WorldWideScience

Sample records for human expert analysis

  1. Expert judgment in analysis of human and organizational behaviour at nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiman, L. [Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, Helsinki (Finland). Dept. of Nuclear Safety

    1994-12-01

    Probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) of a nuclear power plant includes an assessment of the probability of each event sequence that can lead to a reactor core damage and of their consequences. Despite increasing maturity of PSA methods, there are still several problems in their use. These include the assessment of human reliability and the impact of organizational factors on plant safety. The assessment of both these issues is based on expert judgment. Therefore, the use of expert judgment in analysis of human and organizational behaviour was studied theoretically and in practical case studies in this thesis. Human errors were analysed in two case studies. In the first study cognitive actions of control room operators were analysed. For this purpose methods were developed for the qualitative and quantitative phases of the analysis. Errors of test and maintenance personnel were analysed in the second case study. Especially the dependence of errors between sequential tasks performed in redundant subsystems of a safety system was studied. A method to assess organizational behaviour was developed and applied in the third case study. The three case studies demonstrated that expert judgment can be used in the analysis of human reliability and organizational behaviour taking into account the observations made and the remarks presented in the study. However, significant uncertainties are related with expert judgment. Recommendations are presented concerning the use of different methods. Also, some insights are presented into how reliance on expert judgment could be reduced. (241 refs., 20 figs., 36 tabs.).

  2. Computers Simulate Human Experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Steven K.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses recent progress in artificial intelligence in such narrowly defined areas as medical and electronic diagnosis. Also discusses use of expert systems, man-machine communication problems, novel programing environments (including comments on LISP and LISP machines), and types of knowledge used (factual, heuristic, and meta-knowledge). (JN)

  3. Computers Simulate Human Experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Steven K.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses recent progress in artificial intelligence in such narrowly defined areas as medical and electronic diagnosis. Also discusses use of expert systems, man-machine communication problems, novel programing environments (including comments on LISP and LISP machines), and types of knowledge used (factual, heuristic, and meta-knowledge). (JN)

  4. Human experts' and a fuzzy model's predictions of outcomes of scoliosis treatment: a comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, Eric; Pedrycz, Witold; Lou, Edmond

    2015-03-01

    Brace treatment is the most commonly used nonsurgical treatment for adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis. However, brace treatment is not always successful and the factors influencing its success are not completely clear. This makes treatment outcome difficult to predict. A computer model which can accurately predict treatment outcomes could potentially provide valuable treatment recommendations. This paper describes a fuzzy system that includes a prediction model and a decision support engine. The model was constructed using conditional fuzzy c-means clustering to discover patterns in retrospective patient data. The model's ability to predict treatment outcome was compared to the ability of eight Scoliosis experts. The model and experts each predicted treatment outcome retrospectively for 28 braced patients, and these predictions were compared to the actual outcomes. The model outperformed all but one expert individually and performed similarly to the experts as a group. These results suggest that the fuzzy model is capable of providing meaningful treatment recommendations. This study offers the first model for this application whose performance has been shown to be at or above the human expert level.

  5. Genome-wide genetic interaction analysis of glaucoma using expert knowledge derived from human phenotype networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ting; Darabos, Christian; Cricco, Maria E; Kong, Emily; Moore, Jason H

    2015-01-01

    The large volume of GWAS data poses great computational challenges for analyzing genetic interactions associated with common human diseases. We propose a computational framework for characterizing epistatic interactions among large sets of genetic attributes in GWAS data. We build the human phenotype network (HPN) and focus around a disease of interest. In this study, we use the GLAUGEN glaucoma GWAS dataset and apply the HPN as a biological knowledge-based filter to prioritize genetic variants. Then, we use the statistical epistasis network (SEN) to identify a significant connected network of pairwise epistatic interactions among the prioritized SNPs. These clearly highlight the complex genetic basis of glaucoma. Furthermore, we identify key SNPs by quantifying structural network characteristics. Through functional annotation of these key SNPs using Biofilter, a software accessing multiple publicly available human genetic data sources, we find supporting biomedical evidences linking glaucoma to an array of genetic diseases, proving our concept. We conclude by suggesting hypotheses for a better understanding of the disease.

  6. Expert system interaction with existing analysis codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ransom, V.H.; Fink, R.K.; Bertch, W.J.; Callow, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    Coupling expert systems with existing engineering analysis codes is a promising area in the field of artificial intelligence. The added intelligence can provide for easier and less costly use of the code and also reduce the potential for code misuse. This paper will discuss the methods available to allow interaction between an expert system and a large analysis code running on a mainframe. Concluding remarks will identify potential areas of expert system application with specific areas that are being considered in a current research program. The difficulty of interaction between an analysis code and an expert system is due to the incompatibility between the FORTRAN environment used for the analysis code and the AI environment used for the expert system. Three methods, excluding file transfer techniques, are discussed to help overcome this incompatibility. The first method is linking the FORTRAN routines to the LISP environment on the same computer. Various LISP dialects available on mainframes and their interlanguage communication capabilities are discussed. The second method involves network interaction between a LISP machine and a mainframe computer. Comparisons between the linking method and networking are noted. The third method involves the use of an expert system tool that is campatible with a FORTRAN environment. Several available tools are discussed. With the interaction methods identified, several potential application areas are considered. Selection of the specific areas that will be developed for the pilot project and applied to a thermal-hydraulic energy analysis code are noted.

  7. Expert Network for Die Casing Defect Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiadi WANG; Yongfeng JIANG; Chen LU; Wenjiang DING

    2003-01-01

    Due to the competition and high cost associated with die casting defects, it is urgent to adopt a rapid and effective method for defect analysis. In this research, a novel expert network approach was proposed to avoid some disadvantages of rulebased expert system. The main objective of the system is to assist die casting engineer in identifying defect, determining the probable causes of defect and proposing remedies to eliminate the defect. 14 common die casting defects could be identified quickly by expert system on the basis of their characteristics. BP neural network in combination with expert system was applied to map the complex relationship between causes and defects, and further explained the cause determination process.Cause determination gives due consideration to practical process conditions. Finally, corrective measures were recommended to eliminate the defect and implemented in the sequence of difficulty.

  8. Hybrid Expert Systems In Image Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Mark J.; Gregory, Paul J.

    1987-04-01

    Vision systems capable of inspecting industrial components and assemblies have a large potential market if they can be easily programmed and produced quickly. Currently, vision application software written in conventional high-level languages such as C or Pascal are produced by experts in program design, image analysis, and process control. Applications written this way are difficult to maintain and modify. Unless other similar inspection problems can be found, the final program is essentially one-off redundant code. A general-purpose vision system targeted for the Visual Machines Ltd. C-VAS 3000 image processing workstation, is described which will make writing image analysis software accessible to the non-expert both in programming computers and image analysis. A significant reduction in the effort required to produce vision systems, will be gained through a graphically-driven interactive application generator. Finally, an Expert System will be layered on top to guide the naive user through the process of generating an application.

  9. ANAPPRES: An expert system for interference well-test analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arellano, V.M.; Iglesias, E.R.; Arellano, J.; Schwarzblat, M.

    1988-01-01

    We present ANAPPRES V1.0, the first version of a computerized expert system capable of analyzing constant- and variable-flowrate interference tests, in which there is one active well and an arbitrary number of observation wells, in liquid-saturated homogeneous reservoirs. ANAPPRES successfully couples mathematical models, optimization techniques, heuristic knowledge and computerized graphics, a combination not often found in published expert systems. Its main advantages are that it is user friendly, requires essentially no experience on the part of the analyst, eliminates subjectivity associated with earlier techniques of analysis, can handle complex cases and large data sets, completes the analysis of even the most complex cases (including plotting the results) in one run, and is significantly faster than a human expert.

  10. WES: A well test analysis expert system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mensch, A.

    1988-06-01

    This report describes part of the development of an expert system in the domain of well-test analysis. This work has been done during my final internship, completed at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The report is divided in three parts: the first one gives a description of the state of the project at the time I first began to work on it, and raises some problems that have to be solved. The second section shows the results that have been reached, and the last one draws conclusions from these results and proposes extensions that would be useful in the future.

  11. Expert group formation using facility location analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neshati, Mahmood; Beigy, Hamid; Hiemstra, Djoerd

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an optimization framework to retrieve an optimal group of experts to perform a multi-aspect task. While a diverse set of skills are needed to perform a multi-aspect task, the group of assigned experts should be able to collectively cover all these required skills. We consid

  12. A Novel Web-based Human Advisor Fuzzy Expert System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Rafe

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The applications of the Internet-based technologies and the concepts of fuzzy expert systems (FES have created new methods for sharing and distributing knowledge. However, there has been a general lack of investigation in the area of web-based fuzzy expert systems. In this paper, the issues associated with the design, development, and use of web-based applications from a standpoint of the benefits and challenges of development and utilization are investigated. The original theory and concepts in conventional FES are reviewed and a knowledge engineering framework for developing such systems is revised. For a human advisor to have a satisfying performance, expertise is a must. In addition, some of advisory rules are subject to change because of domain knowledge update. The human requests may have linguistic or crisp forms and a conventional expert system (ES is not able to overcome the fuzziness in the problem nature. In this research, a Web-based fuzzy expert system for Common Human Advisor (FES-CHA is developed and implemented to be used as a student advisor at the department‘s web portal. The system is implemented by using Microsoft Visual Studio .NET 2010, MVC and Microsoft SQL Server 2012.

  13. Human Disease Diagnosis Using a Fuzzy Expert System

    CERN Document Server

    Hasan, Mir Anamul; Chowdhury, Ahsan Raja

    2010-01-01

    Human disease diagnosis is a complicated process and requires high level of expertise. Any attempt of developing a web-based expert system dealing with human disease diagnosis has to overcome various difficulties. This paper describes a project work aiming to develop a web-based fuzzy expert system for diagnosing human diseases. Now a days fuzzy systems are being used successfully in an increasing number of application areas; they use linguistic rules to describe systems. This research project focuses on the research and development of a web-based clinical tool designed to improve the quality of the exchange of health information between health care professionals and patients. Practitioners can also use this web-based tool to corroborate diagnosis. The proposed system is experimented on various scenarios in order to evaluate it's performance. In all the cases, proposed system exhibits satisfactory results.

  14. A Novel Web-based Human Advisor Fuzzy Expert System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Rafe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The applications of the Internet-based technologies and the concepts of fuzzy expert systems (FES have creatednew methods for sharing and distributing knowledge. However, there has been a general lack of investigation in thearea of web-based fuzzy expert systems. In this paper, the issues associated with the design, development, and useof web-based applications from a standpoint of the benefits and challenges of development and utilization areinvestigated. The original theory and concepts in conventional FES are reviewed and a knowledge engineeringframework for developing such systems is revised. For a human advisor to have a satisfying performance, expertise isa must. In addition, some of advisory rules are subject to change because of domain knowledge update. The humanrequests may have linguistic or crisp forms and a conventional expert system (ES is not able to overcome thefuzziness in the problem nature. In this research, a Web-based fuzzy expert system for Common Human Advisor(FES-CHA is developed and implemented to be used as a student advisor at the department's web portal. Thesystem is implemented by using Microsoft Visual Studio .NET 2010, MVC and Microsoft SQL Server 2012.

  15. Human Reliability for the Next Generation of Nuclear Experts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coates, Cameron W [ORNL; Eisele, Gerhard R [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    As the nuclear renaissance progresses and today s nuclear and radiological experts retire, a new generation of experts will ultimately be recruited, trained, and replace the old guard. Selecting individuals who have the attitudes and values appropriate to work in the nuclear industry and who have the best qualifications for the position will be a key to the success of this renaissance. In a world with deep divisions on political and social issues; how a State, agency, or company assures that those hired can be trusted with the access to, and responsibilities for, nuclear and/or radiological materials is an important consideration. Human interactions invariably rely on the offering of assurance and the receipt of trust. A fundamental element in any human relationship is knowing when to trust and when to doubt. When are assurances to be believed or questioned? Human reliability programs (HRP) are used to assure a person s truthfulness and loyalty to the State. An HRP program has a number of elements and may not fit all cultures in the same form. An HRP can vary in scope from simple background checks of readily available data to full field investigations and testing. This presentation discusses possible elements for an HRP from regulation to implementation and the issues related to each element. The effects of an HRP on potential recruits will be discussed.

  16. The digital storytelling process: A comparative analysis from various experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Hashiroh; Shiratuddin, Norshuhada

    2016-08-01

    Digital Storytelling (DST) is a method of delivering information to the audience. It combines narrative and digital media content infused with the multimedia elements. In order for the educators (i.e the designers) to create a compelling digital story, there are sets of processes introduced by experts. Nevertheless, the experts suggest varieties of processes to guide them; of which some are redundant. The main aim of this study is to propose a single guide process for the creation of DST. A comparative analysis is employed where ten DST models from various experts are analysed. The process can also be implemented in other multimedia materials that used the concept of DST.

  17. An object oriented expert system to enhance the log analysis of the Colombian basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto, R.; Soto, C.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes an Expert System developed to predict whether a pay zone will produce hydrocarbon or water. This Expert System was applied to the Caballos and Villeta Formations in the Putumayo basin and the Mirador Formation of the Cusiana Field, both in Colombia. Log analysis {open_quotes}rules{open_quotes} relating the combination of logs (SP, GR, caliper, resistivity, density, neutron, sonic, etc.) and basic information are included in the knowledge base, The Expert System uses the Kappa-PC Shell and is composed of three sub-systems: (1) an inference engine, (2) a knowledge base, and (3) a user interface. We also consulted human experts to formulate and expand the knowledge base. Additionally, each formation was characterized using a Log Interpretation System (QLA2). The results from each characterization were used to develop cross plots. The QLA2 cross plots provided practical correlations from which to formulate {open_quotes}rules{close_quotes} for the Expert System. Logs from nine wells in the Cusiana Field were used to evaluate the Expert System. The recommendations of the Expert System agreed with conventional log analysis theory as well as with the known field results. Furthermore, it minimized the time and cost required to evaluate the pay zones. In conclusion, this Expert System can be used to predict whether or not a zone will produce oil or water with a high degree of accuracy.

  18. Embedding Human Expert Cognition Into Autonomous UAS Trajectory Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Pritesh; Meyer, Patrick; Campbell, Duncan

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents a new approach for the inclusion of human expert cognition into autonomous trajectory planning for unmanned aerial systems (UASs) operating in low-altitude environments. During typical UAS operations, multiple objectives may exist; therefore, the use of multicriteria decision aid techniques can potentially allow for convergence to trajectory solutions which better reflect overall mission requirements. In that context, additive multiattribute value theory has been applied to optimize trajectories with respect to multiple objectives. A graphical user interface was developed to allow for knowledge capture from a human decision maker (HDM) through simulated decision scenarios. The expert decision data gathered are converted into value functions and corresponding criteria weightings using utility additive theory. The inclusion of preferences elicited from HDM data within an automated decision system allows for the generation of trajectories which more closely represent the candidate HDM decision preferences. This approach has been demonstrated in this paper through simulation using a fixed-wing UAS operating in low-altitude environments.

  19. Expert System Shells: Tools to Aid Human Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Jack R.; Wilson, Brent G.

    1987-01-01

    Examines expert system shells and the role a microcomputer-based expert system can play as an intelligent job aid. Characteristics of traditional and automated job aids techniques are described, and the role of instructional designers in developing expert systems within organizations is discussed. (Author/LRW)

  20. Contribution of a fuzzy expert system to regulatory impact analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antônio da Cunha

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Regulatory Impact Analysis (RIA has been consolidating in Brazilian regulatory agencies throughout the last decades. The RIA methodology aims to examine the regulatory process, measure the costs and benefits generated, as well as other effects of social, political or economic nature caused by a new or an existing regulation. By analysing each regulatory option, the expert or regulator faces a myriad of variables, usually of qualitative nature, that are difficult to measure and with a high degree of uncertainty. This research complements the existing literature, given the scarcity of decision support models in RIA that – regardless of the problem treated – incorporate the tacit knowledge of the regulation expert. This paper proposes an exploratory approach using a Fuzzy Expert System, which therefore helps to enrich the decision process in the final stage of comparison of the regulatory options.

  1. An expert system for spectroscopic analysis of rocket engine plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Greg; Valenti, Elizabeth; Alphonso, Keith; Holladay, Wendy

    The expert system described in this paper analyzes spectral emissions of rocket engine exhaust plumes and shows major promise for use in engine health diagnostics. Plume emission spectroscopy is an important tool for diagnosing engine anomalies, but it is time-consuming and requires highly skilled personnel. The expert system was created to alleviate such problems. The system accepts a spectral plot in the form of wavelength vs intensity pairs and finds the emission peaks in the spectrum, lists the elemental emitters present in the data and deduces the emitter that produced each peak. The system consists of a conventional language component and a commercially available inference engine that runs on an Apple Macintosh computer. The expert system has undergone limited preliminary testing. It detects elements well and significantly decreases analysis time.

  2. Space Shuttle telemetry analysis by a real time expert system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratore, John F.

    1987-01-01

    During early manned spacecraft operations, the primary role of ground telemetry systems was data display to flight controllers. As manned spaceflights have increased in complexity, greater demands have been placed on flight controllers to simultaneously monitor systems and replan systems operations. This has led to interest in automated telemetry monitoring systems to decrease the workload on flight controllers. The Mission Operations Directorate at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center has developed a five layer model to integrate various monitoring and analysis technologies such as digital filtering, fault detection algorithms, and expert systems. The paper describes the five layer model and explains how it has been used to guide prototyping efforts at Mission Control. Results from some initial expert systems are presented. The paper also describes the integrated prototype currently under development which implements a real time expert system to assist flight controllers in the Mission Control Center in monitoring Space Shuttle communications systems.

  3. Factors influencing societal response of nanotechnology: an expert stakeholder analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Nidhi, E-mail: nidhi.gupta@wur.nl; Fischer, Arnout R. H., E-mail: arnout.fischer@wur.nl; Lans, Ivo A. van der, E-mail: Ivo.vanderLans@wur.nl [Wageningen University, Marketing and Consumer Behaviour Group (Netherlands); Frewer, Lynn J., E-mail: lynn.frewer@newcastle.ac.uk [Newcastle University, School of Agriculture, Food and Rural Development (United Kingdom)

    2012-05-15

    Nanotechnology can be described as an emerging technology and, as has been the case with other emerging technologies such as genetic modification, different socio-psychological factors will potentially influence societal responses to its development and application. These factors will play an important role in how nanotechnology is developed and commercialised. This article aims to identify expert opinion on factors influencing societal response to applications of nanotechnology. Structured interviews with experts on nanotechnology from North West Europe were conducted using repertory grid methodology in conjunction with generalized Procrustes analysis to examine the psychological constructs underlying societal uptake of 15 key applications of nanotechnology drawn from different areas (e.g. medicine, agriculture and environment, chemical, food, military, sports, and cosmetics). Based on expert judgement, the main factors influencing societal response to different applications of nanotechnology will be the extent to which applications are perceived to be beneficial, useful, and necessary, and how 'real' and physically close to the end-user these applications are perceived to be by the public.

  4. Factors influencing societal response of nanotechnology: an expert stakeholder analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Nidhi; Fischer, Arnout R H; van der Lans, Ivo A; Frewer, Lynn J

    2012-05-01

    Nanotechnology can be described as an emerging technology and, as has been the case with other emerging technologies such as genetic modification, different socio-psychological factors will potentially influence societal responses to its development and application. These factors will play an important role in how nanotechnology is developed and commercialised. This article aims to identify expert opinion on factors influencing societal response to applications of nanotechnology. Structured interviews with experts on nanotechnology from North West Europe were conducted using repertory grid methodology in conjunction with generalized Procrustes analysis to examine the psychological constructs underlying societal uptake of 15 key applications of nanotechnology drawn from different areas (e.g. medicine, agriculture and environment, chemical, food, military, sports, and cosmetics). Based on expert judgement, the main factors influencing societal response to different applications of nanotechnology will be the extent to which applications are perceived to be beneficial, useful, and necessary, and how 'real' and physically close to the end-user these applications are perceived to be by the public. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11051-012-0857-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

  5. Factors influencing societal response of nanotechnology: an expert stakeholder analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Nidhi; Fischer, Arnout R. H.; van der Lans, Ivo A.; Frewer, Lynn J.

    2012-05-01

    Nanotechnology can be described as an emerging technology and, as has been the case with other emerging technologies such as genetic modification, different socio-psychological factors will potentially influence societal responses to its development and application. These factors will play an important role in how nanotechnology is developed and commercialised. This article aims to identify expert opinion on factors influencing societal response to applications of nanotechnology. Structured interviews with experts on nanotechnology from North West Europe were conducted using repertory grid methodology in conjunction with generalized Procrustes analysis to examine the psychological constructs underlying societal uptake of 15 key applications of nanotechnology drawn from different areas (e.g. medicine, agriculture and environment, chemical, food, military, sports, and cosmetics). Based on expert judgement, the main factors influencing societal response to different applications of nanotechnology will be the extent to which applications are perceived to be beneficial, useful, and necessary, and how 'real' and physically close to the end-user these applications are perceived to be by the public.

  6. Computer-Aided Decisions in Human Services: Expert Systems and Multivariate Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicoly, Fiore

    1989-01-01

    This comparison of two approaches to the development of computerized supports for decision making--expert systems and multivariate models--focuses on computerized systems that assist professionals with tasks related to diagnosis or classification in human services. Validation of both expert systems and statistical models is emphasized. (39…

  7. [Expert consensus on induction of human embryonic stem cells into tenocytes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao; Zou, Xiaohui; Yu, Guangyan; Fu, Xin; Cao, Tong; Xiao, Yin; Ouyang, Hongwei

    2016-03-01

    Embryonic stem cells have unlimited proliferative capacity, which may provide a source of tendon stem/progenitor cells for tissue engineering. Experts of International Science and Technology Collaborative Program of Ministry of Science and Technology have developed a protocol consensus on differentiation of human embryonic stem cells into the tendon cells. The consensus recommends a protocol of two-step generation of human embryonic stem cells into tendon cells: the human embryonic stem cells are first differentiated into mesenchymal stem cells on different material surfaces; then with the scaffold-free tissue engineering tendon formed by high-density planting, the mesenchymal stem cells are induced into tendon cells under static or dynamic mechanical stimulation in vivo and in vitro. Tissue engineering tendon established in vitro by the protocol can be used as a model in toxicological analysis and safety evaluation of tendon-relevant small molecule compounds, medical materials and drugs.

  8. Dog experts' brains distinguish socially relevant body postures similarly in dogs and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujala, Miiamaaria V; Kujala, Jan; Carlson, Synnöve; Hari, Riitta

    2012-01-01

    We read conspecifics' social cues effortlessly, but little is known about our abilities to understand social gestures of other species. To investigate the neural underpinnings of such skills, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to study the brain activity of experts and non-experts of dog behavior while they observed humans or dogs either interacting with, or facing away from a conspecific. The posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) of both subject groups dissociated humans facing toward each other from humans facing away, and in dog experts, a distinction also occurred for dogs facing toward vs. away in a bilateral area extending from the pSTS to the inferior temporo-occipital cortex: the dissociation of dog behavior was significantly stronger in expert than control group. Furthermore, the control group had stronger pSTS responses to humans than dogs facing toward a conspecific, whereas in dog experts, the responses were of similar magnitude. These findings suggest that dog experts' brains distinguish socially relevant body postures similarly in dogs and humans.

  9. Research Workshop on Expert Judgment, Human Error, and Intelligent Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Silverman, Barry G.

    1993-01-01

    This workshop brought together 20 computer scientists, psychologists, and human-computer interaction (HCI) researchers to exchange results and views on human error and judgment bias. Human error is typically studied when operators undertake actions, but judgment bias is an issue in thinking rather than acting. Both topics are generally ignored by the HCI community, which is interested in designs that eliminate human error and bias tendencies. As a result, almost no one at the workshop had met...

  10. Analysis of the application of decontamination technologies to radioactive metal waste minimization using expert systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayrakal, Suna [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1993-09-30

    Radioactive metal waste makes up a significant portion of the waste currently being sent for disposal. Recovery of this metal as a valuable resource is possible through the use of decontamination technologies. Through the development and use of expert systems a comparison can be made of laser decontamination, a technology currently under development at Ames Laboratory, with currently available decontamination technologies for applicability to the types of metal waste being generated and the effectiveness of these versus simply disposing of the waste. These technologies can be technically and economically evaluated by the use of expert systems techniques to provide a waste management decision making tool that generates, given an identified metal waste, waste management recommendations. The user enters waste characteristic information as input and the system then recommends decontamination technologies, determines residual contamination levels and possible waste management strategies, carries out a cost analysis and then ranks, according to cost, the possibilities for management of the waste. The expert system was developed using information from literature and personnel experienced in the use of decontamination technologies and requires validation by human experts and assignment of confidence factors to the knowledge represented within.

  11. [Social engineers--providers--bioethicists. Human genetics experts in West-Germany and Denmark between 1950 and 1990].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomaschke, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    The author compares the history of human genetics in the Federal Republic of Germany and Denmark from the 1950s to the 1980s. The paper combines a discourse analysis with the exploration of human genetics experts' subject forms along the lines of current considerations within cultural studies. In the 1950s and 1960s, human geneticists acted in close cooperation with other political, judicial and administrative expert groups. They monitored the 'overall genetic development' of the population and cautioned about 'genetic crises'. Laypersons were supposed to submit to 'objectively reasonable' behavioral patterns--to their own as well as society's benefit. In the 1970s, the experts turned into 'providers' of a 'precise, purely medical, diagnostic service'. The patients mainly appeared as 'de-personalized' sources of a common human demand for 'safe eugenic information'. In the 1980s, the demand and supply paradigm manifested psychological and ethical side effects. Human geneticists became aware of the social and historical interrelations of their research and practices. The results of this study contribute to a more complex understanding of the dominant 'individualization narrative' of human genetics history. In this context, the development in Germany and Denmark displays two complementary forms of a transnational discourse.

  12. Interobserver and Intraobserver Variability in pH-Impedance Analysis between 10 Experts and Automated Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loots, Clara M; van Wijk, Michiel P; Blondeau, Kathleen;

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine interobserver and intraobserver variability in pH-impedance interpretation between experts and accuracy of automated analysis (AA). STUDY DESIGN: Ten pediatric 24-hour pH-impedance tracings were analyzed by 10 observers from 7 world groups and with AA. Detection of gastroe......OBJECTIVE: To determine interobserver and intraobserver variability in pH-impedance interpretation between experts and accuracy of automated analysis (AA). STUDY DESIGN: Ten pediatric 24-hour pH-impedance tracings were analyzed by 10 observers from 7 world groups and with AA. Detection....... CONCLUSION: Interobserver agreement in combined pH-multichannel intraluminal impedance analysis in experts is moderate; only 42% of GER episodes were detected by the majority of observers. Detection of total GER numbers is more consistent. Considering these poor outcomes, AA seems favorable compared...

  13. An Application Of Optimization Based Expert System: Analysis Of Financial Ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimhamurthi, N.; Dechen, R.

    1988-03-01

    This paper describes an application of rule-based expert system to the financial analysis of companies. The system was implemented on the Opine/Rubex system which uses ideas from optimization theory to drawing inferences. The paper provides a description of the expert system and the nature of the rule base. Typical analysis of two corporations is also presented.

  14. Rebooting the human mitochondrial phylogeny: an automated and scalable methodology with expert knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayordomo Elvira

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mitochondrial DNA is an ideal source of information to conduct evolutionary and phylogenetic studies due to its extraordinary properties and abundance. Many insights can be gained from these, including but not limited to screening genetic variation to identify potentially deleterious mutations. However, such advances require efficient solutions to very difficult computational problems, a need that is hampered by the very plenty of data that confers strength to the analysis. Results We develop a systematic, automated methodology to overcome these difficulties, building from readily available, public sequence databases to high-quality alignments and phylogenetic trees. Within each stage in an autonomous workflow, outputs are carefully evaluated and outlier detection rules defined to integrate expert knowledge and automated curation, hence avoiding the manual bottleneck found in past approaches to the problem. Using these techniques, we have performed exhaustive updates to the human mitochondrial phylogeny, illustrating the power and computational scalability of our approach, and we have conducted some initial analyses on the resulting phylogenies. Conclusions The problem at hand demands careful definition of inputs and adequate algorithmic treatment for its solutions to be realistic and useful. It is possible to define formal rules to address the former requirement by refining inputs directly and through their combination as outputs, and the latter are also of help to ascertain the performance of chosen algorithms. Rules can exploit known or inferred properties of datasets to simplify inputs through partitioning, therefore cutting computational costs and affording work on rapidly growing, otherwise intractable datasets. Although expert guidance may be necessary to assist the learning process, low-risk results can be fully automated and have proved themselves convenient and valuable.

  15. Expert systems and multivariate analysis in clinical chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.W. Wulkan (Remi)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractThe object of this thesis is to explore how expert systems may be helpful in information enhancement for clinical chemistry. Several prototypes have been built in order to investigate the advantages and disadvantages. A discussion of existing and new ideas with ample references has been

  16. Expert systems and multivariate analysis in clinical chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.W. Wulkan (Remi)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractThe object of this thesis is to explore how expert systems may be helpful in information enhancement for clinical chemistry. Several prototypes have been built in order to investigate the advantages and disadvantages. A discussion of existing and new ideas with ample references has been

  17. Integrating Expert Knowledge with Statistical Analysis for Landslide Susceptibility Assessment at Regional Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos Chalkias

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an integration landslide susceptibility model by combining expert-based and bivariate statistical analysis (Landslide Susceptibility Index—LSI approaches is presented. Factors related with the occurrence of landslides—such as elevation, slope angle, slope aspect, lithology, land cover, Mean Annual Precipitation (MAP and Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA—were analyzed within a GIS environment. This integrated model produced a landslide susceptibility map which categorized the study area according to the probability level of landslide occurrence. The accuracy of the final map was evaluated by Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC analysis depending on an independent (validation dataset of landslide events. The prediction ability was found to be 76% revealing that the integration of statistical analysis with human expertise can provide an acceptable landslide susceptibility assessment at regional scale.

  18. Human motion tracking by temporal-spatial local gaussian process experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xu; Fu, Yun; Liu, Yuncai

    2011-04-01

    Human pose estimation via motion tracking systems can be considered as a regression problem within a discriminative framework. It is always a challenging task to model the mapping from observation space to state space because of the high-dimensional characteristic in the multimodal conditional distribution. In order to build the mapping, existing techniques usually involve a large set of training samples in the learning process which are limited in their capability to deal with multimodality. We propose, in this work, a novel online sparse Gaussian Process (GP) regression model to recover 3-D human motion in monocular videos. Particularly, we investigate the fact that for a given test input, its output is mainly determined by the training samples potentially residing in its local neighborhood and defined in the unified input-output space. This leads to a local mixture GP experts system composed of different local GP experts, each of which dominates a mapping behavior with the specific covariance function adapting to a local region. To handle the multimodality, we combine both temporal and spatial information therefore to obtain two categories of local experts. The temporal and spatial experts are integrated into a seamless hybrid system, which is automatically self-initialized and robust for visual tracking of nonlinear human motion. Learning and inference are extremely efficient as all the local experts are defined online within very small neighborhoods. Extensive experiments on two real-world databases, HumanEva and PEAR, demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed model, which significantly improve the performance of existing models.

  19. PedExpert: a computer program for the application of Bayesian networks to human paternity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, R R; Campos, S V A; Pena, S D J

    2009-01-01

    PedExpert is a Windows-based Bayesian network software, especially constructed to solve problems in parentage testing that are complex because of missing genetic information on the alleged father and/or because they involve genetic mutations. PedExpert automates the creation and manipulation of Bayesian networks, implementing algorithms that convert pedigrees and sets of indispensable information (genotypes, allele frequencies, mutation rates) into Bayesian networks. This program has a novel feature that can incorporate information about gene mutations into tables of conditional probabilities of transmission of alleles from the alleged father to the child, without adding new nodes to the network. This permits using the same Bayesian network in different modes, for analysis of cases that include mutations or not. PedExpert is user-friendly and greatly reduces the time of analysis for complex cases of paternity testing, eliminating most sources of logical and operational error.

  20. Factors influencing societal response of nanotechnology : an expert stakeholder analysis

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Nanotechnology can be described as an emerging technology and, as has been the case with other emerging technologies such as genetic modification, different socio-psychological factors will potentially influence societal responses to its development and application. These factors will play an important role in how nanotechnology is developed and commercialised. This article aims to identify expert opinion on factors influencing societal response to applications of nanotechnology. Structured i...

  1. Common problems in the elicitation and analysis of expert opinion affecting probabilistic safety assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, M.A.; Booker, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    Expert opinion is frequently used in probabilistic safety assessment (PSA), particularly in estimating low probability events. In this paper, we discuss some of the common problems encountered in eliciting and analyzing expert opinion data and offer solutions or recommendations. The problems are: that experts are not naturally Bayesian. People fail to update their existing information to account for new information as it becomes available, as would be predicted by the Bayesian philosophy; that experts cannot be fully calibrated. To calibrate experts, the feedback from the known quantities must be immediate, frequent, and specific to the task; that experts are limited in the number of things that they can mentally juggle at a time to 7 {plus minus} 2; that data gatherers and analysts can introduce bias by unintentionally causing an altering of the expert's thinking or answers; that the level of detail the data, or granularity, can affect the analyses; and the conditioning effect poses difficulties in gathering and analyzing of the expert data. The data that the expert gives can be conditioned on a variety of factors that can affect the analysis and the interpretation of the results. 31 refs.

  2. SFTYCHEF: A Consultative, Diagnostic Expert System for Trench Excavation Safety Analysis on Light Commercial Construction Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-30

    following seven characteristics. 1. EXPERTISE - The most important goal in expert system work is to attain the high level of performance that a human .The...simply results that are right , but as can easily be imagined, problems unfold quickly when right and wrong answers are not known or when multiple right ...Chang, T. C., Sanjay Joshi, R. L. Kashyap , S. R. T. Kumara, and C. L. Moodie, "Expert Systems in Industrial Engineering." Technical Report, Purdue

  3. Towards Automated Annotation of Benthic Survey Images: Variability of Human Experts and Operational Modes of Automation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Beijbom

    Full Text Available Global climate change and other anthropogenic stressors have heightened the need to rapidly characterize ecological changes in marine benthic communities across large scales. Digital photography enables rapid collection of survey images to meet this need, but the subsequent image annotation is typically a time consuming, manual task. We investigated the feasibility of using automated point-annotation to expedite cover estimation of the 17 dominant benthic categories from survey-images captured at four Pacific coral reefs. Inter- and intra- annotator variability among six human experts was quantified and compared to semi- and fully- automated annotation methods, which are made available at coralnet.ucsd.edu. Our results indicate high expert agreement for identification of coral genera, but lower agreement for algal functional groups, in particular between turf algae and crustose coralline algae. This indicates the need for unequivocal definitions of algal groups, careful training of multiple annotators, and enhanced imaging technology. Semi-automated annotation, where 50% of the annotation decisions were performed automatically, yielded cover estimate errors comparable to those of the human experts. Furthermore, fully-automated annotation yielded rapid, unbiased cover estimates but with increased variance. These results show that automated annotation can increase spatial coverage and decrease time and financial outlay for image-based reef surveys.

  4. Generating human reliability estimates using expert judgment. Volume 1. Main report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comer, M.K.; Seaver, D.A.; Stillwell, W.G.; Gaddy, C.D.

    1984-11-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is conducting a research program to determine the practicality, acceptability, and usefulness of several different methods for obtaining human reliability data and estimates that can be used in nuclear power plant probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). One method, investigated as part of this overall research program, uses expert judgment to generate human error probability (HEP) estimates and associated uncertainty bounds. The project described in this document evaluated two techniques for using expert judgment: paired comparisons and direct numerical estimation. Volume 1 of this report provides a brief overview of the background of the project, the procedure for using psychological scaling techniques to generate HEP estimates and conclusions from evaluation of the techniques. Results of the evaluation indicate that techniques using expert judgment should be given strong consideration for use in developing HEP estimates. In addition, HEP estimates for 35 tasks related to boiling water reactors (BMRs) were obtained as part of the evaluation. These HEP estimates are also included in the report.

  5. Generating human reliability estimates using expert judgment. Volume 2. Appendices. [PWR; BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comer, M.K.; Seaver, D.A.; Stillwell, W.G.; Gaddy, C.D.

    1984-11-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is conducting a research program to determine the practicality, acceptability, and usefulness of several different methods for obtaining human reliability data and estimates that can be used in nuclear power plant probabilistic risk assessments (PRA). One method, investigated as part of this overall research program, uses expert judgment to generate human error probability (HEP) estimates and associated uncertainty bounds. The project described in this document evaluated two techniques for using expert judgment: paired comparisons and direct numerical estimation. Volume 2 provides detailed procedures for using the techniques, detailed descriptions of the analyses performed to evaluate the techniques, and HEP estimates generated as part of this project. The results of the evaluation indicate that techniques using expert judgment should be given strong consideration for use in developing HEP estimates. Judgments were shown to be consistent and to provide HEP estimates with a good degree of convergent validity. Of the two techniques tested, direct numerical estimation appears to be preferable in terms of ease of application and quality of results.

  6. Towards Automated Annotation of Benthic Survey Images: Variability of Human Experts and Operational Modes of Automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beijbom, Oscar; Edmunds, Peter J; Roelfsema, Chris; Smith, Jennifer; Kline, David I; Neal, Benjamin P; Dunlap, Matthew J; Moriarty, Vincent; Fan, Tung-Yung; Tan, Chih-Jui; Chan, Stephen; Treibitz, Tali; Gamst, Anthony; Mitchell, B Greg; Kriegman, David

    2015-01-01

    Global climate change and other anthropogenic stressors have heightened the need to rapidly characterize ecological changes in marine benthic communities across large scales. Digital photography enables rapid collection of survey images to meet this need, but the subsequent image annotation is typically a time consuming, manual task. We investigated the feasibility of using automated point-annotation to expedite cover estimation of the 17 dominant benthic categories from survey-images captured at four Pacific coral reefs. Inter- and intra- annotator variability among six human experts was quantified and compared to semi- and fully- automated annotation methods, which are made available at coralnet.ucsd.edu. Our results indicate high expert agreement for identification of coral genera, but lower agreement for algal functional groups, in particular between turf algae and crustose coralline algae. This indicates the need for unequivocal definitions of algal groups, careful training of multiple annotators, and enhanced imaging technology. Semi-automated annotation, where 50% of the annotation decisions were performed automatically, yielded cover estimate errors comparable to those of the human experts. Furthermore, fully-automated annotation yielded rapid, unbiased cover estimates but with increased variance. These results show that automated annotation can increase spatial coverage and decrease time and financial outlay for image-based reef surveys.

  7. Towards Automated Annotation of Benthic Survey Images: Variability of Human Experts and Operational Modes of Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beijbom, Oscar; Edmunds, Peter J.; Roelfsema, Chris; Smith, Jennifer; Kline, David I.; Neal, Benjamin P.; Dunlap, Matthew J.; Moriarty, Vincent; Fan, Tung-Yung; Tan, Chih-Jui; Chan, Stephen; Treibitz, Tali; Gamst, Anthony; Mitchell, B. Greg; Kriegman, David

    2015-01-01

    Global climate change and other anthropogenic stressors have heightened the need to rapidly characterize ecological changes in marine benthic communities across large scales. Digital photography enables rapid collection of survey images to meet this need, but the subsequent image annotation is typically a time consuming, manual task. We investigated the feasibility of using automated point-annotation to expedite cover estimation of the 17 dominant benthic categories from survey-images captured at four Pacific coral reefs. Inter- and intra- annotator variability among six human experts was quantified and compared to semi- and fully- automated annotation methods, which are made available at coralnet.ucsd.edu. Our results indicate high expert agreement for identification of coral genera, but lower agreement for algal functional groups, in particular between turf algae and crustose coralline algae. This indicates the need for unequivocal definitions of algal groups, careful training of multiple annotators, and enhanced imaging technology. Semi-automated annotation, where 50% of the annotation decisions were performed automatically, yielded cover estimate errors comparable to those of the human experts. Furthermore, fully-automated annotation yielded rapid, unbiased cover estimates but with increased variance. These results show that automated annotation can increase spatial coverage and decrease time and financial outlay for image-based reef surveys. PMID:26154157

  8. Analysis of Difference in Center-of-Pressure Positions Between Experts and Novices During Asymmetric Lifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Kenji; Kido, Michiko; Okada, Shima; Nomura, Taishin; Ohno, Yuko

    2016-01-01

    Although numerous studies have analyzed the relationship between manual material handling (MMH) and the forces acting on the lumbar spine, the difference in the MMH between experts and novices through the analysis of measured data has not been well studied. The purpose of this paper was to analyze the difference in the MMH positions between ten skilled experts working at a freight transport company (Group 1) and five unskilled novices without any experience (Group 2) during asymmetric lifting. All the human subjects performed asymmetric lifting experiments with closed eyes; the experiments involved moving loads (6 and 18 kg) to the left side. Time series data of the vertical ground reaction force were measured, using a Wii Balance Board, and then, the center-of-pressure (CoP) trajectories were calculated. The balance board was used for the measurement, because it was reliable, inexpensive, and portable and provided good repeatability even on rough surfaces, and all the information pertaining to the load and worker under various conditions was captured without any omissions. Under the 18 kg load condition, the CoP positions for Group 2 were located on the same side during left asymmetric lifting; however, those for Group 1 were located on the opposite side during left asymmetric lifting (\\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} }{}$P measurement results, we inferred that the difference in the CoP positions between the two different groups could be attributed to the difference in the hip positions. Most skilled experts position their hips in such a way that their CoP trajectories move toward the opposite side during left asymmetric lifting. Although the skillful characteristics of experts may be responsible for the lightening of the burden on the waist during asymmetric

  9. Analysis of the drilling sound component from expert performance in a maxillo-facial surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Pablo F.; Gosselin, Florian; Taha, Farid

    2009-01-01

    Auditory displays can have a great potential in surgical simulators that aim at training skills associated to the correct interpretation of auditory information. Here, we present preliminary results in the analysis of the sound produced by the drilling procedure in a maxillo-facial surgery when...... performed by expert surgeons. The motivation of this work is to find relevant acoustic parameters that allow for an efficient synthesis method of auditory displays so that they can effectively convey information on expert surgical drilling....

  10. European sea bass gill pathology after exposure to cadmium and terbuthylazine: expert versus fractal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manera, M; Giari, L; Depasquale, J A; Dezfuli, B S

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to compare expert versus fractal analysis as new methods to evaluate branchial lamellar pathology in European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax (Linnaeus, 1758) experimentally exposed to cadmium and to terbuthylazine. In particular, guided expert quantitative and fractal analysis were performed on selected images from semithin sections to test possible differences according to exposure class (unexposed, cadmium exposed, or terbuthylazine exposed) and the discrimination power of the two methods. With respect to guided expert quantitative analysis, the following elementary pathological features were assessed according to pre-determined cover classes: 'epithelial lifting', 'epithelial shrinkage', 'epithelial swelling', 'pillar cells coarctation', 'pillar cells detachment', 'channels fusion', 'chloride cells swelling' and 'chloride cells invasion'. Considering fractal analysis, DB (box dimension), DM (mass dimension), Dx (mean fractal dimension) as fractal dimensions and lacunarity from DM and Dx scan types were calculated both from the outlined and skeletonized (one pixel wide lines) images. Despite significant differences among experimental classes, only expert analysis provided good discrimination with correct classification of 91.7 % of the original cases, and of 87.5 % of the cross-validated cases, with a sensitivity of 95.45 % and 91.3 %, respectively, and a specificity of 75 % in both cases. Guided expert quantitative analysis appears to be a reliable method to objectively characterize fish gill pathology and may represent a powerful tool in environmental biomonitoring to ensure proper standardization and reproducibility. Though fractal analysis did not equal the discrimination power of the expert method, it certainly warrants further study to evaluate local variations in complexity or possible multiple scaling rules.

  11. Glaucoma progression detection: agreement, sensitivity, and specificity of expert visual field evaluation, event analysis, and trend analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antón, Alfonso; Pazos, Marta; Martín, Belén; Navero, José Manuel; Ayala, Miriam Eleonora; Castany, Marta; Martínez, Patricia; Bardavío, Javier

    2013-01-01

    To assess sensitivity, specificity, and agreement among automated event analysis, automated trend analysis, and expert evaluation to detect glaucoma progression. This was a prospective study that included 37 eyes with a follow-up of 36 months. All had glaucomatous disks and fields and performed reliable visual fields every 6 months. Each series of fields was assessed with 3 different methods: subjective assessment by 2 independent teams of glaucoma experts, glaucoma/guided progression analysis (GPA) event analysis, and GPA (visual field index-based) trend analysis. Kappa agreement coefficient between methods and sensitivity and specificity for each method using expert opinion as gold standard were calculated. The incidence of glaucoma progression was 16% to 18% in 3 years but only 3 cases showed progression with all 3 methods. Kappa agreement coefficient was high (k=0.82) between subjective expert assessment and GPA event analysis, and only moderate between these two and GPA trend analysis (k=0.57). Sensitivity and specificity for GPA event and GPA trend analysis were 71% and 96%, and 57% and 93%, respectively. The 3 methods detected similar numbers of progressing cases. The GPA event analysis and expert subjective assessment showed high agreement between them and moderate agreement with GPA trend analysis. In a period of 3 years, both methods of GPA analysis offered high specificity, event analysis showed 83% sensitivity, and trend analysis had a 66% sensitivity.

  12. Choose and Book: a sociological analysis of 'resistance' to an expert system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhalgh, Trisha; Stones, Rob; Swinglehurst, Deborah

    2014-03-01

    In 2004, the English Department of Health introduced a technology (Choose and Book) designed to help general practitioners and patients book hospital outpatient appointments. It was anticipated that remote booking would become standard practice once technical challenges were overcome. But despite political pressure and financial incentives, Choose and Book remained unpopular and was generally used reluctantly if at all. Policymakers framed this as a problem of 'clinician resistance'. We considered Choose and Book from a sociological perspective. Our dataset, drawn from a qualitative study of computer use in general practice, comprised background documents, field notes, interviews, clinical consultations (directly observed and videotaped) and naturally occurring talk relating to referral to hospital in four general practices. We used strong structuration theory, Giddens' conceptualisation of expert systems, and sensitivity to other sociological perspectives on technology, institutions and professional values to examine the relationship between the external environment, the evolving technology and actions of human agents (GPs, administrators, managers and patients). Choose and Book had the characteristics of an expert system. It served to 'empty out' the content of the consultation as the abstract knowledge it contained was assumed to have universal validity and to over-ride the clinician's application of local knowledge and practical wisdom. Sick patients were incorrectly assumed to behave as rational choosers, able and willing to decide between potential options using abstracted codified information. Our analysis revealed four foci of resistance: to the policy of choice that Choose and Book symbolised and purported to deliver; to accommodating the technology's socio-material constraints; to interference with doctors' contextual judgements; and to adjusting to the altered social relations consequent on its use. We conclude that 'resistance' is a complex phenomenon

  13. Development of the Expert System Domain Advisor and Analysis Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    analysis. Typical of the current methods in use at this time is the " tarot metric". This method defines a decision rule whose output is whether to go...B - TAROT METRIC B. ::TTRODUCTION The system chart of ESEM, Figure 1, shows the following three risk-based decision points: i. At prolect initiation...34 decisions. B-I 201 PRELIMINARY T" B-I. Evaluais Factan for ES Deyelopsineg FACTORS POSSIBLE VALUE RATINGS TAROT metric (overall suitability) Poor, Fair

  14. Analysis of experts' perception of the effectiveness of teaching methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindra, Gurprit S.

    1984-03-01

    The present study attempts to shed light on the perceptions of business educators regarding the effectiveness of six methodologies in achieving Gagné's five learning outcomes. Results of this study empirically confirm the oft-stated contention that no one method is globally effective for the attainment of all objectives. Specifically, business games, traditional lecture, and case study methods are perceived to be most effective for the learning of application, knowledge acquisition, and analysis and application, respectively.

  15. Expert Seeker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Becerra

    2003-01-01

    Expert Seeker is a computer program of the knowledge-management-system (KMS) type that falls within the category of expertise-locator systems. The main goal of the KMS system implemented by Expert Seeker is to organize and distribute knowledge of who are the domain experts within and without a given institution, company, or other organization. The intent in developing this KMS was to enable the re-use of organizational knowledge and provide a methodology for querying existing information (including structured, semistructured, and unstructured information) in a way that could help identify organizational experts. More specifically, Expert Seeker was developed to make it possible, by use of an intranet, to do any or all of the following: Assist an employee in identifying who has the skills needed for specific projects and to determine whether the experts so identified are available. Assist managers in identifying employees who may need training opportunities. Assist managers in determining what expertise is lost when employees retire or otherwise leave. Facilitate the development of new ways of identifying opportunities for innovation and minimization of duplicated efforts. Assist employees in achieving competitive advantages through the application of knowledge-management concepts and related systems. Assist external organizations in requesting speakers for specific engagements or determining from whom they might be able to request help via electronic mail. Help foster an environment of collaboration for rapid development in today's environment, in which it is increasingly necessary to assemble teams of experts from government, universities, research laboratories, and industries, to quickly solve problems anytime, anywhere. Make experts more visible. Provide a central repository of information about employees, including information that, heretofore, has typically not been captured by the human-resources systems (e.g., information about past projects, patents, or

  16. Neural correlates of natural human echolocation in early and late blind echolocation experts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lore Thaler

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A small number of blind people are adept at echolocating silent objects simply by producing mouth clicks and listening to the returning echoes. Yet the neural architecture underlying this type of aid-free human echolocation has not been investigated. To tackle this question, we recruited echolocation experts, one early- and one late-blind, and measured functional brain activity in each of them while they listened to their own echolocation sounds. RESULTS: When we compared brain activity for sounds that contained both clicks and the returning echoes with brain activity for control sounds that did not contain the echoes, but were otherwise acoustically matched, we found activity in calcarine cortex in both individuals. Importantly, for the same comparison, we did not observe a difference in activity in auditory cortex. In the early-blind, but not the late-blind participant, we also found that the calcarine activity was greater for echoes reflected from surfaces located in contralateral space. Finally, in both individuals, we found activation in middle temporal and nearby cortical regions when they listened to echoes reflected from moving targets. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that processing of click-echoes recruits brain regions typically devoted to vision rather than audition in both early and late blind echolocation experts.

  17. Looking for landmarks: the role of expert review and bibliometric analysis in evaluating scientific publication outputs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liz Allen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare expert assessment with bibliometric indicators as tools to assess the quality and importance of scientific research papers. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Shortly after their publication in 2005, the quality and importance of a cohort of nearly 700 Wellcome Trust (WT associated research papers were assessed by expert reviewers; each paper was reviewed by two WT expert reviewers. After 3 years, we compared this initial assessment with other measures of paper impact. RESULTS: Shortly after publication, 62 (9% of the 687 research papers were determined to describe at least a 'major addition to knowledge' -6 were thought to be 'landmark' papers. At an aggregate level, after 3 years, there was a strong positive association between expert assessment and impact as measured by number of citations and F1000 rating. However, there were some important exceptions indicating that bibliometric measures may not be sufficient in isolation as measures of research quality and importance, and especially not for assessing single papers or small groups of research publications. CONCLUSION: When attempting to assess the quality and importance of research papers, we found that sole reliance on bibliometric indicators would have led us to miss papers containing important results as judged by expert review. In particular, some papers that were highly rated by experts were not highly cited during the first three years after publication. Tools that link expert peer reviews of research paper quality and importance to more quantitative indicators, such as citation analysis would be valuable additions to the field of research assessment and evaluation.

  18. Mouth-clicks used by blind expert human echolocators - signal description and model based signal synthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lore Thaler

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Echolocation is the ability to use sound-echoes to infer spatial information about the environment. Some blind people have developed extraordinary proficiency in echolocation using mouth-clicks. The first step of human biosonar is the transmission (mouth click and subsequent reception of the resultant sound through the ear. Existing head-related transfer function (HRTF data bases provide descriptions of reception of the resultant sound. For the current report, we collected a large database of click emissions with three blind people expertly trained in echolocation, which allowed us to perform unprecedented analyses. Specifically, the current report provides the first ever description of the spatial distribution (i.e. beam pattern of human expert echolocation transmissions, as well as spectro-temporal descriptions at a level of detail not available before. Our data show that transmission levels are fairly constant within a 60° cone emanating from the mouth, but levels drop gradually at further angles, more than for speech. In terms of spectro-temporal features, our data show that emissions are consistently very brief (~3ms duration with peak frequencies 2-4kHz, but with energy also at 10kHz. This differs from previous reports of durations 3-15ms and peak frequencies 2-8kHz, which were based on less detailed measurements. Based on our measurements we propose to model transmissions as sum of monotones modulated by a decaying exponential, with angular attenuation by a modified cardioid. We provide model parameters for each echolocator. These results are a step towards developing computational models of human biosonar. For example, in bats, spatial and spectro-temporal features of emissions have been used to derive and test model based hypotheses about behaviour. The data we present here suggest similar research opportunities within the context of human echolocation. Relatedly, the data are a basis to develop synthetic models of human echolocation

  19. inSilicoDb: an R/Bioconductor package for accessing human Affymetrix expert-curated datasets from GEO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taminau, Jonatan; Steenhoff, David; Coletta, Alain; Meganck, Stijn; Lazar, Cosmin; de Schaetzen, Virginie; Duque, Robin; Molter, Colin; Bersini, Hugues; Nowé, Ann; Weiss Solís, David Y

    2011-11-15

    Microarray technology has become an integral part of biomedical research and increasing amounts of datasets become available through public repositories. However, re-use of these datasets is severely hindered by unstructured, missing or incorrect biological samples information; as well as the wide variety of preprocessing methods in use. The inSilicoDb R/Bioconductor package is a command-line front-end to the InSilico DB, a web-based database currently containing 86 104 expert-curated human Affymetrix expression profiles compiled from 1937 GEO repository series. The use of this package builds on the Bioconductor project's focus on reproducibility by enabling a clear workflow in which not only analysis, but also the retrieval of verified data is supported.

  20. Expert judgment on markers to deter inadvertent human intrusion into the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trauth, K.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hora, S.C. [Hawaii Univ., Hilo, HI (United States); Guzowski, R.V. [Science Applications International Corp., San Diego, CA (United States)

    1993-11-01

    The expert panel identified basic principles to guide current and future marker development efforts: (1) the site must be marked, (2) message(s) must be truthful and informative, (3) multiple components within a marker system, (4) multiple means of communication (e.g., language, pictographs, scientific diagrams), (5) multiple levels of complexity within individual messages on individual marker system elements, (6) use of materials with little recycle value, and (7) international effort to maintain knowledge of the locations and contents of nuclear waste repositories. The efficacy of the markers in deterring inadvertent human intrusion was estimated to decrease with time, with the probability function varying with the mode of intrusion (who is intruding and for what purpose) and the level of technological development of the society. The development of a permanent, passive marker system capable of surviving and remaining interpretable for 10,000 years will require further study prior to implementation.

  1. Analysis and Lessons Learned from an Online, Consultative Dialogue between Community Leaders and Climate Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylak-Glassman, E.; Clavin, C.

    2016-12-01

    Common approaches to climate resilience planning in the United States rely upon participatory planning approaches and dialogues between decision-makers, science translators, and subject matter experts. In an effort to explore alternative approaches support community climate resilience planning, a pilot of a public-private collaboration called the Resilience Dialogues was held in February and March of 2016. The Resilience Dialogues pilot was an online, asynchronous conversation between community leaders and climate experts, designed to help communities begin the process of climate resilience planning. In order to identify lessons learned from the pilot, we analyzed the discourse of the facilitated dialogues, administered surveys and conducted interviews with participants. Our analysis of the pilot suggests that participating community leaders found value in the consultative dialogue with climate experts, despite limited community-originated requests for climate information. Community leaders most often asked for advice regarding adaptation planning, including specific engineering guidance and advice on how to engage community members around the topic of resilience. Community leaders that had access to downscaled climate data asked experts about how to incorporate the data into their existing planning processes. The guidance sought by community leaders during the pilot shows a large range of hurdles that communities face in using climate information to inform their decision-making processes. Having a forum that connects community leaders with relevant experts and other community leaders who have familiarity with both climate impacts and municipal planning processes would likely help communities accelerate their resilience efforts.

  2. Procedures for using expert judgment to estimate human-error probabilities in nuclear power plant operations. [PWR; BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seaver, D.A.; Stillwell, W.G.

    1983-03-01

    This report describes and evaluates several procedures for using expert judgment to estimate human-error probabilities (HEPs) in nuclear power plant operations. These HEPs are currently needed for several purposes, particularly for probabilistic risk assessments. Data do not exist for estimating these HEPs, so expert judgment can provide these estimates in a timely manner. Five judgmental procedures are described here: paired comparisons, ranking and rating, direct numerical estimation, indirect numerical estimation and multiattribute utility measurement. These procedures are evaluated in terms of several criteria: quality of judgments, difficulty of data collection, empirical support, acceptability, theoretical justification, and data processing. Situational constraints such as the number of experts available, the number of HEPs to be estimated, the time available, the location of the experts, and the resources available are discussed in regard to their implications for selecting a procedure for use.

  3. SeTES, a Self-Teaching Expert System for the analysis, design and prediction of gas production from shales and a prototype for a new generation of Expert Systems in the Earth Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzma, H. A.; Boyle, K.; Pullman, S.; Reagan, M. T.; Moridis, G. J.; Blasingame, T. A.; Rector, J. W.; Nikolaou, M.

    2010-12-01

    A Self Teaching Expert System (SeTES) is being developed for the analysis, design and prediction of gas production from shales. An Expert System is a computer program designed to answer questions or clarify uncertainties that its designers did not necessarily envision which would otherwise have to be addressed by consultation with one or more human experts. Modern developments in computer learning, data mining, database management, web integration and cheap computing power are bringing the promise of expert systems to fruition. SeTES is a partial successor to Prospector, a system to aid in the identification and evaluation of mineral deposits developed by Stanford University and the USGS in the late 1970s, and one of the most famous early expert systems. Instead of the text dialogue used in early systems, the web user interface of SeTES helps a non-expert user to articulate, clarify and reason about a problem by navigating through a series of interactive wizards. The wizards identify potential solutions to queries by retrieving and combining together relevant records from a database. Inferences, decisions and predictions are made from incomplete and noisy inputs using a series of probabilistic models (Bayesian Networks) which incorporate records from the database, physical laws and empirical knowledge in the form of prior probability distributions. The database is mainly populated with empirical measurements, however an automatic algorithm supplements sparse data with synthetic data obtained through physical modeling. This constitutes the mechanism for how SeTES self-teaches. SeTES’ predictive power is expected to grow as users contribute more data into the system. Samples are appropriately weighted to favor high quality empirical data over low quality or synthetic data. Finally, a set of data visualization tools digests the output measurements into graphical outputs.

  4. Speech spectrogram expert

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johannsen, J.; Macallister, J.; Michalek, T.; Ross, S.

    1983-01-01

    Various authors have pointed out that humans can become quite adept at deriving phonetic transcriptions from speech spectrograms (as good as 90percent accuracy at the phoneme level). The authors describe an expert system which attempts to simulate this performance. The speech spectrogram expert (spex) is actually a society made up of three experts: a 2-dimensional vision expert, an acoustic-phonetic expert, and a phonetics expert. The visual reasoning expert finds important visual features of the spectrogram. The acoustic-phonetic expert reasons about how visual features relates to phonemes, and about how phonemes change visually in different contexts. The phonetics expert reasons about allowable phoneme sequences and transformations, and deduces an english spelling for phoneme strings. The speech spectrogram expert is highly interactive, allowing users to investigate hypotheses and edit rules. 10 references.

  5. Integrating clinicians, knowledge and data: expert-based cooperative analysis in healthcare decision support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Alonso Carlos

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Decision support in health systems is a highly difficult task, due to the inherent complexity of the process and structures involved. Method This paper introduces a new hybrid methodology Expert-based Cooperative Analysis (EbCA, which incorporates explicit prior expert knowledge in data analysis methods, and elicits implicit or tacit expert knowledge (IK to improve decision support in healthcare systems. EbCA has been applied to two different case studies, showing its usability and versatility: 1 Bench-marking of small mental health areas based on technical efficiency estimated by EbCA-Data Envelopment Analysis (EbCA-DEA, and 2 Case-mix of schizophrenia based on functional dependency using Clustering Based on Rules (ClBR. In both cases comparisons towards classical procedures using qualitative explicit prior knowledge were made. Bayesian predictive validity measures were used for comparison with expert panels results. Overall agreement was tested by Intraclass Correlation Coefficient in case "1" and kappa in both cases. Results EbCA is a new methodology composed by 6 steps:. 1 Data collection and data preparation; 2 acquisition of "Prior Expert Knowledge" (PEK and design of the "Prior Knowledge Base" (PKB; 3 PKB-guided analysis; 4 support-interpretation tools to evaluate results and detect inconsistencies (here Implicit Knowledg -IK- might be elicited; 5 incorporation of elicited IK in PKB and repeat till a satisfactory solution; 6 post-processing results for decision support. EbCA has been useful for incorporating PEK in two different analysis methods (DEA and Clustering, applied respectively to assess technical efficiency of small mental health areas and for case-mix of schizophrenia based on functional dependency. Differences in results obtained with classical approaches were mainly related to the IK which could be elicited by using EbCA and had major implications for the decision making in both cases. Discussion This

  6. Variational Bayesian mixture of experts models and sensitivity analysis for nonlinear dynamical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldacchino, Tara; Cross, Elizabeth J.; Worden, Keith; Rowson, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Most physical systems in reality exhibit a nonlinear relationship between input and output variables. This nonlinearity can manifest itself in terms of piecewise continuous functions or bifurcations, between some or all of the variables. The aims of this paper are two-fold. Firstly, a mixture of experts (MoE) model was trained on different physical systems exhibiting these types of nonlinearities. MoE models separate the input space into homogeneous regions and a different expert is responsible for the different regions. In this paper, the experts were low order polynomial regression models, thus avoiding the need for high-order polynomials. The model was trained within a Bayesian framework using variational Bayes, whereby a novel approach within the MoE literature was used in order to determine the number of experts in the model. Secondly, Bayesian sensitivity analysis (SA) of the systems under investigation was performed using the identified probabilistic MoE model in order to assess how uncertainty in the output can be attributed to uncertainty in the different inputs. The proposed methodology was first tested on a bifurcating Duffing oscillator, and it was then applied to real data sets obtained from the Tamar and Z24 bridges. In all cases, the MoE model was successful in identifying bifurcations and different physical regimes in the data by accurately dividing the input space; including identifying boundaries that were not parallel to coordinate axes.

  7. Epistemic Uncertainty Analysis: An Approach Using Expert Judgment and Evidential Credibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Hester

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available When dealing with complex systems, all decision making occurs under some level of uncertainty. This is due to the physical attributes of the system being analyzed, the environment in which the system operates, and the individuals which operate the system. Techniques for decision making that rely on traditional probability theory have been extensively pursued to incorporate these inherent aleatory uncertainties. However, complex problems also typically include epistemic uncertainties that result from lack of knowledge. These problems are fundamentally different and cannot be addressed in the same fashion. In these instances, decision makers typically use subject matter expert judgment to assist in the analysis of uncertainty. The difficulty with expert analysis, however, is in assessing the accuracy of the expert's input. The credibility of different information can vary widely depending on the expert’s familiarity with the subject matter and their intentional (i.e., a preference for one alternative over another and unintentional biases (heuristics, anchoring, etc.. This paper proposes the metric of evidential credibility to deal with this issue. The proposed approach is ultimately demonstrated on an example problem concerned with the estimation of aircraft maintenance times for the Turkish Air Force.

  8. A blackboard model of an expert system for failure mode and effects analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russomanno, David J.; Bonnell, Ronald D.; Bowles, John B.

    The design of an expert system to assist in performing a failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) is approached from a knowledge-use-level perspective to provide a thorough understanding of the problem and insight into the knowledge and expertise needed to automate the FMEA process. A blackboard model is a conceptual model that provides the organizational principles required for the design of an expert system without actually specifying its realization. In the blackboard model of an intelligent FMEA, the system is functionally decomposed into a set of knowledge sources, each containing the knowledge associated with a subfunction of the FMEA process. The conceptual model derived can be used to evaluate attempts to automate the FMEA process, and it can serve as the foundation for further research into automating the FMEA process. An example is presented illustrating the interaction among the knowledge sources in the blackboard model to construct a FMEA for a domestic hot water heater.

  9. Expert assessments and content analysis of crew communication during ISS missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusupova, Anna

    During the last seven years, we have analyzed the communication patterns between ISS crewmembers and mission control personnel and identified a number of different communication styles between these two groups (Gushin et al, 2005). In this paper, we will report on an external validity check we conducted that compares our findings with those of another study using the same research material. For many years the group of psychologists at the Medical Center of Space Flight Control (TCUMOKO) at the Institute for Biomedical Problems (IBMP) in Moscow has been analyzing audio communication sessions of Russian space crews with the ground-based Mission Control during long-duration spaceflight conditions. We compared week by week texts of the standard weekly monitoring reports made by the TsUP psychological group and audiocommunication of space crews with mission control centers. Expert assessments of the crewmembers' psychological state are made by IBMP psychoneurologists on the basis of daily schedule fulfillment, video and audio materials, and psychophysiological data from board. The second approach was based on the crew-ground communication analysis. For both population of messages we applied two corresponding schemas of content analysis. All statements made in communication sessions and weekly reports were divided into three groups in terms of their communication function (Lomov, 1981): 1) informative function (e.g., demands for information, requests, professional slang); 2) socio-regulatory function (e.g., rational consent or discord, operational complaint, refusal to cooperate); and 3) affective (emotional) function (e.g., encouragement, sympathy, emotional consent or discord). Number of statements of the audiocommunication sessions correlated with corresponding functions (informative, regulatory, affective) of communication in weekly monitioring reports made by experts. Crewmembers verbal behavior expresses its psycho-emotional state which is formulated by expert

  10. Measuring novices' field mapping abilities using an in-class exercise based on expert task analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulkins, J. L.

    2010-12-01

    We are interested in developing a model of expert-like behavior for improving the teaching methods of undergraduate field geology. Our aim is to assist students in mastering the process of field mapping more efficiently and effectively and to improve their ability to think creatively in the field. To examine expert-mapping behavior, a cognitive task analysis was conducted with expert geologic mappers in an attempt to define the process of geologic mapping (i.e. to understand how experts carry out geological mapping). The task analysis indicates that expert mappers have a wealth of geologic scenarios at their disposal that they compare against examples seen in the field, experiences that most undergraduate mappers will not have had. While presenting students with many geological examples in class may increase their understanding of geologic processes, novices still struggle when presented with a novel field situation. Based on the task analysis, a short (45-minute) paper-map-based exercise was designed and tested with 14 pairs of 3rd year geology students. The exercise asks students to generate probable geologic models based on a series of four (4) data sets. Each data set represents a day’s worth of data; after the first “day,” new sheets simply include current and previously collected data (e.g. “Day 2” data set includes data from “Day 1” plus the new “Day 2” data). As the geologic complexity increases, students must adapt, reject or generate new geologic models in order to fit the growing data set. Preliminary results of the exercise indicate that students who produced more probable geologic models, and produced higher ratios of probable to improbable models, tended to go on to do better on the mapping exercises at the 3rd year field school. These results suggest that those students with more cognitively available geologic models may be more able to use these models in field settings than those who are unable to draw on these models for whatever

  11. MERS-CoV at the Animal-Human interface: inputs on exposure pathways from an Expert-Opinion elicitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Funk

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Nearly four years after the first report of the emergence of Middle-East respiratory syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV and nearly 1800 human cases later, the ecology of MERS-CoV, its epidemiology, and risk factors of MERS-CoV transmission between camels are poorly understood. Knowledge about the pathways and mechanisms of transmission from animals to humans is limited; as of yet, transmission risks have not been quantified. Moreover the divergent sanitary situations and exposures to animals among populations in the Arabian Peninsula, where human primary cases appear to dominate, vs. other regions in the Middle East and Africa, with no reported human clinical cases and where the virus has been detected only in dromedaries, represents huge scientific and health challenges. Here, we have used expert opinion elicitation in order to obtain ideas on relative importance of MERS-CoV risk factors and estimates of transmission risks from various types of contact between humans and dromedaries. Fourteen (14 experts with diverse and extensive experience in MERS-CoV relevant fields were enrolled and completed an online questionnaire that examined pathways based on several scenarios e.g. camels-camels, camels-human, bats/other species to camels/humans and the role of diverse biological substances (milk, urine etc. and potential fomites.Experts believed that dromedary camels play the largest role in MERS-CoV infection of other dromedaries; however, they also indicated a significant influence of the season (i.e. calving or weaning periods on transmission risk. All experts thought that MERS-CoV infected dromedaries and asymptomatic humans play the most important role in infection of humans, with bats and other species presenting a possible, but yet undefined, risk. Direct and indirect contact of humans with dromedary camels were identified as the most risky types of contact, when compared to consumption of various camel products, with estimated 'most

  12. A thematic analysis for how patients, prescribers, experts, and patient advocates view the prescription choice process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schommer, Jon C; Worley, Marcia M; Kjos, Andrea L; Pakhomov, Serguei V S; Schondelmeyer, Stephen W

    2009-06-01

    Typically, patients are unaware of the cost consequences regarding prescribing decisions during their clinical encounter and rarely talk with their physicians about costs of prescription drugs. Prescription medications that are deemed by patients to be too costly when the costs become known after purchase are discontinued or used at suboptimal doses compared to prescription medications that are deemed to be worth the cost. To learn more about the prescription choice process from several viewpoints, the purpose of this study was to uncover and describe how patients, prescribers, experts, and patient advocates view the prescription choice process. Data were collected via 9 focus group interviews held between April 24 and July 31, 2007 (3 with patients, 3 with prescribers, 2 with experts, and 1 with patient advocates). The interviews were audiotaped and transcribed. The resulting text was analyzed in a descriptive and interpretive manner. Theme extraction was based on convergence and external divergence; that is, identified themes were internally consistent but distinct from one and another. To ensure quality and credibility of analysis, multiple analysts and multiple methods were used to provide a quality check on selective perception and blind interpretive bias that could occur through a single person doing all of the analysis or through employment of a single method. The findings revealed 5 overall themes related to the prescription choice process: (1) information, (2) relationship, (3) patient variation, (4) practitioner variation, and (5) role expectations. The results showed that patients, prescribers, experts, and patient advocates viewed the themes within differing contexts. It appears that the prescription choice process entails an interplay among information, relationship, patient variation, practitioner variation, and role expectations, with each viewed within different contexts by individuals engaged in such decision making.

  13. Recommendations for probabilistic seismic hazard analysis: Guidance on uncertainty and use of experts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA) is a methodology that estimates the likelihood that various levels of earthquake-caused ground motion will be exceeded at a given location in a given future time period. Due to large uncertainties in all the geosciences data and in their modeling, multiple model interpretations are often possible. This leads to disagreement among experts, which in the past has led to disagreement on the selection of ground motion for design at a given site. In order to review the present state-of-the-art and improve on the overall stability of the PSHA process, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) co-sponsored a project to provide methodological guidance on how to perform a PSHA. The project has been carried out by a seven-member Senior Seismic Hazard Analysis Committee (SSHAC) supported by a large number other experts. The SSHAC reviewed past studies, including the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the EPRI landmark PSHA studies of the 1980`s and examined ways to improve on the present state-of-the-art. The Committee`s most important conclusion is that differences in PSHA results are due to procedural rather than technical differences. Thus, in addition to providing a detailed documentation on state-of-the-art elements of a PSHA, this report provides a series of procedural recommendations. The role of experts is analyzed in detail. Two entities are formally defined-the Technical Integrator (TI) and the Technical Facilitator Integrator (TFI)--to account for the various levels of complexity in the technical issues and different levels of efforts needed in a given study.

  14. Diagnosis of ankylosis in permanent incisors by expert ratings, Periotest and digital sound wave analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Karen M; Casas, Michael J; Kenny, David J; Chau, Tom

    2005-08-01

    The objectives of this investigation were to: (i) assess the reliability of expert raters to detect ankylosis from recordings of percussion sounds, (ii) measure differences in Periotest values (PTV) between ankylosed and non-ankylosed incisors and (iii) identify characteristic differences in recorded percussion sounds from ankylosed and non-ankylosed incisors using digital sound wave analysis. A convenience sample of healthy children (age range 7-18 years) was invited to participate. Ankylosis group children had one or more documented ankylosed maxillary incisors. Control group children had intact, non-ankylosed incisors. Digital recordings of percussion sounds and PTV were acquired for each incisor of interest. Four experienced pediatric dentists rated the randomized percussion sound pairs for the presence of ankylosis. Percussion sounds were also subjected to digital sound wave analysis. Overall agreement for the expert raters was substantial (kappa = 0.7). Intra-rater agreement was substantial to almost perfect (kappa = 0.6-0.9). Diagnosis of ankylosis demonstrated sensitivity of 76-92% and specificity of 74-100%. PTV from ankylosed incisors were statistically lower than PTV from non-ankylosed incisors. Ankylosed incisor digital sound wave signals exhibited significantly more energy in high-frequency bands than non-ankylosed incisors. This investigation demonstrated that: (i) experienced pediatric dentists reliably detected ankylosis by percussion sound alone; (ii) PTV for ankylosed incisors were statistically lower than PTV from non-ankylosed incisors; and (iii) ankylosed incisors exhibited a higher proportion of their signal energy in high-frequency bands.

  15. Expert Involvement Predicts mHealth App Downloads: Multivariate Regression Analysis of Urology Apps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osório, Luís; Cavadas, Vitor; Fraga, Avelino; Carrasquinho, Eduardo; Cardoso de Oliveira, Eduardo; Castelo-Branco, Miguel; Roobol, Monique J

    2016-01-01

    Background Urological mobile medical (mHealth) apps are gaining popularity with both clinicians and patients. mHealth is a rapidly evolving and heterogeneous field, with some urology apps being downloaded over 10,000 times and others not at all. The factors that contribute to medical app downloads have yet to be identified, including the hypothetical influence of expert involvement in app development. Objective The objective of our study was to identify predictors of the number of urology app downloads. Methods We reviewed urology apps available in the Google Play Store and collected publicly available data. Multivariate ordinal logistic regression evaluated the effect of publicly available app variables on the number of apps being downloaded. Results Of 129 urology apps eligible for study, only 2 (1.6%) had >10,000 downloads, with half having ≤100 downloads and 4 (3.1%) having none at all. Apps developed with expert urologist involvement (P=.003), optional in-app purchases (P=.01), higher user rating (P<.001), and more user reviews (P<.001) were more likely to be installed. App cost was inversely related to the number of downloads (P<.001). Only data from the Google Play Store and the developers’ websites, but not other platforms, were publicly available for analysis, and the level and nature of expert involvement was not documented. Conclusions The explicit participation of urologists in app development is likely to enhance its chances to have a higher number of downloads. This finding should help in the design of better apps and further promote urologist involvement in mHealth. Official certification processes are required to ensure app quality and user safety. PMID:27421338

  16. Matrix Failure Modes and Effects Analysis as a Knowledge Base for a Real Time Automated Diagnosis Expert System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrin, Stephanie; Iverson, David; Spukovska, Lilly; Souza, Kenneth A. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Failure Modes and Effects Analysis contain a wealth of information that can be used to create the knowledge base required for building automated diagnostic Expert systems. A real time monitoring and diagnosis expert system based on an actual NASA project's matrix failure modes and effects analysis was developed. This Expert system Was developed at NASA Ames Research Center. This system was first used as a case study to monitor the Research Animal Holding Facility (RAHF), a Space Shuttle payload that is used to house and monitor animals in orbit so the effects of space flight and microgravity can be studied. The techniques developed for the RAHF monitoring and diagnosis Expert system are general enough to be used for monitoring and diagnosis of a variety of other systems that undergo a Matrix FMEA. This automated diagnosis system was successfully used on-line and validated on the Space Shuttle flight STS-58, mission SLS-2 in October 1993.

  17. Regulating biobanking with children's tissue: a legal analysis and the experts' view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranendonk, Elcke J; Ploem, M Corrette; Hennekam, Raoul C M

    2016-01-01

    Many current paediatric studies concern relationships between genes and environment and discuss aetiology, treatment and prevention of Mendelian and multifactorial diseases. Many of these studies depend on collection and long-term storage of data and biological material from affected children in biobanks. Stored material is a source of personal information of the donor and his family and could be used in an undesirable context, potentially leading to discrimination and interfering with a child's right to an open future. Here, we address the normative framework regarding biobanking with residual tissue of children, protecting the privacy interests of young biobank donors (0-12 years). We analyse relevant legal documents concerning storage and use of children's material for research purposes. We explore the views of 17 Dutch experts involved in paediatric biobank research and focus on informed consent for donation of leftover tissue as well as disclosure of individual research findings resulting from biobank research. The results of this analysis show that experts have no clear consensus about the appropriate rules for storage of and research with children's material in biobanks. Development of a framework that provides a fair balance between fundamental paediatric research and privacy protection is necessary.

  18. Expert Systems for the Analytical Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Monchy, Allan R.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Discusses two computer problem solving programs: rule-based expert systems and decision analysis expert systems. Explores the application of expert systems to automated chemical analyses. Presents six factors to consider before using expert systems. (MVL)

  19. The impact of expert knowledge on natural hazard susceptibility assessment using spatial multi-criteria analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Caroline; Kalantari, Zahra; Mörtberg, Ulla; Olofsson, Bo; Lyon, Steve

    2016-04-01

    Road and railway networks are one of the key factors to a country's economic growth. Inadequate infrastructural networks could be detrimental to a society if the transport between locations are hindered or delayed. Logistical hindrances can often be avoided whereas natural hindrances are more difficult to control. One natural hindrance that can have a severe adverse effect on both infrastructure and society is flooding. Intense and heavy rainfall events can trigger other natural hazards such as landslides and debris flow. Disruptions caused by landslides are similar to that of floods and increase the maintenance cost considerably. The effect on society by natural disasters is likely to increase due to a changed climate with increasing precipitation. Therefore, there is a need for risk prevention and mitigation of natural hazards. Determining susceptible areas and incorporating them in the decision process may reduce the infrastructural harm. Spatial multi-criteria analysis (SMCA) is a part of decision analysis, which provides a set of procedures for analysing complex decision problems through a Geographic Information System (GIS). The objective and aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of expert judgements for inundation, landslide and debris flow susceptibility assessments through a SMCA approach using hydrological, geological and land use factors. The sensitivity of the SMCA model was tested in relation to each perspective and impact on the resulting susceptibility. A least cost path function was used to compare new alternative road lines with the existing ones. This comparison was undertaken to identify the resulting differences in the susceptibility assessments using expert judgements as well as historic incidences of flooding and landslides in order to discuss the usefulness of the model in road planning.

  20. Expert decisionmaking in risk analysis: The case of the Yucca Mountain facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrader-Frechette, K. [University of Notre Dame, IN (United States)

    1999-12-01

    Thirty-five or forty centuries ago, there were probably Egyptian experts who argued that they could safeguard the tombs of the pharaohs for 10,000 or a million years. Six centuries ago, there were probably Italian experts who believed that they could secure their Renaissance art treasures. Neither the Egyptians nor the Italians succeeded completely in their efforts. Today's experts, working on permanent nuclear waste disposal, face no easier a task. To understand some of the most difficult problems of expert judgment regarding nuclear repositories, these remarks address, 10 problematic judgments of scientists about the proposed Yucca Mountain permanent nuclear repository for spent fuel and high-level nuclear waste; argue that legal constraints imposed by the US government exacerbate these problems of expert scientific judgment; and conclude that, for any permanent repository program to succeed, nations ought to avoid problems (in expert scientific judgment and in the law) that have dogged US repository efforts.

  1. An Efficient Expert System Generator for Qualitative Feed-Back Loop Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar Jain

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Quite often the variables used in system analysis are qualitative in nature. They cannot be defined precisely, whereas software development for system analysis needs a mathematical framework with precise computations. It is not trivial to capture the uncertainty in the system.
    Fuzzy sets provide us the facility to capture the uncertainty in the system. In normal crisp set where the membership of an element is always certain in a sense that it would be member or not of the given set. In contrast to this a membership functions or possibility (ranging from 0 to 1, including both values is assigned with each member. System analysis is done through system dynamics which is not very efficient. We present an efficient technique to generate expert system using fuzzy set. In our proposed approach five linguistic qualifiers are used for each variable, namely, Very Low (VL, Low (L, Medium (M, High (H, and Very High
    (VH. We capture the influence or feedback in the system with the help of if then else rules and matrices are generated for them which are used for analysis. Complete methodology and its applicability are presented here.

  2. Exploring the brains of Baduk (Go experts: gray matter morphometry, resting-state functional connectivity, and graph theoretical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wi Hoon eJung

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available One major characteristic of experts is intuitive judgment, which is an automatic process whereby patterns stored in memory through long-term training are recognized. Indeed, long-term training may influence brain structure and function. A recent study revealed that chess experts at rest showed differences in structure and functional connectivity (FC in the head of caudate, which is associated with rapid best next-move generation. However, less is known about the structure and function of the brains of Baduk experts compared with those of experts in other strategy games. Therefore, we performed voxel-based morphometry and FC analyses in Baduk experts to investigate structural brain differences and to clarify the influence of these differences on functional interactions. We also conducted graph theoretical analysis to explore the topological organization of whole-brain functional networks. Compared to novices, Baduk experts exhibited decreased and increased gray matter volume in the amygdala and nucleus accumbens, respectively. We also found increased FC between the amygdala and medial orbitofrontal cortex and decreased FC between the nucleus accumbens and medial prefrontal cortex. Further graph theoretical analysis revealed differences in measures of the integration of the network and in the regional nodal characteristics of various brain regions activated during Baduk. This study provides evidence for structural and functional differences as well as altered topological organization of the whole-brain functional networks in Baduk experts. Our findings also offer novel suggestions about the cognitive mechanisms behind Baduk expertise, which involves intuitive decision-making mediated by somatic marker circuitry and visuospatial processing.

  3. ECG Rhythm Analysis with Expert and Learner-Generated Schemas in Novice Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blissett, Sarah; Cavalcanti, Rodrigo; Sibbald, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Although instruction using expert-generated schemas is associated with higher diagnostic performance, implementation is resource intensive. Learner-generated schemas are an alternative, but may be limited by increases in cognitive load. We compared expert- and learner-generated schemas for learning ECG rhythm interpretation on diagnostic accuracy,…

  4. Expert system for failure analysis of shafts; Sistema experto para analisis de falla de ejes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobo Armendariz, V.H.; Cerrud Sanchez, S.M.; Ramirez Rodriguez, M.A.; Ortiz Prado, A. [Facultad de Ingenieria, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2002-09-01

    An expert system for the failure analysis in metallic mechanical devices is being Developer at the Mechanical Engineering departments of the Faculty of Engineering of the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM) to provide a solution for the failure analysis in cases where considerable experience in needed. The system pretends to resolve the scarceness of experts in the field of failure analysis and is oriented toward the metal-mechanics industry and will also have didactic applications. The main complication in the development of the system is the broad range of applications envisioned, like gears, shafts, bolts and springs between others. Therefore, it was decided to develop the system in a modular way, using the experience obtained in a first module to proceed faster in the others. The present paper presents the elaboration of the module that analyses shafts. This will serve as the base to expand the system toward other components. It uses the general structure of the global system, including an auxiliary software for the determination of maximum stresses in the corresponding parts. [Spanish] Con el fin de contar con un medio eficaz para la solucion de problemas relacionados con el analisis de falla, en donde la experiencia juega un papel fundamental, el Departamento de Ingenieria Mecanica de la Facultad de ingenieria de la Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM) , esta desarrollando el proyecto Sistema experto para analisis de falla de elementos mecanicos, dicho sistema busca resolver el inconveniente de la escasez de expertos y se orienta, tanto a la necesidad de la industria metalmecanica como a la de la docencia. Presenta tambien complicaciones en su desarrollo, ya que se pretende la posibilidad de realizar analisis de falla de elementos como ejes, engranes, pernos, bielas, resortes, tornillos etc. Por lo anterior, se establecio como estrategia el desarrollo del sistema por modulos, ya que teniendo la experiencia de elaboracion de un primer

  5. Expert views on societal responses to different applications of nanotechnology: a comparative analysis of experts in countries with different economic and regulatory environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, N.; Fischer, A.R.H.; George, S.; Frewer, L.J.

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of different applications of nanotechnology will be informed by expert views regarding which (types of) application will be most societally acceptable. Previous research in Northern Europe has indicated that experts believe that various factors will be influential, predominant among

  6. Cognitive issues in fingerprint analysis: inter- and intra-expert consistency and the effect of a 'target' comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dror, Itiel E; Champod, Christophe; Langenburg, Glenn; Charlton, David; Hunt, Heloise; Rosenthal, Robert

    2011-05-20

    Deciding whether two fingerprint marks originate from the same source requires examination and comparison of their features. Many cognitive factors play a major role in such information processing. In this paper we examined the consistency (both between- and within-experts) in the analysis of latent marks, and whether the presence of a 'target' comparison print affects this analysis. Our findings showed that the context of a comparison print affected analysis of the latent mark, possibly influencing allocation of attention, visual search, and threshold for determining a 'signal'. We also found that even without the context of the comparison print there was still a lack of consistency in analysing latent marks. Not only was this reflected by inconsistency between different experts, but the same experts at different times were inconsistent with their own analysis. However, the characterization of these inconsistencies depends on the standard and definition of what constitutes inconsistent. Furthermore, these effects were not uniform; the lack of consistency varied across fingerprints and experts. We propose solutions to mediate variability in the analysis of friction ridge skin.

  7. Task Decomposition in Human Reliability Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boring, Ronald Laurids [Idaho National Laboratory; Joe, Jeffrey Clark [Idaho National Laboratory

    2014-06-01

    In the probabilistic safety assessments (PSAs) used in the nuclear industry, human failure events (HFEs) are determined as a subset of hardware failures, namely those hardware failures that could be triggered by human action or inaction. This approach is top-down, starting with hardware faults and deducing human contributions to those faults. Elsewhere, more traditionally human factors driven approaches would tend to look at opportunities for human errors first in a task analysis and then identify which of those errors is risk significant. The intersection of top-down and bottom-up approaches to defining HFEs has not been carefully studied. Ideally, both approaches should arrive at the same set of HFEs. This question remains central as human reliability analysis (HRA) methods are generalized to new domains like oil and gas. The HFEs used in nuclear PSAs tend to be top-down— defined as a subset of the PSA—whereas the HFEs used in petroleum quantitative risk assessments (QRAs) are more likely to be bottom-up—derived from a task analysis conducted by human factors experts. The marriage of these approaches is necessary in order to ensure that HRA methods developed for top-down HFEs are also sufficient for bottom-up applications.

  8. Expert System Design Aid for Applications of Human Factors in Robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-12

    Publishers B.V., Amsterdam, 1984. Parsons, H.M., ERGONOMIE ET ROBOTIQUE (Human Factors and Robotics), Paper presented at The International Conference on...Amsterdam, 1984. Parsons, H.M., ERGONOMIE ET ROBOTIQUE (Human Factors and Robotics), Paper presented at The International Conference on Occupational

  9. Factors influencing the Composition of the Urban Transport System in the Year 2030 - A Panel Analysis of Experts' Opinions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorter, Cees; Rienstra, Sytze A.

    1997-01-01

    The future sustainability of the urban transport system is largely determined by the technological composition of and measures introduced in the system. This composition is dependent on many background factors. This paper investigates this relationship by means of a panel analysis of experts'

  10. Modelling a Complex System: Using Novice-Expert Analysis for Developing an Effective Technology-Enhanced Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hsin-Kai

    2010-01-01

    The purposes of this article are to present the design of a technology-enhanced learning environment (Air Pollution Modeling Environment [APoME]) that was informed by a novice-expert analysis and to discuss high school students' development of modelling practices in the learning environment. APoME was designed to help high school students…

  11. Reliability of an Automated High-Resolution Manometry Analysis Program across Expert Users, Novice Users, and Speech-Language Pathologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Corinne A.; Hoffman, Matthew R.; Geng, Zhixian; Abdelhalim, Suzan M.; Jiang, Jack J.; McCulloch, Timothy M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate inter- and intrarater reliability among expert users, novice users, and speech-language pathologists with a semiautomated high-resolution manometry analysis program. We hypothesized that all users would have high intrarater reliability and high interrater reliability. Method: Three expert…

  12. Factors influencing the Composition of the Urban Transport System in the Year 2030 - A Panel Analysis of Experts' Opinions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorter, Cees; Rienstra, Sytze A.

    1997-01-01

    The future sustainability of the urban transport system is largely determined by the technological composition of and measures introduced in the system. This composition is dependent on many background factors. This paper investigates this relationship by means of a panel analysis of experts' opinio

  13. Expert views on societal responses to different applications of nanotechnology: a comparative analysis of experts in countries with different economic and regulatory environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Nidhi, E-mail: guptanidhi12@gmail.com; Fischer, Arnout R. H., E-mail: arnout.fischer@wur.nl [Wageningen University, Marketing and Consumer Behaviour Group (Netherlands); George, Saji, E-mail: saji_george@nyp.gov.sg [Nanyang Polytechnic, Centre for Sustainable Nanotechnology, School of Chemical and Life Sciences (Singapore); Frewer, Lynn J., E-mail: lynn.frewer@newcastle.ac.uk [Newcastle University, School of Agriculture, Food and Rural Development (United Kingdom)

    2013-08-15

    The introduction of different applications of nanotechnology will be informed by expert views regarding which (types of) application will be most societally acceptable. Previous research in Northern Europe has indicated that experts believe that various factors will be influential, predominant among these being public perceptions of benefit, need and consumer concern about contact with nanomaterials. These factors are thought by experts to differentiate societal acceptance and rejection of nanotechnology applications. This research utilises a larger sample of experts (N = 67) drawn from Northern America, Europe, Australasia, India and Singapore to examine differences in expert opinion regarding societal acceptance of different applications of nanotechnology within different technological environments, consumer cultures and regulatory regimes. Perceived risk and consumer concerns regarding contact with nano-particles are thought by all experts to drive rejection, and perceived benefits to influence acceptance, independent of country. Encapsulation and delivery of nutrients in food was thought to be the most likely to raise societal concerns, while targeted drug delivery was thought most likely to be accepted. Lack of differentiation between countries suggests that expert views regarding social acceptance may be homogenous, independent of local contextual factors.

  14. Expert views on societal responses to different applications of nanotechnology: a comparative analysis of experts in countries with different economic and regulatory environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Nidhi; Fischer, Arnout R. H.; George, Saji; Frewer, Lynn J.

    2013-08-01

    The introduction of different applications of nanotechnology will be informed by expert views regarding which (types of) application will be most societally acceptable. Previous research in Northern Europe has indicated that experts believe that various factors will be influential, predominant among these being public perceptions of benefit, need and consumer concern about contact with nanomaterials. These factors are thought by experts to differentiate societal acceptance and rejection of nanotechnology applications. This research utilises a larger sample of experts ( N = 67) drawn from Northern America, Europe, Australasia, India and Singapore to examine differences in expert opinion regarding societal acceptance of different applications of nanotechnology within different technological environments, consumer cultures and regulatory regimes. Perceived risk and consumer concerns regarding contact with nano-particles are thought by all experts to drive rejection, and perceived benefits to influence acceptance, independent of country. Encapsulation and delivery of nutrients in food was thought to be the most likely to raise societal concerns, while targeted drug delivery was thought most likely to be accepted. Lack of differentiation between countries suggests that expert views regarding social acceptance may be homogenous, independent of local contextual factors.

  15. Conceptualizing physical activity parenting practices using expert informed concept mapping analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Louise C Masse; Teresia M OConnor; Andrew W Tu; Sheryl O Hughes; Mark R Beauchamp; Tom Baranowski

    2017-01-01

    .... As there is little agreement as to the dimensions of physical activity-related parenting practices that should be measured or how they should be operationalized, this study engaged experts to develop...

  16. Expert System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildebrandt, Thomas Troels; Cattani, Gian Luca

    2016-01-01

    An expert system is a computer system for inferring knowledge from a knowledge base, typically by using a set of inference rules. When the concept of expert systems was introduced at Stanford University in the early 1970s, the knowledge base was an unstructured set of facts. Today the knowledge...... base of expert systems is often given in terms of an ontology, extracted and built from various data sources by employing natural language-processing and statistics. To emphasize such capabilities, the term “expert” is now often replaced by “cognitive,” “knowledge,” “knowledge-based,” or “intelligent......” system. With very few exceptions, general-purpose expert systems have failed to emerge so far. However, expert systems are applied in specialized domains, particularly in healthcare. The increasing availability of large quantities of data to organizations today provides a valuable opportunity...

  17. Expert Systems and Special Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, Alan M.; Ferrara, Joseph M.

    1986-01-01

    The article discusses the characteristics of expert systems (computer programs designed to replicate human expertise in a variety of areas), describes recently available expert system development tools, suggests applications within the field of special education, and reviews recent efforts to apply expert systems technology to special education…

  18. IMPROVEMENT OF EXPERT ANALYSIS FOR ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS USING COMPUTER SIMULATION PROGRAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Azemsha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The existing methods for auto-technical expertise presuppose selection of some parameters on the basis of the expert’s intuition and experience. Type of a vehicle and its loading rate, road conditions are not taken into account also in the case when deceleration is to be determined. While carrying out the analysis it has been established that an application of special software makes it possible to improve significantly efficiency of the executed works directed on solution of the assigned tasks, to speed up calculation processes, to decrease qualitatively probability of arithmetic errors and provides the possibility to visualize results of the conducted investigations. Possibility of using various models for dynamic motion simulation and collision of vehicles (in the form of 3D-models has been established in the paper. In such a case specific features of vehicle technical conditions, its loading rate and condition of roadway surface have been taken account in the paper. The given paper also permits to obtain a dynamic display of reconstructed accident mechanism in axonometric projection, to film video-clips when a camera is positioned at any spatial point: road, roadside, raised position, moving vehicle, driver's seat in the vehicle.The paper contains an analysis of possibilities of road traffic accident simulation programs, a statistical analysis that shows significance in differences between simulation results when various programs have been used. The paper presents initial data and results of vehicle speed calculation on the basis of braking track length which have been obtained with the help of road traffic accident express analysis (a classical approach and PC-Crash when additional influencing factors are taken into account. A number of shortcomings have been revealed while analyzing the simulation results of the applied software. The shortcomings must be removed in the analyzed software products.On the basis of the executed analysis in

  19. Matching simulated antemortem and post-mortem dental radiographs from human skulls by dental students and experts: testing skills for pattern recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, A; Richards, A; Heidmann, J

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of undergraduate dental students to match simulated ante- and post-mortem radiographs in human skulls with experts as controls for the 1)number of post-mortem images needed for a match, 2)accuracy of the matches, and 3)time spent for a match. A film bitewing was recorded in each side of 51 dentate dry human skulls (a.m.-images) and digital images of the teeth were recorded using a sensor (p.m.-images). 102 correctly matching and 102 non-matching image pairs were constructed. Ten students and three experts scored the image pairs as: certain match, certain non-match, or uncertain. None of the experts but half of the students made false positive scores. Half of the students performed just as accurately as the experts. All students (except one who made 8 FPs) asked for more p.m.-images than did the experts before deciding on a match, however, all students, but one, also spent less time per image pair than did the experts before deciding on a match (Ppattern recognition and thus help in the decision on who might be included as part of a forensic dental team when extra help is needed.

  20. 油层保护模糊专家系统的分析与设计%Analysis and design of reservoir protection fuzzy expert system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丹; 曹谢东; 魏存挡; 庞扬

    2012-01-01

    保护油层技术是油田勘探开发过程中提高勘探开发效果的重要措施之一.将基于模糊推理技术建立的模糊专家系统原型有机地与油层保护知识相结合,开发的油层保护模糊专家系统,充分利用和集成了人类油层保护专家的经验和研究成果以及实验室数据分析资料,为油层保护工程师提供了各类储层敏感性预测的智能决策支持.%The reservoir protection technology is an important measures of developing the effect of oilfield exploration. Fuzzy expert system prototype based on the theory of fuzzy logic and fuzzy reasoning techniques combines with reservoir protection knowledge, developing of the reservoir protection fuzzy expert system, makes full using and integration experience and research findings of human reservoir protection experts and the laboratory data analysis material. The system provides decision - support measures for various types of reservoir sensitivity prediction.

  1. The impact of human-technology cooperation and distributed cognition in forensic science: biasing effects of AFIS contextual information on human experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dror, Itiel E; Wertheim, Kasey; Fraser-Mackenzie, Peter; Walajtys, Jeff

    2012-03-01

    Experts play a critical role in forensic decision making, even when cognition is offloaded and distributed between human and machine. In this paper, we investigated the impact of using Automated Fingerprint Identification Systems (AFIS) on human decision makers. We provided 3680 AFIS lists (a total of 55,200 comparisons) to 23 latent fingerprint examiners as part of their normal casework. We manipulated the position of the matching print in the AFIS list. The data showed that latent fingerprint examiners were affected by the position of the matching print in terms of false exclusions and false inconclusives. Furthermore, the data showed that false identification errors were more likely at the top of the list and that such errors occurred even when the correct match was present further down the list. These effects need to be studied and considered carefully, so as to optimize human decision making when using technologies such as AFIS.

  2. The use of cloud enabled building information models – an expert analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Redmond

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The dependency of today’s construction professionals to use singular commercial applications for design possibilities creates the risk of being dictated by the language-tools they use. This unknowingly approach to converting to the constraints of a particular computer application’s style, reduces one’s association with cutting-edge design as no single computer application can support all of the tasks associated with building-design and production. Interoperability depicts the need to pass data between applications, allowing multiple types of experts and applications to contribute to the work at hand. Cloud computing is a centralized heterogeneous platform that enables different applications to be connected to each other through using remote data servers. However, the possibility of providing an interoperable process based on binding several construction applications through a single repository platform ‘cloud computing’ required further analysis. The following Delphi questionnaires analysed the exchanging information opportunities of Building Information Modelling (BIM as the possible solution for the integration of applications on a cloud platform. The survey structure is modelled to; (i identify the most appropriate applications for advancing interoperability at the early design stage, (ii detect the most severe barriers of BIM implementation from a business and legal viewpoint, (iii examine the need for standards to address information exchange between design team, and (iv explore the use of the most common interfaces for exchanging information. The anticipated findings will assist in identifying a model that will enhance the standardized passing of information between systems at the feasibility design stage of a construction project.

  3. The use of cloud enabled building information models – an expert analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Redmond

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The dependency of today’s construction professionals to use singular commercial applications for design possibilities creates the risk of being dictated by the language-tools they use. This unknowingly approach to converting to the constraints of a particular computer application’s style, reduces one’s association with cutting-edge design as no single computer application can support all of the tasks associated with building-design and production. Interoperability depicts the need to pass data between applications, allowing multiple types of experts and applications to contribute to the work at hand. Cloud computing is a centralized heterogeneous platform that enables different applications to be connected to each other through using remote data servers. However, the possibility of providing an interoperable process based on binding several construction applications through a single repository platform ‘cloud computing’ required further analysis. The following Delphi questionnaires analysed the exchanging information opportunities of Building Information Modelling (BIM as the possible solution for the integration of applications on a cloud platform. The survey structure is modelled to; (i identify the most appropriate applications for advancing interoperability at the early design stage, (ii detect the most severe barriers of BIM implementation from a business and legal viewpoint, (iii examine the need for standards to address information exchange between design team, and (iv explore the use of the most common interfaces for exchanging information. The anticipated findings will assist in identifying a model that will enhance the standardized passing of information between systems at the feasibility design stage of a construction project.

  4. Integrated processing and analysis of hydrological data - not only for experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalicz, P.; Gribovszki, Z.

    2012-04-01

    The advent of the digital data logging results huge amount of hydrological time series from wide variety of hydrological phenomenon and water quality indicators. There are different sampling frequencies, irregular time steps, hand measured control data which are necessary treat in the same database. Some processes (e.g. the concentration of surface water) in small catchments and urban areas change quickly thus at this case for a rigorous study it is necessary to apply high frequency data sampling. Sometimes there is an error and the equidistant times series is broken. The error produced gap in the time series forms an obstacle for some type of calculations. There are many proprietary softwares process these data and gives solutions for the exercises. It can be found also open source solutions. Some years ago the open source R was chosen for analyzing data, which are measured in the Hidegvíz Valley experimental catchment. This system is an excellent environment to organize and visualize hydrological time series. The contributing package called zoo has good abilities to work with different temporal resolutions. There are also many sophisticated statistical functions (e.g. auto- and cross-correlation functions, spectral analysis, filters, smoothing algorithms, etc.). During the years some functions was developed for data import, semi-automatic data processing, visualizations and analyses. In the last year in the umbrella of a project brings up a demand for visualize time series from non-R-experts. An easy-to-use graphical user interface was developed to solve this problem instead of cumbersome import/export processes or introduction to R course. This integrated utility uses the integrated Tcl/Tk package and gives possibilities to mouse driven visualization.

  5. Visual Analysis of Humans

    CERN Document Server

    Moeslund, Thomas B

    2011-01-01

    This unique text/reference provides a coherent and comprehensive overview of all aspects of video analysis of humans. Broad in coverage and accessible in style, the text presents original perspectives collected from preeminent researchers gathered from across the world. In addition to presenting state-of-the-art research, the book reviews the historical origins of the different existing methods, and predicts future trends and challenges. This title: features a Foreword by Professor Larry Davis; contains contributions from an international selection of leading authorities in the field; includes

  6. Knowledge-based expert systems and a proof-of-concept case study for multiple sequence alignment construction and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aniba, Mohamed Radhouene; Siguenza, Sophie; Friedrich, Anne; Plewniak, Frédéric; Poch, Olivier; Marchler-Bauer, Aron; Thompson, Julie Dawn

    2009-01-01

    The traditional approach to bioinformatics analyses relies on independent task-specific services and applications, using different input and output formats, often idiosyncratic, and frequently not designed to inter-operate. In general, such analyses were performed by experts who manually verified the results obtained at each step in the process. Today, the amount of bioinformatics information continuously being produced means that handling the various applications used to study this information presents a major data management and analysis challenge to researchers. It is now impossible to manually analyse all this information and new approaches are needed that are capable of processing the large-scale heterogeneous data in order to extract the pertinent information. We review the recent use of integrated expert systems aimed at providing more efficient knowledge extraction for bioinformatics research. A general methodology for building knowledge-based expert systems is described, focusing on the unstructured information management architecture, UIMA, which provides facilities for both data and process management. A case study involving a multiple alignment expert system prototype called AlexSys is also presented.

  7. Experts' memory superiority for domain-specific random material generalizes across fields of expertise: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Giovanni; Gobet, Fernand

    2017-02-01

    Experts' remarkable ability to recall meaningful domain-specific material is a classic result in cognitive psychology. Influential explanations for this ability have focused on the acquisition of high-level structures (e.g., schemata) or experts' capability to process information holistically. However, research on chess players suggests that experts maintain some reliable memory advantage over novices when random stimuli (e.g., shuffled chess positions) are presented. This skill effect cannot be explained by theories emphasizing high-level memory structures or holistic processing of stimuli, because random material does not contain large structures nor wholes. By contrast, theories hypothesizing the presence of small memory structures-such as chunks-predict this outcome, because some chunks still occur by chance in the stimuli, even after randomization. The current meta-analysis assessed the correlation between level of expertise and recall of random material in diverse domains. The overall correlation was moderate but statistically significant ([Formula: see text]), and the effect was observed in nearly every study. This outcome suggests that experts partly base their superiority on a vaster amount of small memory structures, in addition to high-level structures or holistic processing.

  8. The role of process analysis and expert consultation in implementing an electronic medical record solution for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubeshan Perumal

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Process analysis and expert consultation help streamline and optimise processes, but these are underutilised. The World Health Organisation (WHO recommends migration to electronic data collection by 2015, partly in response to multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB. We explore the influence of process analysis and iterative expert consultation, on shaping health information solutions to MDR-TB programmes.Methods: The study employs a two phase design. Phase one involves a process analysis of the South African National Tuberculosis Programme and an electronic medical records (EMR solution and the generation of a detailed process model grounded in the fit between individual task and technology (FITT theoretical framework using ‘business process modelling notation’. Phase two involves a two round Delphi study in the clinical management of tuberculosis and implementers of EMR solutions. Expert opinion is analysed according to emergent thematic content. Analyses and graphical model representation are performed using Microsoft Excel® and Visio® software.Results: A detailed process model is constructed which reveals 54 break points, 12 gaps, 3 risks, 5 wastes. Five participants are included in the Delphi study which support the findings of the process analysis. Thematic analysis identifies five themes: the individual, the process, technology, capacity, and collaboration. The opportunity to include synergistic relations across programmes emerges as a strong theme.Conclusions: Overall, the findings highlight inefficiencies, risk and gaps in the current process and the need for an operational excellence intervention. The study demonstrated the value of process engineering with iterative expert consultation toward developing a meaningful EMR solution consultation in a resource constrained, developing world context.

  9. Exposing the Expert Discourse in Psychiatry: A Critical Analysis of an Anti-Stigma/Mental Illness Awareness Campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Daniel Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on a situational analysis of a recent anti-stigma campaign in psychiatry (Defeat Denial: Help Defeat Mental Illness this paper seeks to engage with the reader on the use of an expert discourse that focuses on the brain and its disruption as a way to address stigma associated with mental illness. To begin, we briefly highlight key statistics regarding the impact of mental illness in Canada and introduce the concept of stigma. We then introduce the Defeat Denial media campaign and describe the analytical process employed for this paper - Situational Analysis with a specific focus on discourse. We then expand on the use of the expert discourse in the awareness campaign by making connections with Rose’s concept of biological citizen and, in the final sections, present recent studies on stigma that highlight the paradox and contested construction of the (biopsychiatric self

  10. Expert Panel Consensus for and Analysis of Key Attributes on Websites Devoted to Weight Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Stephen L.; Land, Diane; Johnson, Chandrika; Miller, Kim

    2014-01-01

    Background: Obesity presents major challenges to public health in the United States. Trials of web-based interventions for weight control suggest that the Internet is a promising option for program delivery. Purpose: This study sought consensus among experts regarding critical components of successful weight control and to systematically examine…

  11. Themes from a Grounded Theory Analysis of Elder Neglect Assessment by Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulmer, Terry; Firpo, Adolfo; Guadagno, Lisa; Easter, Tara M.; Kahan, Fay; Paris, Barbara

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: This paper describes one program that has developed a screening procedure for assessing elder mistreatment, with a special focus on elder neglect. The aim is to understand how expert neglect assessment teams process and diagnose complex geriatric cases referred for suspected elder neglect. What are the key themes that must be understood…

  12. Expert opinion on laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancer parallels evidence from a cumulative meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Martel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study sought to synthesize survival outcomes from trials of laparoscopic and open colorectal cancer surgery, and to determine whether expert acceptance of this technology in the literature has parallel cumulative survival evidence. STUDY DESIGN: A systematic review of randomized trials was conducted. The primary outcome was survival, and meta-analysis of time-to-event data was conducted. Expert opinion in the literature (published reviews, guidelines, and textbook chapters on the acceptability of laparoscopic colorectal cancer was graded using a 7-point scale. Pooled survival data were correlated in time with accumulating expert opinion scores. RESULTS: A total of 5,800 citations were screened. Of these, 39 publications pertaining to 23 individual trials were retained. As well, 414 reviews were included (28 guidelines, 30 textbook chapters, 20 systematic reviews, 336 narrative reviews. In total, 5,782 patients were randomized to laparoscopic (n = 3,031 and open (n = 2,751 colorectal surgery. Survival data were presented in 16 publications. Laparoscopic surgery was not inferior to open surgery in terms of overall survival (HR = 0.94, 95% CI 0.80, 1.09. Expert opinion in the literature pertaining to the oncologic acceptability of laparoscopic surgery for colon cancer correlated most closely with the publication of large RCTs in 2002-2004. Although increasingly accepted since 2006, laparoscopic surgery for rectal cancer remained controversial. CONCLUSIONS: Laparoscopic surgery for colon cancer is non-inferior to open surgery in terms of overall survival, and has been so since 2004. The majority expert opinion in the literature has considered these two techniques to be equivalent since 2002-2004. Laparoscopic surgery for rectal cancer has been increasingly accepted since 2006, but remains controversial. Knowledge translation efforts in this field appear to have paralleled the accumulation of clinical trial evidence.

  13. Benchmarking expert system tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Gary

    1988-01-01

    As part of its evaluation of new technologies, the Artificial Intelligence Section of the Mission Planning and Analysis Div. at NASA-Johnson has made timing tests of several expert system building tools. Among the production systems tested were Automated Reasoning Tool, several versions of OPS5, and CLIPS (C Language Integrated Production System), an expert system builder developed by the AI section. Also included in the test were a Zetalisp version of the benchmark along with four versions of the benchmark written in Knowledge Engineering Environment, an object oriented, frame based expert system tool. The benchmarks used for testing are studied.

  14. Evaluating the use of uncertainty visualization for exploratory analysis of land cover change: A qualitative expert user study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinkeldey, Christoph; Schiewe, Jochen; Gerstmann, Henning; Götze, Christian; Kit, Oleksandr; Lüdeke, Matthias; Taubenböck, Hannes; Wurm, Michael

    2015-11-01

    Extensive research on geodata uncertainty has been conducted in the past decades, mostly related to modeling, quantifying, and communicating uncertainty. But findings on if and how users can incorporate this information into spatial analyses are still rare. In this paper we address these questions with a focus on land cover change analysis. We conducted semi-structured interviews with three expert groups dealing with change analysis in the fields of climate research, urban development, and vegetation monitoring. During the interviews we used a software prototype to show change scenarios that the experts had analyzed before, extended by visual depiction of uncertainty related to land cover change. This paper describes the study, summarizes results, and discusses findings as well as the study method. Participants came up with several ideas for applications that could be supported by uncertainty, for example, identification of erroneous change, description of change detection algorithm characteristics, or optimization of change detection parameters. Regarding the aspect of reasoning with uncertainty in land cover change data the interviewees saw potential in better-informed hypotheses and insights about change. Communication of uncertainty information to users was seen as critical, depending on the users' role and expertize. We judge semi-structured interviews to be suitable for the purpose of this study and emphasize the potential of qualitative methods (workshops, focus groups etc.) for future uncertainty visualization studies.

  15. Virology Experts in the Boundary Zone Between Science, Policy and the Public: A Biographical Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Rijswoud, E. van

    2010-01-01

    This article aims to open up the biographical black box of three experts working in the boundary zone between science, policy and public debate. A biographical-narrative approach is used to analyse the roles played by the virologists Albert Osterhaus, Roel Coutinho and Jaap Goudsmit in policy and public debate. These figures were among the few leading virologists visibly active in the Netherlands during the revival of infectious diseases in the 1980s. Osterhaus and Coutinho in particular are ...

  16. Expert Systems: What Is an Expert System?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, Beverly K.; Main, Linda

    1994-01-01

    Describes expert systems and discusses their use in libraries. Highlights include parts of an expert system; expert system shells; an example of how to build an expert system; a bibliography of 34 sources of information on expert systems in libraries; and a list of 10 expert system shells used in libraries. (Contains five references.) (LRW)

  17. Expert Systems: What Is an Expert System?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, Beverly K.; Main, Linda

    1994-01-01

    Describes expert systems and discusses their use in libraries. Highlights include parts of an expert system; expert system shells; an example of how to build an expert system; a bibliography of 34 sources of information on expert systems in libraries; and a list of 10 expert system shells used in libraries. (Contains five references.) (LRW)

  18. Toward a sustainability label for food products: an analysis of experts' and consumers' acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, Stéphanie V; Hansmann, Ralf; Scholz, Roland W

    2010-01-01

    The recent proliferation of standards and labels for organic, fair-trade, locally produced, and healthy food products risks creating confusion among consumers. This study presents a standardized approach to developing a comprehensive sustainability label that incorporates ecological, economic, and social values. The methodology is based on an extension of modular life-cycle assessment to non-environmental sustainability criteria. Interviews with a wide range of experts (n=65) and a consumer survey (n=233) were conducted to analyze the feasibility and potential effectiveness of the approach. Responses indicated that a comprehensive sustainability label could considerably influence consumption patterns and facilitate cross-product comparisons.

  19. ExpertFOAF recommends experts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iofcu, Tereza; Diederich, Joerg; Dolog, Peter

    2007-01-01

    the GrowBag approach [1]. The main assumption is that such user profiles can provide good hints about users' expertise. Such extended FOAF files (called ExpertFOAF) can be published on a user's home page, on web pages of institutions or conferences to characterize them. They can be crawled by distributed...

  20. Expert Involvement Predicts mHealth App Downloads: Multivariate Regression Analysis of Urology Apps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira-Azevedo, Nuno; Osório, Luís; Cavadas, Vitor; Fraga, Avelino; Carrasquinho, Eduardo; Cardoso de Oliveira, Eduardo; Castelo-Branco, Miguel; Roobol, Monique J

    2016-07-15

    Urological mobile medical (mHealth) apps are gaining popularity with both clinicians and patients. mHealth is a rapidly evolving and heterogeneous field, with some urology apps being downloaded over 10,000 times and others not at all. The factors that contribute to medical app downloads have yet to be identified, including the hypothetical influence of expert involvement in app development. The objective of our study was to identify predictors of the number of urology app downloads. We reviewed urology apps available in the Google Play Store and collected publicly available data. Multivariate ordinal logistic regression evaluated the effect of publicly available app variables on the number of apps being downloaded. Of 129 urology apps eligible for study, only 2 (1.6%) had >10,000 downloads, with half having ≤100 downloads and 4 (3.1%) having none at all. Apps developed with expert urologist involvement (P=.003), optional in-app purchases (P=.01), higher user rating (PApp cost was inversely related to the number of downloads (Papp development is likely to enhance its chances to have a higher number of downloads. This finding should help in the design of better apps and further promote urologist involvement in mHealth. Official certification processes are required to ensure app quality and user safety.

  1. Expert Systems Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, Richard O.; Shortliffe, Edward H.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses a class of artificial intelligence computer programs (often called "expert systems" because they address problems normally thought to require human specialists for their solution) intended to serve as consultants for decision making. Also discusses accomplishments (including information systematization in medical diagnosis and…

  2. Expert evaluation of innovation projects of mining enterprises on the basis of methods of system analysis and fuzzy logics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pimonov Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the multipurpose approach to evaluation of research and innovation projects based on the method of analysis of hierarchies and fuzzy logics for the mining industry. The approach, implemented as part of a decision support system, can reduce the degree of subjectivity during examinations by taking into account both quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the compared innovative alternatives; it does not depend on specific conditions of examination and allows engagement of experts of various fields of knowledge. The system includes the mechanism of coordination of several experts’ views. Using of fuzzy logics allows evaluating the qualitative characteristics of innovations in the form of formalized logical conclusions.

  3. Cost estimation: An expert-opinion approach. [cost analysis of research projects using the Delphi method (forecasting)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffalano, C.; Fogleman, S.; Gielecki, M.

    1976-01-01

    A methodology is outlined which can be used to estimate the costs of research and development projects. The approach uses the Delphi technique a method developed by the Rand Corporation for systematically eliciting and evaluating group judgments in an objective manner. The use of the Delphi allows for the integration of expert opinion into the cost-estimating process in a consistent and rigorous fashion. This approach can also signal potential cost-problem areas. This result can be a useful tool in planning additional cost analysis or in estimating contingency funds. A Monte Carlo approach is also examined.

  4. Techniques of structural family assessment: a qualitative analysis of how experts promote a systemic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Michael; Tafuri, Sydney

    2013-06-01

    The trajectory of assessment in structural family therapy moves from a linear perspective, in which problems are located in the identified patient, to an interactional perspective, in which problems are seen as involving other members of the family. Minuchin, Nichols, & Lee (2007) developed a 4-step model for assessing couples and families consisting of: (1) broadening the definition of the presenting complaint to include its context, (2) identifying problem-maintaining interactions, (3) a structurally focused exploration of the past, and (4) developing a shared vision of pathways to change. To study how experts actually implement this model, judges coded video recordings of 10 initial consultations conducted by three widely recognized structural family therapists. Qualitative analyses identified 25 distinct techniques that these clinicians used to challenge linear thinking and move families toward a systemic understanding of their problems. We discuss and locate these techniques in the framework of the 4-step model.

  5. The internet, expert patients and medical practice: an analysis of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Beatriz da Rocha Garbin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Over recent years, the world has witnessed a wide-ranging technological transformation that has substantially expanded the access to information, especially through the internet. In the field of healthcare, more and more information is available. Access to technical-scientific information, along with increased educational levels among the public, has given rise to patients who search for information about their diagnoses, diseases, symptoms, medications and costs of hospitalization and treatment: expert patients. This article discusses the way in which information obtained through the internet modifies or interferes with the doctor-patient relationship. Thus, the controversy between Freidson and Haug regarding the deprofessionalization of doctors is resurrected. Methodologically, we analyzed the opinions of authors who published articles on this topic between 1997 and 2005, in two important English academic journals in this field. We concluded that the positions found were distinct and even adversarial. In Brazil, despite digital exclusion, this question needs to be analyzed.

  6. An evaluation of an expert system for detecting critical events during anesthesia in a human patient simulator: a prospective randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görges, Matthias; Winton, Pamela; Koval, Valentyna; Lim, Joanne; Stinson, Jonathan; Choi, Peter T; Schwarz, Stephan K W; Dumont, Guy A; Ansermino, J Mark

    2013-08-01

    Perioperative monitoring systems produce a large amount of uninterpreted data, use threshold alarms prone to artifacts, and rely on the clinician to continuously visually track changes in physiological data. To address these deficiencies, we developed an expert system that provides real-time clinical decisions for the identification of critical events. We evaluated the efficacy of the expert system for enhancing critical event detection in a simulated environment. We hypothesized that anesthesiologists would identify critical ventilatory events more rapidly and accurately with the expert system. We used a high-fidelity human patient simulator to simulate an operating room environment. Participants managed 4 scenarios (anesthetic vapor overdose, tension pneumothorax, anaphylaxis, and endotracheal tube cuff leak) in random order. In 2 of their 4 scenarios, participants were randomly assigned to the expert system, which provided trend-based alerts and potential differential diagnoses. Time to detection and time to treatment were measured. Workload questionnaires and structured debriefings were completed after each scenario, and a usability questionnaire at the conclusion of the session. Data were analyzed using a mixed-effects linear regression model; Fisher exact test was used for workload scores. Twenty anesthesiology trainees and 15 staff anesthesiologists with a combined median (range) of 36 (29-66) years of age and 6 (1-38) years of anesthesia experience participated. For the endotracheal tube cuff leak, the expert system caused mean reductions of 128 (99% confidence interval [CI], 54-202) seconds in time to detection and 140 (99% CI, 79-200) seconds in time to treatment. In the other 3 scenarios, a best-case decrease of 97 seconds (lower 99% CI) in time to diagnosis for anaphylaxis and a worst-case increase of 63 seconds (upper 99% CI) in time to treatment for anesthetic vapor overdose were found. Participants were highly satisfied with the expert system (median

  7. Developing a HACCP-like system for improving animal health and welfare in organic egg production - based on an expert panel analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegelund, Lene; Sørensen, Jan Tind

    2007-01-01

    In the process of developing a generic Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP)-like system for securing animal health and welfare in organic egg production, an expert panel analysis was used to perform the initial hazard analysis. Eighteen advisers and researchers in organic egg...... specific systems. An expert panel analysis based on questionnaires was a useful tool during the first steps of developing a HACCP plan, conducting a hazard analysis and suggesting control points. However, care should be taken regarding the panel's size and fields of expertise in order to assure...

  8. Expert Opinion Analysis on Renewable Hydrogen Storage Systems Potential in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Astiaso Garcia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Among the several typologies of storage technologies, mainly on different physical principles (mechanical, electrical and chemical, hydrogen produced by power to gas (P2G from renewable energy sources complies with chemical storage principle and is based on the conversion of electrical energy into chemical energy by means of the electrolysis of water which does not produce any toxic or climate-relevant emission. This paper aims to pinpoint the potential uses of renewable hydrogen storage systems in Europe, analysing current and potential locations, regulatory framework, governments’ outlooks, economic issues, and available renewable energy amounts. The expert opinion survey, already used in many research articles on different topics including energy, has been selected as an effective method to produce realistic results. The obtained results highlight strategies and actions to optimize the storage of hydrogen produced by renewables to face varying electricity demand and generation-driven fluctuations reducing the negative effects of the increasing share of renewables in the energy mix of European Countries.

  9. Advisory expert system for energy analysis in industrial boilers; Sistema experto asesor en el analisis energetico de calderas industriales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemper Valverde, Nicolas; Lara Rosano, Felipe; Vazquez Nava, Rodolfo [Laboratorio de Inteligencia Artificial, Instituto de Ingenieria UNAM, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1994-12-31

    This paper presents an expert system for the operational analysis of industrial boilers, estimating the potential of heat recovery, in the small and medium size industry. The package is friendly, practical, flexible easy to maintain and expandable to take into consideration the user`s specific requirements and allows the analysis of the energy losses in the combustion, feed water, drains, and insulation, identifying the enhancements and estimating the saving potential, in energy as well as economical. [Espanol] En este trabajo se presenta un sistema experto para analizar la operacion de calderas industriales estimando el potencial de recuperacion de calor, en la pequena y mediana industria. El paquete es amigable, practico, flexible, facil en su mantenimiento y expandible para tomar en consideracion los requerimientos especificos de los usuarios y permite el analisis de las perdidas de energia en la combustion, agua de alimentacion, purgas y aislamientos, identificando las mejoras y estimando ahorros potenciales, tanto energeticos como economicos.

  10. Technical, perceptual and motor skills in novice-expert water polo players: an individual discriminant analysis for talent development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DʼErcole, Alessandro A; DʼErcole, Cristina; Gobbi, Massimo; Gobbi, Fabio

    2013-12-01

    The 4 tasks (A, B, C, and Y) have the characteristic of containing one more element than the task performed before it. In fact, task B introduces the slalom which is not present in task A. Task C introduces the ball control that are not present in tasks A and B, whereas task Y introduces the slalom and ball control in a visual dual task situation developed in horizontal swimming over a distance of 20 m at maximum speed. This exercise not included in task C. These tasks were performed by a group of pre-adolescent players and national under 18 water polo players. The novice players showed that tasks B and C are predictors of task Y. Such characteristics were not present in the expert players. The novice players also had difficulty in performing task Y because of the visual-attention overload, a difficulty that was not present in the expert players. To improve the 4 skills, the coach of the novice players developed a technical-didactic program, which was checked 6 months after the pretest. The posttest was not significantly different from the pretest while the individual discriminant analysis identified the improvements in some novice players, which on elaboration proved significant, enabling us to distinguish 2 subgroups, one with higher learning rates and the other with lower learning rates. In the practical applications, we describe the didactic tools (task analysis) and the different levels of development of technical skills in water polo. Improvements in these skills are explained through computational models like the HMOSAIC (Hierarchical, Modular, Selection and Identification for Control) while the individual discriminant analysis enables us to do a longitudinal analysis that is not possible with cross-sectional models.

  11. Expert Systems: A Conceptual Analysis and Prospects for Their Library Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Yogendra P.

    This paper begins with a discussion of the decision-making process. The application of operations research technologies to managerial decision-making is noted, and the development of management information systems in organizations and some limitations of these systems are discussed. An overview of the Human Information Processing System (HIPS)…

  12. NutriSonic web expert system for meal management and nutrition counseling with nutrient time-series analysis, e-food exchange and easy data transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jee-Ye; Lee, Jin-Hee; Kim, Gon; Kim, Min-Chan

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted to develop the NutriSonic Web Expert System for Meal Management and Nutrition Counseling with Analysis of User's Nutritive Changes of selected days and food exchange information with easy data transition. This program manipulates a food, menu and meal and search database that has been developed. Also, the system provides a function to check the user's nutritive change of selected days. Users can select a recommended general and therapeutic menu using this system. NutriSonic can analyze nutrients and e-food exchange ("e" means the food exchange data base calculated by a computer program) in menus and meals. The expert can insert and store a meal database and generate the synthetic information of age, sex and therapeutic purpose of disease. With investigation and analysis of the user's needs, the meal planning program on the internet has been continuously developed. Users are able to follow up their nutritive changes with nutrient information and ratio of 3 major energy nutrients. Also, users can download another data format like Excel files (.xls) for analysis and verify their nutrient time-series analysis. The results of analysis are presented quickly and accurately. Therefore it can be used by not only usual people, but also by dietitians and nutritionists who take charge of making a menu and experts in the field of food and nutrition. It is expected that the NutriSonic Web Expert System can be useful for nutrition education, nutrition counseling and expert meal management. PMID:20126376

  13. The role of human-at-work systems in business sustainability: perspectives based on expert and qualified production workers in a manufacturing enterprise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genaidy, Ash M; Rinder, Maria M; Sequeira, Reynold; A-Rehim, Amal

    2010-04-01

    and enterprise levels, in terms of organisational/social/technological environment. This is particularly noted for the organisational environment. The compatibility values obtained for the experienced domains mirror those obtained for acting domains. The overall workload was assessed as requiring major redesign during the day shift and needing added responsibilities for the night shift according to both expert and qualified workers. The assessment of qualified workers is comparable with that of expert workers for the job content and immediate surroundings. Differences are more observed for process- and enterprise-based factors; thereby, providing company management different perspectives in order to devise organisational strategies conducive for optimum human and corporate health and pointing to the probable interactions of the different systems impacting individual and enterprise performance. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This research examines similarities and differences between qualified and expert workers in their assessment of the worker-work environment interface. The contribution to improved understanding of the complex interactions of human-at-work and enterprise systems should be beneficial to organisations in their quest to remain competitive in a global economy.

  14. Leveraging Data Analysis for Domain Experts: An Embeddable Framework for Basic Data Science Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohrer, Johannes-Y.; Kaltenthaler, Daniel; Kröger, Peer

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a framework for data analysis that can be embedded into a base application. Since it is important to analyze the data directly inside the application where the data is entered, a tool that allows the scientists to easily work with their data, supports and motivates the execution of further analysis of their data, which…

  15. Multi-criteria decision analysis for health technology assessment in Canada: insights from an expert panel discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaby, Vakaramoko; Goeree, Ron; Hoch, Jeffrey; Siebert, Uwe

    2015-02-01

    Multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA), a decision-making tool, has received increasing attention in recent years, notably in the healthcare field. For Canada, it is unclear whether and how MCDA should be incorporated into the existing health technology assessment (HTA) decision-making process. To facilitate debate on improving HTA decision-making in Canada, a workshop was held in conjunction with the 8th World Congress on Health Economics of the International Health Economics Association in Toronto, Canada in July 2011. The objective of the workshop was to discuss the potential benefits and challenges related to the use of MCDA for HTA decision-making in Canada. This paper summarizes and discusses the recommendations of an expert panel convened at the workshop to discuss opportunities and concerns with reference to the implementation of MCDA in Canada.

  16. Nuclear expert web mining system: monitoring and analysis of nuclear acceptance by information retrieval and opinion extraction on the Internet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, Thiago; Barroso, Antonio C.O.; Imakuma, Kengo, E-mail: thiagoreis@usp.b, E-mail: barroso@ipen.b, E-mail: kimakuma@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents a research initiative that aims to collect nuclear related information and to analyze opinionated texts by mining the hypertextual data environment and social networks web sites on the Internet. Different from previous approaches that employed traditional statistical techniques, it is being proposed a novel Web Mining approach, built using the concept of Expert Systems, for massive and autonomous data collection and analysis. The initial step has been accomplished, resulting in a framework design that is able to gradually encompass a set of evolving techniques, methods, and theories in such a way that this work will build a platform upon which new researches can be performed more easily by just substituting modules or plugging in new ones. Upon completion it is expected that this research will contribute to the understanding of the population views on nuclear technology and its acceptance. (author)

  17. Addressing Palliative Sedation during Expert Consultation: A Descriptive Analysis of the Practice of Dutch Palliative Care Consultation Teams.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Hoek

    Full Text Available Since palliative sedation is considered a complex intervention, consultation teams are increasingly established to support general practice. This study aims to offer insight into the frequency and characteristics of expert consultations regarding palliative sedation.We performed a retrospective analysis of a longitudinal database. This database contained all patient-related consultations by Dutch Palliative Care Consultation teams, that were requested between 2004 and 2011. We described the frequency and characteristics of these consultations, in particular of the subgroup of consultations in which palliative sedation was addressed (i.e. PSa consultations. We used multivariate regression analysis to explore consultation characteristics associated with a higher likelihood of PSa consultations.Of the 44,443 initial consultations, most were requested by general practitioners (73% and most concerned patients with cancer (86%. Palliative sedation was addressed in 18.1% of all consultations. Palliative sedation was relatively more often discussed during consultations for patients with a neurologic disease (OR 1.79; 95% CI: 1.51-2.12 or COPD (OR 1.39; 95% CI: 1.15-1.69 than for patients with cancer. We observed a higher likelihood of PSa consultations if the following topics were also addressed during consultation: dyspnoea (OR 1.30; 95% CI: 1.22-1.40, agitation/delirium (OR 1.57; 95% CI: 1.47-1.68, exhaustion (OR 2.89; 95% CI: 2.61-3.20, euthanasia-related questions (OR 2.65; 95% CI: 2.37-2.96 or existential issues (OR 1.55; 95% CI: 1.31-1.83.In conclusion, PSa consultations accounted for almost one-fifth of all expert consultations and were associated with several case-related characteristics. These characteristics may help clinicians in identifying patients at risk for a more complex disease trajectory at the end of life.

  18. Human Factors in Financial Trading: An Analysis of Trading Incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaver, Meghan; Reader, Tom W

    2016-09-01

    This study tests the reliability of a system (FINANS) to collect and analyze incident reports in the financial trading domain and is guided by a human factors taxonomy used to describe error in the trading domain. Research indicates the utility of applying human factors theory to understand error in finance, yet empirical research is lacking. We report on the development of the first system for capturing and analyzing human factors-related issues in operational trading incidents. In the first study, 20 incidents are analyzed by an expert user group against a referent standard to establish the reliability of FINANS. In the second study, 750 incidents are analyzed using distribution, mean, pathway, and associative analysis to describe the data. Kappa scores indicate that categories within FINANS can be reliably used to identify and extract data on human factors-related problems underlying trading incidents. Approximately 1% of trades (n = 750) lead to an incident. Slip/lapse (61%), situation awareness (51%), and teamwork (40%) were found to be the most common problems underlying incidents. For the most serious incidents, problems in situation awareness and teamwork were most common. We show that (a) experts in the trading domain can reliably and accurately code human factors in incidents, (b) 1% of trades incur error, and (c) poor teamwork skills and situation awareness underpin the most critical incidents. This research provides data crucial for ameliorating risk within financial trading organizations, with implications for regulation and policy. © 2016, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  19. Expert cube development with SQL server analysis services 2012 multidimensional models

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrari, Alberto; Russo, Marco

    2014-01-01

    An easy-to-follow guide full of hands on examples of real-world Analysis Services cube development tasks. Each topic is explained and placed in context, and for the more inquisitive reader, there also more in-depth details of the concepts used.If you are an Analysis Services cube designer wishing to learn more advanced topic and best practices for cube design, this book is for you.You are expected to have some prior experience with Analysis Services cube development.

  20. Development of the Severe Accident Analysis DB for the Severe Accident Management Expert System (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Soo Yong; Ahn, Kwang Il [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    This report contains analysis methodologies and calculation results of 5 initiating events of the severe accident analysis database system. The Ulchin 3,4 NPP has been selected as reference plants. Based on the probabilistic safety analysis of the corresponding plant, 54 accident scenarios, which was predicted to have more than 10-10 /ry occurrence frequency, have been analyzed as base cases for the Large loss of Coolant sequence database. The functions of the severe accident analysis database system will be to make a diagnosis of the accident by some input information from the plant symptoms, to search a corresponding scenario, and finally to provide the user phenomenological information based on the pre-analyzed results. The MAAP 4.06 calculation results in this report will be utilized as input data to develop the database system

  1. Human Factors Analysis in Software Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Ren-zuo; Ma Ruo-feng; Liu Li-na; Xiong Zhong-wei

    2004-01-01

    The general human factors analysis analyzes human functions, effects and influence in a system. But in a narrow sense, it analyzes human influence upon the reliability of a system, it includes traditional human reliability analysis, human error analysis, man-machine interface analysis, human character analysis, and others. A software development project in software engineering is successful or not to be completely determined by human factors. In this paper, we discuss the human factors intensions, declare the importance of human factors analysis for software engineering by listed some instances. At last, we probe preliminarily into the mentality that a practitioner in software engineering should possess.

  2. Interpretation of p16(INK4a) /Ki-67 dual immunostaining for the triage of human papillomavirus-positive women by experts and nonexperts in cervical cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allia, Elena; Ronco, Guglielmo; Coccia, Anna; Luparia, Patrizia; Macrì, Luigia; Fiorito, Corinna; Maletta, Francesca; Deambrogio, Cristina; Tunesi, Sara; De Marco, Laura; Gillio-Tos, Anna; Sapino, Anna; Ghiringhello, Bruno

    2015-04-01

    The triage of human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive women is needed to avoid overreferral to colposcopy. p16(INK4a) immunostaining is an efficient triage method. p16(INK4a) /Ki-67 dual staining was introduced mainly to increase reproducibility and specificity compared with stand-alone p16(INK4a) staining. Within a pilot project, HPV-positive women were referred to colposcopy if cytology was abnormal or unsatisfactory or HPV testing was still positive after 1 year. For 500 consecutive women, a slide obtained during colposcopy was immunostained for p16(INK4a) /Ki-67 and independently interpreted by 7 readers without previous experience with dual staining. Four of these readers were experts in cervical pathology and 3 were not. Kappa values for multiple raters, sensitivity, and specificity for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia type 2-positive histology were computed. Because women with normal cytology were underrepresented, estimates for all HPV-positive women were obtained as weighted means of cytology-specific estimates. The overall kappa for HPV-positive women was 0.70 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.60-0.77). Kappa values were not found to be significantly different between expert and nonexpert readers with regard to cervical cytology but were significantly increased (P =. 0066) after consensus discussion. The overall specificity estimate for HPV-positive women was 64.0% (95% CI, 57.4%-70.2%): 66.7% (95% CI, 59.8%-73.0%) for experts and 60.5% (95% CI, 59.8%-73.0%) for nonexperts. Among women with abnormal cytology, the sensitivity was 85.5% (95% CI, 77.9%-90.8%): 85.8% (95% CI, 77.9%-91.2%) for experts and 85.1% (95% CI, 76.6%-90.9%) for nonexperts. p16(INK4a) /Ki-67 immunostaining demonstrated good reproducibility and specificity when triaging HPV-positive women. Dual-staining interpretation can be performed, after short training, even by staff who are not experts in cervical cytology. This allows HPV-based screening with triage to be performed in settings in

  3. Cognitive Task Analysis of Experts in Designing Multimedia Learning Object Guideline (M-LOG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razak, Rafiza Abdul; Palanisamy, Punithavathy

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to design and develop a set of guidelines for multimedia learning objects to inform instructional designers (IDs) about the procedures involved in the process of content analysis. This study was motivated by the absence of standardized procedures in the beginning phase of the multimedia learning object design which is…

  4. Interpretation of the margin of exposure for genotoxic carcinogens - elicitation of expert knowledge about the form of the dose response curve at human relevant exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boobis, Alan; Flari, Villie; Gosling, John Paul; Hart, Andy; Craig, Peter; Rushton, Lesley; Idahosa-Taylor, Ehi

    2013-07-01

    The general approach to risk assessment of genotoxic carcinogens has been to advise reduction of exposure to "as low as reasonably achievable/practicable" (ALARA/P). However, whilst this remains the preferred risk management option, it does not provide guidance on the urgency or extent of risk management actions necessary. To address this, the "Margin of Exposure" (MOE) approach has been proposed. The MOE is the ratio between the point of departure for carcinogenesis and estimated human exposure. However, interpretation of the MOE requires implicit or explicit consideration of the shape of the dose-response curve at human relevant exposures. In a structured elicitation exercise, we captured expert opinion on available scientific evidence for low dose-response relationships for genotoxic carcinogens. This allowed assessment of: available evidence for the nature of dose-response relationships at human relevant exposures; the generality of judgments about such dose-response relationships; uncertainties affecting judgments on the nature of such dose-response relationships; and whether this last should differ for different classes of genotoxic carcinogens. Elicitation results reflected the variability in experts' views on the form of the dose-response curve for low dose exposure and major sources of uncertainty affecting the assumption of a linear relationship.

  5. Research Approaches and Methods for Evaluating the Protein Quality of Human Foods Proposed by an FAO Expert Working Group in 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Warren Tk; Weisell, Robert; Albert, Janice; Tomé, Daniel; Kurpad, Anura V; Uauy, Ricardo

    2016-05-01

    The Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score (PDCAAS) has been adopted for assessing protein quality in human foods since 1991, and the shortcomings of using the PDCAAS have been recognized since its adoption. The 2011 FAO Expert Consultation recognized that the Digestible Indispensable Amino Acid Score (DIAAS) was superior to the PDCAAS for determining protein quality. However, there were insufficient human data on amino acid digestibility before adopting the DIAAS. More human data were needed before DIAAS could be implemented. In 2014, FAO convened an expert working group to propose and agree on research protocols using both human-based assays and animal models to study ileal amino acid digestibility (metabolic availability) of human foods. The working group identified 5 research protocols for further research and development. A robust database of protein digestibility of foods commonly consumed worldwide, including those consumed in low-income countries, is needed for an informed decision on adopting the DIAAS. A review on the impacts of using the DIAAS on public health policies is necessary. It would be advantageous to have a global coordinating effort to advance research and data collection. Collaboration with international and national agriculture institutes is desirable. Opportunities should be provided for young researchers, particularly those from developing countries, to engage in protein-quality research for sustainable implementation of DIAAS. To conclude, the DIAAS is a conceptually preferable method compared with the PDCAAS for protein and amino acid quality evaluation. However, the complete value of the DIAAS and its impact on public health nutrition cannot be realized until there are sufficient accumulated ileal amino acid digestibility data on human foods that are consumed in different nutritional and environmental conditions, measured by competent authorities. A future meeting may be needed to evaluate the size and quality of the data set

  6. ALICE Expert System

    CERN Document Server

    Ionita, C

    2014-01-01

    The ALICE experiment at CERN employs a number of human operators (shifters), who have to make sure that the experiment is always in a state compatible with taking Physics data. Given the complexity of the system and the myriad of errors that can arise, this is not always a trivial task. The aim of this paper is to describe an expert system that is capable of assisting human shifters in the ALICE control room. The system diagnoses potential issues and attempts to make smart recommendations for troubleshooting. At its core, a Prolog engine infers whether a Physics or a technical run can be started based on the current state of the underlying sub-systems. A separate C++ component queries certain SMI objects and stores their state as facts in a Prolog knowledge base. By mining the data stored in dierent system logs, the expert system can also diagnose errors arising during a run. Currently the system is used by the on-call experts for faster response times, but we expect it to be adopted as a standard tool by reg...

  7. Expert Systems: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adiga, Sadashiv

    1984-01-01

    Discusses: (1) the architecture of expert systems; (2) features that distinguish expert systems from conventional programs; (3) conditions necessary to select a particular application for the development of successful expert systems; (4) issues to be resolved when building expert systems; and (5) limitations. Examples of selected expert systems…

  8. Developing a HACCP-like system for improving animal health and welfare in organic egg production - based on an expert panel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegelund, L; Sørensen, J T

    2007-08-01

    In the process of developing a generic Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP)-like system for securing animal health and welfare in organic egg production, an expert panel analysis was used to perform the initial hazard analysis. Eighteen advisers and researchers in organic egg production were included in the expert panel. In a series of four questionnaires, the expert panel first scored 34 health and welfare problems seen in Danish organic egg production. Based on scorings of severity and occurrence, 10 problems were selected for further analysis. The experts subsequently suggested and scored risk factors for those problems and finally suggested control points, alarm values indicating the need for corrective actions in order to control the risk factors and monitoring frequencies of these. The 10 selected problems were hunger, thirst, piling, crop impaction, blackhead, pasteurellosis, bone fractures, cannibalism, predators and red mites. A total of 154 different risk factors were suggested for these problems. The 41 risk factors which rated highest in a combined scoring of importance and occurrence were selected for further analysis. There was a high degree of consensus between experts when scoring both problems and risk factors. The level of consensus, as defined by an interquartile range 1, was 79% to 100% when scoring the health and welfare problems (scale 1-5) and 77% to 95% when scoring the risk factors (scale 1-4). On average, 5.8 control points were suggested for every risk factor. Alarm values were often not detailed enough to be of practical significance and further analysis is needed in order to define these. The experts were highly diverse in their suggested monitoring frequencies and establishment of monitoring schemes should be part of developing the farm specific systems. An expert panel analysis based on questionnaires was a useful tool during the first steps of developing a HACCP plan, conducting a hazard analysis and suggesting control

  9. Dictionaries and distributions: Combining expert knowledge and large scale textual data content analysis : Distributed dictionary representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garten, Justin; Hoover, Joe; Johnson, Kate M; Boghrati, Reihane; Iskiwitch, Carol; Dehghani, Morteza

    2017-03-31

    Theory-driven text analysis has made extensive use of psychological concept dictionaries, leading to a wide range of important results. These dictionaries have generally been applied through word count methods which have proven to be both simple and effective. In this paper, we introduce Distributed Dictionary Representations (DDR), a method that applies psychological dictionaries using semantic similarity rather than word counts. This allows for the measurement of the similarity between dictionaries and spans of text ranging from complete documents to individual words. We show how DDR enables dictionary authors to place greater emphasis on construct validity without sacrificing linguistic coverage. We further demonstrate the benefits of DDR on two real-world tasks and finally conduct an extensive study of the interaction between dictionary size and task performance. These studies allow us to examine how DDR and word count methods complement one another as tools for applying concept dictionaries and where each is best applied. Finally, we provide references to tools and resources to make this method both available and accessible to a broad psychological audience.

  10. Hearing the Signal in the Noise: A Software-Based Content Analysis of Patterns in Responses by Experts and Students to a New Venture Investment Proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostager, Todd J.; Voiovich, Jason; Hughes, Raymond K.

    2013-01-01

    The authors apply a software-based content analysis method to uncover differences in responses by expert entrepreneurs and undergraduate entrepreneur majors to a new venture investment proposal. Data analyzed via the Leximancer software package yielded conceptual maps highlighting key differences in the nature of these responses. Study methods and…

  11. Hearing the Signal in the Noise: A Software-Based Content Analysis of Patterns in Responses by Experts and Students to a New Venture Investment Proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostager, Todd J.; Voiovich, Jason; Hughes, Raymond K.

    2013-01-01

    The authors apply a software-based content analysis method to uncover differences in responses by expert entrepreneurs and undergraduate entrepreneur majors to a new venture investment proposal. Data analyzed via the Leximancer software package yielded conceptual maps highlighting key differences in the nature of these responses. Study methods and…

  12. Top-down and bottom-up definitions of human failure events in human reliability analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boring, Ronald Laurids [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-10-01

    In the probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) used in the nuclear industry, human failure events (HFEs) are determined as a subset of hardware failures, namely those hardware failures that could be triggered by human action or inaction. This approach is top-down, starting with hardware faults and deducing human contributions to those faults. Elsewhere, more traditionally human factors driven approaches would tend to look at opportunities for human errors first in a task analysis and then identify which of those errors is risk significant. The intersection of top-down and bottom-up approaches to defining HFEs has not been carefully studied. Ideally, both approaches should arrive at the same set of HFEs. This question is crucial, however, as human reliability analysis (HRA) methods are generalized to new domains like oil and gas. The HFEs used in nuclear PRAs tend to be top-down—defined as a subset of the PRA—whereas the HFEs used in petroleum quantitative risk assessments (QRAs) often tend to be bottom-up—derived from a task analysis conducted by human factors experts. The marriage of these approaches is necessary in order to ensure that HRA methods developed for top-down HFEs are also sufficient for bottom-up applications.

  13. Expert systems and the CPI product substitution review: A needs analysis for the US Bureau of Labor Statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arrowood, L.F.; Tonn, B.E.

    1992-02-01

    This report presents recommendations relative to the use of expert systems and machine learning techniques by the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) to substantially automate product substitution decisions associated with the Consumer Price Index (CPI). Thirteen commercially available, PC-based expert system shells have received in-depth evaluations. Various machine learning techniques were also reviewed. Two recommendations are given: (1) BLS should use the expert system shell LEVEL5 OBJECT and establish a software development methodology for expert systems; and (2) BLS should undertake a small study to evaluate the potential of machine learning techniques to create and maintain the approximately 350 ELI-specific knowledge bases to be used in CPI product substitution review.

  14. Expert judgment-based risk assessment using statistical scenario analysis: a case study-running the bulls in Pamplona (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallor, Fermín; García-Olaverri, Carmen; Gómez-Elvira, Sagrario; Mateo-Collazas, Pedro

    2008-08-01

    In this article, we present a methodology to assess the risk incurred by a participant in an activity involving danger of injury. The lack of high-quality historical data for the case considered prevented us from constructing a sufficiently detailed statistical model. It was therefore decided to generate a risk assessment model based on expert judgment. The methodology is illustrated in a real case context: the assessment of risk to participants in a San Fermin bull-run in Pamplona (Spain). The members of the panel of "experts on the bull-run" represented very different perspectives on the phenomenon: runners, surgeons and other health care personnel, journalists, civil defense workers, security staff, organizers, herdsmen, authors of books on the bull-run, etc. We consulted 55 experts. Our methodology includes the design of a survey instrument to elicit the experts' views and the statistical and mathematical procedures used to aggregate their subjective opinions.

  15. Improvements and Limitations of Humanized Mouse Models for HIV Research: NIH/NIAID "Meet the Experts" 2015 Workshop Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkina, Ramesh; Allam, Atef; Balazs, Alejandro B; Blankson, Joel N; Burnett, John C; Casares, Sofia; Garcia, J Victor; Hasenkrug, Kim J; Kashanchi, Fatah; Kitchen, Scott G; Klein, Florian; Kumar, Priti; Luster, Andrew D; Poluektova, Larisa Y; Rao, Mangala; Sanders-Beer, Brigitte E; Shultz, Leonard D; Zack, Jerome A

    2016-02-01

    The number of humanized mouse models for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and other infectious diseases has expanded rapidly over the past 8 years. Highly immunodeficient mouse strains, such as NOD/SCID/gamma chain(null) (NSG, NOG), support better human hematopoietic cell engraftment. Another improvement is the derivation of highly immunodeficient mice, transgenic with human leukocyte antigens (HLAs) and cytokines that supported development of HLA-restricted human T cells and heightened human myeloid cell engraftment. Humanized mice are also used to study the HIV reservoir using new imaging techniques. Despite these advances, there are still limitations in HIV immune responses and deficits in lymphoid structures in these models in addition to xenogeneic graft-versus-host responses. To understand and disseminate the improvements and limitations of humanized mouse models to the scientific community, the NIH sponsored and convened a meeting on April 15, 2015 to discuss the state of knowledge concerning these questions and best practices for selecting a humanized mouse model for a particular scientific investigation. This report summarizes the findings of the NIH meeting.

  16. Analysis of the relationship between the application of negotiation style and conflict management strategies physical education's experts in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Hassannejad, Mojtaba; Zarei, Ali; Ashrafganjouei, Farideh

    2017-01-01

    The conflict is a major behavioral complication of groups. The manager who knows the basic principles of conflict and negotiation will be ready to deal successfully with these inevitable situations. However, this study aimed to explain the role of negotiation in conflict management among physical education experts in Education and Training System of Iran. This study applied analytical- correlation study. The sample consisted of 217 physical education experts. The Robbins' Conflict Manage...

  17. Balzac and human gait analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado-Vázquez, S; Carrillo, J M

    2015-05-01

    People have been interested in movement analysis in general, and gait analysis in particular, since ancient times. Aristotle, Hippocrates, Galen, Leonardo da Vinci and Honoré de Balzac all used observation to analyse the gait of human beings. The purpose of this study is to compare Honoré de Balzac's writings with a scientific analysis of human gait. Honoré de Balzac's Theory of walking and other works by that author referring to gait. Honoré de Balzac had an interest in gait analysis, as demonstrated by his descriptions of characters which often include references to their way of walking. He also wrote a treatise entitled Theory of walking (Théorie de la demarche) in which he employed his keen observation skills to define gait using a literary style. He stated that the walking process is divided into phases and listed the factors that influence gait, such as personality, mood, height, weight, profession and social class, and also provided a description of the correct way of walking. Balzac considered gait analysis to be very important and this is reflected in both his character descriptions and Theory of walking, his analytical observation of gait. In our own technology-dominated times, this serves as a reminder of the importance of observation. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Accident Sequence Evaluation Program: Human reliability analysis procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swain, A.D.

    1987-02-01

    This document presents a shortened version of the procedure, models, and data for human reliability analysis (HRA) which are presented in the Handbook of Human Reliability Analysis With emphasis on Nuclear Power Plant Applications (NUREG/CR-1278, August 1983). This shortened version was prepared and tried out as part of the Accident Sequence Evaluation Program (ASEP) funded by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and managed by Sandia National Laboratories. The intent of this new HRA procedure, called the ''ASEP HRA Procedure,'' is to enable systems analysts, with minimal support from experts in human reliability analysis, to make estimates of human error probabilities and other human performance characteristics which are sufficiently accurate for many probabilistic risk assessments. The ASEP HRA Procedure consists of a Pre-Accident Screening HRA, a Pre-Accident Nominal HRA, a Post-Accident Screening HRA, and a Post-Accident Nominal HRA. The procedure in this document includes changes made after tryout and evaluation of the procedure in four nuclear power plants by four different systems analysts and related personnel, including human reliability specialists. The changes consist of some additional explanatory material (including examples), and more detailed definitions of some of the terms. 42 refs.

  19. Improving Human/Autonomous System Teaming Through Linguistic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meszaros, Erica L.

    2016-01-01

    An area of increasing interest for the next generation of aircraft is autonomy and the integration of increasingly autonomous systems into the national airspace. Such integration requires humans to work closely with autonomous systems, forming human and autonomous agent teams. The intention behind such teaming is that a team composed of both humans and autonomous agents will operate better than homogenous teams. Procedures exist for licensing pilots to operate in the national airspace system and current work is being done to define methods for validating the function of autonomous systems, however there is no method in place for assessing the interaction of these two disparate systems. Moreover, currently these systems are operated primarily by subject matter experts, limiting their use and the benefits of such teams. Providing additional information about the ongoing mission to the operator can lead to increased usability and allow for operation by non-experts. Linguistic analysis of the context of verbal communication provides insight into the intended meaning of commonly heard phrases such as "What's it doing now?" Analyzing the semantic sphere surrounding these common phrases enables the prediction of the operator's intent and allows the interface to supply the operator's desired information.

  20. Chapter 12: Human microbiome analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xochitl C Morgan

    Full Text Available Humans are essentially sterile during gestation, but during and after birth, every body surface, including the skin, mouth, and gut, becomes host to an enormous variety of microbes, bacterial, archaeal, fungal, and viral. Under normal circumstances, these microbes help us to digest our food and to maintain our immune systems, but dysfunction of the human microbiota has been linked to conditions ranging from inflammatory bowel disease to antibiotic-resistant infections. Modern high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatic tools provide a powerful means of understanding the contribution of the human microbiome to health and its potential as a target for therapeutic interventions. This chapter will first discuss the historical origins of microbiome studies and methods for determining the ecological diversity of a microbial community. Next, it will introduce shotgun sequencing technologies such as metagenomics and metatranscriptomics, the computational challenges and methods associated with these data, and how they enable microbiome analysis. Finally, it will conclude with examples of the functional genomics of the human microbiome and its influences upon health and disease.

  1. NEPHRUS: model of intelligent multilayers expert system for evaluation of the renal system based on scintigraphic images analysis; NEPRUS: modelo de sistema especialista em multicamadas inteligentes para avaliacao do sistema urinario baseado na analise de imagens cintilograficas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Jose W.E. da; Schirru, Roberto [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia; Boasquevisque, Edson M. [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Medicina Nuclear

    1997-10-01

    This work develops a prototype for the system model based on Artificial Intelligence devices able to perform functions related to scintigraphic image analysis of the urinary system. Criteria used by medical experts for analysis images obtained with {sup 99m} Tc+DTPA and/or {sup 99m} Tc+DMSA were modeled and a multi resolution diagnosis technique was implemented. Special attention was given to the programs user interface design. Human Factor Engineering techniques were considered so as to ally friendliness and robustness. Results obtained using Artificial Neural Networks for the qualitative image analysis and the knowledge model constructed shows the feasibility of Artificial Intelligence implementation that use `inherent` abilities of each technique in the resolution of diagnosis image analysis problems. (author). 12 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Human Factors Considerations in New Nuclear Power Plants: Detailed Analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OHara,J.; Higgins, J.; Brown, W.; Fink, R.

    2008-02-14

    This Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) sponsored study has identified human-performance issues in new and advanced nuclear power plants. To identify the issues, current industry developments and trends were evaluated in the areas of reactor technology, instrumentation and control technology, human-system integration technology, and human factors engineering (HFE) methods and tools. The issues were organized into seven high-level HFE topic areas: Role of Personnel and Automation, Staffing and Training, Normal Operations Management, Disturbance and Emergency Management, Maintenance and Change Management, Plant Design and Construction, and HFE Methods and Tools. The issues where then prioritized into four categories using a 'Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table' methodology based on evaluations provided by 14 independent subject matter experts. The subject matter experts were knowledgeable in a variety of disciplines. Vendors, utilities, research organizations and regulators all participated. Twenty issues were categorized into the top priority category. This Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) technical report provides the detailed methodology, issue analysis, and results. A summary of the results of this study can be found in NUREG/CR-6947. The research performed for this project has identified a large number of human-performance issues for new control stations and new nuclear power plant designs. The information gathered in this project can serve as input to the development of a long-term strategy and plan for addressing human performance in these areas through regulatory research. Addressing human-performance issues will provide the technical basis from which regulatory review guidance can be developed to meet these challenges. The availability of this review guidance will help set clear expectations for how the NRC staff will evaluate new designs, reduce regulatory uncertainty, and provide a well-defined path to new nuclear power plant

  3. Fluctuation Analysis of Human Electroencephalogram

    CERN Document Server

    Hwa, R C; Hwa, Rudolph C.; Ferree, Thomas C.

    2001-01-01

    The scaling behaviors of the human electroencephalogram (EEG) time series are studied using detrended fluctuation analysis. Two scaling regions are found in nearly every channel for all subjects examined. The scatter plot of the scaling exponents for all channels (up to 129) reveals the complicated structure of a subject's brain activity. Moment analyses are performed to extract the gross features of all the scaling exponents, and another universal scaling behavior is identified. A one-parameter description is found to characterize the fluctuation properties of the nonlinear behaviors of the brain dynamics.

  4. Contextual Factors for Finding Similar Experts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofmann, Katja; Balog, Krisztian; Bogers, Toine;

    2010-01-01

    Expertise-seeking research studies how people search for expertise and choose whom to contact in the context of a specific task. An important outcome are models that identify factors that influence expert finding. Expertise retrieval addresses the same problem, expert finding, but from a system......-seeking models, are rarely taken into account. In this article, we extend content-based expert-finding approaches with contextual factors that have been found to influence human expert finding. We focus on a task of science communicators in a knowledge-intensive environment, the task of finding similar experts......, given an example expert. Our approach combines expertise-seeking and retrieval research. First, we conduct a user study to identify contextual factors that may play a role in the studied task and environment. Then, we design expert retrieval models to capture these factors. We combine these with content...

  5. Investigating Cognitive Task Difficulties and Expert Skills in E-Learning Storyboards Using a Cognitive Task Analysis Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusoff, Nor'ain Mohd; Salim, Siti Salwah

    2012-01-01

    E-learning storyboards have been a useful approach in distance learning development to support interaction between instructional designers and subject-matter experts. Current works show that researchers are focusing on different approaches for use in storyboards, and there is less emphasis on the effect of design and process difficulties faced by…

  6. Enrolment of Newcomers in Expert Cultures: An Analysis of Epistemic Practices in a Legal Education Introductory Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Karen; Nerland, Monika; Enqvist-Jensen, Cecilie

    2015-01-01

    This article focusses on the transformative role of knowledge in student learning, paying particular attention to the mechanisms that facilitate the "enrolment" of students into their prospective expert cultures. It is vital for educational policy and practice to develop an understanding of how students enter a specialised knowledge…

  7. EXPERT SYSTEMS - DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURAL INSURANCE TOOL

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Because of the fact that specialty agricultural assistance is not always available when the farmers need it, we identified expert systems as a strong instrument with an extended potential in agriculture. This started to grow in scale recently, including all socially-economic activity fields, having the role of collecting data regarding different aspects from human experts with the purpose of assisting the user in the necessary steps for solving problems, at the performance level of the expert...

  8. Expert systems in treating substance abuse.

    OpenAIRE

    Wesson, D R; Hink, R H

    1990-01-01

    Computer programs can assist humans in solving complex problems that cannot be solved by traditional computational techniques using mathematic formulas. These programs, or "expert systems," are commonly used in finance, engineering, and computer design. Although not routinely used in medicine at present, medical expert systems have been developed to assist physicians in solving many kinds of medical problems that traditionally require consultation from a physician specialist. No expert system...

  9. Road Safety Data, Collection, Transfer and Analysis DaCoTa. Workpackage 4, Decision Support: Deliverable 4.1: Consultation of a panel of experts on the needs for data and technical tools in road safety policy-making.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dupont, E. Martensen, H. Papadimitriou, E. Yannis, G. Muhlrad, N. Jähi, H. Vallet, G. Giustiniani, G. Tripodi, A. Usami, D. Bax, C. Wijnen, W. Schöne, M.-L. Machata, K. Buttle, I. Zysinska, M. Talbot, R. Gitelman, V. & Hakkert, S.

    2015-01-01

    In a co-production of DaCoTA WP1 and DaCoTA WP4, an Experts Panel was created and a consultation was launched for the preliminary assessment of knowledge, data and analysis needs within road safety management. The objective of the consultation of this Experts Panel was the assessment of current need

  10. What Are Expert Systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Agapeyeff, A.

    1986-01-01

    Intended for potential business users, this paper describes the main characteristics of expert systems; discusses practical use considerations; presents a taxonomy of the systems; and reviews several expert system development projects in business and industry. (MBR)

  11. Task analysis and computer aid development for human reliability analysis in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, W. C.; Kim, H.; Park, H. S.; Choi, H. H.; Moon, J. M.; Heo, J. Y.; Ham, D. H.; Lee, K. K.; Han, B. T. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejeon (Korea)

    2001-04-01

    Importance of human reliability analysis (HRA) that predicts the error's occurrence possibility in a quantitative and qualitative manners is gradually increased by human errors' effects on the system's safety. HRA needs a task analysis as a virtue step, but extant task analysis techniques have the problem that a collection of information about the situation, which the human error occurs, depends entirely on HRA analyzers. The problem makes results of the task analysis inconsistent and unreliable. To complement such problem, KAERI developed the structural information analysis (SIA) that helps to analyze task's structure and situations systematically. In this study, the SIA method was evaluated by HRA experts, and a prototype computerized supporting system named CASIA (Computer Aid for SIA) was developed for the purpose of supporting to perform HRA using the SIA method. Additionally, through applying the SIA method to emergency operating procedures, we derived generic task types used in emergency and accumulated the analysis results in the database of the CASIA. The CASIA is expected to help HRA analyzers perform the analysis more easily and consistently. If more analyses will be performed and more data will be accumulated to the CASIA's database, HRA analyzers can share freely and spread smoothly his or her analysis experiences, and there by the quality of the HRA analysis will be improved. 35 refs., 38 figs., 25 tabs. (Author)

  12. Expert auditors’ services classification

    OpenAIRE

    Jolanta Wisniewska

    2013-01-01

    The profession of an expert auditor is a public trust occupation with a distinctive feature of taking responsibility for actions in the public interest. The main responsibility of expert auditors is performing financial auditing; however, expert auditors are prepared to carry out different tasks which encompass a wide plethora of financial and auditing services for different kinds of institutions and companies. The aim of the article is first of all the description of expert auditors’ service...

  13. Tactical Weather Expert System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this project was to assess the feasibility of developing an expert system for tactical weather prediction. Using WILLARD, an expert ...indicate that intelligent interpretations of cloud formations can be made. These inferences can then be automatically passed to the expert system for...processing as another piece of information. It is anticipated that this technology will significantly reduce the dependence of the expert system on a

  14. Problematic Aspects of the Use of Expert Systems in Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Kalinauskas

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The usage of expert systems in law brings many problematic questions. Complexity and intricacy of law, combined with limited possibilities of information technologies makes it difficult to create flawlessly working expert systems. In this article the author analyses problematic aspects related to expert system usage in law. Comparisons of various research are made according to analysis of scientific articles. The author analyses practical difficulties of legal norm representation, creation of expert knowledge ontology, expert systems liability issues. Legal responsibility of expert system developers, users, and owners are also covered in this paper. Creation of legal ontologies is a complicated process because of the nature of the subject itself and the complexity and quantity of knowledge which must be represented in order to have fully functional legal expert system. Legal information basically consists of legal norms, doctrine, precedents and expert knowledge. All of these areas have specific representation issues, but the most difficult part is to make ontology and representation of expert knowledge. Different experts may have distinct points of view in some similar cases. Human decisions are made not only by applying certain rules to the problem decision pattern. Providence, analytical skills and critical thinking is required in legal professional work. Human reasoning and decision-making is not only based on symbolic values, it also consists of intermediate symbolic assumptions. So the question is: is it possible to give a clear structure to something which has no permanent state? The other problem which is analyzed in this article is artificial reasoning methods, which are basically different forms of pattern recognition with some specific methods applied to them. The second part of the paper analyses the liability of expert systems. Nowadays expert systems can’t be legally responsible for their decisions. They lack

  15. Problematic Aspects of the Use of Expert Systems in Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Kalinauskas

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The usage of expert systems in law brings many problematic questions. Complexity and intricacy of law, combined with limited possibilities of information technologies makes it difficult to create flawlessly working expert systems. In this article the author analyses problematic aspects related to expert system usage in law. Comparisons of various research are made according to analysis of scientific articles. The author analyses practical difficulties of legal norm representation, creation of expert knowledge ontology, expert systems liability issues. Legal responsibility of expert system developers, users, and owners are also covered in this paper. Creation of legal ontologies is a complicated process because of the nature of the subject itself and the complexity and quantity of knowledge which must be represented in order to have fully functional legal expert system. Legal information basically consists of legal norms, doctrine, precedents and expert knowledge. All of these areas have specific representation issues, but the most difficult part is to make ontology and representation of expert knowledge. Different experts may have distinct points of view in some similar cases. Human decisions are made not only by applying certain rules to the problem decision pattern. Providence, analytical skills and critical thinking is required in legal professional work. Human reasoning and decision-making is not only based on symbolic values, it also consists of intermediate symbolic assumptions. So the question is: is it possible to give a clear structure to something which has no permanent state? The other problem which is analyzed in this article is artificial reasoning methods, which are basically different forms of pattern recognition with some specific methods applied to them. The second part of the paper analyses the liability of expert systems. Nowadays expert systems can’t be legally responsible for their decisions. They lack intellectual

  16. An Expert System in FRP Composite Material Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    An expert system prototype for fibre-reinforced plastic matrix (FRP) composite material design,ESFRP, has been developed. The system consists of seven main functional parts: a general inference engine, a set of knowledge bases, a material properties algorithm base, an explanation engine, various data bases, several function models and the user interface. The ESFRP can simulate human experts to make design scheme for fibre-reinforced plastics design, FRP layered plates design and FRP typical engineering components design. It can also predict the material properties and make strength analysis according to the micro and macro mechanics of composite materials. A satisfied result can be gained through the reiterative design.

  17. Study on Performance Shaping Factors (PSFs) Quantification Method in Human Reliability Analysis (HRA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ar Ryum; Jang, Inseok Jang; Seong, Poong Hyun [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jinkyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Hyun [KEPCO, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The purpose of HRA implementation is 1) to achieve the human factor engineering (HFE) design goal of providing operator interfaces that will minimize personnel errors and 2) to conduct an integrated activity to support probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). For these purposes, various HRA methods have been developed such as technique for human error rate prediction (THERP), simplified plant analysis risk human reliability assessment (SPAR-H), cognitive reliability and error analysis method (CREAM) and so on. In performing HRA, such conditions that influence human performances have been represented via several context factors called performance shaping factors (PSFs). PSFs are aspects of the human's individual characteristics, environment, organization, or task that specifically decrements or improves human performance, thus respectively increasing or decreasing the likelihood of human errors. Most HRA methods evaluate the weightings of PSFs by expert judgment and explicit guidance for evaluating the weighting is not provided. It has been widely known that the performance of the human operator is one of the critical factors to determine the safe operation of NPPs. HRA methods have been developed to identify the possibility and mechanism of human errors. In performing HRA methods, the effect of PSFs which may increase or decrease human error should be investigated. However, the effect of PSFs were estimated by expert judgment so far. Accordingly, in order to estimate the effect of PSFs objectively, the quantitative framework to estimate PSFs by using PSF profiles is introduced in this paper.

  18. An Expert System Approach to Global Fault Detection and Isolation Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    problem solving skill of a human expert in a narrow domain. The development of the expert systen design assistant is feasible since the domain...technology. An expert system is a computer program that mimics the problem solving skill of a human expert in a narrow domain. The development of the expert

  19. Persuasiveness of expert systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, JJ; Liebrand, WBG; Timminga, E; Liebrand, Wim B.G.

    1998-01-01

    Expert system advice is not always evaluated by examining its contents. Users can be persuaded by expert system advice because they have certain beliefs about advice given by a computer. The experiment in this paper shows that subjects (n = 84) thought that, given the same argumentation, expert syst

  20. Development Expert System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Heng

    2010-01-01

    The expert system is a high-level technology.It is a sub-field of artificial intelligence.We demonstrated the character and software evaluation,carrying out an initial study of expert system.A good development expert system was developed.

  1. Applications of advanced data analysis and expert system technologies in the ATLAS Trigger-DAQ Controls framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avolio, G.; Corso Radu, A.; Kazarov, A.; Lehmann Miotto, G.; Magnoni, L.

    2012-12-01

    The Trigger and Data Acquisition (TDAQ) system of the ATLAS experiment is a very complex distributed computing system, composed of more than 20000 applications running on more than 2000 computers. The TDAQ Controls system has to guarantee the smooth and synchronous operations of all the TDAQ components and has to provide the means to minimize the downtime of the system caused by runtime failures. During data taking runs, streams of information messages sent or published by running applications are the main sources of knowledge about correctness of running operations. The huge flow of operational monitoring data produced is constantly monitored by experts in order to detect problems or misbehaviours. Given the scale of the system and the rates of data to be analyzed, the automation of the system functionality in the areas of operational monitoring, system verification, error detection and recovery is a strong requirement. To accomplish its objective, the Controls system includes some high-level components which are based on advanced software technologies, namely the rule-based Expert System and the Complex Event Processing engines. The chosen techniques allow to formalize, store and reuse the knowledge of experts and thus to assist the shifters in the ATLAS control room during the data-taking activities.

  2. Analysis of the relationship between the number of citations and the quality evaluated by experts in psychology journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buela-Casal, Gualberto; Zych, Izabela

    2010-05-01

    The study analyzes the relationship between the number of citations as calculated by the IN-RECS database and the quality evaluated by experts. The articles published in journals of the Spanish Psychological Association between 1996 and 2008 and selected by the Editorial Board of Psychology in Spain were the subject of the study. Psychology in Spain is a journal that includes the best papers published throughout the previous year, chosen by the Editorial Board made up of fifty specialists of acknowledged prestige within Spanish psychology and translated into English. The number of the citations of the 140 original articles republished in Psychology in Spain was compared to the number of the citations of the 140 randomly selected articles. Additionally, the study searched for a relationship between the number of the articles selected from each journal and their mean number of citations. The number of citations received by the best articles as evaluated by experts is significantly higher than the number of citations of the randomly selected articles. Also, the number of citations is higher in the articles from the most frequently selected journals. A statistically significant relation between the quality evaluated by experts and the number of the citations was found.

  3. Epidemiology of environmental exposures and human autoimmune diseases: findings from a National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Expert Panel Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Frederick W; Alfredsson, Lars; Costenbader, Karen H; Kamen, Diane L; Nelson, Lorene M; Norris, Jill M; De Roos, Anneclaire J

    2012-12-01

    Autoimmune diseases (AID) are a collection of many complex disorders of unknown etiology resulting in immune responses to self-antigens and are thought to result from interactions between genetic and environmental factors. Here we review the epidemiologic evidence for the role of environmental factors in the development of human AID, the conclusions that can be drawn from the existing data, critical knowledge gaps, and research needed to fill these gaps and to resolve uncertainties. We specifically summarize the state of knowledge and our levels of confidence in the role of specific agents in the development of autoimmune diseases, and we define the areas of greatest impact for future investigations. Among our consensus findings we are confident that: 1) crystalline silica exposure can contribute to the development of several AID; 2) solvent exposure can contribute to the development of systemic sclerosis; 3) smoking can contribute to the development of seropositive rheumatoid arthritis; and 4) an inverse association exists between ultraviolet radiation exposure and the risk of development of multiple sclerosis. We suggest that more studies of phenotypes, genotypes, and multiple exposures are needed. Additional knowledge gaps needing investigation include: defining important windows in the timing of exposures and latencies relating to age, developmental state, and hormonal changes; understanding dose-response relationships; and elucidating mechanisms for disease development. Addressing these essential issues will require more resources to support research, particularly of rare AID, but knowledge of the risks conferred by environmental factors in specific genetic contexts could pave the way for prevention of AID in the future.

  4. Expert witness and Jungian archetypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallave, Juan Antonio; Gutheil, Thomas Gordon

    2012-01-01

    Jung's theories of archetype, shadow, and the personal and collective unconscious provide a postmodern framework in which to consider the role of the expert witness in judicial proceedings. Archetypal themes, motifs, and influences help to illuminate the shadow of the judicial system and projections and behaviors among the cast of the court in pursuing justice. This article speaks to archetypal influences and dialectical tensions encountered by the expert witness in this judicial drama. The archetype of Justice is born from the human need for order and relational fairness in a world of chaos. The persona of justice is the promise of truth in the drama. The shadow of justice is untruth, the need to win by any means. The dynamics of the trickster archetype serve and promote injustice. These influences are examined by means of a case example. This approach will deepen understanding of court proceedings and the role of the expert witness in the heroic quest for justice.

  5. Expert System Detects Power-Distribution Faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Jerry L.; Quinn, Todd M.

    1994-01-01

    Autonomous Power Expert (APEX) computer program is prototype expert-system program detecting faults in electrical-power-distribution system. Assists human operators in diagnosing faults and deciding what adjustments or repairs needed for immediate recovery from faults or for maintenance to correct initially nonthreatening conditions that could develop into faults. Written in Lisp.

  6. Expert status and performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Burgman

    Full Text Available Expert judgements are essential when time and resources are stretched or we face novel dilemmas requiring fast solutions. Good advice can save lives and large sums of money. Typically, experts are defined by their qualifications, track record and experience. The social expectation hypothesis argues that more highly regarded and more experienced experts will give better advice. We asked experts to predict how they will perform, and how their peers will perform, on sets of questions. The results indicate that the way experts regard each other is consistent, but unfortunately, ranks are a poor guide to actual performance. Expert advice will be more accurate if technical decisions routinely use broadly-defined expert groups, structured question protocols and feedback.

  7. A Human Body Analysis System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girondel Vincent

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a system for human body analysis (segmentation, tracking, face/hands localisation, posture recognition from a single view that is fast and completely automatic. The system first extracts low-level data and uses part of the data for high-level interpretation. It can detect and track several persons even if they merge or are completely occluded by another person from the camera's point of view. For the high-level interpretation step, static posture recognition is performed using a belief theory-based classifier. The belief theory is considered here as a new approach for performing posture recognition and classification using imprecise and/or conflicting data. Four different static postures are considered: standing, sitting, squatting, and lying. The aim of this paper is to give a global view and an evaluation of the performances of the entire system and to describe in detail each of its processing steps, whereas our previous publications focused on a single part of the system. The efficiency and the limits of the system have been highlighted on a database of more than fifty video sequences where a dozen different individuals appear. This system allows real-time processing and aims at monitoring elderly people in video surveillance applications or at the mixing of real and virtual worlds in ambient intelligence systems.

  8. Expert system rheometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samiul Amin

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Inks, drilling fluids, shower gels and drug delivery vehicles are just a few examples of the many industrial and consumer products based on colloidal and nanostructured complex fluids. The successful formulation of these materials is promoted by understanding how rheological behaviour, which typically dictates performance, relates to underlying microstructure. However, this knowledge can be difficult to obtain for those without the necessary expertise. This article shows how recent developments in rheometer technology address this issue. New rheometers, exemplified by the Kinexus from Malvern have expert knowledge embedded within the instrument and are able to guide users through measurement and data analysis to relevant information. Such systems facilitate development of the design rules to optimize formulations and generate novel and high performance materials of the future.

  9. An Expert System Approach for Garden Designing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NiloofarMozafari

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, the quality of human life is improved by artificial intelligencetechniques. In artificial intelligence, an expert system is a computer system that emulates thedecision-making ability of a human expert. Expert systems are designed to solve complexproblems by reasoning about knowledge, like an expert. In this paper, we propose an expertsystem with the aim of designing the garden with considering the different taste of thepeople. The proposed system can help people to design their garden themselves. Indeed, it isable to use by architectures to provide decision support system, interactive training tool andexpert advice. The system constitutes part of intelligent system of designing the garden. Aninitial evaluation of the expert system was carried out and a positive feedback was receivedfrom the users.

  10. Contextual Factors for Finding Similar Experts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofmann, Katja; Balog, Krisztian; Bogers, Toine

    2010-01-01

    -seeking models, are rarely taken into account. In this article, we extend content-based expert-finding approaches with contextual factors that have been found to influence human expert finding. We focus on a task of science communicators in a knowledge-intensive environment, the task of finding similar experts......, given an example expert. Our approach combines expertise-seeking and retrieval research. First, we conduct a user study to identify contextual factors that may play a role in the studied task and environment. Then, we design expert retrieval models to capture these factors. We combine these with content......-based retrieval models and evaluate them in a retrieval experiment. Our main finding is that while content-based features are the most important, human participants also take contextual factors into account, such as media experience and organizational structure. We develop two principled ways of modeling...

  11. Expert Systems in Civil Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    preparation for the next evaluation. Zozaya- Gorostiza and Hendrickson (18,p.4) allude to the importance of this for sensitivity analysis (i.e.- modifying...Intellignce, 2nd ed., Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc., Reading,1984. Zozaya- Gorostiza , Carlos and Chris Hendrickson, An Expert 8ystem for

  12. The Eigenmode Analysis of Human Motion

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Juyong; Gonzalez, Marta C

    2016-01-01

    Rapid advances in modern communication technology are enabling the accumulation of large-scale, high-resolution observational data of spatiotemporal movements of humans. Classification and prediction of human mobility based on the analysis of such data carry great potential in applications such as urban planning as well as being of theoretical interest. A robust theoretical framework is therefore required to study and properly understand human motion. Here we perform the eigenmode analysis of human motion data gathered from mobile communication records, which allows us to explore the scaling properties and characteristics of human motion.

  13. The eigenmode analysis of human motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Juyong; Lee, Deok-Sun; González, Marta C.

    2010-11-01

    Rapid advances in modern communication technology are enabling the accumulation of large-scale, high-resolution observational data of the spatiotemporal movements of humans. Classification and prediction of human mobility based on the analysis of such data has great potential in applications such as urban planning in addition to being a subject of theoretical interest. A robust theoretical framework is therefore required to study and properly understand human motion. Here we perform the eigenmode analysis of human motion data gathered from mobile communication records, which allows us to explore the scaling properties and characteristics of human motion.

  14. ANALYSIS OF HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anis Cecilia - Nicoleta

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Along with other material, financial resources, human resource is an indispensable element of each work process. The concept of human resource derives exactly from the fact that it has a limited nature and it is consumed by usage in the workplace. Any work process cannot be developed without the labour factor. Work is essentially a conscious activity specific to humans through which they release certain labour objects and transforms them according to his needs.

  15. Directed proteomic analysis of the human nucleolus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens S; Lyon, Carol E; Fox, Archa H

    2002-01-01

    of their structure and function remain uncharacterized. RESULTS: We report a proteomic analysis of human nucleoli. Using a combination of mass spectrometry (MS) and sequence database searches, including online analysis of the draft human genome sequence, 271 proteins were identified. Over 30% of the nucleolar...

  16. Human Capital Development: Comparative Analysis of BRICs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardichvili, Alexandre; Zavyalova, Elena; Minina, Vera

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this article is to conduct macro-level analysis of human capital (HC) development strategies, pursued by four countries commonly referred to as BRICs (Brazil, Russia, India, and China). Design/methodology/approach: This analysis is based on comparisons of macro indices of human capital and innovativeness of the economy and a…

  17. Human Capital Development: Comparative Analysis of BRICs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardichvili, Alexandre; Zavyalova, Elena; Minina, Vera

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this article is to conduct macro-level analysis of human capital (HC) development strategies, pursued by four countries commonly referred to as BRICs (Brazil, Russia, India, and China). Design/methodology/approach: This analysis is based on comparisons of macro indices of human capital and innovativeness of the economy and a…

  18. Metagenomic Analysis of the Human Gut Microbiome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    dos Santos, Marcelo Bertalan Quintanilha

    Understanding the link between the human gut microbiome and human health is one of the biggest scientific challenges in our decade. Because 90% of our cells are bacteria, and the microbial genome contains 200 times more genes than the human genome, the study of the human microbiome has...... the potential to impact many areas of our health. This PhD thesis is the first study to generate a large amount of experimental data on the DNA and RNA of the human gut microbiome. This was made possible by our development of a human gut microbiome array capable of profiling any human gut microbiome. Analysis...... of our results changes the way we link the gut microbiome with diseases. Our results indicate that inflammatory diseases will affect the ecological system of the human gut microbiome, reducing its diversity. Classification analysis of healthy and unhealthy individuals demonstrates that unhealthy...

  19. Human reliability analysis of the Tehran research reactor using the SPAR-H method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barati Ramin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to cover human reliability analysis of the Tehran research reactor using an appropriate method for the representation of human failure probabilities. In the present work, the technique for human error rate prediction and standardized plant analysis risk-human reliability methods have been utilized to quantify different categories of human errors, applied extensively to nuclear power plants. Human reliability analysis is, indeed, an integral and significant part of probabilistic safety analysis studies, without it probabilistic safety analysis would not be a systematic and complete representation of actual plant risks. In addition, possible human errors in research reactors constitute a significant part of the associated risk of such installations and including them in a probabilistic safety analysis for such facilities is a complicated issue. Standardized plant analysis risk-human can be used to address these concerns; it is a well-documented and systematic human reliability analysis system with tables for human performance choices prepared in consultation with experts in the domain. In this method, performance shaping factors are selected via tables, human action dependencies are accounted for, and the method is well designed for the intended use. In this study, in consultations with reactor operators, human errors are identified and adequate performance shaping factors are assigned to produce proper human failure probabilities. Our importance analysis has revealed that human action contained in the possibility of an external object falling on the reactor core are the most significant human errors concerning the Tehran research reactor to be considered in reactor emergency operating procedures and operator training programs aimed at improving reactor safety.

  20. Human Performance Modeling for Dynamic Human Reliability Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boring, Ronald Laurids [Idaho National Laboratory; Joe, Jeffrey Clark [Idaho National Laboratory; Mandelli, Diego [Idaho National Laboratory

    2015-08-01

    Part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Light Water Reac- tor Sustainability (LWRS) Program, the Risk-Informed Safety Margin Charac- terization (RISMC) Pathway develops approaches to estimating and managing safety margins. RISMC simulations pair deterministic plant physics models with probabilistic risk models. As human interactions are an essential element of plant risk, it is necessary to integrate human actions into the RISMC risk framework. In this paper, we review simulation based and non simulation based human reliability analysis (HRA) methods. This paper summarizes the founda- tional information needed to develop a feasible approach to modeling human in- teractions in RISMC simulations.

  1. Larger right posterior parietal volume in action video game experts: a behavioral and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Satoshi; Ikeda, Hanako; Kasahara, Kazumi; Kato, Ryo; Tsubomi, Hiroyuki; Sugawara, Sho K; Mori, Makoto; Hanakawa, Takashi; Sadato, Norihiro; Honda, Manabu; Watanabe, Katsumi

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that action video game players exhibit superior performance in visuospatial cognitive tasks compared with non-game players. However, the neural basis underlying this visuospatial cognitive performance advantage remains largely unknown. The present human behavioral and imaging study compared gray matter volume in action video game experts and non-experts using structural magnetic resonance imaging and voxel-based morphometry analysis. The results revealed significantly larger gray matter volume in the right posterior parietal cortex in experts compared with non-experts. Furthermore, the larger gray matter volume in the right posterior parietal cortex significantly correlated with individual performance in a visual working memory task in experts. These results suggest that differences in brain structure may be linked to extensive video game play, leading to superior visuospatial cognitive performance in action video game experts.

  2. Applications of advanced data analysis and expert system technologies in the ATLAS Trigger-DAQ Controls framework

    CERN Document Server

    Avolio, G; The ATLAS collaboration; Kazarov, A; Lehmann Miotto, G; Magnoni, L

    2012-01-01

    The Trigger and DAQ system of the ATLAS experiment is a very complex distributed computing system, composed of more than 15000 applications running on more than 2000 computers. The TDAQ Controls system has to guarantee the smooth and synchronous operations of all the TDAQ components and has to provide the means to minimize the downtime of the system caused by runtime failures. During data taking runs, streams of information messages sent or published by running applications are the main sources of knowledge about correctness of running operations. The huge flow of operational monitoring data produced is constantly monitored by experts in order to detect problems or misbehaviours. Given the scale of the system and the rates of data to be analyzed, the automation of the system functionality in the areas of operational monitoring, system verification, error detection and recovery is a strong requirement. To accomplish its objective, the Controls system includes some high-level components which are based on advan...

  3. Applications of advanced data analysis and expert system technologies in the ATLAS Trigger-DAQ Controls framework

    CERN Document Server

    Avolio, G; The ATLAS collaboration; Kazarov, A; Lehmann Miotto, G; Magnoni, L

    2012-01-01

    The Trigger and DAQ system of the ATLAS experiment is a very complex distributed computing system, composed of more than 15000 applications running on more than 2000 computers. The TDAQ Controls system has to guarantee the smooth and synchronous operations of all the TDAQ components and has to provide the means to minimize the downtime of the system caused by runtime failures. During data taking runs, streams of information messages sent or published by running applications are the main sources of knowledge about correctness of running operations. The huge flow of operational monitoring data produced is constantly monitored by experts in order to detect problems or misbehaviours. Given the scale of the system and the rates of data to be analyzed, the automation of the system functionality in the areas of operational monitoring, system verification, error detection and recovery is a strong requirement. To accomplish its objective, the Controls system includes some high-level components which are based on advan...

  4. Analysis of human emotion in human-robot interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blar, Noraidah; Jafar, Fairul Azni; Abdullah, Nurhidayu; Muhammad, Mohd Nazrin; Kassim, Anuar Muhamed

    2015-05-01

    There is vast application of robots in human's works such as in industry, hospital, etc. Therefore, it is believed that human and robot can have a good collaboration to achieve an optimum result of work. The objectives of this project is to analyze human-robot collaboration and to understand humans feeling (kansei factors) when dealing with robot that robot should adapt to understand the humans' feeling. Researches currently are exploring in the area of human-robot interaction with the intention to reduce problems that subsist in today's civilization. Study had found that to make a good interaction between human and robot, first it is need to understand the abilities of each. Kansei Engineering in robotic was used to undergo the project. The project experiments were held by distributing questionnaire to students and technician. After that, the questionnaire results were analyzed by using SPSS analysis. Results from the analysis shown that there are five feelings which significant to the human in the human-robot interaction; anxious, fatigue, relaxed, peaceful, and impressed.

  5. Direct-to-consumer advertising for bleeding disorders: a content analysis and expert evaluation of advertising claims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, G. A.; Neufeld, E. J.; Sorel, M; Weeks, J. C.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requires that all direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) contain both an accurate statement of a medication’s effects (“truth”) and an even-handed discussion of its benefits and risks/adverse effects (“fair balance”). DTCA for medications to treat rare diseases such as bleeding disorders is unlikely to be given high priority for FDA review. METHODS We reviewed all DTCA for bleeding disorder products appearing in the patient-directed magazine HemeAware from January, 2004 to June, 2006. We categorized the information presented in each advertisement as benefit, risk/adverse effect, or neither, and assessed the amount of text and type size devoted to each. We also assessed the readability of each type of text using the Flesch Reading Ease Score (FRES, where a score of ≥ 65 is considered of average readability), and assessed the accuracy of the advertising claims utilizing a panel of five bleeding disorder experts. RESULTS A total of 39 unique advertisements for 12 products were found. On average, approximately twice the amount of text was devoted to benefits as compared to risks/adverse effects, and the later was more difficult to read (FRES of 20.45 for risks/adverse effects versus 32.08 for benefits; difference of 11.56 [95% CI: 4.52, 18.60]). Only about two-thirds of the advertising claims were considered by a majority of the experts to be based on at least low-quality evidence. CONCLUSION As measured by our methods, print DTCA for bleeding disorders may not reach the FDA’s standards of truth and fair balance. PMID:18647231

  6. A PRELIMINARY STUDY OF EXPERT SYSTEM FOR MINING UNDER STRUCTURES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴侃; 何国清; 曹立明

    1991-01-01

    The expert system MUST (Mining Under Structures) shown in this paper and established by the authors is a preliminary expert system to solve the policy-making problems formining under structures by means of computers instead of humanbeing. Based on the experience of relative experts,the authors established a knowledge base about the minings under structures ,researched into reasonable method to simulate thinking processes of human experts when they are solvin8 the problems, established the network of an expert system and named it'MUST system'MUST system uses the method of the structural system analysis approach. A kind of methods of Turbo Prolog and Fortran 77 language alternations is designed to meet the needs of exchange information within the MUST system. Based on this kind of methods MUST system has been constructed and realised on IBM-PC computer. For verifying the correctness. suitability and reliablity of MUST system,some practical examples of minings under structures were tentatively solved using MUST system ,whose results are satisfactory.

  7. Nephrus: expert system model in intelligent multilayers for evaluation of urinary system based on scintigraphic image analysis; Nephrus: modelo de sistema especialista em multicamadas inteligentes para avaliacao do sistema urinario baseado na analise de imagens cintilograficas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Jorge Wagner Esteves da; Schirru, Roberto [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Boasquevisque, Edson Mendes [Hospital dos Servidores do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Medicina Nuclear

    1999-11-01

    Renal function can be measured noninvasively with radionuclides in a extremely safe way compared to other diagnosis techniques. Nevertheless, due to the fact that radioactive materials are used in this procedure, it is necessary to maximize its benefits, therefore all efforts are justifiable in the development of data analysis support tools for this diagnosis modality. The objective of this work is to develop a prototype for a system model based on Artificial Intelligence devices able to perform functions related to cintilographic image analysis of the urinary system. Rules used by medical experts in the analysis of images obtained with {sup 99m} Tc+DTPA and /or {sup 99m} Tc+DMSA were modeled and a Neural Network diagnosis technique was implemented. Special attention was given for designing programs user-interface. Human Factor Engineering techniques were taking in account allowing friendliness and robustness. The image segmentation adopts a model based on Ideal ROIs, which represent the normal anatomic concept for urinary system organs. Results obtained using Artificial Neural Networks for qualitative image analysis and knowledge model constructed show the feasibility of Artificial Neural Networks for qualitative image analysis and knowledge model constructed show feasibility of Artificial Intelligence implementation that uses inherent abilities of each technique in the medical diagnosis image analysis. (author) 12 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Graphic Novels in Libraries: An Expert's Opinion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Katy

    2004-01-01

    Barbara Gordon a librarian and computer expert from Gotham city is a genius level intellect and photographic memory expert at research and analysis. According to her, graphic novels and comics are wildly appealing to readers of all ages and intensely popular with adolescents.

  9. WATERS Expert Query Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Expert Query Tool is a web-based reporting tool using the EPA’s WATERS database.There are just three steps to using Expert Query:1. View Selection – Choose what...

  10. How Expert Designers Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Carr; Dr. Peter Sloep; P. Kirschner; J. van Merrienboer

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses two studies - the one in a business context, the other in a university context - carried out with expert educational designers. The studies aimed to determine the priorities experts claim to employ when designing competence-based learning environments. Designers in both contexts

  11. Assessing short summaries with human judgments procedure and latent semantic analysis in narrative and expository texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, José A; Olmos, Ricardo; Escudero, Inmaculada; Cañas, José J; Salmerón, Lalo

    2006-11-01

    In the present study, we tested a computer-based procedure for assessing very concise summaries (50 words long) of two types of text (narrative and expository) using latent semantic analysis (LSA) in comparison with the judgments of four human experts. LSA was used to estimate semantic similarity using six different methods: four holistic (summary-text, summary-summaries, summary-expert summaries, and pregraded-ungraded summary) and two componential (summary-sentence text and summary-main sentence text). A total of 390 Spanish middle and high school students (14-16 years old) and six experts read a narrative or expository text and later summarized it. The results support the viability of developing a computerized assessment tool using human judgments and LSA, although the correlation between human judgments and LSA was higher in the narrative text than in the expository, and LSA correlated more with human content ratings thanwith hu mancoherence ratings. Finally, theholistic methods were found to be more reliable than the componential methods analyzed in this study.

  12. Expert networks in CLIPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruska, S. I.; Dalke, A.; Ferguson, J. J.; Lacher, R. C.

    1991-01-01

    Rule-based expert systems may be structurally and functionally mapped onto a special class of neural networks called expert networks. This mapping lends itself to adaptation of connectionist learning strategies for the expert networks. A parsing algorithm to translate C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) rules into a network of interconnected assertion and operation nodes has been developed. The translation of CLIPS rules to an expert network and back again is illustrated. Measures of uncertainty similar to those rules in MYCIN-like systems are introduced into the CLIPS system and techniques for combining and hiring nodes in the network based on rule-firing with these certainty factors in the expert system are presented. Several learning algorithms are under study which automate the process of attaching certainty factors to rules.

  13. Concepts of mental capacity for patients requesting assisted suicide: a qualitative analysis of expert evidence presented to the Commission on Assisted Dying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Annabel; McCormack, Ruaidhri; Wiseman, Theresa; Hotopf, Matthew

    2014-04-22

    In May 2013 a new Assisted Dying Bill was tabled in the House of Lords and is currently scheduled for a second reading in May 2014. The Bill was informed by the report of the Commission on Assisted Dying which itself was informed by evidence presented by invited experts.This study aims to explore how the experts presenting evidence to the Commission on Assisted Dying conceptualised mental capacity for patients requesting assisted suicide and examine these concepts particularly in relation to the principles of the Mental Capacity Act 2005. This study was a secondary qualitative analysis of 36 transcripts of oral evidence and 12 pieces of written evidence submitted by invited experts to the Commission on Assisted Dying using a framework approach. There was agreement on the importance of mental capacity as a central safeguard in proposed assisted dying legislation. Concepts of mental capacity, however, were inconsistent. There was a tendency towards a conceptual and clinical shift toward a presumption of incapacity. This appeared to be based on the belief that assisted suicide should only be open to those with a high degree of mental capacity to make the decision.The 'boundaries' around the definition of mental capacity appeared to be on a continuum between a circumscribed legal 'cognitive' definition of capacity (in which most applicants would be found to have capacity unless significantly cognitively impaired) and a more inclusive definition which would take into account wider concepts such as autonomy, rationality, voluntariness and decision specific factors such as motivation for decision making. Ideas presented to the Commission on Assisted Dying about mental capacity as it relates to assisted suicide were inconsistent and in a number of cases at variance with the principles of the Mental Capacity Act 2005. Further work needs to be done to establish a consensus as to what constitutes capacity for this decision and whether current legal frameworks are able to

  14. Analysis of Human Communication during Assembly Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-01

    AD-A7l 43 ANALYSIS OF HUMAN COMMUNICATION DURING ASSEMBLY TASKS in1(U) CRNEGIE-MELLO UNIY PITTSBURGH PA ROBOTICS INST UNCLSSIIEDK S BARBER ET AL...ao I Dur~~~~IngAbcbyTs; 7c .S:in i lSAo .0. Analysis of Human Communication During Assembly Tasks K. Suzanne Barber and Gerald J. Agin CMU-RI-TR-86-1...TYPE or REPORT & PE-Rioo CevCZaz Analysis of Human Communication During Assembly Inlterim Tasks I . PERFORMING 00RG. REPORT NUMBER 1. £UT~oOR~e) IL

  15. Expert Systems--The New International Language of Business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sondak, Norman E.; And Others

    A discussion of expert systems, computer programs designed to simulate human reasoning and expertise, begins with the assumption that few business educators understand the impact that expert systems will have on international business. The fundamental principles of the design and development of expert systems in business are outlined, with special…

  16. Human Reliability Analysis for Digital Human-Machine Interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald L. Boring

    2014-06-01

    This paper addresses the fact that existing human reliability analysis (HRA) methods do not provide guidance on digital human-machine interfaces (HMIs). Digital HMIs are becoming ubiquitous in nuclear power operations, whether through control room modernization or new-build control rooms. Legacy analog technologies like instrumentation and control (I&C) systems are costly to support, and vendors no longer develop or support analog technology, which is considered technologically obsolete. Yet, despite the inevitability of digital HMI, no current HRA method provides guidance on how to treat human reliability considerations for digital technologies.

  17. Space Mission Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of this project is to extend current ground-based Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) techniques to a long-duration, space-based tool to more effectively...

  18. ARSENIC SPECIATION ANALYSIS IN HUMAN SALIVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Determination of arsenic species in human saliva is potentially useful for biomonitoring of human exposure to arsenic and for studying arsenic metabolism. However, there is no report on the speciation analysis of arsenic in saliva. Methods: Arsenic species in saliva ...

  19. ARSENIC SPECIATION ANALYSIS IN HUMAN SALIVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Determination of arsenic species in human saliva is potentially useful for biomonitoring of human exposure to arsenic and for studying arsenic metabolism. However, there is no report on the speciation analysis of arsenic in saliva. Methods: Arsenic species in saliva ...

  20. [ANALYSIS USING AN EXPERT PANEL OF ACTIVITIES AND COMPETENCIES WHICH NURSING CLINICAL PRACTICE TUTORS IN THE COMUNIDAD AUTÓNOMA DE MADRID SHOULD POSSESS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argüello López, María Teresa; Palmar Santos, Ana María; Sellán Soto, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Although practical training has always been important in Nursing, it has reached a new dimension in the European Higher Education Area. This has involved adapting the syllabus, where one of the new features is considering clinical practice as an independent subject and also including the concept of competence as a result of the students' learning. The figure of the tutor becomes one of the key factors and therefore their activities and competencies must be defined. To enumerate and prioritize, by agreement, the main activities and competences by the tutor of clinical practices in the Comunidad Autónoma de Madrid should posses. METHODOLOGY. Quantitative focus, analysis by group of experts between 2010 and 2013. RESULTS. A total of 510 nurses have participated, 17 panels of experts have met and consensus has been reached on 22 competencies and 12 activities. The description of activities and competencies can be extremely useful for selecting, evaluating and developing nursing clinical practice tutors, becoming a baseline and reducing the subjectivity in the development of tutors according to the new demands of the European Higher Education Area.

  1. Human reliability analysis of control room operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Isaac J.A.L.; Carvalho, Paulo Victor R.; Grecco, Claudio H.S. [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Human reliability is the probability that a person correctly performs some system required action in a required time period and performs no extraneous action that can degrade the system Human reliability analysis (HRA) is the analysis, prediction and evaluation of work-oriented human performance using some indices as human error likelihood and probability of task accomplishment. Significant progress has been made in the HRA field during the last years, mainly in nuclear area. Some first-generation HRA methods were developed, as THERP (Technique for human error rate prediction). Now, an array of called second-generation methods are emerging as alternatives, for instance ATHEANA (A Technique for human event analysis). The ergonomics approach has as tool the ergonomic work analysis. It focus on the study of operator's activities in physical and mental form, considering at the same time the observed characteristics of operator and the elements of the work environment as they are presented to and perceived by the operators. The aim of this paper is to propose a methodology to analyze the human reliability of the operators of industrial plant control room, using a framework that includes the approach used by ATHEANA, THERP and the work ergonomics analysis. (author)

  2. Expert F# 20

    CERN Document Server

    Syme, Don; Cisternino, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Expert F# 2.0 is about practical programming in a beautiful language that puts the power and elegance of functional programming into the hands of professional developers. In combination with .NET, F# achieves unrivaled levels of programmer productivity and program clarity. Expert F# 2.0 is * The authoritative guide to F# by the inventor of F# * A comprehensive reference of F# concepts, syntax, and features * A treasury of expert F# techniques for practical, real-world programming F# isn't just another functional programming language. It's a general-purpose language ideal for real-world develop

  3. Expert System analysis of non-fuel assembly hardware and spent fuel disassembly hardware: Its generation and recommended disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williamson, Douglas Alan [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Almost all of the effort being expended on radioactive waste disposal in the United States is being focused on the disposal of spent Nuclear Fuel, with little consideration for other areas that will have to be disposed of in the same facilities. one area of radioactive waste that has not been addressed adequately because it is considered a secondary part of the waste issue is the disposal of the various Non-Fuel Bearing Components of the reactor core. These hardware components fall somewhat arbitrarily into two categories: Non-Fuel Assembly (NFA) hardware and Spent Fuel Disassembly (SFD) hardware. This work provides a detailed examination of the generation and disposal of NFA hardware and SFD hardware by the nuclear utilities of the United States as it relates to the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. All available sources of data on NFA and SFD hardware are analyzed with particular emphasis given to the Characteristics Data Base developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the characterization work performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratories and Rochester Gas & Electric. An Expert System developed as a portion of this work is used to assist in the prediction of quantities of NFA hardware and SFD hardware that will be generated by the United States` utilities. Finally, the hardware waste management practices of the United Kingdom, France, Germany, Sweden, and Japan are studied for possible application to the disposal of domestic hardware wastes. As a result of this work, a general classification scheme for NFA and SFD hardware was developed. Only NFA and SFD hardware constructed of zircaloy and experiencing a burnup of less than 70,000 MWD/MTIHM and PWR control rods constructed of stainless steel are considered Low-Level Waste. All other hardware is classified as Greater-ThanClass-C waste.

  4. Evaluation of Agri-Environmental Measures in the Venice Lagoon Watershed. Expert Knowledge Elicitation and Multi-Criteria Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Sgobbi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Various tools and approaches have been experimented worldwide to address the externalities arising from agricultural activities, among which the design of agri-environmental policies and the introduction of specific measures to cope with the environmental impacts of agricultural origin. The mechanisms adopted within the Common Agricultural Policy with such aim fall within the category of Agri-Environmental Schemes (AESs, which are market-based policy schemes aimed at providing farmers with the right incentives to adopt farming practices yielding positive environmental externalities and are based on voluntary participation. Given the intrinsic complexity of agro-ecosystems and the effects of farmers’ behaviour, the assessment of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of AESs is always challenging, and often both the environmental and economic effectiveness of AESs are questionable. The main objective of this paper is to present a framework for assessing the effectiveness of AESs in promoting social and environmental sustainability in Europe, based on experts’ knowledge. Experts’ knowledge, acquired through adequate elicitation strategies and managed with robust and transparent methodologies, can help building a system of information that can then be used to infer the effectiveness of agri-environmental measures, at least in comparative terms, if not in terms of quantitative absolute estimations. In the present study, the NetSyMoD framework approach has been adopted. First, a short introduction of the policy evaluation framework, the role of monitoring and performance indicators and of experts’ opinion is provided. Subsequently the methodology used to identify experts and to elicit their assessment on the effectiveness of AES schemes is presented. Finally, the paper provides a concrete example in which experts’ opinions have been used for the assessment exercise, and presents a framework for collecting, managing and integrating

  5. Evaluation of Agri-Environmental Measures in the Venice Lagoon Watershed. Expert Knowledge Elicitation and Multi-Criteria Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Giupponi

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Various tools and approaches have been experimented worldwide to address the externalities arising from agricultural activities, among which the design of agri-environmental policies and the introduction of specific measures to cope with the environmental impacts of agricultural origin. The mechanisms adopted within the Common Agricultural Policy with such aim fall within the category of Agri-Environmental Schemes (AESs, which are market-based policy schemes aimed at providing farmers with the right incentives to adopt farming practices yielding positive environmental externalities and are based on voluntary participation. Given the intrinsic complexity of agro-ecosystems and the effects of farmers’ behaviour, the assessment of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of AESs is always challenging, and often both the environmental and economic effectiveness of AESs are questionable. The main objective of this paper is to present a framework for assessing the effectiveness of AESs in promoting social and environmental sustainability in Europe, based on experts’ knowledge. Experts’ knowledge, acquired through adequate elicitation strategies and managed with robust and transparent methodologies, can help building a system of information that can then be used to infer the effectiveness of agri-environmental measures, at least in comparative terms, if not in terms of quantitative absolute estimations. In the present study, the NetSyMoD framework approach has been adopted. First, a short introduction of the policy evaluation framework, the role of monitoring and performance indicators and of experts’ opinion is provided. Subsequently the methodology used to identify experts and to elicit their assessment on the effectiveness of AES schemes is presented. Finally, the paper provides a concrete example in which experts’ opinions have been used for the assessment exercise, and presents a framework for collecting, managing and integrating

  6. An experimental analysis of human straight walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Ceccarelli, Marco

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, an experimental analysis of human straight walking has been presented. Experiments on human walking were carried out by using Cassino tracking system which is a passive cable-based measuring system. This system is adopted because it is capable of both pose and wrench measurements with fairly simple monitoring of operation. By using experimental results, trajectories of a human limb extremity and its posture have been analyzed; forces that are exerted against cables by the limb of a person under test have been measured by force sensors as well. Furthermore, by using experimental tests, modeling and characterization of the human straight walking gait have been proposed.

  7. Culture Representation in Human Reliability Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Gertman; Julie Marble; Steven Novack

    2006-12-01

    Understanding human-system response is critical to being able to plan and predict mission success in the modern battlespace. Commonly, human reliability analysis has been used to predict failures of human performance in complex, critical systems. However, most human reliability methods fail to take culture into account. This paper takes an easily understood state of the art human reliability analysis method and extends that method to account for the influence of culture, including acceptance of new technology, upon performance. The cultural parameters used to modify the human reliability analysis were determined from two standard industry approaches to cultural assessment: Hofstede’s (1991) cultural factors and Davis’ (1989) technology acceptance model (TAM). The result is called the Culture Adjustment Method (CAM). An example is presented that (1) reviews human reliability assessment with and without cultural attributes for a Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system attack, (2) demonstrates how country specific information can be used to increase the realism of HRA modeling, and (3) discusses the differences in human error probability estimates arising from cultural differences.

  8. 49 CFR 511.44 - Expert witnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Definition. An expert witness is one who, by reason of education, training, experience, or profession, has... the methodology underlying any analysis, and a full disclosure of the basis of any opinion. The...

  9. On modernist social sciences’ understanding of poverty and the role of poverty experts in the “conduct of conduct” of human subjects: a critique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diamantino Machado

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of my paper is to show that modernist social sciences have been directly involved in the construction and reproduction of poverty, and in the "conduct of conduct" of the scientifically labeled poor or the produced and reproduced "object" of poverty experts.

  10. Practical problems in aggregating expert opinions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booker, J.M.; Picard, R.R.; Meyer, M.A.

    1993-11-01

    Expert opinion is data given by a qualified person in response to a technical question. In these analyses, expert opinion provides information where other data are either sparse or non-existent. Improvements in forecasting result from the advantageous addition of expert opinion to observed data in many areas, such as meteorology and econometrics. More generally, analyses of large, complex systems often involve experts on various components of the system supplying input to a decision process; applications include such wide-ranging areas as nuclear reactor safety, management science, and seismology. For large or complex applications, no single expert may be knowledgeable enough about the entire application. In other problems, decision makers may find it comforting that a consensus or aggregation of opinions is usually better than a single opinion. Many risk and reliability studies require a single estimate for modeling, analysis, reporting, and decision making purposes. For problems with large uncertainties, the strategy of combining as diverse a set of experts as possible hedges against underestimation of that uncertainty. Decision makers are frequently faced with the task of selecting the experts and combining their opinions. However, the aggregation is often the responsibility of an analyst. Whether the decision maker or the analyst does the aggregation, the input for it, such as providing weights for experts or estimating other parameters, is imperfect owing to a lack of omniscience. Aggregation methods for expert opinions have existed for over thirty years; yet many of the difficulties with their use remain unresolved. The bulk of these problem areas are summarized in the sections that follow: sensitivities of results to assumptions, weights for experts, correlation of experts, and handling uncertainties. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the sources of these problems and describe their effects on aggregation.

  11. SELECTING EXPERTS USING DATA QUALITY CONCEPTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Barbosa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Personal networks are not always diverse or large enough to reach those with the right information. This problem increases when assembling a group of experts from around the world, something which is a challenge in Future-oriented Technology Analysis (FTA. In this work, we address the formation of a panel of experts, specifically how to select a group of experts from a huge group of people. We propose an approach which uses data quality dimensions to improve expert selection quality and provide quality metrics to the forecaster. We performed a case study and successfully showed that it is possible to use data quality methods to support the expert search process.

  12. Expert Evidence and International Criminal Justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appazov, Artur

    The book is a comprehensive narration of the use of expertise in international criminal trials offering reflection on standards concerning the quality and presentation of expert evidence. It analyzes and critiques the rules governing expert evidence in international criminal trials...... and the strategies employed by counsel and courts relying upon expert evidence and challenges that courts face determining its reliability. In particular, the author considers how the procedural and evidentiary architecture of international criminal courts and tribunals influences the courts' ability to meaningfully...... incorporate expert evidence into the rational fact-finding process. The book provides analysis of the unique properties of expert evidence as compared with other forms of evidence and the challenges that these properties present for fact-finding in international criminal trials. It draws conclusions about...

  13. Iterative Expert-Functional Approach to the SWOT-Analysis in the Context of Strategic Marketing at the Japanese Cuisine Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Dmitrievich Kim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available SWOT-analysis is one of the most common in the world of strategic planning methods used in the intra-firm, corporate, branch and territorial levels. The popularity of this approach is due to the relatively simple intuitive mechanics of its implementation, as well as the minimum cost of financial resources and time. The designed iterative expert-functional approach to the SWOT-analysis and to the development of strategic initiatives suggest analyzing the company at an early stage in the context of its key areas of work, determining the components of internal and external environment from the perspective of core business functions, taking into account the degree of development of the organization, the complexity of its business processes and corporate culture. It is extremely important criteria of the SWOT-analysis, and the development of proposals should be: comprehensive, the most objective approach to the study of the internal and external components of interest management in the analysis and implementation of strategic initiatives, understanding the specifics of the business project manager and its business processes, opportunities and threats surrounding environment, institutional approach to the study of the factors that may affect the economic and financial results of the company and marketing. In practice, the literature is often possible to meet criticism of the SWOT-analysis because of its subjectivity and descriptive results. The proposed procedure does not rule out the nature of these disadvantages, but maximizes the comprehensive assessment of the company’s operations, taking into account the interaction of its structural units and efficiently organize business processes, evaluate the degree of rationality and flexibility in addressing the opportunities and threats of the external environment. The outcome of the expert-functional approach should be the strategic initiatives that take into account the interests and competence of the

  14. From Risk Analysis to the Safety Case. Values in Risk Assessments. A Report Based on Interviews with Experts in the Nuclear Waste Programs in Sweden and Finland. A Report from the RISCOM II Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drottz Sjoeberg, Britt-Marie [Norwegian Univ. of Science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway). Dept. of Psychology

    2004-06-01

    The report focuses on values in risk assessment, and is based on interviews with safety assessment experts and persons working at the national authorities in Sweden and Finland working in the area of nuclear waste management. The interviews contained questions related to definitions of risk and safety, standards, constraints and degrees of freedom in the work, data collections, reliability and validity of systems and the safety assessments, as well as communication between experts, and experts and non-experts. The results pointed to an increased amount of data and relevant factors considered in the analyses over time, changing the work content and process from one of risk analysis to a multifaceted teamwork towards the assessment of 'the safety case'. The multifaceted systems approach highlighted the increased importance of investigating assumptions underlying e.g. integration of diverse systems, and simplification procedures. It also highlighted the increased reliance on consensus building processes within the extended expert group, the importance of adequate communication abilities within the extended expert group, as well as the importance of transparency and communication relative the larger society. The results are discussed with reference to e.g. Janis 'groupthink' theory and Kuhns ideas of paradigmatic developments in science. It is concluded that it is well advised, in addition to the ordinary challenges of the work, to investigate also the implicit assumptions involved in the work processes to further enhance the understanding of safety assessments.

  15. Human reliability analysis data obtainment through fuzzy logic in nuclear plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, C.S. do, E-mail: claudio.souza@ctmsp.mar.mil.br [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CTMSP), Av. Professor Lineu Prestes 2468, 05508-000 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Mesquita, R.N. de, E-mail: rnavarro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN - SP), Av. Professor Lineu Prestes 2242, 05508-000 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Human Error Probability estimates from operator's reactions to emergency situations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Human Reliability Analysis input data obtainment through fuzzy logic inference. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Performance Shaping Factors evaluation influence level onto the operator's actions. - Abstract: Human error has been recognized as an important factor for many industrial and nuclear accidents occurrence. Human error data is scarcely available for different reasons among which, lapses in historical database registry methodology is an important one. Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) is an usual tool employed to estimate the probability that an operator will reasonably perform a system required task in required time without degrading the system. This meta-analysis requires specific Human Error Probability estimates for most of its procedure. This work obtains Human Error Probability (HEP) estimates from operator's actions in response to emergency situations hypothesis on Research Reactor IEA-R1 from IPEN, Brazil. Through this proposed methodology HRA should be able to be performed even with shortage of related human error statistical data. A Performance Shaping Factors (PSF's) evaluation in order to classify and estimate their influence level onto the operator's actions and to determine their actual state over the plant was also done. Both HEP estimation and PSF evaluation were done based on expert judgment using interviews and questionnaires. Expert group was established based on selected IEA-R1 operators, and their evaluation were put into a knowledge representation system which used linguistic variables and group evaluation values that were obtained through Fuzzy Logic and Fuzzy Set theory. HEP obtained values show good agreement with literature published data corroborating the proposed methodology as a good alternative to be used on HRA.

  16. CSIR at TREC 2008 Expert Search Task: Modeling Expert Evidence in Expert Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    CSIR at TREC 2008 Expert Search Task: Modeling Expert Evidence in Expert Search Jiepu Jiang1, Wei Lu1, Haozhen Zhao2 1 Center for Studies of...AND SUBTITLE CSIR at TREC 2008 Expert Search Task: Modeling Expert Evidence in Expert Search 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...15. J. Jiang, W. Lu, D. Liu. CSIR at TREC 2007. In Proceedings of the 16th Text REtrieval Conference (TREC 2007), 2007. 16. J. Jiang, W. Lu. IR

  17. Expert Assessment of Human-Human Stigmergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    environments can be viewed as digital libraries (a domain with an extensive research literature [23], organizational infrastructure [22, 43], and public...266, 2004. http://www.cs.drexel.edu/~cicirello/jaamas-8-3.pdf. [17] CIDL. Canadian Initiative on Digital Libraries / Initiative Canadienne sur les...Society. 2005. http://www.ewh.ieee.org/tc/its/trans.html. [43] IFLA. Digital Libraries : Resources and Projects. 2003. Web site, http://www.ifla.org/II

  18. The contribution of research on expertise to understanding of expert thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krnjaić Zora

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Expertise is determined based on the high level of mastery of knowledge and skills in different areas of human activities (science, art, sports and other less formal domains. This paper explores the contribution of empirical research on expertise to understanding of the nature of expert thinking. For that purpose we have compiled an overview and performed an analysis of the findings of relevant research on expertise based on different approaches and paradigms. We have included the studies that researched experts singled out based on their exceptional performances in different domains (absolute expertise and the studies based on comparing experts with novices (relative expertise. We have analyzed the studies using different paradigms: psychometric and cognitive paradigms, as well as the new offshoot, the paradigm based on viewing giftedness as developing expertise. Research results provide empirically grounded findings on the characteristics of expert thinking and consistently point to the fact that knowledge is the core of expertise. The characteristics of expert knowledge are operationalized via the quantity and organization of knowledge and the mastery of deep contents and knowledge systems, which enables the recognition of rules, models and information sets, as well as the use of knowledge in further studying, detecting and solving different problems. It can be concluded that research findings on expertise are one of the foundations in the conceptualization of expert thinking. They significantly contribute to obtaining an insight into the way in which knowledge shapes thought and into understanding the mechanisms of demonstrating knowledge in the mental processes of experts.

  19. Expert System for Data Security Risk Management for SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justinas Janulevičius

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Accessibility of expertise and expert inferences is one of the key factors for appropriate expert evaluation. Appropriate and timely expert information allows a smooth process of expertise. Small and medium enterprises (SMEs have limited possibilities to acquire professional expertise for data security risk analysis due to limited finances. A risk management expert system is developed for SMEs with the ability to adapt to various subject domains using ontologies of the field.Article in Lithuanian

  20. The quantitative failure of human reliability analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, C.T.

    1995-07-01

    This philosophical treatise argues the merits of Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) in the context of the nuclear power industry. Actually, the author attacks historic and current HRA as having failed in informing policy makers who make decisions based on risk that humans contribute to systems performance. He argues for an HRA based on Bayesian (fact-based) inferential statistics, which advocates a systems analysis process that employs cogent heuristics when using opinion, and tempers itself with a rational debate over the weight given subjective and empirical probabilities.

  1. An object-oriented model for strategic analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. de Swaan Arons; M. Jellema

    1998-01-01

    textabstractStrategic analysis is a domain in which human expertise and experience are key factors. This is the reason that attempts have been made to automate the strategic analysis by expert systems. This article means to capture the expert knowledge to be used in an expert system with the focus o

  2. The development of human behavior analysis techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Lee, Yong Hee; Park, Geun Ok; Cheon, Se Woo; Suh, Sang Moon; Oh, In Suk; Lee, Hyun Chul; Park, Jae Chang

    1997-07-01

    In this project, which is to study on man-machine interaction in Korean nuclear power plants, we developed SACOM (Simulation Analyzer with a Cognitive Operator Model), a tool for the assessment of task performance in the control rooms using software simulation, and also develop human error analysis and application techniques. SACOM was developed to assess operator`s physical workload, workload in information navigation at VDU workstations, and cognitive workload in procedural tasks. We developed trip analysis system including a procedure based on man-machine interaction analysis system including a procedure based on man-machine interaction analysis and a classification system. We analyzed a total of 277 trips occurred from 1978 to 1994 to produce trip summary information, and for 79 cases induced by human errors time-lined man-machine interactions. The INSTEC, a database system of our analysis results, was developed. The MARSTEC, a multimedia authoring and representation system for trip information, was also developed, and techniques for human error detection in human factors experiments were established. (author). 121 refs., 38 tabs., 52 figs.

  3. What Do EESD "Experts" Think Sustainability Is? Which Pedagogy Is Suitable to Learn It?: Results from Interviews and Cmaps Analysis Gathered at EESD 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segalas, Jordi; Mulder, Karel F.; Ferrer-Balas, Didac

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to study how experts on teaching sustainability in engineering education contextualize sustainability; also to evaluate the understanding of sustainability by engineering students. The final aim is to evaluate what pedagogy experts believe provides better opportunities for learning about sustainability in…

  4. Expert Oracle application express

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, John Edward

    2011-01-01

    Expert Oracle Application Express brings you groundbreaking insights into developing with Oracle's enterprise-level, rapid-development tool from some of the best practitioners in the field today. Oracle Application Express (APEX) is an entirely web-based development framework that is built into every edition of Oracle Database. The framework rests upon Oracle's powerful PL/SQL language, enabling power users and developers to rapidly develop applications that easily scale to hundreds, even thousands of concurrent users. The 13 authors of Expert Oracle Application Express build their careers aro

  5. The Combination of Expert Judgment and GIS-MAIRCA Analysis for the Selection of Sites for Ammunition Depots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubomir Gigović

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper suggests spatial multi-criteria model in order to assist decision makers in the selection of sites which are suitable for ammunition depots (AD. They represent military facilities which have more criteria that need to be matched than civil structures. The proposed model is based on combined use of Geographic information systems (GIS and multi-criteria techniques. The model application is presented in the case study of Carpathian region, the Eastern part of Serbia. The model deals with nine restrictions and six evaluation criteria. Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory—Analytic Network Process (DEMATEL-ANP multi-criteria techniques are used to determine weight coefficients of evaluation criteria. Along with the above mentioned methods, this paper introduces a new technique for the multi-criteria decision making—MAIRCA (MultiAttributive Ideal-Real Comparative Analysis method. The MAIRCA method is used for the ranking and selection of suitable locations. The results have shown that 45 km2 of the Carpathian region is very suitable for ammunition depot construction. The MAIRCA method chose location L1 as the most appropriate. Sensitivity analysis shows that the model is capable of identifying a suitable ammunition depot location. This approach can be helpful in determining suitable ammunition depot locations in other regions with similar geographic conditions and can also be successfully used for the suitability assessment of existing ammunition depots.

  6. Advancing Usability Evaluation through Human Reliability Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald L. Boring; David I. Gertman

    2005-07-01

    This paper introduces a novel augmentation to the current heuristic usability evaluation methodology. The SPAR-H human reliability analysis method was developed for categorizing human performance in nuclear power plants. Despite the specialized use of SPAR-H for safety critical scenarios, the method also holds promise for use in commercial off-the-shelf software usability evaluations. The SPAR-H method shares task analysis underpinnings with human-computer interaction, and it can be easily adapted to incorporate usability heuristics as performance shaping factors. By assigning probabilistic modifiers to heuristics, it is possible to arrive at the usability error probability (UEP). This UEP is not a literal probability of error but nonetheless provides a quantitative basis to heuristic evaluation. When combined with a consequence matrix for usability errors, this method affords ready prioritization of usability issues.

  7. Fractal Analysis on Human Behaviors Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, Chao; Zha, Yi-Long

    2010-01-01

    The study of human dynamics has attracted much interest from many fields recently. In this paper, the fractal characteristic of human behaviors is investigated from the perspective of time series constructed with the amount of library loans. The Hurst exponents and length of non-periodic cycles calculated through Rescaled Range Analysis indicate that the time series of human behaviors is fractal with long-range correlation. Then the time series are converted to complex networks by visibility graph algorithm. The topological properties of the networks, such as scale-free property, small-world effect and hierarchical structure imply that close relationships exist between the amounts of repetitious actions performed by people during certain periods of time, especially for some important days. Finally, the networks obtained are verified to be not fractal and self-similar using box-counting method. Our work implies the intrinsic regularity shown in human collective repetitious behaviors.

  8. An expert system based on principal component analysis, artificial immune system and fuzzy k-NN for diagnosis of valvular heart diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengur, Abdulkadir

    2008-03-01

    In the last two decades, the use of artificial intelligence methods in medical analysis is increasing. This is mainly because the effectiveness of classification and detection systems have improved a great deal to help the medical experts in diagnosing. In this work, we investigate the use of principal component analysis (PCA), artificial immune system (AIS) and fuzzy k-NN to determine the normal and abnormal heart valves from the Doppler heart sounds. The proposed heart valve disorder detection system is composed of three stages. The first stage is the pre-processing stage. Filtering, normalization and white de-noising are the processes that were used in this stage. The feature extraction is the second stage. During feature extraction stage, wavelet packet decomposition was used. As a next step, wavelet entropy was considered as features. For reducing the complexity of the system, PCA was used for feature reduction. In the classification stage, AIS and fuzzy k-NN were used. To evaluate the performance of the proposed methodology, a comparative study is realized by using a data set containing 215 samples. The validation of the proposed method is measured by using the sensitivity and specificity parameters; 95.9% sensitivity and 96% specificity rate was obtained.

  9. Big Data Analysis of Human Genome Variations

    KAUST Repository

    Gojobori, Takashi

    2016-01-25

    Since the human genome draft sequence was in public for the first time in 2000, genomic analyses have been intensively extended to the population level. The following three international projects are good examples for large-scale studies of human genome variations: 1) HapMap Data (1,417 individuals) (http://hapmap.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/downloads/genotypes/2010-08_phaseII+III/forward/), 2) HGDP (Human Genome Diversity Project) Data (940 individuals) (http://www.hagsc.org/hgdp/files.html), 3) 1000 genomes Data (2,504 individuals) http://ftp.1000genomes.ebi.ac.uk/vol1/ftp/release/20130502/ If we can integrate all three data into a single volume of data, we should be able to conduct a more detailed analysis of human genome variations for a total number of 4,861 individuals (= 1,417+940+2,504 individuals). In fact, we successfully integrated these three data sets by use of information on the reference human genome sequence, and we conducted the big data analysis. In particular, we constructed a phylogenetic tree of about 5,000 human individuals at the genome level. As a result, we were able to identify clusters of ethnic groups, with detectable admixture, that were not possible by an analysis of each of the three data sets. Here, we report the outcome of this kind of big data analyses and discuss evolutionary significance of human genomic variations. Note that the present study was conducted in collaboration with Katsuhiko Mineta and Kosuke Goto at KAUST.

  10. Ask an Expert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautman, Steve; Klein, Kate

    1993-01-01

    Offers guidelines for determining when and how to recruit subject matter experts (SMEs) and for ensuring that they deliver high quality training. Considers common problems of SMEs, such as giving too much information, conflicts with their job commitments, and stage fright. (JOW)

  11. Bloggers as experts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Balog; M. de Rijke; W. Weerkamp

    2008-01-01

    We address the task of (blog) feed distillation: to find blogs that are principally devoted to a given topic. The task may be viewed as an association finding task, between topics and bloggers. Under this view, it resembles the expert finding task, for which a range of models have been proposed. We

  12. Remote Sensing Image Analysis Without Expert Knowledge - A Web-Based Classification Tool On Top of Taverna Workflow Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selsam, Peter; Schwartze, Christian

    2016-10-01

    Providing software solutions via internet has been known for quite some time and is now an increasing trend marketed as "software as a service". A lot of business units accept the new methods and streamlined IT strategies by offering web-based infrastructures for external software usage - but geospatial applications featuring very specialized services or functionalities on demand are still rare. Originally applied in desktop environments, the ILMSimage tool for remote sensing image analysis and classification was modified in its communicating structures and enabled for running on a high-power server and benefiting from Tavema software. On top, a GIS-like and web-based user interface guides the user through the different steps in ILMSimage. ILMSimage combines object oriented image segmentation with pattern recognition features. Basic image elements form a construction set to model for large image objects with diverse and complex appearance. There is no need for the user to set up detailed object definitions. Training is done by delineating one or more typical examples (templates) of the desired object using a simple vector polygon. The template can be large and does not need to be homogeneous. The template is completely independent from the segmentation. The object definition is done completely by the software.

  13. A technique for human error analysis (ATHEANA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, S.E.; Ramey-Smith, A.M.; Wreathall, J.; Parry, G.W. [and others

    1996-05-01

    Probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) has become an important tool in the nuclear power industry, both for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the operating utilities. Human reliability analysis (HRA) is a critical element of PRA; however, limitations in the analysis of human actions in PRAs have long been recognized as a constraint when using PRA. A multidisciplinary HRA framework has been developed with the objective of providing a structured approach for analyzing operating experience and understanding nuclear plant safety, human error, and the underlying factors that affect them. The concepts of the framework have matured into a rudimentary working HRA method. A trial application of the method has demonstrated that it is possible to identify potentially significant human failure events from actual operating experience which are not generally included in current PRAs, as well as to identify associated performance shaping factors and plant conditions that have an observable impact on the frequency of core damage. A general process was developed, albeit in preliminary form, that addresses the iterative steps of defining human failure events and estimating their probabilities using search schemes. Additionally, a knowledge- base was developed which describes the links between performance shaping factors and resulting unsafe actions.

  14. Research on automatic human chromosome image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Delie; Tian, Jinwen; Liu, Jian

    2007-11-01

    Human chromosome karyotyping is one of the essential tasks in cytogenetics, especially in genetic syndrome diagnoses. In this thesis, an automatic procedure is introduced for human chromosome image analysis. According to different status of touching and overlapping chromosomes, several segmentation methods are proposed to achieve the best results. Medial axis is extracted by the middle point algorithm. Chromosome band is enhanced by the algorithm based on multiscale B-spline wavelets, extracted by average gray profile, gradient profile and shape profile, and calculated by the WDD (Weighted Density Distribution) descriptors. The multilayer classifier is used in classification. Experiment results demonstrate that the algorithms perform well.

  15. Calculation of Appropriate Minimum Size of Isolation Rooms based on Questionnaire Survey of Experts and Analysis on Conditions of Isolation Room Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, An-Na; Song, Hae-Eun; Yang, Young-Kwon; Park, Jin-Chul; Hwang, Jung-Ha

    2017-07-01

    After the outbreak of the MERS (Middle East Respiratory Syndrome) epidemic, issues were raised regarding response capabilities of medical institutions, including the lack of isolation rooms at hospitals. Since then, the government of Korea has been revising regulations to enforce medical laws in order to expand the operation of isolation rooms and to strengthen standards regarding their mandatory installation at hospitals. Among general and tertiary hospitals in Korea, a total of 159 are estimated to be required to install isolation rooms to meet minimum standards. For the purpose of contributing to hospital construction plans in the future, this study conducted a questionnaire survey of experts and analysed the environment and devices necessary in isolation rooms, to determine their appropriate minimum size to treat patients. The result of the analysis is as follows: First, isolation rooms at hospitals are required to have a minimum 3,300mm minor axis and a minimum 5,000mm major axis for the isolation room itself, and a minimum 1,800mm minor axis for the antechamber where personal protective equipment is donned and removed. Second, the 15 ㎡-or-larger standard for the floor area of isolation rooms will have to be reviewed and standards for the minimum width of isolation rooms will have to be established.

  16. ANÁLISIS TÉCNICO DE KARATECAS DE NIVEL NACIONAL DURANTE LA COMPETICIÓN DE KUMITE Technical analysis of karate expert during Kumite competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Miguel Gómez-Valadés Horrillo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Diversos estudios han analizado el karate para intentar aumentar el rendimiento de los deportistas implicados, mediante la evaluación del trabajo técnico, tanto en condiciones experimentales, como en situación real. El objetivo de este estudio fue el análisis del rendimiento de los karatecas en situación real de competición, identificando cuáles son las técnicas más eficaces. Se observaron 20 combates de karate de nivel nacional, de la categoría absoluta, donde fueron registradas todas las acciones técnicas realizadas. Los karatecas utilizaban más técnicas de puño que de patadas. La forma que tienen de realizar la mayoría de las técnicas, fue mediante el ataque, siendo la táctica con la que más se puntuaba. La técnica más utilizada en combate fue el gyaku tsuki, aunque la más efectiva fue el kizami tsuki derecho. La técnica de pierna más utilizada fue el mawasi geri. También se observó una falta de eficacia en las técnicas realizadas, ya que un gran porcentaje de técnicas no consiguieron puntuar. Estos resultados pueden ayudar a mejorar el entrenamiento para la competición de karate, sobre todo orientando dicho entrenamiento cada vez más a situaciones reales de competición.    Several studies have analyzed Karate in order to increase the athlete’s performance through assessment of the karate skills in experimental and real situation. The aim of this study was the analysis of karate expert performance in real situation, trying to identify what skills are most effectively. 20 combats of national contest were observed in senior category. All technical and tactical actions were recorded and categorized. Punches skills were more used than kicks skills by karate experts, and the way of carry out techniques was through attack. The most effective strategy was the attack. The most used technique was gyaku tsuki, although most effective one was right kizami tsuki. Leg technique most used was mawasi geri. A lack of

  17. Development of a methodology for the application of the analysis of human reliability to individualized temporary storage facility; Desarrollo de una metodologia de aplicacion del Analisis de Fiabilidad Humana a una instalacion de Almacen Temporal Individualizado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, P.; Dies, J.; Tapia, C.; Blas, A. de

    2014-07-01

    The paper aims to present the methodology that has been developed with the purpose of applying an ATI without the need of having experts during the process of modelling and quantification analysis of HRA. The developed methodology is based on ATHEANA and relies on the use of other methods of analysis of human action and in-depth analysis. (Author)

  18. Different roles of electromagnetic field experts when giving policy advice: an expert consultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruijt, Pita; Knol, Anne B; Petersen, Arthur C; Lebret, Erik

    2015-01-21

    The overall evidence for adverse health effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) at levels of exposure normally experienced by the public is generally considered weak. However, whether long-term health effects arise remains uncertain and scientific policy advice is therefore given against a background of uncertainty. Several theories exist about different roles that experts may take when they provide advice on complex issues such as EMF. To provide empirical evidence for these theories, we conducted an expert consultation with as main research question: What are the different roles of EMF experts when they provide policy advice? Q methodology was used to empirically test theoretical notions on the existence and determinants of different expert roles and to analyze which roles actually play out in the domain of EMF. Experts were selected based on a structured nominee process. In total 32 international EMF experts participated. Responses were analyzed using Principal Component Analysis and for the open questions we used Atlas.ti. Four expert roles were found. Most striking differences between the four roles are whether experts consider current EMF policies adequate or not, whether additional -precautionary- measures are needed, and how experts view their position vis-à-vis policymakers and/or other stakeholders. This empirical study provides support for the so far mainly theoretical debate about the existence of different roles of experts when they give policy advice. The experts' assessment of the degree of uncertainty of the issue turned out to be highly associated with their role. We argue that part of the controversy that exists in the debate regarding scientific policy advice on EMF is about different values and roles.

  19. Expert system for web based collaborative CAE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Liang; Lin, Zusheng

    2006-11-01

    An expert system for web based collaborative CAE was developed based on knowledge engineering, relational database and commercial FEA (Finite element analysis) software. The architecture of the system was illustrated. In this system, the experts' experiences, theories and typical examples and other related knowledge, which will be used in the stage of pre-process in FEA, were categorized into analysis process and object knowledge. Then, the integrated knowledge model based on object-oriented method and rule based method was described. The integrated reasoning process based on CBR (case based reasoning) and rule based reasoning was presented. Finally, the analysis process of this expert system in web based CAE application was illustrated, and an analysis example of a machine tool's column was illustrated to prove the validity of the system.

  20. Bioethics for Technical Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Shigetaka

    Along with rapidly expanding applications of life science and technology, technical experts have been implicated more and more often with ethical, social, and legal problems than before. It should be noted that in this background there are scientific and social uncertainty elements which are inevitable during the progress of life science in addition to the historically-established social unreliability to scientists and engineers. In order to solve these problems, therefore, we should establish the social governance with ‘relief’ and ‘reliance’ which enables for both citizens and engineers to share the awareness of the issues, to design social orders and criterions based on hypothetical sense of values for bioethics, to carry out practical use management of each subject carefully, and to improve the sense of values from hypothetical to universal. Concerning these measures, the technical experts can learn many things from the present performance in the medical field.

  1. Expert Script Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliwa, Nancy E.; Cooper, Eric G.

    1991-01-01

    Program provides additional level of interface to facilitate use of telerobotic system. ESG (Expert Script Generator) is software package automatically generating high-level task objective commands from complex menu-driven language of the NASA Intelligent Systems Research Laboratory (ISRL). Makes telerobotics laboratory accessible to researchers not familiar with comprehensive language developed by ISRL for interacting with various systems of ISRL test bed. Incorporates expert-system technology to capture typical rules of operation that skilled operator uses. Result: operator interfact optimizing ability of system to perform task remotely in hazardous environment, in timely manner, and without undue stress to operator, while minimizing change for operator erros that damage equipment. Written in CLIPS.

  2. Expert PLSQL Practices

    CERN Document Server

    Beresniewicz, John

    2011-01-01

    Expert PL/SQL Practices is a book of collected wisdom on PL/SQL programming from some of the best and the brightest in the field. Each chapter is a deep-dive into a specific problem, technology, or feature set that you'll face as a PL/SQL programmer. Each author has chosen their topic out of the strong belief that what they share can make a positive difference in the quality and scalability of code that you write. The path to mastery begins with syntax and the mechanics of writing statements to make things happen. If you've reached that point with PL/SQL, then let the authors of Expert PL/SQL

  3. Automated Scoring and Analysis of Micronucleated Human Lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callisen, Hannes Heinrich

    Physical and chemical mutagens and carcinogens in our environment produce chromosome abberations in the circulating peripheral blood lymphocytes. The abberations, in turn, give rise to micronuclei when the lymphocytes proliferate in culture. In order to improve the micronucleus assay as a method for screening human populations for chromosome damage, I have (1) developed a high-resolution optical low-light-level micrometry expert system (HOLMES) to digitize and process microscope images of micronuclei in human peripheral blood lymphocytes, (2) defined a protocol of image processing techniques to objectively and uniquely identify and score micronuclei, and (3) analysed digital images of lymphocytes in order to study methods for (a) verifying the identification of suspect micronuclei, (b) classifying proliferating and non-proliferating lymphocytes, and (c) understanding the mechanisms of micronuclei formation and micronuclei fate during cell division. For the purpose of scoring micronuclei, HOLMES promises to (a) improve counting statistics since a greater number of cells can be scored without operator/microscopist fatigue, (b) provide for a more objective and consistent criterion for the identification of micronuclei than the human observer, and (c) yield quantitative information on nuclear and micronuclear characteristics useful in better understanding the micronucleus life cycle. My results on computer aided identification of micronuclei on microscope slides are gratifying. They demonstrate that automation of the micronucleus assay is feasible. Manual verification of HOLMES' results show correct extraction of micronuclei from the scene for 70% of the digitized images and correct identification of the micronuclei for 90% of the extracted objects. Moreover, quantitative analysis on digitized images of lymphocytes using HOLMES has revealed several exciting results: (a) micronuclear DNA content may be estimated from simple area measurements, (b) micronuclei seem to

  4. A framework of motion capture system based human behaviours simulation for ergonomic analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Ruina; Bennis, Fouad; Ma, Liang

    2011-01-01

    With the increasing of computer capabilities, Computer aided ergonomics (CAE) offers new possibilities to integrate conventional ergonomic knowledge and to develop new methods into the work design process. As mentioned in [1], different approaches have been developed to enhance the efficiency of the ergonomic evaluation. Ergonomic expert systems, ergonomic oriented information systems, numerical models of human, etc. have been implemented in numerical ergonomic software. Until now, there are ergonomic software tools available, such as Jack, Ergoman, Delmia Human, 3DSSPP, and Santos, etc. [2-4]. The main functions of these tools are posture analysis and posture prediction. In the visualization part, Jack and 3DSSPP produce results to visualize virtual human tasks in 3-dimensional, but without realistic physical properties. Nowadays, with the development of computer technology, the simulation of physical world is paid more attention. Physical engines [5] are used more and more in computer game (CG) field. The a...

  5. Quantitative proteomic analysis of post-translational modifications of human histones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Hans Christian; Nielsen, Eva C; Matthiesen, Rune

    2006-01-01

    software for qualitative and quantitative proteomic analysis of histones extracted from human small cell lung cancer cells. A total of 32 acetylations, methylations, and ubiquitinations were located in the human histones H2A, H2B, H3, and H4, including seven novel modifications. An LC-MSMS-based method....... Deciphering of the histone code is hampered by the lack of analytical methods for monitoring the combinatorial complexity of reversible multisite modifications of histones, including acetylation and methylation. To address this problem, we used LC-MSMS technology and Virtual Expert Mass Spectrometrist...... was applied in a quantitative proteomic study of the dose-response effect of the histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) PXD101 on histone acetylation in human cell cultures. Triplicate LC-MSMS runs at six different HDACi concentrations demonstrated that PXD101 affects acetylation of histones H2A, H2B, H3...

  6. Development of an expert analysis tool based on an interactive subsidence hazard map for urban land use in the city of Celaya, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alloy, A.; Gonzalez Dominguez, F.; Nila Fonseca, A. L.; Ruangsirikulchai, A.; Gentle, J. N., Jr.; Cabral, E.; Pierce, S. A.

    2016-12-01

    Land Subsidence as a result of groundwater extraction in central Mexico's larger urban centers initiated in the 80's as a result of population and economic growth. The city of Celaya has undergone subsidence for a few decades and a consequence is the development of an active normal fault system that affects its urban infrastructure and residential areas. To facilitate its analysis and a land use decision-making process we created an online interactive map enabling users to easily obtain information associated with land subsidence. Geological and socioeconomic data of the city was collected, including fault location, population data, and other important infrastructure and structural data has been obtained from fieldwork as part of a study abroad interchange undergraduate course. The subsidence and associated faulting hazard map was created using an InSAR derived subsidence velocity map and population data from INEGI to identify hazard zones using a subsidence gradient spatial analysis approach based on a subsidence gradient and population risk matrix. This interactive map provides a simple perspective of different vulnerable urban elements. As an accessible visualization tool, it will enhance communication between scientific and socio-economic disciplines. Our project also lays the groundwork for a future expert analysis system with an open source and easily accessible Python coded, SQLite database driven website which archives fault and subsidence data along with visual damage documentation to civil structures. This database takes field notes and provides an entry form for uniform datasets, which are used to generate a JSON. Such a database is useful because it allows geoscientists to have a centralized repository and access to their observations over time. Because of the widespread presence of the subsidence phenomena throughout cities in central Mexico, the spatial analysis has been automated using the open source software R. Raster, rgeos, shapefiles, and rgdal

  7. Bridging Resilience Engineering and Human Reliability Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald L. Boring

    2010-06-01

    There has been strong interest in the new and emerging field called resilience engineering. This field has been quick to align itself with many existing safety disciplines, but it has also distanced itself from the field of human reliability analysis. To date, the discussion has been somewhat one-sided, with much discussion about the new insights afforded by resilience engineering. This paper presents an attempt to address resilience engineering from the perspective of human reliability analysis (HRA). It is argued that HRA shares much in common with resilience engineering and that, in fact, it can help strengthen nascent ideas in resilience engineering. This paper seeks to clarify and ultimately refute the arguments that have served to divide HRA and resilience engineering.

  8. Using Expert Systems To Build Cognitive Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonassen, David H.; Wang, Sherwood

    2003-01-01

    Cognitive simulations are runnable computer programs for modeling human cognitive activities. A case study is reported where expert systems were used as a formalism for modeling metacognitive processes in a seminar. Building cognitive simulations engages intensive introspection, ownership and meaning making in learners who build them. (Author/AEF)

  9. SeTES: A self-teaching expert system for the analysis, design, and prediction of gas production from unconventional gas resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moridis, George J.; Reagan, Matthew T.; Anderson Kuzma, Heidi; Blasingame, Thomas A.; Wayne Huang, Y.; Santos, Ralph; Boyle, Katie L.; Freeman, Craig M.; Ilk, Dilhan; Cossio, Manuel; Bhattacharya, Srimoyee; Nikolaou, Michael

    2013-08-01

    SeTES is a self-teaching expert system that (a) can incorporate evolving databases involving any type and amount of relevant data (geological, geophysical, geomechanical, stimulation, petrophysical, reservoir, production, etc.) originating from unconventional gas reservoirs, i.e., tight sands, shale or coalbeds, (b) can continuously update its built-in public database and refine the its underlying decision-making metrics and process, (c) can make recommendations about well stimulation, well location, orientation, design, and operation, (d) offers predictions of the performance of proposed wells (and quantitative estimates of the corresponding uncertainty), and (e) permits the analysis of data from installed wells for parameter estimation and continuous expansion of its database. Thus, SeTES integrates and processes information from multiple and diverse sources to make recommendations and support decision making at multiple time-scales, while expanding its internal database and explicitly addressing uncertainty. It receives and manages data in three forms: public data, that have been made available by various contributors, semi-public data, which conceal some identifying aspects but are available to compute important statistics, and a user's private data, which can be protected and used for more targeted design and decision making. It is the first implementation of a novel architecture that allows previously independent analysis methods and tools to share data, integrate results, and intelligently and iteratively extract the most value from the dataset. SeTES also presents a new paradigm for communicating research and technology to the public and distributing scientific tools and methods. It is expected to result in a significant improvement in reserve estimates, and increases in production by increasing efficiency and reducing uncertainty.

  10. Using Expert Systems in the Management of Industrial Equipment Maintenance

    OpenAIRE

    IOAN CUCU; CODRUŢA DURA; IMOLA DRIGĂ

    2009-01-01

    The term “expert system” generally evokes new management techniques in various fields of activity. The definition of the expert systems in terms of their architecture reveals three basic elements: the knowledgebase containing specialized knowledge in a certain area, taken from the human expert in that field; the facts which include information related to the situation of management and data concerning a certain problem to be solved and the inference engine which is intended to exploit the set...

  11. Are the Experts Really Experts? a Cognitive Ergonomics Investigation for Project Estimations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Hartono

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Uniqueness is a major characteristic of any project systems. Hence it is virtually in-feasible for project analysts to utilize data from past projects as references for subsequent project planning and scheduling. Most project analysts would then depend on intuition, gut feeling and experiences to develop quantitative models for project scheduling and analysis which, according to past studies, is prone towards systematic errors. This study attempts to investigate the perfor-mance of both ‘experts’ and ‘non-experts’ when utilizing their cognitive capability to estimate pro-ject durations in group/non-group settings. A cognitive ergonomics perspective -which views human capability to make judgment as rationally bounded - is utilized in this investigation. An empirical approach is used to inquiry data from ‘projects’ on which ‘experts’ and ‘non-experts’ are required to provide prior estimate on project durations. The estimates are then gauged against the actual duration. Results show that some systematic cognitive judgmental errors (biases are observable for both experts and non-experts. The identified biases include: anchoring bias as well as accuracy bias.

  12. Back-and-Forth Methodology for Objective Voice Quality Assessment: From/to Expert Knowledge to/from Automatic Classification of Dysphonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredouille, Corinne; Pouchoulin, Gilles; Ghio, Alain; Revis, Joana; Bonastre, Jean-François; Giovanni, Antoine

    2009-12-01

    This paper addresses voice disorder assessment. It proposes an original back-and-forth methodology involving an automatic classification system as well as knowledge of the human experts (machine learning experts, phoneticians, and pathologists). The goal of this methodology is to bring a better understanding of acoustic phenomena related to dysphonia. The automatic system was validated on a dysphonic corpus (80 female voices), rated according to the GRBAS perceptual scale by an expert jury. Firstly, focused on the frequency domain, the classification system showed the interest of 0-3000 Hz frequency band for the classification task based on the GRBAS scale. Later, an automatic phonemic analysis underlined the significance of consonants and more surprisingly of unvoiced consonants for the same classification task. Submitted to the human experts, these observations led to a manual analysis of unvoiced plosives, which highlighted a lengthening of VOT according to the dysphonia severity validated by a preliminary statistical analysis.

  13. Expert and Knowledge Based Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demaid, Adrian; Edwards, Lyndon

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the nature and current state of knowledge-based systems and expert systems. Describes an expert system from the viewpoints of a computer programmer and an applications expert. Addresses concerns related to materials selection and forecasts future developments in the teaching of materials engineering. (ML)

  14. Dependence Assessment in Human Reliability Analysis Using Evidence Theory and AHP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiaoyan; Mahadevan, Sankaran; Xu, Peida; Deng, Yong

    2015-07-01

    Dependence assessment among human errors in human reliability analysis (HRA) is an important issue. Many of the dependence assessment methods in HRA rely heavily on the expert's opinion, thus are subjective and may sometimes cause inconsistency. In this article, we propose a computational model based on the Dempster-Shafer evidence theory (DSET) and the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method to handle dependence in HRA. First, dependence influencing factors among human tasks are identified and the weights of the factors are determined by experts using the AHP method. Second, judgment on each factor is given by the analyst referring to anchors and linguistic labels. Third, the judgments are represented as basic belief assignments (BBAs) and are integrated into a fused BBA by weighted average combination in DSET. Finally, the CHEP is calculated based on the fused BBA. The proposed model can deal with ambiguity and the degree of confidence in the judgments, and is able to reduce the subjectivity and improve the consistency in the evaluation process.

  15. A Comparative Analysis of the Rules of Cross-examination of Expert Witnesses%鉴定人出庭质证规则的比较分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐树洁; 董扬

    2009-01-01

    The recent legislation of China has established the principle of cross-examination of expert witnesses in civil proce-dure. However, it is quite often in practice that expert witnesses do not appear in hearing because of lack of detailed rules,which has adverse influence to judicial justice. In my opinion, China should refer to the advanced legislations in both Civil Law System and Common Law System, and establish the rules of appearing in court testimony for expert witnesses, the content of cross-examination of expert witnesses, and the rules of expert assistants participating in cross-examination. All these should al-so be reflected in the next amendment of the Civil Procedure Law of China.%我国法律已经确立了鉴定人出庭接受质证的原则,但由于缺乏具体的规定,实践中鉴定人不出庭的现象十分普遍,对于司法公正产生了不利的影响.为此,应借鉴两大法系的立法,确立鉴定人出庭、陈述、质证内容以及专家辅助人参与质证等,并建议修改民事诉讼法时予以体现.

  16. Gait Correlation Analysis Based Human Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyan Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Human gait identification aims to identify people by a sequence of walking images. Comparing with fingerprint or iris based identification, the most important advantage of gait identification is that it can be done at a distance. In this paper, silhouette correlation analysis based human identification approach is proposed. By background subtracting algorithm, the moving silhouette figure can be extracted from the walking images sequence. Every pixel in the silhouette has three dimensions: horizontal axis (x, vertical axis (y, and temporal axis (t. By moving every pixel in the silhouette image along these three dimensions, we can get a new silhouette. The correlation result between the original silhouette and the new one can be used as the raw feature of human gait. Discrete Fourier transform is used to extract features from this correlation result. Then, these features are normalized to minimize the affection of noise. Primary component analysis method is used to reduce the features’ dimensions. Experiment based on CASIA database shows that this method has an encouraging recognition performance.

  17. Experts on public trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blok, Anders

    2007-01-01

    Citizen deliberation on technoscientific developments is regularly regarded as a hallmark of Danish democracy, embodied in particular by the Danish Board of Technology. Few empirically guided questions have been raised, however, as to how the Board's democratic projects actually work. Through...... a case study of the May 2003 Danish consensus conference on environmental economics as a policy tool, the article reflects on the politics of expert authority permeating practices of public participation. Adopting concepts from the sociology of scientific knowledge (SSK), the conference is seen...

  18. Expert Oracle Exadata

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Randy

    2011-01-01

    Throughout history, advances in technology have come in spurts. A single great idea can often spur rapid change as the idea takes hold and is propagated, often in totally unexpected directions. Exadata embodies such a change in how we think about and manage relational databases. The key change lies in the concept of offloading SQL processing to the storage layer. That concept is a huge win, and its implementation in the form of Exadata is truly a game changer. Expert Oracle Exadata will give you a look under the covers at how the combination of hardware and software that comprise Exadata actua

  19. Expert Systems Development Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-28

    expert systems has been hardware development. In the middle 1950’s at the very birth of AI, hardware was large very slow and extremely expensive. In...into another report. For example, MOBPLEX provides output into the Lotus spreadsheet as a semi-automated destination. From the spreadsheet the user of...designed on top of the Lotus 1-2- 3 interface. Lotus was used because it was decided there was no need to build a powerful ad hoc report generator

  20. Artificial Experts: The Computer as Diagnostician Has Definite Limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pournelle, Jerry

    1984-01-01

    Argues that, although expert systems--which are supposed to give users all the advantages of consulting with human experts--can be useful for medical diagnosis, where tests tend to be reliable, they can be hazardous in such areas as psychological testing, where test reliability is difficult to measure. (MBR)

  1. Artificial Experts: The Computer as Diagnostician Has Definite Limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pournelle, Jerry

    1984-01-01

    Argues that, although expert systems--which are supposed to give users all the advantages of consulting with human experts--can be useful for medical diagnosis, where tests tend to be reliable, they can be hazardous in such areas as psychological testing, where test reliability is difficult to measure. (MBR)

  2. Social Work Expert Testimony Regarding Mitigation in Capital Sentencing Proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Arlene Bowers

    1991-01-01

    Notes that, during sentencing phase of capital trial, social worker can have potentially powerful influence on proceedings by presenting comprehensive, reliable social history, and expert opinion based on accepted theory and research regarding human behavior in social environment. Reviews social worker's role as expert witness, ethical issues,…

  3. Seismic source characterization of the Alpine foreland in the context of a probabilistic seismic hazard analysis by PEGASOS Expert Group 1 (EG1a)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, S. M. [Geologisch-Palaeontologisches Institut, University of Basel, Basel (Switzerland); Slejko, D. [Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale, Trieste (Italy)

    2009-05-15

    Seismic source characterization is performed as part of the PEGASOS project for the assessment of the seismic hazard at the 4 sites of the Swiss Nuclear Power Plants. The analysis is performed according to the Level 4 procedures for expert elicitation defined in the guidelines of the US Nuclear Regulatory Committee whereby the quantification of uncertainties plays a crucial role. According to our analysis, which is one amongst four that were performed in the frame of PEGASOS, the most important epistemic uncertainty is related to the question as to whether basement-rooted faults at the margins of pre-existing Permo-Carboniferous troughs are prone for compressive or transpressive reactivation under the present-day stress field or not. The question after the present-day style of deformation in the Alpine foreland (thick-skinned versus thin-skinned) is closely related to this key question. Together with the consideration of uncertainties regarding the mapping of seismogenic zones and/or line sources, alternative zonations are presented in form of a logic tree with 21 branches. Area sources play a predominant role in the working area located at the margin of a diffuse plate boundary. Earthquake recurrence relationships are discussed by taking into account a series of uncertainties. These concern the evaluation of b-values and the evaluation of a-values once the b-values were fixed. Both parameters in the Gutenberg-Richter law are based on non-perfect and incomplete catalogue data that were carefully analysed beforehand. Since PEGASOS demanded an analysis of annual probabilities down to one event in 10{sup 7} years, the question after the value of the maximum possible earthquake magnitude M{sub max} and related error in M{sub max} estimates plays a crucial role. We estimate M{sub max} by using geological as well as statistical methods. M{sub max} = 6.9 cannot be excluded in most areas, in the Basel area M{sub max} = 7.3 is possible. Uncertainties in a, b and M{sub max

  4. Human Reliability Analysis for Small Modular Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald L. Boring; David I. Gertman

    2012-06-01

    Because no human reliability analysis (HRA) method was specifically developed for small modular reactors (SMRs), the application of any current HRA method to SMRs represents tradeoffs. A first- generation HRA method like THERP provides clearly defined activity types, but these activity types do not map to the human-system interface or concept of operations confronting SMR operators. A second- generation HRA method like ATHEANA is flexible enough to be used for SMR applications, but there is currently insufficient guidance for the analyst, requiring considerably more first-of-a-kind analyses and extensive SMR expertise in order to complete a quality HRA. Although no current HRA method is optimized to SMRs, it is possible to use existing HRA methods to identify errors, incorporate them as human failure events in the probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), and quantify them. In this paper, we provided preliminary guidance to assist the human reliability analyst and reviewer in understanding how to apply current HRA methods to the domain of SMRs. While it is possible to perform a satisfactory HRA using existing HRA methods, ultimately it is desirable to formally incorporate SMR considerations into the methods. This may require the development of new HRA methods. More practicably, existing methods need to be adapted to incorporate SMRs. Such adaptations may take the form of guidance on the complex mapping between conventional light water reactors and small modular reactors. While many behaviors and activities are shared between current plants and SMRs, the methods must adapt if they are to perform a valid and accurate analysis of plant personnel performance in SMRs.

  5. The DNA sequence, annotation and analysis of human chromosome 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muzny, Donna M; Scherer, Steven E; Kaul, Rajinder

    2006-01-01

    After the completion of a draft human genome sequence, the International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium has proceeded to finish and annotate each of the 24 chromosomes comprising the human genome. Here we describe the sequencing and analysis of human chromosome 3, one of the largest human chr...

  6. Estimating Production Potentials: Expert Bias in Applied Decision Making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. J. Matthews; L. K. Burggraf (ISU); W. J. Reece (INEEL)

    1998-10-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate how workers predict manufacturing production potentials given positively and negatively framed information. Findings indicate the existence of a bias toward positive information and suggest that this bias may be reduced with experience but is never the less maintained. Experts err in the same way non experts do in differentially processing negative and positive information. Additionally, both experts and non experts tend to overestimate production potentials in a positive direction. The authors propose that these biases should be addressed with further research including cross domain analyses and consideration in training, workplace design, and human performance modeling.

  7. The Research of System Architecture in Expert System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This paper illustrated the software architecture of our concretesafet y expert system. Three advanced technologies are proposed and have been applied to our expert system to greatly improve the intelligent level, which are human- compu ter interaction technology (conceptual model, dialogue management, interface ent ity and interface construct), intelligent agency user interface (IAUI) and compo nent technology. The i mportant character of the system architecture in our expert system is adapting a dvanced intelligent interface and scientific integration of various components d ifferent from common system architecture of expert system. Especially, in the in terface-friendly multimedia system intelligent interface is required.

  8. Human action analysis with randomized trees

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Gang; Liu, Zicheng

    2014-01-01

    This book will provide a comprehensive overview on human action analysis with randomized trees. It will cover both the supervised random trees and the unsupervised random trees. When there are sufficient amount of labeled data available, supervised random trees provides a fast method for space-time interest point matching. When labeled data is minimal as in the case of example-based action search, unsupervised random trees is used to leverage the unlabelled data. We describe how the randomized trees can be used for action classification, action detection, action search, and action prediction.

  9. One Size Does Not Fit All: Human Failure Event Decomposition and Task Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald Laurids Boring, PhD

    2014-09-01

    In the probabilistic safety assessments (PSAs) used in the nuclear industry, human failure events (HFEs) are determined as a subset of hardware failures, namely those hardware failures that could be triggered or exacerbated by human action or inaction. This approach is top-down, starting with hardware faults and deducing human contributions to those faults. Elsewhere, more traditionally human factors driven approaches would tend to look at opportunities for human errors first in a task analysis and then identify which of those errors is risk significant. The intersection of top-down and bottom-up approaches to defining HFEs has not been carefully studied. Ideally, both approaches should arrive at the same set of HFEs. This question remains central as human reliability analysis (HRA) methods are generalized to new domains like oil and gas. The HFEs used in nuclear PSAs tend to be top-down—defined as a subset of the PSA—whereas the HFEs used in petroleum quantitative risk assessments (QRAs) are more likely to be bottom-up—derived from a task analysis conducted by human factors experts. The marriage of these approaches is necessary in order to ensure that HRA methods developed for top-down HFEs are also sufficient for bottom-up applications. In this paper, I first review top-down and bottom-up approaches for defining HFEs and then present a seven-step guideline to ensure a task analysis completed as part of human error identification decomposes to a level suitable for use as HFEs. This guideline illustrates an effective way to bridge the bottom-up approach with top-down requirements.

  10. Exergetic analysis of human & natural processes

    CERN Document Server

    Banhatti, Dilip G

    2011-01-01

    Using the concept of available work or exergy, each human and natural process can be characterized by its contextual efficiency, that is, efficiency with the environment as a reference. Such an efficiency is termed exergy efficiency. Parts of the process which need to be made more efficient & less wasteful stand out in such an analysis, in contrast to an energy analysis. Any new idea for a process can be similarly characterized. This exercise naturally generates paths to newer ideas in given contexts to maximize exergy efficiency. The contextual efficiency is not just output/input, it also naturally includes environmental impact (to be minimized) and any other relevant parameter(s) to be optimized. Natural life processes in different terrestrial environments are already optimized for their environments, and act as guides, for example, in seeking to evolve sustainable energy practices in different contexts. Energy use at lowest possible temperature for each situation is a natural result. Variety of renewab...

  11. Individual Differences in Human Reliability Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey C. Joe; Ronald L. Boring

    2014-06-01

    While human reliability analysis (HRA) methods include uncertainty in quantification, the nominal model of human error in HRA typically assumes that operator performance does not vary significantly when they are given the same initiating event, indicators, procedures, and training, and that any differences in operator performance are simply aleatory (i.e., random). While this assumption generally holds true when performing routine actions, variability in operator response has been observed in multiple studies, especially in complex situations that go beyond training and procedures. As such, complexity can lead to differences in operator performance (e.g., operator understanding and decision-making). Furthermore, psychological research has shown that there are a number of known antecedents (i.e., attributable causes) that consistently contribute to observable and systematically measurable (i.e., not random) differences in behavior. This paper reviews examples of individual differences taken from operational experience and the psychological literature. The impact of these differences in human behavior and their implications for HRA are then discussed. We propose that individual differences should not be treated as aleatory, but rather as epistemic. Ultimately, by understanding the sources of individual differences, it is possible to remove some epistemic uncertainty from analyses.

  12. Empirical analysis of online human dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhi-Dan; Zhou, Tao

    2012-06-01

    Patterns of human activities have attracted increasing academic interests, since the quantitative understanding of human behavior is helpful to uncover the origins of many socioeconomic phenomena. This paper focuses on behaviors of Internet users. Six large-scale systems are studied in our experiments, including the movie-watching in Netflix and MovieLens, the transaction in Ebay, the bookmark-collecting in Delicious, and the posting in FreindFeed and Twitter. Empirical analysis reveals some common statistical features of online human behavior: (1) The total number of user's actions, the user's activity, and the interevent time all follow heavy-tailed distributions. (2) There exists a strongly positive correlation between user's activity and the total number of user's actions, and a significantly negative correlation between the user's activity and the width of the interevent time distribution. We further study the rescaling method and show that this method could to some extent eliminate the different statistics among users caused by the different activities, yet the effectiveness depends on the data sets.

  13. Quality of qualitative research in the health sciences: Analysis of the common criteria present in 58 assessment guidelines by expert users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago-Delefosse, M; Gavin, A; Bruchez, C; Roux, P; Stephen, S L

    2016-01-01

    The number of qualitative research methods has grown substantially over the last thirty years, both in social sciences and, more recently, in health sciences. This growth came with questions on the quality criteria needed to evaluate this work, and numerous guidelines were published. These guidelines, however, include many discrepancies, both in terms of vocabulary and structure. Many expert evaluators also decry the absence of consensual and reliable evaluation tools. To address this gap, we present the results of an evaluation of 58 existing guidelines in four major health science fields (medicine and epidemiology; nursing and health education; social sciences and public health; psychology/psychiatry, research methods and organization) by expert (n = 16) and peer (n = 40) users (e.g., article reviewers, experts allocating funds, editors). This research was conducted between 2011 and 2014 at the University of Lausanne in Switzerland. Experts met during three workshops spread over this period. A series of 12 consensual essential criteria, along with definitions, stemmed from a question in a semi-qualitative evaluation questionnaire that we developed. Although there is consensus on the name of the criteria, we highlight limitations on the ability to compare specific definitions of criteria across health science fields. We conclude that each criterion must be explained to come to broader consensus and identify definitions that are easily operational and consensual to all fields examined.

  14. Building the Information Society in Candidate Countries? A Prospective Analysis on Potential Trajectories To Realise the Lisbon Goals. IPTS Experts Workshop Report, February 23-25, 2003, Sevilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanowicz, Marc; Burgelman, Jean-Claude; Centeno, Clara; Gourova, Elisavetta; Carat, Gerard

    Potential policies and strategies for building the information society (IS) in countries that are candidates for admission to the European Union were explored at a workshop attended by 39 experts from the European Commission (EC), the EC's Institute for Prospective and Technological Studies, and outside the EC. The workshop focused on the specific…

  15. Phylogeographic analysis of human papillomavirus 58

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Human papillomavirus 58 (HPV58) is one type of HPV with high risk of causing cervical cancer. Unusually high prevalence of HPV58 has been reported in Asia, Africa and some other areas. However, due to the scattered distribution of global data, in addition to the lack of data of some HPV58 high-incidence nations and regions, like Mainland China, a comprehensive analysis of the global geographical distribution of HPV58 remains blank so far. In this study, HPV58 from the human cervical cancer tissue was detected in Mainland China, and 14 new HPV58-E6/L1 gene sequences were obtained. Moreover, phylogeographic analysis has been conducted combining the HPV58 sequences that have been deposited in GenBank since 1985. The study result shows that the sequences detected from the Shanghai, Jiangsu and Sichuan areas are homologous with those found in the past from Hong Kong and Xi’an, China, as well as Japan and other Southeast Asian areas. Furthermore, Western Africa is considered to be the "root" source of the HPV58 variant, while Mainland China and Southeast Asia are "transit points" and the new sources of HPV58 after receiving the isolates from the "root" source; like HPV16 and HPV18, the HPV58 might also be one of the major HPV types associated with the development and spread of cervical cancer.

  16. Peer-review study of the draft handbook for human-reliability analysis with emphasis on nuclear-power-plant applications, NUREG/CR-1278

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brune, R. L.; Weinstein, M.; Fitzwater, M. E.

    1983-01-01

    This report describes a peer review of the draft Handbook for Human Reliability Analysis with Emphasis on Nuclear Power Plant Applications, NUREG/CR-1278. The purpose of the study was to determine to what extent peers agree with the human behavior models and estimates of human error probabilities (HEPs) contained in the Handbook. Twenty-nine human factors experts participated in the study. Twenty of the participants were Americans; nine were from other countries. The peers performed human reliability analyses of a variety of human performance scenarios describing operator activities in nuclear power plant settings. They also answered questionnaires pertaining to the contents and application of the Handbook. An analysis of peer solutions to the human reliability analysis problems and peer responses to the questionnaire was performed. Recommendations regarding the format and contents of the Handbook were developed from the study findings.

  17. Computational Analysis of Human Blood Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panta, Yogendra; Marie, Hazel; Harvey, Mark

    2009-11-01

    Fluid flow modeling with commercially available computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software is widely used to visualize and predict physical phenomena related to various biological systems. In this presentation, a typical human aorta model was analyzed assuming the blood flow as laminar with complaint cardiac muscle wall boundaries. FLUENT, a commercially available finite volume software, coupled with Solidworks, a modeling software, was employed for the preprocessing, simulation and postprocessing of all the models.The analysis mainly consists of a fluid-dynamics analysis including a calculation of the velocity field and pressure distribution in the blood and a mechanical analysis of the deformation of the tissue and artery in terms of wall shear stress. A number of other models e.g. T branches, angle shaped were previously analyzed and compared their results for consistency for similar boundary conditions. The velocities, pressures and wall shear stress distributions achieved in all models were as expected given the similar boundary conditions. The three dimensional time dependent analysis of blood flow accounting the effect of body forces with a complaint boundary was also performed.

  18. Expert Involvement and Adherence to Medical Evidence in Medical Mobile Phone Apps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Subhi, Yousif; Bube, Sarah Hjartbro; Rolskov Bojsen, Signe

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Both clinicians and patients use medical mobile phone apps. Anyone can publish medical apps, which leads to contents with variable quality that may have a serious impact on human lives. We herein provide an overview of the prevalence of expert involvement in app development and whether...... or not app contents adhere to current medical evidence. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review studies evaluating expert involvement or adherence of app content to medical evidence in medical mobile phone apps. METHODS: We systematically searched 3 databases (PubMed, The Cochrane Library, and EMBASE......), and included studies evaluating expert involvement or adherence of app content to medical evidence in medical mobile phone apps. Two authors performed data extraction independently. Qualitative analysis of the included studies was performed. RESULTS: Based on inclusion criteria, 52 studies were included...

  19. An expert system for ranking companies and investments: wood industry case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hliadis Lazaros

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Wood industry is a very important part of both the Greek Rural and industrial sector. The discovery of the differentiation in the level of growth and in the quality of financial management between the Greek wood companies can provide very important aid in the design of an effective rural development policy. The evaluation and ranking of Greek wood companies based on actual financial data is a very complicated task and it requires expertise knowledge and skills. On the other hand a computer expert system can perform validation and evaluation in an efficient way and can substitute human experts. An expert system was designed and developed towards this direction. It uses multicriteria analysis for each one of the wood companies based on actual financial data and it applies fundamental principles of fuzzy logic in order to calculate the expected intervals of flows for the following years. .

  20. Language theory and expert systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attilio Agodi

    1988-11-01

    Full Text Available Some remarks on the problem of knowledge representation and processing, as recognized in connection with the use of computers in the scientific research work, emphasizes the relevance of these problems for the studies on both the theory of languages and the expert system. A consideration of the common traits in the recent history of these studies, with reference to the use of computers on texts in natural language motivates the introduction of set theoretic and algebraic methods, suitable for applications in the analysis and in the automatic treatment of languages, based on the concept of model sets and on relational structures suggested from the connections between syntax and semantics evidenced in some example of sub-languages corresponding to theories of different classes of physical phenomena. Some details of these methods are evidenced, which have already successfully used or whose applications appears suggestive of interesting development.

  1. Conclusions, Research Needs, and Recommendations of the Expert Panel: Technical Workshop on Human Milk Surveillance and Research for Environmental Chemicals in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proceedings of "The Technical Workshop on Human Milk Surveillance and Research on Environmental Chemicals in the United States" was organized to develop state-of-the-science protocols describing the various aspects of such a program. The 2-day workshop was held at the Mi...

  2. Expert Systems as Tools for Technical Communicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grider, Daryl A.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses expertise, what an expert system is, what an expert system shell is, what expert systems can and cannot do, knowledge engineering and technical communicators, and planning and managing expert system projects. (SR)

  3. Expert System Software Assistant for Payload Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Mark N.

    1997-01-01

    The broad objective of this expert system software based application was to demonstrate the enhancements and cost savings that can be achieved through expert system software utilization in a spacecraft ground control center. Spacelab provided a valuable proving ground for this advanced software technology; a technology that will be exploited and expanded for future ISS operations. Our specific focus was on demonstrating payload cadre command and control efficiency improvements through the use of "smart" software which monitors flight telemetry, provides enhanced schematic-based data visualization, and performs advanced engineering data analysis.

  4. Clinical evaluation of an expert system for arteriovenous fistula assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanliau, Jacques; Charasse, Christophe; Rose, Cédric; Béné, Bernard

    2014-11-01

    The monitoring of ionic dialysance in hemodialysis allows early detection of arterio-venous fistula stenosis. One limitation to the practical use of ionic dialysance is that the analysis is very time consuming on a majority of normal cases.The purpose of the study is to evaluate the utility of an expert system reproducing a human analysis and allowing continuous monitoring of the ionic dialysance by helping the physician to focus his or her expertise on the abnormal cases.The method is based on a Bayesian model that analyzes the blood flow rate, the ionic dialysance, and the venous and arterial pressures measured on the extra corporeal circuit.The clinical evaluation was performed on 90 dialysis patients at the hospital dialysis center of Saint Brieux in France with a history of at least four consecutive months of validated recording. The retrospective automated analysis was evaluated in comparison to vascular access problems identified from invasive investigation or treatment. The sensitivity of the automated analysis is 92% with a specificity of 75%.As a conclusion we suggest that this expert system could be used in a continuous vascular access monitoring procedure consisting in a weekly review of the patient population at the dialysis center. The patients with the highest risk score need a further investigation of their historical data and their medical history in order to decide whether or not to perform an invasive intervention.

  5. Human Reliability Analysis for Design: Using Reliability Methods for Human Factors Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald Laurids Boring

    2010-11-01

    This paper reviews the application of human reliability analysis methods to human factors design issues. An application framework is sketched in which aspects of modeling typically found in human reliability analysis are used in a complementary fashion to the existing human factors phases of design and testing. The paper provides best achievable practices for design, testing, and modeling. Such best achievable practices may be used to evaluate and human system interface in the context of design safety certifications.

  6. Political Regime and Human Capital: A Cross-Country Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klomp, Jeroen; de Haan, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    We examine the relationship between different dimensions of the political regime in place and human capital using a two-step structural equation model. In the first step, we employ factor analysis on 16 human capital indicators to construct two new human capital measures (basic and advanced human capital). In the second step, we estimate the…

  7. Political Regime and Human Capital: A Cross-Country Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klomp, Jeroen; de Haan, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    We examine the relationship between different dimensions of the political regime in place and human capital using a two-step structural equation model. In the first step, we employ factor analysis on 16 human capital indicators to construct two new human capital measures (basic and advanced human capital). In the second step, we estimate the…

  8. Political regime and human capital : A cross-country analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klomp, J.G.; de Haan, J.

    2013-01-01

    We examine the relationship between different dimensions of the political regime in place and human capital using a two-step structural equation model. In the first step, we employ factor analysis on 16 human capital indicators to construct two new human capital measures (basic and advanced human ca

  9. Political regime and human capital: A cross-country analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klomp, J.G.; Haan, de J.

    2013-01-01

    We examine the relationship between different dimensions of the political regime in place and human capital using a two-step structural equation model. In the first step, we employ factor analysis on 16 human capital indicators to construct two new human capital measures (basic and advanced human ca

  10. Political regime and human capital : A cross-country analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klomp, J.G.; de Haan, J.

    2013-01-01

    We examine the relationship between different dimensions of the political regime in place and human capital using a two-step structural equation model. In the first step, we employ factor analysis on 16 human capital indicators to construct two new human capital measures (basic and advanced human ca

  11. Political regime and human capital: A cross-country analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klomp, J.G.; Haan, de J.

    2013-01-01

    We examine the relationship between different dimensions of the political regime in place and human capital using a two-step structural equation model. In the first step, we employ factor analysis on 16 human capital indicators to construct two new human capital measures (basic and advanced human ca

  12. HUMAN RELIABILITY ANALYSIS FOR COMPUTERIZED PROCEDURES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald L. Boring; David I. Gertman; Katya Le Blanc

    2011-09-01

    This paper provides a characterization of human reliability analysis (HRA) issues for computerized procedures in nuclear power plant control rooms. It is beyond the scope of this paper to propose a new HRA approach or to recommend specific methods or refinements to those methods. Rather, this paper provides a review of HRA as applied to traditional paper-based procedures, followed by a discussion of what specific factors should additionally be considered in HRAs for computerized procedures. Performance shaping factors and failure modes unique to computerized procedures are highlighted. Since there is no definitive guide to HRA for paper-based procedures, this paper also serves to clarify the existing guidance on paper-based procedures before delving into the unique aspects of computerized procedures.

  13. Numerical analysis of human dental occlusal contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, F. S.; Las Casas, E. B.; Godoy, G. C. D.; Meireles, A. B.

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to obtain real contact areas, forces, and pressures acting on human dental enamel as a function of the nominal pressure during dental occlusal contact. The described development consisted of three steps: characterization of the surface roughness by 3D contact profilometry test, finite element analysis of micro responses for each pair of main asperities in contact, and homogenization of macro responses using an assumed probability density function. The inelastic deformation of enamel was considered, adjusting the stress-strain relationship of sound enamel to that obtained from instrumented indentation tests conducted with spherical tip. A mechanical part of the static friction coefficient was estimated as the ratio between tangential and normal components of the overall resistive force, resulting in μd = 0.057. Less than 1% of contact pairs reached the yield stress of enamel, indicating that the occlusal contact is essentially elastic. The micro-models indicated an average hardness of 6.25GPa, and the homogenized result for macroscopic interface was around 9GPa. Further refinements of the methodology and verification using experimental data can provide a better understanding of processes related to contact, friction and wear of human tooth enamel.

  14. Analysis of pediatrics expert consensus citation from 2009 to 2012%2009-2012年儿科专家共识引文分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张亚明

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the expert consensus on pediatric literature citation.Method By the method of bibliometrics,experts' citation from2009 to2012 were statistically analyzed with bibliometrics.Result 18 expert consensus articles were identified,of which16 have citations.The citation rate is 88.89%,with an average citation of 21.47.The sources are mainly journals; the cited articles are mainly in foreign language (65.73%); ; the price index is 57.30%.Conclusion Expert consensus citation is novel,mainly from periodicals,and primarily in foreign language.But the citation quality needs to be improved further.%目的 探讨专家共识参考文献的引用情况.方法 采用文献计量学方法,对20092012年专家共识的引文情况进行统计分析.结果 18篇专家共识有引文的16篇,引文率为88.89%,平均引文量21.47条;引文类型以期刊为主;引文语种中文占34.27%,外文占65.73%;普赖斯指数为57.30%.结论 专家共识引文内容较新颖,引文类型以期刊为主,外文则以英文为主,普赖斯指数高于50%,但引文的质量还应进一步提高.

  15. Chapel Hill bisphenol A expert panel consensus statement: Integration of mechanisms, effects in animals and potential to impact human health at current levels of exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    vom Saal, Frederick S.; Akingbemi, Benson T.; Belcher, Scott M.; Birnbaum, Linda S.; Crain, D. Andrew; Eriksen, Marcus; Farabollini, Francesca; Guillette, Louis J.; Hauser, Russ; Heindel, Jerrold J.; Ho, Shuk-Mei; Hunt, Patricia A.; Iguchi, Taisen; Jobling, Susan; Kanno, Jun; Keri, Ruth A.; Knudsen, Karen E.; Laufer, Hans; LeBlanc, Gerald A.; Marcus, Michele; McLachlan, John A.; Myers, John Peterson; Nadal, Angel; Newbold, Retha R.; Olea, Nicolas; Prins, Gail S.; Richter, Catherine A.; Rubin, Beverly S.; Sonnenschein, Carlos; Soto, Ana M.; Talsness, Chris E.; Vandenbergh, John G.; Vanderberg, Laura N.; Walser-Kuntz, Debby R.; Watson, Cheryl S.; Welshons, Wade V.; Wetherill, Yelena; Zoeller, R. Thomas

    2007-01-01

    This document is a summary statement of the outcome from the meeting: “Bisphenol A: An Examination of the Relevance of Ecological, In vitro and Laboratory Animal Studies for Assessing Risks to Human Health” sponsored by both the NIEHS and NIDCR at NIH/DHHS, as well as the US-EPA and Commonweal on the estrogenic environmental chemical bisphenol A (BPA, 2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)propane; CAS# 80-05-7). The meeting was held in Chapel Hill, NC, 28–30 November 2006 due to concerns about the potential for a relationship between BPA and negative trends in human health that have occurred in recent decades. Examples include increases in abnormal penile/urethra development in males, early sexual maturation in females, an increase in neurobehavioral problems such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism, an increase in childhood and adult obesity and type 2 diabetes, a regional decrease in sperm count, and an increase in hormonally mediated cancers, such as prostate and breast cancers. Concern has been elevated by published studies reporting a relationship between treatment with “low doses” of BPA and many of theses negative health outcomes in experimental studies in laboratory animals as well as in vitro studies identifying plausible molecular mechanisms that could mediate such effects. Importantly, much evidence suggests that these adverse effects are occurring in animals within the range of exposure to BPA of the typical human living in a developed country, where virtually everyone has measurable blood, tissue and urine levels of BPA that exceed the levels produced by doses used in the “low dose” animal experiments.

  16. EXPERT SYSTEMS - DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURAL INSURANCE TOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NAN Anca-Petruţa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Because of the fact that specialty agricultural assistance is not always available when the farmers need it, we identified expert systems as a strong instrument with an extended potential in agriculture. This started to grow in scale recently, including all socially-economic activity fields, having the role of collecting data regarding different aspects from human experts with the purpose of assisting the user in the necessary steps for solving problems, at the performance level of the expert, making his acquired knowledge and experience available. We opted for a general presentation of the expert systems as well as their necessity, because, the solution to develop the agricultural system can come from artificial intelligence by implementing the expert systems in the field of agricultural insurance, promoting existing insurance products, farmers finding options in depending on their necessities and possibilities. The objective of this article consists of collecting data about different aspects about specific areas of interest of agricultural insurance, preparing the database, a conceptual presentation of a pilot version which will become constantly richer depending on the answers received from agricultural producers, with the clearest exposure of knowledgebase possible. We can justify picking this theme with the fact that even while agricultural insurance plays a very important role in agricultural development, the registered result got from them are modest, reason why solutions need to be found in the scope of developing the agricultural sector. The importance of this consists in the proposal of an immediate viable solution to correspond with the current necessities of agricultural producers and in the proposal of an innovative solution, namely the implementation of expert system in agricultural insurance as a way of promoting insurance products. Our research, even though it treats the subject at an conceptual level, it wants to undertake an

  17. Expert system aids reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, A.T. [Tennessee Gas Pipeline, Houston, TX (United States)

    1997-09-01

    Quality and Reliability are key requirements in the energy transmission industry. Tennessee Gas Co. a division of El Paso Energy, has applied Gensym`s G2, object-oriented Expert System programming language as a standard tool for maintaining and improving quality and reliability in pipeline operation. Tennessee created a small team of gas controllers and engineers to develop a Proactive Controller`s Assistant (ProCA) that provides recommendations for operating the pipeline more efficiently, reliably and safely. The controller`s pipeline operating knowledge is recreated in G2 in the form of Rules and Procedures in ProCA. Two G2 programmers supporting the Gas Control Room add information to the ProCA knowledge base daily. The result is a dynamic, constantly improving system that not only supports the pipeline controllers in their operations, but also the measurement and communications departments` requests for special studies. The Proactive Controller`s Assistant development focus is in the following areas: Alarm Management; Pipeline Efficiency; Reliability; Fuel Efficiency; and Controller Development.

  18. A prototype auto-human support system for spatial analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Lianfa; WANG Jinfeng

    2006-01-01

    Spatial analysis is a multidisciplinary field that involves multiple influential factors, variation and uncertainty, and modeling of geospatial data is a complex procedure affected by spatial context, mechanism and assumptions. In order to make spatial modeling easier, some scholars have suggested a lot of knowledge from exploratory data analysis (EDA), specification of the model, fitness and diagnosis of the model, to interpretation of the model. Also an amount of software has improved some functionalities of spatial analysis, e.g. EDA by the dynamic link (GeoDa) and robust statistical calculation (R). However, there are few programs for spatial analysis that can automatically deal with unstructured declarative issues and uncertainty in machine modeling using the domain knowledge. Under this context, this paper suggests a prototype support system for spatial analysis that can automatically use experience and knowledge from the experts to deal with complexity and uncertainty in modeling. The knowledge base component, as the major contribution of the system, in support of the expert system shell, codes and stores declarative modeling knowledge, e.g. spatial context, mechanisms and prior knowledge to deal with declarative issues during the modeling procedure. With the open architecture, the system integrates functionalities of other components, e.g. GIS' visualization, DBMS, and robust calculation in an interactive environment. An application case of spatial sampling, design and implementation of spatial modeling with such a system is demonstrated.

  19. Final OptiMIR Scientific and Expert Meeting: From milk analysis to advisory tools (Palais des Congrès, Namur, Belgium, 16-17 April 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedrichs, P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The dairy industry represents 13% of the turnover of the European food industry and north-west Europe produces 60% of the European milk. However, in 2014 the milk market has experienced a substantial fall in milk prices of some 50%. At these lower prices for milk the business of many milk producers is not sustainable. Due to recent advances, the mid-infrared (MIR analysis of milk performed within milk recording (MR promises more information than used traditionally. Beside the established MR parameters (protein, fat, lactose, and urea, the spectra could provide additional information on cows' status for a range of characteristics (e.g. fertility, health, energy balance, feeding and methane emission. Thus, the spectra routinely obtained from the MIR analysis of milk offer a possibility to develop novel, cost-effective tools which enable milk producers to improve the management of their dairy herds and in turn reduce the costs for milk production. The OptiMIR project aims to improve the sustainability of the dairy sector by developing and providing innovative, economical and standardized MIR-based tools for the management of dairy herds. Additionally, the project aims to create and promote a framework for the cross-border exchange of information and practices to enhance the service of milk recording organizations (MROs in north-west Europe and to strengthen their competitiveness. In order to achieve these objectives, in 2011 the European OptiMIR project was officially launched for a 5-year-period. The INTERREG IV B funded OptiMIR project is a cooperation between three research centers, three universities, 11 MROs, and one laboratory from six north-western European countries. To accomplish the goals, the different processes from the identification of the priority areas to the development, validation, and implementation of the novel tools were outlined in three working packages comprising 10 actions. A common transnational database combines the

  20. Mummified remains from the Archaeological Museum in Zagreb, Croatia - Reviewing peculiarities and limitations of human and non-human radiological identification and analysis in mummified remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petaros, Anja; Janković, Ivor; Cavalli, Fabio; Ivanac, Gordana; Brkljačić, Boris; Čavka, Mislav

    2015-10-01

    Forensic protocols and medico-legal techniques are increasingly being employed in investigations of museological material. The final findings of such investigations may reveal interesting facts on historical figures, customs and habits, as well as provide meaningful data for forensic use. Herein we present a case review where forensic experts were requested to identify taxonomic affinities, stage of preservation and provide skeletal analysis of mummified non-human archaeological remains, and verify whether two mummified hands are human or not. The manuscript offers a short review on the process and particularities of radiological species identification, the impact of post-mortem changes in the analysis and imaging of mummified remains as well as the macroscopical interpretation of trauma, pathology and authenticity in mummified remains, which can all turn useful when dealing with forensic cases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  1. Human Energy Field: A Concept Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Deborah; Fuller, Ann; Resnicoff, Marci; Butcher, Howard K; Frisch, Noreen

    2016-11-23

    The human energy field (HEF) as a phenomenon of interest across disciplines has gained increased attention over the 20th and 21st centuries. However, a concern has arisen that there is a lack of evidence to support the concept of the HEF as a phenomenon of interest to professional nurses and nursing practice. Using Chinn and Kramer's method of creating conceptual meaning, a concept analysis was conducted for the purpose of developing a conceptual definition of HEF. A systematic review of the literature using the CINAHL database yielded a total of 81 articles and text sources that were determined to be relevant to the concept analysis. The HEF is defined as a luminous field of energy that comprises a person, extends beyond the physical body, and is in a continuous mutual process with the environmental energy field. It is a vital energy that is a continuous whole and is recognized by its unique pattern; it is dynamic, creative, nonlinear, unpredictable, and flows in lower and higher frequencies. The balanced HEF is characterized by flow, rhythm, symmetry, and gentle vibration.

  2. The Principles of Designing an Expert System in Teaching Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salekhova, Lailya; Nurgaliev, Albert; Zaripova, Rinata; Khakimullina, Nailya

    2013-01-01

    This study reveals general didactic concepts of the Expert Systems (ES) development process in the educational area. The proof of concept is based on the example of teaching the 8th grade Algebra subject. The main contribution in this work is the implementation of innovative approaches in analysis and processing of data by expert system as well as…

  3. An Expert System Adviser for Tourists Planning To Visit Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanchanosatha, Vinita

    This document reports on an examination of the analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation of an interactive computer program. The program is called an expert system adviser, and is for tourists planning on visiting Thailand. The expert system contains well-organized information that provides detailed coverage of Thailand. The…

  4. Expert and Naive Raters Using the PAG: Does it Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Edwin T.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Questions the observed correlation between job experts and naive raters using the Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ); and conducts a replication of the Smith and Hakel study (1979) with college students (N=39). Concluded that PAQ ratings from job experts and college students are not equivalent and therefore are not interchangeable. (LLL)

  5. Horse-Expert: An aided expert system for diagnosing horse diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, H; Xiao, J; Gao, X; Wang, H

    2016-12-01

    In contrast to the rapid development of the horse husbandry in China, the ability of horse veterinarians to diagnose diseases has not been improved and only a few domain experts have considerable expertise. At present, many expert systems have been developed for diseases diagnosis, but few for horse diseases diagnosis have been studied in depth. This paper presents the design and development of a computer-aided expert system for diagnosing horse diseases. We suggest an approach for diagnosis of horse diseases based on the analysis of diagnostic characteristics and the experiential knowledge of domain experts. It is based on using evidence-weighted uncertainty reasoning theory, which is a combination of evidence theory and an uncertainty pass algorithm of confidence factors. It enables drawing of inferences with atypical clinical signs and the uncertainty of the user's subjective understanding. It reduces the influence of subjective factors on diagnostic accuracy. The system utilizes a user friendly interface for users and requests a confidence factor from users when feedback is given to the system. Horse-Expert combines the confidence factors with weight factors assigned to clinical signs by experts during the knowledge acquisition process to make diagnostic conclusions. The system can diagnose 91 common horse diseases, and provides suggestions for appropriate treatment options. In addition, users can check the medical record through statistical charts. The system has been tested in seven demonstration areas of Xinjiang province in northwestern China. By constantly maintaining and updating the knowledge base, the system has potential application in veterinary practice.

  6. Expert and novice facilitated modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavella, Elena; Papadopoulos, Thanos

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an empirical study based on action research in which expert and novice facilitators in facilitated modelling workshops are compared. There is limited empirical research analysing the differences between expert and novice facilitators. Aiming to address this gap we study...

  7. Computational assessment of mammography accreditation phantom images and correlation with human observer analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barufaldi, Bruno; Lau, Kristen C.; Schiabel, Homero; Maidment, D. A.

    2015-03-01

    Routine performance of basic test procedures and dose measurements are essential for assuring high quality of mammograms. International guidelines recommend that breast care providers ascertain that mammography systems produce a constant high quality image, using as low a radiation dose as is reasonably achievable. The main purpose of this research is to develop a framework to monitor radiation dose and image quality in a mixed breast screening and diagnostic imaging environment using an automated tracking system. This study presents a module of this framework, consisting of a computerized system to measure the image quality of the American College of Radiology mammography accreditation phantom. The methods developed combine correlation approaches, matched filters, and data mining techniques. These methods have been used to analyze radiological images of the accreditation phantom. The classification of structures of interest is based upon reports produced by four trained readers. As previously reported, human observers demonstrate great variation in their analysis due to the subjectivity of human visual inspection. The software tool was trained with three sets of 60 phantom images in order to generate decision trees using the software WEKA (Waikato Environment for Knowledge Analysis). When tested with 240 images during the classification step, the tool correctly classified 88%, 99%, and 98%, of fibers, speck groups and masses, respectively. The variation between the computer classification and human reading was comparable to the variation between human readers. This computerized system not only automates the quality control procedure in mammography, but also decreases the subjectivity in the expert evaluation of the phantom images.

  8. Differential network analysis in human cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Ryan; Datta, Somnath; Datta, Susmita

    2014-01-01

    A complex disease like cancer is hardly caused by one gene or one protein singly. It is usually caused by the perturbation of the network formed by several genes or proteins. In the last decade several research teams have attempted to construct interaction maps of genes and proteins either experimentally or reverse engineer interaction maps using computational techniques. These networks were usually created under a certain condition such as an environmental condition, a particular disease, or a specific tissue type. Lately, however, there has been greater emphasis on finding the differential structure of the existing network topology under a novel condition or disease status to elucidate the perturbation in a biological system. In this review/tutorial article we briefly mention some of the research done in this area; we mainly illustrate the computational/statistical methods developed by our team in recent years for differential network analysis using publicly available gene expression data collected from a well known cancer study. This data includes a group of patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and a group with acute myeloid leukemia. In particular, we describe the statistical tests to detect the change in the network topology based on connectivity scores which measure the association or interaction between pairs of genes. The tests under various scores are applied to this data set to perform a differential network analysis on gene expression for human leukemia. We believe that, in the future, differential network analysis will be a standard way to view the changes in gene expression and protein expression data globally and these types of tests could be useful in analyzing the complex differential signatures.

  9. Planning bioinformatics workflows using an expert system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoling; Chang, Jeffrey T

    2017-04-15

    Bioinformatic analyses are becoming formidably more complex due to the increasing number of steps required to process the data, as well as the proliferation of methods that can be used in each step. To alleviate this difficulty, pipelines are commonly employed. However, pipelines are typically implemented to automate a specific analysis, and thus are difficult to use for exploratory analyses requiring systematic changes to the software or parameters used. To automate the development of pipelines, we have investigated expert systems. We created the Bioinformatics ExperT SYstem (BETSY) that includes a knowledge base where the capabilities of bioinformatics software is explicitly and formally encoded. BETSY is a backwards-chaining rule-based expert system comprised of a data model that can capture the richness of biological data, and an inference engine that reasons on the knowledge base to produce workflows. Currently, the knowledge base is populated with rules to analyze microarray and next generation sequencing data. We evaluated BETSY and found that it could generate workflows that reproduce and go beyond previously published bioinformatics results. Finally, a meta-investigation of the workflows generated from the knowledge base produced a quantitative measure of the technical burden imposed by each step of bioinformatics analyses, revealing the large number of steps devoted to the pre-processing of data. In sum, an expert system approach can facilitate exploratory bioinformatic analysis by automating the development of workflows, a task that requires significant domain expertise. https://github.com/jefftc/changlab. jeffrey.t.chang@uth.tmc.edu.

  10. Human Error Assessmentin Minefield Cleaning Operation Using Human Event Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hajiakbari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & objective: Human error is one of the main causes of accidents. Due to the unreliability of the human element and the high-risk nature of demining operations, this study aimed to assess and manage human errors likely to occur in such operations. Methods: This study was performed at a demining site in war zones located in the West of Iran. After acquiring an initial familiarity with the operations, methods, and tools of clearing minefields, job task related to clearing landmines were specified. Next, these tasks were studied using HTA and related possible errors were assessed using ATHEANA. Results: de-mining task was composed of four main operations, including primary detection, technical identification, investigation, and neutralization. There were found four main reasons for accidents occurring in such operations; walking on the mines, leaving mines with no action, error in neutralizing operation and environmental explosion. The possibility of human error in mine clearance operations was calculated as 0.010. Conclusion: The main causes of human error in de-mining operations can be attributed to various factors such as poor weather and operating conditions like outdoor work, inappropriate personal protective equipment, personality characteristics, insufficient accuracy in the work, and insufficient time available. To reduce the probability of human error in de-mining operations, the aforementioned factors should be managed properly.

  11. Engineering monitoring expert system's developer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Ching F.

    1991-01-01

    This research project is designed to apply artificial intelligence technology including expert systems, dynamic interface of neural networks, and hypertext to construct an expert system developer. The developer environment is specifically suited to building expert systems which monitor the performance of ground support equipment for propulsion systems and testing facilities. The expert system developer, through the use of a graphics interface and a rule network, will be transparent to the user during rule constructing and data scanning of the knowledge base. The project will result in a software system that allows its user to build specific monitoring type expert systems which monitor various equipments used for propulsion systems or ground testing facilities and accrues system performance information in a dynamic knowledge base.

  12. Accurate Annotation of Remote Sensing Images via Active Spectral Clustering with Little Expert Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gui-Song Xia

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available It is a challenging problem to efficiently interpret the large volumes of remotely sensed image data being collected in the current age of remote sensing “big data”. Although human visual interpretation can yield accurate annotation of remote sensing images, it demands considerable expert knowledge and is always time-consuming, which strongly hinders its efficiency. Alternatively, intelligent approaches (e.g., supervised classification and unsupervised clustering can speed up the annotation process through the application of advanced image analysis and data mining technologies. However, high-quality expert-annotated samples are still a prerequisite for intelligent approaches to achieve accurate results. Thus, how to efficiently annotate remote sensing images with little expert knowledge is an important and inevitable problem. To address this issue, this paper introduces a novel active clustering method for the annotation of high-resolution remote sensing images. More precisely, given a set of remote sensing images, we first build a graph based on these images and then gradually optimize the structure of the graph using a cut-collect process, which relies on a graph-based spectral clustering algorithm and pairwise constraints that are incrementally added via active learning. The pairwise constraints are simply similarity/dissimilarity relationships between the most uncertain pairwise nodes on the graph, which can be easily determined by non-expert human oracles. Furthermore, we also propose a strategy to adaptively update the number of classes in the clustering algorithm. In contrast with existing methods, our approach can achieve high accuracy in the task of remote sensing image annotation with relatively little expert knowledge, thereby greatly lightening the workload burden and reducing the requirements regarding expert knowledge. Experiments on several datasets of remote sensing images show that our algorithm achieves state

  13. Applications of fuzzy sets to rule-based expert system development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, Robert N.

    1989-01-01

    Problems of implementing rule-based expert systems using fuzzy sets are considered. A fuzzy logic software development shell is used that allows inclusion of both crisp and fuzzy rules in decision making and process control problems. Results are given that compare this type of expert system to a human expert in some specific applications. Advantages and disadvantages of such systems are discussed.

  14. Reflection group on 'Expert Culture'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggermont, G

    2000-07-01

    As part of SCK-CEN's social sciences and humanities programme, a reflection group on 'Expert Culture' was established. The objectives of the reflection group are: (1) to clarify the role of SCK-CEN experts; (2) to clarify the new role of expertise in the evolving context of risk society; (3) to confront external views and internal SCK-CEN experiences on expert culture; (4) to improve trust building of experts and credibility of SCK-CEN as a nuclear actor in society; (5) to develop a draft for a deontological code; (6) to integrate the approach in training on assertivity and communication; (7) to create an output for a topical day on the subject of expert culture. The programme, achievements and perspectives of the refection group are summarised.

  15. Toward a theory of distributed word expert natural language parsing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, C.; Small, S.

    1981-01-01

    An approach to natural language meaning-based parsing in which the unit of linguistic knowledge is the word rather than the rewrite rule is described. In the word expert parser, knowledge about language is distributed across a population of procedural experts, each representing a word of the language, and each an expert at diagnosing that word's intended usage in context. The parser is structured around a coroutine control environment in which the generator-like word experts ask questions and exchange information in coming to collective agreement on sentence meaning. The word expert theory is advanced as a better cognitive model of human language expertise than the traditional rule-based approach. The technical discussion is organized around examples taken from the prototype LISP system which implements parts of the theory.

  16. Towards the Semantic Web Expert System

    OpenAIRE

    Verhodubs, O; Grundspeņķis, J

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents a conception of the Semantic Web Expert System which is the logical continuation of the expert system development. The Semantic Web Expert System emerges as the result of evolution of expert system concept and it means expert system moving toward the Web and using new Semantic Web technologies. The proposed conception of the Semantic Web Expert System promises to have new useful features that distinguish it from other types of expert systems

  17. Decision Analysis Methods Used to Make Appropriate Investments in Human Exploration Capabilities and Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Byrd, Julie; Arney, Dale C.; Hay, Jason; Reeves, John D.; Craig, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    NASA is transforming human spaceflight. The Agency is shifting from an exploration-based program with human activities in low Earth orbit (LEO) and targeted robotic missions in deep space to a more sustainable and integrated pioneering approach. Through pioneering, NASA seeks to address national goals to develop the capacity for people to work, learn, operate, live, and thrive safely beyond Earth for extended periods of time. However, pioneering space involves daunting technical challenges of transportation, maintaining health, and enabling crew productivity for long durations in remote, hostile, and alien environments. Prudent investments in capability and technology developments, based on mission need, are critical for enabling a campaign of human exploration missions. There are a wide variety of capabilities and technologies that could enable these missions, so it is a major challenge for NASA's Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD) to make knowledgeable portfolio decisions. It is critical for this pioneering initiative that these investment decisions are informed with a prioritization process that is robust and defensible. It is NASA's role to invest in targeted technologies and capabilities that would enable exploration missions even though specific requirements have not been identified. To inform these investments decisions, NASA's HEOMD has supported a variety of analysis activities that prioritize capabilities and technologies. These activities are often based on input from subject matter experts within the NASA community who understand the technical challenges of enabling human exploration missions. This paper will review a variety of processes and methods that NASA has used to prioritize and rank capabilities and technologies applicable to human space exploration. The paper will show the similarities in the various processes and showcase instances were customer specified priorities force modifications to the process. Specifically

  18. Human Sperm Competition: A Comparative Evolutionary Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael N. Pham

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Sperm competition occurs when a female copulates with two or more males within a sufficiently brief time period, resulting in sperm of the different males competing to fertilize ova. Sperm competition has been documented or inferred to occur across several species. We address the evidence for sperm competition in humans by reviewing literature indicating apparently convergent adaptations to sperm competition in humans and non-humans. We discuss future research directions, and conclude that the evidence for anatomical, biological, physiological, and behavioral adaptations to human sperm competition provides compelling evidence that sperm competition has been a recurrent feature of human evolutionary history.

  19. Skill in Expert Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helton, William S.

    2007-01-01

    The motor control of novice participants is often cognitively demanding and susceptible to interference by other tasks. As people develop expertise, their motor control becomes less susceptible to interference from other tasks. Researchers propose a transition in human motor skill from active control to automaticity. This progression may also be…

  20. Ask the Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Two science questions are answered: (1) How can someone have one brown eye and one blue eye?, and (2) Why are magnets attracted to some metals, but not all metals? It is very rare that a human will have two irises of different colors. This condition, heterochromia, can be a normal variant or the result of an ocular disease. Heterochromia can…

  1. A dynamic human motion: coordination analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pchelkin, Stepan; Shiriaev, Anton S; Freidovich, Leonid B; Mettin, Uwe; Gusev, Sergei V; Kwon, Woong; Paramonov, Leonid

    2015-02-01

    This article is concerned with the generic structure of the motion coordination system resulting from the application of the method of virtual holonomic constraints (VHCs) to the problem of the generation and robust execution of a dynamic humanlike motion by a humanoid robot. The motion coordination developed using VHCs is based on a motion generator equation, which is a scalar nonlinear differential equation of second order. It can be considered equivalent in function to a central pattern generator in living organisms. The relative time evolution of the degrees of freedom of a humanoid robot during a typical motion are specified by a set of coordination functions that uniquely define the overall pattern of the motion. This is comparable to a hypothesis on the existence of motion patterns in biomechanics. A robust control is derived based on a transverse linearization along the configuration manifold defined by the coordination functions. It is shown that the derived coordination and control architecture possesses excellent robustness properties. The analysis is performed on an example of a real human motion recorded in test experiments.

  2. Using a hybrid neural/expert system for data base mining in market survey data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciesielski, V.; Palstra, G. [Royal Melbourne Inst. of Technology (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the application of a hybrid neural/expert system network to the task of finding significant events in a market research data base. Neural networks trained by backward error propagation are used to classify trends in the time series data. A rule system then uses these classifications, knowledge of market research analysis techniques and external events which influence the time series, to infer the significance of the data. The system achieved 86% recall and 100% precision on a test set of 6 months of survey data. This was significantly better than could be achieved by a system using linear regression together with a rule system. Both systems were able to perform analysis of the test data in under 5 minutes. The manual analysis of the same data took a human expert over four working days.

  3. Comparative Analysis of OECD Member Countries' Competitive Advantage in National Human Resource Development System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hunseok; Choi, Yeseul; Choi, Myungweon

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess, evaluate, and compare the competitive advantages of the human resource development systems of advanced countries. The Global Human Resource Development Index was utilized for this study, since it has been validated through an expert panel's content review and analytic hierarchy process. Using a sample of 34…

  4. Comparative Analysis of OECD Member Countries' Competitive Advantage in National Human Resource Development System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hunseok; Choi, Yeseul; Choi, Myungweon

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess, evaluate, and compare the competitive advantages of the human resource development systems of advanced countries. The Global Human Resource Development Index was utilized for this study, since it has been validated through an expert panel's content review and analytic hierarchy process. Using a sample of 34…

  5. Comparative Analysis of OECD Member Countries' Competitive Advantage in National Human Resource Development System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hunseok; Choi, Yeseul; Choi, Myungweon

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess, evaluate, and compare the competitive advantages of the human resource development systems of advanced countries. The Global Human Resource Development Index was utilized for this study, since it has been validated through an expert panel's content review and analytic hierarchy process. Using a sample…

  6. THE OUTCOMES OF THE EXPERIMENT ON INTERCULTURAL AWARENESS FORMATION OF THE WOULD-BE CULTURE EXPERTS

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The article considers the outcomes of the experiment on intercultural awareness formation of the would-be culture experts by foreign language means. The analysis of means of intercultural awareness formation of the would-be culture experts is described.

  7. Dependence assessment in human reliability analysis based on D numbers and AHP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Xinyi; Deng, Xinyang [School of Computer and Information Science, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Deng, Yong, E-mail: ydeng@swu.edu.cn [School of Computer and Information Science, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Institute of Fundamental and Frontier Sciences, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, Sichuan 610054 (China); Mahadevan, Sankaran [School of Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States)

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • D numbers and AHP are combined to implement dependence assessment in HRA. • A new tool, called D numbers, is used to deal with the uncertainty in HRA. • The proposed method can well address the fuzziness and subjectivity in linguistic assessment. • The proposed method is well applicable in dependence assessment which inherently has a linguistic assessment process. - Abstract: Since human errors always cause heavy loss especially in nuclear engineering, human reliability analysis (HRA) has attracted more and more attention. Dependence assessment plays a vital role in HRA, measuring the dependence degree of human errors. Many researches have been done while still have improvement space. In this paper, a dependence assessment model based on D numbers and analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is proposed. Firstly, identify the factors used to measure the dependence level of two human operations. Besides, in terms of the suggested dependence level, determine and quantify the anchor points for each factor. Secondly, D numbers and AHP are adopted in model. Experts evaluate the dependence level of human operations for each factor. Then, the evaluation results are presented as D numbers and fused by D number’s combination rule that can obtain the dependence probability of human operations for each factor. The weights of factors can be determined by AHP. Thirdly, based on the dependence probability for each factor and its corresponding weight, the dependence probability of two human operations and its confidence can be obtained. The proposed method can well address the fuzziness and subjectivity in linguistic assessment. The proposed method is well applicable to assess the dependence degree of human errors in HRA which inherently has a linguistic assessment process.

  8. Expert Robots For Automated Packaging And Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slutzky, G. D.; Hall, E. L.; Shell, R. L.

    1989-02-01

    A variety of problems in automated packaging and processing seem ready for expert robotic solutions. Such problems as automated palletizing, bin-picking, automated stoilw and retrieval, automated kitting of parts for assembly, and automated warehousing are currently being considered. The use of expert robots which consist of specialized computer programs, manipulators and integrated sensors has been demonstrated with robot Chedkers, peg games, etc. Actual solutions for automated palletizing, pit-carb basket loading, etc. have also been developed for industrial applications at our Center. The generic concepts arising from this research will be described, unsolved problems discussed, and some important tools demonstrated. The significance of this work lies in its broad application to a host of generic industrial problems which can improve quality, reduce waste, are eliminate human injuries.

  9. [Expert medical witness testimony of maxillofacial injuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orihovac, Zeljko; Macan, Darko

    2008-07-01

    The basic principles of expert medical witness testimony of the maxillofacial region are described. The specific anatomic characteristics of the region are emphasized, especially in view of the fact that face is the most exposed part of the human body. Post-traumatic deformities of the maxillofacial region involve soft tissues of the face and mouth as well as bony structures of the viscerocranium and teeth. Endured physical pain, lessening of life activities, disfigurement and requirement of assistance by third person are separately described as an important part of expert medical witness testimony of the maxillofacial region. The number of lawsuits raised against physicians has significantly increased in the past several years, more often in cases where the patients are dissatisfied with the results of cosmetic surgery, especially when these procedures are performed on the face.

  10. Initial sequencing and analysis of the human genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lander, E S; Linton, L M; Birren, B; Nusbaum, C; Zody, M C; Baldwin, J; Devon, K; Dewar, K; Doyle, M; FitzHugh, W; Funke, R; Gage, D; Harris, K; Heaford, A; Howland, J; Kann, L; Lehoczky, J; LeVine, R; McEwan, P; McKernan, K; Meldrim, J; Mesirov, J P; Miranda, C; Morris, W; Naylor, J; Raymond, C; Rosetti, M; Santos, R; Sheridan, A; Sougnez, C; Stange-Thomann, Y; Stojanovic, N; Subramanian, A; Wyman, D; Rogers, J; Sulston, J; Ainscough, R; Beck, S; Bentley, D; Burton, J; Clee, C; Carter, N; Coulson, A; Deadman, R; Deloukas, P; Dunham, A; Dunham, I; Durbin, R; French, L; Grafham, D; Gregory, S; Hubbard, T; Humphray, S; Hunt, A; Jones, M; Lloyd, C; McMurray, A; Matthews, L; Mercer, S; Milne, S; Mullikin, J C; Mungall, A; Plumb, R; Ross, M; Shownkeen, R; Sims, S; Waterston, R H; Wilson, R K; Hillier, L W; McPherson, J D; Marra, M A; Mardis, E R; Fulton, L A; Chinwalla, A T; Pepin, K H; Gish, W R; Chissoe, S L; Wendl, M C; Delehaunty, K D; Miner, T L; Delehaunty, A; Kramer, J B; Cook, L L; Fulton, R S; Johnson, D L; Minx, P J; Clifton, S W; Hawkins, T; Branscomb, E; Predki, P; Richardson, P; Wenning, S; Slezak, T; Doggett, N; Cheng, J F; Olsen, A; Lucas, S; Elkin, C; Uberbacher, E; Frazier, M; Gibbs, R A; Muzny, D M; Scherer, S E; Bouck, J B; Sodergren, E J; Worley, K C; Rives, C M; Gorrell, J H; Metzker, M L; Naylor, S L; Kucherlapati, R S; Nelson, D L; Weinstock, G M; Sakaki, Y; Fujiyama, A; Hattori, M; Yada, T; Toyoda, A; Itoh, T; Kawagoe, C; Watanabe, H; Totoki, Y; Taylor, T; Weissenbach, J; Heilig, R; Saurin, W; Artiguenave, F; Brottier, P; Bruls, T; Pelletier, E; Robert, C; Wincker, P; Smith, D R; Doucette-Stamm, L; Rubenfield, M; Weinstock, K; Lee, H M; Dubois, J; Rosenthal, A; Platzer, M; Nyakatura, G; Taudien, S; Rump, A; Yang, H; Yu, J; Wang, J; Huang, G; Gu, J; Hood, L; Rowen, L; Madan, A; Qin, S; Davis, R W; Federspiel, N A; Abola, A P; Proctor, M J; Myers, R M; Schmutz, J; Dickson, M; Grimwood, J; Cox, D R; Olson, M V; Kaul, R; Raymond, C; Shimizu, N; Kawasaki, K; Minoshima, S; Evans, G A; Athanasiou, M; Schultz, R; Roe, B A; Chen, F; Pan, H; Ramser, J; Lehrach, H; Reinhardt, R; McCombie, W R; de la Bastide, M; Dedhia, N; Blöcker, H; Hornischer, K; Nordsiek, G; Agarwala, R; Aravind, L; Bailey, J A; Bateman, A; Batzoglou, S; Birney, E; Bork, P; Brown, D G; Burge, C B; Cerutti, L; Chen, H C; Church, D; Clamp, M; Copley, R R; Doerks, T; Eddy, S R; Eichler, E E; Furey, T S; Galagan, J; Gilbert, J G; Harmon, C; Hayashizaki, Y; Haussler, D; Hermjakob, H; Hokamp, K; Jang, W; Johnson, L S; Jones, T A; Kasif, S; Kaspryzk, A; Kennedy, S; Kent, W J; Kitts, P; Koonin, E V; Korf, I; Kulp, D; Lancet, D; Lowe, T M; McLysaght, A; Mikkelsen, T; Moran, J V; Mulder, N; Pollara, V J; Ponting, C P; Schuler, G; Schultz, J; Slater, G; Smit, A F; Stupka, E; Szustakowki, J; Thierry-Mieg, D; Thierry-Mieg, J; Wagner, L; Wallis, J; Wheeler, R; Williams, A; Wolf, Y I; Wolfe, K H; Yang, S P; Yeh, R F; Collins, F; Guyer, M S; Peterson, J; Felsenfeld, A; Wetterstrand, K A; Patrinos, A; Morgan, M J; de Jong, P; Catanese, J J; Osoegawa, K; Shizuya, H; Choi, S; Chen, Y J; Szustakowki, J

    2001-02-15

    The human genome holds an extraordinary trove of information about human development, physiology, medicine and evolution. Here we report the results of an international collaboration to produce and make freely available a draft sequence of the human genome. We also present an initial analysis of the data, describing some of the insights that can be gleaned from the sequence.

  11. Using Expert System Job Aids: A Primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Clay

    1989-01-01

    Explains how current commercial expert system technology can be used to create useful job aids. Expert systems are defined, situations in which an expert system job aid will be most effective are described, expert system shells are discussed, and three commercial expert system products are described. (LRW)

  12. Using Expert System Job Aids: A Primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Clay

    1989-01-01

    Explains how current commercial expert system technology can be used to create useful job aids. Expert systems are defined, situations in which an expert system job aid will be most effective are described, expert system shells are discussed, and three commercial expert system products are described. (LRW)

  13. A Study of Expert System for Career Selection: Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waghmode M. L

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Expert system uses human knowledge stored inside a computer to solve problems those require human expertise for solving. Knowledge expert system helps to support for making better decision. There is need of career guidance for students at college level. Expert system plays an important role to facilitate decision making, diagnosis of diseases etc. Expert system for career selection can be developed using Fuzzy logic, neural network for guiding students for selecting proper career stream. From the literature review it has found that in Maharashtra comparatively very less research took place on expert system for career selection. Hence there is wide scope in expert system development for career guidance which will assist secondary and higher secondary students in Maharashtra for selecting proper career. Through this paper researcher thrown light on literature review of career selection expert systems. Here for career selection researcher reviewed 43 literatures including 2-conference proceeding, 8-Books, 22- Journals, 1-Report, 5-Thesis, 3-Websites, 2-Encyclopaedia articles and 2-generic articles. Articles referred are from last two decades and majority of them are latest.

  14. Expert music performance: cognitive, neural, and developmental bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rachel M; Zatorre, Robert J; Penhune, Virginia B

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, we explore what happens in the brain of an expert musician during performance. Understanding expert music performance is interesting to cognitive neuroscientists not only because it tests the limits of human memory and movement, but also because studying expert musicianship can help us understand skilled human behavior in general. In this chapter, we outline important facets of our current understanding of the cognitive and neural basis for music performance, and developmental factors that may underlie musical ability. We address three main questions. (1) What is expert performance? (2) How do musicians achieve expert-level performance? (3) How does expert performance come about? We address the first question by describing musicians' ability to remember, plan, execute, and monitor their performances in order to perform music accurately and expressively. We address the second question by reviewing evidence for possible cognitive and neural mechanisms that may underlie or contribute to expert music performance, including the integration of sound and movement, feedforward and feedback motor control processes, expectancy, and imagery. We further discuss how neural circuits in auditory, motor, parietal, subcortical, and frontal cortex all contribute to different facets of musical expertise. Finally, we address the third question by reviewing evidence for the heritability of musical expertise and for how expertise develops through training and practice. We end by discussing outlooks for future work.

  15. Quality requirements for veterinary hematology analyzers in small animals-a survey about veterinary experts' requirements and objective evaluation of analyzer performance based on a meta-analysis of method validation studies: bench top hematology analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Andrea M; Moritz, Andreas; Freeman, Kathleen P; Bauer, Natali

    2016-09-01

    Scarce information exists about quality requirements and objective evaluation of performance of large veterinary bench top hematology analyzers. The study was aimed at comparing the observed total error (TEobs ) derived from meta-analysis of published method validation data to the total allowable error (TEa ) for veterinary hematology variables in small animals based on experts' opinions. Ideally, TEobs should be requirements except for HGB due to method-related bias, and platelet counts due to known preanalytic/analytic issues. © 2016 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  16. Design of an expert system for phonetic speech recognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbonell, N.; Haton, J.P.; Pierrel, J.M.; Lonchamp, F.

    1983-07-01

    Expert systems have been extensively used as a means for integrating the expertise of a human being into an artificial intelligence system. The authors are presently designing an expert system which will integrate the strategy and the knowledge of a phonetician reading a speech spectrogram. Their goal is twofold, firstly to obtain a better insight into the acoustic-decoding of speech, and, secondly, to improve the efficiency of present automatic phonetic recognition systems. This paper presents a preliminary description of the project, especially the overall strategy of the expert and the role of duration parameters in the segmentation and identification processes.

  17. Expert opinion vs. empirical evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Rod A; Raybould, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Expert opinion is often sought by government regulatory agencies when there is insufficient empirical evidence to judge the safety implications of a course of action. However, it can be reckless to continue following expert opinion when a preponderance of evidence is amassed that conflicts with this opinion. Factual evidence should always trump opinion in prioritizing the information that is used to guide regulatory policy. Evidence-based medicine has seen a dramatic upturn in recent years spurred by examples where evidence indicated that certain treatments recommended by expert opinions increased death rates. We suggest that scientific evidence should also take priority over expert opinion in the regulation of genetically modified crops (GM). Examples of regulatory data requirements that are not justified based on the mass of evidence are described, and it is suggested that expertise in risk assessment should guide evidence-based regulation of GM crops. PMID:24637724

  18. Cornell Mixing Zone Expert System

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page provides an overview Cornell Mixing Zone Expert System water quality modeling and decision support system designed for environmental impact assessment of mixing zones resulting from wastewater discharge from point sources

  19. Experts views' on Digital Competence

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen, José; Stoyanov, Slavi

    2013-01-01

    Janssen, J., & Stoyanov, S. (2012, 20 November). Online Consultation for a Digital Competence Framework: Experts' views on Digital Competence. Workshop presentation at the Institute for Prospective Technological Studies, Seville, Spain.

  20. Expert systems in clinical microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winstanley, Trevor; Courvalin, Patrice

    2011-07-01

    This review aims to discuss expert systems in general and how they may be used in medicine as a whole and clinical microbiology in particular (with the aid of interpretive reading). It considers rule-based systems, pattern-based systems, and data mining and introduces neural nets. A variety of noncommercial systems is described, and the central role played by the EUCAST is stressed. The need for expert rules in the environment of reset EUCAST breakpoints is also questioned. Commercial automated systems with on-board expert systems are considered, with emphasis being placed on the "big three": Vitek 2, BD Phoenix, and MicroScan. By necessity and in places, the review becomes a general review of automated system performances for the detection of specific resistance mechanisms rather than focusing solely on expert systems. Published performance evaluations of each system are drawn together and commented on critically.

  1. A new expert system for diagnosis of lung cancer: GDA-LS_SVM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avci, Engin

    2012-06-01

    In nowadays, there are many various diseases, whose diagnosis is very hardly. Lung cancer is one of this type diseases. It begins in the lungs and spreads to other organs of human body. In this paper, an expert diagnostic system based on General Discriminant Analysis (GDA) and Least Square Support Vector Machine (LS-SVM) Classifier for diagnosis of lung cancer. This expert diagnosis system is called as GDA-LS-SVM in rest of this paper. The GDA-LS-SVM expert diagnosis system has two stages. These are 1. Feature extraction and feature reduction stage and 2. Classification stage. In feature extraction and feature reduction stage, lung cancer dataset is obtained and dimension of this lung cancer dataset, which has 57 features, is reduced to eight features using Generalized Discriminant Analysis (GDA) method. Then, in classification stage, these reduced features are given to Least Squares Support Vector Machine (LS-SVM) classifier. The lung cancer dataset used in this study was taken from the UCI machine learning database. The classification accuracy of this GDA-LS-SVM expert system was obtained about 96.875% from results of these experimental studies.

  2. Progress of Expert Systems in Electromagnetic Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAI Sheng-jian; WANG Bing-zhong

    2005-01-01

    It is urgent to solve various problems in electromagnetic (EM) engineering under the increasingly complicated environment. Some expert systems (ES) come into being just to keep up with the demand for solving these problems. Combined with the analysis of development of ES technology and the development trend of EM engineering software in recent years, the application of ES technology in EM engineering is discussed, and especially the progress of complete ES in electromagnetic compatible (EMC) is introduced.

  3. Hypercube Expert System Shell - Applying Production Parallelism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    that himian,, currentlly do better than machines (like the task of 3 piloting an aircraft ) lendl t wituselves to solution using an artificial ...research i ut eret tiit 1iw 1wrfuirtii i of artificial intelligence application software executing on a rriilt iconipilter. Liriti t liw analysis to...I IProc~ssing Compute- inteliive alilijcatiolis. such as the RAV expert system (28), require pro. cessing beyond the perforinance ability of

  4. Spatial Analysis Of Human Capital Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajdos Artur

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to analyse the interdependence between labour productivity and the occupational structure of human capital in a spatial cross-section. Research indicates (see Fischer 2009 the possibility to assess the impact of the quality of human capital (measured by means of the level of education on labour productivity in a spatial cross-section.

  5. An expert system based intelligent control scheme for space bioreactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    San, Ka-Yiu

    1988-01-01

    An expert system based intelligent control scheme is being developed for the effective control and full automation of bioreactor systems in space. The scheme developed will have the capability to capture information from various resources including heuristic information from process researchers and operators. The knowledge base of the expert system should contain enough expertise to perform on-line system identification and thus be able to adapt the controllers accordingly with minimal human supervision.

  6. Analysis of meiosis regulators in human gonads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anne; Nielsen, John E; Jensen, Martin Blomberg

    2012-01-01

    The mitosis-meiosis switch is a key event in the differentiation of germ cells. In humans, meiosis is initiated in fetal ovaries, whereas in testes meiotic entry is inhibited until puberty. The purpose of this study was to examine the expression pattern of meiosis regulators in human gonads...... with their role in initiation and progression of meiosis. The putative meiosis inhibitors, CYP26B1 and NANOS2, were primarily expressed in Leydig cells and spermatocytes, respectively. In conclusion, the expression pattern of the investigated meiotic regulators is largely conserved in the human gonads compared...... with rodents, but with some minor differences, such as a stable expression of CYP26B1 in human fetal ovaries. The sexually dimorphic expression pattern of DMRT1 indicates a similar role in the mitosis-meiosis switch in human gonads as previously demonstrated in mice. The biological importance of the changes...

  7. Use of expert system and data analysis technologies in automation of error detection, diagnosis and recovery for ATLAS Trigger-DAQ Controls framework

    CERN Document Server

    Kazarov, A; The ATLAS collaboration; Magnoni, L; Lehmann Miotto, G

    2012-01-01

    Trigger and DAQ (Data AQuisition) System of the ATLAS experiment on LHC at CERN is a very complex distributed computing system, composed of O(10000) applications running on a farm of commodity CPUs. The system is being designed and developed by dozens of software engineers and physicists since end of 1990's and it will be maintained in operational mode during the lifetime of the experiment. The TDAQ system is controlled by the Controls framework, which includes a set of software components and tools used for system configuration, distributed processes handling, synchronization of Run Control state transitions etc. The huge flow of operational monitoring data produced is constantly monitored by operators and experts in order to detect problems or misbehaviour. Given the scale of the system and the rates of data to be analyzed, the automation of the Controls framework functionality in the areas of operational monitoring, system verification, error detection and recovery is a strong requirement. The paper descri...

  8. Designing an Educational Website to Improve Quality of Supportive Oncology Care for Women with Ovarian Cancer: An Expert Usability Review and Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, Molly A; Karumur, Raghav Pavan; Vogel, Rachel Isaksson; Petzel, Sue V; Cragg, Julie; Chan, Daniel; Jacko, Julie A; Sainfort, François; Geller, Melissa A

    A broad-based research team developed a Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)-compliant educational website for women with ovarian cancer to improve the quality of supportive oncology care. Prior to a randomized clinical trial of the website, initial usability testing was implemented to evaluate the website. The initial review found that 165/247 checklist items had sufficient information to allow for evaluation with the website achieving an overall score of 63%. By category, lowest scores were for the Home Page, Task Orientation, Page Layout & Visual Design, and Help, Feedback & Error Tolerance. Major issues thought to potentially impede actual usage were prioritized in redevelopment and the second usability review, conducted by the same expert, saw an improvement in scores. Incorporating usability concepts from the start of development, fulfilling the positive expectations of end-users and identifying technical and personal factors that optimize use may greatly enhance usage of health websites.

  9. REXS : A financial risk diagnostic expert system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Richter

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Artificial intelligence techniques are rapidly emerging as important contributors to more effective management. One of the greatest growth areas probably lies in the use of Expert System methodology for supporting managerial decision processes.
    Existing Decision Support Systems often attempt to apply analytical techniques in combination with traditional data access and retrieval functions. One of the problems usually encountered while developing such decision support systems is the need to transform an unstructured problem environment into a structured analytical model. Using an expert system approach to strategic decision making in such unstructured problem environments may provide significant advantages.
    The financial Risk diagnostic EXpert System (REXS concentrates on Financial Risk Analysis. Based on a Forecasting Model the system will, with the support of several expert system knowledge bases, attempt to evaluate the financial risk of a business and provide guidelines for improvement.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Tegnieke gebaseer op Kunsmatige Intelligensie toon tans die belofte om belangrike bydraes te maak tot meerBestaande Besluitsteunstelsels poog dikwels om analitiese tegnieke en lradisionele datatoegang- en onttrekkingsfunksies te kombineer. Een van die probleme wat gewoonlik ondervind word gedurende die ontwikkeling van '0 besluitsteunstelsel bestaan uit die behoefte om 'n ongestruktueerde probleemomgewing te transformeer na 'n gestruktueerde analitiese model. 'n Ekspertstelselbenadering lot strategiese besluitneming in 'n ongeSlruktureerde probleemomgewing mag betekenisvolle voordele inhou.
    Die "financial Risk diagnostic EXpert System (REXS" konsentreer op fmansiele risiko-analise. Uitgaande vanaf 'n Vooruitskattingsmode~ en deur gebruik te maak van verskeie ekspertstelselkennisbasisse, poog die stelsel om die fmansiele risiko van 'n onderneming te evalueer en riglyne vir moontlike verbetering

  10. Experts in science and society

    CERN Document Server

    Gigerenzer, Gerd

    2004-01-01

    In today's complex world, we have come to rely increasingly on those who have expertise in specific areas and can bring their knowledge to bear on crucial social, political and scientific questions. Taking the viewpoint that experts are consulted when there is something important at stake for an individual, a group, or society at large, Experts in Science and Society explores expertise as a relational concept. How do experts balance their commitment to science with that to society? How does a society actually determine that a person has expertise? What personal traits are valued in an expert? From where does the expert derive authority? What makes new forms of expertise emerge? These and related questions are addressed from a wide range of areas in order to be inclusive, as well as to demonstrate similarities across areas. Likewise, in order to be culturally comparative, this volume includes examples and discussions of experts in different countries and even in different time periods. The topics include the r...

  11. Expertly validated models and phylogenetically-controlled analysis suggests responses to climate change are related to species traits in the order lagomorpha.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Leach

    Full Text Available Climate change during the past five decades has impacted significantly on natural ecosystems, and the rate of current climate change is of great concern among conservation biologists. Species Distribution Models (SDMs have been used widely to project changes in species' bioclimatic envelopes under future climate scenarios. Here, we aimed to advance this technique by assessing future changes in the bioclimatic envelopes of an entire mammalian order, the Lagomorpha, using a novel framework for model validation based jointly on subjective expert evaluation and objective model evaluation statistics. SDMs were built using climatic, topographical, and habitat variables for all 87 lagomorph species under past and current climate scenarios. Expert evaluation and Kappa values were used to validate past and current models and only those deemed 'modellable' within our framework were projected under future climate scenarios (58 species. Phylogenetically-controlled regressions were used to test whether species traits correlated with predicted responses to climate change. Climate change is likely to impact more than two-thirds of lagomorph species, with leporids (rabbits, hares, and jackrabbits likely to undertake poleward shifts with little overall change in range extent, whilst pikas are likely to show extreme shifts to higher altitudes associated with marked range declines, including the likely extinction of Kozlov's Pika (Ochotona koslowi. Smaller-bodied species were more likely to exhibit range contractions and elevational increases, but showing little poleward movement, and fecund species were more likely to shift latitudinally and elevationally. Our results suggest that species traits may be important indicators of future climate change and we believe multi-species approaches, as demonstrated here, are likely to lead to more effective mitigation measures and conservation management. We strongly advocate studies minimising data gaps in our knowledge of

  12. Development of A Standard Method for Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) of Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Dae Il; Jung, Won Dea; Kim, Jae Whan

    2005-12-15

    According as the demand of risk-informed regulation and applications increase, the quality and reliability of a probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) has been more important. KAERI started a study to standardize the process and the rules of HRA (Human Reliability Analysis) which was known as a major contributor to the uncertainty of PSA. The study made progress as follows; assessing the level of quality of the HRAs in Korea and identifying the weaknesses of the HRAs, determining the requirements for developing a standard HRA method, developing the process and rules for quantifying human error probability. Since the risk-informed applications use the ASME and ANS PSA standard to ensure PSA quality, the standard HRA method was developed to meet the ASME and ANS HRA requirements with level of category II. The standard method was based on THERP and ASEP HRA that are widely used for conventional HRA. However, the method focuses on standardizing and specifying the analysis process, quantification rules and criteria to minimize the deviation of the analysis results caused by different analysts. Several HRA experts from different organizations in Korea participated in developing the standard method. Several case studies were interactively undertaken to verify the usability and applicability of the standard method.

  13. Development of A Standard Method for Human Reliability Analysis of Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Won Dea; Kang, Dae Il; Kim, Jae Whan

    2005-12-15

    According as the demand of risk-informed regulation and applications increase, the quality and reliability of a probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) has been more important. KAERI started a study to standardize the process and the rules of HRA (Human Reliability Analysis) which was known as a major contributor to the uncertainty of PSA. The study made progress as follows; assessing the level of quality of the HRAs in Korea and identifying the weaknesses of the HRAs, determining the requirements for developing a standard HRA method, developing the process and rules for quantifying human error probability. Since the risk-informed applications use the ASME PSA standard to ensure PSA quality, the standard HRA method was developed to meet the ASME HRA requirements with level of category II. The standard method was based on THERP and ASEP HRA that are widely used for conventional HRA. However, the method focuses on standardizing and specifying the analysis process, quantification rules and criteria to minimize the deviation of the analysis results caused by different analysts. Several HRA experts from different organizations in Korea participated in developing the standard method. Several case studies were interactively undertaken to verify the usability and applicability of the standard method.

  14. Expert analogy use in a naturalistic setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretz, Donald R.; Krawczyk, Daniel C.

    2014-01-01

    The use of analogy is an important component of human cognition. The type of analogy we produce and communicate depends heavily on a number of factors, such as the setting, the level of domain expertise present, and the speaker's goal or intent. In this observational study, we recorded economics experts during scientific discussion and examined the categorical distance and structural depth of the analogies they produced. We also sought to characterize the purpose of the analogies that were generated. Our results supported previous conclusions about the infrequency of superficial similarity in subject-generated analogs, but also showed that distance and depth characteristics were more evenly balanced than in previous observational studies. This finding was likely due to the nature of the goals of the participants, as well as the broader nature of their expertise. An analysis of analogical purpose indicated that the generation of concrete source examples of more general target concepts was most prevalent. We also noted frequent instances of analogies intended to form visual images of source concepts. Other common purposes for analogies were the addition of colorful speech, inclusion (i.e., subsumption) of a target into a source concept, or differentiation between source and target concepts. We found no association between depth and either of the other two characteristics, but our findings suggest a relationship between purpose and distance; i.e., that visual imagery typically entailed an outside-domain source whereas exemplification was most frequently accomplished using within-domain analogies. Overall, we observed a rich and diverse set of spontaneously produced analogical comparisons. The high degree of expertise within the observed group along with the richly comparative nature of the economics discipline likely contributed to this analogical abundance. PMID:25505437

  15. Semi-quantitative assessment of disease risks at the human, livestock, wildlife interface for the Republic of Korea using a nationwide survey of experts: A model for other countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jusun; Lee, Kyunglee; Walsh, Daniel P.; Kim, SangWha; Sleeman, Jonathan M.; Lee, Hang

    2017-01-01

    Wildlife-associated diseases and pathogens have increased in importance; however, management of a large number of diseases and diversity of hosts is prohibitively expensive. Thus, the determination of priority wildlife pathogens and risk factors for disease emergence is warranted. We used an online questionnaire survey to assess release and exposure risks, and consequences of wildlife-associated diseases and pathogens in the Republic of Korea (ROK). We also surveyed opinions on pathways for disease exposure, and risk factors for disease emergence and spread. For the assessment of risk, we employed a two-tiered, statistical K-means clustering algorithm to group diseases into three levels (high, medium and low) of perceived risk based on release and exposure risks, societal consequences and the level of uncertainty of the experts’ opinions. To examine the experts’ perceived risk of routes of introduction of pathogens and disease amplification and spread, we used a Bayesian, multivariate normal order-statistics model. Six diseases or pathogens, including four livestock and two wildlife diseases, were identified as having high risk with low uncertainty. Similarly, 13 diseases were characterized as having high risk with medium uncertainty with three of these attributed to livestock, six associated with human disease, and the remainder having the potential to affect human, livestock and wildlife (i.e., One Health). Lastly, four diseases were described as high risk with high certainty, and were associated solely with fish diseases. Experts identified migration of wildlife, international human movement and illegal importation of wildlife as the three routes posing the greatest risk of pathogen introduction into ROK. Proximity of humans, livestock and wildlife was the most significant risk factor for promoting the spread of wildlife-associated diseases and pathogens, followed by high density of livestock populations, habitat loss and environmental degradation, and

  16. The analysis of human error as causes in the maintenance of machines: a case study in mining companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovacevic, Srdja

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the two-step method used to analyse the factors and aspects influencing human error during the maintenance of mining machines. The first step is the cause-effect analysis, supported by brainstorming, where five factors and 21 aspects are identified. During the second step, the group fuzzy analytic hierarchy process is used to rank the identified factors and aspects. A case study is done on mining companies in Serbia. The key aspects are ranked according to an analysis that included experts who assess risks in mining companies (a maintenance engineer, a technologist, an ergonomist, a psychologist, and an organisational scientist. Failure to follow technical maintenance instructions, poor organisation of the training process, inadequate diagnostic equipment, and a lack of understanding of the work process are identified as the most important causes of human error.

  17. Fuzzy Expert System for Heart Attack Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Norlida; Arbaiy, Nureize; Shah, Noor Aziyan Ahmad; Afizah Afif@Afip, Zehan

    2017-08-01

    Heart attack is one of the serious illnesses and reported as the main killer disease. Early prevention is significant to reduce the risk of having the disease. The prevention efforts can be strengthen through awareness and education about risk factor and healthy lifestyle. Therefore the knowledge dissemination is needed to play role in order to distribute and educate public in health care management and disease prevention. Since the knowledge dissemination in medical is important, there is a need to develop a knowledge based system that can emulate human intelligence to assist decision making process. Thereby, this study utilized hybrid artificial intelligence (AI) techniques to develop a Fuzzy Expert System for Diagnosing Heart Attack Disease (HAD). This system integrates fuzzy logic with expert system, which helps the medical practitioner and people to predict the risk and as well as diagnosing heart attack based on given symptom. The development of HAD is expected not only providing expert knowledge but potentially become one of learning resources to help citizens to develop awareness about heart-healthy lifestyle.

  18. Implementation of a Distributed Expert System for Submarine Shipboard Maintenance Using VP-Expert

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-01

    topics require the coordinated assesment and evaluation of knowledge from multiple human experts. Standalone knowledge bases should be loosely or tightly...RESET Is no smoking FIND Isnosmoking RESET Is ventilate FIND Is-ventilate RESET Is-none FIND Is none DISPLAY" 53 Press any key to continue...-" CLS...THEN Is no smoking = is DISPLAY " - Explosive atmosphere/unsafe gasses in environment: Ensure the smoking lamp is out in vicinity of (VPlocation

  19. Spacecraft command and control using expert systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norcross, Scott; Grieser, William H.

    1994-11-01

    This paper describes a product called the Intelligent Mission Toolkit (IMT), which was created to meet the changing demands of the spacecraft command and control market. IMT is a command and control system built upon an expert system. Its primary functions are to send commands to the spacecraft and process telemetry data received from the spacecraft. It also controls the ground equipment used to support the system, such as encryption gear, and telemetry front-end equipment. Add-on modules allow IMT to control antennas and antenna interface equipment. The design philosophy for IMT is to utilize available commercial products wherever possible. IMT utilizes Gensym's G2 Real-time Expert System as the core of the system. G2 is responsible for overall system control, spacecraft commanding control, and spacecraft telemetry analysis and display. Other commercial products incorporated into IMT include the SYBASE relational database management system and Loral Test and Integration Systems' System 500 for telemetry front-end processing.

  20. Development of an expert data reduction assistant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Glenn E.; Johnston, Mark D.; Hanisch, Robert J.

    1993-01-01

    We propose the development of an expert system tool for the management and reduction of complex datasets. the proposed work is an extension of a successful prototype system for the calibration of CCD (charge coupled device) images developed by Dr. Johnston in 1987. (ref.: Proceedings of the Goddard Conference on Space Applications of Artificial Intelligence). The reduction of complex multi-parameter data sets presents severe challenges to a scientist. Not only must a particular data analysis system be mastered, (e.g. IRAF/SDAS/MIDAS), large amounts of data can require many days of tedious work and supervision by the scientist for even the most straightforward reductions. The proposed Expert Data Reduction Assistant will help the scientist overcome these obstacles by developing a reduction plan based on the data at hand and producing a script for the reduction of the data in a target common language.

  1. Lay and expert perceptions of zoonotic risks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Klint; Lassen, Jesper; Robinson, P.;

    2005-01-01

    concepts of risk and hence are bound more or less to talk at cross-purposes. This paper suggests an alternative analysis: In the light of moral theory, the conflicting perspectives can be understood as a genuine moral conflict. When this conflict is conceptualised, a rational dialogue becomes possible....... The paper reports a series of qualitative interviews with lay people and experts on zoonotic food risks. The interviews are used to reconstruct the values underlying some of the dominant perspectives. The conflict between these stylised perspectives is then analysed with the help of moral theory. Finally......As in many other areas, there is a divide between lay and expert perceptions of risk within the food sector, and this can lead to disagreement over priorities in food risk management. The risk perception literature tends to stress that the parties involved in this disagreement have different...

  2. Expert system application education project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzelez, Avelino J.; Ragusa, James M.

    1988-01-01

    Artificial intelligence (AI) technology, and in particular expert systems, has shown potential applicability in many areas of operation at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). In an era of limited resources, the early identification of good expert system applications, and their segregation from inappropriate ones can result in a more efficient use of available NASA resources. On the other hand, the education of students in a highly technical area such as AI requires an extensive hands-on effort. The nature of expert systems is such that proper sample applications for the educational process are difficult to find. A pilot project between NASA-KSC and the University of Central Florida which was designed to simultaneously address the needs of both institutions at a minimum cost. This project, referred to as Expert Systems Prototype Training Project (ESPTP), provided NASA with relatively inexpensive development of initial prototype versions of certain applications. University students likewise benefit by having expertise on a non-trivial problem accessible to them at no cost. Such expertise is indispensible in a hands-on training approach to developing expert systems.

  3. Human Error Assessment and Reduction Technique (HEART) and Human Factor Analysis and Classification System (HFACS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Tiffaney Miller

    2017-01-01

    Research results have shown that more than half of aviation, aerospace and aeronautics mishaps incidents are attributed to human error. As a part of Quality within space exploration ground processing operations, the identification and or classification of underlying contributors and causes of human error must be identified, in order to manage human error.This presentation will provide a framework and methodology using the Human Error Assessment and Reduction Technique (HEART) and Human Factor Analysis and Classification System (HFACS), as an analysis tool to identify contributing factors, their impact on human error events, and predict the Human Error probabilities (HEPs) of future occurrences. This research methodology was applied (retrospectively) to six (6) NASA ground processing operations scenarios and thirty (30) years of Launch Vehicle related mishap data. This modifiable framework can be used and followed by other space and similar complex operations.

  4. Analysis of the human operator subsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lynette A.; Hunter, Ian W.

    1991-01-01

    Except in low-bandwidth systems, knowledge of the human operator transfer function is essential for high-performance telerobotic systems. This information has usually been derived from detailed analyses of tracking performance, in which the human operator is considered as a complete system rather than as a summation of a number of subsystems, each of which influences the operator's output. Studies of one of these subsystems, the limb mechanics system, demonstrate that large parameter variations can occur that can have a profound effect on the stability of force-reflecting telerobot systems. An objective of this research was to decompose the performance of the human operator system in order to establish how the dynamics of each of the elements influence the operator's responses.

  5. Experiments in human multi-issue negotiation: analysis and support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosse, T.; Jonker, C.M.; Schut, M.C.; Treur, J.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report on experiments in (human) multi-issue negotiation and their analysis, and to present a generic software environment supporting such an analysis. First, the paper presents a System for Analysis of Multi-Issue Negotiation (SAMIN). SAMIN is designed to analyse neg

  6. Disability and Humans Rights: A Theoretical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PATRICIA CUENCA GÓMEZ

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Since Enlightenment, theories of justice and, in particular, theories of human rights have been based on principles which are excludable for people with disabilities. The exclusion has not been resolved by contemporary theories of justice. A profound review of some basic assumptions is required to get a full and sound theory of human rights including people with disabilities in equal terms. The inclusion of people with disabilities is an urgent theoretical challenge which must be face in order to perform a sound reform of rules in legal practice.

  7. Analysis of Second Round Expert Questionnaires About-Traditional Chinese Medicine Criteria of Schizophrenic Syndromes%精神分裂症中医癫证证候标准第二轮专家咨询问卷分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何韬; 宋炜熙; 邓婷; 张宏耕

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the common TCM criterions of schizophrenic syndromes (depressed psychosis).Methods Second round expert questionnaires were designed according to the results of the first round, and 61 experts were consulted around the country.Delphi method was used for statistical analysis.Results The active coefficient of the experts was 89.7%.The authoritative grade of the experts was 0.776.Among the syndromes, the items whose came up to mean >1.5, full mark ratio >50%, coefficient of variation <40%, rank sum of the indexes >90, there were 7 cases with the syndrome of stagnation and phlegm retention of the hepatic- qi, 13 cases with the syndrome of cardiosplenic asthenia, 10 cases with the syndrome of hepatic - qi stagnation, 9 cases with the syndrome of asthenic yin causing excessive pyrexia, 10 cases with the syndrome of phlegm stagnation, 9 cases with the syndrome of hepatic stagnation causing splenic deficiency, 11 cases with the syndrome of asthenic splenonephro- yang, and 10 cases with the syndrome of hepatopyrexia and pyrophlegm.Conclusions The symptoms such as whose satisfy the condition above act as the main symptoms of syndromes above in schizophrenia (depressed psychosis) in TCM.%目的 探讨精神分裂症(癫证)常见中医证型的证候标准.方法 根据第一轮专家咨询问卷结果设计第2轮问卷,向全国专家进行问卷征询,用专家咨询法进行统计分析.结果 专家积极系数为89.7%;权威程度为0.776;在各证型中,符合均数>1.5,满分比>50%,变异系数90的证候指标痰气郁结证有7个;心脾两虚证共13个;肝郁气滞证共10个,阴虚火旺证共9个,痰湿内阻证共10个,肝郁脾虚证共9个,脾肾阳虚证共11个,肝火痰热证共10个.结论 证候指标中具有上述条件者可作为精神分裂症(癫证)上述中医证型的主症.

  8. A proteomic analysis of human bile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Troels Zakarias; Bunkenborg, Jakob; Gronborg, Mads

    2004-01-01

    We have carried out a comprehensive characterization of human bile to define the bile proteome. Our approach involved fractionation of bile by one-dimensional gel electrophoresis and lectin affinity chromatography followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Overall, we identified ...

  9. Future of human models for crash analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wismans, J.S.H.M.; Happee, R.; Hoof, J.F.A.M. van; Lange, R. de

    2001-01-01

    In the crash safety field mathematical models can be applied in practically all area's of research and development including: reconstruction of actual accidents, design (CAD) of the crash response of vehicles, safety devices and roadside facilities and in support of human impact biomechanical

  10. Future of human models for crash analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wismans, J.S.H.M.; Happee, R.; Hoof, J.F.A.M. van; Lange, R. de

    2001-01-01

    In the crash safety field mathematical models can be applied in practically all area's of research and development including: reconstruction of actual accidents, design (CAD) of the crash response of vehicles, safety devices and roadside facilities and in support of human impact biomechanical studie

  11. Knowledge Representation and Fuzzy Reasoning of an Agricultural Expert System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴顺祥; 倪子伟; 李茂青

    2002-01-01

    The design scheme of an agricultural expert system based on longan and cauliflower planting techniques is presented. Using an object-oriented design and a combination of the techniques in multimedia, database, expert system and artificial intelligence, an in-depth analysis and summary are made of the knowledge features of the agricultural multimedia expert system and data models involved. According to the practical problems in agricultural field, the architectures and functions of the system are designed, and some design ideas about the hybrid knowledge representation and fuzzy reasoning are proposed.

  12. Development of knowledge Base Expert System for Natural treatment of Diabetes disease

    CERN Document Server

    Jha, Sanjeev Kumar

    2012-01-01

    The development of expert system for treatment of Diabetes disease by using natural methods is new information technology derived from Artificial Intelligent research using ESTA (Expert System Text Animation) System. The proposed expert system contains knowledge about various methods of natural treatment methods (Massage, Herbal/Proper Nutrition, Acupuncture, Gems) for Diabetes diseases of Human Beings. The system is developed in the ESTA (Expert System shell for Text Animation) which is Visual Prolog 7.3 Application. The knowledge for the said system will be acquired from domain experts, texts and other related sources.

  13. Development of knowledge Base Expert System for Natural treatment of Diabetes disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Kumar Jha

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of expert system for treatment of Diabetes disease by using natural methods is new information technology derived from Artificial Intelligent research using ESTA (Expert System Text Animation System. The proposed expert system contains knowledge about various methods of natural treatment methods (Massage, Herbal/Proper Nutrition, Acupuncture, Gems for Diabetes diseases of Human Beings. The system is developed in the ESTA (Expert System shell for Text Animation which is Visual Prolog 7.3 Application. The knowledge for the said system will be acquired from domain experts, texts and other related sources

  14. Automated regional behavioral analysis for human brain images

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lancaster, Jack L; Laird, Angela R; Eickhoff, Simon B; Martinez, Michael J; Fox, P Mickle; Fox, Peter T

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral categories of functional imaging experiments along with standardized brain coordinates of associated activations were used to develop a method to automate regional behavioral analysis of human brain images...

  15. MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF HUMAN SPERMATOZOA: POTENTIAL FOR INFERTILITY RESEARCH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon Research Conference: Mammalian Gametogenesis and Embryogenesis New London, CT, July 1-6, 2000Molecular Analysis of Human Spermatozoa: Potential for Infertility ResearchDavid Miller 1, David Dix2, Robert Reid 3, Stephen A Krawetz 3 1Reproductive ...

  16. MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF HUMAN SPERMATOZOA: POTENTIAL FOR INFERTILITY RESEARCH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon Research Conference: Mammalian Gametogenesis and Embryogenesis New London, CT, July 1-6, 2000Molecular Analysis of Human Spermatozoa: Potential for Infertility ResearchDavid Miller 1, David Dix2, Robert Reid 3, Stephen A Krawetz 3 1Reproductive ...

  17. Bioinformatics and phylogenetic analysis of human Tp73 gene

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Imtiaz

    2013-06-26

    Jun 26, 2013 ... Key words: Tp73, Bioinformatics, phylogenetics analysis, cancer, Tp53. INTRODUCTION ... splicing at C-terminal end of that protein and give rise to six different p73 terminal variants ..... 33 in human lung cancers. Cancer Res.

  18. How did the public respond to the 2015 expert consensus public health guidance statement on workplace sedentary behaviour? A qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Benjamin; Smith, Lee; Mansfield, Louise

    2017-02-02

    In June 2015, an expert consensus guidance statement was published recommending that office workers accumulate 2-4 h of standing and light activity daily and take regular breaks from prolonged sitting. This paper describes public responses to media coverage of the guidance, so as to understand public acceptability of the recommendations within the guidance, and perceptions of sitting and standing as health behaviours. UK news media websites that had reported on the sedentary workplace guidance statement, and permitted viewers to post comments responding to the story, were identified. 493 public comments, posted in a one-month period to one of six eligible news media websites, were thematically analysed. Three themes were extracted: (1) challenges to the credibility of the sedentary workplace guidance; (2) challenges to the credibility of public health; and (3) the guidance as a spur to knowledge exchange. Challenges were made to the novelty of the guidance, the credibility of its authors, the strength of its evidence base, and its applicability to UK workplaces. Public health was commonly mistrusted and viewed as a tool for controlling the public, to serve a paternalistic agenda set by a conspiracy of stakeholders with hidden non-health interests. Knowledge exchanges focused on correcting others' misinterpretations, raising awareness of historical or scientific context, debating current workplace health policies, and sharing experiences around sitting and standing. The guidance provoked exchanges of health-promoting ideas among some, thus demonstrating the potential for sitting reduction messages to be translated into everyday contexts by lay champions. However, findings also demonstrated confusion, misunderstanding and misapprehension among some respondents about the health value of sitting and standing. Predominantly unfavourable, mistrusting responses reveal significant hostility towards efforts to displace workplace sitting with standing, and towards public

  19. Towards human-computer synergetic analysis of large-scale biological data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rahul; Yang, Hui; Dalziel, Ben; Asarnow, Daniel; Murad, William; Foote, David; Gormley, Matthew; Stillman, Jonathan; Fisher, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Advances in technology have led to the generation of massive amounts of complex and multifarious biological data in areas ranging from genomics to structural biology. The volume and complexity of such data leads to significant challenges in terms of its analysis, especially when one seeks to generate hypotheses or explore the underlying biological processes. At the state-of-the-art, the application of automated algorithms followed by perusal and analysis of the results by an expert continues to be the predominant paradigm for analyzing biological data. This paradigm works well in many problem domains. However, it also is limiting, since domain experts are forced to apply their instincts and expertise such as contextual reasoning, hypothesis formulation, and exploratory analysis after the algorithm has produced its results. In many areas where the organization and interaction of the biological processes is poorly understood and exploratory analysis is crucial, what is needed is to integrate domain expertise during the data analysis process and use it to drive the analysis itself. In context of the aforementioned background, the results presented in this paper describe advancements along two methodological directions. First, given the context of biological data, we utilize and extend a design approach called experiential computing from multimedia information system design. This paradigm combines information visualization and human-computer interaction with algorithms for exploratory analysis of large-scale and complex data. In the proposed approach, emphasis is laid on: (1) allowing users to directly visualize, interact, experience, and explore the data through interoperable visualization-based and algorithmic components, (2) supporting unified query and presentation spaces to facilitate experimentation and exploration, (3) providing external contextual information by assimilating relevant supplementary data, and (4) encouraging user-directed information

  20. Implementation of expert systems to support the functional evaluation of stand-to-sit activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junkes-Cunha, Maíra; Cardozo, Glauco; Boos, Christine F; de Azevedo, Fernando

    2014-07-21

    Functional evaluation of sit-to-stand and stand-to-sit activities is often used by physiotherapists in patients with neurological and musculoskeletal disorders. The observation of the way these activities are executed is essential in identifying kinesiological problems. There are different methodologies used to describe the stand-to-sit activity and its evaluation is not yet standardized, which makes the practical application of resources on clinical observation difficult. The objective of this study is to automate the decision making process of an evaluation protocol, developed in previous study, and facilitate its utilization by professionals in the area. A decision-making system has been implemented through a computational tool, more specifically an Expert System that due its inherent characteristics emulates the decision-making process of a human expert in the domain area. A Shell called Expert Sinta was used to develop two knowledge bases, i.e. two expert systems, one for the anterior view and another for the lateral view of stand-to-sit activity. Variables, values, associated rules and confidence factors, objectives, and additional information questions were defined by the expert of domain and once implemented each expert system generates a number of questions to its user. These questions serve as a guide to physiotherapists and support the standardization of the activity evaluation. The developed systems were evaluated by physiotherapists through the application of a questionnaire that evaluates the knowledge base and the usability of the system. The physiotherapists' answers were then evaluated through statistical estimation and percentage analysis. When asked about the systems' "utility for clinical practice of the physiotherapist", 67% of evaluators answered positively. An interesting finding was that most physiotherapists (i.e. 92%) considered that the systems are suitable for educational purposes, which was not the main objective of this study. The

  1. IMBA Expert: internal dosimetry made simple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birchall, A; Puncher, M; James, A C; Marsh, J W; Jarvis, N S; Peace, M S; Davis, K; King, D J

    2003-01-01

    In 1997, a collaboration between British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL), Westlakes Research Institute and NRPB started, with the aim of producing IMBA (Integrated Modules for Bioassay Analysis), a suite of software modules that implement the new ICRP models for estimation of intakes and doses. This was partly in response to new UK regulations, and partly due to the requirement for a unified approach in estimating intakes and doses from bioassay measurements within the UK. Over the past 5 years, the IMBA modules have been developed further, have gone through extensive quality assurance, and are now used for routine dose assessment by approved dosimetry services throughout the UK. More recently, interest in the IMBA methodology has been shown by the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), and in 2001 an ambitious project to develop a software package (IMBA Expert USDOE Edition) which would meet the requirements of all of the major USDOE sites began. Interest in IMBA Expert is now being expressed in many other countries. The aim of this paper is to outline the origin and evolution of the IMBA modules (the past); to describe the full capabilities of the current IMBA Expert system (the present) and to indicate possible future directions in terms of capabilities and availability (the future).

  2. Expert judgement combination using moment methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wisse, Bram [Department of Management Science, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, Scotland (United Kingdom); TNO Defence, Security and Safety, The Hague (Netherlands)], E-mail: bram.wisse@strath.ac.uk; Bedford, Tim [Department of Management Science, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, Scotland (United Kingdom)], E-mail: tim.bedford@strath.ac.uk; Quigley, John [Department of Management Science, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, Scotland (United Kingdom)], E-mail: j.quigley@strath.ac.uk

    2008-05-15

    Moment methods have been employed in decision analysis, partly to avoid the computational burden that decision models involving continuous probability distributions can suffer from. In the Bayes linear (BL) methodology prior judgements about uncertain quantities are specified using expectation (rather than probability) as the fundamental notion. BL provides a strong foundation for moment methods, rooted in work of De Finetti and Goldstein. The main objective of this paper is to discuss in what way expert assessments of moments can be combined, in a non-Bayesian way, to construct a prior assessment. We show that the linear pool can be justified in an analogous but technically different way to linear pools for probability assessments, and that this linear pool has a very convenient property: a linear pool of experts' assessments of moments is coherent if each of the experts has given coherent assessments. To determine the weights of the linear pool we give a method of performance based weighting analogous to Cooke's classical model and explore its properties. Finally, we compare its performance with the classical model on data gathered in applications of the classical model.

  3. Human Motion Video Analysis in Clinical Practice (Review)

    OpenAIRE

    V.V. Borzikov; N.N. Rukina; O.V. Vorobyova; A.N. Kuznetsov; A. N. Belova

    2015-01-01

    The development of new rehabilitation approaches to neurological and traumatological patients requires understanding of normal and pathological movement patterns. Biomechanical analysis of video images is the most accurate method of investigation and quantitative assessment of human normal and pathological locomotion. The review of currently available methods and systems of optical human motion analysis used in clinical practice is presented here. Short historical background is provi...

  4. Unsaturated Zone Flow Model Expert Elicitation Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coppersmith, K. J.

    1997-05-30

    This report presents results of the Unsaturated Zone Flow Model Expert Elicitation (UZFMEE) project at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This project was sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and managed by Geomatrix Consultants, Inc. (Geomatrix), for TRW Environmental Safety Systems, Inc. The objective of this project was to identify and assess the uncertainties associated with certain key components of the unsaturated zone flow system at Yucca Mountain. This assessment reviewed the data inputs, modeling approaches, and results of the unsaturated zone flow model (termed the ''UZ site-scale model'') being developed by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and the US Geological Survey (USGS). In addition to data input and modeling issues, the assessment focused on percolation flux (volumetric flow rate per unit cross-sectional area) at the potential repository horizon. An understanding of unsaturated zone processes is critical to evaluating the performance of the potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. A major goal of the project was to capture the uncertainties involved in assessing the unsaturated flow processes, including uncertainty in both the models used to represent physical controls on unsaturated zone flow and the parameter values used in the models. To ensure that the analysis included a wide range of perspectives, multiple individual judgments were elicited from members of an expert panel. The panel members, who were experts from within and outside the Yucca Mountain project, represented a range of experience and expertise. A deliberate process was followed in facilitating interactions among the experts, in training them to express their uncertainties, and in eliciting their interpretations. The resulting assessments and probability distributions, therefore, provide a reasonable aggregate representation of the knowledge and uncertainties about key issues regarding the unsaturated zone at the Yucca

  5. Results of a nuclear power plant application of A New Technique for Human Error Analysis (ATHEANA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehead, D.W.; Forester, J.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bley, D.C. [Buttonwood Consulting, Inc. (United States)] [and others

    1998-03-01

    A new method to analyze human errors has been demonstrated at a pressurized water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plant. This was the first application of the new method referred to as A Technique for Human Error Analysis (ATHEANA). The main goals of the demonstration were to test the ATHEANA process as described in the frame-of-reference manual and the implementation guideline, test a training package developed for the method, test the hypothesis that plant operators and trainers have significant insight into the error-forcing-contexts (EFCs) that can make unsafe actions (UAs) more likely, and to identify ways to improve the method and its documentation. A set of criteria to evaluate the success of the ATHEANA method as used in the demonstration was identified. A human reliability analysis (HRA) team was formed that consisted of an expert in probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) with some background in HRA (not ATHEANA) and four personnel from the nuclear power plant. Personnel from the plant included two individuals from their PRA staff and two individuals from their training staff. Both individuals from training are currently licensed operators and one of them was a senior reactor operator on shift until a few months before the demonstration. The demonstration was conducted over a 5-month period and was observed by members of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s ATHEANA development team, who also served as consultants to the HRA team when necessary. Example results of the demonstration to date, including identified human failure events (HFEs), UAs, and EFCs are discussed. Also addressed is how simulator exercises are used in the ATHEANA demonstration project.

  6. Discrimination and numerical analysis of human pathogenic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-02-19

    Feb 19, 2008 ... Numerical analysis of whole-cell protein profiles of all strains revealed 2 .... average linkage method and correlation coefficient distance. ... distance yielded a dendrogam, consisting of two basic .... Candida glabrata: review of.

  7. QUEST: Quality of Expert Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perre, M.

    1991-01-01

    TNO Physics and Electronics laboratory, in collaboration with the University of Limburg and the Research Institute for Knowledge Systems, worked on a technology project named 'QUEST: Quality of Expert Systems' [FEL90]. QUEST was carried out under commision of the Dutch Ministry of Defence. A strong

  8. QUEST: Quality of Expert Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perre, M.

    1991-01-01

    TNO Physics and Electronics laboratory, in collaboration with the University of Limburg and the Research Institute for Knowledge Systems, worked on a technology project named 'QUEST: Quality of Expert Systems' [FEL90]. QUEST was carried out under commision of the Dutch Ministry of Defence. A strong

  9. MODELING HUMAN RELIABILITY ANALYSIS USING MIDAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald L. Boring; Donald D. Dudenhoeffer; Bruce P. Hallbert; Brian F. Gore

    2006-05-01

    This paper summarizes an emerging collaboration between Idaho National Laboratory and NASA Ames Research Center regarding the utilization of high-fidelity MIDAS simulations for modeling control room crew performance at nuclear power plants. The key envisioned uses for MIDAS-based control room simulations are: (i) the estimation of human error with novel control room equipment and configurations, (ii) the investigative determination of risk significance in recreating past event scenarios involving control room operating crews, and (iii) the certification of novel staffing levels in control rooms. It is proposed that MIDAS serves as a key component for the effective modeling of risk in next generation control rooms.

  10. Analysis of a human brain transcriptome map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greene Jonathan R

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome wide transcriptome maps can provide tools to identify candidate genes that are over-expressed or silenced in certain disease tissue and increase our understanding of the structure and organization of the genome. Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs from the public dbEST and proprietary Incyte LifeSeq databases were used to derive a transcript map in conjunction with the working draft assembly of the human genome sequence. Results Examination of ESTs derived from brain tissues (excluding brain tumor tissues suggests that these genes are distributed on chromosomes in a non-random fashion. Some regions on the genome are dense with brain-enriched genes while some regions lack brain-enriched genes, suggesting a significant correlation between distribution of genes along the chromosome and tissue type. ESTs from brain tumor tissues have also been mapped to the human genome working draft. We reveal that some regions enriched in brain genes show a significant decrease in gene expression in brain tumors, and, conversely that some regions lacking in brain genes show an increased level of gene expression in brain tumors. Conclusions This report demonstrates a novel approach for tissue specific transcriptome mapping using EST-based quantitative assessment.

  11. Towards a Fuzzy Expert System on Toxicological Data Quality Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Longzhi; Neagu, Daniel; Cronin, Mark T D; Hewitt, Mark; Enoch, Steven J; Madden, Judith C; Przybylak, Katarzyna

    2013-01-01

    Quality assessment (QA) requires high levels of domain-specific experience and knowledge. QA tasks for toxicological data are usually performed by human experts manually, although a number of quality evaluation schemes have been proposed in the literature. For instance, the most widely utilised Klimisch scheme1 defines four data quality categories in order to tag data instances with respect to their qualities; ToxRTool2 is an extension of the Klimisch approach aiming to increase the transparency and harmonisation of the approach. Note that the processes of QA in many other areas have been automatised by employing expert systems. Briefly, an expert system is a computer program that uses a knowledge base built upon human expertise, and an inference engine that mimics the reasoning processes of human experts to infer new statements from incoming data. In particular, expert systems have been extended to deal with the uncertainty of information by representing uncertain information (such as linguistic terms) as fuzzy sets under the framework of fuzzy set theory and performing inferences upon fuzzy sets according to fuzzy arithmetic. This paper presents an experimental fuzzy expert system for toxicological data QA which is developed on the basis of the Klimisch approach and the ToxRTool in an effort to illustrate the power of expert systems to toxicologists, and to examine if fuzzy expert systems are a viable solution for QA of toxicological data. Such direction still faces great difficulties due to the well-known common challenge of toxicological data QA that "five toxicologists may have six opinions". In the meantime, this challenge may offer an opportunity for expert systems because the construction and refinement of the knowledge base could be a converging process of different opinions which is of significant importance for regulatory policy making under the regulation of REACH, though a consensus may never be reached. Also, in order to facilitate the implementation

  12. More Human/Humane than Humans: An Ecocritical Analysis of Shahryar's "Hail to Heydarbaba"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Sadeghi Mehr

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ecocriticism is a rather new insight into the relationship between literature and environment. In recent years, different environmental problems and devastations have led the critics to focus on the ecocritical concepts and terms in order to highlight the environmental challenges in literary works. In Iran, many poets investigate the natural environment in their poems, but still there is not the much ecocritical analysis on them. The researchers have chosen a contemporary Iranian poet, Shahryar (1906-1988, as the central figure of this study and examine his masterpiece, "Hail to Heydarbaba", under ecocritical perspectives. This poem is the material of the present study, to which we try to apply the ecocritical terms, such as anthropocentrism, anthropomorphism, ecocentrism, modernization, and place attachment. The writers attempt to settle on the particular aspects of ecocriticism in order to explore the poet's unique expression of ecocentric views for illustrating his appreciation of the non-human world. Keywords: ecocriticism, anthropocentrism, anthropomorphism, ecocentrism, modernization, place attachment

  13. Fifty Years of THERP and Human Reliability Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald L. Boring

    2012-06-01

    In 1962 at a Human Factors Society symposium, Alan Swain presented a paper introducing a Technique for Human Error Rate Prediction (THERP). This was followed in 1963 by a Sandia Laboratories monograph outlining basic human error quantification using THERP and, in 1964, by a special journal edition of Human Factors on quantification of human performance. Throughout the 1960s, Swain and his colleagues focused on collecting human performance data for the Sandia Human Error Rate Bank (SHERB), primarily in connection with supporting the reliability of nuclear weapons assembly in the US. In 1969, Swain met with Jens Rasmussen of Risø National Laboratory and discussed the applicability of THERP to nuclear power applications. By 1975, in WASH-1400, Swain had articulated the use of THERP for nuclear power applications, and the approach was finalized in the watershed publication of the NUREG/CR-1278 in 1983. THERP is now 50 years old, and remains the most well known and most widely used HRA method. In this paper, the author discusses the history of THERP, based on published reports and personal communication and interviews with Swain. The author also outlines the significance of THERP. The foundations of human reliability analysis are found in THERP: human failure events, task analysis, performance shaping factors, human error probabilities, dependence, event trees, recovery, and pre- and post-initiating events were all introduced in THERP. While THERP is not without its detractors, and it is showing signs of its age in the face of newer technological applications, the longevity of THERP is a testament of its tremendous significance. THERP started the field of human reliability analysis. This paper concludes with a discussion of THERP in the context of newer methods, which can be seen as extensions of or departures from Swain’s pioneering work.

  14. Integration of human reliability analysis into the high consequence process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houghton, F.K.; Morzinski, J.

    1998-12-01

    When performing a hazards analysis (HA) for a high consequence process, human error often plays a significant role in the hazards analysis. In order to integrate human error into the hazards analysis, a human reliability analysis (HRA) is performed. Human reliability is the probability that a person will correctly perform a system-required activity in a required time period and will perform no extraneous activity that will affect the correct performance. Even though human error is a very complex subject that can only approximately be addressed in risk assessment, an attempt must be made to estimate the effect of human errors. The HRA provides data that can be incorporated in the hazard analysis event. This paper will discuss the integration of HRA into a HA for the disassembly of a high explosive component. The process was designed to use a retaining fixture to hold the high explosive in place during a rotation of the component. This tool was designed as a redundant safety feature to help prevent a drop of the explosive. This paper will use the retaining fixture to demonstrate the following HRA methodology`s phases. The first phase is to perform a task analysis. The second phase is the identification of the potential human, both cognitive and psychomotor, functions performed by the worker. During the last phase the human errors are quantified. In reality, the HRA process is an iterative process in which the stages overlap and information gathered in one stage may be used to refine a previous stage. The rationale for the decision to use or not use the retaining fixture and the role the HRA played in the decision will be discussed.

  15. Making a team of experts into an expert team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charney, Carol

    2011-10-01

    Health care has traditionally been delivered primarily by experts working individually in a decentralized system lacking cohesive organization among professional disciplines. Only recently have the advantages of teamwork training been acknowledged in health care. This article explores the history, benefits, and recommendations for team training in neonatal care. TeamSTEPPS (Rockville, MD) and the revised Neonatal Resuscitation Program are cited as promising models for improved neonatal outcomes through professional teamwork.

  16. Elastic sequence correlation for human action analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Cheng, Li; Wang, Liang

    2011-06-01

    This paper addresses the problem of automatically analyzing and understanding human actions from video footage. An "action correlation" framework, elastic sequence correlation (ESC), is proposed to identify action subsequences from a database of (possibly long) video sequences that are similar to a given query video action clip. In particular, we show that two well-known algorithms, namely approximate pattern matching in computer and information sciences and dynamic time warping (DTW) method in signal processing, are special cases of our ESC framework. The proposed framework is applied to two important real-world applications: action pattern retrieval, as well as action segmentation and recognition, where, on average, its run time speed (in matlab) is about 3.3 frames per second. In addition, comparing with the state-of-the-art algorithms on a number of challenging data sets, our approach is demonstrated to perform competitively.

  17. Finite element analysis of human joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bossart, P.L.; Hollerbach, K.

    1996-09-01

    Our work focuses on the development of finite element models (FEMs) that describe the biomechanics of human joints. Finite element modeling is becoming a standard tool in industrial applications. In highly complex problems such as those found in biomechanics research, however, the full potential of FEMs is just beginning to be explored, due to the absence of precise, high resolution medical data and the difficulties encountered in converting these enormous datasets into a form that is usable in FEMs. With increasing computing speed and memory available, it is now feasible to address these challenges. We address the first by acquiring data with a high resolution C-ray CT scanner and the latter by developing semi-automated method for generating the volumetric meshes used in the FEM. Issues related to tomographic reconstruction, volume segmentation, the use of extracted surfaces to generate volumetric hexahedral meshes, and applications of the FEM are described.

  18. Power law analysis of the human microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhanshan Sam

    2015-11-01

    Taylor's (1961, Nature, 189:732) power law, a power function (V = am(b) ) describing the scaling relationship between the mean and variance of population abundances of organisms, has been found to govern the population abundance distributions of single species in both space and time in macroecology. It is regarded as one of few generalities in ecology, and its parameter b has been widely applied to characterize spatial aggregation (i.e. heterogeneity) and temporal stability of single-species populations. Here, we test its applicability to bacterial populations in the human microbiome using extensive data sets generated by the US-NIH Human Microbiome Project (HMP). We further propose extending Taylor's power law from the population to the community level, and accordingly introduce four types of power-law extensions (PLEs): type I PLE for community spatial aggregation (heterogeneity), type II PLE for community temporal aggregation (stability), type III PLE for mixed-species population spatial aggregation (heterogeneity) and type IV PLE for mixed-species population temporal aggregation (stability). Our results show that fittings to the four PLEs with HMP data were statistically extremely significant and their parameters are ecologically sound, hence confirming the validity of the power law at both the population and community levels. These findings not only provide a powerful tool to characterize the aggregations of population and community in both time and space, offering important insights into community heterogeneity in space and/or stability in time, but also underscore the three general properties of power laws (scale invariance, no average and universality) and their specific manifestations in our four PLEs.

  19. Multifractal Analysis of Human Heartbeat in Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Liang-Jing; Peng, Hu; Cai, Shi-Min; Zhou, Pei-Ling

    2007-07-01

    We study the dynamical properties of heart rate variability (HRV) in sleep by analysing the scaling behaviour with the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis method. It is well known that heart rate is regulated by the interaction of two branches of the autonomic nervous system: the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems. By investigating the multifractal properties of light, deep, rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep and wake stages, we firstly find an increasing multifractal behaviour during REM sleep which may be caused by augmented sympathetic activities relative to non-REM sleep. In addition, the investigation of long-range correlations of HRV in sleep with second order detrended fluctuation analysis presents irregular phenomena. These findings may be helpful to understand the underlying regulating mechanism of heart rate by autonomic nervous system during wake-sleep transitions.

  20. Multifractal Analysis of Human Heartbeat in Sleep

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Liang-Jing; PENG Hu; CAI Shi-Min; ZHOU Pei-Ling

    2007-01-01

    We study the dynamical properties of heart rate variability (HRV) in sleep by analysing the scaling behaviour with the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis method. It is well known that heart rate is regulated by the interaction of two branches of the autonomic nervous system: the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems. By investigating the multifractal properties of light, deep, rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep and wake stages, we firstly find an increasing multifractal behaviour during REM sleep which may be caused by augmented sympathetic activities relative to non-REM sleep. In addition, the investigation of long-range correlations of HRV in sleep with second order detrended fluctuation analysis presents irregular phenomena. These findings may be helpful to understand the underlying regulating mechanism of heart rate by autonomic nervous system during wake-sleep transitions.

  1. Political Regime and Human Capital: A Cross-Country Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klomp, Jeroen; de Haan, Jakob

    2013-03-01

    We examine the relationship between different dimensions of the political regime in place and human capital using a two-step structural equation model. In the first step, we employ factor analysis on 16 human capital indicators to construct two new human capital measures (basic and advanced human capital). In the second step, we estimate the impact of our political variables on human capital, using a cross-sectional structural model for some 100 countries. We conclude that democracy is positively related to basic human capital, while regime instability has a negative link with basic human capital. Governance has a positive relationship with advanced human capital, while government instability has a negative link with advanced human capital. Finally, we also find an indirect positive effect of governance and democracy on both types of human capital through their effect on income. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11205-011-9983-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

  2. Expert judgement in performance assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilmot, R.D.; Galson, D.A. [Galson Sciences Ltd, Oakham (United Kingdom)

    2000-01-01

    This report is a pilot study that systematically describes the various types of expert judgement that are made throughout the development of a PA, and summarizes existing tools and practices for dealing with expert judgements. The report also includes recommendations for further work in the area of expert judgement. Expert judgements can be classified in a number of ways, including classification according to why the judgements are made and according to how the judgements are made. In terms of why judgements are made, there is a broad distinction between: Judgements concerning data that are made because alternatives are not feasible; and Judgements about the conduct of a PA that are made because there are no alternative approaches for making the decision. In the case of how judgements are made, the report distinguishes between non-elicited judgements made by individuals, non-elicited judgements made by groups, and elicited judgements made by individuals or groups. These types of judgement can generally be distinguished by the extent of the associated documentation, and hence their traceability. Tools for assessing judgements vary depending on the type of judgements being examined. Key tools are peer review, an appropriate QA regime, documentation, and elicitation. Dialogue with stake holders is also identified as important in establishing whether judgements are justified in the context in which they are used. The PA process comprises a number of stages, from establishing the assessment context, through site selection and repository design, to scenario and model development and parametrisation. The report discusses how judgements are used in each of these stages, and identifies which of the tools and procedures for assessing judgements are most appropriate at each stage. Recommendations for further work include the conduct of a trial expert elicitation to gain experience in the advantages and disadvantages of this technique, the development of guidance for peer

  3. [Development of expert diagnostic system for common respiratory diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei-hua; Chen, You-ling; Yan, Zheng

    2014-03-01

    To develop an internet-based expert diagnostic system for common respiratory diseases. SaaS system was used to build architecture; pattern of forward reasoning was applied for inference engine design; ASP.NET with C# from the tool pack of Microsoft Visual Studio 2005 was used for website-interview medical expert system.The database of the system was constructed with Microsoft SQL Server 2005. The developed expert system contained large data memory and high efficient function of data interview and data analysis for diagnosis of various diseases.The users were able to perform this system to obtain diagnosis for common respiratory diseases via internet. The developed expert system may be used for internet-based diagnosis of various respiratory diseases,particularly in telemedicine setting.

  4. Aesthetic Responses Made Visible Through Voices of Experts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kholina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Professional expertise used to play an important role in the field of environmental aesthetics: expert judgements of landscapes and urban scenes were driving forces behind the decision-making process for urban planners. Today however, research in this area is dominated by studies of public opinion and statistical analysis of anonymous data. This article examines the development of professional expertise in environmental aesthetics and proposes to rethink the role of experts and their contribution to the field by addressing tacit processes behind their judgements. Following an interdisciplinary literature review, an approach that relies on active engagement and reflection-on-action is presented. The application of the approach is studied in two empirical cases, demonstrating the possibility of generating insights into the nature of aesthetic experience. The article suggests reconsidering and widening the profile of the expert in environmental aesthetics to blur the divide between experts and lay public as well as between the users and producers of knowledge.

  5. Virtually expert: modes of environmental computer simulation modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landström, Catharina; Whatmore, Sarah J

    2014-12-01

    This paper challenges three assumptions common in the literature on expertise: that expertise is linearly derived from scientific knowledge; that experts always align with the established institutional order; and that expertise is a property acquired by individuals. We criticize these ideas by juxtaposing three distinct expert practices involved with flood risk management in England. Virtual engineering is associated with commercial consultancy and relies on standardized software packages to assess local flood inundation. Mathematical experimentation refers to academic scientists creating new digital renderings of the physical dynamics of flooding. Participatory modeling denotes research projects that aim to transform the relationships between experts and local communities. Focusing on different modes of modeling we contribute an analysis of how particular models articulate with specific politics of knowledge as experts form relationships with flood risk management actors. Our empirical study also shows how models can contribute to re-distribution of expertise in local flood risk management.

  6. The development of human factors technologies -The development of human behaviour analysis techniques-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Lee, Yong Heui; Park, Keun Ok; Chun, Se Woo; Suh, Sang Moon; Park, Jae Chang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    In order to contribute to human error reduction through the studies on human-machine interaction in nuclear power plants, this project has objectives to develop SACOM(Simulation Analyzer with a Cognitive Operator Model) and techniques for human error analysis and application. In this year, we studied the followings: (1) Site investigation of operator tasks, (2) Development of operator task micro structure and revision of micro structure, (3) Development of knowledge representation software and SACOM prototype, (4) Development of performance assessment methodologies in task simulation and analysis of the effects of performance shaping factors. human error analysis and application techniques> (1) Classification of error shaping factors(ESFs) and development of software for ESF evaluation, (2) Analysis of human error occurrences and revision of analysis procedure, (3) Experiment for human error data collection using a compact nuclear simulator, (4) Development of a prototype data base system of the analyzed information on trip cases. 55 figs, 23 tabs, 33 refs. (Author).

  7. An Embedded Rule-Based Diagnostic Expert System in Ada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Robert E.; Liberman, Eugene M.

    1992-01-01

    Ada is becoming an increasingly popular programming language for large Government-funded software projects. Ada with it portability, transportability, and maintainability lends itself well to today's complex programming environment. In addition, expert systems have also assumed a growing role in providing human-like reasoning capability expertise for computer systems. The integration is discussed of expert system technology with Ada programming language, especially a rule-based expert system using an ART-Ada (Automated Reasoning Tool for Ada) system shell. NASA Lewis was chosen as a beta test site for ART-Ada. The test was conducted by implementing the existing Autonomous Power EXpert System (APEX), a Lisp-based power expert system, in ART-Ada. Three components, the rule-based expert systems, a graphics user interface, and communications software make up SMART-Ada (Systems fault Management with ART-Ada). The rules were written in the ART-Ada development environment and converted to Ada source code. The graphics interface was developed with the Transportable Application Environment (TAE) Plus, which generates Ada source code to control graphics images. SMART-Ada communicates with a remote host to obtain either simulated or real data. The Ada source code generated with ART-Ada, TAE Plus, and communications code was incorporated into an Ada expert system that reads the data from a power distribution test bed, applies the rule to determine a fault, if one exists, and graphically displays it on the screen. The main objective, to conduct a beta test on the ART-Ada rule-based expert system shell, was achieved. The system is operational. New Ada tools will assist in future successful projects. ART-Ada is one such tool and is a viable alternative to the straight Ada code when an application requires a rule-based or knowledge-based approach.

  8. Application of human error analysis to aviation and space operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, W.R.

    1998-03-01

    For the past several years at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) the authors have been working to apply methods of human error analysis to the design of complex systems. They have focused on adapting human reliability analysis (HRA) methods that were developed for Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) for application to system design. They are developing methods so that human errors can be systematically identified during system design, the potential consequences of each error can be assessed, and potential corrective actions (e.g. changes to system design or procedures) can be identified. The primary vehicle the authors have used to develop and apply these methods has been a series of projects sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to apply human error analysis to aviation operations. They are currently adapting their methods and tools of human error analysis to the domain of air traffic management (ATM) systems. Under the NASA-sponsored Advanced Air Traffic Technologies (AATT) program they are working to address issues of human reliability in the design of ATM systems to support the development of a free flight environment for commercial air traffic in the US. They are also currently testing the application of their human error analysis approach for space flight operations. They have developed a simplified model of the critical habitability functions for the space station Mir, and have used this model to assess the affects of system failures and human errors that have occurred in the wake of the collision incident last year. They are developing an approach so that lessons learned from Mir operations can be systematically applied to design and operation of long-term space missions such as the International Space Station (ISS) and the manned Mars mission.

  9. Analysis of lead toxicity in human cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillis Bruce S

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lead is a metal with many recognized adverse health side effects, and yet the molecular processes underlying lead toxicity are still poorly understood. Quantifying the injurious effects of lead is also difficult because of the diagnostic limitations that exist when analyzing human blood and urine specimens for lead toxicity. Results We analyzed the deleterious impact of lead on human cells by measuring its effects on cytokine production and gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Lead activates the secretion of the chemokine IL-8 and impacts mitogen-dependent activation by increasing the secretion of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α and of the chemokines IL-8 and MIP1-α in the presence of phytohemagglutinin. The recorded changes in gene expression affected major cellular functions, including metallothionein expression, and the expression of cellular metabolic enzymes and protein kinase activity. The expression of 31 genes remained elevated after the removal of lead from the testing medium thereby allowing for the measurement of adverse health effects of lead poisoning. These included thirteen metallothionein transcripts, three endothelial receptor B transcripts and a number of transcripts which encode cellular metabolic enzymes. Cellular responses to lead correlated with blood lead levels and were significantly altered in individuals with higher lead content resultantly affecting the nervous system, the negative regulation of transcription and the induction of apoptosis. In addition, we identified changes in gene expression in individuals with elevated zinc protoporphyrin blood levels and found that genes regulating the transmission of nerve impulses were affected in these individuals. The affected pathways were G-protein mediated signaling, gap junction signaling, synaptic long-term potentiation, neuropathic pain signaling as well as CREB signaling in neurons. Cellular responses to lead were

  10. Comparative proteomics analysis of human gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Li; Jian-Fang Li; Ying Qu; Xue-Hua Chen; Jian-Min Qin; Qin-Long Gu; Min Yan; Zheng-Gang Zhu; Bing-Ya Liu

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To isolate and identify differentially expressed proteins between cancer and normal tissues of gastric cancer by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS).METHODS: Soluble fraction proteins of gastric cancer tissues and paired normal tissues were separated by 2-DE.The differentially expressed proteins were selected and identified by MALDI-TOF-MS and database search.RESULTS: 2-DE profiles with high resolution and reproducibility were obtained.Twenty-three protein spots were excised from sliver staining gel and digested in gel by trypsin,in which fifteen protein spots were identified successfully.Among the identified proteins,there were ten over-expressed and five under-expressed proteins in stomach cancer tissues compared with normal tissues.CONCLUSION: In this study,the well-resolved,reproducible 2-DE patterns of human gastric cancer tissue and paired normal tissue were established and optimized and certain differentially-expressed proteins were identified.The combined use of 2-DE and MS provides an effective approach to screen for potential tumor markers.

  11. Consumer versus expert hazard identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagemann, Kit S.; Scholderer, Joachim

    2007-01-01

    between technical experts and consumers over the nature of the hazards on which risk assessments should focus, and perceptions of insufficient openness about uncertainties in risk assessment. Whilst previous research has almost exclusively focused on genetically modified foods, the present paper...... investigates plant varieties developed by means of mutation breeding, a less-debated class of novel foods. Two studies were conducted that investigated the mental models of experts and laypeople. The results revealed that the mental models of both groups differed in terms of scope, depth and the role...... of uncertainty. Furthermore, a number of misconceptions became apparent in the study of laypeople's mental models, often related to the regulatory system governing risk assessments of novel foods. Critical issue are outlined and communication needs are discussed....

  12. The use of expert judgement in decision making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Expert judgment (EJ) techniques and protocols have been used in different areas for more than half a century. the Nuclear Energy Division of the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA), via the Risk Control Domain of the Nuclear Development and Innovation Division and the Innovative Systems Studies Service, and the Institute for Energy of JRC (Petten), via the Nuclear Safety Unit, organized a 'workshop on the use of expert judgment in decision making'. The objectives of this workshop were to create an exchange forum about this topic and to gather a first state of the art, in order to identify the needs for R and D. This workshop brought together approximately 55 participants, from different industry sectors (energy, both nuclear and non-nuclear, food and communication among others) and from universities, research organizations and technical support organizations. The workshop was divided in one opening session, four thematic sessions plus a round table and a final general discussion session. The first session was dedicated to the elicitation of expertise and the combination of opinions given by different experts. The papers in this session had more theoretical contents than most of the papers in other session. The second session was dedicated to expert knowledge management. It consisted of four papers, two of them in the area of the food industry, one of them in the area of e-business and the last one in the area of human reliability assessment (HRA) and its impact on Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) calculations. The third session was dedicated to industrial applications and consisted of four papers, all of them in the area of energy production. The last session was about the use of EJ in risk analysis and decision making processes. Four papers were included in this session, EJ has been applied for a very long time in very different fields, which has brought as a consequence a broad diversity of methodologies The workshop did also show the

  13. 精神分裂症中医狂证证候标准第二轮专家咨询问卷分析%Schizophrenia TCM crazy syndrome standard second expert consultation questionnaire analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄诚; 宋炜熙; 张宏根

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨精神分裂症(狂证)常见中医证型的证候标准.方法 根据第一轮专家咨询问卷结果设计第二轮问卷,向全国专家进行问卷征询,用专家咨询法进行统计分析.结果 专家积极系数为89.7%;权威程度为0.776;在各证型中,符合均数>1.5,满分比>50%,变异系数<40%,等级和>90的证候指标痰火内扰证有14个;气滞血瘀证共9个;阴虚火旺证共11个,痰结血淤证共9个,阳明热结证共9个,气阴两虚证共6个,肝胆火盛证共13个.结论 证候指标中具有上述条件者可作为精神分裂症(狂证)上述中医证型的主症.%Objective To explore the common criterions of syndromes of Schizophrenia(manic psychosis) in TCM. Methods Second round expert questionnaires were designed according to the results of the round one,and 61 experts were consulted around the country. Delphi method was used for statistical analysis. Results the active coefficient was 89.7%,authoritative grade of experts was 0.776;among the syndromes the items whose come up to means>l.5,full dark rations >50%,coefficient of variation <40%,rand sums of the index >90,there are 14 in the internal disturbance of pyrophlegm,there are 9 in the qi-stagnancy and blood stasis.there are 11 in the asthenic yin causing excessive pyrexia,there are 9 in the Stagnant phlegm and blood stasis, there are 9 in the heat stagnant in yangming Meridians, there are 6 in the deficiency of both qi and yin,there are 13 in the hepatochlic hyperpyrexia. Conclusion the symptoms such as whose satisfy the condition above act as the main symptoms of syndromes above in Schizophrenia(manic psychosis)in TCM.

  14. Evaluation of expert system application based on usability aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munaiseche, C. P. C.; Liando, O. E. S.

    2016-04-01

    Usability usually defined as a point of human acceptance to a product or a system based on understands and right reaction to an interface. The performance of web application has been influence by the quality of the interface of that web to supporting information transfer process. Preferably, before the applications of expert systems were installed in the operational environment, these applications must be evaluated first by usability testing. This research aimed to measure the usability of the expert system application using tasks as interaction media. This study uses an expert system application to diagnose skin disease in human using questionnaire method which utilize the tasks as interaction media in measuring the usability. Certain tasks were executed by the participants in observing usability value of the application. The usability aspects observed were learnability, efficiency, memorability, errors, and satisfaction. Each questionnaire question represent aspects of usability. The results present the usability value for each aspect and the total average merit for all the five-usability aspect was 4.28, this indicated that the tested expert system application is in the range excellent for the usability level, so the application can be implemented as the operated system by user. The main contribution of the study is the research became the first step in using task model in the usability evaluation for the expert system application software.

  15. Expert judgment and uncertainty regarding the protection of imperiled species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heeren, Alexander; Karns, Gabriel; Bruskotter, Jeremy; Toman, Eric; Wilson, Robyn; Szarek, Harmony

    2017-06-01

    Decisions concerning the appropriate listing status of species under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA) can be controversial even among conservationists. These decisions may determine whether a species persists in the near term and have long-lasting social and political ramifications. Given the ESA's mandate that such decisions be based on the best available science, it is important to examine what factors contribute to experts' judgments concerning the listing of species. We examined how a variety of factors (such as risk perception, value orientations, and norms) influenced experts' judgments concerning the appropriate listing status of the grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis) population in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Experts were invited to complete an online survey examining their perceptions of the threats grizzly bears face and their listing recommendation. Although experts' assessments of the threats to this species were strongly correlated with their recommendations for listing status, this relationship did not exist when other cognitive factors were included in the model. Specifically, values related to human use of wildlife and norms (i.e., a respondent's expectation of peers' assessments) were most influential in listing status recommendations. These results suggest that experts' decisions about listing, like all human decisions, are subject to the use of heuristics (i.e., decision shortcuts). An understanding of how heuristics and related biases affect decisions under uncertainty can help inform decision making about threatened and endangered species and may be useful in designing effective processes for protection of imperiled species. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  16. Una apuesta analítica del funcionamiento del dispositivo psi pericial en el campo penal Uma aposta analitica do funcionamento do dispositivo psi pericial inserido no campo penal An analysis of the psy expert assemblage in the penal field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura López Gallego

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available La aproximación al dispositivo psi pericial inserto en el campo penal aquí efectuada, traza un itinerario de análisis que aborda el funcionamiento de dicho dispositivo, poniendo especial énfasis en las imbricadas relaciones entre los saberes jurídicos y lo psi. Para efectuar dicho análisis, se utilizan documentos específicos producidos por los peritos psi en el marco del Poder Judicial del Uruguay. Se entiende a las prácticas psi como el efecto de ciertas confluencias históricas relacionadas con el examen, con las estrategias de objetividad, con la traducción de categorías psi en categorías jurídicas y con la incorporación de la lógica de individualización como eje del dispositivo psi pericial. La pregunta que guía el análisis versa sobre lo que posibilita la incorporación del dispositivo psi pericial en el campo penal.A aproximação ao dispositivo psi pericial inserido no campo penal aqui realizada traça um itinerário de análise que aborda o funcionamento do dispositivo, enfatizando as relações imbricadas entre os saberes jurídicos e psi. Para realizar a análise, utilizam-se documentos específicos produzidos por peritos psi no marco do Poder Judicial do Uruguai. Entendem-se as práticas psi como efeito de certas confluências históricas relacionadas ao exame, às estratégias de objetividade, à tradução de categorias psi em categorias jurídicas e à incorporação da lógica da individualização como um ponto central do dispositivo psi pericial. A pergunta que orienta a análise é o que possibilita a incorporação do dispositivo psi pericial no campo penal.The approach made here about the "expert psy assemblage" inserted into the criminal field draws a path of analysis that considers the operation of this assemblage, highlighting the intertwined relationships between the legal and psychological knowledge. To undertake such analysis, specific documents produced by the psy experts, working under the Judiciary

  17. [Thermo-elastic stress analysis of human bones].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger-Franke, M; Heiland, A; Plitz, W; Refior, H J

    1995-01-01

    The Thermoelastic Stress Analysis (THESA) is a widely used procedure in motorcar- and airplane engineering. This study investigated the reliability of THESA for stress analysis of human bone. A human femur was cyclic stressed and the resulting stress pattern was scanned from the surface of the bone by means of the thermoelastic stress measuring instrument SPATE 9000. To proof whether the scan of SPATE 9000 is equivalent to the stress distribution of human femur surface, strain gauges are used to control the results at two different regions of the femur diaphysis under equal but static conditions. It could be shown, that both measuring methods lead to corresponding results of stress pattern on human femur surface.

  18. Measurement of Trained Speech Patterns in Stuttering: Interjudge and Intrajudge Agreement of Experts by Means of Modified Time-Interval Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpermann, Anke; Huber, Walter; Natke, Ulrich; Willmes, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    Improved fluency after stuttering therapy is usually measured by the percentage of stuttered syllables. However, outcome studies rarely evaluate the use of trained speech patterns that speakers use to manage stuttering. This study investigated whether the modified time interval analysis can distinguish between trained speech patterns, fluent…

  19. Threat Analysis : Work Package 1.2 - Expert Group on the security and resilience of Communication networks and Information systems for Smart Grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiijf, H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    In order to be aware of the various threats that are relevant to Smart Grids, the team designed an all hazards threat taxonomy taking into account threats that may harm Smart Grid stakeholders. The analysis and weighting of these threats makes it easier to determine how measures can be taken in orde

  20. Human papillomavirus 16 infection as a potential risk factor for prostate cancer: an adaptive meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jong-Myon

    2015-01-01

    Although an expert review published in 2013 concluded that an association between human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and prostate cancer (PCa) risk had not yet been firmly established, a 2011 systematic review of 14 articles revealed an increased prevalence of HPV-16 DNA in PCa tissues. Another meta-analysis of the related articles is needed to evaluate the potential link between HPV infection and PCa risk. A snowballing search strategy was applied to the previously cited articles in the above-mentioned expert review and systematic review. Additional articles selected for this meta-analysis should fulfill all following inclusion criteria: (a) evaluation of detected HPV-16 DNA in tissue samples and the PCa risk and (b) report of the HPV-16 prevalence in both cancer and control tissues. Estimated summary odds ratios (sOR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using fixed effect or random-effect models. Hand searching identified 16 new articles. The sOR of the total 30 articles indicated a significant HPV-16 infection-related increase in the PCa risk (sOR, 1.851; 95% CI, 1.353 to 2.532, I(2)=37.82%). These facts provide additional supportive evidence for a causal role of HPV-16 infection in prostate carcinogenesis. As the PCa incidence rates have increased rapidly in Asian countries, including Korea, during the last several decades, further studies of HPV-related PCa carcinogenesis may be necessary.

  1. Expert views on critical success and failure factors for nutrigenomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ronteltap, A.; Trijp, van J.C.M.; Renes, R.J.

    2007-01-01

    Public adoption of new technologies is an important determinant for their success. In this paper we examined a specific case of new technology in the nutrition domain ¿ nutrigenomics ¿ the interaction between nutrition and human genes. From 29 semi-structured interviews with Dutch experts in the fie

  2. Human Behavior Analysis by Means of Multimodal Context Mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banos, Oresti; Villalonga, Claudia; Bang, Jaehun; Hur, Taeho; Kang, Donguk; Park, Sangbeom; Huynh-The, Thien; Le-Ba, Vui; Amin, Muhammad Bilal; Razzaq, Muhammad Asif; Khan, Wahajat Ali; Hong, Choong Seon; Lee, Sungyoung

    2016-01-01

    There is sufficient evidence proving the impact that negative lifestyle choices have on people's health and wellness. Changing unhealthy behaviours requires raising people's self-awareness and also providing healthcare experts with a thorough and continuous description of the user's conduct. Several monitoring techniques have been proposed in the past to track users' behaviour; however, these approaches are either subjective and prone to misreporting, such as questionnaires, or only focus on a specific component of context, such as activity counters. This work presents an innovative multimodal context mining framework to inspect and infer human behaviour in a more holistic fashion. The proposed approach extends beyond the state-of-the-art, since it not only explores a sole type of context, but also combines diverse levels of context in an integral manner. Namely, low-level contexts, including activities, emotions and locations, are identified from heterogeneous sensory data through machine learning techniques. Low-level contexts are combined using ontological mechanisms to derive a more abstract representation of the user's context, here referred to as high-level context. An initial implementation of the proposed framework supporting real-time context identification is also presented. The developed system is evaluated for various realistic scenarios making use of a novel multimodal context open dataset and data on-the-go, demonstrating prominent context-aware capabilities at both low and high levels.

  3. Citation Analysis of PJCR Humanities Journals during 2003-2007

    OpenAIRE

    Roya Maghsoudi Daryeh

    2011-01-01

    By using citation analysis, this article has studied humanities journals of Persian Journal Citation Report (PJCR) during 2003-2007. In this research "Impact Factor" and "Immediacy Index" of these journals were investigated and top publishers were determined according to the Impact Factor indicator. Findings showed that more than 75% of these journals have Impact Factor during mentioned years, while only 30% journals have Immediacy Index. Comparing the average Impact Factor of humanities jour...

  4. [Representation and mathematical analysis of human corneal surface].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tălu, Stefan; Tălu, Mihai; Giovanzana, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    In the description and analysis of human corneal surface are used various mathematical models based on parametric representations, used in biomechanical studies and 3D solid modeling of the cornea. Mathematical models are important into the biomechanics of the cornea to model the corneal behavior. Corneal biomechanics also has the potential to improve outcomes in refractive surgery. The objective of this paper is to present the most representative mathematical models currently used for modeling of human corneal in optics and biomechanics fields.

  5. Defining Human Failure Events for Petroleum Risk Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald L. Boring; Knut Øien

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, an identification and description of barriers and human failure events (HFEs) for human reliability analysis (HRA) is performed. The barriers, called target systems, are identified from risk significant accident scenarios represented as defined situations of hazard and accident (DSHAs). This report serves as the foundation for further work to develop petroleum HFEs compatible with the SPAR-H method and intended for reuse in future HRAs.

  6. Human myelin proteome and comparative analysis with mouse myelin

    OpenAIRE

    Ishii, Akihiro; Dutta, Ranjan; Wark, Greg M.; Hwang, Sun-Il; Han, David K.; Trapp, Bruce D.; Pfeiffer, Steven E.; Bansal, Rashmi

    2009-01-01

    Myelin, formed by oligodendrocytes (OLs) in the CNS, is critical for axonal functions, and its damage leads to debilitating neurological disorders such as multiple sclerosis. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of myelination and the pathogenesis of human myelin disease has been limited partly by the relative lack of identification and functional characterization of the repertoire of human myelin proteins. Here, we present a large-scale analysis of the myelin proteome, using the shotgun ap...

  7. Micro-Logistics Analysis for Human Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirillo, William; Stromgren, Chel; Galan, Ricardo

    2008-01-01

    Traditionally, logistics analysis for space missions has focused on the delivery of elements and goods to a destination. This type of logistics analysis can be referred to as "macro-logistics". While the delivery of goods is a critical component of mission analysis, it captures only a portion of the constraints that logistics planning may impose on a mission scenario. The other component of logistics analysis concerns the local handling of goods at the destination, including storage, usage, and disposal. This type of logistics analysis, referred to as "micro-logistics", may also be a primary driver in the viability of a human lunar exploration scenario. With the rigorous constraints that will be placed upon a human lunar outpost, it is necessary to accurately evaluate micro-logistics operations in order to develop exploration scenarios that will result in an acceptable level of system performance.

  8. Modeling for Determinants of Human Trafficking: An Empirical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seo-Young Cho

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify robust push and pull factors of human trafficking. I test for the robustness of 70 push and 63 pull factors suggested in the literature. In doing so, I employ an extreme bound analysis, running more than two million regressions with all possible combinations of variables for up to 153 countries during the period of 1995–2010. My results show that crime prevalence robustly explains human trafficking both in destination and origin countries. Income level also has a robust impact, suggesting that the cause of human trafficking shares that of economic migration. Law enforcement matters more in origin countries than destination countries. Interestingly, a very low level of gender equality may have constraining effects on human trafficking outflow, possibly because gender discrimination limits female mobility that is necessary for the occurrence of human trafficking.

  9. Noninvasive analysis of human neck muscle function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, M. S.; Meyer, R. A.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Feeback, D. L.; Dudley, G. A.

    1995-01-01

    selected muscles that have been examined in human electromyographic studies. Neck muscle function and morphology can be studied at a detailed level using exercise-induced shifts in magnetic resonance images.

  10. Construction of Powerful Online Search Expert System Based on Semantic Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser A. Nada

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we intends to build an expert system based on semantic web for online search using XML, to help users to find the desired software, and read about its features and specifications. The expert system saves user's time and effort of web searching or buying software from available libraries. Building online search expert system is ideal for capturing support knowledge to produce interactive on-line systems that provide searching details, situation-specific advice exactly like setting a session with an expert. Any person can access this interactive system from his web browser and get some questions answer in addition to precise advice which was provided by an expert. The system can provide some troubleshooting diagnose, find the right products; … Etc. The proposed system further combines aspects of three research topics (Semantic Web, Expert System and XML. Semantic web Ontology will be considered as a set of directed graphs where each node represents an item and the edges denote a term which is related to another term. Organizations can now optimize their most valuable expert knowledge through powerful interactive Web-enabled knowledge automation expert system. Online sessions emulate a conversation with a human expert asking focused questions and producing customized recommendations and advice. Hence, the main powerful point of the proposed expert system is that the skills of any domain expert will be available to everyone.

  11. IDHEAS – A NEW APPROACH FOR HUMAN RELIABILITY ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. W. Parry; J.A Forester; V.N. Dang; S. M. L. Hendrickson; M. Presley; E. Lois; J. Xing

    2013-09-01

    This paper describes a method, IDHEAS (Integrated Decision-Tree Human Event Analysis System) that has been developed jointly by the US NRC and EPRI as an improved approach to Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) that is based on an understanding of the cognitive mechanisms and performance influencing factors (PIFs) that affect operator responses. The paper describes the various elements of the method, namely the performance of a detailed cognitive task analysis that is documented in a crew response tree (CRT), and the development of the associated time-line to identify the critical tasks, i.e. those whose failure results in a human failure event (HFE), and an approach to quantification that is based on explanations of why the HFE might occur.

  12. Comprehensive proteomic analysis of the human spliceosome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhaolan; Licklider, Lawrence J.; Gygi, Steven P.; Reed, Robin

    2002-09-01

    The precise excision of introns from pre-messenger RNA is performed by the spliceosome, a macromolecular machine containing five small nuclear RNAs and numerous proteins. Much has been learned about the protein components of the spliceosome from analysis of individual purified small nuclear ribonucleoproteins and salt-stable spliceosome `core' particles. However, the complete set of proteins that constitutes intact functional spliceosomes has yet to be identified. Here we use maltose-binding protein affinity chromatography to isolate spliceosomes in highly purified and functional form. Using nanoscale microcapillary liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, we identify ~145 distinct spliceosomal proteins, making the spliceosome the most complex cellular machine so far characterized. Our spliceosomes comprise all previously known splicing factors and 58 newly identified components. The spliceosome contains at least 30 proteins with known or putative roles in gene expression steps other than splicing. This complexity may be required not only for splicing multi-intronic metazoan pre-messenger RNAs, but also for mediating the extensive coupling between splicing and other steps in gene expression.

  13. Fundamentals of frequency analysis. An introduction for engineers and computer science experts; Grundlagen der Frequenzanalyse. Eine Einfuehrung fuer Ingenieure und Informatiker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, R.

    2001-07-01

    Frequency analysis of signals is one of the basic technologies in many fields of engineering and science. Since the introduction of digital technology, digital frequency analyzers have been widely used in vibration technology and acoustics, information and communication technology, and many other fields. Correct application and interpretation of frequency analysis necessitates good knowledge of its theoretical fundamentals, which are presented in this book in detail and with many illustrations. [German] Die Frequenzanalyse von Signalen gehoert zu den grundlegenden Technologien in vielen Bereichen der Ingenieur- und Naturwissenschaften. Seit der Einfuehrung der Digitaltechnik werden digitale Frequenzanalysatoren in grossem Umfang in Schwingungstechnik und Akustik, Informations- und Kommunikationstechnik und vielen anderen Gebieten eingesetzt. Um sie richtig anwenden und ihre Ergebnisse sicher interpretieren zu koennen, muss der Anwender mit den theoretischen Grundlagen der Frequenzanalyse gut vertraut sein. Diese Grundlagen werden im vorliegenden Buch vermittelt und anhand zahlreicher Beispiele erlaeutert. (orig.)

  14. Acquisition of Expert/Non-Expert Vocabulary from Reformulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoine, Edwige; Grabar, Natalia

    2017-01-01

    Technical medical terms are complicated to be correctly understood by non-experts. Vocabulary, associating technical terms with layman expressions, can help in increasing the readability of technical texts and their understanding. The purpose of our work is to build this kind of vocabulary. We propose to exploit the notion of reformulation following two methods: extraction of abbreviations and of reformulations with specific markers. The segments associated thanks to these methods are aligned with medical terminologies. Our results allow to cover over 9,000 medical terms and show precision of extractions between 0.24 and 0.98. The results and analyzed and compared with the existing work.

  15. Diphtheria, Tetanus, Pertussis: Ask the Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tetanus, Pertussis Ask the Experts: Diseases & Vaccines Diphtheria, Tetanus, Pertussis Ask the Experts Home Combination Vaccines Diphtheria ... have died. How many doses of pediatric diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccine does an infant need ...

  16. Cataloging Expert Systems: Optimism and Frustrated Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmstadt, William J.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses artificial intelligence and attempts to catalog expert systems. Topics include the nature of expertise; examples of cataloging expert systems; barriers to implementation; and problems, including total automation, cataloging expertise, priorities, and system design. (LRW)

  17. Kinetic analysis of the human knee joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Wiczkowski

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The pathology of the calcaneal (Achilles tendon constitutes a serious therapeutical and social problem. Indeed, this tendon is the strongest plantar flexor of the foot that plays an important role in the humangait. Although well known for a long time, no explicit description of the spontaneous subcutaneous rupture of the Achilles tendon can be found in medical or biomechanical literature. So far, neither pathomechanism nor the underlying causes of the tendon’s disruption have been fully elucidated. Many authors concentrate mostly on medical and biological aspects of the condition. The commonly held view is that it is the vascular supply to the tendon that plays a crucial role in pathogenesis of the tendon’s injuries. In fact, the vasculature a change with time and after the age of 30 is significantly reduced leading to the development of regressive alterations within as well as the decrement of the mechanical strength of the tendon. Obviously, interdisciplinary approach encompassing not only medical and biological but also the broadly taken mechanical viewpoint is needed to more comprehensively describe and explain this phenomenon. In the present paper, kinetic analysis of the knee was employed to define the trajectory of the point of initial insertion of the medial head of gastrocnemius, which was then used to determine the point’s route within the motor area extending from the flexion to the full extension of the knee. The obtained data on the trajectory are further utilized to present and define the pathomechanism of the spontaneous rupture of the calcaneal tendon.

  18. Recurrence plots and recurrence quantification analysis of human motion data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josiński, Henryk; Michalczuk, Agnieszka; Świtoński, Adam; Szczesna, Agnieszka; Wojciechowski, Konrad

    2016-06-01

    The authors present exemplary application of recurrence plots, cross recurrence plots and recurrence quantification analysis for the purpose of exploration of experimental time series describing selected aspects of human motion. Time series were extracted from treadmill gait sequences which were recorded in the Human Motion Laboratory (HML) of the Polish-Japanese Academy of Information Technology in Bytom, Poland by means of the Vicon system. Analysis was focused on the time series representing movements of hip, knee, ankle and wrist joints in the sagittal plane.

  19. SciVal Experts: a collaborative tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardell, Emily; Feddern-Bekcan, Tanya; Moore, Mary

    2011-01-01

    SciVal Experts is a resource for finding experts and fostering collaboration. The tool creates researcher profiles with automatically updated publication and grant information and faculty-inputted curriculum vitae, more fully capturing a researcher's body of work. SciVal Experts indexes campus-based "experts" by research topic, allowing faculty to find potential research partners and mentors, furthering translational research opportunities and dissemination of knowledge.

  20. Computer-aided diagnosis expert system for cerebrovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xu; Wang, Zhijun; Sy, Chrisopher; Liu, Xiaokun; Qian, Jinwu; Zheng, Jia; Dong, Zhiqiang; Cao, Limei; Geng, Xiang; Xu, Shuye; Liu, Xueyuan

    2014-05-01

    To establish an expert diagnosis system for cerebrovascular diseases (CVDs) and assess accuracy of the diagnosis system. An expert diagnosis system for CVDs was established and evaluated using actual clinical cases. An expert diagnosis system for CVDs was established and tested in 319 clinical patients. Diagnosis accordance was obtained in 307 patients (the diagnosis accordance rate was 96.2%). Involved were 223, 7, 23, 54 and 12 patients with cerebral thrombosis, cerebral embolism, transient ischemic attack, cerebral hemorrhage and subarachnoid hemorrhage, respectively; and diagnosis accordance was obtained in 219 (98.2%), 6 (85.7%), 23 (100%), 48 (88.9%) and 11 (91.7%), respectively. Overall, the case analysis results support and demonstrate the diagnostic reasoning accuracy of the expert diagnosis system for CVDs. With the expert diagnosis system, medical experts' diagnosis of CVDs can be effectively mimicked and auxiliary diagnosis of CVDs has been preliminarily realized, laying a foundation for increasing the diagnostic accuracy of clinical diagnoses as it pertains to CVDs.

  1. Technologies for Clinical Diagnosis Using Expired Human Breath Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thalakkotur Lazar Mathew

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This review elucidates the technologies in the field of exhaled breath analysis. Exhaled breath gas analysis offers an inexpensive, noninvasive and rapid method for detecting a large number of compounds under various conditions for health and disease states. There are various techniques to analyze some exhaled breath gases, including spectrometry, gas chromatography and spectroscopy. This review places emphasis on some of the critical biomarkers present in exhaled human breath, and its related effects. Additionally, various medical monitoring techniques used for breath analysis have been discussed. It also includes the current scenario of breath analysis with nanotechnology-oriented techniques

  2. Analysis of Human-Spacesuit Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Neha

    2015-01-01

    Astronauts sustain injuries of various natures such as finger delamination, joint pain, and redness due to their interaction with the space suit. The role of the Anthropometry and Biomechanics Facility is to understand the biomechanics, environmental variables, and ergonomics of the suit. This knowledge is then used to make suggestions for improvement in future iterations of the space suit assembly to prevent injuries while allowing astronauts maneuverability, comfort, and tactility. The projects I was involved in were the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) space suit stiffness study and the glove feasibility study. The EMU project looked at the forces exerted on the shoulder, arm, and wrist when subjects performed kinematic tasks with and without a pressurized suit. The glove study consisted of testing three conditions - the Series 4000 glove, the Phase VI glove, and the no glove condition. With more than forty channels of sensor data total, it was critical to develop programs that could analyze data with basic descriptive statistics and generate relevant graphs to help understand what happens within the space suit and glove. In my project I created a Graphical User Interface (GUI) in MATLAB that would help me visualize what each sensor was doing within a task. The GUI is capable of displaying overlain plots and can be synchronized with video. This was helpful during the stiffness testing to visualize how the forces on the arm acted while the subject performed tasks such as shoulder adduction/abduction and bicep curls. The main project of focus, however, was the glove comparison study. I wrote MATLAB programs which generated movies of the strain vectors during specific tasks. I also generated graphs that summarized the differences between each glove for the strain, shear and FSR sensors. Preliminary results indicate that the Phase VI glove places less strain and shear on the hand. Future work includes continued data analysis of surveys and sensor data. In the end

  3. Quantitative assessment of human motion using video motion analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probe, John D.

    1993-01-01

    In the study of the dynamics and kinematics of the human body a wide variety of technologies has been developed. Photogrammetric techniques are well documented and are known to provide reliable positional data from recorded images. Often these techniques are used in conjunction with cinematography and videography for analysis of planar motion, and to a lesser degree three-dimensional motion. Cinematography has been the most widely used medium for movement analysis. Excessive operating costs and the lag time required for film development, coupled with recent advances in video technology, have allowed video based motion analysis systems to emerge as a cost effective method of collecting and analyzing human movement. The Anthropometric and Biomechanics Lab at Johnson Space Center utilizes the video based Ariel Performance Analysis System (APAS) to develop data on shirtsleeved and space-suited human performance in order to plan efficient on-orbit intravehicular and extravehicular activities. APAS is a fully integrated system of hardware and software for biomechanics and the analysis of human performance and generalized motion measurement. Major components of the complete system include the video system, the AT compatible computer, and the proprietary software.

  4. Flexible Human Behavior Analysis Framework for Video Surveillance Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weilun Lao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We study a flexible framework for semantic analysis of human motion from surveillance video. Successful trajectory estimation and human-body modeling facilitate the semantic analysis of human activities in video sequences. Although human motion is widely investigated, we have extended such research in three aspects. By adding a second camera, not only more reliable behavior analysis is possible, but it also enables to map the ongoing scene events onto a 3D setting to facilitate further semantic analysis. The second contribution is the introduction of a 3D reconstruction scheme for scene understanding. Thirdly, we perform a fast scheme to detect different body parts and generate a fitting skeleton model, without using the explicit assumption of upright body posture. The extension of multiple-view fusion improves the event-based semantic analysis by 15%–30%. Our proposed framework proves its effectiveness as it achieves a near real-time performance (13–15 frames/second and 6–8 frames/second for monocular and two-view video sequences.

  5. Expert System for Earthquake Prediction (ESEP3.0)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Wei; Wu Gengfeng; Zhang Bofeng; Li Shengle; Zheng Zhaobi; Lu Yuanzhong

    2004-01-01

    A brand new expert system for earthquake prediction, called ESEP3.0, was successfullydeveloped recently, in which the fuzzy technology and neural network conception wereincorporated and the steering inference mechanism was introduced. In addition to the functionsof symbol inference and explanation of the first generation of the expert system and theknowledge learning of the second generation, ESEP3.0 has stronger human-machineinteraction function. It consists of knowledge edition, machine learning, steering fuzzyinference engine and synchronous explanation subsystems. In this paper, the components andthe general description of the system are introduced.

  6. Expert Systems for auditing management information systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheroghe Popescu

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Expert systems are built with the help of: specialised programming languages or expert system generators (shell. But this structure was reached after tens of years of work and research, because expert systems are nothing but pragmatic capitalisation of the results of research carried out in artificial intelligence and theory of knowledge.

  7. Expert System Prototype for False Event Discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-11-14

    This report discusses a prototype expert system for event discrimination. We wanted to determine whether applying an expert system to handle and...other potential sources of erroneous information. The expert system is an apt vehicle for growth of systems knowledge, for quick decision making, and

  8. Expert System Initiative in Logistic Readiness (EXSYN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    This initiative is to demonstrate the feasibility of using expert system technology to assist TRADOC combat developers with the assignment of...practices into rule sets; (2) develop a prototype expert system based on the rule sets, using a commercially available expert system development tool

  9. Differentiating Experts' Anticipatory Skills in Beach Volleyball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canal-Bruland, Rouwen; Mooren, Merel; Savelsbergh, Geert J. P.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examined how perceptual-motor expertise and watching experience contribute to anticipating the outcome of opponents' attacking actions in beach volleyball. To this end, we invited 8 expert beach volleyball players, 8 expert coaches, 8 expert referees, and 8 control participants with no beach volleyball experience to watch videos…

  10. Differentiating Experts' Anticipatory Skills in Beach Volleyball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canal-Bruland, Rouwen; Mooren, Merel; Savelsbergh, Geert J. P.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examined how perceptual-motor expertise and watching experience contribute to anticipating the outcome of opponents' attacking actions in beach volleyball. To this end, we invited 8 expert beach volleyball players, 8 expert coaches, 8 expert referees, and 8 control participants with no beach volleyball experience to watch videos…

  11. Expert Systems and Intelligent Information Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, H. M.

    1987-01-01

    Explores what an intelligent information retrieval system involves and why expert system techniques might interest system designers. Expert systems research is reviewed with emphasis on components, architecture, and computer interaction, and it is concluded that information retrieval is not an ideal problem domain for expert system application at…

  12. Evaluating Econometric Models and Expert Intuition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Legerstee (Rianne)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis is about forecasting situations which involve econometric models and expert intuition. The first three chapters are about what it is that experts do when they adjust statistical model forecasts and what might improve that adjustment behavior. It is investigated how expert for

  13. The paradox of expert judgment in rivers ecological monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feio, M J; Calapez, A R; Elias, C L; Cortes, R M V; Graça, M A S; Pinto, P; Almeida, S F P

    2016-12-15

    A great investment has been done in the last decades in the development of numerical and qualitative assessment methods to classify the ecological quality of water bodies. Yet, in spite of all attempts to avoid subjectivity, expert judgment is still used at numerous steps of the ecological classification and is considered by some authors as indispensible for management purposes. Thus, the aim of this study is to test the hypothesis that expert judgment, when done by the adequate experts (limnologists/river ecologist) with experience in the study area (i.e., natural conditions and expected communities), could be as good as quantitative indices and measures (i.e., result in the same classification), but quicker and with lower cost. For that we compared the classifications (on 13 aspects of rivers ecosystems) attributed by two experts to 20 sites (10 each) located in their study areas, with the classifications of ecological quality based on biological indices (for invertebrates and diatoms), hydromorphology and water chemistry, calculated by an independent team. Our results show that assessments made by experts and those calculated through indices (biological quality and hydromorphology) are globally very similar (RELATE test; Rho = 0.442; p Analysis revealed that sites to which experts attributed a moderate quality had higher nitrate concentration and pH but were well oxygenated. The sites classified as poor and bad where those with stronger modifications in their habitats (given by the higher values of HMS). The difference between experts and indices is small but still represents 15% of sites, and includes both situations: the experts or the indices lead to the need of measures (i.e., classifications below class Good). Experts' evaluations on hydromorphological conditions of the channel and margins are also significantly correlated with the quality assessments made by the field team that has no experience in the study area (Rh0 = 0.518; p = 0.001; 999

  14. Role of dental expert in forensic odontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Anoop K; Kumar, Sachil; Rathore, Shiuli; Pandey, Abhishek

    2014-01-01

    Forensic dentistry has become an integral part of forensic science over the past 100 years that utilizes dental or oro-facial findings to serve the judicial system. This has been due to the dedication of people like Gustafson's, Keiser-Nielson, and Suzuki for this field. They established the essential role which forensic dentistry plays mainly in the identification of human remains. The tooth has been used as weapons and under certain circumstances, may leave information about the identity of the biter. Dental professionals have a major role to play in keeping accurate dental records and providing all necessary information so that legal authorities may recognize mal practice, negligence, fraud or abuse, and identity of unknown individuals. This paper will try to summarize the various roles of dental experts in forensic medicine.

  15. Murder, insanity, and medical expert witnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccone, J R

    1992-06-01

    Recent advances in the ability to study brain anatomy and function and attempts to link these findings with human behavior have captured the attention of the legal system. This had led to the increasing use of the "neurological defense" to support a plea of not guilty by reason of insanity. This article explores the history of the insanity defense and explores the role of the medical expert witnesses in integrating clinical and laboratory findings, eg, computed tomographic scans, magnetic resonance scans, and single-photon emission computed tomographic scans. Three cases involving murder and brain dysfunction are discussed: the first case involves a subarachnoid hemorrhage resulting in visual perceptual and memory impairment; the second case, a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease; and the third case, the controverted diagnosis of complex partial seizures in a serial killer.

  16. A biomechanical analysis of the roundhouse kicking technique of expert practitioners: A comparison between the martial arts disciplines of Muay Thai, Karate, and Taekwondo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavagan, Colin J; Sayers, Mark G L

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was first, to determine whether there were differences in the roundhouse kicking leg kinematics performed by highly skilled Muay Thai, Karate and Taekwondo practitioners (n = 8 per group). Next, analysis aimed to identify the kinematic determinants of effective roundhouse kicking performance. Three-dimensional (3D) lower limb kinematics were recorded using a nine camera infra-red motion capture system (500 Hz) during three maximal roundhouse kicks. Impact forces were recorded using a strain gauge (1000 Hz) attached to a kicking pad positioned at the height of each participant's mastoid process. Results showed that linear foot velocity at impact was moderately correlated with relative impact force (r = 0.66, P = 0.001). Discipline specific analyses of the temporal data indicated that the Muay Thai group had a shorter execution time (1.02 ± 0.15 s) than Taekwondo (1.54 ± 0.52 s, P = 0.028). Analysis of lower limb kinematic data indicated that both Karate (-947 ± 94 deg/s, P = 0.010) and Taekwondo (-943 ± 106 deg/s, P = 0.011) practitioners had faster knee extension velocities than the Muay Thai group (-706 ± 200 deg/s). Conversely, the Muay Thai practitioners (1.24 ± 0.15 m/s) had greater vertical centre of mass movement than both Karate (0.78 ± 0.24 m/s, P = 0.001) and Taekwondo groups (0.93 ± 0.19 m/s, P = 0.02). Our findings show that several fundamental movement patterns were common to the roundhouse kicking techniques across the Muay Thai, Karate, and Taekwondo disciplines. Effective roundhouse kicking performance was characterized by rapid pelvic axial rotation, hip abduction, hip flexion and knee extension velocities, combined with rapid movements of the COM towards the target.

  17. Contingency support using adaptive telemetry extractor and expert system technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Thomas; Cruse, Bryant; Wende, Charles

    The 'telemetry analysis logic for operations support' prototype system constitutes an expert system that is charged with contingency planning for the NASA Hubble Space Telescope (HST); this system has demonstrated the feasibility of using an adaptive telemetry extractor/reformatter that is integrated with an expert system. A test case generated by a simulator has demonstrated the reduction of the time required for analysis of a complex series of failures to a few minutes, from the hour usually required. The HST's telemetry extractor will be able to read real-time engineering telemetry streams and disk-based data. Telemetry format changes will be handled almost instantaneously.

  18. Advances in metal forming expert system for metal forming

    CERN Document Server

    Hingole, Rahulkumar Shivajirao

    2015-01-01

    This comprehensive book offers a clear account of the theory and applications of advanced metal forming. It provides a detailed discussion of specific forming processes, such as deep drawing, rolling, bending extrusion and stamping. The author highlights recent developments of metal forming technologies and explains sound, new and powerful expert system techniques for solving advanced engineering problems in metal forming. In addition, the basics of expert systems, their importance and applications to metal forming processes, computer-aided analysis of metalworking processes, formability analysis, mathematical modeling and case studies of individual processes are presented.

  19. Embedded expert system for space shuttle main engine maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooley, J.; Thompson, W.; Homsley, T.; Teoh, W.; Jones, J.; Lewallen, P.

    1987-01-01

    The SPARTA Embedded Expert System (SEES) is an intelligent health monitoring system that directs analysis by placing confidence factors on possible engine status and then recommends a course of action to an engineer or engine controller. The technique can prevent catastropic failures or costly rocket engine down time because of false alarms. Further, the SEES has potential as an on-board flight monitor for reusable rocket engine systems. The SEES methodology synergistically integrates vibration analysis, pattern recognition and communications theory techniques with an artificial intelligence technique - the Embedded Expert System (EES).

  20. Expert Oracle GoldenGate

    CERN Document Server

    Prusinski, Ben; Chung, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Expert Oracle GoldenGate is a hands-on guide to creating and managing complex data replication environments using the latest in database replication technology from Oracle. GoldenGate is the future in replication technology from Oracle, and aims to be best-of-breed. GoldenGate supports homogeneous replication between Oracle databases. It supports heterogeneous replication involving other brands such as Microsoft SQL Server and IBM DB2 Universal Server. GoldenGate is high-speed, bidirectional, highly-parallelized, and makes only a light impact on the performance of databases involved in replica

  1. A Phenomenology of Expert Musicianship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høffding, Simon

    targets a central debate in philosophy and psychology on whether reflection is conducive for, or detrimental to, skillful performance. My analyses show that the concepts assumed in the literature on this question are poorly defined and gloss over more important features of expertise. The second question...... of the nature of the self. I account for the conditions of the possibility of deep absorption and suggest that a detailed and comprehensive grasp of expert musicianship is best achieved through an understanding of the phenomenon that revolves around a changed sense of agency....

  2. Expert Oracle RAC 12c

    CERN Document Server

    Shamsudeen, Riyaj; Yu, Kai; Farooq, Tariq

    2013-01-01

    Expert Oracle RAC 12c is a hands-on book helping you understand and implement Oracle Real Application Clusters (RAC), and to reduce the total-cost-of-ownership (TCO) of a RAC database. As a seasoned professional, you are probably aware of the importance of understanding the technical details behind the RAC stack. This book provides deep understanding of RAC concepts and implementation details that you can apply toward your day-to-day operational practices. You'll be guided in troubleshooting and avoiding trouble in your installation. Successful RAC operation hinges upon a fast-performing netwo

  3. Camera systems in human motion analysis for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Lim Chee; Basah, Shafriza Nisha; Yaacob, Sazali; Juan, Yeap Ewe; Kadir, Aida Khairunnisaa Ab.

    2015-05-01

    Human Motion Analysis (HMA) system has been one of the major interests among researchers in the field of computer vision, artificial intelligence and biomedical engineering and sciences. This is due to its wide and promising biomedical applications, namely, bio-instrumentation for human computer interfacing and surveillance system for monitoring human behaviour as well as analysis of biomedical signal and image processing for diagnosis and rehabilitation applications. This paper provides an extensive review of the camera system of HMA, its taxonomy, including camera types, camera calibration and camera configuration. The review focused on evaluating the camera system consideration of the HMA system specifically for biomedical applications. This review is important as it provides guidelines and recommendation for researchers and practitioners in selecting a camera system of the HMA system for biomedical applications.

  4. Rule - based Fault Diagnosis Expert System for Wind Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng Xiao-Wen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Under the trend of increasing installed capacity of wind power, the intelligent fault diagnosis of wind turbine is of great significance to the safe and efficient operation of wind farms. Based on the knowledge of fault diagnosis of wind turbines, this paper builds expert system diagnostic knowledge base by using confidence production rules and expert system self-learning method. In Visual Studio 2013 platform, C # language is selected and ADO.NET technology is used to access the database. Development of Fault Diagnosis Expert System for Wind Turbine. The purpose of this paper is to realize on-line diagnosis of wind turbine fault through human-computer interaction, and to improve the diagnostic capability of the system through the continuous improvement of the knowledge base.

  5. Comparative proteomic analysis of human pancreatic juice : Methodological study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Lu; Lu, ZhaoHui; Yang, AiMing; Deng, RuiXue; Mai, CanRong; Sang, XinTing; Faber, Klaas Nico; Lu, XingHua

    Pancreatic cancer is the most lethal of all the common malignancies. Markers for early detection of this disease are urgently needed. Here, we optimized and applied a proteome analysis of human pancreatic juice to identify biomarkers for pancreatic cancer. Pancreatic juice samples, devoid of blood

  6. Comparative proteomic analysis of human pancreatic juice : Methodological study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Lu; Lu, ZhaoHui; Yang, AiMing; Deng, RuiXue; Mai, CanRong; Sang, XinTing; Faber, Klaas Nico; Lu, XingHua

    2007-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the most lethal of all the common malignancies. Markers for early detection of this disease are urgently needed. Here, we optimized and applied a proteome analysis of human pancreatic juice to identify biomarkers for pancreatic cancer. Pancreatic juice samples, devoid of blood o

  7. Comparative proteomic analysis of human pancreatic juice : Methodological study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Lu; Lu, ZhaoHui; Yang, AiMing; Deng, RuiXue; Mai, CanRong; Sang, XinTing; Faber, Klaas Nico; Lu, XingHua

    2007-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the most lethal of all the common malignancies. Markers for early detection of this disease are urgently needed. Here, we optimized and applied a proteome analysis of human pancreatic juice to identify biomarkers for pancreatic cancer. Pancreatic juice samples, devoid of blood o

  8. Comparative proteomic analysis of human pancreatic juice: Methodological study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Lu; Lu, Z.H.; Yang, A.M.; Deng, R.X.; Mai, C.R.; Sang, X.T.; Faber, Klaas Nico; Lu, X.H.

    2007-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the most lethal of all the common malignancies. Markers for early detection of this disease are urgently needed. Here, we optimized and applied a proteome analysis of human pancreatic juice to identify biomarkers for pancreatic cancer. Pancreatic juice samples, devoid of blood o

  9. Interactive human behavior analysis in open or public spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hung, H.; Odobez, J.M.; Gavrila, D.M.

    2011-01-01

    In the past years, efforts in surveillance and open space analysis have focused on traditional computer vision problems like scene modeling or object detection and tracking. Research on human behavior recognition have tended to work on predefined simple activities such as running, jumping or left lu

  10. Object Analysis of Human Emotions by Contourlets and GLCM Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Suresh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Facial expression is one of the most significant ways to express the intention, emotion and other nonverbal messages of human beings. A computerized human emotion recognition system based on Contourlet transformation is proposed. In order to analyze the presented study, seven kind of human emotions such as anger, fear, happiness, surprise, sadness, disgust and neutral of facial images are taken into account. The considered emotional images of human are represented by Contourlet transformation that decomposes the images into directional sub-bands at multiple levels. The features are extracted from the obtained sub-bands and stored for further analysis. Also, texture features from Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM are extracted and fused together with contourlet features to obtain higher recognition accuracy. To recognize the facial expressions, K Nearest Neighbor (KNN classifier is used to recognize the input facial image into one of the seven analyzed expressions and over 90% accuracy is achieved.

  11. Proteogenomic Analysis Identifies a Novel Human SHANK3 Isoform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahad Benthani

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Mutations of the SHANK3 gene have been associated with autism spectrum disorder. Individuals harboring different SHANK3 mutations display considerable heterogeneity in their cognitive impairment, likely due to the high SHANK3 transcriptional diversity. In this study, we report a novel interaction between the Mutated in colorectal cancer (MCC protein and a newly identified SHANK3 protein isoform in human colon cancer cells and mouse brain tissue. Hence, our proteogenomic analysis identifies a new human long isoform of the key synaptic protein SHANK3 that was not predicted by the human reference genome. Taken together, our findings describe a potential new role for MCC in neurons, a new human SHANK3 long isoform and, importantly, highlight the use of proteomic data towards the re-annotation of GC-rich genomic regions.

  12. NTP-CERHR EXPERT PANEL REPORT ON THE REPRODUCTIVE AND DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF ACRYLAMIDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Toxicology Program Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction (NTP-CERHR) convened an expert panel in May 2004 to evaluate acrylamide. The report of the expert panel, prepared in accordance with CERHR Guidelines, provides a detailed summary of all publi...

  13. Brain mechanisms of persuasion: How 'expert power' modulates memory and attitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Klucharev (Vasily); A. Smidts (Ale); G. Fernandez (Guillén)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractHuman behaviour is affected by various forms of persuasion. The general persuasive effect of high expertise of the communicator, often referred to as 'expert power', is well documented. We found that a single exposure to a combination of an expert and an object leads to a long-lasting po

  14. Brain Mechanisms of Persuasion: How "Expert Power" Modulates Memory and Attitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Klucharev (Vasily); A. Smidts (Ale); G. Fernández (Guillén)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractHuman behavior is affected by various forms of persuasion. The general persuasive effect of high expertise of the communicator, often referred to as "expert power", is well documented. We found that a single exposure to a combination of an expert and an object leads to a long-lasting pos

  15. NTP-CERHR EXPERT PANEL REPORT ON THE REPRODUCTIVE AND DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF ACRYLAMIDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Toxicology Program Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction (NTP-CERHR) convened an expert panel in May 2004 to evaluate acrylamide. The report of the expert panel, prepared in accordance with CERHR Guidelines, provides a detailed summary of all publi...

  16. The acuity of echolocation: Spatial resolution in the sighted compared to expert performance

    OpenAIRE

    Teng, Santani; Whitney, David

    2011-01-01

    Compared with the echolocation performance of a blind expert, sighted novices rapidly learned size and position discrimination with surprising precision. We use a novel task to characterize the population distribution of echolocation skill in the sighted and report the highest known human echolocation acuity in our expert subject.

  17. Operational expert system applications in Canada

    CERN Document Server

    Suen, Ching Y

    1992-01-01

    This book is part of a new series on operational expert systems worldwide. Expert systems are now widely used in different parts of the world for various applications. The past four years have witnessed a steady growth in the development and deployment of expert systems in Canada. Research in this field has also gained considerable momentum during the past few years. However, the field of expert systems is still young in Canada. This book contains 13 chapters contributed by 31 experts from both universities and industries across Canada covering a wide range of applications related to electric

  18. The role of the expert witness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerrold, Laurance

    2007-08-01

    The role of expert witnesses in medical malpractice litigation is often misunderstood. Much maligned, the expert has been the subject of castigation by a range of people, from his professional colleagues to the jurists who preside over his testimony. From an academic perspective, the expert witness is a necessary evil, and his denigration is his own doing; for the expert is a neutral character who creates his own professional persona. This purpose of this article is to serve as a primer for those interested in understanding the role that the expert is supposed to play in litigation, and the factors surrounding his activities.

  19. The indicative analysis and ranking of human capital development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inessa, Gurban; Alexandr, Tarasyev

    2017-07-01

    In this article we discuss the rationale for the importance and effectiveness of the regions ranking as a tool for regional social and economic policies aimed to control the regional socio-economic development. A methodological approach to the determination of the human capital development level in the regions of the Russian Federation is provided focused on determining the quality of human capital in each region of the Russian Federation and the causes underlying this situation. The methodological apparatus is based on the indicative qualimetric analysis method that allows to convert various benchmarks expressed in different units in a comparable type. Also it is possible to receive and differentiate a comprehensive assessment of the human capital level in each region of the Russian Federation on the basis of the proposed classification. In this article we present the structure of the indicators system that simulates the human capital level by a number of descriptive components including demographic, educational, employment, research and socio-cultural components. In our research we found that in the overwhelming majority of the Russian Federation human capital is characterized mainly by a low development level. The system shows unstable dynamics in the human capital level through the Russian Federal Districts, as well as the leaders and laggards in the rating of the Russian Federation during the period 2000-2013. Our article presents the structure of a comprehensive assessment of the human capital level by providing estimates of its components.

  20. Psychological expert witness testimony and judicial decision making trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, David L; Mixon, LeKisha; Jackson, Melissa; Shook, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Despite the establishment of the Daubert standard in 1993, the evidentiary criteria are rarely used as a basis for admissibility of expert witness testimony in the behavioral sciences. Ever since the promulgation of Frye and the Federal Rules of Evidence, controversy has surrounded the admissibility of expert testimony in courtrooms. There appears to be no existing uniform application of standards governing the admissibility of psychological expert witness testimony. Therefore, it is essential for the psycho-legal communities to explore judicial decision-making trends regarding psychological expert witness evidence. In this current research, psychological expert witness testimony and judicial decision-making will be explored. In preliminary examination, 97 criminal and civil case summaries from the LexisNexis Academic Database involved issues of admissibility. Analyses conducted by eight trained and paired coders revealed that reliability and assistance to the trier of fact were the most often cited reasons for admissibility in courts. Consistent with prior studies, it was also found that the most applied standards for admissibility of psychological evidence were the Federal Rules of Evidence. Interestingly, while the Daubert scientific criteria for admission of scientific testimony were mentioned, they were rarely utilized. A secondary analysis of 167 civil and criminal appellate cases indicated that the reliability of testimony (18% of all cases), ability to assist the trier of fact (17%), the expert witness' qualifications (17%), and the relevance of the testimony (16%) were the most commonly cited reasons for determining admissibility. A tertiary qualitative analysis focusing on these four categories then revealed eight major trends in admissibility of psychological expert evidence.