WorldWideScience

Sample records for human epo-fc fusion

  1. Detection of EPO-Fc fusion protein in human blood: screening and confirmation protocols for sports drug testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichel, Christian; Thevis, Mario

    2012-11-01

    The neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) has been under investigation for several years as a pharmaceutical drug target. Clinical studies have shown that fusion proteins consisting of human recombinant erythropoietin (rhEPO) and the Fc-part of IgG can be transported after pulmonary administration via FcRn across the airway epithelium to the blood stream. So far, no clinically approved pharmaceutical formulation of EPO-Fc is available. Since various forms of recombinant erythropoietins have been frequently misused by athletes as performance-enhancing agents, EPO-Fc might play a similar role in sports in the future. In order to investigate the detectability of EPO-Fc in human blood, different strategies were tested and developed. Only two of them fulfilled the necessary requirements regarding sensitivity and specificity. A rapid protocol useful for screening purposes first enriches EPO-Fc from human serum via high capacity protein A beads and subsequently detects EPO-Fc in the eluate with a commercial EPO ELISA kit. The limit of detection (LOD) of the method is about 5 pg (45 amol) EPO-Fc and is independent of the serum volume used. For screening and/or confirmation purposes a second protocol was evaluated, which consists of a fast EPO immunopurification step followed by sodium dodecyl sulfate or sarcosyl polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE, SAR-PAGE) and Western double-blotting with chemiluminescence detection - a method already established in routine EPO anti-doping control. The latter strategy allows the detection of EPO-Fc in serum together with all other recombinant erythropoietins and with an identical LOD (5 pg/45 amol) as for the rapid screening protocol.

  2. Fc-fragment removal allows the EPO-Fc fusion protein to be detected in blood samples by IEF-PAGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postnikov, Pavel; Krotov, Grigory; Mesonzhnik, Natalia; Efimova, Yulia; Rodchenkov, Grigory

    2015-01-01

    EPO-Fc proteins have been under investigation as a potential drug for treating anaemia and have shown larger half-life values than other erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs). Sodium dodecyl sulfate/sodium N-lauroylsarcosinate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS/SAR-PAGE) methods and subsequent immunoblotting are used for routine anti-doping analysis. This paper reports that EPO-Fc fusion proteins can be detected in serum samples by isoelectric focusing-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (IEF-PAGE) in carrier ampholyte-based gels with a pH 2-6 gradient after removing the Fc part via site-specific IdeS protease cleavage. The IdeS-digested EPO-Fc protein yields three fragments: two Fc fragments and one dimeric EPO-hinge fragment. After IEF-PAGE was followed by double Western blotting with chemiluminescent detection, the dimeric EPO-hinge fragment showed a unique isoelectric pattern, which differed from those of any other currently known analogue of EPO. We observed that the removal of the Fc fragment from EPO-Fc reduced the apparent molecular weight of entire fusion protein and increased its electrophoretic mobility. As a result, the band for the EPO-hinge fragment was located in a region between the rEPO and NESP standards, at which lower amounts of serum proteins are present. Simple and selective protocols for determining the EPO-Fc protein in human serum were developed to extend the methodological anti-doping arsenal. This protocol has been characterized. The limit of detection (LOD) of the IEF-PAGE method was 20 pg, and that of SDS/SAR-PAGE was 15 pg.

  3. Biphasic cultivation strategy to avoid Epo-Fc aggregation and optimize protein expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaisermayer, Christian; Reinhart, David; Gili, Andreas; Chang, Martina; Aberg, Per-Mikael; Castan, Andreas; Kunert, Renate

    2016-06-10

    In biphasic cultivations, the culture conditions are initially kept at an optimum for rapid cell growth and biomass accumulation. In the second phase, the culture is shifted to conditions ensuring maximum specific protein production and the protein quality required. The influence of specific culture parameters is cell line dependent and their impact on product quality needs to be investigated. In this study, a biphasic cultivation strategy for a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line expressing an erythropoietin fusion protein (Epo-Fc) was developed. Cultures were run in batch mode and after an initial growth phase, cultivation temperature and pH were shifted. Applying a DoE (Design of Experiments) approach, a fractional factorial design was used to systematically evaluate the influence of cultivation temperature and pH as well as their synergistic effect on cell growth as well as on recombinant protein production and aggregation. All three responses were influenced by the cultivation temperature. Additionally, an interaction between pH and temperature was found to be related to protein aggregation. Compared with the initial standard conditions of 37°C and pH 7.05, a parameter shift to low temperature and acidic pH resulted in a decrease in the aggregate fraction from 75% to less than 1%. Furthermore, the synergistic effect of temperature and pH substantially lowered the cell-specific rates of glucose and glutamine consumption as well as lactate and ammonium production. The optimized culture conditions also led to an increase of the cell-specific rates of recombinant Epo-Fc production, thus resulting in a more economic bioprocess.

  4. Human-Centered Information Fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Hall, David L

    2010-01-01

    Information fusion refers to the merging of information from disparate sources with differing conceptual, contextual and typographical representations. Rather than focusing on traditional data fusion applications which have been mainly concerned with physical military targets, this unique resource explores new human-centered trends, such as locations, identity, and interactions of individuals and groups (social networks). Moreover, the book discusses two new major sources of information: human observations and web-based information.This cutting-edge volume presents a new view of multi-sensor d

  5. Mitochondrial Fusion Proteins and Human Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Ranieri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria are highly dynamic, complex organelles that continuously alter their shape, ranging between two opposite processes, fission and fusion, in response to several stimuli and the metabolic demands of the cell. Alterations in mitochondrial dynamics due to mutations in proteins involved in the fusion-fission machinery represent an important pathogenic mechanism of human diseases. The most relevant proteins involved in the mitochondrial fusion process are three GTPase dynamin-like proteins: mitofusin 1 (MFN1 and 2 (MFN2, located in the outer mitochondrial membrane, and optic atrophy protein 1 (OPA1, in the inner membrane. An expanding number of degenerative disorders are associated with mutations in the genes encoding MFN2 and OPA1, including Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2A and autosomal dominant optic atrophy. While these disorders can still be considered rare, defective mitochondrial dynamics seem to play a significant role in the molecular and cellular pathogenesis of more common neurodegenerative diseases, for example, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. This review provides an overview of the basic molecular mechanisms involved in mitochondrial fusion and focuses on the alteration in mitochondrial DNA amount resulting from impairment of mitochondrial dynamics. We also review the literature describing the main disorders associated with the disruption of mitochondrial fusion.

  6. Next Level of Data Fusion for Human Face Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Bhowmik, Mrinal Kanti; Bhattacharjee, Debotosh; Basu, Dipak Kumar; Nasipuri, Mita

    2011-01-01

    This paper demonstrates two different fusion techniques at two different levels of a human face recognition process. The first one is called data fusion at lower level and the second one is the decision fusion towards the end of the recognition process. At first a data fusion is applied on visual and corresponding thermal images to generate fused image. Data fusion is implemented in the wavelet domain after decomposing the images through Daubechies wavelet coefficients (db2). During the data fusion maximum of approximate and other three details coefficients are merged together. After that Principle Component Analysis (PCA) is applied over the fused coefficients and finally two different artificial neural networks namely Multilayer Perceptron(MLP) and Radial Basis Function(RBF) networks have been used separately to classify the images. After that, for decision fusion based decisions from both the classifiers are combined together using Bayesian formulation. For experiments, IRIS thermal/visible Face Database h...

  7. FGFR-TACC gene fusions in human glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasorella, Anna; Sanson, Marc; Iavarone, Antonio

    2016-11-16

    Chromosomal translocations joining in-frame members of the fibroblast growth factor receptor-transforming acidic coiled-coil gene families (the FGFR-TACC gene fusions) were first discovered in human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and later in many other cancer types. Here, we review this rapidly expanding field of research and discuss the unique biological and clinical features conferred to isocitrate dehydrogenase wild-type glioma cells by FGFR-TACC fusions. FGFR-TACC fusions generate powerful oncogenes that combine growth-promoting effects with aneuploidy through the activation of as yet unclear intracellular signaling mechanisms. FGFR-TACC fusions appear to be clonal tumor-initiating events that confer strong sensitivity to FGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Screening assays have recently been reported for the accurate identification of FGFR-TACC fusion variants in human cancer, and early clinical data have shown promising effects in cancer patients harboring FGFR-TACC fusions and treated with FGFR inhibitors. Thus, FGFR-TACC gene fusions provide a "low-hanging fruit" model for the validation of precision medicine paradigms in human GBM.

  8. Image Pixel Fusion for Human Face Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Bhowmik, Mrinal Kanti; Nasipuri, Mita; Basu, Dipak Kumar; Kundu, Mahantapas

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a technique for fusion of optical and thermal face images based on image pixel fusion approach. Out of several factors, which affect face recognition performance in case of visual images, illumination changes are a significant factor that needs to be addressed. Thermal images are better in handling illumination conditions but not very consistent in capturing texture details of the faces. Other factors like sunglasses, beard, moustache etc also play active role in adding complicacies to the recognition process. Fusion of thermal and visual images is a solution to overcome the drawbacks present in the individual thermal and visual face images. Here fused images are projected into an eigenspace and the projected images are classified using a radial basis function (RBF) neural network and also by a multi-layer perceptron (MLP). In the experiments Object Tracking and Classification Beyond Visible Spectrum (OTCBVS) database benchmark for thermal and visual face images have been used. Compar...

  9. The Effect of Multispectral Image Fusion Enhancement on Human Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-20

    Additionally, we test this on a simple stimulus and task experimental struc- ture to understand the basic impacts of fusion on the visual system. Ideal observer...information heatmap help us tackle the problem space of image fusion in relation to human testing ? As we have seen even within our own basic experiment ...strengthen visual perception. We employ ideal observer analysis over a series of experimental conditions to (1) establish a framework for testing

  10. Image enhancement using thermal-visible fusion for human detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaihidee, Ezrinda Mohd; Hawari Ghazali, Kamarul; Zuki Saleh, Mohd

    2017-09-01

    An increased interest in detecting human beings in video surveillance system has emerged in recent years. Multisensory image fusion deserves more research attention due to the capability to improve the visual interpretability of an image. This study proposed fusion techniques for human detection based on multiscale transform using grayscale visual light and infrared images. The samples for this study were taken from online dataset. Both images captured by the two sensors were decomposed into high and low frequency coefficients using Stationary Wavelet Transform (SWT). Hence, the appropriate fusion rule was used to merge the coefficients and finally, the final fused image was obtained by using inverse SWT. From the qualitative and quantitative results, the proposed method is more superior than the two other methods in terms of enhancement of the target region and preservation of details information of the image.

  11. Fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Mahaffey, James A

    2012-01-01

    As energy problems of the world grow, work toward fusion power continues at a greater pace than ever before. The topic of fusion is one that is often met with the most recognition and interest in the nuclear power arena. Written in clear and jargon-free prose, Fusion explores the big bang of creation to the blackout death of worn-out stars. A brief history of fusion research, beginning with the first tentative theories in the early 20th century, is also discussed, as well as the race for fusion power. This brand-new, full-color resource examines the various programs currently being funded or p

  12. Perceptual Fusion in Humans and Machines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salah, A.A.; Tanrı dağ , O.

    2008-01-01

    Humans perceive the world through different perceptual modalities, which are processed in the brain by modality-specific areas and structures. However, there also exist multimodal neurons and areas, specialized in integrating perceptual information to enhance or suppress brain response. The particu

  13. The Human Factors of Sensor Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    humans tend to use a combination of deductive and inductive logic, as well as intuition and emotion to reach general conclusions; however, if...into a machine but only resulting in a warning or caution and not as the actual emotion felt by the observer. The element of fear induced by the...extract meaning from text or spoken language which is veiled by semantic features such as sarcasm or formalism that contain a very great amount of

  14. Conflicts and Fusion Between Deities and Humanities in Jane Eyre

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王薇

    2012-01-01

    Acclaimed as a classic work of literature in the English-speaking world, Jane Eyre has been generally accepted as a richly woven tapestry of feminine imagination, a tableau of romanticism in the Victorian era, and an early treatise on humanities. The present thesis first analyzes the conflicts and fusion between deities and humanities, and then focuses on the gradual fusion of the two during every stage of her life, and finally explores into background of her religious beliefs, revealing the miraculous transition from an untaught girl to a mature Christian. Jane’s narration lends intensity to the story, and her personality serves as both a catalyst and a prism, and it is through her unique point of view that most of the novel’s major issues are explored.

  15. Fusion of Multiple Pyroelectric Characteristics for Human Body Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanchun Zhou

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to instability and poor identification ability of single pyroelectric infrared (PIR detector for human target identification, this paper proposes a new approach to fuse the information collected from multiple PIR sensors for human identification. Firstly, Fast Fourier Transform (FFT, Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT, Wavelet Transform (WT and Wavelet Packet Transform (WPT are adopted to extract features of the human body, which can be achieved by single PIR sensor. Then, we apply Principal Component Analysis (PCA and Support Vector Machine (SVM to reduce the characteristic dimensions and to classify the human targets, respectively. Finally, Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation (FCE is utilized to fuse recognition results from multiple PIR sensors to finalize human identification. The pyroelectric characteristics under scenarios with different people and/or different paths are analyzed by various experiments, and the recognition results with/without fusion procedure are also shown and compared. The experimental results demonstrate our scheme has improved efficiency for human identification.

  16. Involvement of human endogenous retroviral syncytin-1 in human osteoclast fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søe, Kent; Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Hobolt-Pedersen, Anne-Sofie

    2011-01-01

    fusion of the lipid bilayers of their cell membranes are still unknown. Syncytin-1 is a protein encoded by a human endogenous retroviral gene which was stably integrated into the human ancestor genome more than 24 million years ago. Upon activation, syncytin-1 is able to destabilize the lipid bilayer......Generation of osteoclasts through fusion of mono-nucleated precursors is a key event of bone physiology and bone resorption is inefficient without osteoclast fusion. Several factors playing a critical role in the fusion process have already been recognized, but the factors involved in the actual....... This was documented through Q-PCR, Western blot and immunofluorescence analyses. These in vitro findings were confirmed by immunohistochemical stainings in human iliac crest biopsies. A syncytin-1 inhibitory peptide reduced the number of nuclei per osteoclast by 30%, as well as TRACP activity. From a mechanistic...

  17. Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Robin

    1990-10-01

    The book abounds with fascinating anecdotes about fusion's rocky path: the spurious claim by Argentine dictator Juan Peron in 1951 that his country had built a working fusion reactor, the rush by the United States to drop secrecy and publicize its fusion work as a propaganda offensive after the Russian success with Sputnik; the fortune Penthouse magazine publisher Bob Guccione sank into an unconventional fusion device, the skepticism that met an assertion by two University of Utah chemists in 1989 that they had created "cold fusion" in a bottle. Aimed at a general audience, the book describes the scientific basis of controlled fusion--the fusing of atomic nuclei, under conditions hotter than the sun, to release energy. Using personal recollections of scientists involved, it traces the history of this little-known international race that began during the Cold War in secret laboratories in the United States, Great Britain and the Soviet Union, and evolved into an astonishingly open collaboration between East and West.

  18. Cybernics fusion of human, machine and information systems

    CERN Document Server

    Suzuki, Kenji; Hasegawa, Yasuhisa

    2014-01-01

    Cybernics plays a significant role in coping with an aging society using state-of-the-art technologies from engineering, clinical medicine and humanities. This new interdisciplinary field studies technologies that enhance, strengthen, and support physical and cognitive functions of human beings, based on the fusion of human, machine, and information systems. The design of a seamless interface for interaction between the interior and exterior of the human body is described in this book from diverse aspects such as the physical, neurophysiological, and cognitive levels. It is the first book to cover the many aspects of cybernics, allowing readers to understand the life support robotics technology for the elderly, including remote, in-home, hospital, institutional, community medical welfare, and vital-sensing systems. Serving as a valuable resource, this volume will interest not only graduate students, scientists, and engineers but also newcomers to the field of cybernics.

  19. Transforming fusions of FGFR and TACC genes in human glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Devendra; Chan, Joseph Minhow; Zoppoli, Pietro; Niola, Francesco; Sullivan, Ryan; Castano, Angelica; Liu, Eric Minwei; Reichel, Jonathan; Porrati, Paola; Pellegatta, Serena; Qiu, Kunlong; Gao, Zhibo; Ceccarelli, Michele; Riccardi, Riccardo; Brat, Daniel J; Guha, Abhijit; Aldape, Ken; Golfinos, John G; Zagzag, David; Mikkelsen, Tom; Finocchiaro, Gaetano; Lasorella, Anna; Rabadan, Raul; Iavarone, Antonio

    2012-09-07

    The brain tumor glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is among the most lethal forms of human cancer. Here, we report that a small subset of GBMs (3.1%; 3 of 97 tumors examined) harbors oncogenic chromosomal translocations that fuse in-frame the tyrosine kinase coding domains of fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) genes (FGFR1 or FGFR3) to the transforming acidic coiled-coil (TACC) coding domains of TACC1 or TACC3, respectively. The FGFR-TACC fusion protein displays oncogenic activity when introduced into astrocytes or stereotactically transduced in the mouse brain. The fusion protein, which localizes to mitotic spindle poles, has constitutive kinase activity and induces mitotic and chromosomal segregation defects and triggers aneuploidy. Inhibition of FGFR kinase corrects the aneuploidy, and oral administration of an FGFR inhibitor prolongs survival of mice harboring intracranial FGFR3-TACC3-initiated glioma. FGFR-TACC fusions could potentially identify a subset of GBM patients who would benefit from targeted FGFR kinase inhibition.

  20. Multilevel depth and image fusion for human activity detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Bingbing; Pei, Yong; Moulin, Pierre; Yan, Shuicheng

    2013-10-01

    Recognizing complex human activities usually requires the detection and modeling of individual visual features and the interactions between them. Current methods only rely on the visual features extracted from 2-D images, and therefore often lead to unreliable salient visual feature detection and inaccurate modeling of the interaction context between individual features. In this paper, we show that these problems can be addressed by combining data from a conventional camera and a depth sensor (e.g., Microsoft Kinect). We propose a novel complex activity recognition and localization framework that effectively fuses information from both grayscale and depth image channels at multiple levels of the video processing pipeline. In the individual visual feature detection level, depth-based filters are applied to the detected human/object rectangles to remove false detections. In the next level of interaction modeling, 3-D spatial and temporal contexts among human subjects or objects are extracted by integrating information from both grayscale and depth images. Depth information is also utilized to distinguish different types of indoor scenes. Finally, a latent structural model is developed to integrate the information from multiple levels of video processing for an activity detection. Extensive experiments on two activity recognition benchmarks (one with depth information) and a challenging grayscale + depth human activity database that contains complex interactions between human-human, human-object, and human-surroundings demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed multilevel grayscale + depth fusion scheme. Higher recognition and localization accuracies are obtained relative to the previous methods.

  1. Application of next generation sequencing to human gene fusion detection: computational tools, features and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingguo; Xia, Junfeng; Jia, Peilin; Pao, William; Zhao, Zhongming

    2013-07-01

    Gene fusions are important genomic events in human cancer because their fusion gene products can drive the development of cancer and thus are potential prognostic tools or therapeutic targets in anti-cancer treatment. Major advancements have been made in computational approaches for fusion gene discovery over the past 3 years due to improvements and widespread applications of high-throughput next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies. To identify fusions from NGS data, existing methods typically leverage the strengths of both sequencing technologies and computational strategies. In this article, we review the NGS and computational features of existing methods for fusion gene detection and suggest directions for future development.

  2. Laser-induced fusion of human embryonic stem cells with optical tweezers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Shuxun; Wang Xiaolin; Sun Dong [Department of Mechanical and Biomedical Engineering, City University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Cheng Jinping; Han Cheng, Shuk [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Kong, Chi-Wing [Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine Consortium, and Departments of Medicine and Physiology, LKS Faculty of Medicine, University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Li, Ronald A. [Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine Consortium, and Departments of Medicine and Physiology, LKS Faculty of Medicine, University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Center of Cardiovascular Research, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York 10029 (United States)

    2013-07-15

    We report a study on the laser-induced fusion of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) at the single-cell level. Cells were manipulated by optical tweezers and fused under irradiation with pulsed UV laser at 355 nm. Successful fusion was indicated by green fluorescence protein transfer. The influence of laser pulse energy on the fusion efficiency was investigated. The fused products were viable as gauged by live cell staining. Successful fusion of hESCs with somatic cells was also demonstrated. The reported fusion outcome may facilitate studies of cell differentiation, maturation, and reprogramming.

  3. Laser-induced fusion of human embryonic stem cells with optical tweezers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuxun; Cheng, Jinping; Kong, Chi-Wing; Wang, Xiaolin; Han Cheng, Shuk; Li, Ronald A.; Sun, Dong

    2013-07-01

    We report a study on the laser-induced fusion of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) at the single-cell level. Cells were manipulated by optical tweezers and fused under irradiation with pulsed UV laser at 355 nm. Successful fusion was indicated by green fluorescence protein transfer. The influence of laser pulse energy on the fusion efficiency was investigated. The fused products were viable as gauged by live cell staining. Successful fusion of hESCs with somatic cells was also demonstrated. The reported fusion outcome may facilitate studies of cell differentiation, maturation, and reprogramming.

  4. Mutations in the DI-DII Linker of Human Parainfluenza Virus Type 3 Fusion Protein Result in Diminished Fusion Activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyan Xie

    Full Text Available Human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV3 can cause severe respiratory tract diseases in infants and young children, but no licensed vaccines or antiviral agents are currently available for treatment. Fusing the viral and target cell membranes is a prerequisite for its entry into host cells and is directly mediated by the fusion (F protein. Although several domains of F are known to have important effects on regulating the membrane fusion activity, the roles of the DI-DII linker (residues 369-374 of the HPIV3 F protein in the fusogenicity still remains ill-defined. To facilitate our understanding of the role of this domain might play in F-induced cell-cell fusion, nine single mutations were engineered into this domain by site-directed mutagenesis. A vaccinia virus-T7 RNA polymerase transient expression system was employed to express the wild-type or mutated F proteins. These mutants were analyzed for membrane fusion activity, cell surface expression, and interaction between F and HN protein. Each of the mutated F proteins in this domain has a cell surface expression level similar to that of wild-type F. All of them resulted in a significant reduction in fusogenic activity in all steps of membrane fusion. Furthermore, all these fusion-deficient mutants reduced the amount of the HN-F complexes at the cell surface. Together, the results of our work suggest that this region has an important effect on the fusogenic activity of F.

  5. Substantially improved pharmacokinetics of recombinant human butyrylcholinesterase by fusion to human serum albumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierson Janice

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human butyrylcholinesterase (huBChE has been shown to be an effective antidote against multiple LD50 of organophosphorus compounds. A prerequisite for such use of huBChE is a prolonged circulatory half-life. This study was undertaken to produce recombinant huBChE fused to human serum albumin (hSA and characterize the fusion protein. Results Secretion level of the fusion protein produced in vitro in BHK cells was ~30 mg/liter. Transgenic mice and goats generated with the fusion constructs expressed in their milk a bioactive protein at concentrations of 0.04–1.1 g/liter. BChE activity gel staining and a size exclusion chromatography (SEC-HPLC revealed that the fusion protein consisted of predominant dimers and some monomers. The protein was confirmed to have expected molecular mass of ~150 kDa by Western blot. The purified fusion protein produced in vitro was injected intravenously into juvenile pigs for pharmacokinetic study. Analysis of a series of blood samples using the Ellman assay revealed a substantial enhancement of the plasma half-life of the fusion protein (~32 h when compared with a transgenically produced huBChE preparation containing >70% tetramer (~3 h. In vitro nerve agent binding and inhibition experiments indicated that the fusion protein in the milk of transgenic mice had similar inhibition characteristics compared to human plasma BChE against the nerve agents tested. Conclusion Both the pharmacokinetic study and the in vitro nerve agent binding and inhibition assay suggested that a fusion protein retaining both properties of huBChE and hSA is produced in vitro and in vivo. The production of the fusion protein in the milk of transgenic goats provided further evidence that sufficient quantities of BChE/hSA can be produced to serve as a cost-effective and reliable source of BChE for prophylaxis and post-exposure treatment.

  6. Direct Fusion Drive for a Human Mars Orbital Mission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paluszek, Michael [Princeton Satellite Systems; Pajer, Gary [Princeton Satellite Systems; Razin, Yosef [Princeton Satellite Systems; Slonaker, James [Princeton Satellite Systems; Cohen, Samuel [PPPL; Feder, Russ [PPPL; Griffin, Kevin [Princeton University; Walsh, Matthew [Princeton University

    2014-08-01

    The Direct Fusion Drive (DFD) is a nuclear fusion engine that produces both thrust and electric power. It employs a field reversed configuration with an odd-parity rotating magnetic field heating system to heat the plasma to fusion temperatures. The engine uses deuterium and helium-3 as fuel and additional deuterium that is heated in the scrape-off layer for thrust augmentation. In this way variable exhaust velocity and thrust is obtained.

  7. Human Metapneumovirus Is Capable of Entering Cells by Fusion with Endosomal Membranes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reagan G Cox

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Human metapneumovirus (HMPV, a member of the Paramyxoviridae family, is a leading cause of lower respiratory illness. Although receptor binding is thought to initiate fusion at the plasma membrane for paramyxoviruses, the entry mechanism for HMPV is largely uncharacterized. Here we sought to determine whether HMPV initiates fusion at the plasma membrane or following internalization. To study the HMPV entry process in human bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B cells, we used fluorescence microscopy, an R18-dequenching fusion assay, and developed a quantitative, fluorescence microscopy assay to follow virus binding, internalization, membrane fusion, and visualize the cellular site of HMPV fusion. We found that HMPV particles are internalized into human bronchial epithelial cells before fusing with endosomes. Using chemical inhibitors and RNA interference, we determined that HMPV particles are internalized via clathrin-mediated endocytosis in a dynamin-dependent manner. HMPV fusion and productive infection are promoted by RGD-binding integrin engagement, internalization, actin polymerization, and dynamin. Further, HMPV fusion is pH-independent, although infection with rare strains is modestly inhibited by RNA interference or chemical inhibition of endosomal acidification. Thus, HMPV can enter via endocytosis, but the viral fusion machinery is not triggered by low pH. Together, our results indicate that HMPV is capable of entering host cells by multiple pathways, including membrane fusion from endosomal compartments.

  8. Inhibition of Sendai virus fusion with phospholipid vesicles and human erythrocyte membranes by hydrophobic peptides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelsey, D.R.; Flanagan, T.D.; Young, J.E.; Yeagle, P.L. (State Univ. of New York, Buffalo (USA))

    1991-06-01

    Hydrophobic di- and tripeptides which are capable of inhibiting enveloped virus infection of cells are also capable of inhibiting at least three different types of membrane fusion events. Large unilamellar vesicles (LUV) of N-methyl dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine (N-methyl DOPE), containing encapsulated 1-aminonaphthalene-3,6,8-trisulfonic acid (ANTS) and/or p-xylene bis(pyridinium bromide) (DPX), were formed by extrusion. Vesicle fusion and leakage were then monitored with the ANTS/DPX fluorescence assay. Sendai virus fusion with lipid vesicles and Sendai virus fusion with human erythrocyte membranes were measured by following the relief of fluorescence quenching of virus labeled with octadecylrhodamine B chloride (R18). This study found that the effectiveness of the peptides carbobenzoxy-L-Phe-L-Phe (Z-L-Phe-L-Phe), Z-L-Phe, Z-D-Phe, and Z-Gly-L-Phe-L-Phe in inhibiting N-methyl DOPE LUV fusion or fusion of virus with N-methyl DOPE LUV also paralleled their reported ability to block viral infectivity. Furthermore, Z-D-Phe-L-PheGly and Z-Gly-L-Phe inhibited Sendai virus fusion with human erythrocyte membranes with the same relative potency with which they inhibited vesicle-vesicle and virus-vesicle fusion. The evidence suggests a mechanism by which these peptides exert their inhibition of plaque formation by enveloped viruses. This class of inhibitors apparently acts by inhibiting fusion of the viral envelope with the target cell membrane, thereby preventing viral infection. The physical pathway by which these peptides inhibit membrane fusion was investigated. {sup 31}P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) of proposed intermediates in the pathway for membrane fusion in LUV revealed that the potent fusion inhibitor Z-D-Phe-L-PheGly selectively altered the structure (or dynamics) of the hypothesized fusion intermediates and that the poor inhibitor Z-Gly-L-Phe did not.

  9. An efficient fusion approach for combining human and machine decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyungtae; Kwon, Heesung; Robinson, Ryan M.; Nothwang, William D.; Marathe, Amar R.

    2016-05-01

    A novel approach for the fusion of heterogeneous object classification methods is proposed. In order to effectively integrate the outputs of multiple classifiers, the level of ambiguity in each individual classification score is estimated using the precision/recall relationship of the corresponding classifier. The main contribution of the proposed work is a novel fusion method, referred to as Dynamic Belief Fusion (DBF), which dynamically assigns probabilities to hypotheses (target, non-target, intermediate state (target or non-target) based on confidence levels in the classification results conditioned on the prior performance of individual classifiers. In DBF, a joint basic probability assignment, which is obtained from optimally fusing information from all classifiers, is determined by the Dempster's combination rule, and is easily reduced to a single fused classification score. Experiments on RSVP dataset demonstrates that the recognition accuracy of DBF is considerably greater than that of the conventional naive Bayesian fusion as well as individual classifiers used for the fusion.

  10. Human immunodeficiency virus envelope-dependent cell-cell fusion: a quantitative fluorescence cytometric assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, Leonor; Lamoyi, Edmundo; Báez-Saldaña, Armida; Larralde, Carlos

    2002-02-01

    In vitro fusion of transfected cells expressing the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) envelope proteins gp120/gp41, with target cells expressing CD4, and a suitable chemokine coreceptor is used widely to investigate the mechanisms of molecular recognition and membrane fusion involved in the entry of the HIV genome into cells and in syncytia formation. We developed an assay that uses two different fluorescent lipophilic probes to single label each reacting cell population and flow cytometry to quantify the extent of cellular fusion after coculture. Fused cells are detected as double-fluorescent particles in this assay, therefore permitting measurement of their proportion in the total cell population. The time course and extent of HIV-glycoprotein-related cellular fusion, the optimal cell ratio, the size and cell composition of the fusion products, and the inhibition of fusion caused by soluble CD4 and anti-CXCR4 antibody 12G5 were determined. The assay was applied to measure fusion between gp120/gp41 and CD4-expressing cells growing as monolayers (HeLa/CHO fusion), as well as to suspension lymphocyte cultures (Jurkat/Jurkat fusion). The method's simple technical and minimal cell-invasive procedures, as well as its non-ambiguous automatic numerical quantification should be useful for the study of factors influencing cell-cell fusion. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Identification of a human protein-derived HIV-1 fusion inhibitor targeting the gp41 fusion core structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijun Chao

    Full Text Available The HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env gp41 plays a crucial role in the viral fusion process. The peptides derived from the C-terminal heptad repeat (CHR of gp41 are potent HIV fusion inhibitors. However, the activity of these anti-HIV-1 peptides in vivo may be attenuated by their induction of anti-gp41 antibodies. Thus, it is essential to identify antiviral peptides or proteins with low, or no, immunogenicity to humans. Here, we found that the C-terminal fragment (aa 462-521 of the human POB1 (the partner of RalBP1, designated C60, is an HIV-1 fusion inhibitor. It bound to N36, the peptide derived from the N-terminal heptad repeat (NHR of gp41, and to the six-helix bundle (6-HB formed by N36 and C34, a CHR-peptide, but it did not bind to C34. Unlike the CHR-peptides, C60 did not block gp41 6-HB formation. Rather, results suggest that C60 inhibits HIV-1 fusion by binding to the 6-HB, in particular, the residues in the gp41 NHR domain that are exposed on the surface of 6-HB. Since 6-HB plays a crucial role in the late stage of fusion between the viral envelope and endosomal membrane during the endocytic process of HIV-1, C60 may serve as a host restriction factor to suppress HIV-1 entry into CD4+ T lymphocytes. Taken together, it can be concluded from these results that C60 can be used as a lead for the development of anti-HIV-1 therapeutics or microbicides for the treatment and prevention of HIV-1 infection, as well as a molecular probe to study the fusogenic mechanism of HIV-1.

  12. Trisomy 21- affected placentas highlight prerequisite factors for human trophoblast fusion and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malassiné, André; Frendo, Jean-Louis; Evain-Brion, Danièle

    2010-01-01

    Trophoblastic cell fusion is one essential step of the human trophoblast differentiation pathway and is a multifactorial and dynamic process finely regulated and still poorly known. Disturbances of syncytiotrophoblast formation are observed in numerous pathological clinical conditions such as preeclampsia, intrauterine growth retardation and trisomy 21. In this review, we summarize current knowledge of the different membrane proteins directly involved in trophoblastic cell fusion, which we identified by using the physiological model of primary culture of villous trophoblastic cells. Connexin 43 and gap junctional intercellular communication point to the role of molecular exchanges through connexin channels preceding membrane fusion. Zona occludens-1, which can interact with connexin 43, is also directly involved in trophoblast fusion. The recently identified fusogenic membrane retroviral envelop glycoproteins syncytin 1 (encoded by the HERV-W gene) and syncytin 2 (encoded by the FRD gene) and their receptors are major factors involved in human placental development . We describe the increasing number of factors promoting or inhibiting trophoblast fusion and differentiation and emphasize the role of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and its receptor. Indeed, in trisomy 21 the dynamic process leading to membrane fusion is impaired due to an abnormal hCG signaling. This abnormal trophoblast fusion and differentiation in trisomy 21-affected placenta is reversible in vitro. Trisomy 21 trophoblastic cell culture may therefore be useful to identify the possible large number of prerequisite factors involved in trophoblast fusion, the limiting step of trophoblast differentiation.

  13. Biological Effects of TMPRSS2/ERG Fusion Isoforms in Human Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    TITLE: Biological Effects of TMPRSS2/ERG Fusion Isoforms in Human Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Jianghua Wang, M.D...6 JAN 2009 / / /4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Biological Effects of TMPRSS2/ERG Fusion Isoforms in Human Prostate Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH...quantitative RT-PCR arrays we have identified candidate mediators of these phenotypic effects . We propose to extend these studies to primary prostate epithelial

  14. Expression and Purification of Recombinant Human Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor Fusion Proteins and Their Uses in Human Stem Cell Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imsoonthornruksa, Sumeth; Pruksananonda, Kamthorn; Parnpai, Rangsun; Rungsiwiwut, Ruttachuk; Ketudat-Cairns, Mariena

    2015-01-01

    To reduce the cost of cytokines and growth factors in stem cell research, a simple method for the production of soluble and biological active human basic fibroblast growth factor (hbFGF) fusion protein in Escherichia coli was established. Under optimal conditions, approximately 60-80 mg of >95% pure hbFGF fusion proteins (Trx-6xHis-hbFGF and 6xHis-hbFGF) were obtained from 1 liter of culture broth. The purified hbFGF proteins, both with and without the fusion tags, were biologically active, which was confirmed by their ability to stimulate proliferation of NIH3T3 cells. The fusion proteins also have the ability to support several culture passages of undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells and induce pluripotent stem cells. This paper describes a low-cost and uncomplicated method for the production and purification of biologically active hbFGF fusion proteins.

  15. MRI and PET images fusion based on human retina model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The diagnostic potential of brain positron emission tomography (PET) imaging is limited by low spatial resolution.For solving this problem we propose a technique for the fusion of PET and MRI images. This fusion is a trade-off between the spectral information extracted from PET images and the spatial information extracted from high spatial resolution MRI. The proposed method can control this trade-off. To achieve this goal, it is necessary to build a multiscale fusion model, based on the retinal cell photoreceptors model. This paper introduces general prospects of this model, and its application in multispectral medical image fusion. Results showed that the proposed method preserves more spectral features with less spatial distortion.transform methods, the best spectral and spatial quality is only achieved simultaneously with the proposed feature-based data fusion method. This method does not require resampling images, which is an advantage over the other methods, and can perform in any aspect ratio between the pixels of MRI and PET images.

  16. Fusion of Cytothrophoblast with Syncytiotrophoblast in the Human Placenta: Factors Involved in Syncytialization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gauster M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Human placental villi are covered by a characteristic epithelial-like layer. It consists of mononucleated cytotrophoblasts and an overlyingsyncytiotrophoblast layer both in contact to the trophoblastic basement membrane. The syncytiotrophoblast mostly lacks DNA replication andseems to transcribe only barely mRNA. Therefore, the syncytiotrophoblast depends on cell compounds delivered by fusing cytotrophoblasts. Delivery of fresh cytoplasmic contents into the syncytiotrophoblast is achieved by continuous fusion with cytotrophoblasts throughout gesta-tion. Fusion between cytotrophoblasts and the syncytiotrophoblast is driven by multiple factors, including environmental growth factors andcytokines, which turn on a specific cascade of fusogenic proteins in cytotrophoblasts destined for fusion. The cascade includes protein kinasesand transcription factors, as well as induced expression of fusion-promoting proteins associated with the cell membrane. Additionally, specificproteases are activated, which cleave and remodel structural proteins to prepare the cell for fusion. However, not only fusogenic proteins, butalso plasma membrane architecture and physicochemical factors such as calcium and oxygen affect intertrophoblastic fusion. Coordinatedaction of all factors involved is crucial for proper cytotrophoblast – syncytiotrophoblast fusion. Deregulation of a single factor might cause aninadequate fusion rate and could lead to pregnancy complications such as preeclampsia or even spontaneous abortion.

  17. Complex epithelial remodeling underlie the fusion event in early fetal development of the human penile urethra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Joel; Overland, Maya; Sinclair, Adriane; Cao, Mei; Yue, Xuan; Cunha, Gerald; Baskin, Laurence

    We recently described a two-step process of urethral plate canalization and urethral fold fusion to form the human penile urethra. Canalization ("opening zipper") opens the solid urethral plate into a groove, and fusion ("closing zipper") closes the urethral groove to form the penile urethra. We hypothesize that failure of canalization and/or fusion during human urethral formation can lead to hypospadias. Herein, we use scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and analysis of transverse serial sections to better characterize development of the human fetal penile urethra as contrasted to the development of the human fetal clitoris. Eighteen 7-13 week human fetal external genitalia specimens were analyzed by SEM, and fifteen additional human fetal specimens were sectioned for histologic analysis. SEM images demonstrate canalization of the urethral/vestibular plate in the developing male and female external genitalia, respectively, followed by proximal to distal fusion of the urethral folds in males only. The fusion process during penile development occurs sequentially in multiple layers and through the interlacing of epidermal "cords". Complex epithelial organization is also noted at the site of active canalization. The demarcation between the epidermis of the shaft and the glans becomes distinct during development, and the epithelial tag at the distal tip of the penile and clitoral glans regresses as development progresses. In summary, SEM analysis of human fetal specimens supports the two-zipper hypothesis of formation of the penile urethra. The opening zipper progresses from proximal to distal along the shaft of the penis and clitoris into the glans in identical fashion in both sexes. The closing zipper mechanism is active only in males and is not a single process but rather a series of layered fusion events, uniquely different from the simple fusion of two epithelial surfaces as occurs in formation of the palate and neural tube. Copyright © 2016 International Society

  18. Complex epithelial remodeling underlie the fusion event in early fetal development of the human penile urethra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Adriane; Cao, Mei; Yue, Xuan; Cunha, Gerald; Baskin, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    We recently described a two-step process of urethral plate canalization and urethral fold fusion to form the human penile urethra. Canalization (“opening zipper”) opens the solid urethral plate into a groove, and fusion (“closing zipper”) closes the urethral groove to form the penile urethra. We hypothesize that failure of canalization and/or fusion during human urethral formation can lead to hypospadias. Herein, we use scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and analysis of transverse serial sections to better characterize development of the human fetal penile urethra as contrasted to the development of the human fetal clitoris. Eighteen 7-13 week human fetal external genitalia specimens were analyzed by SEM, and fifteen additional human fetal specimens were sectioned for histologic analysis. SEM images demonstrate canalization of the urethral/vestibular plate in the developing male and female external genitalia, respectively, followed by proximal to distal fusion of the urethral folds in males only. The fusion process during penile development occurs sequentially in multiple layers and through the interlacing of epidermal “cords”. Complex epithelial organization is also noted at the site of active canalization. The demarcation between the epidermis of the shaft and the glans becomes distinct during development, and the epithelial tag at the distal tip of the penile and clitoral glans regresses as development progresses. In summary, SEM analysis of human fetal specimens supports the two-zipper hypothesis of formation of the penile urethra. The opening zipper progresses from proximal to distal along the shaft of the penis and clitoris into the glans in identical fashion in both sexes. The closing zipper mechanism is active only in males and is not a single process but rather a series of layered fusion events, uniquely different from the simple fusion of two epithelial surfaces as occurs in formation of the palate and neural tube. PMID:27397682

  19. Comparison of fusion methods based on DST and DBN in human activity recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Ambient assistive living environments require sophisticated information fusion and reasoning techniques to accurately identify activities of a person under care. In this paper, we explain, compare and discuss the application of two powerful fusion methods, namely dynamic Bayesian networks (DBN) and Dempster-Shafer theory (DST), for human activity recognition. Both methods are described, the implementation of activity recognition based on these methods is explained, and model acquisition and composition are ...

  20. Polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies specific for the six-helix bundle of the human respiratory syncytial virus fusion glycoprotein as probes of the protein post-fusion conformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palomo, Concepción; Mas, Vicente; Vázquez, Mónica; Cano, Olga [Unidad de Biología Viral, Centro Nacional de Microbiología, Madrid (Spain); CIBER de Enfermedades Respiratorias, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Majadahonda, 28220 Madrid (Spain); Luque, Daniel; Terrón, María C. [Unidad de Microscopía Electrónica y Confocal, Centro Nacional de Microbiología, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Majadahonda, 28220 Madrid (Spain); Calder, Lesley J. [National Institute for Medical Research, MRC, Mill Hill, London NW7 1AA (United Kingdom); Melero, José A., E-mail: jmelero@isciii.es [Unidad de Biología Viral, Centro Nacional de Microbiología, Madrid (Spain); CIBER de Enfermedades Respiratorias, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Majadahonda, 28220 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-07-15

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) has two major surface glycoproteins (G and F) anchored in the lipid envelope. Membrane fusion promoted by hRSV{sub F} occurs via refolding from a pre-fusion form to a highly stable post-fusion state involving large conformational changes of the F trimer. One of these changes results in assembly of two heptad repeat sequences (HRA and HRB) into a six-helix bundle (6HB) motif. To assist in distinguishing pre- and post-fusion conformations of hRSV{sub F}, we have prepared polyclonal (α-6HB) and monoclonal (R145) rabbit antibodies specific for the 6HB. Among other applications, these antibodies were used to explore the requirements of 6HB formation by isolated protein segments or peptides and by truncated mutants of the F protein. Site-directed mutagenesis and electron microscopy located the R145 epitope in the post-fusion hRSV{sub F} at a site distantly located from previously mapped epitopes, extending the repertoire of antibodies that can decorate the F molecule. - Highlights: • Antibodies specific for post-fusion respiratory syncytial virus fusion protein are described. • Polyclonal antibodies were obtained in rabbit inoculated with chimeric heptad repeats. • Antibody binding required assembly of a six-helix bundle in the post-fusion protein. • A monoclonal antibody with similar structural requirements is also described. • Binding of this antibody to the post-fusion protein was visualized by electron microscopy.

  1. Fusion of Daubechies Wavelet Coefficients for Human Face Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Bhowmik, Mrinal Kanti; Nasipuri, Mita; Basu, Dipak Kumar; Kundu, Mahantapas

    2010-01-01

    In this paper fusion of visual and thermal images in wavelet transformed domain has been presented. Here, Daubechies wavelet transform, called as D2, coefficients from visual and corresponding coefficients computed in the same manner from thermal images are combined to get fused coefficients. After decomposition up to fifth level (Level 5) fusion of coefficients is done. Inverse Daubechies wavelet transform of those coefficients gives us fused face images. The main advantage of using wavelet transform is that it is well-suited to manage different image resolution and allows the image decomposition in different kinds of coefficients, while preserving the image information. Fused images thus found are passed through Principal Component Analysis (PCA) for reduction of dimensions and then those reduced fused images are classified using a multi-layer perceptron. For experiments IRIS Thermal/Visual Face Database was used. Experimental results show that the performance of the approach presented here achieves maximum...

  2. Human trophoblast in trisomy 21: a model for cell-cell fusion dynamic investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malassiné, André; Pidoux, Guillaume; Gerbaud, Pascale; Frendo, Jean Louis; Evain-Brion, Danièle

    2011-01-01

    Trophoblastic cell fusion is one essential step of the human trophoblast differentiation leading to formation of the syncytiotrophoblast, site of the numerous placental functions. This process is multifactorial and finely regulated. Using the physiological model of primary culture of trophoblastic cells isolated from human placenta, we have identified different membrane proteins directly involved in trophoblastic cell fusion: connexin 43, ZO-1 and recently syncytins. These fusogenic membrane retroviral envelop glycoproteins: syncytin-1 (encoded by the HERV-W gene) and syncytin-2 (encoded by the FRD gene) and their receptors are major factors involved in human placental development. Disturbances of syncytiotrophoblast formation are observed in trisomy 21-affected placentas. Overexpression of the copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD-1), encoded by chromosome 21 as well as an abnormal hCG signaling are implicated in the defect of syncytiotrophoblast formation. This abnormal trophoblast fusion and differentiation in trisomy 21-affected placenta is reversible in vitro by different ways.

  3. A Fusion Approach for Efficient Human Skin Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Wei Ren; Chan, Chee Seng; Yogarajah, Pratheepan; Condell, Joan

    2014-01-01

    A reliable human skin detection method that is adaptable to different human skin colours and illu- mination conditions is essential for better human skin segmentation. Even though different human skin colour detection solutions have been successfully applied, they are prone to false skin detection and are not able to cope with the variety of human skin colours across different ethnic. Moreover, existing methods require high computational cost. In this paper, we propose a novel human skin de- ...

  4. T4-lysozyme fusion for the production of human formyl peptide receptors for structural determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoqiang; Cui, Ying; Wang, Jiqian

    2014-03-01

    T4-lysozyme (T4L) fusion was introduced in the intracellular loop of a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) of human formyl peptide receptor 3 (FPR3), and the ability of T4L fusion to be used in the production of human FPR3 for structural determination was evaluated in this work. The T4L variant of human FPR3 termed FPR3-T4L was expressed in stable tetracycline-inducible HEK293 cells. A systematic detergent screening showed that fos-choline-14 was the optimal detergent to solubilize and subsequently purify FPR3-T4L from HEK293 cells. Immunoaffinity purification in combination with gel filtration was employed to purify the T4L-fused receptor to high homogeneity. The final yield of the human FPR3-T4L monomer from 2 g of cells was 0.2 mg. Circular dichroism spectroscopy indicated that the receptor adopted a correct secondary structure after purification, while ligand binding measurement indicated that the receptor was functional. Thus, the presence of T4L fusion did not evidently disturb the expression in HEK293 cells, proper folding, and functionality of human FPR3. Our study of evaluating T4L fusion for the recombinant production of human formyl peptide receptor would facilitate ongoing efforts in the structural characterization of GPCRs.

  5. Application of data fusion in human health risk assessment for hydrocarbon mixtures on contaminated sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyck, Roberta; Islam, M Shafiqul; Zargar, Amin; Mohapatra, Asish; Sadiq, Rehan

    2013-11-16

    The exposure and toxicological data used in human health risk assessment are obtained from diverse and heterogeneous sources. Complex mixtures found on contaminated sites can pose a significant challenge to effectively assess the toxicity potential of the combined chemical exposure and to manage the associated risks. A data fusion framework has been proposed to integrate data from disparate sources to estimate potential risk for various public health issues. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed data fusion framework, an illustrative example for a hydrocarbon mixture is presented. The Joint Directors of Laboratories Data Fusion architecture was selected as the data fusion architecture and Dempster-Shafer Theory (DST) was chosen as the technique for data fusion. For neurotoxicity response analysis, neurotoxic metabolites toxicological data were fused with predictive toxicological data and then probability-boxes (p-boxes) were developed to represent the toxicity of each compound. The neurotoxic response was given a rating of "low", "medium" or "high". These responses were then weighted by the percent composition in the illustrative F1 hydrocarbon mixture. The resulting p-boxes were fused according to DST's mixture rule of combination. The fused p-boxes were fused again with toxicity data for n-hexane. The case study for F1 hydrocarbons illustrates how data fusion can help in the assessment of the health effects for complex mixtures with limited available data.

  6. Physics-based and human-derived information fusion for analysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasch, Erik; Nagy, James; Scott, Steve; Okoth, Joshua; Hinman, Michael

    2017-05-01

    Recent trends in physics-based and human-derived information fusion (PHIF) have amplified the capabilities of analysts; however with the big data opportunities there is a need for open architecture designs, methods of distributed team collaboration, and visualizations. In this paper, we explore recent trends in the information fusion to support user interaction and machine analytics. Challenging scenarios requiring PHIF include combing physics-based video data with human-derived text data for enhanced simultaneous tracking and identification. A driving effort would be to provide analysts with applications, tools, and interfaces that afford effective and affordable solutions for timely decision making. Fusion at scale should be developed to allow analysts to access data, call analytics routines, enter solutions, update models, and store results for distributed decision making.

  7. Human cognitive and perceptual factors in JDL level 4 hard/soft data fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimland, Jeffrey C.; Hall, David L.; Graham, Jacob L.

    2012-06-01

    Utilization of human participants as "soft sensors" is becoming increasingly important for gathering information related to a wide range of phenomena including natural and man-made disasters, environmental changes over time, crime prevention, and other roles of the "citizen scientist." The ubiquity of advanced mobile devices is facilitating the role of humans as "hybrid sensor platforms", allowing them to gather data (e.g. video, still images, GPS coordinates), annotate it based on their intuitive human understanding, and upload it using existing infrastructure and social networks. However, this new paradigm presents many challenges related to source characterization, effective tasking, and utilization of massive quantities of physical sensor, human-based, and hybrid hard/soft data in a manner that facilitates decision making instead of simply amplifying information overload. In the Joint Directors of Laboratories (JDL) data fusion process model, "level 4" fusion is a meta-process that attempts to improve performance of the entire fusion system through effective source utilization. While there are well-defined approaches for tasking and categorizing physical sensors, these methods fall short when attempting to effectively utilize a hybrid group of physical sensors and human observers. While physical sensor characterization can rely on statistical models of performance (e.g. accuracy, reliability, specificity, etc.) under given conditions, "soft" sensors add the additional challenges of characterizing human performance, tasking without inducing bias, and effectively balancing strengths and weaknesses of both human and physical sensors. This paper addresses the challenges of the evolving human-centric fusion paradigm and presents cognitive, perceptual, and other human factors that help to understand, categorize, and augment the roles and capabilities of humans as observers in hybrid systems.

  8. Analyses of domains and domain fusions in human proto-oncogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Ping

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the constituent domains of oncogenes, their origins and their fusions may shed new light about the initiation and the development of cancers. Results We have developed a computational pipeline for identification of functional domains of human genes, prediction of the origins of these domains and their major fusion events during evolution through integration of existing and new tools of our own. An application of the pipeline to 124 well-characterized human oncogenes has led to the identification of a collection of domains and domain pairs that occur substantially more frequently in oncogenes than in human genes on average. Most of these enriched domains and domain pairs are related to tyrosine kinase activities. In addition, our analyses indicate that a substantial portion of the domain-fusion events of oncogenes took place in metazoans during evolution. Conclusion We expect that the computational pipeline for domain identification, domain origin and domain fusion prediction will prove to be useful for studying other groups of genes.

  9. Automatic segmentation of human facial tissue by MRI-CT fusion: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kale, Emre H; Mumcuoglu, Erkan U; Hamcan, Salih

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to develop automatic image segmentation methods to segment human facial tissue which contains very thin anatomic structures. The segmentation output can be used to construct a more realistic human face model for a variety of purposes like surgery planning, patient specific prosthesis design and facial expression simulation. Segmentation methods developed were based on Bayesian and Level Set frameworks, which were applied on three image types: magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computerized tomography (CT) and fusion, in which case information from both modalities were utilized maximally for every tissue type. The results on human data indicated that fusion, thickness adaptive and postprocessing options provided the best muscle/fat segmentation scores in both Level Set and Bayesian methods. When the best Level Set and Bayesian methods were compared, scores of the latter were better. Number of algorithm parameters (to be trained) and computer run time measured were also in favour of the Bayesian method.

  10. Equatorial segment protein (ESP) is a human alloantigen involved in sperm-egg binding and fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolkowicz, M J; Digilio, L; Klotz, K; Shetty, J; Flickinger, C J; Herr, J C

    2008-01-01

    The equatorial segment of the sperm head is known to play a role in fertilization; however, the specific sperm molecules contributing to the integrity of the equatorial segment and in binding and fusion at the oolemma remain incomplete. Moreover, identification of molecular mediators of fertilization that are also immunogenic in humans is predicted to advance both the diagnosis and treatment of immune infertility. We previously reported the cloning of Equatorial Segment Protein (ESP), a protein localized to the equatorial segment of ejaculated human sperm. ESP is a biomarker for a subcompartment of the acrosomal matrix that can be traced through all stages of acrosome biogenesis (Wolkowicz et al, 2003). In the present study, ESP immunoreacted on Western blots with 4 (27%) of 15 antisperm antibody (ASA)-positive serum samples from infertile male patients and 2 (40%) of 5 ASA-positive female sera. Immunofluorescent studies revealed ESP in the equatorial segment of 89% of acrosome-reacted sperm. ESP persisted as a defined equatorial segment band on 100% of sperm tightly bound to the oolemma of hamster eggs. Antisera to recombinant human ESP inhibited both oolemmal binding and fusion of human sperm in the hamster egg penetration assay. The results indicate that ESP is a human alloantigen involved in sperm-egg binding and fusion. Defined recombinant sperm immunogens, such as ESP, may offer opportunities for differential diagnosis of immune infertility.

  11. Improved Detection of Human Respiration Using Data Fusion Basedon a Multistatic UWB Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Lv

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated the feasibility for improved detection of human respiration using data fusion based on a multistatic ultra-wideband (UWB radar. UWB-radar-based respiration detection is an emerging technology that has great promise in practice. It can be applied to remotely sense the presence of a human target for through-wall surveillance, post-earthquake search and rescue, etc. In these applications, a human target’s position and posture are not known a priori. Uncertainty of the two factors results in a body orientation issue of UWB radar, namely the human target’s thorax is not always facing the radar. Thus, the radial component of the thorax motion due to respiration decreases and the respiratory motion response contained in UWB radar echoes is too weak to be detected. To cope with the issue, this paper used multisensory information provided by the multistatic UWB radar, which took the form of impulse radios and comprised one transmitting and four separated receiving antennas. An adaptive Kalman filtering algorithm was then designed to fuse the UWB echo data from all the receiving channels to detect the respiratory-motion response contained in those data. In the experiment, a volunteer’s respiration was correctly detected when he curled upon a camp bed behind a brick wall. Under the same scenario, the volunteer’s respiration was detected based on the radar’s single transmitting-receiving channels without data fusion using conventional algorithm, such as adaptive line enhancer and single-channel Kalman filtering. Moreover, performance of the data fusion algorithm was experimentally investigated with different channel combinations and antenna deployments. The experimental results show that the body orientation issue for human respiration detection via UWB radar can be dealt well with the multistatic UWB radar and the Kalman-filter-based data fusion, which can be applied to improve performance of UWB radar in real applications.

  12. [Fluorescent fusion proteins with 10th human fibronectin domain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovskaia, L E; Gapizov, S Sh; Shingarova, L N; Kriukova, E A; Boldyreva, E F; Iakimov, S A; Svirshchevskaia, E V; Lukashev, E P; Dolgikh, D A; Kirpichnikov, M P

    2014-01-01

    In the current paper we describe a new type of hybrid molecules including red fluorescent protein mCherry and 10th type III human fibronectin domain (10Fn3) - one of the alternative scaffold proteins which can be used for the construction of antibody mimics with various binding specificity. We have constructed different gene variants encoding for the hybrid fluorescent protein and studied their expression in Escherichia coli cells. It was shown that N-terminal position of mCherry and modification of its N-terminal amino acid sequence promotes efficientbacterial expression of the hybrid protein in the soluble form. On the basis of the proposed construction we have obtained the hybrid fluorescent protein ChIBF, containing alphaVbeta3-integrin binding vari- ant of 10Fn3, and demonstrated the possibility of its utilization for the visualization of alphaVbeta3-integrin at the surface of MDCK epithelial cells by confocal microscopy.

  13. Role of a Putative gp41 Dimerization Domain in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Membrane Fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, J.; Deng, Y; Li, Q; Dey, A; Moore, J; Lu, M

    2010-01-01

    The entry of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) into a target cell entails a series of conformational changes in the gp41 transmembrane glycoprotein that mediates the fusion of the viral and target cell membranes. A trimer-of-hairpins structure formed by the association of two heptad repeat (HR) regions of the gp41 ectodomain has been implicated in a late step of the fusion pathway. Earlier native and intermediate states of the protein are postulated to mediate the antiviral activity of the fusion inhibitor enfuvirtide and of broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (NAbs), but the details of these structures remain unknown. Here, we report the identification and crystal structure of a dimerization domain in the C-terminal ectodomain of gp41 (residues 630 to 683, or C54). Two C54 monomers associate to form an asymmetric, antiparallel coiled coil with two distinct C-terminal {alpha}-helical overhangs. This dimer structure is conferred largely by interactions within a central core that corresponds to the sequence of enfuvirtide. The mutagenic alteration of the dimer interface severely impairs the infectivity of Env-pseudotyped viruses. Moreover, the C54 structure binds tightly to both the 2F5 and 4E10 NAbs and likely represents a potential intermediate conformation of gp41. These results should enhance our understanding of the molecular basis of the gp41 fusogenic structural transitions and thereby guide rational, structure-based efforts to design new fusion inhibitors and vaccine candidates intended to induce broadly neutralizing antibodies.

  14. Fusion of sparse representation and dictionary matching for identification of humans in uncontrolled environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Steven Lawrence; Bala, G Josemin

    2016-09-01

    Biomechanics based human identification is a major area of research. Biomechanics based approaches depend on accurately recognizing humans using body movements, the accuracy of these approaches is enhanced by incorporating the knee-hip angle to angle relationships. Current biomechanics based models are developed by considering the biomechanics of human walking and running. In biomechanics the joint angle characteristics, also known as gait features play a vital role in identification of humans. In general, identification of humans can be broadly classified into two approaches: biomechanics based approach, also known as Gait Recognition and biometric based Composite Sketch Matching. Gait recognition is a biomechanics based approach which uses gait traits for person authentication, it discriminates people by the way they walk. Gait recognition uses shape and motion information of a person and identifies the individual; this information is generally acquired from an image sequence. The efficiency of gait recognition is mainly affected by covariates such as observation view, walking speed, clothing, and belongings. Biometric based approach for human identification is usually done by composite sketch matching. Composite sketches are sketches generated using a computer. This obviates the need of using a skilled sketch artist; these sketches can be easily drawn by eyewitness using face design system software in a very short time period. This doesn't require any prior specialized software training but identifying humans using only composite sketches is still a challenging task owing to the fact that human faces are not always clearly visible from a distance. Hence drawing a composite sketch at all times is not feasible. The key contribution of this paper is a fusion system developed by combining biomechanics based gait recognition and biometric based composite sketch matching for identifying humans in crowded scenes. First various existing biomechanics based approaches for

  15. Polar Fusion Technique Analysis for Evaluating the Performances of Image Fusion of Thermal and Visual Images for Human Face Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Bhowmik, Mrinal Kanti; Basu, Dipak Kumar; Nasipuri, Mita

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative study of two different methods, which are based on fusion and polar transformation of visual and thermal images. Here, investigation is done to handle the challenges of face recognition, which include pose variations, changes in facial expression, partial occlusions, variations in illumination, rotation through different angles, change in scale etc. To overcome these obstacles we have implemented and thoroughly examined two different fusion techniques through rigorous experimentation. In the first method log-polar transformation is applied to the fused images obtained after fusion of visual and thermal images whereas in second method fusion is applied on log-polar transformed individual visual and thermal images. After this step, which is thus obtained in one form or another, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is applied to reduce dimension of the fused images. Log-polar transformed images are capable of handling complicacies introduced by scaling and rotation. The main objec...

  16. Human Factors and Data Fusion as Part of Control Systems Resilience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David I. Gertman

    2009-05-01

    Human performance and human decision making is counted upon as a crucial aspect of overall system resilience. Advanced control systems have the potential to provide operators and asset owners a wide range of data, deployed at different levels that can be used to support operator situation awareness. However, the sheer amount of data available can make it challenging for operators to assimilate information and respond appropriately. This paper reviews some of the challenges and issues associated with providing operators with actionable state awareness and argues for the over arching importance of integrating human factors as part of intelligent control systems design and implementation. It is argued that system resilience is improved by implementing human factors in operations and maintenance. This paper also introduces issues associated with resilience and data fusion and highlights areas in which human factors including field studies hold promise.

  17. Impaired tethering and fusion of GLUT4 vesicles in insulin-resistant human adipose cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizunov, Vladimir A; Lee, Jo-Ping; Skarulis, Monica C; Zimmerberg, Joshua; Cushman, Samuel W; Stenkula, Karin G

    2013-09-01

    Systemic glucose homeostasis is profoundly influenced by adipose cell function. Here we investigated GLUT4 dynamics in living adipose cells from human subjects with varying BMI and insulin sensitivity index (Si) values. Cells were transfected with hemagglutinin (HA)-GLUT4-green fluorescent protein (GFP)/mCherry (red fluorescence), and were imaged live using total internal reflection fluorescence and confocal microscopy. HA-GLUT4-GFP redistribution to the plasma membrane (PM) was quantified by surface-exposed HA epitope. In the basal state, GLUT4 storage vesicle (GSV) trafficking to and fusion with the PM were invariant with donor subject Si, as was total cell-surface GLUT4. In cells from insulin-sensitive subjects, insulin augmented GSV tethering and fusion approximately threefold, resulting in a corresponding increase in total PM GLUT4. However, with decreasing Si, these effects diminished progressively. All insulin-induced effects on GLUT4 redistribution and trafficking correlated strongly with Si and only weakly with BMI. Thus, while basal GLUT4 dynamics and total cell-surface GLUT4 are intact in human adipose cells, independent of donor Si, cells from insulin-resistant donors show markedly impaired GSV tethering and fusion responses to insulin, even after overnight culture. This altered insulin responsiveness is consistent with the hypothesis that adipose cellular dysfunction is a primary contributor to systemic metabolic dysfunction.

  18. Sodium butyrate induces DRP1-mediated mitochondrial fusion and apoptosis in human colorectal cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tailor, Dhanir; Hahm, Eun-Ryeong; Kale, Raosaheb K; Singh, Shivendra V; Singh, Rana P

    2014-05-01

    Sodium butyrate (NaBt) is the byproduct of anaerobic microbial fermentation inside the gastro-intestinal tract that could reach up to 20mM, and has been shown to inhibit the growth of various cancers. Herein, we evaluated its effect on mitochondrial fusion and associated induction of apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells (CRC). NaBt treatment at physiological (1-5mM) concentrations for 12 and 24h decreased the cell viability and induced G2-M phase cell cycle arrest in HCT116 (12h) and SW480 human CRC cells. This cell cycle arrest was associated with mitochondria-mediated apoptosis accompanied by a decrease in survivin and Bcl-2 expression, and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Furthermore, NaBt treatment resulted in a significant decrease in the mitochondrial mass which is an indicator of mitochondrial fusion. Level of dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1), a key regulator of mitochondrial fission and fusion where its up-regulation correlates with fission, was found to be decreased in CRC cells. Further, at early treatment time, DRP1 down-regulation was noticed in mitochondria which later became drastically reduced in both mitochondria as well as cytosol. DRP1 is activated by cyclin B1-CDK1 complex by its ser616 phosphorylation in which both cyclin B1-CDK1 complex and phospho-DRP1 (ser616) were strongly reduced by NaBt treatment. DRP1 was observed to be regulated by apoptosis as pan-caspase inhibitor showing rescue from NaBt-induced apoptosis also caused the reversal of DRP1 to the normal level as in control proliferating cells. Together, these findings suggest that NaBt can modulate mitochondrial fission and fusion by regulating the level of DRP1 and induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human CRC cells.

  19. Epigenetics changes caused by the fusion of human embryonic stem cell and ovarian cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ke; Qu, Hu; Xu, Li-Nan; Gao, Jun; Cheng, Fu-Yi; Xiang, Peng; Zhou, Can-Quan

    2016-10-01

    To observe the effect of gene expression and tumorigenicity in hybrid cells of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and ovarian cancer cells in vitro and in vivo using a mouse model, and to determine its feasibility in reprogramming tumour cells growth and apoptosis, for a potential exploration of the role of hESCs and tumour cells fusion in the management of ovarian cancer. Stable transgenic hESCs (H1) and ovarian cancer cell line OVCAR-3 were established before fusion, and cell fusion system was established to analyse the related indicators. PTEN expression in HO-H1 cells was higher than those in the parental stem cells and lower than those in parental tumour cells; the growth of OV-H1 (RFP+GFP) hybrid cells with double fluorescence expressions were obviously slower than that of human embryonic stem cells and OVCAR-3 ovarian cancer cells. The apoptosis signal of the OV-H1 hybrid cells was significantly higher than that of the hESCs and OVCAR-3 ovarian cancer cells. In vivo results showed that compared with 7 days, 28 days and 35 days after inoculation of OV-H1 hybrid cells; also, apoptotic cell detection indicated that much stronger apoptotic signal was found in OV-H1 hybrid cells inoculated mouse. The hESCs can inhibit the growth of OVCAR-3 cells in vitro by suppressing p53 and PTEN expression to suppress the growth of tumour that may be achieved by inducing apoptosis of OVCAR-3 cells. The change of epigenetics after fusion of ovarian cancer cells and hESCs may become a novel direction for treatment of ovarian cancer.

  20. Engineered three-dimensional multicellular culture model to recapitulate morphogenetic fusion using human cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tissue fusion during early mammalian development requires crosstalk between multiple cell types. For example, paracrine signaling between palatal epithelial cells and palatal mesenchyme mediates the fusion of opposing palatal shelves during embryonic development. Fusion events in...

  1. Human keratinocytes restrict chikungunya virus replication at a post-fusion step

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, Eric [Centre d' étude d’agents Pathogènes et Biotechnologies pour la Santé, CPBS CNRS- UMR5236/UM1/UM2, Montpellier (France); Hamel, Rodolphe [Laboratoire Maladies Infectieuses et Vecteurs: Ecologie, Génétique, Evolution, Contrôle, UMR 5290 CNRS/IRD/UM1, Montpellier (France); Neyret, Aymeric [Centre d' étude d’agents Pathogènes et Biotechnologies pour la Santé, CPBS CNRS- UMR5236/UM1/UM2, Montpellier (France); Ekchariyawat, Peeraya [Laboratoire Maladies Infectieuses et Vecteurs: Ecologie, Génétique, Evolution, Contrôle, UMR 5290 CNRS/IRD/UM1, Montpellier (France); Molès, Jean-Pierre [INSERM U1058, UM1, CHU Montpellier (France); Simmons, Graham [Blood Systems Research Institute, San Francisco, CA 94118 (United States); Chazal, Nathalie [Centre d' étude d’agents Pathogènes et Biotechnologies pour la Santé, CPBS CNRS- UMR5236/UM1/UM2, Montpellier (France); Desprès, Philippe [Unité Interactions Moléculaires Flavivirus-Hôtes, Institut Pasteur, Paris (France); and others

    2015-02-15

    Transmission of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) to humans is initiated by puncture of the skin by a blood-feeding Aedes mosquito. Despite the growing knowledge accumulated on CHIKV, the interplay between skin cells and CHIKV following inoculation still remains unclear. In this study we questioned the behavior of human keratinocytes, the predominant cell population in the skin, following viral challenge. We report that CHIKV rapidly elicits an innate immune response in these cells leading to the enhanced transcription of type I/II and type III interferon genes. Concomitantly, we show that despite viral particles internalization into Rab5-positive endosomes and efficient fusion of virus and cell membranes, keratinocytes poorly replicate CHIKV as attested by absence of nonstructural proteins and genomic RNA synthesis. Accordingly, human keratinocytes behave as an antiviral defense against CHIKV infection rather than as a primary targets for initial replication. This picture significantly differs from that reported for Dengue and West Nile mosquito-borne viruses. - Highlights: • Human keratinocytes support endocytosis of CHIKV and fusion of viral membranes. • CHIKV replication is blocked at a post entry step in these cells. • Infection upregulates type-I, –II and –III IFN genes expression. • Keratinocytes behave as immune sentinels against CHIKV.

  2. In-vivo fusion of human cancer and hamster stromal cells permanently transduces and transcribes human DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, David M; Rooney, Robert J; Loo, Meiyu; Liu, Donglin; Chang, Chien-Hsing

    2014-01-01

    After demonstrating, with karyotyping, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and fluorescence in-situ hybridization, the retention of certain human chromosomes and genes following the spontaneous fusion of human tumor and hamster cells in-vivo, it was postulated that cell fusion causes the horizontal transmission of malignancy and donor genes. Here, we analyzed gene expression profiles of 3 different hybrid tumors first generated in the hamster cheek pouch after human tumor grafting, and then propagated in hamsters and in cell cultures for years: two Hodgkin lymphomas (GW-532, GW-584) and a glioblastoma multiforme (GB-749). Based on the criteria of MAS 5.0 detection P-values ≤0.065 and at least a 2-fold greater signal expression value than a hamster melanoma control, we identified 3,759 probe sets (ranging from 1,040 to 1,303 in each transplant) from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections of the 3 hybrid tumors, which unambiguously mapped to 3,107 unique Entrez Gene IDs, representative of all human chromosomes; however, by karyology, one of the hybrid tumors (GB-749) had a total of 15 human chromosomes in its cells. Among the genes mapped, 39 probe sets, representing 33 unique Entrez Gene IDs, complied with the detection criteria in all hybrid tumor samples. Five of these 33 genes encode transcription factors that are known to regulate cell growth and differentiation; five encode cell adhesion- and transmigration-associated proteins that participate in oncogenesis and/or metastasis and invasion; and additional genes encode proteins involved in signaling pathways, regulation of apoptosis, DNA repair, and multidrug resistance. These findings were corroborated by PCR and reverse transcription PCR, showing the presence of human alphoid (α)-satellite DNA and the F11R transcripts in additional tumor transplant generations. We posit that in-vivo fusion discloses genes implicated in tumor progression, and gene families coding for the organoid phenotype. Thus, cancer cells

  3. Swarm Robot Control for Human Services and Moving Rehabilitation by Sensor Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tresna Dewi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A current trend in robotics is fusing different types of sensors having different characteristics to improve the performance of a robot system and also benefit from the reduced cost of sensors. One type of robot that requires sensor fusion for its application is the service robot. To achieve better performance, several service robots are preferred to work together, and, hence, this paper concentrates on swarm service robots. Swarm service mobile robots operating within a fixed area need to cope with dynamic changes in the environment, and they must also be capable of avoiding dynamic and static obstacles. This study applies sensor fusion and swarm concept for service mobile robots in human services and rehabilitation environment. The swarm robots follow the human moving trajectory to provide support to human moving and perform several tasks required in their living environment. This study applies a reference control and proportional-integral (PI control for the obstacle avoidance function. Various computer simulations are performed to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  4. Genetic complementation of human muscle cells via directed stem cell fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Manuel A F V; Swildens, Jim; Holkers, Maarten; Narain, Anjali; van Nierop, Gijsbert P; van de Watering, Marloes J M; Knaän-Shanzer, Shoshan; de Vries, Antoine A F

    2008-04-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is caused by mutations in the X chromosome-linked DMD gene, which encodes the sarcolemma-stabilizing protein-dystrophin. Initial attempts at DMD therapy deployed muscle progenitor cells from healthy donors. The utilization of these cells is, however, hampered by their immunogenicity, while those from DMD patients are scarce and display limited ex vivo replication. Nonmuscle cells with myogenic capacity may offer valuable alternatives especially if, to allow autologous transplantation, they are amenable to genetic intervention. As a paradigm for therapeutic gene transfer by heterotypic cell fusion we are investigating whether human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) can serve as donors of recombinant DMD genes for recipient human muscle cells. Here, we show that forced MyoD expression in hMSCs greatly increases their tendency to participate in human myotube formation turning them into improved DNA delivery vehicles. Efficient loading of hMSCs with recombinant DMD was achieved through a new tropism-modified high-capacity adenoviral (hcAd) vector directing striated muscle-specific synthesis of full-length dystrophin. This study introduces the principle of genetic complementation of gene-defective cells via directed cell fusion and provides an initial framework to test whether transient MyoD synthesis in autologous, gene-corrected hMSCs increases their potential for treating DMD and, possibly, other muscular dystrophies.

  5. Recovery of infectious human immunodeficiency virus type 1 after fusion of defectively infected clones of U-937 cells.

    OpenAIRE

    1991-01-01

    Polyethylene glycol was used to induce polykaryon formation among U-937 cell subclones carrying defective human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 proviral DNA. Fusion of cells which produced gp120-defective virions (UHC15.7) with cells unable to generate reverse transcriptase (RT) activity (UHC8 and UHC18) yielded polykaryons which made infectious viral progeny that showed normal protein profiles. Southern blot analysis of proviral DNA of cells infected with such fusion-derived virus reveal...

  6. Limited inter- and intra-patient sequence diversity of the genetic lineage A human metapneumovirus fusion gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Thilde Nordmann; Madsen, Chris D; Pedersen, Anders

    2005-01-01

    Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is associated with respiratory tract illness especially in young children. Two hMPV genetic lineages, A and B, and four sublineages A1, A2 and B1, B2 have been defined. Infection with hMPV occurs through membrane fusion mediated by the hMPV fusion (F) protein. In this...... diversity observed lay emphasis on the hMPV F gene as a putative target for future vaccine development....

  7. Data Fusion Based on Optical Technology for Observation of Human Manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falco, Pietro; De Maria, Giuseppe; Natale, Ciro; Pirozzi, Salvatore

    2012-01-01

    The adoption of human observation is becoming more and more frequent within imitation learning and programming by demonstration approaches (PbD) to robot programming. For robotic systems equipped with anthropomorphic hands, the observation phase is very challenging and no ultimate solution exists. This work proposes a novel mechatronic approach to the observation of human hand motion during manipulation tasks. The strategy is based on the combined use of an optical motion capture system and a low-cost data glove equipped with novel joint angle sensors, based on optoelectronic technology. The combination of the two information sources is obtained through a sensor fusion algorithm based on the extended Kalman filter (EKF) suitably modified to tackle the problem of marker occlusions, typical of optical motion capture systems. This approach requires a kinematic model of the human hand. Another key contribution of this work is a new method to calibrate this model.

  8. Adverse effects associated with high-dose recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 use in anterior cervical spine fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Lisa B E; Raque, George H; Glassman, Steven D; Campbell, Mitchell; Vitaz, Todd; Harpring, John; Shields, Christopher B

    2006-03-01

    A retrospective review of patients who underwent an anterior cervical fusion using recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP)-2 with an absorbable collagen sponge (INFUSE; Medtronic Sofamor Danek, Minneapolis, MN). To ascertain the complication rate after the use of high-dose INFUSE in anterior cervical fusions. The rhBMP-2 has been primarily investigated in lumbar spine fusions, where it has significantly enhanced the fusion rate and decreased the length of surgery, blood loss, and hospital stay. We present 151 patients who underwent either an anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (n = 138) or anterior cervical vertebrectomy and fusion (n = 13) augmented with high-dose INFUSE between July 2003 and March 2004. The rhBMP-2 (up to 2.1 mg/level) was used in the anterior cervical discectomy and fusions. A total of 35 (23.2%) patients had complications after the use of high-dose INFUSE in the cervical spine. There were 15 patients diagnosed with a hematoma, including 11 on postoperative day 4 or 5, of whom 8 were surgically evacuated. Thirteen individuals had either a prolonged hospital stay (> 48 hours) or hospital readmission because of swallowing/breathing difficulties or dramatic swelling without hematoma. A significant rate of complications resulted after the use of a high dose of INFUSE in anterior cervical fusions. We hypothesize that in the cervical area, the putative inflammatory effect that contributes to the effectiveness of INFUSE in inducing fusion may spread to adjacent critical structures and lead to increased postoperative morbidity. A thorough investigation is warranted to determine the optimal dose of rhBMP-2 that will promote cervical fusion and minimize complications.

  9. Efficient Expression of Bioactive Human Leptin in Escherichia coli in Soluble Fusion Form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian Feng; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Zhen; Hu, Yun Long; Zhang, Shuang Quan

    2010-07-01

    Leptin, a 16 kDa nonglycosylated hormone, is produced by mature adipocytes and functions primarily in the hypothalamus to reduce food intake and body weight. To explore a new approach for high-level expression of human Leptin in Escherichia coli, the human Leptin gene, synthesized according to the published sequence, was cloned into the vector pET32a to construct a fusion expression plasmid: Trx-Leptin/pET32a. Our data showed that more than 40% of the fusion protein Trx-Leptin was expressed in soluble form. After purified by Ni-IDA affinity chromatography, cleaved by enterokinase and applied Ni-IDA affinity chromatography again, purified Leptin with homogeneity over 96% was achieved. The bio-functional experiments of purified Leptin showed a significant reduction in food intake and body weight of female mice treated with Leptin by comparing with control mice, and it indicated that the purified Leptin has full biological activity. In addition, our expression system was a very low-cost and efficient prokaryotic expression system. So taken together, our results demonstrated that our expression system of bio-active Leptin provided a new method for producing Leptin in big scale and would be widely applied in commercial Leptin producing industries.

  10. Processing and fusion for human body terahertz dual-band passive image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Li; Shen, Yanchun; Jin, Weiqi; Zhao, Guozhong; Cai, Yi

    2016-11-01

    Compared with microwave, THz has higher resolution, and compared with infrared, THz has better penetrability. Human body radiate THz also, its photon energy is low, it is harmless to human body. So THz has great potential applications in the body searching system. Dual-band images may contain different information for the same scene, so THz dual-band imaging have been a significant research subject of THz technology. Base on the dual-band THz passive imaging system which is composed of a 94GHz and a 250GHz cell detector, this paper researched the preprocessing and fusion algorithm for THz dual-band images. Firstly, THz images have such problems: large noise, low SNR, low contrast, low details. Secondly, the stability problem of the optical mechanical scanning system makes the images less repetitive, obvious stripes and low definition. Aiming at these situations, this paper used the BM3D de-noising algorithm to filter noise and correct the scanning problem. Furthermore, translation, rotation and scaling exist between the two images, after registered by the intensity-base registration algorithm, and enhanced by the adaptive histogram equalization algorithm, the images are fused by image fusion algorithm based on wavelet. This effectively reduced the image noise, scan distortion and matching error, improved the details, enhanced the contrast. It is helpful to improve the detection efficiency of hidden objects too. Method in this paper has a substantial effect for improving the dual-band THz passive imaging system's performance and promoting technology practical.

  11. An unusual dependence of human herpesvirus-8 glycoproteins-induced cell-to-cell fusion on heparan sulfate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiwari, Vaibhav [Department of Ophthalmology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612 (United States); Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612 (United States); Department of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Osteopathic Medicine of the Pacific and College of Optometry, Western University of Health Sciences, Pomona, CA 91766 (United States); Darmani, Nissar A.; Thrush, Gerald R. [Department of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Osteopathic Medicine of the Pacific and College of Optometry, Western University of Health Sciences, Pomona, CA 91766 (United States); Shukla, Deepak, E-mail: dshukla@uic.edu [Department of Ophthalmology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612 (United States); Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612 (United States)

    2009-12-18

    Human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8) is known to interact with cell surface heparan sulfate (HS) for entry into a target cell. Here we investigated the role of HS during HHV-8 glycoproteins-induced cell fusion. Interestingly, the observed fusion demonstrated an unusual dependence on HS as evident from following lines of evidence: (1) a significant reduction in cell-to-cell fusion occurred when target cells were treated with heparinase; (2) in a competition assay, when the effector cells expressing HHV-8 glycoproteins were challenged with soluble HS, cell-to-cell fusion was reduced; and, (3) co-expression of HHV-8 glycoproteins gH-gL on target cells resulted in inhibition of cell surface HS expression. Taken together, our results indicate that cell surface HS can play an additional role during HHV-8 pathogenesis.

  12. Monitoring early fusion dynamics of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 at single-molecule resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrowsky, Terrence M; Zhou, Yan; Sun, Sean X; Siliciano, Robert F; Wirtz, Denis

    2008-07-01

    The fusion of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) to host cells is a dynamic process governed by the interaction between glycoproteins on the viral envelope and the major receptor, CD4, and coreceptor on the surface of the cell. How these receptors organize at the virion-cell interface to promote a fusion-competent site is not well understood. Using single-molecule force spectroscopy, we map the tensile strengths, lifetimes, and energy barriers of individual intermolecular bonds between CCR5-tropic HIV-1 gp120 and its receptors CD4 and CCR5 or CXCR4 as a function of the interaction time with the cell. According to the Bell model, at short times of contact between cell and virion, the gp120-CD4 bond is able to withstand forces up to 35 pN and has an initial lifetime of 0.27 s and an intermolecular length of interaction of 0.34 nm. The initial bond also has an energy barrier of 6.7 k(B)T (where k(B) is Boltzmann's constant and T is absolute temperature). However, within 0.3 s, individual gp120-CD4 bonds undergo rapid destabilization accompanied by a shortened lifetime and a lowered tensile strength. This destabilization is significantly enhanced by the coreceptor CCR5, not by CXCR4 or fusion inhibitors, which suggests that it is directly related to a conformational change in the gp120-CD4 bond. These measurements highlight the instability and low tensile strength of gp120-receptor bonds, uncover a synergistic role for CCR5 in the progression of the gp120-CD4 bond, and suggest that the cell-virus adhesion complex is functionally arranged about a long-lived gp120-coreceptor bond.

  13. LINE FUSION GENES: a database of LINE expression in human genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Hong-Seog

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Long Interspersed Nuclear Elements (LINEs are the most abundant retrotransposons in humans. About 79% of human genes are estimated to contain at least one segment of LINE per transcription unit. Recent studies have shown that LINE elements can affect protein sequences, splicing patterns and expression of human genes. Description We have developed a database, LINE FUSION GENES, for elucidating LINE expression throughout the human gene database. We searched the 28,171 genes listed in the NCBI database for LINE elements and analyzed their structures and expression patterns. The results show that the mRNA sequences of 1,329 genes were affected by LINE expression. The LINE expression types were classified on the basis of LINEs in the 5' UTR, exon or 3' UTR sequences of the mRNAs. Our database provides further information, such as the tissue distribution and chromosomal location of the genes, and the domain structure that is changed by LINE integration. We have linked all the accession numbers to the NCBI data bank to provide mRNA sequences for subsequent users. Conclusion We believe that our work will interest genome scientists and might help them to gain insight into the implications of LINE expression for human evolution and disease. Availability http://www.primate.or.kr/line

  14. Refolding and Characterization of Recombinant Human GST-PD-1 Fusion Protein Expressed in Escherichia coli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Da-Wei LI; Jian-Feng YU; Yong-Jing CHEN; Hong-Bing MA; Zheng-Fei WANG; Yi-Bei ZHU; Xue-Guang ZHANG

    2004-01-01

    Programmed death-1 (PD-1) is a costimulatory molecule of CD28 family expressed onactivated T, B and myeloid cells. The engagement of PD-1 with its two ligands, PD-L1 and PD-L2, inhibitsproliferation of T cell and production of a series of its cytokines. The blockade of PD-1 pathway is involvedin antiviral and antitumoral immunity. In this study, human PD-1 cDNA encoding extracellular domain wasamplified and cloned into expression plasmid pGEX-5x-3. The fusion protein GST-PD-1 was effectivelyexpressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3) as inclusion bodies and a denaturation and refolding procedure was performed to obtain bioactive soluble GST-PD-1. Fusion protein of above 95% purity was acquired by a convenient two-step purification using GST affinity and size exclusion columns. Furthermore, a PD-L1-dependentin vitro bioassay method was set up to characterize GST-PD-1 bioactivity. The results suggested that GSTPD-1 could competently block the interaction between PD-L1 and PD-1 and increase the production of IL2 and IFN-γ of phytohemagglutinin-activated T cells.

  15. Refoiding and Characterization of Recombinant Human GST-PD-1 Fusion Protein Expressed in Escherichia coli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Da-WeiLI; Jian-FengYU; Yong-JingCHEN; Hong-BingMA; Zheng-FeiWANG; Yi-BeiZHU; Xue-GuangZHANG

    2004-01-01

    Programmed death-1 (PD-1) is a costimulatory molecule of CD28 family expressed onactivated T, B and myeloid cells. The engagement of PD-1 with its two ligands, PD-L1 and PD-L2, inhibitsproliferation of T cell and production of a series of its cytokines. The blockade of PD-1 pathway is involvedin antiviral and antitumoral immunity. In this study, human PD-1 cDNA encoding extracellular domain wasamplified and cloned into expression plasmid pGEX-Sx-3. The fusion protein GST-PD-1 was effectivelyexpressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3) as inclusion bodies and a denaturation and refolding procedure was per-formed to obtain bioactive soluble GST-PD-I. Fusion protein of above 95% purity was acquired by a conve-nient two-step purification using GST affinity and size exclusion columns. Furthermore, a PD-L1-dependentin vitro bioassay method was set up to characterize GST-PD-1 bioactivity. The results suggested that GST-PD-1 could competently block the interaction between PD-Ll and PD-l and increase the production of IL-2 and IFN-γ of phytohemagglutinin-activated T cells.

  16. Enabling Robust C2 Systems through Evolvable Human-in-the-Loop Data Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    JDL Data Fusion Model). Similarly, others have recommended improvements to data fusion to incorporate better mechanisms for supporting analyst...Algorithm. Llinas, J., Bowman, C., Rogova, G., Steinberg, A., Waltz, E., & White, F. (2004). Revisiting the JDL Data Fusion Model II. In Proceedings of...Demands. Ergonomics, 49(7), 688-705. Steinberg, A., Bowman, C., & White, F. (1998). Revisions to the JDL Data Fusion Model. In Proceedings of Joint

  17. Case Study: Organotypic human in vitro models of embryonic morphogenetic fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morphogenetic fusion of tissues is a common event in embryonic development and disruption of fusion is associated with birth defects of the eye, heart, neural tube, phallus, palate, and other organ systems. Embryonic tissue fusion requires precise regulation of cell-cell and cell...

  18. The evolution of African great ape subtelomeric heterochromatin and the fusion of human chromosome 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Mario; Catacchio, Claudia R; Sajjadian, Saba; Vives, Laura; Sudmant, Peter H; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Graves, Tina A; Wilson, Richard K; Eichler, Evan E

    2012-06-01

    Chimpanzee and gorilla chromosomes differ from human chromosomes by the presence of large blocks of subterminal heterochromatin thought to be composed primarily of arrays of tandem satellite sequence. We explore their sequence composition and organization and show a complex organization composed of specific sets of segmental duplications that have hyperexpanded in concert with the formation of subterminal satellites. These regions are highly copy number polymorphic between and within species, and copy number differences involving hundreds of copies can be accurately estimated by assaying read-depth of next-generation sequencing data sets. Phylogenetic and comparative genomic analyses suggest that the structures have arisen largely independently in the two lineages with the exception of a few seed sequences present in the common ancestor of humans and African apes. We propose a model where an ancestral human-chimpanzee pericentric inversion and the ancestral chromosome 2 fusion both predisposed and protected the chimpanzee and human genomes, respectively, to the formation of subtelomeric heterochromatin. Our findings highlight the complex interplay between duplicated sequences and chromosomal rearrangements that rapidly alter the cytogenetic landscape in a short period of evolutionary time.

  19. A New Framework of Human Interaction Recognition Based on Multiple Stage Probability Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofei Ji

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Visual-based human interactive behavior recognition is a challenging research topic in computer vision. There exist some important problems in the current interaction recognition algorithms, such as very complex feature representation and inaccurate feature extraction induced by wrong human body segmentation. In order to solve these problems, a novel human interaction recognition method based on multiple stage probability fusion is proposed in this paper. According to the human body’s contact in interaction as a cut-off point, the process of the interaction can be divided into three stages: start stage, execution stage and end stage. Two persons’ motions are respectively extracted and recognizes in the start stage and the finish stage when there is no contact between those persons. The two persons’ motion is extracted as a whole and recognized in the execution stage. In the recognition process, the final recognition results are obtained by the weighted fusing these probabilities in different stages. The proposed method not only simplifies the extraction and representation of features, but also avoids the wrong feature extraction caused by occlusion. Experiment results on the UT-interaction dataset demonstrated that the proposed method results in a better performance than other recent interaction recognition methods.

  20. Autonomous Robot Navigation in Human-Centered Environments Based on 3D Data Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhaus, Peter; Strand, Marcus; Dillmann, Rüdiger

    2007-12-01

    Efficient navigation of mobile platforms in dynamic human-centered environments is still an open research topic. We have already proposed an architecture (MEPHISTO) for a navigation system that is able to fulfill the main requirements of efficient navigation: fast and reliable sensor processing, extensive global world modeling, and distributed path planning. Our architecture uses a distributed system of sensor processing, world modeling, and path planning units. In this arcticle, we present implemented methods in the context of data fusion algorithms for 3D world modeling and real-time path planning. We also show results of the prototypic application of the system at the museum ZKM (center for art and media) in Karlsruhe.

  1. Mutations of LRTOMT, a fusion gene with alternative reading frames, cause nonsyndromic deafness in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Zubair M; Masmoudi, Saber; Kalay, Ersan; Belyantseva, Inna A; Mosrati, Mohamed Ali; Collin, Rob W J; Riazuddin, Saima; Hmani-Aifa, Mounira; Venselaar, Hanka; Kawar, Mayya N; Tlili, Abdelaziz; van der Zwaag, Bert; Khan, Shahid Y; Ayadi, Leila; Riazuddin, S Amer; Morell, Robert J; Griffith, Andrew J; Charfedine, Ilhem; Caylan, Refik; Oostrik, Jaap; Karaguzel, Ahmet; Ghorbel, Abdelmonem; Riazuddin, Sheikh; Friedman, Thomas B; Ayadi, Hammadi; Kremer, Hannie

    2008-11-01

    Many proteins necessary for sound transduction have been identified through positional cloning of genes that cause deafness. We report here that mutations of LRTOMT are associated with profound nonsyndromic hearing loss at the DFNB63 locus on human chromosome 11q13.3-q13.4. LRTOMT has two alternative reading frames and encodes two different proteins, LRTOMT1 and LRTOMT2, detected by protein blot analyses. LRTOMT2 is a putative methyltransferase. During evolution, new transcripts can arise through partial or complete coalescence of genes. We provide evidence that in the primate lineage LRTOMT evolved from the fusion of two neighboring ancestral genes, which exist as separate genes (Lrrc51 and Tomt) in rodents.

  2. Fusion and Fission of Cognitive Functions in the Human Parietal Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Gina F.; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

    2015-01-01

    How is higher cognitive function organized in the human parietal cortex? A century of neuropsychology and 30 years of functional neuroimaging has implicated the parietal lobe in many different verbal and nonverbal cognitive domains. There is little clarity, however, on how these functions are organized, that is, where do these functions coalesce (implying a shared, underpinning neurocomputation) and where do they divide (indicating different underlying neural functions). Until now, there has been no multi-domain synthesis in order to reveal where there is fusion or fission of functions in the parietal cortex. This aim was achieved through a large-scale activation likelihood estimation (ALE) analysis of 386 studies (3952 activation peaks) covering 8 cognitive domains. A tripartite, domain-general neuroanatomical division and 5 principles of cognitive organization were established, and these are discussed with respect to a unified theory of parietal functional organization. PMID:25205661

  3. Autonomous Robot Navigation in Human-Centered Environments Based on 3D Data Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rüdiger Dillmann

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficient navigation of mobile platforms in dynamic human-centered environments is still an open research topic. We have already proposed an architecture (MEPHISTO for a navigation system that is able to fulfill the main requirements of efficient navigation: fast and reliable sensor processing, extensive global world modeling, and distributed path planning. Our architecture uses a distributed system of sensor processing, world modeling, and path planning units. In this arcticle, we present implemented methods in the context of data fusion algorithms for 3D world modeling and real-time path planning. We also show results of the prototypic application of the system at the museum ZKM (center for art and media in Karlsruhe.

  4. Expression and bioactivity of recombinant human serum albumin and dTMP fusion proteins in CHO cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ru, Yi; Zhi, Dejuan; Guo, Dingding; Wang, Yong; Li, Yang; Wang, Meizhu; Wei, Suzhen; Wang, Haiqing; Wang, Na; Che, Jingmin; Li, Hongyu

    2016-09-01

    The 14-amino acid (IEGPTLRQWLAARA) thrombopoietin mimetic peptide (TMP) shares no sequence homology with native thrombopoietin (TPO). When dimerized, it displays a high-binding affinity for the TPO receptor and has equipotent bioactivity with recombinant human TPO (rhTPO) in stimulating proliferation and maturation of megakaryocytes in vitro. However, TMP is limited for clinical usage because of its short half-life in vivo. In this study, fusion proteins that composed of tandem dimer of TMP (dTMP) genetically fused at the C- or N-terminus of human serum albumin (HSA) were separately expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. In vitro bioactivity assays showed that purified fusion proteins promoted the proliferation of megakaryocytes in a dose-dependent manner and activated signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathway in TPO receptor-dependent manner. Following subcutaneous administration, both HSA-dTMP and dTMP-HSA significantly elevated peripheral platelet counts in normal mice in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, fusion with HSA successfully prolonged dTMP half-life in mice. However, when HSA was fused at the C-terminus of dTMP, the bioactivity of dTMP-HSA was about half of that of HSA-dTMP. In conclusion, these results suggested that HSA/dTMP fusion proteins might be potential drugs for thrombocytopenia and, when HSA was fused at the N-terminus of dTMP, the fusion protein had a higher activity.

  5. Recombinant human insulin. VIII. Isolation of fusion protein--S-sulfonate, biotechnological precursor of human insulin, from the biomass of transformed Escherichia coli cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonov, R V; Pechenov, S E; Belacheu, I A; Yakimov, S A; Klyushnichenko, V E; Boldireva, E F; Korobko, V G; Tunes, H; Thiemann, J E; Vilela, L; Wulfson, A N

    2001-02-01

    Various methods have been investigated for the isolation and purification of fusion proteins of precursors of human insulin in the form of S-sulfonates, from the biomass of transformed Escherichia coli cells. Fusion proteins were prepared with different sizes and structures of the leader peptide and the poly-His position (inserted for purification by metal chelate affinity chromatography). The fusion proteins contained an IgG-binding B domain of protein A from Staphylococcus aureus at the N-terminus and an Arg residue between the leader peptide of the molecule and the proinsulin sequence, for trypsin cleavage of the leader peptide. Six residues of Cys in proinsulin allow the chemical modification of the protein as a (Cys-S-SO(-)(3))(6) derivative (S-sulfonate), which increases its polyelectrolytic properties and improves the efficiency of its isolation. Various methods of oxidative sulfitolysis were compared with catalysis by sodium tetrathionate or cystine and Cu2+ or Ni2+ ions. An optimum scheme for the isolation and purification of S-sulfonated fusion proteins was developed by the combination of metal-chelating affinity and ion-exchange chromatography. Highly purified (95%) S-sulfonated fusion protein was recovered which was 85% of the fusion protein contained in the biomass of E. coli cells. Folding of fusion protein S-sulfonate occurred with high yield (up to 90-95%). We found that the fusion protein-S-sulfonate has proinsulin-like secondary structure. This structure causes highly efficient fusion protein folding. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  6. Overproduction, purification and characterization of human interferon alpha2a-human serum albumin fusion protein produced in methilotropic yeast Pichia pastoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ningrum, R. A.; Santoso, A.; Herawati, N.

    2017-05-01

    Human interferon alpha2a (hIFNα2a) is a therapeutic protein that used in cancer and hepatitis B/C therapy. The main problem of using hIFNα-2a is its short elimination half life due to its low molecular weight. Development of higher molecular weight protein by albumin fusion technology is a rational strategy to solve the problem. In our previous research we constructed an open reading frame (ORF) encoding hIFNα2a-human serum albumin (HSA) fusion protein that expressed in Pichia pastoris (P. pastoris) protease deficient strain SMD1168. This research was performed to overproduce, purify and characterize the fusion protein. To overproduce the protein, cultivation was performed in buffered complex medium containing glyserol (BMGY) for 24 h and protein overproduction was applied in buffered complex medium containing methanol (BMMY) for 48 hours at 30°C. The fusion protein was purified by blue sepharose affinity chromatography. Molecular weight characterization by SDS PAGE corresponds with its theoretical size, 85 kDa. Western blot analysis demonstrated that the fusion protein was recognized by anti hIFNα2 and anti HSA monoclonal antibody as well. Amino acid sequence of the fusion protein was determined by LC MS/MS2 mass spectrometry with trypsin as proteolitic enzyme. There were three fragments that identified as hIFNα2a and seven fragments that identified as HSA. Total identified amino acids were 150 residues with 20% coverage from total residues. To conclude, hIFNα2a-HSA fusion protein was overproduced, purified and characterized. Characterization based on molecular weight, antibody recognition and amino acid sequence confirmed that the fusion protein has correct identity as theoretically thought.

  7. Characterization of Aggregation Propensity of a Human Fc-Fusion Protein Therapeutic by Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Richard Y.-C.; Iacob, Roxana E.; Krystek, Stanley R.; Jin, Mi; Wei, Hui; Tao, Li; Das, Tapan K.; Tymiak, Adrienne A.; Engen, John R.; Chen, Guodong

    2017-05-01

    Aggregation of protein therapeutics has long been a concern across different stages of manufacturing processes in the biopharmaceutical industry. It is often indicative of aberrant protein therapeutic higher-order structure. In this study, the aggregation propensity of a human Fc-fusion protein therapeutic was characterized. Hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) was applied to examine the conformational dynamics of dimers collected from a bioreactor. HDX-MS data combined with spatial aggregation propensity calculations revealed a potential aggregation interface in the Fc domain. This study provides a general strategy for the characterization of the aggregation propensity of Fc-fusion proteins at the molecular level.

  8. Decoding of exon splicing patterns in the human RUNX1-RUNX1T1 fusion gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinev, Vasily V; Migas, Alexandr A; Kirsanava, Aksana D; Mishkova, Olga A; Siomava, Natalia; Ramanouskaya, Tatiana V; Vaitsiankova, Alina V; Ilyushonak, Ilia M; Nazarov, Petr V; Vallar, Laurent; Aleinikova, Olga V

    2015-11-01

    The t(8;21) translocation is the most widespread genetic defect found in human acute myeloid leukemia. This translocation results in the RUNX1-RUNX1T1 fusion gene that produces a wide variety of alternative transcripts and influences the course of the disease. The rules of combinatorics and splicing of exons in the RUNX1-RUNX1T1 transcripts are not known. To address this issue, we developed an exon graph model of the fusion gene organization and evaluated its local exon combinatorics by the exon combinatorial index (ECI). Here we show that the local exon combinatorics of the RUNX1-RUNX1T1 gene follows a power-law behavior and (i) the vast majority of exons has a low ECI, (ii) only a small part is represented by "exons-hubs" of splicing with very high ECI values, and (iii) it is scale-free and very sensitive to targeted skipping of "exons-hubs". Stochasticity of the splicing machinery and preferred usage of exons in alternative splicing can explain such behavior of the system. Stochasticity may explain up to 12% of the ECI variance and results in a number of non-coding and unproductive transcripts that can be considered as a noise. Half-life of these transcripts is increased due to the deregulation of some key genes of the nonsense-mediated decay system in leukemia cells. On the other hand, preferred usage of exons may explain up to 75% of the ECI variability. Our analysis revealed a set of splicing-related cis-regulatory motifs that can explain "attractiveness" of exons in alternative splicing but only when they are considered together. Cis-regulatory motifs are guides for splicing trans-factors and we observed a leukemia-specific profile of expression of the splicing genes in t(8;21)-positive blasts. Altogether, our results show that alternative splicing of the RUNX1-RUNX1T1 transcripts follows strict rules and that the power-law component of the fusion gene organization confers a high flexibility to this process.

  9. Deep RNA sequencing analysis of readthrough gene fusions in human prostate adenocarcinoma and reference samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nacu Serban

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Readthrough fusions across adjacent genes in the genome, or transcription-induced chimeras (TICs, have been estimated using expressed sequence tag (EST libraries to involve 4-6% of all genes. Deep transcriptional sequencing (RNA-Seq now makes it possible to study the occurrence and expression levels of TICs in individual samples across the genome. Methods We performed single-end RNA-Seq on three human prostate adenocarcinoma samples and their corresponding normal tissues, as well as brain and universal reference samples. We developed two bioinformatics methods to specifically identify TIC events: a targeted alignment method using artificial exon-exon junctions within 200,000 bp from adjacent genes, and genomic alignment allowing splicing within individual reads. We performed further experimental verification and characterization of selected TIC and fusion events using quantitative RT-PCR and comparative genomic hybridization microarrays. Results Targeted alignment against artificial exon-exon junctions yielded 339 distinct TIC events, including 32 gene pairs with multiple isoforms. The false discovery rate was estimated to be 1.5%. Spliced alignment to the genome was less sensitive, finding only 18% of those found by targeted alignment in 33-nt reads and 59% of those in 50-nt reads. However, spliced alignment revealed 30 cases of TICs with intervening exons, in addition to distant inversions, scrambled genes, and translocations. Our findings increase the catalog of observed TIC gene pairs by 66%. We verified 6 of 6 predicted TICs in all prostate samples, and 2 of 5 predicted novel distant gene fusions, both private events among 54 prostate tumor samples tested. Expression of TICs correlates with that of the upstream gene, which can explain the prostate-specific pattern of some TIC events and the restriction of the SLC45A3-ELK4 e4-e2 TIC to ERG-negative prostate samples, as confirmed in 20 matched prostate tumor and normal

  10. Respiratory syncytial virus fusion protein promotes TLR-4-dependent neutrophil extracellular trap formation by human neutrophils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselle A Funchal

    Full Text Available Acute viral bronchiolitis by Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV is the most common respiratory illness in children in the first year of life. RSV bronchiolitis generates large numbers of hospitalizations and an important burden to health systems. Neutrophils and their products are present in the airways of RSV-infected patients who developed increased lung disease. Neutrophil Extracellular Traps (NETs are formed by the release of granular and nuclear contents of neutrophils in the extracellular space in response to different stimuli and recent studies have proposed a role for NETs in viral infections. In this study, we show that RSV particles and RSV Fusion protein were both capable of inducing NET formation by human neutrophils. Moreover, we analyzed the mechanisms involved in RSV Fusion protein-induced NET formation. RSV F protein was able to induce NET release in a concentration-dependent fashion with both neutrophil elastase and myeloperoxidase expressed on DNA fibers and F protein-induced NETs was dismantled by DNase treatment, confirming that their backbone is chromatin. This viral protein caused the release of extracellular DNA dependent on TLR-4 activation, NADPH Oxidase-derived ROS production and ERK and p38 MAPK phosphorylation. Together, these results demonstrate a coordinated signaling pathway activated by F protein that led to NET production. The massive production of NETs in RSV infection could aggravate the inflammatory symptoms of the infection in young children and babies. We propose that targeting the binding of TLR-4 by F protein could potentially lead to novel therapeutic approaches to help control RSV-induced inflammatory consequences and pathology of viral bronchiolitis.

  11. Limited inter- and intra-patient sequence diversity of the genetic lineage a human metapneumovirus fusion gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, T.N.; Madsen, C.D.; Pedersen, Anders Gorm;

    2005-01-01

    Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is associated with respiratory tract illness especially in young children. Two hMPV genetic lineages, A and B, and four sublineages A1, A2 and B1, B2 have been defined. Infection with hMPV occurs through membrane fusion mediated by the hMPV fusion (F) protein. In this...... diversity observed lay emphasis on the hMPV F gene as a putative target for future vaccine development....... been infected with at least two viruses. Several independent viruses contained premature stop codons in exactly identical positions resulting in truncated fusion proteins. Possibly this is a mechanism for immune system evasion. The F protein is a major antigenic determinant, and the limited sequence...

  12. A novel human immunoglobulin Fc gamma Fc epsilon bifunctional fusion protein inhibits Fc epsilon RI-mediated degranulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Daocheng; Kepley, Christopher L; Zhang, Min; Zhang, Ke; Saxon, Andrew

    2002-05-01

    Human mast cells and basophils that express the high-affinity immunoglobulin E (IgE) receptor, Fc epsilon receptor 1 (Fc epsilon RI), have key roles in allergic diseases. Fc epsilon RI cross-linking stimulates the release of allergic mediators. Mast cells and basophils co-express Fc gamma RIIb, a low affinity receptor containing an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif and whose co-aggregation with Fc epsilon RI can block Fc epsilon RI-mediated reactivity. Here we designed, expressed and tested the human basophil and mast-cell inhibitory function of a novel chimeric fusion protein, whose structure is gamma Hinge-CH gamma 2-CH gamma 3-15aa linker-CH epsilon 2-CH epsilon 3-CH epsilon 4. This Fc gamma Fc epsilon fusion protein was expressed as the predicted 140-kappa D dimer that reacted with anti-human epsilon- and gamma-chain specific antibodies. Fc gamma Fc epsilon bound to both human Fc epsilon RI and Fc gamma RII. It also showed dose- and time-dependent inhibition of antigen-driven IgE-mediated histamine release from fresh human basophils sensitized with IgE directed against NIP (4-hydroxy-3-iodo-5-nitrophenylacetyl). This was associated with altered Syk signaling. The fusion protein also showed increased inhibition of human anti-NP (4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenylacetyl) and anti-dansyl IgE-mediated passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in transgenic mice expressing human Fc epsilon RI alpha. Our results show that this chimeric protein is able to form complexes with both Fc epsilon RI and Fc gamma RII, and inhibit mast-cell and basophil function. This approach, using a Fc gamma Fc epsilon fusion protein to co-aggregate Fc epsilon RI with a receptor containing an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motif, has therapeutic potential in IgE- and Fc epsilon RI-mediated diseases.

  13. Human detection from a mobile robot using fusion of laser and vision information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotiadis, Efstathios P; Garzón, Mario; Barrientos, Antonio

    2013-09-04

    This paper presents a human detection system that can be employed on board a mobile platform for use in autonomous surveillance of large outdoor infrastructures. The prediction is based on the fusion of two detection modules, one for the laser and another for the vision data. In the laser module, a novel feature set that better encapsulates variations due to noise, distance and human pose is proposed. This enhances the generalization of the system, while at the same time, increasing the outdoor performance in comparison with current methods. The vision module uses the combination of the histogram of oriented gradients descriptor and the linear support vector machine classifier. Current approaches use a fixed-size projection to define regions of interest on the image data using the range information from the laser range finder. When applied to small size unmanned ground vehicles, these techniques suffer from misalignment, due to platform vibrations and terrain irregularities. This is effectively addressed in this work by using a novel adaptive projection technique, which is based on a probabilistic formulation of the classifier performance. Finally, a probability calibration step is introduced in order to optimally fuse the information from both modules. Experiments in real world environments demonstrate the robustness of the proposed method.

  14. Human Detection from a Mobile Robot Using Fusion of Laser and Vision Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Barrientos

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a human detection system that can be employed on board a mobile platform for use in autonomous surveillance of large outdoor infrastructures. The prediction is based on the fusion of two detection modules, one for the laser and another for the vision data. In the laser module, a novel feature set that better encapsulates variations due to noise, distance and human pose is proposed. This enhances the generalization of the system, while at the same time, increasing the outdoor performance in comparison with current methods. The vision module uses the combination of the histogram of oriented gradients descriptor and the linear support vector machine classifier. Current approaches use a fixed-size projection to define regions of interest on the image data using the range information from the laser range finder. When applied to small size unmanned ground vehicles, these techniques suffer from misalignment, due to platform vibrations and terrain irregularities. This is effectively addressed in this work by using a novel adaptive projection technique, which is based on a probabilistic formulation of the classifier performance. Finally, a probability calibration step is introduced in order to optimally fuse the information from both modules. Experiments in real world environments demonstrate the robustness of the proposed method.

  15. ANTIPROLIFERATIVE ACTIVITY OF HUMAN IFN-γ-EGF3 FUSION PROTEIN ARE RELATED TO ITS EGF RECEPTOR COMPETITION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The relationship between antiproliferative effect of human IFN-γ-EGF3 fusion protein and the influence of EGF receptor binding activity has been studied on A431 cell line. Antiproliferative activity of human IFN-γ-EGF3 was higher than that of its parent IFN-γ. In the 125 I-EGF receptor competition experiment, the inhibition of EGF receptor binding capacity on the target cells was observed in the treatments of human IFN-γ or IFN-γ-EGF3, but the later was more significant. Our data suggests that the antiproliferative effects by IFN-γ and its fusion protein are closely related to their EGF receptor competitions.

  16. Identification of target genes of synovial sarcoma-associated fusion oncoprotein using human pluripotent stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayakawa, Kazuo [Department of Tissue Regeneration, Institute for Frontier Medical Sciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Department of Cell Growth and Differentiation, Center for iPS Cell Research and Application, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya (Japan); Ikeya, Makoto [Department of Cell Growth and Differentiation, Center for iPS Cell Research and Application, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Fukuta, Makoto [Department of Tissue Regeneration, Institute for Frontier Medical Sciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Department of Cell Growth and Differentiation, Center for iPS Cell Research and Application, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya (Japan); Woltjen, Knut [Department of Reprogramming Sciences, Center for iPS Cell Research and Application, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Tamaki, Sakura; Takahara, Naoko; Kato, Tomohisa; Sato, Shingo [Department of Tissue Regeneration, Institute for Frontier Medical Sciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Otsuka, Takanobu [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya (Japan); Toguchida, Junya, E-mail: togjun@frontier.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Tissue Regeneration, Institute for Frontier Medical Sciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Department of Cell Growth and Differentiation, Center for iPS Cell Research and Application, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)

    2013-03-22

    Highlights: ► We tried to identify targets of synovial sarcoma (SS)-associated SYT–SSX fusion gene. ► We established pluripotent stem cell (PSC) lines with inducible SYT–SSX gene. ► SYT–SSX responsive genes were identified by the induction of SYT–SSX in PSC. ► SS-related genes were selected from database by in silico analyses. ► 51 genes were finally identified among SS-related genes as targets of SYT–SSX in PSC. -- Abstract: Synovial sarcoma (SS) is a malignant soft tissue tumor harboring chromosomal translocation t(X; 18)(p11.2; q11.2), which produces SS-specific fusion gene, SYT–SSX. Although precise function of SYT–SSX remains to be investigated, accumulating evidences suggest its role in gene regulation via epigenetic mechanisms, and the product of SYT–SSX target genes may serve as biomarkers of SS. Lack of knowledge about the cell-of-origin of SS, however, has placed obstacle in the way of target identification. Here we report a novel approach to identify SYT–SSX2 target genes using human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) containing a doxycycline-inducible SYT–SSX2 gene. SYT–SSX2 was efficiently induced both at mRNA and protein levels within three hours after doxycycline administration, while no morphological change of hPSCs was observed until 24 h. Serial microarray analyses identified genes of which the expression level changed more than twofold within 24 h. Surprisingly, the majority (297/312, 95.2%) were up-regulated genes and a result inconsistent with the current concept of SYT–SSX as a transcriptional repressor. Comparing these genes with SS-related genes which were selected by a series of in silico analyses, 49 and 2 genes were finally identified as candidates of up- and down-regulated target of SYT–SSX, respectively. Association of these genes with SYT–SSX in SS cells was confirmed by knockdown experiments. Expression profiles of SS-related genes in hPSCs and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) were strikingly

  17. Learning the Fusion of Audio and Video Aggression Assessment by Meta-Information from Human Annotations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lefter, I.; Burghouts, G.J.; Rothkrantz, L.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this paper is finding a method to predict aggression using a multimodal system, given multiple unimodal features. The mechanism underlying multimodal sensor fusion is complex and not completely clear. We try to understand the process of fusion and make it more transparent. As a case stu

  18. Genetic diversity and evolution of human metapneumovirus fusion protein over twenty years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liem Alexis

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human metapneumovirus (HMPV is an important cause of acute respiratory illness in children. We examined the diversity and molecular evolution of HMPV using 85 full-length F (fusion gene sequences collected over a 20-year period. Results The F gene sequences fell into two major groups, each with two subgroups, which exhibited a mean of 96% identity by predicted amino acid sequences. Amino acid identity within and between subgroups was higher than nucleotide identity, suggesting structural or functional constraints on F protein diversity. There was minimal progressive drift over time, and the genetic lineages were stable over the 20-year period. Several canonical amino acid differences discriminated between major subgroups, and polymorphic variations tended to cluster in discrete regions. The estimated rate of mutation was 7.12 × 10-4 substitutions/site/year and the estimated time to most recent common HMPV ancestor was 97 years (95% likelihood range 66-194 years. Analysis suggested that HMPV diverged from avian metapneumovirus type C (AMPV-C 269 years ago (95% likelihood range 106-382 years. Conclusion HMPV F protein remains conserved over decades. HMPV appears to have diverged from AMPV-C fairly recently.

  19. Trophoblast fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppertz, Berthold; Gauster, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The villous trophoblast of the human placenta is the epithelial cover of the fetal chorionic villi floating in maternal blood. This epithelial cover is organized in two distinct layers, the multinucleated syncytiotrophoblast directly facing maternal blood and a second layer of mononucleated cytotrophoblasts. During pregnancy single cytotrophoblasts continuously fuse with the overlying syncytiotrophoblast to preserve this end-differentiated layer until delivery. Syncytial fusion continuously supplies the syncytiotrophoblast with compounds of fusing cytotrophoblasts such as proteins, nucleic acids and lipids as well as organelles. At the same time the input of cytotrophoblastic components is counterbalanced by a continuous release of apoptotic material from the syncytiotrophoblast into maternal blood. Fusion is an essential step in maintaining the syncytiotrophoblast. Trophoblast fusion was shown to be dependant on and regulated by multiple factors such as fusion proteins, proteases and cytoskeletal proteins as well as cytokines, hormones and transcription factors. In this chapter we focus on factors that may be involved in the fusion process of trophoblast directly or that may prepare the cytotrophoblast to fuse.

  20. Rapid Purification of a New Humanized Single-chain Fv Antibody/Human Interleukin-2 Fusion Protein Reactive against HER2 Receptor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-Yun ZHANG; Tak-Chun YIP; Cheuk-Sang KWOK

    2004-01-01

    Human embryonic kidney 293 cells were transfected with plasmid pcDNA-H520C9scFv-rhIL2 containing a chimeric cDNA encoding the humanized 520C9 scFv/recombinant human IL-2 fusion protein (H520C9scFv-rhIL-2). The transfected cells in plateau growing phase were cultured in serum-free medium for three days. The supernatant was collected, concentrated and purified using an affinity column packed with CNBr-activated Sepharose 4B coupled with anti-rhIL-2 mouse monoclonal antibody. The purified fusion protein was analyzed by ELISA, SDS-PAGE and Western blot. The fusion protein showed only one band in both silver stained electrophoresis gel and Western blot developed by ECL chemiluminescence system.Its molecular weight was confirmed to be about 45 kD. This fusion protein possessed binding specificity against p 185 positive SKOV3 and B 16/neu cells, and it might stimulate IL-2-dependent CTLL-2 cell proliferation as well.

  1. FUSION OF COLOR AND MODIFIED WEBER’S LAW DESCRIPTOR BASED HUMAN SKIN DETECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Prema

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Skin detection in images or videos plays a vital role in a wide range of image processing applications like face detection, face tracking, gesture analysis, human-computer interaction etc. Due to its high processing speed and invariant against rotation, it has received significant interest in pattern recognition and computer vision. The robustness of skin detection using color information depends on real world conditions such as background, noise, change of intensity and lightening effects. This situation can be improved by using texture as a descriptor to extract skin pixels in images. This study proposes color based skin detection algorithm (fusion of Cheddad’s approach with Cr of YCbCr color space with a texture based skin location algorithm called Modified Weber’s Law Descriptions (MWLD to evaluate region features. MWLD is based on the fact that the Human Visual System (HVS is more sensitive in lumens contrast than absolute luminance values. In MWLD, the differential excitation and gradient orientation of the current pixel are considered to extract the texture features. For differential excitation, Just Noticeable Distortion (JND is also used. Due to the absence of red component in Cheddad’s new color space for skin detection, the detection rate is not good for real time applications. To improve this situation, the Cr component of YCbCr color space is included to obtain the color features. According to experimental results, the proposed method exhibits satisfactory performance in terms of True Positive Rate (TPR, False Positive Rate (FPR and Accuracy with wide variations in size, color and orientation. Different window sizes for differential excitation such as 3×3, 5×5 and 7×7 are also taken to check the performance.

  2. FUSION OF COLOR AND MODIFIED WEBER’S LAW DESCRIPTOR BASED HUMAN SKIN DETECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Prema

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Skin detection in images or videos plays a vital role in a wide range of image processing applications like face detection, face tracking, gesture analysis, human-computer interaction etc. Due to its high processing speed and invariant against rotation, it has received significant interest in pattern recognition and computer vision. The robustness of skin detection using color information depends on real world conditions such as background, noise, change of intensity and lightening effects. This situation can be improved by using texture as a descriptor to extract skin pixels in images. This study proposes color based skin detection algorithm (fusion of Cheddad’s approach with Cr of YCbCr color space with a texture based skin location algorithm called Modified Weber’s Law Descriptions (MWLD to evaluate region features. MWLD is based on the fact that the Human Visual System (HVS is more sensitive in lumens contrast than absolute luminance values. In MWLD, the differential excitation and gradient orientation of the current pixel are considered to extract the texture features. For differential excitation, Just Noticeable Distortion (JND is also used. Due to the absence of red component in Cheddad’s new color space for skin detection, the detection rate is not good for real time applications. To improve this situation, the Cr component of YCbCr color space is included to obtain the color features. According to experimental results, the proposed method exhibits satisfactory performance in terms of True Positive Rate (TPR, False Positive Rate (FPR and Accuracy with wide variations in size, color and orientation. Different window sizes for differential excitation such as 3×3, 5×5 and 7×7 are also taken to check the performance.

  3. On the use of sensor fusion to reduce the impact of rotational and additive noise in human activity recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banos, Oresti; Damas, Miguel; Pomares, Hector; Rojas, Ignacio

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of fusion mechanisms is to increase the individual reliability of the systems through the use of the collectivity knowledge. Moreover, fusion models are also intended to guarantee a certain level of robustness. This is particularly required for problems such as human activity recognition where runtime changes in the sensor setup seriously disturb the reliability of the initial deployed systems. For commonly used recognition systems based on inertial sensors, these changes are primarily characterized as sensor rotations, displacements or faults related to the batteries or calibration. In this work we show the robustness capabilities of a sensor-weighted fusion model when dealing with such disturbances under different circumstances. Using the proposed method, up to 60% outperformance is obtained when a minority of the sensors are artificially rotated or degraded, independent of the level of disturbance (noise) imposed. These robustness capabilities also apply for any number of sensors affected by a low to moderate noise level. The presented fusion mechanism compensates the poor performance that otherwise would be obtained when just a single sensor is considered.

  4. On the Use of Sensor Fusion to Reduce the Impact of Rotational and Additive Noise in Human Activity Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Rojas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of fusion mechanisms is to increase the individual reliability of the systems through the use of the collectivity knowledge. Moreover, fusion models are also intended to guarantee a certain level of robustness. This is particularly required for problems such as human activity recognition where runtime changes in the sensor setup seriously disturb the reliability of the initial deployed systems. For commonly used recognition systems based on inertial sensors, these changes are primarily characterized as sensor rotations, displacements or faults related to the batteries or calibration. In this work we show the robustness capabilities of a sensor-weighted fusion model when dealing with such disturbances under different circumstances. Using the proposed method, up to 60% outperformance is obtained when a minority of the sensors are artificially rotated or degraded, independent of the level of disturbance (noise imposed. These robustness capabilities also apply for any number of sensors affected by a low to moderate noise level. The presented fusion mechanism compensates the poor performance that otherwise would be obtained when just a single sensor is considered.

  5. [Expression of human IL-35-IgG4 (Fc) fusion protein in CHO/DG44 cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jing; Gao, Wenda; Zhang, Qing; Zhang, Dawei; Chen, Yang; He, Bo; Liu, Quansheng

    2009-01-01

    We constructed the eukaryotic expression vector of human IL-35-IgG4 (Fc)-pOptiVEC-TOPO by gene recombination technique and expressed the fusion protein human IL-35-IgG4 (Fc) in CHO/DG44 cells. The two components of the newly discovered cytokine human IL-35, EBI3 and IL-12p35, were amplified by PCR from the cDNA library derived from the KG-I cells after LPS induction. The two PCR-amplified cDNA fragments of human IL-35 were linked by over-lapping PCR and then cloned into the IgG4 (Fc)-pOptiVEC-TOPO vector. The constructed plasmid with the recombinant cDNA IL-35-IgG4 (Fc) was verified by restriction enzyme digestion analysis, PCR and DNA sequencing. The verified plasmid with the recombinant cDNA was transfected into CHO/DG44 cells using Lipofectamine 2000. The success of the transfection was examined and confirmed by RT-PCR. After selection in alpha-MEM (-) medium, the IL-35-Ig G4 (Fc) positive CHO/DG44 clones were chosen and the media from these positive clones were collected to be used to purify the fusion protein. The positive CHO/DG44 clones were further cultured in increasing concentrations of MTX and the expression levels of the fusion protein IL-35-Ig G4 (Fc) were repetitively induced by MTX-induced gene amplification. The IL-35-IgG4 (Fc) fusion protein was purified from the media collected from the positive CHO/DG44 clones by protein G affinity chromatography and then identified by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting. The results showed that one protein band was found to match well with the predicted relative molecular mass of human IL-35-IgG4 (Fc) and this protein could specifically bind to anti-human IgG4 (Fc) monoclonal antibody. In conclusion, our study successfully established an IL-35-IgG4 (Fc) positive DG44 cell line which could stably express IL-35-IgG4 (Fc) fusion protein.

  6. Tomato cystatin SlCYS8 as a stabilizing fusion partner for human serpin expression in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainsbury, Frank; Varennes-Jutras, Philippe; Goulet, Marie-Claire; D'Aoust, Marc-André; Michaud, Dominique

    2013-12-01

    Studies have reported the usefulness of fusion proteins to bolster recombinant protein yields in plants. Here, we assess the potential of tomato SlCYS8, a Cys protease inhibitor of the cystatin protein superfamily, as a stabilizing fusion partner for human alpha-1-antichymotrypsin (α1ACT) targeted to the plant cell secretory pathway. Using the model expression platform Nicotiana benthamiana, we show that the cystatin imparts a strong stabilizing effect when expressed as a translational fusion with α1ACT, allowing impressive accumulation yields of over 2 mg/g of fresh weight tissue for the human serpin, a 25-fold improvement on the yield of α1ACT expressed alone. Natural and synthetic peptide linkers inserted between SlCYS8 and α1ACT have differential effects on protease inhibitory potency of the two protein partners in vitro. They also have a differential impact on the yield of α1ACT, dependent on the extent to which the hybrid protein may remain intact in the plant cell environment. The stabilizing effect of SlCYS8 does not involve Cys protease inhibition and can be partly reproduced in the cytosol, where peptide linkers are less susceptible to degradation. The effect of SlCYS8 on α1ACT yields could be explained by: (i) an improved translation of the human protein coding sequence; and/or (ii) an overall stabilization of its tertiary structure preventing proteolytic degradation and/or polymerization. These findings suggest the potential of plant cystatins as stabilizing fusion partners for recombinant proteins in plant systems. They also underline the need for an empirical assessment of peptide linker functions in plant cell environments.

  7. Modeling Electrophysiological Coupling and Fusion between Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Cardiomyocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Mayourian

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC delivery has demonstrated promise in preclinical and clinical trials for myocardial infarction therapy; however, broad acceptance is hindered by limited understanding of hMSC-human cardiomyocyte (hCM interactions. To better understand the electrophysiological consequences of direct heterocellular connections between hMSCs and hCMs, three original mathematical models were developed, representing an experimentally verified triad of hMSC families with distinct functional ion channel currents. The arrhythmogenic risk of such direct electrical interactions in the setting of healthy adult myocardium was predicted by coupling and fusing these hMSC models to the published ten Tusscher midcardial hCM model. Substantial variations in action potential waveform-such as decreased action potential duration (APD and plateau height-were found when hCMs were coupled to the two hMSC models expressing functional delayed rectifier-like human ether à-go-go K+ channel 1 (hEAG1; the effects were exacerbated for fused hMSC-hCM hybrid cells. The third family of hMSCs (Type C, absent of hEAG1 activity, led to smaller single-cell action potential alterations during coupling and fusion, translating to longer tissue-level mean action potential wavelength. In a simulated 2-D monolayer of cardiac tissue, re-entry vulnerability with low (5% hMSC insertion was approximately eight-fold lower with Type C hMSCs compared to hEAG1-functional hMSCs. A 20% decrease in APD dispersion by Type C hMSCs compared to hEAG1-active hMSCs supports the claim of reduced arrhythmogenic potential of this cell type with low hMSC insertion. However, at moderate (15% and high (25% hMSC insertion, the vulnerable window increased independent of hMSC type. In summary, this study provides novel electrophysiological models of hMSCs, predicts possible arrhythmogenic effects of hMSCs when directly coupled to healthy hCMs, and proposes that isolating a subset of hMSCs absent

  8. A remotely sensed image fusion method based on non-subsampled contourlet transform and human visual system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Bo; Zhan, Ying; Zhang, Jingtao

    2010-11-01

    Focusing on the fusion problem of the multispectral (Ms) and panchromatic (Pan) images from the same scene, a novel image fusion method is proposed based on nonsubsampled contourlet transform (NSCT) and human visual system (HVS). The most traditional fusion methods are IHS, PCA and Brovey transforms, which can bring the phenomenon of spectral distortion. Avoiding this problem, the wavelet transform is usually used in image fusion in recent years, but it only can capture limited directional information. Compared with the wavelet and other transforms, the contourlet transform has the characteristics of multi-scale, time-frequency localization and multi-directions. However, due to the lack of translation invariance of the contourlet transform, this paper uses the nonsubsampled contourlet transform. The basic procedure consists of four steps. Firstly, the NSCT is performed on Pan image and the intensity component I of Ms image with HIS transform, which can obtain the low frequency subband and highpass directional coefficients of each image. Then a new fusion rule is presented based on HVS: corresponding low frequency and highpass components are divided into several blocks, and contrast variance of every block is calculated, followed by a selection of an adaptive threshold which can be used to construct the new low frequency and highpass components. The blocks with higher contrast variance will be chosen. Thirdly, the new intensity component Inew with high spatial resolution is obtained by performing the inverse NSCT on the attained coefficients. Finally, the inverse IHS using Inew component is performed and the new fused multispectral image is obtained. According to the quantitative evaluation criteria, it is shown that the proposed method can effectively preserve spectral information, improve spatial information of the fused image, and outperform the traditional IHS, PCA, Brovey, wavelet and contourlet methods.

  9. Molecular evolution of the fusion protein (F) gene in human respiratory syncytial virus subgroup B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Hirokazu; Nagasawa, Koo; Kimura, Ryusuke; Tsukagoshi, Hiroyuki; Matsushima, Yuki; Fujita, Kiyotaka; Hirano, Eiko; Ishiwada, Naruhiko; Misaki, Takako; Oishi, Kazunori; Kuroda, Makoto; Ryo, Akihide

    2017-08-01

    In this study, we examined the molecular evolution of the fusion protein (F) gene in human respiratory syncytial virus subgroup B (HRSV-B). First, we performed time-scale evolution analyses using the Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method. Next, we performed genetic distance, linear B-cell epitope prediction, N-glycosylation, positive/negative selection site, and Bayesian skyline plot analyses. We also constructed a structural model of the F protein and mapped the amino acid substitutions and the predicted B-cell epitopes. The MCMC-constructed phylogenetic tree indicated that the HRSV F gene diverged from the bovine respiratory syncytial virus gene approximately 580years ago and had a relatively low evolutionary rate (7.14×10(-4)substitutions/site/year). Furthermore, a common ancestor of HRSV-A and -B diverged approximately 290years ago, while HRSV-B diverged into three clusters for approximately 60years. The genetic similarity of the present strains was very high. Although a maximum of 11 amino acid substitutions were observed in the structural model of the F protein, only one strain possessed an amino acid substitution located within the palivizumab epitope. Four epitopes were predicted, although these did not correspond to the neutralization sites of the F protein including the palivizumab epitope. In addition, five N-glycosylation sites of the present HRSV-B strains were inferred. No positive selection sites were identified; however, many sites were found to be under negative selection. The effective population size of the gene has remained almost constant. On the basis of these results, it can be concluded that the HRSV-B F gene is highly conserved, as is the F protein of HRSV-A. Moreover, our prediction of B-cell epitopes does not show that the palivizumab reaction site may be recognized as an epitope during naturally occurring infections. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. [Human life and energy production. Prospects opened up by controlled thermonuclear fusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escande, D

    1997-03-18

    The massive and presently increasing energy production is going to confront mankind with a very important problem in the forthcoming decades, in particular due to the vanishing of resources and to the greenhouse effect. The share of fossil fuels in the energy production will have to decrease, and other energy sources will be needed. Among them controlled thermonuclear fusion has may assets due to its non-radioactive fuel with plentiful supply, its non radioactive and non polluting ashes, its safety, its weak environmental impact, and its irrelevance to nuclear proliferation in a normal setting. During the last three decades, physicists have made a series of steps toward the peaceful use of the dominant source of energy in the Universe. They have learned how to confine by magnetic fields plasmas at temperatures of 200 millions degrees centigrade, and they have developed several specific technologies. This way, they produced 11 million watts of nuclear power by fusing two isotopes of hydrogen. These investigations are conducted in a responsible spirit, that of ecoproduction, where possible negative consequences are anticipated, are made as low as reasonably achievable, and their management is studied. Yet several fundamental issues still have to be solved before on economically efficient industrial thermonuclear power plant be operated. A huge international collaboration involving Japan, the USA, the Russian Federation, and the European Union joined with Switzerland and Canada, is presently designing the first experimental thermonuclear reactor, the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). It would cost 9 billion dollars, a cost similar to other large scientific projects. This is an important step toward an electricity producing thermonuclear reactor that would be both safe and respectful of human health and of environment.

  11. Human Cytomegalovirus gH/gL Forms a Stable Complex with the Fusion Protein gB in Virions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam L Vanarsdall

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV is a ubiquitous virus that is a major pathogen in newborns and immunocompromised or immunosuppressed patients. HCMV infects a wide variety of cell types using distinct entry pathways that involve different forms of the gH/gL glycoprotein: gH/gL/gO and gH/gL/UL128-131 as well as the viral fusion glycoprotein, gB. However, the minimal or core fusion machinery (sufficient for cell-cell fusion is just gH/gL and gB. Here, we demonstrate that HCMV gB and gH/gL form a stable complex early after their synthesis and in the absence of other viral proteins. gH/gL can interact with gB mutants that are unable to mediate cell-cell fusion. gB-gH/gL complexes included as much as 16-50% of the total gH/gL in HCMV virus particles. In contrast, only small amounts of gH/gL/gO and gH/gL/UL128-131 complexes were found associated with gB. All herpesviruses express gB and gH/gL molecules and most models describing herpesvirus entry suggest that gH/gL interacts with gB to mediate membrane fusion, although there is no direct evidence for this. For herpes simplex virus (HSV-1 it has been suggested that after receptor binding gH/gL binds to gB either just before, or coincident with membrane fusion. Therefore, our results have major implications for these models, demonstrating that HCMV gB and gH/gL forms stable gB-gH/gL complexes that are incorporated virions without receptor binding or membrane fusion. Moreover, our data is the best support to date for the proposal that gH/gL interacts with gB.

  12. Human Cytomegalovirus gH/gL Forms a Stable Complex with the Fusion Protein gB in Virions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanarsdall, Adam L; Howard, Paul W; Wisner, Todd W; Johnson, David C

    2016-04-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a ubiquitous virus that is a major pathogen in newborns and immunocompromised or immunosuppressed patients. HCMV infects a wide variety of cell types using distinct entry pathways that involve different forms of the gH/gL glycoprotein: gH/gL/gO and gH/gL/UL128-131 as well as the viral fusion glycoprotein, gB. However, the minimal or core fusion machinery (sufficient for cell-cell fusion) is just gH/gL and gB. Here, we demonstrate that HCMV gB and gH/gL form a stable complex early after their synthesis and in the absence of other viral proteins. gH/gL can interact with gB mutants that are unable to mediate cell-cell fusion. gB-gH/gL complexes included as much as 16-50% of the total gH/gL in HCMV virus particles. In contrast, only small amounts of gH/gL/gO and gH/gL/UL128-131 complexes were found associated with gB. All herpesviruses express gB and gH/gL molecules and most models describing herpesvirus entry suggest that gH/gL interacts with gB to mediate membrane fusion, although there is no direct evidence for this. For herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) it has been suggested that after receptor binding gH/gL binds to gB either just before, or coincident with membrane fusion. Therefore, our results have major implications for these models, demonstrating that HCMV gB and gH/gL forms stable gB-gH/gL complexes that are incorporated virions without receptor binding or membrane fusion. Moreover, our data is the best support to date for the proposal that gH/gL interacts with gB.

  13. Effectiveness and harms of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 in spine fusion: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Rongwei; Selph, Shelley; McDonagh, Marian; Peterson, Kimberly; Tiwari, Arpita; Chou, Roger; Helfand, Mark

    2013-06-18

    Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) is used as a bone graft substitute in spinal fusion, which unites (fuses) bones in the spine. The accuracy and completeness of journal publications of industry-sponsored trials on the effectiveness and harms of rhBMP-2 has been called into question. To independently assess the effectiveness and harms of rhBMP-2 in spinal fusion and reporting bias in industry-sponsored journal publications. Individual-patient data (IPD) from 17 industry-sponsored studies; related internal documents; and searches of MEDLINE (1996 to August 2012), other databases, and reference lists. Randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) and cohort studies of rhBMP-2 versus any control and uncontrolled studies of harms. Effectiveness outcomes in IPD were recalculated using consistent definitions. Study characteristics and results were abstracted by 1 investigator and confirmed by another. Two investigators independently assessed quality using predefined criteria. Thirteen RCTs and 31 cohort studies were included. For lumbar spine fusion, rhBMP-2 and iliac crest bone graft were similar in overall success, fusion, and other effectiveness measures and in risk for any adverse event, although rates were high across interventions (77% to 93% at 24 months from surgery). For anterior lumbar interbody fusion, rhBMP-2 was associated with nonsignificantly increased risk for retrograde ejaculation and urogenital problems. For anterior cervical spine fusion, rhBMP-2 was associated with increased risk for wound complications and dysphagia. At 24 months, the cancer risk was increased with rhBMP-2 (risk ratio, 3.45 [95% CI, 1.98 to 6.00]), but event rates were low and cancer was heterogeneous. Early journal publications misrepresented the effectiveness and harms through selective reporting, duplicate publication, and underreporting. Outcome assessment was not blinded, and ascertainment of harms in trials was poor. No trials were truly independent of industry

  14. A human ESC model for MLL-AF4 leukemic fusion gene reveals an impaired early hematopoietic-endothelial specification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Clara Bueno; Agustin F Femández; Mario F Fraga; Inmaculada Moreno-Gimeno; Deborah Burks; Maria del Carmen Plaza-Calonge; Juan C Rodríguez-Manzaneque; Pablo Menendez; Rosa Montes; Gustavo J Melen; Verónica Ramos-Mejia; Pedro J Real; Verónica Ayllón; Laura Sanchez; Gertrudis Ligero; Iván Gutierrez-Aranda

    2012-01-01

    The MLL-AF4 fusion gene is a hallmark genomic aberration in high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia in inants.Although it is well established that MLL-AF4 arises prenatally during human development,its effects on hematopoieric development in utero remain unexplored.We have created a human-specific cellular system to study early hemato-endothelial development in MLL-AF4-expressing human embryonic stem cells (hESCs).Functional studies,clonal analysis and gene expression profiling reveal that expression of MLL-AF4 in hESCs has a phenotypic,functional and gene expression impact.MLL-AF4 acts as a global transcriptional activator and a positive regulator of homeobox gene expression in hESCs.Functionally,MLL-AF4 enhances the specification of hemogenic precursors from hESCs but strongly impairs further hematopoietic commitment in favor of an endothelial cell fate.MLL-AF4 hESCs are transcriptionally primed to differentiate towards hemogenic precursors prone to endothelial maturation,as reflected by the marked upregulation of master genes associated to vascular-endothelial functions and early hematopoiesis.Furthermore,we report that MLL-AF4 expression is not sufficient to transform hESC-derived hematopoietic cells.This work illustrates how hESCs may provide unique insights into human development and further our understanding of how leukemic fusion genes,known to arise prenatally,regulate human embryonic hematopoietic specification.

  15. Multimodality Inferring of Human Cognitive States Based on Integration of Neuro-Fuzzy Network and Information Fusion Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bhattacharya

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available To achieve an effective and safe operation on the machine system where the human interacts with the machine mutually, there is a need for the machine to understand the human state, especially cognitive state, when the human's operation task demands an intensive cognitive activity. Due to a well-known fact with the human being, a highly uncertain cognitive state and behavior as well as expressions or cues, the recent trend to infer the human state is to consider multimodality features of the human operator. In this paper, we present a method for multimodality inferring of human cognitive states by integrating neuro-fuzzy network and information fusion techniques. To demonstrate the effectiveness of this method, we take the driver fatigue detection as an example. The proposed method has, in particular, the following new features. First, human expressions are classified into four categories: (i casual or contextual feature, (ii contact feature, (iii contactless feature, and (iv performance feature. Second, the fuzzy neural network technique, in particular Takagi-Sugeno-Kang (TSK model, is employed to cope with uncertain behaviors. Third, the sensor fusion technique, in particular ordered weighted aggregation (OWA, is integrated with the TSK model in such a way that cues are taken as inputs to the TSK model, and then the outputs of the TSK are fused by the OWA which gives outputs corresponding to particular cognitive states under interest (e.g., fatigue. We call this method TSK-OWA. Validation of the TSK-OWA, performed in the Northeastern University vehicle drive simulator, has shown that the proposed method is promising to be a general tool for human cognitive state inferring and a special tool for the driver fatigue detection.

  16. Adhesion and fusion efficiencies of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) surface proteins

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    In about half of patients infected with HIV-1 subtype B, viral populations shift from utilizing the transmembrane protein CCR5 to CXCR4, as well as or instead of CCR5, during late stage progression of the disease. How the relative adhesion efficiency and fusion competency of the viral Env proteins relate to infection during this transition is not well understood. Using a virus-cell fusion assay and live-cell single-molecule force spectroscopy, we compare the entry competency of viral clones t...

  17. Recombinant human insulin IX. Investigation of factors, influencing the folding of fusion protein-S-sulfonates, biotechnological precursors of human insulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonov, Roman V; Pechenov, Sergey E; Belacheu, Irina A; Yakimov, Sergey A; Klyushnichenko, Vadim E; Tunes, Heloisa; Thiemann, Josef E; Vilela, Luciano; Wulfson, Andrey N

    2002-11-01

    The peculiarities of molecular structures and the influence of reaction conditions on the folding efficiency of fusion proteins-biotechnological precursors of human insulin, expressed in Escherichia coli as inclusion bodies have been investigated. The fusion proteins contained proinsulin sequence with various leader peptides connected by an Arg residue to the insulin B-chain. The kind and the size of leader peptide do not have essential influence on folding efficiency. However, the efficiency of protein folding depends on the location of the (His)6 site, which is used for metal-chelating affinity chromatography. In our study the protein folding depends on the reaction medium composition (including additives), the presence of accompanied cell components, pH, temperature, concentrations of protein, and redox agents. A negative influence of nucleic acid and heavy metal ions on folding has been found. S-sulfonated fusion protein has proinsulin-like secondary structure (by CD-spectroscopy data) that is the key point for 95% efficient folding proceeding. Folded fusion proteins are transformed into insulin by enzymatic cleavage.

  18. Nuclear fusion-independent smooth muscle differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells induced by a smooth muscle environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rong; Jack, Gregory S; Rao, Nagesh; Zuk, Patricia; Ignarro, Louis J; Wu, Benjamin; Rodríguez, Larissa V

    2012-03-01

    Human adipose-derived stem cells hASC have been isolated and were shown to have multilineage differentiation capacity. Although both plasticity and cell fusion have been suggested as mechanisms for cell differentiation in vivo, the effect of the local in vivo environment on the differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells has not been evaluated. We previously reported the in vitro capacity of smooth muscle differentiation of these cells. In this study, we evaluate the effect of an in vivo smooth muscle environment in the differentiation of hASC. We studied this by two experimental designs: (a) in vivo evaluation of smooth muscle differentiation of hASC injected into a smooth muscle environment and (b) in vitro evaluation of smooth muscle differentiation capacity of hASC exposed to bladder smooth muscle cells. Our results indicate a time-dependent differentiation of hASC into mature smooth muscle cells when these cells are injected into the smooth musculature of the urinary bladder. Similar findings were seen when the cells were cocultured in vitro with primary bladder smooth muscle cells. Chromosomal analysis demonstrated that microenvironment cues rather than nuclear fusion are responsible for this differentiation. We conclude that cell plasticity is present in hASCs, and their differentiation is accomplished in the absence of nuclear fusion.

  19. Assessing the Performance of Sensor Fusion Methods: Application to Magnetic-Inertial-Based Human Body Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Ligorio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Information from complementary and redundant sensors are often combined within sensor fusion algorithms to obtain a single accurate observation of the system at hand. However, measurements from each sensor are characterized by uncertainties. When multiple data are fused, it is often unclear how all these uncertainties interact and influence the overall performance of the sensor fusion algorithm. To address this issue, a benchmarking procedure is presented, where simulated and real data are combined in different scenarios in order to quantify how each sensor’s uncertainties influence the accuracy of the final result. The proposed procedure was applied to the estimation of the pelvis orientation using a waist-worn magnetic-inertial measurement unit. Ground-truth data were obtained from a stereophotogrammetric system and used to obtain simulated data. Two Kalman-based sensor fusion algorithms were submitted to the proposed benchmarking procedure. For the considered application, gyroscope uncertainties proved to be the main error source in orientation estimation accuracy for both tested algorithms. Moreover, although different performances were obtained using simulated data, these differences became negligible when real data were considered. The outcome of this evaluation may be useful both to improve the design of new sensor fusion methods and to drive the algorithm tuning process.

  20. Autoprocessing of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease miniprecursor fusions in mammalian cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chaoping

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV protease (PR is a virus-encoded aspartic protease that is essential for viral replication and infectivity. The fully active and mature dimeric protease is released from the Gag-Pol polyprotein as a result of precursor autoprocessing. Results We here describe a simple model system to directly examine HIV protease autoprocessing in transfected mammalian cells. A fusion precursor was engineered encoding GST fused to a well-characterized miniprecursor, consisting of the mature protease along with its upstream transframe region (TFR, and small peptide epitopes to facilitate detection of the precursor substrate and autoprocessing products. In HEK 293T cells, the resulting chimeric precursor undergoes effective autoprocessing, producing mature protease that is rapidly degraded likely via autoproteolysis. The known protease inhibitors Darunavir and Indinavir suppressed both precursor autoprocessing and autoproteolysis in a dose-dependent manner. Protease mutations that inhibit Gag processing as characterized using proviruses also reduced autoprocessing efficiency when they were introduced to the fusion precursor. Interestingly, autoprocessing of the fusion precursor requires neither the full proteolytic activity nor the majority of the N-terminal TFR region. Conclusions We suggest that the fusion precursors provide a useful system to study protease autoprocessing in mammalian cells, and may be further developed for screening of new drugs targeting HIV protease autoprocessing.

  1. Assessing the Performance of Sensor Fusion Methods: Application to Magnetic-Inertial-Based Human Body Tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligorio, Gabriele; Bergamini, Elena; Pasciuto, Ilaria; Vannozzi, Giuseppe; Cappozzo, Aurelio; Sabatini, Angelo Maria

    2016-01-26

    Information from complementary and redundant sensors are often combined within sensor fusion algorithms to obtain a single accurate observation of the system at hand. However, measurements from each sensor are characterized by uncertainties. When multiple data are fused, it is often unclear how all these uncertainties interact and influence the overall performance of the sensor fusion algorithm. To address this issue, a benchmarking procedure is presented, where simulated and real data are combined in different scenarios in order to quantify how each sensor's uncertainties influence the accuracy of the final result. The proposed procedure was applied to the estimation of the pelvis orientation using a waist-worn magnetic-inertial measurement unit. Ground-truth data were obtained from a stereophotogrammetric system and used to obtain simulated data. Two Kalman-based sensor fusion algorithms were submitted to the proposed benchmarking procedure. For the considered application, gyroscope uncertainties proved to be the main error source in orientation estimation accuracy for both tested algorithms. Moreover, although different performances were obtained using simulated data, these differences became negligible when real data were considered. The outcome of this evaluation may be useful both to improve the design of new sensor fusion methods and to drive the algorithm tuning process.

  2. The anti-tumour effect of a DNA vaccine carrying a fusion gene of human VEGFR2 and IL-12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sha Wen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Because of tumour dependence on angiogenesis, anti-angiogenic therapy has become the most attractive area of basic and clinical study in the field of cancer research. In order to create a synergistic effect on angiogenesis and immune regulation, we designed and constructed a new type of DNA vaccine that can express VEGFR2 (vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 and the prostate cancer antigen IL-12 (interleukin 12 in the same reading frame. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-tumour activity of a eukaryotic expression plasmid carrying a fusion gene of human VEGFR2 and IL-12. According to the gene sequences in GenBank, we synthesized the human VEGFR2 and IL-12 genes. VEGFR2 and IL-12 were joined by a sequence encoding a Furin recognition site and a 2A cleavage site, and the resulting fusion gene was cloned into the eukaryotic expression vector pVAX1 to construct the expression plasmid pVAX1-VEGFR2-F2A-IL-12. The expression of VEGFR2 and IL-12 could be detected in 293T cells transfected with pVAX1-VEGFR2-F2A-IL-12 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Each of these proteins, and in particular co-expression of both proteins, can result in humoral and cellular immune responses in C57BL/6 mice. After injection into the tumour-bearing mouse model, the plasmid showed stronger inhibition of tumour growth than a plasmid expressing VEGFR2 alone. Our results demonstrate that a DNA vaccine carrying a fusion gene of human VEGFR2 and IL-12 could represent a promising approach for tumour immunotherapy.

  3. Imaging of dihydrofolate reductase fusion gene expression in xenografts of human liver metastases of colorectal cancer in living rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer-Kuckuk, Philipp; Bertino, Joseph R.; Banerjee, Debabrata [Molecular Pharmacology and Therapeutics Program, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); The Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School/UMDNJ, 195 Little Albany Street, NJ 08903, New Brunswick (United States); Doubrovin, Mikhail; Blasberg, Ronald; Tjuvajev, Juri Gelovani [Department of Neurooncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Gusani, Niraj J.; Fong, Yuman [Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Gade, Terence; Koutcher, Jason A. [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Balatoni, Julius; Finn, Ronald [Radiochemistry/Cyclotron Core Facility, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Akhurst, Tim; Larson, Steven [Nuclear Medicine Service, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)

    2003-09-01

    Radionuclide imaging has been demonstrated to be feasible to monitor transgene expression in vivo. We hypothesized that a potential application of this technique is to non-invasively detect in deep tissue, such as cancer cells metastatic to the liver, a specific molecular response following systemic drug treatment. Utilizing human colon adenocarcinoma cells derived from a patient's liver lesion we first developed a nude rat xenograft model for colorectal cancer metastatic to the liver. Expression of a dihydrofolate reductase-herpes simplex virus 1 thymidine kinase fusion (DHFR-HSV1 TK) transgene in the hepatic tumors was monitored in individual animals using the tracer [{sup 124}I]2'-fluoro-2'-deoxy-5-iodouracil-{beta}-d-arabinofuranoside (FIAU) and a small animal micro positron emission tomograph (microPET), while groups of rats were imaged using the tracer [{sup 131}I]FIAU and a clinical gamma camera. Growth of the human metastatic colorectal cancer cells in the rat liver was detected using magnetic resonance imaging and confirmed by surgical inspection. Single as well as multiple lesions of different sizes and sites were observed in the liver of the animals. Next, using a subset of rats bearing hepatic tumors, which were retrovirally bulk transduced to express the DHFR-HSV1 TK transgene, we imaged the fusion protein expression in the hepatic tumor of living rats using the tracer [{sup 124}I]FIAU and a microPET. The observed deep tissue signals were highly specific for the tumors expressing the DHFR-HSV1 TK fusion protein compared with parental untransduced tumors and other tissues as determined by gamma counting of tissue samples. A subsequent study used the tracer [{sup 131}I]FIAU and a gamma camera to monitor two groups of transduced hepatic tumor-bearing rats. Prior to imaging, one group was treated with trimetrexate to exploit DHFR-mediated upregulation of the fusion gene product. Imaging in the living animal as well as subsequent gamma

  4. Human Arm Motion Tracking by Orientation-Based Fusion of Inertial Sensors and Kinect Using Unscented Kalman Filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atrsaei, Arash; Salarieh, Hassan; Alasty, Aria

    2016-09-01

    Due to various applications of human motion capture techniques, developing low-cost methods that would be applicable in nonlaboratory environments is under consideration. MEMS inertial sensors and Kinect are two low-cost devices that can be utilized in home-based motion capture systems, e.g., home-based rehabilitation. In this work, an unscented Kalman filter approach was developed based on the complementary properties of Kinect and the inertial sensors to fuse the orientation data of these two devices for human arm motion tracking during both stationary shoulder joint position and human body movement. A new measurement model of the fusion algorithm was obtained that can compensate for the inertial sensors drift problem in high dynamic motions and also joints occlusion in Kinect. The efficiency of the proposed algorithm was evaluated by an optical motion tracker system. The errors were reduced by almost 50% compared to cases when either inertial sensor or Kinect measurements were utilized.

  5. Expression and characterization of truncated human heme oxygenase (hHO-1) and a fusion protein of hHO-1 with human cytochrome P450 reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilks, A; Black, S M; Miller, W L; Ortiz de Montellano, P R

    1995-04-04

    A human heme oxygenase (hHO-1) gene without the sequence coding for the last 23 amino acids has been expressed in Escherichia coli behind the pho A promoter. The truncated enzyme is obtained in high yields as a soluble, catalytically-active protein, making it available for the first time for detailed mechanistic studies. The purified, truncated hHO-1/heme complex is spectroscopically indistinguishable from that of the rat enzyme and converts heme to biliverdin when reconstituted with rat liver cytochrome P450 reductase. A self-sufficient heme oxygenase system has been obtained by fusing the truncated hHO-1 gene to the gene for human cytochrome P450 reductase without the sequence coding for the 20 amino acid membrane binding domain. Expression of the fusion protein in pCWori+ yields a protein that only requires NADPH for catalytic turnover. The failure of exogenous cytochrome P450 reductase to stimulate turnover and the insensitivity of the catalytic rate toward changes in ionic strength establish that electrons are transferred intramolecularly between the reductase and heme oxygenase domains of the fusion protein. The Vmax for the fusion protein is 2.5 times higher than that for the reconstituted system. Therefore, either the covalent tether does not interfere with normal docking and electron transfer between the flavin and heme domains or alternative but equally efficient electron transfer pathways are available that do not require specific docking.

  6. Processing and fusion of passively acquired, millimeter and terahertz images of the human body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Li; Shen, Yanchun; Jin, Weiqi; Zhao, Guozhong; Cai, Yi

    2017-04-01

    A passive, millimeter wave (MMW) and terahertz (THz) dual-band imaging system composed of 94 and 250 GHz single-element detectors was used to investigate preprocessing and fusion algorithms for dual-band images. Subsequently, an MMW and THz image preprocessing and fusion integrated algorithm (MMW-THz IPFIA) was developed. In the algorithm, a block-matching and three-dimensional filtering denoising algorithm is employed to filter noise, an adaptive histogram equalization algorithm to enhance images, an intensity-based registration algorithm to register images, and a wavelet-based image fusion algorithm to fuse the preprocessed images. The performance of the algorithm was analyzed by calculating the SNR and information entropy of the actual images. This algorithm effectively reduces the image noise and improves the level of detail in the images. Since the algorithm improves the performance of the investigated imaging system, it should support practical technological applications. Because the system responds to blackbody radiation, its improvement is quantified herein using the static performance parameter commonly employed for thermal imaging systems, namely, the minimum detectable temperature difference (MDTD). An experiment was conducted in which the system's MDTD was measured before and after applying the MMW-THz IPFIA, verifying the improved performance that can be realized through its application.

  7. E6 and E7 fusion immunoglobulin from human papilloma virus 16 induces dendritic cell maturation and antigen specific activation of T helper 1 response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang-Hoon; Hur, Yu Jin; Lee, Suk Jun; Kim, Sang Joon; Park, Chung-Gyu; Oh, Yu-Koung; Jung, Woon-Won; Seo, Jong Bok; Nam, Myung Hee; Choi, Inho; Chun, Taehoon

    2011-04-01

    Human papilloma virus (HPV) 16 causes cervical cancer. Induction of oncogenesis by HPV 16 is primarily dependent on the function of E6 and E7 proteins, which inactivate the function of p53 and pRB, respectively. Thus, blocking the activity of the E6 and E7 proteins from HPV 16 is critical to inhibiting oncogenesis during infection. We have expressed and purified soluble HPV 16 E6 and E7 fusion immunoglobulin (Ig), which were combined with the constant region of an Ig heavy chain, in a mammalian system. To assess whether soluble E6 and E7 fusion Igs induce effective cellular immune responses, immature dendritic cells (DCs) were treated with these fusion proteins. Soluble E6 and E7 fusion Igs effectively induced maturation of DCs. Furthermore, immunization with soluble E6 and E7 fusion Igs in mice resulted in antigen-specific activation of T helper 1 (Th1) cells. This is the first comprehensive study to show the molecular basis of how soluble HPV 16 E6 or E7 fusion Igs induces Th1 responses through the maturation of DCs. In addition, we show that DC therapy using soluble HPV E6 and E7 fusion Igs may be a valuable tool for controlling the progress of cervical cancer.

  8. Extending the Serum Half-Life of G-CSF via Fusion with the Domain III of Human Serum Albumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuqiang Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Protein fusion technology is one of the most commonly used methods to extend the half-life of therapeutic proteins. In this study, in order to prolong the half-life of Granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF, the domain III of human serum albumin (3DHSA was genetically fused to the N-terminal of G-CSF. The 3DHSA-G-CSF fusion gene was cloned into pPICZαA along with the open reading frame of the α-factor signal under the control of the AOX1 promoter. The recombinant expression vector was transformed into Pichia pastoris GS115, and the recombinant strains were screened by SDS-PAGE. As expected, the 3DHSA-G-CSF showed high binding affinity with HSA antibody and G-CSF antibody, and the natural N-terminal of 3DHSA was detected by N-terminal sequencing. The bioactivity and pharmacokinetic studies of 3DHSA-G-CSF were respectively determined using neutropenia model mice and human G-CSF ELISA kit. The results demonstrated that 3DHSA-G-CSF has the ability to increase the peripheral white blood cell (WBC counts of neutropenia model mice, and the half-life of 3DHSA-G-CSF is longer than that of native G-CSF. In conclusion, 3DHSA can be used to extend the half-life of G-CSF.

  9. Frontiers in fusion research

    CERN Document Server

    Kikuchi, Mitsuru

    2011-01-01

    Frontiers in Fusion Research provides a systematic overview of the latest physical principles of fusion and plasma confinement. It is primarily devoted to the principle of magnetic plasma confinement, that has been systematized through 50 years of fusion research. Frontiers in Fusion Research begins with an introduction to the study of plasma, discussing the astronomical birth of hydrogen energy and the beginnings of human attempts to harness the Sun's energy for use on Earth. It moves on to chapters that cover a variety of topics such as: * charged particle motion, * plasma kinetic theory, *

  10. Role for the disulfide-bonded region of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp41 in receptor-triggered activation of membrane fusion function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellamy-McIntyre, Anna K. [Macfarlane Burnet Institute for Medical Research and Public Health, Vic. 3004 (Australia); Department of Microbiology, Monash University, Vic. 3168 (Australia); Baer, Severine [Program Infection and Cancer, Abt. F010 and INSERM U701, Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Heidelberg (Germany); Ludlow, Louise [Macfarlane Burnet Institute for Medical Research and Public Health, Vic. 3004 (Australia); Drummer, Heidi E. [Macfarlane Burnet Institute for Medical Research and Public Health, Vic. 3004 (Australia); Department of Microbiology, Monash University, Vic. 3168 (Australia); Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The University of Melbourne, Vic. 3010 (Australia); Poumbourios, Pantelis, E-mail: apoumbourios@burnet.edu.au [Macfarlane Burnet Institute for Medical Research and Public Health, Vic. 3004 (Australia); Department of Microbiology, Monash University, Vic. 3168 (Australia)

    2010-04-16

    The conserved disulfide-bonded region (DSR) of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) fusion glycoprotein, gp41, mediates association with the receptor-binding glycoprotein, gp120. Interactions between gp120, CD4 and chemokine receptors activate the fusion activity of gp41. The introduction of W596L and W610F mutations to the DSR of HIV-1{sub QH1549.13} blocked viral entry and hemifusion without affecting gp120-gp41 association. The fusion defect correlated with inhibition of CD4-triggered gp41 pre-hairpin formation, consistent with the DSR mutations having decoupled receptor-induced conformational changes in gp120 from gp41 activation. Our data implicate the DSR in sensing conformational changes in the gp120-gp41 complex that lead to fusion activation.

  11. Diphtheria Toxin/Human B-Cell Activating Factor Fusion Protein Kills Human Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia BALL-1 Cells: An Experimental Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin-pu Gao; Zheng-min Liu; Yu-lian Jiao; Bin Cui; Yue-ting Zhu; Jie Zhang; Lai-cheng Wang; Yue-ran Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Objective:This study aimed to express a fusion protein of diphtheria toxin and human B ceil-activating factor (DT388sBAFF) in Escherichia coli (E.coli) and investigate its activity in human B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia 1 cells (BALL-1).Methods:A fragment of DT388sBAFF fusion gene was separated from plasmid pUC57-DT388sBAFF digested with Nde Ⅰ and Xho Ⅰ,and inserted into the expression vector pcold Ⅱ digested with the same enzymes.Recombinants were screened by the colony polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction map.The recombinant expression vector was transformed into BL21 and its expression was induced by isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG).The recombinant protein was identified by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Western blot,and then purified by Ni2+-NTA affinity chromatography.The expression level of B cell-activating factor receptor (BAFF-R) on BALL-1 cells was assessed by real-time PCR.The receptor binding capacity of recombinant protein was determined by cell fluorescent assay.The specific cytotoxicity of recombinant protein on BALL-1 cells was detected by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay.Results:The expression level of recombinant protein was 50% of total bacterial proteins in E.coli,and the recombinant protein could bind to BAFF-R-positive BALL-1 cells and thereby produce a cytotoxic effect on the cells.Conclusion:The fusion protein expression vector DT388sBAFF was successfully constructed and the recombinant protein with selective cytotoxicity against BALL-1 cells was obtained,providing foundation for further study of the therapy of human B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

  12. Monitoring Early Fusion Dynamics of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 at Single-Molecule Resolution ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrowsky, Terrence M.; Zhou, Yan; Sun, Sean X.; Siliciano, Robert F.; Wirtz, Denis

    2008-01-01

    The fusion of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) to host cells is a dynamic process governed by the interaction between glycoproteins on the viral envelope and the major receptor, CD4, and coreceptor on the surface of the cell. How these receptors organize at the virion-cell interface to promote a fusion-competent site is not well understood. Using single-molecule force spectroscopy, we map the tensile strengths, lifetimes, and energy barriers of individual intermolecular bonds between CCR5-tropic HIV-1 gp120 and its receptors CD4 and CCR5 or CXCR4 as a function of the interaction time with the cell. According to the Bell model, at short times of contact between cell and virion, the gp120-CD4 bond is able to withstand forces up to 35 pN and has an initial lifetime of 0.27 s and an intermolecular length of interaction of 0.34 nm. The initial bond also has an energy barrier of 6.7 kBT (where kB is Boltzmann's constant and T is absolute temperature). However, within 0.3 s, individual gp120-CD4 bonds undergo rapid destabilization accompanied by a shortened lifetime and a lowered tensile strength. This destabilization is significantly enhanced by the coreceptor CCR5, not by CXCR4 or fusion inhibitors, which suggests that it is directly related to a conformational change in the gp120-CD4 bond. These measurements highlight the instability and low tensile strength of gp120-receptor bonds, uncover a synergistic role for CCR5 in the progression of the gp120-CD4 bond, and suggest that the cell-virus adhesion complex is functionally arranged about a long-lived gp120-coreceptor bond. PMID:18480458

  13. Sodium butyrate induces DRP1-mediated mitochondrial fusion and apoptosis in human colorectal cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Tailor, Dhanir; Hahm, Eun-Ryeong; Kale, Raosaheb K.; Singh, Shivendra V.; Singh, Rana P.

    2013-01-01

    Sodium butyrate (NaBt) is the byproduct of anaerobic microbial fermentation inside the gastro-intestinal tract that could reach upto 20 mM, and has been shown to inhibit the growth of various cancers. Herein, we evaluated its effect on mitochondrial fusion and associated induction of apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells (CRC). NaBt treatment at physiological (1-5 mM) concentrations for 12 and 24 h decreased the cell viability and induced G2-M phase cell cycle arrest in HCT116 (12h) and SW480 ...

  14. Horizontal transmission of malignancy: in-vivo fusion of human lymphomas with hamster stroma produces tumors retaining human genes and lymphoid pathology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Goldenberg

    Full Text Available We report the in-vivo fusion of two Hodgkin lymphomas with golden hamster cheek pouch cells, resulting in serially-transplanted (over 5-6 years GW-532 and GW-584 heterosynkaryon tumor cells displaying both human and hamster DNA (by FISH, lymphoma-like morphology, aggressive metastasis, and retention of 7 human genes (CD74, CXCR4, CD19, CD20, CD71, CD79b, and VIM out of 24 tested by PCR. The prevalence of B-cell restricted genes (CD19, CD20, and CD79b suggests that this uniform population may be the clonal initiating (malignant cells of Hodgkin lymphoma, despite their not showing translation to their respective proteins by immunohistochemical analysis. This is believed to be the first report of in-vivo cell-cell fusion of human lymphoma and rodent host cells, and may be a method to disclose genes regulating both organoid and metastasis signatures, suggesting that the horizontal transfer of tumor DNA to adjacent stromal cells may be implicated in tumor heterogeneity and progression. The B-cell gene signature of the hybrid xenografts suggests that Hodgkin lymphoma, or its initiating cells, is a B-cell malignancy.

  15. Genomic structure and evolution of the ancestral chromosome fusion site in 2q13-2q14.1 and paralogous regions on other human chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yuxin; Linardopoulou, Elena; Friedman, Cynthia; Williams, Eleanor; Trask, Barbara J

    2002-11-01

    Human chromosome 2 was formed by the head-to-head fusion of two ancestral chromosomes that remained separate in other primates. Sequences that once resided near the ends of the ancestral chromosomes are now interstitially located in 2q13-2q14.1. Portions of these sequences had duplicated to other locations prior to the fusion. Here we present analyses of the genomic structure and evolutionary history of >600 kb surrounding the fusion site and closely related sequences on other human chromosomes. Sequence blocks that closely flank the inverted arrays of degenerate telomere repeats marking the fusion site are duplicated at many, primarily subtelomeric, locations. In addition, large portions of a 168-kb centromere-proximal block are duplicated at 9pter, 9p11.2, and 9q13, with 98%-99% average sequence identity. A 67-kb block on the distal side of the fusion site is highly homologous to sequences at 22qter. A third ~100-kb segment is 96% identical to a region in 2q11.2. By integrating data on the extent and similarity of these paralogous blocks, including the presence of phylogenetically informative repetitive elements, with observations of their chromosomal distribution in nonhuman primates, we infer the order of the duplications that led to their current arrangement. Several of these duplicated blocks may be associated with breakpoints of inversions that occurred during primate evolution and of recurrent chromosome rearrangements in humans.

  16. Adhesion and fusion efficiencies of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) surface proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrowsky, Terrence M.; Rabi, S. Alireza; Nedellec, Rebecca; Daniels, Brian R.; Mullins, James I.; Mosier, Donald E.; Siliciano, Robert F.; Wirtz, Denis

    2013-10-01

    In about half of patients infected with HIV-1 subtype B, viral populations shift from utilizing the transmembrane protein CCR5 to CXCR4, as well as or instead of CCR5, during late stage progression of the disease. How the relative adhesion efficiency and fusion competency of the viral Env proteins relate to infection during this transition is not well understood. Using a virus-cell fusion assay and live-cell single-molecule force spectroscopy, we compare the entry competency of viral clones to tensile strengths of the individual Env-receptor bonds of Env proteins obtained from a HIV-1 infected patient prior to and during coreceptor switching. The results suggest that the genetic determinants of viral entry were predominantly enriched in the C3, HR1 and CD regions rather than V3. Env proteins can better mediate entry into cells after coreceptor switch; this effective entry capacity does not correlate with the bond strengths between viral Env and cellular receptors.

  17. Review: Human trophoblast fusion and differentiation: lessons from trisomy 21 placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidoux, G; Gerbaud, P; Cocquebert, M; Segond, N; Badet, J; Fournier, T; Guibourdenche, J; Evain-Brion, D

    2012-02-01

    The syncytiotrophoblast layer plays a major role throughout pregnancy, since it is the site of numerous placental functions, including ion and nutrient exchange and the synthesis of steroid and peptide hormones required for fetal growth and development. Inadequate formation and regeneration of this tissue contributes to several pathologies of pregnancy such as intrauterine growth restriction and preeclampsia, which may lead to iatrogenic preterm delivery in order to prevent fetal death and maternal complications. Syncytiotrophoblast formation can be reproduced in vitro using different models. For the last ten years we have routinely purified villous cytotrophoblastic cells (CT) from normal first, second and third trimester placentas and from gestational age-matched Trisomy 21 placentas. We cultured villous CT on plastic dishes to follow the molecular and biochemical aspects of their morphological and functional differentiation. Taking advantage of this unique collection of samples, we here discuss the concept that trophoblast fusion and functional differentiation may be two differentially regulated processes, which are linked but quite distinct. We highlight the major role of mesenchymal-trophoblast cross talk in regulating trophoblast cell fusion. We suggest that the oxidative status of the trophoblast may regulate glycosylation of proteins, including hCG, and thereby modulate major trophoblast cell functions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Adhesion and fusion efficiencies of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) surface proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrowsky, Terrence M; Rabi, S Alireza; Nedellec, Rebecca; Daniels, Brian R; Mullins, James I; Mosier, Donald E; Siliciano, Robert F; Wirtz, Denis

    2013-10-22

    In about half of patients infected with HIV-1 subtype B, viral populations shift from utilizing the transmembrane protein CCR5 to CXCR4, as well as or instead of CCR5, during late stage progression of the disease. How the relative adhesion efficiency and fusion competency of the viral Env proteins relate to infection during this transition is not well understood. Using a virus-cell fusion assay and live-cell single-molecule force spectroscopy, we compare the entry competency of viral clones to tensile strengths of the individual Env-receptor bonds of Env proteins obtained from a HIV-1 infected patient prior to and during coreceptor switching. The results suggest that the genetic determinants of viral entry were predominantly enriched in the C3, HR1 and CD regions rather than V3. Env proteins can better mediate entry into cells after coreceptor switch; this effective entry capacity does not correlate with the bond strengths between viral Env and cellular receptors.

  19. Improved efficacy of soluble human receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B (RANK) fusion protein by site-directed mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Young Jun; Han, Jihye; Lee, Jae Yeon; Kim, HaHyung; Chun, Taehoon

    2015-06-01

    Soluble human receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B fusion immunoglobulin (hRANK-Ig) has been considered as one of the therapeutic agents to treat osteoporosis or diseases associated with bone destruction by blocking the interaction between RANK and the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL). However, no scientific record showing critical amino acid residues within the structural interface between the human RANKL and RANK complex is yet available. In this study, we produced several mutants of hRANK-Ig by replacement of amino acid residue(s) and tested whether the mutants had increased binding affinity to human RANKL. Based on the results from flow cytometry and surface plasmon resonance analyses, the replacement of E(125) with D(125), or E(125) and C(127) with D(125) and F(127) within loop 3 of cysteine-rich domain 3 of hRANK-Ig increases binding affinity to human RANKL over the wild-type hRANK-Ig. This result may provide the first example of improvement in the efficacy of hRANK-Ig by protein engineering and may give additional information to understand a more defined structural interface between hRANK and RANKL.

  20. The Vascular-Targeting Fusion Toxin VEGF121/rGel Inhibits the Growth of Orthotopic Human Bladder Carcinoma Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Mohamedali

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Vascular endothelial growth factor. (VEGF and its receptors. (FLT-1 and KDR are overexpressed by human bladder cancer cells and tumor endothelial cells, respectively. Strategies that target VEGF receptors hold promise as antlanglogenic therapeutic approaches to bladder cancer. A fusion protein of VEGF121 and the plant toxin gelonin (rGel was constructed, expressed in bacteria, purified to homogeneity. Cytotoxicity experiments of VEGF121/rGel on the highly metastatic 253J B-V human bladder cancer cell line demonstrated that the VEGF121/rGel does not specifically target these cells, whereas Western blot analysis showed no defectable expression of KDR. Treatment with VEGF121/rGel against orthotopically implanted 253J B-V xenografts in nude mice resulted in a significant suppression of bladder tumor growth (-60% inhibition; P < .05 compared to controls. lmmunohistochemistry studies of orthotopic 253J B-V tumors demonstrated that KDR is highly overexpressed in tumor vasculature. Immunofluorescence staining with antibodies to CD-31 (blood vessel endothelium and reel demonstrated a dramatic colocalization of the construct on tumor neovasculature. Treated tumors also displayed an increase in terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTPblotin end labeling staining compared to controls. Thus, VEGF121/rGel inhibits the growth of human bladder cancer by cytotoxic effects directed against the tumor vascular supply and has significant potential as a novel antlangiogenic therapeutic against human bladder cancer.

  1. Genetic engineering, expression, and activity of a chimeric monoclonal antibody-avidin fusion protein for receptor-mediated delivery of biotinylated drugs in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boado, Ruben J; Zhang, Yufeng; Zhang, Yun; Xia, Chun-fang; Wang, Yuntao; Pardridge, William M

    2008-03-01

    The genetic engineering, expression, and validation of a fusion protein of avidin (AV) and a chimeric monoclonal antibody (mAb) to the human insulin receptor (HIR) is described. The 15 kDa avidin monomer was fused to the carboxyl terminus of the heavy chain of the HIRMAb. The fusion protein heavy chain reacted with antibodies specific for human IgG and avidin, and had the same affinity for binding to the HIR extracellular domain as the original chimeric HIRMAb. The fusion protein qualitatively bound biotinylated ligands, but was secreted fully saturated with biotin by COS cells, owing to the high level of biotin in tissue culture medium. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were permanently transfected with a tandem vector expressing the fusion protein genes, and high expressing cell lines were isolated by methotrexate amplification and dilutional cloning. The product expressed by CHO cells had high binding to the HIR, and migrated as a homogeneous species in size exclusion HPLC and native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The CHO cells were adapted to a 4 week culture in biotin depleted medium, and the HIRMAb-AV fusion protein expressed under these conditions had 1 unoccupied biotin binding site per molecule, based on a [3H]-biotin ultrafiltration assay. The HIRMAb-AV increased biotin uptake by human cells >15-fold, and mediated the endocytosis of fluorescein-biotin, as demonstrated by confocal microscopy. In summary, the HIRMAb-AV fusion protein is a new drug targeting system for humans that can be adapted to monobiotinylated drugs or nucleic acids.

  2. Representation, Classification and Information Fusion for Robust and Efficient Multimodal Human States Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this work is to enhance the robustness and efficiency of the multimodal human states recognition task. Human states recognition can be considered as a joint term for identifying/verifing various kinds of human related states, such as biometric identity, language spoken, age, gender, emotion, intoxication level, physical activity, vocal…

  3. A cloud platform for remote diagnosis of breast cancer in mammography by fusion of machine and human intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guodong; Fan, Ming; Li, Lihua

    2016-03-01

    Mammography is the gold standard for breast cancer screening, reducing mortality by about 30%. The application of a computer-aided detection (CAD) system to assist a single radiologist is important to further improve mammographic sensitivity for breast cancer detection. In this study, a design and realization of the prototype for remote diagnosis system in mammography based on cloud platform were proposed. To build this system, technologies were utilized including medical image information construction, cloud infrastructure and human-machine diagnosis model. Specifically, on one hand, web platform for remote diagnosis was established by J2EE web technology. Moreover, background design was realized through Hadoop open-source framework. On the other hand, storage system was built up with Hadoop distributed file system (HDFS) technology which enables users to easily develop and run on massive data application, and give full play to the advantages of cloud computing which is characterized by high efficiency, scalability and low cost. In addition, the CAD system was realized through MapReduce frame. The diagnosis module in this system implemented the algorithms of fusion of machine and human intelligence. Specifically, we combined results of diagnoses from doctors' experience and traditional CAD by using the man-machine intelligent fusion model based on Alpha-Integration and multi-agent algorithm. Finally, the applications on different levels of this system in the platform were also discussed. This diagnosis system will have great importance for the balanced health resource, lower medical expense and improvement of accuracy of diagnosis in basic medical institutes.

  4. Three-dimensional scaffold-free fusion culture: the way to enhance chondrogenesis of in vitro propagated human articular chondrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lehmann

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Cartilage regeneration based on isolated and culture-expanded chondrocytes has been studied in various in vitro models, but the quality varies with respect to the morphology and the physiology of the synthesized tissues. The aim of our study was to promote in vitro chondrogenesis of human articular chondrocytes using a novel three-dimensional (3-D cultivation system in combination with the chondrogenic differentiation factors transforming growth factor beta 2 (TGF-b2 and L-ascorbic acid. Articular chondrocytes isolated from six elderly patients were expanded in monolayer culture. A single-cell suspension of the dedifferentiated chondrocytes was then added to agar-coated dishes without using any scaffold material, in the presence, or absence of TGF-b2 and/or L-ascorbic acid. Three-dimensional cartilage-like constructs, called single spheroids, and microtissues consisting of several spheroids fused together, named as fusions, were formed. Generated tissues were mainly characterized using histological and immunohistochemical techniques. The morphology of the in vitro tissues shared some similarities to native hyaline cartilage in regard to differentiated S100-positive chondrocytes within a cartilaginous matrix, with strong collagen type II expression and increased synthesis of proteoglycans. Finally, our innovative scaffold-free fusion culture technique supported enhanced chondrogenesis of human articular chondrocytes in vitro. These 3-D hyaline cartilage-like microtissues will be useful for in vitro studies of cartilage differentiation and regeneration, enabling optimization of functional tissue engineering and possibly contributing to the development of new approaches to treat traumatic cartilage defects or osteoarthritis.

  5. Munc18b Increases Insulin Granule Fusion, Restoring Deficient Insulin Secretion in Type-2 Diabetes Human and Goto-Kakizaki Rat Islets with Improvement in Glucose Homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tairan Qin

    2017-02-01

    Infusion of Ad-Munc18b into GK rat pancreas led to sustained improvement in glucose homeostasis. However, Munc18b overexpression in normal islets increased only newcomer SG fusion. Therefore, Munc18b could potentially be deployed in human T2D to rescue the deficient GSIS.

  6. Galectin-1 as a fusion partner for the production of soluble and folded human {beta}-1,4-galactosyltransferase-T7 in E. coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasek, Marta [Structural Glycobiology Section, SAIC-Frederick, Inc., Center for Cancer Research Nanobiology Program, Center for Cancer Research, NCI-Frederick, Frederick, MD 2170 (United States); Boeggeman, Elizabeth; Ramakrishnan, Boopathy [Structural Glycobiology Section, SAIC-Frederick, Inc., Center for Cancer Research Nanobiology Program, Center for Cancer Research, NCI-Frederick, Frederick, MD 2170 (United States); Basic Science Program, SAIC-Frederick, Inc., Center for Cancer Research Nanobiology Program, Center for Cancer Research, NCI-Frederick, Frederick, MD 2170 (United States); Qasba, Pradman K., E-mail: qasba@helix.nih.gov [Structural Glycobiology Section, SAIC-Frederick, Inc., Center for Cancer Research Nanobiology Program, Center for Cancer Research, NCI-Frederick, Frederick, MD 2170 (United States)

    2010-04-09

    The expression of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli often leads to inactive aggregated proteins known as the inclusion bodies. To date, the best available tool has been the use of fusion tags, including the carbohydrate-binding protein; e.g., the maltose-binding protein (MBP) that enhances the solubility of recombinant proteins. However, none of these fusion tags work universally with every partner protein. We hypothesized that galectins, which are also carbohydrate-binding proteins, may help as fusion partners in folding the mammalian proteins in E. coli. Here we show for the first time that a small soluble lectin, human galectin-1, one member of a large galectin family, can function as a fusion partner to produce soluble folded recombinant human glycosyltransferase, {beta}-1,4-galactosyltransferase-7 ({beta}4Gal-T7), in E. coli. The enzyme {beta}4Gal-T7 transfers galactose to xylose during the synthesis of the tetrasaccharide linker sequence attached to a Ser residue of proteoglycans. Without a fusion partner, {beta}4Gal-T7 is expressed in E. coli as inclusion bodies. We have designed a new vector construct, pLgals1, from pET-23a that includes the sequence for human galectin-1, followed by the Tev protease cleavage site, a 6x His-coding sequence, and a multi-cloning site where a cloned gene is inserted. After lactose affinity column purification of galectin-1-{beta}4Gal-T7 fusion protein, the unique protease cleavage site allows the protein {beta}4Gal-T7 to be cleaved from galectin-1 that binds and elutes from UDP-agarose column. The eluted protein is enzymatically active, and shows CD spectra comparable to the folded {beta}4Gal-T1. The engineered galectin-1 vector could prove to be a valuable tool for expressing other proteins in E. coli.

  7. The human leukocyte antigen G promotes trophoblast fusion and β-hCG production through the Erk1/2 pathway in human choriocarcinoma cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ji-meng [School of Medicine, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Zhao, Hong-xi [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Tangdu Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an 710038 (China); Wang, Li [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, General Hospital of Chinese People’s Liberation Army, Beijing 100853 (China); Gao, Zhi-ying, E-mail: gaozy301@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, General Hospital of Chinese People’s Liberation Army, Beijing 100853 (China); Yao, Yuan-qing, E-mail: yqyao@126.com [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, General Hospital of Chinese People’s Liberation Army, Beijing 100853 (China)

    2013-05-10

    Highlights: •HLA-G expression promotes BeWo cells fusion and fusogenic gene expression. •HLA-G is capable of inducing β-hCG production in human choriocarcinoma cell lines. •Up-regulation of β-hCG production by HLA-G is mediated via the Erk1/2 pathway. -- Abstract: The human leukocyte antigen G (HLA-G) is expressed on the fetal–maternal interface and plays a role in protecting fetal-derived trophoblasts from the maternal immune response, allowing trophoblasts to invade the uterus. However, HLA-G also possesses immune suppressing-independent functions. We found that HLA-G expressing BeWo choriocarcinoma cells increased cell–cell fusion compared to control BeWo cells under forskolin treatment. Regardless of forskolin treatment, the expression of fusogenic gene mRNAs, including syncytin-1, the transcription factor glial cell missing 1 (Gcm1), and beta human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) were elevated. HLA-G up-regulates β-hCG production in human choriocarcinoma cells because HLA-G knockdown in JEG-3 cells induces a dramatic decrease in β-hCG compared with control cells. The defect in β-hCG production in HLA-G knocked-down cells could not be completely overcome by stimulating hCG production through increasing intracellular cAMP levels. HLA-G expressing cells have increased phosphorylation levels for extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (Erk1/2) in BeWo cells. The Erk1/2 pathway is inactivated after the inhibition of HLA-G expression in JEG-3 cells. Finally, Erk1/2 inhibition was able to suppress the increased hCG production induced by HLA-G expression. Together, these data suggest novel roles for HLA-G in regulating β-hCG production via the modulation of the Erk1/2 pathway and by inducing trophoblast cell fusion.

  8. Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2-induced heterotopic ossification of the retroperitoneum, psoas muscle, pelvis and abdominal wall following lumbar spinal fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Raj K. [The George Washington University School of Medicine, Washington, DC (United States); Moncayo, Valeria M.; Pierre-Jerome, Claude; Terk, Michael R. [Emory University School of Medicine, Radiology Department, Musculoskeletal Division, Atlanta, GA (United States); Smitson, Robert D. [Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2010-05-15

    A 45-year-old man presented with vertebral collapse at L5 as an initial manifestation of multiple myeloma and underwent spinal fusion surgery using recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2). Subsequent computed tomography (CT) scans and X-rays revealed heterotopic ossification of the left psoas muscle, pelvis, and anterior abdominal wall. While the occurrence of heterotopic ossification has previously been reported when rhBMP-2 has been used for spinal fusion surgery, this case demonstrates that it can occur to a much greater degree than previously seen. (orig.)

  9. Osteoclast Fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marie Julie Møller, Anaïs; Delaissé, Jean-Marie; Søe, Kent

    2017-01-01

    suggesting that fusion partners may specifically select each other and that heterogeneity between the partners seems to play a role. Therefore, we set out to directly test the hypothesis that fusion factors have a heterogenic involvement at different stages of nuclearity. Therefore, we have analyzed...... on the nuclearity of fusion partners. While CD47 promotes cell fusions involving mono-nucleated pre-osteoclasts, syncytin-1 promotes fusion of two multi-nucleated osteoclasts, but also reduces the number of fusions between mono-nucleated pre-osteoclasts. Furthermore, CD47 seems to mediate fusion mostly through......Investigations addressing the molecular keys of osteoclast fusion are primarily based on end-point analyses. No matter if investigations are performed in vivo or in vitro the impact of a given factor is predominantly analyzed by counting the number of multi-nucleated cells, the number of nuclei per...

  10. Human cytomegaloviruses expressing yellow fluorescent fusion proteins--characterization and use in antiviral screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straschewski, Sarah; Warmer, Martin; Frascaroli, Giada; Hohenberg, Heinrich; Mertens, Thomas; Winkler, Michael

    2010-02-11

    Recombinant viruses labelled with fluorescent proteins are useful tools in molecular virology with multiple applications (e.g., studies on intracellular trafficking, protein localization, or gene activity). We generated by homologous recombination three recombinant cytomegaloviruses carrying the enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (EYFP) fused with the viral proteins IE-2, ppUL32 (pp150), and ppUL83 (pp65). In growth kinetics, the three viruses behaved all like wild type, even at low multiplicity of infection (MOI). The expression of all three fusion proteins was detected, and their respective localizations were the same as for the unmodified proteins in wild-type virus-infected cells. We established the in vivo measurement of fluorescence intensity and used the recombinant viruses to measure inhibition of viral replication by neutralizing antibodies or antiviral substances. The use of these viruses in a pilot screen based on fluorescence intensity and high-content analysis identified cellular kinase inhibitors that block viral replication. In summary, these viruses with individually EYFP-tagged proteins will be useful to study antiviral substances and the dynamics of viral infection in cell culture.

  11. Human cytomegaloviruses expressing yellow fluorescent fusion proteins--characterization and use in antiviral screening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Straschewski

    Full Text Available Recombinant viruses labelled with fluorescent proteins are useful tools in molecular virology with multiple applications (e.g., studies on intracellular trafficking, protein localization, or gene activity. We generated by homologous recombination three recombinant cytomegaloviruses carrying the enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (EYFP fused with the viral proteins IE-2, ppUL32 (pp150, and ppUL83 (pp65. In growth kinetics, the three viruses behaved all like wild type, even at low multiplicity of infection (MOI. The expression of all three fusion proteins was detected, and their respective localizations were the same as for the unmodified proteins in wild-type virus-infected cells. We established the in vivo measurement of fluorescence intensity and used the recombinant viruses to measure inhibition of viral replication by neutralizing antibodies or antiviral substances. The use of these viruses in a pilot screen based on fluorescence intensity and high-content analysis identified cellular kinase inhibitors that block viral replication. In summary, these viruses with individually EYFP-tagged proteins will be useful to study antiviral substances and the dynamics of viral infection in cell culture.

  12. Complications and cancer rates in spine fusion with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavken, Julia; Mameghani, Alexander; Vavken, Patrick; Schaeren, Stefan

    2016-12-01

    To quantitatively synthesize the available best evidence for general complications, heterotopic ossification (HO), retrograde ejaculation, cervical swelling, and cancer rates with the use of rhBMP-2 in lumbar and cervical spine fusion. We conducted an online search for relevant controlled trials and extracted data on the abovementioned endpoints. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they reported on spinal fusion with rhBMP-2 in humans. Publication bias and heterogeneity were assessed mathematically. These data were synthesized in a meta-analysis using DerSimonian-Laird random effects modeling to calculate pooled odds ratios. We identified 26 studies reporting on a total of 184,324 patients (28,815 experimental, 155,509 controls) with a mean age of 51.1 ± 1.8 years. There was a significantly higher risk of general complications with rhBMP-2 compared to iliac crest bone graft (ICBG) with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.78 (95 %CI 1.20-2.63), (p = 0.004). The odds ratio for HO was 5.57 (95 %CI 1.90-16.36), (p = 0.002), for retrograde ejaculation 3.31 (95 %CI 1.20-9.09), (p = 0.020), and for cervical swelling 4.72 (95 %CI 1.42-15.67), (p = 0.011), all significantly higher in the rhBMP-2 group. The pooled odds ratio for new onset of tumor was 1.35 (95 %CI 0.93-1.96), which represents no statistically significant difference between the groups (p = 0.111). rhBMP-2 is associated with a higher rate of general complications as well as retrograde ejaculation, HO, and cervical tissue swelling in spine fusion. There is a slightly increased risk of new onset of tumors, however, without statistical significance.

  13. Membrane fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendix, Pól Martin

    2015-01-01

    At Stanford University, Boxer lab, I worked on membrane fusion of small unilamellar lipid vesicles to flat membranes tethered to glass surfaces. This geometry closely resembles biological systems in which liposomes fuse to plasma membranes. The fusion mechanism was studied using DNA zippering...... between complementary strands linked to the two apposing membranes closely mimicking the zippering mechanism of SNARE fusion complexes....

  14. A novel uPAg-KPI fusion protein inhibits the growth and invasion of human ovarian cancer cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Li-Ping; Xu, Tian-Min; Kan, Mu-Jie; Xiao, Ye-Chen; Cui, Man-Hua

    2016-05-01

    Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) acts by breaking down the basement membrane and is involved in cell proliferation, migration and invasion. These actions are mediated by binding to the uPA receptor (uPAR) via its growth factor domain (GFD). The present study evaluated the effects of uPAg-KPI, a fusion protein of uPA-GFD and a kunitz protease inhibitor (KPI) domain that is present in the amyloid β-protein precursor. Using SKOV-3 cells, an ovarian cancer cell line, we examined cell viability, migration, invasion and also protein expression. Furthermore, we examined wound healing, and migration and invasion using a Transwell assay. Our data showed that uPAg-KPI treatment reduced the viability of ovarian cancer SKOV-3 cells in both a concentration and time-dependent manner by arresting tumor cells at G1/G0 phase of the cell cycle. The IC50 of uPAg-KPI was 0.5 µg/µl after 48 h treatment. At this concentration, uPAg-KPI also inhibited tumor cell colony formation, wound closure, as well as cell migration and invasion capacity. At the protein level, western blot analysis demonstrated that uPAg-KPI exerted no significant effect on the expression of total extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/ERK2 and AKT, whereas it suppressed levels of phosphorylated ERK1/ERK2 and AKT. Thus, we suggest that this novel uPAg-KPI fusion protein reduced cell viability, colony formation, wound healing and the invasive ability of human ovarian cancer SKOV-3 cells in vitro by regulating ERK and AKT signaling. Further studies using other cell lines will confirm these findings.

  15. Design of a covalently linked human interleukin-10 fusion protein and its secretory expression in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guggenbichler, Florian; Büttner, Carolin; Rudolph, Wolfram; Zimmermann, Kurt; Gunzer, Florian; Pöhlmann, Christoph

    2016-12-01

    Wild-type human interleukin-10 (hIL-10) is a non-covalent homodimer with a short half-life, thus limiting its therapeutic applications in vivo. To avoid loss of function due to dimer dissociation, we designed a synthetic hIL-10 analog by bridging both monomers via a 15 amino acid-long peptide spacer in a C-terminal to N-terminal fashion. For secretory expression in Escherichia coli, a 1156 bp fragment was generated from template vector pAZ1 by fusion PCR encoding a T7 promoter region and the signal sequence of the E. coli outer membrane protein F fused in frame to two tandem E. coli codon-optimized mature hIL-10 genes connected via a 45 nucleotide linker sequence. The construct was cloned into pUC19 for high-level expression in E. coli BL21 (DE3). The mean concentrations of hIL-10 fusion protein in the periplasm and supernatant of E. coli at 37 °C growth temperature were 130 ± 40 and 2 ± 1 ng/ml, respectively. The molecular mass of the recombinant protein was assessed via matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) analysis, indicating correct processing of the signaling sequence in E. coli. In vitro biological activity was shown by phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription protein 3 and suppression of tumor necrosis factor α secretion in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages.

  16. Instrumental intelligent test of food sensory quality as mimic of human panel test combining multiple cross-perception sensors and data fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Qin; Zhao, Jiewen; Chen, Quansheng

    2014-09-02

    Instrumental test of food quality using perception sensors instead of human panel test is attracting massive attention recently. A novel cross-perception multi-sensors data fusion imitating multiple mammal perception was proposed for the instrumental test in this work. First, three mimic sensors of electronic eye, electronic nose and electronic tongue were used in sequence for data acquisition of rice wine samples. Then all data from the three different sensors were preprocessed and merged. Next, three cross-perception variables i.e., color, aroma and taste, were constructed using principal components analysis (PCA) and multiple linear regression (MLR) which were used as the input of models. MLR, back-propagation artificial neural network (BPANN) and support vector machine (SVM) were comparatively used for modeling, and the instrumental test was achieved for the comprehensive quality of samples. Results showed the proposed cross-perception multi-sensors data fusion presented obvious superiority to the traditional data fusion methodologies, also achieved a high correlation coefficient (>90%) with the human panel test results. This work demonstrated that the instrumental test based on the cross-perception multi-sensors data fusion can actually mimic the human test behavior, therefore is of great significance to ensure the quality of products and decrease the loss of the manufacturers.

  17. Evaluation of an injectable silk fibroin enhanced calcium phosphate cement loaded with human recombinant bone morphogenetic protein-2 in ovine lumbar interbody fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yong; Chen, Liang; Yang, Hui-Lin; Luo, Zong-Ping; Tang, Tian-Si

    2011-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of an injectable calcium phosphate cement/silk fibroin/human recombinant bone morphogenetic protein-2 composite (CPC/SF/rhBMP-2) in an ovine interbody fusion model. Twenty-four mature sheep underwent anterior lumbar interbody fusion at the levels of L1/2, L3/4, and L5/6 with random implantation of CPC/SF, CPC/rhBMP-2, CPC/SF/rhBMP-2, or autogenous iliac bone. After the sheep were sacrificed, the fusion segments were evaluated by manual palpation, CT scan, undestructive biomechanical testing, undecalcified histology, and histomorphology. The fusion rates of CPC/SF/rhBMP-2 were 55.56% and 77.78% at 6 and 12 months, respectively. The fusion was superior to all the biomaterial grafts in stiffness, and reached the same stiffness as the autograft at 12 months. The new bone formation was less than autograft at 6 months, but similar with that at 12 months. However, the ceramic residue volume of CPC/SF/rhBMP-2 was significantly decreased compared with CPC/SF and CPC/rhBMP-2 at both times. The results indicated that CPC/SF/rhBMP-2 composite had excellent osteoconduction and osteoinduction, and balanced degradation and osteogenesis.

  18. Human keratinocytes restrict chikungunya virus replication at a post-fusion step

    OpenAIRE

    Bernard, E.; Hamel, Rodolphe; Neyret, A.; Ekchariyawat, P.; Molès, J.P.; Simmons, G; Chazal, N; Desprès, P; Missé, Dorothée; Briant, L

    2015-01-01

    Transmission of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) to humans is initiated by puncture of the skin by a blood-feeding Aedes mosquito. Despite the growing knowledge accumulated on CHIKV, the interplay between skin cells and CHIKV following inoculation still remains unclear. In this study we questioned the behavior of human keratinocytes, the predominant cell population in the skin, following viral challenge. We report that CHIKV rapidly elicits an innate immune response in these cells leading to the enh...

  19. Instrumental intelligent test of food sensory quality as mimic of human panel test combining multiple cross-perception sensors and data fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouyang, Qin; Zhao, Jiewen; Chen, Quansheng, E-mail: qschen@ujs.edu.cn

    2014-09-02

    Highlights: • To develop a novel instrumental intelligent test methodology for food sensory analysis. • A novel data fusion was used in instrumental intelligent test methodology. • Linear and nonlinear tools were comparatively used for modeling. • The instrumental test methodology can be imitative of human test behavior. - Abstract: Instrumental test of food quality using perception sensors instead of human panel test is attracting massive attention recently. A novel cross-perception multi-sensors data fusion imitating multiple mammal perception was proposed for the instrumental test in this work. First, three mimic sensors of electronic eye, electronic nose and electronic tongue were used in sequence for data acquisition of rice wine samples. Then all data from the three different sensors were preprocessed and merged. Next, three cross-perception variables i.e., color, aroma and taste, were constructed using principal components analysis (PCA) and multiple linear regression (MLR) which were used as the input of models. MLR, back-propagation artificial neural network (BPANN) and support vector machine (SVM) were comparatively used for modeling, and the instrumental test was achieved for the comprehensive quality of samples. Results showed the proposed cross-perception multi-sensors data fusion presented obvious superiority to the traditional data fusion methodologies, also achieved a high correlation coefficient (>90%) with the human panel test results. This work demonstrated that the instrumental test based on the cross-perception multi-sensors data fusion can actually mimic the human test behavior, therefore is of great significance to ensure the quality of products and decrease the loss of the manufacturers.

  20. DC-SIGN Facilitates Fusion of Dendritic Cells with Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1-Infected Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccaldi, Pierre-Emmanuel; Delebecque, Frédéric; Prevost, Marie-Christine; Moris, Arnaud; Abastado, Jean-Pierre; Gessain, Antoine; Schwartz, Olivier; Ozden, Simona

    2006-01-01

    Interactions between the oncogenic retrovirus human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and dendritic cells (DCs) are poorly characterized. We show here that monocyte-derived DCs form syncytia and are infected upon coculture with HTLV-1-infected lymphocytes. We examined the role of DC-specific ICAM-3-grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN), a C-type lectin expressed in DCs, in HTLV-1-induced syncytium formation. DC-SIGN is known to bind with high affinity to various viral envelope glycoproteins, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus, as well as to the cellular receptors ICAM-2 and ICAM-3. After cocultivating DCs and HTLV-1-infected cells, we found that anti-DC-SIGN monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were able to decrease the number and size of HTLV-1-induced syncytia. Moreover, expression of the lectin in epithelial-cell lines dramatically enhanced the ability to fuse with HTLV-1-positive cells. Interestingly, in contrast to the envelope (Env) glycoproteins of HIV and other viruses, that of HTLV-1 does not bind directly to DC-SIGN. The facilitating role of the lectin in HTLV-1 syncytium formation is mediated by its interaction with ICAM-2 and ICAM-3, as demonstrated by use of MAbs directed against these adhesion molecules. Altogether, our results indicate that DC-SIGN facilitates HTLV-1 infection and fusion of DCs through an ICAM-dependent mechanism. PMID:16641270

  1. Prokaryotic Soluble Overexpression and Purification of Human VEGF165 by Fusion to a Maltose Binding Protein Tag.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minh Tan Nguyen

    Full Text Available Human vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF is a key regulator of angiogenesis and plays a central role in the process of tumor growth and metastatic dissemination. Escherichia coli is one of the most common expression systems used for the production of recombinant proteins; however, expression of human VEGF in E. coli has proven difficult because the E. coli-expressed VEGF tends to be misfolded and forms inclusion bodies, resulting in poor solubility. In this study, we successfully produced semi-preparative amounts of soluble bioactive human VEGF165 (hVEGF. We created seven N-terminal fusion tag constructs with hexahistidine (His6, thioredoxin (Trx, glutathione S-transferase (GST, maltose-binding protein (MBP, N-utilization substance protein A (NusA, human protein disulfide isomerase (PDI, and the b'a' domain of PDI (PDIb'a', and tested each construct for soluble overexpression in E. coli. We found that at 18°C, 92.8% of the MBP-tagged hVEGF to be soluble and that this tag significantly increased the protein's solubility. We successfully purified 0.8 mg of pure hVEGF per 500 mL cell culture. The purified hVEGF is stable after tag cleavage, contains very low levels of endotoxin, and is 97.6% pure. Using an Flk1+ mesodermal precursor cell (MPC differentiation assay, we show that the purified hVEGF is not only bioactive but has similar bioactivity to hVEGF produced in mammalian cells. Previous reports on producing hVEGF in E. coli have all been based on refolding of the protein from inclusion bodies. To our knowledge, this is the first report on successfully expressing and purifying soluble hVEGF in E. coli.

  2. Fusion rings and fusion ideals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Troels Bak

    by the so-called fusion ideals. The fusion rings of Wess-Zumino-Witten models have been widely studied and are well understood in terms of precise combinatorial descriptions and explicit generating sets of the fusion ideals. They also appear in another, more general, setting via tilting modules for quantum...

  3. Fusion neutronics

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yican

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a systematic and comprehensive introduction to fusion neutronics, covering all key topics from the fundamental theories and methodologies, as well as a wide range of fusion system designs and experiments. It is the first-ever book focusing on the subject of fusion neutronics research. Compared with other nuclear devices such as fission reactors and accelerators, fusion systems are normally characterized by their complex geometry and nuclear physics, which entail new challenges for neutronics such as complicated modeling, deep penetration, low simulation efficiency, multi-physics coupling, etc. The book focuses on the neutronics characteristics of fusion systems and introduces a series of theories and methodologies that were developed to address the challenges of fusion neutronics, and which have since been widely applied all over the world. Further, it introduces readers to neutronics design’s unique principles and procedures, experimental methodologies and technologies for fusion systems...

  4. Ambulatory human motion tracking by fusion of inertial and magnetic sensing with adaptive actuation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, H. Martin; Roetenberg, Daniel; Veltink, Peter H.

    2010-01-01

    Over the last years, inertial sensing has proven to be a suitable ambulatory alternative to traditional human motion tracking based on optical position measurement systems, which are generally restricted to a laboratory environment. Besides many advantages, a major drawback is the inherent drift cau

  5. Genomic Structure and Evolution of the Ancestral Chromosome Fusion Site in 2q13–2q14.1 and Paralogous Regions on Other Human Chromosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yuxin; Linardopoulou, Elena; Friedman, Cynthia; Williams, Eleanor; Trask, Barbara J.

    2002-01-01

    Human chromosome 2 was formed by the head-to-head fusion of two ancestral chromosomes that remained separate in other primates. Sequences that once resided near the ends of the ancestral chromosomes are now interstitially located in 2q13–2q14.1. Portions of these sequences had duplicated to other locations prior to the fusion. Here we present analyses of the genomic structure and evolutionary history of >600 kb surrounding the fusion site and closely related sequences on other human chromosomes. Sequence blocks that closely flank the inverted arrays of degenerate telomere repeats marking the fusion site are duplicated at many, primarily subtelomeric, locations. In addition, large portions of a 168-kb centromere-proximal block are duplicated at 9pter, 9p11.2, and 9q13, with 98%–99% average sequence identity. A 67-kb block on the distal side of the fusion site is highly homologous to sequences at 22qter. A third ∼100-kb segment is 96% identical to a region in 2q11.2. By integrating data on the extent and similarity of these paralogous blocks, including the presence of phylogenetically informative repetitive elements, with observations of their chromosomal distribution in nonhuman primates, we infer the order of the duplications that led to their current arrangement. Several of these duplicated blocks may be associated with breakpoints of inversions that occurred during primate evolution and of recurrent chromosome rearrangements in humans. [Supplemental material is available online at http://www.genome.org. The following individuals kindly provided reagents, samples, or unpublished information as indicated in the paper: T. Newman, C. Harris, and J. Young.] PMID:12421751

  6. Development of a 3D co-culture model using human stem cells for studying embryonic palatal fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morphogenetic tissue fusion is a critical and complex event in embryonic development and failure of this event leads to birth defects, such as cleft palate. Palatal fusion requires adhesion and subsequent dissolution of the medial epithelial layer of the mesenchymal palatal shelv...

  7. Development of a 3D co-culture model using human stem cells for studying embryonic palatal fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morphogenetic tissue fusion is a critical and complex event in embryonic development and failure of this event leads to birth defects, such as cleft palate. Palatal fusion requires adhesion and subsequent dissolution of the medial epithelial layer of the mesenchymal palatal shelv...

  8. Human Cytolytic Fusion Proteins: Modified Versions of Human Granzyme B and Angiogenin Have the Potential to Replace Bacterial Toxins in Targeted Therapies against CD64+ Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Berges

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Targeted therapies for the treatment of cancer, but also inflammation and autoimmune diseases will reduce major side effects accompanied with conventional treatment modalities. The immunotoxin concept uses bacterial or plant toxins, coupled to antibodies or natural ligands targeting cancer cells. Initially, immunotoxins suffered from drawbacks like nonspecific cytotoxicity. Even the third generation of immunotoxins comprised of truncated antibodies and modified effector molecules experienced clinical set-backs due to immune responses. Long-term treatment of cancer and non-life-threatening chronic inflammatory diseases requires their complete ‘humanization’. This lead to evaluating human cytolytic fusion proteins (hCFPs, based on human apoptosis-inducing proteins. Lacking an endogenous translocation domain dramatically reduces the cell-death inducing capacity of such proteins. Here, we report on optimizing hCFPs, based on the anti-CD64 single chain variable fragment H22(scFv, specifically eliminating CD64+ macrophages and malignant progenitor cells. We replaced the bacterial toxin in H22(scFv-ETA' with the pro-apoptotic human granzyme B or angiogenin. Translocation was promoted by a sophisticated adapter containing a membrane transfer peptide (MTD flanked by endosomal and cytosolic cleavable peptides, thus achieving in vitro cytotoxic activity comparable to bacterial immunotoxins. We demonstrate for the first time that optimized hCFPs, based on granzyme B or angiogenin, can compete with classical ETA-based immunotoxins.

  9. Malaria Vaccine Development: Are Bacterial Flagellin Fusion Proteins the Bridge between Mouse and Humans?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Y. Bargieri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past 25 years, the development of an effective malaria vaccine has become one of the biggest riddles in the biomedical sciences. Experimental data using animal infection models demonstrated that it is possible to induce protective immunity against different stages of malaria parasites. Nonetheless, the vast body of knowledge has generated disappointments when submitted to clinical conditions and presently a single antigen formulation has progressed to the point where it may be translated into a human vaccine. In parallel, new means to increase the protective effects of antigens in general have been pursued and depicted, such as the use of bacterial flagellins as carriers/adjuvants. Flagellins activate pathways in the innate immune system of both mice and humans. The recent report of the first Phase I clinical trial of a vaccine containing a Salmonella flagellin as carrier/adjuvant may fuel the use of these proteins in vaccine formulations. Herein, we review the studies on the use of recombinant flagellins as vaccine adjuvants with malarial antigens in the light of the current state of the art of malaria vaccine development. The available information indicates that bacterial flagellins should be seriously considered for malaria vaccine formulations to the development of effective human vaccines.

  10. Fusion transcript discovery in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded human breast cancer tissues reveals a link to tumor progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yan; Ambannavar, Ranjana; Stephans, James; Jeong, Jennie; Dei Rossi, Andrew; Liu, Mei-Lan; Friedman, Adam J; Londry, Jason J; Abramson, Richard; Beasley, Ellen M; Baker, Joffre; Levy, Samuel; Qu, Kunbin

    2014-01-01

    The identification of gene fusions promises to play an important role in personalized cancer treatment decisions. Many rare gene fusion events have been identified in fresh frozen solid tumors from common cancers employing next-generation sequencing technology. However the ability to detect transcripts from gene fusions in RNA isolated from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumor tissues, which exist in very large sample repositories for which disease outcome is known, is still limited due to the low complexity of FFPE libraries and the lack of appropriate bioinformatics methods. We sought to develop a bioinformatics method, named gFuse, to detect fusion transcripts in FFPE tumor tissues. An integrated, cohort based strategy has been used in gFuse to examine single-end 50 base pair (bp) reads generated from FFPE RNA-Sequencing (RNA-Seq) datasets employing two breast cancer cohorts of 136 and 76 patients. In total, 118 fusion events were detected transcriptome-wide at base-pair resolution across the 212 samples. We selected 77 candidate fusions based on their biological relevance to cancer and supported 61% of these using TaqMan assays. Direct sequencing of 19 of the fusion sequences identified by TaqMan confirmed them. Three unique fused gene pairs were recurrent across the 212 patients with 6, 3, 2 individuals harboring these fusions respectively. We show here that a high frequency of fusion transcripts detected at the whole transcriptome level correlates with poor outcome (Parchival FFPE tissues, and the potential prognostic value of the fusion transcripts detected.

  11. Mutations of LRTOMT, a fusion gene with alternative reading frames, cause nonsyndromic deafness in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Zubair M.; Masmoudi, Saber; Kalay, Ersan; Belyantseva, Inna A.; Mosrati, Mohamed Ali; Collin, Rob W. J.; Riazuddin, Saima; Hmani-Aifa, Mounira; Venselaar, Hanka; Kawar, Mayya N; Abdelaziz, Tlili; van der Zwaag, Bert; Khan, Shahid Y.; Ayadi, Leila; Riazuddin, S. Amer

    2008-01-01

    Many proteins necessary for sound transduction have been discovered through positional cloning of genes that cause deafness 1–3 . In this study, we report that mutations of LRTOMT are associated with profound non-syndromic hearing loss at the DFNB63 locus on human chromosome 11q13.3-q13.4. LRTOMT has two alternative reading frames and encodes two different proteins, LRTOMT1 and LRTOMT2, that are detected by Western blot analyses. LRTOMT2 is a putative methyltransferase. During evolution, nove...

  12. In vitro evaluation of human hybrid cell lines generated by fusion of B-lymphoblastoid cells and ex vivo tumour cells as candidate vaccines for haematological malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Yehia S; Dunnion, Debbie; Teobald, Iryna; Walewska, Renata; Browning, Michael J

    2012-10-12

    Fusions of dendritic cells (DCs) and tumour cells have been shown to induce protective immunity to tumour challenge in animal models, and to represent a promising approach to cancer immunotherapy. The broader clinical application of this approach, however, is potentially constrained by the lack of replicative capacity and limited standardisation of fusion cell preparations. We show here that fusion of ex vivo tumour cells isolated from patients with a range of haematological malignancies with the human B-lymphoblastoid cell line (LCL), HMy2, followed by chemical selection of the hybridomas, generated stable, self-replicating human hybrid cell lines that grew continuously in tissue culture, and survived freeze/thawing cycles. The hybrid cell lines expressed HLA class I and class II molecules, and the major T-cell costimulatory molecules, CD80 and CD86. All but two of 14 hybrid cell lines generated expressed tumour-associated antigens that were not expressed by HMy2 cells, and were therefore derived from the parent tumour cells. The hybrid cell lines stimulated allogeneic T-cell proliferative responses and interferon-gamma release in vitro to a considerably greater degree than their respective parent tumour cells. The enhanced T-cell stimulation was inhibited by CTLA4-Ig fusion protein, and by blocking antibodies to MHC class I and class II molecules. Finally, all of five LCL/tumour hybrid cell lines tested induced tumour antigen-specific cytotoxic T-cell responses in vitro in PBL from healthy, HLA-A2+ individuals, as detected by HLA-A2-peptide pentamer staining and cellular cytotoxicity. These data show that stable hybrid cell lines, with enhanced immunostimulatory properties and potential for therapeutic vaccination, can be generated by in vitro fusion and chemical selection of B-LCL and ex vivo haematological tumour cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. [Prokaryotic expression for fusion protein of human metapneumovirus and its preliminary application as an antigen for antibody detection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ru-nan; Qian, Yuan; Zhao, Lin-qing; Sun, Yu; Deng, Jie; Wang, Fang

    2011-03-01

    To understand the effectiveness of prokaryotic expression of fusion protein (F) of human metapneumovirus (hMPV) and its application as antigen, F proteins from different genotypes of hMPV were expressed in prokaryotic expression system and purified by Ni-NTA affinity chromatography column. According to the hydrophobicity, antigen index and surface probability of F protein, the subunit 1 (F1) region of F protein was generated and expressed in E. Coil. BL21(DE3). The 6-His-F1 proteins with molecular weight of approximately 37 kD generated from hMPV of two genotypes were expressed efficiently mainly in inclusion body. The antigenicity and specificity of the expressed proteins were tested and confirmed by Western Blot using polyclonal antibody against hMPV and one serum specimen from a patient with confirmed hMPV acute infection,and polyclonal antibodies against human respiratory syncytial virus and parainfluenza virus 2 and 3. The results of preliminary use of the expressed proteins for detecting antibodies against hMPV in 457 serum specimens collected from different age groups in Beijing indicated that 66%-67% of sera in all age groups were positive. The positive rate of antibodies declined in children in age groups from birth to 2-year-old and then rose along with the increase in age, in which the lowest was in age group from 1 to 2-year-old and the highest in newborn and people older than 60 years. The data indicated the existence of maternal transferred antibodies against hMPV in infants and the risk of hMPV infections in children younger than 2 years old.

  14. A magnetometer-free indoor human localization based on loosely coupled IMU/UWB fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zihajehzadeh, Shaghayegh; Yoon, Paul K; Park, Edward J

    2015-01-01

    The magnetic distortions in indoor environment affects the accuracy of yaw angle estimation using magnetometer. Thus, the accuracy of indoor localization based on inertial-magnetic sensors will be affected as well. To address this issue, this paper proposes a magnetometer-free solution for indoor human localization and yaw angle estimation. The proposed algorithm fuses a wearable inertial sensor consisting of MEMS-based accelerometer and gyroscope with a portable ultra-wideband (UWB) localization system in a cascaded two-step filter consisting of a tilt Kalman filter and a localization Kalman filter. By benchmarking against an optical motion capture system, the experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can accurately track position and velocity as well as the yaw angle without using magnetometer.

  15. Recombinant human bone morphogenic protein-2-enhanced anterior spine fusion without bone encroachment into the spinal canal: a histomorphometric study in a thoracoscopically instrumented porcine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Sucato, Daniel J; Welch, Robert D

    2005-03-01

    A thoracoscopically assisted 5-level anterior spinal fusion and instrumentation model analyzing new bone formation when using recombinant human bone morphogenic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) with a collagen hydroxyapatite-tricalcium phosphate (HA/TCP) composite sponge carrier. To determine whether new bone formation extends beyond the posterior confines of the vertebral body encroaching into the spinal canal when rhBMP-2 is used to enhance anterior fusion. A possible concern regarding the use of rhBMP-2 to enhance spinal fusion is the risk of unwanted bone formation leading to inadvertent fusion of adjacent levels or compression of neural elements. The safety of rhBMP-2 in one spinal application does not ensure similar results in other applications. Therefore, the expanded use of rhBMP-2 should occur only after carefully monitored preclinical and clinical studies for each new application. Eighteen pigs underwent thoracoscopically-assisted instrumentation and fusion of 5 contiguous levels (T5-T10) and randomly assigned to 4 treatment groups: group 1 (n = 6): rh-BMP-2 on a HA/TCP-collagen sponge (Medtronic Sofamor Danek, Memphis, TN); group 2 (n = 4): iliac crest autograft; group 3 (n = 4): empty; group 4 (n = 4): HA/TCP-collagen sponge (Medtronic Sofamor Danek) only. In groups 1 and 4, the HA/TCP collagen sponge was morselized into small granules and pushed through a bone delivery funnel for implantation into the disc. At 4 months after surgery, spines were sectioned longitudinally through the midsagittal plane and underwent undecalcified processing. Bone formation extending beyond the margins of the original discectomy and the confines of vertebral body were evaluated histomorphometrically at each operative level. Recombinant human bone morphogenic protein-2 on a HA/TCP-collagen sponge induced significant new bone formation extending anterior to the confines of the vertebral body compared with the other treatment groups (P fusion area and beyond the discectomy area (P fusion

  16. Viral receptor blockage by multivalent recombinant antibody fusion proteins: inhibiting human rhinovirus (HRV) infection with CFY196

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fang, Fang; Yu, Mang

    .... In this article, we have summarized the recently published work from Perlan Therapeutics, Inc. and others that involves creation of multivalent Fab fusion proteins against the HRV major receptor ICAM-1...

  17. Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics, and Efficacy of a Novel Long-Acting Human Growth Hormone: Fc Fusion Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Jin; Kwak, Hyun-Hee; Cho, Sung Yoon; Sohn, Young Bae; Park, Sung Won; Huh, Rimm; Kim, Jinsup; Ko, Ah-Ra; Jin, Dong-Kyu

    2015-10-05

    The current recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) therapy requires daily subcutaneous (sc) injections, which results in poor patient compliance, especially in young children. To reduce the dosing frequency, we generated a chimeric protein of rhGH and the Fc-domain of immunoglobulin G (IgG) (rhGH-Fc). The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of sc-injected rhGH-Fc were assessed in male Sprague-Dawley rats and hypophysectomized rats, respectively. A single sc injection of rhGH-Fc at a dose of 0.2 mg/kg slowly reached a Cmax of 16.80 ng/mL and remained for 7 days with a half-life of 51.1 h. Conversely, a single sc injection of rhGH 0.2 mg/kg rapidly reached a Cmax of 46.88 ng/mL and declined with a half-life of 0.55 h to baseline values in 4 h. In the efficacy study, the sc-injected rhGH-Fc induced rapid weight gain and tibial width growth at a dose of 240 μg/animal. The effect of two injections of rhGH-Fc separated by 1 week was comparable to that of the same dose of 14 daily injections of rhGH. The rhGH-Fc is a novel candidate for long-acting rhGH therapy with more convenient weekly administration, as it reduces glomerular filtration and receptor-mediated clearance while allowing for the rapid reversal of potential adverse events.

  18. A recombinant mimetics of the HIV-1 gp41 prehairpin fusion intermediate fused with human IgG Fc fragment elicits neutralizing antibody response in the vaccinated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Zhi; Pan, Chungen; Lu, Hong; Shui, Yuan [Lindsley F. Kimball Research Institute, New York Blood Center, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Li, Lin [Lindsley F. Kimball Research Institute, New York Blood Center, New York, NY 10065 (United States); School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510515 (China); Li, Xiaojuan; Xu, Xueqing; Liu, Shuwen [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510515 (China); Jiang, Shibo, E-mail: sjiang@nybloodcenter.org [Lindsley F. Kimball Research Institute, New York Blood Center, New York, NY 10065 (United States); School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510515 (China)

    2010-07-30

    Research highlights: {yields} One recombinant mimetics of gp41 prehairpin fusion intermediate (PFI) consisting of gp41 N46 sequence, foldon and IgG Fc, designated N46FdFc, was expressed. {yields} N46FdFc-induced antibodies in mice that neutralized HIV-1 infection, inhibited PIE7 binding to PFI, blocked gp41 six-helix bundle formation, and suppressed HIV-1 mediated cell-cell fusion. {yields} These findings provide an important clue for developing recombinant gp41 PFI mimetics-based HIV vaccines. -- Abstract: HIV-1 gp41 prehairpin fusion intermediate (PFI) composed of three N-terminal heptad repeats (NHR) plays a crucial role in viral fusion and entry and represents an attractive target for anti-HIV therapeutics (e.g., enfuvirtide) and vaccines. In present study, we constructed and expressed two recombinant gp41 PFI mimetics, designated N46Fd and N46FdFc. N46Fd consists of N46 (residues 536-581) in gp41 NHR and foldon (Fd), a trimerization motif. N46FdFc is composed of N46Fd fused with human IgG Fc fragment as an immunoenhancer. We immunized mice with N46 peptide, N46Fd and N46FdFc, respectively, and found that only N46FdFc elicited neutralizing antibody response in mice against infection by HIV-1 strains IIIB (clade B, X4), 92US657 (clade B, R5), and 94UG103 (clade A, X4R5). Anti-N46FdFc antibodies inhibited PIE7 binding to PFI, blocked gp41 six-helix bundle formation, and suppressed HIV-1 mediated cell-cell fusion. These findings provide an important clue for developing recombinant gp41 PFI mimetics-based HIV vaccines.

  19. Safety and effectiveness of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 for spinal fusion: a meta-analysis of individual-participant data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmonds, Mark C; Brown, Jennifer V E; Heirs, Morag K; Higgins, Julian P T; Mannion, Richard J; Rodgers, Mark A; Stewart, Lesley A

    2013-06-18

    Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) is widely used to promote fusion in spinal surgery, but its safety has been questioned. To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of rhBMP-2. Individual-participant data obtained from the sponsor or investigators and data extracted from study publications identified by systematic bibliographic searches through June 2012. Randomized, controlled trials of rhBMP-2 versus iliac crest bone graft (ICBG) in spinal fusion surgery for degenerative disc disease and related conditions and observational studies in similar populations for investigation of adverse events. Individual-participant data from 11 eligible of 17 provided trials sponsored by Medtronic (Minneapolis, Minnesota) (n = 1302) and 1 of 2 other eligible trials (n = 106) were included. Additional aggregate adverse event data were extracted from 35 published observational studies. Primary outcomes were pain (assessed with the Oswestry Disability Index [ODI] or Short Form-36), fusion, and adverse events. At 24 months, ODI scores were 3.5% lower (better) with rhBMP-2 than with ICBG (95% CI, 0.5% to 6.5%) and radiographic fusion was 12% higher (CI, 2% to 23%). At or shortly after surgery, pain was more common with rhBMP-2 (odds ratio, 1.78 [CI, 1.06 to 2.95]). Cancer was more common after rhBMP-2 (relative risk, 1.98 [CI, 0.86 to 4.54]), but the small number of events precluded definite conclusions. The observational studies were diverse and at risk of bias. At 24 months, rhBMP-2 increases fusion rates, reduces pain by a clinically insignificant amount, and increases early postsurgical pain compared with ICBG. Evidence of increased cancer incidence is inconclusive. Yale University Open Data Access Project.

  20. Discovery of CTCF-sensitive Cis-spliced fusion RNAs between adjacent genes in human prostate cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujun Qin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Genes or their encoded products are not expected to mingle with each other unless in some disease situations. In cancer, a frequent mechanism that can produce gene fusions is chromosomal rearrangement. However, recent discoveries of RNA trans-splicing and cis-splicing between adjacent genes (cis-SAGe support for other mechanisms in generating fusion RNAs. In our transcriptome analyses of 28 prostate normal and cancer samples, 30% fusion RNAs on average are the transcripts that contain exons belonging to same-strand neighboring genes. These fusion RNAs may be the products of cis-SAGe, which was previously thought to be rare. To validate this finding and to better understand the phenomenon, we used LNCaP, a prostate cell line as a model, and identified 16 additional cis-SAGe events by silencing transcription factor CTCF and paired-end RNA sequencing. About half of the fusions are expressed at a significant level compared to their parental genes. Silencing one of the in-frame fusions resulted in reduced cell motility. Most out-of-frame fusions are likely to function as non-coding RNAs. The majority of the 16 fusions are also detected in other prostate cell lines, as well as in the 14 clinical prostate normal and cancer pairs. By studying the features associated with these fusions, we developed a set of rules: 1 the parental genes are same-strand-neighboring genes; 2 the distance between the genes is within 30kb; 3 the 5' genes are actively transcribing; and 4 the chimeras tend to have the second-to-last exon in the 5' genes joined to the second exon in the 3' genes. We then randomly selected 20 neighboring genes in the genome, and detected four fusion events using these rules in prostate cancer and non-cancerous cells. These results suggest that splicing between neighboring gene transcripts is a rather frequent phenomenon, and it is not a feature unique to cancer cells.

  1. Expression and cytotoxicity of a human interleukin-6 tumor necrosis factor derivative fusion protein (5'IL6-TNF△) in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Objective :To develop an agent that is more active against receptor-bearing target cells without increasing the toxic effect on non-target cells. Methods :By the use of molecular biology techniques,we designed and constructed a fusion protein 5'IL6-TNF△ by connecting the human interleukin-6 (hIL-6) gene and a human tumor necrosis factor α derivative (TNF△) gene througha synthetic linker sequence followed by subsequent expression in E. Coli. Results: In cytotoxicity assay with myeloma cell line U266, the normal type of 5' IL6-TNF△ showed an antitumor activity 3 times higher than that of TNF△;and the antitumor activity of 5'IL6-TNF△ blocked by IL-6Rwas only 1/30 of that of normal type of 5' IL6-TNF△. Meanwhile,the 5'IL6-TNF△ blocked by an ti-TNF antibody did not show any cytotoxicity to U266 cells. In activity assay with L929 cells ,the toxic effect of the fusion protein was found 1/22 of that of TNF△. Conclusion: The 5'IL6-TNF△fusion protein might be a useful cytotoxic agent in cancer treatment.

  2. Relationship between the loss of neutralizing antibody binding and fusion activity of the F protein of human respiratory syncytial virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarisky Robert T

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To elucidate the relationship between resistance to HRSV neutralizing antibodies directed against the F protein and the fusion activity of the F protein, a recombinant approach was used to generate a panel of mutations in the major antigenic sites of the F protein. These mutant proteins were assayed for neutralizing mAb binding (ch101F, palivizumab, and MAb19, level of expression, post-translational processing, cell surface expression, and fusion activity. Functional analysis of the fusion activity of the panel of mutations revealed that the fusion activity of the F protein is tolerant to multiple changes in the site II and IV/V/VI region in contrast with the somewhat limited spectrum of changes in the F protein identified from the isolation of HRSV neutralizing antibody virus escape mutants. This finding suggests that aspects other than fusion activity may limit the spectrum of changes tolerated within the F protein that are selected for by neutralizing antibodies.

  3. The elementary fusion modalities of osteoclasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søe, Kent; Hobolt-Pedersen, Anne-Sofie; Delaisse, Jean-Marie

    2015-01-01

    , are not known for the osteoclast. Here we show that osteoclast fusion partners are characterized by differences in mobility, nuclearity, and differentiation level. Our demonstration was based on time-laps videos of human osteoclast preparations from three donors where 656 fusion events were analyzed. Fusions......The last step of the osteoclast differentiation process is cell fusion. Most efforts to understand the fusion mechanism have focused on the identification of molecules involved in the fusion process. Surprisingly, the basic fusion modalities, which are well known for fusion of other cell types...... between a mobile and an immobile partner were most frequent (62%), while fusion between two mobile (26%) or two immobile partners (12%) was less frequent (pfusion partner contained more nuclei than the mobile one (p

  4. Cold fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Suk Yong; Sung, Ki Woong; Kang, Joo Sang; Lee, Jong Jik [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-02-01

    So called `cold fusion phenomena` are not confirmed yet. Excess heat generation is very delicate one. Neutron generation is most reliable results, however, the records are erratic and the same results could not be repeated. So there is no reason to exclude the malfunction of testing instruments. The same arguments arise in recording {sup 4}He, {sup 3}He, {sup 3}H, which are not rich in quantity basically. An experiment where plenty of {sup 4}He were recorded is attached in appendix. The problem is that we are trying to search cold fusion which is permitted by nature or not. The famous tunneling effect in quantum mechanics will answer it, however, the most fusion rate is known to be negligible. The focus of this project is on the theme that how to increase that negligible fusion rate. 6 figs, 4 tabs, 1512 refs. (Author).

  5. Spinal Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... results in predictable healing. Autograft is currently the “gold standard” source of bone for a fusion. The ... pump. With this technique, the patient presses a button that delivers a predetermined amount of narcotic pain ...

  6. Pandemic H1N1 influenza A directly induces a robust and acute inflammatory gene signature in primary human bronchial epithelial cells downstream of membrane fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette, Stéphane G; Banner, David; Chi, Le Thi Bao; Leόn, Alberto J; Xu, Luoling; Ran, Longsi; Huang, Stephen S H; Farooqui, Amber; Kelvin, David J; Kelvin, Alyson A

    2014-01-05

    Pandemic H1N1 influenza A (H1N1pdm) elicits stronger pulmonary inflammation than previously circulating seasonal H1N1 influenza A (sH1N1), yet mechanisms of inflammatory activation in respiratory epithelial cells during H1N1pdm infection are unclear. We investigated host responses to H1N1pdm/sH1N1 infection and virus entry mechanisms in primary human bronchial epithelial cells in vitro. H1N1pdm infection rapidly initiated a robust inflammatory gene signature (3 h post-infection) not elicited by sH1N1 infection. Protein secretion inhibition had no effect on gene induction. Infection with membrane fusion deficient H1N1pdm failed to induce robust inflammatory gene expression which was rescued with restoration of fusion ability, suggesting H1N1pdm directly triggered the inflammatory signature downstream of membrane fusion. Investigation of intra-virion components revealed H1N1pdm viral RNA (vRNA) triggered a stronger inflammatory phenotype than sH1N1 vRNA. Thus, our study is first to report H1N1pdm induces greater inflammatory gene expression than sH1N1 in vitro due to direct virus-epithelial cell interaction.

  7. A Melanoma Brain Metastasis with a Donor-Patient Hybrid Genome following Bone Marrow Transplantation: First Evidence for Fusion in Human Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossitza Lazova

    Full Text Available Tumor cell fusion with motile bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs has long been posited as a mechanism for cancer metastasis. While there is much support for this from cell culture and animal studies, it has yet to be confirmed in human cancer, as tumor and marrow-derived cells from the same patient cannot be easily distinguished genetically.We carried out genotyping of a metastatic melanoma to the brain that arose following allogeneic bone-marrow transplantation (BMT, using forensic short tandem repeat (STR length-polymorphisms to distinguish donor and patient genomes. Tumor cells were isolated free of leucocytes by laser microdissection, and tumor and pre-transplant blood lymphocyte DNAs were analyzed for donor and patient alleles at 14 autosomal STR loci and the sex chromosomes.All alleles in the donor and patient pre-BMT lymphocytes were found in tumor cells. The alleles showed disproportionate relative abundances in similar patterns throughout the tumor, indicating the tumor was initiated by a clonal fusion event.Our results strongly support fusion between a BMDC and a tumor cell playing a role in the origin of this metastasis. Depending on the frequency of such events, the findings could have important implications for understanding the generation of metastases, including the origins of tumor initiating cells and the cancer epigenome.

  8. Oncogenic fusion proteins expressed in immature hematopoietic cells fail to recapitulate the transcriptional changes observed in human AML

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapin, N; Porse, B T

    2014-01-01

    in acute promyelocytic leukemia. Hematopoietic stem/progenitor (HSPCs) cells transduced with oncogenic fusion genes are regarded as promising in vitromodels of their corresponding AML subtypes. Here, we critically assessed the potential of such in vitro models using an integrative bioinformatics approach...

  9. Medical Image Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Rafizadeh

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Technological advances in medical imaging in the past two decades have enable radiologists to create images of the human body with unprecedented resolution. MRI, PET,... imaging devices can quickly acquire 3D images. Image fusion establishes an anatomical correlation between corresponding images derived from different examination. This fusion is applied either to combine images of different modalities (CT, MRI or single modality (PET-PET."nImage fusion is performed in two steps:"n1 Registration: spatial modification (eg. translation of model image relative to reference image in order to arrive at an ideal matching of both images. Registration methods are feature-based and intensity-based approaches."n2 Visualization: the goal of it is to depict the spatial relationship between the model image and refer-ence image. We can point out its clinical application in nuclear medicine (PET/CT.

  10. High Level Information Fusion (HLIF) with nested fusion loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodley, Robert; Gosnell, Michael; Fischer, Amber

    2013-05-01

    Situation modeling and threat prediction require higher levels of data fusion in order to provide actionable information. Beyond the sensor data and sources the analyst has access to, the use of out-sourced and re-sourced data is becoming common. Through the years, some common frameworks have emerged for dealing with information fusion—perhaps the most ubiquitous being the JDL Data Fusion Group and their initial 4-level data fusion model. Since these initial developments, numerous models of information fusion have emerged, hoping to better capture the human-centric process of data analyses within a machine-centric framework. 21st Century Systems, Inc. has developed Fusion with Uncertainty Reasoning using Nested Assessment Characterizer Elements (FURNACE) to address challenges of high level information fusion and handle bias, ambiguity, and uncertainty (BAU) for Situation Modeling, Threat Modeling, and Threat Prediction. It combines JDL fusion levels with nested fusion loops and state-of-the-art data reasoning. Initial research has shown that FURNACE is able to reduce BAU and improve the fusion process by allowing high level information fusion (HLIF) to affect lower levels without the double counting of information or other biasing issues. The initial FURNACE project was focused on the underlying algorithms to produce a fusion system able to handle BAU and repurposed data in a cohesive manner. FURNACE supports analyst's efforts to develop situation models, threat models, and threat predictions to increase situational awareness of the battlespace. FURNACE will not only revolutionize the military intelligence realm, but also benefit the larger homeland defense, law enforcement, and business intelligence markets.

  11. Fusion Machinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jakob Balslev; Milosevic, Ira

    2015-01-01

    the vesicular SNARE VAMP2/synaptobrevin-2 and the target (plasma membrane) SNAREs SNAP25 and syntaxin-1 results in fusion and release of neurotransmitter, synchronized to the electrical activity of the cell by calcium influx and binding to synaptotagmin. Formation of the SNARE complex is tightly regulated...... and appears to start with syntaxin-1 bound to an SM (Sec1/Munc18-like) protein. Proteins of the Munc13-family are responsible for opening up syntaxin and allowing sequential binding of SNAP-25 and VAMP2/synaptobrevin-2. N- to C-terminal “zippering” of the SNARE domains leads to membrane fusion...

  12. Inflammation-associated autophagy-related programmed necrotic death of human neutrophils characterized by organelle fusion events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalache, Cristina C; Yousefi, Shida; Conus, Sébastien; Villiger, Peter M; Schneider, E Marion; Simon, Hans-Uwe

    2011-06-01

    The most common form of neutrophil death, under both physiological and inflammatory conditions, is apoptosis. In this study, we report a novel form of programmed necrotic cell death, associated with cytoplasmic organelle fusion events, that occurs in neutrophils exposed to GM-CSF and other inflammatory cytokines upon ligation of CD44. Strikingly, this type of neutrophil death requires PI3K activation, a signaling event usually involved in cellular survival pathways. In the death pathway reported in this study, PI3K is required for the generation of reactive oxygen species, which somehow trigger the generation of large cytoplasmic vacuoles, generated by the fusion of CD44-containing endosomes with autophagosomes and secondary, but not primary, granules. Neutrophils demonstrating vacuolization undergo rapid cell death that depends on receptor-interacting protein 1 kinase activity and papain family protease(s), but not caspases, that are most likely activated and released, respectively, during or as a consequence of organelle fusion. Vacuolized neutrophils are present in infectious and autoimmune diseases under in vivo conditions. Moreover, isolated neutrophils from such patients are highly sensitive toward CD44-mediated PI3K activation, reactive oxygen species production, and cell death, suggesting that the newly described autophagy-related form of programmed neutrophil necrosis plays an important role in inflammatory responses.

  13. Fusion of Na-ASP-2 with human immunoglobulin Fcγ abrogates histamine release from basophils sensitized with anti-Na-ASP-2 IgE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Bin; Santiago, H; Keegan, B; Gillespie, P; Xue, J; Bethony, J; de Oliveira, L M; Jiang, D; Diemert, D; Xiao, S-H; Jones, K; Feng, X; Hotez, P J; Bottazzi, M E

    2012-01-01

    Na-ASP-2 is a major protein secreted by infective third-stage larvae (L3) of the human hookworm Necator americanus upon host entry. It was chosen as a lead vaccine candidate for its ability to elicit protective immune responses. However, clinical development of this antigen as a recombinant vaccine was halted because it caused allergic reactions among some of human volunteers previously infected with N. americanus. To prevent IgE-mediated allergic reactions induced by Na-ASP-2 but keep its immunogenicity as a vaccine antigen, we designed and tested a genetically engineered fusion protein, Fcγ/Na-ASP-2, composed of full-length Na-ASP-2 and truncated human IgG Fcγ1 that targets the negative signalling receptor FcγRIIb expressed on pro-allergic cells. The chimeric recombinant Fcγ/Na-ASP-2 protein was expressed in Pichia pastoris and shared the similar antigenicity as native Na-ASP-2. Compared to Na-ASP-2, the chimeric fusion protein efficiently reduced the release of histamine in human basophils sensitized with anti-Na-ASP-2 IgE obtained from individuals living in a hookworm-endemic area. In dogs infected with canine hookworm, Fcγ/Na-ASP-2 resulted in significantly reduced immediate-type skin reactivity when injected intradermally compared with Na-ASP-2. Hamsters vaccinated with Fcγ/Na-ASP-2 formulated with Alhydrogel(®) produced specific IgG that recognized Na-ASP-2 and elicited similar protection level against N. americanus L3 challenge as native Na-ASP-2. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Pandemic H1N1 influenza A directly induces a robust and acute inflammatory gene signature in primary human bronchial epithelial cells downstream of membrane fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paquette, Stéphane G. [Division of Experimental Therapeutics, Toronto General Hospital Research Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Institute of Medical Science, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Banner, David [Division of Experimental Therapeutics, Toronto General Hospital Research Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Chi, Le Thi Bao [Department of Microbiology, Hue University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Thua Thien Hue (Viet Nam); Carlo Urbani Centre, Hue University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Thua Thien Hue (Viet Nam); Leon, Alberto J. [Division of Experimental Therapeutics, Toronto General Hospital Research Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); International Institute of Infection and Immunity, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong (China); Xu, Luoling; Ran, Longsi [Division of Experimental Therapeutics, Toronto General Hospital Research Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Huang, Stephen S.H. [Division of Experimental Therapeutics, Toronto General Hospital Research Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Farooqui, Amber [Division of Experimental Therapeutics, Toronto General Hospital Research Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); International Institute of Infection and Immunity, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong (China); and others

    2014-01-05

    Pandemic H1N1 influenza A (H1N1pdm) elicits stronger pulmonary inflammation than previously circulating seasonal H1N1 influenza A (sH1N1), yet mechanisms of inflammatory activation in respiratory epithelial cells during H1N1pdm infection are unclear. We investigated host responses to H1N1pdm/sH1N1 infection and virus entry mechanisms in primary human bronchial epithelial cells in vitro. H1N1pdm infection rapidly initiated a robust inflammatory gene signature (3 h post-infection) not elicited by sH1N1 infection. Protein secretion inhibition had no effect on gene induction. Infection with membrane fusion deficient H1N1pdm failed to induce robust inflammatory gene expression which was rescued with restoration of fusion ability, suggesting H1N1pdm directly triggered the inflammatory signature downstream of membrane fusion. Investigation of intra-virion components revealed H1N1pdm viral RNA (vRNA) triggered a stronger inflammatory phenotype than sH1N1 vRNA. Thus, our study is first to report H1N1pdm induces greater inflammatory gene expression than sH1N1 in vitro due to direct virus–epithelial cell interaction. - Highlights: • We investigated H1N1pdm/sH1N1 infection in primary epithelial cells. • H1N1pdm directly initiated a robust inflammatory gene signature, sH1N1 did not. • H1N1pdm viral RNA triggered a stronger response than sH1N1. • H1N1pdm induces greater response due to direct virus–cell interaction. • These results have potential to impact vaccine and therapeutic development.

  15. A multi-biometric feature-fusion framework for improved uni-modal and multi-modal human identification

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Brown, K

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available provide important guidelines that enable the sys- tematic implementation of multi-modal biometric systems for future research and applications. Feature-level fusion is in particular need of these guidelines because of the ”curse of dimensionality” problem.... The training samples were sequentially chosen from one to five and the rest were used for testing. To the best of our knowledge there are no studies that fuse face and fingerprint data acquired from the SDUMLA multi-modal database. B. Pre-processing Pixel...

  16. Magnetic fusion; La fusion magnetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This document is a detailed lecture on thermonuclear fusion. The basic physics principles are recalled and the technological choices that have led to tokamaks or stellarators are exposed. Different aspects concerning thermonuclear reactors such as safety, economy and feasibility are discussed. Tore-supra is described in details as well as the ITER project.

  17. Efficient production and purification of extracellular domain of human FGFR-Fc fusion proteins from Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolowska-Wedzina, Aleksandra; Borek, Aleksandra; Chudzian, Julia; Jakimowicz, Piotr; Zakrzewska, Malgorzata; Otlewski, Jacek

    2014-07-01

    The family of fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) plays an important role in cell growth, survival, differentiation and angiogenesis. The three immunoglobulin-like extracellular domains of FGFR (D1, D2, and D3) are critical for ligand binding and specificity towards fibroblast growth factor and heparan sulfate. Fibroblast growth factor receptors are overexpressed in a wide variety of tumors, such as breast, bladder, and prostate cancer, and therefore they are attractive targets for different types of anticancer therapies. In this study, we have cloned, expressed in CHO cells and purified Fc-fused extracellular domains of different types of FGFRs (ECD_FGFR1a-Fc, ECD_FGFR1b-Fc, ECD_FGFR2a-Fc, ECD_FGFR2b-Fc, ECD_FGFR3a-Fc, ECD_FGFR3b-Fc, ECD_FGFR4a-Fc, ECD_FGFR4b-Fc), which could be used as molecular targets for the selection of specific antibodies. The fusion proteins were analyzed using gel electrophoresis, Western blotting and mass spectrometry. To facilitate their full characterization, the fusion proteins were deglycosylated using PNGase F enzyme. With an optimized transient transfection protocol and purification procedure we were able to express the proteins at a high level and purify them to homogeneity.

  18. Andrographolide sensitizes cisplatin-induced apoptosis via suppression of autophagosome-lysosome fusion in human cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jing; Hu, Shuai-Er; Tan, Shi-Hao; Cao, Ruoxi; Chen, Yiyang; Xia, Dajing; Zhu, Xinqiang; Yang, Xing-Fen; Ong, Choon-Nam; Shen, Han-Ming

    2012-03-01

    Suppression of autophagy has been increasingly recognized as a novel cancer therapeutic approach. Andrographolide (Andro), a diterpenoid lactone isolated from an herbal plant Andrographis paniculata, is known to possess anti-inflammatory and anticancer activity. In this study, we sought to examine the effect of Andro on autophagy, and to evaluate whether such effect is relevant to the sensitization effect of Andro on apoptosis induced by DNA damage agents in cancer cells. First, we found that Andro is able to significantly enhance autophagic markers in various cancer cell lines, including GFP-LC3 puncta and LC3-II level. Interestingly, Andro treatment also led to marked increase of p62 protein level and addition of chloroquine (CQ) failed to further enhance either LC3-II or p62 level, indicating that Andro is likely to suppress autophagic flux at the maturation and degradation stage. Next, we provided evidence that Andro inhibits autophagosome maturation not by affecting the lysosomal function, but by impairing autophagosome-lysosome fusion. Lastly, we demonstrated that treatment with cisplatin, a DNA damage agent, induces autophagy in cancer cells. Importantly, Andro is capable of sensitizing cisplatin-induced cell killing determined with both short-term apoptosis assays and long-term clonogenic test, via suppression of autophagy, a process independent of p53. In summary, these observations collectively suggest that Andro could be a promising anti-cancer agent in combination therapy via its potent inhibitory effect on autophagy by disrupting autophagosome-lysosome fusion.

  19. Tame Fusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.D. Scott

    2003-01-01

    The first section of this paper covers preliminaries. Essentially, the next four cover units. It is shown that a compatible nearring with DCCR is Nnilpotent if and only if every maximal right N-subgroup is a right ideal. The last five sections relate to fusion (I.e., N-groups minimal for being generated by Nsubgroups, where each is N-isomorphic to a given N-group). Right N-subgroups of a tame nearring N with DCCR, minimal for not annihilating a minimal ideal from the left, are self monogenic and N-isomorphic. That this holds for any collection of minimal ideals is significant. Here, the right N-subgroup involved is a 'fusion product' of the 'components'.

  20. Fusion in diffusion MRI for improved fibre orientation estimation: An application to the 3T and 7T data of the Human Connectome Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotiropoulos, Stamatios N; Hernández-Fernández, Moisés; Vu, An T; Andersson, Jesper L; Moeller, Steen; Yacoub, Essa; Lenglet, Christophe; Ugurbil, Kamil; Behrens, Timothy E J; Jbabdi, Saad

    2016-07-01

    Determining the acquisition parameters in diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) is governed by a series of trade-offs. Images of lower resolution have less spatial specificity but higher signal to noise ratio (SNR). At the same time higher angular contrast, important for resolving complex fibre patterns, also yields lower SNR. Considering these trade-offs, the Human Connectome Project (HCP) acquires high quality dMRI data for the same subjects at different field strengths (3T and 7T), which are publically released. Due to differences in the signal behavior and in the underlying scanner hardware, the HCP 3T and 7T data have complementary features in k- and q-space. The 3T dMRI has higher angular contrast and resolution, while the 7T dMRI has higher spatial resolution. Given the availability of these datasets, we explore the idea of fusing them together with the aim of combining their benefits. We extend a previously proposed data-fusion framework and apply it to integrate both datasets from the same subject into a single joint analysis. We use a generative model for performing parametric spherical deconvolution and estimate fibre orientations by simultaneously using data acquired under different protocols. We illustrate unique features from each dataset and how they are retained after fusion. We further show that this allows us to complement benefits and improve brain connectivity analysis compared to analyzing each of the datasets individually.

  1. High level expression, purification and characterization of active fusion human C1q and tumor necrosis factor related protein 2 (hCTRP2) in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongbo; Gao, Xuefei; Zhou, Yi; Li, Na; Ge, Caozuo; Hui, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yu; Xu, Aimin; Jin, Shouguang; Wu, Donghai

    2011-09-01

    C1q and tumor necrosis factor related proteins (CTRPs) are a family of adiponectin paralogues. Among them, CTRP2 is the only CTRP protein that has been shown to possess similar biological activities as adiponectin. To further explore the physiological roles of human CTRP2 and its mechanisms of action, hCTRP2 gene was expressed in Escherichia coli and Pichia pastoris, respectively. In the P. pastoris expression system, recombinant hCTRP2 could be secreted into the culture medium under induction condition, however, the resultant recombinant protein was highly unstable, resulting two main degradation products with molecular masses of approximately 20 and 26 kDa, respectively. In the E. coli expression system, a large amount of soluble thioredoxin (Trx)-hCTRP2 fusion protein could be produced, which accounts about 42% of the total soluble bacterial proteins. The recombinant Trx-hCTRP2 fusion protein was purified to an approximately 95% purity using Ni-NTA affinity chromatography and Superdex G-75 column with a yield of about 15 mg/l protein from 1l bacterial culture. The purified recombinant Trx-hCTRP2 was shown to be active under in vitro assay conditions.

  2. Truncation of the membrane-spanning domain of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoprotein defines elements required for fusion, incorporation, and infectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Ling; Shang, Liang; Hunter, Eric

    2009-11-01

    The membrane-spanning domain (MSD) of the envelope (Env) glycoprotein from human (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency viruses plays a key role in anchoring the Env complex into the viral membrane but also contributes to its biological function in fusion and virus entry. In HIV type 1 (HIV-1), it has been predicted to span 27 amino acids, from lysine residue 681 to arginine 707, and encompasses an internal arginine at residue 694. By examining a series of C-terminal-truncation mutants of the HIV-1 gp41 glycoprotein that substituted termination codons for amino acids 682 to 708, we show that this entire region is required for efficient viral infection of target cells. Truncation to the arginine at residue 694 resulted in an Env complex that was secreted from the cells. In contrast, a region from residues 681 to 698, which contains highly conserved hydrophobic residues and glycine motifs and extends 4 amino acids beyond 694R, can effectively anchor the protein in the membrane, allow efficient transport to the plasma membrane, and mediate wild-type levels of cell-cell fusion. However, these fusogenic truncated Env mutants are inefficiently incorporated into budding virions. Based on the analysis of these mutants, a "snorkeling" model, in which the flanking charged amino acid residues at 681 and 694 are buried in the lipid while their side chains interact with polar head groups, is proposed for the HIV-1 MSD.

  3. Carpal Fusion

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Carpal fusion may be seen in hereditary and nonhereditary conditions such as acrocallosal syndrome,acromegaly, Apert syndrome, arthrogryposis, Carpenter syndrome, chromosomal abnormalities, ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-cleft (EEC) syndrome, the F form of acropectorovertebral dysgenesis or the F syndrome, fetal alcohol syndrome, Holt-Oram syndrome, Leopard syndrome, multiple synostosis syndrome, oligosyndactyly syndrome, Pfeiffer-like syndrome, scleroderma, split hand and foot malformatio...

  4. Fusion rules of equivariantizations of fusion categories

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    We determine the fusion rules of the equivariantization of a fusion category $\\mathcal{C}$ under the action of a finite group $G$ in terms of the fusion rules of $\\mathcal{C}$ and group-theoretical data associated to the group action. As an application we obtain a formula for the fusion rules in an equivariantization of a pointed fusion category in terms of group-theoretical data. This entails a description of the fusion rules in any braided group-theoretical fusion category.

  5. Fusion rules of equivariantizations of fusion categories

    OpenAIRE

    Burciu, Sebastian; Natale, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    We determine the fusion rules of the equivariantization of a fusion category $\\mathcal{C}$ under the action of a finite group $G$ in terms of the fusion rules of $\\mathcal{C}$ and group-theoretical data associated to the group action. As an application we obtain a formula for the fusion rules in an equivariantization of a pointed fusion category in terms of group-theoretical data. This entails a description of the fusion rules in any braided group-theoretical fusion category.

  6. Allele-specific analysis of cell fusion-mediated pluripotent reprograming reveals distinct and predictive susceptibilities of human X-linked genes to reactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantone, Irene; Dharmalingam, Gopuraja; Chan, Yi-Wah; Kohler, Anne-Celine; Lenhard, Boris; Merkenschlager, Matthias; Fisher, Amanda G

    2017-01-25

    Inactivation of one X chromosome is established early in female mammalian development and can be reversed in vivo and in vitro when pluripotency factors are re-expressed. The extent of reactivation along the inactive X chromosome (Xi) and the determinants of locus susceptibility are, however, poorly understood. Here we use cell fusion-mediated pluripotent reprograming to study human Xi reactivation and allele-specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to identify reactivated loci. We show that a subset of human Xi genes is rapidly reactivated upon re-expression of the pluripotency network. These genes lie within the most evolutionary recent segments of the human X chromosome that are depleted of LINE1 and enriched for SINE elements, predicted to impair XIST spreading. Interestingly, this cadre of genes displays stochastic Xi expression in human fibroblasts ahead of reprograming. This stochastic variability is evident between clones, by RNA-sequencing, and at the single-cell level, by RNA-FISH, and is not attributable to differences in repressive histone H3K9me3 or H3K27me3 levels. Treatment with the DNA demethylating agent 5-deoxy-azacytidine does not increase Xi expression ahead of reprograming, but instead reveals a second cadre of genes that only become susceptible to reactivation upon induction of pluripotency. Collectively, these data not only underscore the multiple pathways that contribute to maintaining silencing along the human Xi chromosome but also suggest that transcriptional stochasticity among human cells could be useful for predicting and engineering epigenetic strategies to achieve locus-specific or domain-specific human Xi gene reactivation.

  7. New hPSC-based human models to study pediatric Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia harboring the fusion oncogene RBM15-MKL1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Ayllón

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia not associated to Down Syndrome (non-DS AMKL is a rare disease with a dismal prognosis. Around 15% of patients carry the chromosomal translocation t(1;22 that originates the fusion oncogene RBM15-MKL1, which is linked to an earlier disease onset (median of 6 months of age and arises in utero. Here we report the generation of two hPSC cell lines constitutively expressing the oncogene RBM15-MKL1, resulting in an increased expression of known RBM15-MKL1 gene targets. These cell lines represent new disease models of pediatric AMKL to study the impact of the RBM15-MKL1 oncogene on human embryonic hematopoietic development.

  8. 呼吸道合胞病毒F蛋白研究进展%The research pogress in fusion glycoprotein of human respiratory syncytial virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁媛

    2009-01-01

    The fusion glycoprotein (F) of human respiratory syncytial vires(RSV) is an important viral envelop protein which can induce protective immunity against RSV infection.The structural and functional characteristics of F protein play a central role in the understanding of infection and immunity,and in the development of vaccine.%人呼吸道合胞病毒(RSV)融合蛋白(F蛋白)为病毒表面结构蛋白,可以刺激机体产生保护性抗体和细胞免疫反应.因此对F蛋白的深入研究将有助于了解病毒感染的机理,从而为研究RSV的免疫机理、研制特定部位的亚单位或多肽疫苗提供帮助.

  9. Quotient Based Multiresolution Image Fusion of Thermal and Visual Images Using Daubechies Wavelet Transform for Human Face Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Bhowmik, Mrinal Kanti; Nasipuri, Mita; Basu, Dipak Kumar; Kundu, Mahantapas

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the multiresolution level-1 and level-2 Quotient based Fusion of thermal and visual images. In the proposed system, the method-1 namely "Decompose then Quotient Fuse Level-1" and the method-2 namely "Decompose-Reconstruct then Quotient Fuse Level-2" both work on wavelet transformations of the visual and thermal face images. The wavelet transform is well-suited to manage different image resolution and allows the image decomposition in different kinds of coefficients, while preserving the image information without any loss. This approach is based on a definition of an illumination invariant signature image which enables an analytic generation of the image space with varying illumination. The quotient fused images are passed through Principal Component Analysis (PCA) for dimension reduction and then those images are classified using a multi-layer perceptron (MLP). The performances of both the methods have been evaluated using OTCBVS and IRIS databases. All the different classes have been ...

  10. Ultra-low-dose recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 for 3-level anterior cervical diskectomy and fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourtaheri, Sina; Hwang, Ki; Faloon, Michael; Issa, Kimona; Mease, Samuel J; Mangels, Daniel; Sinha, Kumar; Emami, Arash

    2015-04-01

    This study evaluated the safety of 3-level anterior cervical diskectomy and fusion (ACDF) with ultra-low-dose recombinant bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2). Thirty-seven consecutive patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy who were treated with 3-level ACDF and rhBMP-2 were evaluated. Complications such as airway or cervical swelling or hematoma were not observed. The rate of dysphagia was no different at 1, 2, and 6 months postoperatively compared with reports in the literature without rhBMP-2. There were significant improvements in VAS neck/arm pain, Oswestry Neck Disability Index, and cervical lordosis. The use of ultra-low-dose rhBMP-2 for 3-level ACDF may be efficacious for surgically addressing 3-level spondylotic myelopathy.

  11. Anti-tumor effects of fusion vaccine prepared by renal cell carcinoma 786-O cell line and peripheral blood dendritic cells of healthy volunteers in vitro and in human immune reconstituted SCID mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhi; Liu, Shihui; Mai, Xuancheng; Hu, Zili; Liu, Chuan

    2010-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC), as professional antigen presenting cells, play the central role in the process of body initiating the anti-tumor immunity, and the study on DC anti-tumor vaccine has become heated in recent years. In this study, we used polyethylene glycol (PEG) to induce renal cell carcinoma (RCC) 786-O cell line fused with peripheral blood DC of healthy volunteers, and discuss the biological characteristics of fusion vaccine and its anti-tumor effects in vitro and in human immune reconstituted SCID mice model of RCC. The study found that PEG could effectively induce cell fusion, and the expressions of CD86 and HLA-DR in fusion vaccine group were significantly up-regulated compared with the DC control group; the secretion of IL-12 was much higher and longer than that of the control; the functions of dendritic cell-tumor fusion vaccine to stimulate the proliferation of allogenic T lymphocytes and to kill RCC786-O cells in vitro were significantly higher than those of the control group, and after the killing, apoptosis body was observed in the target cells; after the injection of fusion vaccine into human immune reconstituted SCID mice model of RCC786-O via vena caudalis, the volume of mice tumor was reduced significantly, proliferation index of tumor cells decreased obviously compared with that of the control group, and more hemorrhage and putrescence focuses presented, accompanying large quantity of lymphocytes soakage. The results of this experimental study shows that fusion vaccine of RCC786-O cell line and DC can significantly stimulate the proliferation of allogenic T cells and specifically inhibit and kill RCC cells in vitro and in vivo, which makes the DC-RCC786-O fusion vaccine a possible new way of effective RCC immunotherapy.

  12. Immunotherapy of a human papillomavirus type 16 E7-expressing tumor by administration of fusion protein comprised of Mycobacterium bovis BCG Hsp65 and HPV16 E7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, N R; Wu, H B; Wu, T C; Boux, L J; Mizzen, L A; Siegel, M I

    2000-11-01

    Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) infection has been linked to the development of cervical and anal dysplasia and cancer. One hallmark of persistent infection is the synthesis of the viral E7 protein in cervical epithelial cells. The expression of E7 in dysplastic and transformed cells and its recognition by the immune system as a foreign antigen make it an ideal target for immunotherapy. Utilizing the E7-expressing murine tumor cell line, TC-1, as a model of cervical carcinoma, an immunotherapy based on the administration of an adjuvant-free fusion protein comprised of Mycobacterium bovis BCG Hsp65 linked to HPV16 E7 (HspE7) has been developed. Initial in vitro analyses indicate that immunization with HspE7 results in the induction of a type 1 immune response based on the pattern of secreted cytokines and the presence of cytolytic activity following antigenic recall. It has been previously shown that prophylactic immunization with HspE7 protected mice against challenge with TC-1 cells and that these tumor-free animals are also protected against rechallenge with TC-1 cells. The present report shows that a single therapeutic immunization with HspE7 induces regression of palpable tumors, confers protection against tumor rechallenge, and is associated with long-term survival (>253 days). In vivo studies using mice with targeted mutations in CD8 or MHC class II or depleted of CD8 or CD4 lymphocyte subsets demonstrate that tumor regression following therapeutic HspE7 immunization is CD8 dependent and CD4 independent. These studies extend previous observations on the induction of CTL by Hsp fusion proteins and are consistent with the clinical application of HspE7 as an immunotherapy for human cervical and anal dysplasia and cancer.

  13. Human serum amyloid A3 (SAA3 protein, expressed as a fusion protein with SAA2, binds the oxidized low density lipoprotein receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Tomita

    Full Text Available Serum amyloid A3 (SAA3 possesses characteristics distinct from the other serum amyloid A isoforms, SAA1, SAA2, and SAA4. High density lipoprotein contains the latter three isoforms, but not SAA3. The expression of mouse SAA3 (mSAA3 is known to be up-regulated extrahepatically in inflammatory responses, and acts as an endogenous ligand for the toll-like receptor 4/MD-2 complex. We previously reported that mSAA3 plays an important role in facilitating tumor metastasis by attracting circulating tumor cells and enhancing hyperpermeability in the lungs. On the other hand, human SAA3 (hSAA3 has long been regarded as a pseudogene, which is in contrast to the abundant expression levels of the other isoforms. Although the nucleotide sequence of hSAA3 is very similar to that of the other SAAs, a single oligonucleotide insertion in exon 2 causes a frame-shift to generate a unique amino acid sequence. In the present study, we identified that hSAA3 was transcribed in the hSAA2-SAA3 fusion transcripts of several human cell lines. In the fusion transcript, hSAA2 exon 3 was connected to hSAA3 exon 1 or hSAA3 exon 2, located approximately 130kb downstream from hSAA2 exon 3 in the genome, which suggested that it is produced by alternative splicing. Furthermore, we succeeded in detecting and isolating hSAA3 protein for the first time by an immunoprecipitation-enzyme linked immune assay system using monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies that recognize the hSAA3 unique amino acid sequence. We also demonstrated that hSAA3 bound oxidized low density lipoprotein receptor (oxLDL receptor, LOX-1 and elevated the phosphorylation of ERK, the intracellular MAP-kinase signaling protein.

  14. Human sensory-evoked responses differ coincident with either "fusion-memory" or "flash-memory", as shown by stimulus repetition-rate effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baird Bill

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: A new method has been used to obtain human sensory evoked-responses whose time-domain waveforms have been undetectable by previous methods. These newly discovered evoked-responses have durations that exceed the time between the stimuli in a continuous stream, thus causing an overlap which, up to now, has prevented their detection. We have named them "A-waves", and added a prefix to show the sensory system from which the responses were obtained (visA-waves, audA-waves, somA-waves. Results: When A-waves were studied as a function of stimulus repetition-rate, it was found that there were systematic differences in waveshape at repetition-rates above and below the psychophysical region in which the sensation of individual stimuli fuse into a continuity. The fusion phenomena is sometimes measured by a "Critical Fusion Frequency", but for this research we can only identify a frequency-region [which we call the STZ (Sensation-Transition Zone]. Thus, the A-waves above the STZ differed from those below the STZ, as did the sensations. Study of the psychophysical differences in auditory and visual stimuli, as shown in this paper, suggest that different stimulus features are detected, and remembered, at stimulation rates above and below STZ. Conclusion: The results motivate us to speculate that: 1 Stimulus repetition-rates above the STZ generate waveforms which underlie "fusion-memory" whereas rates below the STZ show neuronal processing in which "flash-memory" occurs. 2 These two memories differ in both duration and mechanism, though they may occur in the same cell groups. 3 The differences in neuronal processing may be related to "figure" and "ground" differentiation. We conclude that A-waves provide a novel measure of neural processes that can be detected on the human scalp, and speculate that they may extend clinical applications of evoked response recordings. If A-waves also occur in animals, it is likely that A-waves will provide

  15. FUSION WORLD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Caroline; 黄颖(翻译)

    2009-01-01

    Fusion World”科技展示体验中心是英国设计公司MET Studio为新加坡科技研究局(A*Star)的科学工程委员会(SERC)所设计的,位于启汇城的办公地点,用于展示该委员会的精选技术作品,以吸引潜在的客户和启汇城内的学生购买群体。

  16. Carpal Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Jalalshokouhi*

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Carpal fusion may be seen in hereditary and nonhereditary conditions such as acrocallosal syndrome,acromegaly, Apert syndrome, arthrogryposis, Carpenter syndrome, chromosomal abnormalities, ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-cleft (EEC syndrome, the F form of acropectorovertebral dysgenesis or the F syndrome, fetal alcohol syndrome, Holt-Oram syndrome, Leopard syndrome, multiple synostosis syndrome, oligosyndactyly syndrome, Pfeiffer-like syndrome, scleroderma, split hand and foot malformation, Stickler syndrome, thalidomide embryopathy, Turner syndrome and many other conditions as mentioned in Rubinstein-Taybi's book. Sometimes there is no known causative disease.Diagnosis is usually made by plain X-ray during studying a syndrome or congenital disease or could be an incidental finding like our patients. Hand bone anomalies are more common in syndromes or other congenital or non-hereditary conditions, but polydactyly, syndactyly or oligodactyly and carpal fusions are interesting. X-ray is the modality of choice, but MRI and X-ray CT with multiplanar reconstructions may be used for diagnosis.

  17. Quotient Based Multiresolution Image Fusion of Thermal and Visual Images Using Daubechies Wavelet Transform for Human Face Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrinal Kanti Bhowmik

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates Quotient based Fusion of thermal and visual images, which were individually passed through level-1 and level-2 multiresolution analyses. In the proposed system, the method-1 namely "Decompose then Quotient Fuse Level-1" and the method-2 namely "Decompose-Reconstruct in level-2 and then Fuse Quotients", both work on wavelet transformations of the visual and thermal face images. The wavelet transform is well-suited to manage different image resolutions and allows the image decomposition in different kinds of coefficients, while preserving the image information without any loss. This approach is based on a definition of an illumination invariant signature image which enables an analytic generation of the image space with varying illumination. The quotient fused images are passed through Principal Component Analysis (PCA for dimension reduction and then those images are classified using a multi-layer perceptron (MLP. The performances of both the methods have been evaluated using OTCBVS and IRIS databases. All the different classes have been tested separately, among them the maximum recognition result for a class is 100% and the minimum recognition rate for a class is 73%.

  18. Comparative analysis of the fusion efficiency elicited by the envelope glycoprotein V1-V5 regions derived from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transmitted perinatally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hongyan; Abrahamyan, Levon G; Liu, Chang; Waltke, Mackenzie; Geng, Yunqi; Chen, Qimin; Wood, Charles; Kong, Xiaohong

    2012-12-01

    Understanding the properties of viruses preferentially establishing infection during perinatal transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is critical for the development of effective measures to prevent transmission. A previous study demonstrated that the newly transmitted viruses (in infants) of chronically infected mother-infant pairs (MIPs) were fitter in terms of growth, which was imparted by their envelope (Env) glycoprotein V1-V5 regions, than those in the corresponding chronically infected mothers. In order to investigate whether the higher fitness of transmitted viruses was conferred by their higher entry efficiency directed by the V1-V5 regions during perinatal transmission, the fusogenicity of Env containing V1-V5 regions derived from transmitted and non-tranmsmitted viruses of five chronically infected MIPs and two acutely infected MIPs was analysed using two different cell-cell fusion assays. The results showed that, in one chronically infected MIP, a higher fusion efficiency was induced by the infant Env V1-V5 compared with that of the corresponding mother. Moreover, the V4-V5 regions played an important role in discriminating the transmitted and non-transmitted viruses in this pair. However, neither a consistent pattern nor significant differences in fusogenicity mediated by the V1-V5 regions between maternal and infant variants was observed in the other MIPs. This study suggests that there is no consistent and significant correlation between viral fitness selection and entry efficiency directed by the V1-V5 regions during perinatal transmission. Other factors such as the route and timing of transmission may also be involved.

  19. Comparison of four methods for the purification and refolding of human interleukin-2-mouse granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor fusion protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Qian; Ma, Li; Luo, Wei; Zhou, Ming-Qian; He, Dong; Lin, Ying; Wu, Zhen-Qiang; He, Xiao-Wei; Wang, Ju-Fang; Wang, Xiao-Ning

    2008-05-01

    The combination of IL-2 (interleukin-2) and GM-CSF (granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor) has been broadly studied in antitumour immune therapy, but its efficacy is uncertain. To better exert the activities of the two cytokines and study them in a mouse model, we have constructed a bifunctional protein, hIL-2-mGM-CSF (human IL-2-mouse GM-CSF), fused to a C-terminal tag of six histidine residues (His(6)). The fusion protein was expressed in Escherichia coli as IBs (inclusion bodies). After extracting and clarifying the IBs, four methods of protein purification and refolding were compared in order to optimize the preparation technique. Of these methods, the best result was obtained with a four-step process consisting of (1) purification with denaturing affinity chromatography, (2) followed by fully denaturing the protein with system conversion, (3) then refolding by isovolumetric ultrafiltration and (4) finally, purification by anion-exchange chromatography. The purity of the hIL-2-mGM-CSF was approx. 95%, yielding approx. 20 mg of protein/l of culture. The fusion protein retained the natural activities of IL-2 and GM-CSF, with specific activities of 8.7 x 10(6) and 1.1 x 10(7) i.u./mg respectively. Flow-cytometric analysis indicated that hIL-2-mGM-CSF could specifically bind to the corresponding receptor-positive cells. The present study provides important preliminary information for studying the antitumour activity of hIL-2-mGM-CSF in vivo, which will facilitate future clinical research into the use of hIL-2/hGM-CSF in immune therapy.

  20. Prokaryotic soluble overexpression and purification of bioactive human growth hormone by fusion to thioredoxin, maltose binding protein, and protein disulfide isomerase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minh Tan Nguyen

    Full Text Available Human growth hormone (hGH is synthesized by somatotroph cells of the anterior pituitary gland and induces cell proliferation and growth. This protein has been approved for the treatment of various conditions, including hGH deficiency, chronic renal failure, and Turner syndrome. Efficient production of hGH in Escherichia coli (E. coli has proven difficult because the E. coli-expressed hormone tends to aggregate and form inclusion bodies, resulting in poor solubility. In this study, seven N-terminal fusion partners, hexahistidine (His6, thioredoxin (Trx, glutathione S-transferase (GST, maltose-binding protein (MBP, N-utilization substance protein A (NusA, protein disulfide bond isomerase (PDI, and the b'a' domain of PDI (PDIb'a', were tested for soluble overexpression of codon-optimized hGH in E. coli. We found that MBP and hPDI tags significantly increased the solubility of the hormone. In addition, lowering the expression temperature to 18°C also dramatically increased the solubility of all the fusion proteins. We purified hGH from MBP-, PDIb'a'-, or Trx-tagged hGH expressed at 18°C in E. coli using simple chromatographic techniques and compared the final purity, yield, and activity of hGH to assess the impact of each partner protein. Purified hGH was highly pure on silver-stained gel and contained very low levels of endotoxin. On average, ∼37 mg, ∼12 mg, and ∼7 mg of hGH were obtained from 500 mL-cell cultures of Trx-hGH, MBP-hGH, and PDIb'a'-hGH, respectively. Subsequently, hGH was analyzed using mass spectroscopy to confirm the presence of two intra-molecular disulfide bonds. The bioactivity of purified hGHs was demonstrated using Nb2-11 cell.

  1. Immunogenicity in mice and rhesus monkeys vaccinated with recombinant vaccinia virus expressing bivalent E7E6 fusion proteins from human papillomavirus types 16 and 18

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Houwen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Persistent infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV is a predominant cause of cervical cancer, and HPV16 and HPV18 occur in 50% and 20% of cervical cancer cases, respectively. The viral oncogenes E6 and E7 are constitutively expressed by HPV-associated tumour cells and can therefore be used as target antigens for immunotherapy. In this study, we constructed a recombinant vaccinia virus co-expressing the HPV16/18 E7E6 fusion proteins (rVVJ16/18E7E6 for use as a therapeutic vaccine for the treatment of HPV16+ and HPV18+ cancers. Methods We constructed a bivalent recombinant vaccinia virus expressing modified E7E6 fusion proteins of HPV type 16 and 18 (rVVJ16/18E7E6 based on the vaccinia virus Tiantan strain. We then defined the cellular immune responses to the virus in mice and rhesus monkeys and assessed antitumour efficacy of these responses in mice using the TC-1 tumour challenge model. Results Our data demonstrated that rVVJ16/18E7E6 was able to elicit varying levels of CD8+ T cell immune responses and lysis of target cells in mice in response to peptides HPV16E749-57 and HPV18E667-75. Furthermore, the virus was also able to induce anti-tumour responses in the HPV16+ TC-1 tumour challenge model, including partial protection (30-40% and delayed tumour appearance. In addition, the virus was able to induce immune responses in rhesus monkeys. Conclusions The recombinant vaccinia virus rVVJ16/18E7E6 can generate clear and significant cellular immunity in both mice and rhesus monkeys. These data provide a basis for the use of this recombinant virus as a potential vaccine candidate for further study.

  2. Production of aggregation prone human interferon gamma and its mutant in highly soluble and biologically active form by SUMO fusion technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tileva, M; Krachmarova, E; Ivanov, I; Maskos, K; Nacheva, G

    2016-01-01

    The Escherichia coli expression system is a preferable choice for production of recombinant proteins. A disadvantage of this system is the target protein aggregation in "inclusion bodies" (IBs) that further requires solubilisation and refolding, which is crucial for the properties and the yield of the final product. In order to prevent aggregation, SUMO fusion tag technology has been successfully applied for expression of eukaryotic proteins, including human interferon gamma (hIFNγ) that was reported, however, with no satisfactory biological activity. We modified this methodology for expression and purification of both the wild type hIFNγ and an extremely prone to aggregation mutant hIFNγ-K88Q, whose recovery from IBs showed to be ineffective upon numerous conditions. By expression of the N-terminal His-SUMO fusion proteins in the E. coli strain BL21(DE3)pG-KJE8, co-expressing two chaperone systems, at 24 °C a significant increase in solubility of both target proteins (1.5-fold for hIFNγ and 8-fold for K88Q) was achieved. Two-step chromatography (affinity and ion-exchange) with on-dialysis His-SUMO-tag cleavage was applied for protein purification that yielded 6.0-7.0mg/g wet biomass for both proteins with >95% purity and native N-termini. The optimised protocol led to increased yields from 5.5 times for hIFNγ up to 100 times for K88Q in comparison to their isolation from IBs. Purified hIFNγ showed preserved thermal stability and antiproliferative activity corresponding to that of the native reference sample (3 × 10(7)IU/mg). The developed methodology represents an optimised procedure that can be successfully applied for large scale expression and purification of aggregation-prone proteins in soluble native form.

  3. Based on NSCT and the Human Visual Characteristics of Medical Image Fusion%基于NSCT及人眼视觉特性的医学图像融合

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋媛

    2014-01-01

    Fusion problem for multi-modality medical images, presents an image fusion method based on Nonsubsampled Con⁃tourlet (NSCT) transform and human visual system (HVC) is . After transformation of the source image NSCT decomposition visibility measure low frequency based on the selection , the high frequency portion of the texture information based on the selec⁃tion , and then using the inverse transform to obtain a final blend NSCT image . Experimental results show that:the proposed fu⁃sion method can improve the spatial resolution , while maintaining spectral information and improved. Both visual and quantita⁃tive analysis in comparison with the conventional method , a good advantage.%针对多模态医学图像融合问题,提出一种基于非下采样Contourlet (NSCT)变换与人眼视觉特性(HVC)的图像融合方法。NSCT变换对源图像的分解后,低频部分基于可见性测度的选择,高频部分基于纹理信息的选择,然后采用NSCT逆变换获得最终融合图像。实验结果表明:所提出的融合方法可以提高空间分辨率,同时保持光谱信息,并有改善。无论是在视觉效果和定量分析与传统的方法相比较,有好的优越性。

  4. Therapeutic efficacy of a tuberculosis DNA vaccine encoding heat shock protein 65 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and the human interleukin 2 fusion gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changhong, Shi; Hai, Zhang; Limei, Wang; Jiaze, An; Li, Xi; Tingfen, Zhang; Zhikai, Xu; Yong, Zhao

    2009-01-01

    Use of therapeutic DNA vaccines is a promising strategy against tuberculosis (TB), however, their immunogenicity still needs to be improved. In this study, a plasmid DNA vaccine expressing heat shock protein 65 (HSP65) and the human interleukin 2 (IL-2) fusion gene was constructed. Immune responses induced by the vaccine in the mice and protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) were investigated, along with the therapeutic effect of the DNA vaccine on tuberculosis in mice. Administration of the HSP65-IL-2-DNA vaccine enhanced Th1-type cellular responses by producing greater amounts of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and IL-2 with a higher titer of antigen-specific anti-Hsp65 IgG2a. Compared with the Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine, the DNA vaccine was able to evoke both CD4 and CD8 T-cell responses, with an especially high percentage of CD8 T-cells. The DNA vaccine was also able to induce high antigen-specific cytotoxicity activity against target cells. When the mice were challenged with virulent MTB H37Rv, a dramatic decrease in the numbers of MTB colony forming units in the spleen and lungs was observed in the mice immunized with HSP65-IL-2-DNA (P<0.05). Meanwhile, the bacterial numbers in TB infected mice treated with the DNA vaccine were also significantly reduced. The protective and therapeutic effects of the HSP65-IL-2-DNA vaccine in the spleen and lungs were superior to that of the HSP65-DNA vaccine (P<0.05). These results suggest that the DNA vaccine expression of IL-2 and the HSP65 fusion gene enhances the immunogenicity and protective as well as therapeutic effects of the HSP65-DNA vaccine against TB in mice by improving the Th1-type response.

  5. Catalysed fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Farley, Francis

    2012-01-01

    A sizzling romance and a romp with subatomic particles at CERN. Love, discovery and adventure in the city where nations meet and beams collide. Life in a large laboratory. As always, the challenges are the same. Who leads? Who follows? Who succeeds? Who gets the credit? Who gets the women or the men? Young Jeremy arrives in CERN and joins the quest for green energy. Coping with baffling jargon and manifold dangers, he is distracted by radioactive rats, lovely ladies and an unscrupulous rival. Full of doubts and hesitations, he falls for a dazzling Danish girl, who leads him astray. His brilliant idea leads to a discovery and a new route to cold fusion. But his personal life is scrambled. Does it bring fame or failure? Tragedy or triumph?

  6. A Novel Human TGF-β1 Fusion Protein in Combination with rhBMP-2 Increases Chondro-Osteogenic Differentiation of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Claros

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β is involved in processes related to the differentiation and maturation of osteoprogenitor cells into osteoblasts. Rat bone marrow (BM cells were cultured in a collagen-gel containing 0.5% fetal bovine serum (FBS for 10 days in the presence of rhTGF (recombinant human TGF-β1-F2, a fusion protein engineered to include a high-affinity collagen-binding decapeptide derived from von Willebrand factor. Subsequently, cells were moderately expanded in medium with 10% FBS for 4 days and treated with a short pulse of rhBMP (recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 for 4 h. During the last 2 days, dexamethasone and β-glycerophosphate were added to potentiate osteoinduction. Concomitant with an up-regulation of cell proliferation, DNA synthesis levels were determined. Polymerase chain reaction was performed to reveal the possible stemness of these cells. Osteogenic differentiation was evaluated in terms of alkaline phosphatase activity and mineralized matrix formation as well as by mRNA expression of osteogenic marker genes. Moreover, cells were placed inside diffusion chambers and implanted subcutaneously into the backs of adult rats for 4 weeks. Histological study provided evidence of cartilage and bone-like tissue formation. This experimental procedure is capable of selecting cell populations from BM that, in the presence of rhTGF-β1-F2 and rhBMP-2, achieve skeletogenic potential in vitro and in vivo.

  7. A Novel Human TGF-β1 Fusion Protein in Combination with rhBMP-2 Increases Chondro-Osteogenic Differentiation of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claros, Silvia; Rico-Llanos, Gustavo A.; Becerra, José; Andrades, José A.

    2014-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) is involved in processes related to the differentiation and maturation of osteoprogenitor cells into osteoblasts. Rat bone marrow (BM) cells were cultured in a collagen-gel containing 0.5% fetal bovine serum (FBS) for 10 days in the presence of rhTGF (recombinant human TGF)-β1-F2, a fusion protein engineered to include a high-affinity collagen-binding decapeptide derived from von Willebrand factor. Subsequently, cells were moderately expanded in medium with 10% FBS for 4 days and treated with a short pulse of rhBMP (recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein)-2 for 4 h. During the last 2 days, dexamethasone and β-glycerophosphate were added to potentiate osteoinduction. Concomitant with an up-regulation of cell proliferation, DNA synthesis levels were determined. Polymerase chain reaction was performed to reveal the possible stemness of these cells. Osteogenic differentiation was evaluated in terms of alkaline phosphatase activity and mineralized matrix formation as well as by mRNA expression of osteogenic marker genes. Moreover, cells were placed inside diffusion chambers and implanted subcutaneously into the backs of adult rats for 4 weeks. Histological study provided evidence of cartilage and bone-like tissue formation. This experimental procedure is capable of selecting cell populations from BM that, in the presence of rhTGF-β1-F2 and rhBMP-2, achieve skeletogenic potential in vitro and in vivo. PMID:24968268

  8. Canalization of the Vestibular Plate in the Absence of Urethral Fusion Characterizes Development of the Human Clitoris: The Single Zipper Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overland, Maya; Li, Yi; Cao, Mei; Shen, Joel; Yue, Xuan; Botta, Sisir; Sinclair, Adriane; Cunha, Gerald; Baskin, Laurence

    2016-04-01

    We characterized the early gestation development of the female external genitalia using optical projection tomography to visualize anatomical structures at high resolution. First and early second trimester human female fetal external genitalia were collected with consent after voluntary termination. Specimens labeled with anti-E-Cadherin antibody underwent analysis with optical projection tomography. Histological sections were immunostained for androgen receptor, 5α-reductase, Ki67 for proliferation and Caspase 3 for apoptosis. Three-dimensional reconstructions demonstrated proximal to distal canalization of the epithelial vestibular plate and formation of a vestibular groove, which remained open. Ki67 was observed throughout with greatest density in the dorsal vestibular plate at the level of the opening groove. Staining for Caspase 3 was minimal in all sections. Androgen receptor staining was seen throughout the mesenchyme and in the apical epithelium of the dorsal vestibular groove. Throughout the epithelium and epidermis 5α-reductase staining was observed. Early development of the external genitalia in the female is analogous to that in the male, demonstrating a similar opening zipper driving canalization of the vestibular plate with localized epithelial proliferation in the absence of significant apoptosis. Thus we hypothesize that the mechanism underlying the opening zipper must be androgen independent and the absence of androgen driven urethral fusion characterizes the normal development of the human clitoris. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A system for the measurement of gene targeting efficiency in human cell lines using an antibiotic resistance-GFP fusion gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Yuko; Karnan, Sivasundaram; Takahashi, Miyuki; Ota, Akinobu; Damdindorj, Lkhagvasuren; Hosokawa, Yoshitaka; Konishi, Hiroyuki

    2012-09-01

    Gene targeting in a broad range of human somatic cell lines has been hampered by inefficient homologous recombination. To improve this technology and facilitate its widespread application, it is critical to first have a robust and efficient research system for measuring gene targeting efficiency. Here, using a fusion gene consisting of hygromycin B phosphotransferase and 3'-truncated enhanced GFP (HygR-5' EGFP) as a reporter gene, we created a molecular system monitoring the ratio of homologous to random integration (H/R ratio) of targeting vectors into the genome. Cell clones transduced with a reporter vector containing HygR-5' EGFP were efficiently established from two human somatic cell lines. Established HygR-5' EGFP reporter clones retained their capacity to monitor gene targeting efficiency for a longer duration than a conventional reporter system using an unfused 5' EGFP gene. With the HygR-5' EGFP reporter system, we reproduced previous findings of gene targeting frequency being up-regulated by the use of an adeno-associated viral (AAV) backbone, a promoter-trap system, or a longer homology arm in a targeting vector, suggesting that this system accurately monitors H/R ratio. Thus, our HygR-5' EGFP reporter system will assist in the development of an efficient AAV-based gene targeting technology.

  10. Enhanced immunogenicity of pneumococcal surface adhesin A (PsaA in mice via fusion to recombinant human B lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mambula Salamatu S

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background B lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS is a member of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily of ligands that mediates its action through three known receptors. BLyS has been shown to enhance the production of antibodies against heterologous antigens when present at elevated concentrations, supporting an immunostimulatory role for BLyS in vivo. Methods We constructed a fusion protein consisting of human BLyS and Pneumococcal Surface Adhesin A (PsaA and used this molecule to immunize mice. The immunostimulatory attributes mediated by BLyS in vivo were evaluated by characterizing immune responses directed against PsaA. Results The PsaA-BLyS fusion protein was able to act as a co-stimulant for murine spleen cell proliferation induced with F(ab'2 fragments of anti-IgM in vitro in a fashion similar to recombinant BLyS, and immunization of mice with the PsaA-BLyS fusion protein resulted in dramatically elevated serum antibodies specific for PsaA. Mice immunized with PsaA admixed with recombinant BLyS exhibited only modest elevations in PsaA-specific responses following two immunizations, while mice immunized twice with PsaA alone exhibited undetectable PsaA-specific serum antibody responses. Sera obtained from PsaA-BLyS immunized mice exhibited high titers of IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b, and IgG3, but no IgA, while mice immunized with PsaA admixed with BLyS exhibited only elevated titers of IgG1 following two immunizations. Splenocytes from PsaA-BLyS immunized mice exhibited elevated levels of secretion of IL-2, IL-4 and IL-5, and a very modest but consistent elevation of IFN-γ following in vitro stimulation with PsaA. In contrast, mice immunized with either PsaA admixed with BLyS or PsaA alone exhibited modestly elevated to absent PsaA-specific recall responses for the same cytokines. Mice deficient for one of the three receptors for BLyS designated Transmembrane activator, calcium modulator, and cyclophilin ligand [CAML] interactor (TACI exhibited

  11. History of Nuclear Fusion Research in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iguchi, Harukazu; Matsuoka, Keisuke; Kimura, Kazue; Namba, Chusei; Matsuda, Shinzaburo

    In the late 1950s just after the atomic energy research was opened worldwide, there was a lively discussion among scientists on the strategy of nuclear fusion research in Japan. Finally, decision was made that fusion research should be started from the basic, namely, research on plasma physics and from cultivation of human resources at universities under the Ministry of Education, Science and Culture (MOE). However, an endorsement was given that construction of an experimental device for fusion research would be approved sooner or later. Studies on toroidal plasma confinement started at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) under the Science and Technology Agency (STA) in the mid-1960s. Dualistic fusion research framework in Japan was established. This structure has lasted until now. Fusion research activities over the last 50 years are described by the use of a flowchart, which is convenient to glance the historical development of fusion research in Japan.

  12. Characterization of Pre-F-GCN4t, a Modified Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus Fusion Protein Stabilized in a Noncleaved Prefusion Conformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blais, Normand; Gagné, Martin; Hamuro, Yoshitomo; Rheault, Patrick; Boyer, Martine; Steff, Ann-Muriel; Baudoux, Guy; Dewar, Vincent; Demers, Josée; Ruelle, Jean-Louis; Martin, Denis

    2017-07-01

    The human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) fusion (F) protein is considered a major target of the neutralizing antibody response to hRSV. This glycoprotein undergoes a major structural shift from the prefusion (pre-F) to the postfusion (post-F) state at the time of virus-host cell membrane fusion. Recent evidences suggest that the pre-F state is a superior target for neutralizing antibodies compared to the post-F state. Therefore, for vaccine purposes, we have designed and characterized a recombinant hRSV F protein, called Pre-F-GCN4t, stabilized in a pre-F conformation. To show that Pre-F-GCN4t does not switch to a post-F conformation, it was compared with a recombinant post-F molecule, called Post-F-XC. Pre-F-GCN4t was glycosylated and trimeric and displayed a conformational stability different from that of Post-F-XC, as shown by chemical denaturation. Electron microscopy analysis suggested that Pre-F-GCN4t adopts a lollipop-like structure. In contrast, Post-F-XC had a typical elongated conical shape. Hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry demonstrated that the two molecules had common rigid folding core and dynamic regions and provided structural insight for their biophysical and biochemical properties and reactivity. Pre-F-GCN4t was shown to deplete hRSV-neutralizing antibodies from human serum more efficiently than Post-F-XC. Importantly, Pre-F-GCN4t was also shown to bind D25, a highly potent monoclonal antibody specific for the pre-F conformation. In conclusion, this construct presents several pre-F characteristics, does not switch to the post-F conformation, and presents antigenic features required for a protective neutralizing antibody response. Therefore, Pre-F-GCN4t can be considered a promising candidate vaccine antigen.IMPORTANCE Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a global leading cause of infant mortality and adult morbidity. The development of a safe and efficacious RSV vaccine remains an important goal. The RSV class I fusion (F

  13. A novel human immunoglobulin Fcγ–Fcε bifunctional fusion protein inhibits FcεRI-mediated degranulation

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Daocheng; Kepley, Christopher L.; Zhang, Min; Zhang, Ke; Saxon, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    Human mast cells and basophils that express the high-affinity immunoglobulin E (IgE) receptor, Fcε receptor 1 (FcεRI), have key roles in allergic diseases. FcεRI cross-linking stimulates the release of allergic mediators1. Mast cells and basophils co-express FcγRIIb, a low affinity receptor containing an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif and whose co-aggregation with FcεRI can block FcεRI-mediated reactivity2–4. Here we designed, expressed and tested the human basophil and mast-c...

  14. Automatic 2D-to-3D video conversion by monocular depth cues fusion and utilizing human face landmarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fard, Mani B.; Bayazit, Ulug

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a hybrid 2D-to-3D video conversion system to recover the 3D structure of the scene. Depending on the scene characteristics, geometric or height depth information is adopted to form the initial depth map. This depth map is fused with color-based depth cues to construct the nal depth map of the scene background. The depths of the foreground objects are estimated after their classi cation into human and non-human regions. Speci cally, the depth of a non-human foreground object is directly calculated from the depth of the region behind it in the background. To acquire more accurate depth for the regions containing a human, the estimation of the distance between face landmarks is also taken into account. Finally, the computed depth information of the foreground regions is superimposed on the background depth map to generate the complete depth map of the scene which is the main goal in the process of converting 2D video to 3D.

  15. Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Enters Human Keratinocytes by a Nectin-1-Dependent, Rapid Plasma Membrane Fusion Pathway That Functions at Low Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayers, Charlotte L; Elliott, Gillian

    2016-11-15

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infects humans through stratified epithelia that are composed primarily of keratinocytes. The route of HSV-1 entry into keratinocytes has been the subject of limited investigation, but it is proposed to involve pH-dependent endocytosis, requiring the gD-binding receptor nectin-1. Here, we have utilized the nTERT human keratinocyte cell line as a new model for dissecting the mechanism of HSV-1 entry into the host. Although immortalized, these cells nonetheless retain normal growth and differentiation properties of primary cells. Using short interfering RNA (siRNA) depletion studies, we confirm that, despite nTERT cells expressing high levels of the alternative gD receptor HVEM, HSV-1 requires nectin-1, not HVEM, to enter these cells. Strikingly, virus entry into nTERT cells occurred with unusual rapidity, such that maximum penetration was achieved within 5 min. Moreover, HSV-1 was able to enter keratinocytes but not other cell types at temperatures as low as 7°C, conditions where endocytosis was shown to be completely inhibited. Transmission electron microscopy of early entry events at both 37°C and 7°C identified numerous examples of naked virus capsids located immediately beneath the plasma membrane, with no evidence of virions in cytoplasmic vesicles. Taken together, these results imply that HSV-1 uses the nectin-1 receptor to enter human keratinocyte cells via a previously uncharacterized rapid plasma membrane fusion pathway that functions at low temperature. These studies have important implications for current understanding of the relationship between HSV-1 and its relevant in vivo target cell. The gold standard of antiviral treatment for any human virus infection is the prevention of virus entry into the host cell. In the case of HSV-1, primary infection in the human begins in the epidermis of the skin or the oral mucosa, where the virus infects keratinocytes, and it is therefore important to understand the molecular events

  16. Offline fusion of co-registered intravascular ultrasound and frequency domain optical coherence tomography images for the analysis of human atherosclerotic plaques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Räber, Lorenz; Heo, Jung Ho; Radu, Maria D

    2012-01-01

    To demonstrate the feasibility and potential usefulness of an offline fusion of matched optical coherence tomography (OCT) and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS)/virtual histology (IVUS-VH) images.......To demonstrate the feasibility and potential usefulness of an offline fusion of matched optical coherence tomography (OCT) and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS)/virtual histology (IVUS-VH) images....

  17. Characterization of human αβTCR repertoire and discovery of D-D fusion in TCRβ chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peipei; Liu, Di; Yang, Xi; Gao, Jing; Chen, Yan; Xiao, Xue; Liu, Fei; Zou, Jing; Wu, Jun; Ma, Juncai; Zhao, Fangqing; Zhou, Xuyu; Gao, George F; Zhu, Baoli

    2014-01-01

    The characterization of the human T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire has made remarkable progress, with most of the work focusing on the TCRβ chains. Here, we analyzed the diversity and complexity of both the TCRα and TCRβ repertoires of three healthy donors. We found that the diversity of the TCRα repertoire is higher than that of the TCRβ repertoire, whereas the usages of the V and J genes tended to be preferential with similar TRAV and TRAJ patterns in all three donors. The V-J pairings, like the V and J gene usages, were slightly preferential. We also found that the TRDV1 gene rearranges with the majority of TRAJ genes, suggesting that TRDV1 is a shared TRAV/DV gene (TRAV42/DV1). Moreover, we uncovered the presence of tandem TRBD (TRB D gene) usage in ~2% of the productive human TCRβ CDR3 sequences.

  18. Attenuated human parainfluenza virus type 1 (HPIV1) expressing the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) fusion F glycoprotein from an added gene: effects of pre-fusion stabilization and packaging of RSV F.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiang; Liang, Bo; Ngwuta, Joan; Liu, Xueqiao; Surman, Sonja; Lingemann, Matthias; Kwong, Peter D; Graham, Barney S; Collins, Peter L; Munir, Shirin

    2017-08-23

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most prevalent worldwide cause of severe respiratory tract infection in infants and young children. Human parainfluenza virus type 1 (HPIV1) also causes severe pediatric respiratory illness, especially croup. Both viruses lack vaccines. Here, we describe the preclinical development of a bivalent RSV/HPIV1 vaccine based on a recombinant HPIV1 vector, attenuated by a stabilized mutation, that expresses RSV F protein modified for increased stability in the pre-fusion (pre-F) conformation by previously-described disulfide bond (DS) and hydrophobic cavity-filling (Cav1) mutations. RSV F was expressed from the first or second gene position as the full-length protein or as a chimeric protein with its transmembrane (TM) and cytoplasmic tail (CT) domains substituted with those of HPIV1 F in an effort to direct packaging in the vector particles. All constructs were recovered by reverse genetics. The TMCT versions of RSV F were packaged in the rHPIV1 particles much more efficiently than their full-length counterparts. In hamsters, the presence of the RSV F gene, and in particular the TMCT versions, was attenuating and resulted in reduced immunogenicity. However, the vector expressing full-length RSV F from the pre-N position was immunogenic for RSV and HPIV1. It conferred complement-independent high-quality RSV-neutralizing antibodies at titers similar to those of wild type RSV and provided protection against RSV challenge. The vectors exhibited stable RSV F expression in vitro and in vivo In conclusion, an attenuated rHPIV1 vector expressing a pre-F-stabilized form of RSV F demonstrated promising immunogenicity and should be further developed as an intranasal pediatric vaccine.Importance. RSV and HPIV1 are major viral causes of acute pediatric respiratory illness for which no vaccines or suitable antiviral drugs are available. The RSV F glycoprotein is the major RSV neutralization antigen. We used a rHPIV1 vector, bearing a

  19. Full inactivation of human influenza virus by high hydrostatic pressure preserves virus structure and membrane fusion while conferring protection to mice against infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumard, Carlos H; Barroso, Shana P C; de Oliveira, Guilherme A P; Carvalho, Carlos A M; Gomes, Andre M O; Couceiro, José Nelson S S; Ferreira, Davis F; Nico, Dirlei; Oliveira, Andrea C; Silva, Jerson L; Santos, Patrícia S

    2013-01-01

    Whole inactivated vaccines (WIVs) possess greater immunogenicity than split or subunit vaccines, and recent studies have demonstrated that WIVs with preserved fusogenic activity are more protective than non-fusogenic WIVs. In this work, we describe the inactivation of human influenza virus X-31 by high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) and analyze the effects on the structure by spectroscopic measurements, light scattering, and electron microscopy. We also investigated the effects of HHP on the glycoprotein activity and fusogenic activity of the viral particles. The electron microscopy data showed pore formation on the viral envelope, but the general morphology was preserved, and small variations were seen in the particle structure. The activity of hemagglutinin (HA) during the process of binding and fusion was affected in a time-dependent manner, but neuraminidase (NA) activity was not affected. Infectious activity ceased after 3 hours of pressurization, and mice were protected from infection after being vaccinated. Our results revealed full viral inactivation with overall preservation of viral structure and maintenance of fusogenic activity, thereby conferring protection against infection. A strong response consisting of serum immunoglobulin IgG1, IgG2a, and serum and mucosal IgA was also detected after vaccination. Thus, our data strongly suggest that applying hydrostatic pressure may be an effective method for developing new vaccines against influenza A as well as other viruses.

  20. Genetic diversity, seasonality and transmission network of human metapneumovirus: identification of a unique sub-lineage of the fusion and attachment genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Wei Zhen; Chan, Yoke Fun; Oong, Xiang Yong; Ng, Liang Jie; Nor’E, Siti Sarah; Ng, Kim Tien; Chan, Kok Gan; Hanafi, Nik Sherina; Pang, Yong Kek; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Tee, Kok Keng

    2016-01-01

    Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is an important viral respiratory pathogen worldwide. Current knowledge regarding the genetic diversity, seasonality and transmission dynamics of HMPV among adults and children living in tropical climate remains limited. HMPV prevailed at 2.2% (n = 86/3,935) among individuals presented with acute respiratory tract infections in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia between 2012 and 2014. Seasonal peaks were observed during the northeast monsoon season (November–April) and correlated with higher relative humidity and number of rainy days (P < 0.05). Phylogenetic analysis of the fusion and attachment genes identified the co-circulation of three known HMPV sub-lineages, A2b and B1 (30.2% each, 26/86) and B2 (20.9%, 18/86), with genotype shift from sub-lineage B1 to A2b observed in 2013. Interestingly, a previously unrecognized sub-lineage of A2 was identified in 18.6% (16/86) of the population. Using a custom script for network construction based on the TN93 pairwise genetic distance, we identified up to nine HMPV transmission clusters circulating as multiple sub-epidemics. Although no apparent major outbreak was observed, the increased frequency of transmission clusters (dyads) during seasonal peaks suggests the potential roles of transmission clusters in driving the spread of HMPV. Our findings provide essential information for therapeutic research, prevention strategies, and disease outbreak monitoring of HMPV. PMID:27279080

  1. Full Inactivation of Human Influenza Virus by High Hydrostatic Pressure Preserves Virus Structure and Membrane Fusion While Conferring Protection to Mice against Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumard, Carlos H.; Barroso, Shana P. C.; de Oliveira, Guilherme A. P.; Carvalho, Carlos A. M.; Gomes, Andre M. O.; Couceiro, José Nelson S. S.; Ferreira, Davis F.; Nico, Dirlei; Oliveira, Andrea C.; Silva, Jerson L.; Santos, Patrícia S.

    2013-01-01

    Whole inactivated vaccines (WIVs) possess greater immunogenicity than split or subunit vaccines, and recent studies have demonstrated that WIVs with preserved fusogenic activity are more protective than non-fusogenic WIVs. In this work, we describe the inactivation of human influenza virus X-31 by high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) and analyze the effects on the structure by spectroscopic measurements, light scattering, and electron microscopy. We also investigated the effects of HHP on the glycoprotein activity and fusogenic activity of the viral particles. The electron microscopy data showed pore formation on the viral envelope, but the general morphology was preserved, and small variations were seen in the particle structure. The activity of hemagglutinin (HA) during the process of binding and fusion was affected in a time-dependent manner, but neuraminidase (NA) activity was not affected. Infectious activity ceased after 3 hours of pressurization, and mice were protected from infection after being vaccinated. Our results revealed full viral inactivation with overall preservation of viral structure and maintenance of fusogenic activity, thereby conferring protection against infection. A strong response consisting of serum immunoglobulin IgG1, IgG2a, and serum and mucosal IgA was also detected after vaccination. Thus, our data strongly suggest that applying hydrostatic pressure may be an effective method for developing new vaccines against influenza A as well as other viruses. PMID:24282553

  2. Information Fusion and Cognitive Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-22

    2010. U.S. Government or Federal Purpose Rights License 14. ABSTRACT In sensor fusion one expects that solutions from individual sensors when...Dan Fuhrman • S. S. Iyengar Th K il th• omas a a • Rudy Kalman • R. L. Kashyap • Qilian Liang • S. K. Mitra • Arye Nehorai • Athina Petropulu...SYSTEMS (IEEE MFI 2010) SEPTEMBER 5-7 2010, , The theme of IEEE MFI 2010 was Here the goal of multi-sensor fusion systems is to achieve human

  3. A potential peptide vector that allows targeted delivery of a desired fusion protein into the human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei Qing; Yang, Jun; Hong, Min; Gao, Chang E; Dong, Jian

    2016-06-01

    Effective control of breast cancer has been primarily hampered by a lack of tumor specificity in treatments. One potential way to improve targeting specificity is to develop novel vectors that specifically bind to and are internalized by tumor cells. Through a phage display library, an 11-L-amino acid peptide, PI (sequence, CASPSGALRSC), was selected. PI was labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and named PI-FITC. Subsequently, the specific affinity of PI-FITC to MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells and other cancer cell lines was observed by confocal microscopy. Our previous study established that PI-FITC also shows affinity to Calu-1 human lung carcinoma cells and major histocompatibility complex class I antigen molecules; therefore, the cytomembrane proteins of the cell lines were analyzed to determine those that were common to the two cell lines and may be associated with transmembrane transduction. To further test the delivery ability of PI to MDA-MB-231 cells, PI-glutathione-S-transferase (GST) was constructed and the internalization of this fusion protein was visualized by immunofluorescence microscopy. The results revealed that PI exhibited specific affinity to MDA-MB-231 cells. Use of membrane transport inhibitors indicated that macropinocytosis and caveolin-mediated endocytosis may be involved in the endocytosis of PI. In addition, 11 membrane proteins common to MDA-MB-231 and Calu-1 may be associated with transmembrane transduction. In summary, PI was able to deliver PI-GST into MDA-MB-231 cells. Thus, PI could be modified to be a potential vector, and may contribute to the development of targeted therapeutic strategies for breast cancer.

  4. Construction, expression and characterization of human interferon α2b-(G4S)n-thymosin α1 fusion proteins in Pichia pastoris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    You-Feng Yang; Han-Ying Yuan; Nan-Song Liu; Xiang-Ling Chen; Bu-Yu Gao; Hong Lu; Yu-Yang Li

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Interferon α2b (IFNα2b) and thymosin α1 (Tα1) exhibit synergic effects in the treatment of hepatitis B and hepatitis C when used together. For developing a fusion protein drug, fusion proteins of IFNα2b and Tα1 linked by different lengths of (G4S)n (n = 1-3) were constructed and expressed in Pichia pastoris.METHODS: Using PCR and molecular clone techniques, the fusion genes of IFNα2b-(G4S)n-Tα1 (n = 1-3) were constructed and subcloned into the eukaryotic expression vector pPIC9. After transformation of these plasmids into P. pastoris, the expressed fusion proteins IFNα2b-(G4S)n-Tα1 (n = 1-3) were obtained. These proteins were purified through diethylaminoethyl (DEAE) affinity chromatography and SuperdexTM 75 gel filtration and analyzed by SDSPAGE and Western blot. Antiviral and E-rosette assays were used to investigate the bioactivities of these fusion proteins.RESULTS: DNA sequencing confirmed that the fusion genes of IFNα2b-(G4 S)n-Tα1 (n = 1-3) were correctly cloned to the pPIC9 vector. The recombinant IFNα2b(G4 S)n-Tα1 (n = 1-3) fusion proteins expressed in P. pastoris were purified with DEAE and SuperdexTM 75 gel filtration chromatography. The fusion proteins could be observed on sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with molecular weight (MW) of 23.2, 22.9, and 22.6 ku, respectively, and reacted to the IFNα2b monoclonal antibody and Tα1 polyclonal antibody. The purified fusion proteins exhibit antiviral activity and can enhance the percentage of E-rosette-forming-cell in E-rosette assay.CONCLUSION: The recombinant IFNα2b-(G4S)n-Tα1 (n = 1-3) fusion proteins were successfully expressed in P. pastoris. Purified fusion proteins exhibit both antiviral activity of IFNα2b and immunomodulatory activity of Tα1 in vitro. These results will be the basis for further evaluation of the fusion proteins' function in vivo.

  5. A simple method for production and purification of soluble and biologically active recombinant human leukemia inhibitory factor (hLIF) fusion protein in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imsoonthornruksa, Sumeth; Noisa, Parinya; Parnpai, Rangsun; Ketudat-Cairns, Mariena

    2011-02-20

    Mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) rely on a cytokine named leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) to maintain their undifferentiated state and pluripotency. However, the progress of mESC research is restricted and limited to highly funded laboratories due to the cost of commercial LIF. Here we presented the homemade hLIF which is biologically active. The hLIF cDNA was cloned into two different vectors in order to produce N-terminal His₆-tag and Trx-His₆-tag hLIF fusion proteins in Origami(DE3) Escherichia coli. The His₆-hLIF fusion protein was not as soluble as the Trx-His₆-hLIF fusion protein. One-step immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) was done to recover high purity (> 95% pure) His₆-hLIF and Trx-His₆-hLIF fusion proteins with the yields of 100 and 200 mg/l of cell culture, respectively. The hLIF fusion proteins were identified by Western blot and verified by mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). The hLIF fusion proteins specifically promote the proliferation of TF-1 cells in a dose-dependent manner. They also demonstrate the potency to retain the morphology of undifferentiated mESCs, in that they were positive for mESC markers (Oct-4, Sox-2, Nanog, SSEA-1 and alkaline phosphatase activity). These results demonstrated that the N-terminal fusion tags of the His₆-hLIF and Trx-His₆-hLIF fusion proteins do not interfere with their biological activity. This expression and purification approach to produce recombinant hLIF is a simple, reliable, cost effective and user-friendly method.

  6. Cold nuclear fusion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huang Zhenqiang Huang Yuxiang

    2013-01-01

    ...... And with a magnetic moment of light nuclei controlled cold nuclear collide fusion, belongs to the nuclear energy research and development in the field of applied technology "cold nuclear collide fusion...

  7. A novel exendin-4 human serum albumin fusion protein, E2HSA, with an extended half-life and good glucoregulatory effect in healthy rhesus monkeys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ling; Wang, Lin; Meng, Zhiyun; Gan, Hui; Gu, Ruolan; Wu, Zhuona; Gao, Lei; Zhu, Xiaoxia; Sun, Wenzhong; Li, Jian; Zheng, Ying; Dou, Guifang, E-mail: douguifang@vip.163.com

    2014-03-07

    Highlights: • E2HSA has an extended half-life and good plasma stability. • E2HSA could improve glucose-dependent insulin secretion. • E2HSA has excellent glucoregulatory effects in vivo. • E2HSA could potentially be used as a new long-acting GLP-1 receptor agonist for type 2 diabetes management. - Abstract: Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) has attracted considerable research interest in terms of the treatment of type 2 diabetes due to their multiple glucoregulatory functions. However, the short half-life, rapid inactivation by dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) and excretion, limits the therapeutic potential of the native incretin hormone. Therefore, efforts are being made to develop the long-acting incretin mimetics via modifying its structure. Here we report a novel recombinant exendin-4 human serum albumin fusion protein E2HSA with HSA molecule extends their circulatory half-life in vivo while still retaining exendin-4 biological activity and therapeutic properties. In vitro comparisons of E2HSA and exendin-4 showed similar insulinotropic activity on rat pancreatic islets and GLP-1R-dependent biological activity on RIN-m5F cells, although E2HSA was less potent than exendin-4. E2HSA had a terminal elimation half-life of approximate 54 h in healthy rhesus monkeys. Furthermore, E2HSA could reduce postprandial glucose excursion and control fasting glucose level, dose-dependent suppress food intake. Improvement in glucose-dependent insulin secretion and control serum glucose excursions were observed during hyperglycemic clamp test (18 h) and oral glucose tolerance test (42 h) respectively. Thus the improved physiological characterization of E2HSA make it a new potent anti-diabetic drug for type 2 diabetes therapy.

  8. Anti-hepatitis B virus activity and mechanisms of recombinant human serum albumin-interferon-alpha-2b fusion protein in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingfa, Xu; Qinglin, Fan; Hui, Huang; Canjun, Wang; Wei, Wei; Lihua, Song

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the anti-hepatitis B virus (anti-HBV) effects and mechanisms of recombinant human serum albumin-interferon-alpha-2b fusion protein (rHSA-IFNalpha-2b) in vitro and in vivo. The inhibiting effects on HBV replication were examined in the HepG2 2.2.15 cell line and in ducks, and the expressions of signal transducers and transactivator 1 (STAT1), IFN-stimulated gene factor 3 (ISGF3) and 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase 1 (OAS1) were investigated by the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot analysis. In vitro,at concentrations from 0.075 to 1.2 nmol/l, rHSA-IFNalpha-2b inhibited the releases of extracellular hepatitis B surface antigen, hepatitis B e antigen and HBV DNA in a dose-dependent manner; rHSA- IFNalpha-2b also increased the levels of STAT1, ISGF3 and OAS1. In vivo, rHSA-IFNalpha-2b reduced the levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, total bilirubin and duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) DNA in the sera of DHBV-infected ducks. We provide the first evidence that rHSA-IFNalpha-2b significantly inhibits HBV replication in HepG2 2.2.15 cells and in ducks, and that the antiviral effect of rHSA-IFNalpha-2b in vivo is more potent than that of IFNalpha-2b. The anti-HBV mechanism probably operates by triggering the JAK-STAT signaling pathway and increasing the expression of OAS1. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Cold fusion research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1989-11-01

    I am pleased to forward to you the Final Report of the Cold Fusion Panel. This report reviews the current status of cold fusion and includes major chapters on Calorimetry and Excess Heat, Fusion Products and Materials Characterization. In addition, the report makes a number of conclusions and recommendations, as requested by the Secretary of Energy.

  10. Gene fusions with human carbonic anhydrase II for efficient expression and rapid single-step recovery of recombinant proteins: expression of the Escherichia coli F1-ATPase epsilon subunit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Heeke, G; Shaw, R; Schnizer, R; Couton, J M; Schuster, S M; Wagner, F W

    1993-08-01

    A new expression vector was constructed which allows the overproduction in Escherichia coli of tripartite proteins consisting of human carbonic anhydrase isozyme II (hCAII), a peptide linker containing an enterokinase cleavage site, and a target protein of interest. Carbonic anhydrase is soluble and stable in E. coli and serves as a highly specific purification tag in the recovery of the fusion protein by a single affinity chromatography step. The enterokinase cleavage site was engineered into the construct to allow accurate and efficient release of the target protein. To demonstrate the practical value of this vector, the E. coli F1-ATPase epsilon subunit was expressed as a fusion with hCAII. After a single purification step, biologically active recombinant E. coli F1-ATPase epsilon subunit was recovered following proteolytic removal of the hCAII moiety.

  11. Addition of TAT protein transduction domain and GrpE to human p53 provides soluble fusion proteins that can be transduced into dendritic cells and elicit p53-specific T-cell responses in HLA-A*0201 transgenic mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, S; Buus, S; Claesson, M H

    2007-01-01

    in our laboratory were unsuccessful. Here, we show that fusion of an 11-amino-acid region of the human immunodeficiency virus TAT protein transduction domain (PTD) to human p53 increases the solubility of the otherwise insoluble p53 protein and this rTAT-p53 protein can be transduced into human monocyte...

  12. Information Fusion in the Immune System

    CERN Document Server

    Twycross, Jamie

    2010-01-01

    Biologically-inspired methods such as evolutionary algorithms and neural networks are proving useful in the field of information fusion. Artificial Immune Systems (AISs) are a biologically-inspired approach which take inspiration from the biological immune system. Interestingly, recent research has show how AISs which use multi-level information sources as input data can be used to build effective algorithms for real time computer intrusion detection. This research is based on biological information fusion mechanisms used by the human immune system and as such might be of interest to the information fusion community. The aim of this paper is to present a summary of some of the biological information fusion mechanisms seen in the human immune system, and of how these mechanisms have been implemented as AISs

  13. Viral membrane fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, Stephen C., E-mail: harrison@crystal.harvard.edu

    2015-05-15

    Membrane fusion is an essential step when enveloped viruses enter cells. Lipid bilayer fusion requires catalysis to overcome a high kinetic barrier; viral fusion proteins are the agents that fulfill this catalytic function. Despite a variety of molecular architectures, these proteins facilitate fusion by essentially the same generic mechanism. Stimulated by a signal associated with arrival at the cell to be infected (e.g., receptor or co-receptor binding, proton binding in an endosome), they undergo a series of conformational changes. A hydrophobic segment (a “fusion loop” or “fusion peptide”) engages the target-cell membrane and collapse of the bridging intermediate thus formed draws the two membranes (virus and cell) together. We know of three structural classes for viral fusion proteins. Structures for both pre- and postfusion conformations of illustrate the beginning and end points of a process that can be probed by single-virion measurements of fusion kinetics. - Highlights: • Viral fusion proteins overcome the high energy barrier to lipid bilayer merger. • Different molecular structures but the same catalytic mechanism. • Review describes properties of three known fusion-protein structural classes. • Single-virion fusion experiments elucidate mechanism.

  14. Magnetic fusion: progress -> stagnation -> degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharov, Leonid

    2012-10-01

    ``The theory of the failure of magnetic fusion,'' created in 2004 and presented to APS-2007 introduced the notion of the ``difficult'' and ``complicated'' stages of the program and described them details. At the first phase the emerging fusion science was created under strong leadership. Progress was visible on year to year basis, and the program was easy to manage. The complicated phase started in the late 1980s, when the plasma physics appeared to be incapable to implement the mission of ITER to test nuclear components of a fusion reactor. Then, the failure of TFTR (PPPL, USA) and JET (Culham, UK) in the mid 1990 to demonstrate QDT=1 and the blindness of their leaders to already visible means to resolve the problem, were a clear indication of an irreversible stagnation. In fact, right after 2007, it became clear that in the case of a large system of human ``particles'' (scientists) two phases have a continuation. The internal degrees of freedom, otherwise protected from external perturbations by a strong dedication to the scientific method, are now eroding and collapsing. The loss of science in addressing confinement, stability, power extraction, fueling, stationary regimes issues makes the current program irrelevant to fusion energy. A fresh approach should be taken.

  15. Economics of fusion research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1977-10-15

    This report provides the results of a study of methods of economic analysis applied to the evaluation of fusion research. The study recognizes that a hierarchy of economic analyses of research programs exists: standard benefit-cost analysis, expected value of R and D information, and expected utility analysis. It is shown that standard benefit-cost analysis, as commonly applied to research programs, is inadequate for the evaluation of a high technology research effort such as fusion research. A methodology for performing an expected value analysis is developed and demonstrated and an overview of an approach to perform an expected utility analysis of fusion research is presented. In addition, a potential benefit of fusion research, not previously identified, is discussed and rough estimates of its magnitude are presented. This benefit deals with the effect of a fusion research program on optimal fossil fuel consumption patterns. The results of this study indicate that it is both appropriate and possible to perform an expected value analysis of fusion research in order to assess the economics of a fusion research program. The results indicate further that the major area of benefits of fusion research is likely due to the impact of a fusion research program on optimal fossil fuel consumption patterns and it is recommended that this benefit be included in future assessments of fusion research economics.

  16. Materials research for fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaster, J.; Moeslang, A.; Muroga, T.

    2016-05-01

    Fusion materials research started in the early 1970s following the observation of the degradation of irradiated materials used in the first commercial fission reactors. The technological challenges of fusion energy are intimately linked with the availability of suitable materials capable of reliably withstanding the extremely severe operational conditions of fusion reactors. Although fission and fusion materials exhibit common features, fusion materials research is broader. The harder mono-energetic spectrum associated with the deuterium-tritium fusion neutrons (14.1 MeV compared to hydrogen and helium as transmutation products that might lead to a (at present undetermined) degradation of structural materials after a few years of operation. Overcoming the historical lack of a fusion-relevant neutron source for materials testing is an essential pending step in fusion roadmaps. Structural materials development, together with research on functional materials capable of sustaining unprecedented power densities during plasma operation in a fusion reactor, have been the subject of decades of worldwide research efforts underpinning the present maturity of the fusion materials research programme.

  17. Importance of neonatal FcR in regulating the serum half-life of therapeutic proteins containing the Fc domain of human IgG1: a comparative study of the affinity of monoclonal antibodies and Fc-fusion proteins to human neonatal FcR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Takuo; Ishii-Watabe, Akiko; Tada, Minoru; Kobayashi, Tetsu; Kanayasu-Toyoda, Toshie; Kawanishi, Toru; Yamaguchi, Teruhide

    2010-02-15

    The neonatal FcR (FcRn) binds to the Fc domain of IgG at acidic pH in the endosome and protects IgG from degradation, thereby contributing to the long serum half-life of IgG. To date, more than 20 mAb products and 5 Fc-fusion protein products have received marketing authorization approval in the United States, the European Union, or Japan. Many of these therapeutic proteins have the Fc domain of human IgG1; however, the serum half-lives differ in each protein. To elucidate the role of FcRn in the pharmacokinetics of Fc domain-containing therapeutic proteins, we evaluated the affinity of the clinically used human, humanized, chimeric, or mouse mAbs and Fc-fusion proteins to recombinant human FcRn by surface plasmon resonance analysis. The affinities of these therapeutic proteins to FcRn were found to be closely correlated with the serum half-lives reported from clinical studies, suggesting the important role of FcRn in regulating their serum half-lives. The relatively short serum half-life of Fc-fusion proteins was thought to arise from the low affinity to FcRn. The existence of some mAbs having high affinity to FcRn and a short serum half-life, however, suggested the involvement of other critical factor(s) in determining the serum half-life of such Abs. We further investigated the reason for the relatively low affinity of Fc-fusion proteins to FcRn and suggested the possibility that the receptor domain of Fc-fusion protein influences the structural environment of the FcRn binding region but not of the FcgammaRI binding region of the Fc domain.

  18. Soldier systems sensor fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brubaker, Kathryne M.

    1998-08-01

    This paper addresses sensor fusion and its applications in emerging Soldier Systems integration and the unique challenges associated with the human platform. Technology that,provides the highest operational payoff in a lightweight warrior system must not only have enhanced capabilities, but have low power components resulting in order of magnitude reductions coupled with significant cost reductions. These reductions in power and cost will be achieved through partnership with industry and leveraging of commercial state of the art advancements in microelectronics and power sources. As new generation of full solution fire control systems (to include temperature, wind and range sensors) and target acquisition systems will accompany a new generation of individual combat weapons and upgrade existing weapon systems. Advanced lightweight thermal, IR, laser and video senors will be used for surveillance, target acquisition, imaging and combat identification applications. Multifunctional sensors will provide embedded training features in combat configurations allowing the soldier to 'train as he fights' without the traditional cost and weight penalties associated with separate systems. Personal status monitors (detecting pulse, respiration rate, muscle fatigue, core temperature, etc.) will provide commanders and highest echelons instantaneous medical data. Seamless integration of GPS and dead reckoning (compass and pedometer) and/or inertial sensors will aid navigation and increase position accuracy. Improved sensors and processing capability will provide earlier detection of battlefield hazards such as mines, enemy lasers and NBC (nuclear, biological, chemical) agents. Via the digitized network the situational awareness database will automatically be updated with weapon, medical, position and battlefield hazard data. Soldier Systems Sensor Fusion will ultimately establish each individual soldier as an individual sensor on the battlefield.

  19. Muon Catalyzed Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Edward A.G.

    2007-01-01

    Muon catalyzed fusion is a process in which a negatively charged muon combines with two nuclei of isotopes of hydrogen, e.g, a proton and a deuteron or a deuteron and a triton, to form a muonic molecular ion in which the binding is so tight that nuclear fusion occurs. The muon is normally released after fusion has taken place and so can catalyze further fusions. As the muon has a mean lifetime of 2.2 microseconds, this is the maximum period over which a muon can participate in this process. This article gives an outline of the history of muon catalyzed fusion from 1947, when it was first realised that such a process might occur, to the present day. It includes a description of the contribution that Drachrnan has made to the theory of muon catalyzed fusion and the influence this has had on the author's research.

  20. 基于HOG和颜色特征融合的人体姿态估计%Human Pose Estimation Based on Fusion of HOG and Color Feature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩贵金; 朱虹

    2014-01-01

    Appearance model plays an important role in the human pose estimation. To improve the estimation accuracy, how to set up the appearance model by using the histogram of oriented gradient (HOG) and color features is studied. The sub-classifier for each cell unit of the body part is built by using the support vector data description ( SVDD ) algorithm, and then the HOG-based appearance model is constructed by the linear combination of sub-classifiers with different weights. The specific location probability is learned by using those states, which has higher similarity with the HOG-based appearance model, and the corresponding color histogram is calculated, which is the color-based appearance model. According to the illumination and the color contrast between the clothing and background in the static image to be proceeded, the weights of two appearance models are determined, and then two appearance models are combined linearly to construct appearance model based on the fusion of the HOG and color features. The proposed appearance model is used for human pose estimation, and the experimental results show it is more effectively and gets higher pose estimation accuracy.%部位外观模型在人体姿态估计中起着关键作用。为提高人体姿态估计的准确度,对如何利用梯度方向直方图( HOG)与颜色特征建立外观模型进行研究。利用支持向量数据描述算法( SVDD)对部位的所有细胞单元构造子分类器,将所有子分类器按照不同权值进行线性组合,建立基于HOG特征的外观模型;利用与基于HOG特征的外观模型之间似然度较高的部位状态学习定位概率,根据定位概率求得的颜色直方图即为基于颜色特征的外观模型;根据待处理静态图像的光照条件和人体着装及背景的颜色对比度可确定分别基于HOG和颜色特征的外观模型的权值;根据相应权值对两种外观模型进行线性组合,建立基于HOG和颜色特征融合

  1. Magnetic fusion technology

    CERN Document Server

    Dolan, Thomas J

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic Fusion Technology describes the technologies that are required for successful development of nuclear fusion power plants using strong magnetic fields. These technologies include: ? magnet systems, ? plasma heating systems, ? control systems, ? energy conversion systems, ? advanced materials development, ? vacuum systems, ? cryogenic systems, ? plasma diagnostics, ? safety systems, and ? power plant design studies. Magnetic Fusion Technology will be useful to students and to specialists working in energy research.

  2. Fusion research principles

    CERN Document Server

    Dolan, Thomas James

    2013-01-01

    Fusion Research, Volume I: Principles provides a general description of the methods and problems of fusion research. The book contains three main parts: Principles, Experiments, and Technology. The Principles part describes the conditions necessary for a fusion reaction, as well as the fundamentals of plasma confinement, heating, and diagnostics. The Experiments part details about forty plasma confinement schemes and experiments. The last part explores various engineering problems associated with reactor design, vacuum and magnet systems, materials, plasma purity, fueling, blankets, neutronics

  3. Magnetic fusion reactor economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krakowski, R.A.

    1995-12-01

    An almost primordial trend in the conversion and use of energy is an increased complexity and cost of conversion systems designed to utilize cheaper and more-abundant fuels; this trend is exemplified by the progression fossil fission {yields} fusion. The present projections of the latter indicate that capital costs of the fusion ``burner`` far exceed any commensurate savings associated with the cheapest and most-abundant of fuels. These projections suggest competitive fusion power only if internal costs associate with the use of fossil or fission fuels emerge to make them either uneconomic, unacceptable, or both with respect to expensive fusion systems. This ``implementation-by-default`` plan for fusion is re-examined by identifying in general terms fusion power-plant embodiments that might compete favorably under conditions where internal costs (both economic and environmental) of fossil and/or fission are not as great as is needed to justify the contemporary vision for fusion power. Competitive fusion power in this context will require a significant broadening of an overly focused program to explore the physics and simbiotic technologies leading to more compact, simplified, and efficient plasma-confinement configurations that reside at the heart of an attractive fusion power plant.

  4. Magnetic-confinement fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongena, J.; Koch, R.; Wolf, R.; Zohm, H.

    2016-05-01

    Our modern society requires environmentally friendly solutions for energy production. Energy can be released not only from the fission of heavy nuclei but also from the fusion of light nuclei. Nuclear fusion is an important option for a clean and safe solution for our long-term energy needs. The extremely high temperatures required for the fusion reaction are routinely realized in several magnetic-fusion machines. Since the early 1990s, up to 16 MW of fusion power has been released in pulses of a few seconds, corresponding to a power multiplication close to break-even. Our understanding of the very complex behaviour of a magnetized plasma at temperatures between 150 and 200 million °C surrounded by cold walls has also advanced substantially. This steady progress has resulted in the construction of ITER, a fusion device with a planned fusion power output of 500 MW in pulses of 400 s. ITER should provide answers to remaining important questions on the integration of physics and technology, through a full-size demonstration of a tenfold power multiplication, and on nuclear safety aspects. Here we review the basic physics underlying magnetic fusion: past achievements, present efforts and the prospects for future production of electrical energy. We also discuss questions related to the safety, waste management and decommissioning of a future fusion power plant.

  5. Fusion of Nonionic Vesicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulut, Sanja; Oskolkova, M. Z.; Schweins, R.

    2010-01-01

    We present an experimental study of vesicle fusion using light and neutron scattering to monitor fusion events. Vesicles are reproducibly formed with an extrusion procedure using an single amphiphile triethylene glycol mono-n-decyl ether in water. They show long-term stability for temperatures...... around 20 C, but at temperatures above 26 C we observe an increase in the scattered intensity due to fusion. The system is unusually well suited for the study of basic mechanisms of vesicle fusion. The vesicles are flexible with a bending rigidity of only a few k(H)T. The monolayer spontaneous curvature...

  6. Perceptual reasoning in adaptive fusion processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadar, Ivan

    2002-07-01

    The author previously published a unified perceptual reasoning system framework for adaptive sensor fusion and situation assessment. Ths framework is re-examined to highlight the role of human perceptual reasoning and to establish the relationship between human perceptual reasoning and the Joint Director of Laboratories (JDL) fusion levels. Mappings between the fusion levels and the elements of perceptual reasoning are defined. Methods to populate the knowledge bases associated with each component of the perceptual reasoning system are highlighted. The concept and application of perception, the resultant system architecture and its candidate renditions using distributed interacting software agents (ISA) are discussed. The perceptual reasoning system is shown to be a natural governing mechanism for extracting, associating and fusing information from multiple sources while adaptively controlling the fusion level processes for optimum fusion performance. The unified modular system construct is shown to provide a formal framework to accommodate various implementation alternatives. The application of this architectural concept is illustrated for distributed fusion systems architectures and is sued to illustrate the benefits of the adaptive perceptual reasoning system concept.

  7. Cell fusion and nuclear fusion in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Daisuke; Ohtsu, Mina; Higashiyama, Tetsuya

    2016-12-01

    Eukaryotic cells are surrounded by a plasma membrane and have a large nucleus containing the genomic DNA, which is enclosed by a nuclear envelope consisting of the outer and inner nuclear membranes. Although these membranes maintain the identity of cells, they sometimes fuse to each other, such as to produce a zygote during sexual reproduction or to give rise to other characteristically polyploid tissues. Recent studies have demonstrated that the mechanisms of plasma membrane or nuclear membrane fusion in plants are shared to some extent with those of yeasts and animals, despite the unique features of plant cells including thick cell walls and intercellular connections. Here, we summarize the key factors in the fusion of these membranes during plant reproduction, and also focus on "non-gametic cell fusion," which was thought to be rare in plant tissue, in which each cell is separated by a cell wall.

  8. Maltose-binding protein enhances secretion of recombinant human granzyme B accompanied by in vivo processing of a precursor MBP fusion protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Dälken

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The apoptosis-inducing serine protease granzyme B (GrB is an important factor contributing to lysis of target cells by cytotoxic lymphocytes. Expression of enzymatically active GrB in recombinant form is a prerequisite for functional analysis and application of GrB for therapeutic purposes. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We investigated the influence of bacterial maltose-binding protein (MBP fused to GrB via a synthetic furin recognition motif on the expression of the MBP fusion protein also containing an N-terminal α-factor signal peptide in the yeast Pichia pastoris. MBP markedly enhanced the amount of GrB secreted into culture supernatant, which was not the case when GrB was fused to GST. MBP-GrB fusion protein was cleaved during secretion by an endogenous furin-like proteolytic activity in vivo, liberating enzymatically active GrB without the need of subsequent in vitro processing. Similar results were obtained upon expression of a recombinant fragment of the ErbB2/HER2 receptor protein or GST as MBP fusions. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that combination of MBP as a solubility enhancer with specific in vivo cleavage augments secretion of processed and functionally active proteins from yeast. This strategy may be generally applicable to improve folding and increase yields of recombinant proteins.

  9. Nuclear fusion inside condense matters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Jing-tang

    2007-01-01

    This article describes in detail the nuclear fusion inside condense matters--the Fleischmann-Pons effect, the reproducibility of cold fusions, self-consistentcy of cold fusions and the possible applications.

  10. Fusion of biological membranes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Katsov; M Müller; M Schick

    2005-06-01

    The process of membrane fusion has been examined by Monte Carlo simulation, and is found to be very different than the conventional picture. The differences in mechanism lead to several predictions, in particular that fusion is accompanied by transient leakage. This prediction has recently been verified. Self-consistent field theory is applied to examine the free energy barriers in the different scenarios.

  11. Sensor Data Fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plascencia, Alfredo; Stepán, Petr

    2006-01-01

    The main contribution of this paper is to present a sensor fusion approach to scene environment mapping as part of a Sensor Data Fusion (SDF) architecture. This approach involves combined sonar array with stereo vision readings.  Sonar readings are interpreted using probability density functions...

  12. Complementary Advanced Fusion Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-01

    homographic computer vision image fusion, out-of-sequence measurement and track data handling, Nash bargaining approaches to sensor management... homographic fusion notions are identified together with the Nash approach, the pursuit-evasion approach to threat situation outcome determination, and the

  13. Controlled Nuclear Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasstone, Samuel

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by The United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: Importance of Fusion Energy; Conditions for Nuclear Fusion; Thermonuclear Reactions in Plasmas; Plasma Confinement by Magnetic Fields; Experiments With Plasmas; High-Temperature…

  14. Controlled thermonuclear fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Bobin, Jean Louis

    2014-01-01

    The book is a presentation of the basic principles and main achievements in the field of nuclear fusion. It encompasses both magnetic and inertial confinements plus a few exotic mechanisms for nuclear fusion. The state-of-the-art regarding thermonuclear reactions, hot plasmas, tokamaks, laser-driven compression and future reactors is given.

  15. Cell fusions in mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, Lars-Inge; Bjerregaard, Bolette; Talts, Jan Fredrik

    2008-01-01

    Cell fusions are important to fertilization, placentation, development of skeletal muscle and bone, calcium homeostasis and the immune defense system. Additionally, cell fusions participate in tissue repair and may be important to cancer development and progression. A large number of factors appe...

  16. Compact fusion reactors

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Fusion research is currently to a large extent focused on tokamak (ITER) and inertial confinement (NIF) research. In addition to these large international or national efforts there are private companies performing fusion research using much smaller devices than ITER or NIF. The attempt to achieve fusion energy production through relatively small and compact devices compared to tokamaks decreases the costs and building time of the reactors and this has allowed some private companies to enter the field, like EMC2, General Fusion, Helion Energy, Lawrenceville Plasma Physics and Lockheed Martin. Some of these companies are trying to demonstrate net energy production within the next few years. If they are successful their next step is to attempt to commercialize their technology. In this presentation an overview of compact fusion reactor concepts is given.

  17. Tethering of Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) to Beta Tricalcium Phosphate (βTCP) via Fusion to a High Affinity, Multimeric βTCP-Binding Peptide: Effects on Human Multipotent Stromal Cells/Connective Tissue Progenitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Luis M; Rivera, Jaime J; Stockdale, Linda; Saini, Sunil; Lee, Richard T; Griffith, Linda G

    2015-01-01

    Transplantation of freshly-aspirated autologous bone marrow, together with a scaffold, is a promising clinical alternative to harvest and transplantation of autologous bone for treatment of large defects. However, survival proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation of the marrow-resident stem and progenitor cells with osteogenic potential can be limited in large defects by the inflammatory microenvironment. Previous studies using EGF tethered to synthetic polymer substrates have demonstrated that surface-tethered EGF can protect human bone marrow-derived osteogenic stem and progenitor cells from pro-death inflammatory cues and enhance their proliferation without detriment to subsequent osteogenic differentiation. The objective of this study was to identify a facile means of tethering EGF to clinically-relevant βTCP scaffolds and to demonstrate the bioactivity of EGF tethered to βTCP using stimulation of the proliferative response of human bone-marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSC) as a phenotypic metric. We used a phage display library and panned against βTCP and composites of βTCP with a degradable polyester biomaterial, together with orthogonal blocking schemes, to identify a 12-amino acid consensus binding peptide sequence, LLADTTHHRPWT, with high affinity for βTCP. When a single copy of this βTCP-binding peptide sequence was fused to EGF via a flexible peptide tether domain and expressed recombinantly in E. coli together with a maltose-binding domain to aid purification, the resulting fusion protein exhibited modest affinity for βTCP. However, a fusion protein containing a linear concatamer containing 10 repeats of the binding motif the resulting fusion protein showed high affinity stable binding to βTCP, with only 25% of the protein released after 7 days at 37oC. The fusion protein was bioactive, as assessed by its abilities to activate kinase signaling pathways downstream of the EGF receptor when presented in soluble form, and to enhance

  18. Tethering of Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF to Beta Tricalcium Phosphate (βTCP via Fusion to a High Affinity, Multimeric βTCP-Binding Peptide: Effects on Human Multipotent Stromal Cells/Connective Tissue Progenitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis M Alvarez

    Full Text Available Transplantation of freshly-aspirated autologous bone marrow, together with a scaffold, is a promising clinical alternative to harvest and transplantation of autologous bone for treatment of large defects. However, survival proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation of the marrow-resident stem and progenitor cells with osteogenic potential can be limited in large defects by the inflammatory microenvironment. Previous studies using EGF tethered to synthetic polymer substrates have demonstrated that surface-tethered EGF can protect human bone marrow-derived osteogenic stem and progenitor cells from pro-death inflammatory cues and enhance their proliferation without detriment to subsequent osteogenic differentiation. The objective of this study was to identify a facile means of tethering EGF to clinically-relevant βTCP scaffolds and to demonstrate the bioactivity of EGF tethered to βTCP using stimulation of the proliferative response of human bone-marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSC as a phenotypic metric. We used a phage display library and panned against βTCP and composites of βTCP with a degradable polyester biomaterial, together with orthogonal blocking schemes, to identify a 12-amino acid consensus binding peptide sequence, LLADTTHHRPWT, with high affinity for βTCP. When a single copy of this βTCP-binding peptide sequence was fused to EGF via a flexible peptide tether domain and expressed recombinantly in E. coli together with a maltose-binding domain to aid purification, the resulting fusion protein exhibited modest affinity for βTCP. However, a fusion protein containing a linear concatamer containing 10 repeats of the binding motif the resulting fusion protein showed high affinity stable binding to βTCP, with only 25% of the protein released after 7 days at 37oC. The fusion protein was bioactive, as assessed by its abilities to activate kinase signaling pathways downstream of the EGF receptor when presented in soluble form

  19. Effects of GM-CSF, IL-3, and GM-CSF/IL-3 fusion protein on apoptosis of human myeloid leukemic cell line Tf-1 induced by irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su-rongYANG; LiWEN; Ying-qingLU; Qin-yanGONG; RongYU; Ming-huiYAO

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To observe the effects of three cytokines on the apoptosis of Tf-1 cells induced by γ irradiation and investigate the relationship between apoptosis and caspase-3 activity. METHODS: Different cytokines GM-CSF, IL-3 and GM-CS/IL-3 fusion protein were added into the irradiated Tf-1 cells. MTT assay, morphology, flow cytometry,and DNA fragmentation assay were used to observe the effects of cytokines on apoptosis. The caspase-3 activity was determined with a fluorocytometer. RESULTS: Irradiated Tf-1 cells showed typical morphological characteristic of apoptosis demonstrated by transmission electron microscopy and were accumulated in G0/G1 phase. In the groups treated with growth factors after irradiation, three cytokines significantly increased the viability rate, distinctly decreased the apoptosis rate and the proportion of DNA fragmentation. When Tf-1 cells were irradiated by γ irradiation, caspase-3 activity was increased at different time points. In comparison with the control group in which no growth factor was added after the cells were irradiated, the caspase-3 activity of irradiated Tf-1 cells was significantly inhibited by addition of the above cytokines. Thirty-six hours after irradiation, in the control group,GM-CSF, IL-3, GM-CSF and IL-3 in combination, and two GM-CSF/IL-3 fusion protein groups, the apoptosis ratewas 73 %, 11%, 15 %, 13 %, 12 %, and 13 %. The percent of fragmented DNA was 36 %, 19 %, 18 %, 14 %,13 %, and 14 %. The fluorescence intensity was 16923, 5529, 6581, 5322, 5426, and 5485. CONCLUSION:GM-CSF, IL-3, and GM-CSF/IL-3 fusion protein could protect Tf-1 cells from apoptosis induced by γ irradiation.After Tf-1 cells were irradiated, the caspase-3 activity was significantly increased but was dramatically decreased by the above cytokines. The remarkable inhibition of caspase-3 activity may be one of the mechanisms of these hematopoietic growth factors exerting their anti-apoptotic effects.

  20. Fusion Studies in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Yuichi

    2016-05-01

    A new strategic energy plan decided by the Japanese Cabinet in 2014 strongly supports the steady promotion of nuclear fusion development activities, including the ITER project and the Broader Approach activities from the long-term viewpoint. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) in Japan formulated the Third Phase Basic Program so as to promote an experimental fusion reactor project. In 2005 AEC has reviewed this Program, and discussed on selection and concentration among many projects of fusion reactor development. In addition to the promotion of ITER project, advanced tokamak research by JT-60SA, helical plasma experiment by LHD, FIREX project in laser fusion research and fusion engineering by IFMIF were highly prioritized. Although the basic concept is quite different between tokamak, helical and laser fusion researches, there exist a lot of common features such as plasma physics on 3-D magnetic geometry, high power heat load on plasma facing component and so on. Therefore, a synergetic scenario on fusion reactor development among various plasma confinement concepts would be important.

  1. Control of Fusion and Solubility in Fusion Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Craven, David A

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we consider the control of fusion in fusion systems, proving three previously known, non-trivial results in a new, largely elementary way. We then reprove a result of Aschbacher, that the product of two strongly closed subgroups is strongly closed; to do this, we consolidate the theory of quotients of fusion systems into a consistent theory. We move on considering p-soluble fusion systems, and prove that they are constrained, allowing us to effectively characterize fusion systems of p-soluble groups. This leads us to recast Thompson Factorization for Qd(p)-free fusion systems, and consider Thompson Factorization for more general fusion systems.

  2. Remote sensing image fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Alparone, Luciano; Baronti, Stefano; Garzelli, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    A synthesis of more than ten years of experience, Remote Sensing Image Fusion covers methods specifically designed for remote sensing imagery. The authors supply a comprehensive classification system and rigorous mathematical description of advanced and state-of-the-art methods for pansharpening of multispectral images, fusion of hyperspectral and panchromatic images, and fusion of data from heterogeneous sensors such as optical and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images and integration of thermal and visible/near-infrared images. They also explore new trends of signal/image processing, such as

  3. Adaptive fusion of infrared and visible images in dynamic scene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang; Yin, Yafeng; Man, Hong; Desai, Sachi

    2011-11-01

    Multiple modalities sensor fusion has been widely employed in various surveillance and military applications. A variety of image fusion techniques including PCA, wavelet, curvelet and HSV has been proposed in recent years to improve human visual perception for object detection. One of the main challenges for visible and infrared image fusion is to automatically determine an optimal fusion strategy for different input scenes along with an acceptable computational cost. This paper, we propose a fast and adaptive feature selection based image fusion method to obtain high a contrast image from visible and infrared sensors for targets detection. At first, fuzzy c-means clustering is applied on the infrared image to highlight possible hotspot regions, which will be considered as potential targets' locations. After that, the region surrounding the target area is segmented as the background regions. Then image fusion is locally applied on the selected target and background regions by computing different linear combination of color components from registered visible and infrared images. After obtaining different fused images, histogram distributions are computed on these local fusion images as the fusion feature set. The variance ratio which is based on Linear Discriminative Analysis (LDA) measure is employed to sort the feature set and the most discriminative one is selected for the whole image fusion. As the feature selection is performed over time, the process will dynamically determine the most suitable feature for the image fusion in different scenes. Experiment is conducted on the OSU Color-Thermal database, and TNO Human Factor dataset. The fusion results indicate that our proposed method achieved a competitive performance compared with other fusion algorithms at a relatively low computational cost.

  4. Fusion of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen 85A to an oligomerization domain enhances its immunogenicity in both mice and non-human primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra J Spencer

    Full Text Available To prevent important infectious diseases such as tuberculosis, malaria and HIV, vaccines inducing greater T cell responses are required. In this study, we investigated whether fusion of the M. tuberculosis antigen 85A to recently described adjuvant IMX313, a hybrid avian C4bp oligomerization domain, could increase T cell responses in pre-clinical vaccine model species. In mice, the fused antigen 85A showed consistent increases in CD4(+ and CD8(+ T cell responses after DNA and MVA vaccination. In rhesus macaques, higher IFN-γ responses were observed in animals vaccinated with MVA-Ag85A IMX313 after both primary and secondary immunizations. In both animal models, fusion to IMX313 induced a quantitative enhancement in the response without altering its quality: multifunctional cytokines were uniformly increased and differentiation into effector and memory T cell subsets was augmented rather than skewed. An extensive in vivo characterization suggests that IMX313 improves the initiation of immune responses as an increase in antigen 85A specific cells was observed as early as day 3 after vaccination. This report demonstrates that antigen multimerization using IMX313 is a simple and effective cross-species method to improve vaccine immunogenicity with potentially broad applicability.

  5. Sampling Based Average Classifier Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Hou

    2014-01-01

    fusion algorithms have been proposed in literature, average fusion is almost always selected as the baseline for comparison. Little is done on exploring the potential of average fusion and proposing a better baseline. In this paper we empirically investigate the behavior of soft labels and classifiers in average fusion. As a result, we find that; by proper sampling of soft labels and classifiers, the average fusion performance can be evidently improved. This result presents sampling based average fusion as a better baseline; that is, a newly proposed classifier fusion algorithm should at least perform better than this baseline in order to demonstrate its effectiveness.

  6. Fusion plasma physics

    CERN Document Server

    Stacey, Weston M

    2012-01-01

    This revised and enlarged second edition of the popular textbook and reference contains comprehensive treatments of both the established foundations of magnetic fusion plasma physics and of the newly developing areas of active research. It concludes with a look ahead to fusion power reactors of the future. The well-established topics of fusion plasma physics -- basic plasma phenomena, Coulomb scattering, drifts of charged particles in magnetic and electric fields, plasma confinement by magnetic fields, kinetic and fluid collective plasma theories, plasma equilibria and flux surface geometry, plasma waves and instabilities, classical and neoclassical transport, plasma-materials interactions, radiation, etc. -- are fully developed from first principles through to the computational models employed in modern plasma physics. The new and emerging topics of fusion plasma physics research -- fluctuation-driven plasma transport and gyrokinetic/gyrofluid computational methodology, the physics of the divertor, neutral ...

  7. Cold nuclear fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Zhenqiang Huang Yuxiang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In normal temperature condition, the nuclear force constraint inertial guidance method, realize the combination of deuterium and tritium, helium and lithium... And with a magnetic moment of light nuclei controlled cold nuclear collide fusion, belongs to the nuclear energy research and development in the field of applied technology "cold nuclear collide fusion". According to the similarity of the nuclear force constraint inertial guidance system, the different velocity and energy of the ion beam mixing control, developed ion speed dc transformer, it is cold nuclear fusion collide, issue of motivation and the nuclear power plant start-up fusion and power transfer system of the important equipment, so the merger to apply for a patent

  8. Laser-Driven Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, A. F.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the present status and future prospects of laser-driven fusion. Current research (which is classified under three main headings: laser-matter interaction processes, compression, and laser development) is also presented. (HM)

  9. Fusion Revisits CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    It's going to be a hot summer at CERN. At least in the Main Building, where from 13 July to 20 August an exhibition is being hosted on nuclear fusion, the energy of the Stars. Nuclear fusion is the engine driving the stars but also a potential source of energy for mankind. The exhibition shows the different nuclear fusion techniques and research carried out on the subject in Europe. Inaugurated at CERN in 1993, following collaboration between Lausanne's CRPP-EPFL and CERN, with input from Alessandro Pascolini of Italy's INFN, this exhibition has travelled round Europe before being revamped and returning to CERN. 'Fusion, Energy of the Stars', from 13 July onwards, Main Building

  10. Optical Fiber Fusion Splicing

    CERN Document Server

    Yablon, Andrew D

    2005-01-01

    This book is an up-to-date treatment of optical fiber fusion splicing incorporating all the recent innovations in the field. It provides a toolbox of general strategies and specific techniques that the reader can apply when optimizing fusion splices between novel fibers. It specifically addresses considerations important for fusion splicing of contemporary specialty fibers including dispersion compensating fiber, erbium-doped gain fiber, polarization maintaining fiber, and microstructured fiber. Finally, it discusses the future of optical fiber fusion splicing including silica and non-silica based optical fibers as well as the trend toward increasing automation. Whilst serving as a self-contained reference work, abundant citations from the technical literature will enable readers to readily locate primary sources.

  11. Economically competitive fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Ward

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Not since the oil crisis of the 1970s has the perception that energy is a crucial and precious resource been as strong as it is today. The need for a new approach to world energy supply, driven by concerns over resources, pollution, and security, is leading to a reappraisal of fusion. Fusion has enormous potential and major safety and environmental advantages, and hence could make a large difference to energy supplies.

  12. Fusion ignition research experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale Meade

    2000-07-18

    Understanding the properties of high gain (alpha-dominated) fusion plasmas in an advanced toroidal configuration is the largest remaining open issue that must be addressed to provide the scientific foundation for an attractive magnetic fusion reactor. The critical parts of this science can be obtained in a compact high field tokamak which is also likely to provide the fastest and least expensive path to understanding alpha-dominated plasmas in advanced toroidal systems.

  13. Fusion, cold fusion, and space policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotegard, D. (CST Ltd. (United States))

    1991-01-01

    This paper critiques Americal science policy through a consideration of two examples-cold fusion and asteroid mining. It points out that the failure of central planning in science and technology policy is just as marked as in more mundane activities. It highlights the current low level of debate and points out some technical issues that need to be addressed. It concludes with evidence that the alliance of flawed policy options is further lowering the level of debate. (author).

  14. 基于人眼视觉特性的NSCT医学图像自适应融合%Adaptive MedicaI Image Fusion Based on Human VisuaI Features

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴文战; 姜晓丽; 李俊峰

    2016-01-01

    医学图像融合对于临床诊断具有重要的应用价值。针对多模态医学图像特性,本文提出一种基于人类视觉特性的医学图像自适应融合方法。首先,对经配准的源图像进行非间隔采样轮廓变换((Nonsubsampled Coutour-let,NSCT)多尺度分解,得到低频子带和若干高频方向子带;其次,根据低频子带集中了大部分源图像能量和决定图像轮廓的特点,采用区域能量与平均梯度相结合的方法进行融合;根据人眼对图像对比度及边缘、纹理的高敏感度,在高频子带系数的选取时提出区域拉普拉斯能量、方向对比度与脉冲耦合神经网络(Pulse Coupled Neural Network,PCNN)相结合的融合策略;进而,提出了把与人类视觉高度一致的加权结构相似度(Weighted Structure Similarity,WSSIM)作为图像融合目标函数,自适应地获取各子带的最优权值;最后,对灰度图像和彩色图像进行了大量融合比较实验,并对不同融合方法进行分析对比。实验结果表明:本文算法不仅可以有效保留源图像的信息,而且可以使融合图像灰度级更分散,更好地保留了图像边缘信息,具有更好的视觉效果。%Medical image fusion has very important application value for medical image analysis and diseases diagno-sis.According to the characteristics of multi modality medical image and human visual features,a new medical image fusion algorithm in NSCT (nonsubsampled coutourlet,NSCT)domain is proposed.Firstly,source images after registration are de-composed into low and high frequency sub-bands using NSCT.According to the low frequency subbands concentrating the majority energy of the source image and determining the image coutour,a fusion rule based on weighted region average ener-gy combined with average gradient is adopted in low frequency subband coefficients.Moreover,according to human visual system which is more sensitive to

  15. A novel fully-human cytolytic fusion protein based on granzyme B shows in vitro cytotoxicity and ex vivo binding to solid tumors overexpressing the epidermal growth factor receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niesen, Judith; Hehmann-Titt, Grit; Woitok, Mira; Fendel, Rolf; Barth, Stefan; Fischer, Rainer; Stein, Christoph

    2016-05-01

    Human cytolytic fusion proteins (hCFPs) offer a promising immunotherapeutic approach for the treatment of solid tumors, avoiding the immunogenicity and undesirable side-effects caused by immunotoxins derived from plants or bacteria. The well-characterized human serine protease granzyme B has already been used as a therapeutic pro-apoptotic effector domain. We therefore developed a novel recombinant hCFP (GbR201K-scFv1711) consisting of an epidermal growth factor receptor-specific human antibody fragment and a granzyme B point mutant (R201K) that is insensitive to serpin B9 (PI9), a natural inhibitor of wild-type granzyme B that is often expressed in solid tumors. We found that GbR201K-scFv1711 selectively bound to epidermoid cancer and rhabdomyosarcoma cells and was rapidly internalized by them. Nanomolar concentrations of GbR201K-scFv1711 achieved the specific killing of epidermoid cancer cells by inducing apoptosis, and similar effects were observed in rhabdomyosarcoma cells when GbR201K-scFv1711 was combined with the endosomolytic substance chloroquine. The novel hCFP was stable in serum and bound to human rhabdomyosarcoma tissue ex vivo. These data confirm that GbR201K-scFv1711 is a promising therapeutic candidate suitable for further clinical investigation.

  16. Complementation of a defect in the asparagine-linked glycosylation of a mouse FM3A mutant G258 cell line by spheroplast fusion of a human mega YAC clone 923f5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Takahisa; Moriya, Masayuki; Kataoka, Kensuke; Nishikawa, Yoshihisa

    2012-01-01

    Mouse G258 mutant stopped both cell growth and the synthesis of lipid-linked oligosaccharide at the Man(3)GlcNAc(2)-P-P-Dolichol at a restricted temperature with a single gene mutation. To clarify the lesion in the G258 mutant, we isolated human genomic DNA transformants of the G258 mutant, which recovered from both defects by way of cell hybridization with X-ray irradiated HeLa cells. We detected a common 1.3-kb product by inter-human specific sequence in the L1 (L1Hs) PCR in the transformants (Kataoka et al., Somat. Cell Mol. Genet., 24, 235-243 (1998)). In the present study, we screened a human mega yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) library by PCR with primers designed according to the 1.3-kb DNA, and selected YAC clone 923f5. Moreover, we found by spheroplast fusion that YAC clone 923f5 complemented both defects of the G258 mutant. Since the human counterpart of the yeast ALG11 gene is localized in the region, the G258 mutant might have a defect in the mouse ALG11 gene.

  17. Khz (fusion product of Ganoderma lucidum and Polyporus umbellatus mycelia) induces apoptosis in human colon carcinoma HCT116 cells, accompanied by an increase in reactive oxygen species, activation of caspase 3, and increased intracellular Ca²⁺.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Hwan; Kim, Ju Sung; Kim, Zoo Haye; Huang, Ren Bin; Chae, Young Lye; Wang, Ren Sheng

    2015-03-01

    Khz (a fusion mycelium of Ganoderma lucidum and Polyporus umbellatus mycelia) is isolated from ganoderic acid and P. umbellatus and it exerts antiproliferative effects against malignant cells. However, no previous study has reported the inhibitory effects of Khz on the growth of human colon cancer cells. In the present study, we found that Khz suppressed cell division and induced apoptosis in HCT116 cells. Khz cytotoxicity was measured using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Khz reduced cell viability and mitochondrial membrane potential levels and it also induced disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential and increased calcium concentration and reactive oxygen species generation. Khz increased caspase 3, PARP, caspase 7, and caspase 9 levels, but reduced Bcl-2 protein levels. Flow cytometry showed that the percentage of HCT116 cells in the sub-G1 phase of the cell cycle increased in response to Khz treatment.

  18. A CRE/AP-1-like motif is essential for induced syncytin-2 expression and fusion in human trophoblast-like model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chirine Toufaily

    Full Text Available Syncytin-2 is encoded by the envelope gene of Endogenous Retrovirus-FRD (ERVFRD-1 and plays a critical role in fusion of placental trophoblasts leading to the formation of the multinucleated syncytiotrophoblast. Its expression is consequently regulated in a strict manner. In the present study, we have identified a forskolin-responsive region located between positions -300 to -150 in the Syncytin-2 promoter region. This 150 bp region in the context of a minimal promoter mediated an 80-fold induction of promoter activity following forskolin stimulation. EMSA analyses with competition experiments with nuclear extracts from forskolin-stimulated BeWo cells demonstrated that the -211 to -177 region specifically bound two forskolin-induced complexes, one of them containing a CRE/AP-1-like motif. Site-directed mutagenesis of the CRE/AP-1 binding site in the context of the Syncytin-2 promoter or a heterologous promoter showed that this motif was mostly essential for forskolin-induced promoter activity. Transfection experiments with dominant negative mutants and constitutively activated CREB expression vectors in addition to Chromatin Immunoprecipitation suggested that a CREB family member, CREB2 was binding and acting through the CRE/AP-1 motif. We further demonstrated the binding of JunD to this same motif. Similar to forskolin and soluble cAMP, CREB2 and JunD overexpression induced Syncytin-2 promoter activity in a CRE/AP-1-dependent manner and Syncytin-2 expression. In addition, BeWo cell fusion was induced by both CREB2 and JunD overexpression, while being repressed following silencing of either gene. These results thereby demonstrate that induced expression of Syncytin-2 is highly dependent on the interaction of bZIP-containing transcription factors to a CRE/AP-1 motif and that this element is important for the regulation of Syncytin-2 expression, which results in the formation of the peripheral syncytiotrophoblast layer.

  19. Efficient activation of human T cells of both CD4 and CD8 subsets by urease-deficient recombinant Mycobacterium bovis BCG that produced a heat shock protein 70-M. tuberculosis-derived major membrane protein II fusion protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, Tetsu; Tsukamoto, Yumiko; Maeda, Yumi; Tamura, Toshiki; Makino, Masahiko

    2014-01-01

    For the purpose of obtaining Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) capable of activating human naive T cells, urease-deficient BCG expressing a fusion protein composed of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-derived major membrane protein II (MMP-II) and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) of BCG (BCG-DHTM) was produced. BCG-DHTM secreted the HSP70-MMP-II fusion protein and effectively activated human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) by inducing phenotypic changes and enhanced cytokine production. BCG-DHTM-infected DCs activated naive T cells of both CD4 and naive CD8 subsets, in an antigen (Ag)-dependent manner. The T cell activation induced by BCG-DHTM was inhibited by the pretreatment of DCs with chloroquine. The naive CD8(+) T cell activation was mediated by the transporter associated with antigen presentation (TAP) and the proteosome-dependent cytosolic cross-priming pathway. Memory CD8(+) T cells and perforin-producing effector CD8(+) T cells were efficiently produced from the naive T cell population by BCG-DHTM stimulation. Single primary infection with BCG-DHTM in C57BL/6 mice efficiently produced T cells responsive to in vitro secondary stimulation with HSP70, MMP-II, and M. tuberculosis-derived cytosolic protein and inhibited the multiplication of subsequently aerosol-challenged M. tuberculosis more efficiently than did vector control BCG. These results indicate that the introduction of MMP-II and HSP70 into urease-deficient BCG may be useful for improving BCG for control of tuberculosis.

  20. Bi-channel Video Fusion Human Invasion Detection Based on Neural Network%基于神经网络的双通道视频融合人员入侵检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志明; 张丽; 包宏

    2012-01-01

    To overcome the low detection precision of single visible camera, a human, detection system by fusion of bi-channel video is proposed. Visible and infrared video are obtained by a visible camera and a thermal infrared video of the same scene. Motion regions are detected separately in two videos by neural network background model with adaptive learning rate. Detected results of two channels are fused by image registration and logical "or" operation and noise are removed by Gauss filter. Human like rectangular regions are detected efficiently by using integral image. Experimental results show that, bi-channel video fusion can detect pedestrian and bicycle with presion of 98%, which is more reliable than a single channel video.%为克服单个可见光摄像头检测准确率低的问题,提出一种融合双通道视频的人员检测系统.由可见光摄像头和红外热像仪分别获取同一场景的可见光和红外线视频数据,使用自适应学习速率的神经网络背景模型在2个通道中分别检测运动区域.通过图像配准对2个通道的结果进行“或”融合,并采用高斯滤波以消除噪声,利用积分图像快速检测近似长方形响应的人体区域.实验结果表明,该系统对行人和骑自行车人员的检测准确率达到98%,比单一通道具有更高的可靠性.

  1. Is lumbar facet fusion biomechanically equivalent to lumbar posterolateral onlay fusion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Jeffrey M; Foley, Kevin T; Wang, Mei; Seim, Howard B; Simon Turner, A

    2017-02-03

    OBJECTIVE This study was designed with the following research objectives: 1) to determine the efficacy of facet fusion with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) on an absorbable collagen sponge (ACS) in an ovine lumbar facet fusion model; 2) to radiographically and histologically compare the efficacy of lumbar facet fusion with rhBMP-2/ACS to facet fusion with an iliac crest bone graft (ICBG); and 3) to biomechanically compare lumbar facet fusion with rhBMP-2/ACS to lumbar posterolateral fusion (PLF) with ICBG. METHODS The efficacies of the 3 treatments to induce fusion were evaluated in an instrumented ovine lumbar fusion model. Eight sheep had 10 cm(3)/side ICBG placed as an onlay graft for PLF at L2-3. At the adjacent L3-4 level, 0.5 cm(3)/side ICBG was placed for facet fusion. Finally, 0.5 cm(3)/side rhBMP-2/ACS (0.43 mg/ml) was placed for facet fusion at L4-5. CT scans were obtained at 2, 4, and 6 months postoperatively with 2 reviewers conducting an evaluation of the 6-month results for all treated spinal levels. All 8 sheep were killed at 6 months, and all posterolateral instrumentation was removed at this time. The spines were then sectioned through L3-4 to allow for nondestructive unconstrained biomechanical testing of the L2-3 and L4-5 segments. All treated spinal levels were analyzed using undecalcified histology with corresponding microradiography. Statistical comparisons were made between the treatment groups. RESULTS The PLF with ICBG (ICBG PLF group) and the rhBMP-2 facet fusion (rhBMP-2 Facet group) treatment groups demonstrated similar levels of stiffness, with the rhBMP-2 Facet group having on average slightly higher stiffness in all 6 loading directions. All 8 levels in the autograft facet fusion treatment group demonstrated CT radiographic and histological fusion. All 8 levels in the rhBMP-2 Facet group showed bilateral CT radiographic and histological fusion. Six of 16 rhBMP-2/ACS-treated facet defects demonstrated small

  2. Fusion of Noisy Multi-sensor Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anima Mishra

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Interest in fusing multiple sensor data for both military and civil applications has beengrowing. Some of the important applications integrate image information from multiple sensorsto aid in navigation guidance, object detection and recognition, medical diagnosis, datacompression, etc. While, human beings may visually inspect various images and integrateinformation, it is of interest to develop algorithms that can fuse various input imagery to producea composite image. Fusion of images from various sensor modalities is expected to produce anoutput that captures all the relevant information in the input. The standard multi-resolution-based edge fusion scheme has been reviewed in this paper. A theoretical framework is given forthis edge fusion method by showing how edge fusion can be framed as information maximisation.However, the presence of noise complicates the situation. The framework developed is used toshow that for noisy images, all edges no longer correspond to information. In this paper, varioustechniques have been presented for fusion of noisy multi-sensor images.  These techniques aredeveloped for a single resolution as well as using multi-resolution decomposition. Some of thetechniques are based on modifying edge maps by filtering images, while others depend onalternate definition of information maps. Both these approaches can also be combined.Experiments show that the proposed algorithms work well for various kinds of noisy multi-sensor images.

  3. Myoblast fusion in Drosophila

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haralalka, Shruti [Stowers Institute for Medical Research, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Abmayr, Susan M., E-mail: sma@stowers.org [Stowers Institute for Medical Research, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, MO 66160 (United States)

    2010-11-01

    The body wall musculature of a Drosophila larva is composed of an intricate pattern of 30 segmentally repeated muscle fibers in each abdominal hemisegment. Each muscle fiber has unique spatial and behavioral characteristics that include its location, orientation, epidermal attachment, size and pattern of innervation. Many, if not all, of these properties are dictated by founder cells, which determine the muscle pattern and seed the fusion process. Myofibers are then derived from fusion between a specific founder cell and several fusion competent myoblasts (FCMs) fusing with as few as 3-5 FCMs in the small muscles on the most ventral side of the embryo and as many as 30 FCMs in the larger muscles on the dorsal side of the embryo. The focus of the present review is the formation of the larval muscles in the developing embryo, summarizing the major issues and players in this process. We have attempted to emphasize experimentally-validated details of the mechanism of myoblast fusion and distinguish these from the theoretically possible details that have not yet been confirmed experimentally. We also direct the interested reader to other recent reviews that discuss myoblast fusion in Drosophila, each with their own perspective on the process . With apologies, we use gene nomenclature as specified by Flybase (http://flybase.org) but provide Table 1 with alternative names and references.

  4. Lateral Lumbar Interbody Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Alexander; Girardi, Federico; Sama, Andrew; Lebl, Darren; Cammisa, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF) is a relatively new technique that allows the surgeon to access the intervertebral space from a direct lateral approach either anterior to or through the psoas muscle. This approach provides an alternative to anterior lumbar interbody fusion with instrumentation, posterior lumbar interbody fusion, and transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion for anterior column support. LLIF is minimally invasive, safe, better structural support from the apophyseal ring, potential for coronal plane deformity correction, and indirect decompression, which have has made this technique popular. LLIF is currently being utilized for a variety of pathologies including but not limited to adult de novo lumbar scoliosis, central and foraminal stenosis, spondylolisthesis, and adjacent segment degeneration. Although early clinical outcomes have been good, the potential for significant neurological and vascular vertebral endplate complications exists. Nevertheless, LLIF is a promising technique with the potential to more effectively treat complex adult de novo scoliosis and achieve predictable fusion while avoiding the complications of traditional anterior surgery and posterior interbody techniques. PMID:26713134

  5. Local Evidence RBF Algorithm Based High-level Characteristic Self-similarity Fusion for Human Behavior Recognition%局部证据RBF人体行为高层特征自相似融合识别研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋加伏; 赵怡

    2015-01-01

    The traditional human action recognition algorithm tends to focus on solving a certain behavior recognition,it cannot be generalized.So,this paper put forward a kind of Local evidence RBF algorithm based high-level characteristic self similarity fusion for human behavior recognition.Firstly,the time-dependent generalized self similarity concept and the spa-tio-temporal interest point optical flow based local features extraction method were used to construct the human behavior description based on self similar matrix.Secondly,after independent individual behavior recognition in the use of SVM algo-rithm,the evidence theory based high level feature fusion was used to realize the optimization for classification of structure, which can improve the accuracy of classification.Simulation results show that the proposed scheme can significantly improve the efficiency and accuracy for human action recognition.%针对传统人体动作识别算法,往往重点解决某一类行为识别,不具有通用性的问题,提出一种局部证据 RBF人体行为高层特征自相似融合识别算法。首先,借用随时间变化的广义自相似性概念,利用时空兴趣点光流场局部特征提取方法,构建基于自相似矩阵的人体行为局部特征描述;其次,在使用 SVM算法进行独立个体行为识别后,利用所提出的证据理论 RBF(Radial Basis Function)高层特征融合,实现分类结构优化,从而提高分类准确度;仿真实验表明,所提方案能够明显提高人体行为识别算法效率和识别准确率。

  6. Fusion Reactor Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2002-04-01

    The objective of SCK-CEN's programme on fusion reactor materials is to contribute to the knowledge on the radiation-induced behaviour of fusion reactor materials and components as well as to help the international community in building the scientific and technical basis needed for the construction of the future reactor. Ongoing projects include: the study of the mechanical and chemical (corrosion) behaviour of structural materials under neutron irradiation and water coolant environment; the investigation of the characteristics of irradiated first wall material such as beryllium; investigations on the management of materials resulting from the dismantling of fusion reactors including waste disposal. Progress and achievements in these areas in 2001 are discussed.

  7. Multibiometrics Belief Fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Kisku, Dakshina Ranjan; Gupta, Phalguni

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a multimodal biometric system through Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) for face and ear biometrics with belief fusion of the estimated scores characterized by Gabor responses and the proposed fusion is accomplished by Dempster-Shafer (DS) decision theory. Face and ear images are convolved with Gabor wavelet filters to extracts spatially enhanced Gabor facial features and Gabor ear features. Further, GMM is applied to the high-dimensional Gabor face and Gabor ear responses separately for quantitive measurements. Expectation Maximization (EM) algorithm is used to estimate density parameters in GMM. This produces two sets of feature vectors which are then fused using Dempster-Shafer theory. Experiments are conducted on multimodal database containing face and ear images of 400 individuals. It is found that use of Gabor wavelet filters along with GMM and DS theory can provide robust and efficient multimodal fusion strategy.

  8. Fusion research at ORNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-03-01

    The ORNL Fusion Program includes the experimental and theoretical study of two different classes of magnetic confinement schemes - systems with helical magnetic fields, such as the tokamak and stellarator, and the ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT) class of toroidally linked mirror systems; the development of technologies, including superconducting magnets, neutral atomic beam and radio frequency (rf) heating systems, fueling systems, materials, and diagnostics; the development of databases for atomic physics and radiation effects; the assessment of the environmental impact of magnetic fusion; and the design of advanced demonstration fusion devices. The program involves wide collaboration, both within ORNL and with other institutions. The elements of this program are shown. This document illustrates the program's scope; and aims by reviewing recent progress.

  9. Sensor Data Fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plascencia, Alfredo; Stepán, Petr

    2006-01-01

    The main contribution of this paper is to present a sensor fusion approach to scene environment mapping as part of a Sensor Data Fusion (SDF) architecture. This approach involves combined sonar array with stereo vision readings.  Sonar readings are interpreted using probability density functions...... to the occupied and empty regions. Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) feature descriptors are interpreted using gaussian probabilistic error models. The use of occupancy grids is proposed for representing the sensor readings. The Bayesian estimation approach is applied to update the sonar array......  and the SIFT descriptors' uncertainty grids. The sensor fusion yields a significant reduction in the uncertainty of the occupancy grid compared to the individual sensor readings....

  10. Peaceful Uses of Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teller, E.

    1958-07-03

    Applications of thermonuclear energy for peaceful and constructive purposes are surveyed. Developments and problems in the release and control of fusion energy are reviewed. It is pointed out that the future of thermonuclear power reactors will depend upon the construction of a machine that produces more electric energy than it consumes. The fuel for thermonuclear reactors is cheap and practically inexhaustible. Thermonuclear reactors produce less dangerous radioactive materials than fission reactors and, when once brought under control, are not as likely to be subject to dangerous excursions. The interaction of the hot plasma with magnetic fields opens the way for the direct production of electricity. It is possible that explosive fusion energy released underground may be harnessed for the production of electricity before the same feat is accomplished in controlled fusion processes. Applications of underground detonations of fission devices in mining and for the enhancement of oil flow in large low-specific-yield formations are also suggested.

  11. Level 5: user refinement to aid the fusion process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasch, Erik P.; Plano, Susan

    2003-04-01

    The revised JDL Fusion model Level 4 process refinement covers a broad spectrum of actions such as sensor management and control. A limitation of Level 4 is the purpose of control - whether it be for user needs or system operation. Level 5, User Refinement, is a modification to the Revised JDL model that distinguishes between machine process refinement and user refinement. User refinement can either be human control actions or refinement of the user's cognitive model. In many cases, fusion research concentrates on the machine and does not take full advantage of the human as not only a qualified expert to refine the fusion process, but also as customer for whom the fusion system is designed. Without user refinement, sensor fusion is incomplete, inadequate, and the user neglects its worthiness. To capture user capabilities, we explore the concept of user refinement through decision and action based on situational leadership models. We develop a Fuse-Act Situational User Refinement (FASUR) model that details four refinement behaviors: Neglect, Consult, Rely, and Interact and five refinement functions: Planning, Organizing, Coordinating, Directing, and Controlling. Process refinement varies for different systems and different user information needs. By designing a fusion system with a specific user in mind, vis Level 5, a fusion architecture can meet user's information needs for varying situations, extend user sensing capabilities for action, and increase the human-machine interaction.

  12. Intense fusion neutron sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuteev, B. V.; Goncharov, P. R.; Sergeev, V. Yu.; Khripunov, V. I.

    2010-04-01

    The review describes physical principles underlying efficient production of free neutrons, up-to-date possibilities and prospects of creating fission and fusion neutron sources with intensities of 1015-1021 neutrons/s, and schemes of production and application of neutrons in fusion-fission hybrid systems. The physical processes and parameters of high-temperature plasmas are considered at which optimal conditions for producing the largest number of fusion neutrons in systems with magnetic and inertial plasma confinement are achieved. The proposed plasma methods for neutron production are compared with other methods based on fusion reactions in nonplasma media, fission reactions, spallation, and muon catalysis. At present, intense neutron fluxes are mainly used in nanotechnology, biotechnology, material science, and military and fundamental research. In the near future (10-20 years), it will be possible to apply high-power neutron sources in fusion-fission hybrid systems for producing hydrogen, electric power, and technological heat, as well as for manufacturing synthetic nuclear fuel and closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Neutron sources with intensities approaching 1020 neutrons/s may radically change the structure of power industry and considerably influence the fundamental and applied science and innovation technologies. Along with utilizing the energy produced in fusion reactions, the achievement of such high neutron intensities may stimulate wide application of subcritical fast nuclear reactors controlled by neutron sources. Superpower neutron sources will allow one to solve many problems of neutron diagnostics, monitor nano-and biological objects, and carry out radiation testing and modification of volumetric properties of materials at the industrial level. Such sources will considerably (up to 100 times) improve the accuracy of neutron physics experiments and will provide a better understanding of the structure of matter, including that of the neutron itself.

  13. Atomic data for fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, H.T.; Kirkpatrick, M.I.; Alvarez, I.; Cisneros, C.; Phaneuf, R.A. (eds.); Barnett, C.F.

    1990-07-01

    This report provides a handbook of recommended cross-section and rate-coefficient data for inelastic collisions between hydrogen, helium and lithium atoms, molecules and ions, and encompasses more than 400 different reactions of primary interest in fusion research. Published experimental and theoretical data have been collected and evaluated, and the recommended data are presented in tabular, graphical and parametrized form. Processes include excitation and spectral line emission, charge exchange, ionization, stripping, dissociation and particle interchange reactions. The range of collision energies is appropriate to applications in fusion-energy research.

  14. Fusion Welding Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-26

    RD-AlSO 253 FUSION WELDING RESEARCH(U) MASSACHUSETTS INST OF TECH L/I CAMBRIDGE DEPT OF MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING T W EAGAR ET AL. 30 RPR 85...NUMBER 12. GOV’ ACCESSION NO. 3. RECICIE-S CATALOG NUMBER 4. T TL V nd Subtitle) S. P OFRPR PERIOD COVERED 5t h A~nnual Technical Report Fusion Welding ...research S on welding processes. Studies include metal vapors in the arc, development of a high speed infrared temperature monitor, digital signal

  15. Quantum controlled fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrios, Eduardo; Gruebele, Martin; Wolynes, Peter G.

    2017-09-01

    Quantum-controlled motion of nuclei, starting from the nanometer-size ground state of a molecule, can potentially overcome some of the difficulties of thermonuclear fusion by compression of a fuel pellet or in a bulk plasma. Coherent laser control can manipulate nuclear motion precisely, achieving large phase space densities for the colliding nuclei. We combine quantum wavepacket propagation of D and T nuclei in a field-bound molecule with coherent control by a shaped laser pulse to demonstrate enhancement of nuclear collision rates. Atom-smashers powered by coherent control may become laboratory sources of particle bursts, and even assist muonic fusion.

  16. Fusion Propulsion Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-01

    of propellant can be millions of times greater than the fuel, only a tiny fraction can completely push out the fuel. If the plasma is moving at a... push -plate for various explosive yields. It appears that the maximum specific impulse for such a system is -4000 to 5000 sec and increasing the base...Energy Agency, 1977, p. 507. Bourque, R.F., "OHTE as a Fusion Reactor," Proc. 4th Topl. Mt,. Tecnology of Controlled NV?4clear Fusion, King of Prussia

  17. Fusion Reactor Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2000-07-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on fusion reactor materials includes: (1) the study of the mechanical behaviour of structural materials under neutron irradiation (including steels, inconel, molybdenum, chromium); (2) the determination and modelling of the characteristics of irradiated first wall materials such as beryllium; (3) the detection of abrupt electrical degradation of insulating ceramics under high temperature and neutron irradiation; (4) the study of the dismantling and waste disposal strategy for fusion reactors.; (5) a feasibility study for the testing of blanket modules under neutron radiation. Main achievements in these topical areas in the year 1999 are summarised.

  18. Multifocus image fusion scheme based on nonsubsampled contourlet transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xinxing; Wang, Dianhong; Duan, Zhijuan; Li, Dongming

    2011-06-01

    This paper proposes a novel multifocus image fusion scheme based on nonsubsampled contourlet transform (NSCT). The selection principles for different subband coefficients in NSCT domain are discussed in detail. In order to be consistent with the characteristics of the human visual system and improve the robustness of the fusion algorithm to the noise, the NSCT-DCT energy is first developed. Based on it, the clarity measure and bandpass energy contrast are defined and employed to motivate the pulse coupled neural networks (PCNN) for the fusion of lowpass and bandpass subbands, respectively. The performance of the proposed fusion scheme is assessed by experiments and the results demonstrate that the algorithm proposed in the paper compares favorably to wavelet-based, contourlet-based and NSCTbased fusion algorithms in terms of visual appearances and objective criterion.

  19. Approach to multisensor/multilook information fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myler, Harley R.; Patton, Ronald

    1997-07-01

    We are developing a multi-sensor, multi-look Artificial Intelligence Enhanced Information Processor (AIEIP) that combines classification elements of geometric hashing, neural networks and evolutionary algorithms in a synergistic combination. The fusion is coordinated using a piecewise level fusion algorithm that operates on probability data from statistics of the individual classifiers. Further, the AIEIP incorporates a knowledge-based system to aid a user in evaluating target data dynamically. The AIEIP is intended as a semi-autonomous system that not only fuses information from electronic data sources, but also has the capability to include human input derived from battlefield awareness and intelligence sources. The system would be useful in either advanced reconnaissance information fusion tasks where multiple fixed sensors and human observer inputs must be combined or for a dynamic fusion scenario incorporating an unmanned vehicle swarm with dynamic, multiple sensor data inputs. This paper represents our initial results from experiments and data analysis using the individual components of the AIEIP on FLIR target sets of ground vehicles.

  20. Fusion transcriptome profiling provides insights into alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhongqiu; Babiceanu, Mihaela; Kumar, Shailesh; Jia, Yuemeng; Qin, Fujun; Barr, Frederic G; Li, Hui

    2016-11-15

    Gene fusions and fusion products were thought to be unique features of neoplasia. However, more and more studies have identified fusion RNAs in normal physiology. Through RNA sequencing of 27 human noncancer tissues, a large number of fusion RNAs were found. By analyzing fusion transcriptome, we observed close clusterings between samples of same or similar tissues, supporting the feasibility of using fusion RNA profiling to reveal connections between biological samples. To put the concept into use, we selected alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS), a myogenic pediatric cancer whose exact cell of origin is not clear. PAX3-FOXO1 (paired box gene 3 fused with forkhead box O1) fusion RNA, which is considered a hallmark of ARMS, was recently found during normal muscle cell differentiation. We performed and analyzed RNA sequencing from various time points during myogenesis and uncovered many chimeric fusion RNAs. Interestingly, we found that the fusion RNA profile of RH30, an ARMS cell line, is most similar to the myogenesis time point when PAX3-FOXO1 is expressed. In contrast, full transcriptome clustering analysis failed to uncover this connection. Strikingly, all of the 18 chimeric RNAs in RH30 cells could be detected at the same myogenic time point(s). In addition, the seven chimeric RNAs that follow the exact transient expression pattern as PAX3-FOXO1 are specific to rhabdomyosarcoma cells. Further testing with clinical samples also confirmed their specificity to rhabdomyosarcoma. These results provide further support for the link between at least some ARMSs and the PAX3-FOXO1-expressing myogenic cells and demonstrate that fusion RNA profiling can be used to investigate the etiology of fusion-gene-associated cancers.

  1. Fusion engineering device design description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flanagan, C.A.; Steiner, D.; Smith, G.E.

    1981-12-01

    The US Magnetic Fusion Engineering Act of 1980 calls for the operation of a Fusion Engineering Device (FED) by 1990. It is the intent of the Act that the FED, in combination with other testing facilities, will establish the engineering feasibility of magnetic fusion energy. During 1981, the Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC), under the guidance of a Technical Management Board (TMB), developed a baseline design for the FED. This design is summarized herein.

  2. Fusion Engineering Device design description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flanagan, C.A.; Steiner, D.; Smith, G.E.

    1981-12-01

    The US Magnetic Fusion Engineering Act of 1980 calls for the operation of a Fusion Engineering Device (FED) by 1990. It is the intent of the Act that the FED, in combination with other testing facilities, will establish the engineering feasibility of magnetic fusion energy. During 1981, the Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC), under the guidance of a Technical Management Board (TMB), developed a baseline design for the FED. This design is summarized herein.

  3. International fusion og spaltning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lone L.

    Bogen analyserer de nye muligheder fra 2007 i europæisk ret med hensyn til fusion eller spaltning mellem aktieselskaber og anpartsselskaber med hjemsted i forskellige europæiske lande. Bogen gennemgår de nye muligheder for strukturændringer, der herved er opstået mulighed for, og den sætter fokus...

  4. Fusion reactor materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1989-01-01

    This paper discuses the following topics on fusion reactor materials: irradiation, facilities, test matrices, and experimental methods; dosimetry, damage parameters, and activation calculations; materials engineering and design requirements; fundamental mechanical behavior; radiation effects; development of structural alloys; solid breeding materials; and ceramics.

  5. International fusion og spaltning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lone L.

    Bogen analyserer de nye muligheder fra 2007 i europæisk ret med hensyn til fusion eller spaltning mellem aktieselskaber og anpartsselskaber med hjemsted i forskellige europæiske lande. Bogen gennemgår de nye muligheder for strukturændringer, der herved er opstået mulighed for, og den sætter fokus...

  6. Synergetic Multisensor Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-11-30

    technology have led to increased interest in using DEMs for navigation and other applications. In particular, DEMs are attractive for use in aircraft...Multisensor Fusion for Computer Vision [67]. 30 6. POSI!IONAL zSTIM&TION TECEnIQUzs FOR AN OUTDOOR MOBLE ROBOT The autonomous navigation of mobile robots is

  7. Iterative guided image fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Toet

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We propose a multi-scale image fusion scheme based on guided filtering. Guided filtering can effectively reduce noise while preserving detail boundaries. When applied in an iterative mode, guided filtering selectively eliminates small scale details while restoring larger scale edges. The proposed multi-scale image fusion scheme achieves spatial consistency by using guided filtering both at the decomposition and at the recombination stage of the multi-scale fusion process. First, size-selective iterative guided filtering is applied to decompose the source images into approximation and residual layers at multiple spatial scales. Then, frequency-tuned filtering is used to compute saliency maps at successive spatial scales. Next, at each spatial scale binary weighting maps are obtained as the pixelwise maximum of corresponding source saliency maps. Guided filtering of the binary weighting maps with their corresponding source images as guidance images serves to reduce noise and to restore spatial consistency. The final fused image is obtained as the weighted recombination of the individual residual layers and the mean of the approximation layers at the coarsest spatial scale. Application to multiband visual (intensified and thermal infrared imagery demonstrates that the proposed method obtains state-of-the-art performance for the fusion of multispectral nightvision images. The method has a simple implementation and is computationally efficient.

  8. Muon catalyzed fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishida, K. [Advanced Meson Science Laboratory, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Nagamine, K. [Muon Science Laboratory, IMSS-KEK, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Matsuzaki, T. [Advanced Meson Science Laboratory, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Kawamura, N. [Muon Science Laboratory, IMSS-KEK, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan)

    2005-12-15

    The latest progress of muon catalyzed fusion study at the RIKEN-RAL muon facility (and partly at TRIUMF) is reported. The topics covered are magnetic field effect, muon transfer to {sup 3}He in solid D/T and ortho-para effect in dd{mu} formation.

  9. Bouillabaisse sushi fusion power

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    "If avant-garde cuisine is any guide, Japanese-French fusion does not work all that well. And the interminable discussions over the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) suggest that what is true of cooking is true of physics" (1 page)

  10. Hugging fusion and related topics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwamoto, Akira [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-07-01

    An important problem related to the synthesis of very heavy nuclides by fusion of two heavy-ions is the extra push effect. To avoid it, we propose a hugging fusion, which is the fusion of two well-deformed heavy-ions. (author)

  11. A survey of infrared and visual image fusion methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xin; Jiang, Qian; Yao, Shaowen; Zhou, Dongming; Nie, Rencan; Hai, Jinjin; He, Kangjian

    2017-09-01

    Infrared (IR) and visual (VI) image fusion is designed to fuse multiple source images into a comprehensive image to boost imaging quality and reduce redundancy information, which is widely used in various imaging equipment to improve the visual ability of human and robot. The accurate, reliable and complementary descriptions of the scene in fused images make these techniques be widely used in various fields. In recent years, a large number of fusion methods for IR and VI images have been proposed due to the ever-growing demands and the progress of image representation methods; however, there has not been published an integrated survey paper about this field in last several years. Therefore, we make a survey to report the algorithmic developments of IR and VI image fusion. In this paper, we first characterize the IR and VI image fusion based applications to represent an overview of the research status. Then we present a synthesize survey of the state of the art. Thirdly, the frequently-used image fusion quality measures are introduced. Fourthly, we perform some experiments of typical methods and make corresponding analysis. At last, we summarize the corresponding tendencies and challenges in IR and VI image fusion. This survey concludes that although various IR and VI image fusion methods have been proposed, there still exist further improvements or potential research directions in different applications of IR and VI image fusion.

  12. 亲和色谱法从融合蛋白GST-IL-6中纯化重组人白细胞介素-6%Affinity Chromatography Purification of Recombinant Human Interleukin-6 from Its Fusion Protein with GST

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴蕾; 甘一如; 林峰; 黄鹤

    2002-01-01

    Recombinant E.coli JM109, containing pHZ1818 plasmid which included the fused gene encoding human interleukin-6(IL-6), expressed a fusion protein with glutathion-S-transferase(GST). The fusion protein existed both in the supernatant and inside the bacterial cell,but the insoluble protein had no biological activity and could not be refolded. The rotative speed of the shaker and the temperature of induction were optimized to maximize the expression of the soluble fusion protein. From the supernatant of the cell sonicates Glutathion-Sephrose 4B affinity column chromatography was employed to isolate the fusion protein which could be purified to >800  0 in a single step. The yield of soluble GST-IL-6 was about 10 mg per liter culture. The GST was site-specifically cloven by 6 hours of treatment with thrombin and from the thrombin digest mixture IL-6 was purified by Q high performance ion exchange chromatography. From 1 liter of E.coli culture 2 mg refined IL-6 was obtained. The purified IL-6 had a purity of more than 950  0 and a biological activity of 1.02×108 IU/mg.%研究用亲和融合谷胱甘肽-S-转移酶(GST)的方法纯化重组人白细胞介素-6(IL-6)的发酵和纯化工艺,使用含有质粒pHZl818的E.coli JMl09在2XYT培养基中进行发酵表达,IL-6表达为与谷胱甘肽-S-转移酶(GST)融合的融合蛋白GST-IL-6.融合蛋白存在可溶的活性蛋白和不可溶的包含体两种形式,此包含体无活性且无法复性,无法用亲和层析回收,通过实验优化摇床发酵的诱导温度和转速,以增加可溶融合蛋白的表达.菌体超声破碎液后,上清液用作亲和柱层析,可将融合蛋白提纯至800  0,每升发酵液可得10 mg融合蛋白,用凝血酶裂解处理6 h,亲和标志物GST被特异性切除,裂解得到的IL-6用离子交换柱层析可纯化至950  0,MTT法测得纯化的IL-6生物学活性为1.02×108 IU/mg.

  13. Improved fusion technique. I. Human umbilical cord serum, a new and potent growth promoter, compared with other B cell and hybridoma activators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerwoudt, R J; Blom, J; Naipal, A M; Van Rood, J J

    1983-08-12

    Accelerated proliferation of hybridoma cells was observed in the presence of human umbilical cord serum (HUCS). This had very strong growth-promoting activity, even at a concentration of 2%. A comparison was made between HUCS and other B cell growth promoters, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and dextran sulfate (DxS), macrophage supernatant, and human endothelial culture supernatant (HECS). The growth-promoting effect of HUCS was superior. Using a microcytotoxicity assay, we found no significant differences in the number of antibody producing clones with the various culture media, except for fetal calf serum.

  14. Controlled fusion and plasma physics

    CERN Document Server

    Miyamoto, Kenro

    2006-01-01

    Resulting from ongoing, international research into fusion processes, the International Tokamak Experimental Reactor (ITER) is a major step in the quest for a new energy source.The first graduate-level text to cover the details of ITER, Controlled Fusion and Plasma Physics introduces various aspects and issues of recent fusion research activities through the shortest access path. The distinguished author breaks down the topic by first dealing with fusion and then concentrating on the more complex subject of plasma physics. The book begins with the basics of controlled fusion research, foll

  15. 家蝇天蚕素-人溶菌酶融合蛋白的生物信息学分析%Bioinformatic analysis of Musca domestica cecropin-human lysozyme fusion protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢雪梅; 金小宝; 朱家勇; 黄演婷

    2012-01-01

    目的 利用生物信息学方法分析家蝇天蚕素-人溶菌酶融合基因推导的氨基酸序列.方法 用ProtParam Tool、CDD、ProtScal、sopma等软件对其理化性质、疏水性/亲水性、信号肽、功能结构域及蛋白质二级结构等重要参数进行预测.结果 家蝇天蚕素-人溶菌酶由l87个氨基酸组成,预测相对分子质量为20 131.7,理论等电点(pI)为9.69,分子式为C862 H1375 N277 O260 S11;半衰期预测结果显示其利于基因工程表达.融合蛋白的氨基酸序列含有天蚕素家族和溶菌酶家族二者的保守结构域,二级结构主要由α-螺旋、β-折叠、β-转角和无规则卷曲组成.结论 分析结果为家蝇天蚕素-人溶菌酶融合基因的原核表达及表达产物的生物学功能研究奠定了基础.%Objective To analyze the amino acid sequences of Musca domestica cecropin-human lysozyme (Mdc-HLY) fusion protein by bioinformatics analysis. Methods The physical-chemical properties, hydrophobicity or hydrophilicity, the signal peptide, the conserved domains and protein secondary structure of Mdc-HLY were analyzed by ProtParam Tool, CDD, ProtScal, sopma et al. Results Mdc-HLY was cationic molecules and was composed of 187 amino acids,with molecular weight of 20 131.7,theoretical PI of 9.69,the structural formula of C862H1375N277O260S11. The fusion protein included the conserved domains of both Musca domestica cecropin and human lysozyme. Instability index classified the protein as stable, and conducive to its expression using genetic engineering. The secondary structure of Mdc-HLY contained α-helix,β-sheet ,β-tum and random coil. Conclusion These results may provide foundation for further study on the expression and biological activity of Mdc-HLY.

  16. Fusion in computer vision understanding complex visual content

    CERN Document Server

    Ionescu, Bogdan; Piatrik, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a thorough overview of fusion in computer vision, from an interdisciplinary and multi-application viewpoint, describing successful approaches, evaluated in the context of international benchmarks that model realistic use cases. Features: examines late fusion approaches for concept recognition in images and videos; describes the interpretation of visual content by incorporating models of the human visual system with content understanding methods; investigates the fusion of multi-modal features of different semantic levels, as well as results of semantic concept detections, fo

  17. SYT associates with human SNF/SWI complexes and the C-terminal region of its fusion partner SSX1 targets histones.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kato, H.; Tjernberg, A.; Zhang, W.; Krutchinsky, A.N.; An, W.; Takeuchi, T.; Ohtsuki, Y.; Sugano, S.; Bruijn, D.R.H. de; Chait, B.T.; Roeder, R.G.

    2002-01-01

    A global transcriptional co-activator, the SNF/SWI complex, has been characterized as a chromatin remodeling factor that enhances accessibility of the transcriptional machinery to DNA within a repressive chromatin structure. On the other hand, mutations in some human SNF/SWI complex components have

  18. Immunization strategy against cervical cancer involving an alphavirus vector expressing high levels of a stable fusion protein of human papillomavirus 16 E6 and E7

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daemen, T; Regts, J; Holtrop, M; Wilschut, J

    2002-01-01

    We are developing immunization strategies against cervical carcinoma and premalignant disease, based on the use of recombinant Semliki Forest virus (SFV) encoding the onco-proteins E6 and E7 from high-risk human papilloma viruses (HPV). Thus far, protein-based, as well as genetic immunization studie

  19. Alphavirus Entry and Membrane Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Kielian

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of enveloped animal viruses has greatly advanced our understanding of the general properties of membrane fusion and of the specific pathways that viruses use to infect the host cell. The membrane fusion proteins of the alphaviruses and flaviviruses have many similarities in structure and function. As reviewed here, alphaviruses use receptor-mediated endocytic uptake and low pH-triggered membrane fusion to deliver their RNA genomes into the cytoplasm. Recent advances in understanding the biochemistry and structure of the alphavirus membrane fusion protein provide a clearer picture of this fusion reaction, including the protein’s conformational changes during fusion and the identification of key domains. These insights into the alphavirus fusion mechanism suggest new areas for experimental investigation and potential inhibitor strategies for anti-viral therapy.

  20. Oral cancer/endothelial cell fusion experiences nuclear fusion and acquisition of enhanced survival potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Kai [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Shandong Province (China); The State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Basic Science of Stomatology (Hubei-MOST) and Key Laboratory for Oral Biomedicine Ministry of Education, Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); Song, Yong [The State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Basic Science of Stomatology (Hubei-MOST) and Key Laboratory for Oral Biomedicine Ministry of Education, Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); Department of Stomatology, Liu Zhou People' s Hospital, Guangxi (China); Zhao, Xiao-Ping; Shen, Hui; Wang, Meng; Yan, Ting-lin [The State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Basic Science of Stomatology (Hubei-MOST) and Key Laboratory for Oral Biomedicine Ministry of Education, Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); Liu, Ke, E-mail: liuke.1999@aliyun.com [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial-Head and Neck oncology, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, 237 Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430079 (China); The State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Basic Science of Stomatology (Hubei-MOST) and Key Laboratory for Oral Biomedicine Ministry of Education, Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); Shang, Zheng-jun, E-mail: shangzhengjun@hotmail.com [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial-Head and Neck oncology, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, 237 Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430079 (China); The State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Basic Science of Stomatology (Hubei-MOST) and Key Laboratory for Oral Biomedicine Ministry of Education, Wuhan University, Wuhan (China)

    2014-10-15

    Most previous studies have linked cancer–macrophage fusion with tumor progression and metastasis. However, the characteristics of hybrid cells derived from oral cancer and endothelial cells and their involvement in cancer remained unknown. Double-immunofluorescent staining and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) were performed to confirm spontaneous cell fusion between eGFP-labeled human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and RFP-labeled SCC9, and to detect the expression of vementin and cytokeratin 18 in the hybrids. The property of chemo-resistance of such hybrids was examined by TUNEL assay. The hybrid cells in xenografted tumor were identified by FISH and GFP/RFP dual-immunofluoresence staining. We showed that SCC9 cells spontaneously fused with cocultured endothelial cells, and the resultant hybrid cells maintained the division and proliferation activity after re-plating and thawing. Such hybrids expressed markers of both parental cells and became more resistant to chemotherapeutic drug cisplatin as compared to the parental SCC9 cells. Our in vivo data indicated that the hybrid cells contributed to tumor composition by using of immunostaining and FISH analysis, even though the hybrid cells and SCC9 cells were mixed with 1:10,000, according to the FACS data. Our study suggested that the fusion events between oral cancer and endothelial cells undergo nuclear fusion and acquire a new property of drug resistance and consequently enhanced survival potential. These experimental findings provide further supportive evidence for the theory that cell fusion is involved in cancer progression. - Highlights: • The fusion events between oral cancer and endothelial cells undergo nuclear fusion. • The resulting hybrid cells acquire a new property of drug resistance. • The resulting hybrid cells express the markers of both parental cells (i.e. vimentin and cytokeratin 18). • The hybrid cells contribute to tumor repopulation in vivo.

  1. A compensatory mutation provides resistance to disparate HIV fusion inhibitor peptides and enhances membrane fusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew P Wood

    Full Text Available Fusion inhibitors are a class of antiretroviral drugs used to prevent entry of HIV into host cells. Many of the fusion inhibitors being developed, including the drug enfuvirtide, are peptides designed to competitively inhibit the viral fusion protein gp41. With the emergence of drug resistance, there is an increased need for effective and unique alternatives within this class of antivirals. One such alternative is a class of cyclic, cationic, antimicrobial peptides known as θ-defensins, which are produced by many non-human primates and exhibit broad-spectrum antiviral and antibacterial activity. Currently, the θ-defensin analog RC-101 is being developed as a microbicide due to its specific antiviral activity, lack of toxicity to cells and tissues, and safety in animals. Understanding potential RC-101 resistance, and how resistance to other fusion inhibitors affects RC-101 susceptibility, is critical for future development. In previous studies, we identified a mutant, R5-tropic virus that had evolved partial resistance to RC-101 during in vitro selection. Here, we report that a secondary mutation in gp41 was found to restore replicative fitness, membrane fusion, and the rate of viral entry, which were compromised by an initial mutation providing partial RC-101 resistance. Interestingly, we show that RC-101 is effective against two enfuvirtide-resistant mutants, demonstrating the clinical importance of RC-101 as a unique fusion inhibitor. These findings both expand our understanding of HIV drug-resistance to diverse peptide fusion inhibitors and emphasize the significance of compensatory gp41 mutations.

  2. New Characterizations of Fusion Bases and Riesz Fusion Bases in Hilbert Spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Asgari, Mohammad Sadegh

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we investigate a new notion of bases in Hilbert spaces and similar to fusion frame theory we introduce fusion bases theory in Hilbert spaces. We also introduce a new definition of fusion dual sequence associated with a fusion basis and show that the operators of a fusion dual sequence are continuous projections. Next we define the fusion biorthogonal sequence, Bessel fusion basis, Hilbert fusion basis and obtain some characterizations of them. we study orthonormal fusion systems...

  3. Construction of recombinant plasmid of human FGFR4 gene and expression of fusion protein%人 FGFR4基因重组质粒的构建及融合蛋白的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘彩红; 张婷婷; 纪书婷

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨成纤维细胞生长因子4( FGFR4)重组质粒的构建方法,并检测FGFR4融合蛋白的表达。方法从HepG2细胞中提取总RNA,采用RT-PCR方法扩增FGFR4的全长编码序列,双酶切后与pcDNA3.1/Myc-HisA载体连接,构建pcDNA3.1/Myc-HisA-FGFR4重组质粒。重组质粒经双酶切和测序鉴定后瞬时转染人胚肾HEK293细胞,采用Western blot法检测FGFR4融合蛋白的表达。结果 FGFR4编码序列被成功克隆至pcDNA 3.1/Myc-HisA质粒中,成功构建了pcDNA3.1/Myc-HisA-FGFR4载体。转染HEK293细胞后检测到FGFR4融合蛋白的稳定表达,分子量约为89 kD。结论成功构建了FGFR4全长编码基因重组质粒,并检测到转染后FGFR4蛋白在HEK293细胞中的表达。%Objective To investigate the construction method of the recombinant plasmid of fibroblast growth factor re-ceptor 4(FGFR4) and to identify the expression of its fusion protein.Methods Total RNA was extracted from HepG2 cells.We obtained the full length of human FGFR4 coding sequence by RT-PCR, digested it by restriction enzyme and joined it with pcDNA3.1/Myc-HisA to construct the pcDNA3.1/Myc-HisA-FGFR4 recombinant plasmid.After the recom-binant plasmid was identified by enzyme digestion and sequencing, the plasmid was transfected into HEK293 cells.The ex-pression of fusion protein in HEK293 cells was detected by Western blotting.Results The coding sequence of human FG-FR4 was successfully cloned into pcDNA3.1/Myc-HisA.The pcDNA3.1/Myc-HisA-FGFR4 vector was successfully con-structed.After transfecting HEK293 cells, the stable expression of FGFR4 fusion protein with a molecular weight of 89 kD was detected.Conclusion The recombinant plasmid of FGFR4 full-length coding gene was successfully constructed and the FGFR4 protein was expressed in HEK293 cells.

  4. Randomized Symmetric Crypto Spatial Fusion Steganographic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viswanathan Perumal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The image fusion steganographic system embeds encrypted messages in decomposed multimedia carriers using a pseudorandom generator but it fails to evaluate the contents of the cover image. This results in the secret data being embedded in smooth regions, which leads to visible distortion that affects the imperceptibility and confidentiality. To solve this issue, as well as to improve the quality and robustness of the system, the Randomized Symmetric Crypto Spatial Fusion Steganography System is proposed in this study. It comprises three-subsystem bitwise encryption, spatial fusion, and bitwise embedding. First, bitwise encryption encrypts the message using bitwise operation to improve the confidentiality. Then, spatial fusion decomposes and evaluates the region of embedding on the basis of sharp intensity and capacity. This restricts the visibility of distortion and provides a high embedding capacity. Finally, the bitwise embedding system embeds the encrypted message through differencing the pixels in the region by 1, checking even or odd options and not equal to zero constraints. This reduces the modification rate to avoid distortion. The proposed heuristic algorithm is implemented in the blue channel, to which the human visual system is less sensitive. It was tested using standard IST natural images with steganalysis algorithms and resulted in better quality, imperceptibility, embedding capacity and invulnerability to various attacks compared to other steganographic systems.

  5. COLOUR IMAGE REPRESENTION OF MULTISPECTRAL IMAGE FUSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preema Mole

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The availability of imaging sensors operating in multiple spectral bands has led to the requirement of image fusion algorithms that would combine the image from these sensors in an efficient way to give an image that is more perceptible to human eye. Multispectral Image fusion is the process of combining images optically acquired in more than one spectral band. In this paper, we present a pixel-level image fusion that combines four images from four different spectral bands namely near infrared(0.76-0.90um, mid infrared(1.55-1.75um,thermal- infrared(10.4-12.5um and mid infrared(2.08-2.35um to give a composite colour image. The work coalesces a fusion technique that involves linear transformation based on Cholesky decomposition of the covariance matrix of source data that converts multispectral source images which are in grayscale into colour image. This work is composed of different segments that includes estimation of covariance matrix of images, cholesky decomposition and transformation ones. Finally, the fused colour image is compared with the fused image obtained by PCA transformation.

  6. Studies on virus-induced cell fusion. Progress report, July 1, 1978-July 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Person, S.

    1979-08-01

    We have determined the extent of fusion in mixed Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 (HSV-1) cell populations. Labeled, sparse, infected cells were surrounded by unlabeled, excess, uninfected (or infected) cells to determine if fusion inhibition is active when present in the same cell as fusion factor, when present in cells that do not contain fusion factor, or in both situations. We found that wild type infected cells fuse to the same extent with each other as with uninfected cells. Therefore fusion inhibitor is active when present in the same cell as fusion factor. Other experiments indicate that the inhibition activity can also cause a small decrease of fusion when fusion factor and fusion inhibitor are present in different, but neighboring, cells. Marked variations are found in the capacity of different cell types, such as human embryonic lung (HEDL) and HEp-2 to support fusion by particular syn mutants. The difference in fusion capacity of the two cell types may be due to a difference in a cellular factor affecting the activity of viral, fusion-associated molecules, and not to cell surface differences of the uninfected cells. (PCS)

  7. Alternate laser fusion drivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pleasance, L.D.

    1979-11-01

    Over the past few years, several laser systems have been considered as possible laser fusion drivers. Recently, there has been an increasing effort to evaluate these systems in terms of a reactor driver application. The specifications for such a system have become firmer and generally more restrictive. Several of the promising candidates such as the group VI laser, the metal vapor excimers and some solid state lasers can be eliminated on the basis of inefficiency. New solid state systems may impact the long range development of a fusion driver. Of the short wavelength gas lasers, the KrF laser used in conjunction with Raman compression and pulse stacking techniques is the most promising approach. Efficiencies approaching 10% may be possible with this system. While technically feasible, these approaches are complex and costly and are unsatisfying in an aethetic sense. A search for new lasers with more compelling features is still needed.

  8. Fusion Data Grid Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shasharina, Svetlana; Wang, Nanbor

    2004-11-01

    Simulations and experiments in the fusion and plasma physics community generate large datasets at remote sites. Visualization and analysis of these datasets are difficult because of the incompatibility among the various data formats adopted by simulation, experiments, and analysis tools, and the large sizes of analyzed data. Grids and Web Services technologies are capable of providing solutions for such heterogeneous settings, but need to be customized to the field-specific needs and merged with distributed technologies currently used by the community. This paper describes how we are addressing these issues in the Fusion Grid Service under development. We also present performance results of relevant data transfer mechanisms including binary SOAP, DIME, GridFTP and MDSplus and CORBA. We will describe the status of data converters (between HDF5 and MDSplus data types), developed in collaboration with MIT (J. Stillerman). Finally, we will analyze bottlenecks of MDSplus data transfer mechanism (work performed in collaboration with General Atomics (D. Schissel and M. Qian).

  9. Oral cancer/endothelial cell fusion experiences nuclear fusion and acquisition of enhanced survival potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kai; Song, Yong; Zhao, Xiao-Ping; Shen, Hui; Wang, Meng; Yan, Ting-Lin; Liu, Ke; Shang, Zheng-Jun

    2014-10-15

    Most previous studies have linked cancer-macrophage fusion with tumor progression and metastasis. However, the characteristics of hybrid cells derived from oral cancer and endothelial cells and their involvement in cancer remained unknown. Double-immunofluorescent staining and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) were performed to confirm spontaneous cell fusion between eGFP-labeled human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and RFP-labeled SCC9, and to detect the expression of vementin and cytokeratin 18 in the hybrids. The property of chemo-resistance of such hybrids was examined by TUNEL assay. The hybrid cells in xenografted tumor were identified by FISH and GFP/RFP dual-immunofluoresence staining. We showed that SCC9 cells spontaneously fused with cocultured endothelial cells, and the resultant hybrid cells maintained the division and proliferation activity after re-plating and thawing. Such hybrids expressed markers of both parental cells and became more resistant to chemotherapeutic drug cisplatin as compared to the parental SCC9 cells. Our in vivo data indicated that the hybrid cells contributed to tumor composition by using of immunostaining and FISH analysis, even though the hybrid cells and SCC9 cells were mixed with 1:10,000, according to the FACS data. Our study suggested that the fusion events between oral cancer and endothelial cells undergo nuclear fusion and acquire a new property of drug resistance and consequently enhanced survival potential. These experimental findings provide further supportive evidence for the theory that cell fusion is involved in cancer progression.

  10. Modular Aneutronic Fusion Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary Pajer, Yosef Razin, Michael Paluszek, A.H. Glasser and Samuel Cohen

    2012-05-11

    NASA's JUNO mission will arrive at Jupiter in July 2016, after nearly five years in space. Since operational costs tend to rise with mission time, minimizing such times becomes a top priority. We present the conceptual design for a 10MW aneutronic fusion engine with high exhaust velocities that would reduce transit time for a Jupiter mission to eighteen months and enable more challenging exploration missions in the solar system and beyond. __________________________________________________

  11. Fusion development and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montgomery, D.B.

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses the following: superconducting magnet technology; high field superconductors; advanced magnetic system and divertor development; poloidal field coils; gyrotron development; commercial reactor studies--aries; ITER physics: alpha physics and alcator R D for ITER; lower hybrid current drive and heating in the ITER device; ITER superconducting PF scenario and magnet analysis; ITER systems studies; and safety, environmental and economic factors in fusion development.

  12. Fc-fusion mimetics

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The Fc-fusion mimetic RpR 2 was prepared by disulfide bridging conjugation using a PEG in the place of the Fc. RpR 2 displayed higher affinity for VEGF than aflibercept caused primarily by a slower dissociation rate, which can prolong a drug at its site of action. RpRs have considerable potential for development as stable, organ specific therapeutics.

  13. Materials for Fusion Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Matějíček

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An overview of materials foreseen for use or already used in fusion devices is given. The operating conditions, material requirements and characteristics of candidate materials in several specific application segments are briefly reviewed. These include: construction materials, electrical insulation, permeation barriers and plasma facing components. Special attention will be paid to the latter and to the issues of plasma-material interaction, materials joining and fuctionally graded interlayers.

  14. Accelerator based fusion reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Keh-Fei; Chao, Alexander Wu

    2017-08-01

    A feasibility study of fusion reactors based on accelerators is carried out. We consider a novel scheme where a beam from the accelerator hits the target plasma on the resonance of the fusion reaction and establish characteristic criteria for a workable reactor. We consider the reactions d+t\\to n+α,d+{{}3}{{H}\\text{e}}\\to p+α , and p+{{}11}B\\to 3α in this study. The critical temperature of the plasma is determined from overcoming the stopping power of the beam with the fusion energy gain. The needed plasma lifetime is determined from the width of the resonance, the beam velocity and the plasma density. We estimate the critical beam flux by balancing the energy of fusion production against the plasma thermo-energy and the loss due to stopping power for the case of an inert plasma. The product of critical flux and plasma lifetime is independent of plasma density and has a weak dependence on temperature. Even though the critical temperatures for these reactions are lower than those for the thermonuclear reactors, the critical flux is in the range of {{10}22}-{{10}24}~\\text{c}{{\\text{m}}-2}~{{\\text{s}}-1} for the plasma density {ρt}={{10}15}~\\text{c}{{\\text{m}}-3} in the case of an inert plasma. Several approaches to control the growth of the two-stream instability are discussed. We have also considered several scenarios for practical implementation which will require further studies. Finally, we consider the case where the injected beam at the resonance energy maintains the plasma temperature and prolongs its lifetime to reach a steady state. The equations for power balance and particle number conservation are given for this case.

  15. (Fusion energy research)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, C.A. (ed.)

    1988-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: principal parameters achieved in experimental devices (FY88); tokamak fusion test reactor; Princeton beta Experiment-Modification; S-1 Spheromak; current drive experiment; x-ray laser studies; spacecraft glow experiment; plasma deposition and etching of thin films; theoretical plasma; tokamak modeling; compact ignition tokamak; international thermonuclear experimental reactor; Engineering Department; Project Planning and Safety Office; quality assurance and reliability; and technology transfer.

  16. Sensor fusion III: 3-D perception and recognition; Proceedings of the Meeting, Boston, MA, Nov. 5-8, 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenker, Paul S. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The volume on data fusion from multiple sources discusses fusing multiple views, temporal analysis and 3D motion interpretation, sensor fusion and eye-to-hand coordination, and integration in human shape perception. Attention is given to surface reconstruction, statistical methods in sensor fusion, fusing sensor data with environmental knowledge, computational models for sensor fusion, and evaluation and selection of sensor fusion techniques. Topics addressed include the structure of a scene from two and three projections, optical flow techniques for moving target detection, tactical sensor-based exploration in a robotic environment, and the fusion of human and machine skills for remote robotic operations. Also discussed are K-nearest-neighbor concepts for sensor fusion, surface reconstruction with discontinuities, a sensor-knowledge-command fusion paradigm for man-machine systems, coordinating sensing and local navigation, and terrain map matching using multisensing techniques for applications to autonomous vehicle navigation.

  17. A fusion between domains of the human bone morphogenetic protein-2 and maize 27 kD gamma-zein accumulates to high levels in the endoplasmic reticulum without forming protein bodies in transgenic tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina eCeresoli

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 (hBMP2 is an osteoinductive agent physiologically involved in bone remodelling processes. A commercialized recombinant hBMP2 produced in mammalian cell lines is available in different clinical applications where bone regeneration is needed, but widespread use has been hindered due to an unfavorable cost/effective ratio. Protein bodies are very large insoluble protein polymers that originate within the endoplasmic reticulum by prolamine accumulation during the cereal seed development. The N-terminal domain of the maize prolamin 27 kD -zein is able to promote protein body biogenesis when fused to other proteins. To produce high yield of recombinant hBMP2 active domain (ad in stably transformed tobacco plants we have fused it to the γ-zein domain. We show that this zein-hBMP2ad fusion is retained in the endoplasmic reticulum without forming insoluble protein bodies. The accumulation levels are above 1% of total soluble leaf proteins, indicating that it could be a rapid and suitable strategy to produce hBMP2ad at affordable costs.

  18. Robust expression of the human neonatal Fc receptor in a truncated soluble form and as a full-length membrane-bound protein in fusion with eGFP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Seijsing

    Full Text Available Studies on the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn have revealed a multitude of important functions in mammals, including protection of IgG and serum albumin (SA from lysosomal degradation. The pharmacokinetic behavior of therapeutic antibodies, IgG-Fc- and SA-containing drugs is therefore influenced by their interaction with FcRn. Pre-clinical development of such drugs is facilitated if their interaction with FcRn can be studied in vitro. For this reason we have developed a robust system for production of the soluble extracellular domain of human FcRn as well as the full-length receptor as fusion to green fluorescent protein, taking advantage of a lentivirus-based gene delivery system where stable over-expressing cells are easily and rapidly generated. Production of the extracellular domain in multiple-layered culture flasks, followed by affinity purification using immobilized IgG, resulted in capture of milligram amounts of soluble receptor per liter cell culture with retained IgG binding. The receptor was further characterized by SDS-PAGE, western blotting, circular dichroism spectroscopy, ELISA, surface plasmon resonance and a temperature stability assay showing a functional and stable protein of high purity. The full-length receptor was found to be successfully over-expressed in a membrane-bound form with retained pH-dependent IgG- and SA-binding.

  19. A Fusion between Domains of the Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 and Maize 27 kD γ-Zein Accumulates to High Levels in the Endoplasmic Reticulum without Forming Protein Bodies in Transgenic Tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceresoli, Valentina; Mainieri, Davide; Del Fabbro, Massimo; Weinstein, Roberto; Pedrazzini, Emanuela

    2016-01-01

    Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 (hBMP2) is an osteoinductive agent physiologically involved in bone remodeling processes. A commercialized recombinant hBMP2 produced in mammalian cell lines is available in different clinical applications where bone regeneration is needed, but widespread use has been hindered due to an unfavorable cost/effective ratio. Protein bodies are very large insoluble protein polymers that originate within the endoplasmic reticulum by prolamine accumulation during the cereal seed development. The N-terminal domain of the maize prolamin 27 kD γ-zein is able to promote protein body biogenesis when fused to other proteins. To produce high yield of recombinant hBMP2 active domain (ad) in stably transformed tobacco plants we have fused it to the γ-zein domain. We show that this zein-hBMP2ad fusion is retained in the endoplasmic reticulum without forming insoluble protein bodies. The accumulation levels are above 1% of total soluble leaf proteins, indicating that it could be a rapid and suitable strategy to produce hBMP2ad at affordable costs.

  20. The ectodomains but not the transmembrane domains of the fusion proteins of subtypes A and B avian pneumovirus are conserved to a similar extent as those of human respiratory syncytial virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, C J; Britton, P; Cavanagh, D

    1998-06-01

    The fusion glycoprotein (F(B)) gene of five strains of the B subtype of avian pneumovirus (APV; turkey rhinotracheitis virus) has been sequenced. The length of the F(B) protein was 538 amino acids, identical to that of the F protein of subtype A virus, with which it had 74% and 83% overall nucleotide and deduced amino acid identities, respectively. The F(B) and F(A) ectodomains had 90% amino acid identity, very similar to the 91% identity between the ectodomains of the F proteins of subtype A and B human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV). As with HRSV, the F2 polypeptide was less conserved (83% identity) than F1 (94%). In contrast to the ectodomain, the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains of the two APV subtypes were much less conserved (30% and 48% identity, respectively) than those of HRSV (92% and 87%, respectively). Comparisons within all the genera of the Paramyxoviridae (Pneumovirus, Morbillivirus, Paramyxovirus and Rubullavirus) show that low amino acid identity between F protein transmembrane domains is a feature of different species of virus rather than of strain differences. This may indicate that the two subtypes of APV have evolved in different geographical regions and/or different avian species. This is the first report of an F gene sequence from a subtype B APV.

  1. The human foamy virus pol gene is expressed as a Pro-Pol polyprotein and not as a Gag-Pol fusion protein.

    OpenAIRE

    Löchelt, M; Flügel, R M

    1996-01-01

    It has been reported recently that the human foamy virus (HFV) Pol polyprotein of 120 kDa is synthesized in the absence of the active HFV aspartic protease. To gain more information on how the 120-kDa Pro-Pol protein is synthesized, mutant HFV genomes were constructed and the resulting proviruses were analyzed with respect to HFV pol expression and infectivity. HFV proviruses that contain termination codons in the nucleocapsid domain of gag and thus lack a gag-pol overlap region assumed to be...

  2. 基于Bayes信息融合的人为差错概率计算方法%Human error probability quantification method based on Bayesian information fusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋英杰; 孙志强; 谢红卫; 宫二玲

    2011-01-01

    研究了人为差错概率的计算.首先,介绍了可用于人为差错概率计算的数据来源,主要包括:通用数据、专家数据、仿真实验数据和现场数据.然后,分析了Bayes信息融合方法的基本思想,强调了该方法的两个关键性问题:验前分布的构建和融合权重的确定.最后,构建了基于Bayes信息融合的人为差错概率计算方法.将前3种数据作为脸前信息,融合形成验前分布.使用Bayes方法完成与现场数据的数据综合,得到人为差错概率的验后分布.基于该验后分布,完成人为差错概率的计算.通过示例分析,演示了方法的使用过程,证明了方法的有效性.%The quantification of human error probability is researched. Firstly, the data resources that can be used in the quantification of human error probability are introduced, including general data, expert data, simulation data, and spot data. Their characteristics are analyzed. Secondly, the basic idea of Bayesian information fusing is analyzed. Two key prololems are emphasized, which are the formation of prior distributions and the determination of fusing weights. Finally, the new method is presented, which quantifies the human error probability based on Bayesian information fusing. The first three kinds of data are regarded as prior information to form the fused prior distribution. The Bayesian method is used to synthesize all the data and get the posterior distribution. Based on the posterior distribution, the human error probability can be quantified. An example is analyzed, which shows the process of the method and proves its validity.

  3. Engineering and Functional Characterization of Fusion Genes Identifies Novel Oncogenic Drivers of Cancer. | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oncogenic gene fusions drive many human cancers, but tools to more quickly unravel their functional contributions are needed. Here we describe methodology permitting fusion gene construction for functional evaluation. Using this strategy, we engineered the known fusion oncogenes, BCR-ABL1, EML4-ALK, and ETV6-NTRK3, as well as 20 previously uncharacterized fusion genes identified in TCGA datasets.

  4. First-principles mapping of fusion applications into the JDL model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony, Richard T.; Karakowski, Joseph A.

    2009-05-01

    The paper presents a formal approach for mapping from an entity-relationship model of a selected application domain to the functional components of the JDL fusion model. The resultant functional decomposition supports both traditional sensor, as well as human-generated text input. To demonstrate the generality of the mapping, examples are offered for three distinct application domains: (1) Intelligence Fusion, (2) Aircraft Collision Avoidance, and (3) Robotic Control. The first-principle's based approach begins by viewing fusion as the composition of similar and dissimilar entities. Next, the fusion triple (entity, location, time) is defined where entities can be either physical or non-physical. Coupling the fusion triple with this generalized view of fusion leads to the identification of eight base-level fusion services that serve as the building blocks of individual composition products.

  5. Inertial fusion energy; L'energie de fusion inertielle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decroisette, M.; Andre, M.; Bayer, C.; Juraszek, D. [CEA Bruyeres-le-Chatel, Dir. des Systemes d' Information (CEA/DIF), 91 (France); Le Garrec, B. [CEA Centre d' Etudes Scientifiques et Techniques d' Aquitaine, 33 - Le Barp (France); Deutsch, C. [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France); Migus, A. [Institut d' Optique Centre scientifique, 91 - Orsay (France)

    2005-07-01

    We first recall the scientific basis of inertial fusion and then describe a generic fusion reactor with the different components: the driver, the fusion chamber, the material treatment unit, the target factory and the turbines. We analyse the options proposed at the present time for the driver and for target irradiation scheme giving the state of art for each approach. We conclude by the presentation of LMJ (laser Megajoule) and NIF (national ignition facility) projects. These facilities aim to demonstrate the feasibility of laboratory DT ignition, first step toward Inertial Fusion Energy. (authors)

  6. Expression, purification and bioactivity identification of recombinant human BAFF fusion protein%重组人B细胞激活因子融合蛋白的表达、纯化及活性鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王茹; 林周; 魏化伟; 彭辉; 侯春梅; 冯健男; 沈倍奋; 黎燕

    2013-01-01

    目的 获得人类B细胞激活因子(B cell activating factor,BAFF)胞外段融合蛋白并对其生物活性进行分析.方法 构建pET32a/BAFF的原核表达载体,进行原核表达、亲和纯化,并通过SDS-PAGE、Western印迹进行鉴定.利用非还原电泳后的Western印迹与HPLC分析融合蛋白在溶液中的存在形式.ELISA、Octet RED系统检测rhBAFF结合受体TACI的能力并做出实时动力学分析.MTS法检测rhBAFF促进B细胞增殖的活性.结果 融合蛋白在大肠杆菌BL21中以可溶形式高效表达,经Ni-NTA纯化获得的目的蛋白纯度超过90%;SDS-PAGE、Western 印迹显示在相对分子质量为36×103位置有目的蛋白的特异条带;非还原电泳及HPLC分析表明,重组蛋白以三聚体的形式存在;ELISA、Octet RED系统同时证实BAFF可与受体TACI结合;增殖实验证实重组蛋白具有生物学活性.结论 成功获得纯度超过90%的rhBAFF可溶蛋白,实验证实为具有生物学活性的三聚体结构.%Objective To obtain human B cell activating factor( BAFF) extracellular domain fusion protein and analyze its biological activity. Methods pET32a/BAFF prokaryotic expression vector for prokaryotic expression was constructed. Affinity purification and identification were conducted by SDS-PAGE and by Western blotting. The form of fusion protein in solution was analyzed by Western blotting after non-reducing electrophoresis and HPLC. ELISA was used to detect the binding ability of rhBAFF interaction with TACI and the real-time kinetic analysis was made by Octet RED system. The activity of rhBAFF promoting B-cell proliferation was analyzed by MTS assay. Results The fusion protein was expressed in E. coli BL21 as soluble protein with high efficiency and purified by Ni-NTA with a purity of more than 90%. The recombinant protein with a relative molecular mass of about 36 kDa could specifically recognize the antibody to BAFF. Non-reducing electrophoresis and HPLC analysis showed

  7. The rise of developmental genetics - a historical account of the fusion of embryology and cell biology with human genetics and the emergence of the Stem Cell Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidson, S H; Ballo, R; Greenberg, L J

    2016-05-25

    Genetics and cell biology are very prominent areas of biological research with rapid advances being driven by a flood of theoretical, technological and informational knowledge. Big biology and small biology continue to feed off each other. In this paper, we provide a brief overview of the productive interactions that have taken place between human geneticists and cell biologists at UCT, and credit is given to the enabling environment created led by Prof. Peter Beighton. The growth of new disciplines and disciplinary mergers that have swept away division of the past to make new exciting syntheses are discussed. We show how our joint research has benefitted from worldwide advances in developmental genetics, cloning and stem cell technologies, genomics, bioinformatics and imaging. We conclude by describing the role of the UCT Stem Cell Initiative and show how we are using induced pluripotent cells to carry out disease-in-the- dish studies on retinal degeneration and fibrosis.

  8. Application of fusion protein 4D5 scFv-dibarnase:barstar-gold complex for studying P185HER2 receptor distribution in human cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Julia L; Edelweiss, Evelina F; Leonova, Olga G; Balandin, Taras G; Popenko, Vladimir I; Deyev, Sergey M

    2012-08-01

    Overexpression of the P185(HER2) protein determines the malignancy and unfavorable prognosis of ovarian and breast tumors. In this work, the distribution of P185(HER2) in human cancer cells was studied by electron microscopy, using a novel approach. It is based on the interaction between barnase (a ribonuclease from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens) and its specific inhibitor barstar. The monoclonal antibody 4D5 scFv to extracellular P185(HER2) domain fused with two molecules of barnase was used as a recognizing agent, and the conjugate of colloidal gold with barstar, as an electron dense label for electron microscopic visualization. For labeling, we used supramolecular complexes 4D5 scFv-dibarnase:barstar-Au. The distribution of P185(HER2) in human ovarian carcinoma cells SKOV-3 and breast carcinoma cells BT-474 was studied at 4 °C and 37 °C. It was shown that at 4 °C the protein P185(HER2) occurs exclusively on the cell surface, mainly on protrusions or close to their bases. At 37 °C, the internalization of P185(HER2) caused by its interaction with 4D5 scFv-dibarnase was observed. Inside the cells, P185(HER2) was located in the coated pits and vesicles, endosomes and multivesicular bodies. The data obtained indicate that the supramolecular 4D5 scFv-dibarnase:barstar-gold complex can be used as a new immunodetection system for exploring the P185(HER2) distribution.

  9. Validation of automatic target volume definition as demonstrated for 11C-choline PET/CT of human prostate cancer using multi-modality fusion techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyunjin; Meyer, Charles R; Wood, David; Khan, Asra; Shah, Rajal; Hussain, Hero; Siddiqui, Javed; Seo, Jongbum; Chenevert, Thomas; Piert, Morand

    2010-05-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is actively investigated to aid in target volume definition for radiation therapy. The objectives of this study were to apply an automatic computer algorithm to compute target volumes and to validate the algorithm using histologic data from real human prostate cancer. Various modalities for prostate imaging were performed. In vivo imaging included T2 3-T magnetic resonance imaging and (11)C-choline PET. Ex vivo imaging included 3-T magnetic resonance imaging, histology, and block face photos of the prostate specimen. A novel registration method based on mutual information and thin-plate splines was applied to all modalities. Once PET is registered with histology, a voxel-by-voxel comparison between PET and histology is possible. A thresholding technique based on various fractions of the maximum standardized uptake value in the tumor was applied, and the respective computed threshold volume on PET was compared with histologic truth. Sixteen patients whose primary tumor volumes ranged from 1.2 to 12.6 cm(3) were tested. PET has low spatial resolution, so only tumors > 4 cm(3) were considered. Four cases met this criterion. A threshold value of 60% of the (11)C-choline maximum standardized uptake value resulted in the highest volume overlap between threshold volume on PET and histology. Medial axis distances between threshold volume on PET and histology showed a mean error of 7.7 +/- 5.2 mm. This is a proof-of-concept study demonstrating for the first time that histology-guided thresholding on PET can delineate tumor volumes in real human prostate cancer. Copyright 2010 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Genetic variability of attachment (G and Fusion (F protein genes of human metapneumovirus strains circulating during 2006-2009 in Kolkata, Eastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chawla-Sarkar Mamta

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human metapneumovirus (hMPV is associated with the acute respiratory tract infection (ARTI in all the age groups. However, there is limited information on prevalence and genetic diversity of human metapneumovirus (hMPV strains circulating in India. Objective To study prevalence and genomic diversity of hMPV strains among ARTI patients reporting in outpatient departments of hospitals in Kolkata, Eastern India. Methods Nasal and/or throat swabs from 2309 patients during January 2006 to December 2009, were screened for the presence of hMPV by RT-PCR of nucleocapsid (N gene. The G and F genes of representative hMPV positive samples were sequenced. Results 118 of 2309 (5.11% clinical samples were positive for hMPV. The majority (≈80% of the positive cases were detected during July−November all through the study period. Genetic analysis revealed that 77% strains belong to A2 subgroup whereas rest clustered in B1 subgroup. G sequences showed higher diversity at the nucleotide and amino acid level. In contrast, less than 10% variation was observed in F gene of representative strains of all four years. Sequence analysis also revealed changes in the position of stop codon in G protein, which resulted in variable length (217-231 aa polypeptides. Conclusion The study suggests that approximately 5% of ARTI in the region were caused by hMPV. This is the first report on the genetic variability of G and F gene of hMPV strains from India which clearly shows that the G protein of hMPV is continuously evolving. Though the study partially fulfills lacunae of information, further studies from other regions are necessary for better understanding of prevalence, epidemiology and virus evolution in Indian subcontinent.

  11. EDITORIAL: The Nuclear Fusion Award The Nuclear Fusion Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, M.

    2011-01-01

    The Nuclear Fusion Award ceremony for 2009 and 2010 award winners was held during the 23rd IAEA Fusion Energy Conference in Daejeon. This time, both 2009 and 2010 award winners were celebrated by the IAEA and the participants of the 23rd IAEA Fusion Energy Conference. The Nuclear Fusion Award is a paper prize to acknowledge the best distinguished paper among the published papers in a particular volume of the Nuclear Fusion journal. Among the top-cited and highly-recommended papers chosen by the Editorial Board, excluding overview and review papers, and by analyzing self-citation and non-self-citation with an emphasis on non-self-citation, the Editorial Board confidentially selects ten distinguished papers as nominees for the Nuclear Fusion Award. Certificates are given to the leading authors of the Nuclear Fusion Award nominees. The final winner is selected among the ten nominees by the Nuclear Fusion Editorial Board voting confidentially. 2009 Nuclear Fusion Award nominees For the 2009 award, the papers published in the 2006 volume were assessed and the following papers were nominated, most of which are magnetic confinement experiments, theory and modeling, while one addresses inertial confinement. Sabbagh S.A. et al 2006 Resistive wall stabilized operation in rotating high beta NSTX plasmas Nucl. Fusion 46 635-44 La Haye R.J. et al 2006 Cross-machine benchmarking for ITER of neoclassical tearing mode stabilization by electron cyclotron current drive Nucl. Fusion 46 451-61 Honrubia J.J. et al 2006 Three-dimensional fast electron transport for ignition-scale inertial fusion capsules Nucl. Fusion 46 L25-8 Ido T. et al 2006 Observation of the interaction between the geodesic acoustic mode and ambient fluctuation in the JFT-2M tokamak Nucl. Fusion 46 512-20 Plyusnin V.V. et al 2006 Study of runaway electron generation during major disruptions in JET Nucl. Fusion 46 277-84 Pitts R.A. et al 2006 Far SOL ELM ion energies in JET Nucl. Fusion 46 82-98 Berk H.L. et al 2006

  12. Premature Activation of the Paramyxovirus Fusion Protein before Target Cell Attachment with Corruption of the Viral Fusion Machinery*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzan, Shohreh F.; Palermo, Laura M.; Yokoyama, Christine C.; Orefice, Gianmarco; Fornabaio, Micaela; Sarkar, Aurijit; Kellogg, Glen E.; Greengard, Olga; Porotto, Matteo; Moscona, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Paramyxoviruses, including the childhood pathogen human parainfluenza virus type 3, enter host cells by fusion of the viral and target cell membranes. This fusion results from the concerted action of its two envelope glycoproteins, the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) and the fusion protein (F). The receptor-bound HN triggers F to undergo conformational changes that render it competent to mediate fusion of the viral and cellular membranes. We proposed that, if the fusion process could be activated prematurely before the virion reaches the target host cell, infection could be prevented. We identified a small molecule that inhibits paramyxovirus entry into target cells and prevents infection. We show here that this compound works by an interaction with HN that results in F-activation prior to receptor binding. The fusion process is thereby prematurely activated, preventing fusion of the viral membrane with target cells and precluding viral entry. This first evidence that activation of a paramyxovirus F can be specifically induced before the virus contacts its target cell suggests a new strategy with broad implications for the design of antiviral agents. PMID:21799008

  13. Application of the JDL data fusion process model to hard/soft information fusion in the condition monitoring of aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Joseph T.

    2014-05-01

    Hard/soft information fusion has been proposed as a way to enhance diagnostic capability for the condition monitoring of machinery. However, there is a limited understanding of where hard/soft information fusion could and should be applied in the condition monitoring of aircraft. Condition-based maintenance refers to the philosophy of performing maintenance when the need arises, based upon indicators of deterioration in the condition of the machinery. The addition of the multisensory capability of human cognition to electronic sensors may create a fuller picture of machinery condition. Since 1988, the Joint Directors of Laboratories (JDL) data fusion process model has served as a framework for information fusion research. Advances are described in the application of hard/soft information fusion in condition monitoring using terms that condition-based maintenance professionals in aviation will recognize. Emerging literature on hard/soft information fusion in condition monitoring is organized into the levels of the JDL data fusion process model. Gaps in the literature are identified, and the author's ongoing research is discussed. Future efforts will focus on building domain-specific frameworks and experimental design, which may provide a foundation for improving flight safety, increasing mission readiness, and reducing the cost of maintenance operations.

  14. Cold nuclear fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsyganov, E.N., E-mail: edward.tsyganov@coldfusion-power.com [Cold Fusion Power, International (United States); Bavizhev, M.D. [LLC “Radium”, Moscow (Russian Federation); Buryakov, M.G. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna (Russian Federation); Dabagov, S.B. [RAS P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Leninsky pr. 53, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Kashirskoe shosse 31, 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation); Golovatyuk, V.M.; Lobastov, S.P. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna (Russian Federation)

    2015-07-15

    If target deuterium atoms were implanted in a metal crystal in accelerator experiments, a sharp increase in the probability of DD-fusion reaction was clearly observed when compared with the reaction’s theoretical value. The electronic screening potential, which for a collision of free deuterium atoms is about 27 eV, reached 300–700 eV in the case of the DD-fusion in metallic crystals. These data leads to the conclusion that a ban must exist for deuterium atoms to be in the ground state 1s in a niche filled with free conduction electrons. At the same time, the state 2p whose energy level is only 10 eV above that of state 1s is allowed in these conditions. With anisotropy of 2p, 3p or above orbitals, their spatial positions are strictly determined in the lattice coordinate system. When filling out the same potential niches with two deuterium atoms in the states 2p, 3p or higher, the nuclei of these atoms can be permanently positioned without creating much Coulomb repulsion at a very short distance from each other. In this case, the transparency of the potential barrier increases dramatically compared to the ground state 1s for these atoms. The probability of the deuterium nuclei penetrating the Coulomb barrier by zero quantum vibration of the DD-system also increases dramatically. The so-called cold nuclear DD-fusion for a number of years was registered in many experiments, however, was still rejected by mainstream science for allegedly having no consistent scientific explanation. Finally, it received the validation. Below, we outline the concept of this explanation and give the necessary calculations. This paper also considers the further destiny of the formed intermediate state of {sup 4}He{sup ∗}.

  15. Weighted Attribute Fusion Model for Face Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Sakthivel, S

    2010-01-01

    Recognizing a face based on its attributes is an easy task for a human to perform as it is a cognitive process. In recent years, Face Recognition is achieved with different kinds of facial features which were used separately or in a combined manner. Currently, Feature fusion methods and parallel methods are the facial features used and performed by integrating multiple feature sets at different levels. However, this integration and the combinational methods do not guarantee better result. Hence to achieve better results, the feature fusion model with multiple weighted facial attribute set is selected. For this feature model, face images from predefined data set has been taken from Olivetti Research Laboratory (ORL) and applied on different methods like Principal Component Analysis (PCA) based Eigen feature extraction technique, Discrete Cosine Transformation (DCT) based feature extraction technique, Histogram Based Feature Extraction technique and Simple Intensity based features. The extracted feature set obt...

  16. Fusion of hand and arm gestures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coquin, D.; Benoit, E.; Sawada, H.; Ionescu, B.

    2005-12-01

    In order to improve the link between an operator and its machine, some human oriented communication systems are now using natural languages like speech or gesture. The goal of this paper is to present a gesture recognition system based on the fusion of measurements issued from different kind of sources. It is necessary to have some sensors that are able to capture at least the position and the orientation of the hand such as Dataglove and a video camera. Datagloge gives a measure of the hand posture and a video camera gives a measure of the general arm gesture which represents the physical and spatial properties of the gesture, and based on the 2D skeleton representation of the arm. The measurements used are partially complementary and partially redundant. The application is distributed on intelligent cooperating sensors. The paper presents the measurement of the hand and the arm gestures, the fusion processes, and the implementation solution.

  17. Immunological Properties of Hepatitis B Core Antigen Fusion Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Michael J.; Hastings, Gillian Z.; Brown, Alan L.; Grace, Ken G.; Rowlands, David J.; Brown, Fred; Clarke, Berwyn E.

    1990-04-01

    The immunogenicity of a 19 amino acid peptide from foot-and-mouth disease virus has previously been shown to approach that of the inactivated virus from which it was derived after multimeric particulate presentation as an N-terminal fusion with hepatitis B core antigen. In this report we demonstrate that rhinovirus peptide-hepatitis B core antigen fusion proteins are 10-fold more immunogenic than peptide coupled to keyhole limpet hemocyanin and 100-fold more immunogenic than uncoupled peptide with an added helper T-cell epitope. The fusion proteins can be readily administered without adjuvant or with adjuvants acceptable for human and veterinary application and can elicit a response after nasal or oral dosing. The fusion proteins can also act as T-cell-independent antigens. These properties provide further support for their suitability as presentation systems for "foreign" epitopes in the development of vaccines.

  18. Fusion Advanced Design Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Guebaly, Laila [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Henderson, Douglass [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Wilson, Paul [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Blanchard, Jake [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2017-03-24

    During the January 1, 2013 – December 31, 2015 contract period, the UW Fusion Technology Institute personnel have actively participated in the ARIES-ACT and FESS-FNSF projects, led the nuclear and thermostructural tasks, attended several project meetings, and participated in all conference calls. The main areas of effort and technical achievements include updating and documenting the nuclear analysis for ARIES-ACT1, performing nuclear analysis for ARIES-ACT2, performing thermostructural analysis for ARIES divertor, performing disruption analysis for ARIES vacuum vessel, and developing blanket testing strategy and Materials Test Module for FNSF.

  19. Peptidoglycan hydrolase fusions maintain their parental specificities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, David M; Dong, Shengli; Garrett, Wes; Rousseau, Geneviève M; Moineau, Sylvain; Pritchard, David G

    2006-04-01

    The increased incidence of bacterial antibiotic resistance has led to a renewed search for novel antimicrobials. Avoiding the use of broad-range antimicrobials through the use of specific peptidoglycan hydrolases (endolysins) might reduce the incidence of antibiotic-resistant pathogens worldwide. Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae are human pathogens and also cause mastitis in dairy cattle. The ultimate goal of this work is to create transgenic cattle that are resistant to mastitis through the expression of an antimicrobial protein(s) in their milk. Toward this end, two novel antimicrobials were produced. The (i) full-length and (ii) 182-amino-acid, C-terminally truncated S. agalactiae bacteriophage B30 endolysins were fused to the mature lysostaphin protein of Staphylococcus simulans. Both fusions display lytic specificity for streptococcal pathogens and S. aureus. The full lytic ability of the truncated B30 protein also suggests that the SH3b domain at the C terminus is dispensable. The fusions are active in a milk-like environment. They are also active against some lactic acid bacteria used to make cheese and yogurt, but their lytic activity is destroyed by pasteurization (63 degrees C for 30 min). Immunohistochemical studies indicated that the fusion proteins can be expressed in cultured mammalian cells with no obvious deleterious effects on the cells, making it a strong candidate for use in future transgenic mice and cattle. Since the fusion peptidoglycan hydrolase also kills multiple human pathogens, it also may prove useful as a highly selective, multipathogen-targeting antimicrobial agent that could potentially reduce the use of broad-range antibiotics in fighting clinical infections.

  20. Prokaryotic expression of recombinant human p75NTR-Fc fusion protein and its effect on the neurite outgrowth of dorsal root ganglia neuron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Feng; Wang Yongtang; Lu Xiumin; Zeng Lin; Wu Yamin

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To clone, express, and identify the extracellular domain gene of human p75 neurotrophin receptor with IgG-Fc (hp75NTR-Fc) in prokaryotic expression system, and investigate the effect of the recombinant protein on dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neuron neurites. Methods: The hp75NTR-Fc coding sequence was amplified from pcDNA-hp75NTR-Fc by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and subcloned into vector pET30a (+), in which hp75NTR-Fc expression was controlled under the T7 promoter. The recombinant vectors were amplified in E. coli DH5a and identified by PCR, enzyme digestion and sequencing, and then transformed into E. coli BL21 (DE3). The expression product was analyzed with SDS-PAGE and Western blot. Then after the recombinant protein purified with Protein A affinity chromatograph, and renaturated with dialysis, respectively, the effect of the recombinant protein on DRG neuron neuritis was further investigated. Results: The results of PCR, enzyme digestion, and sequencing demonstrated the success of inserting the hp75NTR-Fc fragment into vector pET30a (+). SDS-PAGE and Western blot showed a positive protein band with molecular weight about 50 kD in the expression product, which is accordant with the interest protein, and this band could be specifically recognized by rabbit anti-NGFRp75 antibody. The purified infusion protein following dialysis could promote neurite outgrowth of DRG neurons cultured with myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG). Conclusion: The hp75NTR-Fc coding sequence was subcloned into the expression vector pET30a (+) correctly and expressed successfully in the prokaryotic expression system. The infusion protein could promote neurite outgrowth of DRG neurons cultured with MAG.

  1. Z-Pinch fusion-based nuclear propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miernik, J.; Statham, G.; Fabisinski, L.; Maples, C. D.; Adams, R.; Polsgrove, T.; Fincher, S.; Cassibry, J.; Cortez, R.; Turner, M.; Percy, T.

    2013-02-01

    Fusion-based nuclear propulsion has the potential to enable fast interplanetary transportation. Due to the great distances between the planets of our solar system and the harmful radiation environment of interplanetary space, high specific impulse (Isp) propulsion in vehicles with high payload mass fractions must be developed to provide practical and safe vehicles for human space flight missions. The Z-Pinch dense plasma focus method is a Magneto-Inertial Fusion (MIF) approach that may potentially lead to a small, low cost fusion reactor/engine assembly [1]. Recent advancements in experimental and theoretical understanding of this concept suggest favorable scaling of fusion power output yield [2]. The magnetic field resulting from the large current compresses the plasma to fusion conditions, and this process can be pulsed over short timescales (10-6 s). This type of plasma formation is widely used in the field of Nuclear Weapons Effects testing in the defense industry, as well as in fusion energy research. A Z-Pinch propulsion concept was designed for a vehicle based on a previous fusion vehicle study called "Human Outer Planet Exploration" (HOPE), which used Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF) [3] propulsion. The reference mission is the transport of crew and cargo to Mars and back, with a reusable vehicle. The analysis of the Z-Pinch MIF propulsion system concludes that a 40-fold increase of Isp over chemical propulsion is predicted. An Isp of 19,436 s and thrust of 3812 N s/pulse, along with nearly doubling the predicted payload mass fraction, warrants further development of enabling technologies.

  2. Clean steels for fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelles, D.S.

    1995-03-01

    Fusion energy production has an inherent advantage over fission: a fuel supply with reduced long term radioactivity. One of the leading candidate materials for structural applications in a fusion reactor is a tungsten stabilized 9% chromium Martensitic steel. This alloy class is being considered because it offers the opportunity to maintain that advantage in the reactor structure as well as provide good high temperature strength and radiation induced swelling and embrittlement resistance. However, calculations indicate that to obtain acceptable radioactivity levels within 500 years after service, clean steel will be required because the niobium impurity levels must be kept below about 2 appm and nickel, molybdenum, nitrogen, copper, and aluminum must be intentionally restricted. International efforts are addressing the problems of clean steel production. Recently, a 5,000 kg heat was vacuum induction melted in Japan using high purity commercial raw materials giving niobium levels less than 0.7 appm. This paper reviews the need for reduced long term radioactivity, defines the advantageous properties of the tungsten stabilized Martensitic steel class, and describes the international efforts to produce acceptable clean steels.

  3. JENDL fusion file 99

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiba, Satoshi; Fukahori, Tokio; Shibata, Keiichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Yu Baosheng [China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing (China); Kosako, Kazuaki [Sumitomo Atomic Industries, Tokyo (Japan); Yamamuro, Nobuhiro [Data Engineering Co. Ltd., Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2002-02-01

    The double-differential cross sections (DDXs) of secondary neutrons have been evaluated for 79 isotopes and 13 natural elements ranging from H to Bi to improve the accuracy of predictions for the neutronics calculations in the D-T thermonuclear fusion applications. The data given in JENDL-3.1, which was the newest version of JENDL general purpose file when this project was initiated, was combined with new calculations based on the optical model, DWBA, pre-equilibrium and multi-step statistical models, and the DDX data were generated based on various kinds of systematics for medium-mass nuclei. Different methods were employed for light nuclei to which the above method could not be applied. In addition, the DDXs for emission of charged particles (p, d, t, {sup 3}He and {alpha}-particle) were given for {sup 2}H, {sup 9}Be and elements heavier or equal to F. The present results give an overall good description of the measured DDX data of both the neutron and charged particles emission channels. The data were compiled in ENDF-6 format, and released in 1999 as a special purpose file of JENDL family, namely, JENDL Fusion File 99. (author)

  4. Utility requirements for fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vondrasek, R.J.

    1982-02-01

    This report describes work done and results obtained during performance of Task 1 of a study of Utility Requirements and Criteria for Fusion Options. The work consisted of developing a list of utility requirements for fusion optics containing definition of the requirements and showing their relative importance to the utility industry. The project team members developed a preliminary list which was refined by discussions and literature searches. The refined list was recast as a questionnaire which was sent to a substantial portion of the utility industry in this country. Forty-three questionnaire recipients responded including thirty-two utilities. A workshop was held to develop a revised requirements list using the survey responses as a major input. The list prepared by the workshop was further refined by a panel consisting of vice presidents of the three project team firms. The results of the study indicate that in addition to considering the cost of energy for a power plant, utilities consider twenty-three other requirements. Four of the requirements were judged to be vital to plant acceptability: Plant Capital Cost, Financial Liability, Plant Safety and Licensability.

  5. Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy of human immunodeficiency virus gp41 protein that includes the fusion peptide: NMR detection of recombinant Fgp41 in inclusion bodies in whole bacterial cells and structural characterization of purified and membrane-associated Fgp41.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Erica P; Curtis-Fisk, Jaime; Young, Kaitlin M; Weliky, David P

    2011-11-22

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection of a host cell begins with fusion of the HIV and host cell membranes and is mediated by the gp41 protein, a single-pass integral membrane protein of HIV. The 175 N-terminal residues make up the ectodomain that lies outside the virus. This work describes the production and characterization of an ectodomain construct containing the 154 N-terminal gp41 residues, including the fusion peptide (FP) that binds to target cell membranes. The Fgp41 sequence was derived from one of the African clade A strains of HIV-1 that have been less studied than European/North American clade B strains. Fgp41 expression at a level of ~100 mg/L of culture was evidenced by an approach that included amino acid type (13)CO and (15)N labeling of recombinant protein and solid-state NMR (SSNMR) spectroscopy of lyophilized whole cells. The approach did not require any protein solubilization or purification and may be a general approach for detection of recombinant protein. The purified Fgp41 yield was ~5 mg/L of culture. SSNMR spectra of membrane-associated Fgp41 showed high helicity for the residues C-terminal of the FP. This was consistent with a "six-helix bundle" (SHB) structure that is the final gp41 state during membrane fusion. This observation and negligible Fgp41-induced vesicle fusion supported a function for SHB gp41 of membrane stabilization and fusion arrest. SSNMR spectra of residues in the membrane-associated FP provided evidence of a mixture of molecular populations with either helical or β-sheet FP conformation. These and earlier SSNMR data strongly support the existence of these populations in the SHB state of membrane-associated gp41.

  6. The quest for fusion power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, Steven C.

    2016-05-01

    Fusion power is one of a very few sustainable options to replace fossil fuels as the world's primary energy source. Although the conditions for fusion have been reached, much remains to be done to turn scientific success into commercial electrical power.

  7. Fusion Policy Advisory Committee (FPAC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    This document is the final report of the Fusion Policy Advisory Committee. The report conveys the Committee's views on the matters specified by the Secretary in his charge and subsequent letters to the Committee, and also satisfies the provisions of Section 7 of the Magnetic Fusion Energy Engineering Act of 1980, Public Law 96-386, which require a triennial review of the conduct of the national Magnetic Fusion Energy program. Three sub-Committee's were established to address the large number of topics associated with fusion research and development. One considered magnetic fusion energy, a second considered inertial fusion energy, and the third considered issues common to both. For many reasons, the promise of nuclear fusion as a safe, environmentally benign, and affordable source of energy is bright. At the present state of knowledge, however, it is uncertain that this promise will become reality. Only a vigorous, well planned and well executed program of research and development will yield the needed information. The Committee recommends that the US commit to a plan that will resolve this critically important issue. It also outlines the first steps in a development process that will lead to a fusion Demonstration Power Plant by 2025. The recommended program is aggressive, but we believe the goal is reasonable and attainable. International collaboration at a significant level is an important element in the plan.

  8. Sensor fusion for social robotics

    OpenAIRE

    Duffy, Brian R.; Garcia, C; Rooney, Colm, (Thesis); O'Hare, G.M.P.

    2000-01-01

    This paper advocates the application of sensor fusion for the visualisation of social robotic behaviour. Experiments with the Virtual Reality Workbench integrate the key elements of Virtual Reality and robotics in a coherent and systematic manner. The deliberative focusing of attention and sensor fusion between vision systems and sonar sensors is implemented on autonomous mobile robots functioning in standard office environments

  9. Cellulose binding domain fusion proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoseyov, Oded; Shpiegl, Itai; Goldstein, Marc A.; Doi, Roy H.

    1998-01-01

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production thereof. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques.

  10. Multi-sensor fusion development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bish, Sheldon; Rohrer, Matthew; Scheffel, Peter; Bennett, Kelly

    2016-05-01

    The U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) and McQ Inc. are developing a generic sensor fusion architecture that involves several diverse processes working in combination to create a dynamic task-oriented, real-time informational capability. Processes include sensor data collection, persistent and observational data storage, and multimodal and multisensor fusion that includes the flexibility to modify the fusion program rules for each mission. Such a fusion engine lends itself to a diverse set of sensing applications and architectures while using open-source software technologies. In this paper, we describe a fusion engine architecture that combines multimodal and multi-sensor fusion within an Open Standard for Unattended Sensors (OSUS) framework. The modular, plug-and-play architecture of OSUS allows future fusion plugin methodologies to have seamless integration into the fusion architecture at the conceptual and implementation level. Although beyond the scope of this paper, this architecture allows for data and information manipulation and filtering for an array of applications.

  11. The status of cold fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storms, E.

    This report attempts to update the status of the phenomenon of cold fusion. The new field is continuing to grow as a variety of nuclear reactions are discovered to occur in a variety of chemical environments at modest temperatures. However, it must be cautioned that most scientists consider cold fusion as something akin to UFO's, ESP, and numerology.

  12. Membrane fusion during poxvirus entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Bernard

    2016-12-01

    Poxviruses comprise a large family of enveloped DNA viruses that infect vertebrates and invertebrates. Poxviruses, unlike most DNA viruses, replicate in the cytoplasm and encode enzymes and other proteins that enable entry, gene expression, genome replication, virion assembly and resistance to host defenses. Entry of vaccinia virus, the prototype member of the family, can occur at the plasma membrane or following endocytosis. Whereas many viruses encode one or two proteins for attachment and membrane fusion, vaccinia virus encodes four proteins for attachment and eleven more for membrane fusion and core entry. The entry-fusion proteins are conserved in all poxviruses and form a complex, known as the Entry Fusion Complex (EFC), which is embedded in the membrane of the mature virion. An additional membrane that encloses the mature virion and is discarded prior to entry is present on an extracellular form of the virus. The EFC is held together by multiple interactions that depend on nine of the eleven proteins. The entry process can be divided into attachment, hemifusion and core entry. All eleven EFC proteins are required for core entry and at least eight for hemifusion. To mediate fusion the virus particle is activated by low pH, which removes one or more fusion repressors that interact with EFC components. Additional EFC-interacting fusion repressors insert into cell membranes and prevent secondary infection. The absence of detailed structural information, except for two attachment proteins and one EFC protein, is delaying efforts to determine the fusion mechanism.

  13. Fusion research programme in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shishir Deshpande; Predhiman Kaw

    2013-10-01

    The fusion energy research program of India is summarized in the context of energy needs and scenario of tokamak advancements on domestic and international fronts. In particular, the various technologies that will lead us to ultimately build a fusion power reactor are identified along with the steps being taken for their indigenous development.

  14. Deployment of membrane fusion protein domains during fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentz, J; Mittal, A

    2000-01-01

    It is clear that both viral and intracellular membrane fusion proteins contain a minimal set of domains which must be deployed at the appropriate time during the fusion process. An account of these domains and their functions is given here for the four best-described fusion systems: influenza HA, sendai virus F1, HIV gp120/41 and the neuronal SNARE core composed of synaptobrevin (syn), syntaxin (stx) and the N- and C-termini of SNAP25 (sn25), together with the Ca(2+)binding protein synaptotagmin (syt). Membrane fusion begins with the binding of the virion or vesicle to the target membrane via receptors. The committed step in influenza HA- mediated fusion begins with an aggregate of HAs (at least eight) with some of their HA2 N-termini, a.k.a. fusion peptides, embedded into the viral bilayer (Bentz, 2000 a). The hypothesis presented in Bentz (2000 b) is that the conformational change of HA to the extended coiled coil extracts the fusion peptides from the viral bilayer. When this extraction occurs from the center of the site of restricted lipid flow, it exposes acyl chains and parts of the HA transmembrane domains to the aqueous media, i.e. a hydrophobic defect is formed. This is the 'transition state' of the committed step of fusion. It is stabilized by a 'dam' of HAs, which are inhibited from diffusing away by the rest of the HAs in the aggregate and because that would initially expose more acyl chains to water. Recruitment of lipids from the apposed target membrane can heal this hydrophobic defect, initiating lipid mixing and fusion. The HA transmembrane domains are required to be part of the hydrophobic defect, because the HA aggregate must be closely packed enough to restrict lipid flow. This hypothesis provides a simple and direct coupling between the energy released by the formation of the coiled coil to the energy needed to create and stabilize the high energy intermediates of fusion. Several of these essential domains have been described for the viral fusion

  15. Adjoint affine fusion and tadpoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urichuk, Andrew; Walton, Mark A.

    2016-06-01

    We study affine fusion with the adjoint representation. For simple Lie algebras, elementary and universal formulas determine the decomposition of a tensor product of an integrable highest-weight representation with the adjoint representation. Using the (refined) affine depth rule, we prove that equally striking results apply to adjoint affine fusion. For diagonal fusion, a coefficient equals the number of nonzero Dynkin labels of the relevant affine highest weight, minus 1. A nice lattice-polytope interpretation follows and allows the straightforward calculation of the genus-1 1-point adjoint Verlinde dimension, the adjoint affine fusion tadpole. Explicit formulas, (piecewise) polynomial in the level, are written for the adjoint tadpoles of all classical Lie algebras. We show that off-diagonal adjoint affine fusion is obtained from the corresponding tensor product by simply dropping non-dominant representations.

  16. Structure information from fusion barriers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S V S Sastry; S Santra

    2000-06-01

    It is shown that the analysis of fusion barrier distributions is not always an unambiguous test or a ‘fingerprint’ of the structure information of the colliding nuclei. Examples are presented with same fusion barrier distributions for nuclei having different structures. The fusion excitation functions for 16O+208Pb, using the coupled reaction channel (CRC) method and correct structure information, have been analysed. The barrier distributions derived from these excitation functions including many of the significant channels are featureless, although these channels have considerable effects on the fusion excitation function. However, a simultaneous analysis of the fusion, elastic and quasi-elastic channels would fix the structure and the reaction unambiguously

  17. Adjoint affine fusion and tadpoles

    CERN Document Server

    Urichuk, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    We study affine fusion with the adjoint representation. For simple Lie algebras, elementary and universal formulas determine the decomposition of a tensor product of an integrable highest-weight representation with the adjoint representation. Using the (refined) affine depth rule, we prove that equally striking results apply to adjoint affine fusion. For diagonal fusion, a coefficient equals the number of nonzero Dynkin labels of the relevant affine highest weight, minus 1. A nice lattice-polytope interpretation follows, and allows the straightforward calculation of the genus-1 1-point adjoint Verlinde dimension, the adjoint affine fusion tadpole. Explicit formulas, (piecewise) polynomial in the level, are written for the adjoint tadpoles of all classical Lie algebras. We show that off-diagonal adjoint affine fusion is obtained from the corresponding tensor product by simply dropping non-dominant representations.

  18. Adjoint affine fusion and tadpoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urichuk, Andrew, E-mail: andrew.urichuk@uleth.ca [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, Alberta T1K 3M4 (Canada); Walton, Mark A., E-mail: walton@uleth.ca [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, Alberta T1K 3M4 (Canada); International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA), via Bonomea 265, 34136 Trieste (Italy)

    2016-06-15

    We study affine fusion with the adjoint representation. For simple Lie algebras, elementary and universal formulas determine the decomposition of a tensor product of an integrable highest-weight representation with the adjoint representation. Using the (refined) affine depth rule, we prove that equally striking results apply to adjoint affine fusion. For diagonal fusion, a coefficient equals the number of nonzero Dynkin labels of the relevant affine highest weight, minus 1. A nice lattice-polytope interpretation follows and allows the straightforward calculation of the genus-1 1-point adjoint Verlinde dimension, the adjoint affine fusion tadpole. Explicit formulas, (piecewise) polynomial in the level, are written for the adjoint tadpoles of all classical Lie algebras. We show that off-diagonal adjoint affine fusion is obtained from the corresponding tensor product by simply dropping non-dominant representations.

  19. Fusion - 2050 perspective (in Polish)

    CERN Document Server

    Romaniuk, R S

    2013-01-01

    The results of strongly exothermic reaction of thermonuclear fusion between nuclei of deuterium and tritium are: helium nuclei and neutrons, plus considerable kinetic energy of neutrons of over 14 MeV. DT nuclides synthesis reaction is probably not the most favorable one for energy production, but is the most advanced technologically. More efficient would be possibly aneutronic fusion. The EU by its EURATOM agenda prepared a Road Map for research and implementation of Fusion as a commercial method of thermonuclear energy generation in the time horizon of 2050.The milestones on this road are tokomak experiments JET, ITER and DEMO, and neutron experiment IFMIF. There is a hope, that by engagement of the national government, and all research and technical fusion communities, part of this Road Map may be realized in Poland. The infrastructure build for fusion experiments may be also used for material engineering research, chemistry, biomedical, associated with environment protection, power engineering, security, ...

  20. Fusion characterization of biomass ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Teng; Fan, Chuigang; Hao, Lifang

    2016-01-01

    The ash fusion characteristics are important parameters for thermochemical utilization of biomass. In this research, a method for measuring the fusion characteristics of biomass ash by Thermo-mechanical Analyzer, TMA, is described. The typical TMA shrinking ratio curve can be divided into two...... stages, which are closely related to ash melting behaviors. Several characteristics temperatures based on the TMA curves are used to assess the ash fusion characteristics. A new characteristics temperature, Tm, is proposed to represent the severe melting temperature of biomass ash. The fusion...... characteristics of six types of biomass ash have been measured by TMA. Compared with standard ash fusibility temperatures (AFT) test, TMA is more suitable for measuring the fusion characteristics of biomass ash. The glassy molten areas of the ash samples are sticky and mainly consist of K-Ca-silicates....

  1. A new assessment method for image fusion quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liu; Jiang, Wanying; Li, Jing; Yuchi, Ming; Ding, Mingyue; Zhang, Xuming

    2013-03-01

    Image fusion quality assessment plays a critically important role in the field of medical imaging. To evaluate image fusion quality effectively, a lot of assessment methods have been proposed. Examples include mutual information (MI), root mean square error (RMSE), and universal image quality index (UIQI). These image fusion assessment methods could not reflect the human visual inspection effectively. To address this problem, we have proposed a novel image fusion assessment method which combines the nonsubsampled contourlet transform (NSCT) with the regional mutual information in this paper. In this proposed method, the source medical images are firstly decomposed into different levels by the NSCT. Then the maximum NSCT coefficients of the decomposed directional images at each level are obtained to compute the regional mutual information (RMI). Finally, multi-channel RMI is computed by the weighted sum of the obtained RMI values at the various levels of NSCT. The advantage of the proposed method lies in the fact that the NSCT can represent image information using multidirections and multi-scales and therefore it conforms to the multi-channel characteristic of human visual system, leading to its outstanding image assessment performance. The experimental results using CT and MRI images demonstrate that the proposed assessment method outperforms such assessment methods as MI and UIQI based measure in evaluating image fusion quality and it can provide consistent results with human visual assessment.

  2. Syntaxin 7 and VAMP-7 are soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors required for late endosome-lysosome and homotypic lysosome fusion in alveolar macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, D M; Pevsner, J; Scullion, M A; Vaughn, M; Kaplan, J

    2000-07-01

    Endocytosis in alveolar macrophages can be reversibly inhibited, permitting the isolation of endocytic vesicles at defined stages of maturation. Using an in vitro fusion assay, we determined that each isolated endosome population was capable of homotypic fusion. All vesicle populations were also capable of heterotypic fusion in a temporally specific manner; early endosomes, isolated 4 min after internalization, could fuse with endosomes isolated 8 min after internalization but not with 12-min endosomes or lysosomes. Lysosomes fuse with 12-min endosomes but not with earlier endosomes. Using homogenous populations of endosomes, we have identified Syntaxin 7 as a soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) required for late endosome-lysosome and homotypic lysosome fusion in vitro. A bacterially expressed human Syntaxin 7 lacking the transmembrane domain inhibited homotypic late endosome and lysosome fusion as well as heterotypic late endosome-lysosome fusion. Affinity-purified antibodies directed against Syntaxin 7 also inhibited lysosome fusion in vitro but had no affect on homotypic early endosome fusion. Previous work suggested that human VAMP-7 (vesicle-associated membrane protein-7) was a SNARE required for late endosome-lysosome fusion. A bacterially expressed human VAMP-7 lacking the transmembrane domain inhibited both late endosome-lysosome fusion and homotypic lysosome fusion in vitro. These studies indicate that: 1) fusion along the endocytic pathway is a highly regulated process, and 2) two SNARE molecules, Syntaxin 7 and human VAMP-7, are involved in fusion of vesicles in the late endocytic pathway in alveolar macrophages.

  3. Information integration for data fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bray, O.H.

    1997-01-01

    Data fusion has been identified by the Department of Defense as a critical technology for the U.S. defense industry. Data fusion requires combining expertise in two areas - sensors and information integration. Although data fusion is a rapidly growing area, there is little synergy and use of common, reusable, and/or tailorable objects and models, especially across different disciplines. The Laboratory-Directed Research and Development project had two purposes: to see if a natural language-based information modeling methodology could be used for data fusion problems, and if so, to determine whether this methodology would help identify commonalities across areas and achieve greater synergy. The project confirmed both of the initial hypotheses: that the natural language-based information modeling methodology could be used effectively in data fusion areas and that commonalities could be found that would allow synergy across various data fusion areas. The project found five common objects that are the basis for all of the data fusion areas examined: targets, behaviors, environments, signatures, and sensors. Many of the objects and the specific facts related to these objects were common across several areas and could easily be reused. In some cases, even the terminology remained the same. In other cases, different areas had their own terminology, but the concepts were the same. This commonality is important with the growing use of multisensor data fusion. Data fusion is much more difficult if each type of sensor uses its own objects and models rather than building on a common set. This report introduces data fusion, discusses how the synergy generated by this LDRD would have benefited an earlier successful project and contains a summary information model from that project, describes a preliminary management information model, and explains how information integration can facilitate cross-treaty synergy for various arms control treaties.

  4. Human influenza A virus hemagglutinin distinguishes sialyloligosaccharides in membrane-associated gangliosides as its receptor which mediates the adsorption and fusion processes of virus infection. Specificity for oligosaccharides and sialic acids and the sequence to which sialic acid is attached.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Y; Nagao, Y; Kato, H; Matsumoto, M; Nerome, K; Nakajima, K; Nobusawa, E

    1986-12-25

    Human influenza A virus isolates bearing antigenically different H1 (A/PR/8/34), H2 (A/Japan/305/57), and H3 (A/Aichi/2/68, A/X-31) hemagglutinin serotypes caused extensive hemagglutination, low pH fusion, and hemolysis of asialoerythrocytes reconstituted with gangliosides. Sialylparaglobosides (IV3NeuAc-nLc4Cer, IV6NeuAc-nLc4Cer), I-active and i-active (VI3NeuAc-nLc6Cer) gangliosides, and GM3-NeuAc commonly exhibited significant specific receptor activity toward the viruses. A/PR/8/34 recognized IV3NeuAc-nLc4Cer containing the NeuAc alpha 2-3Gal sequence preferentially over IV6NeuAc-nLc4Cer containing NeuAc alpha 2-6Gal, whereas the other two recognized the NeuAc alpha 2-6Gal sequence preferentially over NeuAc alpha 2-3Gal. Responsiveness of erythrocytes labeled with gangliosides containing NeuGc to the viruses used was considerably lower than that of erythrocytes labeled with gangliosides containing NeuAc. The activities of GM1a, GM2, and GD1b bearing NeuAc on inner galactose of the ganglio series core were also very low. These results indicate that sialyloligosaccharides of IV3NeuAc-nLc4Cer, IV6NeuAc-nLc4Cer, I-active ganglioside, and VI3NeuAc-nLc6Cer in addition to GM3-NeuAc and GM1b-NeuAc (Suzuki, Y., Matsunaga, M., and Matsumoto, M. (1985), J. Biol. Chem. 260, 1362-1365; Suzuki, Y., Matsunaga, M., Nagao, Y., Taki, T., Hirabayashi, Y., and Matsumoto, M. (1985) Vaccine 3, 201-203) are functional receptor determinants toward hemagglutinin of human influenza A viruses, and the viruses differentiate microdomains of the gangliosides, such as the sialic acid species (NeuAc, NeuGc) and the sequence of sialic acid linkages (NeuAc alpha 2-3Gal, NeuAc alpha 2-6Gal).

  5. Contributions on Laser Driven Inertial Confinement Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinrich Hora

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The following modified preprint of a chapter in the forthcoming book by Guillermo Velarde and Natividad Carpintero Santamaria Inertial Confinement Nuclear Fusion: A Historical Approach by its Pioneers with personal comments is presented here as an example about the long years difficult developments towards the aim for producing unlimited, safe and clean nuclear energy in the same way as it is the energy source of the sun. There are arguments that the most recent developments with the plasma block ignition using petawatt-picosecond laser pulses may lead to a fusion power station with a highly simplified operation such that the cost of electricity may be three or more times lower than any energy source on earth, opening the golden age with dramatic consequences for human life and the environment. Applied sciences in all fields, economics and politics may be stimulated just by considering these consequences though these new results on Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE need to be further examined and developed on a broad basis.

  6. Mitochondrial fusion, fission, and mitochondrial toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Joel N; Leuthner, Tess C; Luz, Anthony L

    2017-08-05

    Mitochondrial dynamics are regulated by two sets of opposed processes: mitochondrial fusion and fission, and mitochondrial biogenesis and degradation (including mitophagy), as well as processes such as intracellular transport. These processes maintain mitochondrial homeostasis, regulate mitochondrial form, volume and function, and are increasingly understood to be critical components of the cellular stress response. Mitochondrial dynamics vary based on developmental stage and age, cell type, environmental factors, and genetic background. Indeed, many mitochondrial homeostasis genes are human disease genes. Emerging evidence indicates that deficiencies in these genes often sensitize to environmental exposures, yet can also be protective under certain circumstances. Inhibition of mitochondrial dynamics also affects elimination of irreparable mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage and transmission of mtDNA mutations. We briefly review the basic biology of mitodynamic processes with a focus on mitochondrial fusion and fission, discuss what is known and unknown regarding how these processes respond to chemical and other stressors, and review the literature on interactions between mitochondrial toxicity and genetic variation in mitochondrial fusion and fission genes. Finally, we suggest areas for future research, including elucidating the full range of mitodynamic responses from low to high-level exposures, and from acute to chronic exposures; detailed examination of the physiological consequences of mitodynamic alterations in different cell types; mechanism-based testing of mitotoxicant interactions with interindividual variability in mitodynamics processes; and incorporating other environmental variables that affect mitochondria, such as diet and exercise. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. DNA fusion gene vaccines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Peter Johannes; Bassi, Maria Rosaria; Thomsen, Allan Randrup

    2010-01-01

    DNA vaccines are versatile and safe, but limited immunogenicity has prevented their use in the clinical setting. Experimentally, immunogenicity may be enhanced by the use of new delivery technologies, by coadministration of cytokines and pathogen-associated molecular patterns, or by fusion...... of antigens into molecular domains that enhance antigen presentation. More specifically, the immunogenicity of DNA vaccines may benefit from increased protein synthesis, increased T-cell help and MHC class I presentation, and the addition of a range of specific cytokines and pathogen-associated molecular...... patterns that increase activation of the innate immune system. Importantly, viral-vectored vaccines that act through the induction of one or more of these factors also may benefit from cytokine coadministration and increased antigen presentation. In order to increase immunogenicity to the level achieved...

  8. Prospects for bubble fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigmatulin, R.I. [Tyumen Institute of Mechanics of Multiphase Systems (TIMMS), Marx (Russian Federation); Lahey, R.T. Jr. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY (United States)

    1995-09-01

    In this paper a new method for the realization of fusion energy is presented. This method is based on the superhigh compression of a gas bubble (deuterium or deuterium/thritium) in heavy water or another liquid. The superhigh compression of a gas bubble in a liquid is achieved through forced non-linear, non-periodic resonance oscillations using moderate amplitudes of forcing pressure. The key feature of this new method is a coordination of the forced liquid pressure change with the change of bubble volume. The corresponding regime of the bubble oscillation has been called {open_quotes}basketball dribbling (BD) regime{close_quotes}. The analytical solution describing this process for spherically symmetric bubble oscillations, neglecting dissipation and compressibility of the liquid, has been obtained. This solution shown no limitation on the supercompression of the bubble and the corresponding maximum temperature. The various dissipation mechanisms, including viscous, conductive and radiation heat losses have been considered. It is shown that in spite of these losses it is possible to achieve very high gas bubble temperatures. This because the time duration of the gas bubble supercompression becomes very short when increasing the intensity of compression, thus limiting the energy losses. Significantly, the calculated maximum gas temperatures have shown that nuclear fusion may be possible. First estimations of the affect of liquid compressibility have been made to determine possible limitations on gas bubble compression. The next step will be to investigate the role of interfacial instability and breaking down of the bubble, shock wave phenomena around and in the bubble and mutual diffusion of the gas and the liquid.

  9. FUSION OF ARTIFICIAL MEMBRANES WITH MAMMALIAN SPERMATOZOA - SPECIFIC INVOLVEMENT OF THE EQUATORIAL SEGMENT AFTER ACROSOME REACTION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ARTS, EGJM; KUIKEN, J; JAGER, S; HOEKSTRA, D

    1993-01-01

    The fusogenic properties of bovine and human spermatozoa membranes were investigated, using phospholipid bilayers (liposomes) as target membranes. Fusion was monitored by following lipid mixing, as revealed by an assay based on resonance-energy transfer. In addition, fusion was visualized by fluores

  10. EDITORIAL: Stochasticity in fusion plasmas Stochasticity in fusion plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unterberg, Bernhard

    2010-03-01

    Structure formation and transport in stochastic plasmas is a topic of growing importance in many fields of plasma physics from astrophysics to fusion research. In particular, the possibility to control transport in the boundary of confined fusion plasmas by resonant magnetic perturbations has been investigated extensively during recent years. A major research achievement was finding that the intense transient particle and heat fluxes associated with edge localized modes (here type-I ELMs) in magnetically confined fusion plasmas can be mitigated or even suppressed by resonant magnetic perturbation fields. This observation opened up a possible scheme to avoid too large erosion and material damage by such transients in future fusion devices such as ITER. However, it is widely recognized that a more basic understanding is needed to extrapolate the results obtained in present experiments to future fusion devices. The 4th workshop on Stochasticity in Fusion Plasmas was held in Jülich, Germany, from 2 to 4 March 2009. This series of workshops aims at gathering fusion experts from various plasma configurations such as tokamaks, stellarators and reversed field pinches to exchange knowledge on structure formation and transport in stochastic fusion plasmas. The workshops have attracted colleagues from both experiment and theory and stimulated fruitful discussions about the basics of stochastic fusion plasmas. Important papers from the first three workshops in 2003, 2005 and 2007 have been published in previous special issues of Nuclear Fusion (stacks.iop.org/NF/44/i=6, stacks.iop.org/NF/46/i=4 and stacks.iop.org/NF/48/i=2). This special issue comprises contributions presented at the 4th SFP workshop, dealing with the main subjects such as formation of stochastic magnetic layers, energy and particle transport in stochastic magnetic fields, plasma response to external, non-axis-symmetric perturbations and last but not least application of resonant magnetic perturbations for

  11. Cancer Vaccine by Fusions of Dendritic and Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeo Koido

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DCs are potent antigen-presenting cells and play a central role in the initiation and regulation of primary immune responses. Therefore, their use for the active immunotherapy against cancers has been studied with considerable interest. The fusion of DCs with whole tumor cells represents in many ways an ideal approach to deliver, process, and subsequently present a broad array of tumor-associated antigens, including those yet to be unidentified, in the context of DCs-derived costimulatory molecules. DCs/tumor fusion vaccine stimulates potent antitumor immunity in the animal tumor models. In the human studies, T cells stimulated by DC/tumor fusion cells are effective in lysis of tumor cells that are used as the fusion partner. In the clinical trials, clinical and immunological responses were observed in patients with advanced stage of malignant tumors after being vaccinated with DC/tumor fusion cells, although the antitumor effect is not as vigorous as in the animal tumor models. This review summarizes recent advances in concepts and techniques that are providing new impulses to DCs/tumor fusions-based cancer vaccination.

  12. Service-based extensions to the JDL fusion model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony, Richard T.; Karakowski, Joseph A.

    2008-04-01

    Extensions to a previously developed service-based fusion process model are presented. The model accommodates (1) traditional sensor data and human-generated input, (2) streaming and non-streaming data feeds, and (3) the fusion of both physical and non-physical entities. More than a dozen base-level fusion services are identified. These services provide the foundation functional decomposition of levels 0 - 2 in JDL fusion model. Concepts, such as clustering, link analysis and database mining, that have traditionally been only loosely associated with the fusion process, are shown to play key roles within this fusion framework. Additionally, the proposed formulation extends the concepts of tracking and cross-entity association to non-physical entities, as well as supports effective exploitation of a priori and derived context knowledge. Finally, the proposed framework is shown to support set theoretic properties, such as equivalence and transitivity, as well as the development of a pedigree summary metric that characterizes the informational distance between individual fused products and source data.

  13. Advances in data representation for hard/soft information fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimland, Jeffrey C.; Coughlin, Dan; Hall, David L.; Graham, Jacob L.

    2012-06-01

    Information fusion is becoming increasingly human-centric. While past systems typically relegated humans to the role of analyzing a finished fusion product, current systems are exploring the role of humans as integral elements in a modular and extensible distributed framework where many tasks can be accomplished by either human or machine performers. For example, "participatory sensing" campaigns give humans the role of "soft sensors" by uploading their direct observations or as "soft sensor platforms" by using mobile devices to record human-annotated, GPS-encoded high quality photographs, video, or audio. Additionally, the role of "human-in-the-loop", in which individuals or teams using advanced human computer interface (HCI) tools such as stereoscopic 3D visualization, haptic interfaces, or aural "sonification" interfaces can help to effectively engage the innate human capability to perform pattern matching, anomaly identification, and semantic-based contextual reasoning to interpret an evolving situation. The Pennsylvania State University is participating in a Multi-disciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI) program funded by the U.S. Army Research Office to investigate fusion of hard and soft data in counterinsurgency (COIN) situations. In addition to the importance of this research for Intelligence Preparation of the Battlefield (IPB), many of the same challenges and techniques apply to health and medical informatics, crisis management, crowd-sourced "citizen science", and monitoring environmental concerns. One of the key challenges that we have encountered is the development of data formats, protocols, and methodologies to establish an information architecture and framework for the effective capture, representation, transmission, and storage of the vastly heterogeneous data and accompanying metadata -- including capabilities and characteristics of human observers, uncertainty of human observations, "soft" contextual data, and information pedigree

  14. JDL level 5 fusion model: user refinement issues and applications in group tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasch, Erik P.; Plano, Susan

    2002-07-01

    The 1999 Joint Director of Labs (JDL) revised model incorporates five levels for fusion methodologies including level 0 for preprocessing, level 1 for object refinement, level 2 for situation refinement, level 3 for threat refinement, and level 4 for process refinement. The model was developed to define the fusion process. However, the model is only for automatic processing of a machine and does not account for human processing. Typically, a fusion architecture supports a user and thus, we propose a Level 5 User refinement to delineate the human from the machine in the process refinement. Typical human in the loop models do not deal with a machine fusion process, but only present the information to the human on a display. We seek to address issues for designing a fusion system which supports a user: trust, workload, attention and situation awareness. In this paper, we overview the need for a Level 5, the issues concerning the human for realizable fusion architectures, and examples where the human is instrumental in the fusion process such as group tracking.

  15. Fusion Rings for Quantum Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    We study the fusion rings of tilting modules for a quantum group at a root of unity modulo the tensor ideal of negligible tilting modules. We identify them in type A with the combinatorial rings from Korff, C., Stroppel, C.: The sl(ˆn)k-WZNW fusion ring: a combinato-rial construction and a realis......We study the fusion rings of tilting modules for a quantum group at a root of unity modulo the tensor ideal of negligible tilting modules. We identify them in type A with the combinatorial rings from Korff, C., Stroppel, C.: The sl(ˆn)k-WZNW fusion ring: a combinato-rial construction...... and a realisation as quotient of quantum cohomology. Adv. Math. 225(1), 200–268, (2010) and give a similar description of the sp2n-fusion ring in terms of non-commutative symmetric functions. Moreover we give a presentation of all fusion rings in classical types as quotients of polynomial rings. Finally we also...... compute the fusion rings for type G2....

  16. Fusion characterization of biomass ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Teng [State Key Laboratory ofMultiphase Complex Systems, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 1 Zhongguancun North Second Street, Beijing 100190 (China); Sino-Danish Center for Education and Research, Beijing, 100190 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Fan, Chuigang; Hao, Lifang [State Key Laboratory ofMultiphase Complex Systems, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 1 Zhongguancun North Second Street, Beijing 100190 (China); Li, Songgeng, E-mail: sgli@ipe.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory ofMultiphase Complex Systems, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 1 Zhongguancun North Second Street, Beijing 100190 (China); Song, Wenli [State Key Laboratory ofMultiphase Complex Systems, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 1 Zhongguancun North Second Street, Beijing 100190 (China); Lin, Weigang [State Key Laboratory ofMultiphase Complex Systems, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 1 Zhongguancun North Second Street, Beijing 100190 (China); Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2016-08-20

    Highlights: • A novel method is proposed to analyze fusion characteristics of biomass ash. • T{sub m} can represent the severe melting temperature of biomass ash. • Compared with AFT, TMA is the better choice to analyze the fusion characteristics of biomass ash. - Abstract: The ash fusion characteristics are important parameters for thermochemical utilization of biomass. In this research, a method for measuring the fusion characteristics of biomass ash by Thermo-mechanical Analyzer, TMA, is described. The typical TMA shrinking ratio curve can be divided into two stages, which are closely related to ash melting behaviors. Several characteristics temperatures based on the TMA curves are used to assess the ash fusion characteristics. A new characteristics temperature, T{sub m}, is proposed to represent the severe melting temperature of biomass ash. The fusion characteristics of six types of biomass ash have been measured by TMA. Compared with standard ash fusibility temperatures (AFT) test, TMA is more suitable for measuring the fusion characteristics of biomass ash. The glassy molten areas of the ash samples are sticky and mainly consist of K-Ca-silicates.

  17. Construction, prokaryotic expression and purification of human sTrail fusion protein activated by uPA%含uPA裂解位点的人sTrail融合基因的构建及其原核蛋白表达与纯化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁宇佳; 缪殿南; 闫国和; 戴晓天; 熊玮

    2011-01-01

    目的构建含尿激酶纤溶酶原激活剂(urokinase plasminogen activator,uPA)裂解位点的人可溶性凋亡诱导配体(soluble related apoptosis inducing ligand,sTrail)基因的原核载体,表达并纯化其融合蛋白sTrail-uPA.方法 RT-PCR法克隆sTrail基因后,经引物延伸法构建his-uPA-sTrail融合基因并亚克隆至原核表达载体pET-32a中,诱导其表达蛋白并将其纯化,肠肽酶(enterokinase,EK)切与再次纯化回收该蛋白,Western blot检测其抗原性.结果表达载体经诱导成功获约38×103含载体表达标签(Trx)的融合蛋白,EK酶切该蛋白获约19.5 ×103的目的蛋白uPA-sTrail.检测表明,该目的蛋白具人Trail抗原性.结论成功克隆uPA-sTrail融合基因并构建至原核表达载体,并获约19.5×103的融合蛋白,且该蛋白具人Trail抗原性.%Objective To construct a prokaryotic expression vector carrying the gene of fusion protein sTrail-uPA that comprises human soluble tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand (sTrail) and a peptide including urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) recognition site, and to express and purify the fusion protein. Methods The gene of sTrail was cloned through RT-PCR. Chimeric gene his-uPA-sTrail was constructed through primer extension, and inserted into vector pET-32a to obtain prokaryotic expression plasmid pET-32a/his-uPA-sTrail. After transforming Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) with pET-32a/his-uPA-sTrail, fusion protein Trx-his-uPA-sTrail was expressed under induction, and then purified and digested by enterokinase (EK) to obtain target fusion protein sTrail-uPA. The target fusion protein was purified, and its antigenicity was detected through Western blotting. Results Plasmid pET-32a/his-uPA-sTrail could express fusion protein Trxhis-uPA-sTrail (38 × 103). Fusion protein sTrail-uPA ( 19.5 × 103 ), obtained through digesting Trx-his-uPA-sTrail with EK, possessed antigenicity of human sTrail. Conclusion Fusion protein sTrail-uPA ( 19.5

  18. Dependence of herpes simplex virus type 1-induced cell fusion on cell type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bzik, D.J.; Person, S.

    1981-04-15

    Syncytial mutants of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), such as syn20, cause extensive fusion of human embryonic lung (HEL) cells but only a small amount of fusion of human epidermoid carcinoma No. 2 (HEp-2) cells. In order to determine the cellular basis of this difference in fusion, sparse cultures of syn20-infected HEL or HEp-2 cells, previously labeled with (/sup 3/H)thymidine, were surrounded with uninfected, unlabeled HEL or HEp-2 cells. The fusion of radioactive with nonradioactive cells was determined at different times after infection using radioautography. The major difference in the fusion capacity of HEL and HEp-2 cells was not due to a difference in cell-surface receptors for a fusion factor in the two cell types. The process of infection of HEp-2 cells did not cause the plasma membranes of the cells to become refractory to fusion, because syn20-infected HEL cells fused equally well with either uninfected or infected HEp-2 cells. In a mixed infection with equal numbers of MP and its nonsyncytial parent, mP, extensive fusion was observed for infected HEL cells and significantly less fusion was observed for infected African green monkey (CV-1), baby hamster kidney (BHK-21), and HEp-2 cells.

  19. 基于多通道信息融合的双人交互动作识别算法%Two-human Interaction Recognition Algorithm Based on Multi-channels Information Fusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄菲菲; 曹江涛; 姬晓飞

    2016-01-01

    基于视频的双人交互行为识别是计算机视觉领域中一个富有挑战性的研究课题。针对基于整体的双人交互动作识别方法的特征表示复杂度高及匹配方法难以确定的问题,文中提出了一种基于多通道信息融合的双人交互动作识别算法。该方法首先采用更符合人类视觉系统的HSI颜色空间模型,分别通过H、S、I三个通道来提取HOG特征并进行直方图统计表示,使用最近邻分类器分别获得三通道下的识别结果,然后对识别结果进行等比例融合得到待测视频的最终识别结果。该方法在UT-interaction上进行了测试,得到了81.7%的识别率,证明了该方法的有效性及可行性。将其与相同数据库下的其他方法进行比较,结果表明该方法特征易于提取,计算效率高,避免了复杂的运算,具有一定的应用价值。%Two-human interaction recognition based on video is a challenging research topic in computer vision. Aiming at the problem of high complexity for feature representation and matching method hard to determine for the two-human interaction recognition method,a two-human interaction recognition algorithm based on multi-channels information fusion is proposed in this paper. Firstly,HSI color space model which is more fit for the human visual system is used. Respectively by H,S,I three channels to extract the HOG feature for histogram statistics representation,the nearest neighbor classifier is used to require the identification results respectively under the three-channel,then the results is integrated with equal ratio to obtain the overall recognition rate. The proposed method is tested on UT-interac-tion which has achieved recognition ratio of 81. 7%,proving the validity and feasibility of this method. Compared with other methods,the proposed method has higher calculation efficiency and recognition accuracy with increasing number of potential applications.

  20. Advanced fusion concepts: project summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-12-01

    This report contains descriptions of the activities of all the projects supported by the Advanced Fusion Concepts Branch of the Office of Fusion Energy, US Department of Energy. These descriptions are project summaries of each of the individual projects, and contain the following: title, principle investigators, funding levels, purpose, approach, progress, plans, milestones, graduate students, graduates, other professional staff, and recent publications. Information is given for each of the following programs: (1) reverse-field pinch, (2) compact toroid, (3) alternate fuel/multipoles, (4) stellarator/torsatron, (5) linear magnetic fusion, (6) liners, and (7) Tormac. (MOW)

  1. Effect of aniseikonia on fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, P; Prakash, P

    1991-01-01

    Physiological aniseikonia is the basis of stereopsis but beyond certain limits it becomes an obstacle to fusion. It is not well established as to how much aniseikonia can be tolerated by the fusional mechanism. Different tests under different testing conditions have given a wide range of variation. On the synoptophore we had observed tolerance upto 35% aniseikonia in some cases. Under more physiological conditions on a polaroid dissociation stereoprojector we observed lesser baseline fusional vergences but tolerance in about 70% of the cases upto 30% aniseikonia while 25% could tolerate even 35% aniseikonia. However we realise that these indicate the maximal potential and not the symptom free tolerable limits.

  2. Effect of aniseikonia on fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Pradeep

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Physiological aniseikonia is the basis of stereopsis but beyond certain limits it becomes an obstacle to fusion. It is not well established as to how much aniseikonia can be tolerated by the fusional mechanism. Different tests under different testing conditions have given a wide range of variation. On the synoptophore we had observed tolerance upto 35% aniseikonia in some cases. Under more physiological conditions on a polaroid dissociation stereoprojector we observed lesser baseline fusional vergences but tolerance in about 70% of the cases upto 30% aniseikonia while 25% could tolerate even 35% aniseikonia. However we realise that these indicate the maximal potential and not the symptom free tolerable limits.

  3. Fusion Rings for Quantum Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    We study the fusion rings of tilting modules for a quantum group at a root of unity modulo the tensor ideal of negligible tilting modules. We identify them in type A with the combinatorial rings from [12] and give a similar description of the sp2n-fusion ring in terms of noncommutative symmetric...... functions. Moreover we give a presentation of all fusion rings in classical types as quotients of polynomial rings. Finally we also compute the fu- sion rings for type G2....

  4. Controlled fusion and plasma physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    This document presents the several speeches that took place during the 22nd European Physical Society conference on Controlled Fusion and Plasma Physics in Bournemouth, UK, between the 2nd and 7th July 1995. The talks deal with new experiments carried out on several tokamaks, particularly Tore Supra, concerning plasma confinement and fusion. Some information on specific fusion devices or tokamak devices is provided, as well as results of experiments concerning plasma instability. Separate abstracts were prepared for all the 31 papers in this volume. (TEC).

  5. Fusion Rings for Quantum Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henning Haahr; Stroppel, Catharina

    2012-01-01

    We study the fusion rings of tilting modules for a quantum group at a root of unity modulo the tensor ideal of negligible tilting modules. We identify them in type A with the combinatorial rings from [12] and give a similar description of the sp2n-fusion ring in terms of noncommutative symmetric...... functions. Moreover we give a presentation of all fusion rings in classical types as quotients of polynomial rings. Finally we also compute the fu- sion rings for type G2....

  6. Measles Virus Fusion Protein: Structure, Function and Inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Plattet

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Measles virus (MeV, a highly contagious member of the Paramyxoviridae family, causes measles in humans. The Paramyxoviridae family of negative single-stranded enveloped viruses includes several important human and animal pathogens, with MeV causing approximately 120,000 deaths annually. MeV and canine distemper virus (CDV-mediated diseases can be prevented by vaccination. However, sub-optimal vaccine delivery continues to foster MeV outbreaks. Post-exposure prophylaxis with antivirals has been proposed as a novel strategy to complement vaccination programs by filling herd immunity gaps. Recent research has shown that membrane fusion induced by the morbillivirus glycoproteins is the first critical step for viral entry and infection, and determines cell pathology and disease outcome. Our molecular understanding of morbillivirus-associated membrane fusion has greatly progressed towards the feasibility to control this process by treating the fusion glycoprotein with inhibitory molecules. Current approaches to develop anti-membrane fusion drugs and our knowledge on drug resistance mechanisms strongly suggest that combined therapies will be a prerequisite. Thus, discovery of additional anti-fusion and/or anti-attachment protein small-molecule compounds may eventually translate into realistic therapeutic options.

  7. Cold nuclear fusion reactor and nuclear fusion rocket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Zhenqiang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available "Nuclear restraint inertial guidance directly hit the cold nuclear fusion reactor and ion speed dc transformer" [1], referred to as "cold fusion reactor" invention patents, Chinese Patent Application No. CN: 200910129632.7 [2]. The invention is characterized in that: at room temperature under vacuum conditions, specific combinations of the installation space of the electromagnetic field, based on light nuclei intrinsic magnetic moment and the electric field, the first two strings of the nuclei to be bound fusion on the same line (track of. Re-use nuclear spin angular momentum vector inherent nearly the speed of light to form a super strong spin rotation gyro inertial guidance features, to overcome the Coulomb repulsion strong bias barrier to achieve fusion directly hit. Similar constraints apply nuclear inertial guidance mode for different speeds and energy ion beam mixing speed, the design of ion speed dc transformer is cold fusion reactors, nuclear fusion engines and such nuclear power plants and power delivery systems start important supporting equipment, so apply for a patent merger

  8. The effect of stimulus size on stereoscopic fusion limits and response criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, Philip M; Finlayson, Nonie J; Ono, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    The stereoscopic fusion limit denotes the largest binocular disparity for which a single fused image is perceived. Several criteria can be employed when judging whether or not a stereoscopic display is fused, and this may be a factor contributing to a discrepancy in the literature. Schor, Wood, and Ogawa (1984 Vision Research, 24, 661-665) reported that fusion limits did not change as a function of bar width, while Roumes, Plantier, Menu, and Thorpe (1997 Human Factors, 39, 359-373) reported higher fusion limits for larger stimuli than for smaller stimuli. Our investigation suggests that differing criteria between the studies could contribute to this discrepancy. In experiment 1 we measured horizontal and vertical disparity fusion limits for thin bars and for the edge of an extended surface, allowing observers to use the criterion of either diplopia or rivalry when evaluating fusion for all stimuli. Fusion limits were equal for thin bars and extended surfaces in both horizontal and vertical disparity conditions. We next measured fusion limits for a range of bar widths and instructed observers to indicate which criterion they employed on each trial. Fusion limits were constant across all stimulus widths. However, there was a sharp change in criterion from diplopia to rivalry when the angular extent of the bar width exceeded about twice the fusion limit, expressed in angular terms. We conclude that stereoscopic fusion limits do not depend on stimulus size in this context, but the criterion for fusion does. Therefore, the criterion for fusion should be clearly defined in any study measuring stereoscopic fusion limits.

  9. Human Herpesvirus 7 Glycoprotein B (gB) , gH, gL, gO Can Mediate Cell Fusion%人类疱疹病毒7型糖蛋白gB、gH、gL、gO介导细胞融合

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐建; 姚堃; 窦洁; 秦健; 许文嵘; 陈云; 尹全章; 周锋

    2007-01-01

    人类疱疹病毒7型(HHV-7)的感染依赖于包膜糖蛋白在病毒生命周期的多个阶段发挥功能.这些蛋白质可以介导病毒吸附,病毒包膜和宿主细胞膜融合以及病毒在细胞间的接触传播.将表达HHV-7糖蛋白的293T细胞与HHV-7易感的SupT1细胞共培养,检测虫荧光素酶报告基因的表达,以鉴定介导膜融合的HHV-7糖蛋白.研究发现,HHV-7糖蛋白gB、gH、gL、gO能介导293T细胞与SupT1细胞的融合,且融合可被抗CD4单抗所抑制.结果表明,糖蛋白gB、gH、gL、gO对于HHV-7引发的膜融合是必需的,其中某个蛋白质或所形成的蛋白质复合物可能是CD4的配体.%Human herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7) infection is dependent on the functions of structural glycoproteins at multiple stages of the viral life cycle. These proteins mediate the initial attachment and fusion events that occur between the viral envelope and a host cell membrane, as well as cell to cell spread of the virus. To characterize the HHV-7 glycoproteins that can mediate cell fusion, a cell-based fusion assay was used. 293T cells expressing the HHV-7 glycoproteins of interest along with a luciferase reporter gene under the control of the T7 promoter were cocultivated with SupT1 cells transfected with T7 RNA polymerase. HHV-7 glycoproteins gB, gH, gL and gO can mediate the fusion of 293T cells with SupT1 cells, and the fusion can be inhibited by anti-CD4 mAbs. Thus, the coexpression of HHV-7 gB, gO, gH and gL is sufficient and necessary for HHV-7 induced membrane fusion, and one of these glycoproteins or protein complex formed by these glycoproteins might be the ligand(s) of CD4 molecule.

  10. Hybrid Fusion for Biometrics: Combining Score-level and Decision-level Fusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tao, Q.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2008-01-01

    A general framework of fusion at decision level, which works on ROCs instead of matching scores, is investigated. Under this framework, we further propose a hybrid fusion method, which combines the score-level and decision-level fusions, taking advantage of both fusion modes. The hybrid fusion

  11. New trends in fusion research

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2004-01-01

    The efforts of the international fusion community aim at demonstrating the scientific feasibility of thermonuclear fusion energy power plants. Understanding the behavior of burning plasmas, i.e. plasmas with strong self-heating, represents a primary scientific challenge for fusion research and a new science frontier. Although integrated studies will only be possible, in new, dedicated experimental facilities, such as the International Tokamak Experimental Reactor (ITER), present devices can address specific issues in regimes relevant to burning plasmas. Among these are an improvement of plasma performance via a reduction of the energy and particle transport, an optimization of the path to ignition or to sustained burn using additional heating and a control of plasma-wall interaction and energy and particle exhaust. These lectures address recent advances in plasma science and technology that are relevant to the development of fusion energy. Mention will be made of the inertial confinement line of research, but...

  12. Pulsed Power Driven Fusion Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SLUTZ,STEPHEN A.

    1999-11-22

    Pulsed power is a robust and inexpensive technology for obtaining high powers. Considerable progress has been made on developing light ion beams as a means of transporting this power to inertial fusion capsules. However, further progress is hampered by the lack of an adequate ion source. Alternatively, z-pinches can efficiently convert pulsed power into thermal radiation, which can be used to drive an inertial fusion capsule. However, a z-pinch driven fusion explosion will destroy a portion of the transmission line that delivers the electrical power to the z-pinch. They investigate several options for providing standoff for z-pinch driven fusion. Recyclable Transmission Lines (RTLs) appear to be the most promising approach.

  13. Data Fusion Concepts and Ideas

    CERN Document Server

    Mitchell, H B

    2012-01-01

    “Data Fusion: Concepts and Ideas” provides a comprehensive introduction to the concepts and idea of multisensor data fusion. This textbook is an extensively revised second edition of the author's successful book: "Multi-Sensor Data Fusion: An Introduction". The book is self-contained and no previous knowledge of multi-sensor data fusion is assumed. The reader is made familiar with tools taken from a wide range of diverse subjects including: neural networks, signal processing, statistical estimation, tracking algorithms, computer vision and control theory which are combined by using a common statistical framework. As a consequence, the underlying pattern of relationships that exists between the different methodologies is made evident. The book is illustrated with many real-life examples taken from a diverse range of applications and contains an extensive list of modern references. The new completely revised and updated edition includes nearly 70 pages of new material including a full new chapter as well as...

  14. Information fusion for palmprint authentication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiangqian; Wang, Kuanquan; Zhang, David

    2006-04-01

    A palmprint can be represented using different features and the different representations reflect the different characteristic of a palmprint. Fusion of multiple palmprint features may enhance the performance of a palmprint authentication system. This paper investigates the fusion of two types of palmprint information: the phase (called PalmCode) and the orientation (called OrientationCode). The PalmCode is extracted using the 2-D Gabor filters based algorithm and the OrientationCode is computed using several directional templates. Then several fusion strategies are investigated and compared. The experimental results show that the fusion of the PalmCode and OrientationCode using the Product, Sum and Weighted Sum strategies can greatly improve the accuracy of palmprint authentication, which is up to 99.6%.

  15. Aneutronic Fusion Spacecraft Architecture Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Description: provide framework to realize fusion propulsion for long-range space travel; analyze “hybrid” schemes with a solar or fission primary energy...

  16. Magnetic fusion 1985: what next

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, T.K.

    1985-03-01

    Recent budget reductions for magnetic fusion have led to a re-examination of program schedules and objectives. Faced with delays and postponement of major facilities as previously planned, some have called for a near-term focus on science, others have stressed technology. This talk will suggest a different focus as the keynote for this conference, namely, the applications of fusion. There is no doubt that plasma science is by now mature and fusion technology is at the forefront. This has and will continue to benefit many fields of endeavor, both in actual new discoveries and techniques and in attracting and training scientists and engineers who move on to make significant contributions in science, defense and industry. Nonetheless, however superb the science or how challenging the technology, these are means, not ends. To maintain its support, the magnetic fusion program must also offer the promise of power reactors that could be competitive in the future. At this conference, several new reactor designs will be described that claim to be smaller and economically competitive with fission reactors while retaining the environmental and safety characteristics that are the hallmark of fusion. The American Nuclear Society is an appropriate forum in which to examine these new designs critically, and to stimulate better ideas and improvements. As a preview, this talk will include brief discussions of new tokamak, tandem mirror and reversed field pinch reactor designs to be presented in later sessions. Finally, as a preview of the session on fusion breeders, the talk will explore once again the economic implications of a new nuclear age, beginning with improved fission reactors fueled by fusion breeders, then ultimately evolving to reactors based solely on fusion.

  17. Effect of aniseikonia on fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma Pradeep; Prakash Prem

    1991-01-01

    Physiological aniseikonia is the basis of stereopsis but beyond certain limits it becomes an obstacle to fusion. It is not well established as to how much aniseikonia can be tolerated by the fusional mechanism. Different tests under different testing conditions have given a wide range of variation. On the synoptophore we had observed tolerance upto 35% aniseikonia in some cases. Under more physiological conditions on a polaroid dissociation stereoprojector we observed lesser baseline f...

  18. Getting started with Clickteam Fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Brunner, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    An easy-to-understand, step-by-step guide that shows you how to create 2D video games with Clickteam Fusion. You will learn the magic of game development from scratch without any knowledge of scripting languages.This book is for game enthusiasts who want to create their own 2D video games. No prior knowledge of programming or Multimedia Fusion 2 is necessary.

  19. Laser fusion monthly -- August 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlstrom, H.G. [ed.

    1980-08-01

    This report documents the monthly progress for the laser fusion research at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. First it gives facilities report for both the Shiva and Argus projects. Topics discussed include; laser system for the Nova Project; the fusion experiments analysis facility; optical/x-ray streak camera; Shiva Dante System temporal response; 2{omega}{sub 0} experiment; and planning for an ICF engineering test facility.

  20. Data Fusion and Sensors Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we take the model of Laser range finder based on synchronized scanner as example, show how to use data fusion method in the process of sensor model designing to get more robust output. Also we provide our idea on the relation of sensor model, data fusion and system structure, and in the paper, there is a solution that transform the parameter space to get linear model for Kalman filter.

  1. CT navigated lateral interbody fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drazin, Doniel; Liu, John C; Acosta, Frank L

    2013-10-01

    Lateral interbody fusion techniques are heavily reliant on fluoroscopy for retractor docking and graft placement, which expose both the patient and surgeon to high doses of radiation. Use of image-guided technologies with CT-based images, however, can eliminate this radiation exposure for the surgeon. We describe the surgical technique of performing lateral lumbar interbody fusion using CT navigation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Hydrogen Production in Fusion Reactors

    OpenAIRE

    Sudo, S.; Tomita, Y.; Yamaguchi, S.; Iiyoshi, A.; Momota, H; Motojima, O.; Okamoto, M.; Ohnishi, M.; Onozuka, M; Uenosono, C.

    1993-01-01

    As one of methods of innovative energy production in fusion reactors without having a conventional turbine-type generator, an efficient use of radiation produced in a fusion reactor with utilizing semiconductor and supplying clean fuel in a form of hydrogen gas are studied. Taking the candidates of reactors such as a toroidal system and an open system for application of the new concepts, the expected efficiency and a concept of plant system are investigated.

  3. Data Fusion in Information Retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Shengli

    2012-01-01

    The technique of data fusion has been used extensively in information retrieval due to the complexity and diversity of tasks involved such as web and social networks, legal, enterprise, and many others. This book presents both a theoretical and empirical approach to data fusion. Several typical data fusion algorithms are discussed, analyzed and evaluated. A reader will find answers to the following questions, among others: -          What are the key factors that affect the performance of data fusion algorithms significantly? -          What conditions are favorable to data fusion algorithms? -          CombSum and CombMNZ, which one is better? and why? -          What is the rationale of using the linear combination method? -          How can the best fusion option be found under any given circumstances?

  4. TRITIUM ACCOUNTANCY IN FUSION SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, J. E.; Farmer, D. A.; Moore, M. L.; Tovo, L. L.; Poore, A. S.; Clark, E. A.; Harvel, C. D.

    2014-03-06

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has clearly defined requirements for nuclear material control and accountability (MC&A) of tritium whereas the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) does not since tritium is not a fissile material. MC&A requirements are expected for tritium fusion machines and will be dictated by the host country or regulatory body where the machine is operated. Material Balance Areas (MBAs) are defined to aid in the tracking and reporting of nuclear material movements and inventories. Material subaccounts (MSAs) are established along with key measurement points (KMPs) to further subdivide a MBA to localize and minimize uncertainties in the inventory difference (ID) calculations for tritium accountancy. Fusion systems try to minimize tritium inventory which may require continuous movement of material through the MSAs. The ability of making meaningful measurements of these material transfers is described in terms of establishing the MSA structure to perform and reconcile ID calculations. For fusion machines, changes to the traditional ID equation will be discussed which includes breading, burn-up, and retention of tritium in the fusion device. The concept of “net” tritium quantities consumed or lost in fusion devices is described in terms of inventory taking strategies and how it is used to track the accumulation of tritium in components or fusion machines.

  5. Tritium accountancy in fusion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, J.E.; Clark, E.A.; Harvel, C.D.; Farmer, D.A.; Tovo, L.L.; Poore, A.S. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC (United States); Moore, M.L. [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-03-15

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has clearly defined requirements for nuclear material control and accountability (MCA) of tritium whereas the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) does not since tritium is not a fissile material. MCA requirements are expected for tritium fusion machines and will be dictated by the host country or regulatory body where the machine is operated. Material Balance Areas (MBA) are defined to aid in the tracking and reporting of nuclear material movements and inventories. Material sub-accounts (MSA) are established along with key measurement points (KMP) to further subdivide a MBA to localize and minimize uncertainties in the inventory difference (ID) calculations for tritium accountancy. Fusion systems try to minimize tritium inventory which may require continuous movement of material through the MSA. The ability of making meaningful measurements of these material transfers is described in terms of establishing the MSA structure to perform and reconcile ID calculations. For fusion machines, changes to the traditional ID equation will be discussed which includes breeding, burn-up, and retention of tritium in the fusion device. The concept of 'net' tritium quantities consumed or lost in fusion devices is described in terms of inventory taking strategies and how it is used to track the accumulation of tritium in components or fusion machines. (authors)

  6. INTERACTION OF THE HIV-1 FUSION PEPTIDE WITH PHOSPHOLIPID-VESICLES - DIFFERENT STRUCTURAL REQUIREMENTS FOR FUSION AND LEAKAGE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NIEVA, JL; NIR, S; MUGA, A; GONI, FM; WILSCHUT, J

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a study on the membrane fusion activity of a 23-residue synthetic peptide, representing the N-terminus of gp41 of the human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1; LAV(1a) strain), in a model system involving large unilamellar vesicles (LUV) composed of the negatively charged 1-pal

  7. Fusion protein of single-chain variable domain fragments for treatment of myasthenia gravis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fangfang Li; Fanping Meng; Quanxin Jin; Changyuan Sun; Yingxin Li; Honghua Li; Songzhu Jin

    2014-01-01

    Single-chain variable domain fragment (scFv) 637 is an antigen-specific scFv of myasthenia gravis. In this study, scFv and human serum albumin genes were conjugated and the fusion pro-tein was expressed in Pichia pastoris. The afifnity of scFv-human serum albumin fusion protein to bind to acetylcholine receptor at the neuromuscular junction of human intercostal muscles was detected by immunolfuorescence staining. The ability of the fusion protein to block myas-thenia gravis patient sera binding to acetylcholine receptors and its stability in healthy serum were measured by competitive ELISA. The results showed that the inhibition rate was 2.0-77.4%, and the stability of fusion protein in static healthy sera was about 3 days. This approach suggests the scFv-human serum albumin is a potential candidate for speciifc immunosuppressive therapy of myasthenia gravis.

  8. Spatio-Temporal Behavior Analysis and Pheromone-Based Fusion Model for Big Trace Data

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Luliang Tang; Qianqian Zou; Xia Zhang; Chang Ren; Qingquan Li

    2017-01-01

    ..., and overlooking the influence of previous activities on future behaviors. We propose a Pheromone-based Fusion Model, viewing human behaviors as similar to insect foraging behaviors to model spatio-temporal recreational activity patterns, on and offline...

  9. Multimodality image registration and fusion using neural network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mostafa G Mostafa; Aly A Farag; Edward Essock

    2003-01-01

    Multimodality image registration and fusion are essential steps in building 3-D models from remotesensing data. We present in this paper a neural network technique for the registration and fusion of multimodali-ty remote sensing data for the reconstruction of 3-D models of terrain regions. A FeedForward neural network isused to fuse the intensity data sets with the spatial data set after learning its geometry. Results on real data arepresented. Human performance evaluation is assessed on several perceptual tests in order to evaluate the fusionresults.

  10. Fusion of colour and monochromatic images with edge emphasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rade M. Pavlović

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel method to fuse true colour images with monochromatic non-visible range images that seeks to encode important structural information from monochromatic images efficiently but also preserve the natural appearance of the available true chromacity information. We utilise the β colour opponency channel of the lαβ colour as the domain to fuse information from the monochromatic input into the colour input by the way of robust grayscale fusion. This is followed by an effective gradient structure visualisation step that enhances the visibility of monochromatic information in the final colour fused image. Images fused using this method preserve their natural appearance and chromacity better than conventional methods while at the same time clearly encode structural information from the monochormatic input. This is demonstrated on a number of well-known true colour fusion examples and confirmed by the results of subjective trials on the data from several colour fusion scenarios. Introduction The goal of image fusion can be broadly defined as: the representation of visual information contained in a number of input images into a single fused image without distortion or loss of information. In practice, however, a representation of all available information from multiple inputs in a single image is almost impossible and fusion is generally a data reduction task.  One of the sensors usually provides a true colour image that by definition has all of its data dimensions already populated by the spatial and chromatic information. Fusing such images with information from monochromatic inputs in a conventional manner can severely affect natural appearance of the fused image. This is a difficult problem and partly the reason why colour fusion received only a fraction of the attention than better behaved grayscale fusion even long after colour sensors became widespread. Fusion method Humans tend to see colours as contrasts between opponent

  11. Novel Hydrophobin Fusion Tags for Plant-Produced Fusion Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritala, Anneli; Linder, Markus; Joensuu, Jussi

    2016-01-01

    Hydrophobin fusion technology has been applied in the expression of several recombinant proteins in plants. Until now, the technology has relied exclusively on the Trichoderma reesei hydrophobin HFBI. We screened eight novel hydrophobin tags, T. reesei HFBII, HFBIII, HFBIV, HFBV, HFBVI and Fusarium verticillioides derived HYD3, HYD4 and HYD5, for production of fusion proteins in plants and purification by two-phase separation. To study the properties of the hydrophobins, we used N-terminal and C-terminal GFP as a fusion partner. Transient expression of the hydrophobin fusions in Nicotiana benthamiana revealed large variability in accumulation levels, which was also reflected in formation of protein bodies. In two-phase separations, only HFBII and HFBIV were able to concentrate GFP into the surfactant phase from a plant extract. The separation efficiency of both tags was comparable to HFBI. When the accumulation was tested side by side, HFBII-GFP gave a better yield than HFBI-GFP, while the yield of HFBIV-GFP remained lower. Thus we present here two alternatives for HFBI as functional fusion tags for plant-based protein production and first step purification. PMID:27706254

  12. HIV-Envelope–Dependent Cell-Cell Fusion: Quantitative Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonor Huerta

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Interaction in vitro between cells infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and surrounding, uninfected, target cells often leads to cell fusion and the formation of multinucleated cells, called syncytia. The presence in HIV-infected individuals of virus strains able to induce syncytia in cultures of T cells is associated with disease progression and AIDS. Even in the asymptomatic stage of infection, multinucleated cells have been observed in different organs, indicating that fused cells may be generated and remain viable in the tissues of patients. We used lymphocytic cells transfected for the expression of the HIV-envelope (Env glycoproteins to develop a method for the direct quantification of fusion events by flow cytometry (Huerta et al., 2006, J. Virol. Methods 138, 17–23; López-Balderas et al., 2007, Virus Res. 123, 138–146. The method involves the staining of fusion partners with lipophilic probes and the use of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET to distinguish between fused and aggregated cells. We have shown that such a flow-cytometry assay is appropriate for the screening of compounds that have the potential to modulate HIV-Env–mediated cell fusion. Even those syncytia that are small or few in numbers can be detected. Quantitative analysis of the fusion products was performed with this technique; the results indicated that the time of reaction and initial proportion of fusion partners determine the number, relative size, and average cellular composition of syncytia. Heterogeneity of syncytia generated by HIV-Env–mediated cell-cell fusion may result in a variety of possible outcomes that, in turn, may influence the biological properties of the syncytia and surrounding cells, as well as replication of virus. Given the myriad immune abnormalities leading to AIDS, the full understanding of the extent, diverse composition, and role of fused cells in the pathogenesis of, and immune response to, HIV infection is an

  13. HIV-envelope-dependent cell-cell fusion: quantitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, Leonor; López-Balderas, Nayali; Rivera-Toledo, Evelyn; Sandoval, Guadalupe; Gómez-Icazbalceta, Guillermo; Villarreal, Carlos; Lamoyi, Edmundo; Larralde, Carlos

    2009-08-11

    Interaction in vitro between cells infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and surrounding, uninfected, target cells often leads to cell fusion and the formation of multinucleated cells, called syncytia. The presence in HIV-infected individuals of virus strains able to induce syncytia in cultures of T cells is associated with disease progression and AIDS. Even in the asymptomatic stage of infection, multinucleated cells have been observed in different organs, indicating that fused cells may be generated and remain viable in the tissues of patients. We used lymphocytic cells transfected for the expression of the HIV-envelope (Env) glycoproteins to develop a method for the direct quantification of fusion events by flow cytometry (Huerta et al., 2006, J. Virol. Methods 138, 17-23; López-Balderas et al., 2007, Virus Res. 123, 138-146). The method involves the staining of fusion partners with lipophilic probes and the use of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) to distinguish between fused and aggregated cells. We have shown that such a flow-cytometry assay is appropriate for the screening of compounds that have the potential to modulate HIV-Env-mediated cell fusion. Even those syncytia that are small or few in numbers can be detected. Quantitative analysis of the fusion products was performed with this technique; the results indicated that the time of reaction and initial proportion of fusion partners determine the number, relative size, and average cellular composition of syncytia. Heterogeneity of syncytia generated by HIV-Env-mediated cell-cell fusion may result in a variety of possible outcomes that, in turn, may influence the biological properties of the syncytia and surrounding cells, as well as replication of virus. Given the myriad immune abnormalities leading to AIDS, the full understanding of the extent, diverse composition, and role of fused cells in the pathogenesis of, and immune response to, HIV infection is an important, pending issue.

  14. Fusion Plasma Theory project summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This Project Summary book is a published compilation consisting of short descriptions of each project supported by the Fusion Plasma Theory and Computing Group of the Advanced Physics and Technology Division of the Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Energy. The summaries contained in this volume were written by the individual contractors with minimal editing by the Office of Fusion Energy. Previous summaries were published in February of 1982 and December of 1987. The Plasma Theory program is responsible for the development of concepts and models that describe and predict the behavior of a magnetically confined plasma. Emphasis is given to the modelling and understanding of the processes controlling transport of energy and particles in a toroidal plasma and supporting the design of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). A tokamak transport initiative was begun in 1989 to improve understanding of how energy and particles are lost from the plasma by mechanisms that transport them across field lines. The Plasma Theory program has actively-participated in this initiative. Recently, increased attention has been given to issues of importance to the proposed Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX). Particular attention has been paid to containment and thermalization of fast alpha particles produced in a burning fusion plasma as well as control of sawteeth, current drive, impurity control, and design of improved auxiliary heating. In addition, general models of plasma behavior are developed from physics features common to different confinement geometries. This work uses both analytical and numerical techniques. The Fusion Theory program supports research projects at US government laboratories, universities and industrial contractors. Its support of theoretical work at universities contributes to the office of Fusion Energy mission of training scientific manpower for the US Fusion Energy Program.

  15. A modification of the fusion model for log polar coordinates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griswold, N. C.; Weiman, Carl F. R.

    1990-01-01

    The fusion mechanism for application in stereo analysis of range restricted the depth of field and therefore required a shift variant mechanism in the peripheral area to find disparity. Misregistration was prevented by restricting the disparity detection range to a neighborhood spanned by the directional edge detection filters. This transformation was essentially accomplished by a nonuniform resampling of the original image in a horizontal direction. While this is easily implemented for digital processing, the approach does not (in the peripheral vision area) model the log-conformal mapping which is known to occur in the human mechanism. This paper therefore modifies the original fusion concept in the peripheral area to include the polar exponential grid-to-log conformal tesselation. Examples of the fusion process resulting in accurate disparity values are given.

  16. BMP-2 induced early bone formation in spine fusion using rat ovariectomy osteoporosis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung Bae; Park, Seong Hoon; Kim, Na-Hyung; Chung, Chun Kee

    2013-10-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) enhance bone formation. Numerous animal studies have established that BMPs can augment spinal fusion. However, there is a lack of data on the effect of BMP-2 on spinal fusion in the osteoporotic spine. To investigate whether recombinant human BMP-2 (rhBMP-2) enhances spine fusion in an ovariectomized rat model. In vivo animal study. Female Sprague-Dawley rats (n=60) were ovariectomized or sham operated and randomized into three groups: Sham (sham operated+fusion), ovariectomy (OVX) (OVX+fusion), and BMP (OVX+fusion+BMP-2). Six weeks after ovariectomy, unilateral lumbar spine fusion was performed using autologous iliac bone with/without rhBMP-2 delivered on a collagen matrix. For each group, gene expression and histology were evaluated at 3 and 6 weeks after fusion, and bone parameters were measured by microcomputed tomography at 3, 6, 9, and 12 weeks. Real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction at 3 weeks showed markedly increased expression of osteoblast-related markers (namely alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, Runx2, Smad1, and Smad5) in the BMP group compared with the other groups (p=.0005, .0005, .003, .009 and .012, respectively). Although the Sham and OVX groups showed both sparse and compacted bones between transverse processes at 6 weeks, the BMP group had a significantly larger bone mass within the fusion bed at 3 weeks and later. All rats in the BMP group had bridging bone at 3 weeks; at 12 weeks, bridging bones in the Sham and OVX groups were about 50% and 25%, respectively, of that in the BMP group. Recombinant human BMP-2 enhances spinal fusion in OVX rats and acts during early bone formation. Therapeutic BMP-2 may therefore improve the outcome of spinal fusion in the osteoporotic patient. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Recent developments concerning the fusion; Developpements recents sur la fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacquinot, J. [CEA/Cadarache, Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee, DRFC, 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Andre, M. [CEA/DAM Ile de France, 91 - Bruyeres Le Chatel (France); Aymar, R. [ITER Joint Central Team Garching, Muenchen (Germany)] [and others

    2000-09-04

    Organized the 9 march 2000 by the SFEN, this meeting on the european program concerning the fusion, showed the utility of the exploitation and the enhancement of the actual technology (JET, Tore Supra, ASDEX) and the importance of the Europe engagement in the ITER program. The physical stakes for the magnetic fusion have been developed with a presentation of the progresses in the knowledge of the stability limits. A paper on the inertial fusion was based on the LMJ (Laser MegaJoule) project. The two blanket concepts chosen in the scope of the european program on the tritium blankets, have been discussed. These concepts will be validated by irradiation tests in the ITER-FEAT and adapted for a future reactor. (A.L.B.)

  18. Nuclear Fusion with Polarized Nucleons & PolFusion

    CERN Document Server

    Engels, Ralf; Büscher, Markus; Vasilyev, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    This book offers a detailed examination of the latest work on the potential of polarized fuel to realize the vision of energy production by nuclear fusion. It brings together contributions from nuclear physicists and fusion physicists with the aims of fostering exchange of information between the two communities, describing the current status in the field, and examining new ideas and projects under development. It is evident that polarized fuel can offer huge improvements for the first generation of fusion reactors and open new technological possibilities for future generations, including neutron lean reactors, which could be the most popular and sustainable energy production option to avoid environmental problems. Nevertheless, many questions must be resolved before polarized fuel can be used for energy production in the different reactor types. Readers will find this book to be a stimulating source of information on the key issues. It is based on contributions from leading scientists delivered at the meetin...

  19. Sperm-egg adhesion and fusion in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutovsky, Peter

    2009-04-01

    Fertilisation is an orchestrated, stepwise process during which the participating male and female gametes undergo irreversible changes, losing some of their structural components while contributing others to the resultant zygote. Following sperm penetration through the egg coat, the sperm plasma membrane fuses with its oocyte counterpart, the oolemma. At least two plasma membrane proteins essential for sperm-oolemma fusion--IZUMO and CD9 on the male and female gametes, respectively--have been identified recently by classical cell biology approaches and confirmed by gene deletion. Oolemma-associated tetraspanin CD81, closely related to CD9, also appears to have an essential role in fusion. Additional proteins that may have nonessential yet still facilitating roles in sperm-oolemma adhesion and fusion include oolemma-anchored integrins and oocyte-expressed retroviral envelope proteins, sperm disintegrins, and sperm-borne proteins of epididymal origin such as CRISP1 and CRISP2. This review discusses these components of the gamete fusion mechanism within the framework of gamete structure, membrane biology, cell signalling and cytoskeletal dynamics, and revisits the topic of antipolyspermy defence at the oolemma level. Harnessing the mechanisms of sperm-egg fusion is of importance to animal biotechnology and to human assisted fertilisation, wherein male patients with reduced sperm fusibility have been identified.

  20. Image fusion for dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leach Martin O

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multivariate imaging techniques such as dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI have been shown to provide valuable information for medical diagnosis. Even though these techniques provide new information, integrating and evaluating the much wider range of information is a challenging task for the human observer. This task may be assisted with the use of image fusion algorithms. Methods In this paper, image fusion based on Kernel Principal Component Analysis (KPCA is proposed for the first time. It is demonstrated that a priori knowledge about the data domain can be easily incorporated into the parametrisation of the KPCA, leading to task-oriented visualisations of the multivariate data. The results of the fusion process are compared with those of the well-known and established standard linear Principal Component Analysis (PCA by means of temporal sequences of 3D MRI volumes from six patients who took part in a breast cancer screening study. Results The PCA and KPCA algorithms are able to integrate information from a sequence of MRI volumes into informative gray value or colour images. By incorporating a priori knowledge, the fusion process can be automated and optimised in order to visualise suspicious lesions with high contrast to normal tissue. Conclusion Our machine learning based image fusion approach maps the full signal space of a temporal DCE-MRI sequence to a single meaningful visualisation with good tissue/lesion contrast and thus supports the radiologist during manual image evaluation.

  1. Accelerators for Fusion Materials Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaster, Juan; Okumura, Yoshikazu

    Fusion materials research is a worldwide endeavor as old as the parallel one working toward the long term stable confinement of ignited plasma. In a fusion reactor, the preservation of the required minimum thermomechanical properties of the in-vessel components exposed to the severe irradiation and heat flux conditions is an indispensable factor for safe operation; it is also an essential goal for the economic viability of fusion. Energy from fusion power will be extracted from the 14 MeV neutron freed as a product of the deuterium-tritium fusion reactions; thus, this kinetic energy must be absorbed and efficiently evacuated and electricity eventually generated by the conventional methods of a thermal power plant. Worldwide technological efforts to understand the degradation of materials exposed to 14 MeV neutron fluxes >1018 m-2s-1, as expected in future fusion power plants, have been intense over the last four decades. Existing neutron sources can reach suitable dpa (“displacement-per-atom”, the figure of merit to assess materials degradation from being exposed to neutron irradiation), but the differences in the neutron spectrum of fission reactors and spallation sources do not allow one to unravel the physics and to anticipate the degradation of materials exposed to fusion neutrons. Fusion irradiation conditions can be achieved through Li (d, xn) nuclear reactions with suitable deuteron beam current and energy, and an adequate flowing lithium screen. This idea triggered in the late 1970s at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) a campaign working toward the feasibility of continuous wave (CW) high current linacs framed by the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) project. These efforts continued with the Low Energy Demonstrating Accelerator (LEDA) (a validating prototype of the canceled Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) project), which was proposed in 2002 to the fusion community as a 6.7MeV, 100mA CW beam injector for a Li (d, xn) source to bridge

  2. Linear Minimum variance estimation fusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Yunmin; LI Xianrong; ZHAO Juan

    2004-01-01

    This paper shows that a general mulitisensor unbiased linearly weighted estimation fusion essentially is the linear minimum variance (LMV) estimation with linear equality constraint, and the general estimation fusion formula is developed by extending the Gauss-Markov estimation to the random paramem of distributed estimation fusion in the LMV setting.In this setting ,the fused estimator is a weighted sum of local estimatess with a matrix quadratic optimization problem subject to a convex linear equality constraint. Second, we present a unique solution to the above optimization problem, which depends only on the covariance matrixCK. Third, if a priori information, the expectation and covariance, of the estimated quantity is unknown, a necessary and sufficient condition for the above LMV fusion becoming the best unbiased LMV estimation with dnown prior information as the above is presented. We also discuss the generality and usefulness of the LMV fusion formulas developed. Finally, we provied and off-line recursion of Ck for a class of multisensor linear systems with coupled measurement noises.

  3. A Model for Membrane Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngatchou, Annita

    2010-01-01

    Pheochromocytoma is a tumor of the adrenal gland which originates from chromaffin cells and is characterized by the secretion of excessive amounts of neurotransmitter which lead to high blood pressure and palpitations. Pheochromocytoma contain membrane bound granules that store neurotransmitter. The release of these stored molecules into the extracellular space occurs by fusion of the granule membrane with the cell plasma membrane, a process called exocytosis. The molecular mechanism of this membrane fusion is not well understood. It is proposed that the so called SNARE proteins [1] are the pillar of vesicle fusion as their cleavage by clostridial toxin notably, Botulinum neurotoxin and Tetanus toxin abrogate the secretion of neurotransmitter [2]. Here, I describe how physical principles are applied to a biological cell to explore the role of the vesicle SNARE protein synaptobrevin-2 in easing granule fusion. The data presented here suggest a paradigm according to which the movement of the C-terminal of synaptobrevin-2 disrupts the lipid bilayer to form a fusion pore through which molecules can exit.

  4. Nuclear Fusion prize laudation Nuclear Fusion prize laudation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkart, W.

    2011-01-01

    Clean energy in abundance will be of critical importance to the pursuit of world peace and development. As part of the IAEA's activities to facilitate the dissemination of fusion related science and technology, the journal Nuclear Fusion is intended to contribute to the realization of such energy from fusion. In 2010, we celebrated the 50th anniversary of the IAEA journal. The excellence of research published in the journal is attested to by its high citation index. The IAEA recognizes excellence by means of an annual prize awarded to the authors of papers judged to have made the greatest impact. On the occasion of the 2010 IAEA Fusion Energy Conference in Daejeon, Republic of Korea at the welcome dinner hosted by the city of Daejeon, we celebrated the achievements of the 2009 and 2010 Nuclear Fusion prize winners. Steve Sabbagh, from the Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York is the winner of the 2009 award for his paper: 'Resistive wall stabilized operation in rotating high beta NSTX plasmas' [1]. This is a landmark paper which reports record parameters of beta in a large spherical torus plasma and presents a thorough investigation of the physics of resistive wall mode (RWM) instability. The paper makes a significant contribution to the critical topic of RWM stabilization. John Rice, from the Plasma Science and Fusion Center, MIT, Cambridge is the winner of the 2010 award for his paper: 'Inter-machine comparison of intrinsic toroidal rotation in tokamaks' [2]. The 2010 award is for a seminal paper that analyzes results across a range of machines in order to develop a universal scaling that can be used to predict intrinsic rotation. This paper has already triggered a wealth of experimental and theoretical work. I congratulate both authors and their colleagues on these exceptional papers. W. Burkart Deputy Director General Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna

  5. The tumorigenic FGFR3-TACC3 gene fusion escapes miR-99a regulation in glioblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Brittany C.; Annala, Matti J.; Cogdell, David E.; Granberg, Kirsi J.; Sun, Yan; Ji, Ping; Li, Xia; Gumin, Joy; Zheng, Hong; Hu, Limei; Yli-Harja, Olli; Haapasalo, Hannu; Visakorpi, Tapio; Liu, Xiuping; Liu, Chang-gong; Sawaya, Raymond; Fuller, Gregory N.; Chen, Kexin; Lang, Frederick F.; Nykter, Matti; Zhang, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Fusion genes are chromosomal aberrations that are found in many cancers and can be used as prognostic markers and drug targets in clinical practice. Fusions can lead to production of oncogenic fusion proteins or to enhanced expression of oncogenes. Several recent studies have reported that some fusion genes can escape microRNA regulation via 3′–untranslated region (3′-UTR) deletion. We performed whole transcriptome sequencing to identify fusion genes in glioma and discovered FGFR3-TACC3 fusions in 4 of 48 glioblastoma samples from patients both of mixed European and of Asian descent, but not in any of 43 low-grade glioma samples tested. The fusion, caused by tandem duplication on 4p16.3, led to the loss of the 3′-UTR of FGFR3, blocking gene regulation of miR-99a and enhancing expression of the fusion gene. The fusion gene was mutually exclusive with EGFR, PDGFR, or MET amplification. Using cultured glioblastoma cells and a mouse xenograft model, we found that fusion protein expression promoted cell proliferation and tumor progression, while WT FGFR3 protein was not tumorigenic, even under forced overexpression. These results demonstrated that the FGFR3-TACC3 gene fusion is expressed in human cancer and generates an oncogenic protein that promotes tumorigenesis in glioblastoma. PMID:23298836

  6. Data fusion mathematics theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Raol, Jitendra R

    2015-01-01

    Fills the Existing Gap of Mathematics for Data FusionData fusion (DF) combines large amounts of information from a variety of sources and fuses this data algorithmically, logically and, if required intelligently, using artificial intelligence (AI). Also, known as sensor data fusion (SDF), the DF fusion system is an important component for use in various applications that include the monitoring of vehicles, aerospace systems, large-scale structures, and large industrial automation plants. Data Fusion Mathematics: Theory and Practice offers a comprehensive overview of data fusion, and provides a

  7. The construction of prokaryotic expression system for human Api6 fusion protein%人Api6融合蛋白原核表达系统的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方严; 练雪梅

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To further study the pathophysiological function of human Api6 fusion protein expression using a prokaryotic expression system. Methods: Api6 cDNA was inserted into ppSUMO vector to form recombinant plasmid pp-SUMO-Api6;recombinant plasmid ppSUMO-Api6 was trans-formed into prokaryotic expression host E.coli Rosetta;prokaryotic expression method was optimized to induce expression of recombi-nant protein Api6 in different conditions of E.coli density,temperature,IPTG concentration and induction time;recombinant protein Api6 was identified by Western blot. Results:The recombinant plasmid ppSUMO-Api6 was successfully constructed;the recombinant protein Api6 was successfully induced,and the expression of recombinant protein ppSUMO-Api6 from the prokaryotic expression system was optimized in the condition of OD600=0.5-0.8,16℃,0.5 mmol/L IPTG and 16 h induction.Conclusion:Recombinant plasmid ppSUMO-Api6 was converted into the prokaryotic expression host E.coli Rosetta to get the recombinant strain ppSUMO-Api6-Rosetta.Recombinant protein ppSUMO-Api6 was expressed using a prokaryotic expression system at the optimal expression conditions.%目的:本研究拟采用蛋白原核表达的方法,诱导表达人Api6(Apoptosis inhibitor 6)融合蛋白,为进一步研究Api6在凋亡抑制、脂质代谢和肿瘤发生中的作用奠定基础.方法:利用PCR技术扩增人Api6基因,将其克隆至原核表达载体ppSUMO,构建重组质粒ppSUMO-Api6;重组质粒转化原核表达宿主菌E.coli Rosetta感受态;采用蛋白原核表达的方法,不同诱导前菌液浓度,不同温度、不同异丙基硫化半乳糖苷(Isopropy 1-β-D-thiogalaotopyrano-side,IPTG)浓度、不同诱导时间,筛选诱导表达Api6重组蛋白的最优条件;Western blot鉴定其表达情况.结果:成功构建重组质粒ppSUMO-Api6;成功诱导Api6重组蛋白的原核表达,表达的最优条件为:OD600=0.5~0.8的重组菌,16℃、0.5 mmol/L IPTG诱导16 h.结论:含有人Api6 c

  8. (Meeting on fusion reactor materials)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, R.H. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Klueh, R.L.; Rowcliffe, A.F.; Wiffen, F.W. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Loomis, B.A. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA))

    1990-11-01

    During his visit to the KfK, Karlsruhe, F. W. Wiffen attended the IEA 12th Working Group Meeting on Fusion Reactor Materials. Plans were made for a low-activation materials workshop at Culham, UK, for April 1991, a data base workshop in Europe for June 1991, and a molecular dynamics workshop in the United States in 1991. At the 11th IEA Executive Committee on Fusion Materials, discussions centered on the recent FPAC and Colombo panel review in the United States and EC, respectively. The Committee also reviewed recent progress toward a neutron source in the United States (CWDD) and in Japan (ESNIT). A meeting with D. R. Harries (consultant to J. Darvas) yielded a useful overview of the EC technology program for fusion. Of particular interest to the US program is a strong effort on a conventional ferritic/martensitic steel for fist wall/blanket operation beyond NET/ITER.

  9. Laser fusion experiments at LLL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlstrom, H.G.

    1980-06-16

    These notes present the experimental basis and status for laser fusion as developed at LLL. Two other chapters, one authored by K.A. Brueckner and the other by C. Max, present the theoretical implosion physics and laser plasma interaction physics. The notes consist of six sections. The first is an introductory section which provides some of the history of inertial fusion and a simple explanation of the concepts involved. The second section presents an extensive discussion of diagnostic instrumentation used in the LLL Laser Fusion Program. The third section is a presentation of laser facilities and capabilities at LLL. The purpose here is to define capability, not to derive how it was obtained. The fourth and fifth sections present the experimental data on laser-plasma interaction and implosion physics. The last chapter is a short projection of the future.

  10. Plasma physics for controlled fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Miyamoto, Kenro

    2016-01-01

    This new edition presents the essential theoretical and analytical methods needed to understand the recent fusion research of tokamak and alternate approaches. The author describes magnetohydrodynamic and kinetic theories of cold and hot plasmas in detail. The book covers new important topics for fusion studies such as plasma transport by drift turbulence, which depend on the magnetic configuration and zonal flows. These are universal phenomena of microturbulence. They can modify the onset criterion for turbulent transport, instabilities driven by energetic particles as well as alpha particle generation and typical plasma models for computer simulation. The fusion research of tokamaks with various new versions of H modes are explained. The design concept of ITER, the international tokamak experimental reactor, is described for inductively driven operations as well as steady-state operations using non-inductive drives. Alternative approaches of reversed-field pinch and its relaxation process, stellator includi...

  11. Development scenario for laser fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maniscalco, J.A.; Hovingh, J.; Buntzen, R.R.

    1976-03-30

    This scenario proposes establishment of test and engineering facilities to (1) investigate the technological problems associated with laser fusion, (2) demonstrate fissile fuel production, and (3) demonstrate competitive electrical power production. Such facilities would be major milestones along the road to a laser-fusion power economy. The relevant engineering and economic aspects of each of these research and development facilities are discussed. Pellet design and gain predictions corresponding to the most promising laser systems are presented for each plant. The results show that laser fusion has the potential to make a significant contribution to our energy needs. Beginning in the early 1990's, this new technology could be used to produce fissile fuel, and after the turn of the century it could be used to generate electrical power.

  12. Laser fusion monthly, February 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlstrom, H.G.

    1981-02-01

    This report is divided into the following sections: (1) facility reports (Argus and Shiva); (2) Nova project; and (3) fusion experiments. In the Fusion Experiments section of this report, the author describes the results of a series of experiments on Shiva which further the understanding of the production and transport of suprathermal electrons. He found that of the suprathermal electrons which strike a laser irradiated disk target or which interact with the rear surface of a half Cairn hohlraum target, a significant fraction of these electrons orbit the target and strike the rear of the disk. These results have significant implications in the interpretation and modeling of the laser irradiated target experiments.

  13. Fusion Energy for Hydrogen Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fillo, J. A.; Powell, J. R.; Steinberg, M.; Salzano, F.; Benenati, R.; Dang, V.; Fogelson, S.; Isaacs, H.; Kouts, H.; Kushner, M.; Lazareth, O.; Majeski, S.; Makowitz, H.; Sheehan, T. V.

    1978-09-01

    The decreasing availability of fossil fuels emphasizes the need to develop systems which will produce synthetic fuel to substitute for and supplement the natural supply. An important first step in the synthesis of liquid and gaseous fuels is the production of hydrogen. Thermonuclear fusion offers an inexhaustible source of energy for the production of hydrogen from water. Depending on design, electric generation efficiencies of approximately 40 to 60% and hydrogen production efficiencies by high temperature electrolysis of approximately 50 to 70% are projected for fusion reactors using high temperature blankets.

  14. Data fusion, the deeplook perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chawathe, Adwait

    1998-07-01

    In 1996, eight oil companies and six service companies began cooperation to stimulate the discovery of new breakthrough technologies with the vision of doubling the oil recovery factors. Data fusion in this context means merging and analyzing different sources of information through the use of technology for the purpose of intelligent decision-making. Breakthrough technologies are still premature and need guidance for the utopian data fusion. Soft computing (neural nets, genetic algorithms etc.) and Inverse Modelling promise heterogeneous data integration. Far-market technology should not be ignored and can be carefully adapted to hydrocarbon exploration and production.

  15. The first fusion reactor: ITER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, D. J.

    2016-11-01

    Established by the signature of the ITER Agreement in November 2006 and currently under construction at St Paul-lez-Durance in southern France, the ITER project [1,2] involves the European Union (including Switzerland), China, India, Japan, the Russian Federation, South Korea and the United States. ITER (`the way' in Latin) is a critical step in the development of fusion energy. Its role is to provide an integrated demonstration of the physics and technology required for a fusion power plant based on magnetic confinement.

  16. Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion vs. posterolateral instrumented fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, A; Høy, K; Bünger, C

    2014-01-01

    Long-lasting low back pain is an increasing problem, and for some patients surgery is the final option for improvement. Several techniques for spinal fusion are available and the optimal technique remains uncertain. The objective of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness and cost-utility......-adjusted life year. Sensitivity analysis was conducted and supported the statistical model for handling of missing data. TLIF does not seem to be a relevant alternative to PLF from a socioeconomic, societal point of view.......Long-lasting low back pain is an increasing problem, and for some patients surgery is the final option for improvement. Several techniques for spinal fusion are available and the optimal technique remains uncertain. The objective of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness and cost......-utility of transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) compared to posterolateral instrumented fusion (PLF) from the societal perspective. 100 Patients were randomized to TLIF or PLF (51/49) and followed for 2 years. Cost data were acquired from national registers, and outcomes were measured using the Oswestry Disability...

  17. Menin-MLL inhibitors reverse oncogenic activity of MLL fusion proteins in leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grembecka, Jolanta; He, Shihan; Shi, Aibin; Purohit, Trupta; Muntean, Andrew G; Sorenson, Roderick J; Showalter, Hollis D; Murai, Marcelo J; Belcher, Amalia M; Hartley, Thomas; Hess, Jay L; Cierpicki, Tomasz

    2012-03-01

    Translocations involving the mixed lineage leukemia (MLL) gene result in human acute leukemias with very poor prognosis. The leukemogenic activity of MLL fusion proteins is critically dependent on their direct interaction with menin, a product of the multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN1) gene. Here we present what are to our knowledge the first small-molecule inhibitors of the menin-MLL fusion protein interaction that specifically bind menin with nanomolar affinities. These compounds effectively reverse MLL fusion protein-mediated leukemic transformation by downregulating the expression of target genes required for MLL fusion protein oncogenic activity. They also selectively block proliferation and induce both apoptosis and differentiation of leukemia cells harboring MLL translocations. Identification of these compounds provides a new tool for better understanding MLL-mediated leukemogenesis and represents a new approach for studying the role of menin as an oncogenic cofactor of MLL fusion proteins. Our findings also highlight a new therapeutic strategy for aggressive leukemias with MLL rearrangements.

  18. A Plan for the Development of Fusion Energy. Final Report to Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee, Fusion Development Path Panel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2003-03-05

    This report presents a plan for the deployment of a fusion demonstration power plant within 35 years, leading to commercial application of fusion energy by mid-century. The plan is derived from the necessary features of a demonstration fusion power plant and from the time scale defined by President Bush. It identifies critical milestones, key decision points, needed major facilities and required budgets.

  19. Information fusion for the Gray Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenstermacher, Laurie

    2016-05-01

    United States Special Operations Command (SOCOM) recently published a white paper describing the "Gray Zone", security challenges characterized by "ambiguity about the nature of the conflict, opacity of the parties involved…competitive interactions among and within state and non-state actors that fall between the traditional war and peace duality."1 Ambiguity and related uncertainty about actors, situations, relationships, and intent require new approaches to information collection, processing and fusion. General Votel, the current SOCOM commander, during a recent speech on "Operating in the Gray Zone" emphasized that it would be important to get left of the next crises and stated emphatically, "to do that we must understand the Human Domain."2 This understanding of the human domain must come from making meaning based on different perspectives, including the "emic" or first person/participant and "etic" or third person/observer perspectives. Much of the information currently collected and processed is etic. Incorporation and fusion with the emic perspective enables forecasting of behaviors/events and provides context for etic information (e.g., video).3 Gray zone challenges are perspective-dependent; for example, the conflict in Ukraine is interpreted quite differently by Russia, the US and Ukraine. Russia views it as war, necessitating aggressive action, the US views it as a security issue best dealt with by economic sanctions and diplomacy and the Ukraine views it as a threat to its sovereignty.4 General Otto in the Air Force ISR 2023 vision document stated that Air Force ISR is needed to anticipate strategic surprise.5 Anticipatory analysis enabling getting left of a crisis inherently requires a greater focus on information sources that elucidate the human environment as well as new methods that elucidate not only the "who's" and "what's", but the "how's and "why's," extracting features and/or patterns and subtle cues useful for forecasting behaviors and

  20. Image fusion theories, techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mitchell, HB

    2010-01-01

    This text provides a comprehensive introduction to the theories, techniques and applications of image fusion. It examines in detail many real-life examples of image fusion, including panchromatic sharpening and ensemble color image segmentation.

  1. Fusion energy and nuclear non-proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldston, Rob [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab, Princeton (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Neutrons from DT fusion can be used to produce {sup 239}Pu or {sup 233}U. However since no fertile nor fissile material need be present in a pure fusion power plant, it would be relatively easy to detect significant covert transmutation in a declared facility. Clandestine fusion-based transmutation does not appear credible. Furthermore, no fissile materials are immediately available in a fusion breakout scenario. DT fusion systems produce and burn 400g of tritium per day, a small fraction of which, if diverted, could be used to enhance the efficiency, reliability and/or safety of a nuclear weapon. Very accurate T accountancy needs to be developed for fusion energy systems. Finally, the spread of inertial fusion energy R and D may result in dissemination of knowledge relevant to the design of nuclear weapons. International agreements to restrain information transfer are required. In summary, fusion is much safer from a proliferation standpoint than fission, but still requires verification and control.

  2. Mechanisms of influenza viral membrane fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blijleven, Jelle S; Boonstra, Sander; Onck, Patrick R; van der Giessen, Erik; van Oijen, Antoine M

    2016-12-01

    Influenza viral particles are enveloped by a lipid bilayer. A major step in infection is fusion of the viral and host cellular membranes, a process with large kinetic barriers. Influenza membrane fusion is catalyzed by hemagglutinin (HA), a class I viral fusion protein activated by low pH. The exact nature of the HA conformational changes that deliver the energy required for fusion remains poorly understood. This review summarizes our current knowledge of HA structure and dynamics, describes recent single-particle experiments and modeling studies, and discusses their role in understanding how multiple HAs mediate fusion. These approaches provide a mechanistic picture in which HAs independently and stochastically insert into the target membrane, forming a cluster of HAs that is collectively able to overcome the barrier to membrane fusion. The new experimental and modeling approaches described in this review hold promise for a more complete understanding of other viral fusion systems and the protein systems responsible for cellular fusion.

  3. The Formin Diaphanous Regulates Myoblast Fusion through Actin Polymerization and Arp2/3 Regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Deng

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The formation of multinucleated muscle cells through cell-cell fusion is a conserved process from fruit flies to humans. Numerous studies have shown the importance of Arp2/3, its regulators, and branched actin for the formation of an actin structure, the F-actin focus, at the fusion site. This F-actin focus forms the core of an invasive podosome-like structure that is required for myoblast fusion. In this study, we find that the formin Diaphanous (Dia, which nucleates and facilitates the elongation of actin filaments, is essential for Drosophila myoblast fusion. Following cell recognition and adhesion, Dia is enriched at the myoblast fusion site, concomitant with, and having the same dynamics as, the F-actin focus. Through analysis of Dia loss-of-function conditions using mutant alleles but particularly a dominant negative Dia transgene, we demonstrate that reduction in Dia activity in myoblasts leads to a fusion block. Significantly, no actin focus is detected, and neither branched actin regulators, SCAR or WASp, accumulate at the fusion site when Dia levels are reduced. Expression of constitutively active Dia also causes a fusion block that is associated with an increase in highly dynamic filopodia, altered actin turnover rates and F-actin distribution, and mislocalization of SCAR and WASp at the fusion site. Together our data indicate that Dia plays two roles during invasive podosome formation at the fusion site: it dictates the level of linear F-actin polymerization, and it is required for appropriate branched actin polymerization via localization of SCAR and WASp. These studies provide new insight to the mechanisms of cell-cell fusion, the relationship between different regulators of actin polymerization, and invasive podosome formation that occurs in normal development and in disease.

  4. The Formin Diaphanous Regulates Myoblast Fusion through Actin Polymerization and Arp2/3 Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Su; Bothe, Ingo; Baylies, Mary K

    2015-08-01

    The formation of multinucleated muscle cells through cell-cell fusion is a conserved process from fruit flies to humans. Numerous studies have shown the importance of Arp2/3, its regulators, and branched actin for the formation of an actin structure, the F-actin focus, at the fusion site. This F-actin focus forms the core of an invasive podosome-like structure that is required for myoblast fusion. In this study, we find that the formin Diaphanous (Dia), which nucleates and facilitates the elongation of actin filaments, is essential for Drosophila myoblast fusion. Following cell recognition and adhesion, Dia is enriched at the myoblast fusion site, concomitant with, and having the same dynamics as, the F-actin focus. Through analysis of Dia loss-of-function conditions using mutant alleles but particularly a dominant negative Dia transgene, we demonstrate that reduction in Dia activity in myoblasts leads to a fusion block. Significantly, no actin focus is detected, and neither branched actin regulators, SCAR or WASp, accumulate at the fusion site when Dia levels are reduced. Expression of constitutively active Dia also causes a fusion block that is associated with an increase in highly dynamic filopodia, altered actin turnover rates and F-actin distribution, and mislocalization of SCAR and WASp at the fusion site. Together our data indicate that Dia plays two roles during invasive podosome formation at the fusion site: it dictates the level of linear F-actin polymerization, and it is required for appropriate branched actin polymerization via localization of SCAR and WASp. These studies provide new insight to the mechanisms of cell-cell fusion, the relationship between different regulators of actin polymerization, and invasive podosome formation that occurs in normal development and in disease.

  5. Distributed data fusion across multiple hard and soft mobile sensor platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinsley, Gregory

    One of the biggest challenges currently facing the robotics field is sensor data fusion. Unmanned robots carry many sophisticated sensors including visual and infrared cameras, radar, laser range finders, chemical sensors, accelerometers, gyros, and global positioning systems. By effectively fusing the data from these sensors, a robot would be able to form a coherent view of its world that could then be used to facilitate both autonomous and intelligent operation. Another distinct fusion problem is that of fusing data from teammates with data from onboard sensors. If an entire team of vehicles has the same worldview they will be able to cooperate much more effectively. Sharing worldviews is made even more difficult if the teammates have different sensor types. The final fusion challenge the robotics field faces is that of fusing data gathered by robots with data gathered by human teammates (soft sensors). Humans sense the world completely differently from robots, which makes this problem particularly difficult. The advantage of fusing data from humans is that it makes more information available to the entire team, thus helping each agent to make the best possible decisions. This thesis presents a system for fusing data from multiple unmanned aerial vehicles, unmanned ground vehicles, and human observers. The first issue this thesis addresses is that of centralized data fusion. This is a foundational data fusion issue, which has been very well studied. Important issues in centralized fusion include data association, classification, tracking, and robotics problems. Because these problems are so well studied, this thesis does not make any major contributions in this area, but does review it for completeness. The chapter on centralized fusion concludes with an example unmanned aerial vehicle surveillance problem that demonstrates many of the traditional fusion methods. The second problem this thesis addresses is that of distributed data fusion. Distributed data fusion

  6. Exo-endo cellulase fusion protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Benjamin S [Palo Alto, CA; Larenas, Edmund A [Palo Alto, CA; Mitchinson, Colin [Palo Alto, CA

    2012-01-17

    The present invention relates to a heterologous exo-endo cellulase fusion construct, which encodes a fusion protein having cellulolytic activity comprising a catalytic domain derived from a fungal exo-cellobiohydrolase and a catalytic domain derived from an endoglucanase. The invention also relates to vectors and fungal host cells comprising the heterologous exo-endo cellulase fusion construct as well as methods for producing a cellulase fusion protein and enzymatic cellulase compositions.

  7. Z-Pinch Fusion for Energy Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SPIELMAN,RICK B.

    2000-01-01

    Z pinches, the oldest fusion concept, have recently been revisited in light of significant advances in the fields of plasma physics and pulsed power engineering. The possibility exists for z-pinch fusion to play a role in commercial energy applications. We report on work to develop z-pinch fusion concepts, the result of an extensive literature search, and the output for a congressionally-mandated workshop on fusion energy held in Snowmass, Co July 11-23,1999.

  8. Virtual experiment of pyroelectric fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasseri, Mohammad Mehdi, E-mail: mnasseri@aeoi.org.ir

    2015-11-01

    The virtual experiment of pyroelectric fusion was conducted by Geant4 simulator. Despite the limitations of the code for simulating the pyroelectric fusion experiment precisely, the following interesting results were obtained. Two crystals were separated by a certain distance. A constant electric field with varying intensities was applied between the crystals. As initial particles, deuterium ions were emitted to deuterated polypropylene (CD{sub 2}). This virtual experiment showed that the number of ions that hit the target, for different distances between the crystals, increases with the increase of the intensity of the electric field; however, further increase of the electric field results in the reduction of the number of hit ions, which attains a constant value of about 57% of the initial number of ions. For a (D, D) fusion reaction to occur, the distance between the two crystals should be <1.5 cm and for a (D, T) fusion reaction to occur, this distance could be up to 2 cm. The energy spectra of ions for low and high electric fields were narrow and long and wide and short, respectively.

  9. MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC MODELING FOR FUSION PLASMAS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keppens, R.; Goedbloed, J. P.; Blokland, J. W. S.

    2010-01-01

    The magnetohydrodynamic model for fusion plasma dynamics governs the large-scale equilibrium properties, and sets the most stringent constraints on the parameter space accessible without violent disruptions. In conjunction with linear stability analysis in the complex tokamak geometry, the MHD parad

  10. Seismic data fusion anomaly detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrity, Kyle; Blasch, Erik; Alford, Mark; Ezekiel, Soundararajan; Ferris, David

    2014-06-01

    Detecting anomalies in non-stationary signals has valuable applications in many fields including medicine and meteorology. These include uses such as identifying possible heart conditions from an Electrocardiography (ECG) signals or predicting earthquakes via seismographic data. Over the many choices of anomaly detection algorithms, it is important to compare possible methods. In this paper, we examine and compare two approaches to anomaly detection and see how data fusion methods may improve performance. The first approach involves using an artificial neural network (ANN) to detect anomalies in a wavelet de-noised signal. The other method uses a perspective neural network (PNN) to analyze an arbitrary number of "perspectives" or transformations of the observed signal for anomalies. Possible perspectives may include wavelet de-noising, Fourier transform, peak-filtering, etc.. In order to evaluate these techniques via signal fusion metrics, we must apply signal preprocessing techniques such as de-noising methods to the original signal and then use a neural network to find anomalies in the generated signal. From this secondary result it is possible to use data fusion techniques that can be evaluated via existing data fusion metrics for single and multiple perspectives. The result will show which anomaly detection method, according to the metrics, is better suited overall for anomaly detection applications. The method used in this study could be applied to compare other signal processing algorithms.

  11. Model based feature fusion approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwering, P.B.W.

    2001-01-01

    In recent years different sensor data fusion approaches have been analyzed and evaluated in the field of mine detection. In various studies comparisons have been made between different techniques. Although claims can be made for advantages for using certain techniques, until now there has been no si

  12. Advanced algorithms for distributed fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfand, A.; Smith, C.; Colony, M.; Bowman, C.; Pei, R.; Huynh, T.; Brown, C.

    2008-03-01

    The US Military has been undergoing a radical transition from a traditional "platform-centric" force to one capable of performing in a "Network-Centric" environment. This transformation will place all of the data needed to efficiently meet tactical and strategic goals at the warfighter's fingertips. With access to this information, the challenge of fusing data from across the batttlespace into an operational picture for real-time Situational Awareness emerges. In such an environment, centralized fusion approaches will have limited application due to the constraints of real-time communications networks and computational resources. To overcome these limitations, we are developing a formalized architecture for fusion and track adjudication that allows the distribution of fusion processes over a dynamically created and managed information network. This network will support the incorporation and utilization of low level tracking information within the Army Distributed Common Ground System (DCGS-A) or Future Combat System (FCS). The framework is based on Bowman's Dual Node Network (DNN) architecture that utilizes a distributed network of interlaced fusion and track adjudication nodes to build and maintain a globally consistent picture across all assets.

  13. What Makes Fusion Cells Effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    disbanded to address specific operations (e.g., a fleeting hostage rescue operation). Creation of these issue-based fusion cells would be based off...HQ USSOCOM Library MacDill AFB, FL 6. JSOC Fort Bragg, NC 7. ASD/SOLIC Washington, D.C.

  14. Tritium management in fusion reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galloway, T.R.

    1978-05-01

    This is a review paper covering the key environmental and safety issues and how they have been handled in the various magnetic and inertial confinement concepts and reference designs. The issues treated include: tritium accident analyses, tritium process control, occupational safety, HTO formation rate from the gas-phase, disposal of tritium contaminated wastes, and environmental impact--each covering the Joint European Tokamak (J.E.T. experiment), Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR), Russian T-20, The Next Step (TNS) designs by Westinghouse/ORNL and General Atomic/ANL, the ANL and ORNL EPR's, the G.A. Doublet Demonstration Reactor, the Italian Fintor-D and the ORNL Demo Studies. There are also the following full scale plant reference designs: UWMAK-III, LASL's Theta Pinch Reactor Design (RTPR), Mirror Fusion Reactor (MFR), Tandem Mirror Reactor (TMR), and the Mirror Hybrid Reactor (MHR). There are four laser device breakeven experiments, SHIVA-NOVA, LLL reference designs, ORNL Laser Fusion power plant, the German ''Saturn,'' and LLL's Laser Fusion EPR I and II.

  15. Genetic variability available through cell fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, H.H.; Mastrangelo-Hough, I.A.

    1977-01-01

    Results are reported for the following studies: plant hybridization through protoplast fusion using species of Nicotiana and Petunia; chromosome instability studies on culture-induced chromosome changes and chromosome elimination; chloroplast distribution in parasexual hybrids; chromosomal introgression following fusion; plant-animal fusion; and microcell-mediated chromosome transfer and chromosome-mediated gene transfer. (HLW)

  16. Laser-induced tobacco protoplast fusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李银妹; 关力劼; 楼立人; 崔国强; 姚湲; 王浩威; 操传顺; 鲁润龙; 陈曦

    1999-01-01

    Laser tweezers can manipulate small particles, such as cells and organdies. When coupling them with laser microbeam selective fusion of two tobacco protoplasts containing some chloroplast was achieved. Physical and biological variables that affect laser trapping and laser-induced fusion were also discussed. The results show that the effect of chloroplast content and distribution on the yield of cell fusion is remarkable.

  17. Nuclear data requirements for fusion reactor nucleonics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhat, M.R.; Abdou, M.A.

    1980-01-01

    Nuclear data requirements for fusion reactor nucleonics are reviewed and the present status of data are assessed. The discussion is divided into broad categories dealing with data for Fusion Materials Irradiation Test Facility (FMIT), D-T Fusion Reactors, Alternate Fuel Cycles and the Evaluated Data Files that are available or would be available in the near future.

  18. Direct conversion of fusion energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Markus

    2003-03-01

    Deuterium and tritium are expected to be used as fuel in the first fusion reactors. Energy is released as kinetic energy of ions and neutrons, when deuterium reacts with tritium. One way to convert the kinetic energy to electrical energy, is to let the ions and neutrons hit the reactor wall and convert the heat that is caused by the particle bombardment to electrical energy with ordinary thermal conversion. If the kinetic energy of the ions instead is converted directly to electrical energy, a higher efficiency of the energy conversion is possible. The majority of the fusion energy is released as kinetic energy of neutrons, when deuterium reacts with tritium. Fusion reactions such as the D-D reactions, the D-{sup 3}He reaction and the p-{sup 11}B reaction, where a larger part of the fusion energy becomes kinetic energy of charged particles, appears therefore more suitable for direct conversion. Since they have lower reactivity than the D-T reaction, they need a larger {beta}B{sup 2}{sub 0} to give sufficiently high fusion power density. Because of this, the fusion configurations spherical torus (ST) and field-reversed configuration (FRC), where high {beta} values are possible, appear interesting. Rosenbluth and Hinton come to the conclusion that efficient direct conversion isn't possible in closed field line systems and that open geometries, which facilitate direct conversion, provide inadequate confinement for D-{sup 3}He. It is confirmed in this study that it doesn't seem possible to achieve as high direct conversion efficiency in closed systems as in open systems. ST and FRC fusion power plants that utilize direct conversion seem however interesting. Calculations with the help of Maple indicate that the reactor parameters needed for a D-D ST and a D{sub 3} He ST hopefully are possible to achieve. The best energy conversion option for a D-D or D{sub 3} He ST appears to be direct electrodynamic conversion (DEC) together with ordinary thermal conversion

  19. Fusion probability in heavy nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Tathagata; Nath, S.; Pal, Santanu

    2015-03-01

    Background: Fusion between two massive nuclei is a very complex process and is characterized by three stages: (a) capture inside the potential barrier, (b) formation of an equilibrated compound nucleus (CN), and (c) statistical decay of the CN leading to a cold evaporation residue (ER) or fission. The second stage is the least understood of the three and is the most crucial in predicting yield of superheavy elements (SHE) formed in complete fusion reactions. Purpose: A systematic study of average fusion probability, PCN> , is undertaken to obtain a better understanding of its dependence on various reaction parameters. The study may also help to clearly demarcate onset of non-CN fission (NCNF), which causes fusion probability, PCN, to deviate from unity. Method: ER excitation functions for 52 reactions leading to CN in the mass region 170-220, which are available in the literature, have been compared with statistical model (SM) calculations. Capture cross sections have been obtained from a coupled-channels code. In the SM, shell corrections in both the level density and the fission barrier have been included. PCN> for these reactions has been extracted by comparing experimental and theoretical ER excitation functions in the energy range ˜5 %-35% above the potential barrier, where known effects of nuclear structure are insignificant. Results: PCN> has been shown to vary with entrance channel mass asymmetry, η (or charge product, ZpZt ), as well as with fissility of the CN, χCN. No parameter has been found to be adequate as a single scaling variable to determine PCN> . Approximate boundaries have been obtained from where PCN> starts deviating from unity. Conclusions: This study quite clearly reveals the limits of applicability of the SM in interpreting experimental observables from fusion reactions involving two massive nuclei. Deviation of PCN> from unity marks the beginning of the domain of dynamical models of fusion. Availability of precise ER cross sections

  20. HIV-1 gp41 Fusion Intermediate: A Target for HIV Therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chungen Pan

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 infection is initiated by the binding of gp120 envelope glyco-protein to its cell receptor (CD4 and a coreceptor (CXCR4 or CCR5, followed by a series of conformational changes in the gp41 transmembrane subunit. These changes include insertion of fusion peptide into the target cell membrane and association of C-heptad repeat (CHR peptide with the N-heptad repeat (NHR trimer, a pre-hairpin fusion intermediate. A stable six-helix bundle core is then formed, bringing the viral envelope and target cell membrane into close proximity for fusion. Peptides derived from the CHR region, such as T20 and C34, inhibit HIV-1 fusion by interacting with the gp41 fusion intermediate. A number of anti-HIV-1 peptides and small molecule compounds targeting the gp41 NHR-trimer have been identified. By combining HIV fusion/entry inhibitors targeting different sites in the gp41 fusion intermediate, a potent synergistic effect takes place, resulting in a potential new therapeutic strategy for the HIV infection/AIDS. Here, we present an overview of the current development of anti-HIV drugs, particularly those targeting the gp41 fusion intermediate.