WorldWideScience

Sample records for human environmental exposure

  1. Environmental chemical exposures and human epigenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Lifang; Zhang, Xiao; Wang, Dong; Baccarelli, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Every year more than 13 million deaths worldwide are due to environmental pollutants, and approximately 24% of diseases are caused by environmental exposures that might be averted through preventive measures. Rapidly growing evidence has linked environmental pollutants with epigenetic variations, including changes in DNA methylation, histone modifications and microRNAs. Environ mental chemicals and epigenetic changes All of these mechanisms are likely to play important roles in disease aetiology, and their modifications due to environmental pollutants might provide further understanding of disease aetiology, as well as biomarkers reflecting exposures to environmental pollutants and/or predicting the risk of future disease. We summarize the findings on epigenetic alterations related to environmental chemical exposures, and propose mechanisms of action by means of which the exposures may cause such epigenetic changes. We discuss opportunities, challenges and future directions for future epidemiology research in environmental epigenomics. Future investigations are needed to solve methodological and practical challenges, including uncertainties about stability over time of epigenomic changes induced by the environment, tissue specificity of epigenetic alterations, validation of laboratory methods, and adaptation of bioinformatic and biostatistical methods to high-throughput epigenomics. In addition, there are numerous reports of epigenetic modifications arising following exposure to environmental toxicants, but most have not been directly linked to disease endpoints. To complete our discussion, we also briefly summarize the diseases that have been linked to environmental chemicals-related epigenetic changes. PMID:22253299

  2. Biomonitoring human exposure to environmental carcinogenic chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farmer, P.B.; Sepai, O.; Lawrence, R.

    1996-01-01

    aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges) and mutation frequency was estimated at a number of loci including the hprt gene and genes involving in cancer development. Blood and urine samples from individuals exposed to urban pollution were collected. Populations exposed through occupational or medical......A coordinated study was carried out on the development, evaluation and application of biomonitoring procedures for populations exposed to environmental genotoxic pollutants. The procedures used involved both direct measurement of DNA or protein damage (adducts) and assessment of second biological...... for detecting carcinogen-induced damage to DNA and proteins, and subsequent biological effects. These methods were validated with the occupational exposures, which showed evidence of DNA and/or protein and/or chromosome damage in workers in a coke oven plant, garage workers exposed to diesel exhaust and workers...

  3. Susceptibility of human populations to environmental exposure to organic contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Undeman, Emma; Brown, Trevor N; Wania, Frank; McLachlan, Michael S

    2010-08-15

    Environmental exposure to organic contaminants is a complex function of environmental conditions, food chain characteristics, and chemical properties. In this study the susceptibility of various human populations to environmental exposure to neutral organic contaminants was compared. An environmental fate model and a linked bioaccumulation model were parametrized to describe ecosystems in different climatic regions (temperate, arctic, tropical, and steppe). The human body burden resulting from constant emissions of hypothetical chemicals was estimated for each region. An exposure susceptibility index was defined as the body burden in the region of interest normalized to the burden of the same chemical in a reference human from the temperate region eating an average diet. For most persistent chemicals emitted to air, the Arctic had the highest susceptibility index (max 520). Susceptibility to exposure was largely determined by the food web properties. The properties of the physical environment only had a marked effect when air or water, not food, was the dominant source of human exposure. Shifting the mode of emission markedly changed the relative susceptibility of the ecosystems in some cases. The exposure arising from chemical use clearly varies between ecosystems, which makes an understanding of ecosystem susceptibility to exposure important for chemicals management.

  4. Biomonitoring human exposure to environmental carcinogenic chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farmer, P.B.; Sepai, O.; Lawrence, R.;

    1996-01-01

    A coordinated study was carried out on the development, evaluation and application of biomonitoring procedures for populations exposed to environmental genotoxic pollutants. The procedures used involved both direct measurement of DNA or protein damage (adducts) and assessment of second biological...

  5. Biomonitoring human exposure to environmental carcinogenic chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farmer, P.B.; Sepai, O.; Lawrence, R.; Autrup, H.; Nielsen, P.S.; Baan, R.A.; Delft, J.H.M. van; Steenwinkel, M.J.S.T.; et al.

    1996-01-01

    A coordinated study was carried out on the development, evaluation and application of biomonitoring procedures for populations exposed to environmental genotoxic pollutants. The procedures used involved both direct measurement of DNA or protein damage (adducts) and assessment of secondary biological

  6. Perspectives for integrating human and environmental exposure assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciffroy, P; Péry, A R R; Roth, N

    2016-10-15

    Integrated Risk Assessment (IRA) has been defined by the EU FP7 HEROIC Coordination action as "the mutual exploitation of Environmental Risk Assessment for Human Health Risk Assessment and vice versa in order to coherently and more efficiently characterize an overall risk to humans and the environment for better informing the risk analysis process" (Wilks et al., 2015). Since exposure assessment and hazard characterization are the pillars of risk assessment, integrating Environmental Exposure assessment (EEA) and Human Exposure assessment (HEA) is a major component of an IRA framework. EEA and HEA typically pursue different targets, protection goals and timeframe. However, human and wildlife species also share the same environment and they similarly inhale air and ingest water and food through often similar overlapping pathways of exposure. Fate models used in EEA and HEA to predict the chemicals distribution among physical and biological media are essentially based on common properties of chemicals, and internal concentration estimations are largely based on inter-species (i.e. biota-to-human) extrapolations. Also, both EEA and HEA are challenged by increasing scientific complexity and resources constraints. Altogether, these points create the need for a better exploitation of all currently existing data, experimental approaches and modeling tools and it is assumed that a more integrated approach of both EEA and HEA may be part of the solution. Based on the outcome of an Expert Workshop on Extrapolations in Integrated Exposure Assessment organized by the HEROIC project in January 2014, this paper identifies perspectives and recommendations to better harmonize and extrapolate exposure assessment data, models and methods between Human Health and Environmental Risk Assessments to support the further development and promotion of the concept of IRA. Ultimately, these recommendations may feed into guidance showing when and how to apply IRA in the regulatory decision

  7. Environmental pathways and human exposure to manganese in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NADIR HERMES

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of environmental pathways and human exposure to Manganese (Mn in Southern Brazil was performed using two steps. The first step consisted of taking water samples from the surface of the Pardinho River. The average results from this technique showed a significant increase of pollutants, including increased levels of Mn, above the environmentally acceptable standard recommended by the Brazilian National Environment Council. Additionally, 64 soil samples were taken from areas with and without agricultural activity. Many results were above the mean crust and did not indicate significant differences of Mn levels between the sampled areas. For the second step, 12 families were selected and assessed for exposure to Mn in a region with high levels of Mn in the soil. Most of the analyzed foods contained amounts of Mn above the reference values, indicating that food can be an important source of exposure. The Mn content from the hair of most subjects studied was also high compared to reference values from non-exposed populations. Although the contamination appeared to come from a natural origin, the results found in the present study showed that the Mn levels present in the Pardinho River Basin are a relevant public health issue.

  8. Developing a Salivary Antibody Multiplex Immunoassay to Measure Human Exposure to Environmental Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    The etiology and impacts of human exposure to environmental pathogens are of major concern worldwide and, thus, the ability to assess exposure and infections using cost effective, high-throughput approaches would be indispensable. The principal objective of this work is to devel...

  9. Human exposure to environmental health concern by types of urban environment: The case of Tel Aviv.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell, Izhak; Potchter, Oded; Yaakov, Yaron; Epstein, Yoram

    2016-01-01

    This study classifies urban environments into types characterized by different exposure to environmental risk factors measured by general sense of discomfort and Heart Rate Variability (HRV). We hypothesize that a set of environmental factors (micro-climatic, CO, noise and individual heart rate) that were measured simultaneously in random locations can provide a better understanding of the distribution of human exposure to environmental loads throughout the urban space than results calculated based on measurements from close fixed stations. We measured micro-climatic and thermal load, CO and noise, individual Heart Rate, Subjective Social Load and Sense of Discomfort (SD) were tested by questionnaire survey. The results demonstrate significant differences in exposure to environmental factors among 8 types of urban environments. It appears that noise and social load are the more significant environmental factors to enhance health risks and general sense of discomfort.

  10. GLI3 Links Environmental Arsenic Exposure and Human Fetal Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily F. Winterbottom

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Although considerable evidence suggests that in utero arsenic exposure affects children's health, these data are mainly from areas of the world where groundwater arsenic levels far exceed the World Health Organization limit of 10 μg/L. We, and others, have found that more common levels of in utero arsenic exposure may also impact children's health. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. To address this issue, we analyzed the expression of key developmental genes in fetal placenta in a birth cohort of women using unregulated water supplies in a US region with elevated groundwater arsenic. We identified several genes whose expression associated with maternal arsenic exposure in a fetal sex-specific manner. In particular, expression of the HEDGEHOG pathway component, GLI3, in female placentae was both negatively associated with arsenic exposure and positively associated with infant birth weight. This suggests that modulation of GLI3 in the fetal placenta, and perhaps in other fetal tissues, contributes to arsenic's detrimental effects on fetal growth. We showed previously that arsenic-exposed NIH3T3 cells have reduced GLI3 repressor protein. Together, these studies identify GLI3 as a key signaling node that is affected by arsenic, mediating a subset of its effects on developmental signaling and fetal health.

  11. GLI3 Links Environmental Arsenic Exposure and Human Fetal Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterbottom, Emily F; Fei, Dennis L; Koestler, Devin C; Giambelli, Camilla; Wika, Eric; Capobianco, Anthony J; Lee, Ethan; Marsit, Carmen J; Karagas, Margaret R; Robbins, David J

    2015-06-01

    Although considerable evidence suggests that in utero arsenic exposure affects children's health, these data are mainly from areas of the world where groundwater arsenic levels far exceed the World Health Organization limit of 10 μg/L. We, and others, have found that more common levels of in utero arsenic exposure may also impact children's health. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. To address this issue, we analyzed the expression of key developmental genes in fetal placenta in a birth cohort of women using unregulated water supplies in a US region with elevated groundwater arsenic. We identified several genes whose expression associated with maternal arsenic exposure in a fetal sex-specific manner. In particular, expression of the HEDGEHOG pathway component, GLI3, in female placentae was both negatively associated with arsenic exposure and positively associated with infant birth weight. This suggests that modulation of GLI3 in the fetal placenta, and perhaps in other fetal tissues, contributes to arsenic's detrimental effects on fetal growth. We showed previously that arsenic-exposed NIH3T3 cells have reduced GLI3 repressor protein. Together, these studies identify GLI3 as a key signaling node that is affected by arsenic, mediating a subset of its effects on developmental signaling and fetal health.

  12. Environmental Hexachlorobenzene exposure and human male reproductive function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Specht, Ina Olmer; Bonde, Jens Peter Ellekilde; Toft, Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) is a persistent environmental fungicide that may disrupt androgen regulation. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between HCB levels and biomarkers of male reproductive function. 589 Spouses of pregnant women from Greenland, Poland and Ukraine were enroll...

  13. Probabilistic integrated risk assessment of human exposure risk to environmental bisphenol A pollution sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Keng-Yen; Cheng, Yi-Hsien; Chio, Chia-Pin; Liao, Chung-Min

    2016-10-01

    Environmental bisphenol A (BPA) exposure has been linked to a variety of adverse health effects such as developmental and reproductive issues. However, establishing a clear association between BPA and the likelihood of human health is complex yet fundamentally uncertain. The purpose of this study was to assess the potential exposure risks from environmental BPA among Chinese population based on five human health outcomes, namely immune response, uterotrophic assay, cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes, and behavior change. We addressed these health concerns by using a stochastic integrated risk assessment approach. The BPA dose-dependent likelihood of effects was reconstructed by a series of Hill models based on animal models or epidemiological data. We developed a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model that allows estimation of urinary BPA concentration from external exposures. Here we showed that the daily average exposure concentrations of BPA and urinary BPA estimates were consistent with the published data. We found that BPA exposures were less likely to pose significant risks for infants (0-1 year) and adults (male and female >20 years) with human long-term BPA susceptibility in relation to multiple exposure pathways, and for informing the public of the negligible magnitude of environmental BPA pollution impacts on human health.

  14. Concentrations of environmental organic contaminants in meat and meat products and human dietary exposure: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingo, José L

    2017-09-01

    Meat and meat products is one of the most relevant food groups in an important number of human diets. Recently, the IARC, based on results of a number of epidemiological studies, classified the consumptions of red meat and processed meat as "probably carcinogenic to humans" and as "carcinogenic to humans", respectively. It was suggested that the substances responsible of the potential carcinogenicity would be mainly generated during meat processing, such as curing and smoking, or when meat is heated at high temperatures. However, the exposure to environmental pollutants through meat consumption was not discussed. The purpose of the present paper was to review recent studies reporting the concentrations of PCDD/Fs, DL-PCBs and PAHs in meat and meat products, as well as the human exposure to these pollutants through the diet. It is concluded that the health risks derived from exposure to carcinogenic environmental contaminants must be considered in the context of each specific diet, which besides meat and meat products, includes other foodstuffs containing also chemical pollutants, some of them with carcinogenic potential. Anyhow, meat and meat products are not the main food group responsible of the dietary exposure to carcinogenic (or probably carcinogenic) environmental organic pollutants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Metabolic profiling detects early effects of environmental and lifestyle exposure to cadmium in a human population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellis James K

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 'exposome' represents the accumulation of all environmental exposures across a lifetime. Top-down strategies are required to assess something this comprehensive, and could transform our understanding of how environmental factors affect human health. Metabolic profiling (metabonomics/metabolomics defines an individual's metabolic phenotype, which is influenced by genotype, diet, lifestyle, health and xenobiotic exposure, and could also reveal intermediate biomarkers for disease risk that reflect adaptive response to exposure. We investigated changes in metabolism in volunteers living near a point source of environmental pollution: a closed zinc smelter with associated elevated levels of environmental cadmium. Methods High-resolution 1H NMR spectroscopy (metabonomics was used to acquire urinary metabolic profiles from 178 human volunteers. The spectral data were subjected to multivariate and univariate analysis to identify metabolites that were correlated with lifestyle or biological factors. Urinary levels of 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine were also measured, using mass spectrometry, as a marker of systemic oxidative stress. Results Six urinary metabolites, either associated with mitochondrial metabolism (citrate, 3-hydroxyisovalerate, 4-deoxy-erythronic acid or one-carbon metabolism (dimethylglycine, creatinine, creatine, were associated with cadmium exposure. In particular, citrate levels retained a significant correlation to urinary cadmium and smoking status after controlling for age and sex. Oxidative stress (as determined by urinary 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine levels was elevated in individuals with high cadmium exposure, supporting the hypothesis that heavy metal accumulation was causing mitochondrial dysfunction. Conclusions This study shows evidence that an NMR-based metabolic profiling study in an uncontrolled human population is capable of identifying intermediate biomarkers of response to toxicants at true environmental

  16. A comprehensive assessment of human exposure to phthalates from environmental media and food in Tianjin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yaqin; Wang, Fumei; Zhang, Leibo; Shan, Chunyan; Bai, Zhipeng; Sun, Zengrong; Liu, Lingling; Shen, Boxiong

    2014-08-30

    A total of 448 samples including foodstuffs (rice, steamed bun, vegetables, meat, poultry, fish, milk and fruits), ambient PM10, drinking water, soil, indoor PM10 and indoor dust samples from Tianjin were obtained to determine the distribution of six priority phthalates (PAEs) and assess the human exposure to them. The results indicated that DBP and DEHP were the most frequently detected PAEs in these samples. The concentrations of PAEs in environmental media were higher than those in food. We estimated the daily intake (DI) of PAEs via ingestion, inhalation and dermal absorption from five sources (food, water, air, dust and soil). Dietary intake was the main exposure source to DEP, BBP, DEHP and DOP, whereas water ingestion/absorption was the major source of exposure to DBP, DEHP and DOP. Although food and water were the overwhelmingly predominant sources of PAEs intake by Tianjin population, contaminated air was another important source of DMP, DEP and DBP contributing to up to 45% of the exposure. The results of this study will help in understanding the major pathways of human exposure to PAEs. These findings also suggest that human exposure to phthalate esters via the environment should not be overlooked.

  17. Environmental exposure to human carcinogens in teenagers and the association with DNA damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franken, Carmen; Koppen, Gudrun; Lambrechts, Nathalie

    2017-01-01

    Background We investigated whether human environmental exposure to chemicals that are labeled as (potential) carcinogens leads to increased (oxidative) damage to DNA in adolescents. Material and methods Six hundred 14–15-year-old youngsters were recruited all over Flanders (Belgium) and in two...... areas with important industrial activities. DNA damage was assessed by alkaline and formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (Fpg) modified comet assays in peripheral blood cells and analysis of urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels. Personal exposure to potentially carcinogenic compounds...... was measured in urine, namely: chromium, cadmium, nickel, 1-hydroxypyrene as a proxy for exposure to other carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), t,t-muconic acid as a metabolite of benzene, 2,5-dichlorophenol (2,5-DCP), organophosphate pesticide metabolites, and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP...

  18. Assessment of human exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebret, E. [RIVM-National Inst. of Public Health and Environmental Protection (Netherlands)

    1995-12-31

    This article describes some of the features of the assessment of human exposure to environmental pollutants in epidemiological studies. Since exposure assessment in air pollution epidemiology studies typically involve professionals from various backgrounds, interpretation of a concepts like `exposure` may vary. A brief descriptions is therefore given by way of introduction

  19. Evolution of environmental exposure science: Using breath-borne biomarkers for “discovery” of the human exposome

    Science.gov (United States)

    According to recent research, 70-90% of long-term latency and chronic human disease incidence is attributable to environmental (human exposome) factors through the gene x environment interaction. Environmental exposures are complex and involve many thousands of chemicals, a mult...

  20. Evolution of environmental exposure science: Using breath-borne biomarkers for “discovery” of the human exposome

    Science.gov (United States)

    According to recent research, 70-90% of long-term latency and chronic human disease incidence is attributable to environmental (human exposome) factors through the gene x environment interaction. Environmental exposures are complex and involve many thousands of chemicals, a mult...

  1. Epidemiology of environmental exposures and human autoimmune diseases: findings from a National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Expert Panel Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Frederick W; Alfredsson, Lars; Costenbader, Karen H; Kamen, Diane L; Nelson, Lorene M; Norris, Jill M; De Roos, Anneclaire J

    2012-12-01

    Autoimmune diseases (AID) are a collection of many complex disorders of unknown etiology resulting in immune responses to self-antigens and are thought to result from interactions between genetic and environmental factors. Here we review the epidemiologic evidence for the role of environmental factors in the development of human AID, the conclusions that can be drawn from the existing data, critical knowledge gaps, and research needed to fill these gaps and to resolve uncertainties. We specifically summarize the state of knowledge and our levels of confidence in the role of specific agents in the development of autoimmune diseases, and we define the areas of greatest impact for future investigations. Among our consensus findings we are confident that: 1) crystalline silica exposure can contribute to the development of several AID; 2) solvent exposure can contribute to the development of systemic sclerosis; 3) smoking can contribute to the development of seropositive rheumatoid arthritis; and 4) an inverse association exists between ultraviolet radiation exposure and the risk of development of multiple sclerosis. We suggest that more studies of phenotypes, genotypes, and multiple exposures are needed. Additional knowledge gaps needing investigation include: defining important windows in the timing of exposures and latencies relating to age, developmental state, and hormonal changes; understanding dose-response relationships; and elucidating mechanisms for disease development. Addressing these essential issues will require more resources to support research, particularly of rare AID, but knowledge of the risks conferred by environmental factors in specific genetic contexts could pave the way for prevention of AID in the future.

  2. Heavy metals in human teeth dentine: A bio-indicator of metals exposure and environmental pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaduzzaman, Khandoker; Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Binti Baharudin, Nurul Atiqah; Amin, Yusoff Bin Mohd; Farook, Mohideen Salihu; Bradley, D A; Mahmoud, Okba

    2017-06-01

    With rapid urbanization and large-scale industrial activities, modern human populations are being increasingly subjected to chronic environmental heavy metal exposures. Elemental uptake in tooth dentine is a bioindicator, the uptake occurring during the formation and mineralization processes, stored to large extent over periods of many years. The uptake includes essential elements, most typically geogenic dietary sources, as well as non-essential elements arising through environmental insults. In this study, with the help of the Dental Faculty of the University of Malaya, a total of 50 separate human teeth were collected from dental patients of various ethnicity, age, gender, occupation, dietary habit, residency, etc. Analysis was conducted using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), most samples indicating the presence of the following trace elements, placed in order of concentration, from least to greatest: As, Mn, Ba, Cu, Cr, Pb, Zn, Hg, Sb, Al, Sr, Sn. The concentrations have been observed to increase with age. Among the ethnic groups, the teeth of ethnic Chinese showed marginally greater metal concentrations than those of the Indians and Malays, the teeth dentine of females generally showing greater concentrations than that of males. Greater concentrations of Hg, Cu and Sn were found in molars while Pb, Sr, Sb and Zn were present in greater concentrations in incisors. With the elevated concentration levels of heavy metals in tooth dentine reflecting pollution from industrial emissions and urbanization, it is evident that human tooth dentine can provide chronological information on exposure, representing a reliable bio-indicator of environmental pollution.

  3. Climate Change Impacts on Environmental and Human Exposure to Mercury in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundseth, Kyrre; Pacyna, Jozef M.; Banel, Anna; Pacyna, Elisabeth G.; Rautio, Arja

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews information from the literature and the EU ArcRisk project to assess whether climate change results in an increase or decrease in exposure to mercury (Hg) in the Arctic, and if this in turn will impact the risks related to its harmful effects. It presents the state-of-the art of knowledge on atmospheric mercury emissions from anthropogenic sources worldwide, the long-range transport to the Arctic, and it discusses the likely environmental fate and exposure effects on population groups in the Arctic under climate change conditions. The paper also includes information about the likely synergy effects (co-benefits) current and new climate change polices and mitigation options might have on mercury emissions reductions in the future. The review concludes that reductions of mercury emission from anthropogenic sources worldwide would need to be introduced as soon as possible in order to assure lowering the adverse impact of climate change on human health. Scientific information currently available, however, is not in the position to clearly answer whether climate change will increase or decrease the risk of exposure to mercury in the Arctic. New research should therefore be undertaken to model the relationships between climate change and mercury exposure. PMID:25837201

  4. Human Exposure Database System (HEDS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Human Exposure Database System (HEDS) provides public access to data sets, documents, and metadata from EPA on human exposure. It is primarily intended for...

  5. The effect of environmental exposure to pyrethroids and DNA damage in human sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurewicz, Joanna; Radwan, Michał; Wielgomas, Bartosz; Sobala, Wojciech; Piskunowicz, Marta; Radwan, Paweł; Bochenek, Michał; Hanke, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate whether environmental exposure to pyrethroids was associated with sperm DNA damage. Between January 2008 and April 2011 286 men under 45 years of age with a normal sperm concentration of 15-300 10(6)/ml [WHO 2010] were recruited from an infertility clinic in Lodz, Poland. Participants were interviewed and provided urine, saliva, and semen samples. The pyrethroids metabolites: 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3PBA), cis-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane carboxylic acid (CDCCA), trans-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane carboxylic acid (TDCCA), and cis-2,2-dibromovinyl-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-carboxylic acid (DBCA) were analyzed in the urine using a validated gas chromatography ion-tap mass spectrometry method. Sperm DNA damage was assessed using a flow cytometry based on sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA). A positive association was observed between CDCCA >50th percentile and the percentage of medium DNA fragmentation index (M DFI) and percentage of immature sperms (HDS) (p = 0.04, p = 0.04 respectively). The level of 3PBA >50th percentile in urine was positively related to the percentage of high DNA fragmentation index (H DFI) (p = 0.03). The TDCCA, DBCA levels, and the sum of pyrethroid metabolites were not associated with any sperm DNA damage measures. Our results suggest that environmental pyrethroid exposure may affect sperm DNA damage measures index indicated the reproductive effects of pyrethroid exposure on adult men. In view of the importance of human reproductive health and the widespread usage of pyrethroids, it is important to further investigate these correlations.

  6. Immunoassays and Biosensors for Monitoring Environmental and Human Exposure to Pyrethroid Insecticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Ki Chang; Kim, Hee-Joo; Mccoy, Mark R.; Gee, Shirley J.; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2010-01-01

    This manuscript describes some of the early work on pyrethroid insecticides in the Casida laboratory and briefly reviews the development and application of immunochemical approaches for the detection of pyrethroid insecticides and their metabolites for monitoring environmental and human exposure. Multiple technologies can be combined to enhance the sensitivity and speed of immunochemical analysis. The pyrethroid assays are used to illustrate the use of some of these immunoreagents such as antibodies, competitive mimics, and novel binding agents such as phage-displayed peptides. We also illustrate reporters such as fluorescent dyes, chemiluminescent compounds, and luminescent lanthanide nanoparticles, as well as the application of magnetic separation, and automatic instrumental systems, biosensor and novel immunological technologies. These new technologies alone and in combination result in an improved ability to determine both if effective levels of pyrethroids are being used in the field as well as evaluate possible contamination. PMID:21105656

  7. Genetic and environmental exposures constrain epigenetic drift over the human life course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sonia; McRae, Allan F; Marioni, Riccardo E; Harris, Sarah E; Gibson, Jude; Henders, Anjali K; Redmond, Paul; Cox, Simon R; Pattie, Alison; Corley, Janie; Murphy, Lee; Martin, Nicholas G; Montgomery, Grant W; Starr, John M; Wray, Naomi R; Deary, Ian J; Visscher, Peter M

    2014-11-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation (DNAm) are essential for regulation of gene expression. DNAm is dynamic, influenced by both environmental and genetic factors. Epigenetic drift is the divergence of the epigenome as a function of age due to stochastic changes in methylation. Here we show that epigenetic drift may be constrained at many CpGs across the human genome by DNA sequence variation and by lifetime environmental exposures. We estimate repeatability of DNAm at 234,811 autosomal CpGs in whole blood using longitudinal data (2-3 repeated measurements) on 478 older people from two Scottish birth cohorts--the Lothian Birth Cohorts of 1921 and 1936. Median age was 79 yr and 70 yr, and the follow-up period was ∼10 yr and ∼6 yr, respectively. We compare this to methylation heritability estimated in the Brisbane Systems Genomics Study, a cross-sectional study of 117 families (offspring median age 13 yr; parent median age 46 yr). CpG repeatability in older people was highly correlated (0.68) with heritability estimated in younger people. Highly heritable sites had strong underlying cis-genetic effects. Thirty-seven and 1687 autosomal CpGs were associated with smoking and sex, respectively. Both sets were strongly enriched for high repeatability. Sex-associated CpGs were also strongly enriched for high heritability. Our results show that a large number of CpGs across the genome, as a result of environmental and/or genetic constraints, have stable DNAm variation over the human lifetime. Moreover, at a number of CpGs, most variation in the population is due to genetic factors, despite some sites being highly modifiable by the environment.

  8. The potential utility of animal poisoning data to identify human exposure to environmental toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hungerford, L L; Trammel, H L; Clark, J M

    1995-04-01

    The database of the National Animal Poison Control Center (NAPCC) was evaluated as a source for animal poison data indicating human health hazards in indoor and outdoor environments. From 14,150 calls in the 1985 database, 259 cases were identified with histories suggesting human exposure. A subgroup of 25 cases with known human exposure was found. Dogs were the most common sentinel animal, but bird cases represented the highest proportional selection from the total 1985 call list. Indoor exposures represented 43.2% of cases; the most common toxicants were insecticides, lead and toxic fumes. Exposures associated with lawns were mainly due to insecticides and herbicides and constituted 25.5% of cases. Other outdoor exposures composed the remaining 31.7% of cases, with insecticides, herbicides and unidentified toxins the leading categories. Many of the specific agents identified, such as organophosphate insecticides, lead, gas and fume toxins, and phenoxy herbicides are also risk factors in human diseases. This study indicates that databases such as NAPCC could serve as sources of sentinel animal intoxications for followup studies to evaluate known and potential human health hazards.

  9. Environmental and human exposure to persistent halogenated compounds derived from e-waste in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Hong-Gang; Zeng, Hui; Tao, Shu; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2010-06-01

    Various classes of persistent halogenated compounds (PHCs) can be released into the environment due to improper handling and disposal of electronic waste (e-waste), which creates severe environmental problems and poses hazards to human health as well. In this review, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), polybrominated phenols (PBPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs), and chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (ClPAHs) are the main target contaminants for examination. As the world's largest importer and recycler of e-waste, China has been under tremendous pressure to deal with this huge e-waste situation. This review assesses the magnitude of the e-waste problems in China based on data obtained from the last several years, during which many significant investigations have been conducted. Comparative analyses of the concentrations of several classes of toxic compounds, in which e-waste recycling sites are compared with reference sites in China, have indicated that improper e-waste handling affects the environment of dismantling sites more than that of control sites. An assessment of the annual mass loadings of PBDEs, PBBs, TBBPA, PBPs, PCDD/Fs, and ClPAHs from e-waste in China has shown that PBDEs are the dominant components of PHCs in e-waste, followed by ClPAHs and PCDD/Fs. The annual loadings of PBDEs, ClPAHs, and PCDD/Fs emission were estimated to range from 76,200 to 182,000, 900 to 2,000 and 3 to 8 kg/year, respectively. However, PCDD/Fs and ClPAHs should not be neglected because they are also primarily released from e-waste recycling processes. Overall, the magnitude of human exposure to these toxics in e-waste sites in China is at the high end of the global range. Copyright 2010 SETAC.

  10. Biomarkers of environmental benzene exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weisel, C.; Yu, R.; Roy, A.; Georgopoulos, P. [Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, Piscataway, NJ (United States)

    1996-12-01

    Environmental exposures to benzene result in increases in body burden that are reflected in various biomarkers of exposure, including benzene in exhaled breath, benzene in blood and urinary trans-trans-muconic acid and S-phenylmercapturic acid. A review of the literature indicates that these biomarkers can be used to distinguish populations with different levels of exposure (such as smokers from nonsmokers and occupationally exposed from environmentally exposed populations) and to determine differences in metabolism. Biomarkers in humans have shown that the percentage of benzene metabolized by the ring-opening pathway is greater at environmental exposures than that at higher occupational exposures, a trend similar to that found in animal studies. This suggests that the dose-response curve is nonlinear; that potential different metabolic mechanisms exist at high and low doses; and that the validity of a linear extrapolation of adverse effects measured at high doses to a population exposed to lower, environmental levels of benzene is uncertain. Time-series measurements of the biomarker, exhaled breath, were used to evaluate a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model. Biases were identified between the PBPK model predictions and experimental data that were adequately described using an empirical compartmental model. It is suggested that a mapping of the PBPK model to a compartmental model can be done to optimize the parameters in the PBPK model to provide a future framework for developing a population physiologically based pharmacokinetic model. 44 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  11. [Long-term effect of environmental cadmium exposure on human body's mineral metabolic balance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, H T; Huang, R; Liang, X X; Li, Z X; Wang, J; Tan, J B; Wu, S X; Wang, P; Chen, Z H; Huang, Q; Lyu, Y J; Jiang, Q; Yang, X F; Wu, Y N

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the effect of long-term exposure to environmental cadmium on eight mineral element's metabolic balance of human body. To choose a high cadmium area polluted by smelting and mining north of Guangdong province and a cadmium-free area with a similar economic level, and living and eating habit of residents as a contrast from April 2011 to August 2012. Stratified random sampling and clustered sampling method were adopted to choose the non-occupationally cadmium-exposed respondents who have lived in local area for more than 15 years, older than 40 years, having local rice and vegetable as the main dietary source, with simple and relatively stable diet, and without diabetes, kidney disease, thyroid disease, liver disease or other history of chronic disease. This study included 298 respondents, of whom 155 were in cadmium exposure group and 143 in control group. Questionnaires was used to acquire their health status and their morning urine samples were collected. Electrolytically coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to test the concentrations of sodium(Na), magnesium (Mg), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and iodine (I). The Mann-Whitney U test method was used to compare the differences of concentrations of urinary cadmium, Na, Mg, P, K, Ca, Cu, Zn, I, and the ratio of Na to K (Na/K), Ca to P (Ca/P) between exposed group and control group.χ(2) test was used to compare the abnormal rate of urinary cadmium between exposed group and control group. Pearson correlation and multiple regression method were used to investigate the relationship between urinary cadmium levels, gender, age, smoking, passive smoking, and minerals. The urinary cadmium level P50 (P25-P75) in exposed group was 5.45 (2.62-10.68) μg/g·cr, which was higher than that of the control group, which was 1.69 (1.22-2.36) μg/g·cr (Z=-10.49,Phuman body.

  12. Environmental exposure to pesticides and cancer risk in multiple human organ systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrón, Tesifón; Requena, Mar; Hernández, Antonio F; Alarcón, Raquel

    2014-10-15

    There is growing evidence on the association between long-term exposure to pesticides in occupational settings and an elevated rate of chronic diseases, including different types of cancer. However, data on non-occupational exposures are scarce to draw any conclusion. The objective of this study was to investigate the putative associations of environmental pesticide exposures in the general population with several cancer sites and to discuss potential carcinogenic mechanisms by which pesticides develop cancer. A population-based case-control study was conducted among people residing in 10 Health districts from Andalusia (South Spain) to estimate the risk of cancer at different sites. Health districts were categorized into areas of high and low environmental pesticide exposure based on two quantitative criteria: number of hectares devoted to intensive agriculture and pesticide sales per capita. The study population consisted of 34,205 cancer cases and 1,832,969 age and health district matched controls. Data were collected by computerized hospital records (minimum dataset) between 1998 and 2005. Prevalence rates and the risk of cancer at most organ sites were significantly higher in districts with greater pesticide use related to those with lower pesticide use. Conditional logistic regression analyses showed that the population living in areas with high pesticide use had an increased risk of cancer at all sites studied (odds ratios between 1.15 and 3.45) with the exception of Hodgkin's disease and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The results of this study support and extend previous evidence from occupational studies indicating that environmental exposure to pesticides may be a risk factor for different types of cancer at the level of the general population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of environmental exposure to mercury on the functioning of the human body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Cyran

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Mercury is classified as a heavy metal and thus is commonly referred to as a death metal due to its high toxicity. In the environment it occurs in metallic form or in combination with other compounds. Amidst the sources of exposure to mercury, the most important environmental sources are dental amalgam and mercury vapor from the production of chlorine which is the most important source of occupational exposure. Mercury is easily soluble in fats, so it penetrates through biological membranes. Both - acute and chronic mercury poisoning causes characteristic clinical symptoms. There are several connections between exposure to this metal and toxic effects on the nervous system, cardiovascular system, endocrine system and kidneys. Thus mercury damages the structure of many organs and impairs their function

  14. Environmental transport and human exposure: A multimedia approach in health-risk policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKone, T.E.

    1992-05-01

    In his treatise Air, Water, and Places, the ancient-Greek physician Hippocrates demonstrated that the appearance of disease in human populations is influenced by the quality of air, water, and food; the topography of the land; and general living habits. This approach is still relevant and, indeed, the conerstone of modem efforts to relate public health to environmental factors. What has changed is the precision with which we can measure and model these long-held relationships. Environmental scientists recognize that plants, animals, and humans encounter environmental contaminants via complex transfers through air, water, and food and use multimedia models to evaluate these transfers. In this report, I explore the use of multimedia models both to examine pollution trends and as a basis for characterizing human health risks and ecological risks. The strengths and weaknesses of the approach are discussed.

  15. Environmental source of arsenic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jin-Yong; Yu, Seung-Do; Hong, Young-Seoub

    2014-09-01

    Arsenic is a ubiquitous, naturally occurring metalloid that may be a significant risk factor for cancer after exposure to contaminated drinking water, cigarettes, foods, industry, occupational environment, and air. Among the various routes of arsenic exposure, drinking water is the largest source of arsenic poisoning worldwide. Arsenic exposure from ingested foods usually comes from food crops grown in arsenic-contaminated soil and/or irrigated with arsenic-contaminated water. According to a recent World Health Organization report, arsenic from contaminated water can be quickly and easily absorbed and depending on its metabolic form, may adversely affect human health. Recently, the US Food and Drug Administration regulations for metals found in cosmetics to protect consumers against contaminations deemed deleterious to health; some cosmetics were found to contain a variety of chemicals including heavy metals, which are sometimes used as preservatives. Moreover, developing countries tend to have a growing number of industrial factories that unfortunately, harm the environment, especially in cities where industrial and vehicle emissions, as well as household activities, cause serious air pollution. Air is also an important source of arsenic exposure in areas with industrial activity. The presence of arsenic in airborne particulate matter is considered a risk for certain diseases. Taken together, various potential pathways of arsenic exposure seem to affect humans adversely, and future efforts to reduce arsenic exposure caused by environmental factors should be made.

  16. The Be-WetSpa-Pest modeling approach to simulate human and environmental exposure from pesticide application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Claudia; Garcia-Santos, Glenda; Andreoli, Romano; Diaz, Jaime; Feola, Giuseppe; Wittensoeldner, Moritz; Yang, Jing

    2016-04-01

    This study presents an integrative and spatially explicit modeling approach for analyzing human and environmental exposure from pesticide application of smallholders in the potato producing Andean region in Colombia. The modeling approach fulfills the following criteria: (i) it includes environmental and human compartments; (ii) it contains a behavioral decision-making model for estimating the effect of policies on pesticide flows to humans and the environment; (iii) it is spatially explicit; and (iv) it is modular and easily expandable to include additional modules, crops or technologies. The model was calibrated and validated for the Vereda La Hoya and was used to explore the effect of different policy measures in the region. The model has moderate data requirements and can be adapted relatively easy to other regions in developing countries with similar conditions.

  17. Environmental levels, toxicity and human exposure to tributyltin (TBT)-contaminated marine environment. a review. b_antizar@hotmail.com.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antizar-Ladislao, Blanca

    2008-02-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) is a toxic chemical used for various industrial purposes such as slime control in paper mills, disinfection of circulating industrial cooling waters, antifouling agents, and the preservation of wood. Due to its widespread use as an antifouling agent in boat paints, TBT is a common contaminant of marine and freshwater ecosystems exceeding acute and chronic toxicity levels. TBT is the most significant pesticide in marine and freshwaters in Europe and consequently its environmental level, fate, toxicity and human exposure are of current concern. Thus, the European Union has decided to specifically include TBT compounds in its list of priority compounds in water in order to control its fate in natural systems, due to their toxic, persistent, bioaccumulative and endocrine disruptive characteristics. Additionally, the International Maritime Organization has called for a global treaty that bans the application of TBT-based paints starting 1 of January 2003, and total prohibition by 1 of January 2008. This paper reviews the state of the science regarding TBT, with special attention paid to the environmental levels, toxicity, and human exposure. TBT compounds have been detected in a number of environmental samples. In humans, organotin compounds have been detected in blood and in the liver. As for other persistent organic pollutants, dietary intake is most probably the main route of exposure to TBT compounds for the general population. However, data concerning TBT levels in foodstuffs are scarce. It is concluded that investigations on experimental toxicity, dietary intake, potential human health effects and development of new sustainable technologies to remove TBT compounds are clearly necessary.

  18. A review of environmental and human exposure to persistent organic pollutants in the Pearl River Delta, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Wei, Yan-Li; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2013-10-01

    Rapid economic growth in South China (including Guangdong Province, Hong Kong, and Macau), particularly within the Pearl River Delta region, has resulted in severe pollution of the natural eco-environment in the last three decades. Large amounts of monitoring data on organic pollution in the Pearl River Delta have been accumulated, which allows us to conduct a fairly comprehensive assessment of the state of the Pearl River Delta and elucidate spatial and temporal patterns of pollution on a regional scale. Of various causes for environmental deterioration, negative impact from persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is a global concern. This review examines the current levels and distribution patterns of several POPs, namely DDT (and its metabolites DDD and DDE), hexachlorocyclohexanes, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers, in various environmental compartments of South China. The general information on environmental occurrence, regional behaviors, ecological effects, and human exposure of these POPs in this region are reviewed.

  19. Human Exposure Modeling - Databases to Support Exposure Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human exposure modeling relates pollutant concentrations in the larger environmental media to pollutant concentrations in the immediate exposure media. The models described here are available on other EPA websites.

  20. The calculation of dose from external photon exposures using reference human phantoms and Monte Carlo methods. Pt. 7. Organ doses due to parallel and environmental exposure geometries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zankl, M. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit Neuherberg GmbH, Oberschleissheim (Germany). Inst. fuer Strahlenschutz; Drexler, G. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit Neuherberg GmbH, Oberschleissheim (Germany). Inst. fuer Strahlenschutz; Petoussi-Henss, N. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit Neuherberg GmbH, Oberschleissheim (Germany). Inst. fuer Strahlenschutz; Saito, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    This report presents a tabulation of organ and tissue equivalent dose as well as effective dose conversion coefficients, normalised to air kerma free in air, for occupational exposures and environmental exposures of the public to external photon radiation. For occupational exposures, whole-body irradiation with idealised geometries, i.e. broad parallel beams and fully isotropic radiation incidence, is considered. The directions of incidence for the parallel beams are anterior-posterior, posterior-anterior, left lateral, right lateral and a full 360 rotation around the body`s longitudinal axis. The influence of beam divergence on the body doses is also considered as well as the dependence of effective dose on the angle of radiation incidence. Regarding exposure of the public to environmental sources, three source geometries are considered: exposure from a radioactive cloud, from ground contamination and from the natural radionuclides distributed homogeneously in the ground. The precise angular and energy distributions of the gamma rays incident on the human body were taken into account. The organ dose conversion coefficients given in this catalogue were calculated using a Monte Carlo code simulating the photon transport in mathematical models of an adult male and an adult female, respectively. Conversion coefficients are given for the equivalent dose of 23 organs and tissues as well as for effective dose and the equivalent dose of the so-called `remainder`. The organ equivalent dose conversion coefficients are given separately for the adult male and female models and - as arithmetic mean of the conversion coefficients of both - for an average adult. Fitted data of the coefficients are presented in tables; the primary raw data as resulting from the Monte Carlo calculation are shown in figures together with the fitted data. (orig.)

  1. Human Environmental Disease Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taboureau, Olivier; Audouze, Karine

    2017-01-01

    During the past decades, many epidemiological, toxicological and biological studies have been performed to assess the role of environmental chemicals as potential toxicants for diverse human disorders. However, the relationships between diseases based on chemical exposure have been rarely studied...... by computational biology. We developed a human environmental disease network (EDN) to explore and suggest novel disease-disease and chemical-disease relationships. The presented scored EDN model is built upon the integration on systems biology and chemical toxicology using chemical contaminants information...

  2. Identification of exposure to environmental chemicals in children and older adults using human biomonitoring data sorted by age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Judy; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.; Mizrak, Seher

    2017-01-01

    Human biomonitoring (HBM) provides the tools for exposure assessment by direct measurements of biological specimens such as blood and urine. HBM can identify new chemical exposures, trends and changes in exposure, establish distribution of exposure among the general population, and identify...... burden of heavy metals and organochlorine pesticides. For perfluoroalkyl substances, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, parabens, and phthalates, both children and older adults have higher body burden depending on the specific biomarkers analyzed, and this might be due to the exposure period and/or sources...

  3. Gene expression profiling to identify the toxicities and potentially relevant human disease outcomes associated with environmental heavy metal exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korashy, Hesham M; Attafi, Ibraheem M; Famulski, Konrad S; Bakheet, Saleh A; Hafez, Mohammed M; Alsaad, Abdulaziz M S; Al-Ghadeer, Abdul Rahman M

    2017-02-01

    Heavy metals are the most commonly encountered toxic substances that increase susceptibility to various diseases after prolonged exposure. We have previously shown that healthy volunteers living near a mining area had significant contamination with heavy metals associated with significant changes in the expression of some detoxifying genes, xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes, and DNA repair genes. However, alterations of most of the molecular target genes associated with diseases are still unknown. Thus, the aims of this study were to (a) evaluate the gene expression profile and (b) identify the toxicities and potentially relevant human disease outcomes associated with long-term human exposure to environmental heavy metals in mining area using microarray analysis. For this purpose, 40 healthy male volunteers who were residents of a heavy metal-polluted area (Mahd Al-Dhahab city, Saudi Arabia) and 20 healthy male volunteers who were residents of a non-heavy metal-polluted area were included in the study. Total RNA was isolated from whole blood using PAXgene Blood RNA tubes and then reversed transcribed and hybridized to the gene array using the Affymetrix U219 GeneChip. Microarray analysis showed about 2129 genes were identified and differentially altered, among which a shared set of 425 genes was differentially expressed in the heavy metal-exposed groups. Ingenuity pathway analysis revealed that the most altered gene-regulated diseases in heavy metal-exposed groups included hematological and developmental disorders and mostly renal and urological diseases. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction closely matched the microarray data for some genes tested. Importantly, changes in gene-related diseases were attributed to alterations in the genes encoded for protein synthesis. Renal and urological diseases were the diseases that were most frequently associated with the heavy metal-exposed group. Therefore, there is a need for further studies to validate these

  4. Benzothiazole, benzotriazole, and their derivates in clothing textiles--a potential source of environmental pollutants and human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avagyan, Rozanna; Luongo, Giovanna; Thorsén, Gunnar; Östman, Conny

    2015-04-01

    Textiles play an important role in our daily life, and textile production is one of the oldest industries. In the manufacturing chain from natural and/or synthetic fibers to the final clothing products, the use of many different chemicals is ubiquitous. A lot of research has focused on chemicals in textile wastewater, but the knowledge of the actual content of harmful chemicals in clothes sold on the retail market is limited. In this paper, we have focused on eight benzothiazole and benzotriazole derivatives, compounds rated as high production volume chemicals. Twenty-six clothing samples of various textile materials and colors manufactured in 14 different countries were analyzed in textile clothing using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Among the investigated textile products, 11 clothes were for babies, toddlers, and children. Eight of the 11 compounds included in the investigation were detected in the textiles. Benzothiazole was present in 23 of 26 investigated garments in concentrations ranging from 0.45 to 51 μg/g textile. The garment with the highest concentration of benzothiazole contained a total amount of 8.3 mg of the chemical. The third highest concentration of benzothiazole (22 μg/g) was detected in a baby body made from "organic cotton" equipped with the "Nordic Ecolabel" ("Svanenmärkt"). It was also found that concentrations of benzothiazoles in general were much higher than those for benzotriazoles. This study implicates that clothing textiles can be a possible route for human exposure to harmful chemicals by skin contact, as well as being a potential source of environmental pollutants via laundering and release to household wastewater.

  5. Institutional review board challenges related to community-based participatory research on human exposure to environmental toxins: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudel Ruthann A

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We report on the challenges of obtaining Institutional Review Board (IRB coverage for a community-based participatory research (CBPR environmental justice project, which involved reporting biomonitoring and household exposure results to participants, and included lay participation in research. Methods We draw on our experiences guiding a multi-partner CBPR project through university and state Institutional Review Board reviews, and other CBPR colleagues' written accounts and conference presentations and discussions. We also interviewed academics involved in CBPR to learn of their challenges with Institutional Review Boards. Results We found that Institutional Review Boards are generally unfamiliar with CBPR, reluctant to oversee community partners, and resistant to ongoing researcher-participant interaction. Institutional Review Boards sometimes unintentionally violate the very principles of beneficence and justice which they are supposed to uphold. For example, some Institutional Review Boards refuse to allow report-back of individual data to participants, which contradicts the CBPR principles that guide a growing number of projects. This causes significant delays and may divert research and dissemination efforts. Our extensive education of our university Institutional Review Board convinced them to provide human subjects protection coverage for two community-based organizations in our partnership. Conclusions IRBs and funders should develop clear, routine review guidelines that respect the unique qualities of CBPR, while researchers and community partners can educate IRB staff and board members about the objectives, ethical frameworks, and research methods of CBPR. These strategies can better protect research participants from the harm of unnecessary delays and exclusion from the research process, while facilitating the ethical communication of study results to participants and communities.

  6. Environmental and human exposure assessment monitoring of communities near an abandoned mercury mine in the Philippines: a toxic legacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maramba, Nelia P C; Reyes, Jose Paciano; Francisco-Rivera, Ana Trinidad; Panganiban, Lynn Crisanta R; Dioquino, Carissa; Dando, Nerissa; Timbang, Rene; Akagi, Hirokatsu; Castillo, Ma Teresa; Quitoriano, Carmela; Afuang, Maredith; Matsuyama, Akito; Eguchi, Tomomi; Fuchigami, Youko

    2006-10-01

    Abandoned mines are an important global concern and continue to pose real or potential threats to human safety and health including environmental damage/s. Very few countries had government mine regulation and reclamation policies until the latter part of the century where legal, financial and technical procedures were required for existing mining operations. Major reasons for mine closure may be mainly due to poor economies of the commodity making mining unprofitable, technical difficulties and national security. If the mine is abandoned, more often than not it is the government that shoulders the burden of clean-up, monitoring and remediation. The topic of abandoned mines is complex because of the associated financial and legal liability implications. Abandoned mercury mines have been identified as one of the major concerns because of their significant long-term environmental problems. Primary mercury production is still ongoing in Spain, Kyrgzystan, China, Algeria, Russia and Slovakia while world production declined substantially in the late 1980s. In the Philippines, the mercury mine located southeast of Manila was in operation from 1955 to 1976, before ceasing operation because of the decline in world market price for the commodity. During this time, annual production of mercury was estimated to be about 140,000 kg of mercury yearly. Approximately 2,000,000 t of mine-waste calcines (retorted ore) were produced during mining and roughly 1,000,000 t of these calcines were dumped into nearby Honda Bay to construct a jetty to facilitate mine operations where about 2000 people reside in the nearby three barangays. In October, 1994 the Department of Health received a request from the Provincial Health Office for technical assistance relative to the investigation of increasing complaints of unusual symptoms (e.g. miscarriages, tooth loss, muscle weakness, paralysis, anemia, tremors, etc.) among residents of three barangays. Initial health reports revealed significant

  7. Community Engagement in Observational Human Exposure Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although observational human exposure studies do not deliberately expose participants to chemicals or environmental conditions, merely involving people as research participants and conducting research inside homes raises ethical issues. Community engagement offers a promising st...

  8. Chronological trends of emission, environmental level and human exposure of POPs over the last 10 years (1999-2010) in Korea: implication to science and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung-Kyu; Yoon, Junheon

    2014-02-01

    Despite the first comprehensive reviewing on POPs status in Korea, a previous review chapter (Departments in Environmental Science, Volume 7, Chapter 2) could not discuss and evaluate the temporal trends and the effect of the efforts and policies invested in POPs control and management, since most data were based on individual research results of academic groups in which POPs could not be systematically monitored in terms of time and space. Recently, we have collected monitoring data long enough in time (over 10 years) and wide enough in space (covering various land-use patterns and the Korean peninsula), which were produced at national monitoring stations under the governmental programs. This study aimed to elucidate the temporal trends of POPs emissions, concentrations in multiple compartments (air, water, soil, sediment, organisms, and marine products), and human exposure. The chronological data available for all the subjects investigated were present only for PCDDs/DFs and coPCBs. Their emission reduction with half-lives of ~2 years was followed by contemporaneous decrease of contamination levels in inland compartments, while a considerably slow or slight reduction occurred in human exposure and its related compartments (fishes and shellfishes as foodstuffs consumed, and marine compartments). The findings prove that a lag-time is present for the efforts of emission reduction to be so much effective as to be reflected directly in human exposure, and such a lag-time can be related with the fates connecting inland and marine environments. PCBs showed faster reduction in human exposure than dioxin-like compounds. As for other POPs, chronological trends and half-lives could not be determined owing to low detection frequencies of PCBs and OCPs in environmental compartments, the absence of monitoring data for OCPs in human exposure, and data limitation for emerging POPs present in recent a few years. Monitoring strategies are also recommended based on this meta-analysis.

  9. Effects of chronic triclosan exposure upon the antimicrobial susceptibility of 40 ex-situ environmental and human isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledder, R G; Gilbert, P; Willis, C; McBain, A J

    2006-05-01

    Triclosan (TCS) exposure of Escherichia coli selects for tolerant clones, mutated in their enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase (FabI). It has been inferred that this phenomenon is widespread amongst bacterial genera and might be associated with resistance to third party agents. Ex-situ, low passage isolates of enteric, human axilla, human oral origin and bacteria isolated from a domestic drain, together with selected type cultures were exposed to escalating concentrations of TCS over 10 passages using a gradient plate technique. One fresh faecal isolate of E. coli was included as a positive control. TCS susceptibility was determined for all strains before and after exposure, whilst enteric isolates were additionally assessed for susceptibility towards chlorhexidine, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin, and the oral isolates towards chlorhexidine, tetracycline and metronidazole. Triclosan exposure of E. coli markedly decreased TCS susceptibility. TCS susceptibility also decreased for Klebsiella oxytoca, Aranicola proteolyticus and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. Susceptibility of the remaining 35 strains to TCS and the other test agents remained unchanged. These data suggest that selection for high level resistance by TCS exposure is not widespread and appears to be confined to certain enteric bacteria, especially E. coli. Change in TCS susceptibility did not affect susceptibility towards chemically unrelated antimicrobials. Acquired high-level TCS resistance is not a widespread phenomenon.

  10. Human exposure to aluminium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exley, Christopher

    2013-10-01

    Human activities have circumvented the efficient geochemical cycling of aluminium within the lithosphere and therewith opened a door, which was previously only ajar, onto the biotic cycle to instigate and promote the accumulation of aluminium in biota and especially humans. Neither these relatively recent activities nor the entry of aluminium into the living cycle are showing any signs of abating and it is thus now imperative that we understand as fully as possible how humans are exposed to aluminium and the future consequences of a burgeoning exposure and body burden. The aluminium age is upon us and there is now an urgent need to understand how to live safely and effectively with aluminium.

  11. Simulating Human and Environmental Exposure from Hand-Held Knapsack Pesticide Application: Be-WetSpa-Pest, an Integrative, Spatially Explicit Modeling Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Claudia R; García-Santos, Glenda; Andreoli, Romano; Diaz, Jaime; Feola, Giuseppe; Wittensoeldner, Moritz; Yang, Jing

    2016-05-25

    This paper presents an integrative and spatially explicit modeling approach for analyzing human and environmental exposure from pesticide application of smallholders in the potato-producing Andean region in Colombia. The modeling approach fulfills the following criteria: (i) it includes environmental and human compartments; (ii) it contains a behavioral decision-making model for estimating the effect of policies on pesticide flows to humans and the environment; (iii) it is spatially explicit; and (iv) it is modular and easily expandable to include additional modules, crops, or technologies. The model was calibrated and validated for the Vereda La Hoya and was used to explore the effect of different policy measures in the region. The model has moderate data requirements and can be adapted relatively easily to other regions in developing countries with similar conditions.

  12. Circulating mitochondrial DNA as biomarker linking environmental chemical exposure to early preclinical lesions elevation of mtDNA in human serum after exposure to carcinogenic halo-alkane-based pesticides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lygia T Budnik

    Full Text Available There is a need for a panel of suitable biomarkers for detection of environmental chemical exposure leading to the initiation or progression of degenerative diseases or potentially, to cancer. As the peripheral blood may contain increased levels of circulating cell-free DNA in diseased individuals, we aimed to evaluate this DNA as effect biomarker recognizing vulnerability after exposure to environmental chemicals. We recruited 164 individuals presumably exposed to halo-alkane-based pesticides. Exposure evaluation was based on human biomonitoring analysis; as biomarker of exposure parent halo-methanes, -ethanes and their metabolites, as well as the hemoglobin-adducts methyl valine and hydroxyl ethyl valine in blood were used, complemented by expert evaluation of exposure and clinical intoxication symptoms as well as a questionnaire. Assessment showed exposures to halo alkanes in the concentration range being higher than non-cancer reference doses (RfD but (mostly lower than the occupational exposure limits. We quantified circulating DNA in serum from 86 individuals with confirmed exposure to off-gassing halo-alkane pesticides (in storage facilities or in home environment and 30 non-exposed controls, and found that exposure was significantly associated with elevated serum levels of circulating mitochondrial DNA (in size of 79 bp, mtDNA-79, p = 0.0001. The decreased integrity of mtDNA (mtDNA-230/mtDNA-79 in exposed individuals implicates apoptotic processes (p = 0.015. The relative amounts of mtDNA-79 in serum were positively associated with the lag-time after intoxication to these chemicals (r = 0.99, p<0.0001. Several months of post-exposure the specificity of this biomarker increased from 30% to 97% in patients with intoxication symptoms. Our findings indicate that mitochondrial DNA has a potential to serve as a biomarker recognizing vulnerable risk groups after exposure to toxic/carcinogenic chemicals.

  13. Circulating mitochondrial DNA as biomarker linking environmental chemical exposure to early preclinical lesions elevation of mtDNA in human serum after exposure to carcinogenic halo-alkane-based pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budnik, Lygia T; Kloth, Stefan; Baur, Xaver; Preisser, Alexandra M; Schwarzenbach, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    There is a need for a panel of suitable biomarkers for detection of environmental chemical exposure leading to the initiation or progression of degenerative diseases or potentially, to cancer. As the peripheral blood may contain increased levels of circulating cell-free DNA in diseased individuals, we aimed to evaluate this DNA as effect biomarker recognizing vulnerability after exposure to environmental chemicals. We recruited 164 individuals presumably exposed to halo-alkane-based pesticides. Exposure evaluation was based on human biomonitoring analysis; as biomarker of exposure parent halo-methanes, -ethanes and their metabolites, as well as the hemoglobin-adducts methyl valine and hydroxyl ethyl valine in blood were used, complemented by expert evaluation of exposure and clinical intoxication symptoms as well as a questionnaire. Assessment showed exposures to halo alkanes in the concentration range being higher than non-cancer reference doses (RfD) but (mostly) lower than the occupational exposure limits. We quantified circulating DNA in serum from 86 individuals with confirmed exposure to off-gassing halo-alkane pesticides (in storage facilities or in home environment) and 30 non-exposed controls, and found that exposure was significantly associated with elevated serum levels of circulating mitochondrial DNA (in size of 79 bp, mtDNA-79, p = 0.0001). The decreased integrity of mtDNA (mtDNA-230/mtDNA-79) in exposed individuals implicates apoptotic processes (p = 0.015). The relative amounts of mtDNA-79 in serum were positively associated with the lag-time after intoxication to these chemicals (r = 0.99, p<0.0001). Several months of post-exposure the specificity of this biomarker increased from 30% to 97% in patients with intoxication symptoms. Our findings indicate that mitochondrial DNA has a potential to serve as a biomarker recognizing vulnerable risk groups after exposure to toxic/carcinogenic chemicals.

  14. Environmental controls, oceanography and population dynamics of pathogens and harmful algal blooms: connecting sources to human exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minnett Peter

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Coupled physical-biological models are capable of linking the complex interactions between environmental factors and physical hydrodynamics to simulate the growth, toxicity and transport of infectious pathogens and harmful algal blooms (HABs. Such simulations can be used to assess and predict the impact of pathogens and HABs on human health. Given the widespread and increasing reliance of coastal communities on aquatic systems for drinking water, seafood and recreation, such predictions are critical for making informed resource management decisions. Here we identify three challenges to making this connection between pathogens/HABs and human health: predicting concentrations and toxicity; identifying the spatial and temporal scales of population and ecosystem interactions; and applying the understanding of population dynamics of pathogens/HABs to management strategies. We elaborate on the need to meet each of these challenges, describe how modeling approaches can be used and discuss strategies for moving forward in addressing these challenges.

  15. Environmental controls, oceanography and population dynamics of pathogens and harmful algal blooms: connecting sources to human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyble, Julianne; Bienfang, Paul; Dusek, Eva; Hitchcock, Gary; Holland, Fred; Laws, Ed; Lerczak, James; McGillicuddy, Dennis J; Minnett, Peter; Moore, Stephanie K; O'Kelly, Charles; Solo-Gabriele, Helena; Wang, John D

    2008-11-07

    Coupled physical-biological models are capable of linking the complex interactions between environmental factors and physical hydrodynamics to simulate the growth, toxicity and transport of infectious pathogens and harmful algal blooms (HABs). Such simulations can be used to assess and predict the impact of pathogens and HABs on human health. Given the widespread and increasing reliance of coastal communities on aquatic systems for drinking water, seafood and recreation, such predictions are critical for making informed resource management decisions. Here we identify three challenges to making this connection between pathogens/HABs and human health: predicting concentrations and toxicity; identifying the spatial and temporal scales of population and ecosystem interactions; and applying the understanding of population dynamics of pathogens/HABs to management strategies. We elaborate on the need to meet each of these challenges, describe how modeling approaches can be used and discuss strategies for moving forward in addressing these challenges.

  16. Exposure to environmental endocrine disrupting compounds and men's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeker, John D

    2010-07-01

    Human exposure to environmental endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) have received increased attention in recent years due to the documentation of widespread exposure to a number of EDCs among the general population, experimental data demonstrating endocrine-related effects on reproduction, development, metabolism, and cancer, and observations for increasing trends (as well as geographic trends) in endocrine-related disorders among populations. However, human studies of exposure to most environmental EDCs in relation to adverse health outcomes remain limited. This review focuses on the human data generated to date on the relationship between exposures to environmental EDCs and men's health. The agents discussed here, which include polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), pesticides, phthalates, bisphenol A (BPA), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), were chosen based on their exposure prevalence and the presence of existing human data in studies of male reproductive health, altered reproductive and thyroid hormone levels, diabetes and/or metabolic syndrome, and endocrine-related cancers. Taken together, the epidemiologic data on the environmental EDCs suggest that there may be associations between exposure and adverse health outcomes in men. However, the limited human data, and in many instances inconsistent data across studies, highlight the need for further research on these chemicals. Future longitudinal molecular epidemiology studies with appropriately designed exposure assessments are needed to determine potential causal relationships, to identify the most important time windows/life stages of exposure, and to define individual susceptibility factors for adverse effects on men's health in response to exposure.

  17. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in edible grain: a pilot study of agricultural crops as a human exposure pathway for environmental contaminants using wheat as a model crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Reiko; Okamoto, Robert A; Maddalena, Randy L; Kado, Norman Y

    2008-06-01

    The concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in a pilot study of field wheat grain as a model indicator for environmental contamination. The edible grain would serve as a portal for human exposure. Wheat grain was initially studied since it is one of the major food crops consumed internationally by many including infants and children. Wheat grain samples from five different geographical growing locations in California that span approximately 450 km were collected during the same growing season. The same variety of grain was harvested and analyzed for PAHs that ranged from 2- to 6-rings. PAHs were detected in all grain samples and were mainly 2- to 4-ring PAHs with naphthalene the most abundant among them. There were geographical differences in the levels of PAHs in the grain. The sources of the PAHs were not known in this pilot study, but the principal component analysis indicates that the major source is similar in all locations except for naphthalene. Grain naphthalene concentrations may reflect local naphthalene emissions. Diesel-fueled harvesting operations did not appear to contribute to the observed PAH concentrations in the grain. An estimate of naphthalene intake from eating grain compared to inhalation intake demonstrated the potential importance of field contamination of grain as a possible portal of human exposure. The relationship between PAH concentrations in grain and air should be quantitatively investigated to better quantitate exposure and to identify effective measures to lower the risk from PAH exposure through eating grain.

  18. Brominated flame retardants in food and environmental samples from a production area in China: concentrations and human exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Wu, Hui; Li, Qiuxu; Jin, Jun; Wang, Ying

    2015-11-01

    Human exposure to brominated flame retardants (BFRs: decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE209), decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE), hexabromobenzene (HBB), pentabromoethylbenzene (PBEB), pentabromotoluene (PBT), 1,2,3,4,5-pentabromobenzene (PBBz), and 2,3,5,6-tetrabromo-p-xylene (TBX)) in a brominated flame retardant production area (Weifang, Shandong Province, China) was estimated. Thirty food samples, 14 air samples, and 13 indoor dust samples were analyzed. BDE209 and DBDPE were the dominant BFRs in all samples. Higher alternative brominated flame retardant (including DBDPE, HBB, PBEB, PBT, PBBz, and TBX) concentrations were found in vegetables than in fish and meat; thus, plant-original foods might be important alternative BFR sources in the study area. The BDE209 and alternative BFR concentrations in air were 1.5×10(4) to 2.2×10(5) and 620 to 3.6×10(4) pg/m3, respectively. Mean total BFR exposures through the diet, inhalation, and indoor dust ingestion were 570, 3000, and 69 ng/d, respectively (16, 82, and 2% of total intake, respectively). Inhalation was the dominant BFR source except for DBDPE, for which diet dominated. BDE209 contributed 85% of the total BFR intake in the study area.

  19. Human toxicology of chemical mixtures toxic consequences beyond the impact of one-component product and environmental exposures

    CERN Document Server

    Zeliger, Harold I

    2011-01-01

    In this important reference work, Zeliger catalogs the known effects of chemical mixtures on the human body and also proposes a framework for understanding and predicting their actions in terms of lipophile (fat soluble)/hydrophile (water soluble) interactions. The author's focus is on illnesses that ensue following exposures to mixtures of chemicals that cannot be attributed to any one component of the mixture. In the first part the mechanisms of chemical absorption at a molecular and macromolecular level are explained, as well as the body's methods of defending itself against xenobiotic intrusion. Part II examines the sources of the chemicals discussed, looking at air and water pollution, food additives, pharmaceuticals, etc. Part III, which includes numerous case studies, examines specific effects of particular mixtures on particular body systems and organs and presents a theoretical framework for predicting what the effects of uncharacterized mixtures might be. Part IV covers regulatory requirements and t...

  20. Environmental Exposures and Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirisha Nandipati

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease (PD affects millions around the world. The Braak hypothesis proposes that in PD a pathologic agent may penetrate the nervous system via the olfactory bulb, gut, or both and spreads throughout the nervous system. The agent is unknown, but several environmental exposures have been associated with PD. Here, we summarize and examine the evidence for such environmental exposures. We completed a comprehensive review of human epidemiologic studies of pesticides, selected industrial compounds, and metals and their association with PD in PubMed and Google Scholar until April 2016. Most studies show that rotenone and paraquat are linked to increased PD risk and PD-like neuropathology. Organochlorines have also been linked to PD in human and laboratory studies. Organophosphates and pyrethroids have limited but suggestive human and animal data linked to PD. Iron has been found to be elevated in PD brain tissue but the pathophysiological link is unclear. PD due to manganese has not been demonstrated, though a parkinsonian syndrome associated with manganese is well-documented. Overall, the evidence linking paraquat, rotenone, and organochlorines with PD appears strong; however, organophosphates, pyrethroids, and polychlorinated biphenyls require further study. The studies related to metals do not support an association with PD.

  1. Concentrations of cyclic volatile methylsiloxanes in European cosmetics and personal care products: prerequisite for human and environmental exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudzina, Tatsiana; von Goetz, Natalie; Bogdal, Christian; Biesterbos, Jacqueline W H; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2014-01-01

    Low molecular weight cyclic volatile methylsiloxanes (cVMSs) are widely employed as emollients and carrier solvents in personal care formulations in order to acquire desired performance benefits owing to their distinctive physicochemical properties. Under current European legislation cosmetic ingredients such as cVMSs are required to be labeled on the product package only qualitatively, while for the assessment of environmental and consumer exposure quantitative information is needed. The aim of this study was therefore to measure concentrations of three cVMSs, namely octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4), decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5) and dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane (D6) in 51 cosmetics and personal care products (C&PCPs) that are currently available on the European market. The list of selected articles comprised a variety of hair and sun care products, skin creams and lotions, deodorants including antiperspirants, liquid foundations and a toothpaste. The target compounds were extracted from the products with different organic solvents dependent on the product matrix, followed by gas chromatography analysis with flame ionization detection (GC-FID). D5 was the predominant cVMS with the highest mean and median concentrations in all the C&PCP categories. The median concentrations of D5, D6 and D4 were 142, 2.3 and 0.053 mg/g in deodorants/antiperspirants (n = 11); 44.6, 30.0mg/g and below the limit of quantification (cosmetics (n = 5); 8.4, 0.32 mg/g and exposure to D4 and D5 from multiple C&PCPs was approximately 100 times lower than the current NOAEL derived from chronic inhalation rat studies. © 2013.

  2. Environmental exposure assessment in European birth cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gehring, Ulrike; Casas, Maribel; Brunekreef, Bert

    2013-01-01

    =33), outdoor air pollution, and allergens and microbial agents (N=27). Exposure modeling is increasingly used for long-term air pollution exposure assessment; biomonitoring is used for assessment of exposure to metals, POPs and other chemicals; and environmental monitoring for house dust mite...

  3. Analytical methods for the determination of mixtures of bisphenols and derivatives in human and environmental exposure sources and biological fluids. A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caballero-Casero, N.; Lunar, L.; Rubio, S., E-mail: qa1rubrs@uco.es

    2016-02-18

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is ubiquitous in humans and the environment. Its potential adverse effects through genomic and non-genomic pathways have fostered BPA replacement by bisphenol analogs that, unfortunately, exert similar adverse effects. Many of these analogs, as well as their derivatives, have already found in humans and the environment and major concerns have arisen over their low dose- and mixture-related effects. This review aims to discuss the characteristics of the main analytical methods reported so far for the determination of mixtures of bisphenol analogs and/or derivatives in human and environmental exposure sources and biological fluids. Approaches followed for removal of background contamination, sample preparation and separation and detection of mixtures of bisphenols and derivatives are critically discussed. Sample treatment is matrix-dependent and common steps include analyte isolation, removal of interferences, evaporation of the extracts and solvent reconstitution. Separation and quantification has been almost exclusively carried out by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) or gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC–MS), in the last case prior derivatization, but LC-fluorescence detection has also found some applications. Main characteristics, advantages and drawbacks of these methods will be comparatively discussed. Although at an early stage, some approaches for the assessment of the risk to mixtures of bisphenols, mainly based on the combination of chemical target analysis and toxicity evaluation, have been already applied and they will be here presented. Current knowledge gaps hindering a reliable assessment of human and environmental risk to mixtures of bisphenols and derivatives will be outlined. - Highlights: • Analytical methods for the (bio)monitoring of mixtures of bisphenols are reviewed. • LC and CG coupled to MS are the preferred techniques. • Method-dependent sample treatments are required to remove matrix

  4. Linking Meteorology, Air Quality Models and Observations to Characterize Human Exposures in Support of the Environmental Health Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiologic studies are critical in establishing the association between exposure to air pollutants and adverse health effects. Results of epidemiologic studies are used by U.S. EPA in developing air quality standards to protect the public from the health effects of air polluta...

  5. Exposure-response relationships for environmental use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miedema, H.M.E.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the following exposure-response relationships that can be used for assessing the impact of environmental noise: • Lden - annoyance relationships from the EU Position Paper on exposure-response relationships for transportation noise annoyance (EC-WG/2 2002; Env.

  6. Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation and Human Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, John W.; Mertens, Christopher J.; Goldhagen, Paul; Friedberg, W.; DeAngelis, G.; Clem, J. M.; Copeland, K.; Bidasaria, H. B.

    2005-01-01

    Atmospheric ionizing radiation is of interest, apart from its main concern of aircraft exposures, because it is a principal source of human exposure to radiations with high linear energy transfer (LET). The ionizing radiations of the lower atmosphere near the Earth s surface tend to be dominated by the terrestrial radioisotopes. especially along the coastal plain and interior low lands, and have only minor contributions from neutrons (11 percent). The world average is substantially larger but the high altitude cities especially have substantial contributions from neutrons (25 to 45 percent). Understanding the world distribution of neutron exposures requires an improved understanding of the latitudinal, longitudinal, altitude and spectral distribution that depends on local terrain and time. These issues are being investigated in a combined experimental and theoretical program. This paper will give an overview of human exposures and describe the development of improved environmental models.

  7. Environmentally toxicant exposures induced intragenerational ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ibrahim Eldaghayes

    2017-07-31

    Jul 31, 2017 ... architecture, karyolysis, and karyorrhexis (Gujral et al.,. 2002). The percent of ..... EPA, U. S. 2003. Interpretation of body weight data; .... pdf. Pembrey, M.E. 2010. Male-line transgenerational responses in humans. Hum. Fertil.

  8. Environmental PAH exposure and male idiopathic infertility: a review on early life exposures and adult diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeen, Erin P; Williams, David E

    2017-03-01

    The male reproductive system is acutely and uniquely sensitive to a variety of toxicities, including those induced by environmental pollutants throughout the lifespan. Early life hormonal and morphological development results in several especially sensitive critical windows of toxicity risk associated with lifelong decreased reproductive health and fitness. Male factor infertility can account for over 40% of infertility in couples seeking treatment, and 44% of infertile men are diagnosed with idiopathic male infertility. Human environmental exposures are poorly understood due to limited available data. The latency between maternal and in utero exposure and a diagnosis in adulthood complicates the correlation between environmental exposures and infertility. The results from this review include recommendations for more and region specific monitoring of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure, longitudinal and clinical cohort considerations of exposure normalization, gene-environment interactions, in utero exposure studies, and controlled mechanistic animal experiments. Additionally, it is recommended that detailed semen analysis and male fertility data be included as endpoints in environmental exposure cohort studies due to the sensitivity of the male reproductive system to environmental pollutants, including PAHs.

  9. Environmental asbestos exposure sources in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Dong-Mug; Kim, Jong-Eun; Kim, Ju-Young; Lee, Hyun-Hee; Hwang, Young-Sik; Kim, Young-Ki; Lee, Yong-Jin

    2016-10-01

    Because of the long asbestos-related disease latencies (10-50 years), detection, diagnosis, and epidemiologic studies require asbestos exposure history. However, environmental asbestos exposure source (EAES) data are lacking. To survey the available data for past EAES and supplement these data with interviews. We constructed an EAES database using a literature review and interviews of experts, former traders, and workers. Exposure sources by time period and type were visualized using a geographic information system (ArcGIS), web-based mapping (Google Maps), and OpenWeatherMap. The data were mounted in the GIS to show the exposure source location and trend. The majority of asbestos mines, factories, and consumption was located in Chungnam; Gyeonggi, Busan, and Gyeongnam; and Gyeonggi, Daejeon, and Busan, respectively. Shipbuilding and repair companies were mostly located in Busan and Gyeongnam. These tools might help evaluate past exposure from EAES and estimate the future asbestos burden in Korea.

  10. Environmental exposure to pesticides and respiratory health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mamane

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory effects of environmental exposure to pesticides are debated. Here we aimed to review epidemiological studies published up until 2013, using the PubMed database. 20 studies dealing with respiratory health and non-occupational pesticide exposure were identified, 14 carried out on children and six on adults. In four out of nine studies in children with biological measurements, mothers' dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE blood levels during pregnancy were associated with asthma and wheezing in young children. An association was also found between permethrin in indoor air during pregnancy and wheezing in children. A significant association between asthma and DDE measured in children's blood (aged 7–10 years was observed in one study. However, in three studies, no association was found between asthma or respiratory infections in children and pesticide levels in breast milk and/or infant blood. Lastly, in three out of four studies where post-natal pesticide exposure of children was assessed by parental questionnaire an association with respiratory symptoms was found. Results of the fewer studies on pesticide environmental exposure and respiratory health of adults were much less conclusive: indeed, the associations observed were weak and often not significant. In conclusion, further studies are needed to confirm whether there is a respiratory risk associated with environmental exposure to pesticides.

  11. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure and children's health.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polanska, K.; Hanke, W.; Ronchetti, R.; Hazel, P.J. van den; Zuurbier, M.; Koppe, J.G.; Bartonova, A.

    2006-01-01

    Almost half of the child population is involuntarily exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). The ETS exposure gives rise to an excessive risk of several diseases in infancy and childhood, including sudden infant death syndrome, upper and lower respiratory infections, asthma and middle ear

  12. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure and children's health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Polanska; W. Hanke; R. Ronchetti; P. van den Hazel; M. Zuurbier; J.G. Koppe; A. Bartonova

    2006-01-01

    Almost half of the child population is involuntarily exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). The ETS exposure gives rise to an excessive risk of several diseases in infancy and childhood, including sudden infant death syndrome, upper and lower respiratory infections, asthma and middle ear dise

  13. Environmental lead exposure increases micronuclei in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kapka, Lucyna; Baumgartner, Adolf; Siwińska, Ewa

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this pilot study was to investigate the contribution of environmental exposures to lead in the development of cytogenetic damage detected as the frequency of micronuclei (MN) in children. The other aim was to apply the MN assay in combination with fluorescence in situ hybridization...... age from an unexposed recreational area. Exposure to lead was assessed by determination of lead concentrations in blood (PbB) by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, whereas the level of selenium (Se) in serum was detected by using graphite furnace atomic-absorption spectrometry. The frequency of MN...... was determined by the cytokinesis-block MN assay and fluorescence in situ hybridization performed using a specific pan-centromeric probe. Environmental exposure to lead resulted in significantly increased levels of PbB (5.29 +/- 2.09 versus 3.45 +/- 1.20 microg/dl in controls), although the average level...

  14. Exposures to the environmental toxicants pentachlorophenol (PCP) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) modify secretion of interleukin 1-beta (IL-1β) from human immune cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Tamara J; Whalen, Margaret M

    2017-04-01

    Pentachlorophenol (PCP) and Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) are environmental contaminants found in human blood. Previous studies have shown that PCP and DDT inhibit the lytic function of highly purified human natural killer (NK) lymphocytes and decrease the expression of several surface proteins on NK cells. Interleukin-1 βeta (IL-1β) is a cytokine produced by lymphocytes and monocytes, and anything that elevates its levels inappropriately can lead to chronic inflammation, which among other consequences can increase tumor development and invasiveness. Here, PCP and DDT were examined for their ability to alter secretion of IL-1β from immune cell preparations of various complexity: NK cells; monocyte-depleted (MD) peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCS); and PBMCs. Cells were exposed to concentrations of PCP ranging from 5 to 0.05 µM and DDT concentrations of 2.5-0.025 μM for 24, 48 h, and 6 days. Results showed that both PCP and DDT increased IL-1β secretion from all of the immune cell preparations. The specific concentrations of PCP and DDT that increased IL-1β secretion varied by donor. Immune cells from all donors showed compound-induced increases in IL-1β secretion at one or more concentration at one or more length of exposure. The mechanism of PCP stimulation of IL1-β secretion was also addressed, and it appears that the MAPKs, ERK1/2 and p38, may be utilized by PCP to stimulate secretion of IL-1β.

  15. Transgenerational Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke

    OpenAIRE

    Xavier Joya; Cristina Manzano; Airam-Tenesor Álvarez; Maria Mercadal; Francesc Torres; Judith Salat-Batlle; Oscar Garcia-Algar

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, nicotine from second hand smoke (SHS), active or passive, has been considered the most prevalent substance of abuse used during pregnancy in industrialized countries. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is associated with a variety of health effects, including lung cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Tobacco is also a major burden to people who do not smoke. As developing individuals, newborns and children are particularly vulnerable to the negative effects of SHS. I...

  16. Estimated Environmental Exposures for MISSE-7B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finckenor, Miria M.; Moore, Chip; Norwood, Joseph K.; Henrie, Ben; DeGroh, Kim

    2012-01-01

    This paper details the 18-month environmental exposure for Materials International Space Station Experiment 7B (MISSE-7B) ram and wake sides. This includes atomic oxygen, ultraviolet radiation, particulate radiation, thermal cycling, meteoroid/space debris impacts, and observed contamination. Atomic oxygen fluence was determined by measured mass and thickness loss of polymers of known reactivity. Diodes sensitive to ultraviolet light actively measured solar radiation incident on the experiment. Comparisons to earlier MISSE flights are discussed.

  17. Cardiovascular effects of environmental noise exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münzel, Thomas; Gori, Tommaso; Babisch, Wolfgang; Basner, Mathias

    2014-04-01

    The role of noise as an environmental pollutant and its impact on health are being increasingly recognized. Beyond its effects on the auditory system, noise causes annoyance and disturbs sleep, and it impairs cognitive performance. Furthermore, evidence from epidemiologic studies demonstrates that environmental noise is associated with an increased incidence of arterial hypertension, myocardial infarction, and stroke. Both observational and experimental studies indicate that in particular night-time noise can cause disruptions of sleep structure, vegetative arousals (e.g. increases of blood pressure and heart rate) and increases in stress hormone levels and oxidative stress, which in turn may result in endothelial dysfunction and arterial hypertension. This review focuses on the cardiovascular consequences of environmental noise exposure and stresses the importance of noise mitigation strategies for public health.

  18. Environmental chemical exposures and breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Stanley

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available As a hormone-sensitive condition with no single identifiable cause, breast cancer is a major health problem. It is characterized by a wide range of contributing factors and exposures occurring in different combinations and strengths across a lifetime that may be amplified during periods of enhanced developmental susceptibility and impacted by reproductive patterns and behaviours. The vast majority of cases are oestrogen-receptor positive and occur in women with no family history of the disease suggesting that modifiable risk factors are involved. A substantial body of evidence now links oestrogen-positive breast cancer with environmental exposures. Synthetic chemicals capable of oestrogen mimicry are characteristic of industrial development and have been individually and extensively assessed as risk factors for oestrogen-sensitive cancers. Existing breast cancer risk assessment tools do not take such factors into account. In the absence of consensus on causation and in order to better understand the problem of escalating incidence globally, an expanded, integrated approach broadening the inquiry into individual susceptibility breast cancer is proposed. Applying systems thinking to existing data on oestrogen-modulating environmental exposures and other oestrogenic factors characteristic of Westernisation and their interactions in the exposure, encompassing social, behavioural, environmental, hormonal and genetic factors, can assist in understanding cancer risks and the pursuit of prevention strategies. A new conceptual framework based on a broader understanding of the “system” that underlies the development of breast cancer over a period of many years, incorporating the factors known to contribute to breast cancer risk, could provide a new platform from which government and regulators can promulgate enhanced and more effective prevention strategies.

  19. Environmental fate and dietary exposures of humans to TCDD as a result of the spraying of Agent Orange in upland forests of Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armitage, James M; Ginevan, Michael E; Hewitt, Andrew; Ross, John H; Watkins, Deborah K; Solomon, Keith R

    2015-02-15

    The fate and transport of 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-p-dibenzodioxin (TCDD) released into the environment of South Vietnam (SVN) as a consequence of the aerial application of the herbicidal defoliant Agent Orange (AO) were simulated for a generic upland forest scenario and followed over a 50-year period (1965, 1968 and 1970 onwards). Modeled concentrations of TCDD in the environment were then used as inputs to a human exposure model, which focused on long-term exposures via the food chain. Intake rates and body burdens of TCDD were estimated for adult males over the course of the simulation period and compared to available biomonitoring data. One of the most important factors determining the magnitude of the simulated human exposure to TCDD was the fraction of the chemical deposited directly to soil (where it was assumed to have a degradation half-life of 10 or 15years) relative to the fraction assumed to remain on/in the forest canopy following the spray application (where it was assumed to have a degradation half-life of ≤48h). The simulated body burdens under the various scenarios considered were broadly consistent with the biomonitoring data from SVN collected in the mid-1980s to late 1990s. Taken together, the modeling results and empirical data suggest that highly elevated exposures to TCDD (i.e., body burdens in the several 100s of pg/g lipid range and greater) were not common among people inhabiting upland forest locations in SVN sprayed with AO and that peak and average body burdens were broadly similar to those of the general population of the U.S. in the 1970s and early 1980s. The model-based assessment is consistent with the 'hot spot' hypothesis i.e., potential exposures to TCDD linked to activities conducted on or near former bases where AO was stored are greater than potential exposures in areas subjected to aerial spraying.

  20. Transgenerational exposure to environmental tobacco smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joya, Xavier; Manzano, Cristina; Álvarez, Airam-Tenesor; Mercadal, Maria; Torres, Francesc; Salat-Batlle, Judith; Garcia-Algar, Oscar

    2014-07-16

    Traditionally, nicotine from second hand smoke (SHS), active or passive, has been considered the most prevalent substance of abuse used during pregnancy in industrialized countries. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is associated with a variety of health effects, including lung cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Tobacco is also a major burden to people who do not smoke. As developing individuals, newborns and children are particularly vulnerable to the negative effects of SHS. In particular, prenatal ETS has adverse consequences during the entire childhood causing an increased risk of abortion, low birth weight, prematurity and/or nicotine withdrawal syndrome. Over the last years, a decreasing trend in smoking habits during pregnancy has occurred, along with the implementation of laws requiring smoke free public and working places. The decrease in the incidence of prenatal tobacco exposure has usually been assessed using maternal questionnaires. In order to diminish bias in self-reporting, objective biomarkers have been developed to evaluate this exposure. The measurement of nicotine and its main metabolite, cotinine, in non-conventional matrices such as cord blood, breast milk, hair or meconium can be used as a non-invasive measurement of prenatal SMS in newborns. The aim of this review is to highlight the prevalence of ETS (prenatal and postnatal) using biomarkers in non-conventional matrices before and after the implementation of smoke free policies and health effects related to this exposure during foetal and/or postnatal life.

  1. Transgenerational Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Joya

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, nicotine from second hand smoke (SHS, active or passive, has been considered the most prevalent substance of abuse used during pregnancy in industrialized countries. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS is associated with a variety of health effects, including lung cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Tobacco is also a major burden to people who do not smoke. As developing individuals, newborns and children are particularly vulnerable to the negative effects of SHS. In particular, prenatal ETS has adverse consequences during the entire childhood causing an increased risk of abortion, low birth weight, prematurity and/or nicotine withdrawal syndrome. Over the last years, a decreasing trend in smoking habits during pregnancy has occurred, along with the implementation of laws requiring smoke free public and working places. The decrease in the incidence of prenatal tobacco exposure has usually been assessed using maternal questionnaires. In order to diminish bias in self-reporting, objective biomarkers have been developed to evaluate this exposure. The measurement of nicotine and its main metabolite, cotinine, in non-conventional matrices such as cord blood, breast milk, hair or meconium can be used as a non-invasive measurement of prenatal SMS in newborns. The aim of this review is to highlight the prevalence of ETS (prenatal and postnatal using biomarkers in non-conventional matrices before and after the implementation of smoke free policies and health effects related to this exposure during foetal and/or postnatal life.

  2. Pesticide/environmental exposures and Parkinson's disease in East Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhillon, Amanpreet S; Tarbutton, G Lester; Levin, Jeffrey L; Plotkin, George M; Lowry, Larry K; Nalbone, J Torey; Shepherd, Sara

    2008-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that pesticides and other environmental exposures may have a role in the etiology of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). However, there is little human data on risk associated with specific pesticide products, including organic pesticides such as rotenone with PD. Using a case-control design, this study examined self-reports of exposure to pesticide products, organic pesticides such as rotenone, and other occupational and environmental exposures on the risk of PD in an East Texas population. The findings demonstrated significantly increased risk of PD with use of organic pesticides such as rotenone in the past year in gardening (OR = 10.9; 95% CI = 2.5-48.0) and any rotenone use in the past (OR = 10.0; 95% CI = 2.9-34.3). Use of chlorpyrifos products (OR = 2.0; 95% CI = 1.02-3.8), past work in an electronics plant (OR = 5.1; 95% CI = 1.1-23.6), and exposure to fluorides (OR = 3.3; 95% CI = 1.03-10.3) were also associated with significantly increased risk. A trend of increased PD risk was observed with work history in paper/lumber mill (OR = 6.35; 95% CI = 0.7-51.8), exposure to cadmium (OR = 5.3; 95% CI = 0.6-44.9), exposure to paraquat (OR = 3.5; 95% CI = 0.4-31.6), and insecticide applications to farm animals/animal areas and agricultural processes (OR = 4.4; 95% CI = 0.5-38.1). Cigarette smoking, alcohol use, and fish intake were associated with reduced risk. In summary, this study demonstrates an increased risk of PD associated with organic pesticides such as rotenone and certain other pesticides and environmental exposures in this population.

  3. Autopsy tissues as biological monitors of human exposure to environmental pollutants. A case study: Concentrations of metals and PCDD/Fs in subjects living near a hazardous waste incinerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingo, José L; García, Francisco; Nadal, Martí; Schuhmacher, Marta

    2017-04-01

    Human biomonitoring is of tremendous importance to prevent potential adverse effects derived from human exposure to chemicals. Blood and urine are among the biological monitors more frequently used. However, biological matrices such as breast milk, hair, nails, saliva, feces, teeth, and expired air are also often used. In addition, and focused mainly on long-term exposure, adipose tissue and other human tissues like bone, liver, brain or kidney, are also used as biological monitors of certain substances, especially for long-term biomonitoring. However, for this kind of tissues sampling is always a limiting factor. In this paper, we have examined the role of autopsy tissues as biological monitors of human exposure to environmental pollutants. For it, we have used a case study conducted near a hazardous waste incinerator (HWI) in Catalonia (Spain), in which the concentrations of metals and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), have been periodically determined in autopsy tissues of subjects living in the area under potential influence of the facility. This case study does not show advantages -in comparison to other appropriate biomonitors such as blood- in using autopsy tissues in the monitoring of long-term exposure to metals and PCDD/Fs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Environmental and Occupational Exposures in Immigrant Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pracha P. Eamranond

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Immigrants comprise vulnerable populations that are frequently exposed to a multitude of environmental and occupational hazards. The historical context behind state and federal legislation has helped to foster an environment that is particularly hostile toward caring for immigrant health. Current hazards include toxic exposures, air and noise pollution, motor vehicle accidents, crowded living and work environments with inadequate ventilation, poor sanitation, mechanical injury, among many others. Immigrants lack the appropriate training, materials, health care access, and other resources to reduce their exposure to preventable environmental and occupational health risks. This dilemma is exacerbated by current anti-immigrant sentiments, miscommunication between native and immigrant populations, and legislation denying immigrants access to publicly funded medical care. Given that current health policy has failed to address immigrant health appropriately and political impetus is lacking, efforts should also focus on alternative solutions, including organized labor. Labor unions that serve to educate workers, survey work environments, and defend worker rights will greatly alleviate and prevent the burden of disease incurred by immigrants. The nation’s health will benefit from improved regulation of living and workplace environments to improve the health of immigrants, regardless of legal status.

  5. Exposure to Environmental Air Manganese and Medication ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential element with natural low levels found in water, food, and air, but due to industrialized processes, both workplace and the environmental exposures to Mn have increased. Recently, environmental studies have reported physical and mental health problems associated with air-Mn exposure, but medical record reviews for exposed residents are rare in the literature. When medical records and clinical testing are unavailable, examination of residents’ prescribed medication use may be used as a surrogate of health effects associated with Mn. We examined medication use among adult Ohio residents in two towns with elevated air-Mn (n=185) and one unexposed control town (n=90). Study participants recorded medication use in a health questionnaire and brought their currently prescribed medication, over-the-counter and supplement lists to their interview. Two physicians (family and psychiatric medicine) reviewed the provided medication list and developed medical categories associated with the medications used. The exposed (E) and control (C) groups were compared on the established 12 medication and 1 supplement categories using chi-square tests. The significant medication categories were further analyzed using hierarchical binomial logistic regression adjusting for education, personal income, and years of residency. The two groups were primarily white (E:94.6%; C:96.7%) but differed on education (E:13.8; C:15.2 years), residence length in their re

  6. Environmental Exposure to Manganese in Air: Associations ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Manganese (Mn) inhalation has been associated with neuropsychological and neurological sequelae in exposed workers. Few environmental epidemiologic studies have examined the potentialy neurotoxic effects of Mn exposure in ambient air on motor function and hand tremor in adult community residents. Mn exposed residents were recruited in two Ohio towns: Marietta, a town near a ferro-manganese smelter, and East Liverpool, a town adjacent to a facility processing, crushing, screening, and packaging Mn products.METHODS: Chronic (≥10years) exposure to ambient air Mn in adult residents and effects on neuropsychological and neurological outcomes were investigated. Participants from Marietta (n=100) and East Liverpool (n=86) were combined for analyses. AERMOD dispersion modeling of fixed-site outdoor air monitoring data estimated Mn inhalation over a ten year period. Adult Mn­ exposed residents' psychomotor ability was assessed using Finger Tapping, Hand Dynamometer, Grooved Pegbcard, and the Computerized Adaptive Testing System (CATSYS) Tremor system.Bayesian structural equation modeling was used to assess associations between air-Mn and motor function and tremor .RESULTS: Air-Mn exposure was significantly correlated in bivariate analyses with the tremor test (CATSYS) for intensity, center frequency and harmonic index. The Bayesian path analysis model showed associations of air-Mn with the CATSYS non-dominant center frequency and harmonic ind

  7. Alternative Testing Methods for Predicting Health Risk from Environmental Exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria Colacci

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Alternative methods to animal testing are considered as promising tools to support the prediction of toxicological risks from environmental exposure. Among the alternative testing methods, the cell transformation assay (CTA appears to be one of the most appropriate approaches to predict the carcinogenic properties of single chemicals, complex mixtures and environmental pollutants. The BALB/c 3T3 CTA shows a good degree of concordance with the in vivo rodent carcinogenesis tests. Whole-genome transcriptomic profiling is performed to identify genes that are transcriptionally regulated by different kinds of exposures. Its use in cell models representative of target organs may help in understanding the mode of action and predicting the risk for human health. Aiming at associating the environmental exposure to health-adverse outcomes, we used an integrated approach including the 3T3 CTA and transcriptomics on target cells, in order to evaluate the effects of airborne particulate matter (PM on toxicological complex endpoints. Organic extracts obtained from PM2.5 and PM1 samples were evaluated in the 3T3 CTA in order to identify effects possibly associated with different aerodynamic diameters or airborne chemical components. The effects of the PM2.5 extracts on human health were assessed by using whole-genome 44 K oligo-microarray slides. Statistical analysis by GeneSpring GX identified genes whose expression was modulated in response to the cell treatment. Then, modulated genes were associated with pathways, biological processes and diseases through an extensive biological analysis. Data derived from in vitro methods and omics techniques could be valuable for monitoring the exposure to toxicants, understanding the modes of action via exposure-associated gene expression patterns and to highlight the role of genes in key events related to adversity.

  8. Association between environmental exposure to pesticides and neurodegenerative diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parron, Tesifon [University of Almeria, Department of Neurosciences and Health Sciences, Almeria (Spain); Andalusian Council of Health at Almeria province, Almeria (Spain); Requena, Mar [Andalusian Council of Health at Almeria province, Almeria (Spain); Hernandez, Antonio F., E-mail: ajerez@ugr.es [University of Granada School of Medicine, Granada (Spain); Alarcon, Raquel [Andalusian Council of Health at Almeria province, Almeria (Spain)

    2011-11-15

    Preliminary studies have shown associations between chronic pesticide exposure in occupational settings and neurological disorders. However, data on the effects of long-term non-occupational exposures are too sparse to allow any conclusions. This study examines the influence of environmental pesticide exposure on a number of neuropsychiatric conditions and discusses their underlying pathologic mechanisms. An ecological study was conducted using averaged prevalence rates of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, cerebral degeneration, polyneuropathies, affective psychosis and suicide attempts in selected Andalusian health districts categorized into areas of high and low environmental pesticide exposure based on the number of hectares devoted to intensive agriculture and pesticide sales per capita. A total of 17,429 cases were collected from computerized hospital records (minimum dataset) between 1998 and 2005. Prevalence rates and the risk of having Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis and suicide were significantly higher in districts with greater pesticide use as compared to those with lower pesticide use. The multivariate analyses showed that the population living in areas with high pesticide use had an increased risk for Alzheimer's disease and suicide attempts and that males living in these areas had increased risks for polyneuropathies, affective disorders and suicide attempts. In conclusion, this study supports and extends previous findings and provides an indication that environmental exposure to pesticides may affect the human health by increasing the incidence of certain neurological disorders at the level of the general population. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Environmental exposure to pesticides and neurodegenerative-psychiatric disorders. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increased risk for Alzheimer's disease and suicide attempts in high exposure areas. Black

  9. Environmental Health Research Involving Human Subjects: Ethical Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B. Resnik

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews some of the ethical issues that arise in environmental health research with human subjects, such as minimizing risks to subjects, balancing benefits and risks in research, intentional exposure studies with human subjects, protecting third parties in research, informing subjects about environmental hazards, communicating health information to subjects, and protecting privacy and confidentiality.

  10. Human exposure to endocrine disruptors and breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanidou, M; Maravelias, C; Spiliopoulou, C

    2009-09-01

    Endocrine system is one of the most sensitive communication networks of the human body which influences all aspects of human health and well-being, including reproductive potential, cognitive functions, thyroid and metabolism, digestion and hormonal balance. In recent years basic laboratory research has been focused on the potential relationship between environmental contaminants and cellular endocrine function. Environmental contaminants are ubiquitous in the environment, alter endocrine physiology and produce endocrine disruption without acting as classic toxicants. These endocrine disruptors (EDCs) are lipophilic and stored for long periods of time in the adipose tissue. Maternal exposure to EDCs during pregnancy and lactation has as a result the exposure of the fetus and neonate through placenta and breast milk. It has been recognized that human milk is the best natural food for neonates providing immunologic, developmental and practical advantages throughout childhood. However, contamination of human milk by the presence of environmental toxicants is widespread through the past decades due to inadequately controlled pollution. Persistent pesticides, chemical solvents and others tend to invade slowly the environment, to bioaccumulate in the food chain and to have long half-lives in animals and humans. During the past fifteen years, the scientific interest has been focused on xenoestrogens, i.e.,environmental chemicals with estrogen disrupting activity. Certain adverse health and reproductive outcomes are attributed to these chemicals in wildlife, in laboratory animals, as well as in humans. Although most toxic agents are hazardous in high doses, the human health risks associated with EDCs concern exposure to low doses. The human health risks that may be associated with these low-level but constant exposures are still largely unknown and highly controversial. In this paper, we review available data on environmental chemicals present in breast milk that may

  11. Wood smoke in a controlled exposure experiment with human volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riddervold, Ingunn Skogstad; Bønløkke, Jakob Hjort; Mølhave, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to wood smoke in the general population is increasing and concurrently, also our awareness. This article describes a wood-smoke generating system for studying human exposure to wood smoke and symptoms related to this exposure. Twenty nonsmoking atopic human participants with normal lung...... function and normal bronchial reactivity were randomly exposed for 3h at three different exposure conditions; clean filtered air (control exposure) and wood smoke with a characteristic particulate matter (PM) concentration of 200 µg/m3 (low) and 400 µg/m3 (high) under controlled environmental conditions.......0007), “irritative body perceptions” (p = 0.0127), “psychological/neurological effects” (p = 0.0075) and “weak inflammatory responses” (p = 0.0003). Furthermore, significant effects (p = 0.0192) on self-reported general mucosa irritation were found. In conclusion, exposure to wood smoke affected symptom rating...

  12. Oxidative metabolism of BDE-47, BDE-99, and HBCDs by cat liver microsomes: Implications of cats as sentinel species to monitor human exposure to environmental pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiaobo; Erratico, Claudio; Luo, Xiaojun; Mai, Bixian; Covaci, Adrian

    2016-05-01

    BDE-99 is different by cat and human liver microsomes. This suggests that cats are not a suitable sentinel to represent internal exposure of PBDEs for humans, but is likely a promising sentinel for internal HBCDs exposure for humans.

  13. Environmental exposure to asbestos: from geology to mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayram, Mehmet; Bakan, Nur Dilek

    2014-05-01

    This article aims to review the geological background of environmental asbestos exposure and the distribution of asbestos-related disease (ARD) in association with naturally occurring asbestos (NOA), and discusses the potential health risks associated with exposure to non-occupational asbestos. With the motion of continental and oceanic plates, in some parts of the world serpentinites in the lower layer of the oceanic plate move into the continental plate and form the so-called ophiolites. Ophiolites consist of soil and rocks containing serpentine-type asbestos. There is an increase in ARDs in regions close to ophiolites. Indoor exposure and outdoor exposure to NOA, outdoor exposure to industrial asbestos and mines, urbanization and construction works in NOA regions are the known sources and types of environmental asbestos exposure. Although there is an expectance of decline in ARDs caused by industrial exposure to asbestos, the environmental exposure to asbestos is still a challenge waiting to be overcome.

  14. Wood smoke in a controlled exposure experiment with human volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddervold, I S; Bønløkke, J H; Mølhave, L; Massling, A; Jensen, B; Grønborg, T K; Bossi, R; Forchhammer, L; Kjærgaard, S K; Sigsgaard, T

    2011-04-01

    Exposure to wood smoke in the general population is increasing and concurrently, also our awareness. This article describes a wood-smoke generating system for studying human exposure to wood smoke and symptoms related to this exposure. Twenty nonsmoking atopic human participants with normal lung function and normal bronchial reactivity were randomly exposed for 3 h at three different exposure conditions; clean filtered air (control exposure) and wood smoke with a characteristic particulate matter (PM) concentration of 200 µg/m³ (low) and 400 µg/m³ (high) under controlled environmental conditions. The range for PM₂.₅ load observed for single experiments was 165-303 µg/m³ for the low exposure and 205-662 µg/m³ for the high exposure, whereas particle loads during clean air exposure most often were below the detection limit (humans. The knowledge gained in this study on subjective-rated symptoms may be important for understanding human response to wood-smoke exposure.

  15. Human Health Effects Associated with Exposure to Cyanobacteria and Cyanotoxins: What Do We Know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study of environmental health typically focuses on human populations. However, companion animals, livestock and wildlife also experience adverse health effects from environmental pollutants. Animals may experience direct exposure to pollutants unlike people in most ambient ex...

  16. Environmental Exposure to Triclosan and Semen Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenting; Zhang, Hao; Tong, Chuanliang; Xie, Chong; Fan, Guohua; Zhao, Shasha; Yu, Xiaogang; Tian, Ying; Zhang, Jun

    2016-02-17

    Triclosan (2,4,4'-trichloro-2'-hydroxy-diphenyl ether, TCS) is widely used in personal care, household, veterinary and industrial products. It was considered as a potential male reproductive toxicant in previous in vitro and in vivo studies. However, evidence from human studies is scarce. Our study aims to investigate the relationship between TCS exposure and semen quality. We measured urinary TCS concentrations in 471 men recruited from a male reproductive health clinic. TCS was detected in 96.7% of urine samples, with a median concentration of 0.97 ng (mg·creatinine)(-1) (interquartile range, 0.41-2.95 ng (mg·creatinine)(-1)). A multiple linear regression analysis showed a negative association between natural logarithm (Ln) transformed TCS concentration (Ln-TCS) and Ln transformed number of forward moving sperms (adjusted coefficient β = -0.17; 95% confidence interval (CI) (-0.32, -0.02). Furthermore, among those with the lowest tertile of TCS level, Ln-TCS was negatively associated with the number of forward moving sperms (β = -0.35; 95% CI (-0.68, -0.03)), percentage of sperms with normal morphology (β = -1.64; 95% CI (-3.05, -0.23)), as well as number of normal morphological sperms, sperm concentration and count. Our findings suggest that the adverse effect of TCS on semen quality is modest at the environment-relevant dose in humans. Further studies are needed to confirm our findings.

  17. Data Sources Available for Modeling Environmental Exposures in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report, “Data Sources Available for Modeling Environmental Exposures in Older Adults,” focuses on information sources and data available for modeling environmental exposures in the older U.S. population, defined here to be people 60 years and older, with an emphasis on those...

  18. Minnows as a Classroom Model for Human Environmental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Daniel N.; Hesselbach, Renee; Kane, Andrew S.; Petering, David H.; Petering, Louise; Berg, Craig A.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding human environmental health is difficult for high school students, as is the process of scientific investigation. This module provides a framework to address both concerns through an inquiry-based approach using a hypothesis-driven set of experiments that draws upon a real-life concern, environmental exposures to lead (Pb2+). Students…

  19. Issues in Assessing Environmental Exposures to Manufactured Nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yee San Su

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Manufactured nanomaterials (MNs are commonly considered to be commercial products possessing at least one dimension in the size range of 10−9 m to 10−7 m. As particles in this size range represent the smaller fraction of colloidal particles characterized by dimensions of 10−9 m to 10−6 m, they differ from both molecular species and bulk particulate matter in the sense that they are unlikely to exhibit significant settling under normal gravitational conditions and they are also likely to exhibit significantly diminished diffusivities (when compared to truly dissolved species in environmental media. As air/water, air/soil, and water/soil intermedium transport is governed by diffusive processes in the absence of significant gravitational and inertial impaction processes in environmental systems, models of MN environmental intermedium transport behavior will likely require an emphasis on kinetic approaches. This review focuses on the likely environmental fate and transport of MNs in atmospheric and aquatic systems. Should significant atmospheric MNs emission occur, previous observations suggest that MNs may likely exhibit an atmospheric residence time of ten to twenty days. Moreover, while atmospheric MN aggregates in a size range of 10−7 m to 10−6 m will likely be most mobile, they are least likely to deposit in the human respiratory system. An examination of various procedures including the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO theory of colloidal particle suspension stability in water indicates that more sophisticated approaches may be necessary in order to develop aquatic exposure models of acceptable uncertainty. In addition, concepts such as Critical Coagulation Concentrations and Critical Zeta Potentials may prove to be quite useful in environmental aquatic exposure assessments.

  20. Environmental Change and Human Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Mesić

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The 30th anniversary of the journal Migration and Ethnic Themes (MET is an occasion to announce a new key issue in the modern world’s future, which, in the authors’ opinion, is becoming the central theme within multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary field of migration studies. This concerns the displacement of people in the local and national context as well as migration across national borders, at the regional and global level, which are directly or indirectly caused by environmental change. The recent genetic studies on the origins and development of the human race further confirm that the human ecological migrations are the first and the oldest type of migrations at all. In addition, as archaeological and other findings suggest, just this type of migration sometimes played a key role in the emergence, decay and changing of ancient civilizations. It seems that the early researchers of migration studies had a lot in mind considering changes in natural environment as an important determinant of human spatial movements. The interest for this topic in the social sciences had trailed off until the re-emergence in the second half of the 1980s. The authors accept the classification on the causal categories of “environmental migration” as: a “natural” disasters; b “urban-industrial” disasters, and c exploitation and degradation of resources. Further, they deal with the definition of basic concepts, first of all with disputes about the definition of “environmental refugees” as opposed to “environmental migrants”. Finally, the authors systematize two major competing approaches to migration and migrants caused by environmental change. The first one is “the alarmist” and the second one “the sceptic” approach. Luckily, the Sceptics are able (for now to prove that deterrent worse-case scenarios on increasingly powerful and unstoppable “waves” of environmental migrants (refugees have not been achieved. This serves them as

  1. Environmental Exposure to Triclosan and Semen Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenting Zhu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Triclosan (2,4,4′-trichloro-2′-hydroxy-diphenyl ether, TCS is widely used in personal care, household, veterinary and industrial products. It was considered as a potential male reproductive toxicant in previous in vitro and in vivo studies. However, evidence from human studies is scarce. Our study aims to investigate the relationship between TCS exposure and semen quality. We measured urinary TCS concentrations in 471 men recruited from a male reproductive health clinic. TCS was detected in 96.7% of urine samples, with a median concentration of 0.97 ng (mg·creatinine−1 (interquartile range, 0.41–2.95 ng (mg·creatinine−1. A multiple linear regression analysis showed a negative association between natural logarithm (Ln transformed TCS concentration (Ln-TCS and Ln transformed number of forward moving sperms (adjusted coefficient β = −0.17; 95% confidence interval (CI (−0.32, −0.02. Furthermore, among those with the lowest tertile of TCS level, Ln-TCS was negatively associated with the number of forward moving sperms (β = −0.35; 95% CI (−0.68, −0.03, percentage of sperms with normal morphology (β = −1.64; 95% CI (−3.05, −0.23, as well as number of normal morphological sperms, sperm concentration and count. Our findings suggest that the adverse effect of TCS on semen quality is modest at the environment-relevant dose in humans. Further studies are needed to confirm our findings.

  2. Cadmium in goods - contribution to environmental exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergbaeck, B.; Jonsson, Arne [Kalmar Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Natural Science

    1998-03-01

    The total amount of Cd used in Sweden since 1940 is approximately 5000 tonnes, including alloys, fertilizers and impurities in zinc. The stock of Cd in goods in the Swedish anthroposphere is dominated by NiCd-batteries. However, when one considers the degree of exposure to corrosion, Cd stabilizers are dominant. Emissions of Cd from industrial plants and other point sources have been historically important. However, these point source emissions must be seen in relation to the increasingly significant fugitive `consumption emissions`, from the use and/or end-use of various goods. In this study, methods of reconstructing the flows of cadmium (Cd) and estimating the emissions over time are discussed. This is done through studies of the development of production, technology, trade and the longevity of metals in Swedish society. This last part in the chain will form the `consumption emissions` calculated from emission factors giving the proportion of the cadmium content in goods that eventually will reach the environment. The main accumulation of metals in the anthroposphere occurs in urban areas where the influx of metals is greatest. Urban areas probably represent `hot spots` as far as this type of environmental impact is concerned. Extreme Cd concentrations in surface sediments in central Stockholm indicate an ongoing release of Cd from the anthroposphere. The sources are so far unknown, i.e. this Cd flow to the biosphere cannot be explained in terms of deposition or emissions from point sources. Approximately 40 tonnes of Cd in goods are exposed to corrosion in varying degrees. This stock is dominated by Cd in stabilizers and pigments, and as impurities in Zn 15 refs, 2 figs, 8 tabs

  3. Isopropanol exposure : environmental and biological monitoring in a printing works

    OpenAIRE

    Brugnone, F; Perbellini, L; Apostoli, P.; Bellomi, M; Caretta, D.

    1983-01-01

    Occupational exposure to isopropanol was studied in 12 workers by testing environmental air, alveolar air, venous blood, and urine during their work shift. Isopropanol, which ranged in environmental air between 7 and 645 mg/m3, was detected in alveolar air, where it ranged between 4 and 437 mg/m3, but not in blood or in urine. Alveolar isopropanol concentration (Ca) was significantly correlated with environmental isopropanol concentration (Ci) at any time of exposure. The value of the arithme...

  4. ADVERSE HEALTH EFFECTS FROM ENVIRONMENTAL MANGANESE EXPOSURE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ubiquitous element, manganese (Mn), is an essential nutrient, but toxic at excessive exposure levels. Therefore, the US EPA set guideline levels for Mn exposure through inhalation (reference concentration-RfC=0.05 ?g/m3) and ingestion (reference dose-RfD=0.14 mg/kg/day (10 mg...

  5. Ultraviolet Radiation: Human Exposure and Health Risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenkate, Thomas D.

    1998-01-01

    Provides an overview of human exposure to ultraviolet radiation and associated health effects as well as risk estimates for acute and chronic conditions resulting from such exposure. Demonstrates substantial reductions in health risk that can be achieved through preventive actions. Also includes a risk assessment model for skin cancer. Contains 36…

  6. PARTNERING TO IMPROVE HUMAN EXPOSURE METHODS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methods development research is an application-driven scientific area that addresses programmatic needs. The goals are to reduce measurement uncertainties, address data gaps, and improve existing analytical procedures for estimating human exposures. Partnerships have been develop...

  7. Developmental Exposure to Environmental Chemicals and Metabolic Changes in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ, Karin; Howard, Sarah

    2016-08-01

    The incidence of childhood obesity, type 2 diabetes, and other forms of metabolic disease have been rising over the past several decades. Although diet and physical activity play important roles in these trends, other environmental factors also may contribute to this significant public health issue. In this article, we discuss the possibility that widespread exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may contribute to the development of metabolic diseases in children. We summarize the epidemiological evidence on exposure to environmental chemicals during early development and metabolic outcomes in infants and children. Prenatal exposure to EDCs, particularly the persistent organic pollutant DDT and its metabolite DDE, may influence growth patterns during infancy and childhood. The altered growth patterns associated with EDCs vary according to exposure level, sex, exposure timing, pubertal status, and age at which growth is measured. Early exposure to air pollutants also is linked to impaired metabolism in infants and children. As a result of these and other studies, professional health provider societies have called for a reduction in environmental chemical exposures. We summarize the resources available to health care providers to counsel patients on how to reduce chemical exposures. We conclude with a discussion of environmental policies that address chemical exposures and ultimately aim to improve public health.

  8. [Health effects of environmental noise exposure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röösli, Martin

    2013-12-01

    In the EU 27 countries about 100 million persons are exposed to road traffic noise above 55 dB (LDEN) according to the European Environment Agency. Exposure to railway noise affects 16 million individuals, aircraft noise 4 million and industry noise 1 million persons. Although the proportion of people reporting to be annoyed by noise exposure is substantial, health effects of noise is rarely an issue in general practitioners' consultations. According to stress models chronic noise exposure results in an increased allostatic load by direct physiological responses as well as psychological stress responses including sleep disturbances. In relation to acute and chronic noise exposure an increase of blood pressure was observed in epidemiological studies. An association between ischemic heart diseases and noise exposure was observed in various studies. However, the data is less consistent for other cardiovascular diseases and for cognitive effects in children. The association between metabolic syndrome and noise has rarely been investigated so far. Recently an association between road traffic noise and diabetes was observed in a Danish cohort study. Given the plausibility for a noise effect, general practitioners should consider noise exposure in patients with increased cardiometabolic risk.

  9. Wind turbines and idiopathic symptoms: The confounding effect of concurrent environmental exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanes-Vidal, Victoria; Schwartz, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Whether or not wind turbines pose a risk to human health is a matter of heated debate. Personal reactions to other environmental exposures occurring in the same settings as wind turbines may be responsible of the reported symptoms. However, these have not been accounted for in previous studies. We investigated whether there is an association between residential proximity to wind turbines and idiopathic symptoms, after controlling for personal reactions to other environmental co-exposures. We assessed wind turbine exposures in 454 residences as the distance to the closest wind turbine (Dw) and number of wind turbines wind turbines and agricultural odor exposure, we did not observe a significant relationship between residential proximity to wind turbines and symptoms and the parameter estimates were attenuated toward zero. Wind turbines-health associations can be confounded by personal reactions to other environmental co-exposures. Isolated associations reported in the literature may be due to confounding bias.

  10. Integrated Environmental Modelling: human decisions, human challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, Pierre D.

    2015-01-01

    Integrated Environmental Modelling (IEM) is an invaluable tool for understanding the complex, dynamic ecosystems that house our natural resources and control our environments. Human behaviour affects the ways in which the science of IEM is assembled and used for meaningful societal applications. In particular, human biases and heuristics reflect adaptation and experiential learning to issues with frequent, sharply distinguished, feedbacks. Unfortunately, human behaviour is not adapted to the more diffusely experienced problems that IEM typically seeks to address. Twelve biases are identified that affect IEM (and science in general). These biases are supported by personal observations and by the findings of behavioural scientists. A process for critical analysis is proposed that addresses some human challenges of IEM and solicits explicit description of (1) represented processes and information, (2) unrepresented processes and information, and (3) accounting for, and cognizance of, potential human biases. Several other suggestions are also made that generally complement maintaining attitudes of watchful humility, open-mindedness, honesty and transparent accountability. These suggestions include (1) creating a new area of study in the behavioural biogeosciences, (2) using structured processes for engaging the modelling and stakeholder communities in IEM, and (3) using ‘red teams’ to increase resilience of IEM constructs and use.

  11. ENVIRONMENTAL STATISTICS AND HUMAN ECOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin MANEA

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A complex statistical overview of the economy in a circumstantial manner remains that of the perennial hexagon of major balances, and it is presented in the introduction of thiss paper. As can be seen, the environment (ecosphere or the global equilibrium indicators are a very important signal for the cyclical imbalances and economic developments, and can be significated as indicators of survival (environmental indicators represent a extended category of statistical indicators, from the statistical indicators on protected areas, water resources provided under the degree of development, the water sources and watersheds, surface water quality in watersheds and quality classes, the defoliation the main tree species and all ages, classes of defoliation, to the expenditures for environmental protection. In the first section of the paper some of the major European environmental statistical indicators are detailed, and in the second part the correspondent national statistical indicators are presented through comparision and exposed to a confrontation with the E.U. level, and a final remark underlines the growing importance of environmental statistics and human ecology.

  12. Biological markers in animals can provide information on exposure and bioavailability of environmental contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shugart, L.R.; Adams, S.M.; Jimenez, B.D.; Talmage, S.S.; McCarthy, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies of agents present in the environment seek to identify the extent to which they contribute to the causation of a specific toxic, clinical, or pathological endpoint. The multifactorial nature of disease etiology, long latency periods and the complexity of exposure, all contribute to the difficulty of establishing associations and casual relationships between a specific exposure and an adverse outcome. These barriers to studies of exposures and subsequent risk assessment cannot generally be changed. However, the appropriate use of biological markers in animal species living in a contaminated habitat can provide a measure of potential damage from that exposure and, in some instances, act as a surrogate for human environmental exposures. Quantitative predictivity of the effect of exposure to environmental pollutants is being approached by employing an appropriate array of biological end points. 34 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  13. Linking Early Environmental Exposures to Adult Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... arise during fetal development from disruptions in the dynamic but still poorly understood interplay of genes, environment ... of Environmental Health Sciences, please go to our website at : http: / / www. niehs. nih. gov/

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL PCB EXPOSURE AND RISK OF ENDOMETRIOSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Hormonally active environmental agents recently have been associated with the development of endometriosis. METHODS: We undertook a study to assess the relation between endometriosis, an estrogen dependent gynecologic disease, and 62 individual polychlorinated biphe...

  15. Environmental exposure to carcinogens in northwestern Cameroon

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    2013-09-03

    Sep 3, 2013 ... cancer in the general population in Cameroon was ... Provincial (now Region) capital of Cameroon with ..... accumulated waste are environmental hazards to be ... as well as burns, premature ageing, nausea, weakness,.

  16. Current Research and Opportunities to Address Environmental Asbestos Exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asbestos-related diseases continue to result in approximately 120,000 deaths every year in the United States and worldwide.Although extensive research has been conducted on health effects of occupational exposures to asbestos, many issues related to environmental asbestos exposur...

  17. Current Research and Opportunities to Address Environmental Asbestos Exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asbestos-related diseases continue to result in approximately 120,000 deaths every year in the United States and worldwide.Although extensive research has been conducted on health effects of occupational exposures to asbestos, many issues related to environmental asbestos exposur...

  18. Assessing human variability in kinetics for exposures to multiple environmental chemicals: a physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling case study with dichloromethane, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and m-xylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valcke, Mathieu; Haddad, Sami

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the magnitude of interindividual variability in internal dose for inhalation exposure to single versus multiple chemicals. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic models for adults (AD), neonates (NEO), toddlers (TODD), and pregnant women (PW) were used to simulate inhalation exposure to "low" (RfC-like) or "high" (AEGL-like) air concentrations of benzene (Bz) or dichloromethane (DCM), along with various levels of toluene alone or toluene with ethylbenzene and xylene. Monte Carlo simulations were performed and distributions of relevant internal dose metrics of either Bz or DCM were computed. Area under the blood concentration of parent compound versus time curve (AUC)-based variability in AD, TODD, and PW rose for Bz when concomitant "low" exposure to mixtures of increasing complexities occurred (coefficient of variation (CV) = 16-24%, vs. 12-15% for Bz alone), but remained unchanged considering DCM. Conversely, AUC-based CV in NEO fell (15 to 5% for Bz; 12 to 6% for DCM). Comparable trends were observed considering production of metabolites (AMET), except for NEO's CYP2E1-mediated metabolites of Bz, where an increased CV was observed (20 to 71%). For "high" exposure scenarios, Cmax-based variability of Bz and DCM remained unchanged in AD and PW, but decreased in NEO (CV= 11-16% to 2-6%) and TODD (CV= 12-13% to 7-9%). Conversely, AMET-based variability for both substrates rose in every subpopulation. This study analyzed for the first time the impact of multiple exposures on interindividual variability in toxicokinetics. Evidence indicates that this impact depends upon chemical concentrations and biochemical properties, as well as the subpopulation and internal dose metrics considered.

  19. Modelling Human Exposure to Chemicals in Food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slob W

    1993-01-01

    Exposure to foodborne chemicals is often estimated using the average consumption pattern in the human population. To protect the human population instead of the average individual, however, interindividual variability in consumption behaviour must be taken into account. This report shows how food

  20. Exposure to Environmental Air Manganese and Medication Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential element with natural low levels found in water, food, and air, but due to industrialized processes, both workplace and the environmental exposures to Mn have increased. Recently, environmental studies have reported physical and mental health problem...

  1. Exposure to Environmental Air Manganese and Medication Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential element with natural low levels found in water, food, and air, but due to industrialized processes, both workplace and the environmental exposures to Mn have increased. Recently, environmental studies have reported physical and mental health problem...

  2. The genome as a record of environmental exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nik-Zainal, Serena; Kucab, Jill E; Morganella, Sandro; Glodzik, Dominik; Alexandrov, Ludmil B; Arlt, Volker M; Weninger, Annette; Hollstein, Monica; Stratton, Michael R; Phillips, David H

    2015-11-01

    Whole genome sequencing of human tumours has revealed distinct patterns of mutation that hint at the causative origins of cancer. Experimental investigations of the mutations and mutation spectra induced by environmental mutagens have traditionally focused on single genes. With the advent of faster cheaper sequencing platforms, it is now possible to assess mutation spectra in experimental models across the whole genome. As a proof of principle, we have examined the whole genome mutation profiles of mouse embryo fibroblasts immortalised following exposure to benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), ultraviolet light (UV) and aristolochic acid (AA). The results reveal that each mutagen induces a characteristic mutation signature: predominantly G→T mutations for BaP, C→T and CC→TT for UV and A→T for AA. The data are not only consistent with existing knowledge but also provide additional information at higher levels of genomic organisation. The approach holds promise for identifying agents responsible for mutations in human tumours and for shedding light on the aetiology of human cancer.

  3. Assessment of Human Exposure to ENMs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Araceli Sánchez; van Tongeren, Martie

    2017-01-01

    Human exposure assessment of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) is hampered, among other factors, by the difficulty to differentiate ENM from other nanomaterials (incidental to processes or naturally occurring) and the lack of a single metric that can be used for health risk assessment. It is important that the exposure assessment is carried out throughout the entire life-cycle as releases can occur at the different stages of the product life-cycle, from the synthesis, manufacture of the nano-enable product (occupational exposure) to the professional and consumer use of nano-enabled product (consumer exposure) and at the end of life.Occupational exposure surveys should follow a tiered approach, increasing in complexity in terms of instruments used and sampling strategy applied with higher tiers in order tailor the exposure assessment to the specific materials used and workplace exposure scenarios and to reduce uncertainty in assessment of exposure. Assessment of consumer exposure and of releases from end-of-life processes currently relies on release testing of nano-enabled products in laboratory settings.

  4. Environmental Exposure of the Adult French Population to Permethrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermant, Marie; Blanchard, Olivier; Perouel, Guillaume; Boulanger, Guillaume; Merlo, Mathilde; Desvignes, Virginie

    2017-08-11

    This work aims to assess the exposure to permethrin of the adult French population from available contamination measurements of outdoor air, indoor air, and settled dust. Priority is given to the assessment of chronic exposure, given the potential of permethrin to induce cancers and/or endocrine disorders. A statistical method was devised to calculate exposure to permethrin by different pathways (inhalation, indirect dust ingestion, and dermal contact). This method considers anthropometric parameters, the population's space-time budget, and recent methods for calculating dermal exposure. Considering the media of interest, our results pointed to house dust as the main environmental source of permethrin exposure, followed by indoor and outdoor air. Dermal contact and indirect dust ingestion may be more important exposure pathways than inhalation. A sensitivity analysis indicated that exposure estimates were mainly affected by variability within contamination data. This study is the first step in aggregated exposure and risk assessment due to pyrethroid exposure. Outdoor air, indoor air, and settled dust may constitute significant exposure sources, in addition to diet, which could be important. The next step entails assessing internal doses and estimating the proportion of each exposure source and pathway relative to internal exposure. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  5. Blood-borne biomarkers and bioindicators for linking exposure to health effects in environmental health science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, M Ariel Geer; Kormos, Tzipporah M; Pleil, Joachim D

    2016-01-01

    Environmental health science aims to link environmental pollution sources to adverse health outcomes to develop effective exposure intervention strategies that reduce long-term disease risks. Over the past few decades, the public health community recognized that health risk is driven by interaction between the human genome and external environment. Now that the human genetic code has been sequenced, establishing this "G × E" (gene-environment) interaction requires a similar effort to decode the human exposome, which is the accumulation of an individual's environmental exposures and metabolic responses throughout the person's lifetime. The exposome is composed of endogenous and exogenous chemicals, many of which are measurable as biomarkers in blood, breath, and urine. Exposure to pollutants is assessed by analyzing biofluids for the pollutant itself or its metabolic products. New methods are being developed to use a subset of biomarkers, termed bioindicators, to demonstrate biological changes indicative of future adverse health effects. Typically, environmental biomarkers are assessed using noninvasive (excreted) media, such as breath and urine. Blood is often avoided for biomonitoring due to practical reasons such as medical personnel, infectious waste, or clinical setting, despite the fact that blood represents the central compartment that interacts with every living cell and is the most relevant biofluid for certain applications and analyses. The aims of this study were to (1) review the current use of blood samples in environmental health research, (2) briefly contrast blood with other biological media, and (3) propose additional applications for blood analysis in human exposure research.

  6. Biomarkers of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, M; Bisgaard, H; Stage, M

    2007-01-01

    Non-invasive biomonitoring of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) by means of hair is attractive in children, although systematic evaluation is required in infants. The objective was to compare nicotine and cotinine concentrations in hair and plasma and parentally reported exposure to ETS...... microl plasma. Information was obtained on the number of days with ETS exposure during the first year of life, the smoking habits of the parents, and the number of cigarettes smoked per day in the home. All three parentally reported indices of ETS exposure were significantly associated...

  7. Variation in calculated human exposure. Comparison of calculations with seven European human exposure models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swartjes F; ECO

    2003-01-01

    Twenty scenarios, differing with respect to land use, soil type and contaminant, formed the basis for calculating human exposure from soil contaminants with the use of models contributed by seven European countries (one model per country). Here, the human exposures to children and children

  8. The Pregnancy Exposome: Multiple Environmental Exposures in the INMA-Sabadell Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Oliver; Basagaña, Xavier; Agier, Lydiane; de Castro, Montserrat; Hernandez-Ferrer, Carles; Gonzalez, Juan R; Grimalt, Joan O; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Sunyer, Jordi; Slama, Rémy; Vrijheid, Martine

    2015-09-01

    The "exposome" is defined as "the totality of human environmental exposures from conception onward, complementing the genome" and its holistic approach may advance understanding of disease etiology. We aimed to describe the correlation structure of the exposome during pregnancy to better understand the relationships between and within families of exposure and to develop analytical tools appropriate to exposome data. Estimates on 81 environmental exposures of current health concern were obtained for 728 women enrolled in The INMA (INfancia y Medio Ambiente) birth cohort, in Sabadell, Spain, using biomonitoring, geospatial modeling, remote sensors, and questionnaires. Pair-wise Pearson's and polychoric correlations were calculated and principal components were derived. The median absolute correlation across all exposures was 0.06 (5th-95th centiles, 0.01-0.54). There were strong levels of correlation within families of exposure (median = 0.45, 5th-95th centiles, 0.07-0.85). Nine exposures (11%) had a correlation higher than 0.5 with at least one exposure outside their exposure family. Effectively all the variance in the data set (99.5%) was explained by 40 principal components. Future exposome studies should interpret exposure effects in light of their correlations to other exposures. The weak to moderate correlation observed between exposure families will permit adjustment for confounding in future exposome studies.

  9. Human convective boundary layer and its impact on personal exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licina, Dusan

    People spend most of their time indoors and they are constantly exposed to pollution that affects their health, comfort and productivity. Due to strong economic and environmental pressures to reduce building energy consumption, low air velocity design is gaining popularity; hence buoyancy flows...... differences in pollution concentration mean that personal exposure, rather than average space concentration, determines the risk of elevated exposure. Current room air distribution design practice does not take into account the air movement induced by the thermal flows from occupants, which often results...... in inaccurate exposure prediction. This highlights the importance of a detailed understanding of the complex air movements that take place in the vicinity of the human body and their impact on personal exposure. The two objectives of the present work are: (i) to examine the extent to which the room air...

  10. Influences of large sets of environmental exposures on immune responses in healthy adult men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Buqing; Rykova, Marina; Jäger, Gundula; Feuerecker, Matthias; Hörl, Marion; Matzel, Sandra; Ponomarev, Sergey; Vassilieva, Galina; Nichiporuk, Igor; Choukèr, Alexander

    2015-08-26

    Environmental factors have long been known to influence immune responses. In particular, clinical studies about the association between migration and increased risk of atopy/asthma have provided important information on the role of migration associated large sets of environmental exposures in the development of allergic diseases. However, investigations about environmental effects on immune responses are mostly limited in candidate environmental exposures, such as air pollution. The influences of large sets of environmental exposures on immune responses are still largely unknown. A simulated 520-d Mars mission provided an opportunity to investigate this topic. Six healthy males lived in a closed habitat simulating a spacecraft for 520 days. When they exited their "spacecraft" after the mission, the scenario was similar to that of migration, involving exposure to a new set of environmental pollutants and allergens. We measured multiple immune parameters with blood samples at chosen time points after the mission. At the early adaptation stage, highly enhanced cytokine responses were observed upon ex vivo antigen stimulations. For cell population frequencies, we found the subjects displayed increased neutrophils. These results may presumably represent the immune changes occurred in healthy humans when migrating, indicating that large sets of environmental exposures may trigger aberrant immune activity.

  11. Evaluating environmental modeling and sampling data with biomarker data to identify sources and routes of exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyeong-Moo; McKone, Thomas E.; Bennett, Deborah H.

    2013-04-01

    Exposure to environmental chemicals results from multiple sources, environmental media, and exposure routes. Ideally, modeled exposures should be compared to biomonitoring data. This study compares the magnitude and variation of modeled polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) exposures resulting from emissions to outdoor and indoor air and estimated exposure inferred from biomarker levels. Outdoor emissions result in both inhalation and food-based exposures. We modeled PAH intake doses using U.S. EPA's 2002 National Air Toxics Assessment (NATA) county-level emissions data for outdoor inhalation, the CalTOX model for food ingestion (based on NATA emissions), and indoor air concentrations from field studies for indoor inhalation. We then compared the modeled intake with the measured urine levels of hydroxy-PAH metabolites from the 2001-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) survey as quantifiable human intake of PAH parent-compounds. Lognormal probability plots of modeled intakes and estimated intakes inferred from biomarkers suggest that a primary route of exposure to naphthalene, fluorene, and phenanthrene for the U.S. population is likely inhalation from indoor sources. For benzo(a)pyrene, the predominant exposure route is likely from food ingestion resulting from multi-pathway transport and bioaccumulation due to outdoor emissions. Multiple routes of exposure are important for pyrene. We also considered the sensitivity of the predicted exposure to the proportion of the total naphthalene production volume emitted to the indoor environment. The comparison of PAH biomarkers with exposure variability estimated from models and sample data for various exposure pathways supports that both indoor and outdoor models are needed to capture the sources and routes of exposure to environmental contaminants.

  12. In vivo plasma concentration for lindane after 6 hour exposure in human skin

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Dataset is a time course description of lindane disappearance in blood plasma after dermal exposure in human volunteers. This dataset is associated with the...

  13. METHODOLOGY FOR EXPOSURE AND RISK ASSESSMENT IN COMPLEX ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION SITUATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Frequently environmental pollution results from different hazardous substances released in the environment, meaning that contaminated sites may have many different chemical sources and transport pathways. Problems concerning environmental pollution affect mainly physical, chemical and biological properties of air, water and soil. The relationships between the sources, exposure and effects of contaminants to human and ecological receptors are complex and many times are specific to a particular...

  14. Human biological monitoring of occupational genotoxic exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lisbeth E.; Sorsa, M

    1993-01-01

    ) occupational exposure limit value of styrene in ambient air. The consideration of ethical issues in human genetic monitoring is an important but often overlooked aspect. This includes the scientific and preventional relevance of performing a test on individuals, pre- and post study information of donors......Human biological monitoring is a valuable tool for exposure assessment in groups of persons occupationally exposed to genotoxic agents. If the monitoring activity covers genetic material the term genetic monitoring is used. The methods used for genetic monitoring are either substance specific, e...... for and the biomonitoring results should preferentially be linked with accurate ambient air monitoring. In persons occupationally exposed to styrene the endpoints of DNA-damage and DNA-repair in genetic monitoring are methods of choice in exposure situations above the current Danish (25 ppm) or Finnish (20 ppm...

  15. Fetal exposure to environmental neurotoxins in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuen-Bin Jiang

    Full Text Available Mercury (Hg, lead (Pb, cadmium (Cd, and arsenic (As are recognized neurotoxins in children that particularly affect neurodevelopment and intellectual performance. Based on the hypothesis that the fetal basis of adult disease is fetal toxic exposure that results in adverse outcomes in adulthood, we explored the concentrations of key neurotoxins (i.e., Hg, Pb, Cd, and As in meconium to identify the risk factors associated with these concentrations. From January 2007 to December 2009, 545 mother-infant pairs were recruited. The geometric mean concentrations of Pb and As in the meconium of babies of foreign-born mothers (22.9 and 38.1 µg/kg dry weight, respectively were significantly greater than those of babies of Taiwan-born mothers (17.5 and 33.0 µg/kg dry weight, respectively. Maternal age (≥30 y, maternal education, use of traditional Chinese herbs during pregnancy, and fish cutlet consumption (≥3 meals/wk were risk factors associated with concentrations of key prenatal neurotoxins. The Taiwan government should focus more attention on providing intervention programs for immigrant mothers to help protect the health of unborn babies. Further investigation on how multiple neurotoxins influence prenatal neurodevelopment is warranted.

  16. A translatable predictor of human radiation exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Lucas

    Full Text Available Terrorism using radiological dirty bombs or improvised nuclear devices is recognized as a major threat to both public health and national security. In the event of a radiological or nuclear disaster, rapid and accurate biodosimetry of thousands of potentially affected individuals will be essential for effective medical management to occur. Currently, health care providers lack an accurate, high-throughput biodosimetric assay which is suitable for the triage of large numbers of radiation injury victims. Here, we describe the development of a biodosimetric assay based on the analysis of irradiated mice, ex vivo-irradiated human peripheral blood (PB and humans treated with total body irradiation (TBI. Interestingly, a gene expression profile developed via analysis of murine PB radiation response alone was inaccurate in predicting human radiation injury. In contrast, generation of a gene expression profile which incorporated data from ex vivo irradiated human PB and human TBI patients yielded an 18-gene radiation classifier which was highly accurate at predicting human radiation status and discriminating medically relevant radiation dose levels in human samples. Although the patient population was relatively small, the accuracy of this classifier in discriminating radiation dose levels in human TBI patients was not substantially confounded by gender, diagnosis or prior exposure to chemotherapy. We have further incorporated genes from this human radiation signature into a rapid and high-throughput chemical ligation-dependent probe amplification assay (CLPA which was able to discriminate radiation dose levels in a pilot study of ex vivo irradiated human blood and samples from human TBI patients. Our results illustrate the potential for translation of a human genetic signature for the diagnosis of human radiation exposure and suggest the basis for further testing of CLPA as a candidate biodosimetric assay.

  17. Analysis of the occupational, consumer and environmental exposure to engineered nanomaterials used in 10 technology sectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowack, Bernd; Brouwer, Connie; Geertsma, Robert E; Heugens, Evelyn H W; Ross, Bryony L; Toufektsian, Marie-Claire; Wijnhoven, Susan W P; Aitken, Robert J

    2013-09-01

    Humans and the environment can come into contact with nanomaterials through a wide range of applications during all stages of the life cycle of nanoproducts. The aim of this commentary is to present an assessment of the potential for exposure and thus identify possible environmental, health and safety (EHS) issues for nanomaterials used in 10 technology sectors. We analysed all life cycle stages with regard to potential for exposure of workers, consumers/patients, and the environment. A wide variety of nanomaterials are used of which many have negligible potential for exposure, while others have medium or even high potential for exposure. Based on the likelihood of exposure, it appears that in general most attention should be paid to the agrifood, chemistry/materials, textiles and health sectors; and less to the information and communication technology (ICT), security and energy sectors. Toxicity and exposure are both important; however, the EHS impact of nanomaterials is always dependent on their particular use.

  18. Health Consequences of Environmental Exposures: Causal Thinking in Global Environmental Epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sly, Peter D; Carpenter, David O; Van den Berg, Martin; Stein, Renato T; Landrigan, Philip J; Brune-Drisse, Marie-Noel; Suk, William

    2016-01-01

    The 2010 Global Burden of Disease estimates indicate a trend toward increasing years lived with disability from chronic noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). Risk factors examined included smoking, diet, alcohol, drug abuse, and physical inactivity. By contrast, little consideration was given to accumulating evidence that exposures to environmental chemicals, psychosocial stress, and malnutrition during fetal development and across the life span also increase risk of NCDs. To address this gap, we undertook a narrative review of early-life environmental contributions to disease. We documented numerous etiologic associations. We propose that future GBD estimates use an expanded approach for assessing etiologic contributions of environmental exposures to recognized disease risk factors. We argue that broadening the definition of environmental disease, together with improved methods of assessing early life exposures and their health outcomes across the life span, will allow better understanding of causal associations and provide the incentives required to support strategies to control avoidable exposures and reduce disease risk.

  19. Estimated Environmental Exposures for MISSE-3 and MISSE-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finckenor, Miria M.; Pippin, Gary; Kinard, William H.

    2008-01-01

    Describes the estimated environmental exposure for MISSE-2 and MISSE-4. These test beds, attached to the outside of the International Space Station, were planned for 3 years of exposure. This was changed to 1 year after MISSE-1 and -2 were in space for 4 years. MISSE-3 and -4 operate in a low Earth orbit space environment, which exposes them to a variety of assaults including atomic oxygen, ultraviolet radiation, particulate radiation, thermal cycling, and meteoroid/space debris impact, as well as contamination associated with proximity to an active space station. Measurements and determinations of atomic oxygen fluences, solar UV exposure levels, molecular contamination levels, and particulate radiation are included.

  20. ASSESSMENT OF HUMAN EXPOSURE TO TOLUENE DIISOCYANATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OLIVIA ANCA RUSU

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of human exposure to toluene diisocyanate. Toluene diisocyanate (TDI, an aromatic compound, may be dangerous for human health. Diisocyanates have wide industrial use in the fabrication of flexible and rigid foams, fibers, elastomers, and coatings such as paints and varnishes. Isocyanates are known skin and respiratory sensitizers, and proper engineering controls should be in place to prevent exposure to isocyanate liquid and vapor; exposure to TDI vapors is well documented to increase asthma risk. The study focused on the exposure of workers and nearby populations to toluene diisocyanate in a Polyurethane Foam Factory located in Baia Mare, Romania. Workplace air measurements were performed in different departments of the plant, after sampling either in fixed points or as personal monitoring. Sampling in four different locations of Baia Mare town was carried out, - during and after the foaming process. TDI sampling was performed on silica cartridge followed by GC-MS analysis. TDI concentration at workplace was lower than 0,035 mg/m³, which represents the permissible exposure limit, while in the city the TDI concentration had shown values below 0,20 μg/m³. Health assessment of a group of 49 workers was based on questionnaire interview, determination of TDI antibodies and lung function tests. Data collected until this stage do not show any negative effects of TDI on the employees health. Since this plant had only recently begun operating, continuous workplace and ambient air TDI monitoring, along with workers health surveillance, is deemed necessary.

  1. CUMEX: a cumulative hazard index for assessing limiting exposures to environmental pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, P.J.; Killough, G.G.; Parzyck, D.C.; Rohwer, P.S.; Rupp, e.M.; Whitfield, B.L.; Booth, R.S.; Raridon, R.J.

    1977-04-01

    A hazard index methodology called CUMEX has been developed for limiting human exposure to environmental pollutants. Hazard index is defined as Q/Q/sub L/ where Q is exposure or dose to total-body, organ or tissue from all environmental pathways and Q/sub L/ is a limit which should not be exceeded because of health risk to humans. Mathematical formulations for hazard indices are developed for each sampling medium corresponding to each effluent type. These hazard indices are accumulated into composite indices such that total human intake or dose would not exceed the health risk limit. Mathematical formulation for composite hazard indices or CUMEX indices for multiple pollutants are presented. An example CUMEX application to cadmium release from a smelter complex in East Helena, Montana demonstrates details of the methodology for a single pollutant where human intake occurs through inhalation and ingestion.

  2. The association between environmental exposure to pyrethroids and sperm aneuploidy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radwan, Michał; Jurewicz, Joanna; Wielgomas, Bartosz; Piskunowicz, Marta; Sobala, Wojciech; Radwan, Paweł; Jakubowski, Lucjusz; Hawuła, Wanda; Hanke, Wojciech

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the present study is to determine whether the environmental exposure to pyrethroids was associated with males sperm chromosome disomy. The study population consisted of 195 men who attended the infertility clinic for diagnostic purposes and who had normal semen concentration of 20-300×10(6) mL(-1) or slight oligozoospermia (semen concentration of 15-20×10(6) mL(-1)) (WHO, 1999). Participants were interviewed and provided a semen sample. The pyrethroids metabolites: 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3PBA), cis-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane carboxylic acid (CDCCA), trans-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane carboxylic acid (TDCCA) and cis-2,2-dibromovinyl-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (DBCA) were analysed in the urine using a validated gas chromatography ion-tap mass spectrometry method. Sperm aneuploidy was assessed using multicolor FISH (DNA probes specific for chromosomes X, Y, 18, 13, 21). Our results showed that CDCCA >50th percentile was associated with disomy of chromosome 18 (p=0.05) whereas the level of TDCCA in urine >50th percentile was related to XY disomy (p=0.04) and disomy of chromosome 21 (p=0.05). Urinary 3PBA level ⩽50 and >50 percentile was related to disomy of sex chromosomes: XY disomy (p=0.05 and p=0.02 respectively), Y disomy (p=0.04 and 0.02 respectively), disomy of chromosome 21 (p=0.04 and p=0.04 respectively) and total disomy (p=0.03 and p=0.04 respectively). Additionally disomy of chromosome 18 was positively associated with urinary level of 3PBA >50 percentile (p=0.03). The results reported here are found that pyrethroids may be a sperm aneugens. These findings may be of concern due to increased pyrethroid use and prevalent human exposure.

  3. Environmental health impacts: occurrence, exposure and significance, Lancaster University, UK, 9-10 September 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Francis L; Semple, Kirk T

    2004-09-01

    Speakers: John Ashby (Syngenta CTL, UK), Peter A. Behnisch (Eurofins GfA, Germany), Paul L. Carmichael (Unilever Colworth, UK), Curtis C.Harris (National Cancer Institute, USA), Kevin C. Jones (Lancaster University, UK), Andreas Kortenkamp (School of Pharmacy, London, UK), Caroline J. Langdon (Reading University, UK), Anthony M. Lynch (GlaxoSmithKline, UK), Francis L. Martin (Lancaster University, UK), Trevor J. McMillan (Lancaster University, UK), David H. Phillips (Institute of Cancer Research, UK), Huw J. Ricketts (University of Cardiff, UK), Michael N. Routledge (University of Leeds, UK), J. Thomas Sanderson (Utrecht University, The Netherlands) and Kirk T. Semple (Lancaster University, UK) The effects of many environmental exposures to either single contaminants or to mixtures still remain to be properly assessed in ecotoxicological and human toxicological settings. Such assessments need to be carried out using relevant biological assays. On a mechanistic basis, future studies need to be able to extrapolate exposure to disease risk. It is envisaged that such an approach would lead to the development of appropriate strategies to either reduce exposures or to initiate preventative measures in susceptible individuals or populations. To mark the opening of a new Institute, the Lancaster Environmental Centre, an environmental health workshop was held over 2 days (9-10 September 2003) at Lancaster University, UK. The fate, behaviour and movement of chemicals in the environment, together with environmental exposures and human health, biomarkers of such exposures, hormone-like compounds and appropriate genetic toxicology methodologies, were discussed.

  4. Improving exposure assessment in environmental epidemiology: Application of spatio-temporal visualization tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meliker, Jaymie R.; Slotnick, Melissa J.; Avruskin, Gillian A.; Kaufmann, Andrew; Jacquez, Geoffrey M.; Nriagu, Jerome O.

    2005-05-01

    A thorough assessment of human exposure to environmental agents should incorporate mobility patterns and temporal changes in human behaviors and concentrations of contaminants; yet the temporal dimension is often under-emphasized in exposure assessment endeavors, due in part to insufficient tools for visualizing and examining temporal datasets. Spatio-temporal visualization tools are valuable for integrating a temporal component, thus allowing for examination of continuous exposure histories in environmental epidemiologic investigations. An application of these tools to a bladder cancer case-control study in Michigan illustrates continuous exposure life-lines and maps that display smooth, continuous changes over time. Preliminary results suggest increased risk of bladder cancer from combined exposure to arsenic in drinking water (>25 μg/day) and heavy smoking (>30 cigarettes/day) in the 1970s and 1980s, and a possible cancer cluster around automotive, paint, and organic chemical industries in the early 1970s. These tools have broad application for examining spatially- and temporally-specific relationships between exposures to environmental risk factors and disease.

  5. Assessment of cancer risks due to environmental exposure to asbestos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driece, Hermen A.L.; Siesling, Sabine; Swuste, Paul H.J.J.; Burdorf, Alex

    2010-01-01

    In a rural area widespread pollution of friable and non-friable waste products was present, used to harden dirt tracks, yards, and driveways during 1935–1974. Exposure to environmental asbestos was assessed by a site approach, based on number of polluted sites within postal code areas, and by a

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL PCB AND PESTICIDE EXPOSURE AND RISK OF ENDOMETRIOSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental PCB and Pesticide Exposure and Risk of EndometriosisGermaine M. Buck1, John M. Weiner2, Hebe Greizerstein3, Brian Whitcomb1, Enrique Schisterman1, Paul Kostyniak3, Danelle Lobdell4, Kent Crickard5, and Ralph Sperrazza51Epidemiology Branch, Division o...

  7. Effects of environmental noise exposure on DNA methylation in the brain and metabolic health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Liqiong; Li, Peng-Hui; Li, Hua; Colicino, Elena; Colicino, Silvia; Wen, Yi; Zhang, Ruiping; Feng, Xiaotian; Barrow, Timothy M; Cayir, Akin; Baccarelli, Andrea A; Byun, Hyang-Min

    2017-02-01

    Environmental noise exposure is associated with adverse effects on human health including hearing loss, heart disease, and changes in stress-related hormone levels. Alteration in DNA methylation in response to environmental exposures is a well-known phenomenon and it is implicated in many human diseases. Understanding how environmental noise exposures affect DNA methylation patterns may help to elucidate the link between noise and adverse effects on health. In this pilot study we examined the effects of environmental noise exposure on DNA methylation of genes related to brain function and investigated whether these changes are related with metabolic health. We exposed four groups of male Wistar rats to moderate intensity noise (70-75dB with 20-4000Hz) at night for three days as short-term exposure, and for three weeks as long-term exposure. Noise exposure was limited to 45dB during the daytime. Control groups were exposed to only 45dB, day and night. We measured DNA methylation in the Bdnf, Comt, Crhr1, Mc2r, and Snca genes in tissue from four brain regions of the rats (hippocampus, frontal lobe, medulla oblongata, and inferior colliculus). Further, we measured blood pressure and body weight after long-term noise exposure. We found that environmental noise exposure is associated with gene-specific DNA methylation changes in specific regions of the brain. Changes in DNA methylation are significantly associated with changes in body weight (between Bdnf DNA methylation and Δ body weight: r=0.59, p=0.018; and between LINE-1 ORF DNA methylation and Δ body weight: =-0.80, p=0.0004). We also observed that noise exposure decreased blood pressure (p=0.038 for SBP, p=0.017 for DBP and p 0. 017 for MAP) and decreased body weight (β=-26g, p=0.008). In conclusion, environmental noise exposures can induce changes in DNA methylation in the brain, which may be associated with adverse effects upon metabolic health through modulation of response to stress-related hormones

  8. Environmental exposure to asbestos and the exposure-response relationship with mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madkour, M T; El Bokhary, M S; Awad Allah, H I; Awad, A A; Mahmoud, H F

    2009-01-01

    An epidemiological and environmental study was carried out in Shubra El-Kheima city, greater Cairo, of the exposure-response relationship between asbestos and malignant pleural mesothelioma. Radiological screening was done for 487 people occupationally exposed to asbestos, 2913 environmentally exposed to asbestos and a control group of 979 with no history of exposure. Pleural biopsy was done for suspicious cases. The airborne asbestos fibre concentrations were determined in all areas. There were 88 cases of mesothelioma diagnosed, 87 in the exposed group. The risk of mesothelioma was higher in the environmentally exposed group than other groups, and higher in females than males. The prevalence of mesothelioma increased with increased cumulative exposure to asbestos.

  9. Chronic boron exposure and human semen parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Wendie A; Xun, Lin; Jia, Juan; Kennedy, Nola; Elashoff, David A; Ping, Liu

    2010-04-01

    Boron found as borates in soil, food, and water has important industrial and medical applications. A panel reviewing NTP reproductive toxicants identified boric acid as high priority for occupational studies to determine safe versus adverse reproductive effects. To address this, we collected boron exposure/dose measures in workplace inhalable dust, dietary food/fluids, blood, semen, and urine from boron workers and two comparison worker groups (n=192) over three months and determined correlations between boron and semen parameters (total sperm count, sperm concentration, motility, morphology, DNA breakage, apoptosis and aneuploidy). Blood boron averaged 499.2 ppb for boron workers, 96.1 and 47.9 ppb for workers from high and low environmental boron areas (pBoron concentrated in seminal fluid. No significant correlations were found between blood or urine boron and adverse semen parameters. Exposures did not reach those causing adverse effects published in animal toxicology work but exceeded those previously published for boron occupational groups.

  10. A flexible matrix-based human exposure assessment framework suitable for LCA and CAA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jolliet, Olivier; Ernstoff, Alexi; Huang, Lei

    2016-01-01

    of near-and far-field pathways and helps to understand the contribution of individual pathways to overall human exposure in various product application contexts. When combined with toxicity information this approach is a resourceful way to inform LCA and CAA and minimize human exposure to toxic chemicals......Humans can be exposed to chemicals via near-field exposure pathways (e.g. through consumer product use) and far-field exposure pathways (e.g. through environmental emissions along product life cycles). Pathways are often complex where chemicals can transfer directly from products to humans during...... use or exchange between near-and far-field compartments until sub -fractions reach humans via inhalation, ingestion or dermal uptake. Currently, however, multimedia exposure models mainly focus on far-field exposure pathways. Metrics and modeling approaches used in far-field, emission-based models...

  11. Environmental exposure assessment framework for nanoparticles in solid waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldrin, Alessio; Hansen, Steffen Foss; Baun, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Information related to the potential environmental exposure of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in the solid waste management phase is extremely scarce. In this paper, we define nanowaste as separately collected or collectable waste materials which are or contain ENMs, and we present a five...... transformation during waste treatment processes, (2) mechanisms for the release of ENMs, (3) the quantification of nanowaste amounts at the regional scale, (4) a definition of acceptable limit values for exposure to ENMs from nanowaste and (5) the reporting of nanowaste generation data....

  12. Substance flow analysis and assessment of environmental exposure potential for triclosan in mainland China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chu-Long; Ma, Hwong-Wen; Yu, Chang-Ping

    2014-11-15

    Triclosan (TCS) is a widely-used antimicrobial agent in many consumer products around the world, and China is a major producer and consumer of TCS. In this study substance flow analysis (SFA) was used to construct a static model of anthropogenic TCS metabolism in China in 2008. The systematic SFA results were used to determine possible exposure pathways and trends in environmental exposure potential through different pathways. TCS discharged in wastewater mainly flowed into surface water sediment, ocean, and soil, where it accumulates in aquatic and agricultural products that may pose a higher risk to human health than brief exposure during consumption. Only 22% of TCS discharged was removed in the built environment with the remainder discharged into the natural environment, indicating that anthropogenic TCS metabolism in China is unsustainable. Per capita TCS consumption increased 209% from 2003 to 2012, resulting in increased discharge and accumulation in the environment. If current trends continue, it will increase to 713 mg capita(-1) yr(-1) in 2015 and 957 mg capita(-1) yr(-1) in 2020. Accordingly, annual environmental exposure potential will increase from 388 mg capita(-1) in 2008 to 557 mg capita(-1) in 2015 and 747 mg capita(-1) in 2020, indicating an increasing trend of exposure to environmental TCS. Results of Pearson correlation analysis suggested that feasible countermeasures to reduce environmental exposure potential for triclosan would include encouraging the development of small cities, raising awareness of health risks, nurturing environmentally-friendly consumer values, and improving the environmental performance of TCS-containing products.

  13. Human habitat positioning system for NASA's space flight environmental simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, W. F.; Tucker, J.; Keas, P.

    1998-01-01

    Artificial gravity by centrifugation offers an effective countermeasure to the physiologic deconditioning of chronic exposure to microgravity; however, the system requirements of rotational velocity, radius of rotation, and resultant centrifugal acceleration require thorough investigation to ascertain the ideal human-use centrifuge configuration. NASA's Space Flight Environmental Simulator (SFES), a 16-meter (52-foot) diameter, animal-use centrifuge, was recently modified to accommodate human occupancy. This paper describes the SFES Human Habitat Positioning System, the mechanism that facilitates radius of rotation variability and alignment of the centrifuge occupants with the artificial gravity vector.

  14. Adverse environmental exposures in pregnancy: teratology in adolescent medicine practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaver, Laurie H

    2002-06-01

    A teratogen is any drug, chemical, infectious or physical agent, or maternal disease or altered metabolic state that causes a structural or functional disability by acting on the embryo or fetus. Teratogens are responsible for approximately 10% of all human birth defects. Education of physicians caring for children and adolescents in the basic principles of teratology, the spectrum of human teratogens, and the recognition of associated anomalies is essential, because many maternal exposures and resultant fetal defects are completely preventable.

  15. Linearity of dose-response relationships for human carcinogenic exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, A.H. (Univ. of California, Berkeley (USA))

    The shape of dose-response relationships is a critical factor in considering cancer risks for the work place and environmental exposure to carcinogens. Markedly different risk estimates result from assumptions of linearity versus sublinear and threshold assumptions. This paper presents evidence that the relationship between the relative risk of development of cancer and the dose rate to carcinogenic exposures is frequently linear with no evidence for thresholds. Dose-response relationships from four studies of asbestos and lung cancer were examined, all of which were consistent with a linear relationship. Analysis of the relationship between the relative risk of lung cancer and exposure to nickel in a smelter study, selected because of relatively good exposure data, demonstrated a close agreement with a linear relationship. The relationship between the level of arsenic in drinking wter and the prevalence of skin cancer also was linear for males in the highest prevalence age group in Taiwan, although there was some evidence of sublinearity for females and younger persons. Also, the relationships between the number of cigarettes smoked per day and the relative risk of lung cancer was very close to linear in many studies. The analysis of these and other studies involving human exposure to carcinogens provides empirical evidence for linearity when the response variable is a rate ratio measure, rather than a risk difference measure. Linearity in dose-response is biologically plausible, without invoking a one-hit model. Except in special circumstances. the epidemiological evidence supports linear extrapolation of cancer relative risks.

  16. Environmental exposure to lead and mercury in Mexican children: a real health problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta-Saavedra, Leonor C; Moreno, Ma Elena; Rodríguez-Kessler, Theresia; Luna, Ana; Arias-Salvatierra, Daniela; Gómez, Rocío; Calderon-Aranda, Emma S

    2011-11-01

    Exposure to lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg) remains a world public health problem, particularly for young children in developing countries. In Mexico, the main sources of exposure to Pb and Hg are wastes from human activities that increase the natural sources of these metals. Pb and Hg are highly toxic during development and maturation periods of the central nervous system (CNS); these effects are associated with the risk for neurodegenerative diseases. Mexico has numerous exposure sources to Pb and Hg; nevertheless, information on exposure in children is limited, particularly for Hg. Therefore, we conducted a review of the studies performed in children exposed to Pb and Hg. Data presented support that an important proportion of Mexican children have Pb levels above values associated with dangerous effects. On the other hand, studies on Hg-exposure are scarce, so we need more studies to estimate the magnitude of the problem and to determine exposure levels in Mexican children. Available data support the urgent need for coordinated actions among researchers, and health and environmental government authorities to implement education and nutritional campaigns, as well as to decrease exposure and effects of Pb and Hg. In addition, there must be a priority for the implementation of educational campaigns directed to the general population, but with emphasis in parents, education staff and health care providers to decrease both the risk of exposure of children to Pb and Hg and the effects of the exposure to these metals.

  17. Quantifying human exposure to air pollution - moving from static monitoring to spatio-temporally resolved personal exposure assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinle, Susanne; Reis, Stefan; Sabel, Clive E

    2013-01-01

    results from multifaceted relationships and interactions between environmental and human systems, adding complexity to the assessment process. Traditionally, approaches to quantify human exposure have relied on pollutant concentrations from fixed air quality network sites and static population...... distributions. New developments in sensor technology now enable us to monitor personal exposure to air pollutants directly while people are moving through their activity spaces and varying concentration fields. The literature review on which this paper is based on reflects recent developments in the assessment...... for the integrated assessment of human exposure to air pollutants taking into account latest technological capabilities and contextual information. Highlights ? We review and discuss recent developments and advances of research into personal exposure to air pollution. ? We emphasise the importance of personal...

  18. Helicopter noise exposure curves for use in environmental impact assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, J. S.; Rickley, E. J.; Bland, T. L.

    1982-11-01

    This report establishes the current (1982) FAA helicopter noise data base for use in environmental impact assessment. The report sets out assumptions, methodologies, and techniques used in arriving at noise-exposure-versus-distance relationships. Noise data are provided for 15 helicopters, including five flight regimes each: takeoff, approach, level flyover, hover in-ground-effect (HIGE) and hover out-of-ground effect (HOGE). When possible, level flyover data are presented for a variety of airspeeds. Sound exposure level (SEL) is provided for all operational modes except hover. In the case of hover operations (both HOGE and HIGE), the maximum A-Weighted Sound Level (LAM) is identified as a function of distance. The report also includes a discussion of helicopter performance characteristics required for full computer modeling of helicopter/heliport noise exposure.

  19. Pesticides: an update of human exposure and toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafalou, Sara; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2017-02-01

    Pesticides are a family of compounds which have brought many benefits to mankind in the agricultural, industrial, and health areas, but their toxicities in both humans and animals have always been a concern. Regardless of acute poisonings which are common for some classes of pesticides like organophosphoruses, the association of chronic and sub-lethal exposure to pesticides with a prevalence of some persistent diseases is going to be a phenomenon to which global attention has been attracted. In this review, incidence of various malignant, neurodegenerative, respiratory, reproductive, developmental, and metabolic diseases in relation to different routes of human exposure to pesticides such as occupational, environmental, residential, parental, maternal, and paternal has been systematically criticized in different categories of pesticide toxicities like carcinogenicity, neurotoxicity, pulmonotoxicity, reproductive toxicity, developmental toxicity, and metabolic toxicity. A huge body of evidence exists on the possible role of pesticide exposures in the elevated incidence of human diseases such as cancers, Alzheimer, Parkinson, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, asthma, bronchitis, infertility, birth defects, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism, diabetes, and obesity. Most of the disorders are induced by insecticides and herbicides most notably organophosphorus, organochlorines, phenoxyacetic acids, and triazine compounds.

  20. Space Radiation and Human Exposures, A Primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Gregory A

    2016-04-01

    The space radiation environment is a complex field comprised primarily of charged particles spanning energies over many orders of magnitude. The principal sources of these particles are galactic cosmic rays, the Sun and the trapped radiation belts around the earth. Superimposed on a steady influx of cosmic rays and a steady outward flux of low-energy solar wind are short-term ejections of higher energy particles from the Sun and an 11-year variation of solar luminosity that modulates cosmic ray intensity. Human health risks are estimated from models of the radiation environment for various mission scenarios, the shielding of associated vehicles and the human body itself. Transport models are used to propagate the ambient radiation fields through realistic shielding levels and materials to yield radiation field models inside spacecraft. Then, informed by radiobiological experiments and epidemiology studies, estimates are made for various outcome measures associated with impairments of biological processes, losses of function or mortality. Cancer-associated risks have been formulated in a probabilistic model while management of non-cancer risks are based on permissible exposure limits. This article focuses on the various components of the space radiation environment and the human exposures that it creates.

  1. Hair as a Biomarker of Environmental Manganese Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastman, Rachel R.; Jursa, Tom P.; Benedetti, Chiara; Lucchini, Roberto G.; Smith, Donald R.

    2013-01-01

    The absence of well-validated biomarkers of manganese (Mn) exposure in children remains a major obstacle for studies of Mn toxicity. We developed a hair cleaning methodology to establish the utility of hair as an exposure biomarker for Mn and other metals (Pb, Cr, Cu), using ICP-MS, scanning electron microscopy, and laser ablation ICP-MS to evaluate cleaning efficacy. Exogenous metal contamination on hair that was untreated or intentionally contaminated with dust or Mn-contaminated water was effectively removed using a cleaning method of 0.5% Triton X-100 sonication plus 1N nitric acid sonication. This cleaning method was then used on hair samples from children (n=121) in an ongoing study of environmental Mn exposure and related health effects. Mean hair Mn levels were 0.121 μg/g (median = 0.073 μg/g, range = 0.011 – 0.736 μg/g), which are ~4 to 70-fold lower than levels reported in other pediatric Mn studies. Hair Mn levels were also significantly higher in children living in the vicinity of active, but not historic, ferroalloy plant emissions compared to controls (Phair can be effectively cleaned of exogenous metal contamination, and they substantiate the use of hair Mn levels as a biomarker of environmental Mn exposure in children. PMID:23259818

  2. [Human exposure to trihalomethanes in drinking water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaga, M Y; Midio, A F

    1999-08-01

    Halogenated hydrocarbon compounds, some of them recognized as carcinogenic to different animal species can be found in drinking water. Chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane and bromoform are the most important trihalomethanes found in potable water. They are produced in natural waters during chlorinated desinfection by the halogenation of precursors, specially humic and fulvic compounds. The review, in the MEDLINE covers the period from 1974 to 1998, presents the general aspects of the formation of trihalomethanes, sources of human exposure and their toxicological meaning for exposed organisms: toxicokinetic disposition and spectrum of toxic effects (carcinogenic, mutagenic and teratogenic).

  3. Environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure in 2013; Umweltradioaktivitaet und Strahlenbelastung im Jahr 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-01

    The report on the environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure in 2013 covers the natural radiation exposure due to radon, food, cosmic and terrestric radiation and the radiation exposure due to nuclear medicine nuclear facilities, mining, industry household and fallout. Special issues are the occupational radiation exposure the medical radiation exposure and the exposure to non-ionizing radiation.

  4. The Role of Environmental Reservoirs in Human Campylobacteriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Bentham

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacteriosis is infection caused by the bacteria Campylobacter spp. and is considered a major public health concern. Campylobacter spp. have been identified as one of the most common causative agents of bacterial gastroenteritis. They are typically considered a foodborne pathogen and have been shown to colonise the intestinal mucosa of all food-producing animals. Much emphasis has been placed on controlling the foodborne pathway of exposure, particularly within the poultry industry, however, other environmental sources have been identified as important contributors to human infection. This paper aims to review the current literature on the sources of human exposure to Campylobacter spp. and will cover contaminated poultry, red meat, unpasteurised milk, unwashed fruit and vegetables, compost, wild bird faeces, sewage, surface water, ground water and drinking water. A comparison of current Campylobacter spp. identification methods from environmental samples is also presented. The review of literature suggests that there are multiple and diverse sources for Campylobacter infection. Many environmental sources result in direct human exposure but also in contamination of the food processing industry. This review provides useful information for risk assessment.

  5. Evaluation of the quick environmental exposure and sensitivity inventory in a Danish population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovbjerg, Sine; Berg, Nikolaj Drimer; Elberling, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate a Danish translation of the Quick Environmental Exposure and Sensitivity Inventory (QEESI).......To evaluate a Danish translation of the Quick Environmental Exposure and Sensitivity Inventory (QEESI)....

  6. HExpoChem: a systems biology resource to explore human exposure to chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taboureau, Olivier; Jacobsen, Ulrik Plesner; Kalhauge, Christian Gram

    2013-01-01

    of computational biology approaches are needed to assess the health risks of chemical exposure. Here we present HExpoChem, a tool based on environmental chemicals and their bioactivities on human proteins with the objective of aiding the qualitative exploration of human exposure to chemicals. The chemical......Summary: Humans are exposed to diverse hazardous chemicals daily. Although an exposure to these chemicals is suspected to have adverse effects on human health, mechanistic insights into how they interact with the human body are still limited. Therefore, acquisition of curated data and development......–protein interactions have been enriched with a quality-scored human protein–protein interaction network, a protein–protein association network and a chemical–chemical interaction network, thus allowing the study of environmental chemicals through formation of protein complexes and phenotypic outcomes enrichment...

  7. Improving Environmental Health Literacy and Justice through Environmental Exposure Results Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica D. Ramirez-Andreotta

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the short- and long-term impacts of a biomonitoring and exposure project and reporting personal results back to study participants is critical for guiding future efforts, especially in the context of environmental justice. The purpose of this study was to evaluate learning outcomes from environmental communication efforts and whether environmental health literacy goals were met in an environmental justice community. We conducted 14 interviews with parents who had participated in the University of Arizona’s Metals Exposure Study in Homes and analyzed their responses using NVivo, a qualitative data management and analysis program. Key findings were that participants used the data to cope with their challenging circumstances, the majority of participants described changing their families’ household behaviors, and participants reported specific interventions to reduce family exposures. The strength of this study is that it provides insight into what people learn and gain from such results communication efforts, what participants want to know, and what type of additional information participants need to advance their environmental health literacy. This information can help improve future report back efforts and advance environmental health and justice.

  8. Impact of Environmental Exposures on the Mutagenicity/Carcinogenicity of Heterocyclic Amines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felton, J S; Knize, M G; Bennett, L M; Malfatti, M A; Colvin, M E; Kulp, K S

    2003-12-19

    Carcinogenic heterocyclic amines are produced from overcooked foods and are highly mutagenic in most short-term test systems. One of the most abundant of these amines, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), induces breast, colon and prostate tumors in rats. Human dietary epidemiology studies suggest a strong correlation between either meat consumption or well-done muscle meat consumption and cancers of the colon, breast, stomach, lung and esophagus. For over 20 years our laboratory has helped define the human exposure to these dietary carcinogens. In this report we describe how various environmental exposures may modulate the risk from exposure to heterocyclic amines, especially PhIP. To assess the impact of foods on PhIP metabolism in humans, we developed an LC/MS/MS method to analyze the four major PhIP urinary metabolites following the consumption of a single portion of grilled chicken. Adding broccoli to the volunteers' diet altered the kinetics of PhIP metabolism. At the cellular level we have found that PhIP itself stimulates a significant estrogenic response in MCF-7 cells, but even more interestingly, co-incubation of the cells with herbal teas appear to enhance the response. Numerous environmental chemicals found in food or the atmosphere can impact the exposure, metabolism, and cell proliferation response of heterocyclic amines.

  9. Environmental exposure to asbestos and other inorganic fibres using animal lung model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fornero, Elisa [Dipartimento di Scienze dell' Ambiente e della Vita, Universita del Piemonte Orientale ' A. Avogadro' , Via Bellini 25/g, 15100 Alessandria (Italy); Centro Interdipartimentale per lo Studio degli Amianti e di altri Particolati Nocivi ' Giovanni Scansetti' , Universita degli Studi di Torino, Torino (Italy)], E-mail: elisa.fornero@mfn.unipmn.it; Belluso, Elena [Dipartimento di Scienze Mineralogiche e Petrologiche, Universita degli Studi di Torino, Via V. Caluso 35, 10125 Torino (Italy); Istituto di Geoscienze e Georisorse, CNR-Unita di Torino, Via V. Caluso 35, 10125 Torino (Italy); Centro Interdipartimentale per lo Studio degli Amianti e di altri Particolati Nocivi ' Giovanni Scansetti' , Universita degli Studi di Torino, Torino (Italy); Capella, Silvana [Dipartimento di Scienze Mineralogiche e Petrologiche, Universita degli Studi di Torino, Via V. Caluso 35, 10125 Torino (Italy); Centro Interdipartimentale per lo Studio degli Amianti e di altri Particolati Nocivi ' Giovanni Scansetti' , Universita degli Studi di Torino, Torino (Italy); Bellis, Donata [Servizio di Anatomia, Istologia Patologica e Citodiagnostica, Azienda Ospedaliera San Giovanni Bosco, ASLTO2 Piazza Donatori del Sangue 3, 10154 Torino (Italy); Centro Interdipartimentale per lo Studio degli Amianti e di altri Particolati Nocivi ' Giovanni Scansetti' , Universita degli Studi di Torino, Torino (Italy)

    2009-01-15

    Professional exposure to asbestos fibres is widely recognized as very dangerous to human health and for this reason many countries have banned their commercial uses. People, nevertheless, continue to be exposed to low dose of asbestos from natural and anthropogenic sources still in loco, for which the potential hazard is unknown. The aim of this research is to assess environmental exposure in an area with outcropping serpentinite rocks, which bear asbestos mineralizations, using sentinel animals which are a non-experimental animal model. We studied the burden of inorganic fibres in cattle lungs which come from two areas in Italy's Western Alps bearing serpentinitic outcrops: Susa Valley with a heavy anthropization and Lanzo Valleys, with a minor human impact. The identification and quantification of inorganic fibres were performed by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS). In comparison to humans, studies of animals have some advantages, such as no occupational exposure or history of smoking and, in the case of cattle, a sedentary life restricted to one region. Results spotlight that over than 35% of inorganic fibres found both in Susa and Lanzo valleys, belong to asbestos mineralogical species (asbestos tremolite/actinolite, chrysotile s.s., asbestos grunerite, crocidolite). We also observed a higher concentration of artificial fibrous products in Susa samples showing a correlation with the level of anthropization. These results confirm that sentinel animals are an excellent model to assess breathable environmental background because it is possible to eliminate some variables, such as unknown occupational exposure.

  10. Is the smokers exposure to environmental tobacco smoke negligible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio Federico

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Very few studies have evaluated the adverse effect of passive smoking exposure among active smokers, probably due to the unproven assumption that the dose of toxic compounds that a smoker inhales by passive smoke is negligible compared to the dose inhaled by active smoke. Methods In a controlled situation of indoor active smoking, we compared daily benzo(apyrene (BaP dose, estimated to be inhaled by smokers due to the mainstream (MS of cigarettes they have smoked, to the measured environmental tobacco smoke (ETS they inhaled in an indoor environment. For this aim, we re-examined our previous study on daily personal exposure to BaP of thirty newsagents, according to their smoking habits. Results Daily BaP dose due to indoor environmental contamination measured inside newsstands (traffic emission and ETS produced by smoker newsagents was linearly correlated (p = 0.001 R2 = 0.62 with estimated BaP dose from MS of daily smoked cigarettes. In smoker subjects, the percentage of BaP daily dose due to ETS, in comparison to mainstream dose due to smoked cigarettes, was estimated with 95% confidence interval, between 14.6% and 23% for full flavour cigarettes and between 21% and 34% for full flavour light cigarettes. Conclusions During indoor smoking, ETS contribution to total BaP dose of the same smoker, may be not negligible. Therefore both active and passive smoking exposures should be considered in studies about health of active smokers.

  11. Child Labor and Environmental Health: Government Obligations and Human Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amon, Joseph J.; Buchanan, Jane; Cohen, Jane; Kippenberg, Juliane

    2012-01-01

    The Convention concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour was adopted by the International Labour Organization in 1999. 174 countries around the world have signed or ratified the convention, which requires countries to adopt laws and implement programs to prohibit and eliminate child labor that poses harms to health or safety. Nonetheless, child labor continues to be common in the agriculture and mining sectors, where safety and environmental hazards pose significant risks. Drawing upon recent human rights investigations of child labor in tobacco farming in Kazakhstan and gold mining in Mali, the role of international human rights mechanisms, advocacy with government and private sector officials, and media attention in reducing harmful environmental exposures of child workers is discussed. Human rights-based advocacy in both cases was important to raise attention and help ensure that children are protected from harm. PMID:23316246

  12. Child labor and environmental health: government obligations and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amon, Joseph J; Buchanan, Jane; Cohen, Jane; Kippenberg, Juliane

    2012-01-01

    The Convention concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour was adopted by the International Labour Organization in 1999. 174 countries around the world have signed or ratified the convention, which requires countries to adopt laws and implement programs to prohibit and eliminate child labor that poses harms to health or safety. Nonetheless, child labor continues to be common in the agriculture and mining sectors, where safety and environmental hazards pose significant risks. Drawing upon recent human rights investigations of child labor in tobacco farming in Kazakhstan and gold mining in Mali, the role of international human rights mechanisms, advocacy with government and private sector officials, and media attention in reducing harmful environmental exposures of child workers is discussed. Human rights-based advocacy in both cases was important to raise attention and help ensure that children are protected from harm.

  13. Chemical mixtures and environmental effects: a pilot study to assess ecological exposure and effects in streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxton, Herbert T.; Reilly, Timothy J.; Kuivila, Kathryn M.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Bradley, Paul M.; Villeneuve, Daniel L.; Mills, Marc A.

    2015-01-01

    Assessment and management of the risks of exposure to complex chemical mixtures in streams are priorities for human and environmental health organizations around the world. The current lack of information on the composition and variability of environmental mixtures and a limited understanding of their combined effects are fundamental obstacles to timely identification and prevention of adverse human and ecological effects of exposure. This report describes the design of a field-based study of the composition and biological activity of chemical mixtures in U.S. stream waters affected by a wide range of human activities and contaminant sources. The study is a collaborative effort by the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Scientists sampled 38 streams spanning 24 States and Puerto Rico. Thirty-four of the sites were located in watersheds impacted by multiple contaminant sources, including industrial and municipal wastewater discharges, crop and animal agricultural runoff, urban runoff, and other point and nonpoint contaminant sources. The remaining four sites were minimally development reference watersheds. All samples underwent comprehensive chemical and biological characterization, including sensitive and specific direct analysis for over 700 dissolved organic and inorganic chemicals and field parameters, identification of unknown contaminants (environmental diagnostics), and a variety of bioassays to evaluate biological activity and toxicity.

  14. Alterations in Cell Signaling Pathways in Breast Cancer Cells after Environmental Exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulp, K; McCutcheon-Maloney, S M; Bennett, L M

    2003-02-01

    Recent human epidemiological studies suggest that up to 75% of human cancers can be attributed to environmental exposures. Understanding the biologic impact of being exposed to a lifetime of complex environmental mixtures that may not be fully characterized is currently a major challenge. Functional endpoints may be used to assess the gross health consequences of complex mixture exposures from groundwater contamination, superfund sites, biologic releases, or nutritional sources. Such endpoints include the stimulation of cell growth or the induction of a response in an animal model. An environmental exposure that upsets normal cell growth regulation may have important ramifications for cancer development. Stimulating cell growth may alter an individual's cancer risk by changing the expression of genes and proteins that have a role in growth regulatory pathways within cells. Modulating the regulation of these genes and their products may contribute to the initiation, promotion or progression of disease in response to environmental exposure. We are investigating diet-related compounds that induce cell proliferation in breast cancer cell lines. These compounds, PhIP, Flor-Essence{reg_sign} and Essiac{reg_sign}, may be part of an everyday diet. PhIP is a naturally occurring mutagen that is formed in well-cooked muscle meats. PhIP consistently causes dose-dependent breast tumor formation in rats and consumption of well-done meat has been linked to increased risk of breast cancer in women. Flor-Essence{reg_sign} and Essiac{reg_sign} herbal tonics are complementary and alternative medicines used by women who have been diagnosed with breast cancer as an alternative therapy for disease treatment and prevention. The long-term goal of this work is to identify those cellular pathways that are altered by a chemical or biologic environmental exposure and understand how those changes correlate with and or predict changes in human health risk. This project addressed this goal

  15. polymorphisms, occupational and environmental exposures and risk of bladder cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Pavanello, Sofia; Mastrangelo, Giuseppe; Placidi, Donatella; Campagna, Marcello; Pulliero, Alessandra; Carta, Angela; Arici, Cecilia; Porru, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Cytochrome P4501A2 (CYP1A2) is a key enzyme for activation of bladder carcinogens. Polymorphisms in the 5?-noncoding promoter region of CYP1A2 gene [mainly ?2467T/delT(rs35694136) and ?163C/A(rs762551)], are crucial in modifying CYP1A2 activity in smokers. Within the framework of a hospital-based case/control study, we investigated the relationship between CYP1A2 polymorphisms, occupational/environmental exposures and bladder cancer (BC) risk. The study population included...

  16. Occupational and environmental exposure to pesticides and cytokine pathways in chronic diseases (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangemi, Silvia; Gofita, Eliza; Costa, Chiara; Teodoro, Michele; Briguglio, Giusi; Nikitovic, Dragana; Tzanakakis, George; Tsatsakis, Aristides M; Wilks, Martin F; Spandidos, Demetrios A; Fenga, Concettina

    2016-10-01

    Pesticides can exert numerous effects on human health as a consequence of both environmental and occupational exposures. The available knowledge base suggests that exposure to pesticides may result in detrimental reproductive changes, neurological dysfunction and several chronic disorders, which are defined by slow evolution and long-term duration. Moreover, an ever increasing amount of data have identified an association between exposure to pesticides and the harmful effects on the immune system. The real impact of alterations in humoral cytokine levels on human health, in particular in the case of chronic diseases, is still unclear. To date, studies have suggested that although exposure to pesticides can affect the immune system functionally, the development of immune disorders depends on the dose and duration of exposure to pesticides. However, many of the respective studies exhibit limitations, such as a lack of information on exposure levels, differences in the pesticide administration procedures, difficulty in characterizing a prognostic significance to the weak modifications often observed and the interpretation of obtained results. The main challenge is not just to understand the role of individual pesticides and their combinations, but also to determine the manner and the duration of exposure, as the toxic effects on the immune system cannot be separated from these considerations. There is a clear need for more well‑designed and standardized epidemiological and experimental studies to recognize the exact association between exposure levels and toxic effects and to identify useful biomarkers of exposure. This review focuses on and critically discusses the immunotoxicity of pesticides and the impact of cytokine levels on health, focusing on the development of several chronic diseases.

  17. Impairment of the reproductive potential of male fathead minnows by environmentally relevant exposures to 4-nonylphenolf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfuss, H.L.; Bartell, S.E.; Bistodeau, T.B.; Cediel, R.A.; Grove, K.J.; Zintek, L.; Lee, K.E.; Barber, L.B.

    2008-01-01

    The synthetic organic compound 4-nonylphenol (NP) has been detected in many human-impacted surface waters in North America. In this study, we examined the ability of NP to alter reproductive competence in male fathead minnows after a 28 day flow-through exposure in a range of environmentally relevant concentrations bracketing the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency toxicity-based NP chronic exposure criterion of 6.1 ??g NP/L. Exposure to NP at and above the EPA chronic exposure criterion resulted in an induction of plasma vitellogenin (VTG) within 14 days. However, 7 days after the cessation of exposure, VTG concentrations had dropped more than 50% and few males expressed VTG above the detection threshold. All of the morphological endpoints, including gonadosomatic index, hepatosomatic index, secondary sexual characters, and histopathology, were unaltered by all NP treatments. However, when NP-exposed male fish were allowed to compete with control males for access to nest sites and females, most treatments altered the reproductive competence of exposed males. At lower NP concentrations, exposed males out-competed control males, possibly by being primed through the estrogenic NP exposure in a fashion similar to priming by pheromones released from female fathead minnows. At higher NP exposure concentrations, this priming effect was negated by the adverse effects of the exposure and control males out-competed treated males. Results of this study indicate the complexity of endocrine disrupting effects and the need for multiple analysis levels to assess the effects of these compounds on aquatic organisms. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Disentangling the Exposure Experience: The Roles of Community Context and Report-Back of Environmental Exposure Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Crystal; Brown, Phil; Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Brody, Julia Green; Rudel, Ruthann; Zota, Ami; Dunagan, Sarah; Tovar, Jessica; Patton, Sharyle

    2011-01-01

    This article examines participants' responses to receiving their results in a study of household exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds and other pollutants. The authors study how the "exposure experience"--the embodied, personal experience and understanding of chronic exposure to environmental pollutants--is shaped by community context and…

  19. Developmental and reproductive outcomes in humans and animals after glyphosate exposure: a critical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Amy Lavin; Watson, Rebecca E; DeSesso, John M

    2012-01-01

    Glyphosate is the active ingredient of several widely used herbicide formulations. Glyphosate targets the shikimate metabolic pathway, which is found in plants but not in animals. Despite the relative safety of glyphosate, various adverse developmental and reproductive problems have been alleged as a result of exposure in humans and animals. To assess the developmental and reproductive safety of glyphosate, an analysis of the available literature was conducted. Epidemiological and animal reports, as well as studies on mechanisms of action related to possible developmental and reproductive effects of glyphosate, were reviewed. An evaluation of this database found no consistent effects of glyphosate exposure on reproductive health or the developing offspring. Furthermore, no plausible mechanisms of action for such effects were elucidated. Although toxicity was observed in studies that used glyphosate-based formulations, the data strongly suggest that such effects were due to surfactants present in the formulations and not the direct result of glyphosate exposure. To estimate potential human exposure concentrations to glyphosate as a result of working directly with the herbicide, available biomonitoring data were examined. These data demonstrated extremely low human exposures as a result of normal application practices. Furthermore, the estimated exposure concentrations in humans are >500-fold less than the oral reference dose for glyphosate of 2 mg/kg/d set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA 1993). In conclusion, the available literature shows no solid evidence linking glyphosate exposure to adverse developmental or reproductive effects at environmentally realistic exposure concentrations.

  20. Environmental Exposure to Lead as a Risk for Prostate Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the possible role of environmental exposure to lead as a risk factor for prostate pathology in patients suffering from prostate cancer (PCA) and benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH). Methods Blood lead (BPb) level was determined in PCA and BPH cases using a graphite furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer and compared with those in a control group living in the similar socioeconomic environment. Results BPb was significantly higher in PCA and BPH cases than in normals (P<0.05). Blood levels of zinc and copper were significantly lower in PCA and BPH cases when compared with controls (P<0.05). In all the three groups, a statistically significant positive correlation between lead and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) measured as malondialdehyde, and negative correlation between blood lead and antioxidant GSH level, indicative of possible generation of reactive oxygen species, were also observed after adjusting for age as a possible confounders. However, positive association between blood lead and TBARS was relatively higher in PCA patients (r=0.77, P<0.05) than in BPH (r=0.32, P<0.05) and normal (r=0.30, P<0.05).Conclusion These results with limited power seem to suggest for the first time that environmental exposure of aging males to lead may be a risk factor for prostate cancer and/or benign prostate hyperplasia possibly through generation of reactive oxygen species and/or reducing the level of zinc which acts as a cellular growth protector.

  1. EFFECTS OF ARSENIC EXPOSURE IN HUMAN HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Sueli de Lima Rodrigues

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, ingestion of inorganic arsenic from drinking water has emerged as an important public health concern. It enters drinking water supplies from natural deposits in the earth or from agricultural and industrial practices, mainly the mining. The health consequences of chronic arsenic exposure include increased risk for various forms of cancer and numerous pathologic effects, such as cutaneous effects (hyperpigmentation and hyperkeratoses, gastrointestinal effects, vascular effects, diabetes mellitus, and peripheral neuropathy. This way, this study presents through a critical revision of the literature, the more relevant current aspects on the immunological consequences, carcinogenic and resulting genetics of the human intoxication for arsenic. They were identified and analyzed 50 works published on the subject among the years of 1979 and 2008, being used as main sources LILACS-BIREME MEDLINE/Index Medicus, SciELO and PubMed. The specific Arsênio e saúde humana effects of the intoxication for arsenic about the human health are not still completely elucidated. Thus, is possible that this element affects functions still unknown, becoming important the scientificexploration on the subject.

  2. Environmental noise and human prenatal growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schell, L.M.

    1981-09-01

    To determine whether chronic exposure to relatively loud noise has demonstrable biological effects in humans, a study was conducted on the effect of mother's exposure to airport noise while pregnant, and of social and biological characteristics of the family upon birthweight and gestation length. The sample of births was drawn from a community located adjacent to an international airport in the U.S., where noise levels had been measured previously. Mother's noise exposure was based upon noise levels near her residence in the community while she was pregnant. Data from 115 births were used, these being from mothers whose noise exposure history was most complete throughout the pregnancy. Using multivariate analysis to correct for family characteristics, the partial correlation coefficient for noise exposure and gestation length was negative, large, and significant in girls (r . -0.49, p less than 0.001). In boys the partial correlation coefficient was also negative but was smaller and did not quite reach statistical significance. Partial correlations with birthweight were smaller in both boys and girls and not significant. These results agree best with previous studies that suggest that noise may reduce prenatal growth. The size of the observed effects may be related to a conservative research design biased towards underestimation, as well as to the real effects of noise upon human prenatal growth.

  3. Environmental exposure scenarios: development, challenges and possible solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Andreas; Traas, Theo P

    2007-12-01

    Under the new REACH system, companies importing, producing and marketing chemical substances will be obliged to register the single substances and to carry out a safety assessment for all identified uses during the life cycle of the substance. This duty will apply to about 10,000 existing substances in the EU market exceeding an annual production or import volume of 10 t per company. If the substance is already known to be dangerous or turns out to be dangerous(1) during the hazard assessment, the registrant is obliged to carry out an exposure assessment and a risk characterisation for all identified uses. The goal of the safety assessment is to define the conditions of use that allow for adequate control of risk with regard to health and safety at the work place, consumer safety and protection of the environment. Once the registrant has established and documented these conditions in the Chemicals Safety Report (CSR), that information is to be communicated down the supply chain by means of the Extended Safety Data Sheet (eSDS). The ultimate aim of the new legislation is to establish duties and mechanisms that systematically prevent or limit exposure to dangerous industrial chemicals. The current paper explains this concept with regard to environmental exposure and highlights the challenges and possible solutions.

  4. Biochar physico-chemical properties as affected by environmental exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorrenti, Giovambattista, E-mail: g.sorrenti@unibo.it [Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Bologna, viale G. Fanin 44, 40127 Bologna (Italy); Masiello, Caroline A., E-mail: masiello@rice.edu [Departments of Earth Science, BioSciences, and Chemistry, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Dugan, Brandon, E-mail: dugan@rice.edu [Department of Earth Science, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Toselli, Moreno, E-mail: moreno.toselli@unibo.it [Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Bologna, viale G. Fanin 44, 40127 Bologna (Italy)

    2016-09-01

    To best use biochar as a sustainable soil management and carbon (C) sequestration technique, we must understand the effect of environmental exposure on its physical and chemical properties because they likely vary with time. These properties play an important role in biochar's environmental behavior and delivery of ecosystem services. We measured biochar before amendment and four years after amendment to a commercial nectarine orchard at rates of 5, 15 and 30 t ha{sup −1}. We combined two pycnometry techniques to measure skeletal (ρ{sub s}) and envelope (ρ{sub e}) density and to estimate the total pore volume of biochar particles. We also examined imbibition, which can provide information about soil hydraulic conductivity. Finally, we investigated the chemical properties, surface, inner layers atomic composition and C1s bonding state of biochar fragments through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Ageing increased biochar skeletal density and reduced the water imbibition rate within fragments as a consequence of partial pore clogging. However, porosity and the volume of water stored in particles remained unchanged. Exposure reduced biochar pH, EC, and total C, but enhanced total N, nitrate-N, and ammonium-N. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses showed an increase of O, Si, N, Na, Al, Ca, Mn, and Fe surface (0–5 nm) atomic composition (at%) and a reduction of C and K in aged particles, confirming the interactions of biochar with soil inorganic and organic phases. Oxidation of aged biochar fragments occurred mainly in the particle surface, and progressively decreased down to 75 nm. Biochar surface chemistry changes included the development of carbonyl and carboxylate functional groups, again mainly on the particle surface. However, changes were noticeable down to 75 nm, while no significant changes were measured in the deepest layer, up to 110 nm. Results show unequivocal shifts in biochar physical and chemical properties/characteristics over

  5. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic toolkit to evaluate environmental exposures: Applications of the dioxin model to study real life exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emond, Claude; Ruiz, Patricia; Mumtaz, Moiz

    2017-01-15

    Chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (CDDs) are a series of mono- to octa-chlorinated homologous chemicals commonly referred to as polychlorinated dioxins. One of the most potent, well-known, and persistent member of this family is 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). As part of translational research to make computerized models accessible to health risk assessors, we present a Berkeley Madonna recoded version of the human physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model used by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in the recent dioxin assessment. This model incorporates CYP1A2 induction, which is an important metabolic vector that drives dioxin distribution in the human body, and it uses a variable elimination half-life that is body burden dependent. To evaluate the model accuracy, the recoded model predictions were compared with those of the original published model. The simulations performed with the recoded model matched well with those of the original model. The recoded model was then applied to available data sets of real life exposure studies. The recoded model can describe acute and chronic exposures and can be useful for interpreting human biomonitoring data as part of an overall dioxin and/or dioxin-like compounds risk assessment. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. The Emergence of the Environmental Humanities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nye, David Edwin; Rugg, Linda; Flemming, James;

    In the last decade the Environmental Humanities have emerged as an important synthesis of knowledge, particularly at leading universities in the English and German academic worlds. This report analyzes this new field, assesses the existing centers for research, and makes recommendations for how...

  7. Outdoor and indoor cadmium distributions near an abandoned smelting works and their relations to human exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spurgeon, David J., E-mail: dasp@ceh.ac.uk [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Maclean Building, Benson Lane, Crowmarsh Gifford, Wallingford, Oxon, OX10 8BB (United Kingdom); Lawlor, Alan [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Hooper, Helen L. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Maclean Building, Benson Lane, Crowmarsh Gifford, Wallingford, Oxon, OX10 8BB (United Kingdom); Wadsworth, Richard [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Svendsen, Claus [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Maclean Building, Benson Lane, Crowmarsh Gifford, Wallingford, Oxon, OX10 8BB (United Kingdom); Thomas, Laura D.K. [MRC-HPA Centre for Environment and Health, Department of Epidemiology and Public health, Imperial College London (United Kingdom); Ellis, James K.; Bundy, Jacob G.; Keun, Hector C. [Biomolecular Medicine, Department of Surgery and Cancer, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, Sir Alexander Fleming Building, South Kensington, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Jarup, Lars [MRC-HPA Centre for Environment and Health, Department of Epidemiology and Public health, Imperial College London (United Kingdom)

    2011-12-15

    The relationship of measured or modelled Cd concentrations in soil, house dust and available to plants with human urinary Cd concentrations were assessed in a population living around a Cd/Pb/Zn smelter in the UK. Modelled air concentrations explained 35% of soil Cd variation indicating the smelter contributed to soil Cd loads. Multi-variate analysis confirmed a significant role of biological and life-style factors in determining urinary Cd levels. Significant correlations of urinary Cd with soil, house dust and modelled plant available Cd concentrations were not, however, found. Potential reasons for the absence of clear relationships include limited environmental contact in urban populations; the role of undefined factors in determining exposure; and the limited spatial scope of the survey which did not sample from the full pollution gradient. Further, the absence of any significant relationship indicates that environmental measures provide limited advantage over atmospheric model outputs for first stage human exposure assessment. - Highlights: > Environmental measurements indicate smelter pollution of a surrounding urban area. > Life-style and biology influenced U-Cd more than measured environmental levels. > Limited contact with outdoor environments may limit Cd uptake in urban populations. > Better life-style data could improve the attribution of human Cd exposure routes. > Measured Cd levels provide limited added exposure insight over dispersion models. - Measured and modelled environmental cadmium concentrations provide limited additional explanation of human urinary cadmium concentrations.

  8. Human Rights and Environmental Wrongs: Achieving Environmental Justice through Human Rights Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridget Lewis

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The numerous interconnections between the environment and human rights are well established internationally. It is understood that environmental issues such as pollution, deforestation or the misuse of resources can impact on individuals’ and communities’ enjoyment of fundamental rights, including the right to health, the right to an adequate standard of living, the right to self-determination and the right to life itself. These are rights which are guaranteed under international human rights law and in relation to which governments bear certain responsibilities. Further, environmental issues can also impact on governments’ capacity to protect and fulfil the rights of their citizens. In this way human rights and environmental protection can be constructed as being mutually supportive. In addition to these links between the environment and human rights, human rights principles arguably offer a framework for identifying and addressing environmental injustice. The justice implications of environmental problems are well documented and there are many examples where pollution, deforestation or other degradation disproportionately impact upon poorer neighbourhoods or areas populated by minority groups. On the international level, environmental injustice exists between developed and developing States, as well as between present and future generations who will inherit the environmental problems we are creating today. This paper investigates the role of human rights principles, laws and mechanisms in addressing these instances of environmental injustice and argues that the framework of human rights norms provides an approach to environmental governance which can help to minimise injustice and promote the interests of those groups which are most adversely affected. Further, it suggests that the human rights enforcement mechanisms which exist at international law could be utilised to lend weight to claims for more equitable environmental policies.

  9. Use of chromosome translocations for measuring prior environment exposures in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tucker, J. D.

    1997-05-01

    Recent advances in cytogenetic methodology are beginning to have a major impact upon our ability to provide assessments of environmental exposure in humans. The advent of fluorescent-based techniques for `painting` whole chromosomes has made the analysis of chromosome translocations rapid, specific, sensitive and routine. Chromosome painting has been used to address a wide variety of scientific questions, resulting in an increased understanding of the biological consequences of adverse environmental exposure. This paper describes the use of chromosome translocations as a biological marker of exposure and effect in humans. The relevance of translocations is discussed, as are the advantages and disadvantages of painting compared to classical cytogenetic methods for translocation evaluation. The factors to consider in the use of translocations as a retrospective indicator of exposure are then described. Several theoretical parameters that are important to the use of translocations are provided, and the paper concludes with a vision for the future of cytogenetic methodology.

  10. Climate change impacts on human exposures to air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is an abstract for a presentations at the Annual Conference of the International Society on Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology. This presentation will serve as an introduction to the symposium.

  11. Reporting individual results for biomonitoring and environmental exposures: lessons learned from environmental communication case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Julia Green; Dunagan, Sarah C; Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Brown, Phil; Patton, Sharyle; Rudel, Ruthann A

    2014-05-26

    Measurement methods for chemicals in biological and personal environmental samples have expanded rapidly and become a cornerstone of health studies and public health surveillance. These measurements raise questions about whether and how to report individual results to study participants, particularly when health effects and exposure reduction strategies are uncertain. In an era of greater public participation and open disclosure in science, researchers and institutional review boards (IRBs) need new guidance on changing norms and best practices. Drawing on the experiences of researchers, IRBs, and study participants, we discuss ethical frameworks, effective methods, and outcomes in studies that have reported personal results for a wide range of environmental chemicals. Belmont Report principles and community-based participatory research ethics imply responsibilities to report individual results, and several recent biomonitoring guidance documents call for individual reports. Meaningful report-back includes contextual information about health implications and exposure reduction strategies. Both narrative and graphs are helpful. Graphs comparing an individual's results with other participants in the study and benchmarks, such as the National Exposure Report, are helpful, but must be used carefully to avoid incorrect inferences that higher results are necessarily harmful or lower results are safe. Methods can be tailored for specific settings by involving participants and community members in planning. Participants and researchers who have participated in report-back identified benefits: increasing trust in science, retention in cohort studies, environmental health literacy, individual and community empowerment, and motivation to reduce exposures. Researchers as well as participants gained unexpected insights into the characteristics and sources of environmental contamination. Participants are almost universally eager to receive their results and do not regret getting

  12. Identification of a chemical marker of environmental exposure to formaldehyde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carraro, E.; Gasparini, S.; Gilli, G. [Univ. of Turin, (Italy). Dept. of Public Health and Microbiology

    1999-02-01

    Formaldehyde (F) binds human serum albumin (HSA) covalently, giving rise to a molecular adduct F-HSA having the F as hapten. The humoral immune response to the adduct provides a biological marker of F exposure. In order to titrate serum anti-F-HSA antibodies, a new indirect competitive enzyme immunoassay was developed. Two groups of about 90 heterogeneous healthy subjects were examined using two in vitro conjugated F-HSA. Contingency table analysis showed a greater sensitivity and specificity of the test with the 10:1 F-HSA adduct than with the 5:1. Data examination using multivariate analysis of variance revealed that in both groups the smoking variable significantly explains the values of the F exposure marker. A significant association with immunological response was obtained only in male smokers, using 5:1 F-HSA adduct, while with 10:1 ratio, a good association in male and female smokers was found. Results confirm that the immunological assay developed could be a useful method for evaluating F exposure, especially for public health monitoring on a large scale.

  13. Human exposure to bovine polyomavirus: a zoonosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parry, J.V.; Gardner, S.D.

    1986-01-01

    A competitive-type solid phase radioimmunoassay (RIA) was developed for the detection of antibody to bovine polyomavirus. Comparison of RIA and counter-immunoelectrophoresis (CIE) results on 273 cattle sera indicated that both techniques were detecting antibody of like specificity. Human sera from 256 blood donors, 219 people recently vaccinated against polio, rubella or rabies, 50 immunosuppressed patients and 472 people with various occupational exposure to cattle were tested for antibody to bovine polyomavirus, the foetal rhesus monkey kidney strain, (anti-FRKV) by RIA. Apart from one blood donor and one of 108 rabies vaccinees only those in close contact with cattle possessed anti-FRKV. Compared with 62 per cent seropositive in the natural hosts, cattle, 71 per cent of veterinary surgeons, 50 per cent of cattle farmers, 40 per cent of abattoir workers, 16 per cent of veterinary institute technical staff and 10 per cent of veterinary students were anti-FRKV positive. Our findings indicate that the theoretical hazard of FRKV infection from undetected contamination of current tissue culture derived vaccines may, in practice, be remote. Proposed wider use of primate kidney cells as substrates for new vaccines may increase this risk.

  14. Biochar physico-chemical properties as affected by environmental exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorrenti, Giovambattista; Masiello, Caroline A; Dugan, Brandon; Toselli, Moreno

    2016-09-01

    To best use biochar as a sustainable soil management and carbon (C) sequestration technique, we must understand the effect of environmental exposure on its physical and chemical properties because they likely vary with time. These properties play an important role in biochar's environmental behavior and delivery of ecosystem services. We measured biochar before amendment and four years after amendment to a commercial nectarine orchard at rates of 5, 15 and 30tha(-1). We combined two pycnometry techniques to measure skeletal (ρs) and envelope (ρe) density and to estimate the total pore volume of biochar particles. We also examined imbibition, which can provide information about soil hydraulic conductivity. Finally, we investigated the chemical properties, surface, inner layers atomic composition and C1s bonding state of biochar fragments through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Ageing increased biochar skeletal density and reduced the water imbibition rate within fragments as a consequence of partial pore clogging. However, porosity and the volume of water stored in particles remained unchanged. Exposure reduced biochar pH, EC, and total C, but enhanced total N, nitrate-N, and ammonium-N. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses showed an increase of O, Si, N, Na, Al, Ca, Mn, and Fe surface (0-5nm) atomic composition (at%) and a reduction of C and K in aged particles, confirming the interactions of biochar with soil inorganic and organic phases. Oxidation of aged biochar fragments occurred mainly in the particle surface, and progressively decreased down to 75nm. Biochar surface chemistry changes included the development of carbonyl and carboxylate functional groups, again mainly on the particle surface. However, changes were noticeable down to 75nm, while no significant changes were measured in the deepest layer, up to 110nm. Results show unequivocal shifts in biochar physical and chemical properties/characteristics over short (~years) timescales.

  15. Progress in human exposure assessment for biocidal products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmen, J.J. van

    2004-01-01

    An important shortcoming in our present knowledge required for risk assessment of biocidal products is the assessment of human exposure. This knowledge gap has been filled in a preliminary fashion with the TNsG on human exposure to biocidal products (available from the ECB website). Explicit User gu

  16. Human exposure assessment: Approaches for chemicals (REACH) and biocides (BPD)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmen, J.J. van; Gerritsen-Ebben, R.

    2008-01-01

    The approaches that are indicated in the various guidance documents for the assessment of human exposure for chemicals and biocides are summarised. This reflects the TNsG (Technical notes for Guidance) version 2: human exposure assessment for biocidal products (1) under the BPD (Biocidal Products Di

  17. Ogg1 genetic background determines the genotoxic potential of environmentally relevant arsenic exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Jordi; Sampayo-Reyes, Adriana; Marcos, Ricard; Hernández, Alba

    2014-03-01

    Inorganic arsenic (i-As) is a well-established human carcinogen to which millions of people are exposed worldwide. It is generally accepted that the genotoxic effects of i-As after an acute exposure are partially linked to the i-As-induced production of reactive oxygen species, but it is necessary to better determine whether chronic sub-toxic i-As doses are able to induce biologically significant levels of oxidative DNA damage (ODD). To fill in this gap, we have tested the genotoxic and oxidative effects of environmentally relevant arsenic exposures using mouse embryonic fibroblast MEF mutant Ogg1 cells and their wild-type counterparts. Effects were examined by using the comet assay complemented with the use of FPG enzyme. Our findings indicate that MEF Ogg1-/- cells are more sensitive to arsenite-induced acute toxicity, genotoxicity and ODD. Long-term exposure to sub-toxic doses of arsenite generates a detectable increase in ODD and genotoxic DNA damage only in MEF Ogg1-deficient cells. Altogether, the data presented here point out the relevance of ODD and Ogg1 genetic background on the genotoxic risk of i-As at environmentally plausible doses. The persistent accumulation of DNA 8-OH-dG lesions in Ogg1-/- cells during the complete course of the exposure suggests a relevant role in arsenic-associated carcinogenic risk in turn.

  18. Health hazards involved with an environmental exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Rusin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are compounds which belong to persistent organic pollutants group; some of which produce mutagenic and cancerogenic effects. These xenobiotics showed proven, negative effects on health preterm births and low infant birth weight. PAHs penetrate into the human body by three exposure pathways: inhalation, ingestion and skin contact, of which the skin contact pathway is the least important in the case of environmental exposure. Transport, and industrial and municipal sections are also an important source of these compounds. The level of benzo(apyrene (BaP has been monitored in all the Polish provinces since 2005 in the air. BaP is a determinant of the level of all PAHs’ compounds. Despite of the permanent lowering of the level of BaP in the air since the 90s, the limit level (1 ng/m3 has been exceeded in most provinces of the country. In 2010 this situation concerned all Polish agglomerations and the biggest excess has been observed in the province of Silesia in the area of rybnicko-jastrzębska agglomeration. Of sixteen Polish provinces only Lublin and Podlasie provinces did not exceed the limit level, of BaP in the air in 2012. These data shows that a serious health risk may occur due to environmental pollution caused by PAHs compounds. It is necessary to take preventative action to limit a human exposure to these compounds.

  19. Epigenetic: a molecular link between testicular cancer and environmental exposures?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelie eVega

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, studies in rodents have highlighted links between in utero and/or neonatal exposures to molecules that alter endocrine functions and the development of genital tract abnormalities, such as cryptorchidism, hypospadias, and impaired spermatogenesis. Most of these molecules, called endocrine disrupters (EDs exert estrogenic and/or antiandrogenic activities. These data led to the hypothesis of the Testicular Dysgenesis Syndrome which postulates that these disorders are one clinical entity and are linked by epidemiological and pathophysiological relations. Futhermore, infertility has been stated as a risk factor for testicular cancer. The incidence of testicular cancer has been increasing over the past decades. Most of testicular germ cell cancers develop through a pre-invasive carcinoma in situ (CIS from fetal germ cells (primordial germ cell or gonocyte. During their development, fetal germ cells undergo epigenetic modifications. Interestingly, several lines of evidence have shown that gene regulation through epigenetic mechanisms (DNA and histone modifications plays an important role in normal development as well as in various diseases, including testicular cancer.Here we will review chromatin modifications which can affect testicular physiology leading to the development of testicular cancer; and highlight potential molecular pathways involved in these alterations in the context of environmental exposures.

  20. Environmental lead exposure as a risk for childhood aplastic anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahamed, M; Akhtar, M J; Verma, S; Kumar, A; Siddiqui, M K J

    2011-01-01

    Concern about environmental lead exposure as a significant public health threat has increased as evidence has accumulated regarding adverse health effects at successively lower levels. Aplastic anemia is a hematological disorder of unknown etiology with a high lethality rate. Lead is a known toxicant for the hematopoietic system. Oxidative stress appears to be the possible mode of lead toxicity. We evaluated the effects of blood lead level on oxidative stress parameters in children suffering from aplastic anemia disease. Seventeen children with aplastic anemia disease (15 male and 2 female, age 3-12 y) were recruited in the study group. Fifty one healthy children (45 male and 6 female, age 3-12 y) having normal blood profiles and not suffering from any chronic disease(s) were used as controls. Blood lead level and oxidative stress parameters were determined. Mean blood lead level was significantly higher while δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δ-ALAD) activity, a biomarker for lead exposure was significantly lower in the study group as compared to the control group (p lead levels with δ-ALAD (r = -0.45; p lead induces oxidative stress in children suffering from aplastic anemia. Lead-induced oxidative stress as an underlying mechanism for aplastic anemia warrants further research.

  1. Reproductive toxicity in Xenopus tropicalis after developmental exposure to environmental concentrations of ethynylestradiol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyllenhammar, Irina; Holm, Lena; Eklund, Rosita; Berg, Cecilia

    2009-01-31

    Reproductive disorders in wildlife and humans have been linked to developmental exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals. In frog tadpoles, environmental concentrations of ethynylestradiol (EE(2)) disrupt gonadal differentiation which results in female-biased sex ratios at metamorphosis indicating sex-reversal of genotypic males. It is not known if developmental exposure to estrogens results in reduced reproductive success in amphibians. The objective of this work was to investigate if exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of EE(2) during sex differentiation impairs reproductive organ development, fertility, and sexual behavior in adult frogs. A specific aim was to evaluate if testicular structure and function was affected in males that were not sex-reversed. Xenopus tropicalis tadpoles were exposed until metamorphosis to 6, 60, and 600 pM EE(2). Eight months after metamorphosis, reproductive organ morphology and fertility were evaluated. Larval EE(2)-exposure caused an increased proportion of phenotypic females indicating that sex-reversal of genotypic males is persistent. Sex-reversal was implied at concentrations as low as 6 pM (1.8 ng/l), which is comparable to levels observed in the environment. EE(2)-exposed males that were not sex-reversed had a significantly reduced fertilization rate compared with control males. Histological evaluation revealed that EE(2)-exposed males had a reduced amount of spermatozoa in the testis. Among frogs with ovaries there was a significantly higher percentage that lacked oviducts in the group exposed to 600 pM EE(2) compared with control females. No effect of EE(2) on sexual behavior was noted. The results indicate that reproduction in wild frogs might be impaired by estrogenic environmental pollutants. Similarities between the present effects and those reported in fish, birds and mammals after developmental exposure to estrogens suggest that X. tropicalis is a promising animal model for research on developmental

  2. Integrating Environmental and Human Health Databases in the Great Lakes Basin: Themes, Challenges and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate L. Bassil

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Many government, academic and research institutions collect environmental data that are relevant to understanding the relationship between environmental exposures and human health. Integrating these data with health outcome data presents new challenges that are important to consider to improve our effective use of environmental health information. Our objective was to identify the common themes related to the integration of environmental and health data, and suggest ways to address the challenges and make progress toward more effective use of data already collected, to further our understanding of environmental health associations in the Great Lakes region. Environmental and human health databases were identified and reviewed using literature searches and a series of one-on-one and group expert consultations. Databases identified were predominantly environmental stressors databases, with fewer found for health outcomes and human exposure. Nine themes or factors that impact integration were identified: data availability, accessibility, harmonization, stakeholder collaboration, policy and strategic alignment, resource adequacy, environmental health indicators, and data exchange networks. The use and cost effectiveness of data currently collected could be improved by strategic changes to data collection and access systems to provide better opportunities to identify and study environmental exposures that may impact human health.

  3. Relationship between lanthanide contents in aquatic turtles and environmental exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Censi, P; Randazzo, L A; D'Angelo, S; Saiano, F; Zuddas, P; Mazzola, S; Cuttitta, A

    2013-05-01

    Trace elements released in the environment during agricultural practices can be incorporated and accumulated in biological fluids and tissues of living organisms. The assessment of these exposures were carried out investigating lanthanide distributions in blood and exoskeleton samples collected from Emys trinacris turtle specimens coming from sites with anthropogenic discharge in western and south Sicily, along migration paths of many bird species from Africa to Europe. The data show a significant (Rxy=0.72; Rxy>0.67; α=0.025) linear relationship between the size of turtle specimens and the lanthanide contents in blood lower than 0.4 μg L(-1) whereas this relationship disappears in blood with higher lanthanide contents. Comparative evaluations of normalised concentrations show that lanthanides fractionate between blood and exoskeleton inducing antithetical lanthanide patterns therein. These features are more evident in specimens with high lanthanide contents in blood, suggesting that lanthanide accumulations in the exoskeleton can represent the physiological response of E. trinacris to environmental and the further confirmation of relationship occurring between the environmental and the biological fluids.

  4. New approach for assessing human perfluoroalkyl exposure via hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Andreia; Jacobs, Griet; Vanermen, Guido; Covaci, Adrian; Voorspoels, Stefan

    2015-11-01

    In the recent years hair has been increasingly used as alternative matrix in human biomonitoring (HBM) of environmental pollutants. Sampling advantages and time integration of exposure assessment seems the most attractive features of hair matrix. In the current study, a novel miniaturized method was developed and validated for measuring 15 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), including perfluoro n-butanoic acid (PFBA), perfluoro n-pentanoic acid (PFPeA), perfluoro n-hexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluoro n-heptanoic acid (PFHpA), perfluor n-octanoic acid (PFOA), perfluoro n-nonanoic acid (PFNA), perfluoro tetradecanoic acid (PFTeDA), perfluorobutane sulfonic acid (PFBS), perfluoro pentane sulfonic acid (PFPeS), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), perfluoroheptane sulfonic acid (PFHpS), perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorononane sulfonic acid (PFNS), perfluorodecane sulfonic acid (PFDS) and perfluorododecane sulfonic acid (PFDoS) in human hair by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). After extraction using ethyl acetate, dispersive ENVI-Carb was used for clean-up. Good intra- and inter-day precision for low (LQ 5 ng/g hair) and high spike (HQ 15n g/g) levels were achieved (in general RSD hair and 3-13 pg/g hair, respectively. The method limit of quantification (LOQm) ranged between 6 and 301 pg/g hair. The PFAS levels were measured in 30 human hair samples indicating that the levels are low (14-1534 pg/g hair). Some PFAS were not present in any hair sample (e.g. PFHpA, PFTeDA, PFNA, PFPeS, PFHpS, PFOS and PFNS), while other PFAS were frequently detected (PFBA, PFPeA, PFHxA, PFOA, PFBS, PFHxS, PFOS, PFDS and PFDoS) in human hair. Although levels in general were low, there is evidence of higher human exposure to some analytes, such as PFBA, PFPeA, PFHxA, PFOA, PFBS, PFHxS, and PFDoS. The current study shows that hair is a suitable alternative non-invasive matrix for exposure assessment of PFAS.

  5. Exposure to environmental noise and risk for male infertility: A population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Kyoung-Bok; Min, Jin-Young

    2017-07-01

    Noise is associated with poor reproductive health. A number of animal studies have suggested the possible effects of exposure to high noise levels on fertility; to date, a little such research has been performed on humans. We examined an association between daytime and nocturnal noise exposures over four years (2002-2005) and subsequent male infertility. We used the National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort (2002-2013), a population-wide health insurance claims dataset. A total of 206,492 males of reproductive age (20-59 years) with no history of congenital malformations were followed up for an 8-year period (2006-2013). Male infertility was defined as per ICD-10 code N46. Data on noise exposure was obtained from the National Noise Information System. Exposure levels of daytime and night time noise were extrapolated using geographic information systems and collated with the subjects' administrative district code, and individual exposure levels assigned. During the study period, 3293 (1.6%) had a diagnosis of infertility. Although there was no association of infertility with 1-dB increments in noise exposure, a non-linear dose-response relationship was observed between infertility and quartiles of daytime and night time noise after adjustment for confounding variables (i.e., age, income, residential area, exercise, smoking, alcohol drinking, blood sugar, body mass index, medical histories, and particulate pollution). Based on WHO criteria, adjusted odds for infertility were significantly increased (OR = 1.14; 95% CI, 1.05-1.23) in males exposed to night time noise ≥ 55 dB. We found a significant association between exposure to environmental noise for four years and the subsequent incidence of male infertility, suggesting long-term exposure to noise has a role in pathogenesis of male infertility. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [Advances on research of human exposure to triclosan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Chenye; Chen, Yiming; Zhang, Peiqi; Xiong, Zhezhen; Wang, Caifeng; Tian, Ying

    2016-03-01

    Triclosan, a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent, was reported to have been widely detected in various human biological samples such as urine, blood and human milk among foreign populations. In China, limited reports have been found on human exposure to triclosan, and the reported urinary triclosan concentrations were significantly lower than that of American populations. Besides, the potential influencing factors still remain unclear regarding human exposure to triclosan, but evidences suggest that those in middle age and with higher household income and higher social class tend to have higher urinary triclosan concentrations. Furthermore, triclosan exposure tend to differ by sex, geography, heredity, metabolism and life style.

  7. Thermoregulatory responses to environmental toxicants: the interaction of thermal stress and toxicant exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, Lisa R

    2008-11-15

    Thermal stress can have a profound impact on the physiological responses that are elicited following environmental toxicant exposure. The efficacy by which toxicants enter the body is directly influenced by thermoregulatory effector responses that are evoked in response to high ambient temperatures. In mammals, the thermoregulatory response to heat stress consists of an increase in skin blood flow and moistening of the skin surface to dissipate core heat to the environment. These physiological responses may exacerbate chemical toxicity due to increased permeability of the skin, which facilitates the cutaneous absorption of many environmental toxicants. The core temperature responses that are elicited in response to high ambient temperatures, toxicant exposure or both can also have a profound impact on the ability of an organism to survive the insult. In small rodents, the thermoregulatory response to thermal stress and many environmental toxicants (such as organophosphate compounds) is often biphasic in nature, consisting initially of a regulated reduction in core temperature (i.e., hypothermia) followed by fever. Hypothermia is an important thermoregulatory survival strategy that is used by small rodents to diminish the effect of severe environmental insults on tissue homeostasis. The protective effect of hypothermia is realized by its effects on chemical toxicity as molecular and cellular processes, such as lipid peroxidation and the formation of reactive oxygen species, are minimized at reduced core temperatures. The beneficial effects of fever are unknown under these conditions. Perspective is provided on the applicability of data obtained in rodent models to the human condition.

  8. Assessing exposure to phthalates - the human biomonitoring approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittassek, Matthias; Koch, Holger Martin; Angerer, Jürgen; Brüning, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Some phthalates are developmental and reproductive toxicants in animals. Exposure to phthalates is considered to be potentially harmful to human health as well. Based on a comprehensive literature research, we present an overview of the sources of human phthalate exposure and results of exposure assessments with special focus on human biomonitoring data. Among the general population, there is widespread exposure to a number of phthalates. Foodstuff is the major source of phthalate exposure, particularly for the long-chain phthalates such as di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate. For short-chain phthalates such as di-n-butyl-phthalate, additional pathways are of relevance. In general, children are exposed to higher phthalate doses than adults. Especially, high exposures can occur through some medications or medical devices. By comparing exposure data with existing limit values, one can also assess the risks associated with exposure to phthalates. Within the general population, some individuals exceed tolerable daily intake values for one or more phthalates. In high exposure groups, (intensive medical care, medications) tolerable daily intake transgressions can be substantial. Recent findings from animal studies suggest that a cumulative risk assessment for phthalates is warranted, and a cumulative exposure assessment to phthalates via human biomonitoring is a major step into this direction.

  9. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure, urine CC-16 levels, and asthma outcomes among Chinese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Y-N; Qian, Z; Wang, J; Rodemich, E; Lee, Y L; Lv, X-F; Liu, Y-Q; Zhao, Y; Huang, M-M; Liu, Y; Sun, J; He, Q-C; Dong, G-H

    2015-03-01

    Previous studies have shown the relationship between club cell secretory protein (Clara) (CC-16) and respiratory diseases. However, few studies have explored the associations between urine CC-16 levels and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure in children. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether ETS exposure is associated with CC-16 when stratified by asthma status. In our study, CC-16 was measured on 537 children aged 9-15 from northeast China in 2011-2012 using the Human Clara Cell Protein ELISA kits. Doctor-diagnosed asthma was defined as having ever been diagnosed with asthma by a physician. The relationship between ETS exposure and urine CC-16 level was assessed using linear regression. When stratified by asthma status, a negative association between ETS exposure and urine CC-16 was observed after adjusting for the effects of the related covariates, with an adjusted β coefficient [P value] = -0.31 [0.006] in the first 2 years of life and with an adjusted β coefficient [P value] = -0.68 [0.004] in the first 2 years of life and current. Our study shows long-term exposure to ETS was associated with urinary CC-16 among children without asthma. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Indigenous environmental values as human values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Gratani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The claim that in natural resource management (NRM a change from anthropocentric values and ethics to eco-centric ones is necessary to achieve sustainability leads to the search for eco-centric models of relationship with the environment. Indigenous cultures can provide such models; hence, there is the need for multicultural societies to further include their values in NRM. In this article, we investigate the environmental values placed on a freshwater environment of the Wet Tropics by a community of indigenous Australians. We discuss their environmental values as human values, and so as beliefs that guide communities’ understanding of how the natural world should be viewed and treated by humans. This perspective represents a step forward in our understanding of indigenous environmental values, and a way to overcome the paradigm of indigenous values as valued biophysical attributes of the environment or processes happening in landscapes. Our results show that the participant community holds biospheric values. Restoring these values in the NRM of the Wet Tropics could contribute to sustainability and environmental justice in the area.

  11. Human exposures to parabens in cosmetics - a literature study

    OpenAIRE

    Aarflot, Ragnhild Lønseth

    2013-01-01

    A literature study was performed in order to assess and compare evidence of human exposure to parabens in cosmetics. The focus of the thesis is on human concentrations, the rate of dermal absorption, metabolism and excretion; in order to increase our understanding of human exposures to endocrine disrupting chemicals in cosmetics. High detection rates of native and total parabens in blood and urine were identified. GMs of native parabens were lower than total paraben levels in urine as expecte...

  12. Gene expression signatures that predict radiation exposure in mice and humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly K Dressman

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The capacity to assess environmental inputs to biological phenotypes is limited by methods that can accurately and quantitatively measure these contributions. One such example can be seen in the context of exposure to ionizing radiation. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We have made use of gene expression analysis of peripheral blood (PB mononuclear cells to develop expression profiles that accurately reflect prior radiation exposure. We demonstrate that expression profiles can be developed that not only predict radiation exposure in mice but also distinguish the level of radiation exposure, ranging from 50 cGy to 1,000 cGy. Likewise, a molecular signature of radiation response developed solely from irradiated human patient samples can predict and distinguish irradiated human PB samples from nonirradiated samples with an accuracy of 90%, sensitivity of 85%, and specificity of 94%. We further demonstrate that a radiation profile developed in the mouse can correctly distinguish PB samples from irradiated and nonirradiated human patients with an accuracy of 77%, sensitivity of 82%, and specificity of 75%. Taken together, these data demonstrate that molecular profiles can be generated that are highly predictive of different levels of radiation exposure in mice and humans. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that this approach, with additional refinement, could provide a method to assess the effects of various environmental inputs into biological phenotypes as well as providing a more practical application of a rapid molecular screening test for the diagnosis of radiation exposure.

  13. Tracking the pathways of human exposure to perfluorocarboxylates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestergren, Robin; Cousins, Ian T

    2009-08-01

    Recent analyses of perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) in human blood sera show that the background-exposed population in industrialized countries worldwide exhibits a narrow concentration range; arithmetic means of published studies range between 2 and 8 microg/L PFOA, with the exception of a few outlier studies. The globally comparable human serum concentrations of PFOA and characteristic dominance of PFOA with respect to other perfluorocarboxylate (PFCA) homologues indicate that exposure pathways of humans differ from those of wildlife, where perfluorononanoate (PFNA) is often the dominant homologue. The observed correlations between perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and PFOA in human serum together with a simultaneous downward time trend of these compounds in human blood sera and blood spots from the year 2000 onward indicate a connection between historical perfluorooctanesulfonyl (POSF) production (phased out by the major manufacturer in 2000-2002) and exposure to both PFOS and PFOA. A comparison of estimated daily intakes to humans based on samples from exposure media (collected post 2000) indicates that food intake is the major contemporary exposure pathway for the background population, whereas drinking water exposure is dominant for populations near sources of contaminated drinking water. A one-compartment pharmacokinetic model used to back-calculate daily intakes from serum levels is shown to provide agreement within a factor of 1.5-5.5 of the daily intakes derived from exposure media, which provides further supporting evidence that dietary exposure is a major ongoing exposure pathway of PFOA to the background population.

  14. Addressing Human Variability in Next-Generation Human Health Risk Assessments of Environmental Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bois, Frederic Y.; Chiu, Weihsueh A.; Hattis, Dale; Rusyn, Ivan; Guyton, Kathryn Z.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Characterizing variability in the extent and nature of responses to environmental exposures is a critical aspect of human health risk assessment. Objective: Our goal was to explore how next-generation human health risk assessments may better characterize variability in the context of the conceptual framework for the source-to-outcome continuum. Methods: This review was informed by a National Research Council workshop titled “Biological Factors that Underlie Individual Susceptibility to Environmental Stressors and Their Implications for Decision-Making.” We considered current experimental and in silico approaches, and emerging data streams (such as genetically defined human cells lines, genetically diverse rodent models, human omic profiling, and genome-wide association studies) that are providing new types of information and models relevant for assessing interindividual variability for application to human health risk assessments of environmental chemicals. Discussion: One challenge for characterizing variability is the wide range of sources of inherent biological variability (e.g., genetic and epigenetic variants) among individuals. A second challenge is that each particular pair of health outcomes and chemical exposures involves combinations of these sources, which may be further compounded by extrinsic factors (e.g., diet, psychosocial stressors, other exogenous chemical exposures). A third challenge is that different decision contexts present distinct needs regarding the identification—and extent of characterization—of interindividual variability in the human population. Conclusions: Despite these inherent challenges, opportunities exist to incorporate evidence from emerging data streams for addressing interindividual variability in a range of decision-making contexts. PMID:23086705

  15. DNA adducts of the tobacco carcinogens 2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole and 4-aminobiphenyl are formed at environmental exposure levels and persist in human hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauwelaërs, Gwendoline; Bellamri, Medjda; Fessard, Valérie; Turesky, Robert J; Langouët, Sophie

    2013-09-16

    Aromatic amines and structurally related heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) are produced during the combustion of tobacco or during the high-temperature cooking of meat. Exposure to some of these chemicals may contribute to the etiology of several common types of human cancers. 2-Amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (AαC) is the most abundant HAA formed in mainstream tobacco smoke: it arises in amounts that are 25-100 times greater than the levels of the arylamine, 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP), a human carcinogen. 2-Amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) is a prevalent HAA formed in cooked meats. AαC and MeIQx are rodent carcinogens; however, their carcinogenic potency in humans is unknown. A preliminary assessment of the carcinogenic potential of these HAAs in humans was conducted by examining the capacity of primary human hepatocytes to form DNA adducts of AαC and MeIQx, in comparison to 4-ABP, followed by the kinetics of DNA adduct removal by cellular enzyme repair systems. The principal DNA adducts formed were N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl) (dG-C8) adducts. Comparable levels of DNA adducts were formed with AαC and 4-ABP, whereas adduct formation was ∼5-fold lower for MeIQx. dG-C8-AαC and dG-C8-4-ABP were formed at comparable levels in a concentration-dependent manner in human hepatocytes treated with procarcinogens over a 10,000-fold concentration range (1 nM-10 μM). Pretreatment of hepatocytes with furafylline, a selective inhibitor of cytochrome P450 1A2, resulted in a strong diminution of DNA adducts signifying that P450 1A2 is a major P450 isoform involved in bioactivation of these procarcinogens. The kinetics of adduct removal varied for each hepatocyte donor. Approximately half of the DNA adducts were removed within 24 h of treatment; however, the remaining lesions persisted over 5 days. The high levels of AαC present in tobacco smoke and its propensity to form persistent DNA adducts in human hepatocytes suggest that AαC can contribute to DNA damage

  16. A review of environmental and occupational exposure to xylene and its health concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niaz, Kamal; Bahadar, Haji; Maqbool, Faheem; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Xylene is a cyclic hydrocarbon, and an environmental pollutant. It is also used in dyes, paints, polishes, medical technology and different industries as a solvent. Xylene easily vaporizes and divides by sunlight into other harmless chemicals. The aim of the present review is to collect the evidence of the xylene toxicity, related to non-cancerous health hazards, as well as to provide possible effective measurement to minimize its risk ratio. For current study a bibliographic search of more than 250 peer-reviewed papers in scientific data including PubMed, and Google Scholar about xylene was done. But approximately 130 peer-reviewed papers relevant to xylene were included (Figure 1(Fig. 1)). All scientific data was reviewed with key words of "xylene toxicity", "xylene toxic health effects", "environmental volatile organic compounds", "human exposure to xylene", "xylene poisoning in laboratory workers", "effects of xylene along with other hydrocarbons", "neurotoxicity of selected hydrocarbons", and "toxic effects of particular xylene isomers in animals". According to these studies, xylene is released into the atmosphere as fugitive emissions from petrochemical industries, fire, cigarette, from different vehicles. Short term exposure to mixed xylene or their individual isomers result in irritation of the nose, eyes and throat subsequently leading toward neurological, gastrointestinal and reproductive harmful effects. In addition long term exposure to xylene may cause hazardous effects on respiratory system, central nervous system, cardiovascular system, and renal system. The health concerns of xylene are well documented in animals and human. It is important to improve health policies, launch xylene related health and toxicity awareness campaigns, to get rid of its dangerous outcomes. Chronic diseases have become a threat to human globally, with special prominence in regions, where xylene is used with other chemicals (benzene, toluene etc.) especially in petroleum and

  17. Human aggression across the lifespan: genetic propensities and environmental moderators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuvblad, Catherine; Baker, Laura A

    2011-01-01

    This chapter reviews the recent evidence of genetic and environmental influences on human aggression. Findings from a large selection of the twin and adoption studies that have investigated the genetic and environmental architecture of aggressive behavior are summarized. These studies together show that about half (50%) of the variance in aggressive behavior is explained by genetic influences in both males and females, with the remaining 50% of the variance being explained by environmental factors not shared by family members. Form of aggression (reactive, proactive, direct/physical, indirect/relational), method of assessment (laboratory observation, self-report, ratings by parents and teachers), and age of the subjects-all seem to be significant moderators of the magnitude of genetic and environmental influences on aggressive behavior. Neither study design (twin vs. sibling adoption design) nor sex (male vs. female) seems to impact the magnitude of the genetic and environmental influences on aggression. There is also some evidence of gene-environment interaction (G × E) from both twin/adoption studies and molecular genetic studies. Various measures of family adversity and social disadvantage have been found to moderate genetic influences on aggressive behavior. Findings from these G × E studies suggest that not all individuals will be affected to the same degree by experiences and exposures, and that genetic predispositions may have different effects depending on the environment.

  18. Human metabolic interactions of environmental chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Ernest; Rose, Randy L

    2007-01-01

    Investigations utilizing recombinant human xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes as well as human hepatocytes have revealed a number of interactions not only between different environmental chemicals (ECs) but also between ECs and endogenous metabolites. Organophosphorus insecticides (OPs) are potent inhibitors of the human metabolism of carbaryl, carbofuran, DEET and fipronil, as well as the jet fuel components, nonane and naphthalene. OPs are potent irreversible inhibitors of testosterone metabolism by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 and of estradiol metabolism by CYP3A4 and CYP1A2. All of these CYP inhibitions are believed to be due to the release of reactive sulfur during CYP-catalyzed oxidative desulfuration. It has also been shown that the esterase(s) responsible for the initial step in permethrin metabolism in human liver is inhibited by both chlorpyrifos oxon and carbaryl. A number of pesticides, including chlorpyrifos, fipronil and permethrin, and the repellent, DEET, have been shown to be inducers of CYP isoforms in human hepatocytes, with fipronil being the most potent. Several agrochemicals, including fipronil and the pyrethroids, permethrin and deltamethrin, show toxicity toward human hepatocytes with fipronil being the most potent in this regard. Endosulfan-alpha, which has shown promise as a model substrate for phenotyping CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 in human liver microsomes, is also an inducer of CYP2B6, acting through the PXR receptor.

  19. Long-term effect of environmental cadmium exposure on human body's mineral metabolic balance%长期环境镉暴露对机体矿物质元素代谢平衡的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凌海团; 黄琼; 吕颖坚; 蒋琦; 杨杏芬; 吴永宁; 黄芮; 梁旭霞; 李志学; 王晶; 谭剑斌; 吴仕漩; 王萍; 陈子慧

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of long⁃term exposure to environmental cadmium on eight mineral element's metabolic balance of human body. Methods To choose a high cadmium area polluted by smelting and mining north of Guangdong province and a cadmium⁃free area with a similar economic level, and living and eating habit of residents as a contrast from April 2011 to August 2012. Stratified random sampling and clustered sampling method were adopted to choose the non⁃occupationally cadmium⁃exposed respondents who have lived in local area for more than 15 years, older than 40 years, having local rice and vegetable as the main dietary source, with simple and relatively stable diet, and without diabetes, kidney disease, thyroid disease, liver disease or other history of chronic disease. This study included 298 respondents, of whom 155 were in cadmium exposure group and 143 in control group. Questionnaires was used to acquire their health status and their morning urine samples were collected. Electrolytically coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP⁃MS) was used to test the concentrations of sodium (Na), magnesium (Mg), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and iodine (I). The Mann⁃Whitney U test method was used to compare the differences of concentrations of urinary cadmium, Na, Mg, P, K, Ca, Cu, Zn, I, and the ratio of Na to K (Na/K), Ca to P (Ca/P) between exposed group and control group.χ2 test was used to compare the abnormal rate of urinary cadmium between exposed group and control group. Pearson correlation and multiple regression method were used to investigate the relationship between urinary cadmium levels, gender, age, smoking, passive smoking, and minerals. Results The urinary cadmium level P50 (P25-P75) in exposed group was 5.45 (2.62-10.68)μg/g·cr, which was higher than that of the control group, which was 1.69 (1.22-2.36)μg/g · cr (Z=-10.49, P40周岁,在当地连续居住时间超过15年,以当地自产

  20. Global gradients of coral exposure to environmental stresses and implications for local management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Maina

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The decline of coral reefs globally underscores the need for a spatial assessment of their exposure to multiple environmental stressors to estimate vulnerability and evaluate potential counter-measures. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study combined global spatial gradients of coral exposure to radiation stress factors (temperature, UV light and doldrums, stress-reinforcing factors (sedimentation and eutrophication, and stress-reducing factors (temperature variability and tidal amplitude to produce a global map of coral exposure and identify areas where exposure depends on factors that can be locally managed. A systems analytical approach was used to define interactions between radiation stress variables, stress reinforcing variables and stress reducing variables. Fuzzy logic and spatial ordinations were employed to quantify coral exposure to these stressors. Globally, corals are exposed to radiation and reinforcing stress, albeit with high spatial variability within regions. Based on ordination of exposure grades, regions group into two clusters. The first cluster was composed of severely exposed regions with high radiation and low reducing stress scores (South East Asia, Micronesia, Eastern Pacific and the central Indian Ocean or alternatively high reinforcing stress scores (the Middle East and the Western Australia. The second cluster was composed of moderately to highly exposed regions with moderate to high scores in both radiation and reducing factors (Caribbean, Great Barrier Reef (GBR, Central Pacific, Polynesia and the western Indian Ocean where the GBR was strongly associated with reinforcing stress. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Despite radiation stress being the most dominant stressor, the exposure of coral reefs could be reduced by locally managing chronic human impacts that act to reinforce radiation stress. Future research and management efforts should focus on incorporating the factors that mitigate the effect of

  1. Exposure information in environmental health research: Current opportunities and future directions for particulate matter, ozone, and toxic air pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKone, Thomas E.; Ryan, P. Barry; Ozkaynak, Haluk

    2007-02-01

    Understanding and quantifying outdoor and indoor sources of human exposure are essential but often not adequately addressed in health-effects studies for air pollution. Air pollution epidemiology, risk assessment, health tracking and accountability assessments are examples of health-effects studies that require but often lack adequate exposure information. Recent advances in exposure modeling along with better information on time-activity and exposure factors data provide us with unique opportunities to improve the assignment of exposures for both future and ongoing studies linking air pollution to health impacts. In September 2006, scientists from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) along with scientists from the academic community and state health departments convened a symposium on air pollution exposure and health in order to identify, evaluate, and improve current approaches for linking air pollution exposures to disease. This manuscript presents the key issues, challenges and recommendations identified by the exposure working group, who used cases studies of particulate matter, ozone, and toxic air pollutant exposure to evaluate health-effects for air pollution. One of the over-arching lessons of this workshop is that obtaining better exposure information for these different health-effects studies requires both goal-setting for what is needed and mapping out the transition pathway from current capabilities to meeting these goals. Meeting our long-term goals requires definition of incremental steps that provide useful information for the interim and move us toward our long-term goals. Another over-arching theme among the three different pollutants and the different health study approaches is the need for integration among alternate exposure assessment approaches. For example, different groups may advocate exposure indicators, biomonitoring, mapping methods (GIS), modeling, environmental media

  2. Association between polyclonal and mixed mycobacterial Mycobacterium avium complex infection and environmental exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Kohei; Ito, Yutaka; Hirai, Toyohiro; Kubo, Takeshi; Maekawa, Koichi; Togashi, Kaori; Ichiyama, Satoshi; Mishima, Michiaki

    2014-01-01

    Polyclonal and mixed mycobacterial Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection is observed in pulmonary MAC disease. Human living environments contain multiple species or genotypes of nontuberculous mycobacterial strains and are considered sources of infection. To investigate the association of environmental exposure with polyclonal and mixed mycobacterial infection in pulmonary MAC disease after adjustments for potential confounding diseases and conditions and radiographic findings. We collected two separate sputum samples from 102 patients and single sputum samples from 18 patients in whom the second MAC strain was not isolated in our prospective cohort of pulmonary MAC disease. MAC isolates from sputum samples and patients' residential soils were used for variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) analyses. Polyclonal and mixed mycobacterial MAC infections were defined as having different VNTR genotypes and other mycobacterial species, respectively. Monoclonal MAC infection was defined as all isolates showing a single VNTR genotype. Associations of the type of infection with clinical and radiographic findings and environmental exposure were measured. Polyclonal and mixed mycobacterial MAC and monoclonal infections were observed in 42 and 78 patients, respectively. By stepwise regression analysis, patients with polyclonal and mixed mycobacterial MAC infections were associated with history of asthma (odds ratio [OR], 11.56; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.41-255.77; P = 0.021), high soil exposure (≥2 h/wk; OR, 4.31; 95% CI, 1.72-11.45; P swimming in a pool (OR, 9.69; 95% CI, 1.21-206.92; P < 0.01). Environmental exposure was associated with polyclonal and mixed mycobacterial MAC infection in pulmonary MAC disease.

  3. Evaluation of the Modeling of Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) in the SHEDS-PM Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ye; Frey, H Christopher; Liu, Xiaozhen; Deshpande, Bela K

    2009-06-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is estimated to be a major contributor to indoor PM concentration and human exposures to fine particulate matter of 2.5 microns or smaller (PM2.5). The Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation for Particulate Matter (SHEDS-PM) model developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency estimates distributions of outdoor and indoor PM2.5 exposure for a specified population based on ambient concentrations and indoor emissions sources. Because indoor exposures to ETS can be high, especially in indoor residential microenvironments, a critical assessment was conducted of the methodology and data used in SHEDS-PM for estimation of indoor exposure to ETS. For the residential microenvironment, SHEDS uses a mass-balance approach which is comparable to best practices. The default inputs in SHEDS-PM were reviewed and more recent and extensive data sources were identified. Sensitivity analysis was used to determine which inputs should be prioritized for updating. Data regarding the cigarette emission rate was found to be the most important. SHEDS-PM does not currently account for in-vehicle ETS exposure; however, in-vehicle ETS-related PM2.5 levels can exceed those in residential microenvironments by a factor of 10 or more. Therefore, a mass-balance based methodology for estimating in-vehicle ETS PM2.5 concentration is evaluated. Recommendations are made regarding updating of input data and algorithms related to ETS exposure in the SHEDS-PM model.

  4. The High-Throughput Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation Model (SHEDS-HT) & The Chemical and Products Database (CPDat)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation Model – High-Throughput (SHEDS-HT) is a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency research tool for predicting screening-level (low-tier) exposures to chemicals in consumer products. This course will present an overview of this m...

  5. Inhale while Dreaming: Human Exposure to Pollutants while Sleeping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corsi, Richard; Spilak, Michal; Boor, E., Brandon

    2012-01-01

    Humans spend approximately 1/3 of their total life asleep, typically on a mattress or other bedding. Despite the fact that there is no other location where most of humanity spends more time, this microenvironment has received little attention from the standpoint of human exposure to a wide range ...

  6. Environmental mercury exposure, semen quality and reproductive hormones in Greenlandic Inuit and European men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mocevic, Emina; Specht, Ina O; Marott, Jacob Louis;

    2013-01-01

    Several animal studies indicate that mercury is a male reproductive toxicant, but human studies are few and contradictory. We examined semen characteristics and serum levels of reproductive hormones in relation to environmental exposure to mercury. Blood and semen samples were collected from 529.......024 to 0.110). The association may be due to beneficial effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which are contained in seafood and fish. No significant association (P>0.05) was found between blood concentrations of mercury and any of the other measured semen characteristics (semen volume, total...... sperm count, sperm concentration, morphology and motility) and reproductive hormones (free androgen index (FAI), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone and LH×testosterone) in any region. In conclusion, the findings do not provide evidence that environmental mercury...

  7. Human dermal exposure to galaxolide from personal care products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, P; Cruz, A; Santos, L; Alves, A

    2013-06-01

    Musks are synthetic fragrances applied on personal care and household products as fixatives, by retarding the release of other fragrances with higher volatility. Galaxolide is the most used polycyclic musk since the 90th decade, and it has been detected in several environmental and biological matrices, particularly in human tissues and fluids. For exposure assessment purposes, large-monitoring data need to be obtained and rapid but reliable analytical techniques are requested. The main objective of this study is to develop and validate a new and fast analytical methodology to quantify galaxolide in personal care products and to apply this method to real matrices like skin care products (creams and lotions), shower products (soap bar), hair care products (shampoo and hair conditioner) and oral care products (toothpaste), to evaluate the human dermal exposure risk. A dispersive solid-phase extraction is proposed, using QuEChERS methodology, followed by HPLC with fluorescence detection. Some extraction parameters were studied, like the ratio of sample/solvent amounts, the homogenization time, the salt addition effect and the used sorbents. The validation parameters of the developed method were the following: a linearity range of 0.005-1.002 mg kg⁻¹ sample, a limit of detection of 0.001 mg kg⁻¹ sample, repeatability between 0.7% and 11.3% (variation coefficient of six standard injections), an intermediate precision of 2.5% (variation coefficient of six independent analysis of the same sample), mean recoveries ranging from 65% (soap bar) to 95% (body cream) and 3% of global uncertainty in most of the working range. The time of analysis, including the extraction steps, is 60 min, allowing a throughput of 4 samples h⁻¹ . Galaxolide was detected in all of the seven analysed products in concentrations ranging from 0.04 ± 0.01 mg kg⁻¹ sample (toothpaste) to 280.78 ± 8.19 mg kg⁻¹ sample (perfumed body cream), which may correspond to a significant estimated

  8. An agent-based model of exposure to human toxocariasis: a multi-country validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanobana, K; Devleesschauwer, B; Polman, K; Speybroeck, N

    2013-07-01

    Seroprevalence data illustrate that human exposure to Toxocara is frequent. Environmental contamination with Toxocara spp. eggs is assumed to be the best indicator of human exposure, but increased risk of exposure has also been associated with many other factors. Reported associations are inconsistent, however, and there is still ambiguity regarding the factors driving the onset of Toxocara antibody positivity. The objective of this work was to assess the validity of our current conceptual understanding of the key processes driving human exposure to Toxocara. We constructed an agent-based model predicting Toxocara antibody positivity (as a measure of exposure) in children. Exposure was assumed to depend on the joint probability of 3 parameters: (1) environmental contamination with Toxocara spp. eggs, (2) larvation of these eggs and (3) the age-related contact with these eggs. This joint probability was linked to processes of acquired humoral immunity, influencing the rate of antibody seroreversion. The results of the simulation were validated against published data from 5 different geographical settings. Using simple rules and a stochastic approach with parameter estimates derived from the respective contexts, plausible serological patterns emerged from the model in nearly all settings. Our approach leads to novel insights in the transmission dynamics of Toxocara.

  9. Influence of environmental exposures on patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yoonki; Lim, Myoung Nam; Kim, Woo Jin; Rhee, Chin Kook; Yoo, Kwang Ha; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Yoon, Ho Il; Kim, Tae-Hyung; Lee, Jin Hwa; Lim, Seong Yong; Lee, Sang Do; Oh, Yeon-Mok

    2014-05-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by airflow limitation and results from environmental factors and genetic factors. Although cigarette smoking is a major risk factor, other environmental exposures can influence COPD. The purpose of this study is to investigate the clinical characteristics of COPD according to the history of environmental exposure. The study population comprised of 347 subjects with COPD who were recruited from the pulmonary clinics of 14 hospitals within the Korean Obstructive Lung Disease Study Group. We classified environmental exposures according to history of living near factory, and direct exposure history to firewood or briquette. According to living environmental exposures, we compared the frequency of respiratory symptoms, pulmonary function, quality of life, exercise capacity, and computed tomography phenotypes. Thirty-one subjects (8.9%) had history of living near factory, 271 (78.3%) had exposure history to briquette, and 184 (53.3%) had exposure history to firewood. Patients with history of living near a factory had a significantly longer duration of sputum, while patients with exposure to firewood tended to have lower forced expiratory volume in one second, and patients with exposure to briquette tended to have lower six minute walk distance. COPD subjects with the history of living near factory had more frequent respiratory symptoms such as sputum. Our data suggest that environmental exposure may influence clinical phenotype of COPD.

  10. Human Health Effects Associated with Exposure to Toxic Cyanobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reports of toxic cyanobacteria blooms are increasing worldwide. Warming and eutrophic surface water systems support the development of blooms. We examine the evidence for adverse human health effects associated with exposure to toxic blooms in drinking water, recreational water a...

  11. Knowledge of human immunodeficiency virus post-exposure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge of human immunodeficiency virus post-exposure prophylaxis among doctors in a Nigerian tertiary hospital. ... of PEP policy in the hospital. The level of knowledge concerning the high-risk fluid and three drugs used in PEP is high.

  12. Human Health Effects Associated with Exposure to Toxic Cyanobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reports of toxic cyanobacteria blooms are increasing worldwide. Warming and eutrophic surface water systems support the development of blooms. We examine the evidence for adverse human health effects associated with exposure to toxic blooms in drinking water, recreational water a...

  13. Parabens as Urinary Biomarkers of Exposure in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Xiaoyun; Bishop, Amber M.; Reidy, John A; Needham, Larry L.; Calafat, Antonia M

    2006-01-01

    Background Parabens appear frequently as antimicrobial preservatives in cosmetic products, in pharmaceuticals, and in food and beverage processing. In vivo and in vitro studies have revealed weak estrogenic activity of some parabens. Widespread use has raised concerns about the potential human health risks associated with paraben exposure. Objectives Assessing human exposure to parabens usually involves measuring in urine the conjugated or free species of parabens or their metabolites. In ani...

  14. Developmental toxicity of UV filters and environmental exposure: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlumpf, Margret; Durrer, Stefan; Faass, Oliver; Ehnes, Colin; Fuetsch, Michaela; Gaille, Catherine; Henseler, Manuel; Hofkamp, Luke; Maerkel, Kirsten; Reolon, Sasha; Timms, Barry; Tresguerres, Jesus A F; Lichtensteiger, Walter

    2008-04-01

    Several ultraviolet (UV) filters exhibit estrogenic, some also anti-androgenic activity. They are present in waste water treatment plants, surface waters and biosphere including human milk, suggesting potential exposure during development. Developmental toxicity was studied in rats for the UV filters 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4-MBC, 0.7, 7, 24, 47 mg/kg/day) and 3-benzylidene camphor (3-BC, 0.07, 0.24, 0.7, 2.4, 7 mg/kg/day) administered in chow to the parent generation before mating, during pregnancy and lactation, and to the offspring until adulthood. Neonates exhibited enhanced prostate growth after 4-MBC and altered uterine gene expression after both chemicals. 4-MBC and 3-BC delayed male puberty and affected reproductive organ weights of adult offspring. Effects on the thyroid axis were also noted. Expression and oestrogen sensitivity of oestrogen-regulated genes and nuclear receptor coregulator levels were altered at mRNA and protein levels in adult uterus, prostate and brain regions involved in gonadal control and sexual behaviour. Female sexual behaviour was impaired by both filters; 3-benzylidene camphor caused irregular cycles. Classical endpoints exhibited lowest observed adverse effect levels (LOAELs) and no observed adverse effect levels (NOAELs) of 7/0.7 mg/kg for 4-MBC and 0.24/0.07 mg/kg for 3-BC. Molecular endpoints were affected by the lowest doses studied. Our data indicate that the potential risk posed by endocrine active UV filters warrants further investigations.

  15. DARTAB: a program to combine airborne radionuclide environmental exposure data with dosimetric and health effects data to generate tabulations of predicted health impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begovich, C.L.; Eckerman, K.F.; Schlatter, E.C.; Ohr, S.Y.; Chester, R.O.

    1981-08-01

    The DARTAB computer code combines radionuclide environmental exposure data with dosimetric and health effects data to generate tabulations of the predicted impact of radioactive airborne effluents. DARTAB is independent of the environmental transport code used to generate the environmental exposure data and the codes used to produce the dosimetric and health effects data. Therefore human dose and risk calculations need not be added to every environmental transport code. Options are included in DARTAB to permit the user to request tabulations by various topics (e.g., cancer site, exposure pathway, etc.) to facilitate characterization of the human health impacts of the effluents. The DARTAB code was written at ORNL for the US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Radiation Programs.

  16. Female college student awareness of exposures to environmental toxins in personal care products and their effect on preconception health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Lisa M; Chalupka, Stephanie M; Barrett, Roseann

    2015-02-01

    This research study investigated college women's usage of personal care products and their views on health effects from exposures during the preconception period. Many personal care products and cosmetics contain chemical ingredients that have been known to disrupt human endocrine and neurological systems, and contribute to infertility and adverse birth outcomes. Seventy-two female college students from a single, medium-sized university campus completed a researcher-developed questionnaire. Findings provide insight into the daily exposures young women experience during their reproductive years. Results can inform occupational and environmental health nurses about the personal daily exposures of young women when conducting risk assessments in the workplace or at a school, and can aid in developing interventions that support the environmental health of employees or future employees. © 2015 The Author(s).

  17. [Methodological aspects in environmental and biological monitoring of exposure to low doses of benzene: problems and possible solutions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranfo, Giovanna; Paci, Enrico; Fustinoni, Silvia; Barbieri, Anna; Carrieri, Mariella

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to examine some methods to measure human exposure to benzene, both in life and occupational environments, through environmental and biological monitoring, examining the critical issues and optimal conditions of use. The overall performance of environmental monitoring, from the analytical point of view, strongly depend on the choice of an appropriate method of sampling and analysis. Urinary SPMA and t, t-MA are the biomarkers listed by ACGIH to evaluate occupational exposure: most of the recent studies use HPLC with tandem mass spectrometry, but since t, t-MA is present in the urine in larger quantities it is also determinable with UV detectors. The urinary benzene is an index not officially included in the list of the ACGIH BEIs, but it is useful to assess exposure and benzene at low concentrations, that most frequently are found today in the occupational and life environments.

  18. Environmental lithium exposure in the north of Chile - Tissue exposure indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo T. Figueroa

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: northern Chile has the highest levels of lithium in surface waters in the world which is reflected in very high lithium levels in the plants and animals that depend on these water systems and consequently in the indigenous population.Methods: the lithium tissue burdens in populations from two valleys in the extreme north of Chile have been studied. The bulk of this report is based on analyses of lithium levels in urine, hair, and breast milk in the population of several villages. Data on serum levels, some of which had been previously published, are included for the sake of completeness. Since this paper reports studies by several groups of workers samples were analysed by a variety of methods. These include atomic emission, atomic absorption, other photospectroscopic techniques and mass spectroscopy.Results: in all samples studied the average lithium level (5.3 ppm was found to be significantly elevated compared to levels reported in the literature and measured in this study for people not exposed to high levels in water and food (0.009-0.228 ppm.Conclusions: the people studied represent a unique longitudinal cohort. The work should provide important insights into the potential neuroprotective effects of lithium also help us set guidelines to assess the risks from high dose environmental exposure.

  19. The human placenta--an alternative for studying foetal exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myren, Maja; Mose, Tina; Mathiesen, Line;

    2007-01-01

    , and though its main task is to act as a barrier and transport nutrients and oxygen to the foetus, many foreign compounds are transported across the placenta to some degree and may therefore influence the unborn child. Foetal exposures to environmental and medicinal products may have impact on the growth...

  20. Sampling strategy for estimating human exposure pathways to consumer chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Papadopoulou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Human exposure to consumer chemicals has become a worldwide concern. In this work, a comprehensive sampling strategy is presented, to our knowledge being the first to study all relevant exposure pathways in a single cohort using multiple methods for assessment of exposure from each exposure pathway. The selected groups of chemicals to be studied are consumer chemicals whose production and use are currently in a state of transition and are; per- and polyfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs, traditional and “emerging” brominated flame retardants (BFRs and EBFRs, organophosphate esters (OPEs and phthalate esters (PEs. Information about human exposure to these contaminants is needed due to existing data gaps on human exposure intakes from multiple exposure pathways and relationships between internal and external exposure. Indoor environment, food and biological samples were collected from 61 participants and their households in the Oslo area (Norway on two consecutive days, during winter 2013-14. Air, dust, hand wipes, and duplicate diet (food and drink samples were collected as indicators of external exposure, and blood, urine, blood spots, hair, nails and saliva as indicators of internal exposure. A food diary, food frequency questionnaire (FFQ and indoor environment questionnaire were also implemented. Approximately 2000 samples were collected in total and participant views on their experiences of this campaign were collected via questionnaire. While 91% of our participants were positive about future participation in a similar project, some tasks were viewed as problematic. Completing the food diary and collection of duplicate food/drink portions were the tasks most frequent reported as “hard”/”very hard”. Nevertheless, a strong positive correlation between the reported total mass of food/drinks in the food record and the total weight of the food/drinks in the collection bottles was observed, being an indication of accurate performance

  1. Environmental mold and mycotoxin exposures elicit specific cytokine and chemokine responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie H Rosenblum Lichtenstein

    Full Text Available Molds can cause respiratory symptoms and asthma. We sought to use isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs to understand changes in cytokine and chemokine levels in response to mold and mycotoxin exposures and to link these levels with respiratory symptoms in humans. We did this by utilizing an ex vivo assay approach to differentiate mold-exposed patients and unexposed controls. While circulating plasma chemokine and cytokine levels from these two groups might be similar, we hypothesized that by challenging their isolated white blood cells with mold or mold extracts, we would see a differential chemokine and cytokine release.Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs were isolated from blood from 33 patients with a history of mold exposures and from 17 controls. Cultured PBMCs were incubated with the most prominent Stachybotrys chartarum mycotoxin, satratoxin G, or with aqueous mold extract, ionomycin, or media, each with or without PMA. Additional PBMCs were exposed to spores of Aspergillus niger, Cladosporium herbarum and Penicillium chrysogenum. After 18 hours, cytokines and chemokines released into the culture medium were measured by multiplex assay. Clinical histories, physical examinations and pulmonary function tests were also conducted. After ex vivo PBMC exposures to molds or mycotoxins, the chemokine and cytokine profiles from patients with a history of mold exposure were significantly different from those of unexposed controls. In contrast, biomarker profiles from cells exposed to media alone showed no difference between the patients and controls.These findings demonstrate that chronic mold exposures induced changes in inflammatory and immune system responses to specific mold and mycotoxin challenges. These responses can differentiate mold-exposed patients from unexposed controls. This strategy may be a powerful approach to document immune system responsiveness to molds and other inflammation-inducing environmental agents.

  2. Environmental arsenic exposure, selenium and sputum alpha-1 antitrypsin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burgess, Jefferey L; Kurzius-Spencer, Margaret; Poplin, Gerald S

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to arsenic in drinking water is associated with increased respiratory disease. Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) protects the lung against tissue destruction. The objective of this study was to determine whether arsenic exposure is associated with changes in airway AAT concentration and whether ...

  3. Chronic Environmental exposure to Alternaria tennis may manifest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT: Toxigcnic mold exposures are shown to lead to illnesses most of which are just being ... clinical impression was subjective memory ... toxigenic mold exposure characterization and ... speech disturbances, frequently saying the wrong ... The Luria-Nebraska evaluation .... A number of modern treatment strategies.

  4. Linking exposure to environmental pollutants with biological effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette; Autrup, Herman; Møller, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Exposure to ambient air pollution has been associated with cancer. Ambient air contains a complex mixture of toxics, including particulate matter (PM) and benzene. Carcinogenic effects of PM may relate both to the content of PAH and to oxidative DNA damage generated by transition metals, benzene......, metabolism and inflammation. By means of personal monitoring and biomarkers of internal dose, biologically effective dose and susceptibility, it should be possible to characterize individual exposure and identify air pollution sources with relevant biological effects. In a series of studies, individual....... With respect to exposure to PM, biomarkers of oxidative damage showed significant positive association with the individual exposure. Thus, 8-oxodG in lymphocyte DNA and markers of oxidative damage to lipids and protein in plasma associated with PM(2.5) exposure. Several types of DNA damage showed seasonal...

  5. The associations between the environmental exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and breast cancer risk and progression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls(PCBs) are chlorinated biphenyl compounds with wide applications in the industry.In spite of a ban on their production in the late 1970s,PCBs,as a group of POPs,are still persistent and widely spread in the environment,posing potential threats to human health.The role of PCBs as etiologic agents for breast cancer has been intensively explored in a variety of in vivo,animal and epidemiologic studies.Initial investigations indicated higher levels of PCBs in mammary tissues or sera corresponded to the occurrence of breast cancer,but later studies showed no positive association between PCB exposure and breast cancer development.More recent data suggested that the CYP1A1 m2 polymorphisms might add increased risk to the etiology of breast cancer in women with environmental exposure to PCBs.PCBs are implicated in advancing breast cancer progression,and our unpublished data reveals that PCBs activate the ROCK signaling to enhance breast cancer metastasis.Therefore,the correlation between PCB exposure and breast cancer risk warrants further careful investigations.

  6. Human malformations induced by environmental noxae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hecker, W.C.; Angerpointner, T.A.

    1980-01-01

    The paper reviews congenital malformations in humans and presents possible causes. 60% of all malformations are a result of environmental and other factors; i.e. not hereditary or caused by a disease of the mother. The teratogenic effects of ionizing radiation, drugs, alcohol, polyvinyl chloride and trichlorophenol are discussed as well as the effect of the mother's working in certain fields, e.g. clinical laboratories or printing offices; in the latter case the teratogenic noxae are still unknown. Efficient research requires centralized storage of all data on children born with malformations and on the mother's health situation during pregnancy, and the legislator is asked to do so while observing the law on data protection. Foundation of a German Institute of Teratology is recommended. In order to intensify research, it is suggested to set up groups or departments for research on malformations in some major paediatric hospitals.

  7. Impacts of discarded coffee waste on human and environmental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, A S; Mello, F V C; Thode Filho, S; Carpes, R M; Honório, J G; Marques, M R C; Felzenszwalb, I; Ferraz, E R A

    2017-07-01

    Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages throughout the world. So far, many studies have shown the properties of coffee beverages, but little is known about its impacts on human and environmental health from its discard in the environment. So, the present work aims to investigate the mutagenic, genotoxic, cytotoxic and ecotoxic effects of leached (LE) and solubilized (SE) extracts from coffee waste, simulating the disposal of this residue in landfills and via sewage systems, respectively. Chemical analyses were also carried out. LE and SE induced mutagenicity in the TA98 Salmonella strain with and without exogenous metabolization (S9). In the TA100 only SE induced mutagenicity, what was observed without S9. An increase in the frequency of micronuclei was observed in HepG2 cell line after 3 and 24h of exposure to both extracts. No cytotoxic effects were observed in HepG2 cells by WST-1 assay. The EC50 values for the LE and SE were 1.5% and 11.26% for Daphnia similis, 0.12% and 1.39% for Ceriodaphnia dubia and 6.0% and 5.5% for Vibrio fischeri, respectively. Caffeine and several transition metals were found in both extracts. Coffee waste discarded in the environment may pose a risk to human and environmental health, since this compound can cause DNA damage and present toxicity to aquatic organisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. CURRENT CONCEPTS IN THE ETHICAL CONDUCT OF HUMAN ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH RESEARCH

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years, the concern for human research subject protection has increased markedly in the United States. The nature of research subject participation in controlled exposure environmental health research is such that the individual subject bears the risk of participation w...

  9. Environmental Health Risk Assessment of Dioxin Exposure through Foods in a Dioxin Hot Spot—Bien Hoa City, Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Tran Thi Tuyet-Hanh; Le Vu-Anh; Nguyen Ngoc-Bich; Thomas Tenkate

    2010-01-01

    This study used the Australian Environmental Health Risk Assessment Framework to assess the human health risk of dioxin exposure through foods for local residents in two wards of Bien Hoa City, Vietnam. These wards are known hot-spots for dioxin and a range of stakeholders from central government to local levels were involved in this process. Publications on dioxin characteristics and toxicity were reviewed and dioxin concentrations in local soil, mud, foods, milk and blood samples were used ...

  10. Tracking contributions to human body burden of environmental chemicals by correlating environmental measurements with biomarkers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeong-Moo Shin

    Full Text Available The work addresses current knowledge gaps regarding causes for correlations between environmental and biomarker measurements and explores the underappreciated role of variability in disaggregating exposure attributes that contribute to biomarker levels. Our simulation-based study considers variability in environmental and food measurements, the relative contribution of various exposure sources (indoors and food, and the biological half-life of a compound, on the resulting correlations between biomarker and environmental measurements. For two hypothetical compounds whose half-lives are on the order of days for one and years for the other, we generate synthetic daily environmental concentrations and food exposures with different day-to-day and population variability as well as different amounts of home- and food-based exposure. Assuming that the total intake results only from home-based exposure and food ingestion, we estimate time-dependent biomarker concentrations using a one-compartment pharmacokinetic model. Box plots of modeled R2 values indicate that although the R2 correlation between wipe and biological (e.g., serum measurements is within the same range for the two compounds, the relative contribution of the home exposure to the total exposure could differ by up to 20%, thus providing the relative indication of their contribution to body burden. The novel method introduced in this paper provides insights for evaluating scenarios or experiments where sample, exposure, and compound variability must be weighed in order to interpret associations between exposure data.

  11. Arsenic pesticides and environmental pollution: exposure, poisoning, hazards and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bahnasawy, Mamdouh M; Mohammad, Amina El-Hosini; Morsy, Tosson A

    2013-08-01

    Arsenic is a metalloid element. Acute high-dose exposure to arsenic can cause severe systemic toxicity and death. Lower dose chronic arsenic exposure can result in subacute toxicity that can include peripheral sensorimotor neuropathy, skin eruptions, and hepatotoxicity. Long-term effects of arsenic exposure include an in Due to the physiologic effects of the arsenic on all body systems, thus, chronic arsenic-poisoned patient is a major nursing challenge. The critical care nurse provides valuable assessment and interventions that prevent major multisystem complications from arsenic toxicity.

  12. Local Adaptation of Sun-Exposure-Dependent Gene Expression Regulation in Human Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kita, Ryosuke; Fraser, Hunter B.

    2016-01-01

    Sun-exposure is a key environmental variable in the study of human evolution. Several skin-pigmentation genes serve as classical examples of positive selection, suggesting that sun-exposure has significantly shaped worldwide genomic variation. Here we investigate the interaction between genetic variation and sun-exposure, and how this impacts gene expression regulation. Using RNA-Seq data from 607 human skin samples, we identified thousands of transcripts that are differentially expressed between sun-exposed skin and non-sun-exposed skin. We then tested whether genetic variants may influence each individual’s gene expression response to sun-exposure. Our analysis revealed 10 sun-exposure-dependent gene expression quantitative trait loci (se-eQTLs), including genes involved in skin pigmentation (SLC45A2) and epidermal differentiation (RASSF9). The allele frequencies of the RASSF9 se-eQTL across diverse populations correlate with the magnitude of solar radiation experienced by these populations, suggesting local adaptation to varying levels of sunlight. These results provide the first examples of sun-exposure-dependent regulatory variation and suggest that this variation has contributed to recent human adaptation. PMID:27760139

  13. Human fetal testis Leydig cell disruption by exposure to the pesticide dieldrin at low concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Paul A; Abramovich, David R; Haites, Neva E; Cash, Phillip; Groome, Nigel P; Al-Qahtani, Ahmed; Murray, Tessa J; Lea, Richard G

    2007-11-01

    Declining human reproductive health over the last 60 years has been proposed to be due to effects of environmental chemicals, especially endocrine disrupting compounds, on fetal development. We investigated whether a model pesticide, dieldrin, at concentrations within both maternal circulation and environmental ranges (1 pmol/l = 0.0004 p.p.b. = 380.9 pg/l), could disrupt the human fetal testis. Human fetal testes were collected during the second trimester, a critical period of male sexual differentiation (development and masculinization). Testis explants were cultured for 24 h in the presence and absence of LH (10-1000 IU LH/l) and dieldrin (1 pmol and 1 nmol/l). Endocrine, immunohistological and proteome characteristics of the tissues were investigated. Exposure to dieldrin reduced LH-induced testosterone secretion (P Dieldrin altered proteins associated with cancer, apoptosis, transcription and development. Wnt-2b was reduced 3-fold and immunolocalized to Leydig and Sertoli cells. Dieldrin also reversed some LH-induced changes in protein expression, supporting the conclusion that Leydig cell function is at risk from environmental chemicals. Our findings indicate that exposure to very low, biologically relevant, concentrations of environmental chemicals could affect the fetal human Leydig cell, reducing testosterone secretion and potentially leading to subtle dysregulation of reproductive development and adult fecundity.

  14. Human reproductive system disturbances and pesticide exposure in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio Koifman; Rosalina Jorge Koifman; Armando Meyer

    2002-01-01

    The observation of reproductive disturbances in humans and in the wildlife has been reported in the last decade in different countries. Exposure to different chemicals possibly acting in the endocrine system or endocrine disruptors, including pesticides, has been a hypothesis raised to explain the observed changes. This paper aimed to present results of an epidemiological ecologic study carried out to explore population data on pesticides exposure in selected Brazilian states in the eighties ...

  15. Developing human health exposure scenarios for petroleum substances under REACH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, M.; De Wilde, P.; Maksimainen, K.; Margary, A.; Money, C.; Pizzella, G.; Svanehav, T.; Tsang, W.; Urbanus, J.; Rohde, A.

    2012-12-15

    This report describes the approaches that were adopted by CONCAWE to prepare the human exposure estimates in the chemical safety assessments of the REACH registration dossiers for petroleum substances based on all applicable regulatory guidance. Separate exposure estimates were developed for workers and for consumers and included inhalation and dermal routes. The complex nature of petroleum substances required various scientifically justified refinements of the regulatory guidance.

  16. Investigating unmetabolized polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in adolescents' urine as biomarkers of environmental exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Craemer, Sam; Croes, Kim; van Larebeke, Nicolas; Sioen, Isabelle; Schoeters, Greet; Loots, Ilse; Nawrot, Tim; Nelen, Vera; Campo, Laura; Fustinoni, Silvia; Baeyens, Willy

    2016-07-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are of interest to human biomonitoring studies due to their carcinogenic potential. Traditionally metabolites of these compounds, like 1-hydroxypyrene, are monitored in urine, but recent methods allow the determination of the parent compounds in urine, which give additional information regarding sources and toxicity of PAHs. In order to assess the feasibility of incorporating these methods in a human biomonitoring study, the 16 USEPA parent PAHs were determined in 20 urine samples. These samples were obtained from 10 boys and 10 girls aged 14-16 years, participating in the third Flemish Environment and Health Study (Flanders, Belgium). Of these 16 parent PAHs, nine could be determined in more than 95% of the samples and three (including benzo(a)pyrene) in more than 50%. Several correlations were found between different PAHs, but not between pyrene and its metabolite 1-hydroxypyrene. Diagnostic PAH ratios in urine and air samples pointed towards combustion sources and are in line with the ratios in environmental samples. Benzo(a)pyrene, naphthalene and fluorene have the highest carcinogenic potential in our cohort, when using toxic equivalency factors. Some associations between PAH congeners and determinants of exposure were found, while fluorene and acenaphthylene were positively associated with thyroid hormone levels and benzo(a)pyrene showed a positive correlation with DNA damage by comet assay. These results confirm that parent PAHs in urine are useful as biomarkers of exposure in biomonitoring studies.

  17. A Course on Multimedia Environmental Transport, Exposure, and Risk Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Yoram; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Included are the general guidelines, outline, a summary of major intermedia transport processes, model features, a discussion of multimedia exposure and health risk, and a list of 50 suggested references for this course. (CW)

  18. Human solvent exposure. Factors influencing the pharmacokinetics and acute toxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bælum, Jesper

    1991-01-01

    exposed to mixtures of solvents experience an increased frequency of work related irritative and neurological symptoms although the exposure has been far below the occupational exposure limits. A series of controlled human exposure studies was carried out. Different groups of persons were exposed...... to the most frequent solvent, toluene. Toluene in alveolar air and the urinary excretion of the metabolites were measured and the acute effects of toluene were assessed by the performance in a series of test of the perceptual and psychomotor functions as well as a standardized registration of annoyance...

  19. Human exposure to organic arsenic species from seafood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Vivien; Goodale, Britton; Raab, Andrea; Schwerdtle, Tanja; Reimer, Ken; Conklin, Sean; Karagas, Margaret R; Francesconi, Kevin A

    2017-02-15

    Seafood, including finfish, shellfish, and seaweed, is the largest contributor to arsenic (As) exposure in many human populations. In contrast to the predominance of inorganic As in water and many terrestrial foods, As in marine-derived foods is present primarily in the form of organic compounds. To date, human exposure and toxicological assessments have focused on inorganic As, while organic As has generally been considered to be non-toxic. However, the high concentrations of organic As in seafood, as well as the often complex As speciation, can lead to complications in assessing As exposure from diet. In this report, we evaluate the presence and distribution of organic As species in seafood, and combined with consumption data, address the current capabilities and needs for determining human exposure to these compounds. The analytical approaches and shortcomings for assessing these compounds are reviewed, with a focus on the best practices for characterization and quantitation. Metabolic pathways and toxicology of two important classes of organic arsenicals, arsenolipids and arsenosugars, are examined, as well as individual variability in absorption of these compounds. Although determining health outcomes or assessing a need for regulatory policies for organic As exposure is premature, the extensive consumption of seafood globally, along with the preliminary toxicological profiles of these compounds and their confounding effect on assessing exposure to inorganic As, suggests further investigations and process-level studies on organic As are needed to fill the current gaps in knowledge.

  20. Controlled exposures of human volunteers to sulfate aerosols. Health effects and aerosol characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avol, E L; Jones, M P; Bailey, R M; Chang, N M; Kleinman, M T; Linn, W S; Bell, K A; Hackney, J D

    1979-08-01

    Our laboratory has undertaken the study of possible acute adverse health effects of sulfate aerosols through controlled exposures of volunteer human subjects. Both healthy and asthmatic adult men were exposed for 2-hour periods (with intermittent exercise) to ammonium sulfate, ammonium bisulfate, and sulfuric acid of particle size distributions and concentrations intended to simulate "worst case" exposures during Los Angeles smog episodes. Lung function tests were performed by the subjects on entering and before exiting from a carefully controlled environmental chamber. Subject symptoms were evluated in a standardized manner. Aerosol concentrations and size distributions were determined by an on-line computer/aerometric monitoring system; gravimetric and chemical analyses were performed on impactor and total filter samples after test exposures. We found little or no evidence of adverse health effects from 2-hour multiple-day exposures to any of the compounds at "worst case" ambient concentrations.

  1. Solar UV exposure at eye is different from environmental UV: diurnal monitoring at different rotation angles using a manikin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Liwen; Gao, Qian; Gao, Na; Liu, Guangcong; Wang, Yang; Gong, Huizhi; Liu, Yang

    2013-01-01

    Solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) promotes pterygium and cataract development in the human eye. When outdoors, people are subject to varying ocular UVR exposure intensity depending on time of day and orientation to the sun. To assess this variability, a manikin eye was exposed to solar UVR at 12 rotation angles relative to the sun with a solar elevation angle (SEA) ranging from 24.6° to 88.2°. At rotation angles of 0°, 30°, and 330°, the diurnal variation of ocular UVR exposure intensity showed a bimodal distribution that peaked at a SEA of about 40°, which was 3 to 4 hr both before and after noon. This timing differed from peak environmental UVR exposure intensity. At the other rotation angles, diurnal variations in ocular UV exposure exhibited unimodal curves, with maximum intensity around noon, the same as for environmental UVR. Thus, the idea that UVR exposure is most intense at midday is true for skin surfaces positioned somewhat horizontally but not for the eyes in a 60° arc with a centerline toward the sun (i.e., ranging 30° clockwise or counter-clockwise from the centerline). Maintaining certain orientations relative to the sun's position (for example, being clockwise or counter-clockwise by 30° from the sun) should effectively reduce ocular UVR exposure, especially at times when the SEA is 40°.

  2. Human exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls at toxic waste sites: investigations in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stehr-Green, P.A.; Welty, E.; Burse, V.W.

    1988-11-01

    Beginning in 1982, environmental and population data were evaluated from waste sites contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Pilot exposure assessment studies were conducted at 12 sites where risks of human exposure were thought to be greatest. Serum PCB levels in persons at highest risk of nonoccupationally related exposures (because of their self-reported frequencies and types of activities in contaminated areas) at 10 sites were within background ranges, even though environmental contamination levels as high as 2.5 parts per billion (ppb) in monitoring well water samples and 330,000 ppb in soil samples were measured. At the 2 remaining sites, elevated serum levels were found in these high-risk persons, which require further evaluation by community surveys. These results illustrate that, despite elevated environmental contaminant levels, unless uptake of chemicals above background exposure levels can be demonstrated, adverse health effects cannot be attributed to waste site chemicals. However, health risks due to background exposure levels, as well as in populations with elevated PCB body burdens need further study.

  3. Life-Long Implications of Developmental Exposure to Environmental Stressors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Barouki, Robert; Bellinger, David C

    2015-01-01

    The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) paradigm is one of the most rapidly expanding areas of biomedical research. Environmental stressors that can impact on DOHaD encompass a variety of environmental and occupational hazards as well as deficiency and oversupply of nutrients and ...

  4. Potential Role of Pet Cats As a Sentinel Species for Human Exposure to Flame Retardants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A. Henríquez-Hernández

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Flame retardants are a wide group of chemicals used by the industry to avoid combustion of materials. These substances are commonly found in plastics, electronic equipment, fabrics, and in many other everyday articles. Subsequently, ubiquitous environmental contamination by these common chemical is frequently reported. In the present study, we have evaluated the level of exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, brominated diphenyl ethers (BDEs, and organophosphorous flame retardants (OPFRs in pet cats through the analysis of their serum. We also analyzed the level exposure to such chemicals in a series of 20 cat owners, trying to disclose the role of pet cats as sentinel species of human exposure to FRs. Our results showed that PCBs, banned 40 years ago, showed the lowest levels of exposure, followed by BDEs—banned recently. Congeners PCB-138 and PCB-180 were detected in ≥50% of the series, while BDE-47 was detected in near 90% of the pet cats. On the other hand, the highest levels were that of OPFRs, whose pattern of detection was similar to that observed in humans, thus suggesting a potential role of cats as a sentinel species for human exposure to these currently used FRs. Six out of 11 OPFRs determined [2-ethylhexyldiphenyl phosphate, tributylphosphate, triisobutylphosphate, triphenylphosphate, tris (2-chloroethyl phosphate, and tris (2-chloroisopropyl phosphate] were detected in 100% of the samples. It will be interesting to perform future studied aimed to elucidating the potential toxicological effects of these highly detected chemicals both, in cats and humans.

  5. Human Decisions: Nitrogen Footprints and Environmental Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, A. M.; Bleeker, A.; Galloway, J. N.; Erisman, J.

    2012-12-01

    would reduce the food N footprint by ~60%. Such a reduction would result in significant lessening of the impacts of societal use of food resources on both ecosystem and human health. The personal food nitrogen footprints will then be linked to environmental effects based on the N species of the nitrogen footprint. Environmental effects considered will include global warming, air quality, drinking water quality, eutrophication, and stratospheric ozone depletion. Each of the scenarios will be scaled up to represent the full population of the United States, and the total national nitrogen reductions and the impact on environmental effects will be reported. The results of this analysis will help us begin to solve the human dimension of the nitrogen challenge by showing how different personal choices impact nitrogen losses and the environment. This information can then educate and empower consumers to make informed decisions about their food choices.

  6. Diet and specific microbial exposure trigger features of environmental enteropathy in a novel murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Eric M; Wlodarska, Marta; Willing, Benjamin P; Vonaesch, Pascale; Han, Jun; Reynolds, Lisa A; Arrieta, Marie-Claire; Uhrig, Marco; Scholz, Roland; Partida, Oswaldo; Borchers, Christoph H; Sansonetti, Philippe J; Finlay, B Brett

    2015-08-04

    Environmental enteropathy (EE) is a subclinical chronic inflammatory disease of the small intestine and has a profound impact on the persistence of childhood malnutrition worldwide. However, the aetiology of the disease remains unknown and no animal model exists to date, the creation of which would aid in understanding this complex disease. Here we demonstrate that early-life consumption of a moderately malnourished diet, in combination with iterative oral exposure to commensal Bacteroidales species and Escherichia coli, remodels the murine small intestine to resemble features of EE observed in humans. We further report the profound changes that malnutrition imparts on the small intestinal microbiota, metabolite and intraepithelial lymphocyte composition, along with the susceptibility to enteric infection. Our findings provide evidence indicating that both diet and microbes combine to contribute to the aetiology of EE, and describe a novel murine model that can be used to elucidate the mechanisms behind this understudied disease.

  7. Participatory Risk Mapping of Malaria Vector Exposure in Northern South America using Environmental and Population Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, D O; Troyo, A; Alimi, T O; Beier, J C

    2014-03-01

    Malaria elimination remains a major public health challenge in many tropical regions, including large areas of northern South America. In this study, we present a new high spatial resolution (90 × 90 m) risk map for Colombia and surrounding areas based on environmental and human population data. The map was created through a participatory multi-criteria decision analysis in which expert opinion was solicited to determine key environmental and population risk factors, different fuzzy functions to standardize risk factor inputs, and variable factor weights to combine risk factors in a geographic information system. The new risk map was compared to a map of malaria cases in which cases were aggregated to the municipio (municipality) level. The relationship between mean municipio risk scores and total cases by muncípio showed a weak correlation. However, the relationship between pixel-level risk scores and vector occurrence points for two dominant vector species, Anopheles albimanus and An. darlingi, was significantly different (p < 0.05) from a random point distribution, as was a pooled point distribution for these two vector species and An. nuneztovari. Thus, we conclude that the new risk map derived based on expert opinion provides an accurate spatial representation of risk of potential vector exposure rather than malaria transmission as shown by the pattern of malaria cases, and therefore it may be used to inform public health authorities as to where vector control measures should be prioritized to limit human-vector contact in future malaria outbreaks.

  8. Environmental Exposure to Manganese in Air: Associations with Tremor and Motor Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Manganese (Mn) inhalation has been associated with neuropsychological and neurological sequelae in exposed workers. Few environmental epidemiologic studies have examined the potentialy neurotoxic effects of Mn exposure in ambient air on motor function and han...

  9. Investigating the Influence of Environmental Factors on Pesticide Exposure in Amphibians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental factors such as temporal weather patterns and soil characterization coupled with pesticide application rates are known to influence exposure and subsequent absorption of these compounds in amphibians. Amphibians are a unique class of vertebrates due to their varied ...

  10. Environmental Exposure to Manganese in Air: Associations with Tremor and Motor Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Manganese (Mn) inhalation has been associated with neuropsychological and neurological sequelae in exposed workers. Few environmental epidemiologic studies have examined the potentialy neurotoxic effects of Mn exposure in ambient air on motor function and han...

  11. National Surveillance of Occupational Exposure to the Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura Ricketts

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available In September 1985, a prospective study was initiated to monitor the occurrence of occupational exposures to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected blood and body fluids in Canada. This program was coordinated by the Federal Centre for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS (now the Division of HIV/AIDS Epidemiology at the Laboratory Centre for Disease Control. The objective was to determine the risk to workers of acquiring HIV infection as a result of exposure to HIV-infected blood and other body fluids. To be eligible, a worker must have sustained a documented parenteral, mucous membrane or skin contact exposure to blood or body fluids from an HIV-infected person. A baseline specimen was collected within a week of the exposure and then at six weeks, 12 weeks, six months and 12 months. Information concerning the type of exposure, precautions used and post exposure treatment was submitted to the Federal Centre for AIDS on standard data collection forms. All information was anonymous, identified only by a code number. Guidelines for counselling an exposed employee were provided with enrollment material. As of July 29, 1991, 414 employees have been included in the study. Two hundred and thirty-seven of the 414 exposures (57% were needlestick injuries of which 167 (70% were sustained by nurses. Other exposures consisted of open wound contamination, eye splashes, scalpel wounds and skin contact with blood and body fluids. To date, there have been no seroconversions among workers enrolled in the surveillance program.

  12. Controlled human exposures to ambient pollutant particles in susceptible populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghio Andrew J

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Epidemiologic studies have established an association between exposures to air pollution particles and human mortality and morbidity at concentrations of particles currently found in major metropolitan areas. The adverse effects of pollution particles are most prominent in susceptible subjects, including the elderly and patients with cardiopulmonary diseases. Controlled human exposure studies have been used to confirm the causal relationship between pollution particle exposure and adverse health effects. Earlier studies enrolled mostly young healthy subjects and have largely confirmed the capability of particles to cause adverse health effects shown in epidemiological studies. In the last few years, more studies involving susceptible populations have been published. These recent studies in susceptible populations, however, have shown that the adverse responses to particles appear diminished in these susceptible subjects compared to those in healthy subjects. The present paper reviewed and compared control human exposure studies to particles and sought to explain the "unexpected" response to particle exposure in these susceptible populations and make recommendations for future studies. We found that the causes for the discrepant results are likely multifactorial. Factors such as medications, the disease itself, genetic susceptibility, subject selection bias that is intrinsic to many controlled exposure studies and nonspecificity of study endpoints may explain part of the results. Future controlled exposure studies should select endpoints that are more closely related to the pathogenesis of the disease and reflect the severity of particle-induced health effects in the specific populations under investigation. Future studies should also attempt to control for medications and genetic susceptibility. Using a different study design, such as exposing subjects to filtered air and ambient levels of particles, and assessing the improvement in

  13. Advancing environmental health surveillance in the US through a national human biomonitoring network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latshaw, Megan Weil; Degeberg, Ruhiyyih; Patel, Surili Sutaria; Rhodes, Blaine; King, Ewa; Chaudhuri, Sanwat; Nassif, Julianne

    2016-09-17

    The United States lacks a comprehensive, nationally-coordinated, state-based environmental health surveillance system. This lack of infrastructure leads to: • varying levels of understanding of chemical exposures at the state & local levels • often inefficient public health responses to chemical exposure emergencies (such as those that occurred in the Flint drinking water crisis, the Gold King mine spill, the Elk river spill and the Gulf Coast oil spill) • reduced ability to measure the impact of public health interventions or environmental policies • less efficient use of resources for cleaning up environmental contamination Establishing the National Biomonitoring Network serves as a step toward building a national, state-based environmental health surveillance system. The Network builds upon CDC investments in emergency preparedness and environmental public health tracking, which have created advanced chemical analysis and information sharing capabilities in the state public health systems. The short-term goal of the network is to harmonize approaches to human biomonitoring in the US, thus increasing the comparability of human biomonitoring data across states and communities. The long-term goal is to compile baseline data on exposures at the state level, similar to data found in CDC's National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals. Barriers to success for this network include: available resources, effective risk communication strategies, data comparability & sharing, and political will. Anticipated benefits include high quality data on which to base public health and environmental decisions, data with which to assess the success of public health interventions, improved risk assessments for chemicals, and new ways to prioritize environmental health research.

  14. Nonpathogenic, environmental fungi induce activation and degranulation of human eosinophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yoshinari; Matsuwaki, Yoshinori; Shin, Seung-Heon; Ponikau, Jens U; Kita, Hirohito

    2005-10-15

    Eosinophils and their products are probably important in the pathophysiology of allergic diseases, such as bronchial asthma, and in host immunity to certain organisms. An association between environmental fungal exposure and asthma has been long recognized clinically. Although products of microorganisms (e.g., lipopolysaccharides) directly activate certain inflammatory cells (e.g., macrophages), the mechanism(s) that triggers eosinophil degranulation is unknown. In this study we investigated whether human eosinophils have an innate immune response to certain fungal organisms. We incubated human eosinophils with extracts from seven environmental airborne fungi (Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus versicolor, Bipolaris sorokiniana, Candida albicans, Cladosporium herbarum, Curvularia spicifera, and Penicillium notatum). Alternaria and Penicillium induced calcium-dependent exocytosis (e.g., eosinophil-derived neurotoxin release) in eosinophils from normal individuals. Alternaria also strongly induced other activation events in eosinophils, including increases in intracellular calcium concentration, cell surface expression of CD63 and CD11b, and production of IL-8. Other fungi did not induce eosinophil degranulation, and Alternaria did not induce neutrophil activation, suggesting specificity for fungal species and cell type. The Alternaria-induced eosinophil degranulation was pertussis toxin sensitive and desensitized by preincubating cells with G protein-coupled receptor agonists, platelet-activating factor, or FMLP. The eosinophil-stimulating activity in Alternaria extract was highly heat labile and had an M(r) of approximately 60 kDa. Thus, eosinophils, but not neutrophils, possess G protein-dependent cellular activation machinery that directly responds to an Alternaria protein product(s). This innate response by eosinophils to certain environmental fungi may be important in host defense and in the exacerbation of inflammation in asthma and allergic diseases.

  15. Environmental Arsenic Exposure and Microbiota in Induced Sputum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison G. White

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic exposure from drinking water is associated with adverse respiratory outcomes, but it is unknown whether arsenic affects pulmonary microbiota. This exploratory study assessed the effect of exposure to arsenic in drinking water on bacterial diversity in the respiratory tract of non-smokers. Induced sputum was collected from 10 subjects with moderate mean household water arsenic concentration (21.1 ± 6.4 ppb and 10 subjects with low household water arsenic (2.4 ± 0.8 ppb. To assess microbiota in sputum, the V6 hypervariable region amplicons of bacterial 16s rRNA genes were sequenced using the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine. Microbial community differences between arsenic exposure groups were evaluated using QIIME and Metastats. A total of 3,920,441 sequence reads, ranging from 37,935 to 508,787 per sample for 316 chips after QIIME quality filtering, were taxonomically classified into 142 individual genera and five phyla. Firmicutes (22%, Proteobacteria (17% and Bacteriodetes (12% were the main phyla in all samples, with Neisseriaceae (15%, Prevotellaceae (12% and Veillonellacea (7% being most common at the genus level. Some genera, including Gemella, Lactobacillales, Streptococcus, Neisseria and Pasteurellaceae were elevated in the moderate arsenic exposure group, while Rothia, Prevotella, Prevotellaceae Fusobacterium and Neisseriaceae were decreased, although none of these differences was statistically significant. Future studies with more participants and a greater range of arsenic exposure are needed to further elucidate the effects of drinking water arsenic consumption on respiratory microbiota.

  16. Environmental exposure assessment in European birth cohorts: results from the ENRIECO project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehring, Ulrike; Casas, Maribel; Brunekreef, Bert; Bergström, Anna; Bonde, Jens Peter; Botton, Jérémie; Chévrier, Cecile; Cordier, Sylvaine; Heinrich, Joachim; Hohmann, Cynthia; Keil, Thomas; Sunyer, Jordi; Tischer, Christina G; Toft, Gunnar; Wickman, Magnus; Vrijheid, Martine; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark

    2013-01-23

    Environmental exposures during pregnancy and early life may have adverse health effects. Single birth cohort studies often lack statistical power to tease out such effects reliably. To improve the use of existing data and to facilitate collaboration among these studies, an inventory of the environmental exposure and health data in these studies was made as part of the ENRIECO (Environmental Health Risks in European Birth Cohorts) project. The focus with regard to exposure was on outdoor air pollution, water contamination, allergens and biological organisms, metals, pesticides, smoking and second hand tobacco smoke (SHS), persistent organic pollutants (POPs), noise, radiation, and occupational exposures. The review lists methods and data on environmental exposures in 37 European birth cohort studies. Most data is currently available for smoking and SHS (N=37 cohorts), occupational exposures (N=33), outdoor air pollution, and allergens and microbial agents (N=27). Exposure modeling is increasingly used for long-term air pollution exposure assessment; biomonitoring is used for assessment of exposure to metals, POPs and other chemicals; and environmental monitoring for house dust mite exposure assessment. Collaborative analyses with data from several birth cohorts have already been performed successfully for outdoor air pollution, water contamination, allergens, biological contaminants, molds, POPs and SHS. Key success factors for collaborative analyses are common definitions of main exposure and health variables. Our review emphasizes that such common definitions need ideally be arrived at in the study design phase. However, careful comparison of methods used in existing studies also offers excellent opportunities for collaborative analyses. Investigators can use this review to evaluate the potential for future collaborative analyses with respect to data availability and methods used in the different cohorts and to identify potential partners for a specific research

  17. Environmental exposure assessment in European birth cohorts: results from the ENRIECO project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gehring Ulrike

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Environmental exposures during pregnancy and early life may have adverse health effects. Single birth cohort studies often lack statistical power to tease out such effects reliably. To improve the use of existing data and to facilitate collaboration among these studies, an inventory of the environmental exposure and health data in these studies was made as part of the ENRIECO (Environmental Health Risks in European Birth Cohorts project. The focus with regard to exposure was on outdoor air pollution, water contamination, allergens and biological organisms, metals, pesticides, smoking and second hand tobacco smoke (SHS, persistent organic pollutants (POPs, noise, radiation, and occupational exposures. The review lists methods and data on environmental exposures in 37 European birth cohort studies. Most data is currently available for smoking and SHS (N=37 cohorts, occupational exposures (N=33, outdoor air pollution, and allergens and microbial agents (N=27. Exposure modeling is increasingly used for long-term air pollution exposure assessment; biomonitoring is used for assessment of exposure to metals, POPs and other chemicals; and environmental monitoring for house dust mite exposure assessment. Collaborative analyses with data from several birth cohorts have already been performed successfully for outdoor air pollution, water contamination, allergens, biological contaminants, molds, POPs and SHS. Key success factors for collaborative analyses are common definitions of main exposure and health variables. Our review emphasizes that such common definitions need ideally be arrived at in the study design phase. However, careful comparison of methods used in existing studies also offers excellent opportunities for collaborative analyses. Investigators can use this review to evaluate the potential for future collaborative analyses with respect to data availability and methods used in the different cohorts and to identify potential partners

  18. The research of human exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers and perfluoroocatane sulfonate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG YaWei; JIANG GuiBin

    2008-01-01

    As two kinds of emerging chemicals, the pollution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and perfluoroocatane sulfonate (PFOS) has been becoming a global environmental problem. Also, research of the transport, transfer, bioaccumulation in organism, and toxicology of these two kinds of pollutant is a hotspot in environmental sciences now. In this paper, we summarize and critically review the status and progress of PBDEs and PFOS exposure to human beings. Further, data analyses based on statistical methods are done to study the characters of PBDEs and PCBs concentrations in different regions in the world.

  19. Quantifying Exposure and Risk Disproportionality in Environmental Justice Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disproportionate risk suggests a predisposition within an individual or population to be either differentially exposed or affected by a given stressor or combination of stressors, which are especially prevalent in Environmental Justice (EJ) communities. Research gaps remain in ac...

  20. Approaches to handling uncertainty when setting environmental exposure standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben; Keiding, Niels; Grandjean, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    . Theoretical chapters, providing background information on specific steps in the modelling process and in the adoption of models by end-users, are complemented by illustrative case studies dealing with soils and global climate change. All the chapters are authored by recognized experts in their respective...... disciplines, and provide a timely and uniquely comprehensive coverage of an important field. Written for: Environmental scientists, global climate change experts, environmental policy makers, environmental activists......Mathematical modelling has become in recent years an essential tool for the prediction of environmental change and for the development of sustainable policies. Yet, many of the uncertainties associated with modelling efforts appear poorly understood by many, especially by policy makers. This book...

  1. Dietary and Environmental Exposure to Cadmium and the Risk of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    We estimated potential environmental exposure to Cd at the participants’ geocoded residences in 2000 using a geographic information system ( GIS ) and...Total = 6,970 Keywords: cadmium, biomarkers, diet, exposure science, GIS Abbreviations: AADT = annual average daily traffic Cd = cadmium CTS...California Teachers Study FFQ = food frequency questionnaire GIS = geographic information system GM = geometric mean LOD = limit of detection R2

  2. Transgenerational actions of environmental compounds on reproductive disease and identification of epigenetic biomarkers of ancestral exposures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Manikkam

    Full Text Available Environmental factors during fetal development can induce a permanent epigenetic change in the germ line (sperm that then transmits epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult-onset disease in the absence of any subsequent exposure. The epigenetic transgenerational actions of various environmental compounds and relevant mixtures were investigated with the use of a pesticide mixture (permethrin and insect repellant DEET, a plastic mixture (bisphenol A and phthalates, dioxin (TCDD and a hydrocarbon mixture (jet fuel, JP8. After transient exposure of F0 gestating female rats during the period of embryonic gonadal sex determination, the subsequent F1-F3 generations were obtained in the absence of any environmental exposure. The effects on the F1, F2 and F3 generations pubertal onset and gonadal function were assessed. The plastics, dioxin and jet fuel were found to promote early-onset female puberty transgenerationally (F3 generation. Spermatogenic cell apoptosis was affected transgenerationally. Ovarian primordial follicle pool size was significantly decreased with all treatments transgenerationally. Differential DNA methylation of the F3 generation sperm promoter epigenome was examined. Differential DNA methylation regions (DMR were identified in the sperm of all exposure lineage males and found to be consistent within a specific exposure lineage, but different between the exposures. Several genomic features of the DMR, such as low density CpG content, were identified. Exposure-specific epigenetic biomarkers were identified that may allow for the assessment of ancestral environmental exposures associated with adult onset disease.

  3. Environmental Fate and Exposure Assessment for Arsenic in Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    groundwater. Geology 32 (11):953-956. Lackovic, J. A., N. P. Nikolaidis, and G. M. Dobbs. 2000. Inorganic arsenic removal by zero- valent iron...from Bangladesh tube well water with filter columns containing zerovalent iron filings and sand. Environmental Science & Technology 39 (20):8032...aquifer sands from Araihazar, Bangladesh . Environmental Science & Technology 41 (10):3639-3645. Reisinger, H. J., D. R. Burris, and J. G. Hering. 2005

  4. Linking exposure to environmental pollutants with biological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Mette; Autrup, Herman; Møller, Peter; Hertel, Ole; Jensen, Steen Solvang; Vinzents, Peter; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Loft, Steffen

    2003-11-01

    Exposure to ambient air pollution has been associated with cancer. Ambient air contains a complex mixture of toxics, including particulate matter (PM) and benzene. Carcinogenic effects of PM may relate both to the content of PAH and to oxidative DNA damage generated by transition metals, benzene, metabolism and inflammation. By means of personal monitoring and biomarkers of internal dose, biologically effective dose and susceptibility, it should be possible to characterize individual exposure and identify air pollution sources with relevant biological effects. In a series of studies, individual exposure to PM(2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) and benzene has been measured in groups of 40-50 subjects. Measured biomarkers included 1-hydroxypyrene, benzene metabolites (phenylmercapturic acid (PMA) and trans-trans-muconic acid (ttMA)), 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) in urine, DNA strand breaks, base oxidation, 8-oxodG and PAH bulky adducts in lymphocytes, markers of oxidative stress in plasma and genotypes of glutathione transferases (GSTs) and NADPH:quinone reductase (NQO1). With respect to benzene, the main result indicates that DNA base oxidation is correlated with PMA excretion. With respect to exposure to PM, biomarkers of oxidative damage showed significant positive association with the individual exposure. Thus, 8-oxodG in lymphocyte DNA and markers of oxidative damage to lipids and protein in plasma associated with PM(2.5) exposure. Several types of DNA damage showed seasonal variation. PAH adduct levels, DNA strand breaks and 8-oxodG in lymphocytes increased significantly in the summer period, requiring control of confounders. Similar seasonal effects on strand breaks and expression of the relevant DNA repair genes ERCC1 and OGG1 have been reported. In the present setting, biological effects of air pollutants appear mainly related to oxidative stress via personal exposure and not to urban background levels. Future developments include personal time

  5. Environmental exposure to mineral fibers in New Caledonia: an ecological study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, F.; Ambrosi, J.

    2013-05-01

    Inhalation of asbestos and other fibrous minerals causes lung cancer and other malignancies, specifically malignant mesothelioma (MM). MM is an aggressive pleural tumor that presents with a median latency period of 30-40 years from initial fiber exposure. Due to occupational exposure, MM incidence is 4-8 times higher in men as compared to women. In New Caledonia (NC), very high incidences of MM and lung cancer were observed in both men and women, suggesting an environmental origin of exposure. Although nickel mining and the traditional use of tremolite-containing whitewash were suspected causes of MM, numerous MM cases have been observed in areas lacking these risk factors. We carried out an ecological study of MM incidence in NC and identified a study area that included those counties having the highest MM incidences as well as counties lacking MM. We conducted epidemiological and environmental investigations for each of the 100 tribes living within this area. Residential history was assessed for each MM case, and samples of each quarry, road, and whitewash were analyzed to determine the nature of any mineral fibers. We analyzed the environmental determinants of MM, including geology, mineralogy, plant cover, land shape and human activities as well as use of whitewash, by using two univariate and multivariate statistical methods: 1) a logistic regression to compare tribes with and without MM cases and calculate the odds ratios, (OR) 2) the Poisson regression to calculate incidence rate ratios (IRR) for each factor. While most MM cases among Caucasians were observed in men with a mean age of 72, indicating occupational exposure, Melanesians exhibited elevated MM incidence in both men and women at a mean age of 60. A sex ratio close to 1 compounded with the relatively young ages of MM cases confirmed environmental causation within the Melanesian population. We found one significant and two secondary spatial clusters of MM in tribal areas. No temporal cluster was

  6. Integrating population dynamics into mapping human exposure to seismic hazard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Freire

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Disaster risk is not fully characterized without taking into account vulnerability and population exposure. Assessment of earthquake risk in urban areas would benefit from considering the variation of population distribution at more detailed spatial and temporal scales, and from a more explicit integration of this improved demographic data with existing seismic hazard maps. In the present work, "intelligent" dasymetric mapping is used to model population dynamics at high spatial resolution in order to benefit the analysis of spatio-temporal exposure to earthquake hazard in a metropolitan area. These night- and daytime-specific population densities are then classified and combined with seismic intensity levels to derive new spatially-explicit four-class-composite maps of human exposure. The presented approach enables a more thorough assessment of population exposure to earthquake hazard. Results show that there are significantly more people potentially at risk in the daytime period, demonstrating the shifting nature of population exposure in the daily cycle and the need to move beyond conventional residence-based demographic data sources to improve risk analyses. The proposed fine-scale maps of human exposure to seismic intensity are mainly aimed at benefiting visualization and communication of earthquake risk, but can be valuable in all phases of the disaster management process where knowledge of population densities is relevant for decision-making.

  7. Environmental car exhaust pollution damages human sperm chromatin and DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calogero, A E; La Vignera, S; Condorelli, R A; Perdichizzi, A; Valenti, D; Asero, P; Carbone, U; Boggia, B; De Rosa, N; Lombardi, G; D'Agata, R; Vicari, L O; Vicari, E; De Rosa, M

    2011-06-01

    The adverse role of traffic pollutants on male fertility is well known. Aim of this study was to evaluate their effects on sperm chromatin/DNA integrity. To accomplish this, 36 men working at motorway tollgates and 32 unexposed healthy men (controls) were enrolled. All of them were interviewed about their lifestyle. Hormone, semen samples, and environmental and biological markers of pollution were evaluated. Sperm chromatin and DNA integrity were evaluated by flow cytometry following propidium iodide staining and TUNEL assay, respectively. LH, FSH, and testosterone serum levels were within the normal range in tollgate workers. Sperm concentration, total sperm count, total and progressive motility, and normal forms were significantly lower in these men compared with controls. Motorway tollgate workers had a significantly higher percentage of spermatozoa with damaged chromatin and DNA fragmentation, a late sign of apoptosis, compared with controls. A significant direct correlation was found between spermatozoa with damaged chromatin or fragmented DNA and the length of occupational exposure, suggesting a time-dependent relationship. This study showed that car exhaust exposure has a genotoxic effect on human spermatozoa. This may be of relevant importance not only for the reproductive performance of the men exposed, but also for the offspring health.

  8. Children’s Exposure to Environmental Contaminants: An Editorial Reflection of Articles in the IJERPH Special Issue Entitled, “Children’s Exposure to Environmental Contaminants”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alesia Ferguson

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Children are at increased vulnerability to many environmental contaminants compared to adults due to their unique behavior patterns, increased contaminant intake per body weight, and developing biological systems. Depending upon their age, young children may crawl on the floor and may practice increased hand to mouth activity that may increase their dose-intake of specific contaminants that accumulate in dust and other matrices. Children are also smaller in size than adults, resulting in a greater body burden for a given contaminant dose. Because children undergo rapid transitions through particular developmental stages they are also especially vulnerable during certain growth-related time windows. A Special Issue was organized focused on the latest findings in the field of children’s environmental exposure for these reasons. This editorial introduces articles in this Special Issue and emphasizes their main findings in advancing the field. From the many articles submitted to this Special Issue from around the world, 23 were accepted and published. They focus on a variety of research areas such as children’s activity patterns, improved risk assessment methods to estimate exposures, and exposures in various contexts and to various contaminants. The future health of a nation relies on protecting the children from adverse exposures and understanding the etiology of childhood diseases. The field of children’s environmental exposures must consider improved and comprehensive research methods aimed at introducing mitigation strategies locally, nationally, and globally. We are happy to introduce a Special Issue focused on children’s environmental exposure and children’s health and hope that it contributes towards improved health of children.

  9. Children's Exposure to Environmental Contaminants: An Editorial Reflection of Articles in the IJERPH Special Issue Entitled, "Children's Exposure to Environmental Contaminants".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Alesia; Solo-Gabriele, Helena

    2016-11-09

    Children are at increased vulnerability to many environmental contaminants compared to adults due to their unique behavior patterns, increased contaminant intake per body weight, and developing biological systems. Depending upon their age, young children may crawl on the floor and may practice increased hand to mouth activity that may increase their dose-intake of specific contaminants that accumulate in dust and other matrices. Children are also smaller in size than adults, resulting in a greater body burden for a given contaminant dose. Because children undergo rapid transitions through particular developmental stages they are also especially vulnerable during certain growth-related time windows. A Special Issue was organized focused on the latest findings in the field of children's environmental exposure for these reasons. This editorial introduces articles in this Special Issue and emphasizes their main findings in advancing the field. From the many articles submitted to this Special Issue from around the world, 23 were accepted and published. They focus on a variety of research areas such as children's activity patterns, improved risk assessment methods to estimate exposures, and exposures in various contexts and to various contaminants. The future health of a nation relies on protecting the children from adverse exposures and understanding the etiology of childhood diseases. The field of children's environmental exposures must consider improved and comprehensive research methods aimed at introducing mitigation strategies locally, nationally, and globally. We are happy to introduce a Special Issue focused on children's environmental exposure and children's health and hope that it contributes towards improved health of children.

  10. Exposure and Human Health Reassessment of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-P-Dioxin (Tcdd) and Related Compounds: Science Advisory Board (External Review Draft) (2000)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dioxin Reassessment, SAB Review Draft The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) is progressing toward completion of its comprehensive reassessment of dioxin science entitled, "Exposure and Human Health Reassessment of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibe...

  11. Exposure and Human Health Reassessment of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-P-Dioxin (Tcdd) and Related Compounds: Science Advisory Board (External Review Draft) (2000)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dioxin Reassessment, SAB Review Draft The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) is progressing toward completion of its comprehensive reassessment of dioxin science entitled, "Exposure and Human Health Reassessment of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibe...

  12. Exposure to multiple environmental agents and their effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppe, Janna G.; Bartonova, Alena; Bolte, Gabriele; Bistrup, Marie Louise; Busby, Chris; Butter, Maureen; Dorfman, Paul; Fucic, Aleksandra; Gee, David; van den Hazel, Peter; Howard, Vyvyan; Kohlhuber, Martina; Leijs, Marike; Lundqvist, Christofer; Moshammer, Hanns; Naginiene, Rima; Nicolopoulou-Stamati, Polyxeni; Ronchetti, Roberto; Salines, Georges; Schoeters, Greet; ten Tusscher, Gavin; Wallis, Max K.; Zuurbier, Moniek

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: All children are exposed to multiple physical, chemical and biological challanges that can result in adverse health effects before and after birth. In this context, the danger of multiple exposures cannot be assessed from a single-chemical approach as used in classical toxicology. Aim:

  13. Role of Metabolomics in Environmental Chemical Exposure and Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    The increasing demand for the reduction, replacement, and refinement of the use of animal models in exposure assessments has stimulated the pursuit of alternative methods. This has included not only the use of the in vitro systems (e.g., cell cultures) in lieu of in vivo whole an...

  14. Human disease resulting from exposure to electromagnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, David O

    2013-01-01

    Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) include everything from cosmic rays through visible light to the electric and magnetic fields associated with electricity. While the high frequency fields have sufficient energy to cause cancer, the question of whether there are human health hazards associated with communication radiofrequency (RF) EMFs and those associated with use of electricity remains controversial. The issue is more important than ever given the rapid increase in the use of cell phones and other wireless devices. This review summarizes the evidence stating that excessive exposure to magnetic fields from power lines and other sources of electric current increases the risk of development of some cancers and neurodegenerative diseases, and that excessive exposure to RF radiation increases risk of cancer, male infertility, and neurobehavioral abnormalities. The relative impact of various sources of exposure, the great range of standards for EMF exposure, and the costs of doing nothing are also discussed.

  15. Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants: environmental contamination, human body burden and potential adverse health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Lucio G; Giordano, Gennaro; Tagliaferri, Sara; Caglieri, Andrea; Mutti, Antonio

    2008-12-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are an important class of flame retardants, widely used in a variety of consumer products. In the past several years, PBDEs have become widespread environmental pollutants, and have been detected in water, soil, air, animals and human tissues. Exposure occurs in particular through the diet and the indoor environment. Infants and toddlers have the highest body burden, due to exposure via maternal milk and through house dust. Tetra-, penta- and hexa-BDEs are the congeners most commonly found in humans. Recent concerns on possible adverse health effects of PBDEs are focusing on their potential endocrine disrupting effects and on developmental neurotoxicity.

  16. Human reproductive system disturbances and pesticide exposure in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koifman Sergio

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The observation of reproductive disturbances in humans and in the wildlife has been reported in the last decade in different countries. Exposure to different chemicals possibly acting in the endocrine system or endocrine disruptors, including pesticides, has been a hypothesis raised to explain the observed changes. This paper aimed to present results of an epidemiological ecologic study carried out to explore population data on pesticides exposure in selected Brazilian states in the eighties and human reproductive outcomes in the nineties. Pearson correlation coefficients were ascertained between available data pesticides sales in eleven states in Brazil in 1985 and selected further reproductive outcomes or their surrogates. Moderate to high correlations were observed to infertility, testis, breast, prostate and ovarian cancer mortality. Despite the restrains of ecologic studies to establish cause-effect relationships, the observed results are in agreement with evidence supporting a possible association between pesticides exposure and the analyzed reproductive outcomes.

  17. Assessing Sources of Human Methylmercury Exposure Using Stable Mercury Isotopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Miling; Sherman, Laura S; Blum, Joel D

    2014-01-01

    Seafood consumption is the primary route of methylmercury (MeHg) exposure for most populations. Inherent uncertainties in dietary survey data point to the need for an empirical tool to confirm exposure sources. We therefore explore the utility of Hg stable isotope ratios in human hair as a new...... method for discerning MeHg exposure sources. We characterized Hg isotope fractionation between humans and their diets using hair samples from Faroese whalers exposed to MeHg predominantly from pilot whales. We observed an increase of 1.75‰ in δ(202)Hg values between pilot whale muscle tissue and Faroese...... whalers' hair but no mass-independent fractionation. We found a similar offset in δ(202)Hg between consumed seafood and hair samples from Gulf of Mexico recreational anglers who are exposed to lower levels of MeHg from a variety of seafood sources. An isotope mixing model was used to estimate individual...

  18. Environmental exposure reduction in high-risk newborns: where do we start?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schönberger, H.J.A.M.; Maas, T.; Dompeling, E.C.; Pisters, J.; Sijbrandij, J.; Heide, S. van der; Knottnerus, J.A.; Weel, C. van; Schayck, C.P. van

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: When analyzing the effect of environmental exposure reduction measures on asthma in high-risk children, one must know how far asthmatic families already have applied such measures, because this would affect the effectiveness and efficiency of interventions aimed at reducing environmental

  19. Environmental exposure reduction in high-risk newborns : where do we start?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schonberger, HJAM; Maas, T; Dompeling, E; Pisters, J; Sijbrandij, J; van der Heide, S; van Weel, C; van Schayck, OP

    2003-01-01

    Background: When analyzing the effect of environmental exposure reduction measures on asthma in high-risk children, one must know how far asthmatic families already have applied such measures, because this would affect the effectiveness and efficiency of interventions aimed at reducing environmental

  20. Are Healthcare Providers Asking about Environmental Exposures? A Community-Based Mixed Methods Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina M. Zierold

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available People living near environmental hazards may develop symptoms and health conditions that require specialized monitoring and treatment by healthcare providers. One emerging environmental hazard is coal ash. Coal ash is comprised of small particles containing heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and radioactive elements. The overall purpose of this study was to explore whether healthcare providers ask patients if they live near an environmental hazard like coal ash storage sites and to assess what health conditions prompt a provider inquiry. Focus groups were conducted in 2012 and a cross-sectional survey was administered in 2013. Overall, 61% of survey respondents reported that their healthcare providers never asked if they lived near an environmental hazard. One focus group member stated “No, they don’t ask that. They just always blame stuff on you….” Respondents with asthma and other lung conditions were significantly more likely to be asked by a healthcare provider if they lived near an environmental hazard. Due to the unique exposures from environmental hazards and the low prevalence of patients being asked about environmental hazards, we recommend that healthcare providers take environmental health histories in order to understand patients’ exposures, to monitor symptoms of exposure, and to assist with education about reducing exposure.

  1. Environmental exposure reduction in high-risk newborns : where do we start?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schonberger, HJAM; Maas, T; Dompeling, E; Pisters, J; Sijbrandij, J; van der Heide, S; van Weel, C; van Schayck, OP

    2003-01-01

    Background: When analyzing the effect of environmental exposure reduction measures on asthma in high-risk children, one must know how far asthmatic families already have applied such measures, because this would affect the effectiveness and efficiency of interventions aimed at reducing environmental

  2. Environmental exposure reduction in high-risk newborns: where do we start?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schönberger, H.J.A.M.; Maas, T.; Dompeling, E.C.; Pisters, J.; Sijbrandij, J.; Heide, S. van der; Knottnerus, J.A.; Weel, C. van; Schayck, C.P. van

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: When analyzing the effect of environmental exposure reduction measures on asthma in high-risk children, one must know how far asthmatic families already have applied such measures, because this would affect the effectiveness and efficiency of interventions aimed at reducing environmental

  3. Acrolein and Human Disease: Untangling the Knotty Exposure Scenarios Accompanying Several Diverse Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burcham, Philip C

    2017-01-17

    Acrolein is a highly toxic electrophile that participates in many diseases, yet efforts to delineate its precise mechanistic contributions to specific conditions are complicated by its wide distribution within human environments. This Perspective develops the proposal that due to its mixed status as environmental pollutant, metabolic byproduct, and endotoxicant which forms via ubiquitous pathophysiological processes, many diseases likely involve acrolein released from multiple sources. Although the category boundaries are indistinct, at least four identifiable exposure scenarios are identifiable. First, in some syndromes, such as those accompanying chronic or acute intoxication with smoke, whatever role acrolein plays in disease pathogenesis mainly traces to exogenous sources such as the combustion of tobacco or other organic matter. A second exposure category involves xenobiotics that undergo metabolism within the body to release acrolein. Still other health conditions, however, involve acrolein that forms via several endogenous pathways, some of which are activated upon intoxication with xenobiotics (i.e., Exposure Category 3), while still others accompany direct physical trauma to body tissues (Exposure Category 4). Further complicating efforts to clarify the role of endogenous acrolein in human disease is the likelihood that many such syndromes are complex phenomena that resemble "chemical mixture exposures" by involving multiple toxic substances simultaneously. This Perspective contends that while recent decades have witnessed much progress in describing the deleterious effects of acrolein at the cellular and molecular levels, more work is needed to define the contributions of different acrolein sources to "real-world" health conditions in human subjects.

  4. Traditional goat husbandry may substantially contribute to human toxoplasmosis exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raising goats in settings that are highly contaminated with oocysts of Toxoplasma gondii may contribute significantly to human exposure to this zoonotic parasite. Increasing consumption of young goats in Romania, where goats are typically reared in backyards that are also home to cats (the definitiv...

  5. Biocides Steering Group on human exposure assessment: A preliminary report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmen, J.J. van

    1999-01-01

    In a project granted by DG XI of the European Commission, it is attempted to collate experimental and theoretical data on human (workers and consumers) exposure assessment to biocidal products, and to outline the methodology for sampling and measurement. On the basis of the available evidence, appro

  6. Urban and transport planning, environmental exposures and health-new concepts, methods and tools to improve health in cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

    2016-03-08

    The majority of people live in cities and urbanization is continuing worldwide. Cities have long been known to be society's predominant engine of innovation and wealth creation, yet they are also a main source of pollution and disease. We conducted a review around the topic urban and transport planning, environmental exposures and health and describe the findings. Within cities there is considerable variation in the levels of environmental exposures such as air pollution, noise, temperature and green space. Emerging evidence suggests that urban and transport planning indicators such as road network, distance to major roads, and traffic density, household density, industry and natural and green space explain a large proportion of the variability. Personal behavior including mobility adds further variability to personal exposures, determines variability in green space and UV exposure, and can provide increased levels of physical activity. Air pollution, noise and temperature have been associated with adverse health effects including increased morbidity and premature mortality, UV and green space with both positive and negative health effects and physical activity with many health benefits. In many cities there is still scope for further improvement in environmental quality through targeted policies. Making cities 'green and healthy' goes far beyond simply reducing CO2 emissions. Environmental factors are highly modifiable, and environmental interventions at the community level, such as urban and transport planning, have been shown to be promising and more cost effective than interventions at the individual level. However, the urban environment is a complex interlinked system. Decision-makers need not only better data on the complexity of factors in environmental and developmental processes affecting human health, but also enhanced understanding of the linkages to be able to know at which level to target their actions. New research tools, methods and paradigms such as

  7. Adverse respiratory symptoms and environmental exposures among children and adolescents following Hurricane Katrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, Barbara; Young, Elizabeth A; Harris, Amy; Perrin, Keith; Bronfin, Daniel R; Ratard, Raoult; Vandyke, Russell; Goldshore, Matthew; Magnus, Manya

    2011-01-01

    Children and adolescents are especially vulnerable to environmental exposures and their respiratory effects. Following Hurricane Katrina in 2005, residents experienced multiple adverse environmental exposures. We characterized the association between upper respiratory symptoms (URS) and lower respiratory symptoms (LRS) and environmental exposures among children and adolescents affected by Hurricane Katrina. We conducted a cross-sectional study following the return of the population to New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina (October 2005 and February 2006) among a convenience sample of children and adolescents attending New Orleans health facilities. We used uni-, bi-, and multivariable analyses to describe participants, exposures, and associations with URS/LRS. Of 1,243 participants, 47% were Caucasian, 50% were male, and 72% were younger than 11 years of age. Multiple environmental exposures were identified during and after the storm and at current residences: roof/glass/storm damage (50%), outside mold (22%), dust (18%), and flood damage (15%). Self-reported URS and LRS (76% and 36%, respectively) were higher after the hurricane than before the hurricane (22% and 9%, respectively, pHurricane Katrina experienced environmental exposures associated with increased prevalence of reported URS and LRS. Additional research is needed to investigate the long-term health impacts of Hurricane Katrina.

  8. Schopenhauer’s Mitleid, Environmental Outrage and Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Kerns

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Suffering which results from environmental exposures often evokes a sense of moral outrage. In this paper, two complementary sources of grounding for that outrage are explored: Arthur Schopenhauer's close analysis of compassion, grounded in the metaphysical identity of all being, provides explanatory grounding for moral outrage as well as for the long-recognized importance of personal narratives in human rights work. Secondly, the broadly endorsed human rights tradition provides an additional confirmatory, more public, level of validation for moral outrage. Human rights norms confirm what the experience of compassion first intuited. Three practical implications for environmental activism follow: 1 the importance of personal narratives detailing the direct impacts that environmental assaults have caused; 2 the practical value of formal, detailed human rights impact assessments specified to a given situation; and 3 the value of community-led public inquiries, such as the 2006 People's Inquiry in New Zealand (Goven et al. 2007 and the 2011 Permanent People's Tribunal (2011 in India. El sufrimiento que resulta de la exposición ambiental a menudo evoca un sentimiento de indignación moral. En este trabajo se analizan dos fuentes complementarias de nociones para la indignación: un análisis detallado de Arthur Schopenhauer sobre la compasión, basada en la identidad metafísica de todo ser, que ofrece nociones explicativas para la indignación moral, así como para la reconocida importancia de las narrativas personales en el trabajo de los derechos humanos. En segundo lugar, la ampliamente respaldada tradición de los derechos humanos proporciona una confirmación adicional y más pública del nivel de validación de indignación moral. Las normas de derechos humanos confirman lo que la experiencia de la compasión intuyó primero. A continuación, se incluyen tres implicaciones prácticas para el activismo medioambiental: 1 la importancia de las

  9. Linking exposure to environmental pollutants with biological effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette; Autrup, Herman; Møller, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Exposure to ambient air pollution has been associated with cancer. Ambient air contains a complex mixture of toxics, including particulate matter (PM) and benzene. Carcinogenic effects of PM may relate both to the content of PAH and to oxidative DNA damage generated by transition metals, benzene......, metabolism and inflammation. By means of personal monitoring and biomarkers of internal dose, biologically effective dose and susceptibility, it should be possible to characterize individual exposure and identify air pollution sources with relevant biological effects. In a series of studies, individual...... breaks, base oxidation, 8-oxodG and PAH bulky adducts in lymphocytes, markers of oxidative stress in plasma and genotypes of glutathione transferases (GSTs) and NADPH:quinone reductase (NQO1). With respect to benzene, the main result indicates that DNA base oxidation is correlated with PMA excretion...

  10. Assessment of human exposure effects of nitrous acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, T.R.; Kjaergaard, S.K. (University of Aarhus. Institute of Environmental and Occupational Medicine (Denmark)); Brauer, M. (Harvard School of Public Health. Department of Environmental Health, Exposure Assessment and Engineering Program (United States))

    1993-01-01

    The study aimed at an estimation of the relative contribution of nitrous acid to measurable human exposure effects in relation to indoor environments with unvented gas combustion. Fifteen medically examined totally healthy non-smoker adults aged between 22 and 57 years were exposed in a double-blind, balanced design (3x3 latin square) to clean air and nitrous acid (HONO) concentration in an empty 74 m[sup 3] climate chamber. 3 teams of 5 subjects each were randomly exposed and the latin square was selected at random. Each exposure period was 3.5 hours and preceded by a 1 hour base-line pre-exposure measurement period. After 1 hr 40 minutes the subjects exercised for ten minutes on bicycle ergometers in order to increase the uptake of HONO by increasing ventilatory rate 3-4 fold. Workloads were calculated individually and ranged from 21800-34600 kpm/h. During the 10 minutes the test subjects were mouth-breathing to encourage deeper penetration of nitrous acid in the respiratory system so as to induce a mild cooling which would increase their responsiveness to irritants. The amount of deliverable H[sup +] was estimated at 16.350 nmoles with exposure to 395 ppb HONO with subjects breathing at the rate of 5 L min[sup -1]. It was assumed that HONO is efficiently absorbed into the respiratory system. Details are given of the results. Findings were highly variable, largely negative effects of exposure to nitrous acid which appear similiar to results seen in nitrogen dioxide exposure studies. It is concluded to be unlikely that HONO exposures alone can be responsible for exposure misclassification in NO[sub 2] exposure studies. (AB) (52 refs.).

  11. Assessment of human exposure effects of nitrous acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, T.R.; Kjaergaard, S.K. [University of Aarhus. Institute of Environmental and Occupational Medicine (Denmark); Brauer, M. [Harvard School of Public Health. Department of Environmental Health, Exposure Assessment and Engineering Program (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The study aimed at an estimation of the relative contribution of nitrous acid to measurable human exposure effects in relation to indoor environments with unvented gas combustion. Fifteen medically examined totally healthy non-smoker adults aged between 22 and 57 years were exposed in a double-blind, balanced design (3x3 latin square) to clean air and nitrous acid (HONO) concentration in an empty 74 m{sup 3} climate chamber. 3 teams of 5 subjects each were randomly exposed and the latin square was selected at random. Each exposure period was 3.5 hours and preceded by a 1 hour base-line pre-exposure measurement period. After 1 hr 40 minutes the subjects exercised for ten minutes on bicycle ergometers in order to increase the uptake of HONO by increasing ventilatory rate 3-4 fold. Workloads were calculated individually and ranged from 21800-34600 kpm/h. During the 10 minutes the test subjects were mouth-breathing to encourage deeper penetration of nitrous acid in the respiratory system so as to induce a mild cooling which would increase their responsiveness to irritants. The amount of deliverable H{sup +} was estimated at 16.350 nmoles with exposure to 395 ppb HONO with subjects breathing at the rate of 5 L min{sup -1}. It was assumed that HONO is efficiently absorbed into the respiratory system. Details are given of the results. Findings were highly variable, largely negative effects of exposure to nitrous acid which appear similiar to results seen in nitrogen dioxide exposure studies. It is concluded to be unlikely that HONO exposures alone can be responsible for exposure misclassification in NO{sub 2} exposure studies. (AB) (52 refs.).

  12. Medicine students and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Szumska

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Although medicine students express positive attitudes toward providing lifestyle counseling, they require more instruction in many areas of health behavior in order to be helpful to their patients. The presented study included the students' questionnaires analysis regarding their lifestyle and exposure to tobacco smoke. The aim of this study was to examine students' exposure to chosen xenobiotics by determination of selected biomarkers in urine samples, which underlay the basis for exposure assessment towards tobacco smoke. Materials and Methods: The investigated group consisted of first- and second-year medicine students from the Silesian Medical University (N = 133. Data obtained from a questionnaire survey was compared with the results of chosen biomarkers determined in urine samples. The analyses of the main nicotine metabolites were carried out firstly with use of ELISA, followed by the TLC technique with densitometry. Results: According to questionnaires, every third student examined was exposed to passive smoking. The mean concentration of the main nicotine metabolites determined by ELISA in urine samples of smoking students was 1293.52±396.70 μg/g creatinine. The results of the TLC analysis in the group of smoking students were as follows: for cotinine - 523.10±68.10 μg/g creatinine and for trans-3'-hydroxycotinine - 653.81±62.30 μg/g creatinine. Conclusions: Medicine students, regardless of their area of study, are a highly-exposed part of the population to tobacco smoke, not only actively but also passively. Tobacco smoke exposure can be assessed by ELISA as a screening method as well as by more specific TLC technique with densitometry.

  13. Assessing and evaluating the health impact of environmental exposures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollander, Augustinus Ernst Maria de

    2004-01-01

    Never in our Western-European history we have been as healthy as we are now. Until the 20th century the (physical) environment was the source of 70-80 percent of disease burden, nowadays, environmental factors probably contribute less than 5%, while life-style is responsible for the bulk of the

  14. Assessing and evaluating the health impact of environmental exposures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollander, Augustinus Ernst Maria de

    2004-01-01

    Never in our Western-European history we have been as healthy as we are now. Until the 20th century the (physical) environment was the source of 70-80 percent of disease burden, nowadays, environmental factors probably contribute less than 5%, while life-style is responsible for the bulk of the curr

  15. Assessing and evaluating the health impact of environmental exposures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollander, Augustinus Ernst Maria de

    2004-01-01

    Never in our Western-European history we have been as healthy as we are now. Until the 20th century the (physical) environment was the source of 70-80 percent of disease burden, nowadays, environmental factors probably contribute less than 5%, while life-style is responsible for the bulk of the curr

  16. Developmental effects of exposures to environmental factors: the Polish Mother and Child Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanska, Kinga; Hanke, Wojciech; Sobala, Wojciech; Trzcinka-Ochocka, Malgorzata; Ligocka, Danuta; Brzeznicki, Slawomir; Strugala-Stawik, Halina; Magnus, Per

    2013-01-01

    This paper estimates the effects of exposure to environmental factors, including lead, mercury, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), on child psychomotor development. The study population consists of mother-child pairs in the Polish Mother and Child Cohort Study. Prenatal and postnatal exposure to environmental factors was determined from biomarker measurements as follows: for lead exposure--cord blood lead level, for mercury--maternal hair mercury level, for ETS--cotinine level in saliva and urine, and for PAH--1-hydroxypyrene (1-HP) in urine. At the age of 12 (406 subjects) and 24 months (198 subjects) children were assessed using Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development. There were no statistically significant effects of prenatal exposure to mercury or 1-HP on child psychomotor development. After adjusting for potential confounders, adverse effects of prenatal exposure to ETS on motor development ( β = -2.6; P = 0.02) and postnatal exposure to ETS on cognitive ( β = -0.2; P = 0.05) and motor functions ( β = -0.5; P = 0.01) were found. The adverse effect of prenatal lead exposure on cognitive score was of borderline significance ( β = -6.2; P = 0.06). The study underscores the importance of policies and public health interventions that aim to reduce prenatal and postnatal exposure to lead and ETS.

  17. Environmental contaminants and human health in the Canadian Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, S G; Van Oostdam, J; Tikhonov, C; Feeley, M; Armstrong, B; Ayotte, P; Boucher, O; Bowers, W; Chan, L; Dallaire, F; Dallaire, R; Dewailly, E; Edwards, J; Egeland, G M; Fontaine, J; Furgal, C; Leech, T; Loring, E; Muckle, G; Nancarrow, T; Pereg, D; Plusquellec, P; Potyrala, M; Receveur, O; Shearer, R G

    2010-10-15

    The third Canadian Arctic Human Health Assessment conducted under the Canadian Northern Contaminants Program (NCP), in association with the circumpolar Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP), addresses concerns about possible adverse health effects in individuals exposed to environmental contaminants through a diet containing country foods. The objectives here are to: 1) provide data on changes in human contaminant concentrations and exposure among Canadian Arctic peoples; 2) identify new contaminants of concern; 3) discuss possible health effects; 4) outline risk communication about contaminants in country food; and 5) identify knowledge gaps for future contaminant research and monitoring. The nutritional and cultural benefits of country foods are substantial; however, some dietary studies suggest declines in the amount of country foods being consumed. Significant declines were found for most contaminants in maternal blood over the last 10 years within all three Arctic regions studied. Inuit continue to have the highest levels of almost all persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and metals among the ethnic groups studied. A greater proportion of people in the East exceed Health Canada's guidelines for PCBs and mercury, although the proportion of mothers exceeding these guidelines has decreased since the previous assessment. Further monitoring and research are required to assess trends and health effects of emerging contaminants. Infant development studies have shown possible subtle effects of prenatal exposure to heavy metals and some POPs on immune system function and neurodevelopment. New data suggest important beneficial effects on brain development for Inuit infants from some country food nutrients. The most successful risk communication processes balance the risks and benefits of a diet of country food through input from a variety of regional experts and the community, to incorporate the many socio-cultural and economic factors to arrive at a risk

  18. Three dimensional visualisation of human facial exposure to solar ultraviolet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Nathan; Parisi, Alfio

    2007-01-01

    A three dimensional computer model of the human face has been developed to represent solar ultraviolet exposures recorded by dosimeter measurements on a manikin headform under low cloud conditions and various solar zenith angles. Additionally, polysulfone dosimeters have been successfully miniaturised to provide the detailed measurements required across the face. The headform used in this research was scanned at 709 individual locations to make a wireframe mesh consisting of 18 vertical contours and 49 horizontal contours covering half the manikin's frontal facial topography. Additionally, the back of the headform and neck have also been scanned at 576 locations. Each scanned location has been used as a viable dosimeter position on the headform and represents a grid intersection point on the developed computer wireframe. A series of exposures recorded by dosimeters have been translated into three dimensional exposure ratio maps, representing ambient solar ultraviolet exposure. High dosimeter density has allowed for the development of individual topographic contour models which take into account complex variation in the face and improve upon previously employed techniques which utilise fewer dosimeters to interpolate exposure across facial contours. Exposure ratios for solar zenith angle ranges of 0 degrees -30 degrees, 30 degrees -50 degrees, and 50 degrees -80 degrees have been developed.

  19. Asbestos exposure increases human bronchial epithelial cell fibrinolytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, T J; Cobb, S M; Gruenert, D C; Peterson, M W

    1993-03-01

    Chronic exposure to asbestos fibers results in fibrotic lung disease. The distal pulmonary epithelium is an early target of asbestos-mediated injury. Local plasmin activity may be important in modulating endoluminal inflammatory responses in the lung. We studied the effects of asbestos exposure on cell-mediated plasma clot lysis as a marker of pericellular plasminogen activation. Exposing human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells to 100 micrograms/ml of asbestos fibers for 24 h resulted in increased plasma clot lysis. Fibrinolytic activity was augmented in a dose-dependent fashion, was not due to secreted protease, and occurred only when there was direct contact between the plasma clot and the epithelial monolayer. Further analysis showed that asbestos exposure increased HBE cell-associated urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) activity in a time-dependent manner. The increased cell-associated PA activity could be removed by acid washing. The increase in PA activity following asbestos exposure required new protein synthesis because it was abrogated by treatment with either cycloheximide or actinomycin D. Therefore, asbestos exposure increases epithelial-mediated fibrinolysis by augmenting expression of uPA activity at the cell surface by mechanisms that require new RNA and protein synthesis. These observations suggest a novel mechanism whereby exposure of the distal epithelium to inhaled particulates may result in a chronic inflammatory response that culminates in the development of fibrotic lung disease.

  20. Parabens as Urinary Biomarkers of Exposure in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xiaoyun; Bishop, Amber M.; Reidy, John A.; Needham, Larry L.; Calafat, Antonia M.

    2006-01-01

    Background Parabens appear frequently as antimicrobial preservatives in cosmetic products, in pharmaceuticals, and in food and beverage processing. In vivo and in vitro studies have revealed weak estrogenic activity of some parabens. Widespread use has raised concerns about the potential human health risks associated with paraben exposure. Objectives Assessing human exposure to parabens usually involves measuring in urine the conjugated or free species of parabens or their metabolites. In animals, parabens are mostly hydrolyzed to p-hydroxybenzoic acid and excreted in the urine as conjugates. Still, monitoring urinary concentrations of p-hydroxybenzoic acid is not necessarily the best way to assess exposure to parabens. p-Hydroxybenzoic acid is a nonspecific biomarker, and the varying estrogenic bioactivities of parabens require specific biomarkers. Therefore, we evaluated the use of free and conjugated parent parabens as new biomarkers for human exposure to these compounds. Results We measured the urinary concentrations of methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, butyl (n- and iso-), and benzyl parabens in a demographically diverse group of 100 anonymous adults. We detected methyl and n-propyl parabens at the highest median concentrations (43.9 ng/mL and 9.05 ng/mL, respectively) in nearly all (> 96%) of the samples. We also detected other parabens in more than half of the samples (ethyl, 58%; butyl, 69%). Most important, however, we found that parabens in urine appear predominantly in their conjugated forms. Conclusions The results, demonstrating the presence of urinary conjugates of parabens in humans, suggest that such conjugated parabens could be used as exposure biomarkers. Additionally, the fact that conjugates appear to be the main urinary products of parabens may be important for risk assessment. PMID:17185273

  1. REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH IN RICKSHAW DRIVERS: Occupational Exposure to Environmental Stressor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam. Nabi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: In urban environment, exposure to the emission of motor vehicles is common. In urban peoples it is a very difficult task to distinguish among peoples with different grades of momentous period exposure to such pollutants. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the effects of diesel exhaust, gasoline emission, Particulate Matter (PM noise and heat on the reproductive health of rickshaw drivers. Methods: Adult married male individuals were recruited randomly in the study from Btkhella, Malakand agency, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Two groups were made, control (n=45 and rickshaw drivers (n=50. A special questionnaire was designed about occupational activities, socio-demographic and clinical characteristics. From both groups 5 mL of the blood was collected and was analyze for serum total testosterone and cortisol using Biocheck (USA and Antibodies-online GmbH (Germany kits. Results: In control group the Mean±SEM of total serum testosterone was 657.6±16.84 ng/dl and cortisol was 443.8±14.67 mU/L. In rickshaw drivers the Mean±SEM of total serum testosterone was 577.1±11.42 ng/dl and cortisol was 595.1±8.879mU/L. In rickshaw drivers there was a significant reduction in total serum testosterone (P0.0002 but a significant increase in serum cortisol level (P < 0.0001 at 95% confidence interval. Conclusions: Reproductive health problems like decreased libido, erectile dysfunction, absent morning and nocturnal erection, ejaculatory problems, primary infertility and secondary infertility were prevalent in rickshaw drivers but, no such problems were found in control group. Chronic exposure to pollutants such as diesel exhaust, gasoline emission, Particulate Matter (PM noise and heat negatively regulate Hypothalmo-Pituitary Gonadal axis (HPG leading  to reproductive problems.

  2. [Environmental exposure to silver and its health effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyayama, Takamitsu; Arai, Yuta; Hirano, Seishiro

    2012-05-01

    Silver (Ag) possesses a well-known antibacterial activity and has been used for medical treatment and cosmetics such as wound dressing and deodorant powders. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) proposed that the permissible exposure limit (PEL) for both metallic and most soluble Ag compounds should be 0.01 mg/m3. Argyria and argyrosis are known to be caused by deposition of insoluble Ag in the dermis and cornea/conjunctiva. However, the metabolic behavior and biological roles of Ag have not been well characterized in mammals. Ag can be absorbed into the systemic circulation from drinking water, and also through parenteral routes such as inhalation and dermal exposure. Experimental studies have demonstrated that Ag+ induces and binds to metallothionein I and II (MTs), which are cysteine-rich proteins, in cells. MTs are major cytoplasmic metal binding proteins and thereby reduce cellular damage caused by toxic heavy metals including Ag. Profiles of Ag distribution in MTs and other Ag-binding proteins can be determined using high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS). This technique directly provides information on the intracellular behavior of Ag, which is important for elucidating the mechanism underlying Ag toxicity. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are also commercially used mainly as antimicrobial agents. Despite the widespread use of AgNPs, relatively few studies have been undertaken to evaluate the health effects of AgNP exposure. In the present paper, we discuss the absorption, toxicodynamics, and metabolism of both Ag and AgNPs in mammals and their health effects.

  3. Addressing historic environmental exposures along the Alaska Highway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Duffy

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. A World War II defense site at Northway, Alaska, was remediated in the 1990s, leaving complex questions regarding historic exposures to toxic waste. This article describes the context, methods, limitations and findings of the Northway Wild Food and Health Project (NWFHP. Objective. The NWFHP comprised 2 pilot studies: the Northway Wild Food Study (NWFS, which investigated contaminants in locally prioritized traditional foods over time, and the Northway Health Study (NHS, which investigated locally suspected links between resource uses and health problems. Design. This research employed mixed methods. The NWFS reviewed remedial documents and existing data. The NHS collected household information regarding resource uses and health conditions by questionnaire and interview. NHS data represent general (yes or no personal knowledge that was often second hand. Retrospective cohort comparisons were made of the reported prevalence of 7 general health problems between groups based on their reported (yes or no consumption of particular resources, for 3 data sets (existing, historic and combined with a two-tailed Fisher’s Exact Test in SAS (n=325 individuals in 83 households, 24 of which no longer exist. Results. The NWFS identified historic pathways of exposure to petroleum, pesticides, herbicides, chlorinated byproducts of disinfection and lead from resources that were consumed more frequently decades ago and are not retrospectively quantifiable. The NHS found complex patterns of association between reported resource uses and cancer and thyroid-, reproductive-, metabolic- and cardiac problems. Conclusion. Lack of detail regarding medical conditions, undocumented histories of exposure, time lapsed since the release of pollution and changes to health and health care over the same period make this exploratory research. Rather than demonstrate causation, these results document the legitimacy of local suspicions and warrant additional

  4. Environmental assessment and exposure reduction of cockroaches: A practice parameter

    OpenAIRE

    Portnoy, Jay; Chew, Ginger L.; Phipatanakul, Wanda; Williams, P. Brock; Grimes, Carl; Kennedy, Kevin; Matsui, Elizabeth C.; Miller, J David; Bernstein, David; Blessing-Moore, Joann; Cox, Linda; Khan, David; Lang, David; Nicklas, Richard; Oppenheimer, John

    2013-01-01

    This parameter was developed by the Joint Task Force on Practice Parameters, representing the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology (AAAAI); the American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology (ACAAI); and the joint Council of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. The AAAAI and the ACAAI have jointly accepted responsibility for establishing “Environmental assessment and remediation: a practice parameter.” This is a complete and comprehensive document at the current time. The medical envir...

  5. Risk assessment due to environmental exposures to fibrous particulates associated with taconite ore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Richard; McConnell, Ernest E; Ross, M; Axten, Charles W; Nolan, Robert P

    2008-10-01

    In the early 1970s, it became a concern that exposure to the mineral fibers associated taconite ore processed in Silver Bay, Minnesota would cause asbestos-related disease including gastrointestinal cancer. At that time data gaps existed which have now been significantly reduced by further research. To further our understanding of the types of airborne fibers in Silver Bay we undertook a geological survey of their source the Peter Mitchell Pit, and found that there are no primary asbestos minerals at a detectable level. However we identified two non-asbestos types of fibrous minerals in very limited geological locales. Air sampling useful for risk assessment was done to determine the type, concentrations and size distribution of the population of airborne fibers around Silver Bay. Approximately 80% of the airborne fibers have elemental compositions consistent with cummingtonite-grunerite and the remaining 20% have elemental compositions in the tremolite-actinolite series. The mean airborne concentration of both fiber types is less than 0.00014 fibers per milliliter that is within the background level reported by the World Health Organization. We calculate the risk of asbestos-related mesothelioma and lung cancer using a variety of different pessimistic assumptions. (i) that all the non-asbestos fibers are as potent as asbestos fibers used in the EPA-IRIS listing for asbestos; with a calculated risk of asbestos-related cancer for environmental exposure at Silver Bay of 1 excess cancer in 28,500 lifetimes (or 35 excess cancers per 1,000,000 lifetimes) and secondly that taconite associated fibers are as potent as chrysotile the least potent form of asbestos. The calculated risk is less than 0.77 excess cancer case in 1,000,000 lifetimes. Finally, we briefly review the epidemiology studies of grunerite asbestos (amosite) focusing on the exposure conditions associated with increased risk of human mesothelioma.

  6. Malignant mesothelioma after environmental exposure to blue asbestos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, J; de Klerk, N H; Eccles, J L; Musk, A W; Hobbs, M S

    1993-06-19

    To determine the magnitude of the population at risk from non-occupational exposure to crocidolite at Wittenoom, Western Australia (WA), a cohort of 4,890 residents who never worked for the mining company Australian Blue Asbestos (ABA) has been assembled from all 18,553 available records: the local school register, hospital attendances, the WA electoral roll, birth certificates, workers who answered a mailed questionnaire in 1979, participants in a cancer-prevention programme using vitamin-A dietary supplements, and other sources. The majority of subjects were relatives and friends of ABA employees, and nearly half the cohort were either born at Wittenoom or first went there as children under 10 years of age. As most residents were at Wittenoom when the mine and mill were in operation during the period 1943 to 1966, 82% were first exposed to crocidolite 20 or more years ago. The proportion of other workers (i.e., not employed by ABA) and their families increased once the mining operations ceased. To date, 24 cases of mesothelioma have been reported in this cohort: 9 males and 15 females. Time from first exposure to diagnosis ranged from 23 to 44 years and residence in Wittenoom ranged from 6 weeks to 11 years.

  7. A model of human nasal epithelial cells adapted for direct and repeated exposure to airborne pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardet, Gaëlle; Achard, Sophie; Loret, Thomas; Desauziers, Valérie; Momas, Isabelle; Seta, Nathalie

    2014-08-17

    Airway epithelium lining the nasal cavity plays a pivotal role in respiratory tract defense and protection mechanisms. Air pollution induces alterations linked to airway diseases such as asthma. Only very few in vitro studies to date have succeeded in reproducing physiological conditions relevant to cellular type and chronic atmospheric pollution exposure. We therefore, set up an in vitro model of human Airway Epithelial Cells of Nasal origin (hAECN) close to real human cell functionality, specifically adapted to study the biological effects of exposure to indoor gaseous pollution at the environmental level. hAECN were exposed under air-liquid interface, one, two, or three-times at 24 h intervals for 1 h, to air or formaldehyde (200 μg/m(3)), an indoor air gaseous pollutant. All experiments were ended at day 4, when both cellular viability and cytokine production were assessed. Optimal adherence and confluence of cells were obtained 96 h after cell seeding onto collagen IV-precoated insert. Direct and repeated exposure to formaldehyde did not produce any cellular damage or IL-6 production change, although weak lower IL-8 production was observed only after the third exposure. Our model is significantly better than previous ones due to cell type and the repeated exposure protocol.

  8. Effect of Exposure to Non-ionizing Radiation (Electromagnetic Fields on Human System: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Rubya Souza C and acirc;mara

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The indiscriminate presence of radio base stations, which emit non-ionizing radiation (NIR, as well as the frequent use of mobile phones, can cause increased susceptibility of populations to the emergence of diseases such as cancers of the head and neck, biochemical, hematopoietic and hepatic changes, among others. Exposure to physical contamination, including NIR, has been implicated in numerous diseases, raising concerns about the widespread sources of exposure to this type of radiation. This paper reviews studies that have assessed associations between likely exposure to electromagnetic fields, such as radiofrequency transmissions, and many kinds of human diseases including cancer, as well as alerts to the current knowledge on the association between environmental exposure to NIR and the risk of development of adverse human health effects. This way, there appears to be an urgent need to reconsider exposure limits for low frequency and static magnetic fields, based on combined experimental and epidemiological research. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2014; 2(4.000: 187-190

  9. Developmental Effects of Exposures to Environmental Factors: The Polish Mother and Child Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinga Polanska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper estimates the effects of exposure to environmental factors, including lead, mercury, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH, on child psychomotor development. The study population consists of mother-child pairs in the Polish Mother and Child Cohort Study. Prenatal and postnatal exposure to environmental factors was determined from biomarker measurements as follows: for lead exposure—cord blood lead level, for mercury—maternal hair mercury level, for ETS—cotinine level in saliva and urine, and for PAH—1-hydroxypyrene (1-HP in urine. At the age of 12 (406 subjects and 24 months (198 subjects children were assessed using Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development. There were no statistically significant effects of prenatal exposure to mercury or 1-HP on child psychomotor development. After adjusting for potential confounders, adverse effects of prenatal exposure to ETS on motor development (β = −2.6; P=0.02 and postnatal exposure to ETS on cognitive (β = −0.2; P=0.05 and motor functions (β = −0.5; P=0.01 were found. The adverse effect of prenatal lead exposure on cognitive score was of borderline significance (β = −6.2; P=0.06. The study underscores the importance of policies and public health interventions that aim to reduce prenatal and postnatal exposure to lead and ETS.

  10. 40 CFR 26.203 - Prohibition of research conducted or supported by EPA involving intentional exposure of any human...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... her fetus), a nursing woman, or child. 26.203 Section 26.203 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Involving Intentional Exposure of Human Subjects who are Children or Pregnant or Nursing Women § 26.203... is a pregnant woman (and therefore her fetus), a nursing woman, or child. Notwithstanding any other...

  11. Livestock waste treatment systems for reducing environmental exposure to hazardous enteric pathogens: some considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topp, E; Scott, A; Lapen, D R; Lyautey, E; Duriez, P

    2009-11-01

    Intensive livestock production systems produce significant quantities of excreted material that must be managed to protect water, air, and crop quality. Many jurisdictions mandate how livestock wastes are managed to protect adjacent water quality from microbial and chemical contaminants that pose an environmental and human health challenge. Here, we consider innovative livestock waste treatment systems in the context of multi-barrier strategies for protecting water quality from agricultural contamination. Specifically, we consider some aspects of how enteric bacterial populations can evolve during manure storage, how their fate following land application of manure can vary according to manure composition, and finally the challenge of distinguishing enteric pathogens of agricultural provenance from those of other sources of fecal pollution at a policy-relevant watershed scale. The beneficial impacts of livestock waste treatment on risk to humans via exposure to manured land are illustrated using quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) scenarios. Overall, innovative livestock treatment systems offer a crucially important strategy for making livestock wastes more benign before they are released into the broader environment.

  12. Human physiological responses to cold exposure: Acute responses and acclimatization to prolonged exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellani, John W; Young, Andrew J

    2016-04-01

    Cold exposure in humans causes specific acute and chronic physiological responses. This paper will review both the acute and long-term physiological responses and external factors that impact these physiological responses. Acute physiological responses to cold exposure include cutaneous vasoconstriction and shivering thermogenesis which, respectively, decrease heat loss and increase metabolic heat production. Vasoconstriction is elicited through reflex and local cooling. In combination, vasoconstriction and shivering operate to maintain thermal balance when the body is losing heat. Factors (anthropometry, sex, race, fitness, thermoregulatory fatigue) that influence the acute physiological responses to cold exposure are also reviewed. The physiological responses to chronic cold exposure, also known as cold acclimation/acclimatization, are also presented. Three primary patterns of cold acclimatization have been observed, a) habituation, b) metabolic adjustment, and c) insulative adjustment. Habituation is characterized by physiological adjustments in which the response is attenuated compared to an unacclimatized state. Metabolic acclimatization is characterized by an increased thermogenesis, whereas insulative acclimatization is characterized by enhancing the mechanisms that conserve body heat. The pattern of acclimatization is dependent on changes in skin and core temperature and the exposure duration.

  13. Exposure to ozone modulates human airway protease/antiprotease balance contributing to increased influenza A infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Kesic

    Full Text Available Exposure to oxidant air pollution is associated with increased respiratory morbidities and susceptibility to infections. Ozone is a commonly encountered oxidant air pollutant, yet its effects on influenza infections in humans are not known. The greater Mexico City area was the primary site for the spring 2009 influenza A H1N1 pandemic, which also coincided with high levels of environmental ozone. Proteolytic cleavage of the viral membrane protein hemagglutinin (HA is essential for influenza virus infectivity. Recent studies suggest that HA cleavage might be cell-associated and facilitated by the type II transmembrane serine proteases (TTSPs human airway trypsin-like protease (HAT and transmembrane protease, serine 2 (TMPRSS2, whose activities are regulated by antiproteases, such as secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI. Based on these observations, we sought to determine how acute exposure to ozone may modulate cellular protease/antiprotease expression and function, and to define their roles in a viral infection. We utilized our in vitro model of differentiated human nasal epithelial cells (NECs to determine the effects of ozone on influenza cleavage, entry, and replication. We show that ozone exposure disrupts the protease/antiprotease balance within the airway liquid. We also determined that functional forms of HAT, TMPRSS2, and SLPI are secreted from human airway epithelium, and acute exposure to ozone inversely alters their expression levels. We also show that addition of antioxidants significantly reduces virus replication through the induction of SLPI. In addition, we determined that ozone-induced cleavage of the viral HA protein is not cell-associated and that secreted endogenous proteases are sufficient to activate HA leading to a significant increase in viral replication. Our data indicate that pre-exposure to ozone disrupts the protease/antiprotease balance found in the human airway, leading to increased influenza susceptibility.

  14. Impact of Hot and Cold Exposure on Human Skeletal Muscle Gene Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, Roksana B.; Shute, Robert J.; Heesch, Matthew W.S.; La Salle, D. Taylor; Bubak, Matthew P.; Dinan, Nicholas E.; Laursen, Terence L.; Slivka, Dustin R.

    2017-01-01

    Many human diseases lead to a loss of skeletal muscle metabolic function and mass. Local and environmental temperature can modulate the exercise-stimulated response of several genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and skeletal muscle function in a human model. However, the impact of environmental temperature, independent of exercise, has not been addressed in a human model. Thus, the purpose of this study was to compare the effects of exposure to hot, cold, and room temperature conditions on skeletal muscle gene expression related to mitochondrial biogenesis and muscle mass. METHODS Recreationally trained male subjects (n=12) had muscle biopsies taken from the vastus lateralis before and after 3 h exposure to hot (33 °C), cold (7 °C), or room temperature (20 °C) conditions. RESULTS Temperature had no effect on most of the genes related to mitochondrial biogenesis, myogenesis, or proteolysis (p > 0.05). Core temperature was significantly higher in hot and cold environments compared to room temperature (37.2 ± 0.1 °C, p = 0.001; 37.1 ± 0.1 °C, p = 0.013; 36.9 ± 0.1 °C, respectively). Whole body oxygen consumption was also significantly higher in hot and cold compared to room temperature (0.38 ± 0.01 L·min−1, p < 0.001; 0.52 ± 0.03 L·min−1, p < 0.001; 0.35 ± 0.01 L·min−1, respectively). CONCLUSIONS These data show that acute temperature exposure alone does not elicit significant changes in skeletal muscle gene expression. When considered in conjunction with previous research, exercise appears to be a necessary component to observe gene expression alterations between different environmental temperatures in humans. PMID:28177744

  15. Prenatal exposure to environmental chemical contaminants and asthma and eczema in school-age children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smit, Lidwien A M; Lenters, Virissa; Høyer, Birgit Bjerre;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence suggests that prenatal or early-life exposures to environmental contaminants may contribute to an increased risk of asthma and allergies in children. We aimed to the explore associations of prenatal exposures to a large set of environmental chemical contaminants...... with asthma and eczema in school-age children. METHODS: We studied 1024 mother-child pairs from Greenland and Ukraine from the INUENDO birth cohort. Data were collected by means of an interview-based questionnaire when the children were 5-9 years of age. Questions from the ISAAC study were used to define.......41-0.99). In Greenlandic children, a negative association of PC4 (organochlorines) with ever eczema (OR 0.78, 0.61-0.99) was found. CONCLUSIONS: We found limited evidence to support a link between prenatal exposure to environmental chemical contaminants and childhood asthma and eczema....

  16. Approaches to handling uncertainty when setting environmental exposure standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben; Keiding, Niels; Grandjean, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    Mathematical modelling has become in recent years an essential tool for the prediction of environmental change and for the development of sustainable policies. Yet, many of the uncertainties associated with modelling efforts appear poorly understood by many, especially by policy makers. This book...... attempts for the first time to cover the full range of issues related to model uncertainties, from the subjectivity of setting up a conceptual model of a given system, all the way to communicating the nature of model uncertainties to non-scientists and accounting for model uncertainties in policy decisions....... Theoretical chapters, providing background information on specific steps in the modelling process and in the adoption of models by end-users, are complemented by illustrative case studies dealing with soils and global climate change. All the chapters are authored by recognized experts in their respective...

  17. Quality control and statistical modeling for environmental epigenetics: a study on in utero lead exposure and DNA methylation at birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, Jaclyn M; Sánchez, Brisa N; Dolinoy, Dana C; Zhang, Zhenzhen; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio; Hu, Howard; Peterson, Karen E; Téllez-Rojo, Martha M

    2015-01-01

    DNA methylation data assayed using pyrosequencing techniques are increasingly being used in human cohort studies to investigate associations between epigenetic modifications at candidate genes and exposures to environmental toxicants and to examine environmentally-induced epigenetic alterations as a mechanism underlying observed toxicant-health outcome associations. For instance, in utero lead (Pb) exposure is a neurodevelopmental toxicant of global concern that has also been linked to altered growth in human epidemiological cohorts; a potential mechanism of this association is through alteration of DNA methylation (e.g., at growth-related genes). However, because the associations between toxicants and DNA methylation might be weak, using appropriate quality control and statistical methods is important to increase reliability and power of such studies. Using a simulation study, we compared potential approaches to estimate toxicant-DNA methylation associations that varied by how methylation data were analyzed (repeated measures vs. averaging all CpG sites) and by method to adjust for batch effects (batch controls vs. random effects). We demonstrate that correcting for batch effects using plate controls yields unbiased associations, and that explicitly modeling the CpG site-specific variances and correlations among CpG sites increases statistical power. Using the recommended approaches, we examined the association between DNA methylation (in LINE-1 and growth related genes IGF2, H19 and HSD11B2) and 3 biomarkers of Pb exposure (Pb concentrations in umbilical cord blood, maternal tibia, and maternal patella), among mother-infant pairs of the Early Life Exposures in Mexico to Environmental Toxicants (ELEMENT) cohort (n = 247). Those with 10 μg/g higher patella Pb had, on average, 0.61% higher IGF2 methylation (P = 0.05). Sex-specific trends between Pb and DNA methylation (P < 0.1) were observed among girls including a 0.23% increase in HSD11B2 methylation with 10

  18. Arsenic Exposure and the Induction of Human Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor D. Martinez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic is a metalloid, that is, considered to be a human carcinogen. Millions of individuals worldwide are chronically exposed through drinking water, with consequences ranging from acute toxicities to development of malignancies, such as skin and lung cancer. Despite well-known arsenic-related health effects, the molecular mechanisms involved are not fully understood; however, the arsenic biotransformation process, which includes methylation changes, is thought to play a key role. This paper explores the relationship of arsenic exposure with cancer development and summarizes current knowledge of the potential mechanisms that may contribute to the neoplastic processes observed in arsenic exposed human populations.

  19. Determining the validity of exposure models for environmental epidemiology : predicting electromagnetic fields from mobile phone base stations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekhuizen, Johan

    2014-01-01

    One of the key challenges in environmental epidemiology is the exposure assessment of large populations. Spatial exposure models have been developed that predict exposure to the pollutant of interest for large study sizes. However, the validity of these exposure models is often unknown. In this thes

  20. Effects of Environmental Pollutants on Cellular Iron Homeostasis and Ultimate Links to Human Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreinemachers, Dina M; Ghio, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    Chronic disease has increased in the past several decades, and environmental pollutants have been implicated. The magnitude and variety of diseases may indicate the malfunctioning of some basic mechanisms underlying human health. Environmental pollutants demonstrate a capability to complex iron through electronegative functional groups containing oxygen, nitrogen, or sulfur. Cellular exposure to the chemical or its metabolite may cause a loss of requisite functional iron from intracellular sites. The cell is compelled to acquire further iron critical to its survival by activation of iron-responsive proteins and increasing iron import. Iron homeostasis in the exposed cells is altered due to a new equilibrium being established between iron-requiring cells and the inappropriate chelator (the pollutant or its catabolite). Following exposure to environmental pollutants, the perturbation of functional iron homeostasis may be the mechanism leading to adverse biological effects. Understanding the mechanism may lead to intervention methods for this major public health concern.

  1. Environmental Health Standards for Human Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    James John T.

    2010-01-01

    The discussion of air and water quality standards includes evidence-based standards, factors unique to spaceflight, effects from exposures to combinations of compounds, contingency versus nominal standards, tables of ISO standards for air quality (ppm) and water quality (mg/L), and updating of standards.

  2. Artificial tritrophic exposure system for environmental risk analysis on aphidophagous predators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DÉBORA P. PAULA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We evaluated an artificial tritrophic exposure system for use in ecotoxicological evaluations of environmental stressors on aphidophagous predators. It consists of an acrylic tube with a Parafilm M sachet containing liquid aphid diet, into which can be added environmental stressors. Immature Cycloneda sanguinea, Harmonia axyridis and Chrysoperla externa, and adult H. axyridis were reared on Myzus persicae. Larval and pupal development and survival of all species and reproductive parameters of H. axyridis were similar to published results. The system provides a suitable tritrophic exposure route, enables ex-ante evaluation of stressors, and improves the accuracy of the assessment.

  3. Artificial tritrophic exposure system for environmental risk analysis on aphidophagous predators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula, Débora P; Souza, Lucas M DE; Andow, David A; Sousa, Alex A T Cortês DE; Pires, Carmen S S; Sujii, Edison R

    2016-09-01

    We evaluated an artificial tritrophic exposure system for use in ecotoxicological evaluations of environmental stressors on aphidophagous predators. It consists of an acrylic tube with a Parafilm M sachet containing liquid aphid diet, into which can be added environmental stressors. Immature Cycloneda sanguinea, Harmonia axyridis and Chrysoperla externa, and adult H. axyridis were reared on Myzus persicae. Larval and pupal development and survival of all species and reproductive parameters of H. axyridis were similar to published results. The system provides a suitable tritrophic exposure route, enables ex-ante evaluation of stressors, and improves the accuracy of the assessment.

  4. Current knowledge of environmental exposure in children during the sensitive developmental periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlroth, Norma Helena; Castelo Branco, Christina Wyss

    This study aims to identify the scientific evidence on the risks and effects of exposure to environmental contaminants in children during sensitive developmental periods. The search was performed in the Bireme database, using the terms: children's health, environmental exposure, health vulnerability, toxicity pathways and developmental disabilities in the LILACS, MEDLINE and SciELO systems. Children differ from adults in their unique physiological and behavioral characteristics and the potential exposure to risks caused by several threats in the environment. Exposure to toxic agents is analyzed through toxicokinetic processes in the several systems and organs during the sensitive phases of child development. The caused effects are reflected in the increased prevalence of congenital malformations, diarrhea, asthma, cancer, endocrine and neurological disorders, among others, with negative impacts throughout adult life. To identify the causes and understand the mechanisms involved in the genesis of these diseases is a challenge for science, as there is still a lack of knowledge on children's susceptibility to many environmental contaminants. Prevention policies and more research on child environmental health, improving the recording and surveillance of environmental risks to children's health, should be an ongoing priority in the public health field. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. Glyphosate and its formulations – Toxicity, occupational and environmental exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Kwiatkowska

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethylglycine is an active ingredient of the most widely used herbicide formulations in protecting agricultural and horticultural crops. Numerous results (mostly published in the years 2010-2013 concerning the action of glyphosate and its formulations in the recent decade were analyzed. Initial reports about alleged biodegradability of glyphosate in the environment turned out to be wrong. It has been shown that glyphosate remains in the soil and can reach people by spreading along with groundwater. Recent publications have shown that glyphosate is detected at low concentrations in the human blood. Publications cited in this article, which indicate a possible induction of neoplastic changes by glyphosate formulation, have raised great concern and controversy in the scientific world. Presenting adverse effects of glyphosate and its formulations we focused on the role of glyphosate formulations in hormonal disorders by impeding the expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and the inhibition of aromatase activity. The impact of glyphosate on oxygen reactive species formation, changes in redox system and the effect on necrosis and apoptosis in various types of cells was shown. We also revealed that glyphosate as a phosphonate herbicide does not inhibit directly the activity of acetylcholinesterase. Based on numerous studies it was noted that commercial formulations of glyphosate exhibit higher toxicity than that of the active substance itself. The discussed problems clearly show the need to evaluate the toxicity of glyphosate and its formulations and related potential threat to humans. Med Pr 2013;64(5:717–729

  6. Environmental lead exposure and otoacoustic emissions in Andean children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Leo H; Counter, S Allen; Ortega, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    Studies relating sensory hearing impairment to lead (Pb) exposure in children have presented inconsistent results. The objective of this study was to measure distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE), sounds emanating from the outer hair cells of the inner ear, in Pb-exposed children to determine the effects of Pb poisoning on the inner ear. DPOAE were recorded for 9 f(2) frequencies from 1187 to 7625 Hz on 102 ears of 53 Pb-exposed children (aged 6-16 yr) residing in Pb-contaminated environments in the Andes Mountains of Ecuador where Pb glazing of ceramics is the primary livelihood. Blood lead (PbB) levels ranged from 4.2 to 94.3 μg/dl (mean: 37.7; SD: 25.7; median: 36.4). The median PbB level was markedly higher than the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and World Health Organization (WHO) 10-μg/dl action level. Spearman rho correlation analyses of the relation between PbB level and DPOAE amplitude and between PbB level and DPOAE signal-to-noise ratio revealed no significant associations at any of the f(2) frequencies tested. In addition, no significant correlation (Spearman rho) between PbB level and hearing sensitivity for 6 pure-tone test frequencies from 1000 to 8000 Hz was found. Although the study group was found to have abnormally elevated PbB levels, in contrast to some earlier reports, the results of the current study showed no consistent Pb-induced sensory effects on the cochlea of Pb-intoxicated children.

  7. Instruments to assess and measure personal and environmental radiofrequency-electromagnetic field exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Chhavi Raj; Redmayne, Mary; Abramson, Michael J; Benke, Geza

    2016-03-01

    Radiofrequency-electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure of human populations is increasing due to the widespread use of mobile phones and other telecommunication and broadcasting technologies. There are ongoing concerns about potential short- and long-term public health consequences from RF-EMF exposures. To elucidate the RF-EMF exposure-effect relationships, an objective evaluation of the exposures with robust assessment tools is necessary. This review discusses and compares currently available RF-EMF exposure assessment instruments, which can be used in human epidemiological studies. Quantitative assessment instruments are either mobile phone-based (apps/software-modified and hardware-modified) or exposimeters. Each of these tool has its usefulness and limitations. Our review suggests that assessment of RF-EMF exposures can be improved by using these tools compared to the proxy measures of exposure (e.g. questionnaires and billing records). This in turn, could be used to help increase knowledge about RF-EMF exposure induced health effects in human populations.

  8. Use of environmental tobacco smoke constituents as markers for exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaKind, J.S. [LaKind Associates (United States); Jenkins, R.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Naiman, D.Q. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Mathematical Sciences; Ginevan, M.E. [M.E. Ginevan and Associates (United States); Graves, C.G.; Tardiff, R.G. [Sapphire Group, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1999-06-01

    The 16-City Study analyzed for gas-phase environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) constituents (nicotine, 3-ethenyl pyridine [3-EP], and myosmine) and for particulate-phase constituents (respirable particulate matter [RSP], ultraviolet-absorbing particulate matter [UVPM], fluorescing particulate matter [FPM], scopoletin, and solanesol). In this second of three articles, the authors discuss the merits of each constituent as a marker for ETS and report pair-wise comparisons of the markers. Neither nicotine nor UVPM were good predictors for RSP. However, nicotine and UVPM were good qualitative predictors of each other. Nicotine was correlated with other gas-phase constituents. Comparisons between UVPM and other particulate-phase constituents were performed. Its relation with FPM was excellent, with UVPM approximately 1 1/2 times FPM. The correlation between UVPM and solanesol was good, but the relationship between the two was not linear. The relation between UVPM and scopoletin was not good, largely because of noise in the scopoletin measures around its limit of detection. The authors considered the relation between nicotine and saliva cotinine, a metabolite of nicotine. The two were highly correlated on the group level.

  9. Environmental assessment and exposure reduction of cockroaches: a practice parameter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnoy, Jay; Chew, Ginger L; Phipatanakul, Wanda; Williams, P Brock; Grimes, Carl; Kennedy, Kevin; Matsui, Elizabeth C; Miller, J David; Bernstein, David; Blessing-Moore, Joann; Cox, Linda; Khan, David; Lang, David; Nicklas, Richard; Oppenheimer, John; Randolph, Christopher; Schuller, Diane; Spector, Sheldon; Tilles, Stephen A; Wallace, Dana; Seltzer, James; Sublett, James

    2013-10-01

    This parameter was developed by the Joint Task Force on Practice Parameters, representing the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology (AAAAI); the American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology (ACAAI); and the Joint Council of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. The AAAAI and the ACAAI have jointly accepted responsibility for establishing "Environmental assessment and remediation: a practice parameter." This is a complete and comprehensive document at the current time. The medical environment is a changing environment, and not all recommendations will be appropriate for all patients. Because this document incorporated the efforts of many participants, no single person, including those who served on the Joint Task Force, is authorized to provide an official AAAAI or ACAAI interpretation of these practice parameters. Any request for information about or an interpretation of these practice parameters by the AAAAI or ACAAI should be directed to the Executive Offices of the AAAAI, the ACAAI, and the Joint Council of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. These parameters are not designed for use by pharmaceutical companies in drug promotion. The findings and conclusions in this manuscript are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Published by Mosby, Inc.

  10. Simulating human behavior for understanding and managing environmental resource use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, Wander; Mosler, Hans Joachim

    2007-01-01

    Computer simulation allows for the experimental study of dynamic interactions between human behavior and complex environmental systems. Behavioral determinants and processes as identified in social-scientific theory may be formalized in simulated agents to obtain a better understanding of

  11. Testing a model of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in military women with children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, Angela M; Agazio, Janice; Flaherty, Norma; Ephraim, Paula M

    2002-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a model of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in military women and their children. The convenience sample consisted of 238 women, 81 smokers and 157 nonsmokers, with a mean age of 37 years (SD = 9.9). Participants were either on active duty or were reservists and/or military dependents. Model constructs, some of which were adapted from the transtheoretical model of behavior change, measured personal and situational factors, pros and cons of ETS exposure, self-efficacy to resist ETS, mother's expectation for child's ETS exposure, and mother's self-efficacy to reduce child's ETS exposure. The mediating variable was the mother's daily ETS exposure, and the outcome variable was the child's daily ETS exposure. The trimmed model showed that 32% of the variance in mother's daily exposure (mediating variable) was accounted for by living with a smoker, having high ETS "pros" (as opposed to ETS "cons"), having less self-efficacy to resist ETS, and having greater self-efficacy to reduce the child's exposure. There was a significant, positive relationship (r = 0.51, p = 0.01) between the mother's and child's daily ETS exposure (outcome variable).

  12. Human/Nature Discourse in Environmental Science Education Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Joan M.

    2008-01-01

    It is argued that the view of nature and the relationship between human beings and nature that each of us holds impacts our decisions, actions, and notions of environmental responsibility and consciousness. In this study, I investigate the discursive patterns of selected environmental science classroom resources produced by three disparate…

  13. Can Exposure to Environmental Chemicals Increase the Risk of Diabetes Type 1 Development?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Bodin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM is an autoimmune disease, where destruction of beta-cells causes insulin deficiency. The incidence of T1DM has increased in the last decades and cannot entirely be explained by genetic predisposition. Several environmental factors are suggested to promote T1DM, like early childhood enteroviral infections and nutritional factors, but the evidence is inconclusive. Prenatal and early life exposure to environmental pollutants like phthalates, bisphenol A, perfluorinated compounds, PCBs, dioxins, toxicants, and air pollutants can have negative effects on the developing immune system, resulting in asthma-like symptoms and increased susceptibility to childhood infections. In this review the associations between environmental chemical exposure and T1DM development is summarized. Although information on environmental chemicals as possible triggers for T1DM is sparse, we conclude that it is plausible that environmental chemicals can contribute to T1DM development via impaired pancreatic beta-cell and immune-cell functions and immunomodulation. Several environmental factors and chemicals could act together to trigger T1DM development in genetically susceptible individuals, possibly via hormonal or epigenetic alterations. Further observational T1DM cohort studies and animal exposure experiments are encouraged.

  14. A SURVEY OF LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHIC-MASS SPECTROMETRIC ANALYSIS OF MERCAPTURIC ACID BIOMARKERS IN OCCUPATIONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURE MONITORING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathias, Patricia I.; B’Hymer, Clayton

    2015-01-01

    High-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS) is sensitive and specific for targeted quantitative analysis and is readily utilized for small molecules from biological matricies. This brief review describes recent selected HPLC/MS methods for the determination of urinary mercapturic acids (mercapturates) which are useful as biomarkers in characterizing human exposure to electrophilic industrial chemicals in occupational and environmental studies. Electrophilic compounds owing to their reactivity are used in chemical and industrial processes. They are present in industrial emissions, are combustion products of fossil fuels, and are components in tobacco smoke. Their presence in both the industrial and general environment are of concern for human and environmental health. Urinary mercapturates which are the products of metabolic detoxification of reactive chemicals provide a non-invasive tool to investigate human exposure to electrophilic toxicants. Selected recent mercapturate quantification methods are summarized and specific cases are presented. The biological formation of mercapturates is introduced and their use as biomarkers of metabolic processing of electrophilic compounds is discussed. Also, the use of liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry in simultaneous determinations of the mercapturates of multiple parent compounds in a single determination is considered, as well as future trends and limitations in this area of research. PMID:24746702

  15. Trends in puberty timing in humans and environmental modifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toppari, Jorma; Juul, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Secular trends in timing of puberty appear to continue although under-nutrition has not been any longer a limiting factor for pubertal development. Now obesity and other environmental reasons have been suspected to cause this trend, and endocrine disrupting chemicals have become into focus...... as possible contributors. Epidemiological studies on endocrine disrupters are still scarce and show only weak associations between exposures and timing of puberty. Since genetic background explains 50-80% of variability in the timing of puberty, it is not surprising that the observed environmental effects...... are rather modest when individual exposures are assessed. Despite that, some exposures have been reported to be associated to early (e.g., polybrominated biphenyls) or delayed (e.g., lead) puberty. Here we shortly review the available data on recent trends in timing of puberty and the possible role...

  16. Trends in puberty timing in humans and environmental modifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toppari, Jorma; Juul, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Secular trends in timing of puberty appear to continue although under-nutrition has not been any longer a limiting factor for pubertal development. Now obesity and other environmental reasons have been suspected to cause this trend, and endocrine disrupting chemicals have become into focus...... as possible contributors. Epidemiological studies on endocrine disrupters are still scarce and show only weak associations between exposures and timing of puberty. Since genetic background explains 50-80% of variability in the timing of puberty, it is not surprising that the observed environmental effects...... are rather modest when individual exposures are assessed. Despite that, some exposures have been reported to be associated to early (e.g., polybrominated biphenyls) or delayed (e.g., lead) puberty. Here we shortly review the available data on recent trends in timing of puberty and the possible role...

  17. Renal and blood pressure effects from environmental cadmium exposure in Thai children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya, E-mail: swaddi@hotmail.com [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Mahasakpan, Pranee [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Jeekeeree, Wanpen [Department of Medical Technology, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Funkhiew, Thippawan [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Sanjum, Rungaroon; Apiwatpaiboon, Thitikarn [Department of Medical Technology, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Phopueng, Ittipol [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand)

    2015-01-15

    Very few studies have shown renal and blood pressure effects from environmental cadmium exposure in children. This population study examined associations between urinary cadmium excretion, a good biomarker of long-term cadmium exposure, and renal dysfunctions and blood pressure in environmentally exposed Thai children. Renal functions including urinary excretion of β{sub 2}-microglobulin, calcium (early renal effects), and total protein (late renal effect), and blood pressure were measured in 594 primary school children. Of the children studied, 19.0% had urinary cadmium ≥1 μg/g creatinine. The prevalence of urinary cadmium ≥1 μg/g creatinine was significantly higher in girls and in those consuming rice grown in cadmium-contaminated areas. The geometric mean levels of urinary β{sub 2}-microglobulin, calcium, and total protein significantly increased with increasing tertiles of urinary cadmium. The analysis did not show increased blood pressure with increasing tertiles of urinary cadmium. After adjusting for age, sex, and blood lead levels, the analysis showed significant positive associations between urinary cadmium and urinary β{sub 2}-microglobulin and urinary calcium, but not urinary total protein nor blood pressure. Our findings provide evidence that environmental cadmium exposure can affect renal functions in children. A follow-up study is essential to assess the clinical significance and progress of renal effects in these children. - Highlights: • Few studies show renal effects from environmental cadmium exposure in children. • We report renal and blood pressure effects from cadmium exposure in Thai children. • Urinary β{sub 2}-microglobulin and calcium increased with increasing urinary cadmium. • The study found no association between urinary cadmium levels and blood pressure. • Environmental cadmium exposure can affect renal functions in children.

  18. Environmental exposure to pesticides and the risk of Parkinson's disease in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Maartje; Huss, Anke; van der Mark, Marianne; Nijssen, Peter C G; Mulleners, Wim M; Sas, Antonetta M G; van Laar, Teus; de Snoo, Geert R; Kromhout, Hans; Vermeulen, Roel C H

    2017-10-01

    Exposure to pesticides has been linked to Parkinson's disease (PD), although associations between specific pesticides and PD have not been well studied. Residents of rural areas can be exposed through environmental drift and volatilization of agricultural pesticides. Our aim was to investigate the association between lifetime environmental exposure to individual pesticides and the risk of PD, in a national case-control study. Environmental exposure to pesticides was estimated using a spatio-temporal model, based on agricultural crops around the residential address. Distance up to 100m from the residence was considered most relevant, considering pesticide drift potential of application methods used in the Netherlands. Exposure estimates were generated for 157 pesticides, used during the study period, of which four (i.e. paraquat, maneb, lindane, benomyl) were considered a priori relevant for PD. A total of 352 PD cases and 607 hospital-based controls were included. No significant associations with PD were found for the a priori pesticides. In a hypothesis generating analysis, including 153 pesticides, increased risk of PD was found for 21 pesticides, mainly used on cereals and potatoes. Results were suggestive for an association between bulb cultivation and PD. For paraquat, risk estimates for the highest cumulative exposure tertile were in line with previously reported elevated risks. Increased risk of PD was observed for exposure to (a cluster of) pesticides used on rotating crops. High correlations limited our ability to identify individual pesticides responsible for this association. This study provides some evidence for an association between environmental exposure to specific pesticides and the risk of PD, and generates new leads for further epidemiological and mechanistic research. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. DO CHILDREN BENEFIT FROM INCREASING CIGARETTE TAXES? ACCOUNTING FOR THE ENDOGENEITY OF LUNG HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL TOBACCO SMOKE EXPOSURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    My research investigates the relationship between environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure and lung function in children. I use detailed individual health data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES III) to measure the effect of environmental tobacco smoke ...

  20. Linking high resolution mass spectrometry data with exposure and toxicity forecasts to advance high-throughput environmental monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — There is a growing need in the field of exposure science for monitoring methods that rapidly screen environmental media for suspect contaminants. Measurement and...

  1. Environmental epigenomics: Current approaches to assess epigenetic effects of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDC's) on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia-Orozco, Natalia; Santiago-Toledo, Gerardo; Barrón, Valeria; Espinosa-García, Ana María; García-García, José Antonio; García-Arrazola, Roeb

    2017-04-01

    Environmental Epigenomics is a developing field to study the epigenetic effect on human health from exposure to environmental factors. Endocrine disrupting chemicals have been detected primarily in pharmaceutical drugs, personal care products, food additives, and food containers. Exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) has been associated with a high incidence and prevalence of many endocrine-related disorders in humans. Nevertheless, further evidence is needed to establish a correlation between exposure to EDC and human disorders. Conventional detection of EDCs is based on chemical structure and concentration sample analysis. However, substantial evidence has emerged, suggesting that cell exposure to EDCs leads to epigenetic changes, independently of its chemical structure with non-monotonic low-dose responses. Consequently, a paradigm shift in toxicology assessment of EDCs is proposed based on a comprehensive review of analytical techniques used to evaluate the epigenetic effects. Fundamental insights reported elsewhere are compared in order to establish DNA methylation analysis as a viable method for assessing endocrine disruptors beyond the conventional study approach of chemical structure and concentration analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Human performance analysis of industrial radiography radiation exposure events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reece, W.J.; Hill, S.G.

    1995-12-01

    A set of radiation overexposure event reports were reviewed as part of a program to examine human performance in industrial radiography for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Incident records for a seven year period were retrieved from an event database. Ninety-five exposure events were initially categorized and sorted for further analysis. Descriptive models were applied to a subset of severe overexposure events. Modeling included: (1) operational sequence tables to outline the key human actions and interactions with equipment, (2) human reliability event trees, (3) an application of an information processing failures model, and (4) an extrapolated use of the error influences and effects diagram. Results of the modeling analyses provided insights into the industrial radiography task and suggested areas for further action and study to decrease overexposures.

  3. Lifetime environmental tobacco smoke exposure and the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balmes John

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS, which contains potent respiratory irritants, may lead to chronic airway inflammation and obstruction. Although ETS exposure appears to cause asthma in children and adults, its role in causing COPD has received limited attention in epidemiologic studies. Methods Using data from a population-based sample of 2,113 U.S. adults aged 55 to 75 years, we examined the association between lifetime ETS exposure and the risk of developing COPD. Participants were recruited from all 48 contiguous U.S. states by random digit dialing. Lifetime ETS exposure was ascertained by structured telephone interview. We used a standard epidemiologic approach to define COPD based on a self-reported physician diagnosis of chronic bronchitis, emphysema, or COPD. Results Higher cumulative lifetime home and work exposure were associated with a greater risk of COPD. The highest quartile of lifetime home ETS exposure was associated with a greater risk of COPD, controlling for age, sex, race, personal smoking history, educational attainment, marital status, and occupational exposure to vapors, gas, dusts, or fumes during the longest held job (OR 1.55; 95% CI 1.09 to 2.21. The highest quartile of lifetime workplace ETS exposure was also related to a greater risk of COPD (OR 1.36; 95% CI 1.002 to 1.84. The population attributable fraction was 11% for the highest quartile of home ETS exposure and 7% for work exposure. Conclusion ETS exposure may be an important cause of COPD. Consequently, public policies aimed at preventing public smoking may reduce the burden of COPD-related death and disability, both by reducing direct smoking and ETS exposure.

  4. Do environmental pollutants increase obesity risk in humans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; Hollis-Hansen, K; Ren, X; Qiu, Y; Qu, W

    2016-12-01

    Obesity has become a global epidemic and threat to public health. A good understanding of the causes can help attenuate the risk and spread. Environmental pollutants may have contributed to the rising global obesity rates. Some research reported associations between chemical pollutants and obesity, but findings are mixed. This study systematically examined associations between chemical pollutants and obesity in human subjects. Systematic review of relevant studies published between 1 January 1995 and 1 June 2016 by searching PubMed and MEDLINE®. Thirty-five cross-sectional (n = 17) and cohort studies (n = 18) were identified that reported on associations between pollutants and obesity measures. Of them, 16 studies (45.71%) reported a positive association; none reported a sole inverse association; three (8.57%) reported a null association only; six (17.14%) reported both a positive and null association; seven (20.00%) reported a positive and inverse association; and three studies (8.57%) reported all associations (positive, inverse and null). Most studies examined the association between multiple different pollutants, different levels of concentration and in subsamples, which results in mixed results. Thirty-three studies reported at least one positive association between obesity and chemicals, such as polychlorinated biphenyls, biphenyl A, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene and more. Certain chemicals, such as biphenyl A, were more likely to have high ORs ranging from 1.0 to 3.0, whereas highly chlorinated polychlorinated biphenyls were more likely to have negative ORs. Effects of chemicals on the endocrine system and obesity might vary by substance, exposure level, measure of adiposity and subject characteristics (e.g. sex and age). Accumulated evidences show positive associations between pollutants and obesity in humans. Future large, long-term, follow-up studies are needed to assess impact of chemical pollutants on obesity

  5. Environment and human exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in India: a systematic review of recent and historical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Brij Mohan; Bharat, Girija K; Tayal, Shresth; Nizzetto, Luca; Cupr, Pavel; Larssen, Thorjørn

    2014-05-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have been used in a wide range of agricultural and industrial commodities, resulting in vigorous deterioration of environment and human health. A number of studies on the occurrence of POPs confirm their presence in various environmental compartments and human body. In order to deal with this global concern, India has recently prepared the National Implementation Plan (NIP) of the Stockholm Convention. Common beliefs point at India as a hot spot of POP contamination and human exposure; however no systematic analysis was ever performed so far considering all available past data on POP occurrence. This review aims to examine the distribution pattern of POPs in multicompartment environment and human samples, meta-analysis of time trends in exposure levels to environment and humans, and cross country comparison of POP contamination with China. Based on this review, it can be concluded that the Indian environment and human population are highly contaminated by DDTs and HCHs; however scarcity of data on other POPs makes it challenging to assess their nationwide human and environmental exposure. No evidence of a general decline in DDT and HCH residues in the environment and human body come out from the meta-analysis of time trend. While comparing contamination levels between India and China, tendency towards decline in POP contamination is visible in China, unlike India. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. DUAL ION EXPOSURE VS. SPLIT-DOSE EXPOSURES IN HUMAN CELL NEOPLASTIC TRANSFORMATION.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BENNETT, P.V.; CUTTER, N.C.; SUTHERLAND, B.M.

    2006-06-05

    Since radiation fields of space contain many-fold more protons than high atomic number, high energy (HZE) particles, cells in astronaut crews will experience on average several proton hits before an HZE hit. Thus radiation regimes of proton exposure before HZE particle exposure simulate space radiation exposure, and measurement of the frequency of neoplastic transformation of human primary cells to anchorage-independent growth simulates in initial step in cancer induction. Previously our group found that exposure to 20 cGy 1 GeV/n protons followed within about 1 hr by a HZE ion (20 cGy 1 GeV/n Fe or Ti ions) hit gave about a 3-fold increase in transformation frequency ([1]). To provide insight into the H-HZE induced increased transformation frequencies, we asked if split doses of the same ion gave similar increased transformation frequencies. However, the data show that the split dose of 20 cGy plus 20 cGy of either H or HZE ions gave about the same effect as the 40 cGy uninterrupted dose, quite different from the effect of the mixed ion H + HZE irradiation. We also asked if lower proton doses than 20 cGy followed 15 minutes later by 20 cGy of HZE ions gave greater than additive transformation frequencies. Substantial increases in transformation levels were observed for all proton doses tested, including 1 cGy. These results point to the signal importance of protons in affecting the effect of space radiation on human cells.

  7. Environmental exposure and distribution of lead in four species of raptors in Southeastern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Fernández, A J; Motas-Guzmán, M; Navas, I; María-Mojica, P; Luna, A; Sánchez-García, J A

    1997-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to monitor exposure to lead in four species of raptors in Southeastern Spain (Murcia Region). Samples of liver, kidney, brain, blood, and bone from two species of diurnal raptors (European kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) and European buzzard (Buteo buteo)) and two species of nocturnal raptors (Eagle owl (Bubo bubo) and Little owl (Athene noctua)) were obtained during 1994. Relationships were found between size and age of the birds, the nearness to areas of human activity and lead concentrations in tissues. The lead distribution pattern reveals that the bone is the principle organ for accumulation (0.62-43 mg/Kg, dry weight), followed by the kidney (0.03-0.66 mg/Kg, wet weight), and liver (0. 017-0.05 mg/Kg, w.w.), and to lesser extent, the brain (0.013-0.223 mg/Kg, w.w.). This distribution pattern indicates that raptors in Southeastern Spain were exposed to environmental low lead levels continuously over an extended period of time. Correlations between lead in bone and lead in soft tissues were higher in European buzzards (r = 0.87-0.95) and Eagle owl (r = 0.71-0.86) than those found in European kestrels (r = 0.53-0.58) and Little owls (r < 0). However, correlations between lead concentrations in soft tissues and in blood were high (r = 0.85-0.99).

  8. Reconstruction of Exposure to m-Xylene from Human Biomonitoring Data Using PBPK Modelling, Bayesian Inference, and Markov Chain Monte Carlo Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin McNally

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous biomonitoring programs, both recent and ongoing, to evaluate environmental exposure of humans to chemicals. Due to the lack of exposure and kinetic data, the correlation of biomarker levels with exposure concentrations leads to difficulty in utilizing biomonitoring data for biological guidance values. Exposure reconstruction or reverse dosimetry is the retrospective interpretation of external exposure consistent with biomonitoring data. We investigated the integration of physiologically based pharmacokinetic modelling, global sensitivity analysis, Bayesian inference, and Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation to obtain a population estimate of inhalation exposure to m-xylene. We used exhaled breath and venous blood m-xylene and urinary 3-methylhippuric acid measurements from a controlled human volunteer study in order to evaluate the ability of our computational framework to predict known inhalation exposures. We also investigated the importance of model structure and dimensionality with respect to its ability to reconstruct exposure.

  9. Reconstruction of Exposure to m-Xylene from Human Biomonitoring Data Using PBPK Modelling, Bayesian Inference, and Markov Chain Monte Carlo Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, Kevin; Cotton, Richard; Cocker, John; Jones, Kate; Bartels, Mike; Rick, David; Price, Paul; Loizou, George

    2012-01-01

    There are numerous biomonitoring programs, both recent and ongoing, to evaluate environmental exposure of humans to chemicals. Due to the lack of exposure and kinetic data, the correlation of biomarker levels with exposure concentrations leads to difficulty in utilizing biomonitoring data for biological guidance values. Exposure reconstruction or reverse dosimetry is the retrospective interpretation of external exposure consistent with biomonitoring data. We investigated the integration of physiologically based pharmacokinetic modelling, global sensitivity analysis, Bayesian inference, and Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation to obtain a population estimate of inhalation exposure to m-xylene. We used exhaled breath and venous blood m-xylene and urinary 3-methylhippuric acid measurements from a controlled human volunteer study in order to evaluate the ability of our computational framework to predict known inhalation exposures. We also investigated the importance of model structure and dimensionality with respect to its ability to reconstruct exposure.

  10. Validity and reliability of self-reported exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in work offices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemsen, MC; Brug, J; Uges, DRA; VosdeWael, ML

    1997-01-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is an occupational carcinogen. Large companies often examine ETS exposure by employee surveys, However, reliable and valid self-report measures have been lacking. This study compared validity and reliability of various self-report measures, One hundred and seven non

  11. Environmental exposure at day care centres: are our children at risk?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    John, J

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to characterize the exposure of 5-year old children attending preschool facilities in Pretoria to lead (as an example of an environmental pollutant) in air and surface soil, specifically in relation to their activity patterns....

  12. A Citizen-Science Study Documents Environmental Exposures and Asthma Prevalence in Two Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    A citizen-science study was conducted in two low-income, flood-prone communities in Atlanta, Georgia, in order to document environmental exposures and the prevalence of occupant asthma. Teams consisting of a public-health graduate student and a resident from one of the two commun...

  13. Human Exposure and Health Effects of Inorganic and Elemental Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Mercury is a toxic and non-essential metal in the human body. Mercury is ubiquitously distributed in the environment, present in natural products, and exists extensively in items encountered in daily life. There are three forms of mercury, i.e., elemental (or metallic) mercury, inorganic mercury compounds, and organic mercury compounds. This review examines the toxicity of elemental mercury and inorganic mercury compounds. Inorganic mercury compounds are water soluble with a bioavailability of 7% to 15% after ingestion; they are also irritants and cause gastrointestinal symptoms. Upon entering the body, inorganic mercury compounds are accumulated mainly in the kidneys and produce kidney damage. In contrast, human exposure to elemental mercury is mainly by inhalation, followed by rapid absorption and distribution in all major organs. Elemental mercury from ingestion is poorly absorbed with a bioavailability of less than 0.01%. The primary target organs of elemental mercury are the brain and kidney. Elemental mercury is lipid soluble and can cross the blood-brain barrier, while inorganic mercury compounds are not lipid soluble, rendering them unable to cross the blood-brain barrier. Elemental mercury may also enter the brain from the nasal cavity through the olfactory pathway. The blood mercury is a useful biomarker after short-term and high-level exposure, whereas the urine mercury is the ideal biomarker for long-term exposure to both elemental and inorganic mercury, and also as a good indicator of body burden. This review discusses the common sources of mercury exposure, skin lightening products containing mercury and mercury release from dental amalgam filling, two issues that happen in daily life, bear significant public health importance, and yet undergo extensive debate on their safety. PMID:23230464

  14. Effects of occupational exposure to tobacco smoke: is there a link between environmental exposure and disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Solange A; Torres, Vukosava M; Louro, Henriqueta; Gomes, Filomena; Lopes, Carlos; Marçal, Nelson; Fragoso, Elsa; Martins, Carla; Oliveira, Cátia L; Hagenfeldt, Manuela; Bugalho-Almeida, António; Penque, Deborah; Simões, Tânia

    2013-01-01

    In a previous study, evidence was provided that indoor secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) air pollution remains high in Lisbon restaurants where smoking is allowed, regardless of the protective measures used. The aim of this study was to determine in these locations the levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) associated with the particulate phase of SHS (PPAH), a fraction that contains recognized carginogens, such as benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). Data showed that restaurant smoking areas might contain PPAH levels as high as 110 ng/m(3), a value significantly higher than that estimated for nonsmoking areas (30 ng/m(3)) or smoke-free restaurants (22 ng/m(3)). The effective exposure to SHS components in restaurant smoking rooms was confirmed as cotinine levels found in workers' urine. Considering that all workers exhibited normal lung function, eventual molecular changes in blood that might be associated with occupational exposure to SHS and SHS-associated PPAH were investigated by measurement of two oxidative markers, total antioxidant status (TAS) and 8-hydroxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in plasma and serum, respectively. SHS-exposed workers exhibited higher mean levels of serum 8-OHdG than nonexposed workers, regardless of smoking status. By using a proteomics approach based on 2D-DIGE-MS, it was possible to identify nine differentially expressed proteins in the plasma of SHS-exposed nonsmoker workers. Two acute-phase inflammation proteins, ceruloplasmin and inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain 4 (ITIH4), were predominant. These two proteins presented a high number of isoforms modulated by SHS exposure with the high-molecular-weight (high-MW) isoforms decreased in abundance while low-MW isoforms were increased in abundance. Whether these expression profiles are due to (1) a specific proteolytic cleavage, (2) a change on protein stability, or (3) alterations on post-translational modification pattern of these proteins remains to be investigated. Considering that these

  15. Prenatal exposure to environmental phenols and childhood fat mass in the Mount Sinai Children's Environmental Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Jessie P; Herring, Amy H; Wolff, Mary S; Calafat, Antonia M; Engel, Stephanie M

    2016-05-01

    Early life exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals may alter adipogenesis and energy balance leading to changes in obesity risk. Several studies have evaluated the association of prenatal bisphenol A exposure with childhood body size but only one study of male infants has examined other environmental phenols. Therefore, we assessed associations between prenatal exposure to environmental phenols and fat mass in a prospective birth cohort. We quantified four phenol biomarkers in third trimester maternal spot urine samples in a cohort of women enrolled in New York City between 1998 and 2002 and evaluated fat mass in their children using a Tanita scale between ages 4 and 9years (173 children with 351 total observations). We estimated associations of standard deviation differences in natural log creatinine-standardized phenol biomarker concentrations with percent fat mass using linear mixed effects regression models. We did not observe associations of bisphenol A or triclosan with childhood percent fat mass. In unadjusted models, maternal urinary concentrations of 2,5-dichlorophenol were associated with greater percent fat mass and benzophenone-3 was associated with lower percent fat mass among children. After adjustment, phenol biomarkers were not associated with percent fat mass. However, the association between benzophenone-3 and percent fat mass was modified by child's sex: benzophenone-3 concentrations were inversely associated with percent fat mass in girls (beta=-1.51, 95% CI=-3.06, 0.01) but not boys (beta=-0.20, 95% CI=-1.69, 1.26). Although we did not observe strong evidence that prenatal environmental phenols exposures influence the development of childhood adiposity, the potential antiadipogenic effect of benzophenone-3 in girls may warrant further investigation.

  16. Lead Exposure Induces Telomere Instability in Human Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Géraldine Pottier

    Full Text Available Lead (Pb is an important environmental contaminant due to its widespread use over many centuries. While it affects primarily every organ system of the body, the most pernicious effects of Pb are on the central nervous system leading to cognitive and behavioral modification. Despite decades of research, the mechanisms responsible for Pb toxicity remain poorly understood. Recent work has suggested that Pb exposure may have consequences on chromosomal integrity as it was shown that Pb exposure leads to the generation of γH2Ax foci, a well-established biomarker for DNA double stranded break (DSB formation. As the chromosomal localization of γH2Ax foci plays an important role in determining the molecular mechanism responsible for their formation, we examined the localization of Pb-induced foci with respect to telomeres. Indeed, short or dysfunctional telomeres (uncapped or damaged telomeres may be recognized as DSB by the DNA repair machinery, leading to "telomere-Induced Foci" (TIFs. In the current study, we show that while Pb exposure did not increase intra-chromosomal foci, it significantly induced TIFs, leading in some cases, to chromosomal abnormalities including telomere loss. The evidence suggests that these chromosomal abnormalities are likely due to perturbation of telomere replication, in particular on the lagging DNA strand. We propose a mechanism by which Pb exposure leads to the loss of telomere maintenance. As numerous studies have demonstrated a role for telomere maintenance in brain development and tissue homeostasis, our results suggest a possible mechanism for lead-induced neurotoxicity.

  17. Exposure to modern, widespread environmental endocrine disrupting chemicals and their effect on the reproductive potential of women: an overview of current epidemiological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karwacka, Anetta; Zamkowska, Dorota; Radwan, Michał; Jurewicz, Joanna

    2017-07-31

    Growing evidence indicates that exposure to widespread, environmental contaminants called endocrine disruptors (EDCs) negatively affects animal and human reproductive health and has been linked to several diseases including infertility. This review aims to evaluate the impact of environmental exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals [phthalates, parabens, triclosan, bisphenol A (BPA), organochlorine (PCBs) and perfluorinated (PFCs) compounds] on the reproductive potential among women, by reviewing most recently published literature. Epidemiological studies focusing on EDCs exposure and reproductive potential among women for the last 16 years were identified by a search of the PUBMED, MEDLINE, EBSCO and TOXNET literature databases. The results of the presented studies show that exposure to EDCs impacts the reproductive potential in women, measured by ovarian reserve and by assisted reproductive technology outcomes. Exposure to environmental endocrine disrupting chemicals decrease: (i) oestradiol levels (BPA); (ii) anti-Müllerian hormone concentrations (PCBs); (iii) antral follicle count (BPA, parabens, phthalates); (iv) oocyte quality (BPA, triclosan, phthalates, PCBs); (v) fertilization rate (PFCs, PCBs); (vi) implantation (BPA, phthalates, PCBs); (vii) embryo quality (triclosan, PCBs, BPA); (viii) rate of clinical pregnancy and live births (parabens, phthalates). The studies were mostly well-designed and used prospective cohorts with the exposure assessment based on the biomarker of exposure. Considering the suggested health effects, more epidemiological data is urgently needed to confirm the presented findings.

  18. Environmental hazards in Nepal: altitude illness, environmental exposures, injuries, and bites in travelers and expatriates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggild, Andrea K; Costiniuk, Cecilia; Kain, Kevin C; Pandey, Prativa

    2007-01-01

    Adventure travel necessarily places travelers at risk of environmental hazards. We assessed the burden of "environmental" hazards among a cohort of travelers and expatriates presenting to a large travel clinic in Nepal. Data on travelers and expatriates seen at the Canadian International Water and Energy Consultants (CIWEC) clinic in Kathmandu were prospectively collected and entered into the GeoSentinel Surveillance Network database. Data on individuals receiving predefined diagnoses related to environmental hazards were extracted and analyzed. Of 10,499 travelers and 4,854 expatriates in the database, 2,160 were diagnosed with 2,533 environment-related illnesses. Injuries were common among both travelers and expatriates [N= 788 (6.1%) and 328 (4.9%), respectively], while altitude illness was seen almost exclusively in travelers [N= 611 (4.7%) vs N= 8 (0.1%)]. Factors independently associated with environmental diagnoses include male gender (p tourism (p Environmental hazards are important causes of morbidity and potential mortality among adventure travelers and expatriates. Current pre-travel interventions are missing certain risk groups entirely and failing to have the desired educational impact in others.

  19. Biomonitoring of human exposures to chlorinated derivatives and structural analogs of bisphenol A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andra, Syam S; Charisiadis, Pantelis; Arora, Manish; van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V; Makris, Konstantinos C

    2015-12-01

    The high reactivity of bisphenol A (BPA) with disinfectant chlorine is evident in the instantaneous formation of chlorinated BPA derivatives (ClxBPA) in various environmental media that show increased estrogen-activity when compared with that of BPA. The documented health risks associated with BPA exposures have led to the gradual market entry of BPA structural analogs, such as bisphenol S (BPS), bisphenol F (BPF), bisphenol B (BPB), etc. A suite of exposure sources to ClxBPA and BPA analogs in the domestic environment is anticipated to drive the nature and range of halogenated BPA derivatives that can form when residual BPA comes in contact with disinfectant in tap water and/or consumer products. The primary objective of this review was to survey all available studies reporting biomonitoring protocols of ClxBPA and structural BPA analogs (BPS, BPF, BPB, etc.) in human matrices. Focus was paid on describing the analytical methodologies practiced for the analysis of ClxBPA and BPA analogs using hyphenated chromatography and mass spectrometry techniques, because current methodologies for human matrices are complex. During the last decade, an increasing number of ecotoxicological, cell-culture and animal-based and human studies dealing with ClxBPA exposure sources and routes of exposure, metabolism and toxicity have been published. Up to date findings indicated the association of ClxBPA with metabolic conditions, such as obesity, lipid accumulation, and type 2 diabetes mellitus, particularly in in-vitro and in-vivo studies. We critically discuss the limitations, research needs and future opportunities linked with the inclusion of ClxBPA and BPA analogs into exposure assessment protocols of relevant epidemiological studies.

  20. Environmental Factors Influencing White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus Exposure to Livestock Pathogens in Wisconsin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelli Dubay

    Full Text Available White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus are commonly exposed to disease agents that affect livestock but environmental factors that predispose deer to exposure are unknown for many pathogens. We trapped deer during winter months on two study areas (Northern Forest and Eastern Farmland in Wisconsin from 2010 to 2013. Deer were tested for exposure to six serovars of Leptospira interrogans (grippotyphosa, icterohaemorrhagiae, canicola, bratislava, pomona, and hardjo, bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV-1 and BVDV-2, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBR, and parainfluenza 3 virus (PI3. We used logistic regression to model potential intrinsic (e.g., age, sex and extrinsic (e.g., land type, study site, year, exposure to multiple pathogens variables we considered biologically meaningful to exposure of deer to livestock pathogens. Deer sampled in 2010-2011 did not demonstrate exposure to BVDV, so we did not test for BVDV in subsequent years. Deer had evidence of exposure to PI3 (24.7%, IBR (7.9%, Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona (11.7%, L. i. bratislava (1.0%, L. i. grippotyphosa (2.5% and L. i. hardjo (0.3%. Deer did not demonstrate exposure to L. interrogans serovars canicola and icterohaemorrhagiae. For PI3, we found that capture site and year influenced exposure. Fawns (n = 119 were not exposed to L. i. pomona, but land type was an important predictor of exposure to L. i. pomona for older deer. Our results serve as baseline exposure levels of Wisconsin white-tailed deer to livestock pathogens, and helped to identify important factors that explain deer exposure to livestock pathogens.

  1. Bioassay of Environmental Exposure of Children to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Using 1-Hydroxypyrene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahimi Ghavam Abadi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are a group of main air pollutants which are produced by motor vehicles and are known as carcinogens. Objectives This study was conducted to investigate the environmental exposure of children to PAHs using urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP measurement. Patients and Methods A total of 260 participants enrolled in the study, aged between 6 - 12 years. Environmental exposure due to urban traffic and tobacco smoke was investigated. Morning and evening urine samples were collected and 1-OHP concentrations were measured. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC with fluorescence detector, used for sample analysis, and 1-OHP concentrations in urine samples, corrected by urinary creatinine, were determined for PAHs exposure assessment. Information on environmental tobacco smoke (ETS exposure at home and air pollution of the residential area as a measure of heavy traffic and living close to busy highways were collected using a self-administrated questionnaire. Results In general, the results showed that males had higher 1-OHP levels than females (P < 0.05. The total morning levels were 0.47 ± 0.12 µmol/mol crea vs. 0.63 ± 0.15 µmol/mol crea for evening. In the presence of ETS, higher 1-OHP concentrations were observed in morning samples. In addition, living in a polluted area is strongly associated with higher levels of 1-OHP. Conclusions Taking into account that Iran is a developing country with a young population and numerous PAHs sources, environmental exposure to PAHs at these levels can be dangerous for children’s health. Furthermore, PAHs can be declared as national concerning environmental pollutants.

  2. Prenatal Exposure to Progesterone Affects Sexual Orientation in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinisch, June M; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Sanders, Stephanie A

    2017-07-01

    Prenatal sex hormone levels affect physical and behavioral sexual differentiation in animals and humans. Although prenatal hormones are theorized to influence sexual orientation in humans, evidence is sparse. Sexual orientation variables for 34 prenatally progesterone-exposed subjects (17 males and 17 females) were compared to matched controls (M age = 23.2 years). A case-control double-blind design was used drawing on existing data from the US/Denmark Prenatal Development Project. Index cases were exposed to lutocyclin (bioidentical progesterone = C21H30O2; M W : 314.46) and no other hormonal preparation. Controls were matched on 14 physical, medical, and socioeconomic variables. A structured interview conducted by a psychologist and self-administered questionnaires were used to collect data on sexual orientation, self-identification, attraction to the same and other sex, and history of sexual behavior with each sex. Compared to the unexposed, fewer exposed males and females identified as heterosexual and more of them reported histories of same-sex sexual behavior, attraction to the same or both sexes, and scored higher on attraction to males. Measures of heterosexual behavior and scores on attraction to females did not differ significantly by exposure. We conclude that, regardless of sex, exposure appeared to be associated with higher rates of bisexuality. Prenatal progesterone may be an underappreciated epigenetic factor in human sexual and psychosexual development and, in light of the current prevalence of progesterone treatment during pregnancy for a variety of pregnancy complications, warrants further investigation. These data on the effects of prenatal exposure to exogenous progesterone also suggest a potential role for natural early perturbations in progesterone levels in the development of sexual orientation.

  3. Environmental tobacco smoke in designated smoking areas in the hospitality industry: exposure measurements, exposure modelling and policy assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNabola, A; Eyre, G J; Gill, L W

    2012-09-01

    Tobacco control policy has been enacted in many jurisdictions worldwide banning smoking in the workplace. In the hospitality sector many businesses such as bars, hotels and restaurants have installed designated smoking areas on their premises and allowance for such smoking areas has been made in the tobacco control legislation of many countries. An investigation was carried out into the level of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) present in 8 pubs in Ireland which included designated smoking areas complying with two different definitions of a smoking area set out in Irish legislation. In addition, ETS exposure in a pub with a designated smoking area not in compliance with the legislation was also investigated. The results of this investigation showed that the two differing definitions of a smoking area present in pubs produced similar concentrations of benzene within smoking areas (5.1-5.4 μg/m(3)) but differing concentrations within the 'smoke-free' areas (1.42-3.01 μg/m(3)). Smoking areas in breach of legislative definitions were found to produce the highest levels of benzene in the smoking area (49.5 μg/m(3)) and 'smoke-free' area (7.68 μg/m(3)). 3D exposure modelling of hypothetical smoking areas showed that a wide range of ETS exposure concentrations were possible in smoking areas with the same floor area and same smoking rate but differing height to width and length to width ratios. The results of this investigation demonstrate that significant scope for improvement of ETS exposure concentrations in pubs and in smoking areas may exist by refining and improving the legislative definitions of smoking areas in law. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Large organic aerosols in a human exposure chamber : Applications in occupational dermatology and lung medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Lundgren, Lennart

    2006-01-01

    Exposure to large organic aerosol particles may cause respiratory and skin reactions. The use of human exposure chambers offers possibilities for experimental exposure challenges carried out with patients, in research and for investigations of the effects of exposure on the skin and in the respiratory tract. The present aim was to study the performance of modern human whole-body exposure chambers during generation of large organic particles, and to develop and test new me...

  5. Combined Space Environmental Exposure Tests of Multi-Junction GaAs/Ge Solar Array Coupons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Bao; Wong, Frankie; Corey, Ron; Gardiner, George; Funderburk, Victor V.; Gahart, Richard; Wright, Kenneth H.; Schneider, Todd; Vaughn, Jason

    2010-01-01

    A set of multi-junction GaAs/Ge solar array test coupons were subjected to a sequence of 5-year increments of combined environmental exposure tests. The purpose of this test program is to understand the changes and degradation of the solar array panel components, including its ESD mitigation design features in their integrated form, after multiple years (up to 15) of simulated geosynchronous space environment. These tests consist of: UV radiation, electrostatic discharge (ESD), electron/proton particle radiation, thermal cycling, and ion thruster plume exposures. The solar radiation was produced using a Mercury-Xenon lamp with wavelengths in the UV spectrum ranging from 230 to 400 nm. The ESD test was performed in the inverted-gradient mode using a low-energy electron (2.6 - 6 keV) beam exposure. The ESD test also included a simulated panel coverglass flashover for the primary arc event. The electron/proton radiation exposure included both 1.0 MeV and 100 keV electron beams simultaneous with a 40 keV proton beam. The thermal cycling included simulated transient earth eclipse for satellites in geosynchronous orbit. With the increasing use of ion thruster engines on many satellites, the combined environmental test also included ion thruster exposure to determine whether solar array surface erosion had any impact on its performance. Before and after each increment of environmental exposures, the coupons underwent visual inspection under high power magnification and electrical tests that included characterization by LAPSS, Dark I-V, and electroluminescence. This paper discusses the test objective, test methodologies, and preliminary results after 5 years of simulated exposure.

  6. Does exposure to environmental radiofrequency electromagnetic fields cause cognitive and behavioral effects in 10-year-old boys?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvente, Irene; Pérez-Lobato, Rocío; Núñez, María-Isabel; Ramos, Rosa; Guxens, Mònica; Villalba, Juan; Olea, Nicolás; Fernández, Mariana F

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between exposure to electromagnetic fields from non-ionizing radiation and adverse human health effects remains controversial. We aimed to explore the association of environmental radiofrequency-electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) exposure with neurobehavioral function of children. A subsample of 123 boys belonging to the Environment and Childhood cohort from Granada (Spain), recruited at birth from 2000 through 2002, were evaluated at the age of 9-11 years. Spot electric field measurements within the 100 kHz to 6 GHz frequency range, expressed as both root mean-square (S(RMS) and maximum power density (S(MAX)) magnitudes, were performed in the immediate surrounds of childreńs dwellings. Neurocognitive and behavioral functions were assessed with a comprehensive battery of tests. Multivariate linear and logistic regression models were used, adjusting for potential confounders. All measurements were lower than reference guideline limits, with median S(RMS) and S(MAX) values of 285.94 and 2759.68 μW/m(2), respectively. Most of the cognitive and behavioral parameters did not show any effect, but children living in higher RF exposure areas (above median S(RMS) levels) had lower scores for verbal expression/comprehension and higher scores for internalizing and total problems, and obsessive-compulsive and post-traumatic stress disorders, in comparison to those living in areas with lower exposure. These associations were stronger when S(MAX) values were considered. Although some of our results may suggest that low-level environmental RF-EMF exposure has a negative impact on cognitive and/or behavior development in children; given limitations in the study design and that the majority of neurobehavioral functioning tasks were not affected, definitive conclusions cannot be drawn.

  7. Categorizing biomarkers of the human exposome and developing metrics for assessing environmental sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleil, Joachim D

    2012-01-01

    The concept of maintaining environmental sustainability broadly encompasses all human activities that impact the global environment, including the production of energy, use and management of finite resources such as petrochemicals, metals, food production (farmland, fresh and ocean waters), and potable water sources (rivers, lakes, aquifers), as well as preserving the diversity of the surrounding ecosystems. The ultimate concern is how one can manage Spaceship Earth in the long term to sustain the life, health, and welfare of the human species and the planet's flora and fauna. On a more intimate scale, one needs to consider the human interaction with the environment as expressed in the form of the exposome, which is defined as all exogenous and endogenous exposures from conception onward, including exposures from diet, lifestyle, and internal biology, as a quantity of critical interest to disease etiology. Current status and subsequent changes in the measurable components of the exposome, the human biomarkers, could thus conceivably be used to assess the sustainability of the environmental conditions with respect to human health. The basic theory is that a shift away from sustainability will be reflected in outlier measurements of human biomarkers. In this review, the philosophy of long-term environmental sustainability is explored in the context of human biomarker measurements and how empirical data can be collected and interpreted to assess if solutions to existing environmental problems might have unintended consequences. The first part discusses four conventions in the literature for categorizing environmental biomarkers and how different types of biomarker measurements might fit into the various grouping schemes. The second part lays out a sequence of data management strategies to establish statistics and patterns within the exposome that reflect human homeostasis and how changes or perturbations might be interpreted in light of external environmental

  8. Soil is an important pathway of human lead exposure.

    OpenAIRE

    Mielke, H W; Reagan, P L

    1998-01-01

    This review shows the equal or greater importance of leaded gasoline-contaminated dust compared to lead-based paint to the child lead problem, and that soil lead, resulting from leaded gasoline and pulverized lead-based paint, is at least or more important than lead-based paint (intact and not pulverized) as a pathway of human lead exposure. Because lead-based paint is a high-dose source, the biologically relevant dosage is similar to lead in soil. Both lead-based paint and soil lead are asso...

  9. Soil is an important pathway of human lead exposure.

    OpenAIRE

    Mielke, H W; Reagan, P L

    1998-01-01

    This review shows the equal or greater importance of leaded gasoline-contaminated dust compared to lead-based paint to the child lead problem, and that soil lead, resulting from leaded gasoline and pulverized lead-based paint, is at least or more important than lead-based paint (intact and not pulverized) as a pathway of human lead exposure. Because lead-based paint is a high-dose source, the biologically relevant dosage is similar to lead in soil. Both lead-based paint and soil lead are asso...

  10. Dietary exposure to cadmium and health effects: impact of environmental changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piscator, M

    1985-11-01

    Cadmium exposure, metabolism, and effects are described especially in relation to dietary intakes. Data on dietary intakes in several countries have been complied from studies using the duplicate diet method or fecal analysis. These two methods seem to give more accurate data than estimates based on cadmium concentrations in food classes and food consumption (composite method). The present data on absorption and retention of ingested cadmium indicate that normally less than 5% is ingested, but absorption may increase in women who have iron deficiency. Earlier estimates of the critical concentration in renal cortex being about 200 mg/kg wet weight still seem to be valid. New information is available on present renal levels and their distribution in the general population. The present margin of safety with regard to risk for renal effects is small. To predict future health risks from increases in dietary cadmium due to environmental changes such as acid deposition, it is necessary that the models used are based on correct assumptions. Of interest are the distributions of dietary intake, gastrointestinal absorption, and renal cadmium concentrations. These distributions are normal or lognormal, and since standard deviations are used when estimating risks, it is of paramount importance that the standard deviations are estimated as accurately as possible. At present it is not possible to quantify the effects attributed to acid rain only; account must be also be taken of cadmium added to, e.g., soil by use of sewage sludge and other fertilizers. In addition to risks to human health, cadmium also poses a threat to horses, which generally have renal cadmium concentrations several times higher than adult humans. It is recommended that horses should be monitored in areas when acid deposition is high. Such monitoring might provide valuable information about impact of acid rain.

  11. Human urinary mutagenicity after wood smoke exposure during traditional temazcal use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Alexandra S; Lemieux, Christine L; Yousefi, Paul; Ruiz-Mercado, Ilse; Lam, Nicholas L; Orellana, Carolina Romero; White, Paul A; Smith, Kirk R; Holland, Nina

    2014-09-01

    In Central America, the traditional temazcales or wood-fired steam baths, commonly used by many Native American populations, are often heated by wood fires with little ventilation, and this use results in high wood smoke exposure. Urinary mutagenicity has been previously employed as a non-invasive biomarker of human exposure to combustion emissions. This study examined the urinary mutagenicity in 19 indigenous Mayan families from the highlands of Guatemala who regularly use temazcales (N = 32), as well as control (unexposed) individuals from the same population (N = 9). Urine samples collected before and after temazcal exposure were enzymatically deconjugated and extracted using solid-phase extraction. The creatinine-adjusted mutagenic potency of urine extracts was assessed using the plate-incorporation version of the Salmonella mutagenicity assay with strain YG1041 in the presence of exogenous metabolic activation. The post-exposure mutagenic potency of urine extracts were, on average, 1.7-fold higher than pre-exposure samples (P temazcal use (P temazcal were positively associated with urinary mutagenic potency (i.e. P temazcal use contributes to increased excretion of conjugated mutagenic metabolites. Moreover, urinary mutagenic potency is correlated with other metrics of exposure (i.e. exhaled CO, duration of exposure). Since urinary mutagenicity is a biomarker associated with genetic damage, temazcal use may therefore be expected to contribute to an increased risk of DNA damage and mutation, effects associated with the initiation of cancer. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the UK Environmental Mutagen Society.

  12. Linking Exposure Assessment Science With Policy Objectives for Environmental Justice and Breast Cancer Advocacy: The Northern California Household Exposure Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Zota, Ami; Brown, Phil; Pérez, Carla; Rudel, Ruthann A.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We compared an urban fence-line community (neighboring an oil refinery) and a nonindustrial community in an exposure study focusing on pollutants of interest with respect to breast cancer and environmental justice. Methods. We analyzed indoor and outdoor air from 40 homes in industrial Richmond, California, and 10 in rural Bolinas, California, for 153 compounds, including particulates and endocrine disruptors. Results. Eighty compounds were detected outdoors in Richmond and 60 in Bolinas; Richmond concentrations were generally higher. Richmond's vanadium and nickel levels indicated effects of heavy oil combustion from oil refining and shipping; these levels were among the state's highest. In nearly half of Richmond homes, PM2.5 exceeded California's annual ambient air quality standard. Paired outdoor–indoor measurements were significantly correlated for industry- and traffic-related PM2.5, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, elemental carbon, metals, and sulfates (r = 0.54–0.92, P environmental injustice concerns in communities that host polluters. Community-based participatory exposure research can contribute to science and stimulate and inform action on the part of community residents and policymakers. PMID:19890164

  13. MDI Biological Laboratory Arsenic Summit: Approaches to Limiting Human Exposure to Arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Bruce A; Caldwell, Kathleen; Congdon, Clare Bates; Disney, Jane; Donahue, Maria; Ferguson, Elizabeth; Flemings, Elsie; Golden, Meredith; Guerinot, Mary Lou; Highman, Jay; James, Karen; Kim, Carol; Lantz, R Clark; Marvinney, Robert G; Mayer, Greg; Miller, David; Navas-Acien, Ana; Nordstrom, D Kirk; Postema, Sonia; Rardin, Laurie; Rosen, Barry; SenGupta, Arup; Shaw, Joseph; Stanton, Elizabeth; Susca, Paul

    2015-09-01

    This report is the outcome of the meeting "Environmental and Human Health Consequences of Arsenic" held at the MDI Biological Laboratory in Salisbury Cove, Maine, August 13-15, 2014. Human exposure to arsenic represents a significant health problem worldwide that requires immediate attention according to the World Health Organization (WHO). One billion people are exposed to arsenic in food, and more than 200 million people ingest arsenic via drinking water at concentrations greater than international standards. Although the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has set a limit of 10 μg/L in public water supplies and the WHO has recommended an upper limit of 10 μg/L, recent studies indicate that these limits are not protective enough. In addition, there are currently few standards for arsenic in food. Those who participated in the Summit support citizens, scientists, policymakers, industry, and educators at the local, state, national, and international levels to (1) establish science-based evidence for setting standards at the local, state, national, and global levels for arsenic in water and food; (2) work with government agencies to set regulations for arsenic in water and food, to establish and strengthen non-regulatory programs, and to strengthen collaboration among government agencies, NGOs, academia, the private sector, industry, and others; (3) develop novel and cost-effective technologies for identification and reduction of exposure to arsenic in water; (4) develop novel and cost-effective approaches to reduce arsenic exposure in juice, rice, and other relevant foods; and (5) develop an Arsenic Education Plan to guide the development of science curricula as well as community outreach and education programs that serve to inform students and consumers about arsenic exposure and engage them in well water testing and development of remediation strategies.

  14. Local-Scale Air Quality Modeling in Support of Human Health and Exposure Research (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isakov, V.

    2010-12-01

    Spatially- and temporally-sparse information on air quality is a key concern for air-pollution-related environmental health studies. Monitor networks are sparse in both space and time, are costly to maintain, and are often designed purposely to avoid detecting highly localized sources. Recent studies have shown that more narrowly defining the geographic domain of the study populations and improvements in the measured/estimated ambient concentrations can lead to stronger associations between air pollution and hospital admissions and mortality records. Traditionally, ambient air quality measurements have been used as a primary input to support human health and exposure research. However, there is increasing evidence that the current ambient monitoring network is not capturing sharp gradients in exposure due to the presence of high concentration levels near, for example, major roadways. Many air pollutants exhibit large concentration gradients near large emitters such as major roadways, factories, ports, etc. To overcome these limitations, researchers are now beginning to use air quality models to support air pollution exposure and health studies. There are many advantages to using air quality models over traditional approaches based on existing ambient measurements alone. First, models can provide spatially- and temporally-resolved concentrations as direct input to exposure and health studies and thus better defining the concentration levels for the population in the geographic domain. Air quality models have a long history of use in air pollution regulations, and supported by regulatory agencies and a large user community. Also, models can provide bidirectional linkages between sources of emissions and ambient concentrations, thus allowing exploration of various mitigation strategies to reduce risk to exposure. In order to provide best estimates of air concentrations to support human health and exposure studies, model estimates should consider local-scale features

  15. Human health risk assessment of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) from environmental matrices

    OpenAIRE

    Elom, Nwabueze

    2012-01-01

    In assessing human health risk of potentially toxic elements (PTEs), it is not the concentration of PTEs in the environmental matrices that is of greatest concern but the fraction that is absorbed into the body via the exposure pathways. The determination of this fraction (i.e. the bioaccessible fraction) through the application of bioaccessibility protocols is the focus of this work. The study investigated human health risk of PTEs (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Mn, Ni and Zn) from oral ingestion of s...

  16. Microarray applications to understand the impact of exposure to environmental contaminants in wild dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancia, Annalaura; Abelli, Luigi; Kucklick, John R; Rowles, Teresa K; Wells, Randall S; Balmer, Brian C; Hohn, Aleta A; Baatz, John E; Ryan, James C

    2015-02-01

    It is increasingly common to monitor the marine environment and establish geographic trends of environmental contamination by measuring contaminant levels in animals from higher trophic levels. The health of an ecosystem is largely reflected in the health of its inhabitants. As an apex predator, the common bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) can reflect the health of near shore marine ecosystems, and reflect coastal threats that pose risk to human health, such as legacy contaminants or marine toxins, e.g. polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and brevetoxins. Major advances in the understanding of dolphin biology and the unique adaptations of these animals in response to the marine environment are being made as a result of the development of cell-lines for use in in vitro experiments, the production of monoclonal antibodies to recognize dolphin proteins, the development of dolphin DNA microarrays to measure global gene expression and the sequencing of the dolphin genome. These advances may play a central role in understanding the complex and specialized biology of the dolphin with regard to how this species responds to an array of environmental insults. This work presents the creation, characterization and application of a new molecular tool to better understand the complex and unique biology of the common bottlenose dolphin and its response to environmental stress and infection. A dolphin oligo microarray representing 24,418 unigene sequences was developed and used to analyze blood samples collected from 69 dolphins during capture-release health assessments at five geographic locations (Beaufort, NC, Sarasota Bay, FL, Saint Joseph Bay, FL, Sapelo Island, GA and Brunswick, GA). The microarray was validated and tested for its ability to: 1) distinguish male from female dolphins; 2) differentiate dolphins inhabiting different geographic locations (Atlantic coasts vs the Gulf of Mexico); and 3) study in detail dolphins resident in one site, the Georgia coast, known to

  17. Organophosphorus flame retardants and plasticizers: sources, occurrence, toxicity and human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Gao-Ling; Li, Ding-Qiang; Zhuo, Mu-Ning; Liao, Yi-Shan; Xie, Zhen-Yue; Guo, Tai-Long; Li, Jun-Jie; Zhang, Si-Yi; Liang, Zhi-Quan

    2015-01-01

    Due to the restricted use and ban of brominated flame retardants, organophosphorus compounds (OPs), extensively used as flame retardants and plasticizers, are ubiquitous in various environmental compartments worldwide. The present study shows that the release of OPs from a wide variety of commercial products and wastewater discharge might be considered as primary emission sources and that high potential of long-range atmospheric transport and persistence of OPs would be responsible for their presence in various matrices on a global scale. The occurrence and environmental behaviors of OPs in diverse matrices (e.g., dust, air, water, sediment, soil and biota) are reviewed. Human exposures to OPs via dermal contact, dust ingestion, inhalation and dietary intake are comprehensively evaluated. Finally, this study identifies gaps in the existing issues and generates a future agenda for the emerging contaminants OPs.

  18. Lines of evidence for environmentally driven human migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, K. F.; D'Odorico, P.

    2012-12-01

    International human migration is an important mechanism that affects, and is affected by, various human and natural systems. With the number of people living outside their countries of origin currently estimated at 214 million people and projected to potentially reach more than 400 million people by mid-century, the topic of international human movements presents possible advantages and pitfalls for both sending and receiving countries on multiple fronts (e.g. economic, environmental, political and cultural). Understanding how human migration interacts with human and natural systems is therefore essential in realizing a sustainable and balanced future. While the study of international migration has historically been motivated largely by economic and political interests, the issue of environmentally induced migration has become increasingly important in light of a rapidly changing climate in conjunction with increasing population pressure on many important resources. Particularly in terms of theoretical and conceptual discussions, environmentally induced human migration has been receiving increased attention in the literature. To date, few studies - many of which focus on internal (intra-national) or regional migration - have attempted to quantify the interactions of human migration and the environment, with little attention paid to the global scale as a result of varying regional factors and lack of sufficient data. Recently available global bilateral migration datasets have been developed that allow for a more comprehensive understanding of human movements between all countries. With these datasets, we seek to elucidate environmental drivers of human migration over the past half-century using a multi-pronged approach. First, using a recently developed universal radiation model, we examine human movements based solely on global population distribution. Next, by comparison of migration movements with selected economic, environmental and human welfare indicators, we

  19. Racial Differences in Perceptions of Air Pollution Health Risk: Does Environmental Exposure Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayajit Chakraborty

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article extends environmental risk perception research by exploring how potential health risk from exposure to industrial and vehicular air pollutants, as well as other contextual and socio-demographic factors, influence racial/ethnic differences in air pollution health risk perception. Our study site is the Greater Houston metropolitan area, Texas, USA—a racially/ethnically diverse area facing high levels of exposure to pollutants from both industrial and transportation sources. We integrate primary household-level survey data with estimates of excess cancer risk from ambient exposure to industrial and on-road mobile source emissions of air toxics obtained from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Statistical analysis is based on multivariate generalized estimation equation models which account for geographic clustering of surveyed households. Our results reveal significantly higher risk perceptions for non-Hispanic Black residents and those exposed to greater cancer risk from industrial pollutants, and also indicate that gender influences the relationship between race/ethnicity and air pollution risk perception. These findings highlight the need to incorporate measures of environmental health risk exposure in future analysis of social disparities in risk perception.

  20. Conceptualization and measurement of environmental exposure in epidemiology: accounting for activity space related to daily mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchoux, Camille; Chaix, Basile; Cummins, Steven; Kestens, Yan

    2013-05-01

    A considerable body of literature has investigated how environmental exposures affect health through various pathways. These studies have generally adopted a common approach to define environmental exposures, focusing on the local residential environment, using census tracts or postcodes to delimit exposures. However, use of such administrative units may not be appropriate to evaluate contextual effets on health because they are generally not a 'true' representation of the environments to which individuals are exposed. Recent work has suggested that advances may be made if an activity-space approach is adopted. The present paper investigates how various disciplines may contribute to the refinement of the concept of activity space for use in health research. In particular we draw on seminal work in time geography, which provides a framework to describe individual behavior in space and time, and can help the conceptualization of activity space. In addition we review work in environmental psychology and social networks research, which provides insights on how people and places interact and offers new theories for improving the spatial definition of contextual exposures.

  1. Is exposure to cyanobacteria an environmental risk factor for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and other neurodegenerative diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Walter G.; Borenstein, Amy R.; Nelson, Lorene M.; Codd, Geoffrey A.; Rosen, Barry H.; Stommel, Elijah W.; Cox, Paul Alan

    2013-01-01

    There is a broad scientific consensus that amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is caused by gene-environment interactions. Mutations in genes underlying familial ALS (fALS) have been discovered in only 5–10% of the total population of ALS patients. Relatively little attention has been paid to environmental and lifestyle factors that may trigger the cascade of motor neuron death leading to the syndrome of ALS, although exposure to chemicals including lead and pesticides, and to agricultural environments, smoking, certain sports, and trauma have all been identified with an increased risk of ALS. There is a need for research to quantify the relative roles of each of the identified risk factors for ALS. Recent evidence has strengthened the theory that chronic environmental exposure to the neurotoxic amino acid β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) produced by cyanobacteria may be an environmental risk factor for ALS. Here we describe methods that may be used to assess exposure to cyanobacteria, and hence potentially to BMAA, namely an epidemiologic questionnaire and direct and indirect methods for estimating the cyanobacterial load in ecosystems. Rigorous epidemiologic studies could determine the risks associated with exposure to cyanobacteria, and if combined with genetic analysis of ALS cases and controls could reveal etiologically important gene-environment interactions in genetically vulnerable individuals.

  2. Impact of the "Tobacco control law" on exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorrilla Belén

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The initial evaluations of the introduction of legislation that regulates smoking in enclosed public places in European countries, describe an important effect in the control of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. However, the evidence is still limited. The objective of this study is to estimate the short-term effects of the comprehensive "Tobacco control law" introduced in Spain on January 2006, which includes a total ban of smoking in workplaces and a partial limitation of smoking in bars and restaurants. Methods Cross-sectional, population-based study. The self-reported exposure to environmental tobacco smoke at home, at work, in bars and restaurants of the population aged 18 to 64 years in the Madrid Region during a period prior to the law (October and November 2005; n = 1750 was compared to that of the period immediately after the law came into force (January-July 2006; n = 1252. Adjusted odds ratios (OR were calculated using logistic regression models. Results Passive exposure to tobacco smoke at home has hardly changed. However, at indoor workplaces there has been a considerable reduction: after the law came into force the OR for daily exposure > 0–3 hours versus non-exposure was 0.11 (95% CI: 0.07 to 0.17 and for more than 3 hours, 0.12 (95% CI: 0.09 to 0.18. For fairly high exposure in bars and restaurants versus non-exposure, the OR in the former was 0.30 (95% CI: 0.20 to 0.44 and in the latter was 0.24 (95% CI: 0.18 to 0.32; for very high exposure versus non-exposure they were 0.16 (95% CI: 0.10 to 0.24 and 0.11 (95% CI: 0.07 to 0.19, respectively. These results were similar for the smoking and non-smoking populations. Conclusion A considerable reduction in exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in the workplace and, to a lesser extent, in bars and restaurants, is related to the implementation of the "Tobacco control law". Although only initial figures, these results already demonstrate the effectiveness of

  3. Relationship between vapor intrusion and human exposure to trichloroethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Natalie P; Bradford, Carrie M; Villanacci, John F; Crain, Neil E; Corsi, Richard L; Chambers, David M; Burk, Tonia; Blount, Benjamin C

    2015-01-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) in groundwater has the potential to volatilize through soil into indoor air where it can be inhaled. The purpose of this study was to determine whether individuals living above TCE-contaminated groundwater are exposed to TCE through vapor intrusion. We examined associations between TCE concentrations in various environmental media and TCE concentrations in residents. For this assessment, indoor air, outdoor air, soil gas, and tap water samples were collected in and around 36 randomly selected homes; blood samples were collected from 63 residents of these homes. Additionally, a completed exposure survey was collected from each participant. Environmental and blood samples were analyzed for TCE. Mixed model multiple linear regression analyses were performed to determine associations between TCE in residents' blood and TCE in indoor air, outdoor air, and soil gas. Blood TCE concentrations were above the limit of quantitation (LOQ; ≥ 0.012 µg L(-1)) in 17.5% of the blood samples. Of the 36 homes, 54.3%, 47.2%, and >84% had detectable concentrations of TCE in indoor air, outdoor air, and soil gas, respectively. Both indoor air and soil gas concentrations were statistically significantly positively associated with participants' blood concentrations (P = 0.0002 and P = 0.04, respectively). Geometric mean blood concentrations of residents from homes with indoor air concentrations of >1.6 µg m(-3) were approximately 50 times higher than geometric mean blood TCE concentrations in participants from homes with no detectable TCE in indoor air (P < .0001; 95% CI 10.4-236.4). This study confirms the occurrence of vapor intrusion and demonstrates the magnitude of exposure from vapor intrusion of TCE in a residential setting.

  4. Human exposure to arsenic in groundwater from Lahore district, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibi, Mehwish; Hashmi, Muhammad Zaffar; Malik, Riffat Naseem

    2015-01-01

    In the present study we determined As concentrations in healthy volunteers from three different age groups (children, adults and old age) residing in Lahore, Pakistan to gain insight into arsenic exposure to humans via drinking water. The results revealed that the concentrations of As were significantly (p<0.05) different among different sites, while non significant trends were observed among different age classes. As concentrations in blood and nails samples showed a significant (p<0.05) positive correlation. The mean concentrations of As were higher in nails samples (1.43μg/g) followed by blood samples (1.15μg/L); urine samples (0.82μg/l) and hair samples (0.74μg/g) based on all sites. The antioxidants enzyme activities in blood samples showed a significant (p<0.01) decrease with the increase in As concentrations. The result suggests that urgent action is needed to prevent further human exposure to As.

  5. Human exposure to soil contaminants in subarctic Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Stephanie Reyes

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chemical contaminants in the Canadian subarctic present a health risk with exposures primarily occurring via the food consumption. Objective: Characterization of soil contaminants is needed in northern Canada due to increased gardening and agricultural food security initiatives and the presence of known point sources of pollution. Design: A field study was conducted in the western James Bay Region of Ontario, Canada, to examine the concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (ΣDDT, other organochlorines, and metals/metalloids in potentially contaminated agriculture sites. Methods: Exposure pathways were assessed by comparing the estimated daily intake to acceptable daily intake values. Ninety soil samples were collected at random (grid sampling from 3 plots (A, B, and C in Fort Albany (on the mainland, subarctic Ontario, Canada. The contaminated-soil samples were analysed by gas chromatography with an electron capture detector or inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. Results: The range of ΣDDT in 90 soil samples was below the limit of detection to 4.19 mg/kg. From the 3 soil plots analysed, Plot A had the highest ΣDDT mean concentration of 1.12 mg/kg, followed by Plot B and Plot C which had 0.09 and 0.01 mg/kg, respectively. Concentrations of other organic contaminants and metals in the soil samples were below the limit of detection or found in low concentrations in all plots and did not present a human health risk. Conclusions: Exposure analyses showed that the human risk was below regulatory thresholds. However, the ΣDDT concentration in Plot A exceeded soil guidelines set out by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment of 0.7 mg/kg, and thus the land should not be used for agricultural or recreational purposes. Both Plots B and C were below threshold limits, and this land can be used for agricultural purposes.

  6. Exposure to environmental factors increases connectivity between symptom domains in the psychopathology network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guloksuz, Sinan; van Nierop, Martine; Bak, Maarten; de Graaf, Ron; Ten Have, Margreet; van Dorsselaer, Saskia; Gunther, Nicole; Lieb, Roselind; van Winkel, Ruud; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; van Os, Jim

    2016-07-08

    We investigated to what degree environmental exposure (childhood trauma, urbanicity, cannabis use, and discrimination) impacts symptom connectivity using both continuous and categorical measures of psychopathology. Outcomes were continuous symptom dimensions of self-reported psychopathology using the Self-report Symptom Checklist-90-R in 3021 participants from The Early Developmental Stages of the Psychopathology (EDSP) study and binary DSM-III-R categories of mental disorders and a binary measure of psychotic symptoms in 7076 participants from The Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study (NEMESIS-1). For each symptom dimension in the EDSP and mental disorder in the NEMESIS-1 as the dependent variable, regression analyses were carried out including each of the remaining symptom dimensions/mental disorders and its interaction with cumulative environmental risk load (the sum score of environmental exposures) as independent variables. All symptom dimensions in the EDSP and related diagnostic categories in the NEMESIS-1 were strongly associated with each other, and environmental exposures increased the degree of symptom connectivity in the networks in both cohorts. Our findings showing strong connectivity across symptom dimensions and related binary diagnostic constructs in two independent population cohorts provide further evidence for the conceptualization of psychopathology as a contextually sensitive network of mutually interacting symptoms.

  7. Systematic Review of Studies of Workplace Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke and Lung Cancer Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinzhuo WANG

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective It has been reported that there was a close relationship between lung cancer risk and environmental tobacco smoke at workplace. The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between workplace environmental tobacco smoke exposure and lung cancer risk among non-smoking subjects. Methods By searching Medline, CENTRAL (the Cochrane central register of controlledtrials, EMBASE, CBM, CNKI and VIP et al, we collected both domestic and overseas published documents on workplace environmental tobacco smoke exposure and lung cancer risk. Random or fixed effect models were applied to conduct systematic review on the study results, the combined odds ratio (OR and the 95% confidence interval (CI were calculated as well. Results 22 reports were included into the combined analysis, which indicated that 25% lung cancer risk was increased by exposing to workplace environment tobacco smoke (OR=1.25, 95%CI: 1.13-1.39, P < 0.001. For female the increased risk was 22% (OR=1.22, 95%CI: 1.05-1.42, P=0.011. For male the increased risk was 54%, but it does not reach the statistical significance (OR=1.54, 95%CI: 0.74-3.18, P=0.247. Conclusion Workplace environmental tobacco smoke exposure is an important risk factor of lung cancer risk among non-smoking subjects. Especially for non-smoking women who expose to workplace environment tobacco smoke have a close relationship with lung cancer.

  8. Development of a Human Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic (PBPK Toolkit for Environmental Pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Ruiz

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic (PBPK models can be used to determine the internal dose and strengthen exposure assessment. Many PBPK models are available, but they are not easily accessible for field use. The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR has conducted translational research to develop a human PBPK model toolkit by recoding published PBPK models. This toolkit, when fully developed, will provide a platform that consists of a series of priority PBPK models of environmental pollutants. Presented here is work on recoded PBPK models for volatile organic compounds (VOCs and metals. Good agreement was generally obtained between the original and the recoded models. This toolkit will be available for ATSDR scientists and public health assessors to perform simulations of exposures from contaminated environmental media at sites of concern and to help interpret biomonitoring data. It can be used as screening tools that can provide useful information for the protection of the public.

  9. Urinary BTEX, MTBE and naphthalene as biomarkers to gain environmental exposure profiles of the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fustinoni, Silvia; Rossella, Federica; Campo, Laura; Mercadante, Rosa; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto

    2010-06-15

    The aim of this work was to evaluate urinary benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m+p-xylene, o-xylene (BTEX), methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE), and naphthalene (NAP) as biomarkers of exposure to environmental pollutants. Personal air and urine samples from 108 subjects belonging to the Italian general population were compared. Urinary profiles were obtained by headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. BTEX, MTBE, ETBE and NAP median airborne exposures during a 5-h sampling were 4.0, 25.3, 3.8, 9.3, 3.4, 3.4, <0.8, and 3.4 microg/m(3), respectively. Meanwhile, median urinary levels, as geometric means of three determinations were: 122, 397, 74, 127, 43, 49, <15, and 46 ng/L, respectively. Urinary benzene and toluene concentrations were 4.6- and 1.2-fold higher in smokers than in non-smokers. For most chemicals, significant positive correlations between airborne exposure (log-transformed) and the corresponding biological marker (log-transformed) were found, with Pearson's r values for correlation, ranging from 0.228 to 0.396. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that the urinary level of these chemicals was influenced by personal airborne exposure, urinary creatinine, and urinary cotinine, with R(2) 0.733 for benzene. Urinary chemicals are useful biomarkers of environmental exposure. Given the ease of rapidly obtaining urine samples, they represent a non-invasive alternative to blood chemical analysis. The possibility of obtaining urinary exposure profiles makes this method an appealing tool for environmental epidemiology.

  10. Geocoding accuracy and the recovery of relationships between environmental exposures and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zimmerman Dale L

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This research develops methods for determining the effect of geocoding quality on relationships between environmental exposures and health. The likelihood of detecting an existing relationship – statistical power – between measures of environmental exposures and health depends not only on the strength of the relationship but also on the level of positional accuracy and completeness of the geocodes from which the measures of environmental exposure are made. This paper summarizes the results of simulation studies conducted to examine the impact of inaccuracies of geocoded addresses generated by three types of geocoding processes: a addresses located on orthophoto maps, b addresses matched to TIGER files (U.S Census or their derivative street files; and, c addresses from E-911 geocodes (developed by local authorities for emergency dispatch purposes. Results The simulated odds of disease using exposures modelled from the highest quality geocodes could be sufficiently recovered using other, more commonly used, geocoding processes such as TIGER and E-911; however, the strength of the odds relationship between disease exposures modelled at geocodes generally declined with decreasing geocoding accuracy. Conclusion Although these specific results cannot be generalized to new situations, the methods used to determine the sensitivity of results can be used in new situations. Estimated measures of positional accuracy must be used in the interpretation of results of analyses that investigate relationships between health outcomes and exposures measured at residential locations. Analyses similar to those employed in this paper can be used to validate interpretation of results from empirical analyses that use geocoded locations with estimated measures of positional accuracy.

  11. Toxicokinetics of perfluorooctane sulfonate in rabbits under environmentally realistic exposure conditions and comparative assessment between mammals and birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarazona, J V; Rodríguez, C; Alonso, E; Sáez, M; González, F; San Andrés, M D; Jiménez, B; San Andrés, M I

    2016-01-22

    This article describes the toxicokinetics of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in rabbits under low repeated dosing, equivalent to 0.085μg/kg per day, and the observed differences between rabbits and chickens. The best fitting for both species was provided by a simple pseudo monocompartmental first-order kinetics model, regulated by two rates, and accounting for real elimination as well as binding of PFOS to non-exchangeable structures. Elimination was more rapid in rabbits, with a pseudo first-order dissipation half-life of 88 days compared to the 230 days observed for chickens. By contrast, the calculated assimilation efficiency for rabbits was almost 1, very close to full absorption, significantly higher than the 0.66 with confidence intervals of 0.64 and 0.68 observed for chickens. The results confirm a very different kinetics than that observed in single-dose experiments confirming clear dose-related differences in apparent elimination rates in rabbits, as previously described for humans and other mammals; suggesting the role of a capacity-limited saturable process resulting in different kinetic behaviours for PFOS in high dose versus environmentally relevant low dose exposure conditions. The model calculations confirmed that the measured maximum concentrations were still far from the steady state situation, and that the different kinetics between birds and mammals should may play a significant role in the biomagnifications assessment and potential exposure for humans and predators. For the same dose regime, the steady state concentration was estimated at about 36μg PFOS/L serum for rabbits, slightly above one-half of the 65μg PFOS/L serum estimated for chickens. The toxicokinetic parameters presented here can be used for higher-tier bioaccumulation estimations of PFOS in rabbits and chickens as starting point for human health exposure assessments and as surrogate values for modeling PFOS kinetics in wild mammals and bird in exposure assessment of predatory

  12. Structural change of human hair induced by mercury exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Xueqing; Du, Rong; Li, Yufeng; Li, Bai; Cai, Quan; Mo, Guang; Gong, Yu; Chen, Zhongjun; Wu, Zhonghua

    2013-10-01

    Mercury is one of the most hazardous pollutants in the environment. In this paper, the structural change of human hair induced by mercury exposure was studied. Human hair samples were, respectively, collected from the normal Beijing area and the Hg-contaminated Wanshan area of the Guizhou Province, China. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy was used to detect the element contents. A small angle X-ray scattering technique was used to probe the structural change. Three reflections with 8.8, 6.7, and 4.5 nm spacing were compared between the normal and the Hg-contaminated hair samples. The results confirm that the 4.5 nm reflection is from the ordered fibrillar structure of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) in proteoglycan (PG) that composes the matrix around the intermediate filaments. The increase of Ca content makes the regular oriented fibrillar structure of GAG transform to a random oriented one, broadening the angular extent of the reflection with 4.5 nm spacing. However, overdose Hg makes the core proteins where the ordered fibrils of GAG are attached become coiled, which destroys the ordered arrangements of fibrillar GAG in PG, resulting in the disappearance of the reflections with 4.5 nm spacing. The disappearance of the 4.5 nm reflection can be used as a bioindicator of overdose Hg contamination to the human body. A supercoiled-coil model of hair nanoscale structure and a possible mechanism of mercury effect in human hair are proposed in this paper.

  13. Improving environmental exposure analysis using cumulative distribution functions and individual geocoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakraborty Jayajit

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Assessments of environmental exposure and health risks that utilize Geographic Information Systems (GIS often make simplifying assumptions when using: (a one or more discrete buffer distances to define the spatial extent of impacted regions, and (b aggregated demographic data at the level of census enumeration units to derive the characteristics of the potentially exposed population. A case-study of school children in Orange County, Florida, is used to demonstrate how these limitations can be overcome by the application of cumulative distribution functions (CDFs and individual geocoded locations. Exposure potential for 159,923 school children was determined at the childrens' home residences and at school locations by determining the distance to the nearest gasoline station, stationary air pollution source, and industrial facility listed in the Toxic Release Inventory (TRI. Errors and biases introduced by the use of discrete buffer distances and data aggregation were examined. Results The use of discrete buffers distances in proximity-based exposure analysis introduced substantial bias in terms of determining the potentially exposed population, and the results are strongly dependent on the choice of buffer distance(s. Comparisons of exposure potential between home and school locations indicated that different buffer distances yield different results and contradictory conclusions. The use of a CDF provided a much more meaningful representation and is not based on the a-priori assumption that any particular distance is more relevant than another. The use of individual geocoded locations also provided a more accurate characterization of the exposed population and allowed for more reliable comparisons among sub-groups. In the comparison of children's home residences and school locations, the use of data aggregated at the census block group and tract level introduced variability as well as bias, leading to incorrect conclusions as

  14. Secretion of interferon gamma from human immune cells is altered by exposure to tributyltin and dibutyltin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Shanieek; Reid, Jacqueline; Whalen, Margaret

    2015-05-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) and dibutyltin (DBT) are widespread environmental contaminants found in food, beverages, and human blood samples. Both of these butyltins (BTs) interfere with the ability of human natural killer (NK) cells to lyse target cells and alter secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) from human immune cells in vitro. The capacity of BTs to interfere with secretion of other pro-inflammatory cytokines has not been examined. Interferon gamma (IFNγ) is a modulator of adaptive and innate immune responses, playing an important role in overall immune competence. This study shows that both TBT and DBT alter secretion of IFNγ from human immune cells. Peripheral blood cell preparations that were increasingly reconstituted were used to determine if exposures to either TBT or DBT affected IFNγ secretion and how the makeup of the cell preparation influenced that effect. IFNγ secretion was examined after 24 h, 48 h, and 6 day exposures to TBT (200 - 2.5 nM) and DBT (5 - 0.05 µM) in highly enriched human NK cells, a monocyte-depleted preparation of PBMCs, and monocyte-containing PBMCs. Both BTs altered IFNγ secretion from immune cells at most of the conditions tested (either increasing or decreasing secretion). However, there was significant variability among donors as to the concentrations and time points that showed changes as well as the baseline secretion of IFNγ. The majority of donors showed an increase in IFNγ secretion in response to at least one concentration of TBT or DBT at a minimum of one length of exposure.

  15. Human exposure to polychlorinated diphenyl ethers through the diet in Catalonia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocio, Ana; Llobet, Juan M; Domingo, Jose L

    2004-03-24

    Although polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (PCDEs) are recognized environmental pollutants, information concerning human exposure to these organic substances is very scarce. For the present study the concentrations of PCDEs in a number of foodstuffs acquired in Catalonia, Spain, were determined. The dietary intake of PCDEs was estimated for various age groups of the general population living in this Spanish region. With the exception of fish and shellfish, PCDE concentrations were under the limit of detection in the 10 remaining food groups analyzed. For an adult (20-65 years old) male of 70 kg average body weight, the estimated total dietary intake of PCDEs was 41 ng/day. It was assumed that if a PCDE congener was below the detection limit, the concentration was equal to half of the limit of detection. The highest exposure to PCDEs through the diet corresponded to the group aged 51-65 years, whereas the lowest intake corresponded to the youngest group (4-9 years). With the exception of the group aged >65 years, PCDE intake was always higher in males than in females. The results of this study should be of interest for future assessments of time trends in human exposure to PCDEs through the diet.

  16. Phthalates in indoor dust in Kuwait: implications for non-dietary human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevao, B; Al-Ghadban, A N; Bahloul, M; Uddin, S; Zafar, J

    2013-04-01

    Phthalates are semivolatile organic compounds with a ubiquitous environmental distribution. Their presence in indoor environments is linked to their use in a variety of consumer products such as children's toys, cosmetics, food packaging, flexible PVC flooring among others. The goal of this study was to investigate the occurrence and concentration of phthalates in dust from homes in Kuwait and to assess non-dietary human exposure to these phthalates. Dust samples were randomly collected from 21 homes and analyzed for eight phthalates. The concentrations of total phthalates were log normally distributed and ranged from 470 to 7800 μg/g. Five phthalates [Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), Di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP), Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), Benzyl butyl phthalate (BzBP), and Dicyclohexyl phthalate (DcHP)] were routinely detected. The major phthalate compound was DEHP at a geometric mean concentration of 1704 μg/g (median, 2256 μg/g) accounting for 92% of the total phthalates measured. Using the measured concentrations and estimates of dust ingestion rates for children and adults, estimated human non-dietary exposure based on median phthalate concentrations ranged from 938 ng/kg-bd/day for adults to 13362 ng/kg-bd/day for toddlers. The difference in exposure estimates between children and adults in this study supports previous reports that children are at greater risk from pollutants that accumulate indoors.

  17. Postnatal Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure Related to Behavioral Problems in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chastang, Julie; Baïz, Nour; Cadwallader, Jean Sébastien; Cadwalladder, Jean Sébastien; Robert, Sarah; Dywer, John L; Dywer, John; Charpin, Denis André; Caillaud, Denis; de Blay, Frédéric; Raherison, Chantal; Lavaud, François; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association between pre and post environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure and behavioral problems in schoolchildren. In the cross-sectional 6 cities Study conducted in France, 5221 primary school children were investigated. Pre- and postnatal exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke at home was assessed using a parent questionnaire. Child's behavioral outcomes (emotional symptoms and conduct problems) were evaluated by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) completed by the parents. ETS exposure during the postnatal period and during both pre- and postnatal periods was associated with behavioral problems in children. Abnormal emotional symptoms (internalizing problems) were related to ETS exposure in children who were exposed during the pre- and postnatal periods with an OR of 1.72 (95% Confidence Interval (CI)= 1.36-2.17), whereas the OR was estimated to be 1.38 (95% CI= 1.12-1.69) in the case of postnatal exposure only. Abnormal conduct problems (externalizing problems) were related to ETS exposure in children who were exposed during the pre- and postnatal periods with an OR of 1.94 (95% CI= 1.51-2.50), whereas the OR was estimated to be 1.47 (95% CI=1.17-1.84) in the case of postnatal exposure only. Effect estimates were adjusted for gender, study center, ethnic origin, child age, low parental education, current physician diagnosed asthma, siblings, preterm birth and single parenthood. Postnatal ETS exposure, alone or in association with prenatal exposure, increases the risk of behavioral problems in school-age children.

  18. Postnatal Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure Related to Behavioral Problems in Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Chastang

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the association between pre and post environmental tobacco smoke (ETS exposure and behavioral problems in schoolchildren.In the cross-sectional 6 cities Study conducted in France, 5221 primary school children were investigated. Pre- and postnatal exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke at home was assessed using a parent questionnaire. Child's behavioral outcomes (emotional symptoms and conduct problems were evaluated by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ completed by the parents.ETS exposure during the postnatal period and during both pre- and postnatal periods was associated with behavioral problems in children. Abnormal emotional symptoms (internalizing problems were related to ETS exposure in children who were exposed during the pre- and postnatal periods with an OR of 1.72 (95% Confidence Interval (CI= 1.36-2.17, whereas the OR was estimated to be 1.38 (95% CI= 1.12-1.69 in the case of postnatal exposure only. Abnormal conduct problems (externalizing problems were related to ETS exposure in children who were exposed during the pre- and postnatal periods with an OR of 1.94 (95% CI= 1.51-2.50, whereas the OR was estimated to be 1.47 (95% CI=1.17-1.84 in the case of postnatal exposure only. Effect estimates were adjusted for gender, study center, ethnic origin, child age, low parental education, current physician diagnosed asthma, siblings, preterm birth and single parenthood.Postnatal ETS exposure, alone or in association with prenatal exposure, increases the risk of behavioral problems in school-age children.

  19. Measuring combined exposure to environmental pressures in urban areas: an air quality and noise pollution assessment approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlachokostas, Ch; Achillas, Ch; Michailidou, A V; Moussiopoulos, Nu

    2012-02-01

    This study presents a methodological scheme developed to provide a combined air and noise pollution exposure assessment based on measurements from personal portable monitors. Provided that air and noise pollution are considered in a co-exposure approach, they represent a significant environmental hazard to public health. The methodology is demonstrated for the city of Thessaloniki, Greece. The results of an extensive field campaign are presented and the variations in personal exposure between modes of transport, routes, streets and transport microenvironments are evaluated. Air pollution and noise measurements were performed simultaneously along several commuting routes, during the morning and evening rush hours. Combined exposure to environmental pollutants is highlighted based on the Combined Exposure Factor (CEF) and Combined Dose and Exposure Factor (CDEF). The CDEF takes into account the potential relative uptake of each pollutant by considering the physical activities of each citizen. Rather than viewing environmental pollutants separately for planning and environmental sustainability considerations, the possibility of an easy-to-comprehend co-exposure approach based on these two indices is demonstrated. Furthermore, they provide for the first time a combined exposure assessment to these environmental pollutants for Thessaloniki and in this sense they could be of importance for local public authorities and decision makers. A considerable environmental burden for the citizens of Thessaloniki, especially for VOCs and noise pollution levels is observed. The material herein points out the importance of measuring public health stressors and the necessity of considering urban environmental pollution in a holistic way.

  20. Effect of environmental factors (wave exposure and depth) and anthropogenic pressure in the C sink capacity of Posidonia oceanica meadows

    KAUST Repository

    Mazarrasa, Inés

    2017-03-20

    Seagrass are among the most important natural carbon sinks on Earth with Posidonia oceanica (Mediterranean Sea) considered as the most relevant species. Yet, the number of direct measurements of organic carbon burial rates in P. oceanica is still scarce and the effect of local environmental factors remains largely unexplored. In addition, P. oceanica meadows are declining due to the increase in anthropogenic pressure in coastal areas during the last century. The aim of this study is to assess the recent carbon sink capacity of P. oceanica and particularly the effect of human pressure and two environmental factors, water depth and exposure to wave energy (based on a fetch index), on the carbon burial rate since 1900. We conducted an extensive survey of sediment cores in meadows distributed across a gradient of depth, fetch, and human pressure around The Balearic Islands. Sediment and carbon accumulation rates were obtained from 210Pb concentrations profiles. Top-30 centimeters carbon stocks (6.1 ± 1.4 kg C m−2) and burial rates (26 ± 6 g C m−2 yr1) varied up to fivefold across meadows. No significant effect of water depth in carbon burial rates was observed. Although fetch was significantly correlated with sediment mean grain size, confirming the effect of wave exposure in the patterns of sedimentation, fetch alone could not explain the differences in carbon burial rates among the meadows examined. Human pressure affected carbon burial rates, leading to increased rates since the onset of the rise in anthropogenic pressure, particularly so in sheltered meadows supporting high human pressure.

  1. Human exposure to soil contamination: a qualitative and quantitative analysis towards proposals for human toxicological intervention values (partly revised edition)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg R van den; LBG

    1994-01-01

    In view of a revision of the Dutch Soil Protection act, proposals are presented in this report for human toxicologically based intervention values for soil and groundwater, calculated from human toxicological guideline values and human exposure. To this purpose the exposure model CSOIL is presented

  2. The Penobscot River and environmental contaminants: Assessment of tribal exposure through sustenance lifeways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Valerie; Kusnierz, Daniel; Hillger, Robert; Ferrario, Joseph; Hughes, Thomas; Diliberto, Janet; Orazio, Carl E.; Dudley, Robert W.; Byrne, Christian; Sugatt, Richard; Warren, Sarah; DeMarini, David; Elskus, Adria; Stodola, Steve; Mierzykowski, Steve; Pugh, Katie; Culbertson, Charles W.

    2015-01-01

    EPA in collaboration with the Penobscot Indian Nation, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USF&WS) collectively embarked on a four year research study to evaluate the environmental health of the riverine system by targeting specific cultural practices and using traditional science to conduct a preliminary contaminant screening of the flora and fauna of the Penobscot River ecosystem. This study was designed as a preliminary screening to determine if contaminant concentrations in fish, eel, snapping turtle, wood ducks, and plants in Regions of the Penobscot River relevant to where PIN tribal members hunt, fish and gather plants were high enough to be a health concern. This study was not designed to be a statistically validated assessment of contaminant differences among study sites or among species. The traditional methodology for health risk assessment used by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is based on the use of exposure assumptions (e.g. exposure duration, food ingestion rate, body weight, etc.) that represent the entire American population, either as a central tendency exposure (e.g. average, median) or as a reasonable maximum exposure (e.g. 95% upper confidence limit). Unfortunately, EPA lacked exposure information for assessing health risks for New England regional tribes sustaining a tribal subsistence way of life. As a riverine tribe, the Penobscot culture and traditions are inextricably tied to the Penobscot River watershed. It is through hunting, fishing, trapping, gathering and making baskets, pottery, moccasins, birch-bark canoes and other traditional practices that the Penobscot culture and people are sustained. The Penobscot River receives a variety of pollutant discharges leaving the Penobscot Indian Nation (PIN) questioning the ecological health and water quality of the river and how this may affect the practices that sustain their way of life

  3. The effect of dust emissions from open storage piles to particle ambient concentration and human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalvatzaki, E; Aleksandropoulou, V; Glytsos, T; Lazaridis, M

    2012-12-01

    The current study focus on the determination of dust emissions from piles in open storage yards of a municipal solid waste (MSW) composting site and the subsequent atmospheric dust dispersion. The ISC3-ST (Industrial Source Complex Version 3 - Short Term) model was used for the evaluation of the PM(10) ambient concentrations associated with the dispersion of MSW compost dust emissions in air. Dust emission rates were calculated using the United States Environmental Protection Agency proposed dust resuspension formulation from open storage piles using local meteorological data. The dispersion modelling results on the spatial distribution of PM(10) source depletion showed that the maximum concentrations were observed at a distance 25-75 m downwind of the piles in the prevailing wind direction. Sensitivity calculations were performed also to reveal the effect of the compost pile height, the friction velocity and the receptor height on the ambient PM(10) concentration. It was observed that PM(10) concentrations (downwind in the prevailing wind direction) increased with increasing the friction velocity, increasing the pile height (for distances greater than 125 m from the source) and decreasing the receptor height (for distances greater than 125 m from the source). Furthermore, the results of ISC3-ST were analysed with the ExDoM (Exposure Dose Model) human exposure model. The ExDoM is a model for calculating the human exposure and the deposition dose, clearance, and finally retention of aerosol particles in the human respiratory tract (RT). PM(10) concentration at the composting site was calculated as the sum of the concentration from compost pile dust resuspension and the background concentration. It was found that the exposure to PM(10) and deposited lung dose for an adult Caucasian male who is not working at the composting site is less by 20-74% and 29-84%, respectively, compared to those for a worker exposed to PM concentrations at the composting site.

  4. Predicting pulmonary fibrosis in humans after exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Monita; Nikota, Jake; Halappanavar, Sabina; Castranova, Vincent; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara; Clippinger, Amy J

    2016-07-01

    The increased production and use of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in a diverse array of consumer, medical, and industrial applications have raised concerns about potential human exposure to these materials in the workplace and ambient environments. Inhalation is a primary route of exposure to MWCNTs, and the existing data indicate that they are potentially hazardous to human health. While a 90-day rodent inhalation test (e.g., OECD Test No. 413: subchronic inhalation toxicity: 90-day study or EPA Health Effects Test Guidelines OPPTS 870.3465 90-day inhalation toxicity) is recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics for MWCNTs (and other CNTs) if they are to be commercially produced (Godwin et al. in ACS Nano 9:3409-3417, 2015), this test is time and cost-intensive and subject to scientific and ethical concerns. As a result, there has been much interest in transitioning away from studies on animals and moving toward human-based in vitro and in silico models. However, given the multiple mechanisms of toxicity associated with subchronic exposure to inhaled MWCNTs, a battery of non-animal tests will likely be needed to evaluate the key endpoints assessed by the 90-day rodent study. Pulmonary fibrosis is an important adverse outcome related to inhalation exposure to MWCNTs and one that the non-animal approach should be able to assess. This review summarizes the state-of-the-science regarding in vivo and in vitro toxicological methods for predicting MWCNT-induced pulmonary fibrosis.

  5. Fish Reproduction Is Disrupted upon Lifelong Exposure to Environmental PAHs Fractions Revealing Different Modes of Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Vignet

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs constitute a large family of organic pollutants emitted in the environment as complex mixtures, the compositions of which depend on origin. Among a wide range of physiological defects, PAHs are suspected to be involved in disruption of reproduction. In an aquatic environment, the trophic route is an important source of chronic exposure to PAHs. Here, we performed trophic exposure of zebrafish to three fractions of different origin, one pyrolytic and two petrogenic. Produced diets contained PAHs at environmental concentrations. Reproductive traits were analyzed at individual, tissue and molecular levels. Reproductive success and cumulative eggs number were disrupted after exposure to all three fractions, albeit to various extents depending on the fraction and concentrations. Histological analyses revealed ovary maturation defects after exposure to all three fractions as well as degeneration after exposure to a pyrolytic fraction. In testis, hypoplasia was observed after exposure to petrogenic fractions. Genes expression analysis in gonads has allowed us to establish common pathways such as endocrine disruption or differentiation/maturation defects. Taken altogether, these results indicate that PAHs can indeed disrupt fish reproduction and that different fractions trigger different pathways resulting in different effects.

  6. The Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) birth cohort study: assessment of environmental exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaro, Tim K; Scott, James A; Allen, Ryan W; Anand, Sonia S; Becker, Allan B; Befus, A Dean; Brauer, Michael; Duncan, Joanne; Lefebvre, Diana L; Lou, Wendy; Mandhane, Piush J; McLean, Kathleen E; Miller, Gregory; Sbihi, Hind; Shu, Huan; Subbarao, Padmaja; Turvey, Stuart E; Wheeler, Amanda J; Zeng, Leilei; Sears, Malcolm R; Brook, Jeffrey R

    2015-01-01

    The Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development birth cohort was designed to elucidate interactions between environment and genetics underlying development of asthma and allergy. Over 3600 pregnant mothers were recruited from the general population in four provinces with diverse environments. The child is followed to age 5 years, with prospective characterization of diverse exposures during this critical period. Key exposure domains include indoor and outdoor air pollutants, inhalation, ingestion and dermal uptake of chemicals, mold, dampness, biological allergens, pets and pests, housing structure, and living behavior, together with infections, nutrition, psychosocial environment, and medications. Assessments of early life exposures are focused on those linked to inflammatory responses driven by the acquired and innate immune systems. Mothers complete extensive environmental questionnaires including time-activity behavior at recruitment and when the child is 3, 6, 12, 24, 30, 36, 48, and 60 months old. House dust collected during a thorough home assessment at 3-4 months, and biological specimens obtained for multiple exposure-related measurements, are archived for analyses. Geo-locations of homes and daycares and land-use regression for estimating traffic-related air pollution complement time-activity-behavior data to provide comprehensive individual exposure profiles. Several analytical frameworks are proposed to address the many interacting exposure variables and potential issues of co-linearity in this complex data set.

  7. Cancer risk from occupational and environmental exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boffetta, P; Jourenkova, N; Gustavsson, P

    1997-05-01

    Epidemiologic evidence on the relationship between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and cancer is reviewed. High occupational exposure to PAHs occurs in several industries and occupations. Covered here are aluminum production, coal gasification, coke production, iron and steel foundries, tar distillation, shale oil extraction, wood impregnation, roofing, road paving, carbon black production, carbon electrode production, chimney sweeping, and calcium carbide production. In addition, workers exposed to diesel engine exhaust in the transport industry and in related occupations are exposed to PAHs and nitro-PAHs. Heavy exposure to PAHs entails a substantial risk of lung, skin, and bladder cancer, which is not likely to be due to other carcinogenic exposures present in the same industries. The lung seems to be the major target organ of PAH carcinogenicity and increased risk is present in most of the industries and occupations listed above. An increased risk of skin cancer follows high dermal exposure. An increase in bladder cancer risk is found mainly in industries with high exposure to PAHs from coal tars and pitches. Increased risks have been reported for other organs, namely the larynx and the kidney; the available evidence, however, is inconclusive. The results of studies addressing environmental PAH exposure are consistent with these conclusions.

  8. Computational strategy for quantifying human pesticide exposure based upon a saliva measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timchalk, Charles; Weber, Thomas J.; Smith, Jordan N.

    2015-05-27

    The National Research Council of the National Academies report, Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: A Vision and Strategy, highlighted the importance of quantitative exposure data for evaluating human toxicity risk and noted that biomonitoring is a critical tool for quantitatively evaluating exposure from both environmental and occupational settings. Direct measurement of chemical exposures using personal monitoring provides the most accurate estimation of a subject’s true exposure, and non-invasive methods have also been advocated for quantifying the pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of drugs and xenobiotics. In this regard, there is a need to identify chemicals that are readily cleared in saliva at concentrations that can be quantified to support the implementation of this approach.. The current manuscript describes the use of computational modeling approaches that are closely coupled to in vivo and in vitro experiments to predict salivary uptake and clearance of xenobiotics. The primary mechanism by which xenobiotics leave the blood and enter saliva is thought to involve paracellular transport, passive transcellular diffusion, or trancellular active transport with the majority of drugs and xenobiotics cleared from plasma into saliva by passive diffusion. The transcellular or paracellular diffusion of unbound chemicals in plasma to saliva has been computational modeled using a combination of compartmental and physiologically based approaches. Of key importance for determining the plasma:saliva partitioning was the utilization of a modified Schmitt algorithm that calculates partitioning based upon the tissue composition, pH, chemical pKa and plasma protein-binding. Sensitivity analysis of key model parameters specifically identified that both protein-binding and pKa (for weak acids and bases) had the most significant impact on the determination of partitioning and that there were clear species dependent differences based upon physiological variance between

  9. The stability of collected human scent under various environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Davia T; Curran, Allison M; Furton, Kenneth G

    2009-11-01

    Human scent evidence collected from objects at a crime scene is used for scent discrimination with specially trained canines. Storage of the scent evidence is usually required yet no optimized storage protocol has been determined. Storage containers including glass, polyethylene, and aluminized pouches were evaluated to determine the optimal medium for storing human scent evidence of which glass was determined to be the optimal storage matrix. Hand odor samples were collected on three different sorbent materials, sealed in glass vials and subjected to different storage environments including room temperature, -80 degrees C conditions, dark storage, and UVA/UVB light exposure over a 7-week period. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the headspace of the samples were extracted and identified using solid-phase micro-extraction-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS). Three-dimensional covariance mapping showed that glass containers subjected to minimal UVA/UVB light exposure provide the most stable environment for stored human scent samples.

  10. Changes in human pluripotent stem cell gene expression after genotoxic stress exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, Mykyta V; Neumann, Ronald D

    2014-01-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) represent heterogeneous populations, including induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), endogenous plastic somatic cells, and embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Human ESCs are derived from the inner cell mass of the blastocyst, and they are characterized by the abilities to self-renew indefinitely, and to give rise to all cell types of embryonic lineage (pluripotency) under the guidance of the appropriate chemical, mechanical and environmental cues. The combination of these critical features is unique to hESCs, and set them apart from other human cells. The expectations are high to utilize hESCs for treating injuries and degenerative diseases; for modeling of complex illnesses and development; for screening and testing of pharmacological products; and for examining toxicity, mutagenicity, teratogenicity, and potential carcinogenic effects of a variety of environmental factors, including ionizing radiation (IR). Exposures to genotoxic stresses, such as background IR, are unavoidable; moreover, IR is widely used in diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in medicine on a routine basis. One of the key outcomes of cell exposures to IR is the change in gene expression, which may underlie the ultimate hESCs fate after such a stress. However, gaps in our knowledge about basic biology of hESCs impose a serious limitation to fully realize the potential of hESCs in practice. The purpose of this review is to examine the available evidence of alterations in gene expression in human pluripotent stem cells after genotoxic stress, and to discuss strategies for future research in this important area. PMID:25426256

  11. Changes in human pluripotent stem cell gene expression after genotoxic stress exposures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mykyta; V; Sokolov; Ronald; D; Neumann

    2014-01-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells(h PSCs) represent heterogeneous populations, including induced pluripotent stem cells(i PSCs), endogenous plastic somatic cells, and embryonic stem cells(ESCs). Human ESCs are derived from the inner cell mass of the blastocyst, and they are characterized by the abilities to self-renew indefinitely, and to give rise to all cell types of embryonic lineage(pluripotency) under the guidance of the appropriate chemical, mechanical and environmental cues. The combination of these critical features is unique to h ESCs, and set them apart from other human cells. The expectations are high to utilize h ESCs for treating injuries and degenerative diseases; for modeling of complex illnesses and development; for screening and testing of pharmacological products; and for examining toxicity, mutagenicity, teratogenicity, and potential carcinogenic effects of a variety of environmental factors, including ionizing radiation(IR). Exposures to genotoxic stresses, such as background IR, are unavoidable; moreover, IR is widely used in diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in medicine on a routine basis. One of the key outcomes of cell exposures to IR is the change in gene expression, which may underlie the ultimate h ESCs fate after such a stress. However, gaps in our knowledge about basic biology of h ESCs impose a serious limitation to fully realize the potential of h ESCs in practice. The purpose of this review is to examine the available evidence of alterations in gene expression in human pluripotent stem cells after genotoxic stress, and to discuss strategies for future research in this important area.

  12. Effects of environmental noise exposure on 24-h ambulatory vascular properties in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ta-Yuan; Liu, Chiu-Shong; Hsieh, Hsiu-Hui; Bao, Bo-Ying; Lai, Jim-Shoung

    2012-10-01

    Exposure to environmental noise has been associated with hypertension, but the related mechanism of vascular structural changes is unclear. This repeated-measure study investigated the effects of noise exposure on the 24-h ambulatory vascular structural properties in 66 adults aged 18-32 years. Individual noise exposure and personal vascular parameters were measured simultaneously in all subjects. Linear mixed-effects regressions were used to estimate the effects. A 1-A-weighted decibel (dBA) increase was significantly associated with the transient effects of 1.39 (95% confidence interval: 1.07, 1.79) %mL/mmHg in arterial compliance at nighttime but -1.70 (-2.05, -1.10) kdynes·s/cm(5) in arterial resistance during the daytime and -2.38 (-3.44, -1.64) kdynes·s/cm(5) in arterial resistance at nighttime among all subjects. Such effects were observed in arterial distensibility only during the daytime after the 30-min (-1.84 [-2.61, -1.29] %/mmHg) and 60-min (-2.06 [-2.95, -1.44] %/mmHg) time-lagged noise exposures. For 24-h environmental noise, a 1-dBA increment was significantly associated with a sustained increase of 1.25 (1.10, 1.42) %mL/mmHg in arterial compliance but a decrease of 2.12 (-2.51, -1.80) kdynes·s/cm(5) in arterial resistance. Environmental noise exposure may have transient and sustained effects on adult vascular properties.

  13. Environmental exposure to arsenic and chromium in children is associated with kidney injury molecule-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas-González, M; Osorio-Yáñez, C; Gaspar-Ramírez, O; Pavković, M; Ochoa-Martínez, A; López-Ventura, D; Medeiros, M; Barbier, O C; Pérez-Maldonado, I N; Sabbisetti, V S; Bonventre, J V; Vaidya, V S

    2016-10-01

    Environmental hazards from natural or anthropological sources are widespread, especially in the north-central region of Mexico. Children represent a susceptible population due to their unique routes of exposure and special vulnerabilities. In this study we evaluated the association of exposure to environmental kidney toxicants with kidney injury biomarkers in children living in San Luis Potosi (SLP), Mexico. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 83 children (5-12 years of age) residents of Villa de Reyes, SLP. Exposure to arsenic, cadmium, chromium, fluoride and lead was assessed in urine, blood and drinking water samples. Almost all tap and well water samples had levels of arsenic (81.5%) and fluoride (100%) above the permissible levels recommended by the World Health Organization. Mean urine arsenic (45.6ppb) and chromium (61.7ppb) were higher than the biological exposure index, a reference value in occupational settings. Using multivariate adjusted models, we found a dose-dependent association between kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) across chromium exposure tertiles [(T1: reference, T2: 467pg/mL; T3: 615pg/mL) (p-trend=0.001)]. Chromium upper tertile was also associated with higher urinary miR-200c (500 copies/μl) and miR-423 (189 copies/μL). Arsenic upper tertile was also associated with higher urinary KIM-1 (372pg/mL). Other kidney injury/functional biomarkers such as serum creatinine, glomerular filtration rate, albuminuria, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and miR-21 did not show any association with arsenic, chromium or any of the other toxicants evaluated. We conclude that KIM-1 might serve as a sensitive biomarker to screen children for kidney damage induced by environmental toxic agents.

  14. Environmental concentrations of fibers with fluoro-edenitic composition and population exposure in Biancavilla (Sicily, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biagio Maria Bruni

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION. The town of Biancavilla (Sicily was included in the National Priorities List of Contaminated Sites due to environmental dispersion of amphibole fibers owing to the extraction of materials from a local quarry. The present report summarizes results from several, hitherto unpublished, environmental surveys carried out in the area, as well as from published analyses of the chemistry and composition of fibers. METHODS. Data included here comprises environmental fiber concentrations by scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS analysis in soil, indoor and outdoor air, personal monitoring, as well as a chemical characterization of the fibers. The full chemical structure and spectroscopic characterization of fibers were obtained through a multi-analytical approach: SEM-EDS, X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD, as well as Mössbauer (MS and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopies. RESULTS. Data analyzed provided a spatial and temporal picture of fiber concentrations in Biancavilla, and a qualitative assessment of population exposure. Results suggest that until 2000, the population had been exposed to high levels of amphibole fibers. Mitigation measures adopted since 2001, gradually reduced exposure levels to about 0.10.4 ff/l. Previous studies on fibrous amphiboles from Biancavilla reported considerable chemical variability. Differences in composition, especially concerning the presence of Si, Ca, Fe, and Na, were found both within and between samples. Compared to the previously investigated prismatic fluoro-edenite, these fibrous fluorine amphiboles consistently showed higher average values of Si and Fe content, whereas Ca was significantly lower, which we consider a distinctive characteristic of the fluorine fibrous variety. CONCLUSIONS. The population of Biancavilla had been highly exposed to a suite of fibrous amphiboles for over 50 years. Dust mitigation measures have gradually reduced exposure, but

  15. Epigenetic memory of environmental organisms: a reflection of lifetime stressor exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirbahai, Leda; Chipman, James K

    2014-04-01

    Both genetic and epigenetic responses of organisms to environmental factors, including chemical exposures, influence adaptation, susceptibility to toxicity and biodiversity. In model organisms, it is established that epigenetic alterations, including changes to the methylome, can create a memory of the received signal. This is partly evidenced through the analysis of epigenetic differences that develop between identical twins throughout their lifetime. The epigenetic marks induce alterations to the gene expression profile, which, in addition to mediating homeostatic responses, have the potential to promote an abnormal physiology either immediately or at a later stage of development, for example leading to an adult onset of disease. Although this has been well established, epigenetic mechanisms are not considered in chemical risk assessment or utilised in the monitoring of the exposure and effects of chemicals and environmental change. In this review, epigenetic factors, specifically DNA methylation, are highlighted as mechanisms of adaptation and response to environmental factors and which, if persistent, have the potential, retrospectively, to reflect previous stress exposures. Thus, it is proposed that epigenetic "foot-printing" of organisms could identify classes of chemical contaminants to which they have been exposed throughout their lifetime. In some cases, the potential for persistent transgenerational modification of the epigenome may also inform on parental germ cell exposures. It is recommended that epigenetic mechanisms, alongside genetic mechanisms, should eventually be considered in environmental toxicity safety assessments and in biomonitoring studies. This will assist in determining the mode of action of toxicants, no observed adverse effect level and identification of biomarkers of toxicity for early detection and risk assessment in toxicology but there are critical areas that remain to be explored before this can be achieved.

  16. Measurement of environmental radiation exposure rates from Vernita, Hanford Reach, and Richland area shores. Addendum 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, A.T.

    1995-02-01

    Environmental radiation exposure rate measurements are taken on and around the Hanford Site for Pacific Northwest Laboratory`s Hanford Site Surface Environmental Surveillance Project. In 1992, environmental radiation exposure rate measurements were taken from shoreline and island areas ranging from Vernita, along the Hanford Reach, down to the Richland Pumphouse. Measurements were taken primarily at locations known or expected to have elevated exposure rates as determined by examination of aerial photographs depicting radiation exposure measurements. Results from the 1992 survey indicated radiation exposure rates taken from the Hanford Reach area were elevated in comparison to the measurements taken from the Vernita area with ranges of 8 to 28 {mu}R/hr and 4 to 11 {mu}R/hr, respectively. In January 1994, additional shoreline radiation exposure rate measurements were taken from the Vernita, Hanford Reach, and Richland areas to determine the relationship of radiation exposure rates along the Richland area shores when compared to Vernita and Hanford Reach area exposure rates (measurements along the Richland area were not collected during the 1992 survey). This report discusses the 1994 results and is an addendum to the report that discussed the 1992 survey. An analysis of variance indicated a significant location interaction at a p-value of 0.0014. To determine differences between paried locations a post-hoc comparison of location means was performed on log transformed data using the Scheff{acute e}`s F-test. This test indicated a significant difference between Hanford Reach and Richland area means with a mean difference of 0.075 /{mu}R/hr and a p-value of 0.0014. No significant difference was found between Hanford Reach and Vernita area means: The mean difference was 0.031 {mu}R/hr and the p-value was 0.3138. No significant difference was found between Vernita and Richland area means with a mean difference of 0.044 {mu}R/hr and a p-value of 0.1155.

  17. Measurement of personal exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, R.A.; Palausky, M.A.; Counts, R.W. [and others

    1995-12-31

    A study of personal exposure of non-smokers to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) has been conducted in 16 cities in the United States. Individual participants wear one of two personal sampling pumps, one each at work and away-from-work. Samples of breathing zone air analyzed for both particle- and vapor-phase markers of ETS. In addition, prior- and post-exposure saliva samples are collected, in order that smoking status can be assessed through cotinine levels. The distribution of subjects among smoking and non-smoking workplaces and homes is such that ca. 54% of the participants worked and lived in non-smoking situations. A comparison of the demographic distribution of the sample population with that of the US non-smoking population indicates that the sample population is more female and of higher socioeconomic status. Subjects living and working with smokers are more highly exposed to ETS than those subjects who live and work in predominantly ETS-free environments. However, even the smoke exposures of subjects living and working in smoking venues are low relative to area concentrations of ETS reported in previous studies. It is clear that in general (not considering cell designation), ETS exposure is inversely correlated with household income. Additional data analysis has indicated that although participants perceive their greatest exposures to ETS to occur in the workplace, in fact, exposure to ETS when living with a smoker is demonstrably greater than that received in a smoking workplace, on an individual basis, correlation between salivary cotinine levels and ETS nicotine exposure was non-existent. However, there appears to be significant correlation between the two parameters when participants with measurable exposures are segregated into groups of 25.

  18. Acute exposure to high environmental ammonia (HEA) triggers the emersion response in the green shore crab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Alex M; Wood, Chris M

    2017-02-01

    The physiological effects of high environmental ammonia (HEA) exposure have been well documented in many aquatic species. In particular, it has recently been demonstrated that exposure to ammonia in fish leads to a similar hyperventilatory response as observed during exposure to hypoxia. In littoral crabs, such as the green crab (Carcinus maenas), exposure to severe hypoxia triggers an emersion response whereby crabs escape hypoxia to breathe air. We hypothesized that exposure to HEA in green crabs would lead to a similar behavioural response which is specific to ammonia. Using an experimental arena containing a rock bed onto which crabs could emerse, we established that exposure to HEA (4mmol/l NH4HCO3) for 15min triggers emersion in crabs. In experiments utilizing NaHCO3 controls and NH4HCO3 injections, we further determined that emersion was triggered specifically by external ammonia and was independent of secondary acid-base or respiratory disturbances caused by HEA. We then hypothesized that emersion from HEA provides a physiological benefit, similar to emersion from hypoxia. Exposure to 15min of HEA without emersion (no rock bed present) caused significant increases in arterial haemolymph total ammonia (Tamm), pH, and [HCO3(-)]. When emersion was allowed, arterial haemolymph Tamm and [HCO3(-)] increased, but no alkalosis developed. Moreover, emersion decreased haemolymph partial pressure of NH3 relative to crabs which could not emerse. Overall, we demonstrate a novel behavioural response to HEA exposure in crabs which we propose may share similar mechanistic pathways with the emersion response triggered by hypoxia.

  19. Environmental contamination, product contamination and workers exposure using a robotic system for antineoplastic drug preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessink, Paul J M; Leclercq, Gisèle M; Wouters, Dominique-Marie; Halbardier, Loïc; Hammad, Chaïma; Kassoul, Nassima

    2015-04-01

    Environmental contamination, product contamination and technicians exposure were measured following preparation of iv bags with cyclophosphamide using the robotic system CytoCare. Wipe samples were taken inside CytoCare, in the clean room environment, from vials, and prepared iv bags including ports and analysed for contamination with cyclophosphamide. Contamination with cyclophosphamide was also measured in environmental air and on the technicians hands and gloves used for handling the drugs. Exposure of the technicians to cyclophosphamide was measured by analysis of cyclophosphamide in urine. Contamination with cyclophosphamide was mainly observed inside CytoCare, before preparation, after preparation and after daily routine cleaning. Contamination outside CytoCare was incidentally found. All vials with reconstituted cyclophosphamide entering CytoCare were contaminated on the outside but vials with powdered cyclophosphamide were not contaminated on the outside. Contaminated bags entering CytoCare were also contaminated after preparation but non-contaminated bags were not contaminated after preparation. Cyclophosphamide was detected on the ports of all prepared bags. Almost all outer pairs of gloves used for preparation and daily routine cleaning were contaminated with cyclophosphamide. Cyclophosphamide was not found on the inner pairs of gloves and on the hands of the technicians. Cyclophosphamide was not detected in the stationary and personal air samples and in the urine samples of the technicians. CytoCare enables the preparation of cyclophosphamide with low levels of environmental contamination and product contamination and no measurable exposure of the technicians.

  20. Environmental influences on human migration in rural Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Clark; Bilsborrow, Richard

    2013-08-01

    The question of whether environmental conditions influence human migration has recently gained considerable attention, driven by claims that global environmental change will displace large populations. Despite this high level of interest, few quantitative studies have investigated the potential effects of environmental factors on migration, particularly in the developing world and for gradual but pervasive forms of environmental change. To address this, a retrospective migration survey was conducted in rural Ecuador and linked to data on topography, climate, and weather shocks. These data were used to estimate multivariate event history models of alternative forms of mobility (local mobility, internal migration, and international migration), controlling for a large number of covariates. This approach is generalizable to other study areas and responds to calls for the development of more rigorous methods in this field. The results indicate that adverse environmental conditions do not consistently increase rural out-migration and, in some cases, reduce migration. Instead, households respond to environmental factors in diverse ways, resulting in complex migratory responses. Overall, the results support an alternative narrative of environmentally induced migration that recognizes the adaptability of rural households in responding to environmental change.

  1. Mercury Human Exposure in Populations Living Around Lake Tana (Ethiopia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habiba, G; Abebe, G; Bravo, Andrea G; Ermias, D; Staffan, Ǻ; Bishop, K

    2017-02-01

    A survey carried out in Lake Tana in 2015 found that Hg levels in some fish species exceeded internationally accepted safe levels for fish consumption. The current study assesses human exposure to Hg through fish consumption around the Lake Tana. Of particular interest was that a dietary intake of fishes is currently a health risk for Bihar Dar residents and anglers. Hair samples were collected from three different groups: anglers, college students and teachers, and daily laborers. A questionary includes gender, age, weight, activity. Frequency of fish consumption and origin of the eaten fish were completed by each participant. Mercury concentrations in hair were significantly higher (P value mercury and age associated with mercury concentration in scalp hair. Mercury concentrations in the hair of men were on average twice the value of the women. Also, users of skin lightening soap on a daily basis had 2.5 times greater mercury in scalp hair than non-users. Despite the different sources of mercury exposure mentioned above, the mercury concentrations of the scalp hair of participants of this study were below levels deemed to pose a threat to health.

  2. Environmentally realistic exposure to the herbicide atrazine alters some sexually selected traits in male guppies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kausalya Shenoy

    Full Text Available Male mating signals, including ornaments and courtship displays, and other sexually selected traits, like male-male aggression, are largely controlled by sex hormones. Environmental pollutants, notably endocrine disrupting compounds, can interfere with the proper functioning of hormones, thereby impacting the expression of hormonally regulated traits. Atrazine, one of the most widely used herbicides, can alter sex hormone levels in exposed animals. I tested the effects of environmentally relevant atrazine exposures on mating signals and behaviors in male guppies, a sexually dimorphic freshwater fish. Prolonged atrazine exposure reduced the expression of two honest signals: the area of orange spots (ornaments and the number of courtship displays performed. Atrazine exposure also reduced aggression towards competing males in the context of mate competition. In the wild, exposure levels vary among individuals because of differential distribution of the pollutants across habitats; hence, differently impacted males often compete for the same mates. Disrupted mating signals can reduce reproductive success as females avoid mating with perceptibly suboptimal males. Less aggressive males are at a competitive disadvantage and lose access to females. This study highlights the effects of atrazine on ecologically relevant mating signals and behaviors in exposed wildlife. Altered reproductive traits have important implications for population dynamics, evolutionary patterns, and conservation of wildlife species.

  3. Environmentally Realistic Exposure to the Herbicide Atrazine Alters Some Sexually Selected Traits in Male Guppies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoy, Kausalya

    2012-01-01

    Male mating signals, including ornaments and courtship displays, and other sexually selected traits, like male-male aggression, are largely controlled by sex hormones. Environmental pollutants, notably endocrine disrupting compounds, can interfere with the proper functioning of hormones, thereby impacting the expression of hormonally regulated traits. Atrazine, one of the most widely used herbicides, can alter sex hormone levels in exposed animals. I tested the effects of environmentally relevant atrazine exposures on mating signals and behaviors in male guppies, a sexually dimorphic freshwater fish. Prolonged atrazine exposure reduced the expression of two honest signals: the area of orange spots (ornaments) and the number of courtship displays performed. Atrazine exposure also reduced aggression towards competing males in the context of mate competition. In the wild, exposure levels vary among individuals because of differential distribution of the pollutants across habitats; hence, differently impacted males often compete for the same mates. Disrupted mating signals can reduce reproductive success as females avoid mating with perceptibly suboptimal males. Less aggressive males are at a competitive disadvantage and lose access to females. This study highlights the effects of atrazine on ecologically relevant mating signals and behaviors in exposed wildlife. Altered reproductive traits have important implications for population dynamics, evolutionary patterns, and conservation of wildlife species. PMID:22312428

  4. Bisphenol A exposure at an environmentally relevant dose induces meiotic abnormalities in adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuan; Duan, Weixia; Zhang, Lei; Xu, Shangcheng; Li, Renyan; Chen, Chunhai; He, Mindi; Lu, Yonghui; Wu, Hongjuan; Yu, Zhengping; Zhou, Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Whether environmental exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) may induce reproductive disorders is still controversial but certain studies have reported that BPA may cause meiotic abnormalities in C. elegans and female mice. However, little is known about the effect of BPA on meiosis in adult males. To determine whether BPA exposure at an environmentally relevant dose could induce meiotic abnormalities in adult male rats, we exposed 9-week-old male Wistar rats to BPA by gavage at 20 μg/kg body weight (bw)/day for 60 consecutive days. We found that BPA significantly increased the proportion of stage VII seminiferous epithelium and decreased the proportion of stage VIII. Consequently, spermiation was inhibited and spermatogenesis was disrupted. Further investigation revealed that BPA exposure delayed meiosis initiation in the early meiotic stage and induced the accumulation of chromosomal abnormalities and meiotic DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in the late meiotic stage. The latter event subsequently activated the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related protein kinase (ATM). Our results suggest that long-term exposure to BPA may lead to continuous meiotic abnormalities and ultimately put mammalian reproductive health at risk.

  5. Human hippocampal processing of environmental novelty during spatial navigation

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The detection and processing of novel information encountered as we explore our environment is crucial for learning and adaptive behavior. The human hippocampus has been strongly implicated in laboratory tests of novelty detection and episodic memory, but has been less well studied during more ethological tasks such as spatial navigation, typically used in animals. We examined fMRI BOLD activity as a function of environmental and object novelty as humans performed an object-location virtual n...

  6. New applications of biological monitoring for environmental exposure and susceptibility monitoring. Report of the 7th International Symposium on Biological Monitoring in Occupational and Environmental Health.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheepers, P.T.J.; Heussen, G.A.

    2008-01-01

    Validated biological monitoring methods are used in large-scale monitoring programmes involving determination of ubiquitous environmental pollutants such as metals and pesticides. Some programmes focus on children's exposure, and policies to prevent adverse health effects. Most of these initiatives

  7. New applications of biological monitoring for environmental exposure and susceptibility monitoring. Report of the 7th International Symposium on Biological Monitoring in Occupational and Environmental Health.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheepers, P.T.J.; Heussen, G.A.

    2008-01-01

    Validated biological monitoring methods are used in large-scale monitoring programmes involving determination of ubiquitous environmental pollutants such as metals and pesticides. Some programmes focus on children's exposure, and policies to prevent adverse health effects. Most of these initiatives

  8. Human exposure to fipronil from dogs treated with frontline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, K A; Canerdy, T D; Keller, R J; Atieh, B H; Doss, R B; Gupta, R C

    2002-10-01

    This investigation determined fipronil residues on gloves worn while petting dogs after Frontline application. Frontline contains 9.8% fipronil, which controls fleas and ticks on dogs for at least 30 d. Frontline (1.34 ml) was applied topically on adult household dogs and gloves worn for 5 min during pettingwere collected 24 hr and 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 w post-Frontline application for fipronil residue determinations using GC/MS. The highest concentration of fipronil (589.3 +/- 205.7ppm) was detected 24 h after Frontline application and was undetectable in the gloves collected at 5w. Repeated exposure to such contamination can pose human health risks.

  9. LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE INDUCES EXPOSURE OF FIBRINOGEN RECEPTORS ON HUMAN PLATELETS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于希春; 吴其夏

    1995-01-01

    The effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on the exposure of platelet fibrinogen receptors was investigated.The results showed that:1)LPS increased the binding of fibrinogen-gold complexes to platelets and the labels were primarily limited to shape-changed platelets;2)LPS caused a dose-dependent rise in intracellular Ca2+ concentration in platelets;3)LPS induced the activation of platelet protein kinase C(PKC) and the phosphorylation of glycoprotein llla (GP llla) which was inhibited by H-7.All these results suggest that stimulation of platelets with LPS causes a conformational change in glycoprotein llb/Illa (GPllb/llla) through platelet shape change and/or phosphorylation of GPllla via PKC,which serves to expose the fibrinogen binding sites of GPllb/llla on human platelets.

  10. Exposure to titanium dioxide and other metallic oxide nanoparticles induces cytotoxicity on human neural cells and fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James C K Lai

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available James C K Lai1, Maria B Lai1, Sirisha Jandhyam1, Vikas V Dukhande1, Alok Bhushan1, Christopher K Daniels1, Solomon W Leung21Department of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, and Biomedical Research Institute; 2Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, College of Engineering and Biomedical Research Institute, Idaho State University, Pocatello, ID, USAAbstract: The use of titanium dioxide (TiO2 in various industrial applications (eg, production of paper, plastics, cosmetics, and paints has been expanding thereby increasing the occupational and other environmental exposure of these nanoparticles to humans and other species. However, the health effects of exposure to TiO2 nanoparticles have not been systematically assessed even though recent studies suggest that such exposure induces inflammatory responses in lung tissue and cells. Because the effects of such nanoparticles on human neural cells are unknown, we have determined the putative cytotoxic effects of these nanoparticles on human astrocytes-like astrocytoma U87 cells and compared their effects on normal human fibroblasts. We found that TiO2 micro- and nanoparticles induced cell death on both human cell types in a concentration-related manner. We further noted that zinc oxide (ZnO nanoparticles were the most effective, TiO2 nanoparticles the second most effective, and magnesium oxide (MgO nanoparticles the least effective in inducing cell death in U87 cells. The cell death mechanisms underlying the effects of TiO2 micro- and nanoparticles on U87 cells include apoptosis, necrosis, and possibly apoptosis-like and necrosis-like cell death types. Thus, our findings may have toxicological and other pathophysiological implications on exposure of humans and other mammalian species to metallic oxide nanoparticles.Keywords: cytotoxicity of titanium dioxide micro- and nanoparticles, cytotoxicity of zinc oxide and magnesium oxide nanoparticles, human neural cells

  11. Isotopically modified silver nanoparticles to assess nanosilver bioavailability and toxicity at environmentally relevant exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croteau, Marie-Noële; Dybowska, Agnieszka D.; Luoma, Samuel N.; Misra, Superb K.; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia

    2014-01-01

    A major challenge in understanding the environmental implications of nanotechnology lies in studying nanoparticle uptake in organisms at environmentally realistic exposure concentrations. Typically, high exposure concentrations are needed to trigger measurable effects and to detect accumulation above background. But application of tracer techniques can overcome these limitations. Here we synthesised, for the first time, citrate-coated Ag nanoparticles using Ag that was 99.7 % 109Ag. In addition to conducting reactivity and dissolution studies, we assessed the bioavailability and toxicity of these isotopically modified Ag nanoparticles (109Ag NPs) to a freshwater snail under conditions typical of nature. We showed that accumulation of 109Ag from 109Ag NPs is detectable in the tissues of Lymnaea stagnalis after 24-h exposure to aqueous concentrations as low as 6 ng L–1 as well as after 3 h of dietary exposure to concentrations as low as 0.07 μg g–1. Silver uptake from unlabelled Ag NPs would not have been detected under similar exposure conditions. Uptake rates of 109Ag from 109Ag NPs mixed with food or dispersed in water were largely linear over a wide range of concentrations. Particle dissolution was most important at low waterborne concentrations. We estimated that 70 % of the bioaccumulated 109Ag concentration in L. stagnalis at exposures –1 originated from the newly solubilised Ag. Above this concentration, we predicted that 80 % of the bioaccumulated 109Ag concentration originated from the 109Ag NPs. It was not clear if agglomeration had a major influence on uptake rates.

  12. Gender-specific transcriptomic response to environmental exposure in Flemish adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Coster, Sam; van Leeuwen, Danitsja M; Jennen, Danyel G J; Koppen, Gudrun; Den Hond, Elly; Nelen, Vera; Schoeters, Greet; Baeyens, Willy; van Delft, Joost H M; Kleinjans, Jos C S; van Larebeke, Nicolas

    2013-08-01

    Flanders, Belgium, is one of the most densely populated areas in Europe. The Flemish Environment and Health Survey (2002-2006) aimed at determining exposure to pollutants of neonates, adolescents, and older adults and to assess associated biological and health effects. This study investigated genome wide gene expression changes associated with a range of environmental pollutants, including cadmium, lead, PCBs, dioxin, hexachlorobenzene, p,p'-DDE, benzene, and PAHs. Gene expression levels were measured in peripheral blood cells of 20 adults with relatively high and 20 adults with relatively low combined internal exposure levels, all non-smokers aged 50-65. Pearson correlation was used to analyze associations between pollutants and gene expression levels, separately for both genders. Pollutant- and gender-specific correlation analysis results were obtained. For organochlorine pollutants, analysis within genders revealed that genes were predominantly regulated in opposite directions in males and females. Significantly modulated pathways were found to be associated with each of the exposure biomarkers measured. Pathways and/or genes related to estrogen and STAT5 signaling were correlated to organochlorine exposures in both genders. Our work demonstrates that gene expression in peripheral blood is influenced by environmental pollutants. In particular, gender-specific changes are associated with organochlorine pollutants, including gender-specific modulation of endocrine related pathways and genes. These pathways and genes have previously been linked to endocrine disruption related disorders, which in turn have been associated with organochlorine exposure. Based on our results, we recommend that males and females be considered separately when analyzing gene expression changes associated with exposures that may include chemicals with endocrine disrupting properties.

  13. DNA strand breaks in human nasal respiratory epithelium are induced upon exposure to urban pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calderon-Garciduenas, L.; Osnaya-Brizuela, N.; Ramirez-Martinez, L. [Instituto Nacional de Pediatria, Mexico City (Mexico)] [and others

    1996-02-01

    All organisms have the ability to respond and adapt to a myriad of environmental insults. The human respiratory epithelium, when exposed to oxidant gases in photochemical smog, is at risk of DNA damage and requires efficient cellular adaptative responses to resist the environmentally induced cell damage. Ozone and its reaction products induce in vitro and in vivo DNA single strand breaks (SSBs) in respiratory epithelial cells and alveolar macrophages. To determine if exposure to a polluted atmosphere with ozone as the main criteria pollutant of 19 children and 13 adult males who lived in a low-polluted Pacific port, 69 males and 16 children who were permanent residents of Southwest Metropolitan Mexico City (SWMMC), and 22 young males newly arrived to SWMMC and followed for 12 weeks. Respiratory symptoms, nasal cytology and histopathology, cell viabilities, and single-cell gel electrophoresis were investigated. Atmospheric pollutant data were obtained from a fixed-site monitoring station. SWMMC volunteers spent >7 hr/day outdoors and all had upper respiratory symptoms. A significant difference in the numbers of DNA-damaged nasal cells was observed between control and chronically exposed subjects, both in children (p<0.00001) and in adults (p>0.01). SSBs in newly arrived subjects quickly increased upon arrival to the city, from 39.8 {+-}8.34% in the first week to 67.29 {+-}2.35 by week 2. Thereafter, the number of cells with SSBs remained stable in spite of the continuous increase in cumulative ozone, suggesting a threshold for cumulative DNA nasal damage. Exposure to a polluted urban atmosphere induces SSBs in human nasal respiratory epithelium, and nasal SSBs could serve as a biomarker of ozone exposure. Further, because DNA strand breaks are a threat to cell viability and genome integrity and appear to be a critical lesion responsible for p53 induction, nasal SSBs should be evaluated in ozone-exposed individuals. 43 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Assessing residential exposure to urban noise using environmental models: does the size of the local living neighborhood matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenailleau, Quentin M; Bernard, Nadine; Pujol, Sophie; Houot, Hélène; Joly, Daniel; Mauny, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Environmental epidemiological studies rely on the quantification of the exposure level in a surface defined as the subject's exposure area. For residential exposure, this area is often the subject's neighborhood. However, the variability of the size and nature of the neighborhoods makes comparison of the findings across studies difficult. This article examines the impact of the neighborhood's definition on environmental noise exposure levels obtained from four commonly used sampling techniques: address point, façade, buffers, and official zoning. A high-definition noise model, built on a middle-sized French city, has been used to estimate LAeq,24 h exposure in the vicinity of 10,825 residential buildings. Twelve noise exposure indicators have been used to assess inhabitants' exposure. Influence of urban environmental factors was analyzed using multilevel modeling. When the sampled area increases, the average exposure increases (+3.9 dB), whereas the SD decreases (-1.6 dB) (P<0.01). Most of the indicators differ statistically. When comparing indicators from the 50-m and 400-m radius buffers, the assigned LAeq,24 h level varies across buildings from -9.4 to +22.3 dB. This variation is influenced by urban environmental characteristics (P<0.01). On the basis of this study's findings, sampling technique, neighborhood size, and environmental composition should be carefully considered in further exposure studies.

  15. The Exposome Research Paradigm: an Opportunity to Understand the Environmental Basis for Human Health and Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck Louis, Germaine M; Smarr, Melissa M; Patel, Chirag J

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents an overview of the exposome research paradigm with particular application to understanding human reproduction and development and its implications for health across a lifespan. The exposome research paradigm has generated considerable discussion about its feasibility and utility for delineating the impact of environmental exposures on human health. Early initiatives are underway, including smaller proof-of-principle studies and larger concerted efforts. Despite the notable challenges underlying the exposome paradigm, analytic techniques are being developed to handle its untargeted approach and correlated and multi-level or hierarchical data structures such initiatives generate, while considering multiple comparisons. The relatively short intervals for critical and sensitive windows of human reproduction and development seem well suited for exposome research and may revolutionize our understanding of later onset diseases. Early initiatives suggest that the exposome paradigm is feasible, but its utility remains to be established with applications to population human health research.

  16. Forecasting human exposure to atmospheric pollutants in Portugal - A modelling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrego, C.; Sá, E.; Monteiro, A.; Ferreira, J.; Miranda, A. I.

    2009-12-01

    Air pollution has become one main environmental concern because of its known impact on human health. Aiming to inform the population about the air they are breathing, several air quality modelling systems have been developed and tested allowing the assessment and forecast of air pollution ambient levels in many countries. However, every day, an individual is exposed to different concentrations of atmospheric pollutants as he/she moves from and to different outdoor and indoor places (the so-called microenvironments). Therefore, a more efficient way to prevent the population from the health risks caused by air pollution should be based on exposure rather than air concentrations estimations. The objective of the present study is to develop a methodology to forecast the human exposure of the Portuguese population based on the air quality forecasting system available and validated for Portugal since 2005. Besides that, a long-term evaluation of human exposure estimates aims to be obtained using one-year of this forecasting system application. Additionally, a hypothetical 50% emission reduction scenario has been designed and studied as a contribution to study emission reduction strategies impact on human exposure. To estimate the population exposure the forecasting results of the air quality modelling system MM5-CHIMERE have been combined with the population spatial distribution over Portugal and their time-activity patterns, i.e. the fraction of the day time spent in specific indoor and outdoor places. The population characterization concerning age, work, type of occupation and related time spent was obtained from national census and available enquiries performed by the National Institute of Statistics. A daily exposure estimation module has been developed gathering all these data and considering empirical indoor/outdoor relations from literature to calculate the indoor concentrations in each one of the microenvironments considered, namely home, office/school, and other

  17. Mutagenic potential assessment associated with human exposure to natural radioactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcon, Alexandre Endres; Navoni, Julio Alejandro; de Oliveira Galvão, Marcos Felipe; Garcia, Anuska Conde Fagundes Soares; do Amaral, Viviane Souza; Petta, Reinaldo Antônio; Campos, Thomas Ferreira da Costa; Panosso, Renata; Quinelato, Antônio Luiz; de Medeiros, Sílvia Regina Batistuzzo

    2017-01-01

    Lucrécia city, known to harbor a high cancer rate, is located in a semiarid region characterized by the presence of mineral reservoirs, facing a high exposure to metal and natural radioactivity. The present study aimed to assess the environmental scenario at a semiarid region located in Northeastern Brazil. Metal concentration, alpha and beta radiation, and cyanobacteria content in tap water along with indoor radon and gamma emitters (U, K and Th) concentrations were measured. In addition, mutagenic and nuclear instability effects were assessed using buccal micronucleus cytome assay. The study included five samplings corresponding to a period between 2007 and 2009. Drinking water from Lucrécia city presented levels of Mn, Ni and Cr along with cyanobacteria in concentrations one to four times higher than regulatory guidelines considered. Furthermore, high levels of all the tested radionuclides were found. A high percentage of the houses included in this study presented indoor radon concentrations over 100 Bq m(-3). The mean annual effective dose from Lucrécia houses was six times higher than observed in a control region. The levels of exposure in most of the Lucrécia houses were classified as middle to high. A significant mutagenic effect, represented as an increase of micronuclei (MN) frequency and nuclear abnormalities as nuclear buds (NB), binucleated cells (BN), and pyknotic cells (PYC) were found. The results obtained highlight the role of high background radioactivity on the observed mutagenic effect and could help to explain the exacerbated cancer rate reported in this locality.

  18. Human health risk assessment (HHRA) for environmental development and transfer of antibiotic resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashbolt, Nicholas J.; Amézquita, Alejandro; Backhaus, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Background: Only recently has the environment been clearly implicated in the risk of antibiotic resistance to clinical outcome, but to date there have been few documented approaches to formally assess these risks. Objective: We examined possible approaches and sought to identify research needs...... to enable human health risk assessments (HHRA) that focus on the role of the environment in the failure of antibiotic treatment caused by antibiotic-resistant pathogens. Methods: The authors participated in a workshop held 4-8 March 2012 in Québec, Canada, to define the scope and objectives...... of an environmental assessment of antibiotic-resistance risks to human health. We focused on key elements of environmental-resistance-development "hot spots," exposure assessment (unrelated to food), and dose response to characterize risks that may improve antibiotic-resistance management options. Discussion: Various...

  19. A test chamber for experimental hydrogen fluoride exposure in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søstrand, P; Kongerud, J; Eduard, W; Nilsen, T; Skogland, M; Boe, J

    1997-07-01

    An inhalation chamber was built to perform experimental studies with hydrogen fluoride (HF), other gases, and particulate matter. The present study sought to describe a new gas delivery system and the distribution and concentration of HF gas in the chamber. The aluminum chamber has a volume of 19.2 m3 and a variable ventilation rate of about 1 to 10 air changes per hour. The negative pressure difference between the chamber and outside air can be regulated from 0 to 300 Pa. HF was fed at concentrations of up to 4000 mg/m3 directly into the ventilation duct feeding the chamber through openings with diameters as small as 50 microns, oriented opposite to the airflow. Gas flow was varied from about 0.1 dm3/min at a pressure of 4 atm. The dilution factor of HF concentration from cylinder to chamber was on the order of 10(3) to 10(4). The standard deviation (SD) of the HF concentrations at a fixed measurement point during a 1-hour test was typically 0.05 mg/m3 at a time-weighted average (TWA) concentration of 2.66 mg/m3. The SD of the TWA HF concentrations at six locations in the chamber was typically 0.05 mg/m3 and 0.29 mg/m3 at 0.61 and 3.46 mg/m3, respectively. Human exposure could be predicted from calculations based on ventilation data, gas flow, and observed ratio between calculated and measured concentrations. When the target exposure concentration was 1.5 mg/m3, the measured mean exposure concentration was typically 1.54 mg/m3 (range: 1.4-1.7 mg/m3, SD 0.09 mg/m3, n = 8). The chamber is well-suited for inhalation studies in humans. Chamber atmosphere was controlled and has proved to be stable and homogeneous, even in tests with HF, a highly reactive gas in the class of superacids.

  20. Advancing Environmental Health: A Ballroom Dance Between Human Health and Earth Sciences Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, A.

    2016-12-01

    The mission of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) is to discover how the environment affects people in order to promote healthier lives. Translation of this mission into a meaningful reality entails extensive interdisciplinary interactions, expertise, and collaborations between the traditional health and earth sciences communities. Efforts to advance our understanding of adverse effects and illness associated with environmental factors requires not only a refined understanding of the biological mechanisms and pathways (e.g., inflammation, epigenetic changes, oxidative stress, mutagenesis, etc.) related to function and disease, but also the incredibly broad and complex environmental exposures and systems that influence these processes. Further complicating efforts to understand such interactions is the need to take into account individual susceptibility to disease across the human life span. While it is clear that environmental exposures can be readily linked to disease in individuals and to disproportionate health disparities in populations, the underlying risk factors for such findings are often elusive. Health and earth scientists have a long tradition of crossing their scientific divides to work together on a wide range of problems and issues, including disasters. Emergency situations, such as the environmental asbestos contamination in Libby, Montana, the Gulf Oil Spill, numerous chemical releases into air and water, wildfires, the World Trade Center Attack, and responses to Ebola, and now Zika, demand the collective expertise of the "environmental health sciences enterprise" to protect the public's health, facilitate recovery, and improve future preparedness. Furthermore, such high visibility efforts stand as a clear example of what human and earth sciences research can accomplish when transformative interdisciplinary approaches and a diverse well-trained cadre of scientists dance together on the ballroom floor.

  1. Simulating human behavior for understanding and managing environmental resource use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, Wander; Mosler, Hans Joachim

    2007-01-01

    Computer simulation allows for the experimental study of dynamic interactions between human behavior and complex environmental systems. Behavioral determinants and processes as identified in social-scientific theory may be formalized in simulated agents to obtain a better understanding of man-enviro

  2. The High-mountain Cryosphere: Environmental Changes and Human Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Shahgedanova

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Reviewed: The High-mountain Cryosphere: Environmental Changes and Human Risks Edited by Christian Huggel, Mark Carey, John J. Clague, and Andreas Kääb. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2015. xii + 363 pp. Hardcover: US$ 140.00, ISBN 978-1-107-06584-0. E-book: US$ 112.00, ISBN 978-1-316-35515-2.

  3. Human Q fever incidence is associated to spatiotemporal environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P.G. Van Leuken

    2016-12-01

    We conclude that environmental conditions are correlated to human Q fever incidence rate. Similar research with data from other outbreaks would be needed to more firmly establish our findings. This could lead to better estimations of the public health risk of a C. burnetii outbreak, and to more detailed and accurate hazard maps that could be used for spatial planning of livestock operations.

  4. Environmental Stimulation, Parental Nurturance and Cognitive Development in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farah, Martha J.; Betancourt, Laura; Shera, David M.; Savage, Jessica H.; Giannetta, Joan M.; Brodsky, Nancy L.; Malmud, Elsa K.; Hurt, Hallam

    2008-01-01

    The effects of environmental stimulation and parental nurturance on brain development have been studied extensively in animals. Much less is known about the relations between childhood experience and cognitive development in humans. Using a longitudinally collected data set with ecologically valid in-home measures of childhood experience and later…

  5. Leaching of the plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) from plastic containers and the question of human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erythropel, Hanno C; Maric, Milan; Nicell, Jim A; Leask, Richard L; Yargeau, Viviane

    2014-12-01

    Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) is a widely used plasticizer to render poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) soft and malleable. Plasticized PVC is used in hospital equipment, food wrapping, and numerous other commercial and industrial products. Unfortunately, plasticizers can migrate within the material and leach out of it over time, ending up in the environment and, frequently, the human body. DEHP has come under increased scrutiny as its breakdown products are believed to be endocrine disruptors and more toxic than DEHP itself. DEHP and its breakdown products have been identified as ubiquitous environmental contaminants, and daily human exposure is estimated to be in the microgram per kilogram level. The objective of this review is to summarize and comment on published sources of DEHP exposure and to give an overview of its environmental fate. Exposure through bottled water was examined specifically, as this concern is raised frequently, yet only little exposure to DEHP occurs through bottled water, and DEHP exposure is unlikely to stem from the packaging material itself. Packaged food was also examined and showed higher levels of DEHP contamination compared to bottled water. Exposure to DEHP also occurs in hospital environments, where DEHP leaches directly into liquids that passed through PVC/DEHP tubing and equipment. The latter exposure is at considerably higher levels compared to food and bottled water, specifically putting patients with chronic illnesses at risk. Overall, levels of DEHP in food and bottled water were below current tolerable daily intake (TDI) values. However, our understanding of the risks of DEHP exposure is still evolving. Given the prevalence of DEHP in our atmosphere and environment, and the uncertainty revolving around it, the precautionary principle would suggest its phaseout and replacement. Increased efforts to develop viable replacement compounds, which necessarily includes rigorous leaching, toxicity, and impact assessment studies, are

  6. Molecular epidemiology studies on occupational and environmental exposure to mutagens and carcinogens, 1997-1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srám, R J; Binková, B

    2000-03-01

    Molecular epidemiology is a new and evolving area of research, combining laboratory measurement of internal dose, biologically effective dose, biologic effects, and influence of individual susceptibility with epidemiologic methodologies. Biomarkers evaluated were selected according to basic scheme: biomarkers of exposure--metabolites in urine, DNA adducts, protein adducts, and Comet assay parameters; biomarkers of effect--chromosomal aberrations, sister chromatid exchanges, micronuclei, mutations in the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase gene, and the activation of oncogenes coding for p53 or p21 proteins as measured on protein levels; biomarkers of susceptibility--genetic polymorphisms of genes CYP1A1, GSTM1, GSTT1, NAT2. DNA adducts measured by 32P-postlabeling are the biomarker of choice for the evaluation of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Protein adducts are useful as a biomarker for exposure to tobacco smoke (4-aminobiphenyl) or to smaller molecules such as acrylonitrile or 1,3-butadiene. Of the biomarkers of effect, the most common are cytogenetic end points. Epidemiologic studies support the use of chromosomal breakage as a relevant biomarker of cancer risk. The use of the Comet assay and methods analyzing oxidative DNA damage needs reliable validation for human biomonitoring. Until now there have not been sufficient data to interpret the relationship between genotypes, biomarkers of exposure, and biomarkers of effect for assessing the risk of human exposure to mutagens and carcinogens.

  7. Elaboration of a concept for the cumulative environmental exposure assessment of biocides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, Rita; Bunke, Dirk; Moch, Katja [Oeko-Institut e.V. - Institut fuer Angewandte Oekologie e.V., Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Gartiser, Stefan [Hydrotox GmbH, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    Article 10(1) of the EU Biocidal Products Directive 98/8/EC (BPD) requires that for the inclusion of an active substance in Annex I, Annex IA or IB, cumulation effects from the use of biocidal products containing the same active substance shall be taken into account, where relevant. The study proves the feasibility of a technical realisation of Article 10(1) of the BPD and elaborates a first concept for the cumulative environmental exposure assessment of biocides. Existing requirements concerning cumulative assessments in other regulatory frameworks have been evaluated and their applicability for biocides has been examined. Technical terms and definitions used in this context were documented with the aim to harmonise terminology with other frameworks and to set up a precise definition within the BPD. Furthermore, application conditions of biocidal products have been analysed to find out for which cumulative exposure assessments may be relevant. Different parameters were identified which might serve as indicators for the relevance of cumulative exposure assessments. These indicators were then integrated in a flow chart by means of which the relevance of cumulative exposure assessments can be checked. Finally, proposals for the technical performance of cumulative exposure assessments within the Review Programme have been elaborated with the aim to bring the results of the project into the upcoming development and harmonization processes on EU level. (orig.)

  8. Environmental Toxicology and Health Effects Associated with Methyl Parathion Exposure – A Scientific Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul B. Tchounwou

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Methyl parathion - MP (C8H10NO5PS is a restricted-use pes