effects of AFIS contextual information on human experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dror, Itiel E; Wertheim, Kasey; Fraser-Mackenzie, Peter; Walajtys, Jeff

    2012-03-01

    Experts play a critical role in forensic decision making, even when cognition is offloaded and distributed between human and machine. In this paper, we investigated the impact of using Automated Fingerprint Identification Systems (AFIS) on human decision makers. We provided 3680 AFIS lists (a total of 55,200 comparisons) to 23 latent fingerprint examiners as part of their normal casework. We manipulated the position of the matching print in the AFIS list. The data showed that latent fingerprint examiners were affected by the position of the matching print in terms of false exclusions and false inconclusives. Furthermore, the data showed that false identification errors were more likely at the top of the list and that such errors occurred even when the correct match was present further down the list. These effects need to be studied and considered carefully, so as to optimize human decision making when using technologies such as AFIS. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  2. Reliability of an Automated High-Resolution Manometry Analysis Program across Expert Users, Novice Users, and Speech-Language Pathologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Corinne A.; Hoffman, Matthew R.; Geng, Zhixian; Abdelhalim, Suzan M.; Jiang, Jack J.; McCulloch, Timothy M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate inter- and intrarater reliability among expert users, novice users, and speech-language pathologists with a semiautomated high-resolution manometry analysis program. We hypothesized that all users would have high intrarater reliability and high interrater reliability. Method: Three expert…

  3. Expert views on societal responses to different applications of nanotechnology: a comparative analysis of experts in countries with different economic and regulatory environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Nidhi, E-mail: guptanidhi12@gmail.com; Fischer, Arnout R. H., E-mail: arnout.fischer@wur.nl [Wageningen University, Marketing and Consumer Behaviour Group (Netherlands); George, Saji, E-mail: saji_george@nyp.gov.sg [Nanyang Polytechnic, Centre for Sustainable Nanotechnology, School of Chemical and Life Sciences (Singapore); Frewer, Lynn J., E-mail: lynn.frewer@newcastle.ac.uk [Newcastle University, School of Agriculture, Food and Rural Development (United Kingdom)

    2013-08-15

    The introduction of different applications of nanotechnology will be informed by expert views regarding which (types of) application will be most societally acceptable. Previous research in Northern Europe has indicated that experts believe that various factors will be influential, predominant among these being public perceptions of benefit, need and consumer concern about contact with nanomaterials. These factors are thought by experts to differentiate societal acceptance and rejection of nanotechnology applications. This research utilises a larger sample of experts (N = 67) drawn from Northern America, Europe, Australasia, India and Singapore to examine differences in expert opinion regarding societal acceptance of different applications of nanotechnology within different technological environments, consumer cultures and regulatory regimes. Perceived risk and consumer concerns regarding contact with nano-particles are thought by all experts to drive rejection, and perceived benefits to influence acceptance, independent of country. Encapsulation and delivery of nutrients in food was thought to be the most likely to raise societal concerns, while targeted drug delivery was thought most likely to be accepted. Lack of differentiation between countries suggests that expert views regarding social acceptance may be homogenous, independent of local contextual factors.

  4. Expert views on societal responses to different applications of nanotechnology: a comparative analysis of experts in countries with different economic and regulatory environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Nidhi; Fischer, Arnout R. H.; George, Saji; Frewer, Lynn J.

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of different applications of nanotechnology will be informed by expert views regarding which (types of) application will be most societally acceptable. Previous research in Northern Europe has indicated that experts believe that various factors will be influential, predominant among these being public perceptions of benefit, need and consumer concern about contact with nanomaterials. These factors are thought by experts to differentiate societal acceptance and rejection of nanotechnology applications. This research utilises a larger sample of experts (N = 67) drawn from Northern America, Europe, Australasia, India and Singapore to examine differences in expert opinion regarding societal acceptance of different applications of nanotechnology within different technological environments, consumer cultures and regulatory regimes. Perceived risk and consumer concerns regarding contact with nano-particles are thought by all experts to drive rejection, and perceived benefits to influence acceptance, independent of country. Encapsulation and delivery of nutrients in food was thought to be the most likely to raise societal concerns, while targeted drug delivery was thought most likely to be accepted. Lack of differentiation between countries suggests that expert views regarding social acceptance may be homogenous, independent of local contextual factors

  5. Analysis of underlying causes of inter-expert disagreement in retinopathy of prematurity diagnosis. Application of machine learning principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ataer-Cansizoglu, E; Kalpathy-Cramer, J; You, S; Keck, K; Erdogmus, D; Chiang, M F

    2015-01-01

    Inter-expert variability in image-based clinical diagnosis has been demonstrated in many diseases including retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), which is a disease affecting low birth weight infants and is a major cause of childhood blindness. In order to better understand the underlying causes of variability among experts, we propose a method to quantify the variability of expert decisions and analyze the relationship between expert diagnoses and features computed from the images. Identification of these features is relevant for development of computer-based decision support systems and educational systems in ROP, and these methods may be applicable to other diseases where inter-expert variability is observed. The experiments were carried out on a dataset of 34 retinal images, each with diagnoses provided independently by 22 experts. Analysis was performed using concepts of Mutual Information (MI) and Kernel Density Estimation. A large set of structural features (a total of 66) were extracted from retinal images. Feature selection was utilized to identify the most important features that correlated to actual clinical decisions by the 22 study experts. The best three features for each observer were selected by an exhaustive search on all possible feature subsets and considering joint MI as a relevance criterion. We also compared our results with the results of Cohen's Kappa [36] as an inter-rater reliability measure. The results demonstrate that a group of observers (17 among 22) decide consistently with each other. Mean and second central moment of arteriolar tortuosity is among the reasons of disagreement between this group and the rest of the observers, meaning that the group of experts consider amount of tortuosity as well as the variation of tortuosity in the image. Given a set of image-based features, the proposed analysis method can identify critical image-based features that lead to expert agreement and disagreement in diagnosis of ROP. Although tree

  6. Estimation of the human error probabilities in the human reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Haibin; He Xuhong; Tong Jiejuan; Shen Shifei

    2006-01-01

    Human error data is an important issue of human reliability analysis (HRA). Using of Bayesian parameter estimation, which can use multiple information, such as the historical data of NPP and expert judgment data to modify the human error data, could get the human error data reflecting the real situation of NPP more truly. This paper, using the numeric compute program developed by the authors, presents some typical examples to illustrate the process of the Bayesian parameter estimation in HRA and discusses the effect of different modification data on the Bayesian parameter estimation. (authors)

  7. Procedures for the elicitation of expert judgements in the probabilistic risk analysis of radioactive waste repositories: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, S.R.

    1992-01-01

    In modelling the consequences of a radioactive waste repository using Probabilistic Risk Analysis, it is necessary to use the judgement of experts both in assessing probabilities subjectively, and in choosing suitable analytic frameworks. This report presents the literature on these topics, first discussing the meaning of probability in PRA, and then giving an extensive review of what is known about how to elicit probabilities from experts. The report then provides an overview of the less well developed field of how best to use expertise in the construction of models for PRA. (author)

  8. Expert System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildebrandt, Thomas Troels; Cattani, Gian Luca

    2016-01-01

    An expert system is a computer system for inferring knowledge from a knowledge base, typically by using a set of inference rules. When the concept of expert systems was introduced at Stanford University in the early 1970s, the knowledge base was an unstructured set of facts. Today the knowledge b...... for the application of expert systems, but also raises issues regarding privacy and legal liability....

  9. Neural network expert system for X-ray analysis of welded joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, V. V.; Lapik, N. V.; Popova, N. V.

    2018-03-01

    The use of intelligent technologies for the automated analysis of product quality is one of the main trends in modern machine building. At the same time, rapid development in various spheres of human activity is experienced by methods associated with the use of artificial neural networks, as the basis for building automated intelligent diagnostic systems. Technologies of machine vision allow one to effectively detect the presence of certain regularities in the analyzed designation, including defects of welded joints according to radiography data.

  10. An analysis of bolted opening structure and development of analysis expert system using ANSYS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, S. M.; Suh, E. K.; Shim, H. B.; Kim, T. W.; Lee, B. Y.

    1998-01-01

    Bolted opening structures is widely applied for class 1 machinery of nuclear plant with strict design requirement. As the shape of the bolted opening structure is non-axisymmetric due to the existence of stud bolts although it is almost axi-symmetric, 3D analysis is required to satisfy such kind of design requirements. Because as much as possible trial computations are need to get an optimal design condition in the limited period of basic design, an easy and fast analysis tool is useful in the design stage. In the paper, a transformation technique of non-axisymmetric problem into quasi-axisymmetric has been proposed based on the general purpose commercial code ANSYS. Both the pre-processor which incorporates the technique and prepares data and post-processor which prepares arranged results from the huge output of commercial code have been developed to help the design engineers. (author)

  11. Self-Regulation of Beer Advertising: A Comparative Analysis of Perceived Violations by Adolescents and Experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendrame, Alan; Silva, Rebeca; Xuan, Ziming; Sparks, Robert; Noel, Jonathan; Pinsky, Ilana

    2015-09-01

    We assessed the impact of the 2010 revisions to Brazil's self-regulatory alcohol marketing code using expert and adolescent raters. Five popular TV beer ads were selected. Ads were rated based on the 2010 Brazilian self-regulatory marketing code. The expert group (N = 31) represented health-related professions; the adolescent group (N = 110) were public high school students. At least 1 ad violated 11 of 17 guidelines included in the study. Ratings by experts and adolescents were similar. Both found violations in all sections of the self-regulatory code, but significant group differences were seen in applying the section that prohibits the promotion of excessive alcohol consumption, with experts identifying more violations than adolescents. Beer ads in the sample systematically violated the self-regulatory standards for alcohol advertising in Brazil according to both experts and youth. Public policies for more effective restrictions and prohibitions in alcohol ads should be considered. © The Author 2015. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  12. The use of cloud enabled building information models – an expert analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Redmond

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The dependency of today’s construction professionals to use singular commercial applications for design possibilities creates the risk of being dictated by the language-tools they use. This unknowingly approach to converting to the constraints of a particular computer application’s style, reduces one’s association with cutting-edge design as no single computer application can support all of the tasks associated with building-design and production. Interoperability depicts the need to pass data between applications, allowing multiple types of experts and applications to contribute to the work at hand. Cloud computing is a centralized heterogeneous platform that enables different applications to be connected to each other through using remote data servers. However, the possibility of providing an interoperable process based on binding several construction applications through a single repository platform ‘cloud computing’ required further analysis. The following Delphi questionnaires analysed the exchanging information opportunities of Building Information Modelling (BIM as the possible solution for the integration of applications on a cloud platform. The survey structure is modelled to; (i identify the most appropriate applications for advancing interoperability at the early design stage, (ii detect the most severe barriers of BIM implementation from a business and legal viewpoint, (iii examine the need for standards to address information exchange between design team, and (iv explore the use of the most common interfaces for exchanging information. The anticipated findings will assist in identifying a model that will enhance the standardized passing of information between systems at the feasibility design stage of a construction project.

  13. The use of cloud enabled building information models – an expert analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Redmond

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The dependency of today’s construction professionals to use singular commercial applications for design possibilities creates the risk of being dictated by the language-tools they use. This unknowingly approach to converting to the constraints of a particular computer application’s style, reduces one’s association with cutting-edge design as no single computer application can support all of the tasks associated with building-design and production. Interoperability depicts the need to pass data between applications, allowing multiple types of experts and applications to contribute to the work at hand. Cloud computing is a centralized heterogeneous platform that enables different applications to be connected to each other through using remote data servers. However, the possibility of providing an interoperable process based on binding several construction applications through a single repository platform ‘cloud computing’ required further analysis. The following Delphi questionnaires analysed the exchanging information opportunities of Building Information Modelling (BIM as the possible solution for the integration of applications on a cloud platform. The survey structure is modelled to; (i identify the most appropriate applications for advancing interoperability at the early design stage, (ii detect the most severe barriers of BIM implementation from a business and legal viewpoint, (iii examine the need for standards to address information exchange between design team, and (iv explore the use of the most common interfaces for exchanging information. The anticipated findings will assist in identifying a model that will enhance the standardized passing of information between systems at the feasibility design stage of a construction project.

  14. Expert ease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-04-01

    Expert-ease allows the most inexperienced of computer users to build an expert system in a matter of hours. It is nothing more or less than a computer based problem-solving system. It allows the expert to preserve his or her knowledge in the form of rules, which can be applied to problems put to the system by the non-expert. The crucial piece of software at the heart of Expert-Ease extracts rules from data, and is called the analogue concept learning system. It was developed by Intelligent Terminals Ltd. and supplied to Export Software International to be incorporated into a commercially attractive package for business users. The resulting product runs on the Act Sirius and the IBM PC and compatibles. It is a well conceived and polished product with a popular appeal that should ensure widespread acceptance even at a cost of >1500 plus vat.

  15. Development of an expert system for analysis of Shuttle atmospheric revitalization and pressure control subsystem anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafuse, Sharon A.

    1991-01-01

    The paper describes the Shuttle Leak Management Expert System (SLMES), a preprototype expert system developed to enable the ECLSS subsystem manager to analyze subsystem anomalies and to formulate flight procedures based on flight data. The SLMES combines the rule-based expert system technology with the traditional FORTRAN-based software into an integrated system. SLMES analyzes the data using rules, and, when it detects a problem that requires simulation, it sets up the input for the FORTRAN-based simulation program ARPCS2AT2, which predicts the cabin total pressure and composition as a function of time. The program simulates the pressure control system, the crew oxygen masks, the airlock repress/depress valves, and the leakage. When the simulation has completed, other SLMES rules are triggered to examine the results of simulation contrary to flight data and to suggest methods for correcting the problem. Results are then presented in form of graphs and tables.

  16. Impacts of the precision agricultural technologies in Iran: An analysis experts' perception & their determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Tohidyan Far

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays agricultural methods developments that are productively, economically, environmentally and socially sustainable are required immediately. The concept of precision agriculture is becoming an attractive idea for managing natural resources and realizing modern sustainable agricultural development. The purpose of this study was to investigate factors influencing impacts of precision agriculture from the viewpoints of Boushehr Province experts. The research method was a cross sectional survey and multi-stage random sampling was used to collect data from 115 experts in Boushehr province. According to the results, experts found underground and surface waters conservation, rural areas development, increase of productivity and increasing income as the most important impacts of precision agricultural technologies. Experts’ attitudes indicate their positive view toward these kinds of impacts. Also behavioral attitude has the most effect on impacts.

  17. Expert systems for analysis and management assistance of nuclear reactor electrical power supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evrard, J.M.; Souchet, Y.

    1988-01-01

    Electrical power supplies of nuclear plants are very complex systems. They are studied in many ways: failure consequences, probabilistic risk assessement, failure diagnosis, corrective actions in case of incident ... Knowledge base technology (expert systems) is very suited to solve these problems. A common structural representation can generate specific functional representations; thus we get coherency and easy evolution. This paper shows a two facet methodology: the plant description (both static and dynamic) and reasoning about it. Current applications are developed for pressurized water reactors and gas cooled reactors, using the SPIRAL expert system shell buil at CEA [fr

  18. Dynamic Chaos, Conflicts in the Greater Middle East and Global Governance Mechanisms in the XXI Century (Proceedings of PFUR's Expert Seminars and Situational Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Andreevich Degterev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article summarizes the experience of methodological expert seminars and case studies of international conflict of the Department of Theory and History of International Relations of the Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences at Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia. The background and the main stages of elaboration of PFUR’s integrated multidisciplinary methodology of situation analysis of international conflicts are described. The evolution of methodological approaches to conflict analysis used in the expert community, from classical methods, including the method of analytic hierarchy by T. Saati to the nonlinear dynamics of the processes of regional development and the perception of the international system as a non-equilibrium system are shown, as well as possibilities of use of approaches of the natural sciences (theory of complex systems in the modeling of international relations. Particular attention is paid to the results of PFUR's situational analysis 2015 “Greater Middle East: twenty years later (1994-2014”. The authors show us the methodology of situation analysis in details, including the matrix approach to the distribution of research topics and the method of ranking research tasks by difficulty level between different categories of participants (students, masters, postgraduate students, teachers. A special focus is made on proceedings of leading orientalists from Russia (Institute of Oriental Studies, Russian Academy of Science and foreign countries (Austria, UK. The directions of further improvement of PFUR's methods of situational analysis are provided.

  19. Trendwatch combining expert opinion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrix, E.M.T.; Kornelis, M.; Pegge, S.M.; Galen, van M.A.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, focus is on a systematic way to detect future changes in trends that may effect the dynamics in the agro-food sector, and on the combination of opinions of experts. For the combination of expert opinions, the usefulness of multilevel models is investigated. Bayesian data analysis is

  20. SLC beam line error analysis using a model-based expert system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M.; Kleban, S.

    1988-02-01

    Commissioning particle beam line is usually a very time-consuming and labor-intensive task for accelerator physicists. To aid in commissioning, we developed a model-based expert system that identifies error-free regions, as well as localizing beam line errors. This paper will give examples of the use of our system for the SLC commissioning. 8 refs., 5 figs

  1. CRAW: An expert system for nuclear reactor cover gas alarm analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, B.D.; Rawlins, J.A.

    1987-08-01

    CRAW is an expert system designed to distinguish fuel pin rupture at the Fast Flux Test Facility. The software is used to evaluate tag gases detected by the alarm system and access operational consequences of a rupture. The ability to distinguish fuel rod as opposed to fuel pin rupture is included. The software is implemented on an IBM-PC

  2. Sensory analysis of characterizing flavors in tobacco products using a trained expert panel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erna Krüsemann

    2018-03-01

    Using a trained expert panel is a successful example of assessing characterizing flavors in tobacco products. Regulatory decisions should be made on significance level and products representing the reference space, as these directly influence strictness of the method and thus the number of products that imparts a characterizing flavor compared to the reference space.

  3. Consumers and experts. An econometric analysis of the demand for water heaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Soest, A.; Bartels, R.; Fiebig, D.G.

    2003-01-01

    Consumers can accumulate product information on the basis of a combination of searching, product advertising and expert advice. Examples of experts who provide product information include doctors advising patients on treatments, motor mechanics diagnosing car problems and recommending repairs, accountants recommending investment strategies, and plumbers making recommendations on alternative water heaters. In each of these examples, the transactions involve the sale of goods and services where the seller is at the same time an expert providing advice on the amount and type of product or service to be purchased. In the case of water heaters, the plumber advising a consumer on their choice of water heater will most likely also install the appliance. Because of the information asymmetry there is potentially a strategic element in the transmission of information from expert to consumer. This paper reports on an econometric investigation of the factors that determine the choices made by consumers and the recommendations made by plumbers and the extent to which plumbers act in the best interests of their customers. The empirical work is made possible by the availability of stated preference data generated by designed experiments involving separate samples of Australian consumers and plumbers. We find some evidence that plumbers have higher preferences than consumers for heater characteristics that increase their profit margin

  4. The primary care diagnosis of dementia in Europe: an analysis using multidisciplinary, multinational expert groups.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lepeleire, J. De; Wind, A.W.; Iliffe, S.; Moniz-Cook, E.; Wilcock, J.; Gonzalez, V.M.; Derksen, E.W.C.; Gianelli, M.V.; Vernooy-Dassen, M.J.F.J.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To explore the extent of variation in the detection of dementia in primary care across Europe, and the potential for the development of European guidelines. METHOD: A mixture of focus group and adapted nominal group methods involving 23 experts of different disciplines and from eight

  5. Patient safety incident reporting: a qualitative study of thoughts and perceptions of experts 15 years after 'To Err is Human'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Imogen; Schuster, Anne; Smith, Katherine; Pronovost, Peter; Wu, Albert

    2016-02-01

    One of the key recommendations of the Institute of Medicine's (IOM) report, To Err is Human, 15 years ago was for greater attention to incident reporting in healthcare, analogous to the role it has played in aviation and other high-risk industries. With the passage of time and maturation of the patient safety field, we conducted semistructured interviews with 11 international patient safety experts with knowledge of the US healthcare and meeting at least one of the following criteria: (1) involved in the development of the IOM's recommendations, (2) responsible for the design and/or implementation of national or regional incident reporting systems, (3) conducted research on patient safety/incident reporting at a national level. Five key challenges emerged to explain why incident reporting has not reached its potential: poor processing of incident reports (triaging, analysis, recommendations), inadequate engagement of doctors, insufficient subsequent visible action, inadequate funding and institutional support of incident reporting systems and inadequate usage of evolving health information technology. Leading patient safety experts acknowledge the current challenges of incident reports. The future of incident reporting lies in targeted incident reporting, effective triaging and robust analysis of the incident reports and meaningful engagement of doctors. Incident reporting must be coupled with visible, sustainable action and linkage of incident reports to the electronic health record. If the healthcare industry wants to learn from its mistakes, miss or near miss events, it will need to take incident reporting as seriously as the health budget. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  6. Expert Witness

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    formal rules of evidence apply) to help it understand the issues of a case and ... statements on medical expert witness by professional representative bodies in .... determining the size of the financial settlement that may have to be made to the.

  7. Exposing the Expert Discourse in Psychiatry: A Critical Analysis of an Anti-Stigma/Mental Illness Awareness Campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Daniel Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on a situational analysis of a recent anti-stigma campaign in psychiatry (Defeat Denial: Help Defeat Mental Illness this paper seeks to engage with the reader on the use of an expert discourse that focuses on the brain and its disruption as a way to address stigma associated with mental illness. To begin, we briefly highlight key statistics regarding the impact of mental illness in Canada and introduce the concept of stigma. We then introduce the Defeat Denial media campaign and describe the analytical process employed for this paper - Situational Analysis with a specific focus on discourse. We then expand on the use of the expert discourse in the awareness campaign by making connections with Rose’s concept of biological citizen and, in the final sections, present recent studies on stigma that highlight the paradox and contested construction of the (biopsychiatric self

  8. Comparison of human expert and computer-automated systems using magnitude-squared coherence (MSC) and bootstrap distribution statistics for the interpretation of pattern electroretinograms (PERGs) in infants with optic nerve hypoplasia (ONH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Anthony C; McCulloch, Daphne L; Borchert, Mark S; Garcia-Filion, Pamela; Fink, Cassandra; Eleuteri, Antonio; Simpson, David M

    2015-08-01

    Pattern electroretinograms (PERGs) have inherently low signal-to-noise ratios and can be difficult to detect when degraded by pathology or noise. We compare an objective system for automated PERG analysis with expert human interpretation in children with optic nerve hypoplasia (ONH) with PERGs ranging from clear to undetectable. PERGs were recorded uniocularly with chloral hydrate sedation in children with ONH (aged 3.5-35 months). Stimuli were reversing checks of four sizes focused using an optical system incorporating the cycloplegic refraction. Forty PERG records were analysed; 20 selected at random and 20 from eyes with good vision (fellow eyes or eyes with mild ONH) from over 300 records. Two experts identified P50 and N95 of the PERGs after manually deleting trials with movement artefact, slow-wave EEG (4-8 Hz) or other noise from raw data for 150 check reversals. The automated system first identified present/not-present responses using a magnitude-squared coherence criterion and then, for responses confirmed as present, estimated the P50 and N95 cardinal positions as the turning points in local third-order polynomials fitted in the -3 dB bandwidth [0.25 … 45] Hz. Confidence limits were estimated from bootstrap re-sampling with replacement. The automated system uses an interactive Internet-available webpage tool (see http://clinengnhs.liv.ac.uk/esp_perg_1.htm). The automated system detected 28 PERG signals above the noise level (p ≤ 0.05 for H0). Good subjective quality ratings were indicative of significant PERGs; however, poor subjective quality did not necessarily predict non-significant signals. P50 and N95 implicit times showed good agreement between the two experts and between experts and the automated system. For the N95 amplitude measured to P50, the experts differed by an average of 13% consistent with differing interpretations of peaks within noise, while the automated amplitude measure was highly correlated with the expert measures but was

  9. Expert opinion on laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancer parallels evidence from a cumulative meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Martel

    Full Text Available This study sought to synthesize survival outcomes from trials of laparoscopic and open colorectal cancer surgery, and to determine whether expert acceptance of this technology in the literature has parallel cumulative survival evidence.A systematic review of randomized trials was conducted. The primary outcome was survival, and meta-analysis of time-to-event data was conducted. Expert opinion in the literature (published reviews, guidelines, and textbook chapters on the acceptability of laparoscopic colorectal cancer was graded using a 7-point scale. Pooled survival data were correlated in time with accumulating expert opinion scores.A total of 5,800 citations were screened. Of these, 39 publications pertaining to 23 individual trials were retained. As well, 414 reviews were included (28 guidelines, 30 textbook chapters, 20 systematic reviews, 336 narrative reviews. In total, 5,782 patients were randomized to laparoscopic (n = 3,031 and open (n = 2,751 colorectal surgery. Survival data were presented in 16 publications. Laparoscopic surgery was not inferior to open surgery in terms of overall survival (HR = 0.94, 95% CI 0.80, 1.09. Expert opinion in the literature pertaining to the oncologic acceptability of laparoscopic surgery for colon cancer correlated most closely with the publication of large RCTs in 2002-2004. Although increasingly accepted since 2006, laparoscopic surgery for rectal cancer remained controversial.Laparoscopic surgery for colon cancer is non-inferior to open surgery in terms of overall survival, and has been so since 2004. The majority expert opinion in the literature has considered these two techniques to be equivalent since 2002-2004. Laparoscopic surgery for rectal cancer has been increasingly accepted since 2006, but remains controversial. Knowledge translation efforts in this field appear to have paralleled the accumulation of clinical trial evidence.

  10. Decision support systems and expert systems for risk and safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baybutt, P.

    1986-01-01

    During the last 1-2 years, rapid developments have occurred in the development of decision support systems and expert systems to aid in decision making related to risk and safety of industrial plants. These activities are most noteworthy in the nuclear industry where numerous systems are under development with implementation often being made on personal computers. An overview of some of these developments is provided, and an example of one recently developed decision support system is given. This example deals with CADET, a system developed to aid the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission in making decisions related to the topical issue of source terms resulting from degraded core accidents in light water reactors. The paper concludes with some comments on the likely directions of future developments in decision support systems and expert systems to aid in the management of risk and safety in industrial plants. (author)

  11. [Histopathological analysis of organs submitted by legal medicine experts in Baojii City: 358 forensic identification cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Du-xuan; Shi, Ping-xia; Li, Yun-li; Tian, San-hu; Yang, Jia; Gao, Gang; Zheng, Yun; Jia, Le; Ju, Hong-ya; Sun, Lu-ying; Chen, Ni; Wang, Xiao-bao

    2014-08-01

    To analyze pathological characteristics of organs recovered during forensic autopsy submitted by legal medicine experts. From Baoji city, 358 cases of forensic autopsy specimens from a series of routine exams were collected. And histopathological diagnoses were reviewed. Majority of the 358 cases were young men. The major causes of death were trauma, sudden death and poisoning. The cause of death was determined with histology in 250 cases. No typical histological changes were noted in 101 cases. The tissue autolysis and decomposition were present in 7 cases. The major pathological diagnosis was cardiovascular disease, followed by diseases in respiratory, nervous, and digestive systems. Forensic autopsy with its professional characteristics, is different from regular autopsy. When diagnosing cause of death by histopathological examination, pathologists should collaborate with legal medicine experts to know the details of the cases, circumstances surrounding the death, and specific forensic pathological characteristics.

  12. Human Reliability Analysis: session summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    The use of Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) to identify and resolve human factors issues has significantly increased over the past two years. Today, utilities, research institutions, consulting firms, and the regulatory agency have found a common application of HRA tools and Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA). The ''1985 IEEE Third Conference on Human Factors and Power Plants'' devoted three sessions to the discussion of these applications and a review of the insights so gained. This paper summarizes the three sessions and presents those common conclusions that were discussed during the meeting. The paper concludes that session participants supported the use of an adequately documented ''living PRA'' to address human factors issues in design and procedural changes, regulatory compliance, and training and that the techniques can produce cost effective qualitative results that are complementary to more classical human factors methods

  13. How to Design Tobacco Prevention and Control Games for Youth and Adolescents: A Qualitative Analysis of Expert Interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Amanda K; Mercado, Rebeccah; Anderson-Lewis, Charkarra; Darville, Gabrielle; Bernhardt, Jay M

    2015-12-01

    Games for health, including digital videogames and gaming-based approaches, are increasingly being used in health promotion research and practice. Recently published research has shown that videogames have significant potential to promote healthy behaviors among youth and adolescents. Yet, there is a lack of available evidence-based resources to guide practitioners on the integration of games into tobacco prevention and smoking cessation interventions. To address this gap, expert researchers and game developers were interviewed to further define games for health, explore the current research, and provide recommendations for developing, evaluating, and promoting effective anti-tobacco games. Nationally recognized experts on game development, games for health, tobacco, and health behavior were asked to participate. A qualitative analysis of 25 in-depth individual interviews using a constant comparative approach for emerging themes was conducted. Main themes that emerged from the data analysis included the following: (1) the current state of games for health research to facilitate health behavior change, (2) strategies for how to develop and evaluate games for quality and impact, and (3) recommendations for how to effectively design tobacco prevention and smoking cessation educational videogames that engage youth and adolescents. The synthesized findings identified through these expert interviews offer stakeholders strategies for how to incorporate games for health within their current and future work. Specific recommendations are presented for developers and researchers to consider when developing and evaluating videogames for tobacco prevention and smoking cessation targeted at youth and adolescents.

  14. Sleep-spindle detection: crowdsourcing and evaluating performance of experts, non-experts and automated methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warby, Simon C.; Wendt, Sabrina Lyngbye; Welinder, Peter

    2014-01-01

    to crowdsource spindle identification by human experts and non-experts, and we compared their performance with that of automated detection algorithms in data from middle- to older-aged subjects from the general population. We also refined methods for forming group consensus and evaluating the performance...... of event detectors in physiological data such as electroencephalographic recordings from polysomnography. Compared to the expert group consensus gold standard, the highest performance was by individual experts and the non-expert group consensus, followed by automated spindle detectors. This analysis showed...... that crowdsourcing the scoring of sleep data is an efficient method to collect large data sets, even for difficult tasks such as spindle identification. Further refinements to spindle detection algorithms are needed for middle- to older-aged subjects....

  15. Knowledge management: an analysis of the tools of expert knowledge capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Larcher, A.

    2009-01-01

    This work proposes the revision of the strategies and tools used to elicit and capture expert knowledge, particularly those suggested by the EPRI and the IAEA. The main objective of this paper consists of examining the effectiveness and scope of the methodologies proposed, in order to apply them and make them suitable according to our institutional context. This article emphasizes the value and usefulness of the interview's methods with the aim of implementing some of them to the activities created and organized by CNEA Nuclear Knowledge Management Group, especially to the ConRRad Project. (author)

  16. Toward a sustainability label for food products: an analysis of experts' and consumers' acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, Stéphanie V; Hansmann, Ralf; Scholz, Roland W

    2010-01-01

    The recent proliferation of standards and labels for organic, fair-trade, locally produced, and healthy food products risks creating confusion among consumers. This study presents a standardized approach to developing a comprehensive sustainability label that incorporates ecological, economic, and social values. The methodology is based on an extension of modular life-cycle assessment to non-environmental sustainability criteria. Interviews with a wide range of experts (n=65) and a consumer survey (n=233) were conducted to analyze the feasibility and potential effectiveness of the approach. Responses indicated that a comprehensive sustainability label could considerably influence consumption patterns and facilitate cross-product comparisons. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

  17. Human reliability analysis methods for probabilistic safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyy, P.

    2000-11-01

    Human reliability analysis (HRA) of a probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) includes identifying human actions from safety point of view, modelling the most important of them in PSA models, and assessing their probabilities. As manifested by many incidents and studies, human actions may have both positive and negative effect on safety and economy. Human reliability analysis is one of the areas of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) that has direct applications outside the nuclear industry. The thesis focuses upon developments in human reliability analysis methods and data. The aim is to support PSA by extending the applicability of HRA. The thesis consists of six publications and a summary. The summary includes general considerations and a discussion about human actions in the nuclear power plant (NPP) environment. A condensed discussion about the results of the attached publications is then given, including new development in methods and data. At the end of the summary part, the contribution of the publications to good practice in HRA is presented. In the publications, studies based on the collection of data on maintenance-related failures, simulator runs and expert judgement are presented in order to extend the human reliability analysis database. Furthermore, methodological frameworks are presented to perform a comprehensive HRA, including shutdown conditions, to study reliability of decision making, and to study the effects of wrong human actions. In the last publication, an interdisciplinary approach to analysing human decision making is presented. The publications also include practical applications of the presented methodological frameworks. (orig.)

  18. Notes on human performance analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollnagel, E.; Pedersen, O.M.; Rasmussen, J.

    1981-06-01

    This paper contains a framework for the integration of observation and analysis of human performance in nuclear environments - real or simulated. It identifies four main sources of data, and describes the characteristic data types and methods of analysis for each source in relation to a common conceptual background. The general conclusion is that it is highly useful to combine the knowledge and experience from different contexts into coherent picture of how nuclear operators perform under varying circumstances. (author)

  19. An integrated real-time diagnostic concept using expert systems, qualitative reasoning and quantitative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, R.M.; Lee, K.Y.; Kumara, S.; Levine, S.H.

    1989-01-01

    An approach for an integrated real-time diagnostic system is being developed for inclusion as an integral part of a power plant automatic control system. In order to participate in control decisions and automatic closed loop operation, the diagnostic system must operate in real-time. Thus far, an expert system with real-time capabilities has been developed and installed on a subsystem at the Experimental Breeder Reactor (EBR-II) in Idaho, USA. Real-time simulation testing of advanced power plant concepts at the Pennsylvania State University has been developed and was used to support the expert system development and installation at EBR-II. Recently, the US National Science Foundation (NSF) and the US Department of Energy (DOE) have funded a Penn State research program to further enhance application of real-time diagnostic systems by pursuing implementation in a distributed power plant computer system including microprocessor based controllers. This paper summarizes past, current, planned, and possible future approaches to power plant diagnostic systems research at Penn State. 34 refs., 9 figs

  20. A demonstration of expert systems applications in transportation engineering : volume I, transportation engineers and expert systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Expert systems, a branch of artificial-intelligence studies, is introduced with a view to its relevance in transportation engineering. Knowledge engineering, the process of building expert systems or transferring knowledge from human experts to compu...

  1. Safety culture in regulatory expert organization : analysis result of survey for KINS employees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, G. S.; Choi, Y. S.

    2003-01-01

    Much has been discussed on safety culture of operating organizations, however, little has been done on that of regulatory organization. Current issues and activities related to nuclear safety culture at IAEA, OECD/NEA, etc. were investigated and relevant literatures were reviewed. Elements essential for safety culture of regulatory organization were proposed and survey questionnaire for employees of regulatory expert organization, KINS, was developed based on the elements proposed. The survey result was presented and its implications were discussed. Based on the result, elements of safety culture in regulatory organization were proposed. The result of this survey can be used in developing safety culture model of regulatory organization, measurement method and also promotion of safety culture in regulatory organization

  2. The problem of popularisation of expert texts: Analysis of media discourses on Ljubljana urbanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matjaž Uršič

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the period after the post-socialist transition of Slovenia we can notice an increased number of instrumental, marketing oriented public relation (PR activities in expert and popular media from the field of spatial planning. The problem of instrumentalisation of media discourses reflects in exclusion i.e. deficiency of content-argumentative language in public debate. The basic purpose of the article is to analyse and expose some of the relationships and processes that have great influence in the space of the city and its surroundings. The article draws on empirical evidence from quantitative and qualitative analyse of texts and pays attention to some of the actual cases in spatial planning that show hidden contents, explicit and implicit ideological constructions, particularisms of interest groups and strategies of instrumental marketing campaigns.

  3. Predicting Consumer Effort in Finding and Paying for Health Care: Expert Interviews and Claims Data Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Sandra; Monsen, Karen A; Pieczkiewicz, David; Wolfson, Julian; Khairat, Saif

    2017-10-12

    For consumers to accept and use a health care information system, it must be easy to use, and the consumer must perceive it as being free from effort. Finding health care providers and paying for care are tasks that must be done to access treatment. These tasks require effort on the part of the consumer and can be frustrating when the goal of the consumer is primarily to receive treatments for better health. The aim of this study was to determine the factors that result in consumer effort when finding accessible health care. Having an understanding of these factors will help define requirements when designing health information systems. A panel of 12 subject matter experts was consulted and the data from 60 million medical claims were used to determine the factors contributing to effort. Approximately 60 million claims were processed by the health care insurance organization in a 12-month duration with the population defined. Over 292 million diagnoses from claims were used to validate the panel input. The results of the study showed that the number of people in the consumer's household, number of visits to providers outside the consumer's insurance network, number of adjusted and denied medical claims, and number of consumer inquiries are a proxy for the level of effort in finding and paying for care. The effort level, so measured and weighted per expert panel recommendations, differed by diagnosis. This study provides an understanding of how consumers must put forth effort when engaging with a health care system to access care. For higher satisfaction and acceptance results, health care payers ideally will design and develop systems that facilitate an understanding of how to avoid denied claims, educate on the payment of claims to avoid adjustments, and quickly find providers of affordable care. ©Sandra Long, Karen A. Monsen, David Pieczkiewicz, Julian Wolfson, Saif Khairat. Originally published in JMIR Medical Informatics (http://medinform.jmir.org), 12.10.2017.

  4. Expert Systems: What Is an Expert System?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, Beverly K.; Main, Linda

    1994-01-01

    Describes expert systems and discusses their use in libraries. Highlights include parts of an expert system; expert system shells; an example of how to build an expert system; a bibliography of 34 sources of information on expert systems in libraries; and a list of 10 expert system shells used in libraries. (Contains five references.) (LRW)

  5. CORMIX2: An expert system for hydrodynamic mixing zone analysis of conventional and toxic multiport diffuser discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akar, P.J.; Jirka, G.H.

    1991-12-01

    One of the most important tasks in the management of water quality is the ability to achieve pollutant concentrations within regulated standards. The Cornell Mixing Zone Expert System (CORMIX) is a series of software systems for the analysis, prediction, and design of aqueous toxic or conventional pollutant discharges into watercourses, with emphasis on the geometry and dilution characteristics of the initial mixing zone. The present development, subsystem CORMIX2 is concerned with submerged multiport discharges into flowing water environments, such as rivers, lakes, estuaries, and coastal waters. It includes effects of ambient stratification, dynamic attachment of the plume to the bottom of the receiving water, and the limiting case of stagnant conditions

  6. Expert evaluation of innovation projects of mining enterprises on the basis of methods of system analysis and fuzzy logics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pimonov Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the multipurpose approach to evaluation of research and innovation projects based on the method of analysis of hierarchies and fuzzy logics for the mining industry. The approach, implemented as part of a decision support system, can reduce the degree of subjectivity during examinations by taking into account both quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the compared innovative alternatives; it does not depend on specific conditions of examination and allows engagement of experts of various fields of knowledge. The system includes the mechanism of coordination of several experts’ views. Using of fuzzy logics allows evaluating the qualitative characteristics of innovations in the form of formalized logical conclusions.

  7. Cost estimation: An expert-opinion approach. [cost analysis of research projects using the Delphi method (forecasting)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffalano, C.; Fogleman, S.; Gielecki, M.

    1976-01-01

    A methodology is outlined which can be used to estimate the costs of research and development projects. The approach uses the Delphi technique a method developed by the Rand Corporation for systematically eliciting and evaluating group judgments in an objective manner. The use of the Delphi allows for the integration of expert opinion into the cost-estimating process in a consistent and rigorous fashion. This approach can also signal potential cost-problem areas. This result can be a useful tool in planning additional cost analysis or in estimating contingency funds. A Monte Carlo approach is also examined.

  8. Expert-Opinion Elicitation for the Risk Analysis of Design-Improvement Alternatives to the Lindy Claiborne Boggs Lock and Dam

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ayyub, Bilal M

    2002-01-01

    This report documents the expert-opinion elicitation performed to meet risk analysis needs of the lower lock approach sediment management improvement alternatives to the Lindy Claiborne Boggs Lock and Dam...

  9. Balzac and human gait analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado-Vázquez, S; Carrillo, J M

    2015-05-01

    People have been interested in movement analysis in general, and gait analysis in particular, since ancient times. Aristotle, Hippocrates, Galen, Leonardo da Vinci and Honoré de Balzac all used observation to analyse the gait of human beings. The purpose of this study is to compare Honoré de Balzac's writings with a scientific analysis of human gait. Honoré de Balzac's Theory of walking and other works by that author referring to gait. Honoré de Balzac had an interest in gait analysis, as demonstrated by his descriptions of characters which often include references to their way of walking. He also wrote a treatise entitled Theory of walking (Théorie de la demarche) in which he employed his keen observation skills to define gait using a literary style. He stated that the walking process is divided into phases and listed the factors that influence gait, such as personality, mood, height, weight, profession and social class, and also provided a description of the correct way of walking. Balzac considered gait analysis to be very important and this is reflected in both his character descriptions and Theory of walking, his analytical observation of gait. In our own technology-dominated times, this serves as a reminder of the importance of observation. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Expert Systems Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, Richard O.; Shortliffe, Edward H.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses a class of artificial intelligence computer programs (often called "expert systems" because they address problems normally thought to require human specialists for their solution) intended to serve as consultants for decision making. Also discusses accomplishments (including information systematization in medical diagnosis and…

  11. Expert Opinion Analysis on Renewable Hydrogen Storage Systems Potential in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Astiaso Garcia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Among the several typologies of storage technologies, mainly on different physical principles (mechanical, electrical and chemical, hydrogen produced by power to gas (P2G from renewable energy sources complies with chemical storage principle and is based on the conversion of electrical energy into chemical energy by means of the electrolysis of water which does not produce any toxic or climate-relevant emission. This paper aims to pinpoint the potential uses of renewable hydrogen storage systems in Europe, analysing current and potential locations, regulatory framework, governments’ outlooks, economic issues, and available renewable energy amounts. The expert opinion survey, already used in many research articles on different topics including energy, has been selected as an effective method to produce realistic results. The obtained results highlight strategies and actions to optimize the storage of hydrogen produced by renewables to face varying electricity demand and generation-driven fluctuations reducing the negative effects of the increasing share of renewables in the energy mix of European Countries.

  12. Looking beyond the forest: Using harvest plots, gap analysis, and expert consultations to assess effectiveness, engage stakeholders, and inform policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, J; Polus, S; Brereton, L; Chilcott, J; Ward, S E; Pfadenhauer, L M; Rehfuess, E A

    2018-03-01

    We describe a combination of methods for assessing the effectiveness of complex interventions, especially where substantial heterogeneity with regard to the population, intervention, comparison, outcomes, and study design of interest is expected. We applied these methods in a recent systematic review of the effectiveness of reinforced home-based palliative care (rHBPC) interventions, which included home-based care with an additional and explicit component of lay caregiver support. We first summarized the identified evidence, deemed inappropriate for statistical pooling, graphically by creating harvest plots. Although very useful as a tool for summary and presentation of overall effectiveness, such graphical summary approaches may obscure relevant differences between studies. Thus, we then used a gap analysis and conducted expert consultations to look beyond the aggregate level at how the identified evidence of effectiveness may be explained. The goal of these supplemental methods was to step outside of the conventional systematic review and explore this heterogeneity from a broader perspective, based on the experience of palliative care researchers and practitioners. The gap analysis and expert consultations provided valuable input into possible underlying explanations in the evidence, which could be helpful in the further adaptation and testing of existing rHBPC interventions or the development and evaluation of new ones. We feel that such a combination of methods could prove accessible, understandable, and useful in informing decisions and could thus help increase the relevance of systematic reviews to the decision-making process. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. The American Nurses Association Code of Ethics: a reflection on the ethics of respect and human dignity with nurse as expert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton, Constance L

    2003-10-01

    The American Nurses Association Code of Ethics for Nurses calls for the nurse to practice with compassion and respect for every individual. What are the ethics and challenges of practicing professional nursing with expertise and educating a new generation of nurses while incorporating the interpretive statements into practice? This column differentiates the traditional biomedical views on human dignity and respect while exploring the embedded ethics of respect and self-determination and what it truly means to be an expert of nursing from the theoretical perspective of the human becoming school of thought.

  14. The readability of expert reports for non-scientist report-users: reports of DNA analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, Loene M; Julian, Roberta; Kelty, Sally F; Kemp, Nenagh; Kirkbride, K Paul

    2014-04-01

    DNA evidence can be extremely compelling. With ongoing scientific advances and applications of DNA evidence in the criminal justice system, it is increasingly important that police, lawyers, and judges recognise both the limitations of DNA evidence and the strength of the evidence in particular cases. Because most forensic sciences are formally communicated via expert reports, we analysed the readability of 68 such reports of DNA evidence from 6 of 8 Australian jurisdictions. We conducted content analyses using three categories: content and sequence, language, and format. Categories contained qualitative and quantitative items drawn from theory and past research. Report styles differed by jurisdiction and by main audience - police and the courts. Reports for police were brief and few links were made between sections in these reports. Reports for courts were less brief and used either legal or scientific styles. Common sections in reports for courts included: the scientist's specialised knowledge; laboratory accreditation information; item list; results; and notes on interpretation. Sections were often not in a logical sequence, due to the use of appendices. According to Flesch Reading Ease scores, reports for police had language that was fairly difficult, and reports for courts, difficult. Difficulty was compounded by the use of specialist terms. Reports for police and the appendices of reports for court often used very small font and single line spacing. Many reports for court contained tables that spanned several pages. Suggestions based on theory and past research are provided to assist scientists to enhance the readability of reports for non-scientists. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Analysis of expert validation on developing integrated science worksheet to improve problem solving skills of natural science prospective teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widodo, W.; Sudibyo, E.; Sari, D. A. P.

    2018-04-01

    This study aims to develop student worksheets for higher education that apply integrated science learning in discussing issues about motion in humans. These worksheets will guide students to solve the problem about human movement. They must integrate their knowledge about biology, physics, and chemistry to solve the problem. The worksheet was validated by three experts in Natural Science Integrated Science, especially in Human Movement topic. The aspects of the validation were feasibility of the content, the construction, and the language. This research used the Likert scale to measure the validity of each aspect, which is 4.00 for very good validity criteria, 3.00 for good validity criteria, 2.00 for more or less validity criteria, and 1.00 for not good validity criteria. Data showed that the validity for each aspect were in the range of good validity and very good validity criteria (3.33 to 3.67 for the content aspect, 2.33 to 4.00 for the construction aspect, and 3.33 to 4.00 for language aspect). However, there was a part of construction aspect that needed to improve. Overall, this students’ worksheet can be applied in classroom after some revisions based on suggestions from the validators.

  16. Advisory expert system for energy analysis in industrial boilers; Sistema experto asesor en el analisis energetico de calderas industriales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemper Valverde, Nicolas; Lara Rosano, Felipe; Vazquez Nava, Rodolfo [Laboratorio de Inteligencia Artificial, Instituto de Ingenieria UNAM, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1994-12-31

    This paper presents an expert system for the operational analysis of industrial boilers, estimating the potential of heat recovery, in the small and medium size industry. The package is friendly, practical, flexible easy to maintain and expandable to take into consideration the user`s specific requirements and allows the analysis of the energy losses in the combustion, feed water, drains, and insulation, identifying the enhancements and estimating the saving potential, in energy as well as economical. [Espanol] En este trabajo se presenta un sistema experto para analizar la operacion de calderas industriales estimando el potencial de recuperacion de calor, en la pequena y mediana industria. El paquete es amigable, practico, flexible, facil en su mantenimiento y expandible para tomar en consideracion los requerimientos especificos de los usuarios y permite el analisis de las perdidas de energia en la combustion, agua de alimentacion, purgas y aislamientos, identificando las mejoras y estimando ahorros potenciales, tanto energeticos como economicos.

  17. OECD/NEA expert group on uncertainty analysis for criticality safety assessment: Results of benchmark on sensitivity calculation (phase III)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanova, T.; Laville, C. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire IRSN, BP 17, 92262 Fontenay aux Roses (France); Dyrda, J. [Atomic Weapons Establishment AWE, Aldermaston, Reading, RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); Mennerdahl, D. [E Mennerdahl Systems EMS, Starvaegen 12, 18357 Taeby (Sweden); Golovko, Y.; Raskach, K.; Tsiboulia, A. [Inst. for Physics and Power Engineering IPPE, 1, Bondarenko sq., 249033 Obninsk (Russian Federation); Lee, G. S.; Woo, S. W. [Korea Inst. of Nuclear Safety KINS, 62 Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-338 (Korea, Republic of); Bidaud, A.; Sabouri, P. [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie LPSC, CNRS-IN2P3/UJF/INPG, Grenoble (France); Patel, A. [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Washington, DC 20555-0001 (United States); Bledsoe, K.; Rearden, B. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory ORNL, M.S. 6170, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Gulliford, J.; Michel-Sendis, F. [OECD/NEA, 12, Bd des Iles, 92130 Issy-les-Moulineaux (France)

    2012-07-01

    The sensitivities of the k{sub eff} eigenvalue to neutron cross sections have become commonly used in similarity studies and as part of the validation algorithm for criticality safety assessments. To test calculations of the sensitivity coefficients, a benchmark study (Phase III) has been established by the OECD-NEA/WPNCS/EG UACSA (Expert Group on Uncertainty Analysis for Criticality Safety Assessment). This paper presents some sensitivity results generated by the benchmark participants using various computational tools based upon different computational methods: SCALE/TSUNAMI-3D and -1D, MONK, APOLLO2-MORET 5, DRAGON-SUSD3D and MMKKENO. The study demonstrates the performance of the tools. It also illustrates how model simplifications impact the sensitivity results and demonstrates the importance of 'implicit' (self-shielding) sensitivities. This work has been a useful step towards verification of the existing and developed sensitivity analysis methods. (authors)

  18. The National Expert Standard Pressure Ulcer Prevention in Nursing and pressure ulcer prevalence in German health care facilities: a multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilborn, Doris; Grittner, Ulrike; Dassen, Theo; Kottner, Jan

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the relationship between the German National Expert Standard Pressure Ulcer Prevention and the pressure ulcer prevalence in German nursing homes and hospitals. The patient outcome pressure ulcer does not only depend on individual characteristics of patients, but also on institutional factors. In Germany, National Expert Standards are evidence-based instruments that build the basis of continuing improvement in health care quality. It is expected that after having implemented the National Expert Standard Pressure Ulcer Prevention, the number of pressure ulcers should decrease in health care institutions. The analysed data were obtained from two cross-sectional studies from 2004-2005. A multilevel analysis was performed to show the impact of the National Expert Standard Pressure Ulcer Prevention on pressure ulcer prevalence. A total of 41.5% of hospitals and 38.8% of the nursing homes claimed to use the National Expert Standard in the process of developing their local protocols. The overall pressure ulcer prevalence grade 2-4 was 4.7%. Adjusted for hospital departments, survey year and individual characteristics, there was no significant difference in the prevalence of pressure ulcers between institutions that refer to the National Expert Standard or those referring to other sources in developing their local protocols (OR=1.14, 95% CI=0.90-1.44). There was no empirical evidence demonstrating that local protocols of pressure ulcer prevention based on the National Expert Standard were superior to local protocols which refer other sources of knowledge with regard to the pressure ulcer prevalence. The use of the National Expert Standard Pressure Ulcer Prevention can neither be recommended nor be refused. The recent definition of implementation of Expert Standards should be mandatory for all health care institutions which introduce Expert Standards. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Leveraging Data Analysis for Domain Experts: An Embeddable Framework for Basic Data Science Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohrer, Johannes-Y.; Kaltenthaler, Daniel; Kröger, Peer

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a framework for data analysis that can be embedded into a base application. Since it is important to analyze the data directly inside the application where the data is entered, a tool that allows the scientists to easily work with their data, supports and motivates the execution of further analysis of their data, which…

  20. Expert cognition in the production sequence of Acheulian cleavers at Gesher Benot Ya'aqov, Israel: A lithic and cognitive analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzlinger, Gadi; Wynn, Thomas; Goren-Inbar, Naama

    2017-01-01

    Stone cleavers are one of the most distinctive components of the Acheulian toolkit. These tools were produced as part of a long and complex reduction sequence and they provide indications for planning and remarkable knapping skill. These aspects hold implications regarding the cognitive complexity and abilities of their makers and users. In this study we have analyzed a cleaver assemblage originating from the Acheulian site of Gesher Benot Ya'aqov, Israel, to provide a reconstruction of the chaîne opératoire which structured their production. This reduction sequence was taken as the basis for a cognitive analysis which allowed us to draw conclusion regarding numerous behavioral and cognitive aspects of the GBY hominins. The results indicate that the cleavers production incorporated a highly specific sequence of decisions and actions which resulted in three distinct modes of cleavers modification. Furthermore, the decision to produce a cleaver must have been taken very early in the sequence, thus differentiating its production from that of handaxes. The substantial predetermination and the specific reduction sequence provide evidence that the Gesher Benot Ya'aqov hominins had a number of cognitive categories such as a general 'tool concept' and a more specific 'cleaver concept', setting them apart from earlier tool-producing hominins and extant tool-using non-human primates. Furthermore, it appears that the Gesher Benot Ya'aqov lithic technology was governed by expert cognition, which is the kind of thinking typical of modern human experts in their various domains. Thus, the results provide direct indications that important components of modern cognition have been well established in the minds of the Gesher Benot Ya'aqov hominins.

  1. Can taking the perspective of an expert debias human decisions? The case for risky and delayed gains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal eBialek

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In several reported previously studies, participants increased their normative correctness after being instructed to think hypothetically, specifically taking the perspective of an expert or researcher (Beatty & Thompson 2012, Morsanyi & Handley 2012. The goal of this paper was to investigate how this manipulation affects risky or delayed payoffs. In two studies, participants (n=193 were tested online (in exchange for money using the adjusting procedure. Individuals produced certain/immediate equivalents for risky/delayed gains. Participants in the control group were solving the problem from their own perspective, while participants in the experimental group were asked to imagine what would a reliable and honest advisor advise them to do.Study 1 showed that when taking the perspective of an expert, participants in experimental group became more risk aversive compared to participants in the control group. Additionally, their certain equivalents diverged from the Expected Value (EV to a greater extent. The results obtained from the experimental group in Study 2 suggest that participants became less impulsive, which means they tried to inhibit their preferences. This favors the explanation, which suggests that the perspective shift forced individuals to override their intuitions with the social norms. Individuals expect to be blamed for impatience or risk taking thus expected an expert to advise them to be more patient and risk aversive.

  2. Can taking the perspective of an expert debias human decisions? The case of risky and delayed gains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Białek, Michał; Sawicki, Przemysław

    2014-01-01

    In several previously reported studies, participants increased their normative correctness after being instructed to think hypothetically, specifically taking the perspective of an expert or researcher (Beatty and Thompson, 2012; Morsanyi and Handley, 2012). The goal of this paper was to investigate how this manipulation affects risky or delayed payoffs. In two studies, participants (n = 193) were tested online (in exchange for money) using the adjusting procedure. Individuals produced certain/immediate equivalents for risky/delayed gains. Participants in the control group were solving the problem from their own perspective, while participants in the experimental group were asked to imagine "what would a reliable and honest advisor advise them to do." Study 1 showed that when taking the perspective of an expert, participants in experimental group became more risk aversive compared to participants in the control group. Additionally, their certain equivalents diverged from the expected value to a greater extent. The results obtained from the experimental group in Study 2 suggest that participants became less impulsive, which means they tried to inhibit their preferences. This favors the explanation, which suggests that the perspective shift forced individuals to override their intuitions with the social norms. Individuals expect to be blamed for impatience or risk taking thus expected an expert to advise them to be more patient and risk aversive.

  3. Microprobe analysis in human pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, D.; Kupke, K.G.; Ingram, P.; Roggli, V.L.; Shelburne, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    This tutorial paper reviews the literature on the application of microprobe analysis to practical problems in diagnostic human pathology. The goal is to allow the reader ready access to the literature on specific clinical problems. Specimen preparation and commonly encountered artifacts are also considered. It is concluded that energy dispersive x-ray microanalysis and back-scattered electron imaging are at present the most generally useful microprobe techniques for clinical work, and are no longer solely research tools. The findings often have diagnostic, therapeutic, and/or legal implications. 332 references

  4. Microprobe analysis of human fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allan, G.L.; Zhu, J.; Legge, G.J.F.

    1985-01-01

    The Melbourne Proton Microprobe has been used to study the copper content in human skin fibroblast cells derived from patients with the genetic disease Menkes Syndrome. Both normal and diseased cells have been studied to investigate any elemental differences occurring between the two cell types. This paper details the preparatory techniques necessary for individual cell analysis and presents the elemental information with a new three dimensional contour mapping technique. These maps are used to highlight elemental differences between normal and mutant fibroblasts. The work also confirms the expected copper excess found in the Menkes cell and indicates that the microprobe can be used for rapid identification of a Menkes carrier

  5. Expert cube development with SQL server analysis services 2012 multidimensional models

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrari, Alberto; Russo, Marco

    2014-01-01

    An easy-to-follow guide full of hands on examples of real-world Analysis Services cube development tasks. Each topic is explained and placed in context, and for the more inquisitive reader, there also more in-depth details of the concepts used.If you are an Analysis Services cube designer wishing to learn more advanced topic and best practices for cube design, this book is for you.You are expected to have some prior experience with Analysis Services cube development.

  6. Top-down and bottom-up definitions of human failure events in human reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boring, Ronald Laurids

    2014-01-01

    In the probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) used in the nuclear industry, human failure events (HFEs) are determined as a subset of hardware failures, namely those hardware failures that could be triggered by human action or inaction. This approach is top-down, starting with hardware faults and deducing human contributions to those faults. Elsewhere, more traditionally human factors driven approaches would tend to look at opportunities for human errors first in a task analysis and then identify which of those errors is risk significant. The intersection of top-down and bottom-up approaches to defining HFEs has not been carefully studied. Ideally, both approaches should arrive at the same set of HFEs. This question is crucial, however, as human reliability analysis (HRA) methods are generalized to new domains like oil and gas. The HFEs used in nuclear PRAs tend to be top-down - defined as a subset of the PRA - whereas the HFEs used in petroleum quantitative risk assessments (QRAs) often tend to be bottom-up - derived from a task analysis conducted by human factors experts. The marriage of these approaches is necessary in order to ensure that HRA methods developed for top-down HFEs are also sufficient for bottom-up applications.

  7. Ask the Experts: How Can New Students Defend Behavior Analysis from Misunderstandings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becirevic, Amel

    2014-10-01

    The success of behavior analysis as a field depends on the successes of its students, researchers, practitioners, and advocates. A new generation of graduate students will ultimately speak on the behalf of the field. In order to further promote the field, students must not only learn about what behavior analysis is, but also about what behavior analysis is not. We must prepare ourselves to adequately defend behavior analysis from those who disseminate misperceptions and misunderstandings. As such, an electronic survey designed to glean some information on how behavior analysts would respond to various inaccuracies or misunderstandings of behavior analysis was distributed through behavior-analytic listservs and social media websites. Findings show that the majority of respondents indicate that any graduate student ought to correct the misunderstandings about the field. What do seasoned behavior analysts have to say about the majority opinion about the responsibilities of graduate students and what recommendations do they have for new graduate students who come across misunderstandings about behavior analysis?

  8. Human Modeling for Ground Processing Human Factors Engineering Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stambolian, Damon B.; Lawrence, Brad A.; Stelges, Katrine S.; Steady, Marie-Jeanne O.; Ridgwell, Lora C.; Mills, Robert E.; Henderson, Gena; Tran, Donald; Barth, Tim

    2011-01-01

    There have been many advancements and accomplishments over the last few years using human modeling for human factors engineering analysis for design of spacecraft. The key methods used for this are motion capture and computer generated human models. The focus of this paper is to explain the human modeling currently used at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), and to explain the future plans for human modeling for future spacecraft designs

  9. The role of human-at-work systems in business sustainability: perspectives based on expert and qualified production workers in a manufacturing enterprise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genaidy, Ash M; Rinder, Maria M; Sequeira, Reynold; A-Rehim, Amal

    2010-04-01

    and enterprise levels, in terms of organisational/social/technological environment. This is particularly noted for the organisational environment. The compatibility values obtained for the experienced domains mirror those obtained for acting domains. The overall workload was assessed as requiring major redesign during the day shift and needing added responsibilities for the night shift according to both expert and qualified workers. The assessment of qualified workers is comparable with that of expert workers for the job content and immediate surroundings. Differences are more observed for process- and enterprise-based factors; thereby, providing company management different perspectives in order to devise organisational strategies conducive for optimum human and corporate health and pointing to the probable interactions of the different systems impacting individual and enterprise performance. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This research examines similarities and differences between qualified and expert workers in their assessment of the worker-work environment interface. The contribution to improved understanding of the complex interactions of human-at-work and enterprise systems should be beneficial to organisations in their quest to remain competitive in a global economy.

  10. System Experts and Decision Making Experts in Transdisciplinary Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mieg, Harald A.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims at a better understanding of expert roles in transdisciplinary projects. Thus, the main purpose is the analysis of the roles of experts in transdisciplinary projects. Design/methodology/approach: The analysis of the ETH-UNS case studies from the point of view of the psychology of expertise and the sociology of professions…

  11. Nuclear expert web mining system: monitoring and analysis of nuclear acceptance by information retrieval and opinion extraction on the Internet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, Thiago; Barroso, Antonio C.O.; Imakuma, Kengo, E-mail: thiagoreis@usp.b, E-mail: barroso@ipen.b, E-mail: kimakuma@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents a research initiative that aims to collect nuclear related information and to analyze opinionated texts by mining the hypertextual data environment and social networks web sites on the Internet. Different from previous approaches that employed traditional statistical techniques, it is being proposed a novel Web Mining approach, built using the concept of Expert Systems, for massive and autonomous data collection and analysis. The initial step has been accomplished, resulting in a framework design that is able to gradually encompass a set of evolving techniques, methods, and theories in such a way that this work will build a platform upon which new researches can be performed more easily by just substituting modules or plugging in new ones. Upon completion it is expected that this research will contribute to the understanding of the population views on nuclear technology and its acceptance. (author)

  12. Nuclear expert web mining system: monitoring and analysis of nuclear acceptance by information retrieval and opinion extraction on the Internet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reis, Thiago; Barroso, Antonio C.O.; Imakuma, Kengo

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a research initiative that aims to collect nuclear related information and to analyze opinionated texts by mining the hypertextual data environment and social networks web sites on the Internet. Different from previous approaches that employed traditional statistical techniques, it is being proposed a novel Web Mining approach, built using the concept of Expert Systems, for massive and autonomous data collection and analysis. The initial step has been accomplished, resulting in a framework design that is able to gradually encompass a set of evolving techniques, methods, and theories in such a way that this work will build a platform upon which new researches can be performed more easily by just substituting modules or plugging in new ones. Upon completion it is expected that this research will contribute to the understanding of the population views on nuclear technology and its acceptance. (author)

  13. A prototype expert system to support the development of a fault-tree analysis software for nuclear reactor safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesko, L.

    1990-01-01

    The project called EMERIS is designed to provide a material testing nuclear reactor and experimental loops with a software for the 'acquisition, evaluation and archivation of measured data during the operation of the experimental facility'. The project which gives job a team has a duration of two years and involves three Vax compatible TPA-type computers and many smaller computers for data digitalization and graphical workstations. The detailed description of the project is not the task of the paper. One of its modules, however, plays an important role in the considerations. Namely the module for distrubance analysis (DA) which is planned to perform a rule based on-line evaluation of numerous predefined fault trees in an expert system like environment

  14. Accident Sequence Evaluation Program: Human reliability analysis procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swain, A.D.

    1987-02-01

    This document presents a shortened version of the procedure, models, and data for human reliability analysis (HRA) which are presented in the Handbook of Human Reliability Analysis With emphasis on Nuclear Power Plant Applications (NUREG/CR-1278, August 1983). This shortened version was prepared and tried out as part of the Accident Sequence Evaluation Program (ASEP) funded by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and managed by Sandia National Laboratories. The intent of this new HRA procedure, called the ''ASEP HRA Procedure,'' is to enable systems analysts, with minimal support from experts in human reliability analysis, to make estimates of human error probabilities and other human performance characteristics which are sufficiently accurate for many probabilistic risk assessments. The ASEP HRA Procedure consists of a Pre-Accident Screening HRA, a Pre-Accident Nominal HRA, a Post-Accident Screening HRA, and a Post-Accident Nominal HRA. The procedure in this document includes changes made after tryout and evaluation of the procedure in four nuclear power plants by four different systems analysts and related personnel, including human reliability specialists. The changes consist of some additional explanatory material (including examples), and more detailed definitions of some of the terms. 42 refs.

  15. Accident Sequence Evaluation Program: Human reliability analysis procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swain, A.D.

    1987-02-01

    This document presents a shortened version of the procedure, models, and data for human reliability analysis (HRA) which are presented in the Handbook of Human Reliability Analysis With emphasis on Nuclear Power Plant Applications (NUREG/CR-1278, August 1983). This shortened version was prepared and tried out as part of the Accident Sequence Evaluation Program (ASEP) funded by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and managed by Sandia National Laboratories. The intent of this new HRA procedure, called the ''ASEP HRA Procedure,'' is to enable systems analysts, with minimal support from experts in human reliability analysis, to make estimates of human error probabilities and other human performance characteristics which are sufficiently accurate for many probabilistic risk assessments. The ASEP HRA Procedure consists of a Pre-Accident Screening HRA, a Pre-Accident Nominal HRA, a Post-Accident Screening HRA, and a Post-Accident Nominal HRA. The procedure in this document includes changes made after tryout and evaluation of the procedure in four nuclear power plants by four different systems analysts and related personnel, including human reliability specialists. The changes consist of some additional explanatory material (including examples), and more detailed definitions of some of the terms. 42 refs

  16. Addressing Palliative Sedation during Expert Consultation: A Descriptive Analysis of the Practice of Dutch Palliative Care Consultation Teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoek, Patrick; Grandjean, Ilse; Verhagen, Constans A H H V M; Jansen-Landheer, Marlies L E A; Schers, Henk J; Galesloot, Cilia; Vissers, Kris C P; Engels, Yvonne; Hasselaar, Jeroen G J

    2015-01-01

    Since palliative sedation is considered a complex intervention, consultation teams are increasingly established to support general practice. This study aims to offer insight into the frequency and characteristics of expert consultations regarding palliative sedation. We performed a retrospective analysis of a longitudinal database. This database contained all patient-related consultations by Dutch Palliative Care Consultation teams, that were requested between 2004 and 2011. We described the frequency and characteristics of these consultations, in particular of the subgroup of consultations in which palliative sedation was addressed (i.e. PSa consultations). We used multivariate regression analysis to explore consultation characteristics associated with a higher likelihood of PSa consultations. Of the 44,443 initial consultations, most were requested by general practitioners (73%) and most concerned patients with cancer (86%). Palliative sedation was addressed in 18.1% of all consultations. Palliative sedation was relatively more often discussed during consultations for patients with a neurologic disease (OR 1.79; 95% CI: 1.51-2.12) or COPD (OR 1.39; 95% CI: 1.15-1.69) than for patients with cancer. We observed a higher likelihood of PSa consultations if the following topics were also addressed during consultation: dyspnoea (OR 1.30; 95% CI: 1.22-1.40), agitation/delirium (OR 1.57; 95% CI: 1.47-1.68), exhaustion (OR 2.89; 95% CI: 2.61-3.20), euthanasia-related questions (OR 2.65; 95% CI: 2.37-2.96) or existential issues (OR 1.55; 95% CI: 1.31-1.83). In conclusion, PSa consultations accounted for almost one-fifth of all expert consultations and were associated with several case-related characteristics. These characteristics may help clinicians in identifying patients at risk for a more complex disease trajectory at the end of life.

  17. Addressing Palliative Sedation during Expert Consultation: A Descriptive Analysis of the Practice of Dutch Palliative Care Consultation Teams.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Hoek

    Full Text Available Since palliative sedation is considered a complex intervention, consultation teams are increasingly established to support general practice. This study aims to offer insight into the frequency and characteristics of expert consultations regarding palliative sedation.We performed a retrospective analysis of a longitudinal database. This database contained all patient-related consultations by Dutch Palliative Care Consultation teams, that were requested between 2004 and 2011. We described the frequency and characteristics of these consultations, in particular of the subgroup of consultations in which palliative sedation was addressed (i.e. PSa consultations. We used multivariate regression analysis to explore consultation characteristics associated with a higher likelihood of PSa consultations.Of the 44,443 initial consultations, most were requested by general practitioners (73% and most concerned patients with cancer (86%. Palliative sedation was addressed in 18.1% of all consultations. Palliative sedation was relatively more often discussed during consultations for patients with a neurologic disease (OR 1.79; 95% CI: 1.51-2.12 or COPD (OR 1.39; 95% CI: 1.15-1.69 than for patients with cancer. We observed a higher likelihood of PSa consultations if the following topics were also addressed during consultation: dyspnoea (OR 1.30; 95% CI: 1.22-1.40, agitation/delirium (OR 1.57; 95% CI: 1.47-1.68, exhaustion (OR 2.89; 95% CI: 2.61-3.20, euthanasia-related questions (OR 2.65; 95% CI: 2.37-2.96 or existential issues (OR 1.55; 95% CI: 1.31-1.83.In conclusion, PSa consultations accounted for almost one-fifth of all expert consultations and were associated with several case-related characteristics. These characteristics may help clinicians in identifying patients at risk for a more complex disease trajectory at the end of life.

  18. NutriSonic web expert system for meal management and nutrition counseling with nutrient time-series analysis, e-food exchange and easy data transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Soon-Myung; Cho, Jee-Ye; Lee, Jin-Hee; Kim, Gon; Kim, Min-Chan

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted to develop the NutriSonic Web Expert System for Meal Management and Nutrition Counseling with Analysis of User's Nutritive Changes of selected days and food exchange information with easy data transition. This program manipulates a food, menu and meal and search database that has been developed. Also, the system provides a function to check the user's nutritive change of selected days. Users can select a recommended general and therapeutic menu using this system. NutriSonic can analyze nutrients and e-food exchange ("e" means the food exchange data base calculated by a computer program) in menus and meals. The expert can insert and store a meal database and generate the synthetic information of age, sex and therapeutic purpose of disease. With investigation and analysis of the user's needs, the meal planning program on the internet has been continuously developed. Users are able to follow up their nutritive changes with nutrient information and ratio of 3 major energy nutrients. Also, users can download another data format like Excel files (.xls) for analysis and verify their nutrient time-series analysis. The results of analysis are presented quickly and accurately. Therefore it can be used by not only usual people, but also by dietitians and nutritionists who take charge of making a menu and experts in the field of food and nutrition. It is expected that the NutriSonic Web Expert System can be useful for nutrition education, nutrition counseling and expert meal management.

  19. Interpretation of the margin of exposure for genotoxic carcinogens - elicitation of expert knowledge about the form of the dose response curve at human relevant exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boobis, Alan; Flari, Villie; Gosling, John Paul; Hart, Andy; Craig, Peter; Rushton, Lesley; Idahosa-Taylor, Ehi

    2013-07-01

    The general approach to risk assessment of genotoxic carcinogens has been to advise reduction of exposure to "as low as reasonably achievable/practicable" (ALARA/P). However, whilst this remains the preferred risk management option, it does not provide guidance on the urgency or extent of risk management actions necessary. To address this, the "Margin of Exposure" (MOE) approach has been proposed. The MOE is the ratio between the point of departure for carcinogenesis and estimated human exposure. However, interpretation of the MOE requires implicit or explicit consideration of the shape of the dose-response curve at human relevant exposures. In a structured elicitation exercise, we captured expert opinion on available scientific evidence for low dose-response relationships for genotoxic carcinogens. This allowed assessment of: available evidence for the nature of dose-response relationships at human relevant exposures; the generality of judgments about such dose-response relationships; uncertainties affecting judgments on the nature of such dose-response relationships; and whether this last should differ for different classes of genotoxic carcinogens. Elicitation results reflected the variability in experts' views on the form of the dose-response curve for low dose exposure and major sources of uncertainty affecting the assumption of a linear relationship. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Expert Systems: An Introduction -46 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Research Scientist in the. Knowledge Based. Computer Systems Group at NeST. He is one of the ... Expert systems encode human expertise in limited domains ... answers questions the user has and provides an explanation of its reasoning.

  1. Analysis, Simulation, and Verification of Knowledge-Based, Rule-Based, and Expert Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinchey, Mike; Rash, James; Erickson, John; Gracanin, Denis; Rouff, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Mathematically sound techniques are used to view a knowledge-based system (KBS) as a set of processes executing in parallel and being enabled in response to specific rules being fired. The set of processes can be manipulated, examined, analyzed, and used in a simulation. The tool that embodies this technology may warn developers of errors in their rules, but may also highlight rules (or sets of rules) in the system that are underspecified (or overspecified) and need to be corrected for the KBS to operate as intended. The rules embodied in a KBS specify the allowed situations, events, and/or results of the system they describe. In that sense, they provide a very abstract specification of a system. The system is implemented through the combination of the system specification together with an appropriate inference engine, independent of the algorithm used in that inference engine. Viewing the rule base as a major component of the specification, and choosing an appropriate specification notation to represent it, reveals how additional power can be derived from an approach to the knowledge-base system that involves analysis, simulation, and verification. This innovative approach requires no special knowledge of the rules, and allows a general approach where standardized analysis, verification, simulation, and model checking techniques can be applied to the KBS.

  2. Integrated disturbance analysis (IDA): A basis for expert systems in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastl, W.

    1987-01-01

    In the framework of a project sponsored by the Bundesminister fur Forschung und Technologie (BMFT) and the Rheinisch-Westfalisches Elektrizitatswerk AG (RWE) the concept of Integrated Disturbance Analysis (IDA) has been developed and applied to the Biblis Unit B Nuclear Power Plant. Rather than using the classical approach, which aims at finding the cause of a plant disturbance, the main goal was to make transparent to the operator what it really means for the process, when a set of parameters begins to deviate from its normal state. Therefore the goal was to help the operator to combine the information on the individual process parameters to the complete picture of the evolving transient, thus facilitating the decision about the importance of a disturbance for operational safety. Considering this goal the most important subjects taken care of were: to extend event sequence analysis by means of analog information; to provide adequate modelling of time dependent processes and feedback loops; to integrate IDA information effectively into the existing control room environment

  3. An examination of expert systems activities within the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, J.A.; Washio, Takashi.

    1988-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of a detailed evaluation that the authors recently completed on expert systems applications within the nuclear industry. That evaluation examined the motivation for utilizing expert systems, identified the areas to which they were being applied, and provided an assessment of their utility. Listed here are some of the salient findings of that report. (1) Utilities are developing their own artificial intelligence tools rather than using commercial products. (2) Few expert systems are being developed for the express purpose of capturing human expertise. (3) A number of successful expert systems have been developed to assist in plant design, management, and maintenance scheduling. (4) Interactive diagnostic systems are being developed for the analysis of physical processes that vary slowly. (5) Real-time diagnostic expert systems are currently at the cutting edge of the technology. (6) Operator adviser and emergency response expert systems constitute ∼25% of the total. (7) Research on the use of expert systems for reactor control is quite active. (8) Too few quantitative evaluations of the benefits of expert systems to reactor operators have been performed. The operator's need is for timely, factual information on plant status. Hence, the true challenge to expert systems is real-time diagnostics

  4. Improving Human/Autonomous System Teaming Through Linguistic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meszaros, Erica L.

    2016-01-01

    An area of increasing interest for the next generation of aircraft is autonomy and the integration of increasingly autonomous systems into the national airspace. Such integration requires humans to work closely with autonomous systems, forming human and autonomous agent teams. The intention behind such teaming is that a team composed of both humans and autonomous agents will operate better than homogenous teams. Procedures exist for licensing pilots to operate in the national airspace system and current work is being done to define methods for validating the function of autonomous systems, however there is no method in place for assessing the interaction of these two disparate systems. Moreover, currently these systems are operated primarily by subject matter experts, limiting their use and the benefits of such teams. Providing additional information about the ongoing mission to the operator can lead to increased usability and allow for operation by non-experts. Linguistic analysis of the context of verbal communication provides insight into the intended meaning of commonly heard phrases such as "What's it doing now?" Analyzing the semantic sphere surrounding these common phrases enables the prediction of the operator's intent and allows the interface to supply the operator's desired information.

  5. Dictionaries and distributions: Combining expert knowledge and large scale textual data content analysis : Distributed dictionary representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garten, Justin; Hoover, Joe; Johnson, Kate M; Boghrati, Reihane; Iskiwitch, Carol; Dehghani, Morteza

    2018-02-01

    Theory-driven text analysis has made extensive use of psychological concept dictionaries, leading to a wide range of important results. These dictionaries have generally been applied through word count methods which have proven to be both simple and effective. In this paper, we introduce Distributed Dictionary Representations (DDR), a method that applies psychological dictionaries using semantic similarity rather than word counts. This allows for the measurement of the similarity between dictionaries and spans of text ranging from complete documents to individual words. We show how DDR enables dictionary authors to place greater emphasis on construct validity without sacrificing linguistic coverage. We further demonstrate the benefits of DDR on two real-world tasks and finally conduct an extensive study of the interaction between dictionary size and task performance. These studies allow us to examine how DDR and word count methods complement one another as tools for applying concept dictionaries and where each is best applied. Finally, we provide references to tools and resources to make this method both available and accessible to a broad psychological audience.

  6. Online-Expert: An Expert System for Online Database Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahir, Sajjad; Chang, Chew Lik

    1992-01-01

    Describes the design and development of a prototype expert system called ONLINE-EXPERT that helps users select online databases and vendors that meet users' needs. Search strategies are discussed; knowledge acquisition and knowledge bases are described; and the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), a decision analysis technique that ranks databases,…

  7. Human Factors Considerations in New Nuclear Power Plants: Detailed Analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OHara,J.; Higgins, J.; Brown, W.; Fink, R.

    2008-02-14

    This Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) sponsored study has identified human-performance issues in new and advanced nuclear power plants. To identify the issues, current industry developments and trends were evaluated in the areas of reactor technology, instrumentation and control technology, human-system integration technology, and human factors engineering (HFE) methods and tools. The issues were organized into seven high-level HFE topic areas: Role of Personnel and Automation, Staffing and Training, Normal Operations Management, Disturbance and Emergency Management, Maintenance and Change Management, Plant Design and Construction, and HFE Methods and Tools. The issues where then prioritized into four categories using a 'Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table' methodology based on evaluations provided by 14 independent subject matter experts. The subject matter experts were knowledgeable in a variety of disciplines. Vendors, utilities, research organizations and regulators all participated. Twenty issues were categorized into the top priority category. This Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) technical report provides the detailed methodology, issue analysis, and results. A summary of the results of this study can be found in NUREG/CR-6947. The research performed for this project has identified a large number of human-performance issues for new control stations and new nuclear power plant designs. The information gathered in this project can serve as input to the development of a long-term strategy and plan for addressing human performance in these areas through regulatory research. Addressing human-performance issues will provide the technical basis from which regulatory review guidance can be developed to meet these challenges. The availability of this review guidance will help set clear expectations for how the NRC staff will evaluate new designs, reduce regulatory uncertainty, and provide a well-defined path to new nuclear power plant

  8. Expert system in PNC, 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobita, Yoshimasa; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Matsumoto, Mitsuo; Ono, Kiyoshi.

    1990-01-01

    The computer code system which can evaluate the mass balance and cycle cost in nuclear fuel cycle has been developing a PNC using an artificial intelligence technique. This system is composed of the expert system, data base and analysis codes. The expert system is the most important one in the system and the content of the expert system is explained in this paper. The expert system has the three functions. The first is the function of understanding the meaning of user's questions by natural language, the second is the function of selecting the best way to solve the problem given by the user using the knowledge which is already installed in the system, and the last is the function of answering the questions. The knowledge of the experts installed in the expert system is represented by the frame-type rules. Therefore, the knowledge will be simply added to the system, and consequently the system will be easily extended. (author)

  9. Expert Cold Structure Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, T.; Demuysere, P.

    2011-05-01

    The EXPERT Program is funded by ESA. The objective of the EXPERT mission is to perform a sub-orbital flight during which measurements of critical aero- thermodynamic phenomena will be obtained by using state-of-the-art instrumentation. As part of the EXPERT Flight Segment, the responsibility of the Cold Structure Development Design, Manufacturing and Validation was committed to the Belgian industrial team SONACA/SABCA. The EXPERT Cold Structure includes the Launcher Adapter, the Bottom Panel, the Upper Panel, two Cross Panels and the Parachute Bay. An additional Launcher Adapter was manufactured for the separation tests. The selected assembly definition and manufacturing technologies ( machined parts and sandwich panels) were dictated classically by the mass and stiffness, but also by the CoG location and the sensitive separation interface. Used as support for the various on-board equipment, the Cold Structure is fixed to but thermally uncoupled from the PM 1000 thermal shield. It is protect on its bottom panel by a thermal blanket. As it is a protoflight, analysis was the main tool for the verification. Low level stiffness and modal analysis tests have also been performed on the Cold Structure equipped with its ballast. It allowed to complete its qualification and to prepare SONACA/SABCA support for the system dynamic tests foreseen in 2011. The structure was finally coated with a thermal control black painting and delivered on time to Thales Alenia Space-Italy end of March 201.

  10. A Human Body Analysis System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girondel Vincent

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a system for human body analysis (segmentation, tracking, face/hands localisation, posture recognition from a single view that is fast and completely automatic. The system first extracts low-level data and uses part of the data for high-level interpretation. It can detect and track several persons even if they merge or are completely occluded by another person from the camera's point of view. For the high-level interpretation step, static posture recognition is performed using a belief theory-based classifier. The belief theory is considered here as a new approach for performing posture recognition and classification using imprecise and/or conflicting data. Four different static postures are considered: standing, sitting, squatting, and lying. The aim of this paper is to give a global view and an evaluation of the performances of the entire system and to describe in detail each of its processing steps, whereas our previous publications focused on a single part of the system. The efficiency and the limits of the system have been highlighted on a database of more than fifty video sequences where a dozen different individuals appear. This system allows real-time processing and aims at monitoring elderly people in video surveillance applications or at the mixing of real and virtual worlds in ambient intelligence systems.

  11. Notes on human error analysis and prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, J.

    1978-11-01

    The notes comprise an introductory discussion of the role of human error analysis and prediction in industrial risk analysis. Following this introduction, different classes of human errors and role in industrial systems are mentioned. Problems related to the prediction of human behaviour in reliability and safety analysis are formulated and ''criteria for analyzability'' which must be met by industrial systems so that a systematic analysis can be performed are suggested. The appendices contain illustrative case stories and a review of human error reports for the task of equipment calibration and testing as found in the US Licensee Event Reports. (author)

  12. ALICE Expert System

    CERN Document Server

    Ionita, C

    2014-01-01

    The ALICE experiment at CERN employs a number of human operators (shifters), who have to make sure that the experiment is always in a state compatible with taking Physics data. Given the complexity of the system and the myriad of errors that can arise, this is not always a trivial task. The aim of this paper is to describe an expert system that is capable of assisting human shifters in the ALICE control room. The system diagnoses potential issues and attempts to make smart recommendations for troubleshooting. At its core, a Prolog engine infers whether a Physics or a technical run can be started based on the current state of the underlying sub-systems. A separate C++ component queries certain SMI objects and stores their state as facts in a Prolog knowledge base. By mining the data stored in dierent system logs, the expert system can also diagnose errors arising during a run. Currently the system is used by the on-call experts for faster response times, but we expect it to be adopted as a standard tool by reg...

  13. ALICE Expert System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionita, C; Carena, F

    2014-01-01

    The ALICE experiment at CERN employs a number of human operators (shifters), who have to make sure that the experiment is always in a state compatible with taking Physics data. Given the complexity of the system and the myriad of errors that can arise, this is not always a trivial task. The aim of this paper is to describe an expert system that is capable of assisting human shifters in the ALICE control room. The system diagnoses potential issues and attempts to make smart recommendations for troubleshooting. At its core, a Prolog engine infers whether a Physics or a technical run can be started based on the current state of the underlying sub-systems. A separate C++ component queries certain SMI objects and stores their state as facts in a Prolog knowledge base. By mining the data stored in different system logs, the expert system can also diagnose errors arising during a run. Currently the system is used by the on-call experts for faster response times, but we expect it to be adopted as a standard tool by regular shifters during the next data taking period

  14. Models and data requirements for human reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-03-01

    It has been widely recognised for many years that the safety of the nuclear power generation depends heavily on the human factors related to plant operation. This has been confirmed by the accidents at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl. Both these cases revealed how human actions can defeat engineered safeguards and the need for special operator training to cover the possibility of unexpected plant conditions. The importance of the human factor also stands out in the analysis of abnormal events and insights from probabilistic safety assessments (PSA's), which reveal a large proportion of cases having their origin in faulty operator performance. A consultants' meeting, organized jointly by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) was held at IIASA in Laxenburg, Austria, December 7-11, 1987, with the aim of reviewing existing models used in Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) for Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) and of identifying the data required. The report collects both the contributions offered by the members of the Expert Task Force and the findings of the extensive discussions that took place during the meeting. Refs, figs and tabs

  15. Developing a HACCP-like system for improving animal health and welfare in organic egg production - based on an expert panel analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegelund, Lene; Sørensen, Jan Tind

    2007-01-01

    In the process of developing a generic Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP)-like system for securing animal health and welfare in organic egg production, an expert panel analysis was used to perform the initial hazard analysis. Eighteen advisers and researchers in organic egg...... specific systems. An expert panel analysis based on questionnaires was a useful tool during the first steps of developing a HACCP plan, conducting a hazard analysis and suggesting control points. However, care should be taken regarding the panel's size and fields of expertise in order to assure...... that the panel fully covers the field of interest throughout the study. A further development of the hazard analysis into a farm-specific HACCP system would include assembling an on-farm HACCP team consisting of farmers and advisors for the practical application of control points, alarm values and monitoring...

  16. Developing a HACCP-like system for improving animal health and welfare in organic egg production - based on an expert panel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegelund, L; Sørensen, J T

    2007-08-01

    In the process of developing a generic Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP)-like system for securing animal health and welfare in organic egg production, an expert panel analysis was used to perform the initial hazard analysis. Eighteen advisers and researchers in organic egg production were included in the expert panel. In a series of four questionnaires, the expert panel first scored 34 health and welfare problems seen in Danish organic egg production. Based on scorings of severity and occurrence, 10 problems were selected for further analysis. The experts subsequently suggested and scored risk factors for those problems and finally suggested control points, alarm values indicating the need for corrective actions in order to control the risk factors and monitoring frequencies of these. The 10 selected problems were hunger, thirst, piling, crop impaction, blackhead, pasteurellosis, bone fractures, cannibalism, predators and red mites. A total of 154 different risk factors were suggested for these problems. The 41 risk factors which rated highest in a combined scoring of importance and occurrence were selected for further analysis. There was a high degree of consensus between experts when scoring both problems and risk factors. The level of consensus, as defined by an interquartile range 1, was 79% to 100% when scoring the health and welfare problems (scale 1-5) and 77% to 95% when scoring the risk factors (scale 1-4). On average, 5.8 control points were suggested for every risk factor. Alarm values were often not detailed enough to be of practical significance and further analysis is needed in order to define these. The experts were highly diverse in their suggested monitoring frequencies and establishment of monitoring schemes should be part of developing the farm specific systems. An expert panel analysis based on questionnaires was a useful tool during the first steps of developing a HACCP plan, conducting a hazard analysis and suggesting control

  17. Reflection group on 'Expert Culture'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggermont, G.

    2000-01-01

    As part of SCK-CEN's social sciences and humanities programme, a reflection group on 'Expert Culture' was established. The objectives of the reflection group are: (1) to clarify the role of SCK-CEN experts; (2) to clarify the new role of expertise in the evolving context of risk society; (3) to confront external views and internal SCK-CEN experiences on expert culture; (4) to improve trust building of experts and credibility of SCK-CEN as a nuclear actor in society; (5) to develop a draft for a deontological code; (6) to integrate the approach in training on assertivity and communication; (7) to create an output for a topical day on the subject of expert culture. The programme, achievements and perspectives of the refection group are summarised

  18. Expert opinion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferrer, Marta; Boccon-Gibod, Isabelle; Gonçalo, Margarida

    2017-01-01

    Omalizumab (a recombinant, humanized anti-immunoglobulin-E antibody) has been shown in three pivotal Phase III trials (ASTERIA I, II and GLACIAL) and real-world studies to be effective and well-tolerated for the treatment of chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU), and is the only licensed third......-line treatment for CSU. However, the definition of response to omalizumab treatment often differs between clinical trials, real-world studies, and daily practice of individual physicians globally. As such, a consensus definition of "complete", "partial" and "non-response" to omalizumab is required in order...... into a patient's disease burden and its changes during treatment. A potential omalizumab treatment approach based on speed and pattern of response at 1-3 and 3-6 months is suggested. In cases where there is no response during the first 1-3 months, physicians should consider reassessing the original CSU diagnosis...

  19. Expert system for transuranic waste assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoolalian, M.L.; Gibbs, A.; Kuhns, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    Transuranic wastes are generated at the Savannah River Site (SRS) as a result of routine production of nuclear materials. These wastes contain Pu-238 and Pu-239 and are placed into lined 55-gallon waste drums. The drums are placed on monitored storage pads pending shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico. A passive-active neutron (PAN) assay system is used to determine the mass of the radioactive material within the waste drums. Assay results are used to classify the wastes as either low-level or transuranic (TRU). During assays, the PAN assay system communicates with an IBM-AT computer. A Fortran computer program, called NEUT, controls and performs all data analyses. Unassisted, the NEUT program cannot adequately interpret assay results. To eliminate this limitation, an expert system shell was used to write a new algorithm, called the Transuranic Expert System (TRUX), to drive the NEUT program and add decision making capabilities for analysis of the assay results. The TRUX knowledge base was formulated by consulting with human experts in the field of neutron assay, by direct experimentation on the PAN assay system, and by observing operations on a daily basis. TRUX, with its improved ability to interpret assay results, has eliminated the need for close supervision by a human expert, allowing skilled technicians to operate the PAN assay system. 4 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  20. Expert system for transuranic waste assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoolalian, M.L.; Gibbs, A.; Kuhns, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    Transuranic wastes are generated at the Savannah River Site (SRS) as a result of routine production of nuclear materials. These wastes contain Pu-238 and Pu-239 and are placed into lined 55-gallon waste drums. The drums are placed on monitored storage pads pending shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico. A passive-active neutron (PAN) assay system is used to determine the mass of the radioactive material within the waste drums. Assay results are used to classify the wastes as either low-level or transuranic (TRU). During assays, the PAN assay system communicates with an IBM-AT computer. A Fortran computer program, called NEUT, controls and performs all data analyses. Unassisted, the NEUT program cannot adequately interpret assay results. To eliminate this limitation, an expert system shell was used to write a new algorithm, called the Transuranic Expert System (TRUX), to drive the NEUT program and add decision making capabilities for analysis of the assay results. The TRUX knowledge base was formulated by consulting with human experts in the field of neutron assay, by direct experimentation on the PAN assay system, and by observing operations on a daily basis. TRUX, with its improved ability to interpret assay results, has eliminated the need for close supervision by a human expert, allowing skilled technicians to operate the PAN assay system. 4 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  1. Hearing the Signal in the Noise: A Software-Based Content Analysis of Patterns in Responses by Experts and Students to a New Venture Investment Proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostager, Todd J.; Voiovich, Jason; Hughes, Raymond K.

    2013-01-01

    The authors apply a software-based content analysis method to uncover differences in responses by expert entrepreneurs and undergraduate entrepreneur majors to a new venture investment proposal. Data analyzed via the Leximancer software package yielded conceptual maps highlighting key differences in the nature of these responses. Study methods and…

  2. The Utility of Expert Diagnosis in Surgical Neuropathology: Analysis of Consultations Reviewed at 5 National Comprehensive Cancer Network Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Janet M; Louis, David N; McLendon, Roger; Rosenblum, Marc K; Archambault, W Tad; Most, Susan; Tihan, Tarik

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the type and degree of discrepancies between non-expert and expert diagnoses of CNS tumors to identify the value of consultations in surgical neuropathology. Neuropathology experts from 5 National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) member institutions participated in the review of 1281 consultations selected based on inclusion criteria. The consultation cases were re-reviewed at the NCCN headquarters to determine concordance with the original diagnoses. Among all consultations, 249 (19.4%) were submitted for expert diagnoses without final diagnoses from the submitting institution. Within the remaining 1032 patients, the serious/major discrepancy rate was 4.8%, and less serious and minor discrepancies were seen in 19.4% of the cases. The discrepancy rate was higher among patients who were referred to NCCN institutions for consultation compared to those who were referred for treatment only. The discrepancy rates, patient demographics, type of consultations and submitting institutions varied among participating NCCN institutions. Expert consultations identified a subset of cases with significant diagnostic discrepancies, and constituted the initial diagnoses in some cases. These data indicate that expert consultations in glial tumors and all types of pediatric CNS tumors can improve accurate diagnosis and enable appropriate management. © 2017 American Association of Neuropathologists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Procedures for the elicitation of expert judgements in the probabilistic risk analysis of the long-term effects of radioactive waste repositories: an annotated bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, S.R.

    1993-01-01

    This annotated bibliography describes the key literature relevant to the elicitation of expert judgements in radioactive waste management. The bibliography is divided into seven sections; section 2 lists the literature exploring the proper interpretation of probabilities used in Probabilistic Risk Analysis (PRA). Section 3 lists literature describing other calculi for handling uncertainty in a numerical fashion. In section 4 comments are given on how to elicit probabilities from individuals as a measure of subjective degrees of belief and section 5 lists the literature concerning how expert judgements can be combined. Sections 6 and 7 list literature giving an overview of the issues involved in PRA for radioactive waste repositories. (author)

  4. Task analysis and computer aid development for human reliability analysis in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, W. C.; Kim, H.; Park, H. S.; Choi, H. H.; Moon, J. M.; Heo, J. Y.; Ham, D. H.; Lee, K. K.; Han, B. T. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejeon (Korea)

    2001-04-01

    Importance of human reliability analysis (HRA) that predicts the error's occurrence possibility in a quantitative and qualitative manners is gradually increased by human errors' effects on the system's safety. HRA needs a task analysis as a virtue step, but extant task analysis techniques have the problem that a collection of information about the situation, which the human error occurs, depends entirely on HRA analyzers. The problem makes results of the task analysis inconsistent and unreliable. To complement such problem, KAERI developed the structural information analysis (SIA) that helps to analyze task's structure and situations systematically. In this study, the SIA method was evaluated by HRA experts, and a prototype computerized supporting system named CASIA (Computer Aid for SIA) was developed for the purpose of supporting to perform HRA using the SIA method. Additionally, through applying the SIA method to emergency operating procedures, we derived generic task types used in emergency and accumulated the analysis results in the database of the CASIA. The CASIA is expected to help HRA analyzers perform the analysis more easily and consistently. If more analyses will be performed and more data will be accumulated to the CASIA's database, HRA analyzers can share freely and spread smoothly his or her analysis experiences, and there by the quality of the HRA analysis will be improved. 35 refs., 38 figs., 25 tabs. (Author)

  5. The eigenmode analysis of human motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Juyong; Lee, Deok-Sun; González, Marta C

    2010-01-01

    Rapid advances in modern communication technology are enabling the accumulation of large-scale, high-resolution observational data of the spatiotemporal movements of humans. Classification and prediction of human mobility based on the analysis of such data has great potential in applications such as urban planning in addition to being a subject of theoretical interest. A robust theoretical framework is therefore required to study and properly understand human motion. Here we perform the eigenmode analysis of human motion data gathered from mobile communication records, which allows us to explore the scaling properties and characteristics of human motion

  6. Use of expert judgement in NUREG-1150

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz, N.R.; Wheeler, T.A.; Breeding, R.J.; Hora, S.; Meyer, M.A.; Kenney, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    The explicit expert judgment process used in NUREG-1150, 'Severe Accident Risks: An Assessment for Five US Nuclear Plants', is discussed in this paper. The main steps of the process are described, including selection of issues and experts, elicitation training, presentation of issues to the experts, preparation of issue analyses by the experts, discussion of issue analyses and elicitation, and recomposition and aggregation of results. To demonstrate the application of the expert judgment process to NUREG-1150, two issues are summarized: one from the accident frequency analysis, and one from the accident progression analysis. Recommendations and insights are provided to improve the use of explicit expert judgment in complex technical issues. (orig.)

  7. Metagenomic Analysis of the Human Gut Microbiome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    dos Santos, Marcelo Bertalan Quintanilha

    Understanding the link between the human gut microbiome and human health is one of the biggest scientific challenges in our decade. Because 90% of our cells are bacteria, and the microbial genome contains 200 times more genes than the human genome, the study of the human microbiome has...... the potential to impact many areas of our health. This PhD thesis is the first study to generate a large amount of experimental data on the DNA and RNA of the human gut microbiome. This was made possible by our development of a human gut microbiome array capable of profiling any human gut microbiome. Analysis...... of our results changes the way we link the gut microbiome with diseases. Our results indicate that inflammatory diseases will affect the ecological system of the human gut microbiome, reducing its diversity. Classification analysis of healthy and unhealthy individuals demonstrates that unhealthy...

  8. An expert system for uranium exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chhipa, V.K.; Sengupta, M.

    1989-01-01

    Artificial intelligence is an emerging technology in the field of computer application. Expert systems have been developed to imitate human intelligence and reasoning process. Expert systems have much scope of application in the decision making process in mineral exploration as such decisions are highly subjective and expert opinions are very helpful. This paper presents a small expert system to analyze the reasoning process in exploring for uranium deposits in sandstone

  9. Human Performance Modeling for Dynamic Human Reliability Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boring, Ronald Laurids [Idaho National Laboratory; Joe, Jeffrey Clark [Idaho National Laboratory; Mandelli, Diego [Idaho National Laboratory

    2015-08-01

    Part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Light Water Reac- tor Sustainability (LWRS) Program, the Risk-Informed Safety Margin Charac- terization (RISMC) Pathway develops approaches to estimating and managing safety margins. RISMC simulations pair deterministic plant physics models with probabilistic risk models. As human interactions are an essential element of plant risk, it is necessary to integrate human actions into the RISMC risk framework. In this paper, we review simulation based and non simulation based human reliability analysis (HRA) methods. This paper summarizes the founda- tional information needed to develop a feasible approach to modeling human in- teractions in RISMC simulations.

  10. Human Capital Development: Comparative Analysis of BRICs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardichvili, Alexandre; Zavyalova, Elena; Minina, Vera

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this article is to conduct macro-level analysis of human capital (HC) development strategies, pursued by four countries commonly referred to as BRICs (Brazil, Russia, India, and China). Design/methodology/approach: This analysis is based on comparisons of macro indices of human capital and innovativeness of the economy and a…

  11. Use of performance shaping factors and quantified expert judgment in the evaluation of human reliability: an initial appraisal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Embrey, D.E.

    1983-05-01

    The first part of the report considers the nature of human reliability assessment, and the techniques currently employed. It is concluded that most approaches are limited by the availability of data. Approaches to the subjective assessment of error are surveyed. A particular technique which has been developed, the Success Likelihood Index Methodology (SLIM), is described in detail, together with the practical steps for its implementation. The results from a trial application of a questionnaire designed to elicit judges' perceptions of the relative importance of performance shaping factors in determining human reliability are analyzed. A revised form of the questionnaire is presented for future use. A pilot experiment to investigate the relationship between subjectively derived indices of success for six tasks and their objective probability of success is described. The results indicate that the SLIM has potential value as a predictive technique. Some requirements for a program of research to produce a generally applicable methodology are set out

  12. Study on Performance Shaping Factors (PSFs) Quantification Method in Human Reliability Analysis (HRA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ar Ryum; Jang, Inseok Jang; Seong, Poong Hyun; Park, Jinkyun; Kim, Jong Hyun

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of HRA implementation is 1) to achieve the human factor engineering (HFE) design goal of providing operator interfaces that will minimize personnel errors and 2) to conduct an integrated activity to support probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). For these purposes, various HRA methods have been developed such as technique for human error rate prediction (THERP), simplified plant analysis risk human reliability assessment (SPAR-H), cognitive reliability and error analysis method (CREAM) and so on. In performing HRA, such conditions that influence human performances have been represented via several context factors called performance shaping factors (PSFs). PSFs are aspects of the human's individual characteristics, environment, organization, or task that specifically decrements or improves human performance, thus respectively increasing or decreasing the likelihood of human errors. Most HRA methods evaluate the weightings of PSFs by expert judgment and explicit guidance for evaluating the weighting is not provided. It has been widely known that the performance of the human operator is one of the critical factors to determine the safe operation of NPPs. HRA methods have been developed to identify the possibility and mechanism of human errors. In performing HRA methods, the effect of PSFs which may increase or decrease human error should be investigated. However, the effect of PSFs were estimated by expert judgment so far. Accordingly, in order to estimate the effect of PSFs objectively, the quantitative framework to estimate PSFs by using PSF profiles is introduced in this paper

  13. Thermodynamical analysis of human thermal comfort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prek, Matjaz

    2006-01-01

    Traditional methods of human thermal comfort analysis are based on the first law of thermodynamics. These methods use an energy balance of the human body to determine heat transfer between the body and its environment. By contrast, the second law of thermodynamics introduces the useful concept of exergy. It enables the determination of the exergy consumption within the human body dependent on human and environmental factors. Human body exergy consumption varies with the combination of environmental (room) conditions. This process is related to human thermal comfort in connection with temperature, heat, and mass transfer. In this paper a thermodynamic analysis of human heat and mass transfer based on the 2nd law of thermodynamics in presented. It is shown that the human body's exergy consumption in relation to selected human parameters exhibits a minimal value at certain combinations of environmental parameters. The expected thermal sensation also shows that there is a correlation between exergy consumption and thermal sensation. Thus, our analysis represents an improvement in human thermal modelling and gives more information about the environmental impact on expected human thermal sensation

  14. NEPHRUS: model of intelligent multilayers expert system for evaluation of the renal system based on scintigraphic images analysis; NEPRUS: modelo de sistema especialista em multicamadas inteligentes para avaliacao do sistema urinario baseado na analise de imagens cintilograficas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Jose W.E. da; Schirru, Roberto [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia; Boasquevisque, Edson M. [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Medicina Nuclear

    1997-10-01

    This work develops a prototype for the system model based on Artificial Intelligence devices able to perform functions related to scintigraphic image analysis of the urinary system. Criteria used by medical experts for analysis images obtained with {sup 99m} Tc+DTPA and/or {sup 99m} Tc+DMSA were modeled and a multi resolution diagnosis technique was implemented. Special attention was given to the programs user interface design. Human Factor Engineering techniques were considered so as to ally friendliness and robustness. Results obtained using Artificial Neural Networks for the qualitative image analysis and the knowledge model constructed shows the feasibility of Artificial Intelligence implementation that use `inherent` abilities of each technique in the resolution of diagnosis image analysis problems. (author). 12 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Integrating human factors into process hazard analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kariuki, S.G.; Loewe, K.

    2007-01-01

    A comprehensive process hazard analysis (PHA) needs to address human factors. This paper describes an approach that systematically identifies human error in process design and the human factors that influence its production and propagation. It is deductive in nature and therefore considers human error as a top event. The combinations of different factors that may lead to this top event are analysed. It is qualitative in nature and is used in combination with other PHA methods. The method has an advantage because it does not look at the operator error as the sole contributor to the human failure within a system but a combination of all underlying factors

  16. Analysis of Human Communication during Assembly Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-01

    AD-A7l 43 ANALYSIS OF HUMAN COMMUNICATION DURING ASSEMBLY TASKS in1(U) CRNEGIE-MELLO UNIY PITTSBURGH PA ROBOTICS INST UNCLSSIIEDK S BARBER ET AL...ao I Dur~~~~IngAbcbyTs; 7c .S:in i lSAo .0. Analysis of Human Communication During Assembly Tasks K. Suzanne Barber and Gerald J. Agin CMU-RI-TR-86-1...TYPE or REPORT & PE-Rioo CevCZaz Analysis of Human Communication During Assembly Inlterim Tasks I . PERFORMING 00RG. REPORT NUMBER 1. £UT~oOR~e) IL

  17. Investigating Cognitive Task Difficulties and Expert Skills in E-Learning Storyboards Using a Cognitive Task Analysis Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusoff, Nor'ain Mohd; Salim, Siti Salwah

    2012-01-01

    E-learning storyboards have been a useful approach in distance learning development to support interaction between instructional designers and subject-matter experts. Current works show that researchers are focusing on different approaches for use in storyboards, and there is less emphasis on the effect of design and process difficulties faced by…

  18. Method for evaluation of human induced pluripotent stem cell quality using image analysis based on the biological morphology of cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakui, Takashi; Matsumoto, Tsuyoshi; Matsubara, Kenta; Kawasaki, Tomoyuki; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Akutsu, Hidenori

    2017-10-01

    We propose an image analysis method for quality evaluation of human pluripotent stem cells based on biologically interpretable features. It is important to maintain the undifferentiated state of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) while culturing the cells during propagation. Cell culture experts visually select good quality cells exhibiting the morphological features characteristic of undifferentiated cells. Experts have empirically determined that these features comprise prominent and abundant nucleoli, less intercellular spacing, and fewer differentiating cellular nuclei. We quantified these features based on experts' visual inspection of phase contrast images of iPSCs and found that these features are effective for evaluating iPSC quality. We then developed an iPSC quality evaluation method using an image analysis technique. The method allowed accurate classification, equivalent to visual inspection by experts, of three iPSC cell lines.

  19. Comparative analysis of human masculinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowmick, B K; Takahata, N; Watanabe, M; Satta, Y

    2006-11-30

    To study rapidly evolving male specific Y (MSY) genes we retrieved and analyzed nine such genes. VCY, HSFY and RBMY were found to have functional X gametologs, but the rest did not. Using chimpanzee orthologs for XKRY, CDY, HSFY, PRY, and TSPY, the average silent substitution is estimated as 0.017 +/- 0.006/site and the substitution rate is 1.42 x 10(-9)/site/year. Except for VCY, all other loci possess two or more pseudogenes on the Y chromosome. Sequence differences from functional genes show that BPY2, DAZ, XKRY, and RBMY each have one pseudogene for each one that is human specific, while others were generated well before the human-chimpanzee split, by means of duplication, retro-transposition or translocation. Some functional MSY gene duplication of VCY, CDY and HSFY, as well as X-linked VCX and HSFX duplication, occurred in the lineage leading to humans; these duplicates have accumulated nucleotide substitutions that permit their identification.

  20. Application of SLIM-MAUD: A test of an interactive computer-based method for organizing expert assessment of human performance and reliability: Volume 2, Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spettell, C.M.; Rosa, E.A.; Humphreys, P.C.; Embrey, D.E.

    1986-10-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has been conducting a multiyear research program to investigate different methods for using expert judgments to estimate human error probabilities (HEPs) in nuclear power plants. One of the methods investigated, derived from multi-attribute utility theory, is the Success Likelihood Index Methodolocy implemented through Multi-Attribute Utility Decomposition (SLIM-MAUD). This report describes a systematic test application of the SLIM-MAUD methodology. The test application is evaluated on the basis of three criteria: practicality, acceptability, and usefulness. Volume I of this report represents an overview of SLIM-MAUD, describes the procedures followed in the test application, and provides a summary of the results obtained. Volume II consists of technical appendices to support in detail the materials contained in Volume I, and the users' package of explicit procedures to be followed in implementing SLIM-MAUD. The results obtained in the test application provide support for the application of SLIM-MAUD to a wide variety of applications requiring estimates of human errors

  1. An investigation into the use of ''expert systems'' for system-wide diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, A.W.; Carroll, J.T.

    1987-01-01

    This paper has explained how expert systems function and how they might be used to provide a FASTBUS system-wide diagnostic program. The authors propose that the system be used to diagnose the FASTBUS system at FERMILAB's CDF experiment. There are many important areas which have not been addressed in great detail in this paper (such as the roles of the knowledge engineer and the expert during the knowledge acquisition phase), but the central idea of the embodiment of an expert skill in a computer is clear. Development of a system-wide diagnostic program requires building knowledge from all our system experts, into the system. To expand the expert system beyond its network diagnostic ability, to include finding faulty modules would be worthwhile. Having an ''intelligent'' assistant who is on shift 24 hours each day would relieve the ''real'' experts from laborious, time-consuming and sometimes repetitive tasks undertaken during the debugging process. The system could also provide a testbed for evaluation and comparison when considering future expert-system applications such as ''run-control'' and ''data analysis''. In the context of a system-wide diagnostic program, an ''expert system'' is not intended to replace human experts but simply to help them. It is envisaged that there will always be important interaction between the human expert and the ''expert system''. The incremental development of the ''expert system'' should ensure that it is useful in the short term (by debugging to the S.I./segment level for example), and even more useful in the medium to longer term as it acquires more and more knowledge and the ability to debug to the module level. Expert systems exist and are working successfully in many problem domains. See the bibliography for examples of ''expert systems'' built in the high energy physics environment

  2. ARSENIC SPECIATION ANALYSIS IN HUMAN SALIVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Determination of arsenic species in human saliva is potentially useful for biomonitoring of human exposure to arsenic and for studying arsenic metabolism. However, there is no report on the speciation analysis of arsenic in saliva. Methods: Arsenic species in saliva ...

  3. Proteomic analysis of human oral verrucous carcinoma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-05

    Oct 5, 2011 ... This study is about proteomic analysis of oral verrucous carcinoma (OVC). The total proteins ..... receptor protein (recoverin) through autoimmunity ..... chromosome 8q21.1 and overexpressed in human prostate cancer. Cancer ...

  4. Space Mission Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of this project is to extend current ground-based Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) techniques to a long-duration, space-based tool to more effectively...

  5. Science-Based Simulation Model of Human Performance for Human Reliability Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, Dana L.; Boring, Ronald L.; Mosleh, Ali; Smidts, Carol

    2011-01-01

    Human reliability analysis (HRA), a component of an integrated probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), is the means by which the human contribution to risk is assessed, both qualitatively and quantitatively. However, among the literally dozens of HRA methods that have been developed, most cannot fully model and quantify the types of errors that occurred at Three Mile Island. Furthermore, all of the methods lack a solid empirical basis, relying heavily on expert judgment or empirical results derived in non-reactor domains. Finally, all of the methods are essentially static, and are thus unable to capture the dynamics of an accident in progress. The objective of this work is to begin exploring a dynamic simulation approach to HRA, one whose models have a basis in psychological theories of human performance, and whose quantitative estimates have an empirical basis. This paper highlights a plan to formalize collaboration among the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), the University of Maryland, and The Ohio State University (OSU) to continue development of a simulation model initially formulated at the University of Maryland. Initial work will focus on enhancing the underlying human performance models with the most recent psychological research, and on planning follow-on studies to establish an empirical basis for the model, based on simulator experiments to be carried out at the INL and at the OSU.

  6. Human reliability analysis of control room operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Isaac J.A.L.; Carvalho, Paulo Victor R.; Grecco, Claudio H.S. [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Human reliability is the probability that a person correctly performs some system required action in a required time period and performs no extraneous action that can degrade the system Human reliability analysis (HRA) is the analysis, prediction and evaluation of work-oriented human performance using some indices as human error likelihood and probability of task accomplishment. Significant progress has been made in the HRA field during the last years, mainly in nuclear area. Some first-generation HRA methods were developed, as THERP (Technique for human error rate prediction). Now, an array of called second-generation methods are emerging as alternatives, for instance ATHEANA (A Technique for human event analysis). The ergonomics approach has as tool the ergonomic work analysis. It focus on the study of operator's activities in physical and mental form, considering at the same time the observed characteristics of operator and the elements of the work environment as they are presented to and perceived by the operators. The aim of this paper is to propose a methodology to analyze the human reliability of the operators of industrial plant control room, using a framework that includes the approach used by ATHEANA, THERP and the work ergonomics analysis. (author)

  7. Expert systems and nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beltracchi, L.

    1990-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Electric Power Research Institute have initiated a broad-based exploration of means to evaluate the potential applications of expert systems in the nuclear industry. This exploratory effort will assess the use of expert systems to augment the diagnostic and decision-making capabilities of personnel with the goal of enhancing productivity, reliability, and performance. The initial research effort is the development and documentation of guidelines for verifying and validating (V and V) expert systems. An initial application of expert systems in the nuclear industry is to aid operations and maintenance personnel in decision-making tasks. The scope of the decision aiding covers all types of cognitive behavior consisting of skill, rule, and knowledge-based behavior. For example, procedure trackers were designed and tested to support rule-based behavior. Further, these systems automate many of the tedious, error-prone human monitoring tasks, thereby reducing the potential for human error. The paper version of the procedure contains the knowledge base and the rules and thus serves as the basis of the design verification of the procedure tracker. Person-in-the-loop tests serve as the basis for the validation of a procedure tracker. When conducting validation tests, it is important to ascertain that the human retains the locus of control in the use of the expert system

  8. Analysis of human performance in KHNP NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tae, Sung Eun

    2004-01-01

    The most important thing in the management of nuclear power plant is safety. One of the key factors to enhance the safety is to analyze human performance and to reflect the results on the practical plant operation. KHNP NPPs experienced human errors in the fields of operation and maintenance. The human errors need to be analyzed and, necessary corrective actions according to the causes should be made to prevent the same event or similar events. Therefore we'd like to introduce the procedure of K-HPES(KHNP-Human Performance Enhancement System) and the results of analysis of HPES reports produced in 2002 and 2003

  9. Food parenting practices for 5 to 12 year old children: a concept map analysis of parenting and nutrition experts input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Teresia M; Mâsse, Louise C; Tu, Andrew W; Watts, Allison W; Hughes, Sheryl O; Beauchamp, Mark R; Baranowski, Tom; Pham, Truc; Berge, Jerica M; Fiese, Barbara; Golley, Rebecca; Hingle, Melanie; Kremers, Stef P J; Rhee, Kyung E; Skouteris, Helen; Vaughn, Amber

    2017-09-11

    Parents are an important influence on children's dietary intake and eating behaviors. However, the lack of a conceptual framework and inconsistent assessment of food parenting practices limits our understanding of which food parenting practices are most influential on children. The aim of this study was to develop a food parenting practice conceptual framework using systematic approaches of literature reviews and expert input. A previously completed systematic review of food parenting practice instruments and a qualitative study of parents informed the development of a food parenting practice item bank consisting of 3632 food parenting practice items. The original item bank was further reduced to 110 key food parenting concepts using binning and winnowing techniques. A panel of 32 experts in parenting and nutrition were invited to sort the food parenting practice concepts into categories that reflected their perceptions of a food parenting practice conceptual framework. Multi-dimensional scaling produced a point map of the sorted concepts and hierarchical cluster analysis identified potential solutions. Subjective modifications were used to identify two potential solutions, with additional feedback from the expert panel requested. The experts came from 8 countries and 25 participated in the sorting and 23 provided additional feedback. A parsimonious and a comprehensive concept map were developed based on the clustering of the food parenting practice constructs. The parsimonious concept map contained 7 constructs, while the comprehensive concept map contained 17 constructs and was informed by a previously published content map for food parenting practices. Most of the experts (52%) preferred the comprehensive concept map, while 35% preferred to present both solutions. The comprehensive food parenting practice conceptual map will provide the basis for developing a calibrated Item Response Modeling (IRM) item bank that can be used with computerized adaptive testing

  10. Culture Representation in Human Reliability Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Gertman; Julie Marble; Steven Novack

    2006-12-01

    Understanding human-system response is critical to being able to plan and predict mission success in the modern battlespace. Commonly, human reliability analysis has been used to predict failures of human performance in complex, critical systems. However, most human reliability methods fail to take culture into account. This paper takes an easily understood state of the art human reliability analysis method and extends that method to account for the influence of culture, including acceptance of new technology, upon performance. The cultural parameters used to modify the human reliability analysis were determined from two standard industry approaches to cultural assessment: Hofstede’s (1991) cultural factors and Davis’ (1989) technology acceptance model (TAM). The result is called the Culture Adjustment Method (CAM). An example is presented that (1) reviews human reliability assessment with and without cultural attributes for a Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system attack, (2) demonstrates how country specific information can be used to increase the realism of HRA modeling, and (3) discusses the differences in human error probability estimates arising from cultural differences.

  11. Analysis of the relationship between the number of citations and the quality evaluated by experts in psychology journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buela-Casal, Gualberto; Zych, Izabela

    2010-05-01

    The study analyzes the relationship between the number of citations as calculated by the IN-RECS database and the quality evaluated by experts. The articles published in journals of the Spanish Psychological Association between 1996 and 2008 and selected by the Editorial Board of Psychology in Spain were the subject of the study. Psychology in Spain is a journal that includes the best papers published throughout the previous year, chosen by the Editorial Board made up of fifty specialists of acknowledged prestige within Spanish psychology and translated into English. The number of the citations of the 140 original articles republished in Psychology in Spain was compared to the number of the citations of the 140 randomly selected articles. Additionally, the study searched for a relationship between the number of the articles selected from each journal and their mean number of citations. The number of citations received by the best articles as evaluated by experts is significantly higher than the number of citations of the randomly selected articles. Also, the number of citations is higher in the articles from the most frequently selected journals. A statistically significant relation between the quality evaluated by experts and the number of the citations was found.

  12. Computer-Based Image Analysis for Plus Disease Diagnosis in Retinopathy of Prematurity: Performance of the "i-ROP" System and Image Features Associated With Expert Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ataer-Cansizoglu, Esra; Bolon-Canedo, Veronica; Campbell, J Peter; Bozkurt, Alican; Erdogmus, Deniz; Kalpathy-Cramer, Jayashree; Patel, Samir; Jonas, Karyn; Chan, R V Paul; Ostmo, Susan; Chiang, Michael F

    2015-11-01

    We developed and evaluated the performance of a novel computer-based image analysis system for grading plus disease in retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), and identified the image features, shapes, and sizes that best correlate with expert diagnosis. A dataset of 77 wide-angle retinal images from infants screened for ROP was collected. A reference standard diagnosis was determined for each image by combining image grading from 3 experts with the clinical diagnosis from ophthalmoscopic examination. Manually segmented images were cropped into a range of shapes and sizes, and a computer algorithm was developed to extract tortuosity and dilation features from arteries and veins. Each feature was fed into our system to identify the set of characteristics that yielded the highest-performing system compared to the reference standard, which we refer to as the "i-ROP" system. Among the tested crop shapes, sizes, and measured features, point-based measurements of arterial and venous tortuosity (combined), and a large circular cropped image (with radius 6 times the disc diameter), provided the highest diagnostic accuracy. The i-ROP system achieved 95% accuracy for classifying preplus and plus disease compared to the reference standard. This was comparable to the performance of the 3 individual experts (96%, 94%, 92%), and significantly higher than the mean performance of 31 nonexperts (81%). This comprehensive analysis of computer-based plus disease suggests that it may be feasible to develop a fully-automated system based on wide-angle retinal images that performs comparably to expert graders at three-level plus disease discrimination. Computer-based image analysis, using objective and quantitative retinal vascular features, has potential to complement clinical ROP diagnosis by ophthalmologists.

  13. Robust Trust in Expert Testimony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Dahlman

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The standard of proof in criminal trials should require that the evidence presented by the prosecution is robust. This requirement of robustness says that it must be unlikely that additional information would change the probability that the defendant is guilty. Robustness is difficult for a judge to estimate, as it requires the judge to assess the possible effect of information that the he or she does not have. This article is concerned with expert witnesses and proposes a method for reviewing the robustness of expert testimony. According to the proposed method, the robustness of expert testimony is estimated with regard to competence, motivation, external strength, internal strength and relevance. The danger of trusting non-robust expert testimony is illustrated with an analysis of the Thomas Quick Case, a Swedish legal scandal where a patient at a mental institution was wrongfully convicted for eight murders.

  14. Standardizing the practice of human reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallbert, B.P.

    1993-01-01

    The practice of human reliability analysis (HRA) within the nuclear industry varies greatly in terms of posited mechanisms that shape human performance, methods of characterizing and analytically modeling human behavior, and the techniques that are employed to estimate the frequency with which human error occurs. This variation has been a source of contention among HRA practitioners regarding the validity of results obtained from different HRA methods. It has also resulted in attempts to develop standard methods and procedures for conducting HRAs. For many of the same reasons, the practice of HRA has not been standardized or has been standardized only to the extent that individual analysts have developed heuristics and consistent approaches in their practice of HRA. From the standpoint of consumers and regulators, this has resulted in a lack of clear acceptance criteria for the assumptions, modeling, and quantification of human errors in probabilistic risk assessments

  15. Analysis in cytokinesis-blocked human lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catena, C.; Mattoni, A.

    1987-01-01

    Biological dosimetry can be considered as an additional method to physical dosimetry for estimating dose absorption after exposure to ionizing radiation. Fully validated as well as new promising approaches in this field are reviewed. Recent experiments, carried out in our laboratory, on the analysis of micronuclei in cytokinesis-blocked human lymphocytes are presented. The possible relevance of differential human individual response to ionizing radiation, in view of the occurrence of radiosensitive syndromes, for the estimation of the absorbed dose in human is also discussed

  16. Expert auditors’ services classification

    OpenAIRE

    Jolanta Wisniewska

    2013-01-01

    The profession of an expert auditor is a public trust occupation with a distinctive feature of taking responsibility for actions in the public interest. The main responsibility of expert auditors is performing financial auditing; however, expert auditors are prepared to carry out different tasks which encompass a wide plethora of financial and auditing services for different kinds of institutions and companies. The aim of the article is first of all the description of expert auditors’ service...

  17. WINE ADVISOR EXPERT SYSTEM USING DECISION RULES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinuca Elena Claudia

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article I focus on developing an expert system for advising the choice of wine that best matches a specific occasion. An expert system is a computer application that performs a task that would be performed by a human expert. The implementation is done using Delphi programming language. I used to represent the knowledge bases a set of rules. The rules are of type IF THEN ELSE rules, decision rules based on different important wine features.

  18. Kinematic analysis of basic rhythmic movements of hip-hop dance: motion characteristics common to expert dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Nahoko; Nunome, Hiroyuki; Ikegami, Yasuo

    2015-02-01

    In hip-hop dance contests, a procedure for evaluating performances has not been clearly defined, and objective criteria for evaluation are necessary. It is assumed that most hip-hop dance techniques have common motion characteristics by which judges determine the dancer's skill level. This study aimed to extract motion characteristics that may be linked to higher evaluations by judges. Ten expert and 12 nonexpert dancers performed basic rhythmic movements at a rate of 100 beats per minute. Their movements were captured using a motion capture system, and eight judges evaluated the performances. Four kinematic parameters, including the amplitude of the body motions and the phase delay, which indicates the phase difference between two joint angles, were calculated. The two groups showed no significant differences in terms of the amplitudes of the body motions. In contrast, the phase delay between the head motion and the other body parts' motions of expert dancers who received higher scores from the judges, which was approximately a quarter cycle, produced a loop-shaped motion of the head. It is suggested that this slight phase delay was related to the judges' evaluations and that these findings may help in constructing an objective evaluation system.

  19. Analysis of the relationship between the application of negotiation style and conflict management strategies physical education's experts in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Hassannejad

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The conflict is a major behavioral complication of groups. The manager who knows the basic principles of conflict and negotiation will be ready to deal successfully with these inevitable situations. However, this study aimed to explain the role of negotiation in conflict management among physical education experts in Education and Training System of Iran. This study applied analytical- correlation study. The sample consisted of 217 physical education experts. The Robbins' Conflict Management Questionnaire and PEER’s Negotiation Styles Questionnaire (1989 were used for collecting the data. The findings showed that there is a significant relationship between negotiation styles and conflict management. However, there was no relationship between negotiation styles and avoidance strategy.  The factual style and solution-oriented strategy were selected by participants. It was concluded that the negotiation styles and conflict management strategies should be used considering the situation.  It was recommended that the training courses would be hold to increase the skills of physical education managers and empower them.

  20. Comparative analysis of expert and machine-learning methods for classification of body cavity effusions in companion animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotz, Christine S; Templeton, Steven J; Christopher, Mary M

    2005-03-01

    A rule-based expert system using CLIPS programming language was created to classify body cavity effusions as transudates, modified transudates, exudates, chylous, and hemorrhagic effusions. The diagnostic accuracy of the rule-based system was compared with that produced by 2 machine-learning methods: Rosetta, a rough sets algorithm and RIPPER, a rule-induction method. Results of 508 body cavity fluid analyses (canine, feline, equine) obtained from the University of California-Davis Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital computerized patient database were used to test CLIPS and to test and train RIPPER and Rosetta. The CLIPS system, using 17 rules, achieved an accuracy of 93.5% compared with pathologist consensus diagnoses. Rosetta accurately classified 91% of effusions by using 5,479 rules. RIPPER achieved the greatest accuracy (95.5%) using only 10 rules. When the original rules of the CLIPS application were replaced with those of RIPPER, the accuracy rates were identical. These results suggest that both rule-based expert systems and machine-learning methods hold promise for the preliminary classification of body fluids in the clinical laboratory.

  1. Delegating Decisions to Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Suen, Wing

    2004-01-01

    We present a model of delegation with self-interested and privately informed experts. A team of experts with extreme but opposite biases is acceptable to a wide range of decision makers with diverse preferences, but the value of expertise from such a team is low. A decision maker wants to appoint experts who are less partisan than he is in order…

  2. The quantitative failure of human reliability analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, C.T.

    1995-07-01

    This philosophical treatise argues the merits of Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) in the context of the nuclear power industry. Actually, the author attacks historic and current HRA as having failed in informing policy makers who make decisions based on risk that humans contribute to systems performance. He argues for an HRA based on Bayesian (fact-based) inferential statistics, which advocates a systems analysis process that employs cogent heuristics when using opinion, and tempers itself with a rational debate over the weight given subjective and empirical probabilities.

  3. Human milk metagenome: a functional capacity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Human milk contains a diverse population of bacteria that likely influences colonization of the infant gastrointestinal tract. Recent studies, however, have been limited to characterization of this microbial community by 16S rRNA analysis. In the present study, a metagenomic approach using Illumina sequencing of a pooled milk sample (ten donors) was employed to determine the genera of bacteria and the types of bacterial open reading frames in human milk that may influence bacterial establishment and stability in this primal food matrix. The human milk metagenome was also compared to that of breast-fed and formula-fed infants’ feces (n = 5, each) and mothers’ feces (n = 3) at the phylum level and at a functional level using open reading frame abundance. Additionally, immune-modulatory bacterial-DNA motifs were also searched for within human milk. Results The bacterial community in human milk contained over 360 prokaryotic genera, with sequences aligning predominantly to the phyla of Proteobacteria (65%) and Firmicutes (34%), and the genera of Pseudomonas (61.1%), Staphylococcus (33.4%) and Streptococcus (0.5%). From assembled human milk-derived contigs, 30,128 open reading frames were annotated and assigned to functional categories. When compared to the metagenome of infants’ and mothers’ feces, the human milk metagenome was less diverse at the phylum level, and contained more open reading frames associated with nitrogen metabolism, membrane transport and stress response (P milk metagenome also contained a similar occurrence of immune-modulatory DNA motifs to that of infants’ and mothers’ fecal metagenomes. Conclusions Our results further expand the complexity of the human milk metagenome and enforce the benefits of human milk ingestion on the microbial colonization of the infant gut and immunity. Discovery of immune-modulatory motifs in the metagenome of human milk indicates more exhaustive analyses of the functionality of the human

  4. Institutional and Actor-Oriented Factors Constraining Expert-Based Forest Information Exchange in Europe: A Policy Analysis from an Actor-Centred Institutionalist Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanya Baycheva-Merger

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Adequate and accessible expert-based forest information has become increasingly in demand for effective decisions and informed policies in the forest and forest-related sectors in Europe. Such accessibility requires a collaborative environment and constant information exchange between various actors at different levels and across sectors. However, information exchange in complex policy environments is challenging, and is often constrained by various institutional, actor-oriented, and technical factors. In forest policy research, no study has yet attempted to simultaneously account for these multiple factors influencing expert-based forest information exchange. By employing a policy analysis from an actor-centred institutionalist perspective, this paper aims to provide an overview of the most salient institutional and actor-oriented factors that are perceived as constraining forest information exchange at the national level across European countries. We employ an exploratory research approach, and utilise both qualitative and quantitative methods to analyse our data. The data was collected through a semi-structured survey targeted at forest and forest-related composite actors in 21 European countries. The results revealed that expert-based forest information exchange is constrained by a number of compound and closely interlinked institutional and actor-oriented factors, reflecting the complex interplay of institutions and actors at the national level. The most salient institutional factors that stand out include restrictive or ambiguous data protection policies, inter-organisational information arrangements, different organisational cultures, and a lack of incentives. Forest information exchange becomes even more complex when actors are confronted with actor-oriented factors such as issues of distrust, diverging preferences and perceptions, intellectual property rights, and technical capabilities. We conclude that expert-based forest information

  5. The development of human behavior analysis techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Lee, Yong Hee; Park, Geun Ok; Cheon, Se Woo; Suh, Sang Moon; Oh, In Suk; Lee, Hyun Chul; Park, Jae Chang.

    1997-07-01

    In this project, which is to study on man-machine interaction in Korean nuclear power plants, we developed SACOM (Simulation Analyzer with a Cognitive Operator Model), a tool for the assessment of task performance in the control rooms using software simulation, and also develop human error analysis and application techniques. SACOM was developed to assess operator's physical workload, workload in information navigation at VDU workstations, and cognitive workload in procedural tasks. We developed trip analysis system including a procedure based on man-machine interaction analysis system including a procedure based on man-machine interaction analysis and a classification system. We analyzed a total of 277 trips occurred from 1978 to 1994 to produce trip summary information, and for 79 cases induced by human errors time-lined man-machine interactions. The INSTEC, a database system of our analysis results, was developed. The MARSTEC, a multimedia authoring and representation system for trip information, was also developed, and techniques for human error detection in human factors experiments were established. (author). 121 refs., 38 tabs., 52 figs

  6. The development of human behavior analysis techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Lee, Yong Hee; Park, Geun Ok; Cheon, Se Woo; Suh, Sang Moon; Oh, In Suk; Lee, Hyun Chul; Park, Jae Chang

    1997-07-01

    In this project, which is to study on man-machine interaction in Korean nuclear power plants, we developed SACOM (Simulation Analyzer with a Cognitive Operator Model), a tool for the assessment of task performance in the control rooms using software simulation, and also develop human error analysis and application techniques. SACOM was developed to assess operator`s physical workload, workload in information navigation at VDU workstations, and cognitive workload in procedural tasks. We developed trip analysis system including a procedure based on man-machine interaction analysis system including a procedure based on man-machine interaction analysis and a classification system. We analyzed a total of 277 trips occurred from 1978 to 1994 to produce trip summary information, and for 79 cases induced by human errors time-lined man-machine interactions. The INSTEC, a database system of our analysis results, was developed. The MARSTEC, a multimedia authoring and representation system for trip information, was also developed, and techniques for human error detection in human factors experiments were established. (author). 121 refs., 38 tabs., 52 figs.

  7. Human reliability data, human error and accident models--illustration through the Three Mile Island accident analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Bot, Pierre

    2004-01-01

    Our first objective is to provide a panorama of Human Reliability data used in EDF's Safety Probabilistic Studies, and then, since these concepts are at the heart of Human Reliability and its methods, to go over the notion of human error and the understanding of accidents. We are not sure today that it is actually possible to provide in this field a foolproof and productive theoretical framework. Consequently, the aim of this article is to suggest potential paths of action and to provide information on EDF's progress along those paths which enables us to produce the most potentially useful Human Reliability analyses while taking into account current knowledge in Human Sciences. The second part of this article illustrates our point of view as EDF researchers through the analysis of the most famous civil nuclear accident, the Three Mile Island unit accident in 1979. Analysis of this accident allowed us to validate our positions regarding the need to move, in the case of an accident, from the concept of human error to that of systemic failure in the operation of systems such as a nuclear power plant. These concepts rely heavily on the notion of distributed cognition and we will explain how we applied it. These concepts were implemented in the MERMOS Human Reliability Probabilistic Assessment methods used in the latest EDF Probabilistic Human Reliability Assessment. Besides the fact that it is not very productive to focus exclusively on individual psychological error, the design of the MERMOS method and its implementation have confirmed two things: the significance of qualitative data collection for Human Reliability, and the central role held by Human Reliability experts in building knowledge about emergency operation, which in effect consists of Human Reliability data collection. The latest conclusion derived from the implementation of MERMOS is that, considering the difficulty in building 'generic' Human Reliability data in the field we are involved in, the best

  8. Application of DFM in human reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Shaojie; Zhao Jun; Tong Jiejuan

    2011-01-01

    Combining with ATHEANA, the possible to identify EFCs and UAs using DFM is studied; and then Steam Generator Tube Rupture (SGTR) accident is modeled and solved. Through inductive analysis, 26 Prime Implicants (PIs) are obtained and the meaning of results is interpreted; and one of PIs is similar to the accident scenario of human failure event in one nuclear power plant. Finally, this paper discusses the methods of quantifying PIs, analysis of Error of commission (EOC) and so on. (authors)

  9. Expert status and performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Burgman

    Full Text Available Expert judgements are essential when time and resources are stretched or we face novel dilemmas requiring fast solutions. Good advice can save lives and large sums of money. Typically, experts are defined by their qualifications, track record and experience. The social expectation hypothesis argues that more highly regarded and more experienced experts will give better advice. We asked experts to predict how they will perform, and how their peers will perform, on sets of questions. The results indicate that the way experts regard each other is consistent, but unfortunately, ranks are a poor guide to actual performance. Expert advice will be more accurate if technical decisions routinely use broadly-defined expert groups, structured question protocols and feedback.

  10. Obesity evaluation and treatment: Expert Committee recommendations. The Maternal and Child Health Bureau, Health Resources and Services Administration and the Department of Health and Human Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, S E; Dietz, W H

    1998-09-01

    The development of recommendations for physicians, nurse practitioners, and nutritionists to guide the evaluation and treatment of overweight children and adolescents. The Maternal and Child Health Bureau, Health Resources and Services Administration, the Department of Health and Human Services convened a committee of pediatric obesity experts to develop the recommendations. The Committee recommended that children with a body mass index (BMI) greater than or equal to the 85th percentile with complications of obesity or with a BMI greater than or equal to the 95th percentile, with or without complications, undergo evaluation and possible treatment. Clinicians should be aware of signs of the rare exogenous causes of obesity, including genetic syndromes, endocrinologic diseases, and psychologic disorders. They should screen for complications of obesity, including hypertension, dyslipidemias, orthopedic disorders, sleep disorders, gall bladder disease, and insulin resistance. Conditions that indicate consultation with a pediatric obesity specialist include pseudotumor cerebri, obesity-related sleep disorders, orthopedic problems, massive obesity, and obesity in children younger than 2 years of age. Recommendations for treatment evaluation included an assessment of patient and family readiness to engage in a weight-management program and a focused assessment of diet and physical activity habits. The primary goal of obesity therapy should be healthy eating and activity. The use of weight maintenance versus weight loss to achieve weight goals depends on each patient's age, baseline BMI percentile, and presence of medical complications. The Committee recommended treatment that begins early, involves the family, and institutes permanent changes in a stepwise manner. Parenting skills are the foundation for successful intervention that puts in place gradual, targeted increases in activity and targeted reductions in high-fat, high-calorie foods. Ongoing support for families

  11. Direct-to-consumer advertising for bleeding disorders: a content analysis and expert evaluation of advertising claims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, G. A.; Neufeld, E. J.; Sorel, M; Weeks, J. C.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requires that all direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) contain both an accurate statement of a medication’s effects (“truth”) and an even-handed discussion of its benefits and risks/adverse effects (“fair balance”). DTCA for medications to treat rare diseases such as bleeding disorders is unlikely to be given high priority for FDA review. METHODS We reviewed all DTCA for bleeding disorder products appearing in the patient-directed magazine HemeAware from January, 2004 to June, 2006. We categorized the information presented in each advertisement as benefit, risk/adverse effect, or neither, and assessed the amount of text and type size devoted to each. We also assessed the readability of each type of text using the Flesch Reading Ease Score (FRES, where a score of ≥ 65 is considered of average readability), and assessed the accuracy of the advertising claims utilizing a panel of five bleeding disorder experts. RESULTS A total of 39 unique advertisements for 12 products were found. On average, approximately twice the amount of text was devoted to benefits as compared to risks/adverse effects, and the later was more difficult to read (FRES of 20.45 for risks/adverse effects versus 32.08 for benefits; difference of 11.56 [95% CI: 4.52, 18.60]). Only about two-thirds of the advertising claims were considered by a majority of the experts to be based on at least low-quality evidence. CONCLUSION As measured by our methods, print DTCA for bleeding disorders may not reach the FDA’s standards of truth and fair balance. PMID:18647231

  12. Direct-to-consumer advertising for bleeding disorders: a content analysis and expert evaluation of advertising claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, G A; Neufeld, E J; Sorel, M; Weeks, J C

    2008-10-01

    In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requires that all direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) contain both an accurate statement of a medication's effects ('truth') and an even-handed discussion of its benefits and risks/adverse effects ('fair balance'). DTCA for medications to treat rare diseases such as bleeding disorders is unlikely to be given high priority for FDA review. We reviewed all DTCA for bleeding disorder products appearing in the patient-directed magazine HemeAware from January 2004 to June 2006. We categorized the information presented in each advertisement as benefit, risk/adverse effect, or neither, and assessed the amount of text and type size devoted to each. We also assessed the readability of each type of text using the Flesch Reading Ease Score (FRES, where a score of >or=65 is considered of average readability), and assessed the accuracy of the advertising claims utilizing a panel of five bleeding disorder experts. A total of 39 unique advertisements for 12 products were found. On average, approximately twice the amount of text was devoted to benefits as compared with risks/adverse effects, and the latter was more difficult to read [FRES of 32.0 for benefits vs. 20.5 for risks/adverse effects, a difference of 11.5 (95% CI: 4.5-18.5)]. Only about two-thirds of the advertising claims were considered by a majority of the experts to be based on at least low-quality evidence. As measured by our methods, print DTCA for bleeding disorders may not reach the FDA's standards of truth and fair balance.

  13. Human reliability analysis of dependent events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swain, A.D.; Guttmann, H.E.

    1977-01-01

    In the human reliability analysis in WASH-1400, the continuous variable of degree of interaction among human events was approximated by selecting four points on this continuum to represent the entire continuum. The four points selected were identified as zero coupling (i.e., zero dependence), complete coupling (i.e., complete dependence), and two intermediate points--loose coupling (a moderate level of dependence) and tight coupling (a high level of dependence). The paper expands the WASH-1400 treatment of common mode failure due to the interaction of human activities. Mathematical expressions for the above four levels of dependence are derived for parallel and series systems. The psychological meaning of each level of dependence is illustrated by examples, with probability tree diagrams to illustrate the use of conditional probabilities resulting from the interaction of human actions in nuclear power plant tasks

  14. Problematic Aspects of the Use of Expert Systems in Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Kalinauskas

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The usage of expert systems in law brings many problematic questions. Complexity and intricacy of law, combined with limited possibilities of information technologies makes it difficult to create flawlessly working expert systems. In this article the author analyses problematic aspects related to expert system usage in law. Comparisons of various research are made according to analysis of scientific articles. The author analyses practical difficulties of legal norm representation, creation of expert knowledge ontology, expert systems liability issues. Legal responsibility of expert system developers, users, and owners are also covered in this paper. Creation of legal ontologies is a complicated process because of the nature of the subject itself and the complexity and quantity of knowledge which must be represented in order to have fully functional legal expert system. Legal information basically consists of legal norms, doctrine, precedents and expert knowledge. All of these areas have specific representation issues, but the most difficult part is to make ontology and representation of expert knowledge. Different experts may have distinct points of view in some similar cases. Human decisions are made not only by applying certain rules to the problem decision pattern. Providence, analytical skills and critical thinking is required in legal professional work. Human reasoning and decision-making is not only based on symbolic values, it also consists of intermediate symbolic assumptions. So the question is: is it possible to give a clear structure to something which has no permanent state? The other problem which is analyzed in this article is artificial reasoning methods, which are basically different forms of pattern recognition with some specific methods applied to them. The second part of the paper analyses the liability of expert systems. Nowadays expert systems can’t be legally responsible for their decisions. They lack

  15. Problematic Aspects of the Use of Expert Systems in Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Kalinauskas

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The usage of expert systems in law brings many problematic questions. Complexity and intricacy of law, combined with limited possibilities of information technologies makes it difficult to create flawlessly working expert systems. In this article the author analyses problematic aspects related to expert system usage in law. Comparisons of various research are made according to analysis of scientific articles. The author analyses practical difficulties of legal norm representation, creation of expert knowledge ontology, expert systems liability issues. Legal responsibility of expert system developers, users, and owners are also covered in this paper. Creation of legal ontologies is a complicated process because of the nature of the subject itself and the complexity and quantity of knowledge which must be represented in order to have fully functional legal expert system. Legal information basically consists of legal norms, doctrine, precedents and expert knowledge. All of these areas have specific representation issues, but the most difficult part is to make ontology and representation of expert knowledge. Different experts may have distinct points of view in some similar cases. Human decisions are made not only by applying certain rules to the problem decision pattern. Providence, analytical skills and critical thinking is required in legal professional work. Human reasoning and decision-making is not only based on symbolic values, it also consists of intermediate symbolic assumptions. So the question is: is it possible to give a clear structure to something which has no permanent state? The other problem which is analyzed in this article is artificial reasoning methods, which are basically different forms of pattern recognition with some specific methods applied to them. The second part of the paper analyses the liability of expert systems. Nowadays expert systems can’t be legally responsible for their decisions. They lack intellectual

  16. Advancing Usability Evaluation through Human Reliability Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronald L. Boring; David I. Gertman

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel augmentation to the current heuristic usability evaluation methodology. The SPAR-H human reliability analysis method was developed for categorizing human performance in nuclear power plants. Despite the specialized use of SPAR-H for safety critical scenarios, the method also holds promise for use in commercial off-the-shelf software usability evaluations. The SPAR-H method shares task analysis underpinnings with human-computer interaction, and it can be easily adapted to incorporate usability heuristics as performance shaping factors. By assigning probabilistic modifiers to heuristics, it is possible to arrive at the usability error probability (UEP). This UEP is not a literal probability of error but nonetheless provides a quantitative basis to heuristic evaluation. When combined with a consequence matrix for usability errors, this method affords ready prioritization of usability issues

  17. Expert systems: an alternative paradigm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coombs, M.; Alty, J.

    1984-01-01

    There has recently been a significant effort by the AI community to interest industry in the potential of expert systems. However, this has resulted in far fewer substantial applications projects than might be expected. This article argues that this is because human experts are rarely required to perform the role that computer-based experts are programmed to adopt. Instead of being called in to answer well-defined problems, they are more often asked to assist other experts to extend and refine their understanding of a problem area at the junction of their two domains of knowledge. This more properly involves educational rather than problem-solving skills. An alternative approach to expert system design is proposed based upon guided discovery learning. The user is provided with a supportive environment for a particular class of problem, the system predominantly acting as an adviser rather than directing the interaction. The environment includes a database of domain knowledge, a set of procedures for its application to a concrete problem, and an intelligent machine-based adviser to judge the user's effectiveness and advise on strategy. The procedures focus upon the use of user generated explanations both to promote the application of domain knowledge and to expose understanding difficulties. Simple database PROLOG is being used as the subject material for the prototype system which is known as MINDPAD. 30 references.

  18. Big Data Analysis of Human Genome Variations

    KAUST Repository

    Gojobori, Takashi

    2016-01-25

    Since the human genome draft sequence was in public for the first time in 2000, genomic analyses have been intensively extended to the population level. The following three international projects are good examples for large-scale studies of human genome variations: 1) HapMap Data (1,417 individuals) (http://hapmap.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/downloads/genotypes/2010-08_phaseII+III/forward/), 2) HGDP (Human Genome Diversity Project) Data (940 individuals) (http://www.hagsc.org/hgdp/files.html), 3) 1000 genomes Data (2,504 individuals) http://ftp.1000genomes.ebi.ac.uk/vol1/ftp/release/20130502/ If we can integrate all three data into a single volume of data, we should be able to conduct a more detailed analysis of human genome variations for a total number of 4,861 individuals (= 1,417+940+2,504 individuals). In fact, we successfully integrated these three data sets by use of information on the reference human genome sequence, and we conducted the big data analysis. In particular, we constructed a phylogenetic tree of about 5,000 human individuals at the genome level. As a result, we were able to identify clusters of ethnic groups, with detectable admixture, that were not possible by an analysis of each of the three data sets. Here, we report the outcome of this kind of big data analyses and discuss evolutionary significance of human genomic variations. Note that the present study was conducted in collaboration with Katsuhiko Mineta and Kosuke Goto at KAUST.

  19. Space Mission Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Roger

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the Space Mission Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) Project is to extend current ground-based HRA risk prediction techniques to a long-duration, space-based tool. Ground-based HRA methodology has been shown to be a reasonable tool for short-duration space missions, such as Space Shuttle and lunar fly-bys. However, longer-duration deep-space missions, such as asteroid and Mars missions, will require the crew to be in space for as long as 400 to 900 day missions with periods of extended autonomy and self-sufficiency. Current indications show higher risk due to fatigue, physiological effects due to extended low gravity environments, and others, may impact HRA predictions. For this project, Safety & Mission Assurance (S&MA) will work with Human Health & Performance (HH&P) to establish what is currently used to assess human reliabiilty for human space programs, identify human performance factors that may be sensitive to long duration space flight, collect available historical data, and update current tools to account for performance shaping factors believed to be important to such missions. This effort will also contribute data to the Human Performance Data Repository and influence the Space Human Factors Engineering research risks and gaps (part of the HRP Program). An accurate risk predictor mitigates Loss of Crew (LOC) and Loss of Mission (LOM).The end result will be an updated HRA model that can effectively predict risk on long-duration missions.

  20. A taxonomy for human reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beattie, J.D.; Iwasa-Madge, K.M.

    1984-01-01

    A human interaction taxonomy (classification scheme) was developed to facilitate human reliability analysis in a probabilistic safety evaluation of a nuclear power plant, being performed at Ontario Hydro. A human interaction occurs, by definition, when operators or maintainers manipulate, or respond to indication from, a plant component or system. The taxonomy aids the fault tree analyst by acting as a heuristic device. It helps define the range and type of human errors to be identified in the construction of fault trees, while keeping the identification by different analysts consistent. It decreases the workload associated with preliminary quantification of the large number of identified interactions by including a category called 'simple interactions'. Fault tree analysts quantify these according to a procedure developed by a team of human reliability specialists. The interactions which do not fit into this category are called 'complex' and are quantified by the human reliability team. The taxonomy is currently being used in fault tree construction in a probabilistic safety evaluation. As far as can be determined at this early stage, the potential benefits of consistency and completeness in identifying human interactions and streamlining the initial quantification are being realized

  1. Human reliability analysis using event trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heslinga, G.

    1983-01-01

    The shut-down procedure of a technologically complex installation as a nuclear power plant consists of a lot of human actions, some of which have to be performed several times. The procedure is regarded as a chain of modules of specific actions, some of which are analyzed separately. The analysis is carried out by making a Human Reliability Analysis event tree (HRA event tree) of each action, breaking down each action into small elementary steps. The application of event trees in human reliability analysis implies more difficulties than in the case of technical systems where event trees were mainly used until now. The most important reason is that the operator is able to recover a wrong performance; memory influences play a significant role. In this study these difficulties are dealt with theoretically. The following conclusions can be drawn: (1) in principle event trees may be used in human reliability analysis; (2) although in practice the operator will recover his fault partly, theoretically this can be described as starting the whole event tree again; (3) compact formulas have been derived, by which the probability of reaching a specific failure consequence on passing through the HRA event tree after several times of recovery is to be calculated. (orig.)

  2. Fast human behavior analysis for scene understanding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lao, W.

    2011-01-01

    Human behavior analysis has become an active topic of great interest and relevance for a number of applications and areas of research. The research in recent years has been considerably driven by the growing level of criminal behavior in large urban areas and increase of terroristic actions. Also,

  3. Techniques and applications of the human reliability analysis in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, Fausto C.

    1995-01-01

    The analysis and prediction of the man-machine interaction are the objectives of human reliability analysis. In this work is presented in a manner that could be used by experts in the field of Probabilistic Safety Assessment, considering primarily the aspects of human errors. The Technique of Human Error Rate Prediction (THERP) is used in large scale to obtain data on human error. Applications of this technique are presented, as well as aspects of the state-of-art and of research and development of this particular field of work, where the construction of a reliable data bank is considered essential. In this work is also developed an application of the THERP for the TRIGA Mark 1 IPR R-1 Reactor of the Centro de Desenvolvimento de Tecnologia Nuclear, Brazilian research institute of nuclear technology. The results indicate that some changes must be made in the emergency procedures of the reactor, in order to achieve a higher level of safety

  4. Expert system for the automatic analysis of the Eddy current signals from the monitoring of vapor generators of a PWR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benoist, P.; David, B.; Pigeon, M.

    1990-01-01

    An expert system for the automatic analysis of signals from Eddy currents is presented. The system was developed in order to detect and analyse the defects which may exist in vapor generators. The extraction of a signal from a high level background noise is possible. The organization of the work during the system's development, the results of the technique for the extraction of the signal from the background noise, and an example concerning the interpretation of the signal from a defect are presented [fr

  5. Medical expert system for assessment of coronary heart disease destabilization based on the analysis of the level of soluble vascular adhesion molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serkova, Valentina K.; Pavlov, Sergey V.; Romanava, Valentina A.; Monastyrskiy, Yuriy I.; Ziepko, Sergey M.; Kuzminova, Nanaliya V.; Wójcik, Waldemar; DzierŻak, RóŻa; Kalizhanova, Aliya; Kashaganova, Gulzhan

    2017-08-01

    Theoretical and practical substantiation of the possibility of the using the level of soluble vascular adhesion molecules (sVCAM) is performed. Expert system for the assessment of coronary heart disease (CHD) destabilization on the base of the analysis of soluble vascular adhesion molecules level is developed. Correlation between the increase of VCAM level and C-reactive protein (CRP) in patients with different variants of CHD progression is established. Association of chronic nonspecific vascular inflammation activation and CHD destabilization is shown. The expedience of parallel determination of sVCAM and CRP levels for diagnostics of CHD destabilization and forecast elaboration is noted.

  6. A technique for human error analysis (ATHEANA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, S.E.; Ramey-Smith, A.M.; Wreathall, J.; Parry, G.W. [and others

    1996-05-01

    Probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) has become an important tool in the nuclear power industry, both for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the operating utilities. Human reliability analysis (HRA) is a critical element of PRA; however, limitations in the analysis of human actions in PRAs have long been recognized as a constraint when using PRA. A multidisciplinary HRA framework has been developed with the objective of providing a structured approach for analyzing operating experience and understanding nuclear plant safety, human error, and the underlying factors that affect them. The concepts of the framework have matured into a rudimentary working HRA method. A trial application of the method has demonstrated that it is possible to identify potentially significant human failure events from actual operating experience which are not generally included in current PRAs, as well as to identify associated performance shaping factors and plant conditions that have an observable impact on the frequency of core damage. A general process was developed, albeit in preliminary form, that addresses the iterative steps of defining human failure events and estimating their probabilities using search schemes. Additionally, a knowledge- base was developed which describes the links between performance shaping factors and resulting unsafe actions.

  7. A technique for human error analysis (ATHEANA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, S.E.; Ramey-Smith, A.M.; Wreathall, J.; Parry, G.W.

    1996-05-01

    Probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) has become an important tool in the nuclear power industry, both for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the operating utilities. Human reliability analysis (HRA) is a critical element of PRA; however, limitations in the analysis of human actions in PRAs have long been recognized as a constraint when using PRA. A multidisciplinary HRA framework has been developed with the objective of providing a structured approach for analyzing operating experience and understanding nuclear plant safety, human error, and the underlying factors that affect them. The concepts of the framework have matured into a rudimentary working HRA method. A trial application of the method has demonstrated that it is possible to identify potentially significant human failure events from actual operating experience which are not generally included in current PRAs, as well as to identify associated performance shaping factors and plant conditions that have an observable impact on the frequency of core damage. A general process was developed, albeit in preliminary form, that addresses the iterative steps of defining human failure events and estimating their probabilities using search schemes. Additionally, a knowledge- base was developed which describes the links between performance shaping factors and resulting unsafe actions

  8. Paradigms and building tools for real-time expert systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrens, U.; Flasinski, M.; Hagge, L.; Ohrenberg, K.

    1994-01-01

    An expert system is a software which can simulate the problem solving behavior of a human expert. The rule-based paradigm is chosen to describe the different aspects involved in expert system development. Differences between expert systems and common procedural or object-oriented programs are investigated. Expert system shells are introduced as a building tool for expert systems, together with some guidelines on the evaluation of such shells. A discussion of special needs for real-time expert system development concludes the paper

  9. Analysis of standard substance human hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Shuyun; Zhang Yongbao

    2005-01-01

    The human hair samples as standard substances were analyzed by the neutron activation analysis (NAA) on the miniature neutron source reactor. 19 elements, i.e. Al, As, Ba, Br, Ca, Cl, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Hg, I, Mg, Mn, Na, S, Se, V and Zn, were measured. The average content, standard deviation, relative standard deviation and the detection limit under the present research conditions were given for each element, and the results showed that the measured values of the samples were in agreement with the recommended values, which indicated that NAA can be used to analyze standard substance human hair with a relatively high accuracy. (authors)

  10. Human Error Analysis by Fuzzy-Set

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Situmorang, Johnny

    1996-01-01

    In conventional HRA the probability of Error is treated as a single and exact value through constructing even tree, but in this moment the Fuzzy-Set Theory is used. Fuzzy set theory treat the probability of error as a plausibility which illustrate a linguistic variable. Most parameter or variable in human engineering been defined verbal good, fairly good, worst etc. Which describe a range of any value of probability. For example this analysis is quantified the human error in calibration task, and the probability of miscalibration is very low

  11. Nephrus: expert system model in intelligent multilayers for evaluation of urinary system based on scintigraphic image analysis; Nephrus: modelo de sistema especialista em multicamadas inteligentes para avaliacao do sistema urinario baseado na analise de imagens cintilograficas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Jorge Wagner Esteves da; Schirru, Roberto [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Boasquevisque, Edson Mendes [Hospital dos Servidores do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Medicina Nuclear

    1999-11-01

    Renal function can be measured noninvasively with radionuclides in a extremely safe way compared to other diagnosis techniques. Nevertheless, due to the fact that radioactive materials are used in this procedure, it is necessary to maximize its benefits, therefore all efforts are justifiable in the development of data analysis support tools for this diagnosis modality. The objective of this work is to develop a prototype for a system model based on Artificial Intelligence devices able to perform functions related to cintilographic image analysis of the urinary system. Rules used by medical experts in the analysis of images obtained with {sup 99m} Tc+DTPA and /or {sup 99m} Tc+DMSA were modeled and a Neural Network diagnosis technique was implemented. Special attention was given for designing programs user-interface. Human Factor Engineering techniques were taking in account allowing friendliness and robustness. The image segmentation adopts a model based on Ideal ROIs, which represent the normal anatomic concept for urinary system organs. Results obtained using Artificial Neural Networks for qualitative image analysis and knowledge model constructed show the feasibility of Artificial Neural Networks for qualitative image analysis and knowledge model constructed show feasibility of Artificial Intelligence implementation that uses inherent abilities of each technique in the medical diagnosis image analysis. (author) 12 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Indications for Use of Damage Control Surgery in Civilian Trauma Patients: A Content Analysis and Expert Appropriateness Rating Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Derek J; Bobrovitz, Niklas; Zygun, David A; Ball, Chad G; Kirkpatrick, Andrew W; Faris, Peter D; Brohi, Karim; D'Amours, Scott; Fabian, Timothy C; Inaba, Kenji; Leppäniemi, Ari K; Moore, Ernest E; Navsaria, Pradeep H; Nicol, Andrew J; Parry, Neil; Stelfox, Henry T

    2016-05-01

    To characterize and evaluate indications for use of damage control (DC) surgery in civilian trauma patients. Although DC surgery may improve survival in select, severely injured patients, the procedure is associated with significant morbidity, suggesting that it should be used only when appropriately indicated. Two investigators used an abbreviated grounded theory method to synthesize indications for DC surgery reported in peer-reviewed articles between 1983 and 2014 into a reduced number of named, content-characteristic codes representing unique indications. An international panel of trauma surgery experts (n = 9) then rated the appropriateness (expected benefit-to-harm ratio) of the coded indications for use in surgical practice. The 1107 indications identified in the literature were synthesized into 123 unique pre- (n = 36) and intraoperative (n = 87) indications. The panel assessed 101 (82.1%) of these indications to be appropriate. The indications most commonly reported and assessed to be appropriate included pre- and intraoperative hypothermia (median temperature 10 units), inability to close the abdominal wall without tension, development of abdominal compartment syndrome during attempted abdominal wall closure, and need to reassess extent of bowel viability. This study identified a comprehensive list of candidate indications for use of DC surgery. These indications provide a practical foundation to guide surgical practice while studies are conducted to evaluate their impact on patient care and outcomes.

  13. The expert group health research and care after disasters and environmental crises: an analysis of research questions formulated by Dutch health authorities for the expert group between 2006 and 2016.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alting, D.; Dückers, M.L.; Yzermans, J.

    2017-01-01

    Study/Objective: The aim of this study is (1) to examine developments in the research questions, submitted to the Expert Group Health Research and Care after Disasters and Environmental Crises between 2006 and 2016, and (2) to explore implications of the research questions for the nature of advice

  14. Contextual Factors for Finding Similar Experts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofmann, Katja; Balog, Krisztian; Bogers, Toine

    2010-01-01

    -seeking models, are rarely taken into account. In this article, we extend content-based expert-finding approaches with contextual factors that have been found to influence human expert finding. We focus on a task of science communicators in a knowledge-intensive environment, the task of finding similar experts......, given an example expert. Our approach combines expertise-seeking and retrieval research. First, we conduct a user study to identify contextual factors that may play a role in the studied task and environment. Then, we design expert retrieval models to capture these factors. We combine these with content......-based retrieval models and evaluate them in a retrieval experiment. Our main finding is that while content-based features are the most important, human participants also take contextual factors into account, such as media experience and organizational structure. We develop two principled ways of modeling...

  15. Application of expert systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basden, A

    1983-11-01

    This article seeks to bring together a number of issues relevant to the application of expert systems by discussing their advantages and limitations, their roles and benefits, and the influence that real-life applications might have on the design of expert systems software. Part of the expert systems strategy of one major chemical company is outlined. Because it was in constructing one particular expert system that many of these issues became important this system is described briefly at the start of the paper and used to illustrate much of the later discussion. It is of the plausible-inference type and has application in the field of materials engineering. 22 references.

  16. Being an expert

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brechet, Y.; Musseau, O.; Bruna, G.; Sperandio, M.; Roulleaux-Dugage, M.; Andrieux, S.; Metteau, L.

    2014-01-01

    This series of short articles are dedicated to the role of the expert in the enterprise. There is an important difference between a scientific counsellor and an expert, the expert, recognized by his peers, can speak publicly in his field of expertise but has a duty of transparency while the job of a scientific counsellor requires confidentiality. The making and the use of an expert in an enterprise requires a dedicated organization. The organization of the expertise in 5 enterprises in nuclear industry are considered: CEA (French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission), IRSN (Institute of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety), AREVA, ANDRA (National Radioactive Waste Management Agency) and EDF (Electricity of France)

  17. Human reliability analysis data obtainment through fuzzy logic in nuclear plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, C.S. do, E-mail: claudio.souza@ctmsp.mar.mil.br [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CTMSP), Av. Professor Lineu Prestes 2468, 05508-000 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Mesquita, R.N. de, E-mail: rnavarro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN - SP), Av. Professor Lineu Prestes 2242, 05508-000 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Human Error Probability estimates from operator's reactions to emergency situations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Human Reliability Analysis input data obtainment through fuzzy logic inference. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Performance Shaping Factors evaluation influence level onto the operator's actions. - Abstract: Human error has been recognized as an important factor for many industrial and nuclear accidents occurrence. Human error data is scarcely available for different reasons among which, lapses in historical database registry methodology is an important one. Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) is an usual tool employed to estimate the probability that an operator will reasonably perform a system required task in required time without degrading the system. This meta-analysis requires specific Human Error Probability estimates for most of its procedure. This work obtains Human Error Probability (HEP) estimates from operator's actions in response to emergency situations hypothesis on Research Reactor IEA-R1 from IPEN, Brazil. Through this proposed methodology HRA should be able to be performed even with shortage of related human error statistical data. A Performance Shaping Factors (PSF's) evaluation in order to classify and estimate their influence level onto the operator's actions and to determine their actual state over the plant was also done. Both HEP estimation and PSF evaluation were done based on expert judgment using interviews and questionnaires. Expert group was established based on selected IEA-R1 operators, and their evaluation were put into a knowledge representation system which used linguistic variables and group evaluation values that were obtained through Fuzzy Logic and Fuzzy Set theory. HEP obtained values show good agreement with literature published data corroborating the proposed methodology as a good alternative to be used on HRA.

  18. Human reliability analysis data obtainment through fuzzy logic in nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, C.S. do; Mesquita, R.N. de

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Human Error Probability estimates from operator's reactions to emergency situations. ► Human Reliability Analysis input data obtainment through fuzzy logic inference. ► Performance Shaping Factors evaluation influence level onto the operator's actions. - Abstract: Human error has been recognized as an important factor for many industrial and nuclear accidents occurrence. Human error data is scarcely available for different reasons among which, lapses in historical database registry methodology is an important one. Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) is an usual tool employed to estimate the probability that an operator will reasonably perform a system required task in required time without degrading the system. This meta-analysis requires specific Human Error Probability estimates for most of its procedure. This work obtains Human Error Probability (HEP) estimates from operator's actions in response to emergency situations hypothesis on Research Reactor IEA-R1 from IPEN, Brazil. Through this proposed methodology HRA should be able to be performed even with shortage of related human error statistical data. A Performance Shaping Factors (PSF's) evaluation in order to classify and estimate their influence level onto the operator's actions and to determine their actual state over the plant was also done. Both HEP estimation and PSF evaluation were done based on expert judgment using interviews and questionnaires. Expert group was established based on selected IEA-R1 operators, and their evaluation were put into a knowledge representation system which used linguistic variables and group evaluation values that were obtained through Fuzzy Logic and Fuzzy Set theory. HEP obtained values show good agreement with literature published data corroborating the proposed methodology as a good alternative to be used on HRA.

  19. Bayesian belief networks for human reliability analysis: A review of applications and gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mkrtchyan, L.; Podofillini, L.; Dang, V.N.

    2015-01-01

    The use of Bayesian Belief Networks (BBNs) in risk analysis (and in particular Human Reliability Analysis, HRA) is fostered by a number of features, attractive in fields with shortage of data and consequent reliance on subjective judgments: the intuitive graphical representation, the possibility of combining diverse sources of information, the use the probabilistic framework to characterize uncertainties. In HRA, BBN applications are steadily increasing, each emphasizing a different BBN feature or a different HRA aspect to improve. This paper aims at a critical review of these features as well as at suggesting research needs. Five groups of BBN applications are analysed: modelling of organizational factors, analysis of the relationships among failure influencing factors, BBN-based extensions of existing HRA methods, dependency assessment among human failure events, assessment of situation awareness. Further, the paper analyses the process for building BBNs and in particular how expert judgment is used in the assessment of the BBN conditional probability distributions. The gaps identified in the review suggest the need for establishing more systematic frameworks to integrate the different sources of information relevant for HRA (cognitive models, empirical data, and expert judgment) and to investigate algorithms to avoid elicitation of many relationships via expert judgment. - Highlights: • We analyze BBN uses for HRA applications; but some conclusions can be generalized. • Special review focus on BBN building approaches, key for model acceptance. • Gaps relate to the transparency of the BBN building and quantification phases. • Need for more systematic framework to integrate different sources of information. • Need of ways to avoid elicitation of many relationships via expert judgment

  20. State-of-the-art report on systematic approaches to safety management - Special Expert Group on Human and Organisational Factors (SEGHOF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Berghe, Yves; Frischknecht, Albert; Gil, Benito; Martin, Anibal; McRobbie, Helen; Reiersen, Craig; Tasset, Daniel; Aastrand, Kaisa; Dahlgren-Persson, Kerstin; Pyy, Pekka; Mauny, Elisabeth

    2006-02-01

    There is a growing awareness of the significant contribution which human and organisational factors (HOF) make to nuclear safety. Within the HOF area, attention is increasingly focused on addressing management and organisational issues. This reflects an evolving recognition that the members of a nuclear licensee form part of a socio-technological system, and that their performance is influenced by the organisation and the culture within that organisation. A series of events across the nuclear industry and other sectors has reinforced the appreciation of the importance of robust safety management. Also, the management and organisation of nuclear installations is impacted by a number of current challenges such as deregulation, change in institutional ownership of the industry, contractorization and an ageing plant and workforce. It is in this context that the CSNI (Committee on Safety of Nuclear Installations) Special Experts' Group on Human and Organisational Factors (SEGHOF) was requested by the CNRA (Committee on Nuclear Regulatory Actions) to examine the role and influence of safety management in nuclear plant operations in 2000. A workshop on 'systematic approaches to safety management' was held in spring 2002 and this was followed by a survey in 2003-4 of relevant practices and developments across licensees and regulators. This report provides a brief explanation of the relationship between safety management and safety culture. It reinforces the need for nuclear licensees and regulators to take positive steps to ensure that licensees develop and sustain a robust safety management system as a part of their management systems as a whole. The report draws out the main findings of the workshop and presents the results of the survey in more detail. It seeks to identify current issues and areas warranting further consideration. The workshop explored the development of current organisational theories and their application to nuclear plant safety management. It

  1. Prioritizing risks via several expert perspectives with application to runway safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogerson, Ellen C.; Lambert, James H.

    2012-01-01

    Factor hierarchies have been widely used in the literature to represent the view of an expert of what factors most contribute to reliability or safety. The methods for rating and aggregating the influences across a set of expert-elicited factors to risk or reliability are well known as multiple criteria decision analysis. This paper describes a method for distinguishing levels of risk across a set of locations via the use of multiple factor hierarchies. The method avoids averaging across experts and is thus useful for situations where experts disagree and where an absence of expert consensus on the causative or contributing factors is important information for risk management. A case study demonstrates using seven expert perspectives on the airport-specific factors that can contribute to runway incursions. The results are described for eighty towered airports in the US. The expert perspectives include differing relative emphases across the following set of factors: airport geometry, operations, weather, geography, and days since last safety review. Future work is suggested to include human factors issues as pilot-and-controller communications styles at airports. - Highlights: ► We examine influential factors in seven expert perspectives on the problem domain. ► We assess eighty US airports with qualitative measurement scales for each risk factor. ► Results show robustness and sensitivity of the risk index to expert perspective. ► We examine factors of several types including runway geometry, operations, weather, and geography.

  2. Research review and development trends of human reliability analysis techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Pengcheng; Chen Guohua; Zhang Li; Dai Licao

    2011-01-01

    Human reliability analysis (HRA) methods are reviewed. The theoretical basis of human reliability analysis, human error mechanism, the key elements of HRA methods as well as the existing HRA methods are respectively introduced and assessed. Their shortcomings,the current research hotspot and difficult problems are identified. Finally, it takes a close look at the trends of human reliability analysis methods. (authors)

  3. Concepts of mental capacity for patients requesting assisted suicide: a qualitative analysis of expert evidence presented to the Commission on Assisted Dying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Annabel; McCormack, Ruaidhri; Wiseman, Theresa; Hotopf, Matthew

    2014-04-22

    In May 2013 a new Assisted Dying Bill was tabled in the House of Lords and is currently scheduled for a second reading in May 2014. The Bill was informed by the report of the Commission on Assisted Dying which itself was informed by evidence presented by invited experts.This study aims to explore how the experts presenting evidence to the Commission on Assisted Dying conceptualised mental capacity for patients requesting assisted suicide and examine these concepts particularly in relation to the principles of the Mental Capacity Act 2005. This study was a secondary qualitative analysis of 36 transcripts of oral evidence and 12 pieces of written evidence submitted by invited experts to the Commission on Assisted Dying using a framework approach. There was agreement on the importance of mental capacity as a central safeguard in proposed assisted dying legislation. Concepts of mental capacity, however, were inconsistent. There was a tendency towards a conceptual and clinical shift toward a presumption of incapacity. This appeared to be based on the belief that assisted suicide should only be open to those with a high degree of mental capacity to make the decision.The 'boundaries' around the definition of mental capacity appeared to be on a continuum between a circumscribed legal 'cognitive' definition of capacity (in which most applicants would be found to have capacity unless significantly cognitively impaired) and a more inclusive definition which would take into account wider concepts such as autonomy, rationality, voluntariness and decision specific factors such as motivation for decision making. Ideas presented to the Commission on Assisted Dying about mental capacity as it relates to assisted suicide were inconsistent and in a number of cases at variance with the principles of the Mental Capacity Act 2005. Further work needs to be done to establish a consensus as to what constitutes capacity for this decision and whether current legal frameworks are able to

  4. Expert System analysis of non-fuel assembly hardware and spent fuel disassembly hardware: Its generation and recommended disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    Almost all of the effort being expended on radioactive waste disposal in the United States is being focused on the disposal of spent Nuclear Fuel, with little consideration for other areas that will have to be disposed of in the same facilities. one area of radioactive waste that has not been addressed adequately because it is considered a secondary part of the waste issue is the disposal of the various Non-Fuel Bearing Components of the reactor core. These hardware components fall somewhat arbitrarily into two categories: Non-Fuel Assembly (NFA) hardware and Spent Fuel Disassembly (SFD) hardware. This work provides a detailed examination of the generation and disposal of NFA hardware and SFD hardware by the nuclear utilities of the United States as it relates to the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. All available sources of data on NFA and SFD hardware are analyzed with particular emphasis given to the Characteristics Data Base developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the characterization work performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratories and Rochester Gas ampersand Electric. An Expert System developed as a portion of this work is used to assist in the prediction of quantities of NFA hardware and SFD hardware that will be generated by the United States' utilities. Finally, the hardware waste management practices of the United Kingdom, France, Germany, Sweden, and Japan are studied for possible application to the disposal of domestic hardware wastes. As a result of this work, a general classification scheme for NFA and SFD hardware was developed. Only NFA and SFD hardware constructed of zircaloy and experiencing a burnup of less than 70,000 MWD/MTIHM and PWR control rods constructed of stainless steel are considered Low-Level Waste. All other hardware is classified as Greater-ThanClass-C waste

  5. Analysis of operational events by ATHEANA framework for human factor modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedreaga, Luminita; Constntinescu, Cristina; Doca, Cezar; Guzun, Basarab

    2007-01-01

    In the area of human reliability assessment, the experts recognise the fact that the current methods have not represented correctly the role of human in prevention, initiating and mitigating the accidents in nuclear power plants. The nature of this deficiency appears because the current methods used in modelling of human factor have not taken into account the human performance and reliability such as it has been observed in the operational events. ATHEANA - A Technique for Human Error ANAlysis - is a new methodology for human analysis that has included the specific data of operational events and also psychological models for human behaviour. This method has included new elements such as the unsafe action and error mechanisms. In this paper we present the application of ATHEANA framework in the analysis of operational events that appeared in different nuclear power plants during 1979-2002. The analysis of operational events has consisted of: - identification of the unsafe actions; - including the unsafe actions into a category, omission ar commission; - establishing the type of error corresponding to the unsafe action: slip, lapse, mistake and circumvention; - establishing the influence of performance by shaping the factors and some corrective actions. (authors)

  6. Computer Based Expert Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, James D.; Ferrara, Joseph M.

    1985-01-01

    Claims knowledge-based expert computer systems can meet needs of rural schools for affordable expert advice and support and will play an important role in the future of rural education. Describes potential applications in prediction, interpretation, diagnosis, remediation, planning, monitoring, and instruction. (NEC)

  7. Real time expert systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asami, Tohru; Hashimoto, Kazuo; Yamamoto, Seiichi

    1992-01-01

    Recently, aiming at the application to the plant control for nuclear reactors and traffic and communication control, the research and the practical use of the expert system suitable to real time processing have become conspicuous. In this report, the condition for the required function to control the object that dynamically changes within a limited time is presented, and the technical difference between the real time expert system developed so as to satisfy it and the expert system of conventional type is explained with the actual examples and from theoretical aspect. The expert system of conventional type has the technical base in the problem-solving equipment originating in STRIPS. The real time expert system is applied to the fields accompanied by surveillance and control, to which conventional expert system is hard to be applied. The requirement for the real time expert system, the example of the real time expert system, and as the techniques of realizing real time processing, the realization of interruption processing, dispersion processing, and the mechanism of maintaining the consistency of knowledge are explained. (K.I.)

  8. Expert systems: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdejo, F.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to introduce readers to the basic principles of rule-based expert systems. Four topics are discussed in subsequent sections: (1) Definition; (2) Structure of an expert system; (3) State of the art and (4) Impact and future research. (orig.)

  9. Advances in human reliability analysis in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, Pamela F.; Gonzalez C, M.; Ruiz S, T.; Guillen M, D.; Contreras V, A.

    2010-10-01

    Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) is a very important part of Probabilistic Risk Analysis (PRA), and constant work is dedicated to improving methods, guidance and data in order to approach realism in the results as well as looking for ways to use these to reduce accident frequency at plants. Further, in order to advance in these areas, several HRA studies are being performed globally. Mexico has participated in the International HRA Empirical study with the objective of -benchmarking- HRA methods by comparing HRA predictions to actual crew performance in a simulator, as well as in the empirical study on a US nuclear power plant currently in progress. The focus of the first study was the development of an understanding of how methods are applied by various analysts, and characterize the methods for their capability to guide the analysts to identify potential human failures, and associated causes and performance shaping factors. The HRA benchmarking study has been performed by using the Halden simulator, 14 European crews, and 15 HRA equipment s (NRC, EPRI, and foreign HRA equipment s using different HRA methods). This effort in Mexico is reflected through the work being performed on updating the Laguna Verde PRA to comply with the ASME PRA standard. In order to be considered an HRA with technical adequacy, that is, be considered as a capability category II, for risk-informed applications, the methodology used for the HRA in the original PRA is not considered sufficiently detailed, and the methodology had to upgraded. The HCR/CBDT/THERP method was chosen, since this is used in many nuclear plants with similar design. The HRA update includes identification and evaluation of human errors that can occur during testing and maintenance, as well as human errors that can occur during an accident using the Emergency Operating Procedures. The review of procedures for maintenance, surveillance and operation is a necessary step in HRA and provides insight into the possible

  10. On modernist social sciences’ understanding of poverty and the role of poverty experts in the “conduct of conduct” of human subjects: a critique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diamantino Machado

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of my paper is to show that modernist social sciences have been directly involved in the construction and reproduction of poverty, and in the "conduct of conduct" of the scientifically labeled poor or the produced and reproduced "object" of poverty experts.

  11. [ANALYSIS USING AN EXPERT PANEL OF ACTIVITIES AND COMPETENCIES WHICH NURSING CLINICAL PRACTICE TUTORS IN THE COMUNIDAD AUTÓNOMA DE MADRID SHOULD POSSESS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argüello López, María Teresa; Palmar Santos, Ana María; Sellán Soto, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Although practical training has always been important in Nursing, it has reached a new dimension in the European Higher Education Area. This has involved adapting the syllabus, where one of the new features is considering clinical practice as an independent subject and also including the concept of competence as a result of the students' learning. The figure of the tutor becomes one of the key factors and therefore their activities and competencies must be defined. To enumerate and prioritize, by agreement, the main activities and competences by the tutor of clinical practices in the Comunidad Autónoma de Madrid should posses. METHODOLOGY. Quantitative focus, analysis by group of experts between 2010 and 2013. RESULTS. A total of 510 nurses have participated, 17 panels of experts have met and consensus has been reached on 22 competencies and 12 activities. The description of activities and competencies can be extremely useful for selecting, evaluating and developing nursing clinical practice tutors, becoming a baseline and reducing the subjectivity in the development of tutors according to the new demands of the European Higher Education Area.

  12. Environmental Modeling and Bayesian Analysis for Assessing Human Health Impacts from Radioactive Waste Disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockton, T.; Black, P.; Tauxe, J.; Catlett, K.

    2004-12-01

    Bayesian decision analysis provides a unified framework for coherent decision-making. Two key components of Bayesian decision analysis are probability distributions and utility functions. Calculating posterior distributions and performing decision analysis can be computationally challenging, especially for complex environmental models. In addition, probability distributions and utility functions for environmental models must be specified through expert elicitation, stakeholder consensus, or data collection, all of which have their own set of technical and political challenges. Nevertheless, a grand appeal of the Bayesian approach for environmental decision- making is the explicit treatment of uncertainty, including expert judgment. The impact of expert judgment on the environmental decision process, though integral, goes largely unassessed. Regulations and orders of the Environmental Protection Agency, Department Of Energy, and Nuclear Regulatory Agency orders require assessing the impact on human health of radioactive waste contamination over periods of up to ten thousand years. Towards this end complex environmental simulation models are used to assess "risk" to human and ecological health from migration of radioactive waste. As the computational burden of environmental modeling is continually reduced probabilistic process modeling using Monte Carlo simulation is becoming routinely used to propagate uncertainty from model inputs through model predictions. The utility of a Bayesian approach to environmental decision-making is discussed within the context of a buried radioactive waste example. This example highlights the desirability and difficulties of merging the cost of monitoring, the cost of the decision analysis, the cost and viability of clean up, and the probability of human health impacts within a rigorous decision framework.

  13. Liquid low level waste management expert system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrada, J.J.; Abraham, T.J.; Jackson, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    An expert system has been developed as part of a new initiative for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) systems analysis program. This expert system will aid in prioritizing radioactive waste streams for treatment and disposal by evaluating the severity and treatability of the problem, as well as the final waste form. The objectives of the expert system development included: (1) collecting information on process treatment technologies for liquid low-level waste (LLLW) that can be incorporated in the knowledge base of the expert system, and (2) producing a prototype that suggests processes and disposal technologies for the ORNL LLLW system. 4 refs., 9 figs

  14. Experts' perceptions on the entrepreneurial framework conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Aldina; e Silva, Eliana Costa; Lopes, I. Cristina; Braga, Alexandra; Braga, Vitor

    2017-11-01

    The Global Entrepreneurship Monitor is a large scale database for internationally comparative entrepreneurship. This database includes information of more than 100 countries concerning several aspects of entrepreneurship activities, perceptions, conditions, national and regional policy, among others, in two main sources of primary data: the Adult Population Survey and the National Expert Survey. In the present work the National Expert Survey datasets for 2011, 2012 and 2013 are analyzed with the purpose of studying the effects of different type of entrepreneurship expert specialization on the perceptions about the Entrepreneurial Framework Conditions (EFCs). The results of the multivariate analysis of variance for the 2013 data show significant differences of the entrepreneurship experts when compared the 2011 and 2012 surveys. For the 2013 data entrepreneur experts are less favorable then most of the other experts to the EFCs.

  15. Proteomic Analysis of the Human Olfactory Bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dammalli, Manjunath; Dey, Gourav; Madugundu, Anil K; Kumar, Manish; Rodrigues, Benvil; Gowda, Harsha; Siddaiah, Bychapur Gowrishankar; Mahadevan, Anita; Shankar, Susarla Krishna; Prasad, Thottethodi Subrahmanya Keshava

    2017-08-01

    The importance of olfaction to human health and disease is often underappreciated. Olfactory dysfunction has been reported in association with a host of common complex diseases, including neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. For health, olfaction or the sense of smell is also important for most mammals, for optimal engagement with their environment. Indeed, animals have developed sophisticated olfactory systems to detect and interpret the rich information presented to them to assist in day-to-day activities such as locating food sources, differentiating food from poisons, identifying mates, promoting reproduction, avoiding predators, and averting death. In this context, the olfactory bulb is a vital component of the olfactory system receiving sensory information from the axons of the olfactory receptor neurons located in the nasal cavity and the first place that processes the olfactory information. We report in this study original observations on the human olfactory bulb proteome in healthy subjects, using a high-resolution mass spectrometry-based proteomic approach. We identified 7750 nonredundant proteins from human olfactory bulbs. Bioinformatics analysis of these proteins showed their involvement in biological processes associated with signal transduction, metabolism, transport, and olfaction. These new observations provide a crucial baseline molecular profile of the human olfactory bulb proteome, and should assist the future discovery of biomarker proteins and novel diagnostics associated with diseases characterized by olfactory dysfunction.

  16. Modeling human reliability analysis using MIDAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boring, R. L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper documents current efforts to infuse human reliability analysis (HRA) into human performance simulation. The Idaho National Laboratory is teamed with NASA Ames Research Center to bridge the SPAR-H HRA method with NASA's Man-machine Integration Design and Analysis System (MIDAS) for use in simulating and modeling the human contribution to risk in nuclear power plant control room operations. It is anticipated that the union of MIDAS and SPAR-H will pave the path for cost-effective, timely, and valid simulated control room operators for studying current and next generation control room configurations. This paper highlights considerations for creating the dynamic HRA framework necessary for simulation, including event dependency and granularity. This paper also highlights how the SPAR-H performance shaping factors can be modeled in MIDAS across static, dynamic, and initiator conditions common to control room scenarios. This paper concludes with a discussion of the relationship of the workload factors currently in MIDAS and the performance shaping factors in SPAR-H. (authors)

  17. Gait Correlation Analysis Based Human Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyan Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Human gait identification aims to identify people by a sequence of walking images. Comparing with fingerprint or iris based identification, the most important advantage of gait identification is that it can be done at a distance. In this paper, silhouette correlation analysis based human identification approach is proposed. By background subtracting algorithm, the moving silhouette figure can be extracted from the walking images sequence. Every pixel in the silhouette has three dimensions: horizontal axis (x, vertical axis (y, and temporal axis (t. By moving every pixel in the silhouette image along these three dimensions, we can get a new silhouette. The correlation result between the original silhouette and the new one can be used as the raw feature of human gait. Discrete Fourier transform is used to extract features from this correlation result. Then, these features are normalized to minimize the affection of noise. Primary component analysis method is used to reduce the features’ dimensions. Experiment based on CASIA database shows that this method has an encouraging recognition performance.

  18. Human Reliability Analysis for Small Modular Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald L. Boring; David I. Gertman

    2012-06-01

    Because no human reliability analysis (HRA) method was specifically developed for small modular reactors (SMRs), the application of any current HRA method to SMRs represents tradeoffs. A first- generation HRA method like THERP provides clearly defined activity types, but these activity types do not map to the human-system interface or concept of operations confronting SMR operators. A second- generation HRA method like ATHEANA is flexible enough to be used for SMR applications, but there is currently insufficient guidance for the analyst, requiring considerably more first-of-a-kind analyses and extensive SMR expertise in order to complete a quality HRA. Although no current HRA method is optimized to SMRs, it is possible to use existing HRA methods to identify errors, incorporate them as human failure events in the probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), and quantify them. In this paper, we provided preliminary guidance to assist the human reliability analyst and reviewer in understanding how to apply current HRA methods to the domain of SMRs. While it is possible to perform a satisfactory HRA using existing HRA methods, ultimately it is desirable to formally incorporate SMR considerations into the methods. This may require the development of new HRA methods. More practicably, existing methods need to be adapted to incorporate SMRs. Such adaptations may take the form of guidance on the complex mapping between conventional light water reactors and small modular reactors. While many behaviors and activities are shared between current plants and SMRs, the methods must adapt if they are to perform a valid and accurate analysis of plant personnel performance in SMRs.

  19. Larger right posterior parietal volume in action video game experts: a behavioral and voxel-based morphometry (VBM study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Tanaka

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggest that action video game players exhibit superior performance in visuospatial cognitive tasks compared with non-game players. However, the neural basis underlying this visuospatial cognitive performance advantage remains largely unknown. The present human behavioral and imaging study compared gray matter volume in action video game experts and non-experts using structural magnetic resonance imaging and voxel-based morphometry analysis. The results revealed significantly larger gray matter volume in the right posterior parietal cortex in experts compared with non-experts. Furthermore, the larger gray matter volume in the right posterior parietal cortex significantly correlated with individual performance in a visual working memory task in experts. These results suggest that differences in brain structure may be linked to extensive video game play, leading to superior visuospatial cognitive performance in action video game experts.

  20. Human reliability analysis in Loviisa probabilistic safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illman, L.; Isaksson, J.; Makkonen, L.; Vaurio, J.K.; Vuorio, U.

    1986-01-01

    The human reliability analysis in the Loviisa PSA project is carried out for three major groups of errors in human actions: (A) errors made before an initiating event, (B) errors that initiate a transient and (C) errors made during transients. Recovery possibilities are also included in each group. The methods used or planned for each group are described. A simplified THERP approach is used for group A, with emphasis on test and maintenance error recovery aspects and dependencies between redundancies. For group B, task analyses and human factors assessments are made for startup, shutdown and operational transients, with emphasis on potential common cause initiators. For group C, both misdiagnosis and slow decision making are analyzed, as well as errors made in carrying out necessary or backup actions. New or advanced features of the methodology are described

  1. Expert Panel Elicitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, M. [Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Waste Management and Environmental Protection; Hora, S.C. [Univ. of Hawaii, Hilo, HI (United States)

    2005-09-15

    Scientists are now frequently in a situation where data cannot be easily assessed, since they may have conflicting or uncertain sources. While expert judgment reflects private choices, it is possible both reduce the personal aspect as well as in crease confidence in the judgments by using formal protocols for choice and elicitation of experts. A full-scale elicitation made on seismicity following glaciation, now in its late phase and presented here in a preliminary form, illustrates the value of the technique and some essential issues in connection with the decision to launch such a project. The results show an unusual low variation between the experts.

  2. Experts on public trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blok, Anders

    2007-01-01

    a case study of the May 2003 Danish consensus conference on environmental economics as a policy tool, the article reflects on the politics of expert authority permeating practices of public participation. Adopting concepts from the sociology of scientific knowledge (SSK), the conference is seen......-than-successful defense in the citizen perspective. Further, consensus conferences are viewed alternatively as "expert dissent conferences," serving to disclose a multiplicity of expert commitments. From this perspective, some challenges for democratizing expertise through future exercises in public participation...

  3. Comparison of Methods for Dependency Determination between Human Failure Events within Human Reliability Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cepin, M.

    2008-01-01

    The human reliability analysis (HRA) is a highly subjective evaluation of human performance, which is an input for probabilistic safety assessment, which deals with many parameters of high uncertainty. The objective of this paper is to show that subjectivism can have a large impact on human reliability results and consequently on probabilistic safety assessment results and applications. The objective is to identify the key features, which may decrease subjectivity of human reliability analysis. Human reliability methods are compared with focus on dependency comparison between Institute Jozef Stefan human reliability analysis (IJS-HRA) and standardized plant analysis risk human reliability analysis (SPAR-H). Results show large differences in the calculated human error probabilities for the same events within the same probabilistic safety assessment, which are the consequence of subjectivity. The subjectivity can be reduced by development of more detailed guidelines for human reliability analysis with many practical examples for all steps of the process of evaluation of human performance

  4. Comparison of methods for dependency determination between human failure events within human reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cepis, M.

    2007-01-01

    The Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) is a highly subjective evaluation of human performance, which is an input for probabilistic safety assessment, which deals with many parameters of high uncertainty. The objective of this paper is to show that subjectivism can have a large impact on human reliability results and consequently on probabilistic safety assessment results and applications. The objective is to identify the key features, which may decrease of subjectivity of human reliability analysis. Human reliability methods are compared with focus on dependency comparison between Institute Jozef Stefan - Human Reliability Analysis (IJS-HRA) and Standardized Plant Analysis Risk Human Reliability Analysis (SPAR-H). Results show large differences in the calculated human error probabilities for the same events within the same probabilistic safety assessment, which are the consequence of subjectivity. The subjectivity can be reduced by development of more detailed guidelines for human reliability analysis with many practical examples for all steps of the process of evaluation of human performance. (author)

  5. Human action analysis with randomized trees

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Gang; Liu, Zicheng

    2014-01-01

    This book will provide a comprehensive overview on human action analysis with randomized trees. It will cover both the supervised random trees and the unsupervised random trees. When there are sufficient amount of labeled data available, supervised random trees provides a fast method for space-time interest point matching. When labeled data is minimal as in the case of example-based action search, unsupervised random trees is used to leverage the unlabelled data. We describe how the randomized trees can be used for action classification, action detection, action search, and action prediction.

  6. Probabilistic safety analysis and human reliability analysis. Proceedings. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    An international meeting on Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) and Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) was jointly organized by Electricite de France - Research and Development (EDF DER) and SRI International in co-ordination with the International Atomic Energy Agency. The meeting was held in Paris 21-23 November 1994. A group of international and French specialists in PSA and HRA participated at the meeting and discussed the state of the art and current trends in the following six topics: PSA Methodology; PSA Applications; From PSA to Dependability; Incident Analysis; Safety Indicators; Human Reliability. For each topic a background paper was prepared by EDF/DER and reviewed by the international group of specialists who attended the meeting. The results of this meeting provide a comprehensive overview of the most important questions related to the readiness of PSA for specific uses and areas where further research and development is required. Refs, figs, tabs

  7. Probabilistic safety analysis and human reliability analysis. Proceedings. Working material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    An international meeting on Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) and Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) was jointly organized by Electricite de France - Research and Development (EDF DER) and SRI International in co-ordination with the International Atomic Energy Agency. The meeting was held in Paris 21-23 November 1994. A group of international and French specialists in PSA and HRA participated at the meeting and discussed the state of the art and current trends in the following six topics: PSA Methodology; PSA Applications; From PSA to Dependability; Incident Analysis; Safety Indicators; Human Reliability. For each topic a background paper was prepared by EDF/DER and reviewed by the international group of specialists who attended the meeting. The results of this meeting provide a comprehensive overview of the most important questions related to the readiness of PSA for specific uses and areas where further research and development is required. Refs, figs, tabs.

  8. Iterative Expert-Functional Approach to the SWOT-Analysis in the Context of Strategic Marketing at the Japanese Cuisine Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Dmitrievich Kim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available SWOT-analysis is one of the most common in the world of strategic planning methods used in the intra-firm, corporate, branch and territorial levels. The popularity of this approach is due to the relatively simple intuitive mechanics of its implementation, as well as the minimum cost of financial resources and time. The designed iterative expert-functional approach to the SWOT-analysis and to the development of strategic initiatives suggest analyzing the company at an early stage in the context of its key areas of work, determining the components of internal and external environment from the perspective of core business functions, taking into account the degree of development of the organization, the complexity of its business processes and corporate culture. It is extremely important criteria of the SWOT-analysis, and the development of proposals should be: comprehensive, the most objective approach to the study of the internal and external components of interest management in the analysis and implementation of strategic initiatives, understanding the specifics of the business project manager and its business processes, opportunities and threats surrounding environment, institutional approach to the study of the factors that may affect the economic and financial results of the company and marketing. In practice, the literature is often possible to meet criticism of the SWOT-analysis because of its subjectivity and descriptive results. The proposed procedure does not rule out the nature of these disadvantages, but maximizes the comprehensive assessment of the company’s operations, taking into account the interaction of its structural units and efficiently organize business processes, evaluate the degree of rationality and flexibility in addressing the opportunities and threats of the external environment. The outcome of the expert-functional approach should be the strategic initiatives that take into account the interests and competence of the

  9. Expert Systems: A Challenge for the Reading Profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balajthy, Ernest

    The expert systems are designed to imitate the reasoning of a human expert in a content area field. Designed to be advisors, these software systems combine the content area knowledge and decision-making ability of an expert with the user's understanding and knowledge of particular circumstances. The reading diagnosis system, the RD2P System…

  10. Anatomical analysis of human masseter using MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitahara, Masaki

    1990-01-01

    To quantitatively elucidate individual variation in human masseter muscle, the cross sectional area of this muscle was measured in situ with MRI apparatus. The results were analyzed against age, body build and laterality in habitual mastication by bivariate correlation analysis. Materials included 52 healthy volunteers (26 males, 26 females). Right and left masseter areas and total cross sectional area of the face were measured in the same horizontal plane, and directly displayed on the console of the MRI apparatus. The areas of masseter muscles were not correlated with age or body build, but were positively correlated with the total cross sectional area of the face in the same horizontal plane. Because the left masseters tended to be larger than right, a method for evaluation of the relative size of each side of the messeters was established. This analysis revealed that the corrected dominance of the masseter corresponded, with high probability, to the habitual laterality in mastication. (author)

  11. Anatomical analysis of human masseter using MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitahara, Masaki (Showa Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1990-10-01

    To quantitatively elucidate individual variation in human masseter muscle, the cross sectional area of this muscle was measured in situ with MRI apparatus. The results were analyzed against age, body build and laterality in habitual mastication by bivariate correlation analysis. Materials included 52 healthy volunteers (26 males, 26 females). Right and left masseter areas and total cross sectional area of the face were measured in the same horizontal plane, and directly displayed on the console of the MRI apparatus. The areas of masseter muscles were not correlated with age or body build, but were positively correlated with the total cross sectional area of the face in the same horizontal plane. Because the left masseters tended to be larger than right, a method for evaluation of the relative size of each side of the messeters was established. This analysis revealed that the corrected dominance of the masseter corresponded, with high probability, to the habitual laterality in mastication. (author).

  12. Human reliability analysis approach to level 1 PSA - shutdown and low power operation of Mochovce NPP, Unit 1, Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stojka, Tibor; Holy, Jaroslav

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents general approach, used methods and form of documentation of the results as have been applied within the Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) task of the shutdown and low power PSA (SPSA) study for Mochovce nuclear power plant, Unit 1, Slovakia. The paper describes main goals of the HRA task within the SPSA project, applied methods and data sources. Basic steps of the HRA task and human errors (HE) classification are also specified in its first part. The main part of the paper deals with pre-initiator human errors, human-induced initiators and response to initiator human errors. Since the expert judgment method (SLIM) was used for the last type of human errors probability assessment, also related activities are described including preparation works (performance shaping factors (PSFs) selection, development of PSF classification tables, preparation of aid tools for interview with plant experts), qualitative analysis (sources of information and basic steps) and quantitative analysis itself (human errors classification for final quantification including criteria used for the classification, description of structure of the spreadsheet used for quantification and treatment with dependencies). The last part of the paper describes form of documentation of the final results and provides some findings. (author)

  13. Empirical analysis of online human dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhi-Dan; Zhou, Tao

    2012-06-01

    Patterns of human activities have attracted increasing academic interests, since the quantitative understanding of human behavior is helpful to uncover the origins of many socioeconomic phenomena. This paper focuses on behaviors of Internet users. Six large-scale systems are studied in our experiments, including the movie-watching in Netflix and MovieLens, the transaction in Ebay, the bookmark-collecting in Delicious, and the posting in FreindFeed and Twitter. Empirical analysis reveals some common statistical features of online human behavior: (1) The total number of user's actions, the user's activity, and the interevent time all follow heavy-tailed distributions. (2) There exists a strongly positive correlation between user's activity and the total number of user's actions, and a significantly negative correlation between the user's activity and the width of the interevent time distribution. We further study the rescaling method and show that this method could to some extent eliminate the different statistics among users caused by the different activities, yet the effectiveness depends on the data sets.

  14. Individual Differences in Human Reliability Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey C. Joe; Ronald L. Boring

    2014-06-01

    While human reliability analysis (HRA) methods include uncertainty in quantification, the nominal model of human error in HRA typically assumes that operator performance does not vary significantly when they are given the same initiating event, indicators, procedures, and training, and that any differences in operator performance are simply aleatory (i.e., random). While this assumption generally holds true when performing routine actions, variability in operator response has been observed in multiple studies, especially in complex situations that go beyond training and procedures. As such, complexity can lead to differences in operator performance (e.g., operator understanding and decision-making). Furthermore, psychological research has shown that there are a number of known antecedents (i.e., attributable causes) that consistently contribute to observable and systematically measurable (i.e., not random) differences in behavior. This paper reviews examples of individual differences taken from operational experience and the psychological literature. The impact of these differences in human behavior and their implications for HRA are then discussed. We propose that individual differences should not be treated as aleatory, but rather as epistemic. Ultimately, by understanding the sources of individual differences, it is possible to remove some epistemic uncertainty from analyses.

  15. Experts' meeting: Maintenance '83

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The brochure presents, in full wording, 20 papers read at the experts' meeting ''Maintenance '83'' in Wiesbaden. Most of the papers discuss reliability data (acquisition, evaluation, processing) of nearly all fields of industry. (RW) [de

  16. Critical operator actions: human reliability modeling and data issues. Principal Working Group No. 5 - Task 94-1. Final Task Report prepared by a Group of Experts of the NEA Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilmart, P.; Grant, A.; Raina, V.M.; Patrik, M.; Cacciabue, P.C.; Cojazzi, G.; Reiman, L.; Virolainen, R.; Lanore, J.M.; Poidevin, S.; Herttrich, P.M.; Mertens, J.; Reer, B.; Straeter, O.; Bareith, A.; Hollo, E.; Traini, E.; Fukuda, M.; Hirano, M.; Kani, Y.; Muramatsu, K.; Versteeg, M.F.; Kim, T.W.; Calvo, J.; Gil, B.; Dang, V.N.; Hirschberg, S.; Meyer, P.; Schmocker, U.; Andrews, R.; Coxson, B.; Shepherd, C.H.; Murphy, J.A.; Parry, G.W.; Ramey-Smith, A.; Siu, N.O.

    1998-01-01

    information. The same may apply to the experiences made in the context of design and procedures improvements, based on or related to HRA. As a recognition of the importance of human interactions and of the need to exchange experiences from their treatment, Task 94-1 was initiated within PWG5 in 1994. The present report summarises the results of the work carried out by the group of experts. In Chapter 2 the specific task objectives are stated and the scope is defined. Chapter 3 contains the descriptions of the current HRA activities, including both industrial applications and research projects, in the countries participating in the task. In Chapter 4 data needs and sources for HRA are outlined and in Chapter 5 currently used analysis approaches and their limitations are discussed. Results of the HRA survey, carried out as a major part of this task, are presented in Chapter 6. Chapter 7 deals with a number of special topics in HRA, considered as particularly complex and/or difficult due to the scarceness of data. Current development tendencies are addressed with considerable detail in Chapter 8, followed by conclusions and recommendations (Chapter 9). Comprehensive references are provided at the end of each chapter. Finally, Appendices B, C, D, and F contain detailed information related to the HRA survey

  17. Computational Analysis of Human Blood Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panta, Yogendra; Marie, Hazel; Harvey, Mark

    2009-11-01

    Fluid flow modeling with commercially available computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software is widely used to visualize and predict physical phenomena related to various biological systems. In this presentation, a typical human aorta model was analyzed assuming the blood flow as laminar with complaint cardiac muscle wall boundaries. FLUENT, a commercially available finite volume software, coupled with Solidworks, a modeling software, was employed for the preprocessing, simulation and postprocessing of all the models.The analysis mainly consists of a fluid-dynamics analysis including a calculation of the velocity field and pressure distribution in the blood and a mechanical analysis of the deformation of the tissue and artery in terms of wall shear stress. A number of other models e.g. T branches, angle shaped were previously analyzed and compared their results for consistency for similar boundary conditions. The velocities, pressures and wall shear stress distributions achieved in all models were as expected given the similar boundary conditions. The three dimensional time dependent analysis of blood flow accounting the effect of body forces with a complaint boundary was also performed.

  18. An assessment of boric acid and borax using the IEHR Evaluative Process for Assessing Human Developmental and Reproductive Toxicity of Agents. Expert Scientific Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J A

    1997-01-01

    Boron is a ubiquitous element widely distributed in nature in the form of borates at low concentrations in soils and rocks. Boron is released from these minerals by the natural weathering processes in the form of boric acid, which is water soluble and biologically available. High levels of boric acid are naturally found in sea water. Boric acid and borax are used in the greatest quantities and represent the major boron chemical exposures to humans and the environment. The principal use of boric acid and borax is in the manufacture of various types of glass products that do not result in exposure to the consumer. Boric acid and borax are also found in an array of consumer goods including fireproofing for fabrics and wood, insecticides, and in many cosmetics and personal care products as well. Boron may be an essential element for higher animals including humans. Boric acid and borax are considered to be completely absorbed by the oral route of exposure. Absorption through intact skin is considered negligible, although absorption can occur through denuded or irritated skin. Boron levels in the body do not persist upon cessation of exposure. People may be exposed to boron through three primary sources: 1) consumption of private, municipal, or commercial (bottled) sources of drinking water; 2) dietary consumption of crops and other foodstuffs (including dietary supplements for body building); and 3) inhalation of boron compounds during their mining, manufacturing, and other industrial processing. While boron has been detected in 81.8% of the municipal water systems, it is a minor source of boron in most parts of the U.S. The mean boron concentration is reported as 0.2 mg B/L. However, residents of California and other western states with boron-rich geologic deposits may be regularly exposed to higher levels in drinking water. Individuals who drink bottled mineral water may also increase their exposure to boron. An EPA health advisory, recommends boron concentrations in

  19. Computers start to think with expert systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-03-21

    A growing number of professionals-notably in oil and mineral exploration, plasma research, medicine, VLSI circuit design, drug design and robotics-are beginning to use computerised expert systems. A computer program uses knowledge and inference procedures to solve problems which are sufficiently difficult to require significant human expertise for their solution. The facts constitute a body of information that is widely shared, publicly available and generally agreed upon by experts in the field. The heuristics are mostly private, and little discussed, rules of good judgement (rules of plausible reasoning, rules of good guessing, etc.) that characterise expert-level decision making in the field.

  20. Evidential analytic hierarchy process dependence assessment methodology in human reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Lu Yuan; Zhou, Xinyi; Xiao, Fuyuan; Deng, Yong; Mahadevan, Sankaran

    2017-01-01

    In human reliability analysis, dependence assessment is an important issue in risky large complex systems, such as operation of a nuclear power plant. Many existing methods depend on an expert's judgment, which contributes to the subjectivity and restrictions of results. Recently, a computational method, based on the Dempster-Shafer evidence theory and analytic hierarchy process, has been proposed to handle the dependence in human reliability analysis. The model can deal with uncertainty in an analyst's judgment and reduce the subjectivity in the evaluation process. However, the computation is heavy and complicated to some degree. The most important issue is that the existing method is in a positive aspect, which may cause an underestimation of the risk. In this study, a new evidential analytic hierarchy process dependence assessment methodology, based on the improvement of existing methods, has been proposed, which is expected to be easier and more effective

  1. Evidential Analytic Hierarchy Process Dependence Assessment Methodology in Human Reliability Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luyuan Chen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In human reliability analysis, dependence assessment is an important issue in risky large complex systems, such as operation of a nuclear power plant. Many existing methods depend on an expert's judgment, which contributes to the subjectivity and restrictions of results. Recently, a computational method, based on the Dempster–Shafer evidence theory and analytic hierarchy process, has been proposed to handle the dependence in human reliability analysis. The model can deal with uncertainty in an analyst's judgment and reduce the subjectivity in the evaluation process. However, the computation is heavy and complicated to some degree. The most important issue is that the existing method is in a positive aspect, which may cause an underestimation of the risk. In this study, a new evidential analytic hierarchy process dependence assessment methodology, based on the improvement of existing methods, has been proposed, which is expected to be easier and more effective.

  2. Evidential analytic hierarchy process dependence assessment methodology in human reliability analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Lu Yuan; Zhou, Xinyi; Xiao, Fuyuan; Deng, Yong [School of Computer and Information Science, Southwest University, Chongqing (China); Mahadevan, Sankaran [School of Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville (United States)

    2017-02-15

    In human reliability analysis, dependence assessment is an important issue in risky large complex systems, such as operation of a nuclear power plant. Many existing methods depend on an expert's judgment, which contributes to the subjectivity and restrictions of results. Recently, a computational method, based on the Dempster-Shafer evidence theory and analytic hierarchy process, has been proposed to handle the dependence in human reliability analysis. The model can deal with uncertainty in an analyst's judgment and reduce the subjectivity in the evaluation process. However, the computation is heavy and complicated to some degree. The most important issue is that the existing method is in a positive aspect, which may cause an underestimation of the risk. In this study, a new evidential analytic hierarchy process dependence assessment methodology, based on the improvement of existing methods, has been proposed, which is expected to be easier and more effective.

  3. Remote Sensing Image Analysis Without Expert Knowledge - A Web-Based Classification Tool On Top of Taverna Workflow Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selsam, Peter; Schwartze, Christian

    2016-10-01

    Providing software solutions via internet has been known for quite some time and is now an increasing trend marketed as "software as a service". A lot of business units accept the new methods and streamlined IT strategies by offering web-based infrastructures for external software usage - but geospatial applications featuring very specialized services or functionalities on demand are still rare. Originally applied in desktop environments, the ILMSimage tool for remote sensing image analysis and classification was modified in its communicating structures and enabled for running on a high-power server and benefiting from Tavema software. On top, a GIS-like and web-based user interface guides the user through the different steps in ILMSimage. ILMSimage combines object oriented image segmentation with pattern recognition features. Basic image elements form a construction set to model for large image objects with diverse and complex appearance. There is no need for the user to set up detailed object definitions. Training is done by delineating one or more typical examples (templates) of the desired object using a simple vector polygon. The template can be large and does not need to be homogeneous. The template is completely independent from the segmentation. The object definition is done completely by the software.

  4. Knowledge representation and use. I. Expert systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauriere, J L

    1982-01-01

    Expert systems are designed as aids in human reasoning in various specific areas. Symbolic knowledge manipulation, uncertain and incomplete deduction capabilities, natural communication with humans in non-procedural ways are their essential features. The paper describes their design and several implementations. 105 references.

  5. An approach for evaluating expert performance in emergency situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ujita, Hiroshi; Kawano, Ryutaro; Yoshimura, Sandanori

    1995-01-01

    To understand expert behavior and define what constitutes good performance in emergency situations in huge and complex plants, human performance evaluation should be made from viewpoints of not only error, but also various cognitive, psychological, and behavioral characteristics. Quantitative and qualitative measures of human performance are proposed for both individual operators and crews, based on the operator performance analysis experiment, among which cognitive and behavioral aspects are the most important. Operator performance should be further analyzed experimentally from the cognitive and behavioral viewpoints, using an evaluation based on various gross indexes considering operator's tasks which should be done in response to plant situations

  6. Expert witness and Jungian archetypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallave, Juan Antonio; Gutheil, Thomas Gordon

    2012-01-01

    Jung's theories of archetype, shadow, and the personal and collective unconscious provide a postmodern framework in which to consider the role of the expert witness in judicial proceedings. Archetypal themes, motifs, and influences help to illuminate the shadow of the judicial system and projections and behaviors among the cast of the court in pursuing justice. This article speaks to archetypal influences and dialectical tensions encountered by the expert witness in this judicial drama. The archetype of Justice is born from the human need for order and relational fairness in a world of chaos. The persona of justice is the promise of truth in the drama. The shadow of justice is untruth, the need to win by any means. The dynamics of the trickster archetype serve and promote injustice. These influences are examined by means of a case example. This approach will deepen understanding of court proceedings and the role of the expert witness in the heroic quest for justice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Human error analysis project (HEAP) - The fourth pilot study: verbal data for analysis of operator performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braarud, Per Oeyvind; Droeyvoldsmo, Asgeir; Hollnagel, Erik

    1997-06-01

    This report is the second report from the Pilot study No. 4 within the Human Error Analyses Project (HEAP). The overall objective of HEAP is to provide a better understanding and explicit modelling of how and why ''cognitive errors'' occur. This study investigated the contribution from different verbal data sources for analysis of control room operator's performance. Operator's concurrent verbal report, retrospective verbal report, and process expert's comments were compared for their contribution to an operator performance measure. This study looked into verbal protocols for single operator and for team. The main findings of the study were that all the three verbal data sources could be used to study performance. There was a relative high overlap between the data sources, but also a unique contribution from each source. There was a common pattern in the types of operator activities the data sources gave information about. The operator's concurrent protocol overall contained slightly more information on the operator's activities than the other two verbal sources. The study also showed that concurrent verbal protocol is feasible and useful for analysis of team's activities during a scenario. (author)

  8. From Risk Analysis to the Safety Case. Values in Risk Assessments. A Report Based on Interviews with Experts in the Nuclear Waste Programs in Sweden and Finland. A Report from the RISCOM II Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drottz Sjoeberg, Britt-Marie

    2004-06-01

    The report focuses on values in risk assessment, and is based on interviews with safety assessment experts and persons working at the national authorities in Sweden and Finland working in the area of nuclear waste management. The interviews contained questions related to definitions of risk and safety, standards, constraints and degrees of freedom in the work, data collections, reliability and validity of systems and the safety assessments, as well as communication between experts, and experts and non-experts. The results pointed to an increased amount of data and relevant factors considered in the analyses over time, changing the work content and process from one of risk analysis to a multifaceted teamwork towards the assessment of 'the safety case'. The multifaceted systems approach highlighted the increased importance of investigating assumptions underlying e.g. integration of diverse systems, and simplification procedures. It also highlighted the increased reliance on consensus building processes within the extended expert group, the importance of adequate communication abilities within the extended expert group, as well as the importance of transparency and communication relative the larger society. The results are discussed with reference to e.g. Janis 'groupthink' theory and Kuhns ideas of paradigmatic developments in science. It is concluded that it is well advised, in addition to the ordinary challenges of the work, to investigate also the implicit assumptions involved in the work processes to further enhance the understanding of safety assessments

  9. From Risk Analysis to the Safety Case. Values in Risk Assessments. A Report Based on Interviews with Experts in the Nuclear Waste Programs in Sweden and Finland. A Report from the RISCOM II Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drottz Sjoeberg, Britt-Marie [Norwegian Univ. of Science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway). Dept. of Psychology

    2004-06-01

    The report focuses on values in risk assessment, and is based on interviews with safety assessment experts and persons working at the national authorities in Sweden and Finland working in the area of nuclear waste management. The interviews contained questions related to definitions of risk and safety, standards, constraints and degrees of freedom in the work, data collections, reliability and validity of systems and the safety assessments, as well as communication between experts, and experts and non-experts. The results pointed to an increased amount of data and relevant factors considered in the analyses over time, changing the work content and process from one of risk analysis to a multifaceted teamwork towards the assessment of 'the safety case'. The multifaceted systems approach highlighted the increased importance of investigating assumptions underlying e.g. integration of diverse systems, and simplification procedures. It also highlighted the increased reliance on consensus building processes within the extended expert group, the importance of adequate communication abilities within the extended expert group, as well as the importance of transparency and communication relative the larger society. The results are discussed with reference to e.g. Janis 'groupthink' theory and Kuhns ideas of paradigmatic developments in science. It is concluded that it is well advised, in addition to the ordinary challenges of the work, to investigate also the implicit assumptions involved in the work processes to further enhance the understanding of safety assessments.

  10. Human Reliability Analysis for Design: Using Reliability Methods for Human Factors Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald Laurids Boring

    2010-11-01

    This paper reviews the application of human reliability analysis methods to human factors design issues. An application framework is sketched in which aspects of modeling typically found in human reliability analysis are used in a complementary fashion to the existing human factors phases of design and testing. The paper provides best achievable practices for design, testing, and modeling. Such best achievable practices may be used to evaluate and human system interface in the context of design safety certifications.

  11. Human Reliability Analysis for Design: Using Reliability Methods for Human Factors Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boring, Ronald Laurids

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the application of human reliability analysis methods to human factors design issues. An application framework is sketched in which aspects of modeling typically found in human reliability analysis are used in a complementary fashion to the existing human factors phases of design and testing. The paper provides best achievable practices for design, testing, and modeling. Such best achievable practices may be used to evaluate and human system interface in the context of design safety certifications.

  12. Human Reliability Analysis For Computerized Procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boring, Ronald L.; Gertman, David I.; Le Blanc, Katya

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides a characterization of human reliability analysis (HRA) issues for computerized procedures in nuclear power plant control rooms. It is beyond the scope of this paper to propose a new HRA approach or to recommend specific methods or refinements to those methods. Rather, this paper provides a review of HRA as applied to traditional paper-based procedures, followed by a discussion of what specific factors should additionally be considered in HRAs for computerized procedures. Performance shaping factors and failure modes unique to computerized procedures are highlighted. Since there is no definitive guide to HRA for paper-based procedures, this paper also serves to clarify the existing guidance on paper-based procedures before delving into the unique aspects of computerized procedures.

  13. Expert system for estimating LWR plutonium production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandquist, G.M.

    1988-01-01

    An Artificial Intelligence-Expert System called APES (Analysis of Proliferation by Expert System) has been developed and tested to permit a non proliferation expert to evaluate the capability and capacity of a specified LWR reactor and PUREX reprocessing system for producing and separating plutonium even when system information may be limited and uncertain. APES employs an expert system coded in LISP and based upon an HP-RL (Hewlett Packard-Representational Language) Expert System Shell. The user I/O interface communicates with a blackboard and the knowledge base which contains the quantitative models required to describe the reactor, selected fission product production and radioactive decay processes, Purex reprocessing and ancillary knowledge

  14. Expert Evidence and International Criminal Justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appazov, Artur

    The book is a comprehensive narration of the use of expertise in international criminal trials offering reflection on standards concerning the quality and presentation of expert evidence. It analyzes and critiques the rules governing expert evidence in international criminal trials...... and the strategies employed by counsel and courts relying upon expert evidence and challenges that courts face determining its reliability. In particular, the author considers how the procedural and evidentiary architecture of international criminal courts and tribunals influences the courts' ability to meaningfully...... incorporate expert evidence into the rational fact-finding process. The book provides analysis of the unique properties of expert evidence as compared with other forms of evidence and the challenges that these properties present for fact-finding in international criminal trials. It draws conclusions about...

  15. Proteomic analysis of human tooth pulp: proteomics of human tooth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhardt, Adam; Jágr, Michal; Pataridis, Statis; Mikšík, Ivan

    2014-12-01

    The unique pulp-dentin complex demonstrates strong regenerative potential, which enables it to respond to disease and traumatic injury. Identifying the proteins of the pulp-dentin complex is crucial to understanding the mechanisms of regeneration, tissue calcification, defense processes, and the reparation of dentin by dental pulp. The lack of knowledge of these proteins limits the development of more efficient therapies. The proteomic profile of human tooth pulp was investigated and compared with the proteome of human dentin and blood. The samples of tooth pulp were obtained from 5 sound permanent human third molars of 5 adults (n = 5). The extracted proteins were separated by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis, analyzed by nano-liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, and identified by correlating mass spectra to the proteomic databases. A total of 342 proteins were identified with high confidence, and 2 proteins were detected for the first time in an actual human sample. The identified tooth pulp proteins have a variety of functions: structural, catalytic, transporter, protease activity, immune response, and many others. In a comparison with dentin and blood plasma, 140 (pulp/dentin) shared proteins were identified, 37 of which were not observed in plasma. It can be suggested that they might participate in the unique pulp-dentin complex. This proteomic investigation of human tooth pulp, together with the previously published study of human dentin, is one of the most comprehensive proteome lists of human teeth to date. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The development of human behaviour analysis techniques -The development of human factors technologies-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Cheon, Se Woo; Shu, Sang Moon; Park, Geun Ok; Lee, Yong Hee; Lee, Han Yeong; Park, Jae Chang; Lee, Eu Jin; Lee, Seung Hee

    1994-04-01

    This project has two major areas ; one is the development of an operator task simulation software and another is the development of human error analysis and application technologies. In this year project, the second year, for the development of an operator task simulation software, we studied the followings: - analysis of the characteristics of operator tasks, - development of operator task structures : Macro Structures, - development of an operator task simulation analyzes, - analysis of performance measures. And the followings for the development of human error analysis and application technologies : - analysis of human error mechanisms, - analysis of human error characteristics in tasks, - analysis of human error occurrence in Korean Nuclear Power Plants, - establishment of an experimental environment for human error data collection with Compact Nuclear Simulator, - basic design of a Multimedia-based Human Error Representing System. (Author)

  17. Expert system based radionuclide identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarnio, P.A.; Ala-Heikkil, J.J.; Hakulinen, T.T.; Nikkinen, M.T.

    1998-01-01

    An expert system coupled with the gamma spectrum analysis system SAMPO has been developed for automating the qualitative identification of radionuclides as well as for determining the quantitative parameters of the spectrum components. The program is written in C-language and runs in various environments ranging from PCs to UNIX workstations. The expert system utilizes a complete gamma library with over 2600 nuclides and 80,000 lines, and a rule base of about fifty criteria including energies, relative peak intensities, genesis modes, half lives, parent-daughter relationships, etc. The rule base is furthermore extensible by the user. This is not an original contribution but a somewhat updated version of papers and reports previously published elsewhere. (author)

  18. An expert system for turbogenerator diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bessenyei, Z.; Tomcsanyi, T.; Toth, Z.; Laczay, I.

    1992-01-01

    In 1990, an expert system for turbo-generator diagnostics (EST-D) was installed at the 3rd and 4th units of the Paks NPP (Hungary). The expert system is strongly integrated to the ARGUS II vibration monitoring and diagnostics system. The system works on IBM PC AT. The VEIKI's and the NPP's human experts were interviewed to fill up the knowledgebase. The system is able to identify 13 different faults of the parts of a turbogenerator. The knowledgebase consists of ca 200 rules. The rules were built in and the system was verified and validated using a model of the turbines and using the experiences gathered with ARGUS II during the last 3 years. The maintenance personnel is authorized to modify and/or extend the knowledgebase. The input data for evaluation come from measured vibration patterns produced by the ARGUS II system, database of events, and maintenance data input by the maintenance personnel. The expert system is based on the modified GENESYS 2.1 shell (developed by SZAMALK, Hungary). Some limitations from PC application were eliminated, and a new, independent explanation module and man-machine interface were developed. Using this man-machine interface, one of the basic goals of the expert system developments was achieved: the human experts contribution is not necessary for diagnoses. The operator of the diagnostics system is able to produce the reports of diagnoses. Of course the interface allows the human experts to see the diagnoses through. It should be mentioned, at the beginning of 1991, we installed a similar expert system at the 1st 1000 MW WWER type unit of the Kalinin NPP (Soviet Union). In this paper, the operation of the EST-D, the man-machine interface and the operational experiences of the first 4 months work are explained. 2 refs., 14 figs

  19. Political regime and human capital: A cross-country analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klomp, J.G.; Haan, de J.

    2013-01-01

    We examine the relationship between different dimensions of the political regime in place and human capital using a two-step structural equation model. In the first step, we employ factor analysis on 16 human capital indicators to construct two new human capital measures (basic and advanced human

  20. Political regime and human capital : A cross-country analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klomp, J.G.; de Haan, J.

    We examine the relationship between different dimensions of the political regime in place and human capital using a two-step structural equation model. In the first step, we employ factor analysis on 16 human capital indicators to construct two new human capital measures (basic and advanced human

  1. Political Regime and Human Capital: A Cross-Country Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klomp, Jeroen; de Haan, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    We examine the relationship between different dimensions of the political regime in place and human capital using a two-step structural equation model. In the first step, we employ factor analysis on 16 human capital indicators to construct two new human capital measures (basic and advanced human capital). In the second step, we estimate the…

  2. Representation of human behaviour in probabilistic safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittingham, R.B.

    1991-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the representation of human behaviour in probabilistic safety assessment. Human performance problems which may result in errors leading to accidents are considered in terms of methods of identification using task analysis, screening analysis of critical errors, representation and quantification of human errors in fault trees and event trees and error reduction measures. (author) figs., tabs., 43 refs

  3. Multi-level human motion analysis for surveillance applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lao, W.; Han, Jungong; With, de P.H.N.; Rabbani, M.; Stevenson, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we study a flexible framework for semantic analysis of human motion from a monocular surveillance video. Successful trajectory estimation and human-body modeling facilitate the semantic analysis of human activities in video sequences. As a first contribution, we propose a flexible

  4. A brief history and technical review of the expert system research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Haocheng

    2017-09-01

    The expert system is a computer system that emulates the decision-making ability of a human expert, which aims to solve complex problems by reasoning knowledge. It is an important branch of artificial intelligence. In this paper, firstly, we briefly introduce the development and basic structure of the expert system. Then, from the perspective of the enabling technology, we classify the current expert systems and elaborate four expert systems: The Rule-Based Expert System, the Framework-Based Expert System, the Fuzzy Logic-Based Expert System and the Expert System Based on Neural Network.

  5. Human reliability assessment in a 99Mo/99mTc generator production facility using the standardized plant analysis risk-human (SPAR-H) technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyvazlou, Meysam; Dadashpour Ahangar, Ali; Rahimi, Azin; Davarpanah, Mohammad Reza; Sayyahi, Seyed Soheil; Mohebali, Mehdi

    2018-02-13

    Reducing human error is an important factor for enhancing safety protocols in various industries. Hence, analysis of the likelihood of human error in nuclear industries such as radiopharmaceutical production facilities has become more essential. This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted to quantify the probability of human errors in a 99 Mo/ 99m Tc generator production facility in Iran. First, through expert interviews, the production process of the 99 Mo/ 99m Tc generator was analyzed using hierarchical task analysis (HTA). The standardized plant analysis risk-human (SPAR-H) method was then applied in order to calculate the probability of human error. Twenty tasks were determined using HTA. All of the eight performance shaping factors (PSF S ) were evaluated for the tasks. The mean probability of human error was 0.320. The highest and the lowest probability of human error in the 99 Mo/ 99m Tc generator production process, related to the 'loading the generator with the molybdenum solution' task and the 'generator elution' task, were 0.858 and 0.059, respectively. Required measures for reducing the human error probability (HEP) were suggested. These measures were derived from the level of PSF S that were evaluated in this study.

  6. Waste disposal experts meet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1959-01-15

    Problems connected with the disposal into the sea of radioactive wastes from peaceful uses of atomic energy are being examined by a panel of experts, convened by the International Atomic Energy Agency. These experts from eight different countries held a first meeting at IAEA headquarters in Vienna from 4-9 December 1958, under the chairmanship of Dr. Harry Brynielsson, Director General of the Swedish Atomic Energy Company. The countries represented are: Canada, Czechoslovakia, France, Japan, Netherlands, United Kingdom and United States. The group will meet again in 1959. (author)

  7. The Epigenomic Analysis of Human Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Christopher G

    2017-09-01

    Analysis of the epigenome-the chemical modifications and packaging of the genome that can influence or indicate its activity-enables molecular insight into cell type-specific machinery. It can, therefore, reveal the pathophysiological mechanisms at work in disease. Detected changes can also represent physiological responses to adverse environmental exposures, thus enabling the epigenetic mark of DNA methylation to act as an epidemiological biomarker, even in surrogate tissue. This makes epigenomic analysis an attractive prospect to further understand the pathobiology and epidemiological aspects of obesity. Furthermore, integrating epigenomic data with known obesity-associated common genetic variation can aid in deciphering their molecular mechanisms. This review primarily examines epidemiological or population-based studies of epigenetic modifications in relation to adiposity traits, as opposed to animal or cell models. It discusses recent work exploring the epigenome with respect to human obesity, which to date has predominately consisted of array-based studies of DNA methylation in peripheral blood. It is of note that highly replicated BMI DNA methylation associations are not causal, but strongly driven by coassociations for more precisely measured intertwined outcomes and factors, such as hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia, and inflammation. Finally, the potential for the future exploration of the epigenome in obesity and related disorders is considered. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  8. Human Error Assessmentin Minefield Cleaning Operation Using Human Event Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hajiakbari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & objective: Human error is one of the main causes of accidents. Due to the unreliability of the human element and the high-risk nature of demining operations, this study aimed to assess and manage human errors likely to occur in such operations. Methods: This study was performed at a demining site in war zones located in the West of Iran. After acquiring an initial familiarity with the operations, methods, and tools of clearing minefields, job task related to clearing landmines were specified. Next, these tasks were studied using HTA and related possible errors were assessed using ATHEANA. Results: de-mining task was composed of four main operations, including primary detection, technical identification, investigation, and neutralization. There were found four main reasons for accidents occurring in such operations; walking on the mines, leaving mines with no action, error in neutralizing operation and environmental explosion. The possibility of human error in mine clearance operations was calculated as 0.010. Conclusion: The main causes of human error in de-mining operations can be attributed to various factors such as poor weather and operating conditions like outdoor work, inappropriate personal protective equipment, personality characteristics, insufficient accuracy in the work, and insufficient time available. To reduce the probability of human error in de-mining operations, the aforementioned factors should be managed properly.

  9. One Size Does Not Fit All: Human Failure Event Decomposition and Task Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald Laurids Boring, PhD

    2014-09-01

    In the probabilistic safety assessments (PSAs) used in the nuclear industry, human failure events (HFEs) are determined as a subset of hardware failures, namely those hardware failures that could be triggered or exacerbated by human action or inaction. This approach is top-down, starting with hardware faults and deducing human contributions to those faults. Elsewhere, more traditionally human factors driven approaches would tend to look at opportunities for human errors first in a task analysis and then identify which of those errors is risk significant. The intersection of top-down and bottom-up approaches to defining HFEs has not been carefully studied. Ideally, both approaches should arrive at the same set of HFEs. This question remains central as human reliability analysis (HRA) methods are generalized to new domains like oil and gas. The HFEs used in nuclear PSAs tend to be top-down—defined as a subset of the PSA—whereas the HFEs used in petroleum quantitative risk assessments (QRAs) are more likely to be bottom-up—derived from a task analysis conducted by human factors experts. The marriage of these approaches is necessary in order to ensure that HRA methods developed for top-down HFEs are also sufficient for bottom-up applications. In this paper, I first review top-down and bottom-up approaches for defining HFEs and then present a seven-step guideline to ensure a task analysis completed as part of human error identification decomposes to a level suitable for use as HFEs. This guideline illustrates an effective way to bridge the bottom-up approach with top-down requirements.

  10. Price competition between an expert and a non-expert

    OpenAIRE

    Bouckaert, J.M.C.; Degryse, H.A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper characterizes price competition between an expert and a non-expert. In contrast with the expert, the non-expert’s repair technology is not always successful. Consumers visit the expert after experiencing an unsuccessful match at the non-expert. This re-entry affects the behaviour of both sellers. For low enough probability of successful repair at the non-expert, all consumers first visit the non-expert, and a ‘timid-pricing’ equilibrium results. If the non-expert’s repair technolog...

  11. Development of a methodology for the application of the analysis of human reliability to individualized temporary storage facility; Desarrollo de una metodologia de aplicacion del Analisis de Fiabilidad Humana a una instalacion de Almacen Temporal Individualizado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, P.; Dies, J.; Tapia, C.; Blas, A. de

    2014-07-01

    The paper aims to present the methodology that has been developed with the purpose of applying an ATI without the need of having experts during the process of modelling and quantification analysis of HRA. The developed methodology is based on ATHEANA and relies on the use of other methods of analysis of human action and in-depth analysis. (Author)

  12. Big Data Analysis of Human Genome Variations

    KAUST Repository

    Gojobori, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Since the human genome draft sequence was in public for the first time in 2000, genomic analyses have been intensively extended to the population level. The following three international projects are good examples for large-scale studies of human

  13. Calculation of Appropriate Minimum Size of Isolation Rooms based on Questionnaire Survey of Experts and Analysis on Conditions of Isolation Room Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, An-Na; Song, Hae-Eun; Yang, Young-Kwon; Park, Jin-Chul; Hwang, Jung-Ha

    2017-07-01

    After the outbreak of the MERS (Middle East Respiratory Syndrome) epidemic, issues were raised regarding response capabilities of medical institutions, including the lack of isolation rooms at hospitals. Since then, the government of Korea has been revising regulations to enforce medical laws in order to expand the operation of isolation rooms and to strengthen standards regarding their mandatory installation at hospitals. Among general and tertiary hospitals in Korea, a total of 159 are estimated to be required to install isolation rooms to meet minimum standards. For the purpose of contributing to hospital construction plans in the future, this study conducted a questionnaire survey of experts and analysed the environment and devices necessary in isolation rooms, to determine their appropriate minimum size to treat patients. The result of the analysis is as follows: First, isolation rooms at hospitals are required to have a minimum 3,300mm minor axis and a minimum 5,000mm major axis for the isolation room itself, and a minimum 1,800mm minor axis for the antechamber where personal protective equipment is donned and removed. Second, the 15 ㎡-or-larger standard for the floor area of isolation rooms will have to be reviewed and standards for the minimum width of isolation rooms will have to be established.

  14. A preliminary study to understand tacit knowledge and visual routines of medical experts through gaze tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Blake; Shyu, Chi-Ren

    2010-11-13

    Many decisions made by medical experts are based on scans from advanced imaging technologies. Interpreting a medical image is a trained, systematic procedure and an excellent target for identifying potential visual routines through image informatics. These visual routines derived from experts contain many clues about visual knowledge and its representation. This study uses an inexpensive webcam-based gaze tracking method to collect data from multiple technologists' survey of medical and non-medical images. Through computational analysis of the results, we expect to provide insight into the behaviors and properties related to medical visual routines. Discovering the visual processes associated with medical images will help us recognize and understand the tacit knowledge gained from extensive experience with medical imagery. These expert routines could potentially be used to reduce medical error, train new experts, and provide an understanding of the human visual system in medicine.

  15. Development of an expert analysis tool based on an interactive subsidence hazard map for urban land use in the city of Celaya, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alloy, A.; Gonzalez Dominguez, F.; Nila Fonseca, A. L.; Ruangsirikulchai, A.; Gentle, J. N., Jr.; Cabral, E.; Pierce, S. A.

    2016-12-01

    Land Subsidence as a result of groundwater extraction in central Mexico's larger urban centers initiated in the 80's as a result of population and economic growth. The city of Celaya has undergone subsidence for a few decades and a consequence is the development of an active normal fault system that affects its urban infrastructure and residential areas. To facilitate its analysis and a land use decision-making process we created an online interactive map enabling users to easily obtain information associated with land subsidence. Geological and socioeconomic data of the city was collected, including fault location, population data, and other important infrastructure and structural data has been obtained from fieldwork as part of a study abroad interchange undergraduate course. The subsidence and associated faulting hazard map was created using an InSAR derived subsidence velocity map and population data from INEGI to identify hazard zones using a subsidence gradient spatial analysis approach based on a subsidence gradient and population risk matrix. This interactive map provides a simple perspective of different vulnerable urban elements. As an accessible visualization tool, it will enhance communication between scientific and socio-economic disciplines. Our project also lays the groundwork for a future expert analysis system with an open source and easily accessible Python coded, SQLite database driven website which archives fault and subsidence data along with visual damage documentation to civil structures. This database takes field notes and provides an entry form for uniform datasets, which are used to generate a JSON. Such a database is useful because it allows geoscientists to have a centralized repository and access to their observations over time. Because of the widespread presence of the subsidence phenomena throughout cities in central Mexico, the spatial analysis has been automated using the open source software R. Raster, rgeos, shapefiles, and rgdal

  16. Lipidomic analysis of epidermal lipids: a tool to predict progression of inflammatory skin disease in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shan; Ganguli-Indra, Gitali; Indra, Arup K

    2016-05-01

    Lipidomics is the large-scale profiling and characterization of lipid species in a biological system using mass spectrometry. The skin barrier is mainly comprised of corneocytes and a lipid-enriched extracellular matrix. The major skin lipids are ceramides, cholesterol and free fatty acids (FFA). Lipid compositions are altered in inflammatory skin disorders with disrupted skin barrier such as atopic dermatitis (AD). Here we discuss some of the recent applications of lipidomics in human skin biology and in inflammatory skin diseases such as AD, psoriasis and Netherton syndrome. We also review applications of lipidomics in human skin equivalent and in pre-clinical animal models of skin diseases to gain insight into the pathogenesis of the skin disease. Expert commentary: Skin lipidomics analysis could be a fast, reliable and noninvasive tool to characterize the skin lipid profile and to monitor the progression of inflammatory skin diseases such as AD.

  17. Criteria for the CAREM reactor's expert system design conduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furman, A.; Delgado, R.

    1990-01-01

    The present work describes the analysis made to start with the development of an Expert System for the CAREM (SE) reactor's conduction. The following tasks are presented: a) purpose of the Expert System; b) Decision Making structure; c) Architecture of the Expert System; d) Description of Subsystems and e) Licensing. (Author) [es

  18. Expert Review of Pedagogical Activities at Therapeutic Recreation Camps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiselev, N. N.; Kiseleva, E. V.

    2015-01-01

    An analysis of pedagogical expert reviews at children's therapeutic recreation camps in Novosibirsk Region shows that it is necessary to implement an expert review system that plays a supporting and developmental role. Such a system should allow teams of teachers to submit their work to expert review and to move forward by reflecting on their…

  19. Periodic tests: a human factors analysis of documentary aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perinet, Romuald; Rousseau, Jean-Marie

    2007-01-01

    Periodic tests are technical inspections aimed at verifying the availability of the safety-related systems during operation. The French licensee, Electricite de France (EDF), manages periodic tests according to procedures, methods of examination and a frequency, which were defined when the systems were designed. These requirements are defined by national authorities of EDF in a reference document composed of rules of testing and tables containing the reference values to be respected. This reference document is analyzed and transformed by each 'Centre Nucleaire de Production d'Electricite' (CNPE) into station-specific operating ranges of periodic tests. In 2003, the IRSN noted that significant events for safety (ESS) involving periodic tests represented more than 20% of ESS between 2000 and 2002. Thus, 340 ESS were related to non-compliance with the conditions of the test and errors in the implementation of the procedures. A first analysis showed that almost 26% of all ESSs from 2000 to 2002 were related to periodic tests. For many of them, the national reference document and the operating ranges of tests were involved. In this context, the 'Direction Generale de la Surete Nucleaire' (DGSNR), requested the 'Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire' (IRSN) to examine the process of definition and implementation of the periodic tests. The IRSN analyzed about thirty French Licensee event reports occurring during the considered period (2000-2002). The IRSN also interviewed the main persons responsible for the processes and observed the performance of 3 periodic tests. The results of this analysis were presented to a group of experts ('Groupe Permanent') charged with delivering advice to the DGSNR about the origin of the problems identified and the improvements to be implemented. The main conclusions of the IRSN addressed the quality of the prescriptive documents. In this context, EDF decided to carry out a thorough analysis of the whole process. The first

  20. Human blood serum analysis using TRXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarkadas, C.; Karydas, A.G.; Paradellis, T.

    2000-01-01

    Total reflection x-ray fluorescence was applied in the analysis of a pool human blood serum sample, which was collected out of 100 healthy individuals during an ordinary day at a hospital in Athens. Direct measurements of 4 1 quantities were performed in a standard TRXRF module, but with the addition of a Mo filter after the cut-off reflector. In this way the exciting beam was further monochromatized leading to an improved peak to background ratio. The elements S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se, Br, Rb were detected, with detection limits in the low ppb region for the elements of interest. The determined trace elements concentrations were found to be in very good agreement with values already reported in literature. For intercomparison a quantity of the same sample was freeze dried and measured in a secondary target assembly, in the form of pellets, giving almost identical results. The trace elements concentrations obtained can be considered as representative values for healthy population of Athens and therefore can be used as a monitor in order to associate the lack or excess of certain trace elements with pathological cases. (author)

  1. The contribution of research on expertise to understanding of expert thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krnjaić Zora

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Expertise is determined based on the high level of mastery of knowledge and skills in different areas of human activities (science, art, sports and other less formal domains. This paper explores the contribution of empirical research on expertise to understanding of the nature of expert thinking. For that purpose we have compiled an overview and performed an analysis of the findings of relevant research on expertise based on different approaches and paradigms. We have included the studies that researched experts singled out based on their exceptional performances in different domains (absolute expertise and the studies based on comparing experts with novices (relative expertise. We have analyzed the studies using different paradigms: psychometric and cognitive paradigms, as well as the new offshoot, the paradigm based on viewing giftedness as developing expertise. Research results provide empirically grounded findings on the characteristics of expert thinking and consistently point to the fact that knowledge is the core of expertise. The characteristics of expert knowledge are operationalized via the quantity and organization of knowledge and the mastery of deep contents and knowledge systems, which enables the recognition of rules, models and information sets, as well as the use of knowledge in further studying, detecting and solving different problems. It can be concluded that research findings on expertise are one of the foundations in the conceptualization of expert thinking. They significantly contribute to obtaining an insight into the way in which knowledge shapes thought and into understanding the mechanisms of demonstrating knowledge in the mental processes of experts.

  2. Evaluation of the reliability concerning the identification of human factors as contributing factors by a computer supported event analysis (CEA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilpert, B.; Maimer, H.; Loroff, C.

    2000-01-01

    The project's objectives are the evaluation of the reliability concerning the identification of Human Factors as contributing factors by a computer supported event analysis (CEA). CEA is a computer version of SOL (Safety through Organizational Learning). Parts of the first step were interviews with experts from the nuclear power industry and the evaluation of existing computer supported event analysis methods. This information was combined to a requirement profile for the CEA software. The next step contained the implementation of the software in an iterative process of evaluation. The completion of this project was the testing of the CEA software. As a result the testing demonstrated that it is possible to identify contributing factors with CEA validly. In addition, CEA received a very positive feedback from the experts. (orig.) [de

  3. Semi-quantitative assessment of disease risks at the human, livestock, wildlife interface for the Republic of Korea using a nationwide survey of experts: A model for other countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, J; Lee, K; Walsh, D; Kim, S W; Sleeman, J M; Lee, H

    2018-02-01

    Wildlife-associated diseases and pathogens have increased in importance; however, management of a large number of diseases and diversity of hosts is prohibitively expensive. Thus, the determination of priority wildlife pathogens and risk factors for disease emergence is warranted. We used an online questionnaire survey to assess release and exposure risks, and consequences of wildlife-associated diseases and pathogens in the Republic of Korea (ROK). We also surveyed opinions on pathways for disease exposure, and risk factors for disease emergence and spread. For the assessment of risk, we employed a two-tiered, statistical K-means clustering algorithm to group diseases into three levels (high, medium and low) of perceived risk based on release and exposure risks, societal consequences and the level of uncertainty of the experts' opinions. To examine the experts' perceived risk of routes of introduction of pathogens and disease amplification and spread, we used a Bayesian, multivariate normal order-statistics model. Six diseases or pathogens, including four livestock and two wildlife diseases, were identified as having high risk with low uncertainty. Similarly, 13 diseases were characterized as having high risk with medium uncertainty with three of these attributed to livestock, six associated with human disease, and the remainder having the potential to affect human, livestock and wildlife (i.e., One Health). Lastly, four diseases were described as high risk with high certainty, and were associated solely with fish diseases. Experts identified migration of wildlife, international human movement and illegal importation of wildlife as the three routes posing the greatest risk of pathogen introduction into ROK. Proximity of humans, livestock and wildlife was the most significant risk factor for promoting the spread of wildlife-associated diseases and pathogens, followed by high density of livestock populations, habitat loss and environmental degradation, and climate

  4. The research history of the human behaviour from the probabilistic safety analysis viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyy, P.

    1993-01-01

    The so called human errors have always been apart of the everyday life of the mankind. In that sense, the discussion on man has a contributor to the operational safety of nuclear power plants is nothing new. It is interesting, that there do not exist widely accepted definitions of the human error nor the human reliability. Some of them are discussed at the beginning of this article. The second Chapter discusses the past and today of the research of man as a contributor to safety. Similarly, the development of Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) is described. The article, then, discusses the methods used in the contemporary HRA. The division between the identification of important human activities and their probability estimation is made. Especially, the pros and cons of the approaches and data sources used in the HRA are reviewed on a coarce level. At the end, a view on the use of expert judgment is given. The human behaviour has been an endless topic of research in the history - and will be it in future as well. In the conclusion of the article an opinion is given on the development during the past 30 years. Then, a rapid view on the possible future of the area is given. (orig.)

  5. Proteomic Analysis of Human Tooth Pulp: Proteomics of Human Tooth

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Eckhardt, Adam; Jágr, Michal; Pataridis, Statis; Mikšík, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 12 (2014), s. 1961-1966 ISSN 0099-2399 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-17224S; GA ČR(CZ) GAP206/12/0453; GA MZd(CZ) NT14324 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : dentin * human pulp * tandem mass spectrometry * tooth proteome * 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis Subject RIV: FF - HEENT, Dentistry Impact factor: 3.375, year: 2014

  6. Peer-review study of the draft handbook for human-reliability analysis with emphasis on nuclear-power-plant applications, NUREG/CR-1278

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brune, R. L.; Weinstein, M.; Fitzwater, M. E.

    1983-01-01

    This report describes a peer review of the draft Handbook for Human Reliability Analysis with Emphasis on Nuclear Power Plant Applications, NUREG/CR-1278. The purpose of the study was to determine to what extent peers agree with the human behavior models and estimates of human error probabilities (HEPs) contained in the Handbook. Twenty-nine human factors experts participated in the study. Twenty of the participants were Americans; nine were from other countries. The peers performed human reliability analyses of a variety of human performance scenarios describing operator activities in nuclear power plant settings. They also answered questionnaires pertaining to the contents and application of the Handbook. An analysis of peer solutions to the human reliability analysis problems and peer responses to the questionnaire was performed. Recommendations regarding the format and contents of the Handbook were developed from the study findings.

  7. Progress on developing expert systems in waste management and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera, A.L.; Ferrada, J.J.

    1990-01-01

    The concept of artificial intelligence (AI) represents a challenging opportunity in expanding the potential benefits from computer technology in waste management and disposal. The potential of this concept lies in facilitating the development of intelligent computer systems to help analysts, decision makers, and operators in waste and technology problem solving similar to the way that machines support the laborer. Because the knowledge of multiple human experts is an essential input in the many aspects of waste management and disposal, there are numerous opportunities for the development of expert systems using software products from AI. This paper presents systems analysis as an attractive framework for the development of intelligent computer systems of significance to waste management and disposal, and it provides an overview of limited prototype systems and the commercially available software used during prototype development activities

  8. Expert PLSQL Practices

    CERN Document Server

    Beresniewicz, John

    2011-01-01

    Expert PL/SQL Practices is a book of collected wisdom on PL/SQL programming from some of the best and the brightest in the field. Each chapter is a deep-dive into a specific problem, technology, or feature set that you'll face as a PL/SQL programmer. Each author has chosen their topic out of the strong belief that what they share can make a positive difference in the quality and scalability of code that you write. The path to mastery begins with syntax and the mechanics of writing statements to make things happen. If you've reached that point with PL/SQL, then let the authors of Expert PL/SQL

  9. Bioethics for Technical Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Shigetaka

    Along with rapidly expanding applications of life science and technology, technical experts have been implicated more and more often with ethical, social, and legal problems than before. It should be noted that in this background there are scientific and social uncertainty elements which are inevitable during the progress of life science in addition to the historically-established social unreliability to scientists and engineers. In order to solve these problems, therefore, we should establish the social governance with ‘relief’ and ‘reliance’ which enables for both citizens and engineers to share the awareness of the issues, to design social orders and criterions based on hypothetical sense of values for bioethics, to carry out practical use management of each subject carefully, and to improve the sense of values from hypothetical to universal. Concerning these measures, the technical experts can learn many things from the present performance in the medical field.

  10. Expert tool use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Kathrine Liedtke; Ravn, Susanne

    2017-01-01

    on a case study of elite rope skipping, we argue that the phenomenological concept of incorporation does not suffice to adequately describe how expert tool users feel when interacting with their tools. By analyzing a combination of insights gained from participant observation of 11 elite rope skippers......According to some phenomenologists, a tool can be experienced as incorporated when, as a result of habitual use or deliberate practice, someone is able to manipulate it without conscious effort. In this article, we specifically focus on the experience of expertise tool use in elite sport. Based...... and autoethnographic material from one former elite skipper, we take some initial steps toward the development of a more nuanced understanding of the concept of incorporation; one that is able to accommodate the experiences of expert tool users. In sum, our analyses indicate that the possibility for experiencing...

  11. Identification of human operator performance models utilizing time series analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, F. M.; Shinners, S. M.

    1973-01-01

    The results of an effort performed by Sperry Systems Management Division for AMRL in applying time series analysis as a tool for modeling the human operator are presented. This technique is utilized for determining the variation of the human transfer function under various levels of stress. The human operator's model is determined based on actual input and output data from a tracking experiment.

  12. Spatial Analysis Of Human Capital Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajdos Artur

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to analyse the interdependence between labour productivity and the occupational structure of human capital in a spatial cross-section. Research indicates (see Fischer 2009 the possibility to assess the impact of the quality of human capital (measured by means of the level of education on labour productivity in a spatial cross-section.

  13. Functional analysis of human and chimpanzee promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heissig, Florian; Krause, Johannes; Bryk, Jaroslaw; Khaitovich, Philipp; Enard, Wolfgang; Pääbo, Svante

    2005-01-01

    It has long been argued that changes in gene expression may provide an additional and crucial perspective on the evolutionary differences between humans and chimpanzees. To investigate how often expression differences seen in tissues are caused by sequence differences in the proximal promoters, we tested the expression activity in cultured cells of human and chimpanzee promoters from genes that differ in mRNA expression between human and chimpanzee tissues. Twelve promoters for which the corresponding gene had been shown to be differentially expressed between humans and chimpanzees in liver or brain were tested. Seven showed a significant difference in activity between the human promoter and the orthologous chimpanzee promoter in at least one of the two cell lines used. However, only three of them showed a difference in the same direction as in the tissues. Differences in proximal promoter activity are likely to be common between humans and chimpanzees, but are not linked in a simple fashion to gene-expression levels in tissues. This suggests that several genetic differences between humans and chimpanzees might be responsible for a single expression difference and thus that relevant expression differences between humans and chimpanzees will be difficult to predict from cell culture experiments or DNA sequences.

  14. Incorporating process mining into human reliability analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelly, D.L.

    2011-01-01

    It is well established that the human contribution to the risk of operation of complex technological systems is significant, with typical estimates lying in the range of 60-85%. Human errors have been a contributor to many significant catastrophic technological accidents. Examples are 1) the

  15. Analysis of meiosis regulators in human gonads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anne; Nielsen, John E; Jensen, Martin Blomberg

    2012-01-01

    The mitosis-meiosis switch is a key event in the differentiation of germ cells. In humans, meiosis is initiated in fetal ovaries, whereas in testes meiotic entry is inhibited until puberty. The purpose of this study was to examine the expression pattern of meiosis regulators in human gonads...... with their role in initiation and progression of meiosis. The putative meiosis inhibitors, CYP26B1 and NANOS2, were primarily expressed in Leydig cells and spermatocytes, respectively. In conclusion, the expression pattern of the investigated meiotic regulators is largely conserved in the human gonads compared...... with rodents, but with some minor differences, such as a stable expression of CYP26B1 in human fetal ovaries. The sexually dimorphic expression pattern of DMRT1 indicates a similar role in the mitosis-meiosis switch in human gonads as previously demonstrated in mice. The biological importance of the changes...

  16. A methodology to incorporate organizational factors into human reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Pengcheng; Chen Guohua; Zhang Li; Xiao Dongsheng

    2010-01-01

    A new holistic methodology for Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) is proposed to model the effects of the organizational factors on the human reliability. Firstly, a conceptual framework is built, which is used to analyze the causal relationships between the organizational factors and human reliability. Then, the inference model for Human Reliability Analysis is built by combining the conceptual framework with Bayesian networks, which is used to execute the causal inference and diagnostic inference of human reliability. Finally, a case example is presented to demonstrate the specific application of the proposed methodology. The results show that the proposed methodology of combining the conceptual model with Bayesian Networks can not only easily model the causal relationship between organizational factors and human reliability, but in a given context, people can quantitatively measure the human operational reliability, and identify the most likely root causes or the prioritization of root causes caused human error. (authors)

  17. Seismic source characterization of the Alpine foreland in the context of a probabilistic seismic hazard analysis by PEGASOS Expert Group 1 (EG1a)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, S. M. [Geologisch-Palaeontologisches Institut, University of Basel, Basel (Switzerland); Slejko, D. [Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale, Trieste (Italy)

    2009-05-15

    Seismic source characterization is performed as part of the PEGASOS project for the assessment of the seismic hazard at the 4 sites of the Swiss Nuclear Power Plants. The analysis is performed according to the Level 4 procedures for expert elicitation defined in the guidelines of the US Nuclear Regulatory Committee whereby the quantification of uncertainties plays a crucial role. According to our analysis, which is one amongst four that were performed in the frame of PEGASOS, the most important epistemic uncertainty is related to the question as to whether basement-rooted faults at the margins of pre-existing Permo-Carboniferous troughs are prone for compressive or transpressive reactivation under the present-day stress field or not. The question after the present-day style of deformation in the Alpine foreland (thick-skinned versus thin-skinned) is closely related to this key question. Together with the consideration of uncertainties regarding the mapping of seismogenic zones and/or line sources, alternative zonations are presented in form of a logic tree with 21 branches. Area sources play a predominant role in the working area located at the margin of a diffuse plate boundary. Earthquake recurrence relationships are discussed by taking into account a series of uncertainties. These concern the evaluation of b-values and the evaluation of a-values once the b-values were fixed. Both parameters in the Gutenberg-Richter law are based on non-perfect and incomplete catalogue data that were carefully analysed beforehand. Since PEGASOS demanded an analysis of annual probabilities down to one event in 10{sup 7} years, the question after the value of the maximum possible earthquake magnitude M{sub max} and related error in M{sub max} estimates plays a crucial role. We estimate M{sub max} by using geological as well as statistical methods. M{sub max} = 6.9 cannot be excluded in most areas, in the Basel area M{sub max} = 7.3 is possible. Uncertainties in a, b and M{sub max

  18. Using Expert Systems To Build Cognitive Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonassen, David H.; Wang, Sherwood

    2003-01-01

    Cognitive simulations are runnable computer programs for modeling human cognitive activities. A case study is reported where expert systems were used as a formalism for modeling metacognitive processes in a seminar. Building cognitive simulations engages intensive introspection, ownership and meaning making in learners who build them. (Author/AEF)

  19. Expert system for web based collaborative CAE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Liang; Lin, Zusheng

    2006-11-01

    An expert system for web based collaborative CAE was developed based on knowledge engineering, relational database and commercial FEA (Finite element analysis) software. The architecture of the system was illustrated. In this system, the experts' experiences, theories and typical examples and other related knowledge, which will be used in the stage of pre-process in FEA, were categorized into analysis process and object knowledge. Then, the integrated knowledge model based on object-oriented method and rule based method was described. The integrated reasoning process based on CBR (case based reasoning) and rule based reasoning was presented. Finally, the analysis process of this expert system in web based CAE application was illustrated, and an analysis example of a machine tool's column was illustrated to prove the validity of the system.

  20. Analysis for Human-related Events during the Overhaul

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji Tae; Kim, Min Chull; Choi, Dong Won; Lee, Durk Hun [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    The event frequency due to human error is decreasing among 20 operating Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) excluding the NPP (Shin-Kori unit-1) in the commissioning stage since 2008. However, the events due to human error during an overhaul (O/H) occur annually (see Table I). An analysis for human-related events during the O/H was performed. Similar problems were identified for each event from the analysis and also, organizational and safety cultural factors were also identified

  1. Automatic Video-based Analysis of Human Motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fihl, Preben

    The human motion contains valuable information in many situations and people frequently perform an unconscious analysis of the motion of other people to understand their actions, intentions, and state of mind. An automatic analysis of human motion will facilitate many applications and thus has...... received great interest from both industry and research communities. The focus of this thesis is on video-based analysis of human motion and the thesis presents work within three overall topics, namely foreground segmentation, action recognition, and human pose estimation. Foreground segmentation is often...... the first important step in the analysis of human motion. By separating foreground from background the subsequent analysis can be focused and efficient. This thesis presents a robust background subtraction method that can be initialized with foreground objects in the scene and is capable of handling...

  2. Expert finding by the Dempster‐Shafer theory for evidence combination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torkzadeh mahani, N.; Dehghani, M.; Mirian, M.S.; Shakery, A.; Taheri, K.

    The expertise of human experts can be formally extracted from their written documents, research projects, and everyday activities. The process whereby experts are recognized according to their activities is called expert finding. In this paper, we propose an approach to identify the experts in a

  3. Mummified remains from the Archaeological Museum in Zagreb, Croatia - Reviewing peculiarities and limitations of human and non-human radiological identification and analysis in mummified remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petaros, Anja; Janković, Ivor; Cavalli, Fabio; Ivanac, Gordana; Brkljačić, Boris; Čavka, Mislav

    2015-10-01

    Forensic protocols and medico-legal techniques are increasingly being employed in investigations of museological material. The final findings of such investigations may reveal interesting facts on historical figures, customs and habits, as well as provide meaningful data for forensic use. Herein we present a case review where forensic experts were requested to identify taxonomic affinities, stage of preservation and provide skeletal analysis of mummified non-human archaeological remains, and verify whether two mummified hands are human or not. The manuscript offers a short review on the process and particularities of radiological species identification, the impact of post-mortem changes in the analysis and imaging of mummified remains as well as the macroscopical interpretation of trauma, pathology and authenticity in mummified remains, which can all turn useful when dealing with forensic cases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  4. Virtual Northern analysis of the human genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan H Hurowitz

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available We applied the Virtual Northern technique to human brain mRNA to systematically measure human mRNA transcript lengths on a genome-wide scale.We used separation by gel electrophoresis followed by hybridization to cDNA microarrays to measure 8,774 mRNA transcript lengths representing at least 6,238 genes at high (>90% confidence. By comparing these transcript lengths to the Refseq and H-Invitational full-length cDNA databases, we found that nearly half of our measurements appeared to represent novel transcript variants. Comparison of length measurements determined by hybridization to different cDNAs derived from the same gene identified clones that potentially correspond to alternative transcript variants. We observed a close linear relationship between ORF and mRNA lengths in human mRNAs, identical in form to the relationship we had previously identified in yeast. Some functional classes of protein are encoded by mRNAs whose untranslated regions (UTRs tend to be longer or shorter than average; these functional classes were similar in both human and yeast.Human transcript diversity is extensive and largely unannotated. Our length dataset can be used as a new criterion for judging the completeness of cDNAs and annotating mRNA sequences. Similar relationships between the lengths of the UTRs in human and yeast mRNAs and the functions of the proteins they encode suggest that UTR sequences serve an important regulatory role among eukaryotes.

  5. Virtual Northern analysis of the human genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurowitz, Evan H; Drori, Iddo; Stodden, Victoria C; Donoho, David L; Brown, Patrick O

    2007-05-23

    We applied the Virtual Northern technique to human brain mRNA to systematically measure human mRNA transcript lengths on a genome-wide scale. We used separation by gel electrophoresis followed by hybridization to cDNA microarrays to measure 8,774 mRNA transcript lengths representing at least 6,238 genes at high (>90%) confidence. By comparing these transcript lengths to the Refseq and H-Invitational full-length cDNA databases, we found that nearly half of our measurements appeared to represent novel transcript variants. Comparison of length measurements determined by hybridization to different cDNAs derived from the same gene identified clones that potentially correspond to alternative transcript variants. We observed a close linear relationship between ORF and mRNA lengths in human mRNAs, identical in form to the relationship we had previously identified in yeast. Some functional classes of protein are encoded by mRNAs whose untranslated regions (UTRs) tend to be longer or shorter than average; these functional classes were similar in both human and yeast. Human transcript diversity is extensive and largely unannotated. Our length dataset can be used as a new criterion for judging the completeness of cDNAs and annotating mRNA sequences. Similar relationships between the lengths of the UTRs in human and yeast mRNAs and the functions of the proteins they encode suggest that UTR sequences serve an important regulatory role among eukaryotes.

  6. Immunohistochemical Analysis of Human Vallate Taste Buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tizzano, Marco; Grigereit, Laura; Shultz, Nicole; Clary, Matthew S; Finger, Thomas E

    2015-11-01

    The morphology of the vallate papillae from postmortem human samples was investigated with immunohistochemistry. Microscopically, taste buds were present along the inner wall of the papilla, and in some cases in the outer wall as well. The typical taste cell markers PLCβ2, GNAT3 (gustducin) and the T1R3 receptor stain elongated cells in human taste buds consistent with the Type II cells in rodents. In the human tissue, taste bud cells that stain with Type II cell markers, PLCβ2 and GNAT3, also stain with villin antibody. Two typical immunochemical markers for Type III taste cells in rodents, PGP9.5 and SNAP25, fail to stain any taste bud cells in the human postmortem tissue, although these antibodies do stain numerous nerve fibers throughout the specimen. Car4, another Type III cell marker, reacted with only a few taste cells in our samples. Finally, human vallate papillae have a general network of innervation similar to rodents and antibodies directed against SNAP25, PGP9.5, acetylated tubulin and P2X3 all stain free perigemmal nerve endings as well as intragemmal taste fibers. We conclude that with the exception of certain molecular features of Type III cells, human vallate papillae share the structural, morphological, and molecular features observed in rodents. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Nanotechnology and human health: Scientific evidence and risk governance:Report of the WHO expert meeting 10–11 December 2012, Bonn, Germany

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Nanotechnology, the science and application of objects smaller that 100 nanometres, is evolving rapidly in many fields. Besides the countless beneficial applications, including in health and medicine, concerns exist on adverse health consequences of unintended human exposure to nanomaterials.In the 2010 Parma Declaration on Environment and Health, ministers of health and of environment of the 53 Member States of the WHO Regional Office for Europe listed the health implications of nanotechnolo...

  8. Expert Oracle Exadata

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Randy

    2011-01-01

    Throughout history, advances in technology have come in spurts. A single great idea can often spur rapid change as the idea takes hold and is propagated, often in totally unexpected directions. Exadata embodies such a change in how we think about and manage relational databases. The key change lies in the concept of offloading SQL processing to the storage layer. That concept is a huge win, and its implementation in the form of Exadata is truly a game changer. Expert Oracle Exadata will give you a look under the covers at how the combination of hardware and software that comprise Exadata actua

  9. The naked experts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, B.

    1982-01-01

    In an article critical of experts, the cases argued for and against nuclear power are discussed under the headings: environmental hazards arising from the nuclear fuel cycle; proliferation of nuclear weapons capabilities via expansion of the nuclear power industry; political and social threats and restraints of a nuclear society (terrorism, reduction in civil liberties, centralised political and economic power); economic and employment disadvantages of nuclear power; impact of uranium mining on (Australian) aboriginal culture; inadequacy of nuclear power as a solution to energy problems; advantages of a 'soft energy path' based around conservation and renewable energy technologies. (U.K.)

  10. Decision Analysis Methods Used to Make Appropriate Investments in Human Exploration Capabilities and Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Byrd, Julie; Arney, Dale C.; Hay, Jason; Reeves, John D.; Craig, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    NASA is transforming human spaceflight. The Agency is shifting from an exploration-based program with human activities in low Earth orbit (LEO) and targeted robotic missions in deep space to a more sustainable and integrated pioneering approach. Through pioneering, NASA seeks to address national goals to develop the capacity for people to work, learn, operate, live, and thrive safely beyond Earth for extended periods of time. However, pioneering space involves daunting technical challenges of transportation, maintaining health, and enabling crew productivity for long durations in remote, hostile, and alien environments. Prudent investments in capability and technology developments, based on mission need, are critical for enabling a campaign of human exploration missions. There are a wide variety of capabilities and technologies that could enable these missions, so it is a major challenge for NASA's Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD) to make knowledgeable portfolio decisions. It is critical for this pioneering initiative that these investment decisions are informed with a prioritization process that is robust and defensible. It is NASA's role to invest in targeted technologies and capabilities that would enable exploration missions even though specific requirements have not been identified. To inform these investments decisions, NASA's HEOMD has supported a variety of analysis activities that prioritize capabilities and technologies. These activities are often based on input from subject matter experts within the NASA community who understand the technical challenges of enabling human exploration missions. This paper will review a variety of processes and methods that NASA has used to prioritize and rank capabilities and technologies applicable to human space exploration. The paper will show the similarities in the various processes and showcase instances were customer specified priorities force modifications to the process. Specifically

  11. Knowledge-base for the new human reliability analysis method, A Technique for Human Error Analysis (ATHEANA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, S.E.; Wreathall, J.; Thompson, C.M., Drouin, M.; Bley, D.C.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the knowledge base for the application of the new human reliability analysis (HRA) method, a ''A Technique for Human Error Analysis'' (ATHEANA). Since application of ATHEANA requires the identification of previously unmodeled human failure events, especially errors of commission, and associated error-forcing contexts (i.e., combinations of plant conditions and performance shaping factors), this knowledge base is an essential aid for the HRA analyst

  12. Chapel Hill bisphenol A expert panel consensus statement: Integration of mechanisms, effects in animals and potential to impact human health at current levels of exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    vom Saal, Frederick S.; Akingbemi, Benson T.; Belcher, Scott M.; Birnbaum, Linda S.; Crain, D. Andrew; Eriksen, Marcus; Farabollini, Francesca; Guillette, Louis J.; Hauser, Russ; Heindel, Jerrold J.; Ho, Shuk-Mei; Hunt, Patricia A.; Iguchi, Taisen; Jobling, Susan; Kanno, Jun; Keri, Ruth A.; Knudsen, Karen E.; Laufer, Hans; LeBlanc, Gerald A.; Marcus, Michele; McLachlan, John A.; Myers, John Peterson; Nadal, Angel; Newbold, Retha R.; Olea, Nicolas; Prins, Gail S.; Richter, Catherine A.; Rubin, Beverly S.; Sonnenschein, Carlos; Soto, Ana M.; Talsness, Chris E.; Vandenbergh, John G.; Vanderberg, Laura N.; Walser-Kuntz, Debby R.; Watson, Cheryl S.; Welshons, Wade V.; Wetherill, Yelena; Zoeller, R. Thomas

    2007-01-01

    This document is a summary statement of the outcome from the meeting: “Bisphenol A: An Examination of the Relevance of Ecological, In vitro and Laboratory Animal Studies for Assessing Risks to Human Health” sponsored by both the NIEHS and NIDCR at NIH/DHHS, as well as the US-EPA and Commonweal on the estrogenic environmental chemical bisphenol A (BPA, 2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)propane; CAS# 80-05-7). The meeting was held in Chapel Hill, NC, 28–30 November 2006 due to concerns about the potential for a relationship between BPA and negative trends in human health that have occurred in recent decades. Examples include increases in abnormal penile/urethra development in males, early sexual maturation in females, an increase in neurobehavioral problems such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism, an increase in childhood and adult obesity and type 2 diabetes, a regional decrease in sperm count, and an increase in hormonally mediated cancers, such as prostate and breast cancers. Concern has been elevated by published studies reporting a relationship between treatment with “low doses” of BPA and many of theses negative health outcomes in experimental studies in laboratory animals as well as in vitro studies identifying plausible molecular mechanisms that could mediate such effects. Importantly, much evidence suggests that these adverse effects are occurring in animals within the range of exposure to BPA of the typical human living in a developed country, where virtually everyone has measurable blood, tissue and urine levels of BPA that exceed the levels produced by doses used in the “low dose” animal experiments.

  13. [Deontology of the medical expert].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raszeja, S

    1995-09-01

    The authority of prosecuting organ to choose the expert, set his task and verify the following opinion is defined. The qualities of the medical expert and his duties are described, referring to: -his expertise; -his morality; -his ability to issue an independent (objective) opinion. Detailed rules, which can be ascribed to a specific medical expert's deontological code, are listed and explained.

  14. A study on expert system applications for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huh, Young Hwan; Kim, Yeong Jin; Park, Nam Seog; Dong, In Sook; Choi, In Seon

    1987-12-01

    The application of artificial intelligence techniques to nuclear power plants such as expert systems is rapidly emerging. expert systems can contribute significantly to the availability and the improved operation and safety of nuclear power plants. The objective of the project is to develop an expert system in a selected application area in the nuclear power plants. This project will last for 3 years. The first year's tasks are: - Information collection and literature survey on expert systems. - Analysis of several applicable areas for applying AI technologies to the nuclear power plants. - Conceptual design of a few selected domains. - Selection of hardware and software tools for the development of the expert system

  15. Pigment Production Analysis in Human Melanoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkin, Amelia Soto; Paterson, Elyse K; Ruiz, Rolando; Ganesan, Anand K

    2016-05-25

    The human epidermal melanocyte is a highly specialized pigmented cell that serves to protect the epidermis from ultraviolet (UV) damage through the production of melanin, or melanogenesis. Misregulation in melanogenesis leading to either hyper- or hypo-pigmentation is found in human diseases such as malasma and vitiligo. Current therapies for these diseases are largely unsuccessful and the need for new therapies is necessary. In order to identify genes and or compounds that can alter melanogenesis, methods are required that can detect changes in pigment production as well as expression of key melanogenesis transcription factors and enzymes. Here we describe methods to detect changes in melanogenesis in a human melanoma cell line, MNT-1, by (1) analyzing pigment production by measuring the absorbance of melanin present by spectrophotometry, (2) analyzing transcript expression of potent regulators of melanogenesis by qunatitative reverse-transcription (RT)PCR and (3) analyzing protein expression of potent regulators of melanogenesis by Western blot (WB).

  16. Hybrid expert system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsoukalas, L.; Ikonomopoulos, A.; Uhrig, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology that couples rule-based expert systems using fuzzy logic, to pre-trained artificial neutral networks (ANN) for the purpose of transient identification in Nuclear Power Plants (NPP). In order to provide timely concise, and task-specific information about the may aspects of the transient and to determine the state of the system based on the interpretation of potentially noisy data a model-referenced approach is utilized. In it, the expert system performs the basic interpretation and processing of the model data, and pre-trained ANNs provide the model. having access to a set of neural networks that typify general categories of transients, the rule based system is able to perform identification functions. Membership functions - condensing information about a transient in a form convenient for a rule-based identification system characterizing a transient - are the output of neural computations. This allows the identification function to be performed with a speed comparable to or faster than that of the temporal evolution of the system. Simulator data form major secondary system pipe rupture is used to demonstrate the methodology. The results indicate excellent noise-tolerance for ANN's and suggest a new method for transient identification within the framework of Fuzzy Logic

  17. Application of human reliability analysis methodology of second generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz S, T. de J.; Nelson E, P. F.

    2009-10-01

    The human reliability analysis (HRA) is a very important part of probabilistic safety analysis. The main contribution of HRA in nuclear power plants is the identification and characterization of the issues that are brought together for an error occurring in the human tasks that occur under normal operation conditions and those made after abnormal event. Additionally, the analysis of various accidents in history, it was found that the human component has been a contributing factor in the cause. Because of need to understand the forms and probability of human error in the 60 decade begins with the collection of generic data that result in the development of the first generation of HRA methodologies. Subsequently develop methods to include in their models additional performance shaping factors and the interaction between them. So by the 90 mid, comes what is considered the second generation methodologies. Among these is the methodology A Technique for Human Event Analysis (ATHEANA). The application of this method in a generic human failure event, it is interesting because it includes in its modeling commission error, the additional deviations quantification to nominal scenario considered in the accident sequence of probabilistic safety analysis and, for this event the dependency actions evaluation. That is, the generic human failure event was required first independent evaluation of the two related human failure events . So the gathering of the new human error probabilities involves the nominal scenario quantification and cases of significant deviations considered by the potential impact on analyzed human failure events. Like probabilistic safety analysis, with the analysis of the sequences were extracted factors more specific with the highest contribution in the human error probabilities. (Author)

  18. Dependence assessment in human reliability analysis based on D numbers and AHP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Xinyi; Deng, Xinyang; Deng, Yong; Mahadevan, Sankaran

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • D numbers and AHP are combined to implement dependence assessment in HRA. • A new tool, called D numbers, is used to deal with the uncertainty in HRA. • The proposed method can well address the fuzziness and subjectivity in linguistic assessment. • The proposed method is well applicable in dependence assessment which inherently has a linguistic assessment process. - Abstract: Since human errors always cause heavy loss especially in nuclear engineering, human reliability analysis (HRA) has attracted more and more attention. Dependence assessment plays a vital role in HRA, measuring the dependence degree of human errors. Many researches have been done while still have improvement space. In this paper, a dependence assessment model based on D numbers and analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is proposed. Firstly, identify the factors used to measure the dependence level of two human operations. Besides, in terms of the suggested dependence level, determine and quantify the anchor points for each factor. Secondly, D numbers and AHP are adopted in model. Experts evaluate the dependence level of human operations for each factor. Then, the evaluation results are presented as D numbers and fused by D number’s combination rule that can obtain the dependence probability of human operations for each factor. The weights of factors can be determined by AHP. Thirdly, based on the dependence probability for each factor and its corresponding weight, the dependence probability of two human operations and its confidence can be obtained. The proposed method can well address the fuzziness and subjectivity in linguistic assessment. The proposed method is well applicable to assess the dependence degree of human errors in HRA which inherently has a linguistic assessment process.

  19. Dependence assessment in human reliability analysis based on D numbers and AHP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Xinyi; Deng, Xinyang [School of Computer and Information Science, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Deng, Yong, E-mail: ydeng@swu.edu.cn [School of Computer and Information Science, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Institute of Fundamental and Frontier Sciences, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, Sichuan 610054 (China); Mahadevan, Sankaran [School of Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States)

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • D numbers and AHP are combined to implement dependence assessment in HRA. • A new tool, called D numbers, is used to deal with the uncertainty in HRA. • The proposed method can well address the fuzziness and subjectivity in linguistic assessment. • The proposed method is well applicable in dependence assessment which inherently has a linguistic assessment process. - Abstract: Since human errors always cause heavy loss especially in nuclear engineering, human reliability analysis (HRA) has attracted more and more attention. Dependence assessment plays a vital role in HRA, measuring the dependence degree of human errors. Many researches have been done while still have improvement space. In this paper, a dependence assessment model based on D numbers and analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is proposed. Firstly, identify the factors used to measure the dependence level of two human operations. Besides, in terms of the suggested dependence level, determine and quantify the anchor points for each factor. Secondly, D numbers and AHP are adopted in model. Experts evaluate the dependence level of human operations for each factor. Then, the evaluation results are presented as D numbers and fused by D number’s combination rule that can obtain the dependence probability of human operations for each factor. The weights of factors can be determined by AHP. Thirdly, based on the dependence probability for each factor and its corresponding weight, the dependence probability of two human operations and its confidence can be obtained. The proposed method can well address the fuzziness and subjectivity in linguistic assessment. The proposed method is well applicable to assess the dependence degree of human errors in HRA which inherently has a linguistic assessment process.

  20. Return on Investment Analysis of Health Experts onLine at Portsmouth: A 2-Year Review of the Navy's Newest Teleconsultation System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Andrew H; Welstead, Bethany L; Morey, Brittany L; Mahnke, C Becket; Cole, Jacob H; Johnston, Michael G

    2017-05-01

    Health Experts onLine at Portsmouth (HELP) is a web-based teleconsultation system launched in June 2014 to facilitate communication between specialists at Naval Medical Center Portsmouth and providers assigned to both the fleet forces and primary care clinics across the eastern United States, Europe, and the Middle East. Specialist consultations through the HELP system purport to improve access to care for patients who otherwise might be referred to the civilian network or medically evacuated (MEDEVACed) to Naval Medical Center Portsmouth for specialized care. If HELP-facilitated communications help avoid civilian referrals or MEDEVACs, the associated costs of that care should be reduced. We evaluated cost savings associated with prevented MEDEVACs by analyzing both tangible savings (prevented costs of flights, per diems, and consults) and intangible savings (reduced lost productivity time). We compared these savings to the costs of maintaining and utilizing the HELP system: startup costs, administrative costs, and provider time costs. We used patient and provider data from the HELP database to evaluate clinical consult cases. Before this analysis, a panel of 3 physicians associated with HELP reviewed each consult to determine whether a case qualified as a prevented MEDEVAC. Data from the Military Health System (MHS) Management and Analysis Reporting Tool and the MHS Data Repository were used to estimate costs associated with provider time, patient time, and direct care medical encounters. The HELP program delivered measurable, positive returns on investment (ROIs) between June 2014 and December 2015. In that time frame, 559 consult cases occurred in the HELP system. Of the 559 total consult cases, 50 consults prevented MEDEVACs. Incorporating only tangible savings, HELP produced an 80% ROI on the basis of prevented medical evacuations; the addition of intangible savings such as reduced lost productivity increased the ROI to 250%. The dollar values of these savings

  1. Warranty claim analysis considering human factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Shaomin

    2011-01-01

    Warranty claims are not always due to product failures. They can also be caused by two types of human factors. On the one hand, consumers might claim warranty due to misuse and/or failures caused by various human factors. Such claims might account for more than 10% of all reported claims. On the other hand, consumers might not be bothered to claim warranty for failed items that are still under warranty, or they may claim warranty after they have experienced several intermittent failures. These two types of human factors can affect warranty claim costs. However, research in this area has received rather little attention. In this paper, we propose three models to estimate the expected warranty cost when the two types of human factors are included. We consider two types of failures: intermittent and fatal failures, which might result in different claim patterns. Consumers might report claims after a fatal failure has occurred, and upon intermittent failures they might report claims after a number of failures have occurred. Numerical examples are given to validate the results derived.

  2. Biodegradable nanoporous nanoparticles for human serum analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pujia, A.; De Angelis, F.; Scumaci, D.; Gaspari, M.; Liberale, C.; Candeloro, P.; Cuda, G.; Di Fabrizio, E.

    2010-01-01

    Modern medicine and biology search for new powerful tool for biomarkers discovery, appears one of the most promising approaches for early cancer diagnosis. Nowadays, the low molecular weight fraction of human serum is the most informative source of biomarkers, but their study and identification are very difficult due to the incredible complexity of the raw human serum. In this work we describe a novel tool for the filtration of crude human serum or other bio-fluid based on water soluble nanoparticles. Nanoparticles with a pore size of about 2-3 nm, and diameters of 200 nm were obtained by ultrasonication of nanoporous silicon. The porous nanoparticles act as a nanosieve able to exclusively harvest the low molecular weight fraction of the fluid thanks to a controllable pore size. After a short incubation, the infiltrated nanosieves can be extracted from the starting fluid by means of centrifugation, and dissolved in water in a few minutes to give the captured molecules back in their native state, without degradation and contamination. The raw fluid is so split in two components of high and low molecular weight, that are both available for further analyses with any other investigation technique. Here, fluorescence spectroscopy, 2D-gel electrophoresis, and mass spectrometry are exploited to show the split of different bio-fluids under physiological condition. A cut-off (or split level) of 13 kDa is demonstrated also for human serum.

  3. Tropospheric ozone. Formation, properties, effects. Expert opinion; Ozon in der Troposphaere. Bildung, Eigenschaften, Wirkungen. Gutachten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elstner, E.F. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Phytopathologie

    1996-06-01

    The formation and dispersion of tropospheric ozone are discussed only marginally in this expert opinion; the key interest is in the effects of ground level ozone on plants, animals, and humans. The expert opinion is based on an analysis of the available scientific publications. (orig./MG) [Deutsch] Das Gutachten nimmt nur am Rande die Problematik der Bildung und Ausbreitung von troposphaerischen Ozon auf; Im Mittelpunkt steht die Auseinandersetzung mit den Wirkungen des bodennahen Ozons auf Pflanze, Tier und Mensch. Das Gutachten basiert auf einer Analyse der zugaenglichen wissenschaftlichen Arbeiten. (orig./MG)

  4. Collaborative real-time motion video analysis by human observer and image exploitation algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hild, Jutta; Krüger, Wolfgang; Brüstle, Stefan; Trantelle, Patrick; Unmüßig, Gabriel; Heinze, Norbert; Peinsipp-Byma, Elisabeth; Beyerer, Jürgen

    2015-05-01

    Motion video analysis is a challenging task, especially in real-time applications. In most safety and security critical applications, a human observer is an obligatory part of the overall analysis system. Over the last years, substantial progress has been made in the development of automated image exploitation algorithms. Hence, we investigate how the benefits of automated video analysis can be integrated suitably into the current video exploitation systems. In this paper, a system design is introduced which strives to combine both the qualities of the human observer's perception and the automated algorithms, thus aiming to improve the overall performance of a real-time video analysis system. The system design builds on prior work where we showed the benefits for the human observer by means of a user interface which utilizes the human visual focus of attention revealed by the eye gaze direction for interaction with the image exploitation system; eye tracker-based interaction allows much faster, more convenient, and equally precise moving target acquisition in video images than traditional computer mouse selection. The system design also builds on prior work we did on automated target detection, segmentation, and tracking algorithms. Beside the system design, a first pilot study is presented, where we investigated how the participants (all non-experts in video analysis) performed in initializing an object tracking subsystem by selecting a target for tracking. Preliminary results show that the gaze + key press technique is an effective, efficient, and easy to use interaction technique when performing selection operations on moving targets in videos in order to initialize an object tracking function.

  5. Back-and-Forth Methodology for Objective Voice Quality Assessment: From/to Expert Knowledge to/from Automatic Classification of Dysphonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredouille, Corinne; Pouchoulin, Gilles; Ghio, Alain; Revis, Joana; Bonastre, Jean-François; Giovanni, Antoine

    2009-12-01

    This paper addresses voice disorder assessment. It proposes an original back-and-forth methodology involving an automatic classification system as well as knowledge of the human experts (machine learning experts, phoneticians, and pathologists). The goal of this methodology is to bring a better understanding of acoustic phenomena related to dysphonia. The automatic system was validated on a dysphonic corpus (80 female voices), rated according to the GRBAS perceptual scale by an expert jury. Firstly, focused on the frequency domain, the classification system showed the interest of 0-3000 Hz frequency band for the classification task based on the GRBAS scale. Later, an automatic phonemic analysis underlined the significance of consonants and more surprisingly of unvoiced consonants for the same classification task. Submitted to the human experts, these observations led to a manual analysis of unvoiced plosives, which highlighted a lengthening of VOT according to the dysphonia severity validated by a preliminary statistical analysis.

  6. Back-and-Forth Methodology for Objective Voice Quality Assessment: From/to Expert Knowledge to/from Automatic Classification of Dysphonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne Fredouille

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses voice disorder assessment. It proposes an original back-and-forth methodology involving an automatic classification system as well as knowledge of the human experts (machine learning experts, phoneticians, and pathologists. The goal of this methodology is to bring a better understanding of acoustic phenomena related to dysphonia. The automatic system was validated on a dysphonic corpus (80 female voices, rated according to the GRBAS perceptual scale by an expert jury. Firstly, focused on the frequency domain, the classification system showed the interest of 0–3000 Hz frequency band for the classification task based on the GRBAS scale. Later, an automatic phonemic analysis underlined the significance of consonants and more surprisingly of unvoiced consonants for the same classification task. Submitted to the human experts, these observations led to a manual analysis of unvoiced plosives, which highlighted a lengthening of VOT according to the dysphonia severity validated by a preliminary statistical analysis.

  7. An expert system for diesel generator diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bley, D.C.; Read, J.W.; Kaplan, S.; Liming, J.K.; Brosee, N.M.; Hanley, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    The idea of developing artificial intelligence (AI) systems to capture the knowledge of human experts is receiving much attention these days. The idea is even more attractive when important expertise resides within a single individual, especially one who is nearing retirement and who has not otherwise recorded or passed along his important knowledge and thought processes. The diesel generators at Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station have performed exceptionally well, primarily due to the care and attention of one man. Therefore, the authors are constructing an expert system for the diagnosis of diesel generator problems at Pilgrim. This paper includes a description of the expert system design and operation, examples from the knowledge base, and sample diagnoses, so the reader can observe the process in action

  8. The development of human factors technologies -The development of human behaviour analysis techniques-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Lee, Yong Heui; Park, Keun Ok; Chun, Se Woo; Suh, Sang Moon; Park, Jae Chang

    1995-07-01

    In order to contribute to human error reduction through the studies on human-machine interaction in nuclear power plants, this project has objectives to develop SACOM(Simulation Analyzer with a Cognitive Operator Model) and techniques for human error analysis and application. In this year, we studied the followings: 1) Site investigation of operator tasks, 2) Development of operator task micro structure and revision of micro structure, 3) Development of knowledge representation software and SACOM prototype, 4) Development of performance assessment methodologies in task simulation and analysis of the effects of performance shaping factors. 1) Classification of error shaping factors(ESFs) and development of software for ESF evaluation, 2) Analysis of human error occurrences and revision of analysis procedure, 3) Experiment for human error data collection using a compact nuclear simulator, 4) Development of a prototype data base system of the analyzed information on trip cases. 55 figs, 23 tabs, 33 refs. (Author)

  9. Comparative Analysis of OECD Member Countries' Competitive Advantage in National Human Resource Development System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hunseok; Choi, Yeseul; Choi, Myungweon

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess, evaluate, and compare the competitive advantages of the human resource development systems of advanced countries. The Global Human Resource Development Index was utilized for this study, since it has been validated through an expert panel's content review and analytic hierarchy process. Using a sample of 34…

  10. Expert Involvement and Adherence to Medical Evidence in Medical Mobile Phone Apps: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhi, Yousif; Bube, Sarah Hjartbro; Rolskov Bojsen, Signe; Skou Thomsen, Ann Sofia; Konge, Lars

    2015-07-27

    Both clinicians and patients use medical mobile phone apps. Anyone can publish medical apps, which leads to contents with variable quality that may have a serious impact on human lives. We herein provide an overview of the prevalence of expert involvement in app development and whether or not app contents adhere to current medical evidence. To systematically review studies evaluating expert involvement or adherence of app content to medical evidence in medical mobile phone apps. We systematically searched 3 databases (PubMed, The Cochrane Library, and EMBASE), and included studies evaluating expert involvement or adherence of app content to medical evidence in medical mobile phone apps. Two authors performed data extraction independently. Qualitative analysis of the included studies was performed. Based on inclusion criteria, 52 studies were included in this review. These studies assessed a total of 6520 apps. Studies dealt with a variety of medical specialties and topics. As much as 28 studies assessed expert involvement, which was found in 9-67% of the assessed apps. Thirty studies (including 6 studies that also assessed expert involvement) assessed adherence of app content to current medical evidence. Thirteen studies found that 10-87% of the assessed apps adhered fully to the compared evidence (published studies, recommendations, and guidelines). Seventeen studies found that none of the assessed apps (n=2237) adhered fully to the compared evidence. Most medical mobile phone apps lack expert involvement and do not adhere to relevant medical evidence.

  11. Accident sequence analysis of human-computer interface design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, C.-F.; Chen, W.-H.

    2000-01-01

    It is important to predict potential accident sequences of human-computer interaction in a safety-critical computing system so that vulnerable points can be disclosed and removed. We address this issue by proposing a Multi-Context human-computer interaction Model along with its analysis techniques, an Augmented Fault Tree Analysis, and a Concurrent Event Tree Analysis. The proposed augmented fault tree can identify the potential weak points in software design that may induce unintended software functions or erroneous human procedures. The concurrent event tree can enumerate possible accident sequences due to these weak points

  12. Human Milk Analysis Using Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groh-Wargo, Sharon; Valentic, Jennifer; Khaira, Sharmeel; Super, Dennis M; Collin, Marc

    2016-04-01

    The composition of human milk is known to vary with length of gestation, stage of lactation, and other factors. Human milk contains all nutrients required for infant health but requires fortification to meet the needs of low-birth-weight infants. Without a known nutrient profile of the mother's milk or donor milk fed to a baby, the composition of the fortified product is only an estimate. Human milk analysis has the potential to improve the nutrition care of high-risk newborns by increasing the information about human milk composition. Equipment to analyze human milk is available, and the technology is rapidly evolving. This pilot study compares mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy to reference laboratory milk analysis. After obtaining informed consent, we collected human milk samples from mothers of infants weighing milk obtained by MIR vs reference laboratory analysis. MIR analysis appears to provide an accurate assessment of macronutrient content in expressed human milk from mothers of preterm infants. The small sample size of this study limits confidence in the results. Measurement of lactose is confounded by the presence of oligosaccharides. Human milk analysis is a potentially useful tool for establishing an individualized fortification plan. © 2015 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  13. Comprehensive data analysis of human ureter proteome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameh Magdeldin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Comprehensive human ureter proteome dataset was generated from OFFGel fractionated ureter samples. Our result showed that among 2217 non-redundant ureter proteins, 751 protein candidates (33.8% were detected in urine as urinary protein/polypeptide or exosomal protein. On the other hand, comparing ureter protein hits (48 that are not shown in corresponding databases to urinary bladder and prostate human protein atlas databases pinpointed 21 proteins that might be unique to ureter tissue. In conclusion, this finding offers future perspectives for possible identification of ureter disease-associated biomarkers such as ureter carcinoma. In addition, Cytoscape GO annotation was examined on the final ureter dataset to better understand proteins molecular function, biological processes, and cellular component. The ureter proteomic dataset published in this article will provide a valuable resource for researchers working in the field of urology and urine biomarker discovery.

  14. Artificial Experts: The Computer as Diagnostician Has Definite Limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pournelle, Jerry

    1984-01-01

    Argues that, although expert systems--which are supposed to give users all the advantages of consulting with human experts--can be useful for medical diagnosis, where tests tend to be reliable, they can be hazardous in such areas as psychological testing, where test reliability is difficult to measure. (MBR)

  15. Ethical human resource management: a critical analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    In modern day, Human Resource Management (HRM) is seen as a mere variant of management control aiming intentionally to ‘colonize’ the identity of the individual employee which points to the contradictions between the idealised HRM theories and its practice commonly referred to as the difference between rhetoric and reality. These critical analyses suggest that HRM reflects a historical shift in the way work is defined and managed and research has to be undertaken on how morality and ethics ma...

  16. Systematic analysis of dependent human errors from the maintenance history at finnish NPPs - A status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laakso, K. [VTT Industrial Systems (Finland)

    2002-12-01

    Operating experience has shown missed detection events, where faults have passed inspections and functional tests to operating periods after the maintenance activities during the outage. The causes of these failures have often been complex event sequences, involving human and organisational factors. Especially common cause and other dependent failures of safety systems may significantly contribute to the reactor core damage risk. The topic has been addressed in the Finnish studies of human common cause failures, where experiences on latent human errors have been searched and analysed in detail from the maintenance history. The review of the bulk of the analysis results of the Olkiluoto and Loviisa plant sites shows that the instrumentation and control and electrical equipment is more prone to human error caused failure events than the other maintenance and that plant modifications and also predetermined preventive maintenance are significant sources of common cause failures. Most errors stem from the refuelling and maintenance outage period at the both sites, and less than half of the dependent errors were identified during the same outage. The dependent human errors originating from modifications could be reduced by a more tailored specification and coverage of their start-up testing programs. Improvements could also be achieved by a more case specific planning of the installation inspection and functional testing of complicated maintenance works or work objects of higher plant safety and availability importance. A better use and analysis of condition monitoring information for maintenance steering could also help. The feedback from discussions of the analysis results with plant experts and professionals is still crucial in developing the final conclusions and recommendations that meet the specific development needs at the plants. (au)

  17. Using Evidence Credibility Decay Model for dependence assessment in human reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Xingfeng; Zhou, Yanhui; Qian, Jin; Deng, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A new computational model is proposed for dependence assessment in HRA. • We combined three factors of “CT”, “TR” and “SP” within Dempster–Shafer theory. • The BBA of “SP” is reconstructed by discounting rate based on the ECDM. • Simulation experiments are illustrated to show the efficiency of the proposed method. - Abstract: Dependence assessment among human errors plays an important role in human reliability analysis. When dependence between two sequent tasks exists in human reliability analysis, if the preceding task fails, the failure probability of the following task is higher than success. Typically, three major factors are considered: “Closeness in Time” (CT), “Task Relatedness” (TR) and “Similarity of Performers” (SP). Assume TR is not changed, both SP and CT influence the degree of dependence level and SP is discounted by the time as the result of combine two factors in this paper. In this paper, a new computational model is proposed based on the Dempster–Shafer Evidence Theory (DSET) and Evidence Credibility Decay Model (ECDM) to assess the dependence between tasks in human reliability analysis. First, the influenced factors among human tasks are identified and the basic belief assignments (BBAs) of each factor are constructed based on expert evaluation. Then, the BBA of SP is discounted as the result of combining two factors and reconstructed by using the ECDM, the factors are integrated into a fused BBA. Finally, the dependence level is calculated based on fused BBA. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed model not only quantitatively describe the fact that the input factors influence the dependence level, but also exactly show how the dependence level regular changes with different situations of input factors.

  18. Capturing cognitive causal paths in human reliability analysis with Bayesian network models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwirglmaier, Kilian; Straub, Daniel; Groth, Katrina M.

    2017-01-01

    reIn the last decade, Bayesian networks (BNs) have been identified as a powerful tool for human reliability analysis (HRA), with multiple advantages over traditional HRA methods. In this paper we illustrate how BNs can be used to include additional, qualitative causal paths to provide traceability. The proposed framework provides the foundation to resolve several needs frequently expressed by the HRA community. First, the developed extended BN structure reflects the causal paths found in cognitive psychology literature, thereby addressing the need for causal traceability and strong scientific basis in HRA. Secondly, the use of node reduction algorithms allows the BN to be condensed to a level of detail at which quantification is as straightforward as the techniques used in existing HRA. We illustrate the framework by developing a BN version of the critical data misperceived crew failure mode in the IDHEAS HRA method, which is currently under development at the US NRC . We illustrate how the model could be quantified with a combination of expert-probabilities and information from operator performance databases such as SACADA. This paper lays the foundations necessary to expand the cognitive and quantitative foundations of HRA. - Highlights: • A framework for building traceable BNs for HRA, based on cognitive causal paths. • A qualitative BN structure, directly showing these causal paths is developed. • Node reduction algorithms are used for making the BN structure quantifiable. • BN quantified through expert estimates and observed data (Bayesian updating). • The framework is illustrated for a crew failure mode of IDHEAS.

  19. Study and application of human reliability analysis for digital human-system interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Ming; Liu Yanzi; Zhang Jianbo

    2014-01-01

    The knowledge of human-orientated abilities and limitations could be used to digital human-system interface (HSI) design by human reliability analysis (HRA) technology. Further, control room system design could achieve the perfect match of man-machine-environment. This research was conducted to establish an integrated HRA method. This method identified HSI potential design flaws which may affect human performance and cause human error. Then a systematic approach was adopted to optimize HSI. It turns out that this method is practical and objective, and effectively improves the safety, reliability and economy of nuclear power plant. This method was applied to CRP1000 projects under construction successfully with great potential. (authors)

  20. Der Patient als Experte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubs

    1998-01-01

    Patients as Experts: Determining Benefit by Using Assessments of Ability (ICIDH)When health economy and quality mangement are dealing with the cost-benefit relationship, to this day description, calculation, and assessment of the benefit are missing to a great extent. Deliberations in terms of cause and effect do not go beyond the model of pathogenesis (etiology - pathology - manifestation) and descriptions on the organ level (ICD). Only the international classification of impairments, disabilities, and handicaps (ICIDH) as a separate estimation of the resulting manifestations of illness on the levels of organ, individual, and society is capable to elucidate this benefit. It is the patient who is the expert to decide what he needs, what he wants, and what he can do, thus, evaluating on an individual level his loss of capability. The ICIDH is regarded as the key for the management of chronic diseases. The characteristics of being chronically ill require the integration of salutogenesis and the consideration of the hierarchy of needs. The specially developed MARA model serves as pragmatic basis for the description of the benefits of carried out and omitted interventions as changes of abilities by using the MARA curve (mean age-related ability) as ethical guideline. In quality circles the MARA model, which is based on ICIDH, hierarchy of needs and salutogenesis, can offer apatient-oriented basis of discussion for benefit assessments, and, in a pragmatical way, it can facilitate the introduction of evidence-based medicine. By the change of view from the organ level with multifactorial aspects to the individual level, in which the abilities can be understood as a monofactor, a high consensus potential between several participants of discussion in health service is possible.

  1. An expert system approach for safety diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdmann, R.C.; Sun, B.K.H.

    1988-01-01

    An expert system was developed with the intent to provide real-time information about an accident to an operator who is in the process of diagnosing and bringing that accident under control. Explicit use was made of probabilistic risk analysis techniques and plant accident response information in constructing this system. The expert system developed contains 70 logic rules and provides contextual messages during simulated accident sequences and logic sequence information on the entire sequence in graphical form for accident diagnosis. The present analysis focuses on integrated control system-related transients with Babcock and Wilcox-type reactors. While the system developed here is limited in extent and was built for a composite reactor, it demonstrates that an expert system may enhance the operator's capability in the control room

  2. ANALYSIS OF HUMAN INTUITION TOWARDS ARTIFICIAL INTUITION SYNTHESIS FOR ROBOTICS

    OpenAIRE

    Octavio Diaz-Hernandez; Victor J. Gonzalez-Villela

    2017-01-01

    Human intuition is an unconscious mental process aimed to solve problems without using a rational decision-making process. Meanwhile, the artificial intuition is a limited representation of human intuition, and it models intuitive ability of solving problems in order to be implemented in machines. In this work, we performed an analysis about analogies between human and artificial intuition using INPUTS, PROCESSING, and OUTPUTS. Mainly, we have focused on synthetize algorithms that improve rob...

  3. Human reliability analysis of Lingao Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Li; Huang Shudong; Yang Hong; He Aiwu; Huang Xiangrui; Zheng Tao; Su Shengbing; Xi Haiying

    2001-01-01

    The necessity of human reliability analysis (HRA) of Lingao Nuclear Power Station are analyzed, and the method and operation procedures of HRA is briefed. One of the human factors events (HFE) is analyzed in detail and some questions of HRA are discussed. The authors present the analytical results of 61 HFEs, and make a brief introduction of HRA contribution to Lingao Nuclear Power Station

  4. Vision-based human motion analysis: An overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poppe, Ronald Walter

    2007-01-01

    Markerless vision-based human motion analysis has the potential to provide an inexpensive, non-obtrusive solution for the estimation of body poses. The significant research effort in this domain has been motivated by the fact that many application areas, including surveillance, Human-Computer

  5. AN EXPERT SYSTEM FOR SUPPORTING THE PRODUCTION OF PLEASURE BOATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz GONCIARZ

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Expert systems can be defined as computer programs, whose main task is to simulate a human expert, usually in a narrow field of expertise. Possible applications of modern information technology are very extensive, ranging from medicine, geology and technology to applications in the field of economic and financial decision support. The purpose of this paper is to present the practical application of an expert system that supports the process of managing the production of yachts and has a high suitability for use in this application. Using the expert system described in the paper reduces the time during the design and production preparation process.

  6. Estimating Production Potentials: Expert Bias in Applied Decision Making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, L.J.; Burggraf, L.K.; Reece, W.J.

    1998-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate how workers predict manufacturing production potentials given positively and negatively framed information. Findings indicate the existence of a bias toward positive information and suggest that this bias may be reduced with experience but is never the less maintained. Experts err in the same way non experts do in differentially processing negative and positive information. Additionally, both experts and non experts tend to overestimate production potentials in a positive direction. The authors propose that these biases should be addressed with further research including cross domain analyses and consideration in training, workplace design, and human performance modeling

  7. Human oocyte chromosome analysis: complicated cases and major ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Human oocyte chromosome analysis: complicated cases and major ... dardized even after more than 20 years of research, making it difficult to draw .... (c) Part of a metaphase with a chromosome break in the centromeric region (arrows).

  8. Human factors analysis of incident/accident report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroda, Isao

    1992-01-01

    Human factors analysis of accident/incident has different kinds of difficulties in not only technical, but also psychosocial background. This report introduces some experiments of 'Variation diagram method' which is able to extend to operational and managemental factors. (author)

  9. Human · mouse genome analysis and radiation biology. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hori, Tada-aki

    1994-03-01

    This issue is the collection of the papers presented at the 25th NIRS symposium on Human, Mouse Genome Analysis and Radiation Biology. The 14 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  10. MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF HUMAN SPERMATOZOA: POTENTIAL FOR INFERTILITY RESEARCH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon Research Conference: Mammalian Gametogenesis and Embryogenesis New London, CT, July 1-6, 2000Molecular Analysis of Human Spermatozoa: Potential for Infertility ResearchDavid Miller 1, David Dix2, Robert Reid 3, Stephen A Krawetz 3 1Reproductive ...

  11. Final OptiMIR Scientific and Expert Meeting: From milk analysis to advisory tools (Palais des Congrès, Namur, Belgium, 16-17 April 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedrichs, P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The dairy industry represents 13% of the turnover of the European food industry and north-west Europe produces 60% of the European milk. However, in 2014 the milk market has experienced a substantial fall in milk prices of some 50%. At these lower prices for milk the business of many milk producers is not sustainable. Due to recent advances, the mid-infrared (MIR analysis of milk performed within milk recording (MR promises more information than used traditionally. Beside the established MR parameters (protein, fat, lactose, and urea, the spectra could provide additional information on cows' status for a range of characteristics (e.g. fertility, health, energy balance, feeding and methane emission. Thus, the spectra routinely obtained from the MIR analysis of milk offer a possibility to develop novel, cost-effective tools which enable milk producers to improve the management of their dairy herds and in turn reduce the costs for milk production. The OptiMIR project aims to improve the sustainability of the dairy sector by developing and providing innovative, economical and standardized MIR-based tools for the management of dairy herds. Additionally, the project aims to create and promote a framework for the cross-border exchange of information and practices to enhance the service of milk recording organizations (MROs in north-west Europe and to strengthen their competitiveness. In order to achieve these objectives, in 2011 the European OptiMIR project was officially launched for a 5-year-period. The INTERREG IV B funded OptiMIR project is a cooperation between three research centers, three universities, 11 MROs, and one laboratory from six north-western European countries. To accomplish the goals, the different processes from the identification of the priority areas to the development, validation, and implementation of the novel tools were outlined in three working packages comprising 10 actions. A common transnational database combines the

  12. MODELING HUMAN RELIABILITY ANALYSIS USING MIDAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald L. Boring; Donald D. Dudenhoeffer; Bruce P. Hallbert; Brian F. Gore

    2006-05-01

    This paper summarizes an emerging collaboration between Idaho National Laboratory and NASA Ames Research Center regarding the utilization of high-fidelity MIDAS simulations for modeling control room crew performance at nuclear power plants. The key envisioned uses for MIDAS-based control room simulations are: (i) the estimation of human error with novel control room equipment and configurations, (ii) the investigative determination of risk significance in recreating past event scenarios involving control room operating crews, and (iii) the certification of novel staffing levels in control rooms. It is proposed that MIDAS serves as a key component for the effective modeling of risk in next generation control rooms.

  13. A proteomic analysis of human bile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Troels Zakarias; Bunkenborg, Jakob; Gronborg, Mads

    2004-01-01

    We have carried out a comprehensive characterization of human bile to define the bile proteome. Our approach involved fractionation of bile by one-dimensional gel electrophoresis and lectin affinity chromatography followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Overall, we identified 87...... unique proteins, including several novel proteins as well as known proteins whose functions are unknown. A large majority of the identified proteins have not been previously described in bile. Using lectin affinity chromatography and enzymatically labeling of asparagine residues carrying glycan moieties...

  14. Classification of Listeria monocytogenes persistence in retail delicatessen environments using expert elicitation and machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangay, P; Steingrimsson, J; Wiedmann, M; Stasiewicz, M J

    2014-10-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that persistence of Listeria monocytogenes in food processing plants has been the underlying cause of a number of human listeriosis outbreaks. This study extracts criteria used by food safety experts in determining bacterial persistence in the environment, using retail delicatessen operations as a model. Using the Delphi method, we conducted an expert elicitation with 10 food safety experts from academia, industry, and government to classify L. monocytogenes persistence based on environmental sampling results collected over six months for 30 retail delicatessen stores. The results were modeled using variations of random forest, support vector machine, logistic regression, and linear regression; variable importance values of random forest and support vector machine models were consolidated to rank important variables in the experts' classifications. The duration of subtype isolation ranked most important across all expert categories. Sampling site category also ranked high in importance and validation errors doubled when this covariate was removed. Support vector machine and random forest models successfully classified the data with average validation errors of 3.1% and 2.2% (n = 144), respectively. Our findings indicate that (i) the frequency of isolations over time and sampling site information are critical factors for experts determining subtype persistence, (ii) food safety experts from different sectors may not use the same criteria in determining persistence, and (iii) machine learning models have potential for future use in environmental surveillance and risk management programs. Future work is necessary to validate the accuracy of expert and machine classification against biological measurement of L. monocytogenes persistence. © 2014 Society for Risk Analysis.

  15. Development of A Standard Method for Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) of Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Dae Il; Jung, Won Dea; Kim, Jae Whan

    2005-12-01

    According as the demand of risk-informed regulation and applications increase, the quality and reliability of a probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) has been more important. KAERI started a study to standardize the process and the rules of HRA (Human Reliability Analysis) which was known as a major contributor to the uncertainty of PSA. The study made progress as follows; assessing the level of quality of the HRAs in Korea and identifying the weaknesses of the HRAs, determining the requirements for developing a standard HRA method, developing the process and rules for quantifying human error probability. Since the risk-informed applications use the ASME and ANS PSA standard to ensure PSA quality, the standard HRA method was developed to meet the ASME and ANS HRA requirements with level of category II. The standard method was based on THERP and ASEP HRA that are widely used for conventional HRA. However, the method focuses on standardizing and specifying the analysis process, quantification rules and criteria to minimize the deviation of the analysis results caused by different analysts. Several HRA experts from different organizations in Korea participated in developing the standard method. Several case studies were interactively undertaken to verify the usability and applicability of the standard method

  16. Development of A Standard Method for Human Reliability Analysis of Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Won Dea; Kang, Dae Il; Kim, Jae Whan

    2005-12-01

    According as the demand of risk-informed regulation and applications increase, the quality and reliability of a probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) has been more important. KAERI started a study to standardize the process and the rules of HRA (Human Reliability Analysis) which was known as a major contributor to the uncertainty of PSA. The study made progress as follows; assessing the level of quality of the HRAs in Korea and identifying the weaknesses of the HRAs, determining the requirements for developing a standard HRA method, developing the process and rules for quantifying human error probability. Since the risk-informed applications use the ASME PSA standard to ensure PSA quality, the standard HRA method was developed to meet the ASME HRA requirements with level of category II. The standard method was based on THERP and ASEP HRA that are widely used for conventional HRA. However, the method focuses on standardizing and specifying the analysis process, quantification rules and criteria to minimize the deviation of the analysis results caused by different analysts. Several HRA experts from different organizations in Korea participated in developing the standard method. Several case studies were interactively undertaken to verify the usability and applicability of the standard method

  17. Development of A Standard Method for Human Reliability Analysis of Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Won Dea; Kang, Dae Il; Kim, Jae Whan

    2005-12-15

    According as the demand of risk-informed regulation and applications increase, the quality and reliability of a probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) has been more important. KAERI started a study to standardize the process and the rules of HRA (Human Reliability Analysis) which was known as a major contributor to the uncertainty of PSA. The study made progress as follows; assessing the level of quality of the HRAs in Korea and identifying the weaknesses of the HRAs, determining the requirements for developing a standard HRA method, developing the process and rules for quantifying human error probability. Since the risk-informed applications use the ASME PSA standard to ensure PSA quality, the standard HRA method was developed to meet the ASME HRA requirements with level of category II. The standard method was based on THERP and ASEP HRA that are widely used for conventional HRA. However, the method focuses on standardizing and specifying the analysis process, quantification rules and criteria to minimize the deviation of the analysis results caused by different analysts. Several HRA experts from different organizations in Korea participated in developing the standard method. Several case studies were interactively undertaken to verify the usability and applicability of the standard method.

  18. Development of A Standard Method for Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) of Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Dae Il; Jung, Won Dea; Kim, Jae Whan

    2005-12-15

    According as the demand of risk-informed regulation and applications increase, the quality and reliability of a probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) has been more important. KAERI started a study to standardize the process and the rules of HRA (Human Reliability Analysis) which was known as a major contributor to the uncertainty of PSA. The study made progress as follows; assessing the level of quality of the HRAs in Korea and identifying the weaknesses of the HRAs, determining the requirements for developing a standard HRA method, developing the process and rules for quantifying human error probability. Since the risk-informed applications use the ASME and ANS PSA standard to ensure PSA quality, the standard HRA method was developed to meet the ASME and ANS HRA requirements with level of category II. The standard method was based on THERP and ASEP HRA that are widely used for conventional HRA. However, the method focuses on standardizing and specifying the analysis process, quantification rules and criteria to minimize the deviation of the analysis results caused by different analysts. Several HRA experts from different organizations in Korea participated in developing the standard method. Several case studies were interactively undertaken to verify the usability and applicability of the standard method.

  19. Analysis of a human brain transcriptome map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greene Jonathan R

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome wide transcriptome maps can provide tools to identify candidate genes that are over-expressed or silenced in certain disease tissue and increase our understanding of the structure and organization of the genome. Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs from the public dbEST and proprietary Incyte LifeSeq databases were used to derive a transcript map in conjunction with the working draft assembly of the human genome sequence. Results Examination of ESTs derived from brain tissues (excluding brain tumor tissues suggests that these genes are distributed on chromosomes in a non-random fashion. Some regions on the genome are dense with brain-enriched genes while some regions lack brain-enriched genes, suggesting a significant correlation between distribution of genes along the chromosome and tissue type. ESTs from brain tumor tissues have also been mapped to the human genome working draft. We reveal that some regions enriched in brain genes show a significant decrease in gene expression in brain tumors, and, conversely that some regions lacking in brain genes show an increased level of gene expression in brain tumors. Conclusions This report demonstrates a novel approach for tissue specific transcriptome mapping using EST-based quantitative assessment.

  20. Structural analysis of recombinant human protein QM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gualberto, D.C.H.; Fernandes, J.L.; Silva, F.S.; Saraiva, K.W.; Affonso, R.; Pereira, L.M.; Silva, I.D.C.G.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: The ribosomal protein QM belongs to a family of ribosomal proteins, which is highly conserved from yeast to humans. The presence of the QM protein is necessary for joining the 60S and 40S subunits in a late step of the initiation of mRNA translation. Although the exact extra-ribosomal functions of QM are not yet fully understood, it has been identified as a putative tumor suppressor. This protein was reported to interact with the transcription factor c-Jun and thereby prevent c-Jun actives genes of the cellular growth. In this study, the human QM protein was expressed in bacterial system, in the soluble form and this structure was analyzed by Circular Dichroism and Fluorescence. The results of Circular Dichroism showed that this protein has less alpha helix than beta sheet, as described in the literature. QM protein does not contain a leucine zipper region; however the ion zinc is necessary for binding of QM to c-Jun. Then we analyzed the relationship between the removal of zinc ions and folding of protein. Preliminary results obtained by the technique Fluorescence showed a gradual increase in fluorescence with the addition of increasing concentration of EDTA. This suggests that the zinc is important in the tertiary structure of the protein. More studies are being made for better understand these results. (author)