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Sample records for human epidemiologic studies

  1. Magnetic field effects on humans: epidemiological study design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budinger, T.F.; Wong, P.; Yen, C.K.

    1978-10-01

    This report presents details of the study design and methods for a retrospective epidemiological study on the health effects, if any, of stationary and alternating magnetic fields produced by man-made devices such as cyclotrons, controlled thermonuclear reactors (CTR), high voltage-high current transmission lines, magnetohydrodynamic devices (MHD), energy storage systems, and isotope separation facilities. The magnetic fields to which the workers can be exposed are as high as 10,000 gauss and the anticipated increase in magnetic fields associated with the environment and transmission lines near these devices is a few times the natural earth magnetic field. Thus the objectives include acquisition of low exposure data which can be used to evaluate any risks to the population incidentally exposed to environmental increases in magnetic fields, as well as an acquisition of high exposure data to be used in determining allowable exposure standards for the technical personnel working at CTR and MHD facilities. From the present status of knowledge on biological effects of magnetic fields, it is not possible to extrapolate or rationally conclude maximum permissible exposure levels for magnetic device workers and the population at large. There are no known previous studies of the effects of long-term exposure to magnetic fields involving large samples and matched controls. Thus this human epidemiological study was commenced in 1977 in parallel with experimental studies on biological and medical effects of magnetic fields being conducted by Dr. T. Tenforde and co-workers at LBL, by investigators at Battelle Northwest, and smaller projects at a number of laboratories around the world. The data base for the exposed population is comprised of approximately 1,000 cyclotron and bubble chamber workers.

  2. Epidemiological studies on radiation carcinogenesis in human populations following acute exposure: nuclear explosions and medical radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1982-08-01

    The present review provides an understanding of our current knowledge of the carcinogenic effect of low-dose radiation in man, and surveys the epidemiological studies of human populations exposed to nuclear explosions and medical radiation. Discussion centers on the contributions of quantitative epidemiology to present knowledge, the reliability of the dose-incidence data, and those relevant epidemiological studies that provide the most useful information for risk estimation of cancer-induction in man. Reference is made to dose-incidence relationships from laboratory animal experiments where they may obtain for problems and difficulties in extrapolation from data obtained at high doses to low doses, and from animal data to the human situation. The paper describes the methods of application of such epidemiological data for estimation of excess risk of radiation-induced cancer in exposed human populations, and discusses the strengths and limitations of epidemiology in guiding radiation protection philosophy and public health policy.

  3. Epidemiological studies on radiation carcinogenesis in human populations following acute exposure: nuclear explosions and medical radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1982-08-01

    The present review provides an understanding of our current knowledge of the carcinogenic effect of low-dose radiation in man, and surveys the epidemiological studies of human populations exposed to nuclear explosions and medical radiation. Discussion centers on the contributions of quantitative epidemiology to present knowledge, the reliability of the dose-incidence data, and those relevant epidemiological studies that provide the most useful information for risk estimation of cancer-induction in man. Reference is made to dose-incidence relationships from laboratory animal experiments where they may obtain for problems and difficulties in extrapolation from data obtained at high doses to low doses, and from animal data to the human situation. The paper describes the methods of application of such epidemiological data for estimation of excess risk of radiation-induced cancer in exposed human populations, and discusses the strengths and limitations of epidemiology in guiding radiation protection philosophy and public health policy.

  4. Epidemiologic studies of the human microbiome and cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vogtmann, Emily; Goedert, James J

    2016-01-01

    .... Previously detected associations of individual bacteria (e.g., Helicobacter pylori), periodontal disease, and inflammation with specific cancers have motivated studies considering the association between the human microbiome and cancer risk...

  5. Reporting of Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE association studies: An empirical assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwinn Marta

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several thousand human genome epidemiology association studies are published every year investigating the relationship between common genetic variants and diverse phenotypes. Transparent reporting of study methods and results allows readers to better assess the validity of study findings. Here, we document reporting practices of human genome epidemiology studies. Methods Articles were randomly selected from a continuously updated database of human genome epidemiology association studies to be representative of genetic epidemiology literature. The main analysis evaluated 315 articles published in 2001–2003. For a comparative update, we evaluated 28 more recent articles published in 2006, focusing on issues that were poorly reported in 2001–2003. Results During both time periods, most studies comprised relatively small study populations and examined one or more genetic variants within a single gene. Articles were inconsistent in reporting the data needed to assess selection bias and the methods used to minimize misclassification (of the genotype, outcome, and environmental exposure or to identify population stratification. Statistical power, the use of unrelated study participants, and the use of replicate samples were reported more often in articles published during 2006 when compared with the earlier sample. Conclusion We conclude that many items needed to assess error and bias in human genome epidemiology association studies are not consistently reported. Although some improvements were seen over time, reporting guidelines and online supplemental material may help enhance the transparency of this literature.

  6. Epidemiological studies on radiation carcinogenesis in human populations following acute exposure: nuclear explosions and medical radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1981-05-01

    The current knowledge of the carcinogenic effect of radiation in man is considered. The discussion is restricted to dose-incidence data in humans, particularly to certain of those epidemiological studies of human populations that are used most frequently for risk estimation for low-dose radiation carcinogenesis in man. Emphasis is placed solely on those surveys concerned with nuclear explosions and medical exposures. (ACR)

  7. Epidemiological studies on animal and human trichinellosis in Estonia

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    Järvis T.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available From 1992 to 1999, muscle samples from 814 sylvatic animals and 1,173 domestic and synanthropic animals were collected in 15 districts of Estonia ; the prevalence of trichinellosis ranged from 1.0 % to 79.4 % for sylvatic animals and from 0.6 % to 24.5 % for domestic or synanthropic animals and for animals from fur-bearing farms. The most important reservoirs of Trichinella in nature were the raccoon dog, the red fox, the lynx and the wolf. Three species of Trichinella (T. spiralis, T. nativa, and T. britovi were identified by several types of PCR-based analyses. Meat from sylvatic animals was the main source of Trichinella infection for humans.

  8. Epidemiological study on human and canine leptospirosis in Central and North Kerala

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    Manju Soman

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to study the epidemiology of human and animal leptospirosis in Central and Northern Kerala, by isolation techniques and serology. Materials and Methods: Kidney tissues from 35 rodents (11 bandicoots and 24 rats, autopsy specimens from two canines, blood from 15 canines and 30 human beings were subjected to isolation trials for Leptospira. Sera from these animals and human beings were screened for leptospiral antibodies by microscopic agglutination test (MAT. Results: Leptospira could be isolated from human blood as well as from rodent kidney tissues. The MAT could detect the presence of leptospiral antibodies in 54.54% of human sera, 36.36% of dog sera and 21.42% of rodent sera. Pomona and Australis were the most predominant serovars detected in man, dog, and rodents. Tentative serotyping of the isolates by MAT revealed its identity as Leptospira interrogans serovar Pomona. Conclusion: Detection of common serovars of Leptospira in man and animals by serology as well as isolation reiterates the major role played by animals in the epidemiology of human leptospirosis.

  9. A cross-sectional epidemiological study of domestic animals related to human leptospirosis cases in Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Byron J; Pérez-Sánchez, Tania; Fuertes, Héctor; Sheleby-Elías, Jessica; Múzquiz, José Luis; Jirón, William; Duttmann, Christianne; Halaihel, Nabil

    2017-02-28

    Leptospirosis is one of the most extended zoonosis worldwide and humans become infected most commonly through contact with the urine of carrier animals, either directly or via contaminated water or soil. The aim in this study was to analyse the epidemiological behaviour of Leptospira spp., from domestic animals around the sites of human leptospirosis cases in Nicaragua, from 2007 through 2013. We report the results of a cross-sectional epidemiological study with a non-probability sampling of blood (n=3050) and urine (n=299) from Domestic Animals (DA) around the sites of human leptospirosis cases in Nicaragua. We analysed data obtained through Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT), in-vitro culture, real time PCR and sequencing of lfb1 locus. Frequencies of 30.31% (95% CI: 28.66-31.95) and 15.38% (95% CI: 11.12-19.64) were obtained from serological test and from in-vitro culture, respectively. Although similar frequencies from serology test (P≥0.05) were found in DA species, in-vitro culture frequencies were significantly higher from bovine, equine and sheep (PLeptospira spp. were encountered, with the highest presence of Icterohaemorrhagiae serogroup 34.65% (95% CI: 29.35-39.94). We identified 7 samples homologous to L. interrogans species Pyrogenes serovar and 3 samples as L. noguchii Louisiana or Panama serovars by analysis of lfb1 sequences. We were able to establish a temporal and spatial correlation from DA and cumulative incidence of human cases. Therefore an effective epidemiological surveillance should be implemented with a specific control program toward DA in order to reduce human leptospirosis incidence.

  10. Interactions among human behavior, social networks, and societal infrastructures: A Case Study in Computational Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Christopher L.; Bisset, Keith; Chen, Jiangzhuo; Eubank, Stephen; Lewis, Bryan; Kumar, V. S. Anil; Marathe, Madhav V.; Mortveit, Henning S.

    Human behavior, social networks, and the civil infrastructures are closely intertwined. Understanding their co-evolution is critical for designing public policies and decision support for disaster planning. For example, human behaviors and day to day activities of individuals create dense social interactions that are characteristic of modern urban societies. These dense social networks provide a perfect fabric for fast, uncontrolled disease propagation. Conversely, people’s behavior in response to public policies and their perception of how the crisis is unfolding as a result of disease outbreak can dramatically alter the normally stable social interactions. Effective planning and response strategies must take these complicated interactions into account. In this chapter, we describe a computer simulation based approach to study these issues using public health and computational epidemiology as an illustrative example. We also formulate game-theoretic and stochastic optimization problems that capture many of the problems that we study empirically.

  11. Correlates of cortisol in human hair: implications for epidemiologic studies on health effects of chronic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wosu, Adaeze C; Valdimarsdóttir, Unnur; Shields, Alexandra E; Williams, David R; Williams, Michelle A

    2013-12-01

    Assessment of cortisol concentrations in hair is one of the latest innovations for measuring long-term cortisol exposure. We performed a systematic review of correlates of cortisol in human hair to inform the design, analysis, and interpretation of future epidemiologic studies. Relevant publications were identified through electronic searches on PubMed, WorldCat, and Web of Science using keywords, "cortisol," "hair," "confounders," "chronic," "stress," and "correlates." Thirty-nine studies were included in this review. Notwithstanding scarce data and some inconsistencies, investigators have found hair cortisol concentrations to be associated with stress-related psychiatric symptoms and disorders (e.g., post-traumatic stress disorder), medical conditions indicating chronic activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (e.g., Cushing's syndrome), and other life situations associated with elevated risk of chronic stress (e.g., shiftwork). Results from some studies suggest that physical activity, adiposity, and substance abuse may be correlates of hair cortisol concentrations. In contrast to measures of short-term cortisol release (saliva, blood, and urine), cigarette smoking and use of oral contraceptives appear not to be associated with hair cortisol concentrations. Studies of pregnant women indicate increased hair cortisol concentrations across successive trimesters. The study of hair cortisol presents a unique opportunity to assess chronic alterations in cortisol concentrations in epidemiologic studies.

  12. Correlates of Cortisol in Human Hair: Implications for Epidemiologic Studies on Health Effects of Chronic Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wosu, Adaeze C.; Valdimarsdóttir, Unnur; Shields, Alexandra E.; Williams, David R.; Williams, Michelle A.

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of cortisol concentrations in hair is one of the latest innovations for measuring long-term cortisol exposure. We performed a systematic review of correlates of cortisol in human hair to inform the design, analysis and interpretation of future epidemiologic studies. Relevant publications were identified through electronic searches on PubMed, WorldCat, and Web of Science using keywords, “cortisol” “hair” “confounders” “chronic” “stress” and “correlates.” Thirty-nine studies were included in this review. Notwithstanding scarce data and some inconsistencies, investigators have found hair cortisol concentrations to be associated with stress-related psychiatric symptoms and disorders (e.g., PTSD), medical conditions indicating chronic activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (e.g., Cushing´s syndrome) and other life situations associated with elevated risk of chronic stress (e.g., shiftwork). Results from some studies suggest that physical activity, adiposity, and substance abuse may be correlates of hair cortisol concentrations. In contrast to measures of short-term cortisol release (saliva, blood, and urine), cigarette smoking and use of oral contraceptives appear to not be associated with hair cortisol concentrations. Studies of pregnant women indicate increased hair cortisol concentrations across successive trimesters. The study of hair cortisol presents a unique opportunity to assess chronic alterations in cortisol concentrations in epidemiologic studies. PMID:24184029

  13. Epidemiological Studies on Echinococcosis and Characterization of Human and Livestock Hydatid Cysts in Mauritania

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    CB Ould Ahmed Salem

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Echinococcosis/hydatidosis is considered endemic in Mauritania. The aim of this study is to present an epidemiological study on the echinococcosis in man and animals in the Nouakchott region. Methods: The internal organs from livestock carcasses were inspected for research of hydatid cysts. The hydatid fluid was examined for research of the protoscoleces. Dogs were necropsied for the collect of Echinococcus granulosus.Results: In the Nouakchott Hospital, 24 surgical operation of human hydatid cysts have been per­formed, out of which 50% were localised in the lung, 33% in the liver and 17% elsewhere. Then, the incidence rate would be of 1.2% per 100 000 inhabitants in Mauritania. In the dog, the prevalence rate is 14%. The average number of E. granulosus on the whole dogs is 172 and 1227 on the positive dogs. Concerning the livestock, hydatid cysts found in 30.1% of the dromedary, 5.5% of the cattle and 6.5 of the sheep. The fertility rate of hydatid cysts in humans (75% and camels (76% was significantly higher than that of sheep (24% and cattle (23% (P<0.0001. Hydatid infestation is characterized globally by the dominance of pulmonary localiza­tions in hu­mans (50% and camels (72.7% and in the liver in sheep (76.1% and cattle (82.3%.Conclusion: The differences between prevalence rates, the fertility of hydatid cysts and diversity sites localization observed in humans and camels of one hand and the sheep and cattle on the other hand, depends possibly the strain(s diversity of E. granulosus.

  14. Mechanistic and Technical Challenges in Studying the Human Microbiome and Cancer Epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Mukesh

    2017-04-01

    This article reviews the significance of the microbiome in cancer epidemiology, mechanistic and technical challenges in the field, and characterization of the microbiome in different tumor types to identify biomarkers of risk, progression, and prognosis. Publications on the microbiome and cancer epidemiology were reviewed to analyze sample collection and processing, microbiome taxa characterization by 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing, and microbiome metabolite characterization (metabotyping) by nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry. The analysis identified methodology types, research design, sample types, and issues in integrating data from different platforms. Aerodigestive cancer epidemiology studies conducted by different groups demonstrated the significance of microbiome information in developing approaches to improve health. Challenges exist in sample preparation and processing (eg, standardization of methods for collection and analysis). These challenges relate to technology, data integration from "omics" studies, inherent bias in primer selection during 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing, the need for large consortia with well-characterized biospecimens, cause and effect issues, resilience of microbiota to exposure events (requires longitudinal studies), and expanding studies for fungal and viral diversity (most studies used bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing for microbiota characterization). Despite these challenges, microbiome and cancer epidemiology studies are significant and may facilitate cancer risk assessment, diagnosis, and prognosis. In the future, clinical trials likely will use microbiota modifications to improve the efficacy of existing treatments.

  15. Application of the CALUX bioassay for epidemiological study. Analyses of Belgian human plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wouwe, N. van; Debacker, N.; Sasse, A. [Scientific Institute of Public Health, Brussels (BE)] (and others)

    2004-09-15

    The CALUX bioassay is a promising screening method for the detection of dioxin-like compounds. The observed good sensitivity, low number of false negative results as well as the good correlations with the GC-HRMS TEQ-values in case of feed and food analyses allow this method to climb in the first assessment methods' scale. The low amount of sample needed in addition to those latest advantages suggest that the CALUX bioassay could be a good screening method for epidemiological studies. The Belgian epidemiological study concerning the possible effect of the dioxin incident on the body burden of the Belgian population was an opportunity to test this method in comparison to the gold reference one: the GC-HRMS. The first part of this abstract presents epidemiological parameters (sensibility, specificity,) of the CALUX bioassay using CALUX TEQ-values as estimators of the TEQ-values of the 17 PCDD/Fs. The second part examines epidemiological determinants observed for CALUX and GCHRMS TEQ-values.

  16. The estimation of 3D SAR distributions in the human head from mobile phone compliance testing data for epidemiological studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wake, Kanako; Varsier, Nadège; Watanabe, Soichi; Taki, Masao; Wiart, Joe; Mann, Simon; Deltour, Isabelle; Cardis, Elisabeth

    2009-10-01

    A worldwide epidemiological study called 'INTERPHONE' has been conducted to estimate the hypothetical relationship between brain tumors and mobile phone use. In this study, we proposed a method to estimate 3D distribution of the specific absorption rate (SAR) in the human head due to mobile phone use to provide the exposure gradient for epidemiological studies. 3D SAR distributions due to exposure to an electromagnetic field from mobile phones are estimated from mobile phone compliance testing data for actual devices. The data for compliance testing are measured only on the surface in the region near the device and in a small 3D region around the maximum on the surface in a homogeneous phantom with a specific shape. The method includes an interpolation/extrapolation and a head shape conversion. With the interpolation/extrapolation, SAR distributions in the whole head are estimated from the limited measured data. 3D SAR distributions in the numerical head models, where the tumor location is identified in the epidemiological studies, are obtained from measured SAR data with the head shape conversion by projection. Validation of the proposed method was performed experimentally and numerically. It was confirmed that the proposed method provided good estimation of 3D SAR distribution in the head, especially in the brain, which is the tissue of major interest in epidemiological studies. We conclude that it is possible to estimate 3D SAR distributions in a realistic head model from the data obtained by compliance testing measurements to provide a measure for the exposure gradient in specific locations of the brain for the purpose of exposure assessment in epidemiological studies. The proposed method has been used in several studies in the INTERPHONE.

  17. The estimation of 3D SAR distributions in the human head from mobile phone compliance testing data for epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wake, Kanako; Varsier, Nadège; Watanabe, Soichi; Taki, Masao; Wiart, Joe; Mann, Simon; Deltour, Isabelle; Cardis, Elisabeth

    2009-10-07

    A worldwide epidemiological study called 'INTERPHONE' has been conducted to estimate the hypothetical relationship between brain tumors and mobile phone use. In this study, we proposed a method to estimate 3D distribution of the specific absorption rate (SAR) in the human head due to mobile phone use to provide the exposure gradient for epidemiological studies. 3D SAR distributions due to exposure to an electromagnetic field from mobile phones are estimated from mobile phone compliance testing data for actual devices. The data for compliance testing are measured only on the surface in the region near the device and in a small 3D region around the maximum on the surface in a homogeneous phantom with a specific shape. The method includes an interpolation/extrapolation and a head shape conversion. With the interpolation/extrapolation, SAR distributions in the whole head are estimated from the limited measured data. 3D SAR distributions in the numerical head models, where the tumor location is identified in the epidemiological studies, are obtained from measured SAR data with the head shape conversion by projection. Validation of the proposed method was performed experimentally and numerically. It was confirmed that the proposed method provided good estimation of 3D SAR distribution in the head, especially in the brain, which is the tissue of major interest in epidemiological studies. We conclude that it is possible to estimate 3D SAR distributions in a realistic head model from the data obtained by compliance testing measurements to provide a measure for the exposure gradient in specific locations of the brain for the purpose of exposure assessment in epidemiological studies. The proposed method has been used in several studies in the INTERPHONE.

  18. Epidemiology of fascioliasis in human endemic areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas-Coma, S

    2005-09-01

    Considered a secondary zoonotic disease until the mid-1990s, human fascioliasis is at present emerging or re-emerging in many countries, including increases of prevalence and intensity and geographical expansion. Research in recent years has justified the inclusion of fascioliasis in the list of important human parasitic diseases. At present, fascioliasis is a vector-borne disease presenting the widest known latitudinal, longitudinal and altitudinal distribution. Fasciola hepatica has succeeded in expanding from its European original geographical area to colonize five continents, despite theoretical restrictions related to its biology and in turn dependent upon environmental and human activities. Among the different epidemiological situations, human hypo- to hyperendemic areas, including epidemics, are noteworthy. A global analysis of the distribution of human cases shows that the expected correlation between animal and human fascioliasis only appears at a basic level. Areas presenting very high human prevalences and intensities, especially in children and females, have been recently described. In hypo- to hyperendemic areas of Central and South America, Europe, Africa and Asia, human fascioliasis presents a range of epidemiological characteristics related to a wide diversity of environments. Thus far well-known epidemiological patterns of fascioliasis may not always explain the transmission characteristics in any given area and control measures should consider the results of ecoepidemiological studies undertaken in the zones concerned.

  19. Epidemiological studies on syncope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruwald, Martin Huth

    2013-01-01

    of the patients play an essential role. In epidemiology these factors have major impact on the outcome of the patients. Until recently, even the definition of syncope differed from one study to another which has made literature reviews difficult. Traditionally the data on epidemiology of syncope has been taken...... from smaller studies from different clinical settings with wide differences in patient morbidity. Through the extensive Danish registries we examined the characteristics and prognosis of the patients hospitalized due to syncope in a nationwide study. The aims of the present thesis were to investigate......, prevalence and cardiovascular factors associated with the risk of syncope, 4) the prognosis in healthy individuals discharged after syncope, and 5) the prognosis of patients after syncope and evaluation of the CHADS2 score as a tool for short- and long-term risk prediction. The first studies of the present...

  20. Expressed prostate secretions in the study of human papillomavirus epidemiology in the male.

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    Vitaly Smelov

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Exploring different sampling sites and methods is of interest for studies of the epidemiology of HPV infections in the male. Expressed prostate secretions (EPS are obtained during digital rectal examination (DRE, a daily routine urological diagnostic procedure, following massage of the prostate. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Urethral swabs and EPS samples were obtained from a consecutive sample of 752 men (mean age 32.4 years; median life-time sex partners 34 visiting urology outpatient clinics in St. Petersburg, Russia and tested for HPV DNA by general primer PCR, followed by genotyping using Luminex. RESULTS: Overall, 47.9% (360/752 of men were HPV-positive, with 42.0% (316/752 being positive for high-risk (HR- HPV and 12.6% (95/752 for multiple HPV types. HPV-positivity in the EPS samples was 32.6% (27.7% HR-HPV and in the urethral samples 25.9% (24.5% HR-HPV. 10.6% were HPV positive in both EPS and urethral samples. 6.4% had the same HPV-type in both EPS and urethral samples. 10.6% were HPV positive in both EPS and urethral samples. 6.4% had the same HPV-type in both EPS and urethral samples. The concordance between the urethral samples and EPS was 62.5% (470/752, with 80 cases double positive and 390 cases double negative in both sites. The sensitivity of urethral samples for overall HPV detection was 54.2% (195/360. Compared to analysis of urethral samples only, the analysis of EPS increased the HPV prevalence in this population with 26.2%. CONCLUSION: EPS represent informative sampling material for the study of HPV epidemiology in the male.

  1. Is Boric Acid Toxic to Reproduction in Humans? Assessment of the Animal Reproductive Toxicity Data and Epidemiological Study Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duydu, Yalçın; Başaran, Nurşen; Ustündağ, Aylin; Aydın, Sevtap; Undeğer, Ulkü; Ataman, Osman Yavuz; Aydos, Kaan; Düker, Yalçın; Ickstadt, Katja; Waltrup, Brita Schulze; Golka, Klaus; Bolt, Hermann Maximilian

    2016-01-01

    Boric acid and sodium borates are classified as toxic to reproduction in the CLP Regulation under "Category 1B" with the hazard statement of "H360FD". This classification is based on the reprotoxic effects of boric acid and sodium borates in animal experiments at high doses. However, boron mediated reprotoxic effects have not been proven in epidemiological studies so far. The epidemiological study performed in Bandırma boric acid production plant is the most comprehensive published study in this field with 204 voluntarily participated male workers. Sperm quality parameters (sperm morphology, concentration and motility parameters), FSH, LH and testosterone levels were determined in all participated employees as the reproductive toxicity biomarkers of males. However, boron mediated unfavorable effects on reproduction in male workers have not been determined even in the workers under very high daily boron exposure (0.21 mg B/kg-bw/day) conditions. The NOAEL for rat reproductive toxicity is equivalent to a blood boron level of 2020 ng/g. This level is higher than the mean blood boron concentration (223.89 ± 69.49 ng/g) of the high exposure group workers in Bandırma boric acid production plant (Turkey) by a factor of 9. Accordingly, classifying boric acid and sodium borates under "Category 1B" as "presumed reproductive human toxicant in the CLP regulation seems scientifically not reasonable. The results of the epidemiological studies (including the study performed in China) support for a down-classification of boric acid from the category 1B, H360FD to category 2, H361d, (suspected of damaging the unborn child).

  2. Online genetic databases informing human genome epidemiology

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    Higgins Julian PT

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the advent of high throughput genotyping technology and the information available via projects such as the human genome sequencing and the HapMap project, more and more data relevant to the study of genetics and disease risk will be produced. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses of human genome epidemiology studies rely on the ability to identify relevant studies and to obtain suitable data from these studies. A first port of call for most such reviews is a search of MEDLINE. We examined whether this could be usefully supplemented by identifying databases on the World Wide Web that contain genetic epidemiological information. Methods We conducted a systematic search for online databases containing genetic epidemiological information on gene prevalence or gene-disease association. In those containing information on genetic association studies, we examined what additional information could be obtained to supplement a MEDLINE literature search. Results We identified 111 databases containing prevalence data, 67 databases specific to a single gene and only 13 that contained information on gene-disease associations. Most of the latter 13 databases were linked to MEDLINE, although five contained information that may not be available from other sources. Conclusion There is no single resource of structured data from genetic association studies covering multiple diseases, and in relation to the number of studies being conducted there is very little information specific to gene-disease association studies currently available on the World Wide Web. Until comprehensive data repositories are created and utilized regularly, new data will remain largely inaccessible to many systematic review authors and meta-analysts.

  3. A clinico-epidemiological study of ulcerative sexually transmitted diseases with human immunodeficiency virus status.

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    Mehta, Bhavesh

    2014-01-01

    Genital ulcerative diseases are a major public health problem. The advert of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS over the past 25 years has deepened the scope of morbidity, mortality, and various forms of clinical presentations of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). A total of 50 cases having Genital ulcerative diseases and STD reporting to STD clinic during the period of the year from November 2005 to December 2006 were included and detailed history and clinical examination were carried out and provisional diagnosis is made. Laboratory confirmation of clinically diagnosed cases was done using laboratory tests such as S. HIV, venereal disease research laboratory, Tzanck smear, gram stain, and Giemsa stain. In the present study, the incidence of herpes progenitalis was (38%) followed by primary syphilis (32%), chancroid (26%), lymphogranuloma venereum (02%), and genital scabies (02%). HIV sero-positivity was detected in 12% (n = 6) cases. HIV was found to be more common among genital ulcer disease patients, especially syphilis and genital herpes.

  4. Serologic evidence of human leptospirosis in and around Kolkata, India:A clinico-epidemiological study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manisha DebMandal; Shyamapada Mandal; Nishith Kumar Pal

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the prevalence of leptospirosis among patients from within and outside Kolkata, India, attending the Calcutta School of Tropical Medicine, for treatment during August 2002 to August2008.Methods: The leptospirosis cases were determined on the basis of clinical, epidemiological, and biochemical factors, and were tested for leptospiral antibodies using IgM ELISA. Serum samples with absorbance ratio ≥1.21were interpreted as reactive.Results: The commonest presentation involved fever, headache and jaundice. The male-female ratio was 61:46. A total of65(64.20%) cases had abnormal liver and renal functions respectively, and57.1% had both the abnormalities. The highest incidence(75, 35.04%) was recorded in September-October followed by July-August(53, 24.77%). The reactive cases had absorbance ratios between 1.21 and8.21, and53 showed equivocal result, while IgM non reactivity were seen in 90 patients (absorbance ratios 0.10-0.90). The patients responded to treatment with parenteral antibiotics, penicillin, ceftriaxone and cefotaxime; follow up did not reveal case fatality.Conclusions:The cardinal signs of leptospirosis help in making clinical diagnosis, but in any hyper-endemic situation any patient reporting with acute fever and signs of pulmonary, hepatic or renal involvement should be suspected to have leptospirosis and investigated accordingly. Increased awareness, and early diagnosis and treatment, can reduce mortality due to leptospirosis.

  5. Epidemiological studies on Trichinellosis among swine, wild boars and humans in Poland

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    Ramisz A.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of the digestion method (the magnetic stirrer type] resulted directly in the reduction of Trichinella sp. infection among people in Poland.Pork and its products are still the main cause of human trichinellosis in Poland. However, epidemics caused by eating wild boar meat suggested that this way of the transmission of Trichinella sp. larvae to humans might be of considerable importance.

  6. Self-organized criticality in human epidemiology

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    Stollenwerk, Nico

    2005-07-01

    As opposed to most sociological fields, data are available in good quality for human epidemiology, describing the interaction between individuals being susceptible to or infected by a disease. Mathematically, the modelling of such systems is done on the level of stochastic master equations, giving likelihood functions for real live data. We show in a case study of meningococcal disease, that the observed large fluctuations of outbreaks of disease among the human population can be explained by the theory of accidental pathogens, leading the system towards a critical state, characterized by power laws in outbreak distributions. In order to make the extremely difficult parameter estimation close to a critical state with absorbing boundary possible, we investigate new algorithms for simulation of the disease dynamics on the basis of winner takes all strategies, and combine them with previously developed parameter estimation schemes.

  7. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF HUMAN RODENTICIDES POISONING IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maíra Costa Ferreira

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to analyze the epidemiological profile of human poisoning by rodenticides in Brazil and Regions, in the period 2000 to 2008. This is a descriptive epidemiological study based on secondary data from the National System of Toxic- harmacological Information. Calculations were performed in the incidence rate and fatality rate. The North and Northeast regions had the highest mortality rates for the period. Children from 1 to 4 years had high incidence in all regions except in Northeast, where teenagers were most affected. The rodenticide poisoning was more incident in urban areas and among females, and had attempt suicide as predominant circumstance. Although most cases have evolved for healing, there was almost 40% unconfirmed healing in the South region and 57% of ignored evolution in Southeast. Deaths caused by ingestion of rodenticides were below 5%. The rodenticide poisoning has remained in Brazil with a major public health problem and, despite the differences in the country, the poisoning profile did not change significantly between different regions.

  8. Molecular Epidemiological Study on Prevalence of Human Papillomaviruses in Patients with Common Warts in Beijing Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN-JUN LEI; RUN AN; CHEN-FANG DONG; YU-KANG YUAN; XIAO-PING DONG; CHEN GAO; CHEN WANG; JUN HAN; JIAN-MING CHEN; GUANG-CAI XIANG; QI SHI; HuI-YING JIANG; WEI ZHOU

    2009-01-01

    Objective To study the circulation, distribution, and genomic diversity of HPVs in common warts in Beijing area of China. Methods Forty eight patients with pathologically diagnosed common warts were screened for the presence of HPV with HPV type-specific PCR and direct .sequencing analysis. The genomic diversity of HPVs prevalent in Chinese patients was analyzed based on LCR. Results Forty one (85.5%) samples were positive for HPV DNA, 13(31.7%)-HPV-57, 12(29.3%)-HPV-1 a, 7(17%)-HPV-27 and 5(12.2%)-HPV-2a. Four cases were infected with two different HPV types, two (4.9%) with HPV-1a and HPV-27, one (2.4%) with HPV-1 and HPV-57 and one (2.4%) with HPV-27 and HPV-57. In contrast to the prevalence of single strain of novel HPV-57 variant and HPV-1 prototype, two HPV-2 and three HPV-27 novel variants were found to circulate in Beijing. Conclusion HPV-1, -2, -27 and -57 are predominantly prevalent in patients with common warts in Beijing.

  9. HuGE Watch: tracking trends and patterns of published studies of genetic association and human genome epidemiology in near-real time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wei; Wulf, Anja; Yesupriya, Ajay; Clyne, Melinda; Khoury, Muin Joseph; Gwinn, Marta

    2008-09-01

    HuGE Watch is a web-based application for tracking the evolution of published studies on genetic association and human genome epidemiology in near-real time. The application allows users to display temporal trends and spatial distributions as line charts and google maps, providing a quick overview of progress in the field. http://www.hugenavigator.net/HuGENavigator/startPageWatch.do

  10. The Sero-epidemiology of Coxiella burnetii in Humans and Cattle, Western Kenya: Evidence from a Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola A Wardrop

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Evidence suggests that the intracellular bacterial pathogen Coxiella burnetii (which causes Q fever is widespread, with a near global distribution. While there has been increasing attention to Q fever epidemiology in high-income settings, a recent systematic review highlighted significant gaps in our understanding of the prevalence, spatial distribution and risk factors for Q fever infection across Africa. This research aimed to provide a One Health assessment of Q fever epidemiology in parts of Western and Nyanza Provinces, Western Kenya, in cattle and humans. A cross-sectional survey was conducted: serum samples from 2049 humans and 955 cattle in 416 homesteads were analysed for C. burnetii antibodies. Questionnaires covering demographic, socio-economic and husbandry information were also administered. These data were linked to environmental datasets based on geographical locations (e.g., land cover. Correlation and spatial-cross correlation analyses were applied to assess the potential link between cattle and human seroprevalence. Multilevel regression analysis was used to assess the relationships between a range of socio-economic, demographic and environmental factors and sero-positivity in both humans and animals. The overall sero-prevalence of C. burnetii was 2.5% in humans and 10.5% in cattle, but we found no evidence of correlation between cattle and human seroprevalence either within households, or when incorporating spatial proximity to other households in the survey. Multilevel modelling indicated the importance of several factors for exposure to the organism. Cattle obtained from market (as opposed to those bred in their homestead and those residing in areas with lower precipitation levels had the highest sero-prevalence. For humans, the youngest age group had the highest odds of seropositivity, variations were observed between ethnic groups, and frequent livestock contact (specifically grazing and dealing with abortion material was

  11. The Sero-epidemiology of Coxiella burnetii in Humans and Cattle, Western Kenya: Evidence from a Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardrop, Nicola A; Thomas, Lian F; Cook, Elizabeth A J; de Glanville, William A; Atkinson, Peter M; Wamae, Claire N; Fèvre, Eric M

    2016-10-01

    Evidence suggests that the intracellular bacterial pathogen Coxiella burnetii (which causes Q fever) is widespread, with a near global distribution. While there has been increasing attention to Q fever epidemiology in high-income settings, a recent systematic review highlighted significant gaps in our understanding of the prevalence, spatial distribution and risk factors for Q fever infection across Africa. This research aimed to provide a One Health assessment of Q fever epidemiology in parts of Western and Nyanza Provinces, Western Kenya, in cattle and humans. A cross-sectional survey was conducted: serum samples from 2049 humans and 955 cattle in 416 homesteads were analysed for C. burnetii antibodies. Questionnaires covering demographic, socio-economic and husbandry information were also administered. These data were linked to environmental datasets based on geographical locations (e.g., land cover). Correlation and spatial-cross correlation analyses were applied to assess the potential link between cattle and human seroprevalence. Multilevel regression analysis was used to assess the relationships between a range of socio-economic, demographic and environmental factors and sero-positivity in both humans and animals. The overall sero-prevalence of C. burnetii was 2.5% in humans and 10.5% in cattle, but we found no evidence of correlation between cattle and human seroprevalence either within households, or when incorporating spatial proximity to other households in the survey. Multilevel modelling indicated the importance of several factors for exposure to the organism. Cattle obtained from market (as opposed to those bred in their homestead) and those residing in areas with lower precipitation levels had the highest sero-prevalence. For humans, the youngest age group had the highest odds of seropositivity, variations were observed between ethnic groups, and frequent livestock contact (specifically grazing and dealing with abortion material) was also a risk

  12. The Sero-epidemiology of Coxiella burnetii in Humans and Cattle, Western Kenya: Evidence from a Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Lian F.; Cook, Elizabeth A. J.; de Glanville, William A.; Atkinson, Peter M.; Wamae, Claire N.; Fèvre, Eric M.

    2016-01-01

    Evidence suggests that the intracellular bacterial pathogen Coxiella burnetii (which causes Q fever) is widespread, with a near global distribution. While there has been increasing attention to Q fever epidemiology in high-income settings, a recent systematic review highlighted significant gaps in our understanding of the prevalence, spatial distribution and risk factors for Q fever infection across Africa. This research aimed to provide a One Health assessment of Q fever epidemiology in parts of Western and Nyanza Provinces, Western Kenya, in cattle and humans. A cross-sectional survey was conducted: serum samples from 2049 humans and 955 cattle in 416 homesteads were analysed for C. burnetii antibodies. Questionnaires covering demographic, socio-economic and husbandry information were also administered. These data were linked to environmental datasets based on geographical locations (e.g., land cover). Correlation and spatial-cross correlation analyses were applied to assess the potential link between cattle and human seroprevalence. Multilevel regression analysis was used to assess the relationships between a range of socio-economic, demographic and environmental factors and sero-positivity in both humans and animals. The overall sero-prevalence of C. burnetii was 2.5% in humans and 10.5% in cattle, but we found no evidence of correlation between cattle and human seroprevalence either within households, or when incorporating spatial proximity to other households in the survey. Multilevel modelling indicated the importance of several factors for exposure to the organism. Cattle obtained from market (as opposed to those bred in their homestead) and those residing in areas with lower precipitation levels had the highest sero-prevalence. For humans, the youngest age group had the highest odds of seropositivity, variations were observed between ethnic groups, and frequent livestock contact (specifically grazing and dealing with abortion material) was also a risk

  13. [Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of infants admitted to hospital due to human parechovirus infections: A prospective study in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Del Valle, Fernando; Calvo, Cristina; Martinez-Rienda, Inés; Cilla, Amaia; Romero, María P; Menasalvas, Ana Isabel; Reis-Iglesias, Leticia; Roda, Diana; Pena, María J; Rabella, Nuria; Portugués de la Red, María Del Mar; Megías, Gregoria; Moreno-Docón, Antonio; Otero, Almudena; Cabrerizo, María

    2017-03-29

    Human parechovirus (HPeV) is one of the recently described picornaviridae viruses that have been associated with fever of unknown origin (FUO), clinical sepsis, gastroenteritis, meningitis, or encephalitis in very young infants. The aim of this study is to describe the epidemiology and clinical features of these viruses. A prospective multicentre 3-year study was conducted in 12 hospitals in Spain. Out of 850 specimens examined, 47 were positive (5.52%), with HPeV-3 being the most frequent (29 cases). Infections occurred throughout the year, but mainly in May and July, and a biennial distribution was observed. More than half (57%) were neonates, and only 2 children were older than 3 months. Fever was present in all children, with irritability in 45%, rash in 18.6%, and diarrhoea in 14%. The results of biochemical tests were all in normal range. The most common final diagnosis was FUO (61%), followed by clinical sepsis (29%). Up to 29% of infants were admitted to the intensive care unit, but only one patient had sequelae. Out of 850 specimens examined, 47 were positive (5.52%) for HPeV, with HPeV-3 being the most frequent (29 cases). Infections occurred throughout the year, but mainly in May and July, and a biennial distribution was observed. More than half (57%) were neonates, and only 2 children were older than 3 months. Fever was present in all children, with irritability in 45%, rash in 18.6%, and diarrhoea in 14%. The results of biochemical tests were all in normal range. The most common final diagnosis was FUO (61%), followed by clinical sepsis (29%). Up to 29% of infants were admitted to the intensive care unit, but only one patient had sequelae CONCLUSIONS: HPeV circulates in our country, mainly during spring and summer, and affects young infants with a FUO and clinical sepsis. Molecular diagnostic techniques in all hospitals could help in improving the management of patients with these infections. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  14. Quality assurance for accuracy of anthropometric measurements in clinical and epidemiological studies [Errare humanum est = to err is human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prem K Mony

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthropometry involves the external measurement of morphologic traits of human beings. High quality anthropometric measurements are fundamental to clinical and epidemiological research. The measurements for each method have inherent variations, either due to biologic variation or due to error in measurement. Errors in measurement cannot be avoided completely but they can be minimized to a large extent. We define methods to estimate measurement error in anthropometry, offer guidelines for acceptable error, and suggest ways to minimize measurement error; thereby improving anthropometry quality in health assessments. We propose that special attention be paid to the following six key parameters for quality assurance of anthropometric measurements: (i Identification of certified lead anthropometrist and trainer, (ii manual of standard operating procedures, (iii choice of robust equipment, (iv equipment calibration, (v standardization training and certification, and (vi measurements resampling.

  15. Quality Assurance for Accuracy of Anthropometric Measurements in Clinical and Epidemiological Studies: [Errare humanum est = to err is human].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mony, Prem K; Swaminathan, Sumathi; Gajendran, Jayachitra K; Vaz, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Anthropometry involves the external measurement of morphologic traits of human beings. High quality anthropometric measurements are fundamental to clinical and epidemiological research. The measurements for each method have inherent variations, either due to biologic variation or due to error in measurement. Errors in measurement cannot be avoided completely but they can be minimized to a large extent. We define methods to estimate measurement error in anthropometry, offer guidelines for acceptable error, and suggest ways to minimize measurement error; thereby improving anthropometry quality in health assessments. We propose that special attention be paid to the following six key parameters for quality assurance of anthropometric measurements: (i) Identification of certified lead anthropometrist and trainer, (ii) manual of standard operating procedures, (iii) choice of robust equipment, (iv) equipment calibration, (v) standardization training and certification, and (vi) measurements resampling.

  16. A review of low-level air pollution and adverse effects on human health: implications for epidemiological studies and public policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmo, Neide Regina Simões; do Nascimento Saldiva, Paulo Hilário; Braga, Alfésio Luís Ferreira; Lin, Chin An; de Paula Santos, Ubiratan; Pereira, Luiz Alberto Amador

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to review original scientific articles describing the relationship between atmospheric pollution and damage to human health. We also aimed to determine which of these studies mentioned public policy issues. Original articles relating to atmospheric pollution and human health published between 1995 and 2009 were retrieved from the PubMed database and analyzed. This study included only articles dealing with atmospheric pollutants resulting primarily from vehicle emissions. Three researchers were involved in the final selection of the studies, and the chosen articles were approved by at least two of the three researchers. Of the 84 non-Brazilian studies analyzed, 80 showed an association between atmospheric pollution and adverse effects on human health. Moreover, 66 showed evidence of adverse effects on human health, even at levels below the permitted emission standards. Three studies mentioned public policies aimed at changing emission standards. Similarly, the 29 selected Brazilian studies reported adverse associations with human health, and 27 showed evidence of adverse effects even at levels below the legally permitted emission standards. Of these studies, 16 mentioned public policies aimed at changing emission standards. Based on the Brazilian and non-Brazilian scientific studies that have been conducted, it can be concluded that, even under conditions that are compliant with Brazilian air quality standards, the concentration of atmospheric pollutants in Brazil can negatively affect human health. However, as little discussion of this topic has been generated, this finding demonstrates the need to incorporate epidemiological evidence into decisions regarding legal regulations and to discuss the public policy implications in epidemiological studies. PMID:21655765

  17. A review of low-level air pollution and adverse effects on human health: implications for epidemiological studies and public policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neide Regina Simoes Olmo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to review original scientific articles describing the relationship between atmospheric pollution and damage to human health. We also aimed to determine which of these studies mentioned public policy issues. Original articles relating to atmospheric pollution and human health published between 1995 and 2009 were retrieved from the PubMed database and analyzed. This study included only articles dealing with atmospheric pollutants resulting primarily from vehicle emissions. Three researchers were involved in the final selection of the studies, and the chosen articles were approved by at least two of the three researchers. Of the 84 non-Brazilian studies analyzed, 80 showed an association between atmospheric pollution and adverse effects on human health. Moreover, 66 showed evidence of adverse effects on human health, even at levels below the permitted emission standards. Three studies mentioned public policies aimed at changing emission standards. Similarly, the 29 selected Brazilian studies reported adverse associations with human health, and 27 showed evidence of adverse effects even at levels below the legally permitted emission standards. Of these studies, 16 mentioned public policies aimed at changing emission standards. Based on the Brazilian and non-Brazilian scientific studies that have been conducted, it can be concluded that, even under conditions that are compliant with Brazilian air quality standards, the concentration of atmospheric pollutants in Brazil can negatively affect human health. However, as little discussion of this topic has been generated, this finding demonstrates the need to incorporate epidemiological evidence into decisions regarding legal regulations and to discuss the public policy implications in epidemiological studies.

  18. TOXOPLASMOSIS IN MEXICO: EPIDEMIOLOGICAL SITUATION IN HUMANS AND ANIMALS

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic disease widely distributed throughout the world, infecting a wide variety of animal species including humans. In Mexico, this parasite has been detected in different parts of the country, particularly in the tropical areas where the parasite can remain infective for long periods of time due to the environmental conditions (i.e. high temperature and humidity over the whole year). Several epidemiological studies have been conducted in both human and animal populatio...

  19. A human judgment approach to epidemiological forecasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrow, David C; Brooks, Logan C; Hyun, Sangwon; Tibshirani, Ryan J; Burke, Donald S; Rosenfeld, Roni

    2017-03-01

    Infectious diseases impose considerable burden on society, despite significant advances in technology and medicine over the past century. Advanced warning can be helpful in mitigating and preparing for an impending or ongoing epidemic. Historically, such a capability has lagged for many reasons, including in particular the uncertainty in the current state of the system and in the understanding of the processes that drive epidemic trajectories. Presently we have access to data, models, and computational resources that enable the development of epidemiological forecasting systems. Indeed, several recent challenges hosted by the U.S. government have fostered an open and collaborative environment for the development of these technologies. The primary focus of these challenges has been to develop statistical and computational methods for epidemiological forecasting, but here we consider a serious alternative based on collective human judgment. We created the web-based "Epicast" forecasting system which collects and aggregates epidemic predictions made in real-time by human participants, and with these forecasts we ask two questions: how accurate is human judgment, and how do these forecasts compare to their more computational, data-driven alternatives? To address the former, we assess by a variety of metrics how accurately humans are able to predict influenza and chikungunya trajectories. As for the latter, we show that real-time, combined human predictions of the 2014-2015 and 2015-2016 U.S. flu seasons are often more accurate than the same predictions made by several statistical systems, especially for short-term targets. We conclude that there is valuable predictive power in collective human judgment, and we discuss the benefits and drawbacks of this approach.

  20. Human trichinellosis in children from Timis County, Romania: epidemiological features from a retrospective study conducted between 1990 and 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Iacobiciu

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Trichinellosis, a parasitic zoonosis caused by the ingestion of inadequately cooked pork containing Trichinella larvae, has been a serious health problem in Timis, the largest of the Romanian counties. The authors conducted a survey on trichinellosis in children from Timis County, emphasising epidemiological aspects. Medical records from 106 children who were hospitalised at the Victor Babes Infectious Diseases Hospital in Timisoara from 1990 to 2006 were investigated. Children affected by trichinellosis were predominantly in the 10- to 14-year-old age group (34.9%. Most patients (59.43% were inhabitants of urban areas and 59.43% of cases were males. Winter was the season when the number of cases peaked (76.42%. The highest prevalence of disease (18.87% was recorded in 1994. For 38.68% of the patients, eosinophilia ranged between 10% and 20%. The length of hospitalisation ranged from 8 to 14 days in 50.94% of cases. In recent years, human trichinellosis has decreased in Timis County as a result of an improvement in the implementation of hygiene measures. The highest prevalence of the disease recorded in 1994 can be explained by an economic transition period when national pig farms began to close. Winter was the season with the highest prevalence because people eat a lot of pork during the traditional holidays.

  1. A Comparative Study of the Epidemiology of Human Leptospirosis in Korea and Japan between 2006 and 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myeong-Jin; Miki, Shinichiro; Kitagawa, Masahiro; Lee, Won-Chang

    2016-05-20

    We undertook a comparative analysis of the epidemiology of reported human leptospirosis (HL) cases in Korea and Japan. Between 2006 and 2012, the cumulative incidence of HL in Korea was higher than that in Japan (1.26 vs. 0.14 per 100,000 population, respectively), and the total reported cases were 632 and 196, respectively. Significantly more men were infected than women in both Korea (63.0% men, P Japan (87.8% men, P Japan). However, Japan exhibited a significantly higher proportion of male cases, a younger age distribution, and less prominent seasonality. A significant difference was observed in the incidence of HL between the capital city and rural areas in Korea, but not in Japan. The differences in agricultural and forestry practices, and the efficacy or wastewater treatment infrastructure might influence the incidence level in rural areas in both countries. The differences between the 2 countries might be because of their unique geographical characteristics and variations in their levels of industrialization.

  2. Mathematical models of human african trypanosomiasis epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Kat S; Stone, Chris M; Hastings, Ian M; Keeling, Matt J; Torr, Steve J; Chitnis, Nakul

    2015-03-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), commonly called sleeping sickness, is caused by Trypanosoma spp. and transmitted by tsetse flies (Glossina spp.). HAT is usually fatal if untreated and transmission occurs in foci across sub-Saharan Africa. Mathematical modelling of HAT began in the 1980s with extensions of the Ross-Macdonald malaria model and has since consisted, with a few exceptions, of similar deterministic compartmental models. These models have captured the main features of HAT epidemiology and provided insight on the effectiveness of the two main control interventions (treatment of humans and tsetse fly control) in eliminating transmission. However, most existing models have overestimated prevalence of infection and ignored transient dynamics. There is a need for properly validated models, evolving with improved data collection, that can provide quantitative predictions to help guide control and elimination strategies for HAT.

  3. [Social inequality and epidemiological studies: a reflection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Maria Angela Fernandes; Latorre, Maria do Rosário Dias de Oliveira

    2012-09-01

    Social indicators are now indispensable in the list of variables of epidemiological studies, based on the fact that the determination of health complaints is complex and multidimensional. From this perspective, social inequality has gained prominence as an explanatory factor for the health conditions of populations. The scope of this article is to discuss the different concepts that underpin the selection of the indicators used in epidemiological studies and examine the psychosocial effects on human beings caused by social inequality. A literature review of epidemiological studies that used social inequality and social capital indicators was conducted for a better understanding of health problems, as well as an investigation in the fields of sociology and social psychology. The research revealed that there is some controversy surrounding the effect of social inequality on health, possibly because these indicators are predominantly based on income and individual consumption capacity. Likewise, social capital indicators at cognitive and structural levels are too limited to understand the dynamism of social relations. Accordingly, further studies are needed for the construction of social indicators capable of examining the complexity of modern societies.

  4. Climate change, human health, and epidemiological transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Bruce; Charles, Joel W; Temte, Jonathan L

    2015-01-01

    The health of populations depends on the availability of clean air, water, food, and sanitation, exposure to pathogens, toxins and environmental hazards, and numerous genetic, behavioral and social factors. For many thousands of years, human life expectancy was low, and population growth was slow. The development of technology-based civilizations facilitated what Abdel Omran called "epidemiological transition," with increasing life expectancy and rapid population growth. To a large extent, the spectacular growth of human populations during the past two centuries was made possible by the energy extracted from fossil fuels. We have now learned, however, that greenhouse gases from fossil fuel combustion are warming the planet's surface, causing changes in oceanic and atmospheric systems, and disrupting weather and hydrological patterns. Climate change poses unprecedented threats to human health by impacts on food and water security, heat waves and droughts, violent storms, infectious disease, and rising sea levels. Whether or not humanity can reduce greenhouse gas emissions quickly enough to slow climate change to a rate that will allow societies to successfully adapt is not yet known. This essay reviews the current state of relevant knowledge, and points in a few directions that those interested in human health may wish to consider. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Epidemiology and diagnostics of human fasciolosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dakić Zorica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fasciolosis is a zoonotic infection caused by the trematoda Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica. Human fasciolosis is endemic in some parts of South America, Africa, Eastern Asia and Europe. High prevalence of human fasciolosis does not necessarily occur in areas where fasciolosis is a major veterinary problem. Infection with Fasciola hepatica has not been reported in humans in Serbia and former Yugoslavia, although a large variety of animals, such as sheep and cattle show infection rates that may reach significant proportions in some areas. Humans can become accidental hosts of this parasite by ingesting contaminated drinking water or plants in an endemic area. Infection with Fasciola hepatica has a variable clinical presentation depending on the stage of the disease. Typical symptoms that may be associated with fascioliasis can be divided by the phases of the disease including the acute or liver phase, the chronic or biliary phase, the obstructive phase, and ectopic or pharyngeal fascioliasis. The diagnosis of human fasciolosis may be problematical and delayed, especially in non-endemic areas, because physicians rarely encounter this disease and a long list of other diseases must be included in the differential diagnosis. The diagnosis of fasciolosis is complex and requires the application of direct an indirect methods of diagnostics: clinical diagnosis, haematological and biochemical findings, parasitological diagnosis, immuno-diagnosis, imaging procedures, liver biopsy. At the Clinic for Infectious and Tropical Diseases in 2005, we recorded the first case of human fasciolosis in a woman from Belgrade, a citizen of Serbia, who developed clinical symptoms of acute fasciolosis after several months of living in Bosnia-Herzegovina. This article reviews the epidemiology and diagnostics of human fasciolosis. .

  6. Molecular epidemiology of human intestinal amoebas in iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooshyar, H; Rostamkhani, P; Rezaian, M

    2012-01-01

    Many microscopic-based epidemiological surveys on the prevalence of human intestinal pathogenic and non-pathogenic protozoa including intestinal amoeba performed in Iran show a high prevalence of human intestinal amoeba in different parts of Iran. Such epidemiological studies on amoebiasis are confusing, mainly due to recently appreciated distinction between the Entamoeba histolytica, E. dispar and E. moshkovskii. Differential diagnosis can be done by some methods such as PCR-based methods, monoclonal antibodies and the analysis of isoenzyme typing, however the molecular study of these protozoa in Iran is low. Based on molecular studies, it seems that E. dispar is predominant species especially in the central and northern areas of Iran and amoebiasis due to E. histolytica is a rare infection in the country. It is suggested that infection with E. moshkovskii may be common among Iranians. Considering the importance of molecular epidemiology of amoeba in Iran and also the current data, the present study reviews the data currently available on the molecular distribution of intestinal human amoeba in Iran.

  7. Molecular Epidemiology of Human Intestinal Amoebas in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Rezaian

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Many microscopic-based epidemiological surveys on the prevalence of human intestinal pathogenic and non-pathogenic protozoa including intestinal amoeba performed in Iran show a high prevalence of human intestinal amoeba in different parts of Iran. Such epidemiological studies on amoebiasis are confusing, mainly due to recently appreciated distinction between the Entamoeba histolytica, E. dispar and E. moshkovskii. Differential diagnosis can be done by some methods such as PCR-based methods, monoclonal antibodies and the analysis of isoenzyme typing, however the molecular study of these protozoa in Iran is low. Based on molecular studies, it seems that E. dispar is predominant species especially in the central and northern areas of Iran and amoebiasis due to E. histolytica is a rare infection in the country. It is suggested that infection with E. moshkovskii may be common among Iranians. Considering the importance of molecular epidemiology of amoeba in Iran and also the current data, the present study reviews the data currently available on the molecular distribution of intestinal human amoeba in Iran.

  8. Epidemiological studies of oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pindborg, J J

    1977-06-01

    The FDI has shown considerable interest in the oral cancer and has in recent years arranged three symposia on the subject. The incidence of oral cancer shows marked geographic differences mostly depending upon environmental factors. In the present paper the epidemiology of oral cancer is illustrated by the relative frequency to total number of cancers and incidence rates from a number of countries. Canada has the highest rate of cancer of the vermilion border, which is extremely rare among dark-skinned people. Even within one country differences may be found, a fact which is illustrated by findings from Czechoslovakia and India. In most of the studies dealing with the etiology of oral cancer tobacco usage in its various forms is shown to be the outstanding factor.

  9. Partial Sleep Restriction Activates Immune Response-Related Gene Expression Pathways: Experimental and Epidemiological Studies in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantanen, Ville; Kronholm, Erkki; Surakka, Ida; van Leeuwen, Wessel M. A.; Lehto, Maili; Matikainen, Sampsa; Ripatti, Samuli; Härmä, Mikko; Sallinen, Mikael; Salomaa, Veikko; Jauhiainen, Matti; Alenius, Harri; Paunio, Tiina; Porkka-Heiskanen, Tarja

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that short or insufficient sleep is associated with increased risk for metabolic diseases and mortality. To elucidate mechanisms behind this connection, we aimed to identify genes and pathways affected by experimentally induced, partial sleep restriction and to verify their connection to insufficient sleep at population level. The experimental design simulated sleep restriction during a working week: sleep of healthy men (N = 9) was restricted to 4 h/night for five nights. The control subjects (N = 4) spent 8 h/night in bed. Leukocyte RNA expression was analyzed at baseline, after sleep restriction, and after recovery using whole genome microarrays complemented with pathway and transcription factor analysis. Expression levels of the ten most up-regulated and ten most down-regulated transcripts were correlated with subjective assessment of insufficient sleep in a population cohort (N = 472). Experimental sleep restriction altered the expression of 117 genes. Eight of the 25 most up-regulated transcripts were related to immune function. Accordingly, fifteen of the 25 most up-regulated Gene Ontology pathways were also related to immune function, including those for B cell activation, interleukin 8 production, and NF-κB signaling (P<0.005). Of the ten most up-regulated genes, expression of STX16 correlated negatively with self-reported insufficient sleep in a population sample, while three other genes showed tendency for positive correlation. Of the ten most down-regulated genes, TBX21 and LGR6 correlated negatively and TGFBR3 positively with insufficient sleep. Partial sleep restriction affects the regulation of signaling pathways related to the immune system. Some of these changes appear to be long-lasting and may at least partly explain how prolonged sleep restriction can contribute to inflammation-associated pathological states, such as cardiometabolic diseases. PMID:24194869

  10. Partial sleep restriction activates immune response-related gene expression pathways: experimental and epidemiological studies in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilma Aho

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have shown that short or insufficient sleep is associated with increased risk for metabolic diseases and mortality. To elucidate mechanisms behind this connection, we aimed to identify genes and pathways affected by experimentally induced, partial sleep restriction and to verify their connection to insufficient sleep at population level. The experimental design simulated sleep restriction during a working week: sleep of healthy men (N = 9 was restricted to 4 h/night for five nights. The control subjects (N = 4 spent 8 h/night in bed. Leukocyte RNA expression was analyzed at baseline, after sleep restriction, and after recovery using whole genome microarrays complemented with pathway and transcription factor analysis. Expression levels of the ten most up-regulated and ten most down-regulated transcripts were correlated with subjective assessment of insufficient sleep in a population cohort (N = 472. Experimental sleep restriction altered the expression of 117 genes. Eight of the 25 most up-regulated transcripts were related to immune function. Accordingly, fifteen of the 25 most up-regulated Gene Ontology pathways were also related to immune function, including those for B cell activation, interleukin 8 production, and NF-κB signaling (P<0.005. Of the ten most up-regulated genes, expression of STX16 correlated negatively with self-reported insufficient sleep in a population sample, while three other genes showed tendency for positive correlation. Of the ten most down-regulated genes, TBX21 and LGR6 correlated negatively and TGFBR3 positively with insufficient sleep. Partial sleep restriction affects the regulation of signaling pathways related to the immune system. Some of these changes appear to be long-lasting and may at least partly explain how prolonged sleep restriction can contribute to inflammation-associated pathological states, such as cardiometabolic diseases.

  11. Genetic epidemiological study of schizophrenia: reproduction behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritsner, M; Sherina, O; Ginath, Y

    1992-06-01

    Data from the Tomsk Epidemiological Register and epidemiological family sample were used to study the relationship between schizophrenics' reproductive behaviour (marital status and fertility rate), severity of ICD-9 schizophrenia and risk of illness among relatives of probands. The results are interpreted in terms of multifactorial threshold and single monolocus models. Their importance for the interpretation of epidemiological data (a change of prevalence rate, cohort effect and clinical polymorphism) is discussed.

  12. Design and implementation of an epidemiological study for the characterization of potential pathway human exposure in a contaminated estuary environment

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, Carlos Matias; Machado, Ausenda; Paixão, Eleonora; Mateus, Inês; Joaquin, Toro; Caeiro, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Sado River estuary is located in the west coast of Portugal. Previous environmental studies identified industrial contamination, non-point anthropogenic sources and contamination coming from the river, all promoting accumulation of polluted sediments with known impacts on the ecological system. Surrounding human populations have intense economic fishery activities. Together with agriculture, estuary fishing products are available to local residents. Food usage previously chara...

  13. A Genetic Epidemiological Study of Behavioral Traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Amin (Najaf)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractHuman behavioural genetics aims to unravel the genetic and environmental contributions to variations in human behaviour. Behaviour is a complex trait, involving multiple genes that are affected by a variety of other factors. Genetic epidemiological research of behaviour goes back to Sir

  14. SU-E-J-93: Development of Pre-Contoured Human Model Library in DICOM-RT Format for the Epidemiological Study of the Radiotherapy Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pyakuryal, A; Lee, C [National Cancer Institute, Rockville, MD (United States); Lee, C [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Pelletier, C [East Carolina University, Greenville, NC (United States); Jung, J [East Carolina Univ, Greenville, NC (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Prior to 3D conformal radiation therapy planning, patient anatomy information was mostly limited to 2D beams-eye-view from the conventional simulator. To analyze the outcomes of such treatments for radiation late effects, 3D computational human models are often used in commercial treatment planning systems (TPSs). However, several underlying difficulties such as time-consuming manual delineation procedures of a large number of structures in the model have always limited its applications. Primary objective of this work was to develop a human model library for the epidemiological study by converting 3D-surface model organs to DICOM-RT format (DICOM-RT structure) using an in-house built software. We converted the ICRP reference human models to DICOM-RT models, which can be readily adopted for various dose calculations. Methods: MATLAB based code were utilized to convert the contour drawings extracted in text-format from the 3D graphic-tool, Rhinoceros into DICOM-RT structure format for 50 different organs of each model using a 16GB dual-core processor. The conversion periods were measured for each DICOM-RT models, and the reconstructed structure volumes were validated against the original 3D-surface models in the TPS. Ten reference hybrid whole-body models (8-pediatric and 2-adults) were automatically processed to create DICOM-RT computational human model library. Results: Mean contour conversion period was found to be 580 (N=2) and 394.5 (N=8) seconds for 50 organs in the adult and pediatric models respectively. A good agreement for large organs (NRMSD <1.0%) and small organs (NRMSD <7.7%) was also observed between the original volumes and corresponding DICOM-RT structure volumes of the organs. Conclusion: The ICRP reference human models were converted into DICOM-RT format to support the epidemiological study using a large cohort of conventional radiotherapy patients. Due to its DICOM-compatibility, the library may be implemented to many other different

  15. TOXOPLASMOSIS IN MEXICO: EPIDEMIOLOGICAL SITUATION IN HUMANS AND ANIMALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivonne HERNÁNDEZ-CORTAZAR

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic disease widely distributed throughout the world, infecting a wide variety of animal species including humans. In Mexico, this parasite has been detected in different parts of the country, particularly in the tropical areas where the parasite can remain infective for long periods of time due to the environmental conditions (i.e. high temperature and humidity over the whole year. Several epidemiological studies have been conducted in both human and animal populations, but despite the wide distribution of the agent in the country, there is a significant lack of knowledge on the parasite transmission, treatment alternatives and control measures. The lack of feral cat populations and control measures in sites of meat production for human consumption are playing a role that has led to the wide spread of the disease in the country, particularly in tropical areas of Southeastern Mexico. For these reasons, this manuscript aims to review the published information on relevant epidemiological aspects of infection with T. gondii in humans and animals from Mexico.

  16. Toxoplasmosis in Mexico: epidemiological situation in humans and animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Cortazar, Ivonne; Acosta-Viana, Karla Y; Ortega-Pacheco, Antonio; Guzman-Marin, Eugenia del S; Aguilar-Caballero, Armando J; Jiménez-Coello, Matilde

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic disease widely distributed throughout the world, infecting a wide variety of animal species including humans. In Mexico, this parasite has been detected in different parts of the country, particularly in the tropical areas where the parasite can remain infective for long periods of time due to the environmental conditions (i.e. high temperature and humidity over the whole year). Several epidemiological studies have been conducted in both human and animal populations, but despite the wide distribution of the agent in the country, there is a significant lack of knowledge on the parasite transmission, treatment alternatives and control measures. The lack of feral cat populations and control measures in sites of meat production for human consumption are playing a role that has led to the wide spread of the disease in the country, particularly in tropical areas of Southeastern Mexico. For these reasons, this manuscript aims to review the published information on relevant epidemiological aspects of infection with T. gondii in humans and animals from Mexico.

  17. Tea and cancer prevention: epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jian-Min; Sun, Canlan; Butler, Lesley M

    2011-08-01

    Experimental studies have consistently shown the inhibitory activities of tea extracts on tumorigenesis in multiple model systems. Epidemiological studies, however, have produced inconclusive results in humans. A comprehensive review was conducted to assess the current knowledge on tea consumption and risk of cancers in humans. In general, consumption of black tea was not associated with lower risk of cancer. High intake of green tea was consistently associated with reduced risk of upper gastrointestinal tract cancers after sufficient control for confounders. Limited data support a protective effect of green tea on lung and hepatocellular carcinogenesis. Although observational studies do not support a beneficial role of tea intake on prostate cancer risk, phase II clinical trials have demonstrated an inhibitory effect of green tea extract against the progression of prostate pre-malignant lesions. Green tea may exert beneficial effects against mammary carcinogenesis in premenopausal women and recurrence of breast cancer. There is no sufficient evidence that supports a protective role of tea intake on the development of cancers of the colorectum, pancreas, urinary tract, glioma, lymphoma, and leukemia. Future prospective observational studies with biomarkers of exposure and phase III clinical trials are required to provide definitive evidence for the hypothesized beneficial effect of tea consumption on cancer formation in humans.

  18. Molecular epidemiological study of adenovirus infecting western lowland gorillas and humans in and around Moukalaba-Doudou National Park (Gabon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkogue, Chimène Nze; Horie, Masayuki; Fujita, Shiho; Ogino, Michiko; Kobayashi, Yuki; Mizukami, Keijiro; Masatani, Tatsunori; Ezzikouri, Sayeh; Matsuu, Aya; Mizutani, Tetsuya; Ozawa, Makoto; Yamato, Osamu; Ngomanda, Alfred; Yamagiwa, Juichi; Tsukiyama-Kohara, Kyoko

    2016-10-01

    Adenoviruses are widespread in human population as well as in great apes, although the data about the naturally occurring adenovirus infections remain rare. We conducted the surveillance of adenovirus infection in wild western lowland gorillas in Moukalaba-Doudou National Park (Gabon), in order to investigate naturally occurring adenovirus in target gorillas and tested specifically a possible zoonotic transmission with local people inhabiting the vicinity of the park. Fecal samples were collected from western lowland gorillas and humans, and analyzed by PCR. We detected adenoviral genes in samples from both gorillas and the local people living around the national park, respectively: the overall prevalence rates of adenovirus were 24.1 and 35.0 % in gorillas and humans, respectively. Sequencing revealed that the adenoviruses detected in the gorillas were members of Human mastadenovirus B (HAdV-B), HAdV-C, or HAdV-E, and those in the humans belonged to HAdV-C or HAdV-D. Although HAdV-C members were detected in both gorillas and humans, phylogenetic analysis revealed that the virus detected in gorillas are genetically distinct from those detected in humans. The HAdV-C constitutes a single host lineage which is compatible with the host-pathogen divergence. However, HAdV-B and HAdV-E are constituted by multiple host lineages. Moreover, there is no evidence of zoonotic transmission thus far. Since the gorilla-to-human transmission of adenovirus has been shown before, the current monitoring should be continued in a broader scale for getting more insights in the natural history of naturally occurring adenoviruses and for the safe management of gorillas' populations.

  19. Epidemiological studies on Johne’s disease in ruminants and Crohn’s disease in humans in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fawzy

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The correlation between Johne’s disease (JD and Crohn’s disease (CD in Egypt was investigated. A total of 371 human and 435 animal sera were collected from the same Egyptian governorates that had a known history of paratuberculosis infection and were subjected to screening for paratuberculosis using ELISA to assess the human/animal risk at a single time point. Five CD patients and five JD clinically infected dairy cattle were also included. Out of 435 animal serum samples, 196 (45.2% were MAP-ELISA positive. Twenty three (6.1% out of 371 human serum samples were MAP-ELISA positive, while 37 (9.9% were positive for anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies (ASCA ELISAs. There was a very poor agreement between human MAP and ASCA ELISAs (0.036 by kappa statistics. The prevalence of MAP antibodies among humans is clearly lower than in animals. In conclusion there is an increase in Johne’s disease incidence in animals and a very weak relationship between MAP and Crohn’s disease in humans in Egypt.

  20. Human leukocyte antigen class I and II alleles and cervical adenocarcinoma: a pooled analysis of two epidemiologic studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahboobeh eSafaeian

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Associations between human leukocyte antigens (HLA alleles and cervical cancer are largely representative of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC, the major histologic subtype. We evaluated the association between HLA class I (A, B, and C and class II (DRB1 and DQB1 loci and risk of cervical adenocarcinoma (ADC, a less common but aggressive histologic subtype.We pooled data from the Eastern and Western US cervical cancer studies, and evaluated the association between individual alleles and allele combinations and ADC (n=630 ADC; n=775 controls. Risk estimates were calculated for 11 a priori (based on known associations with cervical cancer regardless of histologic type and 38 non a priori common alleles, as odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI, adjusted for age and study. In exploratory analysis, we compared the risk associations between subgroups with HPV16 or HPV18 DNA in ADC tumor tissues in the Western US study cases and controls. Three of the a priori alleles were significantly associated with decreased risk of ADC (DRB1*13:01 (OR=0.61; 95%CI:0.41-0.93, DRB1*13:02 (OR=0.49; 95%CI:0.31-0.77, and DQB1*06:03 (OR=0.64; 95%CI:0.42-0.95; one was associated with increased risk (B*07:02(OR=1.39; 95%CI:1.07-1.79. Among alleles not previously reported, DQB1*06:04 (OR=0.46; 95%CI: 0.27-0.78 was associated with decreased risk of ADC and C*07:02 (OR=1.41; 95%CI:1.09-1.81 was associated with increased risk. We did not observe a difference by histologic subtype. ADC was most strongly associated with increased risk with B*07:02/C*07:02 alleles (OR=1.33; 95%CI:1.01-1.76 and decreased risk with DRB1*13:02/DQB1*06:04 (OR=0.41; 95%CI:0.21-0.80. Results suggest that HLA allele associations with cervical ADC are similar to those for cervical SCC. An intriguing finding was the difference in risk associated with several alleles restricted to HPV16 or HPV18 related tumors, consistent with the hypothesis that HLA recognition is HPV type specific.

  1. Principles of study design in environmental epidemiology.

    OpenAIRE

    Morgenstern, H.; Thomas, D

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses the principles of study design and related methodologic issues in environmental epidemiology. Emphasis is given to studies aimed at evaluating causal hypotheses regarding exposures to suspected health hazards. Following background sections on the quantitative objectives and methods of population-based research, we present the major types of observational designs used in environmental epidemiology: first, the three basic designs involving the individual as the unit of anal...

  2. Clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of human bocavirus in Danish infants: results from a prospective birth cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Linstow, Marie-Louise; Høgh, Mette; Høgh, Birthe

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human bocavirus (HBoV) is a recently discovered parvovirus that has been detected in respiratory samples from children with acute respiratory tract infection (ARTI) and in feces from children with gastroenteritis. However, its role as a causative agent of respiratory disease is not de......BACKGROUND: Human bocavirus (HBoV) is a recently discovered parvovirus that has been detected in respiratory samples from children with acute respiratory tract infection (ARTI) and in feces from children with gastroenteritis. However, its role as a causative agent of respiratory disease...

  3. Epidemiologic study on human immunodeficiency virus infection among children in a former paid plasma donating community in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lan; ZHENG Xi-wen; QIAN Han-zhu; L(U) Fan; XING Hui

    2005-01-01

    Background Illegal plasma collecting activities in mid 1990s caused a large number of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections in rural areas of central-eastern China. Although most of these activities have been stopped, there were few reports on secondary transmission from infected former plasma donors to their spouses and from infected mothers to their children. This study was to determine the extent of HIV infections among young children in a rural community with a large proportion of plasma donors.Methods A survey was conducted among children aged under 7 years in a former plasma donating community in September 2000: finger blood was collected for HIV antibody testing. Another survey was repeated among children aged under 8 years and their families in the same community in April 2001: urine samples were collected for HIV testing. HIV positive children and samples of HIV negative children, whose mothers were positive based on 2001 survey, were followed up until September 2002 to investigate HIV seroconversion, disease progression and HIV strain analysis. Questionnaires were administered to collect information on children's delivery, breast feeding, medical history and their parents' commercial blood donation history and HIV status.Results Among 169 children surveyed in 2000, 10 (5.9%) were HIV positive. Of 224 children, 11 were positive in 2001. The overall prevalence rate in the two surveys was 5.0% (17/337) when counting 56 repeated children only once. Of children born to HIV positive mothers, 28.9% were infected. A seroconversion rate of 2.5 per 100 child-years was observed by following up 28 HIV negative children. No statistically significant associations were found between children's HIV infection and their histories of blood transfusion, surgery, immunization injection or medical injections. All infections were HIV-1 subtype B' strain, the average dispersion rate is 7.4%. DNA sequence analysis showed a close relationship between the seroconverted

  4. Epidemiology of human fascioliasis: a review and proposed new classification.

    OpenAIRE

    Mas-Coma, M. S.; Esteban, J. G.; Bargues, M. D.

    1999-01-01

    The epidemiological picture of human fascioliasis has changed in recent years. The number of reports of humans infected with Fasciola hepatica has increased significantly since 1980 and several geographical areas have been described as endemic for the disease in humans, with prevalence and intensity ranging from low to very high. High prevalence of fascioliasis in humans does not necessarily occur in areas where fascioliasis is a major veterinary problem. Human fascioliasis can no longer be c...

  5. NASA Remote Sensing Data for Epidemiological Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Nancy G.; Vicente, G. A.

    2002-01-01

    In response to the need for improved observations of environmental factors to better understand the links between human health and the environment, NASA has established a new program to significantly improve the utilization of NASA's diverse array of data, information, and observations of the Earth for health applications. This initiative, lead by Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has the following goals: (1) To encourage interdisciplinary research on the relationships between environmental parameters (e.g., rainfall, vegetation) and health, (2) Develop practical early warning systems, (3) Create a unique system for the exchange of Earth science and health data, (4) Provide an investigator field support system for customers and partners, (5) Facilitate a system for observation, identification, and surveillance of parameters relevant to environment and health issues. The NASA Environment and Health Program is conducting several interdisciplinary projects to examine applications of remote sensing data and information to a variety of health issues, including studies on malaria, Rift Valley Fever, St. Louis Encephalitis, Dengue Fever, Ebola, African Dust and health, meningitis, asthma, and filariasis. In addition, the NASA program is creating a user-friendly data system to help provide the public health community with easy and timely access to space-based environmental data for epidemiological studies. This NASA data system is being designed to bring land, atmosphere, water and ocean satellite data/products to users not familiar with satellite data/products, but who are knowledgeable in the Geographic Information Systems (GIS) environment. This paper discusses the most recent results of the interdisciplinary environment-health research projects and provides an analysis of the usefulness of the satellite data to epidemiological studies. In addition, there will be a summary of presently-available NASA Earth science data and a description of how it may be obtained.

  6. Epidemiology of human fascioliasis: a review and proposed new classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas-Coma, M S; Esteban, J G; Bargues, M D

    1999-01-01

    The epidemiological picture of human fascioliasis has changed in recent years. The number of reports of humans infected with Fasciola hepatica has increased significantly since 1980 and several geographical areas have been described as endemic for the disease in humans, with prevalence and intensity ranging from low to very high. High prevalence of fascioliasis in humans does not necessarily occur in areas where fascioliasis is a major veterinary problem. Human fascioliasis can no longer be considered merely as a secondary zoonotic disease but must be considered to be an important human parasitic disease. Accordingly, we present in this article a proposed new classification for the epidemiology of human fascioliasis. The following situations are distinguished: imported cases; autochthonous, isolated, nonconstant cases; hypo-, meso-, hyper-, and holoendemics; epidemics in areas where fascioliasis is endemic in animals but not humans; and epidemics in human endemic areas.

  7. Bias Due to Correlation Between Times-at-Risk for Infection in Epidemiologic Studies Measuring Biological Interactions Between Sexually Transmitted Infections: A Case Study Using Human Papillomavirus Type Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malagón, Talía; Lemieux-Mellouki, Philippe; Laprise, Jean-François; Brisson, Marc

    2016-12-15

    The clustering of human papillomavirus (HPV) infections in some individuals is often interpreted as the result of common risk factors rather than biological interactions between different types of HPV. The intraindividual correlation between times-at-risk for all HPV infections is not generally considered in the analysis of epidemiologic studies. We used a deterministic transmission model to simulate cross-sectional and prospective epidemiologic studies measuring associations between 2 HPV types. When we assumed no interactions, the model predicted that studies would estimate odds ratios and incidence rate ratios greater than 1 between HPV types even after complete adjustment for sexual behavior. We demonstrated that this residual association is due to correlation between the times-at-risk for different HPV types, where individuals become concurrently at risk for all of their partners' HPV types when they enter a partnership and are not at risk when they are single. This correlation can be controlled in prospective studies by restricting analyses to susceptible individuals with an infected sexual partner. The bias in the measured associations was largest in low-sexual-activity populations, cross-sectional studies, and studies which evaluated infection with a first HPV type as the exposure. These results suggest that current epidemiologic evidence does not preclude the existence of competitive biological interactions between HPV types. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Epidemiology of Emergent Madariaga Encephalitis in a Region with Endemic Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis: Initial Host Studies and Human Cross-Sectional Study in Darien, Panama.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Y Vittor

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Neurotropic arboviral infections are an important cause of encephalitis. A zoonotic, vector-borne alphavirus, Madariaga virus (MADV; formerly known as South American eastern equine encephalitis virus, caused its first documented human outbreak in 2010 in Darien, Panama, where the genetically similar Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV is endemic. We report the results of a seroprevalence survey of animals and humans, illustrating contrasting features of MADV and VEEV ecology and epidemiology.Small mammals were trapped in 42 sites in Darien, Panama, using Sherman traps, Tomahawk traps, and mist nets for bats. Blood was tested for the presence of neutralizing antibodies to MADV and VEEV. In addition, bird sera collected in 2007 in Chagres, Panama, were tested for MADV and VEEV neutralizing antibodies. Viremia was ascertained by RT-PCR. Human exposure to these two viruses was determined by IgG ELISA, followed by plaque reduction neutralization tests. To identify relevant risk factors for MADV or VEEV exposure, logistic regression analysis was performed, and the most parsimonious model was selected based on the Akaike information criterion.The animal survey yielded 32 bats (16 species, 556 rodents (12 species, and 20 opossums (4 species. The short-tailed cane mouse (Zygodontomys brevicauda found abundantly in pasture and farms, had the highest MADV seroprevalence (8.3%. For VEEV, the shrub and forest-dwelling long-whiskered rice rat (Transandinomys bolivaris had the highest seroprevalence (19.0%. Viremia was detected in one animal (Z. brevicauda. Of the 159 bird sera (50 species tested, none were positive for either virus. In humans (n = 770, neutralizing antibodies to MADV and VEEV were present in 4.8% and 31.5%, respectively. MADV seropositivity was positively associated with cattle ranching, farming, and fishing. Having VEEV antibodies and shrubs near the house diminished risk. Age, forest work, farming and fishing were risk factors for

  9. Polyphenols and disease risk in epidemiologic studies 1-4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, I.C.W.; Hollman, P.C.H.

    2005-01-01

    Plant polyphenols, a large group of natural antioxidants, are serious candidates in explanations of the protective effects of vegetables and fruits against cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Epidemiologic studies are useful for evaluation of the human health effects of long-term exposure to physiol

  10. Chapter 8. Tea and Cancer Prevention: Epidemiological Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Jian-Min; Sun, Canlan; Butler, Lesley M

    2011-01-01

    Experimental studies have consistently shown the inhibitory activities of tea extracts on tumorigenesis in multiple model systems. Epidemiologic studies, however, have produced inconclusive results in humans. A comprehensive review was conducted to assess the current knowledge on tea consumption and risk of cancers in humans. In general, consumption of black tea was not associated with lower risk of cancer. High intake of green tea was consistently associated with reduced risk of upper gastro...

  11. Clinical and epidemiological study of human papillomavirus infection in women with systemic lupus erythematosus in eastern brazilian amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Lasmar Ayres do Amaral

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer, the second most common cancer affecting women in Northern Brazil, is strongly associated with human papillomavirus (HPV infection. Diseases affecting the immune state of a patient, including autoimmune diseases like systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, can lead to persistent HPV infection and cancer. We evaluated cervical HPV prevalence and the associated risk factors in 70 women with SLE in the city of Belém, located in Brazilian Amazon. HPV DNA was detected by PCR using primers MY9 and MY11. HPV subtypes were determined by real-time PCR, using specific probes. Overall, prevalence of cervical HPV in women with SLE was 22.8%. HPV prevalence was significantly higher in younger women (aged 18–25 years; 75%, p< 0.0001, in women who had not given birth (50%, p = 0.01, and in women with no prior pregnancy (57%, p = 0.003. Five women (7.1% had Pap smears with a cytopathological outcome suggestive of HPV; four of these women were HPV-positive. No women with both, SLE and HPV, had a normal Pap smear. Of the women diagnosed with SLE in the last 1–5 years, 75% was HPV-positive (p = 0.04. The two most prevalent HPV subtypes were HPV 58 (37.5% and HPV 31 (31.3%. These results are important for understanding HPV infection in women with SLE and are valuable tools for developing cervical cancer prevention strategies and health management policies.

  12. Human prion disease with a G114V mutation and epidemiological studies in a Chinese family: a case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Jing

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are a group of neurodegenerative diseases of humans and animals. Genetic Creutzfeldt-Jakob diseases, in which mutations in the PRNP gene predispose to disease by causing the expression of abnormal PrP protein, include familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker syndrome and fatal familial insomnia. Case presentation A 47-year-old Han-Chinese woman was hospitalized with a 2-year history of progressive dementia, tiredness, lethargy and mild difficulty in falling asleep. On neurological examination, there was severe apathy, spontaneous myoclonus of the lower limbs, generalized hyperreflexia and bilateral Babinski signs. A missense mutation (T to G was identified at the position of nt 341 in one PRNP allele, leading to a change from glycine (Gly to valine (Val at codon 114. PK-resistant PrPSc was detected in brain tissues by Western blotting and immunohistochemical assays. Information on pedigree was collected notably by interviews with family members. A further four suspected patients in five consecutive generations of the family have been identified. One of them was hospitalized for progressive memory impairment at the age of 32. On examination, he had impairment of memory, calculation and comprehension, mild ataxia of the limbs, tremor and a left Babinski sign. He is still alive. Conclusion This family with G114V inherited prion disease is the first to be described in China and represents the second family worldwide in which this mutation has been identified. Three other suspected cases have been retrospectively identified in this family, and a further case with suggestive clinical manifestations has been shown by gene sequencing to have the causal mutation.

  13. VDTs: Field levels, epidemiology, and laboratory studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kavet, R.; Tell, R.A. (Richard Tell Associates, Inc., Las Vegas, NV (USA))

    1991-07-01

    As the use of video display terminals (VDTs) has expanded, questions have been raised as to whether working at a VDT affects the risk of adverse pregnancy outcome. A particular focus for these questions has been the very low frequency (VLF) magnetic field produced by a VDT's horizontal deflection coil. VDTs also produce VLF electric fields, extremely low frequency (ELF) electric and magnetic fields, and static electric fields, Ten studies of pregnancy outcome in VDT operators have been conducted in six countries, and with one exception, none has concluded that magnetic fields from VDTs may predispose pregnant operators to spontaneous abortion or congenital malformation. The epidemiologic studies conducted thus far do not provide a basis for concluding that VDT work and adverse pregnancy outcome are associated. Studies of fetal resorptions and malformations in rodents exposed to VLF magnetic fields have produced inconsistent findings. Two laboratories in Sweden that studied mice have reported positive results, one laboratory showing field-related malformations (but not resorptions) and the other showing field-related resorptions (but not malformations). Two Canadian laboratories have reported negative results in rats and mice. Studies of avian embryos have also yielded inconsistent results, but lacking a maternal-fetal placental interface, avian embryos are a questionable model for evaluating human reproductive risks. Finally, VLF electric and magnetic fields measured at the operator position are in compliance with field strength standards and guidelines that have been established around the world. 55 refs.

  14. A genetic epidemiologic study of hemochromatosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O.T. Njajou (Omer)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThe goal of genetic epidemiology is to study the genetic etiology of diseases. There were t\\vo main aims for the present thesis. The first aim was to study the effects of the hemochromatosis gene (HFE) mutations on serum iron levels and disease associated conditions. Secondly, we aimed a

  15. Epidemiology and diagnostics of human fasciolosis

    OpenAIRE

    Dakić Zorica; Inđić Nikola; Milošević Branko; Poluga Jasmina; Kulišić Zoran; Korać Miloš; Stajković Novica; Ofori-Belić Irena; Pavlović Miloš

    2010-01-01

    Fasciolosis is a zoonotic infection caused by the trematoda Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica. Human fasciolosis is endemic in some parts of South America, Africa, Eastern Asia and Europe. High prevalence of human fasciolosis does not necessarily occur in areas where fasciolosis is a major veterinary problem. Infection with Fasciola hepatica has not been reported in humans in Serbia and former Yugoslavia, although a large variety of animals, such as sheep and cattle show infection rate...

  16. Epidemiology of human leptospirosis in Malaysia, 2004-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benacer, Douadi; Thong, Kwai Lin; Min, Ng Choung; Bin Verasahib, Khebir; Galloway, Renee L; Hartskeerl, Rudy A; Souris, Marc; Mohd Zain, Siti Nursheena

    2016-05-01

    Leptospirosis is an emerging disease, especially in countries with a tropical climate such as Malaysia. A dramatic increase in the number of cases has been reported over the last decade; however, information on the epidemiological trends of this disease is lacking. The objective of this study is to provide an epidemiological description of human leptospirosis cases over a 9-year period (2004-2012) and disease relationship with meteorological, geographical, and demographical information. A retrospective study was undertaken to describe the patterns of human leptospirosis cases and their association with intrinsic (sex, age, and ethnicity) and extrinsic (location, rainfall, and temperature) factors. Data was grouped according to age, sex, ethnicity, seasonality and geographical distribution, and analyzed using statistical tools to understand the influence of all the different factors on disease incidence. A total of 12,325 cases of leptospirosis were reported between 2004 and 2012 with an upward trend in disease incidence, with the highest in 2012. Three hundred thirty-eight deaths were reported with an overall case fatality rate of 2.74%, with higher incidence in males (9696; 78.7%) compared with female patients (2629; 21.3%), and overall male to female ratio of 3.69:1. Patients aged cohorts between 30-39 years old (16.22 per 100,000 population) had the highest disease incidence while the lowest incidence occurred between Leptospirosis cases. This collaborative efforts between medical, academic and governmental institutions has enabled the construction of this comprehensive database that is essential to understand the disease trends in Malaysia and add insights into the prevention and control of this disease.

  17. Epidemiological relationship of human and swine Streptococcus suis isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarradas, C; Luque, I; de Andrés, D; Abdel-Aziz Shahein, Y E; Pons, P; González, F; Borge, C; Perea, A

    2001-06-01

    Two cases of meningitis due to Streptococcus suis in humans are reported here. A butcher and an abattoir worker were referred to a health centre in Castellón (Spain) with fever and symptoms of meningitis. After adequate treatment, a slight hipoacusia persisted as sequelae in both cases. Colonies of S. suis group R, serotype 2 and phenotype MRP+EF+ were isolated from cerebroespinal fluid. Epidemiological studies showed that both workers had in common the handling of pork meat of slaughtered healthy pigs from three closed farms. A study of the tonsils from apparently healthy, slaughtered pigs was carried out. A total of 234 tonsillar samples were obtained and 81 strains of S. suis were isolated from them. Serotype 2 appeared to be the most frequent (50.6%), and the analysis for phenotype showed a high percentage of tonsillar strains with the phenotype MRP+EF+ (35.9%). The humans and 28 tonsillar swine strains showed a similar profile (S. suis group R, serotype 2 and phenotype MRP+EF+). A total of 26 of the swine isolates were analysed by ribotyping using EcoRI. The human strains showed the same six-band hybridization pattern that shared five bands with the pattern most frequently shown by most of the tonsillar N. suis group R, serotype 2 and phenotype MRP+EF+ strains, differing only in the lightest, faintest band which was slightly less anodical in human (> or = 1.8 kb) than in swine (approximately 1.8 kb). From these results, both groups of strains, humans and porcine, showed differences; how can these differences in the pattern of ribotyping be explained if they should have the same origin? Is it possible that they have undergone an adaptation to the new host or perhaps the modification is due to other unknown causes? Further studies in this area are required in order to answer these questions.

  18. Twin studies: A unique epidemiological tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monalisha Sahu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Twin studies are a special type of epidemiological studies designed to measure the contribution of genetics as opposed to the environment, to a given trait. Despite the facts that the classical twin studies are still being guided by assumptions made back in the 1920s and that the inherent limitation lies in the study design itself, the results suggested by earlier twin studies have often been confirmed by molecular genetic studies later. Use of twin registries and various innovative yet complex software packages such as the (SAS and their extensions (e.g., SAS PROC GENMOD and SAS PROC PHREG has increased the potential of this epidemiological tool toward contributing significantly to the field of genetics and other life sciences.

  19. Publication bias in epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqi, Nazish

    2011-06-01

    Communication of research findings is the utmost responsibility of all scientists. Publication bias occurs if scientific studies with negative or null results fail to get published. This can happen due to bias in submitting, reviewing, accepting, publishing or aggregating scientific literature that fails to show positive results on a particular topic. Publication bias can make scientific literature unrepresentative of the actual research studies. This can give the reader a false impression about the beneficial effects of a particular treatment or intervention and can influence clinical decision making. Publication bias is more common than it is actually considered to be, but there are ways to detect and prevent it. This paper comments on the occurrence, types and consequences of publication bias and the strategies employed to detect and control it.

  20. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF CARCINOMA OESOPHAGUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Oesophageal malignancies are not an uncommon disease entity in this part of India. It is observed in both the sexes. Patients present with progressive dysphagia for solids. The duration of symptoms varies from 6 months to 2 years. Among the various aetiological factors, smoking, alcohol intake, spicy hot food intake, industrial pollution and achalasia cardia are a few worth mentioning. AIM OF THE STUDY To evaluate the differences in the predisposing factors causing squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma of oesophagus in this part of India. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study is conducted in the Department of Surgery at Government Medical College Hospital, Kozhikode; Kerala. One hundred patients attending the Department with history of Dysphagia were included after thorough history taking, clinical and endoscopic examination and found to have malignant growths in the oesophagus which was confirmed by biopsy and histopathological examination. Various aetiological factors were elicited and analysed in both the histological varieties of malignancy of oesophagus. OBSERVATIONS AND RESULTS Significant number of patients with history of paan chewing presented with histological picture of squamous cell carcinoma as compared to patients who had adenocarcinoma. Gastroesophageal reflux disease was more commonly associated with adenocarcinoma. Out of 37 patients with adenocarcinoma, 31 patients had history of gastroesophageal reflux disease (83.8%. 6 patients had no history of gastroesophageal reflux disease (16.2% within histology. Consumption of hot drinks, tea and coffee more than 10 per day has been analysed. 52 were consuming, 48 were not consuming, P value 0.179 non-significant. CONCLUSIONS Squamous cell carcinoma is more prevalent as compared to adenocarcinoma in present study. The main factor that has emerged is lifestyle, dietary habit, smoking and alcohol, and environmental factor. Consumption of alcohol and smoking is known risk factors in

  1. Epidemiology of the human circadian clock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roenneberg, Till; Kuehnle, Tim; Juda, Myriam; Kantermann, Thomas; Allebrandt, Karla; Gordijn, Marijke; Merrow, Martha

    2007-01-01

    Humans show large inter-individual differences in organising their behaviour within the 24-h day-this is most obvious in their preferred timing of sleep and wakefulness. Sleep and wake times show a near-Gaussian distribution in a given population, with extreme early types waking up when extreme late

  2. Psoriasis and comorbidities. Epidemiological studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeberg, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Psoriasis is a prevalent chronic inflammatory disease whose exact aetiology is not fully understood, but both genetic and environmental factors have been implicated in the onset and progression of the disease. At the skin level, psoriasis is characterized by localized or widespread thick raised...... silvery-white scaling and pruritic plaques and studies have shown that psoriasis negatively affects patients' quality of life, and depression occurs more often in patients with psoriasis. However, data have shown that psoriasis is a systemic disease which affects the joints, vasculature, and other tissues...... as well. Indeed, approximately one-third of patients with psoriasis develop psoriatic arthritis, and patients with severe psoriasis have a shortened life expectancy. Although our knowledge of the pathogenesis of psoriasis has advanced significantly in the past decade, as have the pharmacological treatment...

  3. Epidemiological studies of esophageal cancer in the era of genome-wide association studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    An-Hui; Wang; Yuan; Liu; Bo; Wang; Yi-Xuan; He; Ye-Xian; Fang; Yong-Ping; Yan

    2014-01-01

    Esophageal cancer(EC) caused about 395000 deaths in 2010. China has the most cases of EC and EC is the fourth leading cause of cancer death in China. Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma(ESCC) is the predominant histologic type(90%-95%), while the incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma(EAC) remains extremely low in China. Traditional epidemiological studies have revealed that environmental carcinogens are risk factors for EC. Molecular epidemiological studies revealed that susceptibility to EC is influenced by both environmental and genetic risk factors. Of all the risk factors for EC, some are associated with the risk of ESCC and others with the risk of EAC. However, the details and mechanisms of risk factors involved in the process for EC are unclear. The advanced methods and techniques used in human genome studies bring a great opportunity for researchers to explore and identify the details of those risk factors or susceptibility genes involved inthe process of EC. Human genome epidemiology is a new branch of epidemiology, which leads the epidemiology study from the molecular epidemiology era to the era of genome wide association studies(GWAS). Here we review the epidemiological studies of EC(especially ESCC) in the era of GWAS, and provide an overview of the general risk factors and those genomic variants(genes, SNPs, miRNAs, proteins) involved in the process of ESCC.

  4. HUMAN OCULAR DIROFILARIOSIS: CLINICAL AND EPIDEMIOLOGICAL FEATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Trenkić-Božinović

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Dirofilarioses are zoonoses caused by filaria of the genus Dirofilaria, the parasites of domestic and wild animals. People are just random carriers of this parasite. In Europe, human dirofilariosis is caused by two species: Dirofilaria repens ( D. repens, also known as a species of The Old World , usually with the superficial localization of infection, and D. immitis, which is present throughout the world, and causes, beside superficial, visceral dirofilariosis. So far, based on the data from reference literature, it can be observed that in Serbia about 34 cases of human dirofilariosis have been diagnosed and published. It is assumed that the prevalence of this parasitosis is significantly higher as our country is an endemic area for dirofilariosis in dogs and the region where species of mosquitoes, which are transitory hosts and vectors of Dirofilaria spp., are present. The clinical picture of dirofilariosis depends on the type and location of the parasite in the human body. In our country, patients diagnosed with dirofilariosis had subcutaneous or subconjunctival infection in the majority of cases. Ocular dirofilariosis may affect the orbit and the periorbital region, the skin of the eyelids, the conjunctiva, the Tenon membrane, a retrobulbar space or has an intrabulbar localization. These patients may have a severe disability, and surgery alone can be complicated due to localization. The aim of this review is to highlight the importance of this unexpected important zoonoses, with special emphasis on the importance within the ophthalmic practice.

  5. Epidemiology of Acute Gastroenteritis Outbreaks Caused by Human Calicivirus (Norovirus and Sapovirus) in Catalonia: A Two Year Prospective Study, 2010-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torner, Nuria; Martinez, Ana; Broner, Sonia; Moreno, Antonio; Camps, Neus; Domínguez, Angela

    2016-01-01

    The epidemiology of cases of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) of viral etiology is a relevant public health issue. Due to underreporting, the study of outbreaks is an accepted approach to investigate their epidemiology. The objective of this study was to investigate the epidemiological characteristics of AGE outbreaks due to norovirus (NoV) and sapovirus (SV) in Catalonia. Prospective study of AGE outbreaks of possible viral etiology notified during two years in Catalonia. NoV and SV were detected by real time reverse transcription polymerase (RT-PCR). A total of 101 outbreaks were registered affecting a total of 2756 persons and 12 hospitalizations (hospitalization rate: 0.8x1,000,000 persons-year); 49.5% of outbreaks were foodborne, 45.5% person to person and 5% waterborne. The distribution of outbreaks according to the setting showed a predominance of catering services (39.6%), nursing homes and long term care facilities (26.8%) and schools (11.9%). The median number of cases per outbreak was 17 (range 2-191). The total Incidence rate (IR) was 18.3 per 100,000 persons-years (95%CI: 17.6-19.0). The highest IR was in persons aged ≥65 years (43.6x100,000 (95% CI: 41.0-46.2)) (p<0.001). A total of 1065 samples were analyzed with a positivity rate of 60.8%. 98% of positive samples were NoV (GII 56.3%; GI 4.2%; GII+GI 4.2%; non- typable 33.0%). SV was identified in two person-to-person transmission outbreaks in children. These results confirm the relevance of viral AGE outbreaks, both foodborne and person-to-person, especially in institutionalized persons. SV should be taken into account when investigating viral AGE outbreaks.

  6. Epidemiology of Acute Gastroenteritis Outbreaks Caused by Human Calicivirus (Norovirus and Sapovirus in Catalonia: A Two Year Prospective Study, 2010-2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Torner

    Full Text Available The epidemiology of cases of acute gastroenteritis (AGE of viral etiology is a relevant public health issue. Due to underreporting, the study of outbreaks is an accepted approach to investigate their epidemiology. The objective of this study was to investigate the epidemiological characteristics of AGE outbreaks due to norovirus (NoV and sapovirus (SV in Catalonia.Prospective study of AGE outbreaks of possible viral etiology notified during two years in Catalonia. NoV and SV were detected by real time reverse transcription polymerase (RT-PCR.A total of 101 outbreaks were registered affecting a total of 2756 persons and 12 hospitalizations (hospitalization rate: 0.8x1,000,000 persons-year; 49.5% of outbreaks were foodborne, 45.5% person to person and 5% waterborne. The distribution of outbreaks according to the setting showed a predominance of catering services (39.6%, nursing homes and long term care facilities (26.8% and schools (11.9%. The median number of cases per outbreak was 17 (range 2-191. The total Incidence rate (IR was 18.3 per 100,000 persons-years (95%CI: 17.6-19.0. The highest IR was in persons aged ≥65 years (43.6x100,000 (95% CI: 41.0-46.2 (p<0.001. A total of 1065 samples were analyzed with a positivity rate of 60.8%. 98% of positive samples were NoV (GII 56.3%; GI 4.2%; GII+GI 4.2%; non- typable 33.0%. SV was identified in two person-to-person transmission outbreaks in children.These results confirm the relevance of viral AGE outbreaks, both foodborne and person-to-person, especially in institutionalized persons. SV should be taken into account when investigating viral AGE outbreaks.

  7. Epidemiological and functional implications of molecular variants of human papillomavirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sichero L.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomavirus genomes are classified into molecular variants when they present more than 98% of similarity to the prototype sequence within the L1 gene. Comparative nucleotide sequence analyses of these viruses have elucidated some features of their phylogenetic relationship. In addition, human papillomavirus intratype variability has also been used as an important tool in epidemiological studies of viral transmission, persistence and progression to clinically relevant cervical lesions. Until the present, little has been published concerning the functional significance of molecular variants. It has been shown that nucleotide variability within the long control region leads to differences in the binding affinity of some cellular transcriptional factors and to the enhancement of the expression of E6 and E7 oncogenes. Furthermore, in vivo and in vitro studies revealed differences in E6 and E7 biochemical and biological properties among molecular variants. Nevertheless, further correlation with additional functional information is needed to evaluate the significance of genome intratypic variability. These results are also important for the development of vaccines and to determine the extent to which immunization with L1 virus-like particles of one variant could induce antibodies that cross-neutralize other variants.

  8. Epidemiological studies of cancer in aircrew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Gaël P; Blettner, Maria; Zeeb, Hajo

    2009-10-01

    Exposure to cosmic ionising radiation, in addition to other specific occupational risks, is of concern to aircrew members. Epidemiological studies provide an objective way to assess the health of this occupational group. We systematically reviewed the epidemiological literature on health of aircrew members since 1990, focusing on cancer as the endpoint of interest. Sixty-five relevant publications were identified and reviewed. Whereas overall cancer incidence and mortality was generally lower than in the comparison population, consistently elevated risks were reported for breast cancer incidence in female aircrew members and for melanoma in both male and female aircrew members. Brain cancer was increased in some studies among pilots. Occasionally trends of increasing cancer mortality or incidence with increasing estimated radiation dose were reported. Ionising radiation is considered to contribute little if at all to the elevated risks for cancers among aircrew, whereas excess ultraviolet radiation is a probable cause of the increased melanoma risk.

  9. Human trichinellosis in Bulgaria--epidemiological situation and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurdova-Mintcheva, R; Jordanova, D; Ivanova, M

    2009-02-23

    Human trichinellosis is a major food-borne zoonosis in Bulgaria with a high health, social, and economic impact. Every year outbreaks and sporadic cases are registered in the country. Epidemiological data based on standard protocols for epidemiological surveillance and control of human trichinellosis for each region in the country were collected and analysed at the National Centre of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases, and the main epidemiological trends during the past 17 years (1990-2006) were determined. Since 1991 human trichinellosis has become a re-emerging zoonosis in Bulgaria. A total number of 145 trichinellosis outbreaks and 238 sporadic cases were registered. Altogether, 7544 persons have consumed meat or meat products harbouring Trichinella larvae, and of these, 4108 individuals (54.45%) contracted trichinellosis (with 2 deaths). The annual incidence of human trichinellosis varied from 0.27 to 7.40 per 100,000 population. Fifty-seven of the outbreaks were sourced to wild boar meat consumption, 67 were due to consumption of pork products, and in 21 outbreaks the source of infection was unidentified (4 of them were associated with consumption of mixed meat--pork and wild boar meat products). The peaks of outbreaks (12 per year) were registered in 1994, 1998, 2002, and 2003. In recent years some decrease in the numbers of outbreaks was observed (2004: 6, 2005: 3, and 2006: 7).

  10. Recommendations for epidemiological studies on COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakke, P S; Rönmark, E; Eagan, T

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been extensively studied, especially in Western Europe and North America. Few of these data are directly comparable because of differences between the surveys regarding composition of study populations, diagnostic criteria...... for planning and performing an epidemiological study on COPD. The main message of the paper is that thorough planning is worth half the study. It is crucial to stick to standardised methods and good quality control during sampling. We recommend collecting biological markers, depending on the specific...

  11. Effects of noise on human health. Methodological analysis of the findings of three epidemiological studies; Gesundheitliche Auswirkungen von Laermbelastung. Methodische Betrachtungen zu den Ergebnissen dreier epidemiologischer Studien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellach, B. [Robert-Koch-Inst., Berlin (Germany). Bundesinstitut fuer Infektionskrankheiten und Nicht-Uebertragbare Krankheiten, Fachbereich 6; Dortschy, R. [Robert-Koch-Inst., Berlin (Germany). Bundesinstitut fuer Infektionskrankheiten und Nicht-Uebertragbare Krankheiten, Fachbereich 6; Mueller, D. [Robert-Koch-Inst., Berlin (Germany). Bundesinstitut fuer Infektionskrankheiten und Nicht-Uebertragbare Krankheiten, Fachbereich 6; Ziese, T. [Robert-Koch-Inst., Berlin (Germany). Bundesinstitut fuer Infektionskrankheiten und Nicht-Uebertragbare Krankheiten, Fachbereich 6

    1995-03-01

    Studies on noise impact necessitate extensive acoustic measurements to find out about the real noise level, owing to the fact that not only the real noise level but also the subjective feeling of `noise nuisances` may correlate with health disorders. In order to test this hypothesis, this investigation summarizes the results of complex risk assessment studies in consideration of questionnaires on noise levels from three large-scale studies of the former Institute of Social medicine and Epidemiology (now: Department 6 of the Robert-Koch Institute). (orig.) [Deutsch] Zur Feststellung der tatsaechlichen Laermbelaestigung sind umfangreiche und aufwendige akustische Messungen erforderlich. Es korreliert nicht nur die tatsaechliche Laermbelastung, sondern auch die subjektiv empfundene Laermbelaestigung, wie sie in Frageboegen erfasst werden kann, mit Gesundheitsstoerungen. Zur Ueberpruefung dieser Hypothese sind im vorliegenden Text die Ergebnisse von komplexen Risikobewertungen unter Einbeziehung von Fragebogenangaben zur Laermbelastung aus drei grossen Studien des ehemaligen Instituts fuer Sozialmedizin und Epidemiologie (jetzt Fachbereich 6 des Robert Koch-Instituts) zusammengefasst. (orig.)

  12. Molecular Epidemiology of Human Metapneumovirus in Riyadh Province, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, Haitham Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is an important cause of respiratory tract illness in children. Two HMPV subgroups, A and B, and four genotypes, A1, A2, B1 and B2, have been identified. Concurrent circulation of the different genotypes in yearly epidemics has been recorded globally, but not in Saudi Arabia. The current report was designed to study HMPV epidemiology in Saudi children and to analyze the genetic diversity and circulation patterns. Nasopharyngeal aspirates (n = 174) were collected from hospitalized children in Riyadh (2008-2009). The screening of samples using real-time RT-PCR identified 19 HMPV strains. The majority of the strains belonged to subgroup B, while all strains of subgroup A were members of genotype A2. In 2008, only subgroup B was recognized, whereas in 2009 both subgroups were identified to be cocirculating at similar rates. The full-length attachment (G) gene and a partial sequence of the fusion (F) gene of positive samples were sequenced. The G gene showed a high degree of genetic diversity and exhibited a variable number of positively selected sites in different lineages. In contrast, the F gene demonstrated an extensive genetic stability with a higher tendency toward purifying selection. This is the first report on HMPV genotype circulation in Saudi Arabia; however, the exact circulation kinetics requires further retrospective and prospective study.

  13. Implementation epidemiology: The study of the frequency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Campus, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia .... of new epidemiological findings into policy action the American College of Epidemiology ..... The underlying contexts of seat belt wearing rates in a community relate to the economic, social, political and.

  14. [Teratology and epidemiology in the study of environmental teratogens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayré, R; Sánchez-Gómez, C; Moreno-Rodríguez, R A; de la Cruz, M V

    1992-07-01

    The processes of cellular migration, cellular differentiation and cellular multiplication are studied, since these are the basic developmental processes upon which teratogenic agents act resulting in congenital malformations. We also carefully analyze the interactions between teratogen-embryo in order to establish adequate parameters for analysis of environmental teratogens, as well as experimental teratogenesis and epidemiology. Information on the pathogenesis of congenital malformations obtained from experimental teratology in an adequate biological model, can be extrapolated to the human. The etiology of congenital malformations resulting from environmental teratogens can only be elucidated through epidemiology, since there is species specificity. Such a study must fulfill the following prerequisites: diagnosis of the congenital malformation, ruling out genetic factors in the family tree and determination of the exact time of exposure to the possible teratogen during the pregnancy.

  15. The impact of antigenic drift of influenza A virus on human herd immunity: Sero-epidemiological study of H1N1 in healthy Thai population in 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanai, Yuta; Boonsathorn, Naphatsawan; Chittaganpitch, Malinee; Bai, Guirong; Li, Yonggang; Kase, Tetsuo; Takahashi, Kazuo; Okuno, Yoshinobu; Jampangern, Wipawee; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi; Sawanpanyalert, Pathom

    2010-07-26

    To examine the effect of the antigenic drift of H1N1 influenza viruses on herd immunity, neutralization antibodies from 744 sera from Thai healthy volunteers in 2008-2009, who had not been vaccinated for at least the last 5 years, were investigated by microneutralization (MN) and hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays. Significantly higher MN titers were observed for the H1N1 Thai isolate in 2006 than in 2008. The results indicate that the antigenically drifted virus effectively escaped herd immunity. Since the low neutralization activity of herd immunity against drifted viruses is an important factor for viruses to spread efficiently, continuous sero-epidemiological study is required for public health.

  16. GESDB: a platform of simulation resources for genetic epidemiology studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Po-Ju; Chung, Ren-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Computer simulations are routinely conducted to evaluate new statistical methods, to compare the properties among different methods, and to mimic the observed data in genetic epidemiology studies. Conducting simulation studies can become a complicated task as several challenges can occur, such as the selection of an appropriate simulation tool and the specification of parameters in the simulation model. Although abundant simulated data have been generated for human genetic research, currently there is no public database designed specifically as a repository for these simulated data. With the lack of such a database, for similar studies, similar simulations may have been repeated, which resulted in redundant work. Thus, we created an online platform, the Genetic Epidemiology Simulation Database (GESDB), for simulation data sharing and discussion of simulation techniques for genetic epidemiology studies. GESDB consists of a database for storing simulation scripts, simulated data and documentation from published articles as well as a discussion forum, which provides a platform for discussion of the simulated data and exchanging simulation ideas. Moreover, summary statistics such as the simulation tools that are most commonly used and datasets that are most frequently downloaded are provided. The statistics will be informative for researchers to choose an appropriate simulation tool or select a common dataset for method comparisons. GESDB can be accessed at http://gesdb.nhri.org.twDatabase URL: http://gesdb.nhri.org.tw.

  17. Recommendations for epidemiological studies on COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakke, P S; Rönmark, E; Eagan, T

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been extensively studied, especially in Western Europe and North America. Few of these data are directly comparable because of differences between the surveys regarding composition of study populations, diagnostic criteria...... of the disease and definitions of the risk factors. Few community studies have examined phenotypes of COPD and included other ways of characterising the disease beyond that of spirometry. The objective of the present Task Force report is to present recommendations for the performance of general population...... studies in COPD in order to facilitate comparable and valid estimates on COPD prevalence by various risk factors. Diagnostic criteria in epidemiological settings, and standardised methods to examine the disease and its potential risk factors are discussed. The paper also offers practical advice...

  18. Epidemiologic Study of Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 Expression in Advanced/Metastatic Gastric Cancer: an Assessment of Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 Status in Tumor Tissue Samples of Gastric and Gastro-Esophageal Junction Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Kyung Won; Jeon, Taeyong; Kim, Sewon; Kim, Sung Soo; Kim, Kwanghee; Suh, Byoung-Jo; Hwang, Sunhwi; Choi, SeongHee; Ryu, Seungwan; Min, Jae Seok; Lee, Young-Joon; Jee, Ye Seob; Chae, Hyeondong

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The Trastuzumab for gastric cancer (GC) trial identified human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) as a predictor of successful treatment with trastuzumab (HER2 receptor targeting agent) among patients with advanced/metastatic GC. To date, the prevalence of HER2 overexpression in the Korean population is unknown. The present study aimed to assess the incidence of HER2 positivity among GC and gastroesophageal (GE) junction cancer samples and the relationship between HER2 overexpression and clinicopathological characteristics in Korean patients. Materials and Methods Tumor samples collected from 1,695 patients with histologically proven GC or GE junction enrolled at 14 different hospitals in Korea were examined. After gathering clinicopathological data of all patients, HER2 status was assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) at each hospital, and IHC 2+ cases were subjected to silver-enhanced in situ hybridization at 3 central laboratories. Results A total of 182 specimens tested positive for HER2, whereas 1,505 tested negative. Therefore, the overall HER2-positive rate in this study was 10.8% (95% confidence interval=9.3%–12.3%). The HER2-positive rate was higher among intestinal-type cases (17.6%) than among other types, and was higher among patients older than 70 years and 50 years of age, compared to other age groups. Conclusions Our evaluation of the HER2 positivity rate (10.8%) among Korean patients with GC and GE junction indicated the necessity of epidemiological data when conducting studies related to HER2 expression in GC and GE junction.

  19. Epidemiological review of toxoplasmosis in humans and animals in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Hotea, I; Olariu, T R; Jones, J L; Dărăbuş, G

    2014-03-01

    Infections by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii are widely prevalent in humans and other animals worldwide. However, information from eastern European countries is sketchy. In many eastern European countries, including Romania, it has been assumed that chronic T. gondii infection is a common cause of infertility and abortion. For this reason, many women in Romania with these problems were needlessly tested for T. gondii infection. Most papers on toxoplasmosis in Romania were published in Romanian in local journals and often not available to scientists in other countries. Currently, the rate of congenital infection in Romania is largely unknown. In addition, there is little information on genetic characteristics of T. gondii or prevalence in animals and humans in Romania. In the present paper we review prevalence, clinical spectrum and epidemiology of T. gondii in humans and animals in Romania. This knowledge should be useful to biologists, public health workers, veterinarians and physicians.

  20. Assessing the first wave of epidemiological studies of nanomaterial workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liou, Saou-Hsing, E-mail: shliou@nhri.org.tw [National Health Research Institutes, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (China); Tsai, Candace S. J. [Colorado State University, Department of Environmental and Radiological Health Science (United States); Pelclova, Daniela [Charles University in Prague, Department of Occupational Medicine, First Faculty of Medicine (Czech Republic); Schubauer-Berigan, Mary K.; Schulte, Paul A. [National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (United States)

    2015-10-15

    The results of early animal studies of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) and air pollution epidemiology suggest that it is important to assess the health of ENM workers. Initial epidemiological studies of workers’ exposure to ENMs (<100 nm) are reviewed and characterized for their study designs, findings, and limitations. Of the 15 studies, 11 were cross-sectional, 4 were longitudinal (1 was both cross-sectional and longitudinal in design), and 1 was a descriptive pilot study. Generally, the studies used biologic markers as the dependent variables. All 11 cross-sectional studies showed a positive relationship between various biomarkers and ENM exposures. Three of the four longitudinal studies showed a negative relationship; the fourth showed positive findings after a 1-year follow-up. Each study considered exposure to ENMs as the independent variable. Exposure was assessed by mass concentration in 10 studies and by particle count in six studies. Six of them assessed both mass and particle concentrations. Some of the studies had limited exposure data because of inadequate exposure assessment. Generally, exposure levels were not very high in comparison to those in human inhalation chamber studies, but there were some exceptions. Most studies involved a small sample size, from 2 to 258 exposed workers. These studies represent the first wave of epidemiological studies of ENM workers. They are limited by small numbers of participants, inconsistent (and in some cases inadequate) exposure assessments, generally low exposures, and short intervals between exposure and effect. Still, these studies are a foundation for future work; they provide insight into where ENM workers are experiencing potentially adverse effects that might be related to ENM exposures.

  1. Influence of radiation exposure on our society and epidemiological study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshimoto, Yasuhiko [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    A brief epidemiological review of risk assessment of radiation was discussed with respect to two periods; before and after the establishment of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation. Selected topics were the studies of atomic bomb survivors and people living in the contaminated areas due to Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident. An ethical view to ensure that potential social benefits of epidemiology are maximized was emphasized as well as a scientific view. On the other hand it should be recognized that there are the limitations of epidemiological studies on the basis of the observations on man in which the animal-experimental setting generally cannot be controlled over. Informing people about the professional confidence and caution of radiation exposure is needed to resolve social concern associated with low dose, low dose rate of radiation. Also there are guidelines for the investigation of clusters of adverse health events. In the future an appropriate strategy for decontamination might be expected to unusual radiation exposure as a consequence of a nuclear power plant accident. Justification for the implementations can be determined only through the assessment of the effects both on the environment and health of humans after the accident. (author)

  2. An epidemiological study of histrionic personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestadt, G; Romanoski, A J; Chahal, R; Merchant, A; Folstein, M F; Gruenberg, E M; McHugh, P R

    1990-05-01

    In conjunction with the Epidemiological Catchment Area (ECA) survey conducted in Baltimore, MD, a two-stage probability sample of community subjects was developed with a full psychiatric examination employing DSM-III criteria. This report details the observations on those subjects diagnosed with the DSM-III diagnosis Histrionic Personality Disorder. The results indicate that this condition can be diagnosed reliably and that it is a valid construct. It has a prevalence of 2.1% in a general population. Males and females are equally affected, suggesting that prior reports of an increased prevalence in females was an expression of ascertainment bias found in hospital-based studies. The diagnosis is associated with clear evidence of disturbance in the emotional, behavioural, and social realms. Individuals with this disorder tend to use health care facilities more frequently than others.

  3. [Epidemiological surveillance of human leptospirosis in Colombia, 2007-2011].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Solmara; Rodríguez, Milena; Paredes, Andrea; Mendivelso, Fredy; Walteros, Diana; Rodríguez, Flor; Realpe, María Elena

    2013-09-01

    Leptospirosis is a reemerging zoonosis of worldwide distribution, caused by a spirochete of the genus Leptospira . In Colombia, the disease represents a major public health issue, and there has been an increased number of cases in humans and animals. To characterize epidemiologically cases of leptospirosis reported to the National Public Health Surveillance in Colombia, and to make an approach to determine the serogroups circulating in the country. A retrospective observational study was designed using a process of monitoring records, which included cases reported by the software SIVIGILA and samples sent to the Microbiology Group of the National Laboratory Network (GM-RNL), for the period 2007-2011. We registered socio-demographic variables and analyzed 17 serogroups of Leptospira . A total of 11,786 records were processed, with 4,621 confirmed cases of leptospirosis. The geographic places which reported the highest number of cases were: Valle del Cauca, Antioquia, Risaralda, Atlántico and Barranquilla, and those with the highest incidence were Guaviare, Risaralda, San Andres, Santa Marta and Barranquilla. The largest number of cases was from urban areas, and more commonly in men (77%), students (19.4%) and housewives (13.6%). A median age of 29 years (IQR 45-19) was observed. There was evidence of 17 serogroups circulating in the country, from which the three most frequent were Australis (24.89%), Hebdomadis (9.33%) and Sejroe (8.0%). In Colombia, the reported cases have improved as well as their final classification, allowing us to determine the Australis serogroup as the most widely circulating one.

  4. Determination of selected perfluorinated alkyl acids and persistent organic pollutants from a small volume human serum sample relevant for epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koponen, Jani; Rantakokko, Panu; Airaksinen, Riikka; Kiviranta, Hannu

    2013-09-27

    A simple and fast method is presented for the determination of selected persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs), a subgroup of per- and polyfluorinated alkyl substances (PFAS) from a single 200μl aliquot of serum. Sample pretreatment starts with dispersive solid phase extraction of POPs to dichloromethane-hexane, which is immediately poured to cleanup column. POPs are eluted from column and concentrated for GC-MS/MS analysis. PFAAs are trapped to dispersant and are then extracted with ammonium acetate in methanol, concentrated and analysed with LC-MS/MS. For POPs, the limit of detection (LOD) ranged from 1.6 to 17pg/ml. Oxychlordane and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane had LODs in the upper end of this range as they were more labile and prone for interferences in the GC-MS/MS. For PFAAs, the LOD range from 0.027 to 0.068ng/ml. For POPs, the accuracy from Standard Reference Materials SRM 1589a and Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP) intercalibration samples range from 74 to 127% and the repeatability (relative standard deviation, RSD%) from 2.0 to 15%. For PFAAs, the accuracy from AMAP samples ranged from 90 to 110% and from LOQ level spiked serum samples from 72 to 133%. Repeatability from AMAP and LOQ samples ranged from 1.6 to 7.3% and 5.5 to 15%, respectively. The presented method is useful in epidemiological studies where only limited amount of serum is available. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Molecular epidemiology of human oral Chagas disease outbreaks in Colombia.

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    Juan David Ramírez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, displays significant genetic variability revealed by six Discrete Typing Units (TcI-TcVI. In this pathology, oral transmission represents an emerging epidemiological scenario where different outbreaks associated to food/beverages consumption have been reported in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador and Venezuela. In Colombia, six human oral outbreaks have been reported corroborating the importance of this transmission route. Molecular epidemiology of oral outbreaks is barely known observing the incrimination of TcI, TcII, TcIV and TcV genotypes. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: High-throughput molecular characterization was conducted performing MLMT (Multilocus Microsatellite Typing and mtMLST (mitochondrial Multilocus Sequence Typing strategies on 50 clones from ten isolates. Results allowed observing the occurrence of TcI, TcIV and mixed infection of distinct TcI genotypes. Thus, a majority of specific mitochondrial haplotypes and allelic multilocus genotypes associated to the sylvatic cycle of transmission were detected in the dataset with the foreseen presence of mitochondrial haplotypes and allelic multilocus genotypes associated to the domestic cycle of transmission. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest the incrimination of sylvatic genotypes in the oral outbreaks occurred in Colombia. We observed patterns of super-infection and/or co-infection with a tailored association with the severe forms of myocarditis in the acute phase of the disease. The transmission dynamics of this infection route based on molecular epidemiology evidence was unraveled and the clinical and biological implications are discussed.

  6. Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) Genotype as a Contributor to Racial/Ethnic Differences in Breast Cancer: A Population-Based Molecular Epidemiologic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    stratified by racial/ethnic group (white, black, Hispanic) and in 5e below. d. Examine whether relationships are confounded by other epidemiologic or...absence of associations in the face of interracial variation in prevalences indicates a complex role of class II genotype to breast cancer incidence...women, suggests a protective association for this allele that could contribute to the lower incidence rates in this group. However, a relationship of

  7. Epidemiological studies of the respiratory effects of air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebowitz, M D

    1996-05-01

    Environmental epidemiological studies of the health effects of air pollution have been major contributors to the understanding of such effects. The chronic effects of atmospheric pollutants have been studied, but, except for the known respiratory effects of particulate matter (PM), they have not been studied conclusively. There are ongoing studies of the chronic effects of certain pollutant classes, such as ozone, acid rain, airborne toxics, and the chemical form of PM (including diesel exhaust). Acute effects on humans due to outdoor and indoor exposures to several gases/fumes and PM have been demonstrated in epidemiological studies. However, the effects of these environmental factors on susceptible individuals are not known conclusively. These acute effects are especially important because they increase the human burden of minor illnesses, increase disability, and are thought to decrease productivity. They may be related to the increased likelihood of chronic disease as well. Further research is needed in this latter area, to determine the contributions of the time-related activities of individuals in different microenvironments (outdoors, in homes, in transit). Key elements of further studies are the assessment of total exposure to the different pollutants (occurring from indoor and outdoor source) and the interactive effects of pollutants. Major research areas include determination of the contributions of indoor sources and of vehicle emissions to total exposure, how to measure such exposures, and how to measure human susceptibility and responses (including those at the cellular and molecular level). Biomarkers of exposures, doses and responses, including immunochemicals, biochemicals and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) adducts, are beginning to promote some basic knowledge of exposure-response, especially the mechanisms. These will be extremely useful additions to standard physiological, immunological, and clinical instruments, and the understanding of biological

  8. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF DRUG INTOXICATION IN CHILDREN

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    F. Cheraghali M. Taymori

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Unintentional drug intoxication is still a major cause of morbidity and mortality in young children. In order to study the epidemiological pattern of childhood drug poisoning in Golestan province, all cases diagnosed with poisoning from 1997 to 2002 in the only pediatric hospital in province were recruited. During this period 563 cases of poisoned children were hospitalized in Taleqani hospital, of these 305 cases were due to drug poisoning. Opium was responsible for more than half of the poisoning cases, and 91% of deaths, among drug intoxicated children. Metoclopramide, benzodiazepines, tricyclic antidepressants and anticonvulsants were among the other frequent causes of poisoning. Neurological symptoms were the most prominent symptoms of poisoning and more than 80% of cases showed some neurological symptoms. Mortality rate among the cases was 3.6% and of total of 11 deaths, 10 were poisoned with opium. About 61% of cases were hospitalized between 24-48 hrs. Most of the poisoning cases in young children were unintentional and in many cases, their parents played a critical role in their intoxication. This role specially is crucial in infants and children under one year of age. Parents in Golestan province use opium widely for symptomatic treatment of routine illnesses in their young children and overdose of opium may cause severe intoxication and even death of the child.

  9. Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology-Nutritional Epidemiology (STROBE-nut: An Extension of the STROBE Statement.

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    Carl Lachat

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Concerns have been raised about the quality of reporting in nutritional epidemiology. Research reporting guidelines such as the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE statement can improve quality of reporting in observational studies. Herein, we propose recommendations for reporting nutritional epidemiology and dietary assessment research by extending the STROBE statement into Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology-Nutritional Epidemiology (STROBE-nut.Recommendations for the reporting of nutritional epidemiology and dietary assessment research were developed following a systematic and consultative process, coordinated by a multidisciplinary group of 21 experts. Consensus on reporting guidelines was reached through a three-round Delphi consultation process with 53 external experts. In total, 24 recommendations for nutritional epidemiology were added to the STROBE checklist.When used appropriately, reporting guidelines for nutritional epidemiology can contribute to improve reporting of observational studies with a focus on diet and health.

  10. Clinico epidemiological study of pitted keratolysis

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    Naik Chandra

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pitted keratolysis is a common dermatological condition. However, very few studies are available on the clinical characteristics and epidemiological features of this disorder from India and abroad. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients from rural area of Kolar at Sri R.L.J.H. and S.N.R. Hospital, presenting with clinically distinctive lesions of pitted keratolysis were included in the study. Cases were interviewed with particular emphasis on triggering factors and findings were recorded. Investigations like Gram′s stain, culture studies, Wood′s ultraviolet light examination, histopathology etc, was done in selected cases to ascertain the clinical diagnosis. Results: Age of the patients varied from 20 to 40 years in 52% with male preponderance in 82% of cases. Duration of the disease varied from 15 days to five years, most of the patients were bare-footed farmers (62% of cases. Hyperhidrosis and pruritus were most frequently observed symptoms in 70% and 60% of patients. Most of the patients presented with the characteristic pits which varied from 1 to 50 in number in 56 % of cases, located predominantly on the pressure bearing areas in 92% of cases and depth of the pits varied from 1 to 2 mm in 60% of cases. Associated skin conditions recorded in present study were fissuring of soles in 38%, psoriasis 10%, dermatophyte infections in 6%, planter warts 6% and Corynebacterial triad and corn in 2% of patients each. Discussion: Affection of bare-footed individuals, male preponderance, presence of hyperhidrosis and occurrence of lesions over pressure bearing areas of soles, observed in the present study were consistent with earlier studies on the subject. However, pruritus as commonest presenting symptom reported by 60% patients in the present study, has not been documented in the previous studies. Conclusion: Pitted keratolysis is fairly common in bare footed male farmers of rural India. The condition is predominantly seen over the

  11. Molecular epidemiology of mastitis pathogens of dairy cattle and comparative relevance to humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadoks, Ruth N; Middleton, John R; McDougall, Scott; Katholm, Jorgen; Schukken, Ynte H

    2011-12-01

    Mastitis, inflammation of the mammary gland, can be caused by a wide range of organisms, including gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, mycoplasmas and algae. Many microbial species that are common causes of bovine mastitis, such as Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Streptococcus agalactiae and Staphylococcus aureus also occur as commensals or pathogens of humans whereas other causative species, such as Streptococcus uberis, Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae or Staphylococcus chromogenes, are almost exclusively found in animals. A wide range of molecular typing methods have been used in the past two decades to investigate the epidemiology of bovine mastitis at the subspecies level. These include comparative typing methods that are based on electrophoretic banding patterns, library typing methods that are based on the sequence of selected genes, virulence gene arrays and whole genome sequencing projects. The strain distribution of mastitis pathogens has been investigated within individual animals and across animals, herds, countries and host species, with consideration of the mammary gland, other animal or human body sites, and environmental sources. Molecular epidemiological studies have contributed considerably to our understanding of sources, transmission routes, and prognosis for many bovine mastitis pathogens and to our understanding of mechanisms of host-adaptation and disease causation. In this review, we summarize knowledge gleaned from two decades of molecular epidemiological studies of mastitis pathogens in dairy cattle and discuss aspects of comparative relevance to human medicine.

  12. HOW TO DESCRIBE THE RESULTS OF OBSERVATIONAL EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDIES

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    S. A. Shal'nova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Principles and fundamentals of proper presentation of observational epidemiological study results are focused. Principles of observational study publication developed by expert epidemiologists (STROBE statement are explained in detail.

  13. Using NASA Satellite Aerosol Optical Depth to Enhance PM2.5 Concentration Datasets for Use in Human Health and Epidemiology Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, A. K.; Weber, S.; Braggio, J.; Talbot, T.; Hall, E.

    2012-12-01

    Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is a criterion air pollutant, and its adverse impacts on human health are well established. Traditionally, studies that analyze the health effects of human exposure to PM2.5 use concentration measurements from ground-based monitors and predicted PM2.5 concentrations from air quality models, such as the U.S. EPA's Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. There are shortcomings associated with these datasets, however. Monitors are not distributed uniformly across the U.S., which causes spatially inhomogeneous measurements of pollutant concentrations. There are often temporal variations as well, since not all monitors make daily measurements. Air quality model output, while spatially and temporally uniform, represents predictions of PM2.5 concentrations, not actual measurements. This study is exploring the potential of combining Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) data from the MODIS instrument on NASA's Terra and Aqua satellites with PM2.5 monitor data and CMAQ predictions to create PM2.5 datasets that more accurately reflect the spatial and temporal variations in ambient PM2.5 concentrations on the metropolitan scale, with the overall goal of enhancing capabilities for environmental public health decision-making. AOD data provide regional information about particulate concentrations that can fill in the spatial and temporal gaps in the national PM2.5 monitor network. Furthermore, AOD is a measurement, so it reflects actual concentrations of particulates in the atmosphere, in contrast to PM2.5 predictions from air quality models. Results will be presented from the Battelle/U.S. EPA statistical Hierarchical Bayesian Model (HBM), which was used to combine three PM2.5 concentration datasets: monitor measurements, AOD data, and CMAQ model predictions. The study is focusing on the Baltimore, MD and New York City, NY metropolitan regions for the period 2004-2006. For each region, combined monitor/AOD/CMAQ PM2.5 datasets generated by the HBM

  14. Recent data on the epidemiology and prophylaxis of human rabies in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sureau, P

    1990-01-01

    Rabies is an animal disease which is transmitted to man only by accident, most often through the bite (more rarely after scratches or licks of mucosa) of a rabid animal, domestic or wild. A good knowledge of the epizootiology of animal rabies is therefore necessary to establish, on solid grounds, the prophylaxis of human rabies. Inter-human transmission of rabies being an exceptional event which will be considered separately, the epidemiology of human rabies mainly studies the sources and circumstances of human exposure to rabid animals, which differ according to the epizootiology of animal rabies in a given country: either enzootic (or hyperenzootic) canine rabies, or enzootic selvatic rabies. It appears that the risk of human rabies is higher in the first situation for two reasons: (i) rabies viruses show an increased virulence due to numerous serial passages in dogs (viruses with short incubation period) and (ii) high frequency of dog-man contacts due to the high density of both populations.

  15. Meta-analysis of observational epidemiological studies: a review.

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, D R

    1992-01-01

    Meta-analyses (integration of findings by quantitative analyses of results of individual studies) are already widely used in the psychological and educational sciences and in the pooling of clinical trial results. Examples of the application of such techniques to the results of observational epidemiological studies are now proliferating. In this paper meta-analysis of the results of observational epidemiological studies is reviewed. Uncritical adoption of techniques used in pooled analyses of...

  16. Epidemiologic approaches to assessing human cancer risk from consuming aquatic food resources from chemically contaminated water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozonoff, D. (Boston Univ. School of Public Health, MA (United States)); Longnecker, M.P. (UCLA School of Public Health, Los Angeles, CA (United States))

    1991-01-01

    Epidemiologic approaches to assessing human cancer risk from contaminated waters must confront the problems of long latency and rarity of the end point (cancer). The latency problem makes determination of diet history more difficult, while the low frequency of cancer as an end point reduces the statistical power of the study. These factors are discussed in relation to the study designs most commonly employed in epidemiology. It is suggested that the use of biomarkers for persistent chemicals may be useful to mitigate the difficulty of determining exposure, while the use of more prevalent and timely end points, such as carcinogen-DNA adducts or oncogene proteins, may make the latency and rarity problems more tractable.

  17. Chromosome surveys of human populations: between epidemiology and anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Chadarevian, Soraya

    2014-09-01

    It is commonly held that after 1945 human genetics turned medical and focussed on the individual rather than on the study of human populations that had become discredited. However, a closer look at the research practices at the time quickly reveals that human population studies, using old and new tools, prospered in this period. The essay focuses on the rise of chromosome analysis as a new tool for the study of human populations. It reviews a broad array of population studies ranging from newborn screening programmes to studies of isolated or 'primitive' people. Throughout, it highlights the continuing role of concerns and opportunities raised by the propagation of atomic energy for civilian and military uses, the collection of large data bases and computers, and the role of international organisations like the World Health Organisation and the International Biological Programme in shaping research agendas and carving out a space for human heredity in the postwar era.

  18. Epidemiology of Human Fascioliasis and Intestinal Helminthes in Rural Areas of Boyer-Ahmad Township, Southwest Iran; A Popu¬lation Based Study

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    Ghasem HOSSEINI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fascioliasis, caused by Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica, is one of the most important plant and water borne disease in Iran. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of fascioliasis and intestinal helminthes in inhabitants of rural areas of Boyer-Ahmad in Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad province in Southwest of Iran.Methods: Stool samples (1025 were collected from inhabitant of 50 randomly selected villages in Boyer-Ahmad Township. Samples were evaluated with modified Telemann and formalin-ethyl acetate methods. Blood samples of Fasciola positive cases were assessed with ELISA and Western blotting. DNA was extracted from Fasciola eggs from stool of positive individuals and evaluated by molecular (PCR method and the PCR products were sequenced and analyzed.Results: Of the 1025 participants, 473 (46.1% were male and 552 (53.9% were female. The mean age of the subjects was 20.25 (±15.86 years. Fasciola eggs were detected in stools of two cases (0.19%. Blood samples were obtained from the Fasciola positive cases and their infection was further confirmed by ELISA and Western blotting. Molecular analysis revealed that both cases are infected with F. hepatica.Furthermore, seven of participants (0.68% were found to be infected with H. nana, 4 cases (0.39% with E. vermicularis, and one case (0.09% with Trichuris trichiura.Conclusion: Findings of this study showed that Boyer-Ahmad district is one of the endemic areas of human fascioliasis in Iran. The study also documented that the rate of helminthic infections in rural areas of the district has drastically declined over the past years. Keyword: Fascioliasis, Prevalence, Helminthes infection, Iran

  19. Fraser syndrome : epidemiological study in a European population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barisic, Ingeborg; Odak, Ljubica; Loane, Maria; Garne, Ester; Wellesley, Diana; Calzolari, Elisa; Dolk, Helen; Addor, Marie-Claude; Arriola, Larraitz; Bergman, Jorieke; Bianca, Sebastiano; Boyd, Patricia A; Draper, Elizabeth S; Gatt, Miriam; Haeusler, Martin; Khoshnood, Babak; Latos-Bielenska, Anna; McDonnell, Bob; Pierini, Anna; Rankin, Judith; Rissmann, Anke; Queisser-Luft, Annette; Verellen-Dumoulin, Christine; Stone, David; Tenconi, Romano

    2013-01-01

    Fraser syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by cryptophthalmos, cutaneous syndactyly, laryngeal, and urogenital malformations. We present a population-based epidemiological study using data provided by the European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies (EUROCAT) network of bi

  20. Estudo epidemiológico da leptospirose bovina e humana na Amazônia oriental brasileira Epidemiologic study of bovine and human leptospirosis in eastern Brazilian Amazon

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    Valéria Stacchini Ferreira Homem

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se o estudo da soroprevalência da leptospirose em bovinos e humanos especificamente em propriedades familiares na região de fronteira agrícola da rodovia Transamazônica, na Amazônia Oriental. A prevalência da leptospirose bovina foi 97% [90,9 - 99,5%] de propriedades com pelo menos um animal positivo na soroaglutinação microscópica para o diagnóstico da leptospirose. Em 61,2% dos rebanhos o sorotipo hardjo foi apontado como o mais provável, em 9% deles o sorotipo bratislava e em 4,5% o shermani. A prevalência sorológica da leptospirose humana foi 32,8% [23,4 - 43,5%] de núcleos familiares com pelo menos um indivíduo positivo na soroaglutinação microscópica para o diagnóstico da leptospirose. Em 9% dos núcleos familiares o sorotipo bratislava foi apontado como o mais provável, em 6% deles o sorotipo hardjo e em 4,5% o grippotyphosa. Foi discutido o impacto desses achados sobre a produção animal e saúde pública na região e feitas sugestões para minorar o problema.The seroprevalence study for leptospirosis in bovines and humans was realized in family holder farms along the Transamazon Highway. The prevalence of bovine leptospirosis was 97% [90.9 - 99.5%] of farms with at least one positive animal according to microscopic agglutination test for the leptospirosis diagnostic. In 61.2% of the tested herds, the serovar hardjo was the most common, followed by the serovar bratislava (9% and the serovar shermani (4.5%. The serologic prevalence of leptospirosis in humans was 32.8% [23.4 - 43.5%] in family groups with at least one positive individual according to microscopic agglutination test for the leptospirosis diagnostic. In 9% of family groups, the serovar bratislava was the most common, while serovar hardjo and grippotyphosa accounted for 6% and 4.5%, respectively. The impact of these results is discussed in relation to animal production and public health. Suggestions have been proposed in order to improve the

  1. Epidemiology and history of human parasitic diseases in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neghina, Raul; Neghina, Adriana M; Marincu, Iosif; Iacobiciu, Ioan

    2011-06-01

    Intestinal parasitic diseases such as enterobiasis, giardiasis, and ascariasis are detected most frequently in Romania, but their importance is definitely surpassed by trichinellosis, cystic echinococcosis, and toxoplasmosis. Malaria was common until its eradication in 1963, and only imported cases are reported nowadays. The aim of this review was to bring together essential data on the epidemiology and history of human parasitoses in Romania. Information on 43 parasitic diseases was collected from numerous sources, most of them unavailable abroad or inaccessible to the international scientific community. Over time, Romanian people of all ages have paid a significant tribute to the pathogenic influences exerted by the parasites. Sanitary and socio-economical consequences of the parasites diseases have great negative impact on the quality of life of affected individuals and the overall well-being of the population. Implementation of efficient public health measures and informative campaigns for the masses as well as changing the inadequate habits that are deeply rooted in the population are mandatory for cutting successfully this Gordian knot.

  2. [Hospital Infection Epidemiology Nederland (ZIEN): from club to study group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbroucke-Grauls, C M; Kluytmans, J A; Voss, A

    1997-08-09

    Medical care is increasingly a technical business, and hospitalised patients are more and more susceptible to infections, notably due to the application of aggressive therapies for all kinds of disorders. As a consequence the epidemiology of hospital infections requires serious attention. Following the initiative of some medical microbiologists in the Netherlands, a study group was established to tackle this epidemiology and to initiate relevant research (Working party on Hospital Infections and Epidemiology of the Netherlands; WHEN). Recent subjects include fungemia in hospitalised patients, risk factors for acquiring methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus during a stay abroad, and prevalence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci.

  3. Epidemiological study on the influence of pig-derived Ascaris to the transmission of human ascariasis%猪蛔虫对人群蛔虫感染和传播作用的实验流行病学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭卫东; 周宪民

    2001-01-01

    Objective An experimental epidemiological study was designed to investigate possible relations of pig-derived Ascaris to the transmission of human ascariasis which might be caused by cross-infection between the pig and humans. Methods In Xinjian County, Jiangxi province, two adjacent villages, Laozhi and Panzhi, with similar baseline of ascariasis in pig and human populations were selected as the study sites with a one-year longitudinal epidemiological follow-up study. People in the two villages received mass chemotherapy. Pigs received mass chemotherapy only in Panzhi village and was twice repeated with two months interval, while pigs in Laozhi village were not treated at all. In the following year after treatment on humans, ascariasis among villagers was studied cross-sectionally five times with Kato-katz technique.Results No significant difference of the re-infection patterns of human ascariasis was found between the two villages in terms of prevalence and intensity during the following year in all the five surveys (χ2<0.658,F<1.658 and P>0.1).Conclusion The results suggested that pig-derived Ascaris were mainly transmitted among pigs but had no important role on the transmission of human ascariasis. The results were in good accordance with the findings through a recent molecular genetic research on the local human-and pig-derived Ascaris worms. Possible confounding factors were discussed.%目的 了解在人蛔虫和猪蛔虫感染并存的农村社区内因交叉感染发生的可能性,猪蛔虫对人群蛔虫感染传播的作用。方法 选择两个基线情况基本相同的自然村,即江西省新建县樵舍乡蔓湖行政村的老支村和畔支村为实验现场。在对两村所有人群进行相同药物治疗处理的同时,对其中1个村的猪群也进行治疗,并以约2个月的间隔重复对猪治疗2次,但对另一村的猪群不作治疗处理。在随后1年内,约每2个月1次,用改良加藤法观察

  4. An Exercise in Molecular Epidemiology: Human Rhinovirus Prevalence and Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, Catherine J.; Hall, David J.

    2011-01-01

    Human rhinovirus (HRV) is one of the most common human respiratory pathogens and is responsible for the majority of upper respiratory illnesses. Recently, a phylogeny was constructed from all known American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) HRV sequences. From this study, three HRV classifications (HRVA, HRVB, and HRVC) were determined and techniques…

  5. An Exercise in Molecular Epidemiology: Human Rhinovirus Prevalence and Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, Catherine J.; Hall, David J.

    2011-01-01

    Human rhinovirus (HRV) is one of the most common human respiratory pathogens and is responsible for the majority of upper respiratory illnesses. Recently, a phylogeny was constructed from all known American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) HRV sequences. From this study, three HRV classifications (HRVA, HRVB, and HRVC) were determined and techniques…

  6. An epidemiological study of dengue in Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikram, Kumar; Nagpal, B N; Pande, Veena; Srivastava, Aruna; Saxena, Rekha; Anvikar, Anup; Das, Aparup; Singh, Himmat; Anushrita; Gupta, Sanjeev K; Tuli, N R; Telle, Olivier; Yadav, N K; Valecha, Neena; Paul, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Delhi, the capital of India, is an important metropolitan hub for major financial and sociocultural exchanges, offering challenging threats to current public health infrastructure. In recent past, an upsurge of dengue cases in Delhi posed a significant menace to the existing dengue control policies. To reform the control strategies and take timely intervention to prevent future epidemics, an epidemiological study on the proportion of both asymptomatic and symptomatic dengue infections in selected population was conducted. The aim of the study was to investigate and assess the epidemiology of dengue infection and to estimate the proportion of asymptomatic and symptomatic dengue infections in Delhi. In this study, around 50 confirmed dengue cases, a total of 2125 individuals as household and neighbourhood contacts, with or without dengue febrile illness, were finger pricked and serologically detected as dengue positive or negative using SD Duo Bioline Rapid Diagnostic Test (SD Inc, Korea) with NS1, IgM & IgG combo test, which detected dengue virus antigen and antibodies to dengue virus in human blood. Out of 2125 individuals, 768 (36.1%) individuals showed positive dengue test with past (25.5%), primary (1.88%) or secondary (8.8%) dengue infections. Higher percentage of IgG was found in age groups 15-24 years and 25-50 years (36% each). Infants (dengue infection was either primary or secondary. On the basis of these results, it may be hypothesized that there are large number of asymptomatic dengue infections in the community as compared to reported symptomatic cases in Delhi. For the effective control of dengue transmission in such community like Delhi where dengue epidemics have frequently been encountered, it is essential to ascertain the proportion of asymptomatic dengue infections which may act as a reservoir for dengue transmission, as well as threat for developing dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF).

  7. Epidemiology of Human Plague in the United States, 1900–2012

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-02-23

    Dr. Kiersten Kugeler discusses the Epidemiology of Human Plague in the United States.  Created: 2/23/2015 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/23/2015.

  8. Transcriptomic identification of ADH1B as a novel candidate gene for obesity and insulin resistance in human adipose tissue in Mexican Americans from the Veterans Administration Genetic Epidemiology Study (VAGES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winnier, Deidre A; Fourcaudot, Marcel; Norton, Luke; Abdul-Ghani, Muhammad A; Hu, Shirley L; Farook, Vidya S; Coletta, Dawn K; Kumar, Satish; Puppala, Sobha; Chittoor, Geetha; Dyer, Thomas D; Arya, Rector; Carless, Melanie; Lehman, Donna M; Curran, Joanne E; Cromack, Douglas T; Tripathy, Devjit; Blangero, John; Duggirala, Ravindranath; Göring, Harald H H; DeFronzo, Ralph A; Jenkinson, Christopher P

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a complex metabolic disease that is more prevalent in ethnic groups such as Mexican Americans, and is strongly associated with the risk factors obesity and insulin resistance. The goal of this study was to perform whole genome gene expression profiling in adipose tissue to detect common patterns of gene regulation associated with obesity and insulin resistance. We used phenotypic and genotypic data from 308 Mexican American participants from the Veterans Administration Genetic Epidemiology Study (VAGES). Basal fasting RNA was extracted from adipose tissue biopsies from a subset of 75 unrelated individuals, and gene expression data generated on the Illumina BeadArray platform. The number of gene probes with significant expression above baseline was approximately 31,000. We performed multiple regression analysis of all probes with 15 metabolic traits. Adipose tissue had 3,012 genes significantly associated with the traits of interest (false discovery rate, FDR ≤ 0.05). The significance of gene expression changes was used to select 52 genes with significant (FDR ≤ 10(-4)) gene expression changes across multiple traits. Gene sets/Pathways analysis identified one gene, alcohol dehydrogenase 1B (ADH1B) that was significantly enriched (P obesity and insulin resistance and provide evidence for a novel genetic regulatory mechanism for human metabolic diseases related to these traits.

  9. Epidemiologic study on penile cancer in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano A. Favorito

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To assess epidemiologic characteristics of penile cancer in Brazil. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From May 2006 to June 2007, a questionnaire was distributed to all Brazilian urologists. Their patients' clinical and epidemiological data was analyzed (age, race, place of residence, history of sexually transmitted diseases, tobacco smoking, performance of circumcision, type of hospital service, as well as the time between the appearance of the symptoms and the diagnosis, the pathological characteristics of the tumor (histological type, degree, localization and size of lesion, stage of disease, the type of treatment performed and the present state of the patient. RESULTS: 283 new cases of penile cancer in Brazil were recorded. The majority of these cases occurred in the north and northeast (53.02% and southeast (45.54% regions. The majority of patients (224, or 78.96% were more than 46 years of age while only 21 patients (7.41% were less than 35 years of age. Of the 283 patients presenting penile cancer, 171 (60.42% had phimosis with the consequent impossibility to expose the glans. A prior medical history positive for HPV infection was reported in 18 of the 283 cases (6.36%. In 101 patients (35.68% tobacco smoking was reported. The vast majority of the cases (n = 207; 73.14% presented with tumors localized in the glans and prepuce. In 48 cases (16.96% the tumor affected the glans, the prepuce and the corpus penis; in 28 cases (9.89% the tumor affected the entire penis. The majority of the patients (n = 123; 75.26% presented with T1 or T2; only 9 patients (3.18% presented with T4 disease. CONCLUSION: Penile cancer is a very frequent pathology in Brazil, predominantly affecting low income, white, uncircumcised patients, living in the north and northeast regions of the country.

  10. Bat Rabies in France: A 24-Year Retrospective Epidemiological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Robardet, Emmanuelle; Arthur, Laurent; Larcher, Gérald; Harbusch, Christine; Servat, Alexandre; Cliquet, Florence

    2014-01-01

    Since bat rabies surveillance was first implemented in France in 1989, 48 autochthonous rabies cases without human contamination have been reported using routine diagnosis methods. In this retrospective study, data on bats submitted for rabies testing were analysed in order to better understand the epidemiology of EBLV-1 in bats in France and to investigate some epidemiological trends. Of the 3176 bats submitted for rabies diagnosis from 1989 to 2013, 1.96% (48/2447 analysed) were diagnosed positive. Among the twelve recognised virus species within the Lyssavirus genus, two species were isolated in France. 47 positive bats were morphologically identified as Eptesicus serotinus and were shown to be infected by both the EBLV-1a and the EBLV-1b lineages. Isolation of BBLV in Myotis nattereri was reported once in the north-east of France in 2012. The phylogenetic characterisation of all 47 French EBLV-1 isolates sampled between 1989 and 2013 and the French BBLV sample against 21 referenced partial nucleoprotein sequences confirmed the low genetic diversity of EBLV-1 despite its extensive geographical range. Statistical analysis performed on the serotine bat data collected from 1989 to 2013 showed seasonal variation of rabies occurrence with a significantly higher proportion of positive samples detected during the autumn compared to the spring and the summer period (34% of positive bats detected in autumn, 15% in summer, 13% in spring and 12% in winter). In this study, we have provided the details of the geographical distribution of EBLV-1a in the south-west of France and the north-south division of EBLV-1b with its subdivisions into three phylogenetic groups: group B1 in the north-west, group B2 in the centre and group B3 in the north-east of France. PMID:24892287

  11. Human behaviour and the epidemiology of parasitic zoonoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, Calum N L

    2005-10-01

    The behaviour of Homo sapiens has a pivotal role to play in the macro and microepidemiology of emerging or re-emerging parasitic zoonoses. Changing demographics and the concomitant alterations to the environment, climate, technology, land use and changes in human behavior, converge to favour the emergence and spread of parasitic zoonoses. The recent unprecedented movements of people, their animals and their parasites around the world, introduce and mix genes, cultural preferences, customs, and behavioral patterns. The increasing proclivity for eating meat, fish, crabs, shrimp, molluscs raw, undercooked, smoked, pickled or dried facilitates a number of protozoan (Toxoplasma), trematode (Fasciola sp., Paragonimus spp., Clonorchis sp., Opisthorchis spp., Heterophyes sp., Metagonimus sp., Echinostoma spp., Nanophyetus sp.) cestode (Taenia spp, Diphyllobothrum sp.) and nematode (Trichinella spp., Capillaria spp., Gnathostoma spp., Anisakis sp., Parastrongylus spp.) caused zoonoses. The increasing world population and the inability to keep pace with the provision of adequate sanitation and clean, safe drinking water, has led to an increased importance of waterborne zoonoses, such as those caused by Giardia, Cryptosporidium and Toxoplasma. Our close relationship with and the numerous uses to which we put companion animals and their ubiquitous distribution has resulted in dogs and cats unwitting participation in sharing over 60 parasite species including: Giardia, Cryptosporidium, Toxoplasma, most foodborne trematode species, Diphyllobothrum, Echinococcus spp., Ancylostoma and Toxocara. Changing human behaviour through education, to encourage the proper cooking of food, which may have cultural and social significance, will remain as challenging as controlling stray and feral pet populations, improving hygiene levels and the provision of safe drinking water and the proper use of sanctuary facilities. Long pre-patent periods and the normally insidious sub-clinical nature of

  12. Epidemiological study air disaster in Amsterdam (ESADA: study design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bramsen Inge

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 1992, a cargo aircraft crashed into apartment buildings in Amsterdam, killing 43 victims and destroying 266 apartments. In the aftermath there were speculations about the cause of the crash, potential exposures to hazardous materials due to the disaster and the health consequences. Starting in 2000, the Epidemiological Study Air Disaster in Amsterdam (ESADA aimed to assess the long-term health effects of occupational exposure to this disaster on professional assistance workers. Methods/Design Epidemiological study among all the exposed professional fire-fighters and police officers who performed disaster-related task(s, and hangar workers who sorted the wreckage of the aircraft, as well as reference groups of their non-exposed colleagues who did not perform any disaster-related tasks. The study took place, on average, 8.5 years after the disaster. Questionnaires were used to assess details on occupational exposure to the disaster. Health measures comprised laboratory assessments in urine, blood and saliva, as well as self-reported current health measures, including health-related quality of life, and various physical and psychological symptoms. Discussion In this paper we describe and discuss the design of the ESADA. The ESADA will provide additional scientific knowledge on the long-term health effects of technological disasters on professional workers.

  13. BREATH MEASUREMENT OF TOTAL BODY BURDEN OF JP-8 JET FUEL FOR EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    A complex epidemiological investigation of the effects of acute exposure to JP-8 jet fuel in the U.S. Air Force was performed through the study of about 350 human subjects across six Air Force bases. The focus was on fuels system maintenance personnel as the "exposed"...

  14. The epidemiology of human papillomavirus in HIV-negative and HIV-infected men who have sex with men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, S.H.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis studied the epidemiology and seroepidemiology of human papillomavirus (HPV) among HIV-negative and HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Anal, penile, and oral HPV prevalence and incidence were high, in particular among HIV-infected MSM. Clearance of

  15. The epidemiology of human papillomavirus in HIV-negative and HIV-infected men who have sex with men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, S.H.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis studied the epidemiology and seroepidemiology of human papillomavirus (HPV) among HIV-negative and HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Anal, penile, and oral HPV prevalence and incidence were high, in particular among HIV-infected MSM. Clearance of

  16. The false-positive to false-negative ratio in epidemiologic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannidis, John P A; Tarone, Robert; McLaughlin, Joseph K

    2011-07-01

    The ratio of false-positive to false-negative findings (FP:FN ratio) is an informative metric that warrants further evaluation. The FP:FN ratio varies greatly across different epidemiologic areas. In genetic epidemiology, it has varied from very high values (possibly even >100:1) for associations reported in candidate-gene studies to very low values (1:100 or lower) for associations with genome-wide significance. The substantial reduction over time in the FP:FN ratio in human genome epidemiology has corresponded to the routine adoption of stringent inferential criteria and comprehensive, agnostic reporting of all analyses. Most traditional fields of epidemiologic research more closely follow the practices of past candidate gene epidemiology, and thus have high FP:FN ratios. Further, FP and FN results do not necessarily entail the same consequences, and their relative importance may vary in different settings. This ultimately has implications for what is the acceptable FP:FN ratio and for how the results of published epidemiologic studies should be presented and interpreted.

  17. Human Genome Epidemiology : A scientific foundation for using genetic information to improve health and prevent disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Boccia

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Human health is determined by the interplay of genetic factors and the environment. In this context the recent advances in human genomics are expected to play a central role in medicine and public health by providing genetic information for disease prediction and prevention.

    After the completion of the human genome sequencing, a fundamental step will be represented by the translation of these discoveries into meaningful actions to improve health and prevent diseases, and the field of epidemiology plays a central role in this effort. These are some of the issues addressed by Human Genome Epidemiology –A scientific foundation for using genetic information to improve health and prevent disease, a volume edited by Prof. M. Khoury, Prof. J. Little, Prof.W. Burke and published by Oxford university Press 2004.

    This book describes the important role that epidemiological methods play in the continuum from gene discovery to the development and application of genetic tests. The Authors calls this continuum human genome epidemiology (HuGE to denote an evolving field of inquiry that uses systematic applications of epidemiological methods to assess the impact of human genetic variation on health and disease.

    The book is divided into four sections and it is structured to allow readers to proceed systematically from the fundamentals of genome technology and discovery, to the epidemiological approaches, to gene characterisation, to the evaluation of genetic tests and their use in health services and public health.

  18. Comparison of cancer risks projected from animal bioassays to epidemiologic studies of acrylonitrile-exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, C E; Starr, T B

    1993-10-01

    Bioassay findings have demonstrated that acrylonitrile (ACN) is a rodent carcinogen, but the available epidemiologic evidence provides little support for the human carcinogenicity of ACN. This discordance between laboratory animal and human study findings is explored by determining post hoc the statistical power of 11 epidemiologic studies of ACN-exposed workers to detect the all-site and brain cancer excesses that are projected from rodent drinking water bioassay data. At reasonable estimates of the level and duration of exposures among the occupational cohorts, a majority of the human studies had sufficient power (> 80%) to detect the projected excesses, yet such responses were consistently absent. We conclude, subject to certain caveats, that the upper bound estimate of ACN's inhalation cancer potency of 1.5 x 10(-4) per ppm is too high to be consistent with the human ACN experience.

  19. An epidemiological approach to characterise the human exposure pathways in a contaminated estuarine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Ausenda; Fernandes, Ana Paula; Paixão, Eleonora; Caeiro, Sandra; Matias-Dias, Carlos

    2017-12-01

    This study's aim was to develop and implement an integrative epidemiologic cross-sectional study that allows identifying and characterising exposure pathways of populations living and working on the shores of a contaminated estuarine environment. Population residing in Carrasqueira, located on the Sado estuary with known contaminated areas was compared to another population on a noncontaminated estuary (Vila Nova de Mil Fontes - VNMF), considered a nonexposed population. Simple random samples of individuals were selected in each study population from the National Health Service Lists: 140 individuals were selected in Carrasqueira and 219 in VNMF. Participation rates were higher in the exposed group (62.5%, n=102 in Carrasqueira and 48.3%, n=100 individuals in VNMF). The same structured questionnaire was used in both populations, including questions on occupational activities, leisure activities, consumption of food (including fish and mollusks from the estuary) and use of water for human intake and agriculture. Results showed that a significantly higher proportion of Carrasqueira participants reported doing tasks in their job that promote direct (48.8% vs 1.2% in VNMF, p-valuecontamination from the contaminated estuarine environment. The study design and the selection of both populations were adequate for this type of epidemiologic study of potential routes of human contamination in a mixture of contaminated estuarine environment and can be used in other estuarine areas with similar environmental risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL RELATIONSHIPS AMONG STRAINS OF Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica, ISOLATED FROM HUMANS, POULTRY AND FOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Méndez

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Human gastro-enteritis caused by Salmonella enterica is a major health problem in developing countries such as Colombia. In some parts of Colombia, the disease is endemic, and its incidence appears to be increasing, with outbreaks and sporadic cases of diarrhea becoming more frequent. At this time, it is not very clear if either poultry or food is responsible for human salmonellosis contamination in Colombia. The objectives of the present study were to analyze the Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiles (PFGEPs of Salmonella enterica from human patients, poultry and food found in Colombia and to determine the epidemiologic associations between these strains. Twenty-nine isolates of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica were isolated from: 10 pediatric patients in Bogotá, D.C., 10 different types of food and 9 chickens. All isolates were analyzed by means of the molecular technique XbaI PFGE. Eleven different patterns were observed. These patterns consisted of 12-17 restriction fragments, each with a molecular size of 30-800 kb. The results suggested that Salmonella enterica was transmitted from poultry and food to humans. Surprisingly, among the strains investigated it was impossible to find a direct linkage between poultry and food, indicating, either that Salmonella was incorporated into the food during food processing by handlers, or that foods other than poultry products were the source of human infection. This study about the molecular epidemiology of Salmonella enterica in Colombia provided new information about possible means of human contamination, and should permit health institutions to take adequate measures to avoid sporadic cases and outbreaks of salmonellosis.

  1. Toxicology of microcystins with reference to cases of human intoxications and epidemiological investigations of exposures to cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svirčev, Zorica; Drobac, Damjana; Tokodi, Nada; Mijović, Biljana; Codd, Geoffrey A; Meriluoto, Jussi

    2017-02-01

    Blooms of cyanobacteria have been documented throughout history, all over the world. Mass populations of these organisms typically present hazards to human health and are known for the production of a wide range of highly toxic metabolites-cyanotoxins, of which among the most common and most investigated are the microcystins. The toxicity of the family of microcystin congeners to animal and cell models has received much attention; however, less is known about their negative effects on human health, whether via acute or chronic exposure. Useful information may be acquired through epidemiological studies since they can contribute to knowledge of the relationships between cyanotoxins and human health in environmental settings. The aim of this review is to compile and evaluate the available published reports and epidemiological investigations of human health incidents associated with exposure to mass populations of cyanobacteria from throughout the world and to identify the occurrence and likely role of microcystins in these events. After an initial screening of 134 publications, 42 publications (25 on the chronic and 17 on the acute effects of cyanotoxins) describing 33 cases of poisonings by cyanobacterial toxins in 11 countries were reviewed. The countries were Australia, China, Sri Lanka, Namibia, Serbia, Sweden, UK, Portugal, Brazil, USA, and Canada. At least 36 publications link cyanobacteria/cyanotoxins including microcystins to adverse human health effects. The studies were published between 1960 and 2016. Although the scattered epidemiological evidence does not provide a definitive conclusion, it can serve as additional information for the medical assessment of the role of microcystins in cancer development and other human health problems. This paper discusses the major cases of cyanotoxin poisonings as well as the strengths, weaknesses, and importance of the performed epidemiological research. This study also proposes some recommendations for future

  2. Human exposure to chemical mixtures: Challenges for the integration of toxicology with epidemiology data in risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Antonio F; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M

    2017-05-01

    Little is known about the potential adverse effects from longterm exposure to complex mixtures at low doses, close to health-based reference values. Traditional chemical-specific risk assessment based on animal testing may be insufficient and the lack of toxicological studies on chemical mixtures remains a major regulatory challenge. Hence, new methodologies on cumulative risk assessment are being developed but still present major limitations. Evaluation of chemical mixture effects requires an integrated and systematic approach and close collaboration across different scientific fields, particularly toxicology, epidemiology, exposure science, risk assessment and statistics for a proper integration of data from all these disciplines. Well designed and conducted epidemiological studies can take advantage of this new paradigm and can provide insight to support the correlation between humans low-dose exposures and diseases, thus avoiding the uncertainty associated with extrapolation across species. In this regard, human epidemiology studies may play a significant role in the new vision of toxicity testing. However, this type of information has not been fully considered in risk assessment, mainly due to the inherent limitations of epidemiologic studies. An integrated approach of in vivo, in vitro and in silico data, together with systematic reviews or meta-analysis of high quality epidemiological studies will improve the robustness of risk assessment of chemical mixtures and will provide a stronger basis for regulatory decisions. The ultimate goal is that experimental and mechanistic data can lend support and biological plausibility to the human epidemiological observations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cancer prevention by green tea: evidence from epidemiologic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jian-Min

    2013-12-01

    In contrast to the consistent results of an inhibitory effect of green tea extracts and tea polyphenols on the development and growth of carcinogen-induced tumors in experimental animal models, results from human studies are mixed. Both observational and intervention studies have provided evidence in support of a protective role of green tea intake in the development of oral-digestive tract cancer or an inhibitory role of oral supplementation of green tea extract on a precancerous lesion of oral cavity. Evidence in support of green tea intake against the development of liver cancer risk is limited and inconsistent. An inverse association between green tea intake and lung cancer risk has been observed among never smokers but not among smokers. Although observational studies do not support a beneficial role of tea intake against the development of prostate cancer, several phase 2 clinical trials have shown an inhibitory effect of green tea extract against the progression of prostate premalignant lesions to malignant tumors. Prospective epidemiologic studies so far have not provided evidence for a protective effect of green tea consumption on breast cancer development. Current data neither confirm nor refute a definitive cancer-preventive role of green tea intake. Large randomized intervention trials on the efficacy of green tea polyphenols or extracts are required before a recommendation for green tea consumption for cancer prevention should be made.

  4. Invited commentary: recruiting for epidemiologic studies using social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allsworth, Jenifer E

    2015-05-15

    Social media-based recruitment for epidemiologic studies has the potential to expand the demographic and geographic reach of investigators and identify potential participants more cost-effectively than traditional approaches. In fact, social media are particularly appealing for their ability to engage traditionally "hard-to-reach" populations, including young adults and low-income populations. Despite their great promise as a tool for epidemiologists, social media-based recruitment approaches do not currently compare favorably with gold-standard probability-based sampling approaches. Sparse data on the demographic characteristics of social media users, patterns of social media use, and appropriate sampling frames limit our ability to implement probability-based sampling strategies. In a well-conducted study, Harris et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2015;181(10):737-746) examined the cost-effectiveness of social media-based recruitment (advertisements and promotion) in the Contraceptive Use, Pregnancy Intention, and Decisions (CUPID) Study, a cohort study of 3,799 young adult Australian women, and the approximate representativeness of the CUPID cohort. Implications for social media-based recruitment strategies for cohort assembly, data accuracy, implementation, and human subjects concerns are discussed.

  5. Epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kyle M; Ohgaki, Hiroko; Wrensch, Margaret R

    2016-01-01

    More than 250,000 new cases of primary malignant brain tumors are diagnosed annually worldwide, 77% of which are gliomas. A small proportion of gliomas are caused by the inheritance of rare high-penetrance genetic variants or high-dose radiation. Since 2009, inherited genetic variants in 10 regions near eight different genes have been consistently associated with glioma risk via genome-wide association studies. Most of these variants increase glioma risk by 20-40%, but two have higher relative risks. One on chromosome 8 increases risk of IDH-mutated gliomas sixfold and another that affects TP53 function confers a 2.5-fold increased risk of glioma. Functions of some of the other risk variants are known or suspected, but future research will determine functions of other risk loci. Recent progress also has been made in defining subgroups of glioma based on acquired alterations within tumors. Allergy history has been consistently associated with reduced glioma risk, though the mechanisms have not yet been clarified. Future studies will need to be large enough so that environmental and constitutive genetic risk factors can be examined within molecularly defined, etiologically homogeneous subgroups.

  6. Epidemiological Study of Greek University Students' Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kounenou, Kalliope; Koutra, Aikaterini; Katsiadrami, Aristea; Diacogiannis, Georgios

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, 805 Greek students participated by filling in self-report questionnaires studying depression (Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale), general health status (General Health Questionnaire), general psychopathology (Symptom Checklist-90-R), and personal demographic features. Some of the more prevalent findings…

  7. Individual predisposition, household clustering and risk factors for human infection with Ascaris lumbricoides: new epidemiological insights.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Walker

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Much of our current understanding of the epidemiology of Ascaris lumbricoides infections in humans has been acquired by analyzing worm count data. These data are collected by treating infected individuals with anthelmintics so that worms are expelled intact from the gastrointestinal tract. Analysis of such data established that individuals are predisposed to infection with few or many worms and members of the same household tend to harbor similar numbers of worms. These effects, known respectively as individual predisposition and household clustering, are considered characteristic of the epidemiology of ascariasis. The mechanisms behind these phenomena, however, remain unclear. In particular, the impact of heterogeneous individual exposures to infectious stages has not been thoroughly explored. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Bayesian methods were used to fit a three-level hierarchical statistical model to A. lumbricoides worm counts derived from a three-round chemo-expulsion study carried out in Dhaka, Bangladesh. The effects of individual predisposition, household clustering and household covariates of the numbers of worms per host (worm burden were considered simultaneously. Individual predisposition was found to be of limited epidemiological significance once household clustering had been accounted for. The degree of intra-household variability among worm burdens was found to be reduced by approximately 58% when household covariates were included in the model. Covariates relating to decreased affluence and quality of housing construction were associated with a statistically significant increase in worm burden. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Heterogeneities in the exposure of individuals to infectious eggs have an important role in the epidemiology of A. lumbricoides infection. The household covariates identified as being associated with worm burden provide valuable insights into the source of these heterogeneities although above all

  8. Clinical-epidemiological study of leptospirosis in humans and reservoirs in Yucatán, México Estudio clínico-epidemiológico de leptospirosis en humanos y reservorios en Yucatán, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio VADO-SOLÍS

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available A leptospirosis clinical-epidemiological study was made in humans and reservoirs in the state of Yucatán, México. Interviews and serological analyses were made on 400 persons from an open population, 439 probable cases of leptospirosis and 1060 animal reservoirs (cows, pigs, dogs, rats and opossums. IgM Leptospira DipstickTM and Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT was used to detect human antibodies to leptospiras and serovar respectively. Leptospirosis incidence in humans was 2.2/100,000 inhab. in 1998, 0.7/100,000 in 1999 and 0.9/100,000 in 2000. Overall seroprevalence was 14.2%, relatively unchanged from seroprevalences observed 20 years ago. Highest seropositivity was found in people over 56 years of age, predominating males over females. Predominant serovars in the open population were tarassovi, hardjo, pomona and panama. Leptospirosis cases were most frequent in rural areas, and the anicteric course predominated over the icteric. The panama, icterohaemorrhagiae and pomona serovars predominated in both anicteric and icteric courses. Dogs, pigs and rodents had the highest seropositivity among the reservoirs. Contact with rodents and natural water sources were significant factors (p £ 0.05. Human cases (74% occurred during the rainy season. It is concluded that leptospirosis is still a serious illness with important clinical and epidemiological implications in the state of Yucatán, Mexico.Un estudio clínico-epidemiológico de leptospirosis fue realizado en humanos y reservorios en el estado de Yucatán, México. Se entrevistaron y analizaron mediante serología 400 personas en población abierta, 439 pacientes sospechosos y 1060 reservorios (bovinos, cerdos, perros, roedores y zarigüeyas. En humanos para la detección de anticuerpos se utilizó IgM Dipstick LeptospiraTM y la prueba de aglutinación microscópica (MAT para detectar serovar. La incidencia en humanos fue de 2.2/100,000, 0.7/100,000 y 0.9/100,000 habitantes para los a

  9. Avian influenza A (H7N9) virus infection in humans: epidemiology, evolution, and pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Matloob

    2014-12-01

    New human influenza A virus strains regularly emerge causing seasonal epidemics and occasional pandemics. Lately, several zoonotic avian influenza A strains have been reported to directly infect humans. In early 2013, a novel avian influenza A virus (H7N9) strain was discovered in China to cause severe respiratory disease in humans. Since then, over 450 human cases of H7N9 infection have been discovered and 165 of them have died. Multiple epidemiological, phylogenetic, in vivo, and in vitro studies have been done to determine the origin and pathogenesis of novel H7N9 strain. This article reviews the literature related to the epidemiology, evolution, and pathogenesis of the H7N9 strain since its discovery in February 2013 till August 2014. The data available so far indicate that H7N9 was originated by a two-step reassortment process in birds and transmitted to humans through direct contact with live-bird markets. H7N9 is a low-pathogenic avian virus and contains several molecular signatures for adaptation in mammals. The severity of the respiratory disease caused by novel H7N9 virus in humans can be partly attributed to the age, sex, and underlying medical conditions of the patients. A universal influenza vaccine is not available, though several strain-specific H7N9 candidate vaccine viruses have been developed. Further, novel H7N9 virus is resistant to antiviral drug amantadine and some H7N9 isolates have acquired the resistance to neuraminidase-inhibitors. Therefore, constant surveillance and prompt control measures combined with novel research approaches to develop alternative and effective anti-influenza strategies are needed to overcome influenza A virus.

  10. Epidemiology of Human Fascioliasis and Intestinal Helminthes in Rural Areas of Boyer-Ahmad Township, Southwest Iran; A Population Based Study

    OpenAIRE

    HOSSEINI, Ghasem; Bahador SARKARI; Moshfe, Abdolali; Motazedian, Mohammad Hossein; Abdolahi Khabisi, Samaneh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Fascioliasis, caused by Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica, is one of the most important plant and water borne disease in Iran. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of fascioliasis and intestinal helminthes in inhabitants of rural areas of Boyer-Ahmad in Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad province in Southwest of Iran.Methods: Stool samples (1025) were collected from inhabitant of 50 randomly selected villages in Boyer-Ahmad Township. Samples were evaluated with modified Telemann ...

  11. Analysis of health outcome time series data in epidemiological studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Touloumi, G; Atkinson, R; Le Tertre, A; Samoli, E; Schwartz, J; Schindler, C; Vonk, JM; Rossi, G; Saez, M; Rabszenko, D; Katsouyanni, K

    2004-01-01

    Several recent studies have reported significant health effects of air pollution even at low levels of air pollutants. These studies have been criticized for the statistical methods and for inconsistency in results between cities. An important development in air pollution epidemiology has come from

  12. Improving the diagnosis, treatment, and biology patterns of feline mammary intraepithelial lesions: a potential model for human breast masses with evidence from epidemiologic and cytohistopathologic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manesh, Javad Yaghoobi Yeganeh; Shafiee, Radmehr; Pedram, Behnam; Malayeri, Hamed Zamankhan; Mohajer, Sheida; Ahmadi, Sharareh; Ahmadi, Shirin; Javanbakht, Javad; Mokarizadeh, Aram; Khadivar, Farshid

    2014-12-01

    In this study, the frequency of different types of mammary masses and their relationship with cytohistopathologic changes was investigated and data on history, macroscopic description, clinical examination and treatment were collected. To determine the prevalence and types of cytohistopathologic changes, mammary glands from 12 female cats were evaluated. The mean age of cats at the time of diagnosis was 11.5 ± 1.9 years (range 4-14 years), the mean gross size of the masses was 3.1 ± 2.4 cm, 4/12 (33.3 %) masses were ≤3.0 cm in diameter, and the maximum diameter of the largest mass had a median of 5 cm, with a range of diameter of 6 × 5 × 4 cm. Moreover, the preferential localization of mammary masses was the abdominal lobes (%50) and thoracic lobes (%33.3), and inguinal lobes (%16.7 of cases). Furthermore, two cases of the inguinal masses affected the caudo-inguinal lobe, six cases caudo-abdominal lobe, and thoracic masses were found in four cases. Eventually, six cases (%50) of masses were found in the right mammary lobes and six cases (%50) in the left mammary lobes. The majority of the masses revealed elastic (%50 of cases), hard (%25 of cases), or soft (%25 of cases) consistency. In the present study, according to the criteria of the veterinary and the medical WHO classification system, of the 12 cats with the cytohistopathological features of six (50 %) cases qualified abscess, 3 (25 %) cases as cystic hyperplasia and 3 (25 %) cases were called situ carcinoma. Whereas, all hyperplastic lesions (case nos. 7-9 and ranging in size from, 1 to >4 cm(3)) and carcinomas in situ lesions (case nos. 10-12 and ranging in size from, 1 to >3 cm(3)) were found incidentally upon routine cytohistology. Other lesions were observed grossly and removed either at surgery (case nos. 1-6). Finally, the cats were treated with unilateral lumpectomy (3 cases) and also, nine (75 %) cases had subsequent drainage, 3 (25 %) of which showed cystic

  13. A study on the life-cycle and epidemiology of Pseudanoplocephala crawfordi Baylis, 1927.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, T J; Jin, Z H; Wu, H; Cui, C Q

    1990-03-01

    A study of the life-cycle and epidemiology of Pseudanoplocephala crawfordi Baylis, 1927 is reported. Intermediate hosts are Tenebrio obscurus, T. molitor, Carpophilus dimidiatus and Tribolium castaneum. The first three species are new host records. Development in the intermediate host takes 1-1.5 months. The completion of the life-cycle takes 2-2.5 months. Surveys of intermediate hosts, pigs, humans and rats were carried out. In Rattus norvegicus, the prevalence was as high as 22%. Epidemiological factors and suggestions for control measures are discussed.

  14. Molecular typing of Salmonella from Sergipe, Northeastern Brazil, showing the epidemiological relationship between poultry and human infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Góis, P B P; Carneiro, M R P; Jain, S; Santos, M I S; Batista, M V A; Cândido, A L

    2015-09-25

    Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) has been widely used for epidemiological and phylogenetic purposes ow-ing to its rapidity and efficiency. The aim of this study was to perform genome typing of Salmonella samples isolated from different sources by RAPD profiling. Thirty-three Salmonella samples from the bacterial collection of the Laboratório de Virologia Comparada, Departamento de Morfologia, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Brazil, and two standard samples were used. RAPD profiling was conducted using six primers of the Ready-To-Go RAPD system. The amplified products were electro-phoresed on 5% polyacrylamide gel and silver-stained. RAPD analysis resulted in reproducible and stable banding patterns and showed high genetic diversity among the isolated strains. The Primer P1-generated dendrogram showed an epidemiologic relationship between the human and poultry isolated samples, highlighting the usefulness of RAPD for molecular typing and epidemiological studies.

  15. Transcriptomic identification of ADH1B as a novel candidate gene for obesity and insulin resistance in human adipose tissue in Mexican Americans from the Veterans Administration Genetic Epidemiology Study (VAGES.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deidre A Winnier

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes (T2D is a complex metabolic disease that is more prevalent in ethnic groups such as Mexican Americans, and is strongly associated with the risk factors obesity and insulin resistance. The goal of this study was to perform whole genome gene expression profiling in adipose tissue to detect common patterns of gene regulation associated with obesity and insulin resistance. We used phenotypic and genotypic data from 308 Mexican American participants from the Veterans Administration Genetic Epidemiology Study (VAGES. Basal fasting RNA was extracted from adipose tissue biopsies from a subset of 75 unrelated individuals, and gene expression data generated on the Illumina BeadArray platform. The number of gene probes with significant expression above baseline was approximately 31,000. We performed multiple regression analysis of all probes with 15 metabolic traits. Adipose tissue had 3,012 genes significantly associated with the traits of interest (false discovery rate, FDR ≤ 0.05. The significance of gene expression changes was used to select 52 genes with significant (FDR ≤ 10(-4 gene expression changes across multiple traits. Gene sets/Pathways analysis identified one gene, alcohol dehydrogenase 1B (ADH1B that was significantly enriched (P < 10(-60 as a prime candidate for involvement in multiple relevant metabolic pathways. Illumina BeadChip derived ADH1B expression data was consistent with quantitative real time PCR data. We observed significant inverse correlations with waist circumference (2.8 x 10(-9, BMI (5.4 x 10(-6, and fasting plasma insulin (P < 0.001. These findings are consistent with a central role for ADH1B in obesity and insulin resistance and provide evidence for a novel genetic regulatory mechanism for human metabolic diseases related to these traits.

  16. Sample size calculation for meta-epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraudeau, Bruno; Higgins, Julian P T; Tavernier, Elsa; Trinquart, Ludovic

    2016-01-30

    Meta-epidemiological studies are used to compare treatment effect estimates between randomized clinical trials with and without a characteristic of interest. To our knowledge, there is presently nothing to help researchers to a priori specify the required number of meta-analyses to be included in a meta-epidemiological study. We derived a theoretical power function and sample size formula in the framework of a hierarchical model that allows for variation in the impact of the characteristic between trials within a meta-analysis and between meta-analyses. A simulation study revealed that the theoretical function overestimated power (because of the assumption of equal weights for each trial within and between meta-analyses). We also propose a simulation approach that allows for relaxing the constraints used in the theoretical approach and is more accurate. We illustrate that the two variables that mostly influence power are the number of trials per meta-analysis and the proportion of trials with the characteristic of interest. We derived a closed-form power function and sample size formula for estimating the impact of trial characteristics in meta-epidemiological studies. Our analytical results can be used as a 'rule of thumb' for sample size calculation for a meta-epidemiologic study. A more accurate sample size can be derived with a simulation study.

  17. Toxoplasmosis in humans and animals in Brazil: high prevalence, high burden of disease, and epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Lago, E G; Gennari, S M; Su, C; Jones, J L

    2012-09-01

    Infections by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii are widely prevalent in humans and animals in Brazil. The burden of clinical toxoplasmosis in humans is considered to be very high. The high prevalence and encouragement of the Brazilian Government provides a unique opportunity for international groups to study the epidemiology and control of toxoplasmosis in Brazil. Many early papers on toxoplasmosis in Brazil were published in Portuguese and often not available to scientists in English-speaking countries. In the present paper we review prevalence, clinical spectrum, molecular epidemiology, and control of T. gondii in humans and animals in Brazil. This knowledge should be useful to biologists, public health workers, veterinarians, and physicians. Brazil has a very high rate of T. gondii infection in humans. Up to 50% of elementary school children and 50-80% of women of child-bearing age have antibodies to T. gondii. The risks for uninfected women to acquire toxoplasmosis during pregnancy and fetal transmission are high because the environment is highly contaminated with oocysts. The burden of toxoplasmosis in congenitally infected children is also very high. From limited data on screening of infants for T. gondii IgM at birth, 5-23 children are born infected per 10 000 live births in Brazil. Based on an estimate of 1 infected child per 1000 births, 2649 children with congenital toxoplasmosis are likely to be born annually in Brazil. Most of these infected children are likely to develop symptoms or signs of clinical toxoplasmosis. Among the congenitally infected children whose clinical data are described in this review, several died soon after birth, 35% had neurological disease including hydrocephalus, microcephaly and mental retardation, 80% had ocular lesions, and in one report 40% of children had hearing loss. The severity of clinical toxoplasmosis in Brazilian children may be associated with the genetic characteristics of T. gondii isolates prevailing in

  18. Molecular epidemiology of human and animal tuberculosis in Ibadan, Southwestern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, A O; Cadmus, S I B; Venter, E H; Pourcel, C; Hauk, Y; Vergnaud, G; Godfroid, J

    2011-07-05

    From 2005 to 2007, Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) strains were isolated from cattle, goats and pigs samples collected at the Bodija abattoir and from human samples from tuberculosis patients and livestock traders at the Akinyele cattle market in Ibadan, Southwestern Nigeria. Seventy four isolates obtained from humans (24) and livestock (50) were identified as MTC strains. Thirty two isolates were spoligotyped. Nineteen of these 32 isolates were identified as M. tuberculosis whilst 13 were identified as Mycobacterium bovis. M. bovis was isolated from two humans, whereas M. tuberculosis was isolated from a bovine, a pig and a goat. All the M. bovis isolates identified in this study belonged to the Africa 1 clonal complex. Multiple locus VNTR [variable number of tandem repeats] analysis (MLVA) was carried out on the 74 isolates. Three major clusters were defined. Group A consisted of 24 M. tuberculosis isolates (MLVA genotypes 1-18). One strain was isolated from a bovine and one from a pig. Group B consisted of 49 M. bovis strains (MLVA genotypes 19-48), mainly of cattle origin but also included four goat, nine pig and two human isolates. Group C consisted of a single M. tuberculosis isolate (MLVA genotype 49) obtained from a goat. Spoligotyping and MLVA confirmed it as clustering with the East Africa Indian clade found in humans in Sudan and the Republic of Djibouti. The isolation of three M. tuberculosis strains from livestock raises the question of their epidemiological importance as a source of infection for humans.

  19. Epidemiological study of venous thromboembolism in a big Danish cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Severinsen, Marianne Tang; Kristensen, Søren Risom; Overvad, Kim

    Introduction: Epidemiological data on venous thromboembolism (VT), i.e. pulmonary emboli (PE) and deep venous thrombosis (DVT) are sparse. We have examined VT-diagnoses registered in a big Danish Cohort study.  Methods: All first-time VT diagnoses in The Danish National Patient Register were...

  20. Epidemiological studies on the relation between diet and COPD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabak, C.

    2000-01-01

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality around the world. In the early 1990's several dietary factors were suggested to protect against COPD, based on proposed biological mechanisms and a small number of epidemiological studies. Antioxidants (e.g

  1. International epidemiological studies on HIV, HCV and STI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Helm, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis comprises international epidemiological studies on HIV, Hepatitis C (HCV) and sexually transmitted infections (STI) and the evaluation of STI diagnostic tests with the ultimate goal to decrease spread and disease burden of these infections. The main conclusions are: 1. Without the use of

  2. Cruciferous vegetables and human cancer risk: epidemiologic evidence and mechanistic basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higdon, Jane V; Delage, Barbara; Williams, David E; Dashwood, Roderick H

    2007-03-01

    Cruciferous vegetables are a rich source of glucosinolates and their hydrolysis products, including indoles and isothiocyanates, and high intake of cruciferous vegetables has been associated with lower risk of lung and colorectal cancer in some epidemiological studies. Glucosinolate hydrolysis products alter the metabolism or activity of sex hormones in ways that could inhibit the development of hormone-sensitive cancers, but evidence of an inverse association between cruciferous vegetable intake and breast or prostate cancer in humans is limited and inconsistent. Organizations such as the National Cancer Institute recommend the consumption of five to nine servings of fruits and vegetables daily, but separate recommendations for cruciferous vegetables have not been established. Isothiocyanates and indoles derived from the hydrolysis of glucosinolates, such as sulforaphane and indole-3-carbinol (I3C), have been implicated in a variety of anticarcinogenic mechanisms, but deleterious effects also have been reported in some experimental protocols, including tumor promotion over prolonged periods of exposure. Epidemiological studies indicate that human exposure to isothiocyanates and indoles through cruciferous vegetable consumption may decrease cancer risk, but the protective effects may be influenced by individual genetic variation (polymorphisms) in the metabolism and elimination of isothiocyanates from the body. Cooking procedures also affect the bioavailability and intake of glucosinolates and their derivatives. Supplementation with I3C or the related dimer 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM) alters urinary estrogen metabolite profiles in women, but the effects of I3C and DIM on breast cancer risk are not known. Small preliminary trials in humans suggest that I3C supplementation may be beneficial in treating conditions related to human papilloma virus infection, such as cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, but larger randomized

  3. Clinical and Epidemiological Studies on Rickettsial Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    EPIDEMOLOGICAL STUDIES ON RICKETTSIAL INFECTI011-"- APPLICATION FOR RENEWAL FOR TEAR-7 (1979-1980) Pase 2 Repor Page 11 effective control of the infection were...34CLINICAL AND EPIDEMOLOGICAL STUDIES ON RICKETTSIAL INFECTIONS" ANINUAL REPORT. YFAR-7(1979-1980) Page 62 Report Page 31 OFFICE OF NAVAL RESEARCH

  4. Friend or foe? The current epidemiologic evidence on selenium and human cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinceti, Marco; Crespi, Catherine M; Malagoli, Carlotta; Del Giovane, Cinzia; Krogh, Vittorio

    2013-01-01

    Scientific opinion on the relationship between selenium and the risk of cancer has undergone radical change over the years, with selenium first viewed as a possible carcinogen in the 1940s then as a possible cancer preventive agent in the 1960s-2000s. More recently, randomized controlled trials have found no effect on cancer risk but suggest possible low-dose dermatologic and endocrine toxicity, and animal studies indicate both carcinogenic and cancer-preventive effects. A growing body of evidence from human and laboratory studies indicates dramatically different biological effects of the various inorganic and organic chemical forms of selenium, which may explain apparent inconsistencies across studies. These chemical form-specific effects also have important implications for exposure and health risk assessment. Overall, available epidemiologic evidence suggests no cancer preventive effect of increased selenium intake in healthy individuals and possible increased risk of other diseases and disorders.

  5. Epidemiological and clinicopathological study of oral leukoplakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishra Minati

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Oral white lesions that cannot be clinically or pathologically characterized by any specific disease are referred to as leukoplakia. Such lesions are well known for their propensity for malignant transformation to the extent of 10-20%.Exfoliative cytology is a simple and useful screening tool for detection of malignant or dysplastic changes in such lesions. AIMS: A clinicoepidemiological and cytological study of oral leukoplakia was undertaken to detect their malignant potential and value of cytology in diagnosis. METHODS: This 2 year duration multicentre study was undertaken on all patients presenting with oral white lesions to the out patient department of the two institutions. Those cases in which a specific cause (infective, systemic disease or specific disease entity for the white lesions were elicited were excluded from the study. The group with idiopathic white lesions was included in the study and was subjected to periodic exfoliative cytological study at three monthly intervals to detect any malignant change. Patients presenting less than two times for follow up were excluded from the final analysis of the study. RESULTS: Out of total 2920 patients studied, 89.53% showed benign, 9.93% showed dysplastic and, 0.72% showed malignant cells on exfoliative cytological study. All the dysplastic and malignant lesions were subjected to histopathological study by incisional biopsy. Among the dysplastic lesions 13.79% proved benign and the rest true dysplastic. Among the cytologically malignant group 4.76% showed dysplasia and the rest true malignant lesions. CONCLUSION: Persistent leukoplakia has a potential for malignant transformation and exfoliative cytology could be a simple method for early detection of dysplastic and malignant changes.

  6. CLINICAL AND EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDIES ON VASECTOMY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANGGuang-Hua

    1989-01-01

    In order to ascertain whether vasectomy presented any increased risk of diseases or long-term sequelae, we conducted from 1981 to 82 a large scale cross sectional prevalence study on coronary heart disease, hypertension and other diseases following

  7. Epidemiological studies on cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ad ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Data from the patients included in this retrospective study were collected from the ... Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research is indexed by Science Citation Index (SciSearch), .... features of the last four years (1997-2000). Int J.

  8. Smile line and occlusion: An epidemiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Harati

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: Within the limitations of such studies, it might be concluded that there is a significant and important relation between some occlusal parameters and smile design, which must be considered.

  9. 浙南猪冠尾线虫病及人患蚴移行症的发现%A study of epidemiology & pathogenesis of swine kidney worm disease and discovery of larva migrans in human beings in South Z hejiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄文德; 余大文; 汤子慧; 张峰山

    2001-01-01

    Objective:To study epidemiology of swine kidney disease(Se phanuriasis) in South Zhejiang and its harmful and disease-producing effect of lar vae of Swine Kidney worms on human beings so as to provide basis for the prevent ion and treatment of the disease.Methods:Examining the eggs swine kidney worms in the urine and worms distribution and pathological conditions; Seperating larvae from the Pige ry and infecting Guinea pigs with infective Larvae. Via mouth or skin; Obseving curative effect of the worm-killing drugs; examining Susceptible Persons and pa tients with dermatitis.Results:Infective rate of kidney worms in femal-Pigs is 50.1%; and 14.12% in flesh-Pigs. Adult worms mainly harbour around the ureter(66.67%) . The disease involves many viscera and the condition is Severe. There are a lo t of larvae of kidney worms(Sephanurus dentatus=S.d.) in the Pigery. Those clean ing th e Pigery bare footed are likely to be infected, resalting in dermatitis or ra shes. T wo larvae of .S.d. were doscovered from the migrant eruption node of the Petient .Conclusion:The Sephanuriasis was distributed. widely in the Sou th-Z hejiang and severely harmed to pigs. Larvae migrans of .S.d. in human was first di scovered. Synthetic prophylax and treatment of Sephanuriasis were employed and d esired effects were achiveved.%目的:了解浙南猪冠尾线虫病流行情况和危害 及其蚴对人的致病性。方法:检测猪尿中肾虫卵及肾虫分布处的病态,从猪舍分离感染性蚴,并经 口、肤感染豚鼠,观察杀虫药疗效。同时以免疫学检测易感人群与皮炎患者。 结果:母猪冠尾线虫感染率为50.1%,肉猪为14.1%,成虫寄生于输尿管周围 占66.7%,猪的多处脏器有病变。猪舍内冠尾线虫蚴较多,清理猪舍者易遭蚴侵袭致皮炎 ,从匐行疹处获蚴。结论:浙南猪冠尾线虫病流行广,危害性大;发现人患该蚴移行症。

  10. Molecular epidemiology of human cases of tuberculosis by Mycobacterium bovis in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milián-Suazo, Feliciano; Pérez-Guerrero, Laura; Arriaga-Díaz, Camila; Escartín-Chávez, Minerva

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of Mycobacterium bovis in human cases of tuberculosis (TB) in an endemic area of the disease in cattle. Sputum, urine and other tissue samples were obtained from: (1) TB-symptomatic patients, (2) dairy farm workers and (3) abattoir workers. Samples of macroscopic lesions suspicious of TB were also obtained from cattle at slaughter in the same geographic area. A total of 562 human samples were collected: 255 from symptomatic patients, 218 from farm workers and 93 from abattoir workers. Samples were analysed by the bacillus acido-alcohol resitant (BAAR) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests and cultured in Stonebrink and Löwenstein-Jensen. Spoligotyping was performed in all isolates obtained by culture and the DNA obtained by PCR. From the total number of human cases, 34 (6%) showed M. bovis spoligotype; eight spoligotypes from cattle showed an identical pattern to three spoligotypes from humans; a different set of spoligotypes from cattle (n = 8) had only one spacer difference to a set of spoligotypes from humans (n = 2). These results provide further evidence that infected cattle represent a risk to public health and support previous reports about the role of M. bovis in Mexican patients. There is no doubt that genotyping M. bovis isolates collected from cattle may have a substantial impact on our understanding of the epidemiology of TB.

  11. AN EPIDEMIOLOGICAL PROSPECTIVE STUDY OF POSTCHOLECYSTECTOMY SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS Cholecystectomy is the standard treatment for symptomatic gall stone disease. This study is aimed to assess the effect of the surgery on patients' symptoms. MATERIALS AND METHODS Eighty patients undergoing Cholecystectomy between September 2013 to February 2015 were evaluated using standard questionnaires in Study conducted on patients admitted in Surgical units in Maharaja Yashwantrao Hospital and MGM Medical College, a tertiary level care centre in Central India. RESULTS In this prospective study of 80 symptomatic gallstone disease patients with two or more symptoms pre-operatively the incidence of Postcholecystectomy Syndrome was found out to be 30%. All pain and non-pain symptoms were significantly reduced post-operatively except diarrhea.

  12. Coffee and cardiovascular risk; an epidemiological study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.A.A. Bak (Annette)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis comprises several studies on the effect of coffee and caffeine on cardiovascular risk in general, and the effect on serum lipids, blood pressure and selected hemostatic variables in particular. The association between coffee use and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality was

  13. Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programs in West Africa as a model for sustainable partnerships in animal and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Karen M; Ohuabunwo, Chima; Ndjakani, Yassa; Nguku, Patrick; Nsubuga, Peter; Mukanga, David; Wurapa, Frederick

    2012-09-01

    The concept of animal and human health experts working together toward a healthier world has been endorsed, but challenges remain in identifying concrete actions to move this one health concept from vision to action. In 2008, as a result of avian influenza outbreaks in West Africa, international donor support led to a unique opportunity to invest in Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programs (FELTPs) in the region that engaged the animal and human health sectors to strengthen the capacity for prevention and control of zoonotic diseases. The FELTPs mixed 25% to 35% classroom and 65% to 75% field-based training and service for cohorts of physicians, veterinarians, and laboratory scientists. They typically consisted of a 2-year course leading to a master's degree in field epidemiology and public health laboratory management for midlevel public health leaders and competency-based short courses for frontline public health surveillance workers. Trainees and graduates work in multidisciplinary teams to conduct surveillance, outbreak investigations, and epidemiological studies for disease control locally and across borders. Critical outcomes of these programs include development of a cadre of public health leaders with core skills in integrated disease surveillance, outbreak investigation, vaccination campaigns, laboratory diagnostic testing, and epidemiological studies that address priority public health problems. A key challenge exists in identifying ways to successfully scale up and transform this innovative donor-driven program into a sustainable multisectoral one health workforce capacity development model.

  14. Epidemiologic Studies of Isoflavones & Mammographic Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey A. Tice

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Isoflavones, phytoestrogens in soy beans with estrogen-like properties, have been examined for their cancer protective effects. Mammographic density is a strong predictor of breast cancer. This review summarizes studies that have examined the association between isoflavones and breast density. Observational investigations in Hawaii and Singapore suggest slightly lower breast density among women of Asian descent with regular soy intake, but two larger studies from Japan and Singapore did not observe a protective effect. The findings from seven randomized trials with primarily Caucasian women indicate that soy or isoflavones do not modify mammographic density. Soy foods and isoflavone supplements within a nutritional range do not appear to modify breast cancer risk as assessed by mammographic density.

  15. Epidemiologic studies of isoflavones & mammographic density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskarinec, Gertraud; Verheus, Martijn; Tice, Jeffrey A

    2010-01-01

    Isoflavones, phytoestrogens in soy beans with estrogen-like properties, have been examined for their cancer protective effects. Mammographic density is a strong predictor of breast cancer. This review summarizes studies that have examined the association between isoflavones and breast density. Observational investigations in Hawaii and Singapore suggest slightly lower breast density among women of Asian descent with regular soy intake, but two larger studies from Japan and Singapore did not observe a protective effect. The findings from seven randomized trials with primarily Caucasian women indicate that soy or isoflavones do not modify mammographic density. Soy foods and isoflavone supplements within a nutritional range do not appear to modify breast cancer risk as assessed by mammographic density.

  16. Tinnitus: an epidemiologic study in Iranian population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Jalessi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A wide range of population, 4% to 30%, suffers from tinnitus that is defined as perception of sound without apparent acoustic stimulus. We conducted the present study to determine the prevalence of tinnitus in Iranian population; Tehran province. This cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2009 to December 2009, recruiting 3207 individuals (age range, 7-98 who were residing in Tehran province, Iran. Participants were asked to fill two questionnaires; the validated Persian version of Tinnitus Questionnaire (TQ and another one that was specifically designed for this study. Prevalence of tinnitus and its association factors were evaluated. 3207 participants enrolled into our study comprising 1429 (44.7% male and 1765 (55.3% female with mean age of 55.01±17.85. Of total of 3207 participants, 146 (4.6% had tinnitus consisting of 80 male (54.8% and 66 (45.2% female participants. It showed a rising trend with increasing age that was especially significant after the sixth decade of life (P=0.001. The analysis showed mean TQ global score of 35.96±25.52 that was significantly different between male and female participants (P=0.051 and had no significant correlation with increasing age (Spearman's r=0.1, P=0.10. The tinnitus intensity was moderate to very severe in 95 (56.1% of the participants. Its severity level was not significantly different between men and women (P=0.09. Tinnitus intensity had no significant association with increasing age (Spearman's r=0.1, P=0.31. Patients with higher TQ global score had higher tinnitus intensities (P=0.001. The annoyance level was significantly different between men and women (P=0.04 and its impact on the participants daily routine functions were significantly higher in men (P=0.003. Given the results of the study, demonstrating that prevalence of tinnitus in Iranian population (Tehran province was lower than the other countries and had a direct correlation with increasing age only after the sixth

  17. Molecular epidemiology of human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals in Medellin, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Gloria I; Bautista, Christian T; Eyzaguirre, Lindsay; Carrion, Gladys; Arias, Sonia; Sateren, Warren B; Negrete, Monica; Montano, Silvia M; Sanchez, Jose L; Carr, Jean K

    2006-04-01

    To study the molecular epidemiology of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) strains in Medellín, Colombia, 115 HIV-1-positive individuals who were recruited from an HIV outpatient hospital (Universitario San Vicente de Paul) during the period from July 2001 to January 2002 were genotyped. All samples were analyzed by envelope heteroduplex mobility assay and found to be subtype B. Twenty-four samples were randomly selected for sequencing of the protease and the reverse transcriptase regions; all isolates were found to be subtype B. Phylogenetic analysis of seven nearly full-length genomes showed that all samples were subtype B. This study shows that the HIV epidemic in Colombia continues to be dominated by the subtype B virus. The predominance of subtype B genotypes of HIV-1 strains in Medellín resembles what is seen in the nearby countries of Peru, Ecuador, and Venezuela.

  18. Epidemiological analysis of human fascioliasis in northeastern Punjab, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Asma W; Tanveer, Akhtar; Mas-Coma, Santiago

    2016-04-01

    A coprological study was performed to assess human fascioliasis in 7200 subjects inhabiting rural communities of localities close to the capital city of Lahore in the northeastern part of the very highly populated Punjab province, Pakistan, a country where human infection had never been reported before 2005. The analysis of 1200 subjects including 50 subjects/month throughout a two-year study in each of six localities surveyed provided an overall prevalence of 1.18%, with a range between 0.67% and 1.75% according to localities. Infection rates did not differ according to gender, excepting a higher rate in females (1.13% vs 0.77%) in one locality. Prevalences according to age groups proved to be higher in 11-20 years with 1.57%, followed by 1.18% in 0-10 years and 0.47% in 21-30 years, while no infection above 30 years. Seasonal prevalences proved to be significantly different when comparing summer and autumn with winter and spring. Monthly prevalences showed two peaks, the highest in August (4.67%) and another in January (2.17%). Correlation studies of monthly prevalences with temperature, humidity, rainfall, and pan evaporation showed significant results only with humidity. Despite prevalences being low, the very high number of inhabitants and population densities of the areas surveyed suggest a wide public health problem potentially infecting up to 150,000 rural people, children included, only in the respective districts. Additionally, the situation becomes of more concern when considering the present climate change trend affecting the Punjab, which indicates a progressively increasing fascioliasis transmission risk in that animal endemic area in the near future.

  19. Rationale and design of the Japan molecular epidemiology for lung cancer study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Tomoya; Ando, Masahiko; Ito, Norimasa; Isa, Shun-Ichi; Tamiya, Akihiro; Shimizu, Shigeki; Saka, Hideo; Kubo, Akihito; Koh, Yasuhiro; Matsumura, Akihide

    2013-09-01

    We present the rationale for the Japan Molecular Epidemiology for Lung Cancer study designed to elucidate molecular mechanisms of carcinogenesis in smokers and never-smokers with non-small-cell lung cancer. This prospective, ongoing, multicenter study is being conducted nationwide in Japan. Although there is no doubt that active smoking is the major cause of lung cancer, the contribution of other possible factors, including environmental tobacco or wood smoke, human papilloma virus, radon, occupational exposures, and genetic susceptibility, is highly likely, based on studies of never-smokers with non-small-cell lung cancer. Because of the predominance of women in the never-smoker subgroup, the role of female hormones in lung cancer development has also been considered. We hypothesize that driver mutations, which are critical for the development of lung cancer, are triggered by the environmental factors with or without the influence of the hormone. The SWOG-led intergroup molecular epidemiology study S0424 was conducted to focus on these issues by using a detailed questionnaire and specimen collection in statistically significant cohorts of smokers and never-smokers from both sexes. The Japan Molecular Epidemiology for Lung Cancer study follows and extends the S0424 molecular epidemiology concept in principle by using a similar approach that will facilitate future comparisons between the studies but with a greater focus on more recently defined driver mutations and broad genomic sequencing.

  20. Hodgkin's disease: case control epidemiological study in Yorkshire.

    OpenAIRE

    Bernard, S.M.; Cartwright, R. A.; Darwin, C. M.; Richards, I D; Roberts, B; O'Brien, C; Bird, C. C.

    1987-01-01

    This is the first report of a case-control epidemiological study on lymphomas and leukaemias occurring in Yorkshire during 1979-84. This paper deals with the results of the Hodgkin's disease analysis comprising 248 cases and 489 controls. The results indicate support for previous work with respect to small family size and past history of infectious mononucleosis. Positive observations made in a previous pilot study are also confirmed and extended with respect to associations with certain chro...

  1. Degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis: an epidemiological perspective: the Copenhagen Osteoarthritis Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Steffen; Sonne-Holm, Stig; Rovsing, Hans;

    2007-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional epidemiological survey of 4151 participants of the Copenhagen Osteoarthritis Study. OBJECTIVE: To identify prevalences and individual risk factors for degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The Copenhagen Osteoarthritis Study has...... registered health parameters since 1976. In 1993, standardized, lateral radiographs of the lumbar spine were recorded. There were 1533 men and 2618 women. METHODS: Statistical correlations were made between degenerative spondylolisthesis, and physical, occupational, and general epidemiological data. RESULTS......: A total of 254 cases of lumbar slip were found (males 2.7%, females 8.4%). In females, no significant relationship between age at menopause or childbirths and the presence of degenerative spondylolisthesis were found. In women, relationships between body mass index (BMI) in 1976 and L4 olisthesis (P = 0...

  2. Vitamin D and cancer: an overview on epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordóñez Mena, José Manuel; Brenner, Hermann

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, a rapidly increasing number of studies have investigated the relationship of vitamin D with total cancer and site-specific cancer obtaining diverse findings. In this chapter we provide an overview of epidemiological studies of vitamin D intake, 25-hydroxyvitamin D and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D serum levels and vitamin D associated polymorphisms in relation to total and site-specific cancer risk. Overall, epidemiological evidence for total cancer is inconclusive. However, a large number of studies support a relationship of vitamin D with colorectal cancer and to a lesser extent with breast cancer. Findings are inconsistent for other cancers including all other gastrointestinal cancers and prostate cancer. Different vitamin D associated polymorphisms were found to be significantly associated to colorectal, breast and prostate cancer risk.

  3. Mycobacterium bovis in Burkina Faso: epidemiologic and genetic links between human and cattle isolates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adama Sanou

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In sub-Saharan Africa, bovine tuberculosis (bTB is a potential hazard for animals and humans health. The goal of this study was to improve our understanding of bTB epidemiology in Burkina Faso and especially Mycobacterium bovis transmission within and between the bovine and human populations.Twenty six M. bovis strains were isolated from 101 cattle carcasses with suspected bTB lesions during routine meat inspections at the Bobo Dioulasso and Ouagadougou slaughterhouses. In addition, 7 M. bovis strains were isolated from 576 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. Spoligotyping, RDAf1 deletion and MIRU-VNTR typing were used for strains genotyping. The isolation of M. bovis strains was confirmed by spoligotyping and 12 spoligotype signatures were detected. Together, the spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTR data allowed grouping the 33 M. bovis isolates in seven clusters including isolates exclusively from cattle (5 or humans (1 or from both (1. Moreover, these data (genetic analyses and phenetic tree showed that the M. bovis isolates belonged to the African 1 (Af1 clonal complex (81.8% and the putative African 5 (Af5 clonal complex (18.2%, in agreement with the results of RDAf1 deletion typing.This is the first detailed molecular characterization of M. bovis strains from humans and cattle in Burkina Faso. The distribution of the two Af1 and putative Af5 clonal complexes is comparable to what has been reported in neighbouring countries. Furthermore, the strain genetic profiles suggest that M. bovis circulates across the borders and that the Burkina Faso strains originate from different countries, but have a country-specific evolution. The genetic characterization suggests that, currently, M. bovis transmission occurs mainly between cattle, occasionally between cattle and humans and potentially between humans. This study emphasizes the bTB risk in cattle but also in humans and the difficulty to set up proper disease control strategies in Burkina Faso.

  4. Human rhinovirus infections in hospitalized children: clinical, epidemiological and virological features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, D N; Trinh, Q D; Pham, N T K; Pham, T M H; Ha, M T; Nguyen, T Q N; Okitsu, S; Shimizu, H; Hayakawa, S; Mizuguchi, M; Ushijima, H

    2016-01-01

    Molecular epidemiology and clinical impact of human rhinovirus (HRV) are not well documented in tropical regions. This study compared the clinical characteristics of HRV to other common viral infections and investigated the molecular epidemiology of HRV in hospitalized children with acute respiratory infections (ARIs) in Vietnam. From April 2010 to May 2011, 1082 nasopharyngeal swabs were screened for respiratory viruses by PCR. VP4/VP2 sequences of HRV were further characterized. HRV was the most commonly detected virus (30%), in which 70% were diagnosed as either pneumonia or bronchiolitis. Children with single HRV infections presented with significantly higher rate of hypoxia than those infected with respiratory syncytial virus or parainfluenza virus (PIV)-3 (12·4% vs. 3·8% and 0%, respectively, P < 0·05), higher rate of chest retraction than PIV-1 (57·3% vs. 34·5%, P = 0·028), higher rate of wheezing than influenza A (63·2% vs. 42·3%, P = 0·038). HRV-C did not differ to HRV-A clinically. The genetic diversity and changes of types over time were observed and may explain the year-round circulation of HRV. One novel HRV-A type was discovered which circulated locally for several years. In conclusion, HRV showed high genetic diversity and was associated with significant morbidity and severe ARIs in hospitalized children.

  5. Leptospirosis in Mexico: Epidemiology and Potential Distribution of Human Cases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokani Sánchez-Montes

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is widespread in Mexico, yet the potential distribution and risk of the disease remain unknown.We analysed morbidity and mortality according to age and gender based on three sources of data reported by the Ministry of Health and the National Institute of Geography and Statics of Mexico, for the decade 2000-2010. A total of 1,547 cases were reported in 27 states, the majority of which were registered during the rainy season, and the most affected age group was 25-44 years old. Although leptospirosis has been reported as an occupational disease of males, analysis of morbidity in Mexico showed no male preference. A total number of 198 deaths were registered in 21 states, mainly in urban settings. Mortality was higher in males (61.1% as compared to females (38.9%, and the case fatality ratio was also increased in males. The overall case fatality ratio in Mexico was elevated (12.8%, as compared to other countries. We additionally determined the potential disease distribution by examining the spatial epidemiology combined with spatial modeling using ecological niche modeling techniques. We identified regions where leptospirosis could be present and created a potential distribution map using bioclimatic variables derived from temperature and precipitation. Our data show that the distribution of the cases was more related to temperature (75% than to precipitation variables. Ecological niche modeling showed predictive areas that were widely distributed in central and southern Mexico, excluding areas characterized by extreme climates.In conclusion, an epidemiological surveillance of leptospirosis is recommended in Mexico, since 55.7% of the country has environmental conditions fulfilling the criteria that favor the presence of the disease.

  6. Overview of Recent Marine and Freshwater Recreational Epidemiology Studies and Their Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overview of Recent Marine and Freshwater Recreational Epidemiology Studies and Their Findings Timothy J. Wade, Elizabeth A. Sams, Rich Haugland, Alfred P. Dufour The National Epidemiologic and Environmental Assessment of Recreational Water Study was conducted to address aspects...

  7. Mendelian randomization: genetic anchors for causal inference in epidemiological studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey Smith, George; Hemani, Gibran

    2014-01-01

    Observational epidemiological studies are prone to confounding, reverse causation and various biases and have generated findings that have proved to be unreliable indicators of the causal effects of modifiable exposures on disease outcomes. Mendelian randomization (MR) is a method that utilizes genetic variants that are robustly associated with such modifiable exposures to generate more reliable evidence regarding which interventions should produce health benefits. The approach is being widely applied, and various ways to strengthen inference given the known potential limitations of MR are now available. Developments of MR, including two-sample MR, bidirectional MR, network MR, two-step MR, factorial MR and multiphenotype MR, are outlined in this review. The integration of genetic information into population-based epidemiological studies presents translational opportunities, which capitalize on the investment in genomic discovery research. PMID:25064373

  8. Epidemiology of Brucella Infection in the Human, Livestock and Wildlife Interface in the Katavi-Rukwa Ecosystem, Tanzania.

    OpenAIRE

    Justine A Assenga; Matemba, Lucas E; Muller, Shabani K.; Malakalinga, Joseph J.; Kazwala, Rudovick R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Brucellosis is a zoonosis of public health importance worldwide. In Tanzania, the disease is underreported due to insufficient awareness, inadequate diagnostic protocols, including lack of appropriate reagents for diagnosis. Livestock and wildlife are considered potential sources of infection to humans; however, the role played by these carriers in the epidemiology of the disease in the ecosystems in Tanzania is not fully understood. The objective of this study was to establish the...

  9. Epidemiology of Human Anthrax in China, 1955−2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu; Yin, Wenwu; Hugh-Jones, Martin; Wang, Liping; Mu, Di; Ren, Xiang; Zeng, Lingjia; Chen, Qiulan; Li, Wei; Wei, Jianchun; Lai, Shengjie; Zhou, Hang

    2017-01-01

    Using national surveillance data for 120,111 human anthrax cases recorded during 1955−2014, we analyzed the temporal, seasonal, geographic, and demographic distribution of this disease in China. After 1978, incidence decreased until 2013, when it reached a low of 0.014 cases/100,000 population. The case-fatality rate, cumulatively 3.6% during the study period, has also decreased since 1990. Cases occurred throughout the year, peaking in August. Geographic distribution decreased overall from west to east, but the cumulative number of affected counties increased during 2005−2014. The disease has shifted from industrial to agricultural workers; 86.7% of cases occurred in farmers and herdsmen. Most (97.7%) reported cases were the cutaneous form. Although progress has been made in reducing incidence, this study highlights areas that need improvement. Adequate laboratory diagnosis is lacking; only 7.6% of cases received laboratory confirmation. Geographic expansion of the disease indicates that livestock control programs will be essential in eradicating anthrax. PMID:27983489

  10. Epidemiological aspects of studying work-related musculoskeletal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Tim

    2011-02-01

    There are many challenges to conducting valid epidemiological research of work-related musculoskeletal disorders and interpreting reports describing the results. In particular, these concern the basic study design, selection of subjects, measurement of exposure and outcome, control of confounding and the limitations of workers' compensation data systems. Researchers and people interested in the research results need to be aware of the major potential problems and pay careful attention to them when designing, conducting and using the results of such research.

  11. Colorectal Cancer Epidemiology in the Nurses' Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong Hoon; Keum, NaNa; Giovannucci, Edward L

    2016-09-01

    To review the contribution of the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) to identifying risk and protective factors for colorectal adenomas and colorectal cancer (CRC). We performed a narrative review of the publications using the NHS between 1976 and 2016. Existing epidemiological studies using the NHS have reported that red and processed meat, alcohol, smoking, and obesity were associated with an increased risk of CRC, whereas folate, calcium, vitamin D, aspirin, and physical activity were associated with decreased risk of CRC. Moreover, modifiable factors, such as physical activity, vitamin D, folate, insulin and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1, and diet quality, were identified to be associated with survival among CRC patients. In recent years, molecular pathological epidemiological studies have been actively conducted and have shown refined results by molecular subtypes of CRC. The NHS has provided new insights into colorectal adenomas, CRC etiology, and pathogenic mechanisms. With its unique strengths, the NHS should continue to contribute to the field of CRC epidemiology and play a major role in public health.

  12. Molecular epidemiology of human papillomavirus infections in cervical samples from cuban women older than 30 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Yudira; Torres, Griselda; Kourí, Vivian; Limia, Celia María; Goicolea, Adibel; Capó, Virginia; Pérez, Lissette; de la Torre, Ana Isabel; López, Ledy Xiomara; Govín, Anamays; Correa, Consuelo Beatriz; Alemán, Yoan; Alvarez, Alina Ana; Manzano, Blanca Rosa

    2014-07-01

    This study aimed to provide information about the molecular epidemiology of human papillomavirus (HPV) in a group of Cuban women. DNA from cervical samples was analyzed using a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which detects 6 of the clinically most relevant high-risk HPV types. Furthermore, end point PCR and sequencing were performed. Three hundred twenty-two women (211 with positive and 111 with negative cytologic results) aged between 30 and 69 years were enrolled. Risk factors associated with HPV infections and premalignant lesions were also investigated. HPV DNA was detected in 76.1% (245/322) of the studied population, and 34 different genotypes were found. There was an association between HPV infection and low educational level, history of oral contraceptives, menopausal stage, as well as cigarette and/or alcohol consumption. Besides, in a multivariate analysis, previous positive Pap test result and positive colposcopy finding were both predictor variables for HPV infections and for premalignant lesions. Human papillomavirus infection was found in 94.3% of women (199/211) with positive cytologic result and in 41.4% (46/111) of those with negative results, being more likely that the first group was infected with any HPV (odds ratio = 23.43; 95% CI = 11.70-46.92; p = .000). The most common genotypes were HPV types 16, 18, 31, 58, 33, and 45. All the cases with HPV positive findings had at least 1 high-risk HPV genotype. This is the first report of the molecular epidemiology of HPV in Cuban women, based on results from a DNA sequence and quantitative PCR. Most individuals were infected with high-risk HPV types. These findings support the inclusion of HPV vaccine in Cuba.

  13. Genotyping of Giardia isolates in Scotland: a descriptive epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, C; Jones, B; Inverarity, D; Pollock, K G J

    2014-08-01

    Giardiasis, caused by the intestinal protozoan parasite Giardia intestinalis (synonyms: G. lamblia, G. duodenalis), is one of the most frequent parasites to infect the Scottish population. Transmission of the infective cysts in faecal matter is commonly via food and/or water. Giardia is subdivided into assemblages, where clinical and epidemiological differences have been described between assemblages A and B. This snapshot descriptive epidemiological study examines 30 positive cases of Giardia of which 72% (n = 21) were shown to be assemblage A, 14% (n = 4) assemblage B and 10% (n = 3) mixed assemblages (A and B). There was a 2:3 female:male ratio of affected individuals with foreign travel recorded in 22 of these cases. The commonest symptom was diarrhoea which was reported in 80% of cases followed by tiredness. Five cases required hospitalization emphasizing the importance of gaining a greater understanding of how Giardia assemblages influence clinical outcomes to assist in formulating guidelines to manage potential Giardia outbreaks.

  14. Epidemiological investigation of a human leptospirosis case reported in a suburban area near Marseille

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Dupouey

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis has been re-emerging in both developed and developing countries, including in Europe, where the phenomenon has notably been associated with urban transmission. In this work, we describe an epidemiological investigation that demonstrated a case of human infection due to peri-urban transmission of Leptospira interrogans serovar icterohaemorrhagiae in southeastern France.

  15. VIRUS OF HUMAN PAPILLOMA. EPIDEMIOLOGY, LABORATORY DIAGNOSTICS AND PREVENTION OF PAPILLOMA VIRAL INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Narvskaya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The information reflected modern knowledge about virus of human papilloma (VHP and pathogenesis of papilloma viral infection is presented in the lecture. The actual problems of epidemiology, laboratory diagnostics and prevention of VHP associated damage of cervical epithelium have been described.

  16. Epidemiological evidence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia without the presence of human papillomavirus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burger, MPM; Hollema, H; Pieters, WJLM; Schroder, FP; Quint, WGV

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to provide epidemiological evidence to support the notion that cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (GIN) without human papillomavirus (HPV) is a true entity. If a diagnosis of HPV-negative cervical neoplasia is erroneous, one would not expect there to be any differences in r

  17. Epidemiology of human leishmaniasis in Greece, 1981-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkolfinopoulou, K; Bitsolas, N; Patrinos, S; Veneti, L; Marka, A; Dougas, G; Pervanidou, D; Detsis, M; Triantafillou, E; Georgakopoulou, T; Billinis, C; Kremastinou, J; Hadjichristodoulou, C

    2013-07-18

    Leishmaniasis is endemic and mandatorily notifiable in Greece. Epidemiological surveillance data for leishmaniasis in Greece between 1981 and 2011 are presented. In 1998, the notification system began distinguishing between visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis. The mean annual incidence of reported leishmaniasis cases between 1998 and 2011 was 0.36 per 100,000 population. Of a total 563 leishmaniasis cases reported after 1998, 523 (93%) were visceral leishmaniasis cases. Incidence of reported visceral leishmaniasis cases fluctuated during this period, generally decreasing after 2007, with a small re-increase in 2011. The mean annual incidence rate of reported visceral leishmaniasis cases was significantly higher in less than four year-olds (p islands. Between 1998 and 2011, Attica concentrated almost half of the reported visceral leishmaniasis cases, with incidence rates in western Attica and western Athens above 12.00 per 100,000 population. Compared to visceral leishmaniasis, cutaneous leishmaniasis had a rather sporadic distribution, with many prefectures appearing free of cases. From 2004, the notification also included risk factors and of 287 cases with known immune status, 44 (15%) were immunocompromised. Moreover having a dog at home was reported by 209 of 312 leishmaniasis cases (67%), whereas 229 of 307 cases (75%) reported the presence of stray dogs near their residence. Linking clinical surveillance data with laboratory data and improving collaboration with the veterinary public health sector are some of the future challenges for leishmaniasis surveillance in Greece.

  18. Chlorine dioxide water disinfection: a prospective epidemiology study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael, G.E.; Miday, R.K.; Bercz, J.P.; Miller, R.G.; Greathouse, D.G.; Kraemer, D.F.; Lucas, J.B.

    1981-01-01

    An epidemiologic study of 198 persons exposed for 3 months to drinking water disinfected with chlorine dioxide was conducted in a rural village. A control population of 118 nonexposed persons was also studied. Pre-exposure hematologic and serum chemical parameters were compared with test results after 115 days of exposure. Chlorite ion levels in the water averaged approximately 5 ppM during the study period. Statistical analysis (ANOVA) of the data failed to identify any significant exposure-related effects. This study suggests that future evaluations of chlorine dioxide disinfection should be directed toward populations with potentially increased sensitivity to hemolytic agents.

  19. Consensus statement on assessment of waterpipe smoking in epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maziak, Wasim; Ben Taleb, Ziyad; Jawad, Mohammed; Afifi, Rima; Nakkash, Rima; Akl, Elie A; Ward, Kenneth D; Salloum, Ramzi G; Barnett, Tracey E; Primack, Brian A; Sherman, Scott; Cobb, Caroline O; Sutfin, Erin L; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2016-05-10

    Numerous epidemiological accounts suggest that waterpipe smoking (aka hookah, shisha, narghile) has become a global phenomenon, especially among youth. The alarming spread of waterpipe and accumulating evidence of its addictive and harmful effects represent a new threat in the global fight to limit tobacco-related morbidity and mortality. In response to waterpipe's alarming trends, major public health and tobacco control organisations have started or are considering systematic collection of data about waterpipe smoking to monitor its trends and assess its harmful effects in different societies. Such plans require coordination and agreement on epidemiological measurement tools that reflect the uniqueness of this tobacco use method, and at the same time allow comparison of waterpipe trends across time and place, and with other tobacco use methods. We started a decade ago our work to develop standardised measures and definitions for the assessment of waterpipe smoking in epidemiological studies. In this communication, we try to expand and update these assessment tools in light of our increased knowledge and understanding of waterpipe use patterns, its context and marketing, as well as the need for evidence-guided policies and regulations to curb its spread. We have assembled for this purpose a group of leading waterpipe researchers worldwide, and worked through an iterative process to develop the suggested instruments and definitions based on what we know currently about the waterpipe epidemic. While the suggested measures are by no means comprehensive, we hope that they can provide the building blocks for standard and comparable surveillance of waterpipe smoking globally.

  20. Molecular epidemiology and pathogenic potential of underdiagnosed human papillomavirus types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sisti Stefano

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human papillomavirus (HPV tests are crucial diagnostic tools for the prevention of neoplastic lesions of the uterine cervix. However most commercial methods are designed to detect high-risk (HR HPV types and a limited selection of low-risk ones, thus missing a fair number of intermediate/low-risk types. As a result, many HPV infections remain undiagnosed, generating distrust in virological diagnosis among gynaecologists, who continue to rely preferentially on cytological and colposcopic findings. Results In this study, we tested 6,335 consecutive clinical samples, most of them from Italian patients with cytological abnormalities. The samples, collected in 2000–2007, were analyzed using PCR amplification of a 173–206 bp (depending on HPV type conserved region in the L1 open reading frame, restriction endonuclease analysis and, where required, sequence analysis for type determination. Analysis of a smaller male sample and long term follow-up of a few female subjects was also performed. A total of 2,161 samples tested positive for HPV DNA (32.1%; 21.3% of them were mixed infections. Overall, 59 known and 2 unknown HPV types were detected. Their relative prevalence was calculated; notably, types not clearly identifiable using the most common commercial method accounted for 36% of infections. Clinical findings associated with the underdiagnosed types ranged from H-SIL to low-grade abnormalities, although none of these infections resulted in invasive cancer. Conclusion Given the high prevalence of some underdiagnosed HPV types in the population (principally HPV53, HPV66, HPV84, and HPV87 and their frequent association with cytological abnormalities, techniques capable of detecting and typing them would prove extremely useful.

  1. Molecular epidemiology of human calicivirus gastroenteritis outbreaks in Hungary, 1998 to 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Gábor; Farkas, Tibor; Berke, Tamás; Jiang, Xi; Matson, David O; Szücs, György

    2002-11-01

    Between November 1998 and November 2000, 196 stool specimens from 21 outbreaks of acute nonbacterial gastroenteritis occurring in 11 of the 19 counties of Hungary were collected and tested for human caliciviruses. Human caliciviruses were detected and characterized by a type-common enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (EIA) and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) followed by cloning and sequencing. Twenty (95%) and 14 (67%) outbreaks were positive by EIA and RT-PCR, respectively, and 12 RT-PCR-positive outbreaks were also confirmed by sequencing. Comparative sequence analysis revealed 13 Norwalk-like virus sequences in the 12 outbreaks, including 11 Norwalk-like virus genogroup II (seven in Hawaii-like, two Lordsdale-like, one Melksham-like, and one Hillingdon-like) and two Norwalk-like virus genogroup I (related to Southampton-like and Desert Shield-like clusters) viruses. Multiple Norwalk-like virus clusters, with a predominance of Hawaii-like viruses, played an important role in nonbacterial gastroenteritis outbreaks during the study period. This is the first country-wide molecular epidemiological investigation of human calicivirus-associated, gastroenteritis outbreaks in Hungary and Central-Eastern Europe.

  2. Molecular epidemiology of sexually transmitted human papillomavirus in a self referred group of women in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Menton, John F

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV) causes cervical cancer and external genital warts. The purpose of this study is to document the genotype distribution of HPV in females aged between 18 and 34 who self-referred to an STI clinic with visible external genital warts (EGW). Scrapings were taken from visible external genital warts (EGW). These scrapings were analysed by PCR for the presence of HPV DNA. Positive samples were then genotyped by means of a commercially available assay (LiPA). A comparison of genotyping results determined by the LiPA assay and direct amplicon DNA sequencing was also performed. RESULTS: Ninety-two patients out of 105 samples (88%) had detectable levels of HPV DNA. The majority of individuals with EGW (66%) showed the presence of two or more genotypes. The most common HPV genotypes present in the study population were HPV-6, HPV-11, HPV-16, HPV-18, HPV-33 and HPV-53. Potential effects of vaccination on HPV molecular epidemiology indicate that 40% of the patients could have been protected from the high risk genotypes HPV-16 and HPV-18. CONCLUSION: This is the first report of the molecular epidemiology of external genital warts in women aged between 18 and 34 from Ireland based on results from a LiPA assay. The study shows that most individuals are infected with multiple genotypes including those with high oncogenic potential and that the newly available HPV vaccines could have a significant impact on prevalence of the most common HPV genotypes in this study population.

  3. Simulating Nationwide Pandemics: Applying the Multi-scale Epidemiologic Simulation and Analysis System to Human Infectious Diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dombroski, M; Melius, C; Edmunds, T; Banks, L E; Bates, T; Wheeler, R

    2008-09-24

    This study uses the Multi-scale Epidemiologic Simulation and Analysis (MESA) system developed for foreign animal diseases to assess consequences of nationwide human infectious disease outbreaks. A literature review identified the state of the art in both small-scale regional models and large-scale nationwide models and characterized key aspects of a nationwide epidemiological model. The MESA system offers computational advantages over existing epidemiological models and enables a broader array of stochastic analyses of model runs to be conducted because of those computational advantages. However, it has only been demonstrated on foreign animal diseases. This paper applied the MESA modeling methodology to human epidemiology. The methodology divided 2000 US Census data at the census tract level into school-bound children, work-bound workers, elderly, and stay at home individuals. The model simulated mixing among these groups by incorporating schools, workplaces, households, and long-distance travel via airports. A baseline scenario with fixed input parameters was run for a nationwide influenza outbreak using relatively simple social distancing countermeasures. Analysis from the baseline scenario showed one of three possible results: (1) the outbreak burned itself out before it had a chance to spread regionally, (2) the outbreak spread regionally and lasted a relatively long time, although constrained geography enabled it to eventually be contained without affecting a disproportionately large number of people, or (3) the outbreak spread through air travel and lasted a long time with unconstrained geography, becoming a nationwide pandemic. These results are consistent with empirical influenza outbreak data. The results showed that simply scaling up a regional small-scale model is unlikely to account for all the complex variables and their interactions involved in a nationwide outbreak. There are several limitations of the methodology that should be explored in future

  4. Epidemiological review of Toxoplasmosis in humans and animals in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infections by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii are widely prevalent in humans and other animals worldwide. However, information from former East European countries, including Romania is sketchy. Unfortunately, in many Eastern European countries, including Romania it has been assumed that T. ...

  5. Biomolecular and epidemiological aspects of human papillomavirus induced cervical carcinogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Christine Frederike Wilhelmine

    2007-01-01

    Cervical cancer remains one of the leading causes of death from cancer among women worldwide. Organised screening programmes aim to trace precursor lesions in order to reduce cervical cancer incidence. Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a necessary cause for cervical carcinogenesis. Most HPV infections a

  6. Molecular epidemiology and evolution of human enterovirus serotype 68 in Thailand, 2006-2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyada Linsuwanon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Publications worldwide have reported on the re-occurrence of human enterovirus 68 (EV68, a rarely detected pathogen usually causing respiratory illness. However, epidemiological data regarding this virus in particular on the Asian continent has so far been limited. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: We investigated the epidemiology and genetic variability of EV68 infection among Thai children with respiratory illnesses from 2006-2011 (n = 1810. Semi-nested PCR using primer sets for amplification of the 5'-untranslated region through VP2 was performed for rhino-enterovirus detection. Altogether, 25 cases were confirmed as EV68 infection indicating a prevalence of 1.4% in the entire study population. Interestingly, the majority of samples were children aged >5 years (64%. Also, co-infection with other viruses was found in 28%, while pandemic H1N1 influenza/2009 virus was the most common co-infection. Of EV68-positive patients, 36% required hospitalizations with the common clinical presentations of fever, cough, dyspnea, and wheezing. The present study has shown that EV68 was extremely rare until 2009 (0.9%. An increasing annual prevalence was found in 2010 (1.6% with the highest detection frequency in 2011 (4.3%. Based on analysis of the VP1 gene, the evolutionary rate of EV68 was estimated at 4.93 × 10(-3 substitutions/site/year. Major bifurcation of the currently circulating EV68 strains occurred 66 years ago (1945.31 with (1925.95-1960.4695% HPD. Among the current lineages, 3 clusters of EV68 were categorized based on the different molecular signatures in the BC and DE loops of VP1 combined with high posterior probability values. Each cluster has branched off from their common ancestor at least 36 years ago (1975.78 with (1946.13-1984.9795% HPD. CONCLUSION: Differences in epidemiological characteristic and seasonal profile of EV68 have been found in this study. Results from Bayesian phylogenetic investigations also revealed that EV68 should be

  7. Cohort profile: Epidemiological Clinicopathological studies in Europe (EClipSE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiological Clinicopathological Studies in Europe (EClipSE) is the harmonization of neuropathological and longitudinal clinical data from three population-based prospective longitudinal studies of aging. The EClipSE database (Version 1.0) comprises data from the first 970 people who donated their brain at death and this number will increase. EClipSE enables sociodemographic, health, cognitive, and genetic measures collected during life to be related to neuropathology at death, testing hypotheses which require more power than has been previously possible. EClipSE aims to help throw light on relationships between biological, health and psychological factors underlying ageing and the manifestation of clinical dementia.

  8. Some applications of categorical data analysis to epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grizzle, J E; Koch, G G

    1979-10-01

    Several examples of categorized data from epidemiological studies are analyzed to illustrate that more informative analysis than tests of independence can be performed by fitting models. All of the analyses fit into a unified conceptual framework that can be performed by weighted least squares. The methods presented show how to calculate point estimate of parameters, asymptotic variances, and asymptotically valid chi 2 tests. The examples presented are analysis of relative risks estimated from several 2 x 2 tables, analysis of selected features of life tables, construction of synthetic life tables from cross-sectional studies, and analysis of dose-response curves.

  9. The right to sutures: social epidemiology, human rights, and social justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatapuram, Sridhar; Bell, Ruth; Marmot, Michael

    2010-12-15

    The article examines the convergences and contrasts between social epidemiology, social medicine, and human rights approaches toward advancing global health and health equity. The first section describes the goals and work of the WHO Commission on Social Determinants of Health. The second section discusses the role of human rights in the Commission's work. The third section evaluates, from the perspective of social epidemiology, two rights-based approaches to advancing health and health equity as compared to a view that focuses more broadly on social justice. The concluding section identifies four areas where social epidemiologists, practitioners of social medicine, and health and human rights advocates can and must work together in order to make progress on health and health equity.

  10. Human Tuberculosis I. Epidemiology, Diagnosis and Pathogenetic Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgaragli, Giampietro; Frosini, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis), an almost genetically monomorphic pathogen is a human parasite, transmitted mostly by humans and causes tuberculosis (TB). TB is firmly associated to poverty, although lack of proper nutrition and lowered immune status are contributing factors for disease development. TB remains second only to HIV/AIDS as the leading cause of mortality worldwide due to a single infectious agent and is responsible for nearly 1.5 million deaths annually. Some steps of the progress of our knowledge of M. tuberculosis physiology and its interactions with human beings, are reviewed here. This progress has provided fertile ground for improving diagnosis and cure of TB infection. For TB diagnostics laboratories in high-burden countries, primary isolation is the first step before performing drug susceptibility testing (DST) of M. tuberculosis. IGRA (interferon-γ release assay)-based tests for diagnosis of active TB are sufficiently fast, specific and sensitive to allow to contain infection and distinguish among latent TB infection and BCG vaccination individuals from those who have clinically resolved M. tuberculosis infection after anti-TB treatment.

  11. Epidemiology, etiology and study of clinical findings of headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghaffarpoor M

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available In a cross-sectional epidemiological study of headache disorders in neurology clinic of Fatemieh hospital of Semnan (August 22-November 20.1996, information on types of headaches, quality, severity, location, duration, frequency, precipitating factors, age of onset, influence of menstruation and pregnancy, positive familial history, use of oral contraceptive pills and other epidemiological factors including socioeconomic and age/sex composition was collected. The presence of any types of headaches was ascertained by a clinical interview and examination using the operational diagnostic criteria of the International Headaches Society. The prevalence of migraine and tension type headache was also analysed in relation to variables of life style (physical activity and sleep pattern and associated signs and symptoms (nausea, vomiting, photophobia and phonophobia. In this study migraine and tension headache were also compared in variable aspects with each other. 1 Headache was more prevalent in women than men (F/M=3/1. 2 The most common types of headache included: tension type headache (41.4%, migraine (31.2% and unclassified headaches (17.2%. 3 Migraine and T.T.H were more prevalent in early adult life and middle ages. 4 In both migraine and tension type headache the time profiles (duration, frequency, age of onset, quality and location were like that noted in textbook and previous studies. 5 In both migraine and tension type headache the most conspicuous precipitating factor was stress and mental tension and frequent headaches were accompanied with psychiatric problems (e.g depression and or anxiety. 6 Nausea, vomiting, phonophobia and photophobia were the most common associated symptoms in both of them. 7 Positive familial history and aggravation of headache in perimenstual period were more commonly seen in patients with migraine than tension type headache. In conclusion using the operational diagnostic criteria of International Headache Society in

  12. [The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology [STROBE] statement: guidelines for reporting observational studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elm, E. von; Altman, D.G.; Egger, M.

    2008-01-01

    Much biomedical research is observational. The reporting of such research is often inadequate, which hampers the assessment of its strengths and weaknesses and of a study's generalisability. The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) initiative developed rec...

  13. The household contact study design for genetic epidemiological studies of infectious diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine eStein

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Most genetic epidemiological study designs fall into one of two categories: family-based and population-based (case-control. However, recent advances in statistical genetics call for study designs that combine these two approaches. We describe the household contact study design as we have applied it in our several years of study of the epidemiology of tuberculosis. Though we highlight its applicability for genetic epidemiological studies of infectious diseases, there are many facets of this design that are appealing for modern genetic studies, including the simultaneous enrollment of related and unrelated individuals, closely and distantly related individuals, collection of extensive epidemiologic and phenotypic data, and evaluation of effects of shared environment and gene by environment interaction. These study design characteristics are particularly appealing for current sequencing studies.

  14. The Malaria Vaccine Epidemiology and Evaluation Project of Papua New Guinea: rationale and baseline studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpers, M P; al-Yaman, F; Beck, H P; Bhatia, K K; Hii, J; Lewis, D J; Paru, R; Smith, T A

    1992-12-01

    The range of possible malaria vaccines, against different species of Plasmodium and various stages in the life cycle of the parasite in both human host and mosquito vector, is reviewed. The importance, in a malaria-endemic area, of protection by a malaria vaccine against disease rather than infection is emphasized, and the ways by which disease prevention may be achieved are discussed. Mechanisms of production and presentation of vaccines are considered, including the importance of appropriate and more effective adjuvants. The variety of immune responses to malaria is set out and linked to both human and plasmodial genetic factors. Host genetics may also modify susceptibility to malaria through mechanisms which are not immunological. There is a need for entomological studies of the Anopheles vectors, especially but not only in preparation for transmission-blocking vaccines. This overall complexity justifies a multidimensional approach to epidemiology and field-site preparation. An iterative procedure is proposed for initial field evaluation, through adult male volunteers to community studies in immune adults and then to semi-immune school children, before evaluation in the principal target population of nonimmune young children. The outcome variables for epidemiological evaluation are specified. After this brief review of malaria vaccines, the baseline studies being undertaken by the Malaria Vaccine Epidemiology and Evaluation Project of the Papua New Guinea Institute of Medical Research in the Wosera area of East Sepik Province are discussed in some detail, and their rationale linked to the range and complexity of the malaria vaccines that have been reviewed. These studies are described under the headings of their principal components of epidemiology, parasitology, immunology, genetics and entomology.

  15. Epidemiological studies on syncope--a register based approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruwald, Martin Huth

    2013-01-01

    : 1) the use, validity and accuracy of the ICD-10 diagnosis of syncope R55.9 in the National Patient Registry for the use of this diagnosis in the epidemiology of syncope, 2) diagnostics used and etiology of a random selection of patients who had a discharge diagnosis of R55.9, 3) the incidence...... thesis demonstrated that the ICD-10 discharge diagnosis could reliably identify a cohort of patients admitted for syncope and that the discharge code carried a high number of unexplained cases despite use of numerous tests. The last studies showed that syncope is a common cause for hospital contact...

  16. Epidemiological study on feline gastric Helicobacter spp. in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    KUBOTA-AIZAWA, Sanae; OHNO, Koichi; KANEMOTO, Hideyuki; NAKASHIMA, Ko; FUKUSHIMA, Kenjiro; UCHIDA, Kazuyuki; CHAMBERS, James K.; GOTO-KOSHINO, Yuko; Mimuro, Hitomi; Watanabe, Takayasu; Sekizaki, Tsutomu; TSUJIMOTO, Hajime

    2017-01-01

    Epidemiological and pathological studies on Helicobacter spp. in feline stomachs in Japan were conducted using genus- and species-specific (H. felis, H. bizzozeronii, H. heilmannii sensu stricto [s.s.] and H. pylori) polymerase chain reactions (PCRs), ureAB gene sequencing and histopathology. PCR results showed that 28 of 56 cats were infected with Helicobacter spp., and H. heilmannii s.s. was the most prevalent species by both PCR (28/28) and ureAB gene sequencing (26/28). Some of the sequen...

  17. The Epidemiology of Human Papillomavirus Infection and Cervical Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Xavier Bosch

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer has been recognized as a rare outcome of a common Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI. The etiologic association is restricted to a limited number of viral types of the family of the Human Papillomaviruses (HPVs. The association is causal in nature and under optimal testing systems, HPV DNA can be identified in all specimens of invasive cervical cancer. As a consequence, it has been claimed that HPV infection is a necessary cause of cervical cancer. The evidence is consistent worldwide and implies both the Squamous Cell Carcinomas (SCC, the adenocarcinomas and the vast majority (i.e. > 95% of the immediate precursors, namely High Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions (HSIL/Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia 3 (CIN3/Carcinoma in situ. Co-factors that modify the risk among HPV DNA positive women include the use of oral contraceptives (OC for five or more years, smoking, high parity (five or more full term pregnancies and previous exposure to other sexually transmitted diseases such as Chlamydia Trachomatis (CT and Herpes Simplex Virus type 2 (HSV-2. Women exposed to the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV are at high risk for HPV infection, HPV DNA persistency and progression of HPV lesions to cervical cancer.

  18. Diabetes and human immunodeficiency virus infection: Epidemiological, therapeutic aspects and patient experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traoré, Youssouf; Bensghir, Rajaa; Ihbibane, Fatima; OuladLashen, Ahd; Sodqi, Mustapha; Marih, Latifa; Chakib, Abdelfattah; Marhoum, Kamal El Filali

    2016-06-01

    Nationally, no data on the association between human immunodeficiency virus infection and diabetes have been published. To review the epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic data and evaluate the experience of people living with HIV and suffering from diabetes. Our study population was composed of 190 outpatients (87 males and 103 females) attending the Infectious Diseases department of the University Hospital Center of Casablanca (Ibn Rochd). Using the computerized medical records, we identified patients with HIV-Diabetes and collected their epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic data. At the enrollment date of each patient, we measured anthropometric parameters (weight, height, waist circumference, hip circumference, and arm circumference). We also asked each patient, about the impression on their bodies' appearance and the degree of concern with regard to the diabetes. The population of patients with HIV, the prevalence of diabetes was 10.5%, among the patients taking an antiretroviral therapy, the prevalence was 13.5%. Diabetes has been diagnosed in 113 patients before the discovery of their HIV infection. At time of recruitment, 111 of them were under antiretroviral therapy for a mean period of 3.1years. Zidovudine was the most prescribed drug followed by lamivudine. Type 2 diabetes was diagnosed in 144 patients. Eighty-seven patients feel conscious about their body appearance which makes them feel bad about the way they look. Metformin was prescribed in 46 cases. The majority of patients (73.1%) considered diabetes as a second health problem. Only 46 patients were well balanced. The multidisciplinary consultation and patient education should enable an appropriate management of diabetes in HIV infected patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Epidemiological, laboratory, diagnostic and public health aspects of human brucellosis in western Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hamid Kassiri; Hamid Amani; Massoud Lotfi

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine brucellosis's epidemiologic, laboratory, diagnostic and public health features considering brucellosis is endemic in Azna County, western Iran. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was investigated on 43 patients with brucellosis in Azna County. The subjects were the patients with symptoms correspondent with brucellosis and positive Wright and 2ME tests. A questionnaire about demographic, epidemiological and laboratory findings was filled in. Afterwards, patients were treated using usual antimicrobial drugs regimen. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS software version 16. Results:Forty-three subjects were found to be positive in laboratory tests. Incidence of Brucellosis was 59.31 per hundred thousand population. About 34.9% of patients were female and 65.1% male. Nearly 95.2 % of human cases were living in rural and 4.8 % in urban areas. Around 20.9% of patients had history of animal contact. The commonest transmission was unpasteurized dairy products (79.1%). The most contagious seasons were summer and spring (60.3%). The most common age group was 15-24 (27.9%), and about 60.5% of the patients were between 15-44 years old. Disease was more common among housewives (30.2%) and farmers (20.9%). The majority of the patients had Wright test titre=1:320 (54.1%) and 2ME test titre=1:160 (56.1%) in serological titration. Doxycycline with Rifampin was used for treatment of the greatest of patients (60.4%). Conclusions:In order to control this zoonotic disease, close cooperation of health and veterinary organizations is necessary.

  20. Is bioelectrical impedance accurate for use in large epidemiological studies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merchant Anwar T

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Percentage of body fat is strongly associated with the risk of several chronic diseases but its accurate measurement is difficult. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA is a relatively simple, quick and non-invasive technique, to measure body composition. It measures body fat accurately in controlled clinical conditions but its performance in the field is inconsistent. In large epidemiologic studies simpler surrogate techniques such as body mass index (BMI, waist circumference, and waist-hip ratio are frequently used instead of BIA to measure body fatness. We reviewed the rationale, theory, and technique of recently developed systems such as foot (or hand-to-foot BIA measurement, and the elements that could influence its results in large epidemiologic studies. BIA results are influenced by factors such as the environment, ethnicity, phase of menstrual cycle, and underlying medical conditions. We concluded that BIA measurements validated for specific ethnic groups, populations and conditions can accurately measure body fat in those populations, but not others and suggest that for large epdiemiological studies with diverse populations BIA may not be the appropriate choice for body composition measurement unless specific calibration equations are developed for different groups participating in the study.

  1. Epidemiological review of Toxoplasma gondii infection in humans and animals in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, A P; Dubey, J P; Dardé, M-L; Cardoso, L

    2014-11-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide zoonosis. However, data from Portugal are limited and a considerable part of the literature is in Portuguese. Currently, the rate of congenital infection in Portugal is unknown, and almost nothing is known of sequelae of congenital toxoplasmosis. There is no recent general population-based serological survey of Toxoplasma gondii in humans in Portugal. In addition, there is little information on genetic characteristics of T. gondii in animals and humans. In the present paper, we review prevalence, clinical spectrum and epidemiology of T. gondii in humans and animals in Portugal. This knowledge should be useful to biologists, public health workers, physicians and veterinarians.

  2. Genetic epidemiology of tuberculosis susceptibility: impact of study design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Catherine M

    2011-01-20

    Several candidate gene studies have provided evidence for a role of host genetics in susceptibility to tuberculosis (TB). However, the results of these studies have been very inconsistent, even within a study population. Here, we review the design of these studies from a genetic epidemiological perspective, illustrating important differences in phenotype definition in both cases and controls, consideration of latent M. tuberculosis infection versus active TB disease, population genetic factors such as population substructure and linkage disequilibrium, polymorphism selection, and potential global differences in M. tuberculosis strain. These considerable differences between studies should be accounted for when examining the current literature. Recommendations are made for future studies to further clarify the host genetics of TB.

  3. Epidemiology of human influenza A(H7N9) infection in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Yiu-Hong; To, May-Kei; Lam, Tsz-Sum; Yau, Shui-Wah; Leung, Oi-Shan; Chuang, Shuk-Kwan

    2017-04-01

    We conducted a case series study to review the epidemiology of human influenza A(H7N9) infection reported in Hong Kong. We reviewed case records of confirmed human cases of influenza A(H7N9) infection reported in Hong Kong in the 2013-2014 winter season. We compared the median viral shedding duration and interval from illness onset to initiation of oseltamivir treatment between severe and mild cases. We estimated the incubation period of influenza A(H7N9) virus from cases with a single known date of poultry exposure. A total of 10 cases were reported and all were imported infection from Mainland China. Four patients died and the cause of death was related to influenza A(H7N9) infection in two patients. The median interval from illness onset to initiation of oseltamivir treatment for the severe cases (4.5 days) was significantly longer than the mild cases (2 days; p = 0.025). Severe cases had a significantly longer viral shedding duration than mild cases (p = 0.028). The median incubation period for cases with a single known exposure date was 4 days. Nasopharyngeal aspirate taken from the 88 close contacts of the 10 patients all tested negative for influenza A virus using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Delayed administration of antiviral treatment may be associated with a more severe illness for influenza A(H7N9) infection. Despite our aggressive contact tracing policy with laboratory testing of all close contacts, no secondary case was identified which implied that the potential of human-to-human transmission of the circulating influenza A(H7N9) virus remains low. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Serum Biomarkers of (AntiOxidant Status for Epidemiological Studies

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    Eugène Jansen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we disclose a selection of serum/plasma biomarkers of (antioxidant status related to nutrition, which can be used for measurements in large-scale epidemiological studies. From personal experience, we have come to the following proposal of a set of biomarkers for nutritional intake, (antioxidant status, and redox status. We have selected the individual antioxidant vitamins E and A, and the carotenoids which can be measured in large series by HPLC. In addition, vitamin C was selected, which can be measured by an auto-analyzer or HPLC. As a biomarker for oxidative stress, the ROM assay (reactive oxygen metabolites was selected; for the redox status, the total thiol assay; and for the total antioxidant status the BAP assay (biological antioxidant potential. All of these biomarkers can be measured in large quantities by an auto-analyzer. Critical points in biomarker validation with respect to blood sampling, storage conditions, and measurements are discussed. With the selected biomarkers, a good set is presented for use in the risk assessment between nutrition and (chronic diseases in large-scale epidemiological studies. Examples of the successful application of these biomarkers in large international studies are presented.

  5. Epidemiologic study of Phenylketonuria disease in Lorestan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azita Zafar Mohtashami

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background : Phenylketonuria (PKU is a metabolic disease with autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance caused by a deficiency or absence of the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase in the liver. Phenylketonuria incidence is 1 in 10,000 births. This study aimed to determine the epidemiological characteristics of phenylketonuria in Lorestan province. Materials and Methods: All 81 phenylketonuria patients known in Lorestan province up to winter 2014 were considered in this descriptive epidemiologic study. Based on the goals and variables of the study, a complete questionnaire was developed to collect data through interviews with parents and the records and they were analyzed by use of SPSS v.16 software with preparing tables and graphs and using chi-square and t-test. Results: Results showed that phenylketonuria prevalence is 4.3 out of 100,000 people in Lorestan province. Twenty of the patients (24.7% were identified through screening and 61 patients (75.3% through other methods. Forty-six of the samples (56.8% were female and 35 cases (43.2% were male. Nearly 75% of PKU patients had a positive history of consanguinity marriage in their parents. The prevalence of the disease was significantly different from other cities. Conclusion: Neonatal screening for phenylketonuria is necessary and should be done within 3-5 days of birth. In families with children suffering from PKU, prenatal diagnosis is necessary for other pregnancies.

  6. First molecular epidemiological study of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Libya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amro, Ahmad; Gashout, Aisha; Al-Dwibe, Hamida; Zahangir Alam, Mohammad; Annajar, Badereddin; Hamarsheh, Omar; Shubar, Hend; Schönian, Gabriele

    2012-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a major public health problem in Libya. The objective of this study was to investigate, for the first time, epidemiological features of CL outbreaks in Libya including molecular identification of parasites, the geographical distribution of cases and possible scenarios of parasite transmission. We studied 450 patients that came from 49 areas distributed in 12 districts in north-west Libya. The patients' ages ranged from 9 months to 87 years (median age 25 years); 54% of the cases were males. Skin scrapings spotted on glass slides were collected for molecular identification of causative agent. The ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) was amplified and subsequently characterized by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. In total, 195 samples were successfully identified of which 148 (75.9%) were Leishmania major, and 47 (24.1%) Leishmania tropica. CL cases infected with L. major were found in all CL areas whereas L. tropica cases came mainly from Al Jabal Al Gharbi (46.4%), Misrata (17.8%) and Tarhuna districts (10.7%). A trend of seasonality was noticed for the infections with L. major which showed a clear peak between November and January, but was less pronounced for infections by L. tropica. The first molecular study on CL in Libya revealed that the disease is caused by L. major and L. tropica and the epidemiological patterns in the different foci were the same as in other Mediterranean foci of CL.

  7. Molecular epidemiology studies on occupational and environmental exposure to mutagens and carcinogens, 1997-1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srám, R J; Binková, B

    2000-03-01

    Molecular epidemiology is a new and evolving area of research, combining laboratory measurement of internal dose, biologically effective dose, biologic effects, and influence of individual susceptibility with epidemiologic methodologies. Biomarkers evaluated were selected according to basic scheme: biomarkers of exposure--metabolites in urine, DNA adducts, protein adducts, and Comet assay parameters; biomarkers of effect--chromosomal aberrations, sister chromatid exchanges, micronuclei, mutations in the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase gene, and the activation of oncogenes coding for p53 or p21 proteins as measured on protein levels; biomarkers of susceptibility--genetic polymorphisms of genes CYP1A1, GSTM1, GSTT1, NAT2. DNA adducts measured by 32P-postlabeling are the biomarker of choice for the evaluation of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Protein adducts are useful as a biomarker for exposure to tobacco smoke (4-aminobiphenyl) or to smaller molecules such as acrylonitrile or 1,3-butadiene. Of the biomarkers of effect, the most common are cytogenetic end points. Epidemiologic studies support the use of chromosomal breakage as a relevant biomarker of cancer risk. The use of the Comet assay and methods analyzing oxidative DNA damage needs reliable validation for human biomonitoring. Until now there have not been sufficient data to interpret the relationship between genotypes, biomarkers of exposure, and biomarkers of effect for assessing the risk of human exposure to mutagens and carcinogens.

  8. The sero-epidemiology of human papillomavirus among Caucasian transplant recipients in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newton Robert

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite intensive study of high-risk mucosal human papillomaviruses (HPV, little is known of the epidemiology of cutaneous HPV. As part of a study of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and HPV among organ transplant recipients (OTR from London and Oxford, we investigated the seroprevalence and risk factors for 34 HPV types (detected using Luminex technology among 425 Caucasian OTR without skin cancer. Results Overall, 86% of participants were seropositive to at least one HPV: 41% to mucosal alpha types, 33% to cutaneous alpha types, 57% to alpha types, 56% to beta, 47% to gamma types and 45% to other types (nu, mu, HPV101 and 103. In both centres, the most common types were HPV6 (33% and 26% for London and Oxford respectively, HPV8 (24% and 18%, HPV15 (26% and 29%, HPV17 (25% and 21%, HPV38 (23% and 21%, HPV49 (19% and 21%, HPV4 (27% and 23%, HPV65 (30% and 25%, HPV95 (22% and 20%, HPV1 (33% and 24% and HPV63 (28% and 17%. The seroprevalence of 8 HPV types differed significantly (P Conclusion Findings for mucosal HPV types were in line with results from previous studies. We observed differences in HPV seroprevalence between organ transplant recipients from two geographically close centres but no clear risk factor was found associated with cutaneous HPV seropositivity among organ transplant recipients. These findings have implications for interpretation of future seroepidemiology studies addressing the association between HPV and cutaneous SCC in OTR populations.

  9. Changing Epidemiology of Human Brucellosis, China, 1955–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Shengjie; Zhou, Hang; Xiong, Weiyi; Gilbert, Marius; Huang, Zhuojie; Yu, Jianxing; Yin, Wenwu; Wang, Liping; Chen, Qiulan; Li, Yu; Mu, Di; Zeng, Lingjia; Ren, Xiang; Geng, Mengjie; Zhang, Zike; Cui, Buyun; Li, Tiefeng; Wang, Dali; Li, Zhongjie; Wardrop, Nicola A.; Tatem, Andrew J.

    2017-01-01

    Brucellosis, a zoonotic disease, was made statutorily notifiable in China in 1955. We analyzed the incidence and spatial–temporal distribution of human brucellosis during 1955–2014 in China using notifiable surveillance data: aggregated data for 1955–2003 and individual case data for 2004–2014. A total of 513,034 brucellosis cases were recorded, of which 99.3% were reported in northern China during 1955–2014, and 69.1% (258, 462/374, 141) occurred during February–July in 1990–2014. Incidence remained high during 1955–1978 (interquartile range 0.42–1.0 cases/100,000 residents), then decreased dramatically in 1979–1994. However, brucellosis has reemerged since 1995 (interquartile range 0.11–0.23 in 1995–2003 and 1.48–2.89 in 2004–2014); the historical high occurred in 2014, and the affected area expanded from northern pastureland provinces to the adjacent grassland and agricultural areas, then to southern coastal and southwestern areas. Control strategies in China should be adjusted to account for these changes by adopting a One Health approach. PMID:28098531

  10. Sources of potentially infectious human microsporidia: molecular characterisation of microsporidia isolates from exotic birds in the Czech Republic, prevalence study and importance of birds in epidemiology of the human microsporidial infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasicková, D; Sak, B; Kvác, M; Ditrich, O

    2009-10-28

    A total of 287 faecal specimens of captive exotic birds from the orders Psittaciformes, Passeriformes and Columbiformes were randomly collected from Bohemian pet stores, avian breeders and avian keepers and were screened for the presence of human pathogenic microsporidia by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Microsporidial DNA was identified in 115 faecal samples (40.1%). Single-species infection was detected in 36 birds (12.5%) for Enterocytozoon bieneusi, 36 birds (12.5%) for Encephalitozoon cuniculi and 18 birds (6.3%) for Encephalitozoon hellem. No Encephalitozoon intestinalis positive samples were identified. Moreover, co-infections were detected in 25 birds: E. bieneusi together with E. cuniculi in 14 animals (4.9%) or E. hellem in 11 cases (3.8%). E. hellem was present in 1A (5.2%) and three (0.3%) genotypes, E. cuniculi in I (2.4%), II (8.0%) and III (0.7%) genotypes and E. bieneusi in A (8.4%) and EbpA (10.8%) genotypes. Several of these genotypes have never been recorded in birds before. The results of this report suggest the low host specificity of E. bieneusi, E. hellem and E. cuniculi and describe 44 new avian hosts.

  11. Epidemiology of Non-Typhoidal Salmonella (NTS in Humans and Animals in the Gambia and Senegal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dione, M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-Typhoidal Salmonella (NTS species are important food-borne pathogens. Although acute gastroenteritis is the most common clinical symptom, complications can occur resulting in bacteraemia with or without focal infections. Food products, especially food of animal origin such as poultry are associated with the transmission to humans. In Africa, NTS are among the most common cause of bloodstream infections in children younger than 5 years. Epidemiological data on NTS are lacking in Africa both for human and animal infections. Therefore, a study providing a better understanding of the factors that lead to the emergence of NTS is a prerequisite for the design of improved intervention strategies to control these pathogens. The aim of this thesis was to study the epidemiology of NTS pathogens in humans and animals in The Gambia and Senegal. Chapter 1 reviews the current status of knowledge on NTS infections in Africa with focus on The Gambia and Senegal. It also provides the background against which these studies were conducted. Chapter 2 describes the prevalence of NTS along the poultry production chain in Casamance, Senegal. Fifty seven randomly selected broiler farms, 42 street restaurants and 285 chicken carcasses were studied. The following farm prevalences were reported: 35.1, 38.6 and 29.8% in chicken faeces, on carcass skin, and in muscles, respectively. NTS were found in chicken meat servings of 14.3% of the 42 street restaurants and in 40.4% of the 285 chicken carcasses examined. The most prevalent serotypes among the eighteen identified were Salmonella Brancaster (57.9%, Salmonella Goelzau (10.7%, Salmonella Kentucky (8.4%, and Salmonella Hadar (7.3%. The following serotypes were for the first time identified in Senegal: Salmonella Bandia, Salmonella Bessi, Salmonella Brunei, Salmonella Hull, Salmonella Istanbul, Salmonella Javiana, Salmonella Magherafelt, Salmonella Molade, Salmonella oxford, Salmonella Poona, Salmonella Rubislaw

  12. The epidemiology of anal human papillomavirus infection among women and men having sex with women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyitray, Alan G

    2012-12-01

    The goal of this review is to summarise epidemiological data that support an understanding of the natural history of anal human papillomavirus (HPV) among women and men having sex with women (MSW). HPV is a common infection of the anal canal among women and MSW. Although there have been a limited number of studies to date, both oncogenic and nononcogenic HPV genotypes commonly occur among these populations even when individuals do not report receptive anal sex. Genotype distribution is quite diverse, with recent studies typically detecting more than two dozen genotypes in the anal canal in samples of women and MSW. Factors most consistently associated with HPV in the anal canal among both women and MSW are lifetime number of sexual partners and detection of HPV at the genitals. The common finding of genotypic concordance between the genitals and anal canal in women and MSW, and the infectious nature of HPV, in addition to a limited number of studies offering empirical evidence of anal-to-genital self-inoculation and evidence of HPV hand carriage, may help explain the detection of HPV in the anal canal outside the context of receptive anal sex. HPV vaccination has been shown to reduce anal HPV infection among women and is also a promising prevention strategy among MSW.

  13. Epidemiologic study of ankle fractures in a tertiary hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaki, Marcos Hideyo; Matsumura, Bruno Akio Rodrigues; Dotta, Thiago De Angelis Guerra; Pontin, Pedro Augusto; Dos Santos, Alexandre Leme Godoy; Fernandes, Tulio Diniz

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the epidemiology of ankle fractures surgically treated at the Instituto de Ortopedia e Traumatologia do Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade de São Paulo. Medical records of patients admitted with foot and ankle fractures between 2006 and 2011 were revised. Seventy three ankle fractures that underwent surgical treatment were identified. The parameters analyzed included age, gender, injured side, AO and Gustilo & Anderson classification, associated injuries, exposure, need to urgent treatment, time to definitive treatment and early post-operative complications. retrospective epidemiological study. Male gender was predominant among subjects and the mean age was 27.5 years old. Thirty nine fractures resulted from traffic accidents and type B fracture according to AO classification was the most common. Twenty one were open fractures and 22 patients had associated injuries. The average time to definitive treatment was 6.5 days. Early post-operative complications were found in 21.3% of patients. Ankle fractures treated in a tertiary hospital of a large city in Brazil affect young people victims of high-energy accidents and present significant rates of associated injuries and post-operative complications. Level of Evidence IV, Cases Series.

  14. Epidemiological study of epilepsy by monitoring prescriptions of antiepileptic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banfi, R; Borselli, G; Marinai, C; Borgheresi, A; Cavalieri, A

    1995-07-28

    The aim of this study is to evaluate a simple and effective method of acquiring epidemiological information about epilepsy. Data on antiepileptic drug prescriptions was collected, the utilization pattern being based on defined daily doses (DDDs). Antiepileptic drugs are epidemiological tracers of epilepsy due to their chronic and highly specific usage. Consequently, a prevalence rate for the whole population may be obtained by using DDDs. Data on antiepileptic drug prescriptions for a period of 6 months in 1992 and 6 months in 1993 indicate a utilization of approximately 7 DDDs of antiepileptic drugs per 1,000 inhabitants. The prevalence of epilepsy was estimated by correcting the exposure calculated in DDDs by a factor of 0.68. In our sample, the prevalence of the disease was 5.2 per 1,000 inhabitants in 1992 and 4.9 per 1,000 in 1993. Physician prescriptions were concentrated on four compounds, namely phenobarbital, carbamazepine, valproic acid and phenytoin, which together represented 90% of total antiepileptic drug prescriptions.

  15. Suicide in Sorocaba-SP: an epidemiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Nobrega Vasques de Freitas

    2013-09-01

    Introduction: suicide is a major worldwide public health issue and appears as one of the ten most frequent causes of death in all ages. Objective: to perform an epidemiological analysis of suicide rates recorded between 2000 and 2009 in the city of Sorocaba-SP and compare them to national epidemiological data. Methods: We performed a descriptive analysis of suicide data in Sorocaba-SP in the period 2000 to 2009 collected by the Surveillance of Violence and Injuries (VIVA and the Municipal Health Secretariat of Sorocaba-SP. Results: a total of 229 suicide cases were recorded between 2000 and 2009. Total suicide rate suffered an increase of 3.8% in 2005, as compared to previous years, and remained constant in subsequent years. The highest average rates were recorded in 2005 and 2007. Men are more likely to commit suicide. The highest rates of suicide were recorded in the age group 35-44 years. Being single was the most common sociodemographic characteristic of suicides during the study period. The most common methods of suicide were hanging and firearms. Conclusion: The rate of suicide in Sorocaba-SP, despite low, is consistent with the national and international growth trends. Members of the younger population are killing themselves with increasing frequency, although the highest rates of suicide are still found among those aged 35 - 44 years

  16. Myasthenia Gravis: a population-based epidemiological study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rutledge, S

    2016-02-01

    Myasthenia Gravis (MG) is a disorder affecting components of the neuromuscular junction. Epidemiological studies show rising incidence and prevalence rates. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence and prevalence of MG in the Republic of Ireland. Data sources included patient lists from consultant neurologists and ophthalmologists, a neuroimmunology laboratory, general practitioners and the Myasthenia Gravis Association. A total of 1,715 cases were identified, of which 706 definite, probable or possible autoimmune and congenital MG cases were included. The overall prevalence rate from the data obtained is 15.38\\/100,000. The study demonstrated a female preponderance (female:male of 1.3: 1) and some geographical variation within Ireland. The average incidence rate for the years 2000 to 2009 was 11.3 per year; the rate for the current decade is 18 per year. The increasing number of diagnoses may be due to improved access to diagnostic investigations and increasing awareness of the clinical manifestations.

  17. Asymptomatic infection with American cutaneous leishmaniasis: epidemiological and immunological studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade-Narvaez, Fernando J; Loría-Cervera, Elsy Nalleli; Sosa-Bibiano, Erika I; Van Wynsberghe, Nicole R

    2016-01-01

    American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is a major public health problem caused by vector-borne protozoan intracellular parasites from the genus Leishmania, subgenera Viannia and Leishmania. Asymptomatic infection is the most common outcome after Leishmania inoculation. There is incomplete knowledge of the biological processes explaining the absence of signs or symptoms in most cases while other cases present a variety of clinical findings. Most studies of asymptomatic infection have been conducted in areas of endemic visceral leishmaniasis. In contrast, asymptomatic ACL infection has been neglected. This review is focused on the following: (1) epidemiological studies supporting the existence of asymptomatic ACL infection and (2) immunological studies conducted to understand the mechanisms responsible for controlling the parasite and avoiding tissue damage. PMID:27759762

  18. Asymptomatic infection with American cutaneous leishmaniasis: epidemiological and immunological studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando J Andrade-Narvaez

    Full Text Available American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL is a major public health problem caused by vector-borne protozoan intracellular parasites from the genus Leishmania, subgenera Viannia and Leishmania. Asymptomatic infection is the most common outcome after Leishmania inoculation. There is incomplete knowledge of the biological processes explaining the absence of signs or symptoms in most cases while other cases present a variety of clinical findings. Most studies of asymptomatic infection have been conducted in areas of endemic visceral leishmaniasis. In contrast, asymptomatic ACL infection has been neglected. This review is focused on the following: (1 epidemiological studies supporting the existence of asymptomatic ACL infection and (2 immunological studies conducted to understand the mechanisms responsible for controlling the parasite and avoiding tissue damage.

  19. Methodological issues of confounding in analytical epidemiologic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajian Tilaki, Karimollah

    2012-01-01

    Confounding can be thought of as mixing the effect of exposure on the risk of disease with a third factor which distorts the measure of association such as risk ratio or odds ratio. This bias arises because of complex functional relationship of confounder with both exposure and disease (outcome). In this article, we provided a conceptual framework review of confounding issues in epidemiologic studies, in particular in observational studies and nonrandomized experimental studies. We have shown in 2 by 2 tables with analytical examples how the index of association will be distorted when confounding is present. The criteria, source of confounding and several points in confounding issues have been addressed. The advantages and disadvantages of several strategies for control of confounding have been discussed.

  20. STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology - Molecular Epidemiology (STROBE-ME): An extension of the STROBE statement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallo, V.; Egger, M.; McCormack, V.; Farmer, P.B.; Ioannidis, J.P.; Kirsch-Volders, M.; Matullo, G.; Phillips, D.H.; Schoket, B.; Stromberg, U.; Vermeulen, R.; Wild, C.; Porta, M.; Vineis, P.

    2012-01-01

    Eur J Clin Invest 2012; 42 (1): 1-16 SUMMARY POINTS: Advances in laboratory techniques have led to a rapidly increasing use of biomarkers in epidemiological studies. Biomarkers of internal dose, early biological change, susceptibility and clinical outcomes are used as proxies for investigating inter

  1. STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology - Molecular Epidemiology (STROBE-ME): An extension of the STROBE statement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallo, V.; Egger, M.; McCormack, V.; Farmer, P.B.; Ioannidis, J.P.; Kirsch-Volders, M.; Matullo, G.; Phillips, D.H.; Schoket, B.; Stromberg, U.; Vermeulen, R.; Wild, C.; Porta, M.; Vineis, P.

    2012-01-01

    Advances in laboratory techniques have led to a rapidly increasing use of biomarkers in epidemiological studies. Biomarkers of internal dose, early biological change, susceptibility and clinical outcomes are used as proxies for investigating interactions between external and / or endogenous agents a

  2. STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology - Molecular Epidemiology (STROBE-ME): An extension of the STROBE statement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallo, V.; Egger, M.; McCormack, V.; Farmer, P.B.; Ioannidis, J.P.; Kirsch-Volders, M.; Matullo, G.; Phillips, D.H.; Schoket, B.; Stromberg, U.; Vermeulen, R.; Wild, C.; Porta, M.; Vineis, P.

    2012-01-01

    Advances in laboratory techniques have led to a rapidly increasing use of biomarkers in epidemiological studies. Biomarkers of internal dose, early biological change, susceptibility, and clinical outcomes are used as proxies for investigating the interactions between external and/or endogenous agent

  3. Epidemiological Approaches to Metal Toxicology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben

    2014-01-01

    to their propensity to cause chronic or delayed toxicity, epidemiological studies of metal toxicity have focused on a wide variety of organ systems, subtle effects as well as mortality, and differences in susceptibility. Toxic metals often serve as paradigms of environmental and occupational toxicity....... For these reasons, this chapter highlights the fields within epidemiology that are most relevant to toxic metals and discusses where these substances serve to illustrate important epidemiological concepts. Chapter sections include subjects such as epidemiological terms, study design, study population, exposure......Epidemiological methods are crucial to extract as much valid information as possible from human metal exposures. Thus, modern epidemiological approaches have elucidated human health effects that were not apparent in the past. At the same time, metal toxicology has served as a useful arena...

  4. Hodgkin's disease: case control epidemiological study in Yorkshire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, S M; Cartwright, R A; Darwin, C M; Richards, I D; Roberts, B; O'Brien, C; Bird, C C

    1987-01-01

    This is the first report of a case-control epidemiological study on lymphomas and leukaemias occurring in Yorkshire during 1979-84. This paper deals with the results of the Hodgkin's disease analysis comprising 248 cases and 489 controls. The results indicate support for previous work with respect to small family size and past history of infectious mononucleosis. Positive observations made in a previous pilot study are also confirmed and extended with respect to associations with certain chronic skin lesions, dental anaesthesia and familial factors. Negative associations are described with respect to X-ray exposures and cigarette smoking. It is proposed that these results fit into a general hypothesis that these conditions are the result of interaction between infectious agents and altered immunity in those persons genetically predisposed.

  5. Quality control for exposure assessment in epidemiological studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bornkessel, C; Blettner, M; Breckenkamp, J

    2010-01-01

    In the framework of an epidemiological study, dosemeters were used for the assessment of radio frequency electromagnetic field exposure. To check the correct dosemeter's performance in terms of consistency of recorded field values over the entire study period, a quality control strategy...... was developed. In this paper, the concept of quality control and its results is described. From the 20 dosemeters used, 19 were very stable and reproducible, with deviations of a maximum of +/-1 dB compared with their initial state. One device was found to be faulty and its measurement data had to be excluded...... from the analysis. As a result of continuous quality control procedures, the confidence in the measurements obtained during the field work was strengthened significantly....

  6. Climate change and epidemiology of human parasitoses in Saudi Arabia:A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wael Mohamed Lotfy; Souad Mohamed Alsaqabi

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is an emerging global problem. It has hazardous effects that vary across different geographic regions and populations. It is anticipated to have significant effects in Saudi Arabia. The present work reviews the future of human parasitoses in Saudi Arabia in response to the expected climate change. The key projections are increased precipitations, flash floods, unstable temperatures, sea-level rise and shoreline retreat. Such environmental changes could strongly influence the epidemiology of fly-borne, mosquito-borne, snail-borne and water-borne human parasitoses in the country.

  7. Climate change and epidemiology of human parasitoses in Saudi Arabia: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael Mohamed Lotfy

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is an emerging global problem. It has hazardous effects that vary across different geographic regions and populations. It is anticipated to have significant effects in Saudi Arabia. The present work reviews the future of human parasitoses in Saudi Arabia in response to the expected climate change. The key projections are increased precipitations, flash floods, unstable temperatures, sea-level rise and shoreline retreat. Such environmental changes could strongly influence the epidemiology of fly-borne, mosquito-borne, snail-borne and water-borne human parasitoses in the country.

  8. Epidemiological aspects of group B streptococci of bovine and human origin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, N. E.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    1996-01-01

    restriction enzymes, HindIII and HhaI. All isolates could be typed by ribotyping and seven ribotypes were identified among the reference strains. The restriction enzymes used alone or in combination gave typing results that allowed discrimination between and within serotype. Combined use of serotype, Hind......Restriction fragment length polymorphism of the gene encoding rRNA (ribotyping) was used in combination with conventional epidemiological markers to study phenotypic variations among Streptococcus agalactiae of bovine origin and the possible epidemiological interrelationship between the bovine...

  9. Epidemiological study of multiple sclerosis in La Rioja.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bártulos Iglesias, M; Marzo Sola, M E; Estrella Ruiz, L A; Bravo Anguiano, Y

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a demyelinating disease that causes severe disability in younger patients. Many epidemiology studies have confirmed a variable prevalence. The objective of this study was to analyse the prevalence of this disease in La Rioja (Spain), using such variables as age and sex; type of progression, initial form of the disease, EDSS and number of relapses; disease-modifying treatment and reasons for treatment withdrawal; personal and family history of cancer; and incidence and mortality. Analysis of patients in La Rioja diagnosed with MS (according to Poser criteria or the 2005 McDonald criteria) during a 10-year period (2001-2011). Data were collected from hospital records, multiple sclerosis associations, and personal records kept by neurologists. The MS prevalence rate in La Rioja is 65 patients/100 000 inhabitants with an incidence rate of 3.5 cases/100 000 residents per year. Relapsing-remitting MS is present in 67.6% of the patient total. Mean age of onset is 20-29 years (range, 12 to 70). Most EDSS scores were mostly ≤ 2. Untreated MS cases account for 47.6% of the total and the most commonly used therapy is interferon. We detected 4 haematological tumours and 7 families with multiple members affected by MS. Prevalence and incidence are similar to those found in other regions Spain. The average age at onset age for primary progressive MS is slightly higher than in other papers (40-49 years). In families with multiple patients, MS may be more aggressive. Disability in these patients remains very severe. We require more epidemiology studies with a variety of data gathering methods to support findings for prevalence obtained in different provinces. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Aetiology and epidemiology of human cryptosporidiosis cases in Galicia (NW Spain), 2000-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abal-Fabeiro, J L; Maside, X; Llovo, J; Bartolomé, C

    2015-10-01

    Cryptosporidium infects millions of people worldwide causing acute gastroenteritis, but despite its remarkable epidemiological and economic impact, information on the epidemiological trends of human cryptosporidiosis is still scarce in most countries. Here we investigate a panel of 486 cases collected in Galicia (NW Iberian Peninsula) between 2000 and 2008, which sheds new light on the epidemiology in this region of the South Atlantic European façade. Incidence rates in Galicia are one order of magnitude higher than those reported in other regions of Spain, suggesting that this parasite remains largely underdiagnosed in this country, and are also larger than those typical of other European countries with available data. Two species dominate our dataset, Cryptosporidium hominis (65%) and C. parvum (34%). The sex ratio of patients infected by either species was 0·5, but C. hominis was significantly more common in younger males. C. parvum infections were more acute and required more specialized medical attention, which suggests a differential adaptation of each species to human hosts. The parasites display strong seasonal and geographical variation. C. parvum incidence peaked during summer and was mainly detected in rural areas while C. hominis infections were more frequent in autumn and exhibited a more even geographical distribution. Such differences probably reflect their distinct sources of infection - C. parvum is mainly zoonotic and C. hominis anthroponotic - and the effects of climatic variables, like temperature and rainfall.

  11. Tobacco Causes Human Cancers--A Concept Founded on Epidemiology and an Insightful Experiment Now Requires Translation Worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, Lawrence A

    2016-02-15

    The recognition that tobacco smoke is carcinogenic led to the most significant and successful effort at reducing cancer incidence in human history. A major milestone of this effort was the publication in Cancer Research by Wynder and colleagues, which demonstrated the ability of tobacco tars to produce tumors in mice. This study provided a powerful link between the epidemiology of cancer and mechanisms of carcinogenesis. This commentary asserts that we have a moral obligation to translate our success in reducing lung cancer in the United States to the 1.25 billion smokers throughout the rest of the world. See related article by Wynder et al., Cancer Res 1953;13:855-64.

  12. Epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and outcomes of Streptococcus suis infection in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huong, Vu Thi Lan; Ha, Ngo; Huy, Nguyen Tien; Horby, Peter; Nghia, Ho Dang Trung; Thiem, Vu Dinh; Zhu, Xiaotong; Hoa, Ngo Thi; Hien, Tran Tinh; Zamora, Javier; Schultsz, Constance; Wertheim, Heiman Frank Louis; Hirayama, Kenji

    2014-07-01

    Streptococcus suis, a bacterium that affects pigs, is a neglected pathogen that causes systemic disease in humans. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to summarize global estimates of the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and outcomes of this zoonosis. We searched main literature databases for all studies through December 2012 using the search term "streptococcus suis." The prevalence of S. suis infection is highest in Asia; the primary risk factors are occupational exposure and eating of contaminated food. The pooled proportions of case-patients with pig-related occupations and history of eating high-risk food were 38.1% and 37.3%, respectively. The main clinical syndrome was meningitis (pooled rate 68.0%), followed by sepsis, arthritis, endocarditis, and endophthalmitis. The pooled case-fatality rate was 12.8%. Sequelae included hearing loss (39.1%) and vestibular dysfunction (22.7%). Our analysis identified gaps in the literature, particularly in assessing risk factors and sequelae of this infection.

  13. Epidemiological studies on ethylene oxide and cancer: an updating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogstedt, L C

    1988-01-01

    In 1959, Dr Lars Ehrenberg and a coworker warned the Swedish authorities that ethylene oxide, a common chemical, constituted a potential cancer hazard. Twenty years later, the first epidemiological study and case reports were published indicating an increased cancer risk after occupational exposure to ethylene oxide. An updating of three small Swedish cohorts comprising 709 employees revealed 33 deaths from cancer whereas 20 were expected from national average rates. The excess was due mainly to an increased risk of stomach cancer in one production plant and an excess of blood and lymphatic malignancies in all three cohorts. The results are in accordance with the results of clastogenic, animal and short-term tests and support Professor Ehrenberg's hypothesis, formulated 28 years ago.

  14. Epidemiology and clinical presentation of the four human parainfluenza virus types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Wen-Kuan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs are important causes of upper respiratory tract illness (URTI and lower respiratory tract illness (LRTI. To analyse epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of the four types of human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs, patients with acute respiratory tract illness (ARTI were studied in Guangzhou, southern China. Methods Throat swabs (n=4755 were collected and tested from children and adults with ARTI over a 26-month period, and 4447 of 4755 (93.5% patients’ clinical presentations were recorded for further analysis. Results Of 4755 patients tested, 178 (3.7% were positive for HPIV. Ninety-nine (2.1% samples were positive for HPIV-3, 58 (1.2% for HPIV-1, 19 (0.4% for HPIV-2 and 8 (0.2% for HPIV-4. 160/178 (88.9% HPIV-positive samples were from paediatric patients younger than 5 years old, but no infant under one month of age was HPIV positive. Seasonal peaks of HPIV-3 and HPIV-1 occurred as autumn turned to winter and summer turned to autumn. HPIV-2 and HPIV-4 were detected less frequently, and their frequency of isolation increased when the frequency of HPIV-3 and HPIV-1 declined. HPIV infection led to a wide spectrum of symptoms, and more “hoarseness” (p=0.015, “abnormal pulmonary breathing sound” (p Conclusions HPIV infection led to a wide spectrum of symptoms, and similar clinical manifestations were found in the patients with four different types of HPIVs. The study suggested pathogenic activity of HPIV in gastrointestinal illness. The clinical presentation of HPIV infection may differ by patient age.

  15. Current state of epidemiological studies in Belarus about Chernobyl sufferers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsko, V.P. [Institute of Radiobiology, Academy Sciences of Belarus, Minsk (Belarus)

    1998-03-01

    The present paper is an analysis of the results of epidemiological studies in Belarus about the after-effects of the accident at the Chernobyl atomic power station (ChAPS), based on published data at scientific institutes, organs and institutions of Ministry of Health. In the last years the affected population showed thereby more significant - as compared with republican indices - growth of incidence in the majority of diseases (first of all: digestion, urogenital, nervous, endocrine systems, diseases of ear, throat, nose both among adults and among children). Aggravation of health state continues in the participants of liquidation of the ChAPS accident consequences and the evacuees from the alienation zone which have obtained considerable radiation load to organism (rise of incidence of diseases of endocrine, cardiovascular, nervous system etc.). Considerable growth of thyroid cancer incidence is registered in Belarus children and adolescents, especially in the Gomel and Brest regions. This is conditioned by dose commitments on thyroid gland due to iodine radionuclides in first period after the accident, incorrect iodine prophylaxy, and goitre endemic. The rise of hereditary pathology is registered too. An expressed increase of oncological diseases is observed therewith mainly in the Gomel region, especially in the districts with high level of radiocontamination and, consequently, significant radiation load. First of all, this relates to the growth of incidence of cancer of lungs, mammary gland, bladder. The analysis of epidemiological studies performed in Belarus after the ChAPS catastrophe and comparison of them with data obtained in the pre-Chernobyl period testify to the aggravation of health state of Belarus population. The specialists unambiguously recognize the direct influence of radioactive pollution in the environment on rise of thyroid pathologies, hereditary and congenial diseases, and cancers of different localizations. There is no unique opinion

  16. Pontiac fever: an operational definition for epidemiological studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Laurence

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pontiac fever is usually described in epidemic settings. Detection of Pontiac fever is a marker of an environmental contamination by Legionella and should thereby call for prevention measures in order to prevent outbreak of Legionnaire's disease. The objective of this study is to propose an operational definition of Pontiac fever that is amenable to epidemiological surveillance and investigation in a non epidemic setting. Methods A population of 560 elderly subjects residing in 25 nursing homes was followed during 4 months in order to assess the daily incidence of symptoms associated, in the literature, with Pontiac fever. The water and aerosol of one to 8 showers by nursing home were characterized combining conventional bacterial culture of Legionella and the Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH technique that used oligonucleotides probes specific for Legionellaceae. A definition of Pontiac fever was devised based on clinical symptoms described in epidemic investigations and on their timing after the exposure event. The association between incidence of Pontiac fever and shower contamination levels was evaluated to test the relevance of this definition. Results The proposed definition of Pontiac fever associated the following criteria: occurrence of at least one symptom among headache, myalgia, fever and shivers, possibly associated with other 'minor' symptoms, within three days after a shower contaminated by Legionella, during a maximum of 8 days (minimum 2 days. 23 such cases occurred during the study (incidence rate: 0.125 cases per person-year [95% CI: 0.122–0.127]. A concentration of Legionella in water equal to or greater than 104.L-1 (FISH method was associated with a significant increase of incidence of Pontiac fever (p = 0.04. Conclusion Once validated in other settings, the proposed definition of Pontiac fever might be used to develop epidemiological surveillance and help draw attention on sources of

  17. Epidemiological studies on Fasciola hepatica in Gafsa oases (South West of Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammami H.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological investigations on Fasciola hepatica fasciolasis were carried out from July 2004 to June 2005 in the Gafsa oases (Tunisia after the detection of a human case. Three habitats were studied: one in El Gsar and two in Ain Soltan. The prevalence of human infection was 6.6 %. The presence of the parasite was detected through serology in 14.3 % of cattle, 35 % of sheep and 68.4 % of goats. The plants Apium nodiflorum, Oxalis cernua and Sonchus maritimus were suspected to be at the origin of animal contamination and Apium nodiflorum was incriminated in human infection. The prevalence of the infection of the intermediate host Galba truncatula (G. truncatula was 19.2 % from July 2004 to June 2005. Gafsa oases constitute a new location for the development of fasciolasis in the southern west of Tunisia.

  18. Epidemiological studies on Fasciola hepatica in Gafsa Oases (south west of Tunisia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammami, H; Hamed, N; Ayadi, A

    2007-09-01

    Epidemiological investigations on Fasciola hepatica fasciolasis were carried out from July 2004 to June 2005 in the Gafsa oases (Tunisia) after the detection of a human case. Three habitats were studied: one in El Gsar and two in Ain Soltan. The prevalence of human infection was 6.6%. The presence of the parasite was detected through serology in 14.3% of cattle, 35% of sheep and 68.4% of goats. The plants Apium nodiflorum, Oxalis cernua and Sonchus maritimus were suspected to be at the origin of animal contamination and Apium nodiflorum was incriminated in human infection. The prevalence of the infection of the intermediate host Galba truncatula (G. truncatula) was 19.2% from July 2004 to June 2005. Gafsa oases constitute a new location for the development of fasciolasis in the southern west of Tunisia.

  19. Chapter 2. Fasciola, lymnaeids and human fascioliasis, with a global overview on disease transmission, epidemiology, evolutionary genetics, molecular epidemiology and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas-Coma, Santiago; Valero, María Adela; Bargues, María Dolores

    2009-01-01

    Fascioliasis, caused by liver fluke species of the genus Fasciola, has always been well recognized because of its high veterinary impact but it has been among the most neglected diseases for decades with regard to human infection. However, the increasing importance of human fascioliasis worldwide has re-launched interest in fascioliasis. From the 1990s, many new concepts have been developed regarding human fascioliasis and these have furnished a new baseline for the human disease that is very different to a simple extrapolation from fascioliasis in livestock. Studies have shown that human fascioliasis presents marked heterogeneity, including different epidemiological situations and transmission patterns in different endemic areas. This heterogeneity, added to the present emergence/re-emergence of the disease both in humans and animals in many regions, confirms a worrying global scenario. The huge negative impact of fascioliasis on human communities demands rapid action. When analyzing how better to define control measures for endemic areas differing at such a level, it would be useful to have genetic markers that could distinguish each type of transmission pattern and epidemiological situation. Accordingly, this chapter covers aspects of aetiology, geographical distribution, epidemiology, transmission and control in order to obtain a solid baseline for the interpretation of future results. The origins and geographical spread of F. hepatica and F. gigantica in both the ruminant pre-domestication times and the livestock post-domestication period are analyzed. Paleontological, archaeological and historical records, as well as genetic data on recent dispersal of livestock species, are taken into account to establish an evolutionary framework for the two fasciolids across all continents. Emphasis is given to the distributional overlap of both species and the roles of transportation, transhumance and trade in the different overlap situations. Areas with only one Fasciola

  20. Epidemiological study on acute cutaneous leishmaniasis in Morocco

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kholoud Kahime; Samia Boussaa; Haddou Nhammi; Ali Boumezzough

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To describe and compare the epidemiological features of anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) caused by Leishmania tropica, and zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) due to Leishmania major in Morocco. Methods: We performed a retrospective study of ZCL and ACL cases reported during the last ten years in Morocco (2004–2013). Epidemiological data were analyzed by using Pearson's correlation method as well as Tukey test and digital maps were produced for incidence repartition calculated by using ArcMap GIS version 10. Results: A total of 41 656 cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis were notified between 2004 and 2013 in Morocco. The mean incidence was 139 cases/100 000 population/10 years and it was significantly higher in 2010. In the spatial context, ACL form was the most common in Morocco, while ZCL was the most important in terms of the number of reported cases. For both forms, the highest incidence occurred in females and children (0–14 years). When analyzed according to the number of cases in each province, Errachidia (8 728 cases) and Azilal (3 523 cases) were the most affected by ZCL and ACL, respectively, while the highest incidence was noted in Zagora (231 cases/100 000 pop-ulation/10 years) and in Chichaoua (97 cases/100 000 population/10 years), for ZCL and ACL, respectively. Maps of incidence repartition were performed to identify the risk area of ZCL and ACL. Conclusions: ZCL and ACL are still major health problems in Morocco. We highlight the spatiotemporal change of cutaneous leishmaniasis incidence through the country during the last ten years and we underline the correlation between ZCL incidence and the percentage of rural population in Morocco.

  1. Atopy and Specific Cancer Sites: a Review of Epidemiological Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yubao; Hill, Andrew W

    2016-12-01

    Mounting evidence appears to link asthma and atopy to cancer susceptibility. This review presents and discusses published epidemiological studies on the association between site-specific cancers and atopy. PubMed was searched electronically for publications between 1995 and 2015, and cited references were researched manually. Quantitative studies relating to atopy, allergy, or asthma and cancer were identified and tabulated. Despite many exposure-related limitations, patterns in the studies were observed. Asthma, specifically, has been observed to be a risk factor for lung cancer. A protective effect of atopic diseases against pancreatic cancer has been shown consistently in case-control studies but not in cohort studies. Allergy of any type appears to be protective against glioma and adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Most studies on atopic diseases and non-Hodgkin lymphoma or colorectal cancer reported an inverse association. The other sites identified had varying and non-significant outcomes. Further research should be dedicated to carefully defined exposure assessments of "atopy" as well as the biological plausibility in the association between atopic diseases and cancer.

  2. An Epidemiological Study of Psychiatric Disorders in Hamadan Province , 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Mohammadi

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The burden of psychiatric disorders in the developed countries has been identified by the screening questionnaires and standard clinical interviews at a high level, but the epidemiological studies of psychiatric disorders in our country are brief and their numbers are few. Planning for providing essential mental health services to the people requires us to be knowledgeable about the present status of psychiatric disorders in the society. The objective of this research was to carry out the epidemiological study of the psychiatric disorders in the individuals 18 years and above in urban and rural areas of Hamadan province. 664 individuals selected through randomized clustered and systematic sampling methods among the existing families of Hamadan province and the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (SADS questionnaires completed by the clinical psychologist. The diagnosis of the disorders was based on DSM-IV classification criteria.The results of the study showed that the overall prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the province was 11.28% (17.2% in women , 5.8% in men. The anxiety and mood disorders with 5.87 and 2.71% respectively had the highest prevalence in the province. The prevalence of psychotic disorders in this study was 0.60% , neuro- cognitive disorders 1.35% and dissociative disorders 0.75%. In the group of mood disorders, major depression with 2.56% and in the group of anxiety disorders, phobia with 2.56% had the higher prevalence. This study showed that 8.13% of studied individuals suffered from at least one of the psychiatric disorders. The prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the province among the individuals in the age group of 66 years and above was 13.33%, individuals whose spouses had passed away 18.75%, urban residents of province 9.81%, illiterate individuals 12.80% and housewife individuals 12.31% was more than other individuals in the sample. Being aware of this matter reveals the responsibility of the

  3. Occupational cancer epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boffetta, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Occupational cancer epidemiology has led to the identification of more than 40 agents, groups of agents, and exposure circumstances which cause cancer in humans. This evidence has been followed by preventive and control measures. There are four areas where occupational cancer epidemiology may contribute important results in the future: surveillance of workers exposed to carcinogens, identification of new carcinogens and target organs, study of interactions, and research on special exposure circumstances.

  4. Adverse reproductive outcomes in families of atomic veterans: the feasibility of epidemiologic studies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Institute of Medicine Staff

    1995-01-01

    ... Veterans: The Feasibility of Epidemiologic Studies Committee to Study the Feasibility of, and Need for, Epidemiologic Studies of Adverse Reproductive Outcomes in the Families of Atomic Veterans Medical Follow-up Agency INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1995 i Copyrightoriginal retained, the be not from cannot book, ...

  5. Survey Definitions of Gout for Epidemiologic Studies: Comparison With Crystal Identification as the Gold Standard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalbeth, N.; Schumacher, H.R.; Fransen, J.; Neogi, T.; Jansen, T.L; Brown, M.; Louthrenoo, W.; Vazquez-Mellado, J.; Eliseev, M.; McCarthy, G.; Stamp, L.K.; Perez-Ruiz, F.; Sivera, F.; Ea, H.K.; Gerritsen, M.; Scire, C.A.; Cavagna, L.; Lin, C.; Chou, Y.Y.; Tausche, A.K.; Rocha Castelar-Pinheiro, G. da; Janssen, M; Chen, J.H.; Cimmino, M.A.; Uhlig, T.; Taylor, W.J.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify the best-performing survey definition of gout from items commonly available in epidemiologic studies. METHODS: Survey definitions of gout were identified from 34 epidemiologic studies contributing to the Global Urate Genetics Consortium (GUGC) genome-wide association study.

  6. A CLINICAL AND EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF MENINGEAL TUMORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Channappa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION The meninges surround and protect the central nervous system. They are composed of connective tissue proper and comprise three membranes the dura mater, the arachnoid and the pia mater. These membranes are composed of collagen fibres, a small number of elastic fires and endothelial cells. The incidence of intracranial tumors depends on the sources and methods used to collect the data. The general consensus is that the annual incidence rate of primary intracranial neoplasm is between 10 and 12 per 100,000 and these constitute approximately 9% of all primary cancers. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES The aim is to study the most common signs that the patient presents in the clinic and to study the epidemiology of the disease. The material used in this study was obtained from 100 cases of intracranial tumours in various colleges of South of India, which I have worked. The sample was obtained over a period of 5 years from May 2007 to May 2012. The most common symptoms that were found in the present study was consistent headache and projectile vomiting. There were 9 grade 1 meningiomas, out of which 5 were meningothelial, microscopically composed of meningothelial cells with ovoid large pale nuclei with vacuoles of cytoplasmic invagination and inconspicuous cytoplasmic borders, the cells are arranged concentrically around calcified blood vessels or connective tissue.

  7. [Oral contraceptive pill and thrombotic risk: epidemiological studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruzzetti, F; Perini, D; Spirito, N; Manca, R

    2012-12-01

    The venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a rare event during childbearing age and during the assumption of combined oral contraceptive. The absolute risk of VTE in users of combined oral contraceptives is 20-30 per 100000 women years. A number of case-control studies published in recent years have shown an apparent increase in the risk of VTE among users of oral contraceptives (OCs) containing desogestrel, gestodene, drospirenone and cyproterone, relative to the use of levonorgestrel. The data derived from these recent studies is of borderline statistical significance because any important factors are not considered to evaluate the real correlation between the assumption of OCs and risk of venous thromboembolism. Among the factors that should be considered, there are: EE dose, duration of use, coexistance of other risk factors of venous thromboembolism (age, BMI, familiarity, surgical interventions) and other prescription bias. The lack of these factors is likely to contribute to the increased risk of venous thromboembolism observed in users of third-generation OCs when compared to that in users of second-generation OCs. To date, because of the inadequacy of epidemiological studies, the data about the correlation between OCs and TVE, are not conclusive and it will be necessary to carry out other studies to clarify this debating point, definitively.

  8. Molecular epidemiology of ascariasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betson, Martha; Halstead, Fennella; Nejsum, Peter

      We are using molecular epidemiology techniques to study the population structure of Ascaris obtained from humans and pigs. Worms were obtained from human hosts on Zanzibar and in Uganda, Bangladesh, Guatemala and Nepal and Ascaris from pigs were collected from in Uganda, Tanzania, Denmark...

  9. Cervical cancer and human papillomavirus: Epidemiological evidence and perspectives for prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUÑOZ NUBIA

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is a major public health problem, as it is the second most common cancer in women world-wide after breast cancer. About 80% of the half a million cases estimated to occur annually in the world, occur in developing countries. The epidemiological evidence linking human papillomavirus (HPV to cervical cancer is reviewed. It is concluded that over 90% of cervical cancers can be attributed to certain HPV types. HPV 16 accounts for the highest proportion (50% followed by HPV 18 (12%, HPV 45 (8% and HPV 31 (5%. The associations with these HPV types are very b and consistent with odds ratios over 15 in all case-control studies in high- and low-risk countries for cervical cancer. However, HPV is not a sufficient cause of this malignancy; certain cofactors are necessary for a proportion of HPV persistent infections to eventually progress to cancer. These include host factors such as histocompatibilidad types and immunological response, hormonal influences and infections with other sexually transmitted agents such as Chlamydia trachomatis. In addition, results from our studies carried out in Spain and Colombia support the hypothesis that male carriers of HPV play an important role in the development of cervical cancer in their wives. The recognition of the central role of HPV in cervical cancer has far-reaching implications for the primary and secondary prevention of this malignancy. Prophylactic and therapeutic HPV vaccines are now under development and HPV typing is being integrated into screening programmes in pilot studies in a few developed countries. In developing countries, well conducted conventional screening programmes remain the best approach for the control of cervical cancer until a safe and efficient HPV vaccine can be used in the general population.

  10. Aspartame: a safety evaluation based on current use levels, regulations, and toxicological and epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnuson, B A; Burdock, G A; Doull, J; Kroes, R M; Marsh, G M; Pariza, M W; Spencer, P S; Waddell, W J; Walker, R; Williams, G M

    2007-01-01

    Aspartame is a methyl ester of a dipeptide used as a synthetic nonnutritive sweetener in over 90 countries worldwide in over 6000 products. The purpose of this investigation was to review the scientific literature on the absorption and metabolism, the current consumption levels worldwide, the toxicology, and recent epidemiological studies on aspartame. Current use levels of aspartame, even by high users in special subgroups, remains well below the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and European Food Safety Authority established acceptable daily intake levels of 50 and 40 mg/kg bw/day, respectively. Consumption of large doses of aspartame in a single bolus dose will have an effect on some biochemical parameters, including plasma amino acid levels and brain neurotransmitter levels. The rise in plasma levels of phenylalanine and aspartic acid following administration of aspartame at doses less than or equal to 50 mg/kg bw do not exceed those observed postprandially. Acute, subacute and chronic toxicity studies with aspartame, and its decomposition products, conducted in mice, rats, hamsters and dogs have consistently found no adverse effect of aspartame with doses up to at least 4000 mg/kg bw/day. Critical review of all carcinogenicity studies conducted on aspartame found no credible evidence that aspartame is carcinogenic. The data from the extensive investigations into the possibility of neurotoxic effects of aspartame, in general, do not support the hypothesis that aspartame in the human diet will affect nervous system function, learning or behavior. Epidemiological studies on aspartame include several case-control studies and one well-conducted prospective epidemiological study with a large cohort, in which the consumption of aspartame was measured. The studies provide no evidence to support an association between aspartame and cancer in any tissue. The weight of existing evidence is that aspartame is safe at current levels of consumption as a nonnutritive

  11. Exposure to phthalates: reproductive outcome and children health. A review of epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurewicz, Joanna; Hanke, Wojciech

    2011-06-01

    Phthalates are a family of industrial chemicals that have been used for a variety of purposes. As the potential consequences of human exposure to phthalates have raised concerns in the general population, they have been studied in susceptible subjects such as pregnant women, infants and children. This article aims at evaluating the impact of exposure to phthalates on reproductive outcomes and children health by reviewing most recent published literature. Epidemiological studies focusing on exposure to phthalates and pregnancy outcome, genital development, semen quality, precocious puberty, thyroid function, respiratory symptoms and neurodevelopment in children for the last ten years were identified by a search of the PubMed, Medline, Ebsco, Agricola and Toxnet literature bases. The results from the presented studies suggest that there are strong and rather consistent indications that phthalates increase the risk of allergy and asthma and have an adverse impact on children's neurodevelopment reflected by quality of alertness among girls, decreased (less masculine) composite score in boys and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Results of few studies demonstrate negative associations between phthalate levels commonly experienced by the public and impaired sperm quality (concentration, morphology, motility). Phthalates negatively impact also on gestational age and head circumference; however, the results of the studies were not consistent. In all the reviewed studies, exposure to phthalates adversely affected the level of reproductive hormones (luteinizing hormone, free testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin), anogenital distance and thyroid function. The urinary levels of phthalates were significantly higher in the pubertal gynecomastia group, in serum in girls with premature thelarche and in girls with precocious puberty. Epidemiological studies, in spite of their limitations, suggest that phthalates may affect reproductive outcome and children health

  12. Suicide in Sorocaba-SP: an epidemiological study

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: suicide is a major worldwide public health issue and appears as one of the ten most frequent causes of death in all ages. Objective: to perform an epidemiological analysis of suicide rates recorded between 2000 and 2009 in the city of Sorocaba-SP and compare them to national epidemiological data. Methods: We performed a descriptive analysis of suicide data in Sorocaba-SP in the period 2000 to 2009 collected by the Surveillance of Violence and Injuries (VIVA) and the ...

  13. Characteristics of primary nocturnal enuresis in adults: an epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, C K; Sihoe, J D Y; Sit, F K Y; Bower, W; Sreedhar, B; Lau, J

    2004-02-01

    To evaluate the prevalence and characteristics of primary nocturnal enuresis (PNE) in adults in Hong Kong, as there are currently limited epidemiological data in adults. After a telephone survey, 8534 respondents (3996 males and 4538 females) aged 16-40 years were selected for the study and stratified in age groups. The questionnaire used comprised two parts; the first started with questions mainly about the general demographic background to decrease the sensitivity of the study and to establish rapport. The second part was conducted through an automated telephone interview service, with the questions being asked by recorded messages and the respondents then keying in their responses with no need to converse with an interviewer. This part included questions about enuretic symptoms and a subjective assessment of social and psychological effects of bedwetting, and measurements of the individual's self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale) and depression (The Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale). Of the 8534 subjects interviewed, 196 had PNE, giving an overall prevalence of 2.3% (2.7% males and 2.0% females); of these 196, 36 (18.4%) also had daytime urinary incontinence. Hence, 1.9% of adults (2.2% males and 1.7% females) had monosymptomatic PNE. Of these, 53% wet >3 nights/week and 26% wet every night. Prevalence rates remained relatively stable among different age groups, with no apparent trend of a reduction with age. Compared with nonenuretic normal controls, significantly fewer enuretics reached tertiary education (33.4% vs 17.8%, P self-esteem, and a higher incidence of sleep disturbances than the control group. Among bedwetters, 32-40% felt that there was some effect on their choice of job, work performance and social activities, whilst 23% felt the condition affected their family life and in making friends of either sex. However, there was no significant difference in the marital status. Interestingly, only 34.5% of females and half of males

  14. Spatio-temporal epidemiology of human West Nile virus disease in South Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimberly, Michael C; Giacomo, Paolla; Kightlinger, Lon; Hildreth, Michael B

    2013-10-29

    Despite a cold temperate climate and low human population density, the Northern Great Plains has become a persistent hot spot for human West Nile virus (WNV) disease in North America. Understanding the spatial and temporal patterns of WNV can provide insights into the epidemiological and ecological factors that influence disease emergence and persistence. We analyzed the 1,962 cases of human WNV disease that occurred in South Dakota from 2002-2012 to identify the geographic distribution, seasonal cycles, and interannual variability of disease risk. The geographic and seasonal patterns of WNV have changed since the invasion and initial epidemic in 2002-2003, with cases shifting toward the eastern portion of South Dakota and occurring earlier in the transmission season in more recent years. WNV cases were temporally autocorrelated at lags of up to six weeks and early season cumulative case numbers were correlated with seasonal totals, indicating the possibility of using these data for short-term early detection of outbreaks. Epidemiological data are likely to be most effective for early warning of WNV virus outbreaks if they are integrated with entomological surveillance and environmental monitoring to leverage the strengths and minimize the weaknesses of each information source.

  15. Spatio-Temporal Epidemiology of Human West Nile Virus Disease in South Dakota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael B. Hildreth

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite a cold temperate climate and low human population density, the Northern Great Plains has become a persistent hot spot for human West Nile virus (WNV disease in North America. Understanding the spatial and temporal patterns of WNV can provide insights into the epidemiological and ecological factors that influence disease emergence and persistence. We analyzed the 1,962 cases of human WNV disease that occurred in South Dakota from 2002–2012 to identify the geographic distribution, seasonal cycles, and interannual variability of disease risk. The geographic and seasonal patterns of WNV have changed since the invasion and initial epidemic in 2002–2003, with cases shifting toward the eastern portion of South Dakota and occurring earlier in the transmission season in more recent years. WNV cases were temporally autocorrelated at lags of up to six weeks and early season cumulative case numbers were correlated with seasonal totals, indicating the possibility of using these data for short-term early detection of outbreaks. Epidemiological data are likely to be most effective for early warning of WNV virus outbreaks if they are integrated with entomological surveillance and environmental monitoring to leverage the strengths and minimize the weaknesses of each information source.

  16. Pandemic and Avian Influenza A Viruses in Humans: Epidemiology, Virology, Clinical Characteristics, and Treatment Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Cao, Bin

    2017-03-01

    The intermittent outbreak of pandemic influenza and emergence of novel avian influenza A virus is worldwide threat. Although most patients present with mild symptoms, some deteriorate to severe pneumonia and even death. Great progress in the understanding of the mechanism of disease pathogenesis and a series of vaccines has been promoted worldwide; however, incidence, morbidity, and mortality remains high. To step up vigilance and improve pandemic preparedness, this article elucidates the virology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical characteristics, and treatment of human infections by influenza A viruses, with an emphasis on the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, H5N1, and H7N9 subtypes.

  17. Epidemiological Assessments of Skin Outcomes in the Nurses’ Health Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Qing; Cho, Eunyoung; Weinstock, Martin A.; Mashfiq, Hasan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To review the contribution of the Nurses’ Health Studies (NHSs) to identifying epidemiological factors associated with multiple skin diseases, including skin cancer, psoriasis, and other inflammatory and autoimmune skin diseases. Methods. We carried out a narrative review of NHS articles published between 1976 and 2016. Results. The NHSs have identified environmental and lifestyle factors related to psoriasis, supporting obesity and smoking as psoriasis risk factors; associations between psoriasis and diabetes, myocardial infarction, and Crohn’s disease, supporting psoriasis as a systemic disorder; and associations of pigmentary traits, ultraviolet radiation, and lifestyle factors such as citrus consumption with risk of skin cancer. Genetic studies have identified novel genetic loci for skin pigmentation (e.g., IRF4, SLC24A4, NID1, and EDNRB) and skin cancer (e.g., TET2 and HERC2-OCA2). Work continues on highly prevalent but less studied skin conditions such as rosacea, acne, and atopic dermatitis. The NHS results have influenced public health policies on indoor tanning devices. Conclusions. The NHSs have provided invaluable resources on skin disease population science and contributed to the etiological understanding of multiple skin disorders. PMID:27459457

  18. Humanities, Digital Humanities, Media studies, Internet studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brügger, Niels

    the interplay between four areas which until now to a certain extent have been separated: Traditional Hu- manities, Digital Humanities, Media studies, and Internet studies. The vision is followed by an outline of how it can be unfolded in concrete activities, in the form of research projects, research...

  19. Epidemiological studies on postpartum thyroid dysfunction and thyroid cancer in Southeastern Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.L.P. Kuijpens (Hans)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractThe studies described in this thesis concentrate OIl epidemiological and pathogenetic aspects of postpartum thyroid dysfunction (PPTD) and related topics, and on epidemiological and treatment aspects of thyroid cancer. The studies were petfonned in the southeastern part of the Netherland

  20. Sequencing Strategies for Population and Cancer Epidemiology Studies (SeqSPACE) Webinar Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Sequencing Strategies for Population and Cancer Epidemiology Studies (SeqSPACE) Webinar Series provides an opportunity for our grantees and other interested individuals to share lessons learned and practical information regarding the application of next generation sequencing to cancer epidemiology studies.

  1. Sequencing Strategies for Population and Cancer Epidemiology Studies (SeqSPACE) Webinar Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Sequencing Strategies for Population and Cancer Epidemiology Studies (SeqSPACE) Webinar Series provides an opportunity for our grantees and other interested individuals to share lessons learned and practical information regarding the application of next generation sequencing to cancer epidemiology studies.

  2. Prevalence and molecular epidemiology of human papillomavirus infection in Italian women with cervical cytological abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Meloni

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Human papillomavirus (HPV infection is the most common sexually transmitted infection and high-risk HPV types are a necessary cause for the development of cervical cancer. The present study investigated the HPV-type specific prevalence in 650 women, aged 15-76 years, with cytological abnormalities and the association between HPV infection and cervical disease in a subset of 160 women for whom cytological results for Pap-Test were available, during the period 2008-2011 in Cagliari (Southern Italy.Design and Methods. HPV-DNA extraction was performed by lysis and digestion with proteinase K and it was typed by using the INNOLiPA HPV Genotyping Assay.Results. Overall the HPV prevalence was 52.6%; high-risk genotypes were found in 68.9% of women and multiple-type infection in 36.1% of HPV-positive women. The commonest types were HPV-52 (23.4%, HPV-53 (15.7%, HPV-16 (15.4% and HPV-6 (12.4%. Among the women with cytological diagnosis, any-type of HPV DNA was found in 49.4% of the samples and out of these 93.7% were high-risk genotypes. Genotype HPV 53 was the commonest type among women affected by ASCUS lesions (21.4%, genotype 52 in positive L-SIL cases (22.5%, genotype 16 H-SIL (27.3%.Conclusions. This study confirmed the high prevalence of HPV infection and high-risk genotypes among women with cervical abnormalities while, unlike previously published data, genotype HPV-52 was the most common type in our series. These data may contribute to increase the knowledge of HPV epidemiology and designing adequate vaccination strategies.

  3. Cycloplegic refraction is the gold standard for epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Ian G; Iribarren, Rafael; Fotouhi, Akbar; Grzybowski, Andrzej

    2015-09-01

    Many studies on children have shown that lack of cycloplegia is associated with slight overestimation of myopia and marked errors in estimates of the prevalence of emmetropia and hyperopia. Non-cycloplegic refraction is particularly problematic for studies of associations with risk factors. The consensus around the importance of cycloplegia in children left undefined at what age, if any, cycloplegia became unnecessary. It was often implicitly assumed that cycloplegia is not necessary beyond childhood or early adulthood, and thus, the protocol for the classical studies of refraction in older adults did not include cycloplegia. Now that population studies of refractive error are beginning to fill the gap between schoolchildren and older adults, whether cycloplegia is required for measuring refractive error in this age range, needs to be defined. Data from the Tehran Eye Study show that, without cycloplegia, there are errors in the estimation of myopia, emmetropia and hyperopia in the age range 20-50, just as in children. Similar results have been reported in an analysis of data from the Beaver Dam Offspring Eye Study. If the only important outcome measure of a particular study is the prevalence of myopia, then cycloplegia may not be crucial in some cases. But, without cycloplegia, measurements of other refractive categories as well as spherical equivalent are unreliable. In summary, the current evidence suggests that cycloplegic refraction should be considered as the gold standard for epidemiological studies of refraction, not only in children, but in adults up to the age of 50. © 2015 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Cognition and Vascular Risk Factors: An Epidemiological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Vicario

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We conducted an epidemiological approach to identify the negative impact of the vascular risk factors (such as hypertension, diabetes and hypercholesterolemia over cognition. The interesting aspect of this study was that the survey was conducted in all age groups through a voluntary call (n=1365; ≥18 years old, both sexes; age 49 ± 15 y, female 75.7%. Thus, we demonstrated that the use of a Minimum Cognitive Examination (MCE, a brief, simple, and easy managed neuropsychological evaluation, detected a greater number of people with cognitive decline surpassing to the Minimal Mental Statement Examination alone (14.5% of the participants showed MMSE ≤24, 34,6% showed dys-executive function, and 45,8% memory impairment. Out of the 4 studied RF, the only one that was not related to cognitive impairment was dyslipemia. Finally, we noted the importance of cognitive state early detection in all age groups, even in the youngest group. Acting in the middle of the life stages, we can prevent or delay the onset of a disease in adults, nowadays incurable: dementia.

  5. Low quality evidence of epidemiological observational studies on leishmaniasis in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Trentini

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Brazil has implemented systematic control methods for leishmaniasis for the past 30 years, despite an increase in cases and continued spread of the disease to new regions. A lack high quality evidence from epidemiological observational studies impedes the development of novel control methods to prevent disease transmission among the population. Here, we have evaluated the quality of observational studies on leishmaniasis conducted in Brazil to highlight this issue. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: For this systematic review, all publications on leishmaniasis conducted in Brazil from January 1st, 2002 to December 31st, 2012 were screened via Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA checklist to select observational studies involving human subjects. The 283 included studies, representing only 14.1% of articles screened, were then further evaluated for quality of epidemiological methods and study design based on the STROBE (Strengthening the Reporting of Observational studies in Epidemiology checklists. Over half of these studies were descriptive or case reports (53.4%, 151, followed by cross-sectional (20.8%, n = 59, case-control (8.5%, n = 24, and cohort (6.0%, n = 17. Study design was not stated in 46.6% (n = 181 and incorrectly stated in 17.5% (n = 24. Comparison groups were utilized in just 39.6% (n = 112 of the publications, and only 13.4% (n = 38 employed healthy controls. Majority of studies were performed at the city-level (62.9%, n = 178, in contrast with two (0.7% studies performed at the national-level. Coauthorship networks showed the number of author collaborations rapidly decreased after three collaborations, with 70.9% (n = 659/929 of coauthors publishing only one article during the study period. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A review of epidemiological research in Brazil revealed a major lack of quality and evidence. While certain indicators suggested research methods may have improved in the

  6. Humanities, Digital Humanities, Media studies, Internet studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brügger, Niels

    the interplay between four areas which until now to a certain extent have been separated: Traditional Hu- manities, Digital Humanities, Media studies, and Internet studies. The vision is followed by an outline of how it can be unfolded in concrete activities, in the form of research projects, research......Todays expanding digital landscape constitutes an important research object as well as the research environment for the Humanities at the beginning of the 21st century. Taking this state of affairs as a starting point this inaugural lecture presents a vision for how the digital affects...

  7. [Epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in Chile. V. Prevalence of the infection in humans and domestic and wild animals, studied by indirect hemagglutination reaction, in the Juan Fernández Archipelago. V Region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutzin, M; Contreras, M C; Schenone, H

    1989-01-01

    A serological study utilizing an indirect hemagglutination test (IHAT) for toxoplasmosis was carried out in 222 humans and in 58 domestic animals (31 dogs, Canis familiaris; 27 cats, Felis catus), and in 62 wild mammals distributed into 50 rabbits, Oryctolagus cuniculus and 12 goats, Capra hircus. This survey was performed in the Juan Fernández Archipelago, formed by three islands: Robinson Crusoe, Santa Clara and Alejandro Selkirk (80 degrees 47'-78 degrees 47' west long., and 33 degrees 36'-33 degrees 47' south lat.). Blood samples were collected in filter paper and IHAT with titres greater than or equal to 1:16 were considered positive. This survey showed a prevalence of 42.3% in humans with no difference between men (43.0%) and women (41.5%). A high prevalence was found within groups of young individuals (0 to 19 years old), men and women. Regarding the domestic animal population, 44.8% resulted positive, distributed as follows: dogs 9.7% and cats 85.2%. Twenty one percent of wild animals were positive, distributed as follows: rabbits 8.0% and goats 75.0%. The global prevalence of toxoplasmosis in animals (domestic and wild) was 32.5%. All titres in humans and animals were less than or equal to 1:512. Toxoplasmosis is well extended among the human and animal population of the Juan Fernández Archipelago.

  8. Molecular epidemiology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Baja California, Mexico: A result of human migration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-López, Carlos A; Zenteno-Cuevas, Roberto; Laniado-Laborín, Rafael; Reynaud, Yann; García-Ortiz, Rosa Alejandra; González-Y-Merchand, Jorge A; Rivera, Sandra; Vázquez-Chacón, Carlos A; Vaughan, Gilberto; Martínez-Guarneros, José Armando; Victoria-Cota, Nelva Lorena; Cruz-Rivera, Mayra; Rastogi, Nalin; Muñiz-Salazar, Raquel

    2016-07-11

    The State of Baja California (BC) exhibits the highest incidence and prevalence rates of tuberculosis (TB), and multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) in Mexico. However information about the circulation of M. tuberculosis lineages in BC and Mexico as a whole is limited. Here, we describe the genetic relationship and genetic diversity among M. tuberculosis clinical isolates (n=140) collected in BC between October 2009 and April 2011 with other regions of Mexico, the United States, and Latin America. All specimens were genotyped based on 24 mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units (MIRU)-variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) loci. Population structure and minimum spanning tree (MST) analyses were used to assess the genetic diversity and distribution of BC isolates in comparison to USA and South America strains. Among the nine lineages observed, LAM, Haarlem and S were the most frequent identified in BC. Population structure analysis clustered most BC isolates (41%) into three distinctive groups that included strains from San Diego and South America, whereas other BC strains (22%) clustered with other Mexican strains. A subset of isolates (12%) seemed to be autochthonous of BC, while 25% were cosmopolitan and grouped into multiple clusters. It is highly likely that the TB genetic structure observed in BC is due to human migration. Additional studies are required to determine the mechanism involved in the phylogeographic distribution of M. tuberculosis in Mexico. Implementation of domestic molecular TB surveillance programs is required to better understand the molecular epidemiology of TB not only in the region but at the national level. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Bovine Brucellosis: An Epidemiological Study at Chittagong, Bangladesh

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    Suchandan Sikder*, AKM Anisur Rahman1, Mohammad Rayhan Faruque, Mohammad Abdul Alim2, Shubhagata Das2, Aungshuman Das Gupta3, Bhajan Chandra Das, Mohammad Inkeyas Uddin4 and Mohammad Abdul Matin Prodhan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available An epidemiological survey was conducted to identify probable risk factors and prevalence of brucellosis in commercial and backyard dairy cows at Chittagong, Bangladesh. A total of 500 milk samples were collected (250 commercial and 250 backyards for Milk Ring Test (MRT. The MRT positive cows were subjected to sera collection and Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT and indirect ELISA were done for confirmatory diagnosis. The overall seroprevalence of brucellosis in cattle was 5% (7.6% in commercial and 2.4% in backyard. Significantly higher (P<0.05 prevalence was found in the zero grazing (5.74%, pregnant cows (7.53% and cows with history of retained placenta (7.89% or abortion (5.88% or both (11.76% than non-pregnant (2.68% and without any reproductive disorder (4.44%. A total of 420 farm attendants and owners were interviewed where 93.55 and 99.08% commercial and backyard personnel were found to have no knowledge of brucellosis and 9.67 and 87.77% consumed raw milk and yogurt respectively were highly vulnerable to zoonotic brucellosis. The results showed that brucellosis is widely distributed locally, underscoring the need for further studies including biovar determination.

  10. Comparison of Mycotic Keratitis with Nonmycotic Keratitis: An Epidemiological Study

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    Mohammad M. Khater

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This work aims to study the problems encountered with and the different epidemiological features of patients with fungal keratitis. Patients and Methods. All cases with keratitis attending the Outpatient Clinic of Ophthalmology Department at Tanta University Hospital during three years from the first of January 2011 to the end of December 2013 were selected and carefully examined and cases with mycotic keratitis were further examined and investigated. Results. From 66303 attendants during this period with different complaints, there were 361 cases (0.54% with mycotic keratitis and 473 cases (0.71% of nonmycotic origin. Mycotic keratitis is common between 40 and 60 years, more in farmers (64%, families with large number and large crowding index, rural than urban residence, and patients with outdoor water sources and insanitary sewage disposal. Positive fungal cultures were obtained in 84.5% and were negative in 15.5% of cases in spite of their typical clinical findings for diagnosis and their improvement with antifungal therapy. Conclusion. Mycotic keratitis is more frequent in farmers, rural areas, outdoor water supply, insanitary sewage disposal, and patients preceded with organic trauma. Atypical clinical findings were found in some cases and not all cases improved with specific antifungal therapy.

  11. [Linburg-Comstock syndrome. Epidemiologic and anatomic study, clinical applications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamitouche, K; Roux, J L; Baeten, Y; Allieu, Y

    2000-05-01

    The Linburg-Comstock (LC) syndrome is distinguished by the inability to actively flex the interphalangeal (IP) joint of the thumb without simultaneously flexing the distal IP joint of the index finger. Any resistance to this 'parasitic' reaction causes pain on the palmar side of the wrist or in the distal part of the forearm; this is due to an anomalous tendinous connection between the flexor pollicus longus (FPL) and the flexor digitorum profundus (FDP). An epidemiological study was carried out on 264 individuals (a total of 528 hands were examined), and the LC syndrome was found in 98 subjects (37%); women were more frequently affected than men, and bilaterally rather than unilaterally. In addition, we dissected 26 fresh cadaver upper limbs, and in seven cases found an anomalous connection between FPL and FDP. We also examined the case of a young violinist with bilateral LC syndrome, who complained of pain in the distal part of the left forearm after prolonged musical exercises. Surgical investigation determined a complete fusion between FPL and FDP of the index with a common tendon. Treatment consisted of splitting this common tendon to form two separate tendons, thereby permitting a certain degree of independence between the thumb and index finger, and which considerably improved the violinist's musical performance. A review of the literature showed that there was a large quantity of anatomical descriptions available on these types of connection. Certain publications also provide an extremely precise report on the anthropological significance of these anomalies.

  12. Cruciferous Vegetables and Human Cancer Risk: Epidemiologic Evidence and Mechanistic Basis

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    Higdon, Jane V.; Delage, Barbara; Williams, David E.; Dashwood, Roderick H

    2007-01-01

    Cruciferous vegetables are a rich source of glucosinolates and their hydrolysis products, including indoles and isothiocyanates, and high intake of cruciferous vegetables has been associated with lower risk of lung and colorectal cancer in some epidemiological studies. Glucosinolate hydrolysis products alter the metabolism or activity of sex hormones in ways that could inhibit the development of hormone-sensitive cancers, but evidence of an inverse association between cruciferous vegetable in...

  13. Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals and Endometrial Cancer: An Overview of Recent Laboratory Evidence and Epidemiological Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallozzi, Maddalena; Leone, Chiara; Manurita, Francesca; Bellati, Filippo; Caserta, Donatella

    2017-01-01

    Background: Although exposure to endocrine disruptor compounds (EDCs) has been suggested as a contributing factor to a range of women’s health disorders including infertility, polycystic ovaries and the early onset of puberty, considerable challenges remain in attributing cause and effect on gynaecological cancer. Until recently, there were relatively few epidemiological studies examining the relationship between EDCs and endometrial cancer, however, in the last years the number of these studies has increased. Methods: A systematic MEDLINE (PubMed) search was performed and relevant articles published in the last 23 years (from 1992 to 2016) were selected. Results: Human studies and animal experiments are confirming a carcinogenic effect due to the EDC exposure and its carcinogenesis process result to be complex, multifactorial and long standing, thus, it is extremely difficult to obtain the epidemiological proof of a carcinogenic effect of EDCs for the high number of confusing factors. Conclusions: The carcinogenic effects of endocrine disruptors are plausible, although additional studies are needed to clarify their mechanisms and responsible entities. Neverthless, to reduce endocrine disruptors (ED) exposure is mandatory to implement necessary measures to limit exposure, particularly during those periods of life most vulnerable to the impact of oncogenic environmental causes, such as embryonic period and puberty. PMID:28327540

  14. An ecological approach to assessing the epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance in animal and human populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, Alison E; Matthews, Louise; Mellor, Dominic J; Reeve, Richard; Denwood, Matthew J; Boerlin, Patrick; Reid-Smith, Richard J; Brown, Derek J; Coia, John E; Browning, Lynda M; Haydon, Daniel T; Reid, Stuart W J

    2012-04-22

    We examined long-term surveillance data on antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 (DT104) isolates from concurrently sampled and sympatric human and animal populations in Scotland. Using novel ecological and epidemiological approaches to examine diversity, and phenotypic and temporal relatedness of the resistance profiles, we assessed the more probable source of resistance of these two populations. The ecological diversity of AMR phenotypes was significantly greater in human isolates than in animal isolates, at the resolution of both sample and population. Of 5200 isolates, there were 65 resistance phenotypes, 13 unique to animals, 30 unique to humans and 22 were common to both. Of these 22, 11 were identified first in the human isolates, whereas only five were identified first in the animal isolates. We conclude that, while ecologically connected, animals and humans have distinguishable DT104 communities, differing in prevalence, linkage and diversity. Furthermore, we infer that the sympatric animal population is unlikely to be the major source of resistance diversity for humans. This suggests that current policy emphasis on restricting antimicrobial use in domestic animals may be overly simplistic. While these conclusions pertain to DT104 in Scotland, this approach could be applied to AMR in other bacteria-host ecosystems.

  15. Characterization of antibodies elicited by XMRV infection and development of immunoassays useful for epidemiologic studies

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    Qiu Xiaoxing

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Xenotropic Murine Leukemia Virus-related Virus (XMRV is a human gammaretrovirus recently identified in prostate cancer tissue and in lymphocytes of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. To establish the etiologic role of XMRV infection in human disease requires large scale epidemiologic studies. Development of assays to detect XMRV-specific antibodies would greatly facilitate such studies. However, the nature and kinetics of the antibody response to XMRV infection have yet to be determined. Results Three rhesus macaques were infected with XMRV to determine the dynamics of the antibody responses elicited by infection with XMRV. All macaques developed antibodies to XMRV during the second week of infection, and the predominant responses were to the envelope protein gp70, transmembrane protein p15E, and capsid protein p30. In general, antibody responses to gp70 and p15E appeared early with higher titers than to p30, especially in the early period of seroconversion. Antibodies to gp70, p15E and p30 persisted to 158 days and were substantially boosted by re-infection, thus, were identified as useful serologic markers. Three high-throughput prototype assays were developed using recombinant proteins to detect antibodies to these viral proteins. Both gp70 and p15E prototype assays demonstrated 100% sensitivity by detecting all Western blot (WB positive serial bleeds from the XMRV-infected macaques and good specificity (99.5-99.9% with blood donors. Seroconversion sensitivity and specificity of the p30 prototype assay were 92% and 99.4% respectively. Conclusions This study provides the first demonstration of seroconversion patterns elicited by XMRV infection. The nature and kinetics of antibody responses to XMRV in primates were fully characterized. Moreover, key serologic markers useful for detection of XMRV infection were identified. Three prototype immunoassays were developed to detect XMRV-specific antibodies. These assays

  16. Epidemiology of human avian influenza in Indonesia, 2005-2009: a descriptive analysis

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    Wiku Adisasmito

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim The study set out to better understand the epidemiology, natural history, therapeutic management and outcomes associated with confirmed human cases of Avian Influenza (AI in Indonesia.Methods This observational study utilized data from 93 cases with laboratory-confirmed H5N1 Influenza between September 2005 and August 2009. Cases were identified through records obtained from the Ministry of Health, as well as the Provincial health office and district health office records. Categorical data were analyzed with frequency tables, chi-square tests, and relative risks, and continuous data were analyzed using univariate statistics and Wilcoxon tests.Results Most subjects (54% first presented to a physician’s office or clinic. All of the subjects were hospitalized, and the vast majority (85% had respiratory symptoms as their predominant symptom at presentation. There was no clear association of any of these case characteristics with survival. Cases with direct poultry exposure were 2.8 times more likely to receive oseltamivir treatment than those without direct exposure (RR = 2.89, 95% CI 1.44 – 5.78. While the overall number of survivors was small, cases with documented oseltamivir treatment were approximately 24% more likely to survive than cases for which oseltamivir treatment was not documented (RR 1.24; 95% CI: 0.34-4.58. In oseltamivir treated cases, the median time from symptom onset to start of antiviral treatment was 2.5 days in survivors compared to 7.0 days for those who died. Fatality, therefore, may be related to delay in initiation of treatment after presentation.Conclusions The data suggest that early treatment with the antiviral drug oseltamivir may play an important role in survival. However, a low clinical suspicion of disease likely remains an important impediment to early diagnosis. Therefore, a clear policy for the protocol of early diagnosis & treatment of febrile illness including influenza is necessary. (Med J Indones

  17. Melasma: A clinico-epidemiological study of 312 cases

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    Arun Achar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Melasma is an acquired increased pigmentation of the skin, characterized by gray-brown symmetrical patches, mostly in the sun-exposed areas of the skin. The pathogenesis is unknown, but genetic or hormonal influences with UV radiation are important. Aims: Our present research aims to study the clinico-epidemiological pattern and the precipitating or provocation factors in melasma. Materials and Methods: A total of 312 patients were enrolled for the study over a period of one year. Results: The mean age of patients with melasma was 33.45 years, ranging from 14 to 54 years. There was female preponderance with a female to male ratio of approximately 4 : 1. The mean age of onset was 29.99 years, with the youngest and oldest being 11 and 49 years, respectively. The patients sought medical treatment on an average of 3.59 years after appearance of melasma. About 55.12% of our patients reported that their disease exacerbated during sun exposure. Among 250 female patients, 56 reported pregnancy and 46 reported oral contraceptive as the precipitating factors. Only 34 patients had given history of exacerbation of melasma during pregnancy. A positive family history of melasma was observed in 104 (33.33% patients. Centrofacial was the most common pattern (55.44% observed in the present study. Wood light examination showed the dermal type being the most common in 54.48% and epidermal and mixed were seen in 21.47% and 24.03% of the cases, respectively. We tried to find an association with endocrinal diseases and observed that 20 of them had hypothyroidism. Conclusion: The exact cause of melasma is unknown. However, many factors have been implicated in the etiopathogenesis of this disorder. Here we try to identify the causative factors and provocation to develop melasma.

  18. MELASMA: A CLINICO-EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF 312 CASES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achar, Arun; Rathi, Sanjay K

    2011-01-01

    Background: Melasma is an acquired increased pigmentation of the skin, characterized by gray-brown symmetrical patches, mostly in the sun-exposed areas of the skin. The pathogenesis is unknown, but genetic or hormonal influences with UV radiation are important. Aims: Our present research aims to study the clinico-epidemiological pattern and the precipitating or provocation factors in melasma. Materials and Methods: A total of 312 patients were enrolled for the study over a period of one year. Results: The mean age of patients with melasma was 33.45 years, ranging from 14 to 54 years. There was female preponderance with a female to male ratio of approximately 4 : 1. The mean age of onset was 29.99 years, with the youngest and oldest being 11 and 49 years, respectively. The patients sought medical treatment on an average of 3.59 years after appearance of melasma. About 55.12% of our patients reported that their disease exacerbated during sun exposure. Among 250 female patients, 56 reported pregnancy and 46 reported oral contraceptive as the precipitating factors. Only 34 patients had given history of exacerbation of melasma during pregnancy. A positive family history of melasma was observed in 104 (33.33%) patients. Centrofacial was the most common pattern (55.44%) observed in the present study. Wood light examination showed the dermal type being the most common in 54.48% and epidermal and mixed were seen in 21.47% and 24.03% of the cases, respectively. We tried to find an association with endocrinal diseases and observed that 20 of them had hypothyroidism. Conclusion: The exact cause of melasma is unknown. However, many factors have been implicated in the etiopathogenesis of this disorder. Here we try to identify the causative factors and provocation to develop melasma. PMID:21965843

  19. Descriptive Epidemiology of Somatising Tendency: Findings from the CUPID Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Prada, Sergio; Coggon, David; Ntani, Georgia; Walker-Bone, Karen; Palmer, Keith T.; Felli, Vanda E.; Harari, Raul; Barrero, Lope H.; Felknor, Sarah A.; Gimeno, David; Cattrell, Anna; Bonzini, Matteo; Solidaki, Eleni; Merisalu, Eda; Habib, Rima R.; Sadeghian, Farideh; Kadir, M. Masood; Warnakulasuriya, Sudath S. P.; Matsudaira, Ko; Nyantumbu, Busisiwe; Sim, Malcolm R.; Harcombe, Helen; Cox, Ken; Sarquis, Leila M. M.; Marziale, Maria H.; Harari, Florencia; Freire, Rocio; Harari, Natalia; Monroy, Magda V.; Quintana, Leonardo A.; Rojas, Marianela; Harris, E. Clare; Serra, Consol; Martinez, J. Miguel; Delclos, George; Benavides, Fernando G.; Carugno, Michele; Ferrario, Marco M.; Pesatori, Angela C.; Chatzi, Leda; Bitsios, Panos; Kogevinas, Manolis; Oha, Kristel; Freimann, Tiina; Sadeghian, Ali; Peiris-John, Roshini J.; Sathiakumar, Nalini; Wickremasinghe, A. Rajitha; Yoshimura, Noriko; Kelsall, Helen L.; Hoe, Victor C. W.; Urquhart, Donna M.; Derrett, Sarah; McBride, David; Herbison, Peter; Gray, Andrew; Vega, Eduardo J. Salazar

    2016-01-01

    Somatising tendency, defined as a predisposition to worry about common somatic symptoms, is importantly associated with various aspects of health and health-related behaviour, including musculoskeletal pain and associated disability. To explore its epidemiological characteristics, and how it can be specified most efficiently, we analysed data from an international longitudinal study. A baseline questionnaire, which included questions from the Brief Symptom Inventory about seven common symptoms, was completed by 12,072 participants aged 20–59 from 46 occupational groups in 18 countries (response rate 70%). The seven symptoms were all mutually associated (odds ratios for pairwise associations 3.4 to 9.3), and each contributed to a measure of somatising tendency that exhibited an exposure-response relationship both with multi-site pain (prevalence rate ratios up to six), and also with sickness absence for non-musculoskeletal reasons. In most participants, the level of somatising tendency was little changed when reassessed after a mean interval of 14 months (75% having a change of 0 or 1 in their symptom count), although the specific symptoms reported at follow-up often differed from those at baseline. Somatising tendency was more common in women than men, especially at older ages, and varied markedly across the 46 occupational groups studied, with higher rates in South and Central America. It was weakly associated with smoking, but not with level of education. Our study supports the use of questions from the Brief Symptom Inventory as a method for measuring somatising tendency, and suggests that in adults of working age, it is a fairly stable trait. PMID:27128094

  20. Descriptive Epidemiology of Somatising Tendency: Findings from the CUPID Study.

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    Sergio Vargas-Prada

    Full Text Available Somatising tendency, defined as a predisposition to worry about common somatic symptoms, is importantly associated with various aspects of health and health-related behaviour, including musculoskeletal pain and associated disability. To explore its epidemiological characteristics, and how it can be specified most efficiently, we analysed data from an international longitudinal study. A baseline questionnaire, which included questions from the Brief Symptom Inventory about seven common symptoms, was completed by 12,072 participants aged 20-59 from 46 occupational groups in 18 countries (response rate 70%. The seven symptoms were all mutually associated (odds ratios for pairwise associations 3.4 to 9.3, and each contributed to a measure of somatising tendency that exhibited an exposure-response relationship both with multi-site pain (prevalence rate ratios up to six, and also with sickness absence for non-musculoskeletal reasons. In most participants, the level of somatising tendency was little changed when reassessed after a mean interval of 14 months (75% having a change of 0 or 1 in their symptom count, although the specific symptoms reported at follow-up often differed from those at baseline. Somatising tendency was more common in women than men, especially at older ages, and varied markedly across the 46 occupational groups studied, with higher rates in South and Central America. It was weakly associated with smoking, but not with level of education. Our study supports the use of questions from the Brief Symptom Inventory as a method for measuring somatising tendency, and suggests that in adults of working age, it is a fairly stable trait.

  1. Epidemiological Study of Fusarium Species Causing Invasive and Superficial Fusariosis in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraosa, Yasunori; Oguchi, Misato; Yahiro, Maki; Watanabe, Akira; Yaguchi, Takashi; Kamei, Katsuhiko

    2017-01-01

    In Japan, Fusarium species are known etiological agents of human fungal infection; however, there has been no report of a large-scale epidemiological study on the etiological agents of fusariosis. A total of 73 Fusarium isolates from patients with invasive fusariosis (IF, n= 36) or superficial fusariosis (SF, n= 37), which were obtained at hospitals located in 28 prefectures in Japan between 1998 and 2015, were used for this study. Fusarium isolates were identified using Fusarium- and Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) -specific real-time PCR and partial DNA sequences of the elongation factor-1 alpha (EF-1α) gene and the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. FSSC was predominately isolated from both patients with IF and SF (IF, 77.8% and SF, 67.6%). Distribution of the phylogenetic species of FSSC isolates from patients with IF and SF exhibited different spectra; specifically, F. keratoplasticum (FSSC 2) (25.0%) was the most frequent isolate from patients with IF, whereas F. falciforme (FSSC 3+4) (32.4%) was the most frequent isolate from patients with SF. Fusarium sp. (FSSC 5) was the second most frequent isolate from both patients with IF and SF (IF, 22.2% and SF, 24.3%). Notably, F. petroliphilum (FSSC 1) was isolated only from patients with IF. Each species was isolated from a broad geographic area, and an epidemic was not observed. This is the first epidemiological study of Fusarium species causing IF and SF in Japan.

  2. [Interaction of the bodies and institutions of the Russian Inspectorate for the protection of consumer rights and human welfare on sanitary-and-epidemiological examinations and issuing sanitary-and-epidemiological opinions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safonkina, S G

    2009-01-01

    The paper describes problems in the organization of the interaction of the Russian Inspectorate for the Protection of Consumer Rights and Human Welfare in Moscow and the Center for Hygiene and Epidemiology in Moscow to perform sanitary-and-epidemiological examinations and to issue sanitary-and-epidemiological opinions. The goals of setting up a one-window service and measures required for its effective work are defined. Positive results of one-window activities are shown.

  3. Epidemiology: Then and Now.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuller, Lewis H

    2016-03-01

    Twenty-five years ago, on the 75th anniversary of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, I noted that epidemiologic research was moving away from the traditional approaches used to investigate "epidemics" and their close relationship with preventive medicine. Twenty-five years later, the role of epidemiology as an important contribution to human population research, preventive medicine, and public health is under substantial pressure because of the emphasis on "big data," phenomenology, and personalized medical therapies. Epidemiology is the study of epidemics. The primary role of epidemiology is to identify the epidemics and parameters of interest of host, agent, and environment and to generate and test hypotheses in search of causal pathways. Almost all diseases have a specific distribution in relation to time, place, and person and specific "causes" with high effect sizes. Epidemiology then uses such information to develop interventions and test (through clinical trials and natural experiments) their efficacy and effectiveness. Epidemiology is dependent on new technologies to evaluate improved measurements of host (genomics), epigenetics, identification of agents (metabolomics, proteomics), new technology to evaluate both physical and social environment, and modern methods of data collection. Epidemiology does poorly in studying anything other than epidemics and collections of numerators and denominators without specific hypotheses even with improved statistical methodologies.

  4. Poliomyelitis, measles and neonatal tetanus: a hospital based epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Shazly, M K; Atta, H Y; Kishk, N A

    1997-01-01

    Vaccine-preventable diseases constitute a major health problem contributing to the morbidity and mortality in many developing countries including Egypt. WHO adopted resolutions to eradicate poliomyelitis by the year 2000, eliminate neonatal tetanus by the year 1995, and reduce measles mortality by 95% and morbidity by 90%, compared to the pre-immunization levels by 1995. Evaluation of preventive programs for these diseases necessitates availability of up to date information on their occurrence. The present study was undertaken to determine the current epidemiological features of poliomyelitis, neonatal tetanus and measles, to identify the trends of these diseases as well as to determine their outcomes and hospital loads. Data about the admitted cases of poliomyelitis, neonatal tetanus and measles were collected from the hospital register of Alexandria fever hospital for five successive years (1992-96). Available information on age, sex, residence, diagnosis, outcome of treatment, dates of admission and discharge were collected. The total number of cases of the three diseases admitted to the hospital during the period 1992-96 were 1406, measles represented 85.4%, neonatal tetanus 13.9% and poliomyelitis 0.7%. The results revealed that in the year 1994 only one case of poliomyelitis was admitted and since then no other cases were reported. The number of measles cases increased gradually in the latter years and about 78% of them were older than five years of age. A significant increase in the age of measles occurrence was observed. A gradual decline in the number of neonatal tetanus cases was observed. These cases were more apt to occur among early neonates but still clustered in certain geographical areas. The results of the study pinpoint the long term impact of the well run program aiming at eradicating poliomyelitis in Alexandria. However, for elimination of neonatal tetanus and controlling measles morbidity, further activities are required including strengthening

  5. Epidemiological study on food intake and Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyonaga, A; Okamatsu, H; Sasaki, K; Kimura, H; Saito, T; Shimizu, S; Fukuizumi, K; Tsuruta, O; Tanikawa, K; Sata, M

    2000-01-01

    We conducted an epidemiological study to investigate the relation of food intake to Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in an area endemic for H. pylori. In this study, 365 subjects, 104 men and 261 women, were randomly selected from 7,389 adult (over age 20) inhabitants of town A, Japan. The prevalence of immunoglobulin G (IgG) class antibody to H. pylori (anti-H. pylori) was 83.7% and the prevalence of anti-H. pylori increased with age significantly (P gastritis, gastroduodenal ulcer and gastric cancer tended to have a higher anti-H. pylori positive ratio (93.5%) than those without (81.0%). But there was no relationship between anti-H. pylori prevalence and sex, blood type, smoking or drinking habits. Daily intake of foods by food groups, nutrients and the concentrations of serum ingredients were compared between 37 anti-H. pylori-positive and 40 negative subjects selected from 365 inhabitants by matching up according to sex and age. The daily intake of cereals, potatoes and starches, and milks tended to be higher in positive than negative subjects, while the daily intake of algae and tea appeared to be a little higher in negative than in positive subjects. The daily zinc intake of antibody-positive subjects was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than in antibody negative subjects. On the other hand, the daily iron intake in negative subjects was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than in positive subjects. The serum concentrations of copper, zinc, and vitamin E tended to be higher in positive than negative subjects. But there were no significant differences in serum ingredients concentrations between antibody negative and positive subjects. Our findings suggest that iron and zinc intakes may effect on H. pylori infection.

  6. True Vertigo Patients in Emergency Department; an Epidemiologic Study

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    Ali Shahrami

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Vertigo prevalence is estimated to be 1.8% among young adults and more than 30% in the elderly. 13-38% of the referrals of patients over 65 years old in America are due to vertigo. Vertigo does not increase the risk of mortality but it can affect the patient’s quality of life. Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate the epidemiologic characteristics of vertigo patients referred to the emergency department (ED. Methods: In this 6-month retrospective cross-sectional study, the profiles of all vertigo patients referred to the ED of Imam Hossein Hospital, Tehran, Iran, from October 2013 to March 2014 were evaluated. Demographic data and baseline characteristics of the patients were recorded and then patients were divided into central and peripheral vertigo. The correlation of history and clinical examination with vertigo type was evaluated and screening performance characteristics of history and clinical examination in differentiating central and peripheral vertigo were determined. Results: 379 patients with the mean age of 50.69 ± 11.94 years (minimum 18 and maximum 86 were enrolled (58.13% female. There was no sex difference in vertigo incidence (p = 0.756. A significant correlation existed between older age and increase in frequency of central cases (p < 0.001. No significant difference was detected between the treatment protocols regarding ED length of stay (p = 0.72. There was a significant overlap between the initial diagnosis and the final decision based on imaging and neurologist’s final opinion (p < 0.001. In the end, 361 (95.3% patients were discharged from ED, while 18 were disposed to the neurology ward. No case of mortality was reported. Conclusion: Sensitivity and specificity of history and clinical examination in differentiating central and peripheral vertigo were 99 (95% CI: 57-99 and 99 (95% CI: 97-99, respectively.

  7. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF LOW ENERGY FRACTURES IN REPUBLIC OF ARMENIA

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    S. Saakyan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Until present no data was available inArmeniain respect of incidence of low energy fractures that are typical of osteoporotic locations which consequently did not allow to evaluate the scope of this problem across the country.Purpose of the study – to identify the incidence of low energy fractures in proximal femur, in distal forearm, in proximal humerus and in distal tibia across population ofArmenia aged 50 years and older.Materials and methods. An observing population study was performed in two regions of Armenia during 2011-2013 where the frequency of selected locations in cases of moderate trauma was identified. During 2011-2012 the information was collected based on traumatology service records adding in 2013 other sources including primary level of healthcare due to observed infrequent applications for medical help in cases of trauma. Results. In 2013 the incidence of proximal femur fractures in men was reported as 136 cases per 100 000 of population aged 50 years and older, in women – 201 cases per 100 000. At the same time only 57.7% of patients with proximal femur fractures were admitted to hospital. Distal forearm fractures incidence in men and women was observed correspondingly 56/100 000 and 176/100 000 cases, proximal humerus fractures – 39/100 000 and 86/100 000 cases and distal tibia fractures – 39/100 000 and 86/100 000 cases. The predicted annual number of proximal femur fracture in Armenia amounts to 2067 cases, distal forearm fractures – 1205, proximal humerus fractures – 640.Conclusion. Epidemiological data that was collected for the first time on low energy fractures incidence confirmed the acute osteoporosis issue inArmenia and revealed the problems in organization of medical care for the group of senior patients with injuries.

  8. Optimizing malarial epidemiological studies in areas of low transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amerasinghe, Priyanie H; Alifrangis, Michael; van der Hoek, Wim;

    2005-01-01

    Malaria risk factor studies have traditionally used microscopy readings of blood slides as the measure of malaria infection in humans, although alternatives are available. There is the need for an assessment of how the use of these alternative diagnostic approaches will influence the efficiency a...

  9. Pollution and skin: from epidemiological and mechanistic studies to clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krutmann, Jean; Liu, Wei; Li, Li; Pan, Xiaochuan; Crawford, Martha; Sore, Gabrielle; Seite, Sophie

    2014-12-01

    In recent years, the health effects associated with air pollution have been intensively studied. Most studies focus on air pollution effects on the lung and the cardiovascular system. More recently, however, epidemiological and mechanistic studies suggest that air pollution is also affecting skin integrity. This state-of-the-art review focuses on this latter aspect; it was developed with the collaboration of European and Chinese board of experts with specific interests in environmental health, clinical and basic research in dermatology and cosmetic dermatology. A literature review limited to pollution and health effects and (sensitive) skin was performed using PubMed. Review and original articles were chosen. We summarize the existing scientific evidence that air pollution exerts detrimental effects on human skin, discuss potential clinical implications and suggest specific and unspecific cosmetic protective measures.

  10. The Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity (NEO) study: study design and data collection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mutsert, R. de; Heijer, M. den; Rabelink, T.J.; Smit, J.W.A.; Romijn, J.A.; Jukema, J.W.; Roos, A. de; Cobbaert, C.M.; Kloppenburg, M.; Cessie, S. le; Middeldorp, S.; Rosendaal, F.R.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a well-established risk factor for many chronic diseases. Incomplete insight exists in the causal pathways responsible for obesity-related disorders and consequently, in the identification of obese individuals at risk of these disorders. The Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity (NEO) study

  11. Molecular and epidemiological characterization of canine Pseudomonas otitis using a prospective case-control study design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Daniel O; Davis, Meghan F; Palmeiro, Brian S; O'Shea, Kathleen; Rankin, Shelley C

    2017-02-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen of the canine ear canal and occupies aquatic habitats in the environment. Nosocomial and zoonotic transmission of P. aeruginosa have been documented, including clonal outbreaks. The primary objective of this study was to assess various environmental exposures as potential risk factors for canine Pseudomonas otitis. It was hypothesized that isolates derived from infected ears would be clonal to isolates derived from household water sources and the mouths of human and animal companions of the study subjects. Seventy seven privately owned dogs with otitis were enrolled, along with their human and animal household companions, in a case-control design. Data on potential risk factors for Pseudomonas otitis were collected. Oral cavities of all study subjects, their human and animal companions, and household water sources were sampled. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis was used to estimate clonal relatedness of P. aeruginosa isolates. In a multivariate model, visiting a dog park was associated with 77% increased odds of case status (P = 0.048). Strains clonal to the infection isolates were obtained from subjects' mouths (n = 18), companion pets' mouths (n = 5), pet owners' mouths (n = 2), water bowls (n = 7) and water taps (n = 2). Clonally related P. aeruginosa isolates were obtained from dogs that had no clear epidemiological link. Genetic homology between otic and environmental isolates is consistent with a waterborne source for some dogs, and cross-contamination with other human and animal members within some households. © 2016 ESVD and ACVD.

  12. Epidemiological studies on Brassica vegetables and cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, D.T.H.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Poppel, G. van; Verhagen, H.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    1996-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the epidemiological data concerning the cancer-preventive effect of brassica vegetables, including cabbage, kale, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, and cauliflower. The protective effect of brassicas against cancer may be due to their relatively high content of glucosinolat

  13. Epidemiology of Brucella infection in the human, livestock and wildlife interface in the Katavi-Rukwa ecosystem, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assenga, Justine A; Matemba, Lucas E; Muller, Shabani K; Malakalinga, Joseph J; Kazwala, Rudovick R

    2015-08-08

    Brucellosis is a zoonosis of public health importance worldwide. In Tanzania, the disease is underreported due to insufficient awareness, inadequate diagnostic protocols, including lack of appropriate reagents for diagnosis. Livestock and wildlife are considered potential sources of infection to humans; however, the role played by these carriers in the epidemiology of the disease in the ecosystems in Tanzania is not fully understood. The objective of this study was to establish the prevalence of anti-Brucella antibodies in humans, wildlife and livestock; and molecular prevalence of Brucella spp in cattle and goats in the Katavi- Rukwa ecosystem. Anti-Brucella antibodies were detected in humans at 0.6 % (95 % CI: 0.1, 2.1 %); cattle at 6.8 % (95 % CI: 5.4, 8.5 %), goats at 1.6 % (95 % CI: 0.4, 4.1 %) and buffaloes at 7.9 % (95 % CI: 1.7, 21.4 %). One of the two sampled lions tested positive. Cattle had a significantly higher prevalence of anti-Brucella antibodies as compared to goats (P Brucella infection. Eight (3.5 %) out of 231 milk samples tested were positive for Brucella spp on Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), and Brucella abortus biovar 1 was detected in cattle milk. However, no Brucella spp were detected in goat milk. This study has shown the presence of anti- Brucella antibodies in humans, livestock, and wildlife in the Katavi- Rukwa ecosystem. Transmission of the infection between wildlife, livestock and humans is likely to continue due to increasing human activities in the human wildlife interface. This information is an important contribution to public health policy development in the human wildlife interface of the Katavi- Rukwa ecosystem.

  14. Retrospective epidemiological study of the X-Ray exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, E. V.; Kalnitsky, S. A.; Shubic, V. M.

    2004-07-01

    There are a large amount of epidemiological studies nowadays in the world which are devoted to the analysis of the medical effects and the radiation risk. But a few of them deal with the analysis of the medical diagnostic radiation influence on health. It is appropriate, for the large compared contingent of the patients and the possibility of comparing them in several decades after the exposure are necessary for the evaluation of the influence of small doses on health. Meanwhile the X-ray exposure of the population is one of the most important types of radiation influence among all the kinds and sources of radiation. It is characterized by high dose rate and the possibility of multiple influence on a weakened and diseased organism. In connection with that, the eleven of the indices of population health was analyzed for the first time in Russia. The population was influenced by different levels of X-ray exposure 10-50 years ago. The research was carried out in the two groups of the Tumen (Siberia) regions. These regions are more or less equal in the climatic; ecologic, social-economic and demographic conditions. Nevertheless, they are different even only in the value of accumulated doses of X-ray exposure of the population (mostly in 50-70s) more than three times. Disease and mortality cancer of population of the last ten years in the regions were analyzed. The regions were selected taking into account the absence of the influence of other possible negative environmental factors. The data are found as the result of the dosimetric and epidemiological studies, and the processing of the archive statistic information. These researches demonstrated that on the whole there is the considerable statistically proved rise of disease cancer in the regions with high level of long term accumulated doses of X-ray exposure of population. Inter-district differences in disease and mortality cancer run up to three times among people aged 60 and older. There are no statistically

  15. Cancer prevention by green tea: evidence from epidemiologic studies1234

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Jian-Min

    2013-01-01

    In contrast to the consistent results of an inhibitory effect of green tea extracts and tea polyphenols on the development and growth of carcinogen-induced tumors in experimental animal models, results from human studies are mixed. Both observational and intervention studies have provided evidence in support of a protective role of green tea intake in the development of oral–digestive tract cancer or an inhibitory role of oral supplementation of green tea extract on a precancerous lesion of o...

  16. A Review of Study Designs and Statistical Methods for Genomic Epidemiology Studies using Next Generation Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian eWang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Results from numerous linkage and association studies have greatly deepened scientists’ understanding of the genetic basis of many human diseases, yet some important questions remain unanswered. For example, although a large number of disease-associated loci have been identified from genome-wide association studies (GWAS in the past 10 years, it is challenging to interpret these results as most disease-associated markers have no clear functional roles in disease etiology, and all the identified genomic factors only explain a small portion of disease heritability. With the help of next-generation sequencing (NGS, diverse types of genomic and epigenetic variations can be detected with high accuracy. More importantly, instead of using linkage disequilibrium to detect association signals based on a set of pre-set probes, NGS allows researchers to directly study all the variants in each individual, therefore promises opportunities for identifying functional variants and a more comprehensive dissection of disease heritability. Although the current scale of NGS studies is still limited due to the high cost, the success of several recent studies suggests the great potential for applying NGS in genomic epidemiology, especially as the cost of sequencing continues to drop. In this review, we discuss several pioneer applications of NGS, summarize scientific discoveries for rare and complex diseases, and compare various study designs including targeted sequencing and whole-genome sequencing using population-based and family-based cohorts. Finally, we highlight recent advancements in statistical methods proposed for sequencing analysis, including group-based association tests, meta-analysis techniques, and annotation tools for variant prioritization.

  17. International Biological Engagement Programs Facilitate Newcastle Disease Epidemiological Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Patti J.; Dimitrov, Kiril M.; Williams-Coplin, Dawn; Peterson, Melanie P.; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary J.; Swayne, David E.; Suarez, David L.; Afonso, Claudio L.

    2015-01-01

    Infections of poultry species with virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) cause Newcastle disease (ND), one of the most economically significant and devastating diseases for poultry producers worldwide. Biological engagement programs between the Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory (SEPRL) of the United States Department of Agriculture and laboratories from Russia, Pakistan, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, and Indonesia collectively have produced a better understanding of the genetic diversity and evolution of the viruses responsible for ND, which is crucial for the control of the disease. The data from Kazakhstan, Russia, and Ukraine identified possible migratory routes for birds that may carry both virulent NDV (vNDV) and NDV of low virulence into Europe. In addition, related NDV strains were isolated from wild birds in Ukraine and Nigeria, and from birds in continental USA, Alaska, Russia, and Japan, identifying wild birds as a possible mechanism of intercontinental spread of NDV of low virulence. More recently, the detection of new sub-genotypes of vNDV suggests that a new, fifth, panzootic of ND has already originated in Southeast Asia, extended to the Middle East, and is now entering into Eastern Europe. Despite expected challenges when multiple independent laboratories interact, many scientists from the collaborating countries have successfully been trained by SEPRL on molecular diagnostics, best laboratory practices, and critical biosecurity protocols, providing our partners the capacity to further train other employes and to identify locally the viruses that cause this OIE listed disease. These and other collaborations with partners in Mexico, Bulgaria, Israel, and Tanzania have allowed SEPRL scientists to engage in field studies, to elucidate more aspects of ND epidemiology in endemic countries, and to understand the challenges that the scientists and field veterinarians in these countries face on a daily basis. Finally, new viral characterization tools

  18. Epidemiology and public health significance of Cryptosporidium isolated from cattle, buffaloes, and humans in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, M A; Abdel-Ghany, A E; Abdel-Latef, G K; Abdel-Aziz, S A; Aboelhadid, S M

    2016-06-01

    The epidemiology and public health significance of Cryptosporidium species and genotypes were investigated in Beni-Suef Governorate, Egypt. A total of 610 animal fecal samples (480 from cattle and 130 from buffaloes) beside 290 stool samples from humans were collected in the period between January and December 2014. Based on the microscopic examination, the overall estimated prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. in cattle, buffaloes, and humans was 10.2, 12.3, and 19 %, respectively. The highest detection rates were in calves less than 2 months of age (17.1 %) and diarrheic animals (13.0 %). Likewise in humans, the highest prevalence of Cryptosporidium was in infants (31.3 %) and diarrheic individuals (21.1 %). The gender distribution in humans denoted that Cryptosporidium was reported more frequently in males (21.7 %) than females (14.5 %). Based on the molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium, Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein (COWP) and gp60 genes were successfully amplified in 36 out of 50 samples subjected to genotyping. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the COWP fragments revealed that Cryptosporidium parvum was the only species detected in cattle (12 isolates) and buffaloes (4 isolates), while in humans, the detected species were Cryptosporidium hominis (15 isolates) and C. parvum (5 isolates). Sequence analysis of the gp60 gene identified the subtype IIdA20G1 within C. parvum isolated from both animals and humans. The common occurrence of zoonotic subtypes of C. parvum in cattle and buffaloes highlights the potential role of these animals as significant reservoirs of infection to humans. Also, the presence of C. hominis and C. parvum in humans indicates that both anthroponotic and zoonotic pathways are expected.

  19. Epidemiology of small intestinal atresia in Europe: a register-based study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Best, Kate E

    2012-09-01

    The epidemiology of congenital small intestinal atresia (SIA) has not been well studied. This study describes the presence of additional anomalies, pregnancy outcomes, total prevalence and association with maternal age in SIA cases in Europe.

  20. Epidemiologic characterization of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in various regions of Yunnan Province of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baloch, Zulqarnain; Li, Yuanyue; Yuan, Tao; Feng, Yue; Liu, Yanqing; Tai, Wenlin; Liu, Li; Wang, Binghui; Zhang, A-Mei; Wu, Xiaomei; Xia, Xueshan

    2016-05-26

    This study was designed to determine the Human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence and its distribution of genotypes in various regions of Yunnan Province, China. In this study, participants were recruited during routine gynecologic examination between Oct 2013 and Feb 2015. A total of 17,898 women were recruited. Polymerase chain reaction was used for detecting the HPV positive samples and HPV geno-array test was used for genotyping. The overall HPV infection rate (19.9 %) among the south-western women was significantly higher (P = 0.001) than that among the north-western (18.0 %), south-eastern (13.3 %), north-eastern (11.1 %) and central women (12.9 %). The high-risk (HR) (18.1 %, P = 0.001) and single genotype (16.7 %, P = 0.001) infection rates among the South-western women were also significantly higher than those of among the north-western (13.9 %, 11.3 %), south-eastern (11.6 %, 10.5 %), north-eastern (9.6 %, 9.1 %) and central women (10.5 %, 10.0 %), respectively. While, the infections with multiple HPV (4.2 %) genotypes were significantly more common (P = 0.001) among women in north-western Yunnan than women in the south-western (1.3 %, 3.1 %), south-eastern (1.7 %, 2.7 %), north-eastern (1.5 %, 2.0 %) and central Yunnan (2.4 %, 2.9 %). A total of 30 HPV genotypes were detected; among them 13 were HR-HPV, 3 were PHR-HPV (Potential High risk), 8 were LR-HPV (Low risk) and six were unclassified. The most common HPV genotypes were HPV-52, 16, 58, 53 in control group, HPV-16, 52, 58, 39 and 53 in CINI (Cervical intraepithelial Neoplasia), HPV-52, 16, 58, 33, 53 and 81 in CINII, HPV16, 58, 18, 52, 81 in CINIII and HPV-16 18, 58, 52 in cervical cancer (CC), respectively. Such variation has also been observed about distribution of HPV genotypes distribution among single and multiple infections. This study gives an epidemiological estimate of HPV prevalence and different genotype distribution in various region of Yunnan

  1. Risk of Cancer in relation to Natural Radiation, including Radon: Evidence from Epidemiological Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baysson, Hélène; Tirmarche, Margot; Laurier, Dominique

    2008-08-01

    A review of recently published epidemiological studies on populations exposed to natural background ionizing radiation is proposed. The advantages and disadvantages of different types of epidemiological studies as well as the uncertainty linked to multiple exposures are discussed. As radon is the greatest source of natural radiation, particular attention is given to quantification of risk obtained through cohort studies of uranium miners and after joint analysis of case-control studies on lung cancer and residential radon.

  2. Epidemiological studies of radio-frequency radiation: Current status and areas of concern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldsmith, John R. [Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva (Israel)

    1996-02-11

    These comments deal with the possible impact on human populations of intense sources of radio-frequency radiation, and not the much lower level of the usual sources of such radiation associated, for example with household appliances. These intense sources were developed and extensively used first in World War II (1940-45). Much of the health evaluation has been done by, and for, military organizations. There are important differences in the energy generated by low frequency (ELF) and radar; it then follows that there may be differences in their effects on human populations. Problems common to both types are: (1) the uncertainty as to biological mechanisms; (2) weak experimental evidence of effect; (3) epidemiological preoccupation with carcinogenesis, with its latency and low incidence. For both types there is the presumption of greater occupational than community risk, the latter often not well studied, and problems as to exposure quantification and specificity. To these one must add (4) the inherently epidemiological problems of a study at a given source of adequate sample size, case-findings, exposure estimation, confounders, and residential and job instability. Despite these problems, there are findings from sets of studies which suggest four possible health effects from radar (radio-frequency radiation) exposure: (A) disturbances in blood counts, not necessarily of clinical severity; (B) changes in chromosomes of white blood cells; (C) increases in frequency of unfavorable reproductive outcomes, especially spontaneous abortion, and (D) increases in cancers of certain sites. A review article on this topic was published elsewhere, providing evidence from various exposures on such possible effects. A brief critique is provided of evidence on these four possible effects, identifying some areas of uncertainty for which studies at sites like Skrunda could provide useful information

  3. Epidemiological studies on forestomach disorders in cattle and buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Sharma

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study epidemiology of forestomach (reticuloruminal, omasal, and abomasal disorders in cattle and buffaloes. Materials and Methods: The 106 buffaloes and 32 cattle referred for treatment to the university large animals teaching hospital with the complaint of gastrointestinal diseases constituted the study material. The cases were diagnosed based on history, clinical examination, hematology, biochemistry, radiography, peritoneal fluid analysis and ultrasonography, rumenotomy, and postmortem. A questionnaire was prepared containing important information on housing, husbandry practices, including feeding practices and individual animal information viz. age, species, month of the year, parity, gestation (month, and recent parturition. The animals were divided into eight groups and analysis of variance was performed to study risk factors associated with each condition. Results: The forestomach disorders are widely prevalent in cattle and buffaloes between April and October, during summer and rainy season (90% and constituted a significant proportion of diseased cows and buffaloes (138/1840 at the hospital. Different forestomach disorders and their prevalence was: Diaphragmatic hernia (DH 17%, traumatic reticuloperitonitis (TRP 14%, idiopathic motility disorder or vagus indigestion (VI 22%, adhesive peritonitis (AP 13%, frank exudative peritonitis (FEP 12%, reticular abscess (RA 8%, ruminal and omasal impaction (RI 5%, and abomaso duodenal ulceration (ADU 9%. DH and RA were significantly more common in buffaloes as compared to cattle. Similarly, impactions were more in buffaloes but its incidence was very low (5%. ADU was present in buffalo as commonly as in cows. Exclusive feeding of wheat straw was present in an abysmally low number of animals and hence could not be considered the cause of these disorders. DH was significantly higher in buffaloes (>5 years of 5-8 years of age and TRP, VI and AP were observed in cattle and buffalo of 2-8 years

  4. Taenia solium Human Cysticercosis: A Systematic Review of Sero-epidemiological Data from Endemic Zones around the World.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Coral-Almeida

    Full Text Available Taenia solium cysticercosis is a zoonotic neglected disease responsible for severe health disorders such as seizures and death. Understanding the epidemiology of human cysticercosis (HCC in endemic regions will help to expose critical information about the transmission of the disease, which could be used to design efficient control programs. This review gathered serological data on apparent prevalence of T. solium circulating antigens and/or seroprevalence of T. solium antibodies, apparent prevalence of human taeniasis and risk factors for HCC from endemic communities in order to understand the differences in exposure to the parasite and active infections with T. solium metacestodes in endemic areas around the world.Three databases were used to search sero-epidemiological data from community-based studies conducted between 1989 and 2014 in cysticercosis endemic communities worldwide. The search focused on data obtained from T. solium circulating antigen detection by monoclonal antibody-based sandwich ELISA and/or T. solium antibody seroprevalence determined by Enzyme-linked Immunoelectrotransfer Blot (EITB. A meta-analysis was performed per continent.A total of 39,271 participants from 19 countries, described in 37 articles were studied. The estimates for the prevalence of circulating T. solium antigens for Africa, Latin America and Asia were: 7.30% (95% CI [4.23-12.31], 4.08% (95% CI [2.77-5.95] and 3.98% (95% CI [2.81-5.61], respectively. Seroprevalence estimates of T. solium antibodies were 17.37% (95% CI [3.33-56.20], 13.03% (95% CI [9.95-16.88] and 15.68% (95% CI [10.25-23.24] respectively. Taeniasis reported prevalences ranged from 0 (95% CI [0.00-1.62] to 17.25% (95% CI [14.55-20.23].A significant variation in the sero-epidemiological data was observed within each continent, with African countries reporting the highest apparent prevalences of active infections. Intrinsic factors in the human host such as age and immunity were main

  5. Developmental origins of adult diseases and neurotoxicity: epidemiological and experimental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Donald A; Grandjean, Philippe; de Groot, Didima; Paule, Merle G

    2012-08-01

    To date, only a small number of commercial chemicals have been tested and documented as developmental neurotoxicants. Moreover, an increasing number of epidemiological, clinical and experimental studies suggest an association between toxicant or drug exposure during the perinatal period and the development of metabolic-related diseases and neurotoxicity later in life. The four speakers at this symposium presented their research results on different neurotoxic chemicals relating to the developmental origins of health and adult disease (DOHaD). Philippe Grandjean presented epidemiological data on children exposed to inorganic mercury and methylmercury, and discussed the behavioral outcome measures as they relate to age and stage of brain development. Donald A. Fox presented data that low-dose human equivalent gestational lead exposure produces late-onset obesity only in male mice that is associated with neurodegeneration. Didima de Groot presented results on prenatal exposure of rats to methylazoxymethanol and discussed the results in light of the etiology of western Pacific amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Parkinson-dementia complex. Merle G. Paule addressed the long-term changes in learning, motivation and short-term memory in aged Rhesus monkeys following acute 24 h exposure to ketamine during early development. Overall, these presentations addressed fundamental issues in the emerging areas of lifetime neurotoxicity testing, differential vulnerable periods of exposure, nonmonotonic dose-response effects and neurotoxic risk assessment. The results indicate that developmental neurotoxicity results in permanent changes, thus emphasizing the need to prevent such toxicity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Molecular epidemiology and genetic diversity of human rhinovirus affecting hospitalized children in Rome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierangeli, Alessandra; Ciccozzi, Massimo; Chiavelli, Stefano; Concato, Carlo; Giovanetti, Marta; Cella, Eleonora; Spano, Lucia; Scagnolari, Carolina; Moretti, Corrado; Papoff, Paola; Muraca, Maurizio; Midulla, Fabio; Antonelli, Guido

    2013-08-01

    Human rhinoviruses (HRV) have been re-classified into three species (A-C), but the recently discovered HRV-C strains are not fully characterized yet. This study aimed to undertake a molecular and epidemiological characterization of HRV strains infecting children hospitalized over one year in two large research hospitals in Rome. Nasal washings from single HRV infections were retrospectively subjected to phylogenetic analysis on two genomic regions: the central part of the 5'Untranslated Region (5'UTR) and the Viral Protein (VP) 4 gene with the 5' portion of the VP2 gene (VP4/2). Forty-five different strains were identified in 73 HRV-positive children: 55 % of the cases were HRV-A, 38 % HRV-C and only 7 % HRV-B. HRV-C cases were less frequent than HRV-A during summer months and more frequent in cases presenting wheezing with respect to HRV-A. Species distribution was similar with respect to patient age, and seasonality differed during summer months with fewer HRV-C than HRV-A cases. On admission, a significantly higher number of HRV-C cases presented with wheezing with respect to HRV-A. The inter- and intra-genotype variability in VP4/2 was higher than in 5'UTR; in particular, HRV-A patient VP4/2 sequences were highly divergent (8-14 %) at the nucleotide level from those of their reference strains, but VP4 amino acid sequence was highly conserved. In HRV-C isolates, the region preceding the initiator AUG, the amino acids involved in VP4 myristoylation, the VP4-VP2 cleavage site and the cis-acting replication element were highly conserved. Differently, VP4 amino acid conservation was significantly lower in HRV-C than in HRV-A strains, especially in the transiently exposed VP4 N-terminus. This study confirmed the high number of different HRV genotypes infecting hospitalized children over one year and reveals a greater than expected variability in HRV-C VP4 protein, potentially suggestive of differences in replication.

  7. Human epidemiology: a review of fiber type and characteristics in the development of malignant and nonmalignant disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, J A

    1990-08-01

    Consideration of the human epidemiology of diseases arising from exposure to naturally occurring and man-made mineral fibers encompasses the several forms of asbestos (chrysotile, crocidolite, amosite, anthophyllite, tremolite-actinolite), other naturally occurring silicates (talc, sepiolite, erionite, attapulgite, vermiculite, and wollastonite), and man-made mineral fibers (glass continuous filament, glass/rock/slag insulation wools, ceramic and other refractory fibers, and glass microfibers). The diseases arising from exposures to some of these fibers include pleural thickening (plaques, diffuse pleural thickening, and calcification), pulmonary fibrosis, lung cancers, mesothelioma of the pleura and peritoneum, and other cancers). Risk factors important in assessing these diseases include assessment of latency, duration of exposure, cumulative exposure, fiber origin and characteristics (length and diameter), other possible confounding occupational or environmental exposures, and smoking. Methodological issues commonly presenting problems in evaluation of these data include assessment of the adequacy of environmental exposures, particularly in regard to fiber identification, distribution, and concentration over the duration of exposure, and the adequacy of study design to detect health effects (disease frequency, latency, and cohort size). Research priorities include further assessment and standardization of pleural thickening relative to fiber exposure, uniform mesothelioma surveillance, further epidemiological assessment of certain silicate and man-made mineral fiber cohorts with emphasis given to assessment of tremolite and small diameter glass and ceramic fibers. Further assessment of possible health risks of the general public should await improved definition of relevant fiber exposure in ambient air.

  8. A clinical and epidemiological study on spider bites in Turkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yildirim Cesaretli; Ozcan Ozkan

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To classify and characterize spider bites among inquiries to the National Poison Information Center (NPIC) between1995 and2004, in terms of the epidemiology and clinical symptomatology.Methods: Clinical and epidemiological data were obtained from theNPIC’s patient records. The following information was recorded for each spider bite: demographics, circumstances of the bite, and local and systemic effects.Results: A total of82 cases were reported. The accidents were mostly seen during August. The gender distribution was59.76%male, 37.20% female, and2.44% unknown and the20-29 age group presented more spider bites. Most of the cases were in the Central Anatolia, Marmara, Mediterranean, and Black Sea regions. Local symptoms were observed in60.87% of the cases, including local pain, edema, redness, itching, debris, burning, and numbness. Systemic symptoms were observed such as nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, lethargy, anxiety, weakness, somnolence, dyspnea, hypertension, hypotension, and hyperthermia.Conclusions: In conclusion, these findings emphasize the presence of medically important spider species in Turkey. All patients and especially pediatric patients should be admitted to the hospital. Identification of spider species may be considered a useful clinical and epidemiological tool in determining the incidence and risk of spider bites.

  9. Human cystic echinococcosis:epidemiologic, zoonotic, clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shyamapada Mandal; Manisha Deb Mandal

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT This review represents an updated scenario on the transmission cycle, epidemiology, clinical features and pathogenicity, diagnosis and treatment, and prevention and control measures of a cestode parasiteEchincoccus granulosus (E. granulosus)infection causing cystic echinococcosis (CE) in humans. Human CE is a serious life-threatening neglected zoonotic disease that occurs in both developing and developed countries, and is recognized as a major public health problem. The life cycle of E. granulosus involves a definitive host (dogs and other canids) for the adult E. granulosus that resides in the intestine, and an intermediate host (sheep and other herbivores) for the tissue-invading metacestode (larval) stage. Humans are only incidentally infected; since the completion of the life cycle ofE. granulosus depends on carnivores feeding on herbivores bearing hydatid cysts with viable protoscoleces, humans represent usually the dead end for the parasite. On ingestion ofE. granulosus eggs, hydatid cysts are formed mostly in liver and lungs, and occasionally in other organs of human body, which are considered as uncommon sites of localization of hydatid cysts. The diagnosis of extrahepatic echinococcal disease is more accurate today because of the availability of new imaging techniques, and the current treatments include surgery and percutaneous drainage, and chemotherapy (albendazole and mebendazole). But, the wild animals that involve in sylvatic cycle may overlap and interact with the domestic sheep-dog cycle, and thus complicating the control efforts. The updated facts and phenomena regarding human and animal CE presented herein are due to the web search of SCI and non-SCI journals.

  10. Molecular epidemiology and disinfectant susceptibility of Listeria monocytogenes from meat processing plants and human infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heir, Even; Lindstedt, Bjørn-Arne; Røtterud, Ole-Johan; Vardund, Traute; Kapperud, Georg; Nesbakken, Truls

    2004-10-01

    We have investigated the molecular epidemiology of Listeria monocytogenes from the meat processing industry producing cold cuts and from cases of human listeriosis by discriminative pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). A subset of the isolates was also investigated for susceptibility to a disinfectant based on quaternary ammonium compounds (QAC) frequently used in the meat processing industry. The purpose of this investigation was to obtain knowledge of sources, routes of contamination and genetic types of L. monocytogenes present along the production line in the meat processing industry, and to compare meat industry isolates and human isolates. Of the 222 isolates from four meat-processing plants, 200 were from two plants responsible for nearly 50% of the production of cold cuts in the Norwegian market. The strain collection included historical routinely sampled isolates (1989-2002) and isolates systematically sampled through a one year period (November 2001 to November 2002) from fresh meat and production environments in three plants. No isolates were obtained in samples from employees (throat, faeces). Human strains included all available reported isolates from Norwegian patients in selected time periods. The L. monocytogenes PFGE data showed a large genetic heterogeneity, with isolates separated into two genetic lineages and further subdivided into 56 different PFGE profiles. Certain profiles were observed on both sides of production (before and after heat treatment) indicating contamination of end products by fresh meat or fresh meat environments. While fresh meat isolates almost exclusively grouped within lineage I, isolates from end products showed a more balanced distribution between lineages I and II. Ten profiles were common among isolates from human and meat industry. Typing of human isolates identified a previously unrecognised outbreak. Generally, a higher QAC resistance incidence was observed among isolates from the meat processing industry than

  11. Establishment and operation of a biorepository for molecular epidemiologic studies in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés, Bernal; Schiffman, Mark; Herrero, Rolando; Hildesheim, Allan; Jiménez, Silvia; Shea, Katheryn; González, Paula; Porras, Carolina; Fallas, Greivin; Rodríguez, Ana Cecilia

    2010-04-01

    The Proyecto Epidemiológico Guanacaste (PEG) has conducted several large studies related to human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer in Guanacaste, Costa Rica in a long-standing collaboration with the U.S. National Cancer Institute. To improve molecular epidemiology efforts and save costs, we have gradually transferred technology to Costa Rica, culminating in state-of-the-art laboratories and a biorepository to support a phase III clinical trial investigating the efficacy of HPV 16/18 vaccine. Here, we describe the rationale and lessons learned in transferring molecular epidemiologic and biorepository technology to a developing country. At the outset of the PEG in the early 1990s, we shipped all specimens to repositories and laboratories in the United States, which created multiple problems. Since then, by intensive personal interactions between experts from the United States and Costa Rica, we have successfully transferred liquid-based cytology, HPV DNA testing and serology, chlamydia and gonorrhea testing, PCR-safe tissue processing, and viable cryopreservation. To accommodate the vaccine trial, a state-of-the-art repository opened in mid-2004. Approximately 15,000 to 50,000 samples are housed in the repository on any given day, and >500,000 specimens have been shipped, many using a custom-made dry shipper that permits exporting >20,000 specimens at a time. Quality control of shipments received by the NCI biorepository has revealed an error rate of <0.2%. Recently, the PEG repository has incorporated other activities; for example, large-scale aliquotting and long-term, cost-efficient storage of frozen specimens returned from the United States. Using Internet-based specimen tracking software has proven to be efficient even across borders. For long-standing collaborations, it makes sense to transfer the molecular epidemiology expertise toward the source of specimens. The successes of the PEG molecular epidemiology laboratories and biorepository prove that

  12. Epidemiology, severity classification, and outcome of moderate and severe traumatic brain injury: a prospective multicenter study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andriessen, T.M.J.C.; Horn, J.; Franschman, G.; Naalt, J. van der; Haitsma, I.; Jacobs, B.; Steyerberg, E.W.; Vos, P.E.

    2011-01-01

    Changes in the demographics, approach, and treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients require regular evaluation of epidemiological profiles, injury severity classification, and outcomes. This prospective multicenter study provides detailed information on TBI-related variables of 508 moderat

  13. Epidemiology, Severity Classification, and Outcome of Moderate and Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: A Prospective Multicenter Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.M.J.C. Andriessen; J. Horn; G. Franschman; J. van der Naalt; I. Haitsma; B. Jacobs; E.W. Steyerberg; P.E. Vos

    2011-01-01

    Changes in the demographics, approach, and treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients require regular evaluation of epidemiological profiles, injury severity classification, and outcomes. This prospective multicenter study provides detailed information on TBI-related variables of 508 moderat

  14. Webinar Presentation: Epidemiologic Studies of the Effects of Toxic Exposures on Brain and Behavior: Neuropsychological Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation, Epidemiologic Studies of the Effects of Toxic Exposures on Brain and Behavior: Neuropsychological Assessment, was given at the NIEHS/EPA Children's Centers 2015 Webinar Series: Interdisciplinary Approaches to Neurodevelopment.

  15. [Kolsky register of births as an instrument of epidemiologic studies of female reproductive health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaktstold, A; Talykova, L V; Chashchin, V P; Nieboer, E; Zotov, A M; Nikanov, A N; Romanova, N P; Udland, Iu Io

    2006-01-01

    The authors evaluate possible use of Monchegorsk retrospective birth database for demographic and epidemiologic studies of various female reproductive health parameters, newborn health parameters, as well as their connections with occupational and other environmental factors.

  16. Epidemiology, Severity Classification, and Outcome of Moderate and Severe Traumatic Brain Injury : A Prospective Multicenter Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andriessen, Teuntje M. J. C.; Horn, Janneke; Franschman, Gaby; van der Naalt, Joukje; Haitsma, Iain; Jacobs, Bram; Steyerberg, Ewout W.; Vos, Pieter E.

    2011-01-01

    Changes in the demographics, approach, and treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients require regular evaluation of epidemiological profiles, injury severity classification, and outcomes. This prospective multicenter study provides detailed information on TBI-related variables of 508 moderat

  17. An epidemiological study of mental disorders at Pune, Maharashtra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balbir S Deswal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The WHO Global Burden of Disease study estimates that mental and addictive disorders are among the most burdensome in the world, and their burden will increase over the next decades. The mental and behavioral disorders account for about 12% of the global burden of disease. However, these estimates and projections are based largely on literature review rather than cross-national epidemiological surveys. In India, little is known about the extent, severity and unmet need of treatment mental disorders. Thus, there was a need to carry out rigorously implemented general population surveys that estimate the prevalence of mental disorders among urban population at Pune, Maharashtra. The study attempted to address unmet need and to form a basis for formulating the mental health need of the community. Objective: The study was undertaken to estimate the lifetime prevalence and 12 month prevalence of specific mental disorders in urban population, socio-demographic correlates of mental disorders and to assess the service utilization in individuals with mental disorders. Materials and Methods: The study was undertaken among adults aged 18 years and above living in house hold and in geographical area of Pune , Maharashtra. A minimum sample of 3000 completed interviews was planned using representative probabilities to population size (PPS sampling method which ensured equal probability for every eligible member. Data listing was obtained from Census Office from recent census of 2001 data. The face to face interviews were undertaken in homes using fully structured interview schedule of World Mental Health Survey Initiative duly revised Version of WHO- Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 3.0 by trained investigators. Clinical reappraisal was carried out using Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (SCAN among ten percent of diagnosed cases selected randomly. Data were entered into DDE (Blaize Software and analyzed using

  18. AN EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF TUBERCULOSIS IN FOOTHI LLS OF UTTARAKHAND.

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    Amit

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: The international tuberculosis situation is complic ated by the growing impression that tuberculosis is no longer a major public health problem’. Zaki MH in 1968 had short listed the following factors: chroni city, ability of bacilli to stay alive in body for years, increase in life expectancy, high level of e ndemicity in ethnic groups even in the midst of affluence in the western world, the frequent occurr ences of isolated epidemics in certain parts of the world and the emergence of MDRTB. The 1990 World Health Organization (WHO report on the Global Burden of Disease ranked TB as the se venth most morbidity-causing disease in the world and expected it to continue in the same positio0 n up to 2020 [2]. MATERIAL & METHODS: The present study was conducted among all the famili es registered with the Rural & Urban Health Training Centers (RHTC & UHTC under the jur isdiction of Field practice areas of the Department of Community Medicine, Himalayan Institut e of Medical Sciences, Dehradun, Uttrakhand. It was Community based survey, Cross - sectional (Observational study. Entire study population (10 years & above with 100% enume ration (census of households. House to house survey was conducted on all the families regi stered with the Rural & Urban Health Training Centers (RHTC & UHTC under the jurisdicti on of Field practice areas of the Department of Community Medicine, Himalayan Institut e of Medical Sciences, and socio- demographic profile of each house-hold was recorded. RESULTS: It can be observed from the table that a total of 399(1.68% symptomatic were s creened out of a total study population of 23,618 from 10 different peri-urban field practice locations; 73(0.30% symptomatics turned out to be cases of Tuberculosis confirmed either as sputum positive cases by Microscopy or by other criteria. It is evident that overall (mean p revalence of the disease was 3.09 per 1000 study population; notably, the prevalence was

  19. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF HOMICIDE BY FIREARMS AND EXPLOSIVES

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    Rajeev

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Murderers have often been the focous of sociological and psychological studies and several types of offenders have been identified. OBJECTIVE : Epidemiological study of homicide by firearms and explosives . METHODS : The present study comprised of 100 (one hundred cases of homicidal firearms and explosives deaths drawn from the medicolegal autopsies. The various data relating to the cases were collected from examination of inquest reports and connected pap ers, interviewing the police personnel accompanying the cases, interviewing the relatives, friends and neighbors of the deceased, and the autopsy examination paper. RESULTS: Two third( 66% of victims were n ormal followed by irritable victims 17%, neuroti c 8%, psychotic 5% and intoxicated 4%.It was found that 35 % were pan eater followed by 30 % who had no habit, cigarette 16% bidi 15%, tobacco 14%, pan masala 11%.However misxed/combine habit was seen in 16 % and it could not be known in 7 %. It was observ ed that that max no (52 of victims no drug habit was seen. This was followed by ganja 22, alcohol 16, Bhang 14, Opium 5, sleeping pill 2.Mixed drug habit was seen in 10 victim. However it could not be known in 12 victims. It was found that majority 57% o f victims came from joint family followed by those from nuclear family type 28%. However, 15 % victims were loner. Findings on personal income of victims shows that max 37% had income upto Rs. 2000 PM followed by non earning Victims 24%, 2001 - 4000 15.1 %, 8001 and above 9%, 4001 - 6000 8%, 6001 - 8000(6% and in one % it could not be known. Study shows that max 30% victim were killed in night hours between 8 PM to 2AM followed by 25 % in the afternoon and evening hrs between 2 PM to 8PM.16 % victims were attac ked during day hrs between 8AM to 2PM and 12 %victims time of incidence was between 2 AM to 8AM.Time of incidence could not be known in 17 % victims as only dead body was recovered. It is observed that over

  20. Surveillance of Canine Rabies in the Central African Republic: Impact on Human Health and Molecular Epidemiology.

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    Vianney Tricou

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Although rabies represents an important public health threat, it is still a neglected disease in Asia and Africa where it causes tens of thousands of deaths annually despite available human and animal vaccines. In the Central African Republic (CAR, an endemic country for rabies, this disease remains poorly investigated.To evaluate the extent of the threat that rabies poses in the CAR, we analyzed data for 2012 from the National Reference Laboratory for Rabies, where laboratory confirmation was performed by immunofluorescence and PCR for both animal and human suspected cases, and data from the only anti-rabies dispensary of the country and only place where post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP is available. Both are located in Bangui, the capital of the CAR. For positive samples, a portion of the N gene was amplified and sequenced to determine the molecular epidemiology of circulating strains.In 2012, 966 exposed persons visited the anti-rabies dispensary and 632 received a post-exposure rabies vaccination. More than 90% of the exposed persons were from Bangui and its suburbs and almost 60% of them were under 15-years of age. No rabies-related human death was confirmed. Of the 82 samples from suspected rabid dogs tested, 69 were confirmed positive. Most of the rabid dogs were owned although unvaccinated. There was a strong spatiotemporal correlation within Bangui and within the country between reported human exposures and detection of rabid dogs (P<0.001. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that three variants belonging to Africa I and II lineages actively circulated in 2012.These data indicate that canine rabies was endemic in the CAR in 2012 and had a detrimental impact on human health as shown by the hundreds of exposed persons who received PEP. Implementation of effective public health interventions including mass dog vaccination and improvement of the surveillance and the access to PEP are urgently needed in this country.

  1. Design and analysis of metabolomics studies in epidemiologic research: a primer on -omic technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Ebbels, Timothy M D; Valdes, Ana; Elliott, Paul; Ioannidis, John P A

    2014-07-15

    Metabolomics is the field of "-omics" research concerned with the comprehensive characterization of the small low-molecular-weight metabolites in biological samples. In epidemiology, it represents an emerging technology and an unprecedented opportunity to measure environmental and other exposures with improved precision and far less measurement error than with standard epidemiologic methods. Advances in the application of metabolomics in large-scale epidemiologic research are now being realized through a combination of improved sample preparation and handling, automated laboratory and processing methods, and reduction in costs. The number of epidemiologic studies that use metabolic profiling is still limited, but it is fast gaining popularity in this area. In the present article, we present a roadmap for metabolomic analyses in epidemiologic studies and discuss the various challenges these data pose to large-scale studies. We discuss the steps of data preprocessing, univariate and multivariate data analysis, correction for multiplicity of comparisons with correlated data, and finally the steps of cross-validation and external validation. As data from metabolomic studies accumulate in epidemiology, there is a need for large-scale replication and synthesis of findings, increased availability of raw data, and a focus on good study design, all of which will highlight the potential clinical impact of metabolomics in this field. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Ehrlichiosis: Statistics and Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a tick Diseases transmitted by ticks Statistics and Epidemiology Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... Holman RC, McQuiston JH, Krebs JW, Swerdlow DL. Epidemiology of human ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis in the United ...

  3. Using a Virtual Population to Authentically Teach Epidemiology and Biostatistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Peter K.; Donnison, Sharn; Cole, Rachel; Bulmer, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Epidemiology is the study of the distribution of disease in human populations. This means that authentically teaching primary data collection in epidemiology is difficult as students cannot easily access suitable human populations. Using an action research methodology, this paper studied the use of a virtual human population (called "The…

  4. Using a Virtual Population to Authentically Teach Epidemiology and Biostatistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Peter K.; Donnison, Sharn; Cole, Rachel; Bulmer, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Epidemiology is the study of the distribution of disease in human populations. This means that authentically teaching primary data collection in epidemiology is difficult as students cannot easily access suitable human populations. Using an action research methodology, this paper studied the use of a virtual human population (called "The…

  5. No effects of dioxin singly on limb malformations in macaque monkeys through epidemiological and treated studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asaoka, Kazuo; Iida, Hiroko [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Primate Research Insitute, Dept. of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry; Watanabe, Kunio [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Primate Research Institute, Field Research Center; Goda, Hiroshi [Towa Kagaku Co., Ltd. (Japan); Ihara, Toshio; Nagata, Ryoichi [Shin Nippon Biomedical Laboratories, Ltd. (Japan). Safety Research Facility; Yasuda, Mineo [Hiroshima International Univ. (Japan). Fac. of Health Sciences, Dept. of Clinical Engineering; Kubata, Shunichiro [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Life Science, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences

    2004-09-15

    Human populations exposed with highly dioxin were suspected to be caused immunological dysfunctions, carcinogenesis, and developmental and reproductive dysfunctions. Because of species resemblances, the dioxin effects have been investigating using monkeys as a model for assessment of dioxin exposure on human health. Since 1957 the limb malformations of monkeys in Japan have been reported. The higher frequency of them was found in provisional groups of monkeys who were given the same kind of food for human. The chromosomal abnormalities are excluded from the factor for the congenital limb malformations that are still producing in Japan. In this study, the relations between dioxin and the limb malformations of macaque monkeys were estimated by the epidemiological and administered researches. The dioxin levels in monkeys were measured at two districts that one has the provisional groups including monkeys with limb malformations and the other has breeding groups never seeing the malformations for a long time. TEQ was calculated by the levels of dioxin isomers in the monkeys and the values show no difference between the two places and between the individuals with and without the limb malformations. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) was administered via subcutaneous to pregnant rhesus monkeys from the day 20 of gestation to the day 90 after birth. The exposed babies, including the offspring and died in neonatal, had observed normal limbs in the range of 30-300 ng TCDD /kg of body weight.

  6. A molecular epidemiological study of respiratory viruses detected in Japanese children with acute wheezing illness

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    Noda Masahiro

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies strongly suggest that some respiratory viruses are associated with the induction of acute wheezing and/or exacerbation of bronchial asthma. However, molecular epidemiology of these viruses is not exactly known. Methods Using PCR technology, we attempted to detect various respiratory viruses from 115 Japanese children. Furthermore, the detected viruses were subjected to homology, pairwise distance, and phylogenetic analysis. Results Viruses were detected from 99 (86.1% patients. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV alone and human rhinovirus (HRV alone were detected in 47 (40.9% and 36 (31.3% patients, respectively. Both RSV and HRV were detected in 14 (12.2% patients. Human metapneumovirus (HMPV alone and human parainfluenza virus (HPIV alone were detected in 1 (0.9% patient each, respectively. Homology and phylogenetic analyses showed that the RSV and HRV strains were classified into genetically diverse species or subgroups. In addition, RSV was the dominant virus detected in patients with no history of wheezing, whereas HRV was dominant in patients with a history of wheezing. Conclusions The results suggested that these genetically diverse respiratory viruses, especially RSV and HRV, might be associated with wheezing in Japanese children.

  7. Contribution of the Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Study (REDS to research on blood transfusion safety in Brazil

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    Paula Loureiro

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Study (REDS program was established in the United States in 1989 with the purpose of increasing blood transfusion safety in the context of the HIV/AIDS and human T-lymphotropic virus epidemics. REDS and its successor, REDS-II were at first conducted in the US, then expanded in 2006 to include international partnerships with Brazil and China. In 2011, a third wave of REDS renamed the Recipient Epidemiology and Donor Evaluation Study-III (REDS-III was launched. This seven-year research program focuses on both blood banking and transfusion medicine research in the United States of America, Brazil, China, and South Africa. The main goal of the international programs is to reduce and prevent the transmission of HIV/AIDS and other known and emerging infectious agents through transfusion, and to address research questions aimed at understanding global issues related to the availability of safe blood. This article describes the contribution of REDS-II to transfusion safety in Brazil. Articles published from 2010 to 2013 are summarized, including database analyses to characterize blood donors, deferral rates, and prevalence, incidence and residual risk of the main blood-borne infections. Specific studies were developed to understand donor motivation, the impact of the deferral questions, risk factors and molecular surveillance among HIV-positive donors, and the natural history of Chagas disease. The purpose of this review is to disseminate the acquired knowledge and briefly summarize the findings of the REDS-II studies conducted in Brazil as well as to introduce the scope of the REDS-III program that is now in progress and will continue through 2018.

  8. Experimental and field studies on the viability of eggs, and the infectivity of third-stage larvae of the human hookworm Necator americanus recovered from the creek waters of the Niger Delta, Nigeria, and their epidemiological significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udonsi, J K

    1988-02-01

    In a combined field and laboratory study, the eggs and 3rd-stage infective larvae of the human hookworm Necator americanus were recovered from the creek waters of the Niger Delta, Nigeria. They were tested for viability and infectivity. Eggs recovered from fresh water creeks showed a viability or hatching index of between 17.5 and 23.7%. Eggs recovered from brackish water showed a viability index of 18.8-21.4% in 'normal' cultures, and a maximum index of 6.3% when cultured in brackish water. The differences in the viability indices of these eggs were not significant (P greater than 0.05). Infective 3rd-stage larvae were recovered from both fresh creek water (205-258 L3/litre of water), and brackish water (45 L3/litre of water). Larvae hatched from brackish water eggs that were cultured in the brackish water were 20% infective by 3 days, but lost all infective potential by 7 days post-hatching. Larvae from fresh water eggs, cultured in fresh water and 'normal' laboratory cultures reached 50% infectivity in 3-5 days, losing potential infectivity in 11-15 days post-hatching. The infectivity patterns of larvae recovered directly from fresh and brackish waters did not differ significantly (P greater than 0.05) from the infectivity patterns of larvae recovered from laboratory cultures of eggs from all the experimental sources. Although larvae recovered directly from fresh and brackish waters survived in these respective media under laboratory conditions, there was a significant difference (P less than 0.05) in their survival patterns. The survival and infectivity rates of field larvae were considerably reduced over time relative to control larvae.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. A nationwide study of the epidemiology of relapsing polychondritis

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    Horváth A

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Anna Horváth,1 Nóra Páll,2 Katalin Molnár,1 Tamás Kováts,3 György Surján,3 Tamás Vicsek,4,5 Péter Pollner2,4 13rd Department of Internal Medicine, Semmelweis University, 2Regional Science Center, Faculty of Science, Eötvös Loránd University, 3National Healthcare Service Center, 4MTA-ELTE Statistical and Biological Physics Research Group, 5Department of Biological Physics, Eötvös Loránd University Budapest, HungaryObjective: Relapsing polychondritis (RP is a rare autoimmune inflammatory disease that attacks mainly cartilaginous structures or causes serious damage in proteoglycan-rich structures (the eyes, heart, blood vessels, inner ear. This study shows results regarding the epidemiology, progression, and associations of this highly variable disease by collecting all cases from a 124-million-person-year Central European nationwide cohort.Methods: We used the Hungarian Health Care Database to identify all persons with possible RP infection. We followed patients who had International Classification of Diseases 10th edition code M94.1 at least once in their inpatient or outpatient records between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2013 in Hungary. We classified these patients into disease severity groups by their drug consumption patterns between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2013. We analyzed the regional distribution of RP incidences as well. Overall maps of comorbidity are presented with network layouts.Results: We identified 256 patients with RP among cumulatively 11.5 million registered inhabitants. We classified these patients into four severity classes as "extremely mild" (n=144, "mild" (n=22, "moderate" (n=41, and "severe" (n=4. Two additional groups were defined for patients without available drug data as "suspected only" (n=23 and "confirmed but unknown treatment" (n=22. The age and sex distributions of patients were similar to worldwide statistics. Indeed, the overall survival was good (95% confidence interval for 5

  10. Epidemiología de la infección cervical por virus Papiloma humano en Ushuaia: Argentina Cervical infection epidemiology of human papillomavirus in Ushuaia: Argentina

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    C. C. Sijvarger

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available El virus Papiloma humano (HPV es un factor necesario para el desarrollo del cáncer cervical. El objetivo del estudio fue conocer la epidemiología de dicha infección en Ushuaia, Provincia de Tierra del Fuego, Argentina. Se realizó un estudio de caso-control de 132 cepillados endocervicales. La detección y tipificación del genoma viral fue realizada por la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa, con posterior análisis de polimorfismos de fragmentos de restricción o hibridación. La prevalencia general de la infección fue 41%, correspondiendo 26% a los controles y 71% a los casos. El grupo etario con mayor prevalencia de HPV fue el de 14 a 24 años. Los tipos virales más frecuentes en la población infectada fueron HPV16 (23%, HPV18 (11% y HPV33/35 (8% cada uno, resultando infectados con tipos virales de alto riesgo el 30% de las muestras, 16% de los controles y 60% de los casos. El trabajo aporta los primeros datos sobre los tipos virales predominantes en Ushuaia. Los resultados demostraron una prevalencia menor que en regiones con alta incidencia de cáncer cervical, siendo el HPV16 el más frecuente. La información obtenida permitiría estimar la efectividad de las vacunas en vías de aprobación, en la población estudiada.Genital infection with human papillomavirus (HPV is decisive in the causation of cervical cancer. In order to evaluate the epidemiology of HPV infection in Ushuaia, Province of Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, 132 endocervical cytobrushes from preneoplastic and neoplastic cases and controls were studied. Detection and typing of the viral genome was performed by polymerase chain reaction, combined with a restriction fragment length polymorphism assay or hybridization. The overall prevalence of HPV infection was 41% in the population examined, with a frequency of 26% in the controls and 71% in the cases under study. The 14-24 age group showed the highest HPV prevalence. The most common viral types in the infected

  11. A sero-epidemiological study of arboviral fevers in Djibouti, Horn of Africa.

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    Fred Andayi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Arboviral infections have repeatedly been reported in the republic of Djibouti, consistent with the fact that essential vectors for arboviral diseases are endemic in the region. However, there is a limited recent information regarding arbovirus circulation, and the associated risk predictors to human exposure are largely unknown. We performed, from November 2010 to February 2011 in the Djibouti city general population, a cross-sectional ELISA and sero-neutralisation-based sero-epidemiological analysis nested in a household cohort, which investigated the arboviral infection prevalence and risk factors, stratified by their vectors of transmission. Antibodies to dengue virus (21.8% were the most frequent. Determinants of infection identified by multivariate analysis pointed to sociological and environmental exposure to the bite of Aedes mosquitoes. The population was broadly naïve against Chikungunya (2.6% with risk factors mostly shared with dengue. The detection of limited virus circulation was followed by a significant Chikungunya outbreak a few months after our study. Antibodies to West Nile virus were infrequent (0.6%, but the distribution of cases faithfully followed previous mapping of infected Culex mosquitoes. The seroprevalence of Rift valley fever virus was 2.2%, and non-arboviral transmission was suggested. Finally, the study indicated the circulation of Toscana-related viruses (3.7%, and a limited number of cases suggested infection by tick-borne encephalitis or Alkhumra related viruses, which deserve further investigations to identify the viruses and vectors implicated. Overall, most of the arboviral cases' predictors were statistically best described by the individuals' housing space and neighborhood environmental characteristics, which correlated with the ecological actors of their respective transmission vectors' survival in the local niche. This study has demonstrated autochthonous arboviral circulations in the republic of

  12. Molecular and epidemiological studies of Porcine rubulavirus infection - an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas-Romero, Julieta Sandra; Blomström, Anne-Lie; Berg, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    Porcine rubulavirus-La Piedad-Michoacan-Mexico virus (PorPV-LPMV) was identified as the causative agent of a viral disease that emerged spontaneously in Mexican swine in the 1980s. Since the report of the initial outbreak of the disease, only one full-length genome from a strain isolated in 1984 (PorPV-LPMV/1984) has been sequenced; sequence data are scarce from other isolates. The genetic variation of this virus that has spread throughout the main endemic region of Mexico is almost a complete mystery. The development of molecular techniques for improved diagnostics and to investigate the persistence, molecular epidemiology, and the possible reservoirs of PorPV are needed. Together, this will provide greater knowledge regarding the molecular genetic changes and useful data to establish new strategies in the control of this virus in Mexico.

  13. [Clinico-epidemiologic study of urolithiasis in a Caribbean urban area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, L; Almaguer, M; Castro, T; Valdivia, J

    2002-01-01

    Urolithiasis is a common clinical disorder. Its frequency has risen with the development of humanity and varies wirl the country, geographic area, etc. It poses health problems in most countries. The urolithiasis has some potential risk factors such as intrinsic and extrinsic epidemiological, metabolic, physic-chemistry of the urine, mechanics and urinary infection. Our objective in this epidemiological study in a general population was to know the frequency, the potential risk factors, the morbidity, and social and economical impact of the urolithiasis in our subtropical Caribbean country. The prevalence was 4.64% and the annual incidence was 0.1%. Both are with in the estimated range of urolithiasis frequency in the world. It mainly started between 20 and 29 years in both genders. The white (5.2%) and the male (6.36%) patients were the most affected. 40% of all patients had a family history of urolithiasis. It was highly associated with diabetes mellitus, ischaemic cardiopathy, urinary tract infection and arterial hypertension. Stone formation was related to the warmer season. High calcium, protein-purine, carbohydrates and oxalic acid intake together with low fluid intake were closely associated with this disorder. 85% of patients had suffered renal colic and 75% of them more than once. Stone recurrence affected 33.8% of patients and 54.5% of them had more than one recurrence. Procedures for stone removal were needed in 33.8% of subjects. 40% of all patients were admitted to hospital due to urolithiasis morbidity. Non-specific medical treatment had been taken by 49.2% of the patients and specific treatment by none. Urolithiasis in this population was the some as has been reported in others studies. It has shown high frequency, increasing incidence, the same risks factors, high morbidity, and high social and economical impact. The low cost treatment is only taken by half of the patients.

  14. Epidemiologic Study of Blastocystis Infection in an Urban Community in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belleza, Maria Luz B; Cadacio, Jessa Louise C; Borja, Maridel P; Solon, Juan Antonio A; Padilla, Mildred A; Tongol-Rivera, Pilarita N; Rivera, Windell L

    2015-01-01

    Blastocystis has been considered as the most common intestinal parasite in humans and has an augmented impact on public health. However, the prevalence of this parasite in the Philippines has not been determined. To contribute to a better understanding of the epidemiology of this infection, a cross-sectional study aimed at providing the first documented data on the prevalence and correlates, sociodemographic factors, hygiene practices, source of water supply, and dog ownership, associated with Blastocystis infection was carried out in randomly selected communities at Pateros, Metro Manila. Fecal samples from respondents were collected and cultured in diphasic agar medium for 3-7 days and examined using light microscopy. Of the 1,271 respondents, 12.98% (95% CI: 11.13-14.83) were detected positive for Blastocystis. Among the correlates of Blastocystis infection, dog ownership was found significantly associated as confirmed by multivariate analysis. Therefore, this factor should be considered in information to create awareness about Blastocystis and to prevent and control Blastocystis infection in particular and diarrheal diseases in general. Further studies using molecular approaches to distinguish subtype and to determine genetic characteristics of isolates from humans and dogs are recommended to analyze their relationship and provide more conclusive evidence of cross-transmission.

  15. Epidemiologic Study of Blastocystis Infection in an Urban Community in the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luz B. Belleza

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Blastocystis has been considered as the most common intestinal parasite in humans and has an augmented impact on public health. However, the prevalence of this parasite in the Philippines has not been determined. To contribute to a better understanding of the epidemiology of this infection, a cross-sectional study aimed at providing the first documented data on the prevalence and correlates, sociodemographic factors, hygiene practices, source of water supply, and dog ownership, associated with Blastocystis infection was carried out in randomly selected communities at Pateros, Metro Manila. Fecal samples from respondents were collected and cultured in diphasic agar medium for 3–7 days and examined using light microscopy. Of the 1,271 respondents, 12.98% (95% CI: 11.13–14.83 were detected positive for Blastocystis. Among the correlates of Blastocystis infection, dog ownership was found significantly associated as confirmed by multivariate analysis. Therefore, this factor should be considered in information to create awareness about Blastocystis and to prevent and control Blastocystis infection in particular and diarrheal diseases in general. Further studies using molecular approaches to distinguish subtype and to determine genetic characteristics of isolates from humans and dogs are recommended to analyze their relationship and provide more conclusive evidence of cross-transmission.

  16. The Brazilian Football Association (CBF model for epidemiological studies on professional soccer player injuries

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    Gustavo Goncalves Arliani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aims to establish a national methodological model for epidemiological studies on professional soccer player injuries and to describe the numerous relevant studies previously published on this topic. INTRODUCTION: The risk of injury in professional soccer is high. However, previous studies of injury risk in Brazil and other countries have been characterized by large variations in study design and data collection methods as well as definitions of injury, standardized diagnostic criteria, and recovery times. METHODS: A system developed by the Union of European Football for epidemiological studies on professional soccer players is being used as a starting point to create a methodological model for the Brazilian Football Association. To describe the existing studies on professional soccer player injuries, we developed a search strategy to identify relevant epidemiological studies. We included the Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences and Medline databases in our study. RESULTS: We considered 60 studies from Medline and 16 studies from the Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences in the final analysis. Twelve studies were selected for final inclusion in this review: seven from the Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences and five from Medline. We identified a lack of uniformity in the study design, data collection methods, injury definitions, standardized diagnostic criteria, and the definition of recovery time. Based on the information contained within these articles, we developed a model for epidemiological studies for the Brazilian Football Association. CONCLUSIONS: There is no uniform model for epidemiological studies of professional soccer injuries. Here, we propose a novel model to be applied for epidemiological studies of professional soccer player injuries in Brazil and throughout the world.

  17. Diversity and epidemiology of plasmids from Enterobacteriaceae from human and non-human reservoirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bielak, Eliza Maria

    The family of Enterobacteriaceae is comprised of Gram negative bacteria found in a variety of natural environments as well as in the gastrointestinal (GI) tracts of humans and many animals including diverse mammals, birds and reptiles. Three species of the enteric bacteria are largely responsible....... It is believed that these practices lead to the generation of reservoirs of antimicrobial resistance genes in the GI tracts of intensively reared food - production animals like pigs, poultry and cattle. Moreover, it has been previously shown that the bla genes (e.g. genes encoding resistance to ß-lactams) could...... be transmitted between different bacteria on mobile genetic elements (MGEs) like plasmids and variety of transposons. Evidences were also published indicating that zoonotic bacteria like E. coli or S. enterica resistant to diverse antimicrobials and harbouring plasmids might have been transmitted from farm...

  18. Choline and betaine consumption lowers cancer risk: a meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shanwen; Li, Xiao; Ren, Anjing; Du, Mulong; Du, Haina; Shu, Yongqian; Zhu, Lingjun; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    A number of human and animal in vitro or in vivo studies have investigated the relationship between dietary choline and betaine and cancer risk, suggesting that choline and betaine consumption may be protective for cancer. There are also a few epidemiologic studies exploring this relationship, however, with inconsistent conclusions. The PubMed and Embase were searched, from their inception to March 2016, to identify relevant studies and we brought 11 articles into this meta-analysis eventually. The pooled relative risks (RRs) of cancer for the highest versus the lowest range were 0.82 (95% CI, 0.70 to 0.97) for choline consumption only, 0.86 (95%CI, 0.76 to 0.97) for betaine consumption only and 0.60 (95%CI, 0.40 to 0.90) for choline plus betaine consumption, respectively. Significant protective effect of dietary choline and betaine for cancer was observed when stratified by study design, location, cancer type, publication year, sex and quality score of study. An increment of 100 mg/day of choline plus betaine intake helped reduce cancer incidence by 11% (0.89, 95% CI, 0.87 to 0.92) through a dose-response analysis. To conclude, choline and betaine consumption lowers cancer incidence in this meta-analysis, but further studies are warranted to verify the results. PMID:27759060

  19. Collection of genomic DNA from adults in epidemiological studies by buccal cytobrush and mouthwash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Closas, M; Egan, K M; Abruzzo, J; Newcomb, P A; Titus-Ernstoff, L; Franklin, T; Bender, P K; Beck, J C; Le Marchand, L; Lum, A; Alavanja, M; Hayes, R B; Rutter, J; Buetow, K; Brinton, L A; Rothman, N

    2001-06-01

    Blood samples are an excellent source of large amounts of genomic DNA. However, alternative sources are often needed in epidemiological studies because of difficulties in obtaining blood samples. This report evaluates the buccal cytobrush and alcohol-containing mouthwash protocols for collecting DNA by mail. Several DNA extraction techniques are also evaluated. The study was conducted in two phases. In phase 1, we compared cytobrush and mouthwash samples collected by mail in two different epidemiological studies: (a) cytobrush samples (n = 120) from a United States case-control study of breast cancer; and (b) mouthwash samples (n = 40) from a prospective cohort of male United States farmers. Findings from phase 1 were confirmed in phase 2, where we randomized cytobrush (n = 28) and mouthwash (n = 25) samples among participants in the breast cancer study to directly compare both collection methods. The median human DNA yield determined by hybridization with a human DNA probe from phenol-chloroform extracts was 1.0 and 1.6 microg/2 brushes for phases 1 and 2, respectively, and 27.5 and 16.6 microg/mouthwash sample for phases 1 and 2, respectively. Most (94-100%) mouthwash extracts contained high molecular weight DNA (>23 kb), in contrast to 55-61% of the brush extracts. PCR success rates for amplification of beta-globin gene fragments (268, 536, and 989 bp) were similar for cytobrush and mouthwash phenol-chloroform extracts (range, 94.4-100%). Also, we obtained high success rates in determining the number of CAG repeats in the androgen receptor gene, characterizing tetranucleotide microsatellites in six gene loci, and screening for mutations in the BRCA1/2 genes in a subset of phenol-chloroform DNA extracts. Relative to DNA extracted by phenol-chloroform from cytobrush samples, DNA extracted by NaOH had lower molecular weight, decreased PCR success rates for most assays performed, and unreliably high spectrophotometer readings for DNA yields. In conclusion, although

  20. Identification of Climatic Factors Affecting the Epidemiology of Human West Nile Virus Infections in Northern Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stilianakis, Nikolaos I; Syrris, Vasileios; Petroliagkis, Thomas; Pärt, Peeter; Gewehr, Sandra; Kalaitzopoulou, Stella; Mourelatos, Spiros; Baka, Agoritsa; Pervanidou, Danai; Vontas, John; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2016-01-01

    Climate can affect the geographic and seasonal patterns of vector-borne disease incidence such as West Nile Virus (WNV) infections. We explore the association between climatic factors and the occurrence of West Nile fever (WNF) or West Nile neuro-invasive disease (WNND) in humans in Northern Greece over the years 2010-2014. Time series over a period of 30 years (1979-2008) of climatic data of air temperature, relative humidity, soil temperature, volumetric soil water content, wind speed, and precipitation representing average climate were obtained utilising the ECMWF's (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts) Re-Analysis (ERA-Interim) system allowing for a homogeneous set of data in time and space. We analysed data of reported human cases of WNF/WNND and Culex mosquitoes in Northern Greece. Quantitative assessment resulted in identifying associations between the above climatic variables and reported human cases of WNF/WNND. A substantial fraction of the cases was linked to the upper percentiles of the distribution of air and soil temperature for the period 1979-2008 and the lower percentiles of relative humidity and soil water content. A statistically relevant relationship between the mean weekly value climatic anomalies of wind speed (negative association), relative humidity (negative association) and air temperature (positive association) over 30 years, and reported human cases of WNF/WNND during the period 2010-2014 could be shown. A negative association between the presence of WNV infected Culex mosquitoes and wind speed could be identified. The statistically significant associations could also be confirmed for the week the WNF/WNND human cases appear and when a time lag of up to three weeks was considered. Similar statistically significant associations were identified with the weekly anomalies of the maximum and minimum values of the above climatic factors. Utilising the ERA-Interim re-analysis methodology it could be shown that besides air

  1. Epidemiological and clinical features of human rabies cases in Bali 2008-2010

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    Susilawathi Ni M

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previously thought to be rabies free, Bali experienced an outbreak of animal and human rabies cases in November 2008. We describe the epidemiological and clinical data of human rabies cases occurring in the first two years of the outbreak. Methods We analysed the patient records of all rabies cases from the Sanglah General Hospital in Denpasar, and district hospitals in Buleleng and Tabanan. A conventional reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was developed to detect the rabies virus genome in saliva, corneal swabs, and ante- and post-mortem cerebrospinal fluid (CSF. Results There were 104 human rabies cases in Bali during November 2008-November 2010. Patients' mean age was 36.6 years (range 3-84 years; SD 20.7, most were male (56.7%, and originated from rural districts. Almost all (92% cases had a history of dog bite. Only 5.8% had their wounds treated and received an anti-rabies vaccine (ARV after the bite incident. No patients received rabies immunoglobulin (RIG. The estimated time from dog bite to the onset of signs and symptoms was 110.4 days (range 12-720 days; SD 118.2. The mean length of medical care until death was 21.8 hours (range 1-220 hours; SD 32.6. Less than 50% of patients had prodromal symptoms. The most frequent prodromal symptom was pain or paraesthesia at the bite site (37.6%. The two most common central nervous system infection signs were agitation (89.2% and confusion (83.3%. Signs of autonomic nervous system dysfunction included hydrophobia (93.1%, hypersalivation (88.2%, and dyspnea (74.4%. On admission, 22 of 102 patients (21.6% showed paralytic manifestations, while the rest (78.4% showed furious rabies manifestations. The case-fatality rate was 100%. The rabies virus genome was detected in 50 of 101 patients (49.5% with the highest detection rate from post-mortem CSF samples. Conclusions Rabies is a major public health problem in Bali. Human fatalities occur because of a lack of knowledge

  2. The Framingham Heart Study, on its way to becoming the gold standard for Cardiovascular Genetic Epidemiology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaquish Cashell E

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Framingham Heart Study, founded in 1948 to examine the epidemiology of cardiovascular disease in a small town outside of Boston, has become the worldwide standard for cardiovascular epidemiology. It is among the longest running, most comprehensively characterized multi-generational studies in the world. Such seminal findings as the effects of smoking and high cholesterol on heart disease came from the Framingham Heart Study. At the time of publication these were novel cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors, now they are the basis of treatment and prevention in the US. Is the Framingham study now on it's way to becoming the gold standard for genetic epidemiology of CVD? Will the novel genetic findings of today become the health care standards of tomorrow? The accompanying articles summarizing the results of genome-wide association studies (GWAS give the reader a first glimpse into the possibilities.

  3. [Bibliometric analysis of scientific articles on epidemiological study of burns in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, W F; Shen, Z A; Zhao, D X; Li, D W; Shang, Y R

    2017-04-20

    Objective: To analyze the current status of epidemiological study of burns in China, and to explore the related strategies. Methods: Retrospective or cross-sectional scientific articles in Chinese or English on epidemiological study of burns in China published from January 2005 to December 2015 were systemically retrieved from 4 databases. The databases include PubMed, Embase, China Biology Medicine disc, and Chinese Journals Full-text Database. From the results retrieved, data with regard to publication year, journal distribution, number of institutions participated in the study, affiliation of the first author and its location, and admission time span and age of patients in all the scientific articles were collected. Furthermore, the definition of age range and the grouping method of age of pediatric patients in English articles on epidemiological study of pediatric burns of China were recorded. Data were processed with descriptive statistical analysis. Results: A total of 256 scientific articles conforming to the study criteria were retrieved, among which 214 (83.59%) articles were in Chinese, and 42 (16.41%) articles were in English; 242 (94.53%) articles were retrospective studies, and 14 (5.47%) articles were cross-sectional studies. During the 11 years, the number of the relevant articles was fluctuant on the whole. The scientific articles were published in 130 journals, with 42 English articles in source journals for SCIENCE CITATION INDEX EXPANDED-JOURNAL LIST, accounting for 16.41%, and 116 Chinese articles in Source Journal for Chinese Scientific and Technical Papers, accounting for 45.31%. Totally 215 (83.98%) articles were single-center studies, and 29 (11.33%) articles were multicenter studies which were conducted by three or more centers. The number of affiliations of the first author of articles was 161 in total. The top 10 institutions regarding the article publishing number published 58 articles, accounting for 22.66%. Scientific articles on

  4. The response rate in postal epidemiological studies in the context of national cultural behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelova, Radostina A.; Naydenov, Kiril; Hägerhed-Engman, Linda

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the effect of national cultural differences on the response rate, obtained in questionnaire based epidemiological studies on allergy and asthma, performed in Sweden (DBH) and Bulgaria (ALLHOME). The two studies used one and the same methodology...... of people in Sweden and Bulgaria. It was found that national culture could strongly influence the response behaviour of people in epidemiological studies and Hofstede’s indexes can be useful tool when designing and performing epidemiological studies, and in particular – questionnaire surveys......., but the obtained response rate was different: 78.8% in DBH and 34.5% in ALLHOME. The differences in the obtained response rate and the reasons for these differences were analyzed on the basis of the Hofstede’s cultural dimensions’ indexes, which clearly show the distinction in the national cultural behaviour...

  5. The Occurrence and Toxicity of Disinfection Byproducts in European Drinking Waters in Relation with the HIWATE Epidemiology Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Clara H.; Wagner, Elizabeth D.; Siebert, Vincent R.; Anduri, Sridevi; Richardson, Susan D.; Daiber, Eric J.; McKague, A. Bruce; Kogevinas, Manolis; Villanueva, Cristina M.; Goslan, Emma H.; Luo, Wentai; Isabelle, Lorne M.; Pankow, James F.; Grazuleviciene, Regina; Cordier, Sylvaine; Edwards, Susan C.; Righi, Elena; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Plewa, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    The HIWATE (Health Impacts of long-term exposure to disinfection byproducts in drinking WATEr) project was a systematic analysis that combined the epidemiology on adverse pregnancy outcomes and other health effects with long term exposure to low levels of drinking water disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in the European Union. The present study focused on the relationship of the occurrence and concentration of DBPs with in vitro mammalian cell toxicity. Eleven drinking water samples were collected from 5 European countries. Each sampling location corresponded with an epidemiological study for the HIWATE program. Over 90 DBPs were identified; the range in the number of DBPs and their levels reflected the diverse collection sites, different disinfection processes, and the different characteristics of the source waters. For each sampling site, chronic mammalian cell cytotoxicity correlated highly with the numbers of DBPs identified and the levels of DBP chemical classes. Although there was a clear difference in the genotoxic responses among the drinking waters, these data did not correlate as well with the chemical analyses. Thus, the agents responsible for the genomic DNA damage observed in the HIWATE samples may be due to unresolved associations of combinations of identified DBPs, unknown emerging DBPs that were not identified, or other toxic water contaminants. This study represents the first to integrate quantitative in vitro toxicological data with analytical chemistry and human epidemiologic outcomes for drinking water DBPs. PMID:22958121

  6. The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE statement: guidelines for reporting observational studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik von Elm

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Much biomedical research is observational. The reporting of such research is often inadequate, which hampers the assessment of its strengths and weaknesses and of a study's generalisability. The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE Initiative developed recommendations on what should be included in an accurate and complete report of an observational study. We defined the scope of the recommendations to cover three main study designs: cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies. We convened a 2-day workshop in September 2004, with methodologists, researchers, and journal editors to draft a checklist of items. This list was subsequently revised during several meetings of the coordinating group and in e-mail discussions with the larger group of STROBE contributors, taking into account empirical evidence and methodological considerations. The workshop and the subsequent iterative process of consultation and revision resulted in a checklist of 22 items (the STROBE Statement that relate to the title, abstract, introduction, methods, results, and discussion sections of articles. 18 items are common to all three study designs and four are specific for cohort, case-control, or cross-sectional studies. A detailed Explanation and Elaboration document is published separately and is freely available on the Web sites of PLoS Medicine, Annals of Internal Medicine, and Epidemiology. We hope that the STROBE Statement will contribute to improving the quality of reporting of observational studies.

  7. Guidelines for the Direct Detection of Anaplasma spp. in Diagnosis and Epidemiological Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silaghi, Cornelia; Santos, Ana Sofia; Gomes, Jacinto; Christova, Iva; Matei, Ioana Adriana; Walder, Gernot; Domingos, Ana; Bell-Sakyi, Lesley; Sprong, Hein; von Loewenich, Friederike D; Oteo, José A; de la Fuente, José; Dumler, J Stephen

    2017-01-01

    The genus Anaplasma (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae) comprises obligate intracellular Gram-negative bacteria that are mainly transmitted by ticks, and currently includes six species: Anaplasma bovis, Anaplasma centrale, Anaplasma marginale, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Anaplasma platys, and Anaplasma ovis. These have long been known as etiological agents of veterinary diseases that affect domestic and wild animals worldwide. A zoonotic role has been recognized for A. phagocytophilum, but other species can also be pathogenic for humans. Anaplasma infections are usually challenging to diagnose, clinically presenting with nonspecific symptoms that vary greatly depending on the agent involved, the affected host, and other factors such as immune status and coinfections. The substantial economic impact associated with livestock infection and the growing number of human cases along with the risk of transfusion-transmitted infections, determines the need for accurate laboratory tests. Because hosts are usually seronegative in the initial phase of infection and serological cross-reactions with several Anaplasma species are observed after seroconversion, direct tests are the best approach for both case definition and epidemiological studies. Blood samples are routinely used for Anaplasma spp. screening, but in persistently infected animals with intermittent or low-level bacteremia, other tissues might be useful. These guidelines have been developed as a direct outcome of the COST action TD1303 EURNEGVEC ("European Network of Neglected Vectors and Vector-Borne Diseases"). They review the direct laboratory tests (microscopy, nucleic acid-based detection and in vitro isolation) currently used for Anaplasma detection in ticks and vertebrates and their application.

  8. Introduction and overview. Perinatal carcinogenesis: growing a node for epidemiology, risk management, and animal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Lucy M

    2004-09-01

    Perinatal carcinogenesis as a cross-disciplinary concern is the subject of this special issue of Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, which consists of a total of eight reviews or commentaries in the areas of epidemiology, risk assessment, and animal models. Some of the conclusions from these articles, and the Questions and Answers section that follows most of them, are summarized here. There is adequate reason to suspect that perinatal exposures contribute to human cancer risk, both childhood cancers, and those appearing later in life. The latter type of risk may actually be quantitatively the more important, and involve a wide range of types of effects, but has received only limited attention. With regard to childhood cancers, fetal irradiation and diethylstilbestrol exposure are known etiological agents, and it is likely, but not yet certain, there are additional external causes of a portion of these. Some current focal points of interest here include nitroso compounds, DNA topoisomerase inhibitors, viruses, anti-AIDS drugs, and endocrine disruptors. Regulatory agencies must rely heavily on animal data for estimation of human risk due to perinatal exposures to chemicals, and the quantity and quality of these data presently available for this purpose are greatly limiting. Correctly designed conventional animal studies with suspect chemicals are still needed. Furthermore, genetically engineered mouse models for childhood cancers, especially medulloblastoma, have become available, and could be used for screening of candidate causative agents for this cancer type, and for better understanding of gene-environment interactions.

  9. First human rabies case in French Guiana, 2008: epidemiological investigation and control.

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    Jean-Baptiste Meynard

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Until 2008, human rabies had never been reported in French Guiana. On 28 May 2008, the French National Reference Center for Rabies (Institut Pasteur, Paris confirmed the rabies diagnosis, based on hemi-nested polymerase chain reaction on skin biopsy and saliva specimens from a Guianan, who had never travelled overseas and died in Cayenne after presenting clinically typical meningoencephalitis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Molecular typing of the virus identified a Lyssavirus (Rabies virus species, closely related to those circulating in hematophagous bats (mainly Desmodus rotundus in Latin America. A multidisciplinary Crisis Unit was activated. Its objectives were to implement an epidemiological investigation and a veterinary survey, to provide control measures and establish a communications program. The origin of the contamination was not formally established, but was probably linked to a bat bite based on the virus type isolated. After confirming exposure of 90 persons, they were vaccinated against rabies: 42 from the case's entourage and 48 healthcare workers. To handle that emergence and the local population's increased demand to be vaccinated, a specific communications program was established using several media: television, newspaper, radio. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This episode, occurring in the context of a Department far from continental France, strongly affected the local population, healthcare workers and authorities, and the management team faced intense pressure. This observation confirms that the risk of contracting rabies in French Guiana is real, with consequences for population educational program, control measures, medical diagnosis and post-exposure prophylaxis.

  10. Human dirofilariasis due to Dirofilaria repens in Ukraine, an emergent zoonosis: epidemiological report of 1465 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sałamatin, Rusłan V; Pavlikovska, Tamara M; Sagach, Olga S; Nikolayenko, Svitlana M; Kornyushin, Vadim V; Kharchenko, Vitaliy O; Masny, Aleksander; Cielecka, Danuta; Konieczna-Sałamatin, Joanna; Conn, David Bruce; Golab, Elzbieta

    2013-12-01

    The filarial nematode Dirofilaria repens is currently considered to be one of the most extensively spreading human and animal parasites in Europe. In Ukraine, reporting cases of dirofilariasis has been mandatory since 1975, and the disease was included in the national surveillance system for notifiable diseases. Up until December 31st 2012, a total of 1533 cases have been registered, with 1465 cases occurring within the previous 16 years. Most of the cases of dirofilariasis were registered in 6 regions: Kyiv, and the Donetsk, Zaporizhzhya, Dnipropetrovsk, Kherson and Chernihiv oblasts. In the years 1997-2002 the highest incidence rate was noted in the Kherson oblast in the south of the country (9.79 per 100 000 people), and the lowest in western Ukraine (0.07-1.68 per 100 000 people). D. repens infections were registered in all oblasts. Parasitic lesions were most often located in the head, the subconjunctival tissue and around the eyes. D. repens lesions were also found in the limbs, torso, male sexual organs, and female mammary glands. Dirofilariasis was diagnosed in persons aged from 11 months to 90 years old, most often among people between 21-40 years of age. Most patients had only one parasitic skin lesion; the majority of isolated nematodes were female. The results of our analysis point to a constant increase in D. repens dirofilariasis incidence in humans in Ukraine. Despite educational efforts, infections have become more frequent and the territory in which the disease occurs has enlarged to encompass the whole of Ukraine. Nevertheless, the Ukrainian sanitary-epidemiological services managed to achieve some measure of success, e.g. by creating a registration system for D. repens infections and establishing proper diagnostics for the disease.

  11. Assessing the reporting of categorised quantitative variables in observational epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabikwa, Onkabetse V; Greenwood, Darren C; Baxter, Paul D; Fleming, Sarah J

    2017-03-14

    One aspect to consider when reporting results of observational studies in epidemiology is how quantitative risk factors are analysed. The STROBE (Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology) guidelines recommend that researchers describe how they handle quantitative variables when analysing data. For categorised quantitative variables, the authors are required to provide reasons and justifications informing their practice. We investigated and assessed the practices and reporting of categorised quantitative variables in epidemiology. The assessment was based on five medical journals that publish epidemiological research. Observational studies published between April and June 2015 and investigating the relationships between quantitative exposures (or risk factors) and the outcomes were considered for assessment. A standard form was used to collect the data, and the reporting patterns amongst eligible studies were quantified and described. Out of 61 articles assessed for eligibility, 23 observational studies were included in the assessment. Categorisation of quantitative exposures occurred in 61% of these studies and reasons informing the practice were rarely provided. Only one article explained the choice of categorisation in the analysis. Transformation of quantitative exposures into four or five groups was common and dominant amongst studies using equally spaced categories. Dichotomisation was not popular; the practice featured in one article. Overall, the majority (86%) of the studies preferred ordered or arbitrary group categories. Other criterions used to decide categorical boundaries were based on established guidelines such as consensus statements and WHO standards. Categorisation of continuous variables remains a dominant practice in epidemiological studies. The reasons informing the practice of categorisation within published work are limited and remain unknown in most articles. The existing STROBE guidelines could provide stronger

  12. Studi Epidemiologi Agen Zoonosis Escherichia coli O157:H7 melalui Analisis Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA (RAPD

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    I Wayan Suardana

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies of zoonotic agent Escherichia coli O157:H7 have been analyzed pheneticallyand or phylogenetically. In a phenetic classification, micoorganisms are arranged into groups (phena onthe basis of high overall similarity using both phenotypic and genotypic methods without judgementaspect of its ancestry or evolutionary. Due to its importance to epidemiological aspect, the study of geneticvariation of isolates origin from some sources need to be conducted in order to trace the routes of infection.A total of 20 samples obtained from some sources i.e clinically human feces, non-clinically human feces,cattle feces, chicken feces, and beef feces were used in this study. The study was started by confirming allof the isolates using O157 latex agglutination test and H7 antiserum test, followed by genomic DNAanalysis by random amplification of polymorphic DNA /RAPD methods. RAPD results were analyzed using a simple matching coeficient (Ssm and alogorhythm unweighted pair group method using arithmeticaverages (UPGMA programe. Results showed there were range of genetic DNA from local isolates (75.1–99,6% which was almost similar to ATCC 43894 control isolate. The highest similarity (99.6% to ATCC43894 control was showed by SM-7(1 isolate obtained from cattle fecal and KL-68(1, isolate obtainedfrom clinically human fecal. In addition, KL-52(7 obtained from clinically human fecal had high similarity(99.6% to MK-35 isolate obtained from chicken fecal. On the other hand, DS-21(4 and DS-16(2 isolatesthat were obtained from beef had high similarity (84.9% to other isolates including ATCC 43894 controlisolate. The highest similarity of E. coli O157:H7 isolates that were obtained from cattle feces, beef, andchicken feces to human feces isolate indicated that there were both cattle and chicken were potentialreservoirs of the zoonotic agen which can be transmitted to human.

  13. Association between anxiety and hypertension: a systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Y

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Yu Pan,1,2,* Wenpeng Cai,1,* Qi Cheng,3,* Wei Dong,1 Ting An,4 Jin Yan1 1Department of Psychology and Mental Health, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, 2Department of Psychology, Peoples Liberation Army General Hospital, Beijing, 3Department of Child and Adolescent Behavioral Medicine, The 102 Hospital of PLA, Changzhou, 4Department of Internal Medicine, The PLA Second Artillery Force General Hospital, Beijing, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Epidemiological studies have repeatedly investigated the association between anxiety and hypertension. However, the results have been inconsistent. This study aimed to summarize the current evidence from cross-sectional and prospective studies that evaluated this association. Methods: Seven common databases were searched for articles published up to November 2014. Cross-sectional and prospective studies that reported an association between the two conditions in adults were included. Data on prevalence, incidence, unadjusted or adjusted odds ratios or hazard ratios, and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were extracted or calculated by the authors. The pooled odds ratio was calculated separately for cross-sectional and prospective studies using random-effects models. The Q test and I2 statistic was used to assess heterogeneity. A funnel plot and modified Egger linear regression test were used to estimate publication bias. Results: The search yielded 13 cross-sectional studies (n=151,389, and the final pooled odds ratio was 1.18 (95% CI 1.02–1.37; PQ<0.001; I2=84.9%. Eight prospective studies with a total sample size of 80,146 and 2,394 hypertension case subjects, and the pooled adjusted hazard ratio was 1.55 (95% CI 1.24–1.94; PQ<0.001; I2=84.6%. The meta-regression showed that location, diagnostic criteria for anxiety, age, sex, sample size, year of publication, quality, and years of follow-up (for prospective study were not

  14. Human epidemiology: a review of fiber type and characteristics in the development of malignant and nonmalignant disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Merchant, J. A.

    1990-01-01

    Consideration of the human epidemiology of diseases arising from exposure to naturally occurring and man-made mineral fibers encompasses the several forms of asbestos (chrysotile, crocidolite, amosite, anthophyllite, tremolite-actinolite), other naturally occurring silicates (talc, sepiolite, erionite, attapulgite, vermiculite, and wollastonite), and man-made mineral fibers (glass continuous filament, glass/rock/slag insulation wools, ceramic and other refractory fibers, and glass microfibers...

  15. [Analysis on the epidemiological features of human brucellosis in northern and southern areas of China, 2015-2016].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Y J; Lai, S J; Chen, Q L; Mu, D; Li, Y; Li, X X; Yin, W W; Yu, H J

    2017-04-10

    Objective: To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of human brucellosis in northern and southern areas of China, and to develop national strategies for brucellosis prevention and control. Methods: Individual data on human brucellosis was collected from the National Notifiable Infectious Disease Reporting Information System to describe the situation of brucellosis in China during 2015-2016. Epidemiological features of the disease in northern and southern areas of China were analyzed. Results: A total of 104 125 cases were reported in mainland China during 2015-2016, with an average incidence rate as 3.81/100 000. The overall incidence rate from the northern provinces was 7.77/100 000 in 2016, a 18.6% decrease from 2015 (9.55/100 000), whereas the incidence rate in the southern provinces was 0.27/100 000 in 2016, with an increase of 28.6% than 0.21/100 000 in 2015. 90.0% of the newly infected counties mainly distributed in southern China. As for the locations of reporting cases, most of them were in the same counties in the northern areas (52.3%) while most cases in the southern areas (59.6%) were imported from other counties. The median age of the cases was 48 (IQR: 38-58) years, with male-to-female ratios as 2.7∶1 in the north and 2.2∶1 in the south. Majority of the cases were occupation-related, from both the northern (86.8%) and southern (62.7%) areas. Human brucellosis occurred every month throughout the year but with an obvious seasonal increase between March and July. Conclusions: Different epidemiological features of human brucellosis appeared in both northern and southern areas of China. The disease was seen endemic in the northern and dispersal in the southern provinces. Appropriate strategies for brucellosis prevention and control should be developed, according to the different epidemiological characteristics in the northern or southern areas.

  16. Epidemiologic aspects of exogenous progestagens in relation to their role in pathogenesis of human breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, F E

    1991-01-01

    This review focuses on epidemiologic studies of the relationship between breast cancer risk and exogenous progestagens, as present in oral contraceptives, injectable contraceptives and hormone replacement therapy. Subsequently, it will be discussed whether the present findings are consistent with one of the hypotheses that have been postulated for the role of hormones in breast cancer pathogenesis. The relationship between oral contraceptives and breast cancer is still controversial. Several studies have found that prolonged oral contraceptives use at young ages is associated with increased risk to develop breast cancer at an early age, i.e. before age 35. None of these studies, however, has been able to attribute the increased risk to specific formulations of oral contraceptives, or to the progestagen content of the preparations. This may be largely due to the fact that there is no good method to calculate progestagen potencies of different formulations. There are no reliable data regarding the effect of progestagen-only oral contraceptives on breast cancer risk. Studies conducted so far included only few women who used these preparations exclusively and for an extended period. Use of injectable contraceptives, mainly depot-medroxy-progesterone acetate, may slightly increase breast cancer, but current findings are inconclusive. There is suggestive evidence that the addition of progestagens to estrogen replacement therapy may increase breast cancer risk over that associated with exposure to estrogens alone. However, the data are not sufficient to warrant any recommendation about changes in clinical practice, and more studies of estrogen-progestagen replacement therapy are needed to settle this issue. It is argued that the "unopposed estrogen" hypothesis for breast cancer is not consistent with the known effects of oral contraceptives and estrogen replacement therapy. The "estrogen plus progestagen" hypothesis seems to be more consistent with current epidemiologic

  17. Cruciferous vegetable consumption and gastric cancer risk: a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qi-Jun; Yang, Yang; Wang, Jing; Han, Li-Hua; Xiang, Yong-Bing

    2013-08-01

    The relationship between consumption of cruciferous vegetables (CV) and risk of gastric cancer has been investigated by many studies, but remains controversial. We carried out a meta-analysis to summarize available evidence from epidemiological studies on this point. Relevant published reports of CV intake and gastric cancer were identified using MEDLINE (PubMed), EMBASE, and Web of Science databases through to the end of September 2012. We pooled the relative risk from individual studies using a fixed- or random-effects model and carried out heterogeneity and publication bias analyses. Sixteen case-control and six prospective studies were included in our analysis. When all studies were pooled, we yielded a significantly inverse association between CV (relative risk = 0.81; 95% confidence interval, 0.75-0.88) intake and gastric cancer risk, with little heterogeneity (Q = 27.27, P = 0.292, I(2) = 12.0%). Specific analysis for cabbage intake yielded similar result. When separately analyzed, case-control studies of CV intake yielded significant results and the results of prospective studies showed borderline statistical significance. Moreover, significant results were consistent for high-quality studies, for North American, European, and Asian studies, for studies on males, and for studies on non-cardia gastric cancer. Findings from this meta-analysis provide evidence that high intake of CV was inversely associated with the risk of gastric cancer and non-cardia gastric cancer in humans. Further studies on other specific CV, food preparation methods, and stratified results by anatomic cancer site and histological type should be extended in the future.

  18. Analysis of Factors Influencing Telephone Call Response Rate in an Epidemiological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Matías-Guiu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Descriptive epidemiology research involves collecting data from large numbers of subjects. Obtaining these data requires approaches designed to achieve maximum participation or response rates among respondents possessing the desired information. We analyze participation and response rates in a population-based epidemiological study though a telephone survey and identify factors implicated in consenting to participate. Rates found exceeded those reported in the literature and they were higher for afternoon calls than for morning calls. Women and subjects older than 40 years were the most likely to answer the telephone. The study identified geographical differences, with higher RRs in districts in southern Spain that are not considered urbanized. This information may be helpful for designing more efficient community epidemiology projects.

  19. An epidemiological study on human rhinovirus C in hospitalized children with respiratory tract infections%人鼻病毒C型在呼吸道感染住院患儿中的流行病学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李莉; 季伟; 邵雪君; 徐俊; 蒋吴君; 陈正荣; 唐汝泽; 严永东

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the detection rates, epidemical characteristics, and clinical features of human rhinovirus C (HRV-C) in hospitalized children with respiratory tract infections (RTIs) in Suzhou, China. Methods A total of 1 702 hospitalized children with RTIs from January to December, 2014 were enrolled, and 1 702 nasopharyngeal aspirate samples were collected from all children. RT-PCR was used to measure HRV mRNA, and quantitative real-time PCR combined with high-resolution melting curve was used to measure HRV-C. Results Of all children, 244 (14.34%) were detected to have HRV infection, among whom 69 (69/244, 28.3%) had HRV-C infection. The rate of mixed infection of HRV-C with other viruses and bacteria was 61%(42/69). HRV-C was detected in each month of the year, and the detection rate of HRV-C in autumn was signiifcantly higher than that in spring, summer, and winter (P0.05). Conclusions HRV-C infection accounts for about 1/3 of HRV infection, with a high incidence rate in autumn. The rate of mixed infection of HRV-C with other viruses and bacteria is high, and children aged 2-5 years have the highest detection rate of HRV-C. Children with HRV-C infection have similar clinical manifestations as those with HRV-A/B infection.%目的:了解苏州地区人鼻病毒C型(HRV-C)在呼吸道感染(RTIs)住院患儿中的检出情况、流行特点及临床特征。方法选取2014年1~12月RTIs住院患儿1702例为研究对象,采集所有患儿鼻咽深部吸取物1702份。采用RT-PCR法检测HRV mRNA;实时荧光定量PCR+高分辨熔链曲线分析对HRV-C进行检测。结果1702例RTIs患儿中,检出HRV感染244例(14.34%),其中HRV-C型69例(69/244,28.3%)。HRV-C混合感染率为61%(42/69)。HRV-C在每个月份均有检出,其中秋季阳性检出率显著高于春、夏、冬三季(P0.05)。结论 HRV-C感染约占HRV感染的1/3,秋季高发,混合感染率高,以2~5岁患儿检出率最高,HRV-C感

  20. Exposure profiles of pesticides among greenhouse workers: Implications for epidemiological studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tielemans, E.; Bretveld, R.; Schinkel, J.; Wendel van - Joode, B. de; Kromhout, H.; Gerritsen-Ebben, R.; Roeleveld, N.; Preller, L.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess exposure to pesticides for a longitudinal epidemiological study on adverse reproduction effects among greenhouse workers. Detailed information on pesticide use among greenhouse workers was obtained on a monthly basis through self-administered questionnaires and su

  1. Epidemiological studies of the relationship between occupational exposures and chronic non-specific lung disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heederik, D.

    1990-01-01

    In this thesis the relationship between occupational exposures, lung function and Chronic Non-Specific Lung Disease is studied. The study comprises an epidemiological analysis of data from the British Pneumoconiosis Field Research among coal miners and an analysis of data gathered in the Zutphen

  2. Exposure profiles of pesticides among greenhouse workers: Implications for epidemiological studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tielemans, E.; Bretveld, R.; Schinkel, J.; Wendel van - Joode, B. de; Kromhout, H.; Gerritsen-Ebben, R.; Roeleveld, N.; Preller, L.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess exposure to pesticides for a longitudinal epidemiological study on adverse reproduction effects among greenhouse workers. Detailed information on pesticide use among greenhouse workers was obtained on a monthly basis through self-administered questionnaires and

  3. The Mystery of the Blue Death: A Case Study in Epidemiology and the History of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muench, Susan Bandoni

    2009-01-01

    This case study introduces students to John Snow, considered to be one of the founders of both epidemiology and anesthesiology, and a remarkable figure in the history of science. Although historical case studies are often less popular with students than contemporary issues (Herreid 1998), a number of aspects of this case make it attractive to…

  4. Menopausal hormone use and ovarian cancer risk : individual participant meta-analysis of 52 epidemiological studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gapstur, S. M.; Patel, A. V.; Banks, E.; Dal Maso, L.; Talamini, R.; Chetrit, A.; Hirsh-Yechezkel, G.; Lubin, F.; Sadetzki, S.; Beral, V.; Bull, D.; Cairns, B.; Crossley, B.; Gaitskell, K.; Goodill, A.; Green, J.; Hermon, C.; Key, T.; Moser, K.; Reeves, G.; Sitas, F.; Collins, R.; Peto, R.; Gonzalez, C. A.; Lee, N.; Marchbanks, P.; Ory, H. W.; Peterson, H. B.; Wingo, P. A.; Martin, N.; Silpisornkosol, S.; Theetranont, C.; Boosiri, B.; Chutivongse, S.; Jimakorn, P.; Virutamasen, P.; Wongsrichanalai, C.; Goodman, M. T.; Lidegaard, O.; Kjaer, S. K.; Morch, L. S.; Kjaer, S. K.; Tjonneland, A.; Byers, T.; Rohan, T.; Mosgaard, B.; Vessey, M.; Yeates, D.; Freudenheim, J. L.; Titus, L. J.; Chang-Claude, J.; Kaaks, R.; Anderson, K. E.; Lazovich, D.; Robien, K.; Hampton, J.; Newcomb, P. A.; Rossing, M. A.; Thomas, D. B.; Weiss, N. S.; Lokkegaard, E.; Riboli, E.; Clavel-Chapelon, F.; Cramer, D.; Hankinson, S. E.; Tamimi, R. M.; Tworoger, S. S.; Franceschi, S.; La Vecchia, C.; Negri, E.; Adami, H. O.; Magnusson, C.; Riman, T.; Weiderpass, E.; Wolk, A.; Schouten, L. J.; van den Brandt, P. A.; Chantarakul, N.; Koetsawang, S.; Rachawat, D.; Palli, D.; Black, A.; Brinton, L. A.; Freedman, D. M.; Hartge, P.; Hsing, A. W.; Jnr, J. V. Lacey; Lissowska, J.; Hoover, R. N.; Schairer, C.; Babb, C.; Urban, M.; Graff-Iversen, S.; Selmer, R.; Bain, C. J.; Green, A. C.; Purdie, D. M.; Siskind, V.; Webb, P. M.; Moysich, K.; McCann, S. E.; Hannaford, P.; Kay, C.; Binns, C. W.; Lee, A. H.; Zhang, M.; Ness, R. B.; Nasca, P.; Coogan, P. F.; Palmer, J. R.; Rosenberg, L.; Whittemore, A.; Katsouyanni, K.; Trichopoulou, A.; Trichopoulos, D.; Tzonou, A.; Dabancens, A.; Martinez, L.; Molina, R.; Salas, O.; Lurie, G.; Carney, M. E.; Wilkens, L. R.; Hartman, L.; Manjer, J.; Olsson, H.; Kumle, M.; Grisso, J. A.; Morgan, M.; Wheeler, J. E.; Edwards, R. P.; Kelley, J. L.; Modugno, F.; Onland-Moret, N. C.; Peeters, P. H. M.; Casagrande, J.; Pike, M. C.; Wu, A. H.; Canfell, K.; Miller, A. B.; Gram, I. T.; Lund, E.; McGowan, L.; Shu, X. O.; Zheng, W.; Farley, T. M. M.; Holck, S.; Meirik, O.; Risch, H. A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Half the epidemiological studies with information about menopausal hormone therapy and ovarian cancer risk remain unpublished, and some retrospective studies could have been biased by selective participation or recall. We aimed to assess with minimal bias the effects of hormone therapy on

  5. Possible association between gastric cancer and bracken fern in Venezuela: an epidemiologic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Amelot, M E; Avendaño, M

    2001-01-15

    To explore a possible connection between specific environmental factors that might explain the high rates of stomach cancer in people living in the highlands of western Venezuela, an epidemiologic study was conducted in 2 regions of contrasting topography. The regions embrace 3 Andean states, Mérida, Táchira and Trujillo, and the vicinal lowland surrounding the Maracaibo lake basin of Zulia State. Statistical sanitary records from 1986 to 1996 comprising 5.5 million people in the study area indicated that age-sex-adjusted gastric cancer death rate per 100,000 people (DR) was up to 3.64 times higher in highland than lowland areas, although total cancer-related DRs were comparable in both regions. DRs of other less frequent cancers from the upper alimentary tract [esophagous (1.18/0.99) and mouth-throat (1.39/2.64)] showed comparable values in both regions as well as colorectal, breast, and uterus-cervix cancers, suggesting that the stomach cancer DRs were related to geographically determined factors. Comparison of some nutrition issues, incidence of Helicobacter pylori infection in selected areas, the discovery of the bracken carcinogen ptaquiloside in milk from bracken-fed cows, the prevalence of this plant in mountain cattle households and pasturelands and the rates of bracken-evoked bovine enzootic hematuria led us to conclude that consumption of ptaquiloside-contaminated milk may contribute to human gastric cancer in the Andean states of Venezuela.

  6. Assessment of Worldwide Acute Kidney injury Epidemiology in Neonates (AWAKEN: Design of a Retrospective Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Garcia Jetton

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Acute kidney injury (AKI affects ~30% of hospitalized neonates. Critical to advancing our understanding of neonatal AKI is collaborative research among neonatologists and nephrologists. The Neonatal Kidney Collaborative (NKC is an international, multidisciplinary group dedicated to investigating neonatal AKI. The AWAKEN study (Assessment of Worldwide Acute Kidney injury Epidemiology in Neonates was designed to describe the epidemiology of neonatal AKI, validate the definition of neonatal AKI, identify primary risk factors for neonatal AKI, and investigate the contribution of fluid management to AKI events and short term outcomes. METHODS and ANALYSIS: The NKC was established with at least one pediatric nephrologist and neonatologist from 24 institutions from 4 countries (USA, Canada, Australia, India. A Steering Committee and four subcommittees were created. The database subcommittee oversaw the development of the web-based database (MediData Rave™ that captured all NICU admissions from 1/1/14-3/31/14. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied to eliminate babies with a low likelihood of AKI. Data collection includes: 1 baseline demographic information; 2 daily physiologic parameters and care received during the first week of life; 3 weekly snapshots; 4 discharge information including growth parameters, final diagnoses, discharge medications and need for renal replacement therapy; and 5 all serum creatinine values. ETHICS and DISSEMINATION: AWAKEN was proposed as human subjects research. The study design allowed for a waiver of informed consent/parental permission. NKC investigators will disseminate data through peer-reviewed publications and educational conferences. DISCUSSION: The purpose of this publication is to describe the formation of the NKC, the establishment of the AWAKEN cohort and database, future directions and a few lessons learned. The AWAKEN database includes ~325 unique variables and >4 million discrete data

  7. Evidence of human papilloma virus infection and its epidemiology in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pin-Fang Yao; Ju-Wei Sha; Guang-Can Li; Jin Li; He-Shun Xia; Xiao-Ling Yang; Huan-Yuan Huang; You-Gao Fu; Rui-Qin Wang; Xi-Yin Wang

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To look for the evidence of human papilloma virus (HPV) infection in esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (ESCC) and to investigate the potential role and epidemiology of HPV infection in the pathogenesis of esophageal carcinomas in Henan emigrants.METHODS: Papilloma virus (PV) and HPV were determined by UltrasensiveTM S-P immunohistochemistry (IHC)and in situ hybridization (ISH) in esophageal carcinoma tissues (82.cases) and the normal mucosa (40 cases).RESULTS: IHC revealed that the positive rate of PV was 75.0%, 68.18% and 72.5% respectively while the HPV (16/18-E6) positive rate was 45.0%, 36.36%, 37.5%,respectively in esophageal carcinoma tissue specimens from Henan emigrants,the local citizens and patients in Hubei Cancer Hospital. The PV and HPV (16/18-E6) were negative in all normal esophageal mucosa specimens. No correlation was found between HPV in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma tissues and in grade 1-3 esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cells. In situ hybridization showed that the HPV (16/18) DNA positive rate was 30.0%, 31.8%, 25.0%, respectively in the 3 groups of samples. No positive hybridization signal was found in 40 normal esophageal mucosa specimens. The positive rate of HPV (16/18) DNA in the esophageal carcinoma specimens was significantly higher than that in normal mucosa specimens (P< 0.05). The positive rate was not different among the 3 groups of esophageal carcinoma tissue specimens (P>0.05).CONCLUSION: HPV infection is high in esophageal carcinoma of Henan emigrants, local residents and patients in Hubei Cancer Hospital. HPV is closely related with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. HPV infection may play an important role in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

  8. Molecular epidemiological study of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the focus of bushehr city, southwestern iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Yaghoobi-Ershadi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL represents the most frequent vector borne parasitoses in Iran. The objective of this study was to determine the epidemiological features of CL including human infection and the reservoir host in the city of Bushehr, Bushehr Province, Iran during 2010-2011.Studies on human infection was carried out on 2962 school children aged 7-14 years old from 60 primary schools and among 400 households with a total population of 1568 in four infected districts of the city in December 2010. Serosity materials from patients on glass slides were collected for molecular identification of causative agent. Rodents were caught by Sherman traps and examined for identification of the parasite.Prevalence of scars and ulcers among the inhabitants were 5.86% and 0.12% respectively. Molecular study indicated the presence of two coexisting species: Leishmania major and L. tropica among patients. The scar rate was 1.24% but no ulcers were seen among the students. Nineteen rodents were caught and identified as Tatera indica (47.4% and Rattus norvegicus (52.6%. Specimens from 7 T. indica and 9 R. norvegicus were examined by two techniques, microscopic examination and nested-PCR. Out of 7 T. indica, 14.3% were infected with L. major and 42.9% with L. turanica by nested-PCR. Out of 9 R. norvegicus 22.2% were infected with L. turanica and 11.1% with L. gerbilli.Based on this survey L. major and L. tropica are the causative agents of the disease among patients and T. indica plays a predominant role in the dissemination of L. major in the city.

  9. Application of Epidemiology and Statistical methods in understanding disease aetiology-study on Vitiligo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharat Bhavsar

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The disease results from the interaction between the person’s genetic make up and his outer environment.1 The proportionate role of both the factors varies from disease to disease. There are some diseases with unclear aetiology; Vitiligo is one of them. The purpose of this paper is to show the application of Epidemiology and the statistical methods to understand the disease causation. The epidemiological study of skin conditions among school children in Urban and Rural areas of Surat district carried out by the author 2,3 brought out following observations........

  10. Developmental origins of adult diseases and neurotoxicity: Epidemiological and experimental studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox, Donald A; Grandjean, Philippe; de Groot, Didima

    2012-01-01

    and the development of metabolic-related diseases and neurotoxicity later in life. The four speakers at this symposium presented their research results on different neurotoxic chemicals relating to the developmental origins of health and adult disease (DOHaD). Philippe Grandjean presented epidemiological data......To date, only a small number of commercial chemicals have been tested and documented as developmental neurotoxicants. Moreover, an increasing number of epidemiological, clinical and experimental studies suggest an association between toxicant or drug exposure during the perinatal period...

  11. Influence of DNA extraction methods on relative telomere length measurements and its impact on epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raschenberger, Julia; Lamina, Claudia; Haun, Margot; Kollerits, Barbara; Coassin, Stefan; Boes, Eva; Kedenko, Ludmilla; Köttgen, Anna; Kronenberg, Florian

    2016-05-03

    Measurement of telomere length is widely used in epidemiologic studies. Insufficient standardization of the measurements processes has, however, complicated the comparison of results between studies. We aimed to investigate whether DNA extraction methods have an influence on measured values of relative telomere length (RTL) and whether this has consequences for epidemiological studies. We performed four experiments with RTL measurement in quadruplicate by qPCR using DNA extracted with different methods: 1) a standardized validation experiment including three extraction methods (magnetic-particle-method EZ1, salting-out-method INV, phenol-chloroform-isoamyl-alcohol PCI) each in the same 20 samples demonstrated pronounced differences in RTL with lowest values with EZ1 followed by INV and PCI-isolated DNA; 2) a comparison of 307 samples from an epidemiological study showing EZ1-measurements 40% lower than INV-measurements; 3) a matching-approach of two similar non-diseased control groups including 143 pairs of subjects revealed significantly shorter RTL in EZ1 than INV-extracted DNA (0.844 ± 0.157 vs. 1.357 ± 0.242); 4) an association analysis of RTL with prevalent cardiovascular disease detected a stronger association with INV than with EZ1-extracted DNA. In summary, DNA extraction methods have a pronounced influence on the measured RTL-values. This might result in spurious or lost associations in epidemiological studies under certain circumstances.

  12. A review of epidemiologic studies of low-level exposures to organophosphorus insecticides in non-occupational populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, Richard; Chang, Ellen T; Richardson, Rudy J; Goodman, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This paper systematically reviews epidemiologic studies related to low-level non-occupational exposures to organophosphorus (OP) insecticides. Many of the studies evaluate levels of maternal OP metabolites and subsequent health outcomes in offspring. The studies focused primarily on birth outcomes (e.g., infant body weight or head circumference) and neurodevelopmental (e.g., mental and psychomotor) testing results. The evidence from these studies was reviewed under the Bradford Hill guidelines. Most of the studies assessing exposure based on urinary levels of OP insecticide metabolites used only one or two measurements during pregnancy. The potential for exposure misclassification with this method is largely due to (1) preformed metabolites that are ingested with food, (2) the short elimination half-life of OP insecticides, and (3) lack of specificity to particular OP insecticides for many of the metabolites. For birth outcomes, the majority of reported results are not statistically significant, and the associations are inconsistent within and across studies. There is more within-study consistency for some of the neurodevelopmental testing results, although few associations were examined across several studies. These associations are generally weak, have been replicated only to a limited extent, and require further confirmation before they can be considered established. The OP insecticide levels measured in the epidemiologic studies are too low to cause biologically meaningful acetylcholinesterase inhibition, the most widely used metric for OP insecticide toxicity. Overall, the available evidence does not establish that low-level exposures to OP insecticides cause adverse birth outcomes or neurodevelopmental problems in humans.

  13. [Epidemiological study of nasopharyngeal carriers of Streptococcus pneumoniae in children in Murcia region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfayate-Miguélez, Santiago; Ruiz-Gómez, Joaquín; Fenoll-Comes, Asunción; Sanchez-Solis-de Querol, Manuel; Iofrío-de Arce, Antonio; Casquet-Barceló, Angela; Sanz-Mateo, Gonzalo; Espejo-García, Pilar; Lorente-García, Sebastián; Sánchez-Andrada, Rosa M; Vigueras-Abellán, Juan José

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a human pathogen that requires prior nasopharyngeal colonization to cause disease. An epidemiological study was conducted on nasopharyngeal carriers of pneumococci in healthy children in Murcia after the introduction of the VCN7, and immediately before the marketing of new vaccines, with the aim of determining the influence of vaccination in our geographic area, and other factors in relation to the state of being a carrier, and the different circulating serotypes. A multicentre study was conducted in in 60 primary care health centres in summer 2009 and winter of 2010. A nasopharyngeal swab was collected, and an epidemiological study was carried out on 1562 children aged 1 and 4 years. Of the 1562 nasopharyngeal samples, pneumococci were found in 489 of them, with 343 of them able to be serotyped (70.2%). The prevalence of carriers was 31.3%. Of the patients included, 61.7% (964/1562) had received at least one dose of VCN7. Only 12.8% of the identified serotypes were vaccine serotypes. The independent protective factors against colonization were; Summer time in all age groups, previous vaccination in all the children (OR: 0.75; 95%CI: 0.56-0.93]; P=.01, and in 1-year-olds (OR: 0.6; 95%CI: 0.42-0.84; P=.002), and had taken antibiotics in the last month in the total cohort [OR: 0.69; 95%CI: 0.50-0.96). On the other hand, attendance at school or day-care centre (OR: 1.85; 95%CI: 1.27-2.18; P=.001), number of siblings (OR: 1.3; 95%CI: 1.01-1.91), and passive tobacco smoke exposure (OR: 1.33; 95%CI: 1.02-1.73), were colonization risk factors. The serotypes 6A, 19A, 23B, 15A/B, 11A, 14, 23A/F, 3 y 19F were the most prevalent. A low proportion of SV was found, with 14, 23F and 19F are persisting. A high prevalence of serotypes 6A and 19A was found. Summer time, vaccination, and the prior administration of antibiotics proved to be protective against colonization, whereas schooling, smoking, and siblings contributed to it. Copyright © 2012

  14. A robust method for iodine status determination in epidemiological studies by capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Macedo, Adriana Nori; Teo, Koon; Mente, Andrew; McQueen, Matthew J; Zeidler, Johannes; Poirier, Paul; Lear, Scott A; Wielgosz, Andy; Britz-McKibbin, Philip

    2014-10-21

    Iodine deficiency is the most common preventable cause of intellectual disabilities in children. Global health initiatives to ensure optimum nutrition thus require continuous monitoring of population-wide iodine intake as determined by urinary excretion of iodide. Current methods to analyze urinary iodide are limited by complicated sample pretreatment, costly infrastructure, and/or poor selectivity, posing restrictions to large-scale epidemiological studies. We describe a simple yet selective method to analyze iodide in volume-restricted human urine specimens stored in biorepositories by capillary electrophoresis (CE) with UV detection. Excellent selectivity is achieved when using an acidic background electrolyte in conjunction with dynamic complexation via α-cyclodextrin in an unmodified fused-silica capillary under reversed polarity. Sample self-stacking is developed as a novel online sample preconcentration method to boost sensitivity with submicromolar detection limits for iodide (S/N ≈ 3, 0.06 μM) directly in urine. This assay also allows for simultaneous analysis of environmental iodide uptake inhibitors, including thiocyanate and nitrate. Rigorous method validation confirmed good linearity (R(2) = 0.9998), dynamic range (0.20 to 4.0 μM), accuracy (average recovery of 93% at three concentration levels) and precision for reliable iodide determination in pooled urine specimens over 29 days of analysis (RSD = 11%, n = 87).

  15. Epidemiological studies of oats consumption and risk of cancer and overall mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boffetta, Paolo; Thies, Frank; Kris-Etherton, Penny

    2014-10-01

    A review of epidemiological studies on the intake of oats and oat-based products and its effect on the risk of chronic disease and deaths was performed. Seven studies were identified of cancer risk (two each on prostate and colorectal cancer, and one each on pancreatic, breast and endometrial cancer), and one study on overall mortality. With the exception of a case-control study of pancreatic cancer, all studies were of cohort design: five studies were based on a single cohort from Denmark. The results of most cohort studies suggest a weak protective effect of a high intake of oats on cancer risk (relative risks in the order of 0·9). Potential limitations of the studies are dietary exposure misclassification, low statistical power because of limited exposure contrast and residual confounding. Despite the evidence from experimental and mechanistic studies of a protective effect of oats intake on CVD and diabetes, no epidemiological studies have been conducted on these conditions.

  16. Factorial and Discriminant Validity of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orme, John G.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Examined the factorial and discriminant validity of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) scale for 116 parents participating in family support programs. Factorial validity was adequate, and results indicated a moderate correlation between the CES-D and self-esteem and state anxiety. However, a high correlation was obtained…

  17. Osteoarthritis of the first carpometacarpal joint: a study of radiology and clinical epidemiology:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne-Holm, Stig; Jacobsen, J

    2006-01-01

    Epidemiological studies show an increased prevalence of osteoarthritis of the knee and hand with increased body mass index [BMI]. Osteoarthritis of the hip joint is not related to BMI. The connection between obesity and osteoarthritis cannot exclusively be explained by genetic factors or by the a...

  18. Modelling indoor electromagnetic fields (EMF) from mobile phone base stations for epidemiological studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekhuizen, J.; Vermeulen, R.; van Eijsden, M.; van Strien, R.; Bürgi, A.; Loomans, E.; Guxens, M.; Kromhout, H.; Huss, A.

    2014-01-01

    Radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) from mobile phone base stations can be reliably modelled for outdoor locations, using 3D radio wave propagation models that consider antenna characteristics and building geometry. For exposure assessment in epidemiological studies, however, it is espec

  19. Epidemiological and virological characteristics of influenza B: results of the Global Influenza B Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caini, S.; Huang, Q.S.; Ciblak, M.A.; Kusznierz, G.; Owen, R.; Wangchuk, S.; Henriques, C.M.; Njouom, R.; Fasce, R.A.; Yu, H.; Feng, L.; Zambon, M.; Clara, A.W.; Kosasih, H.; Puzelli, S.; Kadjo, H.A.; Emukule, G.; Heraud, J.M.; Ang, L.W.; Venter, M.; Mironenko, A.; Brammer, L.; Mai, T.Q. le; Schellevis, F.; Plotkin, S.; Paget, J.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Literature on influenza focuses on influenza A, despite influenza B having a large public health impact. The Global Influenza B Study aims to collect information on global epidemiology and burden of disease of influenza B since 2000. METHODS: Twenty-six countries in the Southern (n =

  20. Epidemiological and virological characteristics of influenza B: results of the global influenza B study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caini, S.; Sue Huang, Q.; Ciblak, M.A.; Kusznierz, G.; Owen, R.; Wangchuk, S.; Henriques, C.M.P.; Njouom, R.; Fasce, R.A.; Yu, H.; Feng, L.; Zambon, M.; Clara, A.W.; Kosasih, H.; Puzelli, S.; Kasjo, H.A.; Emukule, G.; Hereaud, J.M.; Ang, L.W.; Venter, M.; Mironenko, A.; Brammer, L.; Mai, L.T.Q.; Schellevis, F.; Plotkin, S.; Paget, J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Literature on influenza focuses on influenza A, despite influenza B having a large public health impact. The Global Influenza B Study aims to collect information on global epidemiology and burden of disease of influenza B since 2000. Methods Twenty-six countries in the Southern (n = 5)

  1. Studies on the epidemiology of spear rot in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) in Suriname.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lande, van de H.L.

    1993-01-01

    The epidemiology of spear rot, an infectious disease of unknown etiology, was studied over 10 years at three government-owned oil palm plantations in Suriname. As with other and similar diseases, amarelecimento fatal in Brazil and pudrición del cogollo in Latin America, which too show rot and yellow

  2. Oral health status of adults in Southern Vietnam - a cross-sectional epidemiological study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen-Chau, T.; Witter, D.J.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Truong, N.B.; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Before strategies or protocols for oral health care can be advised at population level, epidemiological information on tooth decay patterns and its effects on oral function are indispensable. The aim of this study was to investigate influences of socio-demographic variables on the

  3. Polymerase chain reaction-mediated DNA fingerprinting for epidemiological studies on Campylobacter spp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giesendorf, B A; Goossens, H; Niesters, H G; Van Belkum, A; Koeken, A; Endtz, H P; Stegeman, H; Quint, W G

    1994-01-01

    The applicability of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-mediated DNA typing, with primers complementary to dispersed repetitive DNA sequences and arbitrarily chosen DNA motifs, to study the epidemiology of campylobacter infection was evaluated. With a single PCR reaction and simple gel electrophoresis,

  4. CIOMS stellt "International Guidelines for Ethical Review of Epidemiological Studies" zur Diskussion

    OpenAIRE

    Müller,W.

    2005-01-01

    Das Council for International Organisations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS) bei der WHO - in dem Deutschland durch die AWMF vertreten ist - erstellt derzeit eine Überarbeitung der erstmals 1991 verabschiedeten International Guidelines for Ethical Review of Epidemiological Studies. Alle interessierten Wissenschaftler aus dem Gesamtbereich der Medizin sind gebeten, ihre Anregungen bis Ende Oktober 2005 einzubringen.

  5. Epidemiological and virological characteristics of influenza B: results of the Global Influenza B Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caini, S.; Huang, Q.S.; Ciblak, M.A.; Kusznierz, G.; Owen, R.; Wangchuk, S.; Henriques, C.M.; Njouom, R.; Fasce, R.A.; Yu, H.; Feng, L.; Zambon, M.; Clara, A.W.; Kosasih, H.; Puzelli, S.; Kadjo, H.A.; Emukule, G.; Heraud, J.M.; Ang, L.W.; Venter, M.; Mironenko, A.; Brammer, L.; Mai, T.Q. le; Schellevis, F.; Plotkin, S.; Paget, J.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Literature on influenza focuses on influenza A, despite influenza B having a large public health impact. The Global Influenza B Study aims to collect information on global epidemiology and burden of disease of influenza B since 2000. METHODS: Twenty-six countries in the Southern (n = 5

  6. Polymerase chain reaction-mediated DNA fingerprinting for epidemiological studies on Campylobacter spp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giesendorf, B A; Goossens, H; Niesters, H G; Van Belkum, A; Koeken, A; Endtz, H P; Stegeman, H; Quint, W G

    The applicability of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-mediated DNA typing, with primers complementary to dispersed repetitive DNA sequences and arbitrarily chosen DNA motifs, to study the epidemiology of campylobacter infection was evaluated. With a single PCR reaction and simple gel electrophoresis,

  7. Developmental origins of adult diseases and neurotoxicity: Epidemiological and experimental studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fox, D.A.; Grandjean, P.; Groot, D. de; Paule, M.G.

    2012-01-01

    To date, only a small number of commercial chemicals have been tested and documented as developmental neurotoxicants. Moreover, an increasing number of epidemiological, clinical and experimental studies suggest an association between toxicant or drug exposure during the perinatal period and the deve

  8. Oral health status of adults in Southern Vietnam - a cross-sectional epidemiological study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen-Chau, T.; Witter, D.J.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Truong, N.B.; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Before strategies or protocols for oral health care can be advised at population level, epidemiological information on tooth decay patterns and its effects on oral function are indispensable. The aim of this study was to investigate influences of socio-demographic variables on the preval

  9. Studies on the epidemiology of spear rot in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) in Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lande, van de H.L.

    1993-01-01

    The epidemiology of spear rot, an infectious disease of unknown etiology, was studied over 10 years at three government-owned oil palm plantations in Suriname. As with other and similar diseases, amarelecimento fatal in Brazil and pudrición del cogollo in Latin America, which too show rot

  10. Epidemiological study of road traffic accident cases in Greater Noida: Hospital Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupali Roy

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Road accidents are associated with numerous problems each of which needs to be addressed separately [1]. Accidents, therefore, can be studied in terms of agent, host and environmental factors and epidemiologically classified into time, place and person distribution [2]. Objectives: 1.To assess the prevalence of RTAs coming to hospital and 2.To know the epidemiological factors related to RTAs and associated prevalence in hospital based study. Methodology: This cross sectional study was conducted at SMSR, Gr Noida, in 2012. The study group consisted of all the RTA victims reporting to casualty in the last one year. The victims of the accidents were interviewed on a pretested semi structured performa. Results: In that one year period total number of reported accident cases was 144. The age groups of the study subjects were between 13-65 years. Out of total study subjects, only 16 were female. Again out of the total accident cases 45% were attended by police and of all injured, 45.8% were driver by occupation (7% without driving license. Among these drivers, 11% were not attentive during driving because of various reasons. Ambulance services had reached in 46.5% cases. Fracture was the most common type (60% of injury among all types of injuries. Among the applicable population only 33% wore helmet or seat belts. Conclusions: Only half of the total accident cases were attended by police and again only half of them received ambulance services. One third injuries were because of not wearing seat belt and helmets.

  11. n4Studies: Sample Size Calculation for an Epidemiological Study on a Smart Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chetta Ngamjarus

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was to develop a sample size application (called “n4Studies” for free use on iPhone and Android devices and to compare sample size functions between n4Studies with other applications and software. Methods: Objective-C programming language was used to create the application for the iPhone OS (operating system while javaScript, jquery mobile, PhoneGap and jstat were used to develop it for Android phones. Other sample size applications were searched from the Apple app and Google play stores. The applications’ characteristics and sample size functions were collected. Spearman’s rank correlation was used to investigate the relationship between number of sample size functions and price. Results: “n4Studies” provides several functions for sample size and power calculations for various epidemiological study designs. It can be downloaded from the Apple App and Google play store. Comparing n4Studies with other applications, it covers several more types of epidemiological study designs, gives similar results for estimation of infinite/finite population mean and infinite/finite proportion from GRANMO, for comparing two independent means from BioStats, for comparing two independent proportions from EpiCal application. When using the same parameters, n4Studies gives similar results to STATA, epicalc package in R, PS, G*Power, and OpenEpi. Conclusion: “n4Studies” can be an alternative tool for calculating the sample size. It may be useful to students, lecturers and researchers in conducting their research projects.

  12. Epidemiological study on Clonorchis sinensis infection in Shenzhen area of Zhujiang delta in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Renli; Gao, Shitong; Geng, Yijie; Huang, Dana; Yu, Lei; Zhang, Shunxiang; Cheng, Jingquan; Fu, Yucai

    2007-06-01

    To study the transmission route and epidemiological features of Clonorchis sinensis infection in Shenzhen area, which is the biggest immigration city in the south of China, we examined 1,473 individuals (710 males and 763 females) to assess the current status of C. sinensis infection among the people in a village of Shenzhen in Zhujiang delta of Guangdong province, China. Freshwater snails, 630, of different species known as the first intermediate host of C. sinensis were collected and examined for cercaria infection, and 430 freshwater fishes of different species as the second intermediate host were examined for metacercaria infection. Among 1,473 people examined, 70 (4.75%) were found infected with C. sinensis. By counting eggs per gram feces (EPG), it was found that the intensity of infection in males was stronger than that of females, and the average EPG was 41.87 in all population. Snails, 1.15%, were infected with cercariae of C. sinensis. The average infection rate of freshwater fishes of 15 species with metacercariae of C. sinensis was 16.97%, and the carps reached the highest infection rate (40.74%). A questionnaire was designed with 12 questions covering socioeconomic conditions and human behavior, contamination of the environment, and fishponds. Of 1,473 interviewees, 54% did not know about fluke disease or its transmission route, 12% of those who knew about the fluke believed that the infection causes no harm or only slight harm to their health. Of the interviewees, 27%, ate raw fish at least one to two times per month. Of families, 5% used the same utensils for both raw fish and cooked food. Of the fishpond owners, 40% fed their fishes with feces of domestic animals and humans. All these factors of unhealthy behaviors, poor knowledge, inappropriate farming/fishery practices, and eating raw fish have made the prevalence of clonorchiasis increase in humans in the Shenzhen area. It is urgent to perform a control program, including health education

  13. Implementing a Graduate Certificate Program in Cardiovascular Epidemiology: The Jackson Heart Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda W. Campbell Jenkins

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Jackson Heart Study (JHS is committed to providing opportunities for expanding the understanding of the epidemiology, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. The JHS Graduate Training and Education Center (GTEC has initiated the Daniel Hale Williams Scholar (DHWS program where students are afforded the opportunity to interact with epidemiologists and other biomedical scientists to learn to identify, predict, and prevent cardiovascular disease using the Jackson Heart Study data. This study describes the structured programs developed by JHS GTEC seeking to alleviate the shortage of trained professionals in cardiovascular epidemiology by training graduate students while they complete their academic degrees. The DHWS program provides: (1 an enrichment curriculum; (2 a learning community; (3 quarterly seminars; and (4 a Summer Institute. Students attend enrichment activities comprising: (1 Applied Biostatistics; (2 Cardiovascular Disease Epidemiology; (3 Social Epidemiology; (4 Emerging Topics; and (5 Research Writing. Training focuses on developing proficiency in cardiovascular health knowledge. The DHWS program is a unique strategy for incorporating rigorous academic and career-focused training to graduate students and has enabled the acquisition of competencies needed to impact cardiovascular disease management programs.

  14. Implementing a Graduate Certificate Program in Cardiovascular Epidemiology: The Jackson Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell Jenkins, Brenda W; Addison, Clifton; Wilson, Gregory; Young, Lavon; Fields, Regina; Woodberry, Clevette; Payton, Marinelle

    2015-12-22

    The Jackson Heart Study (JHS) is committed to providing opportunities for expanding the understanding of the epidemiology, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. The JHS Graduate Training and Education Center (GTEC) has initiated the Daniel Hale Williams Scholar (DHWS) program where students are afforded the opportunity to interact with epidemiologists and other biomedical scientists to learn to identify, predict, and prevent cardiovascular disease using the Jackson Heart Study data. This study describes the structured programs developed by JHS GTEC seeking to alleviate the shortage of trained professionals in cardiovascular epidemiology by training graduate students while they complete their academic degrees. The DHWS program provides: (1) an enrichment curriculum; (2) a learning community; (3) quarterly seminars; and (4) a Summer Institute. Students attend enrichment activities comprising: (1) Applied Biostatistics; (2) Cardiovascular Disease Epidemiology; (3) Social Epidemiology; (4) Emerging Topics; and (5) Research Writing. Training focuses on developing proficiency in cardiovascular health knowledge. The DHWS program is a unique strategy for incorporating rigorous academic and career-focused training to graduate students and has enabled the acquisition of competencies needed to impact cardiovascular disease management programs.

  15. Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandenbroucke, Jan P; von Elm, Erik; Altman, Douglas G

    2014-01-01

    Much medical research is observational. The reporting of observational studies is often of insufficient quality. Poor reporting hampers the assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of a study and the generalisability of its results. Taking into account empirical evidence and theoretical conside......, and the associated Web site (http://www.strobe-statement.org/) should be helpful resources to improve reporting of observational research....... to the title, abstract, introduction, methods, results and discussion sections of articles. Eighteen items are common to cohort studies, case-control studies and cross-sectional studies and four are specific to each of the three study designs. The STROBE Statement provides guidance to authors about how...

  16. Periodontal infection and adverse pregnancy outcomes: a systematic review of epidemiological studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vettore Mario Vianna

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate analytical studies on periodontal disease as a possible risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcomes. A literature search of the MEDLINE, SciELO, and LILACS bibliographic databases and CAPES thesis database was conducted up to December 2005, covering epidemiological studies of periodontal disease and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Of the 964 papers identified, 36 analytical studies met the inclusion criteria. Twenty-six epidemiological studies reported associations between periodontal disease and adverse pregnancy outcomes. There was a clear heterogeneity between studies concerning measurement of periodontal disease and selection of type of adverse pregnancy outcome. Therefore no meta-analysis was performed. Most studies did not control for confounders, thus raising serious doubts about their conclusions. The methodological limitations of most studies did not allow conclusions concerning the effects of periodontal disease on adverse pregnancy outcomes. Larger and methodologically rigorous analytical studies using reliable outcomes and exposure measures are recommended.

  17. Epidemiological relationships of Campylobacter jejuni strains isolated from humans and chickens in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jae-Young; Kwon, Yong-Kuk; Wei, Bai; Jang, Hyung-Kwan; Lim, Suk-Kyung; Kim, Cheon-Hyeon; Jung, Suk-Chan; Kang, Min-Su

    2017-01-01

    Thirty-nine human isolates of Campylobacter jejuni obtained from a national university hospital during 2007-2010 and 38 chicken isolates of C. jejuni were collected from poultry farms during 2009-2010 in South Korea were used in this study. Campylobacter genomic species and virulence-associated genes were identified by PCR. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) were performed to compare their genetic relationships. All isolates were highly resistant to ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, and tetracycline. Of all isolates tested, over 94% contained seven virulence associated genes (flaA, cadF, racR, dnaJ, cdtA, cdtB, and cdtC). All isolates were classified into 39 types by PFGE clustering with 90% similarity. Some chicken isolates were incorporated into some PFGE types of human isolates. MLST analysis for the 39 human isolates and 38 chicken isolates resulted in 14 and 23 sequence types (STs), respectively, of which 10 STs were new. STs overlapped in both chicken and human isolates included ST-21, ST-48, ST-50, ST-51, and ST-354, of which ST-21 was the predominant ST in both human and chicken isolates. Through combined analysis of PFGE types and STs, three chicken isolates were clonally related to the three human isolates associated with food poisoning (VII-ST-48, XXII-ST-354, and XXVIII-ST-51). They were derived from geographically same or distinct districts. Remarkably, clonal spread of food poisoning pathogens between animals and humans was confirmed by population genetic analysis. Consequently, contamination of campylobacters with quinolone resistance and potential virulence genes in poultry production and consumption may increase the risk of infections in humans.

  18. Metabolic footprint of diabetes: a multiplatform metabolomics study in an epidemiological setting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten Suhre

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Metabolomics is the rapidly evolving field of the comprehensive measurement of ideally all endogenous metabolites in a biological fluid. However, no single analytic technique covers the entire spectrum of the human metabolome. Here we present results from a multiplatform study, in which we investigate what kind of results can presently be obtained in the field of diabetes research when combining metabolomics data collected on a complementary set of analytical platforms in the framework of an epidemiological study. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 40 individuals with self-reported diabetes and 60 controls (male, over 54 years were randomly selected from the participants of the population-based KORA (Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg study, representing an extensively phenotyped sample of the general German population. Concentrations of over 420 unique small molecules were determined in overnight-fasting blood using three different techniques, covering nuclear magnetic resonance and tandem mass spectrometry. Known biomarkers of diabetes could be replicated by this multiple metabolomic platform approach, including sugar metabolites (1,5-anhydroglucoitol, ketone bodies (3-hydroxybutyrate, and branched chain amino acids. In some cases, diabetes-related medication can be detected (pioglitazone, salicylic acid. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study depicts the promising potential of metabolomics in diabetes research by identification of a series of known and also novel, deregulated metabolites that associate with diabetes. Key observations include perturbations of metabolic pathways linked to kidney dysfunction (3-indoxyl sulfate, lipid metabolism (glycerophospholipids, free fatty acids, and interaction with the gut microflora (bile acids. Our study suggests that metabolic markers hold the potential to detect diabetes-related complications already under sub-clinical conditions in the general population.

  19. Metabolic Footprint of Diabetes: A Multiplatform Metabolomics Study in an Epidemiological Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhre, Karsten; Meisinger, Christa; Döring, Angela; Altmaier, Elisabeth; Belcredi, Petra; Gieger, Christian; Chang, David; Milburn, Michael V.; Gall, Walter E.; Weinberger, Klaus M.; Mewes, Hans-Werner; Hrabé de Angelis, Martin; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Kronenberg, Florian; Adamski, Jerzy; Illig, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Background Metabolomics is the rapidly evolving field of the comprehensive measurement of ideally all endogenous metabolites in a biological fluid. However, no single analytic technique covers the entire spectrum of the human metabolome. Here we present results from a multiplatform study, in which we investigate what kind of results can presently be obtained in the field of diabetes research when combining metabolomics data collected on a complementary set of analytical platforms in the framework of an epidemiological study. Methodology/Principal Findings 40 individuals with self-reported diabetes and 60 controls (male, over 54 years) were randomly selected from the participants of the population-based KORA (Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg) study, representing an extensively phenotyped sample of the general German population. Concentrations of over 420 unique small molecules were determined in overnight-fasting blood using three different techniques, covering nuclear magnetic resonance and tandem mass spectrometry. Known biomarkers of diabetes could be replicated by this multiple metabolomic platform approach, including sugar metabolites (1,5-anhydroglucoitol), ketone bodies (3-hydroxybutyrate), and branched chain amino acids. In some cases, diabetes-related medication can be detected (pioglitazone, salicylic acid). Conclusions/Significance Our study depicts the promising potential of metabolomics in diabetes research by identification of a series of known and also novel, deregulated metabolites that associate with diabetes. Key observations include perturbations of metabolic pathways linked to kidney dysfunction (3-indoxyl sulfate), lipid metabolism (glycerophospholipids, free fatty acids), and interaction with the gut microflora (bile acids). Our study suggests that metabolic markers hold the potential to detect diabetes-related complications already under sub-clinical conditions in the general population. PMID:21085649

  20. STROBE-AMS : recommendations to optimise reporting of epidemiological studies on antimicrobial resistance and informing improvement in antimicrobial stewardship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tacconelli, Evelina; Cataldo, Maria A; Paul, M; Leibovici, L; Kluytmans, Jan; Schröder, Wiebke; Foschi, Federico; De Angelis, Giulia; De Waure, Chiara; Cadeddu, Chiara; Mutters, Nico T; Gastmeier, Petra; Cookson, Barry

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To explore the accuracy of application of the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) tool in epidemiological studies focused on the evaluation of the role of antibiotics in selecting resistance, and to derive and test an extension of STROBE to impro

  1. An Epidemiological Profile Of Diabetes Mellitus Amongst High Risk Age Group - A Community Based Study

    OpenAIRE

    Nadeem Ahmad; Suresh Chandra; R P Sharma; J P Srivastava; S C Saxena

    2004-01-01

    Research Question : What is the epidemiological profile of Diabetes mellitus amongst high-risk age group population in urban and rural areas of Kanpur.Objectives : To study the prevalence, magnitude, possible associates and socio demographic variables related to Diabetes mellitus amongst the high risk age group population in urban and rural areas of Kanpur.Study Design : Cross-sectional study.Setting : The study was performed on five thousand population each in urban and rural areas of Kanpur...

  2. Epidemiologic characterization of human papillomavirus infection in rural Chaozhou, eastern Guangdong Province of China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human papilloma virus (HPV infection was the main cause of cervical cancer. There were only a few reports and detailed data about epidemiological research of HPV infection in rural population of China. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The cervical cells of rural Chaozhou women were collected, and multiplex real time PCR was firstly performed to detect high-risk HPV (HR-HPV infection, which could detect 13 types of HR-HPV (types 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, and 68. Then, HPV-positive samples were typed by HPV GenoArray test. RESULTS: HR-HPV DNA was detected by multiplex real time-PCR in 3830 of 48559 cases (7.89%. There was a peak incidence in age of 55-60 years group, and a lower incidence in who lived in plain group compared with suburban, mountain and seashore group. 3380 cases of HPV positive sample were genotyped, 11.01% (372/3380 cases could not be classified, among the typed 3008 cases, 101 cases were identified without HR-HPV type infection, 2907 cases were infected with one HR-HPV type at least, the 6 most common HR-HPV types in descending order of infection, were type 52 (33.4%, 16 (20.95%, 58 (15.93%, 33 (9.94%, 68 (9.22% and 18 (8.36%. The combined prevalence of HPV types 16 and 18 accounted for 28.52% of total infection. However, type 52 plus 58 presented 48.23% of total infection. 2209/2907 cases were infected with a single HPV type and 698/2907 cases were infected with multiple types, and multiple infection constituent ratio increased with age, with a peak incidence in age 55-60 years group. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings showed low prevalence of HPV vaccine types (16 and 18 and relatively high prevalence of HPV-52 and -58, support the hypothesis that the second-generation HPV vaccines including HPV-52 and -58 may offer higher protection for women in rural Guangdong Province.

  3. Epidemiologic studies of particulate matter and lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin-Ge Li; Xiang Gao

    2014-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) plays an important role in air pollution, especially in China. European and American researchers conducted several cohort-based studies to examine the potential relationship between PM and lung cancer and found a positive association between PM and lung cancer mortality. In contrast, the results regarding PM and lung cancer risk remain inconsistent. Most of the previous studies had limitations such as misclassification of PM exposure and residual confounders, diminishing the impact of their findings. In addition, prospective studies on this topic are very limited in Chinese populations. This is an important problem because China has one of the highest concentrations of PM in the world and has had an increased mortality risk due to lung cancer. In this context, more prospective studies in Chinese populations are warranted to investigate the relationship between PM and lung cancer.

  4. Study review : The European Nutrient Database (ENDB) for Nutritional Epidemiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charrondiere, U.R.; Vignat, J.; Moller, A.; Ireland, J.; Becker, W.; Church, S.; Farran, A.; Holden, J.; Klemm, C.; Linardou, A.; Mueller, D.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2002-01-01

    Food composition databases (FCDB), as well as standardized calculation procedures are required for international studies on nutrition and disease to calculate nutrient intakes across countries. Comparisons of national FCDBs have shown that major improvements are needed in standardization and documen

  5. Epidemiological studies of reproductive performance indicators in Swedish dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Löf, Emma

    2012-01-01

    Reproductive efficiency in dairy cows is a key factor for milk producers, and numerous studies have identified impaired reproductive performance as a major cause of reduced production efficiency in the dairy industry. The overall aim of this thesis was to gain knowledge of factors affecting the reproductive performance indicators currently used by herd advisory services and to find other, possibly more efficient, ways to measure reproductive performance in dairy cows. The studies include...

  6. An observational study on cough in children: epidemiology, impact on quality of sleep and treatment outcome

    OpenAIRE

    De Blasio, Francesco; Dicpinigaitis, Peter V; Bruce K Rubin; De Danieli, Gianluca; Lanata, Luigi; Zanasi, Alessando

    2012-01-01

    Background Cough is one of the most frequent symptoms in children and is the most common symptom for which children visit a health care provider. Methods This is an observational study on acute cough associated with upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) in children. The study evaluates the epidemiology and impact of cough on quality of sleep and children's activities, and the outcome of cough with antitussive treatments in pediatric routine clinical practice. Study assessments were perform...

  7. An epidemiological study on hearing loss and its demographic characteristics within Garhwal region of Uttarakhand

    OpenAIRE

    Ravindra Singh Bisht; Vikas Sikarwar; Richa Mina; Amit Arya

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hearing impaired cases attending ear, nose, and throat (ENT) OPD were assessed for hearing loss and associated factors of Garhwal region of Uttarakhand. There has not been any such study yet in this region. Objective: Epidemiological study to investigate the hearing loss and its associated diseases in general population Garhwal region of Uttarakhand reporting in ENT OPD. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective study carried out on OPD basis and a total of 300 patients were i...

  8. Epidemiology of recreational exposure to freshwater cyanobacteria – an international prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Burns John W; Fleming Lora E; Schluter Philip J; Webb Penelope M; Stewart Ian; Gantar Miroslav; Backer Lorraine C; Shaw Glen R

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Case studies and anecdotal reports have documented a range of acute illnesses associated with exposure to cyanobacteria and their toxins in recreational waters. The epidemiological data to date are limited; we sought to improve on the design of some previously conducted studies in order to facilitate revision and refinement of guidelines for exposure to cyanobacteria in recreational waters. Methods A prospective cohort study was conducted to investigate the incidence of ac...

  9. An observational study on cough in children: epidemiology, impact on quality of sleep and treatment outcome

    OpenAIRE

    De Blasio, Francesco; Dicpinigaitis, Peter V; Bruce K. Rubin; De Danieli, Gianluca; Lanata, Luigi; Zanasi, Alessando

    2012-01-01

    Background Cough is one of the most frequent symptoms in children and is the most common symptom for which children visit a health care provider. Methods This is an observational study on acute cough associated with upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) in children. The study evaluates the epidemiology and impact of cough on quality of sleep and children's activities, and the outcome of cough with antitussive treatments in pediatric routine clinical practice. Study assessments were perform...

  10. [Epidemiological study on respiratory effects of smoking in college students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozu, Y

    1993-06-01

    To study the influence of smoking on the respiratory system in adolescents, we conducted a prospective study to look into the respiratory symptoms, changes in ventilatory function, and levels of expired CO of both smoking and nonsmoking college students. The subjects were 56 male students who entered Akita University in 1986. Thirty of the participants were smokers at entrance whereas the rest who were nonsmokers, served as controls. The smokers started smoking at an average age of 17.6 +/- 0.9 years. Physical examinations at 8 points during the study were performed periodically in May and November for four years, from 1986 to 1989. From these studies, the following conclusions were obtained. 1) The prevalence of respiratory symptoms, especially phlegm, was higher among the smokers compared with the nonsmokers; the differences not being significant. Among both the smokers and nonsmokers, no prevalence of persistent cough and phlegm was observed during the study period. 2) There were no differences in the levels of %FVC and %V50 between the smokers and the nonsmokers at any point during the study period. The FEV1% levels for smokers were decreased progressively, and the differences became significant at the 7th and 8th tests (p significant at the 7th test (p statistically significant in any levels at the 7th and 8th tests. However, %V25 levels of the heavy smokers (15 significant at the 7th and 8th tests (p < 0.05). 4) Average expired CO concentrations of the smokers were 2.5-3.5 times higher than those of the nonsmokers during the study period, confirming exposure to tobacco smoke. These observations suggest that young smokers may develop obstructive changes, especially narrowed small airways during the first 5 years of exposure to tobacco smoke.

  11. Los Alamos National Laboratory: A guide to records series supporting epidemiologic studies conducted for the Department of Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this guide is to describe each series of records that pertains to the epidemiologic studies conducted by the Epidemiology Section of the Occupational Medicine Group (ESH-2) at the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in Los Alamos, New Mexico. The records described in this guide relate to occupational studies performed by the Epidemiology Section, including those pertaining to workers at LANL, Mound Plant, Oak Ridge Reservation, Pantex Plant, Rocky Flats Plant, and Savannah River Site. Also included are descriptions of other health-related records generated or collected by the Epidemiology Section and a small set of records collected by the Industrial Hygiene and Safety Group. This guide is not designed to describe the universe of records generated by LANL which may be used for epidemiologic studies of the LANL work force. History Associates Incorporated (HAI) prepared this guide as part of its work as the support services contractor for DOE`s Epidemiologic Records Inventory Project. This introduction briefly describes the Epidemiologic Records Inventory Project, HAI`s role in the project, the history of LANL the history and functions of LANL`s Health Division and Epidemiology Section, and the various epidemiologic studies performed by the Epidemiology Section. It provides information on the methodology that HAI used to inventory and describe records housed in the offices of the LANL Epidemiology Section in Technical Area 59 and at the LANL Records Center. Other topics include the methodology used to produce the guide, the arrangement of the detailed record series descriptions, and information concerning access to records repositories.

  12. Epidemiological trends of pediatric trauma: A single-center study of 791 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Sharma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the various epidemiological parameters that influence the causation of trauma as well as the consequent morbidity and mortality in the pediatric age group. Materials and Methods: A prospective study of 791 patients of less than 12 years age, was carried out over a period of 1 year (August 2009 to July 2010, and pediatric trauma trends, with regards to the following parameters were assessed: Age group, sex, mode of trauma, type of injury, place where the trauma occurred and the overall mortality as well as mortality. Results: Overall trauma was most common in the school-going age group (6-12 years, with male children outnumbering females in the ratio of 1.9:1. It was observed that orthopedic injuries were the most frequent (37.8% type of injuries, whereas fall from height (39.4%, road traffic accident (27.8% and burns (15.2% were the next most common modes of trauma. Home was found out to be the place where maximum trauma occurred (51.8%. Maximum injuries happened unintentionally (98.4%. Overall mortality was found out to be 6.4% (n = 51. Conclusions: By knowing the epidemiology of pediatric trauma, we conclude that majority of pediatric injuries are preventable and pediatric epidemiological trends differ from those in adults. Therefore, preventive strategies should be made in pediatric patients on the basis of these epidemiological trends.

  13. Severe acute maternal morbidity: study of epidemiology and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mridu Sinha

    2016-07-01

    Conclusions: Study of risk factors associated with SAMM can provide important contributions to improve quality of available health care system in order to achieve reduction in maternal mortality. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(7.000: 2141-2145

  14. Epidemiological Findings of Pervasive Developmental Disorders in a Venezuelan Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montiel-Nava, Cecilia; Pena, Joaquin A.

    2008-01-01

    The study aims to determine the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) for children receiving services in Maracaibo County, Venezuela. Children aged 3-9 with diagnosis of any ASD were recruited. We ascertained area, referral process, and definitions of ASD for each patient. A total of 430 children were identified, and 76.5 percent were…

  15. An epidemiological study of gammaglobulin levels in newborn calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobbelaar, P.; Noordhuizen, J.P.T.M.; Keulen, K.A.S. van

    1987-01-01

    The effect of various factors on serum gammaglobulin concentration in newborn dairy calves was studied in 181 calves on six commercial farms. The refractometer test for monitoring colostrum management was found to be a reliable, rapid and practical method up to 6 days after birth. The three factors,

  16. An Epidemiological Study on Pattern and Incidence of Mandibular Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subodh S. Natu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mandible is the second most common facial fracture. There has been a significant increase in the number of cases in recent years with the advent of fast moving automobiles. Mandibular fractures constitute a substantial proportion of maxillofacial trauma cases in Lucknow. This study was undertaken to study mandibular fractures clinicoradiologically with an aim to calculate incidence and study pattern and the commonest site of fractures in population in and around Lucknow. Patient presenting with history of trauma at various centers of maxillofacial surgery in and around Lucknow were included in this study. Detailed case history was recorded followed by thorough clinical examination, and radiological interpretation was done for establishing the diagnosis and the data obtained was analyzed statistically. Out of 66 patients with mandibular fractures, highest percentage was found in 21–30 years of age with male predominance. Road traffic accidents were the most common cause of fracture with parasymphysis being commonest site. Commonest combination was parasymphysis with subcondyle. There was no gender bias in etiology with number of fracture sites. The incidence and causes of mandibular fracture reflect trauma patterns within the community and can provide a guide to the design of programs geared toward prevention and treatment.

  17. Filaggrin and skin reactivity to irritants - Epidemiological and Experimental studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandier, Josefine

    2015-01-01

    hvorvidt dette også gør sig gældende for individer med filaggrinmutationer. Denne afhandling består af et epidemiologisk, et kliniskeksperimentelt og et biokemisk studie. Det første studie havde til hensigt at udforske mulige adfærdsændringer relateret til filaggrinmutationer samt børneeksem. Studiet tog...... faktor for udviklingen af håndeksem i voksenalderen. I det kliniskeksperimentelle studie undersøgte vi, om personer med filaggrin mutationer havde en voldsommere hudreaktion på en detergent, hvilket kunne forklare ovenstående adfærdsændring. Undersøgelsen omfattede 67 personer, som blev opdelt i fire...... øvrige grupper. I det biokemiske studie undersøgte vi mængden af filaggrinprotein i overhuden fra hudbiopsier taget fra den ovennævnte population. Vi tog en 4mm stansebiopsier før irritantudsættelse og tre biopsier i 0,50% SLS kammeret efter hhv. 1, 25 og 145 timer efter fjernelse af detergenten...

  18. Diet and overweight. Epidemiological studies on intake, environment and genetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, S.W. van den

    2016-01-01

    Aim and methods This thesis aimed to study the role of a wide range of dietary factors on the development of overweight from a population perspective. First, we estimated the energy gap, i.e. the excess daily energy intake over the daily energy expenditure, responsible for excess weight gain durin

  19. Dental trauma in association with maxillofacial fractures: an epidemiological study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruslin, M.; Wolff, J.; Boffano, P.; Brand, H.S.; Forouzanfar, T.

    2015-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to retrospectively investigate the incidence and associated factors of dental trauma in patients with maxillofacial fractures at the VU Medical Center in Amsterdam. Material and methods Data from 707 patients who were treated surgically for maxillofacial fractures were

  20. [Eco-epidemiology: towards epidemiology of complexity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizouarn, Philippe

    2016-05-01

    In order to solve public health problems posed by the epidemiology of risk factors centered on the individual and neglecting the causal processes linking the risk factors with the health outcomes, Mervyn Susser proposed a multilevel epidemiology called eco-epidemiology, addressing the interdependence of individuals and their connection with molecular, individual, societal, environmental levels of organization participating in the causal disease processes. The aim of this epidemiology is to integrate more than a level of organization in design, analysis and interpretation of health problems. After presenting the main criticisms of risk-factor epidemiology focused on the individual, we will try to show how eco-epidemiology and its development could help to understand the need for a broader and integrative epidemiology, in which studies designed to identify risk factors would be balanced by studies designed to answer other questions equally vital to public health.

  1. Suicide in patients with Parkinson's disease. An epidemiological study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E N; Wermuth, L; Stenager, Egon;

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the risk of suicide for patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) in Denmark compared with that in the background population. The study involved 458 patients with a PD diagnosis, 226 men and 232 women. The follow-up period to either death or end of follow......-up on December 31, 1990 was 0 to 17 years, mean 5.7 years. Deaths in the follow-up period amounted to 254, 135 men and 119 women. Two women committed suicide. The number of expected suicides was 1.06 for men and 0.55 for women, a total of 1.62. Neither for men nor for women was the difference between expected...... and observed suicides statistically significant....

  2. Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia: case control epidemiological study in Yorkshire.

    OpenAIRE

    Cartwright, R. A.; Bernard, S.M.; Bird, C. C.; Darwin, C. M.; O'Brien, C; Richards, I D; Roberts, B; McKinney, P A

    1987-01-01

    This is the second report of a large case control study of lymphoma/leukaemia occurring in Yorkshire during 1979-84, and deals with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia presenting either in its haematological (CLL) or more solid lymphomatous (malignant lymphoma-lymphocytic or MLL) forms. In all, 330 cases and 561 controls were interviewed. The results support the concept that CLL/MLL is a condition of multiple aetiologies with evidence for genetic predisposition through an excess of family cases, im...

  3. Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: case control epidemiological study in Yorkshire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, R A; McKinney, P A; O'Brien, C; Richards, I D; Roberts, B; Lauder, I; Darwin, C M; Bernard, S M; Bird, C C

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a case control study of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in the Yorkshire Health Region. In all, 437 cases and 724 controls were interviewed. Risk factors associated with past skin conditions, family history of cancer and infectious mononucleosis, aspects of social life and contact with wood dust and epoxy glues all emerge. A comparison of high and low grade morphological forms of disease reveal contrasting risks and suggest separate aetiologies for these conditions.

  4. Primary gout in Shantou: a clinical and epidemiological study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾庆馀; 王庆文; 陈韧; 肖征宇; 黄少弼; 许敬才

    2003-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the prevalence of primary gout in the Shantou area, China, and to understand its clinical features. Methods Samples from three surveys of the Chenghai across ten years were studied. Clinical, laboratory and radiology data of 419 cases of primary gout were collected and analyzed. Conclusions The prevalence of primary gout in Shantou area has been increasing in the last ten years. Changes in diet and lifestyle may be responsible for this rapid increase.

  5. Mental disorders and violence risk : epidemiological and clinical cohort studies

    OpenAIRE

    Moberg, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Violence morbidity and mortality has been increasingly recognized to be of importance for public health. The relationship between mental illness and violent crime is complex because of the involvement of several confounding risk factors. Aim The aim of this thesis was to study the risk of interpersonal violence and violent crime in common mental disorders with a focus on the effect of early risk factors, the relationship between interpersonal violence an...

  6. Oral pyogenic granuloma: a epidemiologic study of 191 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago de Santana SANTOS

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence of pyogenic granuloma and compare the data obtained with those of other reports in the worldliterature. Methods: The study material was surveyed from the records of patients with diagnosis of oral pyogenic granuloma, at the Oral Pathology Laboratory of the School of Dentistry of the University of Pernambuco, in the period from January 1992 to March 2007 (15 years. The following indicators were analyzed: gender, age group, race, anatomic location, diameter of lesions and presence of symptomatology.Results: Among the 5007 records in the laboratory, 3.81% corresponded to lesions diagnosed as oral pyogenic granuloma, in which 19.9% of the patients were in the second decade of life, 40.1% were white, the gingiva was the most affected location (77.9% and lesion of smaller diameter (0.1 to 2 cm were those most observed at the initial diagnosis. Conclusion: The clinical-pathological characteristics of oral pyogenic granuloma in the studied population are similar to those of other studies in the literature

  7. Infection by Leishmania infantum in cats: epidemiological study in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Sánchez, J; Acedo, C; Muñoz-Pérez, M; Pesson, B; Marchal, O; Morillas-Márquez, F

    2007-04-30

    More than 40 cases of feline leishmaniasis have been reported in the scientific literature. The influence of some immunodepressive conditions of viral origin, such as leukemia and feline immunodeficiency, are still unknown. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of Leishmania infection in cats and possible relations with these viral infections. Markers of Leishmania infection were searched in 183 cats from Southern Spain by IFAT, PCR, Giemsa stain and culture, with a follow-up of positive cats. Seropositivity was 60.0% (Ab titer > or =10) and 28.3% of animals presented Ab titers > or =40. Around 25.7% of the cats studied were parasitemic and some of them remained positive for months. Combining both data, 70.6% of the feline population was, or could be, infected. We observed a negative association between seropositivity to Leishmania and infection by FeLV. Hence, production of antibodies against the parasite appears to be compromised in cats with leukemia, which have a prevalence of 36% in our study. In contrast, we found no association with feline immunodeficiency. The results makes us doubt the value of conventional serological methods to detect active Leishmania infection in cats.

  8. [Dermato-epidemiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apfelbacher, C J; Diepgen, T L; Weisshaar, E

    2011-11-01

    Dermato-epidemiology is an important scientific discipline which investigates skin diseases using epidemiological methods. Epidemiology is the science of the distribution and determinants of disease in specified populations. We describe fundamental terms of dermato-epidemiology (measures of disease occurrence, measures of risk), different study types (observational studies, interventional studies), the selection of statistical tests, bias and confounding as well as the principles of evidence-based dermatology, and give illustrative examples.

  9. Perils and potentials of self-selected entry to epidemiological studies and surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Niels; Louis, Thomas A.

    2016-01-01

    Low front-end cost and rapid accrual make Web-based surveys and enrolment in studies attractive, but participants are often self-selected with little reference to a well-defined study base. Of course, high quality studies must be internally valid (validity of inferences for the sample at hand......), but Web-based enrolment reactivates discussion of external validity (generalization of within-study inferences to a target population or context) in epidemiology and clinical trials. Survey research relies on a representative sample produced by a sampling frame, prespecified sampling process and weighting...... that maps results to an intended population. In contrast, recent analytical epidemiology has shifted the focus away from survey-type representativity to internal validity in the sample. Against this background, it is a good time for statisticians to take stock of our role and position regarding surveys...

  10. Uses of available record systems in epidemiologic studies of reproductive toxicology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polednak, A.P.; Janerich, D.T.

    1983-01-01

    The uses of available record systems in epidemiologic studies of reproductive toxicology are described with reference to New York State. The available record systems (and relevant reproductive end points) described include: a newborn screening program for metabolic diseases and hemoglobinopathies (relevant to point mutations); chromosome registries and prenatal cytogenetics (for chromosome anomalies); live birth certificates (for birth defects, birthweight, sex ratio, etc); fetal death certificates (for spontaneous fetal deaths); and a statewide cancer registry (for childhood cancers and transplacental carcinogenesis). The uses and limitations of these record systems are discussed, along with examples of their use in descriptive and analytic epidemiologic studies. Descriptive studies outlined include investigations of temporal and geographic trends in birth defects, birth weight, and fetal deaths, with reference to environmental questions (eg, Love Canal, nuclear power plants). Analytic studies described concern parental occupation in relation to specific birth defects (neural tube defects and Down syndrome) and maternal use of contraceptive drugs.

  11. A clinico-epidemiological study of rescuer burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basra, Baljeet Kumar; Suri, Manav P; Patil, Nilesh; Atha, Ravish; Patel, Natvar; Sachde, Jayesh P; Shaikh, M F

    2014-08-01

    Rescuer burn is a relatively newer terminology introduced to define the burns sustained by a person attempting to rescue a primary burn victim. Few studies have been published thus far on this peculiar type of burns. Due to the general neglect of the rescuer burns victim and discontinuation of treatment in most cases, once the primary victim dies, the rescuer often ends up in badly infected wounds and has a delayed return to work. A prospective study was conducted at the B J Medical College and Civil Hospital, Ahmedabad from January 2009 to December 2012 on the rescuer burns patients treated in its burns and plastic surgery department. 3074 patients of burns received treatment during the period of study. Of these, 48 patients gave the history of sustaining burns while trying to rescue a burns victim. Male to female ratio of rescuers was approximately 7:1. It was significantly higher as compared to the ratio of 1:0.8 of females to male burn victims observed at our centre (p≤0.01). Average age of the rescuers was higher in males as compared to females but the difference was not significant (p≥0.05). Of the 45 cases of female primary burns victims, male rescuer was husband of the primary victim in 41/45 cases (91.1%), mother was rescuer in three cases (6.6% cases) and sister was rescuer in one case. Though multiple people came to rescue a burns victim, in all cases, it was seen that it was the first rescuer who sustained burns himself or herself. None of the rescuers had any knowledge of the techniques and precautions to be taken while performing a rescue operation irrespective of their education status, indirectly pointing to the lack of any teaching on burns rescue in the school education curriculum.

  12. Nationwide epidemiological study of severe gallstone disease in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Jou-Wei

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our study aimed to assess the nationwide trends in the incidence of severe gallstone disease in Taiwan among adults aged ≥20. Methods A retrospective longitudinal study was conducted using Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database collected during 1997–2005. Patients with incident severe gallstone disease (acute cholecystitis, biliary pancreatitis, acute cholangitis and gallstone-related procedures (elective and non-elective cholecystectomy, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography [ERCP] that led to hospital admission were identified using ICD-9-CM diagnostic and procedure codes. Annual incidence rates of gallstone-related complications and procedures were calculated and their 95% confidence intervals (CI were estimated assuming a Poisson distribution. Results The hospital admission rate for severe gallstone disease increased with advancing age and the age-standardized rate (95% CI per 1000 population was 0.60 (0.59–0.60 for men and 0.59 (0.59–0.60 for women. Men had a higher rate of acute cholecystitis, probably due to the substantially lower rate of elective cholecystectomy among men than women. For those aged 20–39, hospital admissions for all gallstone-related complications and procedures increased significantly. For those aged ≥60, incidences of biliary pancreatitis, acute cholangitis, and hospital admission for gallstone receiving ERCP increased significantly without substantial change in the incidence of acute cholecystitis and despite a decreased rate of elective cholecystectomy. Conclusion This population-based study found a substantial increase in the rate of admission for severe gallstone disease among those aged 20–39. Concurrently, the incidences of biliary pancreatitis and acute cholangitis have risen among those aged ≥60.

  13. CLINICAL AND EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF CUTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF PREGNANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharath Kumar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Pregnancy is a period of profound immunologic, endocr ine, metabolic and vascular changes which are tolerated by the body for a relatively short time. Almost all pregnant women (90% may develop both physiologic and pathologic changes in the skin, nails, and hair which should be recognized and appropriately m anaged 1 . Moreover, pregnancy modifies the course of a number of pre - existing dermatological conditions. AIMS: To find out the frequency and pattern of skin changes in pregnant women i.e. physiological skin changes, dermatoses modified by pregnancy and spec ific dermatoses of pregnancy . DESIGN: Prospective descriptive study . METHODS AND MATERIAL: A total of 300 pregnant women attending antenatal OPD and those admitted in wards having symptoms related to skin and mucosa, at tertiary care centre between June 20 11 and November 2012 were studied. Patients not willing to give informed consent were only excluded. . Detailed history, clinical examination and relevant investigations were done. RESULTS: In our study age distribution of pregnancy, was in range of 16 - 30 years. Most of the cases belonged to 2 nd and 3 rd trimester (93%. Pigmentary changes were the most common non specific pregnancy dermatosis, seen in almost all cases. Of these linea nigra (87% being the commonest. Overall 54 cases showed specific dermatos es of pregnancy. Of these the most common was prurigo of pregnancy (12% followed by pruritus of pregnancy (4%, PUPPP (2%. Among the other dermatological conditions, scabies (16% was the commonest. Fungal infections were seen in 14%, viral infections in 8% and bacterial infections in 5%. CONCLUSION: Majority of the dermatoses associated with pregnancy were observed in third trimester and among multigravidas. Pigmentary changes was the commonest physiological change observed. Prurigo of pregnancy was the commonest specific dermatosis of pregnancy. There were no cases of dermatoses modified during pregnancy

  14. Viral Warts-A Clinico-Epidemiological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laxmisha Chandrashekar

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Although clinical criteria, laboratory diagnosis and treatment are well established, scanty attention has been paid to prevalence and pattern of viral warts in India. HIV is widely prevalent and its influence on the number and morphology of viral warts has not yet been studied in our setup. Hence, this study was undertaken. One hindered and forty four cases of viral warts were studied between September 2000 and June 2002 at the department of Dermatology and STD, JIPMER, Pondicherry. These included 81childeren and 63 adults. In Children, viral warts were most commonly seen in the age group of 10to14 years (41.9%, whereas in adults, the most commonly seen in the age 14to20 years (46.03%. The average age at presentation was 11.5 years. The male to female ratio was 2.2 to 1 in children and 1.8 to 1 in adults. Family history of warts was observed in 27.7% of the cases. In children, multiple site involvement (62.9% was more common than single site involvement. The most commonly involved site was hand in children as also in adults. In adults, single site involvement (66.6%was more common than multiple site involvement. The most common type of wart seen in both children and adults was the common wart. Twenty percent of the cases showed koebnerization. Four cases were found to be seropositive for HIV infection, who were adult with genital warts, but florid manifestations were not seen.

  15. Epidemiological study of Rift Valley fever virus in Kigoma, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kifaro, Emmanuel G; Nkangaga, Japhet; Joshua, Gradson; Sallu, Raphael; Yongolo, Mmeta; Dautu, George; Kasanga, Christopher J

    2014-04-23

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is an acute, zoonotic viral disease caused by a Phlebovirus, which belongs to the Bunyaviridae family. Among livestock, outbreaks of the disease are economically devastating. They are often characterised by large, sweeping abortion storms and have significant mortality in adult livestock. The aim of the current study was to investigate RVFV infection in the Kigoma region, which is nestled under the hills of the western arm of the Great Rift Valley on the edge of Lake Tanganyika, Tanzania. A region-wide serosurvey was conducted on non-vaccinated small ruminants (sheep and goats, n = 411). Sera samples were tested for the presence of anti-RVFV antibodies and viral antigen, using commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, respectively. The overall past infections were detected in 22 of the 411 animals, 5.4% (Confidence Interval (CI) 95% = 3.5% - 8.1%). The Kigoma rural area recorded the higher seroprevalence of 12.0% (CI 95% = 7.3% - 18.3%; p 0.05) and the Kasulu district at 0.8% (CI 95% = 0.0% - 4.2%; p > 0.05). The prevalence was 12.5% and 4.7% for sheep and goats, respectively. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction results indicated that only eight samples were found to be positive (n = 63). This study has confirmed, for the first time, the presence of the RVFV in the Kigoma region four years after the 2007 epizootic in Tanzania. The study further suggests that the virus activity exists during the inter-epizootic period, even in regions with no history of RVFV.

  16. Characterizing human lung tissue microbiota and its relationship to epidemiological and clinical features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guoqin; Gail, Mitchell H; Consonni, Dario; Carugno, Michele; Humphrys, Michael; Pesatori, Angela C; Caporaso, Neil E; Goedert, James J; Ravel, Jacques; Landi, Maria Teresa

    2016-07-28

    The human lung tissue microbiota remains largely uncharacterized, although a number of studies based on airway samples suggest the existence of a viable human lung microbiota. Here we characterized the taxonomic and derived functional profiles of lung microbiota in 165 non-malignant lung tissue samples from cancer patients. We show that the lung microbiota is distinct from the microbial communities in oral, nasal, stool, skin, and vagina, with Proteobacteria as the dominant phylum (60 %). Microbiota taxonomic alpha diversity increases with environmental exposures, such as air particulates, residence in low to high population density areas, and pack-years of tobacco smoking and decreases in subjects with history of chronic bronchitis. Genus Thermus is more abundant in tissue from advanced stage (IIIB, IV) patients, while Legionella is higher in patients who develop metastases. Moreover, the non-malignant lung tissues have higher microbiota alpha diversity than the paired tumors. Our results provide insights into the human lung microbiota composition and function and their link to human lifestyle and clinical outcomes. Studies among subjects without lung cancer are needed to confirm our findings.

  17. Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia: case control epidemiological study in Yorkshire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, R A; Bernard, S M; Bird, C C; Darwin, C M; O'Brien, C; Richards, I D; Roberts, B; McKinney, P A

    1987-07-01

    This is the second report of a large case control study of lymphoma/leukaemia occurring in Yorkshire during 1979-84, and deals with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia presenting either in its haematological (CLL) or more solid lymphomatous (malignant lymphoma-lymphocytic or MLL) forms. In all, 330 cases and 561 controls were interviewed. The results support the concept that CLL/MLL is a condition of multiple aetiologies with evidence for genetic predisposition through an excess of family cases, immune perturbation demonstrated by excessive previous skin diseases and phenylbutazone use, and viral involvement shown by links with infectious diseases and multiple sclerosis.

  18. Prevalence of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Ramshir, Iran; an Epidemiological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vazirianzadeh B.* PhD,

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aims Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a prevalent parasitological disease with diverse clinical manifestations in Iran. Therefore, the present retrospective study carried out to describe the demographic features of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ramshir, Iran. Materials & Methods This descriptive study was performed on 136 cutaneous leishmaniasis patients whose data were recorded in the Ramshir health center during 2006-9. Demographic information of patients including age, sex, habitat and sites of lesions, month and years of incidence were recorded. The data were analyzed by SPSS 16 software. Findings Totally 79 patients (58.1% resided in urban areas and the born to 9 years (49.3% was recognized as the most infected age group. Hands (41.2% had the highest rates of cutaneous leishmaniasis lesions followed by face (36.0% and foot (22.8%. The maximum number of cutaneous leishmaniasis lesions was reported in March. Conclusion As cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ramshir seemed to be an endemic rural type, the appropriate preventing measures regarding to the rural cutaneous leishmaniasis should be considered to decrease incidence of the disease in the region.

  19. Epidemiological study of soft-tissue sarcomas in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bhatt, Nikita

    2015-11-21

    Soft-tissue sarcomas (STS) account for 1% of adult and 7% of pediatric malignancies. Histopathology and classification of these rare tumors requires further refinements. The aim of this paper is to describe the current incidence and survival of STS from 1994 to 2012 in Ireland and compare these with comparably coded international published reports. This is a retrospective, population study based on the data from the National Cancer Registry of Ireland (NCRI). Incidence and relative survival rates for STS in Ireland were generated. Incidence of STS based on gender, age and anatomical location was examined. Annual mean incidence rate (European Age Standardized) in Ireland between 1994 and 2012 was 4.48 ± 0.15 per 100,000 person-years. The overall relative 5-year survival rate of STS for the period 1994-2011 in Ireland was 56%, which was similar to that reported in the U.K. but lower than in most of Europe and U.S.A. Survival rate fluctuated over the period examined, declining slightly in females but showing an increase in males. STS incidence trends in Ireland were comparable to international reports. Survival trends of STS were significantly different between Ireland and other European countries, requiring further study to understand causation.

  20. AN EPIDEMIOLOGY AND MOLECULAR GENETIC STUDY ON BREAST CANCER SUSCEPTIBILITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾卫华; 王继先; 李本孝; 李征

    2000-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate the genetic susceptibility for breast cancer of Chinese, a hospital-based case-control study, pedigree survey and molecular genetic study were conducted. Methods. Logistic regression model and stratification methods were used in the risk factors analysis. Li-Mantel art and Falconer methods were used to analyze the segregation ratio and heritability. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis were used to detect AI, G-banding technique was used to detect the chromosome aberration of peripheral blood lymphocyte. Results. Family history of breast cancer is related to enhanced breast cancer risk significartly, OR is 3.905 ( 95 % CI = 1.079 ~ 14.13), and it widely interacts with other risk factors. Accumulative incidence of breast cancer in first degree relatives is 9.99%, which is larger than that in second, third degree and non-blood relatives. Segregation ratio is 0.021, heritability among first degree relatives is 35.6 ± 5.8%. Frequencies of LOH at BRCA1 and BRCA2 loci in sporadic breast cancer are 6.12% and 5.77% respectively. In the sibs, both of them show LOH at D13S173 locus, and high frequencies of chromosome aberrations were observed. Conclusions. Genetic susceptibility contributes to breast cancer occurrence of Chinese, and its racial variation may be one of the important reasons for the large difference of incidence between western and eastern countries.

  1. AN EPIDEMIOLOGY AND MOLECULAR GENETIC STUDY ON BREAST CANCER SUSCEPTIBILITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾卫华; 王继先; 李本孝; 李征

    2000-01-01

    Obieaites. To investigate the genetic susceptibility for breast cancer of Chinese, a hospital-besed case-control study, pedigree survey and molecular genetic study were conducted. Methods. Logistic regression model and stratification methods were used in the risk factors analysis. Li-Mantel-Gart and Falconer methods were used to analyze the segregation ratio and heritability. Polymemse chain reaction (PCR) and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis were used to detect AI, G-banding technique was used to detect the chromosome aberration of peripheral blood lymphocyte. Results. Family history of breast cancer is related to enhanced breast cancer risk significantly, OR is 3.905(95% CI = 1.079—14.13), and it widely interacts with other risk factors. Accumulative incidence of breast cancer in first degree relatives is 9.99%, which is larger than that in second, third degree and non-blnod relatives. Segregation ratio is 0.021, heritability among first degree relatives is 35.6 ± 5.8%. Frequencies of LDH at BRCA1 and BRCA2 loci in sporadic breast cancer are 6.12% and 5.77% respectively. In the sibs, both of them show LOH at D13S173 locus, and high frequencies of chromosome abermtions were observed.Condusions. Genetic susceptibility contributes to breast cancer occurrence of Chinese, and its racial variation may be one of the important reasons for the large difference of incidence between western and eastern countries.

  2. Epidemiological study of Rift Valley fever virus in Kigoma, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel G. Kifaro

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV is an acute, zoonotic viral disease caused by a  Phlebovirus, which belongs to the Bunyaviridae family. Among livestock, outbreaks of the disease are economically devastating. They are often characterised by large, sweeping abortion storms and have significant mortality in adult livestock. The aim of the current study was to investigate RVFV infection in the Kigoma region, which is nestled under the hills of the western arm of the Great Rift Valley on the edge of Lake Tanganyika, Tanzania. A region-wide serosurvey was conducted on non-vaccinated small ruminants (sheep and goats, n = 411. Sera samples were tested for the presence of anti-RVFV antibodies and viral antigen, using commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, respectively. The overall past infections were detected in 22 of the 411 animals, 5.4% (Confidence Interval (CI 95% = 3.5% – 8.1%. The Kigoma rural area recorded the higher seroprevalence of 12.0% (CI 95% = 7.3% – 18.3%; p < 0.0001, followed by Kibondo at 2.3% (CI 95% = 0.5% – 6.5%; p > 0.05 and the Kasulu district at 0.8% (CI 95% = 0.0% – 4.2%; p > 0.05. The prevalence was 12.5% and 4.7% for sheep and goats, respectively. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction results indicated that only eight samples were found to be positive (n = 63. This study has confirmed, for the first time, the presence of the RVFV in the Kigoma region four years after the 2007 epizootic in Tanzania. The study further suggests that the virus activity exists during the inter-epizootic period, even in regions with no history of RVFV.

  3. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL AND VECTOR IDENTIFICATION STUDIES ON CANINE BABESIOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. N. Bashir, Z. I. Chaudhry, S. Ahmed and M. A. Saeed

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Canine babesiosis is increasing in incidence and prevalence and is now a major problem in dogs. During this study, a total of 6204 dogs were examined for babesiosis over a 12 month period from January to December, 2006 in Lahore and 2.62% were found positive. The dogs were grouped on the basis of their age, sex and breed and season of the year. The male dogs were more prone to disease than female dogs (3.39 vs. 1.32%, whereas the incidence of disease was higher in younger dogs (6.9% than older age groups. Crossbreds were more prone to the infection (10.9% than purebreds. However, none of them were completely resistant. Warm and humid season played a key role in the spread of disease. Predominant vector of the disease was found to be Rhipicephalus species.

  4. [An epidemiologic study on low-birth-weight babies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, K

    1984-07-01

    A case-control study was made in Gunma Prefecture of 1,390 mothers of babies born weighing 2,500 grams or less and an equal number of mothers of 3,000-up to-4,000 gram babies matched by place and month of birth. A correlation was found between low-birth-weight babies and maternal age, stature, menstrual history and past history. The mother's occupation, educational career, smoking habits, amount of sleep each day, date of issue of the Mother's Handbook and the number of the periodical health examinations received can be listed as socio-medical factors. Bleeding and lower abdominal pain during pregnancy, anemia and toxemia of pregnancy are found as prenatal factors. Low-birth-weight babies are found to be correlated with multiple pregnancy, breech presentation, placenta previa and premature separation of the placenta, also.

  5. Important considerations for designing and reporting epidemiologic and clinical studies in dental traumatology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Lars; Andreasen, Jens O

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to suggest important considerations for epidemiologic and clinical studies in the field of dental traumatology. The article is based on the authors' experiences from research in this field and editorial board work for the scientific journal Dental Traumatology....... Examples are given of issues where development is important. The importance of planning ahead of the study and consulting with experts in other fields is emphasized....

  6. Molecular epidemiological study of Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii in Shenzhen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁训宏

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the epidemiological features of Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii isolated from clinical samples in Shenzhen and to elucidate the distribution of species,varieties,genotypes and mating types within the strains tested.Methods The strains involved in this study were 55 cryptococcal strains isolated from our clinical samples.The canavanine-glycine bromthymolblue(CGB)culture was performed to distinguish Cryptococcus neoformans from Cryptococcus gattii.The

  7. Epidemiological study of health hazards among workers handling engineered nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Saou-Hsing; Tsou, Tsui-Chun; Wang, Shu-Li; Li, Lih-Ann; Chiang, Hung-Che; Li, Wan-Fen; Lin, Pin-Pin; Lai, Ching-Huang; Lee, Hui-Ling; Lin, Ming-Hsiu; Hsu, Jin-Huei; Chen, Chiou-Rong; Shih, Tung-Sheng; Liao, Hui-Yi; Chung, Yu-Teh

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to establish and identify the health effect markers of workers with potential exposure to nanoparticles (20-100 nm) during manufacturing and/or application of nanomaterials. For this cross-sectional study, we recruited 227 workers who handled nanomaterials and 137 workers for comparison who did not from 14 plants in Taiwan. A questionnaire was used to collect data on exposure status, demographics, and potential confounders. The health effect markers were measured in the medical laboratory. Control banding from the Nanotool Risk Level Matrix was used to categorize the exposure risk levels of the workers. The results showed that the antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase (SOD) in risk level 1 (RL1) and risk level 2 (RL2) workers was significantly ( p RL1 > RL2). Another antioxidant, glutathione peroxidase (GPX), was significantly lower only in RL1 workers than in the control workers. The cardiovascular markers, fibrinogen and ICAM (intercellular adhesion molecule), were significantly higher in RL2 workers than in controls and a significant dose-response with an increasing trend was found for these two cardiovascular markers. Another cardiovascular marker, interleukin-6, was significantly increased among RL1 workers, but not among RL2 workers. The accuracy rate for remembering 7-digits and reciting them backwards was significantly lower in RL2 workers (OR = 0.48) than in controls and a significantly reversed gradient was also found for the correct rate of backward memory (OR = 0.90 for RL1, OR = 0.48 for RL2, p antioxidant enzymes and increased expression of cardiovascular markers were found among workers handling nanomaterials. Antioxidant enzymes, such as SOD and GPX, and cardiovascular markers, such as fibrinogen, ICAM, and interluekin-6, are possible biomarkers for medical surveillance of workers handling engineered nanomaterials.

  8. Epidemiological study of health hazards among workers handling engineered nanomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liou, Saou-Hsing, E-mail: shliou@nhri.org.tw; Tsou, Tsui-Chun; Wang, Shu-Li; Li, Lih-Ann; Chiang, Hung-Che; Li, Wan-Fen; Lin, Pin-Pin [National Health Research Institutes, Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, Taiwan (China); Lai, Ching-Huang [National Defense Medical Center, Department of Public Health, Taiwan (China); Lee, Hui-Ling [Fu Jen Catholic University, Department of Chemistry, Taiwan (China); Lin, Ming-Hsiu; Hsu, Jin-Huei; Chen, Chiou-Rong [Council of Labor Affairs, Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, Taiwan (China); Shih, Tung-Sheng [College of Public Health, China Medical University and Hospital, Institute of Environmental Health, Taiwan (China); Liao, Hui-Yi; Chung, Yu-Teh [National Health Research Institutes, Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, Taiwan (China)

    2012-08-15

    The aim of this study was to establish and identify the health effect markers of workers with potential exposure to nanoparticles (20-100 nm) during manufacturing and/or application of nanomaterials. For this cross-sectional study, we recruited 227 workers who handled nanomaterials and 137 workers for comparison who did not from 14 plants in Taiwan. A questionnaire was used to collect data on exposure status, demographics, and potential confounders. The health effect markers were measured in the medical laboratory. Control banding from the Nanotool Risk Level Matrix was used to categorize the exposure risk levels of the workers. The results showed that the antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase (SOD) in risk level 1 (RL1) and risk level 2 (RL2) workers was significantly (p < 0.05) lower than in control workers. A significantly decreasing gradient was found for SOD (control > RL1 > RL2). Another antioxidant, glutathione peroxidase (GPX), was significantly lower only in RL1 workers than in the control workers. The cardiovascular markers, fibrinogen and ICAM (intercellular adhesion molecule), were significantly higher in RL2 workers than in controls and a significant dose-response with an increasing trend was found for these two cardiovascular markers. Another cardiovascular marker, interleukin-6, was significantly increased among RL1 workers, but not among RL2 workers. The accuracy rate for remembering 7-digits and reciting them backwards was significantly lower in RL2 workers (OR = 0.48) than in controls and a significantly reversed gradient was also found for the correct rate of backward memory (OR = 0.90 for RL1, OR = 0.48 for RL2, p < 0.05 in test for trend). Depression of antioxidant enzymes and increased expression of cardiovascular markers were found among workers handling nanomaterials. Antioxidant enzymes, such as SOD and GPX, and cardiovascular markers, such as fibrinogen, ICAM, and interluekin-6, are possible biomarkers for medical surveillance of

  9. AN EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY, CLINICOPATHOLOGICAL CORRELATION AND MANAGEMENT OF DENGUE FEVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Dengue fever is an arthropod borne viral syndrome. OBJ ECTIVE: This study evaluated the newer signs and symptoms, to come to a bedside diagnosis of dengue fever and to predict the prognosis on the basis of clinical features and investigations. METHODS: This was a prospective study and included children aged u pto 15 years, admitted in the pediatric ward over 2 year period. Dengue like fever was defined according to WHO guidelines and then newer signs and symptoms and lab investigations were looked for,and treated symptomatically according to WHO guidelines. R ESULTS: Most of the children included were in the age group of 6 - 12 years with mean age being 5.3 years. Male to female ratio was 1.3:1 . Maximum patients were seen in winter with peak in October. Out of 90 children 13.3 % of DF , 48.89 % DHF, 37.78% DSS. The newer clinical features were found to were Pruritus (80%on recovery ,retro orbital pain(35%,Anorexia 68% ,Sore throat 30% , Fever(100%, Scrotal oedema (10%, Loose stools(20%, Cardiomyopathy (10%, Encephalopathy (1%, Menorrhagia(20%. One child had presented with Autism /ADHD on followup. Mortality rate 8.8% and all belonged to DSS group. Poor prognostic factors for death were vomiting, tachypnea ,convulsions, fluid collection in lungs, abdomen ,altered sensorium, convulsions , raised SGPT and s econdary infections.Fluid therapy (Oral / IV was used in all Platelets and blood transfusion was given in 20% and 13.3 % respectively. Ionotropes were used for DSS cases. CONCLUSIONS: The timely appropriate identification and timely management of Dengue fever go a long way in reducing mortality in dengue

  10. Validity of self reported male balding patterns in epidemiological studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leavy Justine E

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have investigated the association between male pattern baldness and disease such as prostate cancer and cardiovascular disease. Limitations in the lack of standardized instruments to measure male pattern baldness have resulted in researchers measuring balding patterns in a variety of ways. This paper examines the accuracy and reliability of assessment of balding patterns by both trained observers and men themselves, using the Hamilton-Norwood classification system. Methods An observational study was carried out in Western Australia with 105 male volunteers aged between 30 and 70 years. Participants completed a short questionnaire and selected a picture that best represented their balding pattern. Two trained data collectors also independently assessed the participant's balding pattern using the same system and the men's self assessment was compared with the trained observer's assessment. In a substudy, observers assessed the balding pattern in a photo of the man aged 35 years while the man independently rated his balding at that age. Results Observers were very reliable in their assessment of balding pattern (85% exact agreement, κ = 0.83. Compared to trained observers, men were moderately accurate in their self-assessment of their balding status (48–55% exact agreement, κ = 0.39–0.46. For the substudy the exact agreement between the men and the observers was 67% and the agreement within balding groups was 87%. Conclusions We recommend that male balding patterns be assessed by trained personnel using the Hamilton-Norwood classification system. Where the use of trained personnel is not feasible, men's self assessment both currently and retrospectively has been shown to be adequate.

  11. Myths and facts about vitiligo: An epidemiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suja Abraham

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitiligo is a pigmentary disorder associated with many disease conditions that necessitates multiple drug regimens, which make the treatment complicated. This stigmatic disease forces the patient to approach all system of medicines as well as alternative medicines of non proven value, which further worsens the situation. At the same time the nonadherence to the treatment reflects poor prognosis, which is misunderstood for lack of response resulting in poor faith to the medications. The aim of this work was to assess the patient compliance and the factors affecting, and to monitor the adverse effects as well as drug interactions. The study was carried out in the Institute of Applied Dermatology for a period of one year. Patient compliance was assessed using Morisky Medication Adherence Scale and found that 71% of the patients were low adherent to medications. Family support, faith in doctor, higher educational status and effectiveness of the treatment were some of the reasons for medication adherence whereas forgetfulness, feasibility, occupational problem, polypharmacy, longer duration of treatment and the feeling that the disease under is control were some of the reasons listed for nonadherence. Three adverse reactions were reported with narrow band ultraviolet B and topical tacrolimus therapy and they were categorized into possible and probable according to causality assessment by Naranjo scale. Five drug interactions were reported and the causality assessment was done using drug interaction probability scale. None of the reactions were serious or life threatening. The present study revealed the hurdles in providing safe and effective treatment to the patients and also it suggest the need of doing more research on this disease since there is a general belief that vitiligo is an incurable disease.

  12. Relative abundance of Mycobacterium bovis molecular types in cattle: a simulation study of potential epidemiological drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trewby, Hannah; Wright, David M; Skuce, Robin A; McCormick, Carl; Mallon, Thomas R; Presho, Eleanor L; Kao, Rowland R; Haydon, Daniel T; Biek, Roman

    2017-08-22

    The patterns of relative species abundance are commonly studied in ecology and epidemiology to provide insights into underlying dynamical processes. Molecular types (MVLA-types) of Mycobacterium bovis, the causal agent of bovine tuberculosis, are now routinely recorded in culture-confirmed bovine tuberculosis cases in Northern Ireland. In this study, we use ecological approaches and simulation modelling to investigate the distribution of relative abundances of MVLA-types and its potential drivers. We explore four biologically plausible hypotheses regarding the processes driving molecular type relative abundances: sampling and speciation; structuring of the pathogen population; historical changes in population size; and transmission heterogeneity (superspreading). Northern Irish herd-level MVLA-type surveillance shows a right-skewed distribution of MVLA-types, with a small number of types present at very high frequencies and the majority of types very rare. We demonstrate that this skew is too extreme to be accounted for by simple neutral ecological processes. Simulation results indicate that the process of MVLA-type speciation and the manner in which the MVLA-typing loci were chosen in Northern Ireland cannot account for the observed skew. Similarly, we find that pathogen population structure, assuming for example a reservoir of infection in a separate host, would drive the relative abundance distribution in the opposite direction to that observed, generating more even abundances of molecular types. However, we find that historical increases in bovine tuberculosis prevalence and/or transmission heterogeneity (superspreading) are both capable of generating the skewed MVLA-type distribution, consistent with findings of previous work examining the distribution of molecular types in human tuberculosis. Although the distribution of MVLA-type abundances does not fit classical neutral predictions, our simulations show that increases in pathogen population size and

  13. Clinical and epidemiological characteristics of patients with syphilis: 5 year-case study from Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeyaphan, Charussri; Jiamton, Sukhum; Prasertworonun, Nuntida; Maneeprasopchoke, Pitchaya; Omcharoen, Viboon

    2014-09-01

    Syphilis has been increasing dramatically worldwide since 2000, especially among men who have sex with men (MSM), and in those with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. However most previous reports studied about prevalence and riskfactors ofsyphilis in MSMpopulation without statistical comparison with non-MSMpopulation. The present study aimed to describe epidemiological trends, clinical manifestations, laboratory investigation, treatment, and HIV co-infection in patients diagnosed with syphilis, including statistical evaluation these data between MSMand non-MSM as well as HIV and non-HIVpopulations. This was a retrospective medical records review ofpatients diagnosed with syphilis who attended Sexual Transmitted Diseases (STD) clinic between January 2008 and December 2012. Demographic data, clinical manifestations, HIVstatus, VDRL titer; and treatment regimens were collected. Of the 922 patients that attended the STD clinic, 143 syphilis patients were recruited with an overall prevalence of 15.5%. Twenty-six patients were MSM and 31 were HIV infected patients. Prevalence rate of syphilis in MSMand HIV infected patients were 2.8% and 3.4%, respectively. Prevalence had upward trend that startedfrom 2008 and reachedpeak in 2011. When taking MSMinto account, MSMsignificantly had younger age than non-MSM Early stage ofsyphilis, VDRL titer higher than 1:32 at diagnosis, and MSMpopulation were significantly associated with HIV-positivity among syphilis patients. Regarding treatment ofsyphilis, median time to cure syphilis was 117 days (95% confidence interval = 93-141). Treatment regimen, MSM and HIVco-infection did not significantly show influence on duration to cure. Prevalence ofsyphilis has been continuously increasing. MSM with syphilis significantly associated with younger age. Moreover, early stage of syphilis, VDRL titer higher than 1:32, and MSMpopulation were significantly related with HIVinfection. Treatment regimen, MSM and HIVco-infection did not

  14. International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    The InterLymph Consortium, or formally the International Consortium of Investigators Working on Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Epidemiologic Studies, is an open scientific forum for epidemiologic research in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

  15. A CASE-CONTROL EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDY OF ENDOMETRIOSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩美玲; 潘凌亚; 吴葆桢; 边旭明

    1994-01-01

    A case-control study involving 203 cases of pelvic endometriosis seen from 1987-1989,and 406 randomly selected and age-matched community controls was conducted in order to provide information relevant to effective prophylxaix of the disease.The diagnosis was confirmed by pathology from laparotomy and/or laproscopy.A questionnaire focused on menstrual,marital and reproductive status,professional exposurs and physical activities,and the results were analyzed by a conditional logistic regression model.Women characterized by earlier menarche (≤12 years)and longer period(≥8 days)were found to be saaociated with an elevated incurring risk,and a trend of increasing risk associated with primary dysmenorrhea(RR=2.1 for mild to moderate and RR=5.2 for severe dysmenorrhea),energetic physical activity during menstruation(RR=2.1),and allergic diathesis (RR=1.8)was seen.An inverse relationship was observed between the number of pregnancies and risk of endometrio-sis,and the protective effect was most significant when only the number of full-term pregnancies was counted.The risk factors of endometriosis are discussed,and intensive treatment of primary dysmenorrhea and avoidance of strenuous exercise during menstruation are identified as important as important measures in the prevention of endometriosis.

  16. Gender differences in suicide attempters in Hungary: retrospective epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekete, Sandor; Voros, Viktor; Osvath, Peter

    2005-04-01

    To determine gender differences in suicidal behavior and investigate the factors associated with suicide attempts. In the framework of the WHO/Euro Multicenter Study on Suicidal Behavior, 1,158 suicide attempts have been registered and analyzed retrospectively in Pecs center, Hungary. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis were performed to compare the characteristics of male and female suicide attempters. A "typical" female suicide attempter could be characterized as follows: retired or economically inactive (OR=2.38), widowed (OR=6.55), divorced (OR=1.64), or with depression in her personal history (OR=1.27). Female attempters were mainly repeaters, using the method of self-poisoning, mostly with benzodiazepines. Among men, unemployment, living alone, never having been married, and problems with addiction were the main risk factors, while violent methods characterized the typical attempt In the cases of self-poisoning, men were more likely to take meprobamate or carbamazepine. Significant differences were found in the risk factors for suicide attempts between men and women. Since suicide is a multi-causal phenomenon, its therapy and prevention should be complex and gender differences should be taken into consideration while building up our helping strategies.

  17. Epidemiological Study of Animal Leptospirosis in New Caledonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cédric Roqueplo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is an important zoonotic disease in the world and a real public health concern for many years in New Caledonia. A cross-sectional survey was carried out on domestic and wild animals from New Caledonia in April 2009. Blood samples were collected from 30 cattle, 29 deers, (Cervus timorensis russa, 25 horses, 51 dogs, and 8 cats and were tested for 23 serovars of pathogenic Leptospira species by the microscopic agglutination test. From the total number of 143 samples, 84 (58.7% were found to be positive towards one or several serovars of pathogenic leptospires. According to the species, the positive sera were obtained from 43% of 30 cattle, 72% of 29 Rusa deer, 80% of 25 horses, and 43% of 51 dogs, and fromall of the 8 cats tested. This study shows the broad dispersion and the high prevalence of the different serogroups of pathogenic Leptospira species tested, particularly among deer and horses. The disease is endemic in domestic animals and concerns all the species.

  18. An epidemiologic and traumatologic study of injuries in handball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, A B; Yde, J

    1988-10-01

    To identify the risk factors of injuries in handball, 221 players were followed during one indoor season. The injury incidence was 4.6/1000 playing hours and 11.4/1000 game hours. The upper extremity was involved in 41% of the injuries including 21% finger sprains. Ankle sprains were the most common injury (33%), and overuse injuries accounted for 18%. The risk of reinjury was 32%. Contact with opponent players during running or shooting caused 31% of the injuries. Errors during grasping the ball were the reason for most of the finger injuries. Forty percent of the injuries was treated by the players themselves. After the injury 73% were absent from handball for more than 1 week. Forty-one percent of the injured players had complaints 6 months after the end of the season. The study shows that injuries in handball are serious and cause extensive consequences for the players. In most of the injuries both intrinsic and extrinsic factors were involved, and prophylactic intervention in these cases demands changes in more fields.

  19. Thyroid Cancer Epidemiology in Iran: a Time Trend Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safavi, Ali; Azizi, Fereidoun; Jafari, Rozita; Chaibakhsh, Samira; Safavi, Amir Ali

    2016-01-01

    Considering the rising incidence of thyroid cancer worldwide, the aim of our study was to investigate the temporal trends in the incidence of this cancer in a large population of Iranian patients. We used the Iran Cancer Data System (ICDS) Registry to assess the thyroid cancer trend from 2004 to 2010 with regard to different genders, age groups, and morphologies. To do this we analyzed the data of 10,913 new cases of thyroid cancer that occurred during these years. The incidence rate (per one year) of thyroid cancer was 2.20 per 100,000 persons between 2004 and 2010 in Iran. Papillary thyroid cancer was the most common histology type, with an annual rate of 0.29 in Iran. The highest rate of prevalence in thyroid cancer was observed at the age of 45 years at the time of diagnosis. We found a female-to-male ratio of 2 in Iran. A significant decrease was detected in the trend of thyroid cancer in children <19y, which was not correlated to the trend of older patients. As expected, the trend of thyroid cancer increased over the 7 years, primarily contributed by papillary thyroid cancer. A rising pattern of incidence was seen in all the age groups except patients aged under 19 years.

  20. The utility of web mining for epidemiological research: studying the association between parity and cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourassi, Georgia; Yoon, Hong-Jun; Xu, Songhua; Han, Xuesong

    2016-05-01

    The World Wide Web has emerged as a powerful data source for epidemiological studies related to infectious disease surveillance. However, its potential for cancer-related epidemiological discoveries is largely unexplored. Using advanced web crawling and tailored information extraction procedures, the authors automatically collected and analyzed the text content of 79 394 online obituary articles published between 1998 and 2014. The collected data included 51 911 cancer (27 330 breast; 9470 lung; 6496 pancreatic; 6342 ovarian; 2273 colon) and 27 483 non-cancer cases. With the derived information, the authors replicated a case-control study design to investigate the association between parity (i.e., childbearing) and cancer risk. Age-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for each cancer type and compared to those reported in large-scale epidemiological studies. Parity was found to be associated with a significantly reduced risk of breast cancer (OR = 0.78, 95% CI, 0.75-0.82), pancreatic cancer (OR = 0.78, 95% CI, 0.72-0.83), colon cancer (OR = 0.67, 95% CI, 0.60-0.74), and ovarian cancer (OR = 0.58, 95% CI, 0.54-0.62). Marginal association was found for lung cancer risk (OR = 0.87, 95% CI, 0.81-0.92). The linear trend between increased parity and reduced cancer risk was dramatically more pronounced for breast and ovarian cancer than the other cancers included in the analysis. This large web-mining study on parity and cancer risk produced findings very similar to those reported with traditional observational studies. It may be used as a promising strategy to generate study hypotheses for guiding and prioritizing future epidemiological studies. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Problems and benefits reported by stroke family caregivers: results from a prospective epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, William E; Allen, Jessica Y; Grant, Joan S; Clay, Olivio J; Perkins, Martinique; Roth, David L

    2009-06-01

    Stroke symptoms can be very stressful for family caregivers, but most knowledge about the prevalence and stressfulness of stroke-related patient problems is derived from convenience samples. In addition, little is known about perceived benefits of the stroke caregiving experience. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and stressfulness of stroke-related problems, and perceived benefits of caregiving, as reported by an epidemiologically derived sample of caregivers of stroke survivors. Stroke survivors (N=75) from a prospective epidemiological study of stroke, the REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study, and their family caregivers were followed. Caregivers were given a comprehensive telephone interview 8 to 12 months after the stroke, using measures of stroke patient problems, caregiver appraisals of the stressfulness of these problems, and perceived benefits of caregiving. Caregivers rated patient problems with mood (depression, loneliness and anxiety), memory, and physical care (bowel control), as the most stressful, but reported prevalence of these problems was lower than those reported previously in studies using clinical samples. Caregivers also reported many benefits from caregiving, with over 90% reporting that caregiving enabled them to appreciate life more. Epidemiologically based studies of stroke caregiving provide a unique picture of caregiver strains and benefits compared with clinical studies, which tend to over-represent more impaired patients. Support for caregivers should include interventions to aid their coping with highly stressful mood, physical care, and cognitive problems of stroke patients, but should also attend to perceived benefits of caregiving.

  2. A Systematic Review of the Comparative Epidemiology of Avian and Human Influenza A H5N1 and H7N9 - Lessons and Unanswered Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, C; Bethmont, A; Chughtai, A A; Gardner, L; Sarkar, S; Hassan, S; Seale, H; MacIntyre, C R

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this work was to explore the comparative epidemiology of influenza viruses, H5N1 and H7N9, in both bird and human populations. Specifically, the article examines similarities and differences between the two viruses in their genetic characteristics, distribution patterns in human and bird populations and postulated mechanisms of global spread. In summary, H5N1 is pathogenic in birds, while H7N9 is not. Yet both have caused sporadic human cases, without evidence of sustained, human-to-human spread. The number of H7N9 human cases in the first year following its emergence far exceeded that of H5N1 over the same time frame. Despite the higher incidence of H7N9, the spatial distribution of H5N1 within a comparable time frame is considerably greater than that of H7N9, both within China and globally. The pattern of spread of H5N1 in humans and birds around the world is consistent with spread through wild bird migration and poultry trade activities. In contrast, human cases of H7N9 and isolations of H7N9 in birds and the environment have largely occurred in a number of contiguous provinces in south-eastern China. Although rates of contact with birds appear to be similar in H5N1 and H7N9 cases, there is a predominance of incidental contact reported for H7N9 as opposed to close, high-risk contact for H5N1. Despite the high number of human cases of H7N9 and the assumed transmission being from birds, the corresponding level of H7N9 virus in birds in surveillance studies has been low, particularly in poultry farms. H7N9 viruses are also diversifying at a much greater rate than H5N1 viruses. Analyses of certain H7N9 strains demonstrate similarities with engineered transmissible H5N1 viruses which make it more adaptable to the human respiratory tract. These differences in the human and bird epidemiology of H5N1 and H7N9 raise unanswered questions as to how H7N9 has spread, which should be investigated further.