WorldWideScience

Sample records for human environment energie

  1. Portable energy: autonomy and integration in the human environment; Energie portable: autonomie et integration dans l'environnement humain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Multon, F; Delamarche, P [Rennes-2 Universite, Lab. de Physiologie et de Biomecanique de l& #x27; Exercice Mulsculaire, UMR. APS, 35 (France); Lucchese, P [CEA Fontenay-aux-Roses, Dir. de la Recherche Technologique, Hydrogene et Pile a Combustible, 92 (France); and others

    2002-07-01

    This colloquium was motivated by the possibility to recover in our environment the energy produced by our movements, but also the heat emitted and the radiations received by the human body in order to supply the energy needs of portable electronic devices (telephones, micro-computers, watches, prostheses etc..). It tries to answer the different problems raised by the implementation of portable energy sources: the energy resources in the human environment, the physical and technological processes of energy production and storage, the electronic energy conversion and remote transmission means, the intelligent energy management, and the existing and potential applications of these processes. This document brings together 16 communications presented by searchers from various domains (biology, medicine, electrochemistry, computer science, mechanics, thermodynamics, electronics etc..) on the following topics: energy in the human body, possibilities of miniaturization of fuel cells, thermo-mechanical micro-generators, thermoelectric generation, solar cells and autonomy, micro-chargeable batteries, double-layer super-capacitors (principles and electrical behaviour), renewable energies in watches, electro-mechanical devices for the exploitation of human movements energy, trans-dermal power supply, new mechanical-aided systems for blood circulation, problems and their solutions related to portable telephones, low voltage and high efficiency power electronic systems for portable applications, remote energy transmission, intelligent energy management (equipments and softwares), electromagnetic environments and health. (J.S.)

  2. Human Behavior & Low Energy Architecture: Linking Environmental Adaptation, Personal Comfort, & Energy Use in the Built Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langevin, Jared

    Truly sustainable buildings serve to enrich the daily sensory experience of their human inhabitants while consuming the least amount of energy possible; yet, building occupants and their environmentally adaptive behaviors remain a poorly characterized variable in even the most "green" building design and operation approaches. This deficiency has been linked to gaps between predicted and actual energy use, as well as to eventual problems with occupant discomfort, productivity losses, and health issues. Going forward, better tools are needed for considering the human-building interaction as a key part of energy efficiency strategies that promote good Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) in buildings. This dissertation presents the development and implementation of a Human and Building Interaction Toolkit (HABIT), a framework for the integrated simulation of office occupants' thermally adaptive behaviors, IEQ, and building energy use as part of sustainable building design and operation. Development of HABIT begins with an effort to devise more reliable methods for predicting individual occupants' thermal comfort, considered the driving force behind the behaviors of focus for this project. A long-term field study of thermal comfort and behavior is then presented, and the data it generates are used to develop and validate an agent-based behavior simulation model. Key aspects of the agent-based behavior model are described, and its predictive abilities are shown to compare favorably to those of multiple other behavior modeling options. Finally, the agent-based behavior model is linked with whole building energy simulation in EnergyPlus, forming the full HABIT program. The program is used to evaluate the energy and IEQ impacts of several occupant behavior scenarios in the simulation of a case study office building for the Philadelphia climate. Results indicate that more efficient local heating/cooling options may be paired with wider set point ranges to yield up to 24

  3. Energy, environment and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Hinnawi, E

    1977-01-01

    Energy is one of the most important prerequisites of life. The growing socio-economic activities and the rising standard of living have led to a rapid increase in energy consumption. The limited resources of fossil fuels and the recent geopolitical developments activated the exploration of ways and means for energy conservation and exploitation of unconventional renewable sources of energy. Of the renewable energy sources (geothermal, solar, tidal, hydropower, etc), hydro-power production has some potential environmental effects. Man-made lakes have several physical, biological, geochemical and biogeochemical impacts on the environment both in the area of the lake and downstream. From the socio-economic point of view, the harnessing of renewable sources of energy will not only lead to the enhancement of the human environment, particularly in remote rural areas in developing countries, but will also lead to substantial savings in the use of non-renewable sources of energy.

  4. On the Climate Variability and Energy Demands for Indoor Human Comfort Levels in Tropical Urban Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, R.; Ortiz, L. E.; González, J. E.; Ramírez-Beltran, N. D.

    2017-12-01

    The main objective of this study is to identify how climate variability influences human comfort levels in tropical urban environments. San Juan Metropolitan Area (SJMA) of the island of Puerto Rico was chosen as a reference point. A new human discomfort index (HDI) based on environmental enthalpy is defined. This index is expanded to determine the energy required to maintain indoor human comfort levels and was compared to Total Electricity consumption for the Island of Puerto Rico. Regression analysis shows that both Temperature and HDI are good indictor to predict total electrical energy consumption. Results showed that over the past 35 years the average enthalpy have increased and have mostly been above thresholds for human comfort for SJMA. The weather stations data further shows a clear indication of urbanization biases ramping up the index considered. From the trend analysis local scale (weather station) data shows a decreasing rate of maximum cooling at -11.41 kW-h/years, and minimum is increasing at 10.64 kW-h/years. To compare human comfort levels under extreme heat wave events conditions, an event of 2014 in the San Juan area was identified. The analysis for this extreme heat event is complemented by data from the National Center for environmental Prediction (NCEP) at 250km spatial resolution, North American Re-Analysis (NARR) at 32 km spatial resolution, by simulations of the Weather Forecasting System (WRF) at a resolution of 2 km, and by weather station data for San Juan. WRF simulation's results showed an improvement for both temperature and relative humidity from the input NCEP data. It also shows that difference in Energy per Capita (EPC) in urban area during a heat wave event can increase to 16% over a non-urban area. Sensitivity analysis was done by modifying the urban land cover to the most common rural references of evergreen broadleaf forest and cropland to investigate the Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect on HDI. UHI is seen to be maximum during

  5. Energy and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrere, M.

    1978-01-01

    Energy problems will play a fundamental role in the near future and researchers, engineers, economists and ecologists must work together to increase existing non-fossil energy sources and to develop new sources or techniques using less energy without pollution of the environment. Four aspects of future activities in this field are considered. First, energy sources, ie solar, fossil, nuclear, geothermal, and others such as wind energy or wave energy are considered in relation to the environment. Secondly the use of these sources by industry and by transportation, domestic, and agricultural sectors are examined. The problem of energy conservation in all fields is then considered. Finally the overall optimisation is analysed. This is the search for a compromise between the cost of usable energy and that of a degradation function taking into account the effect on the environment. (U.K.)

  6. Effects of thermal energy harvesting on the human - clothing - environment microsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, A. C.; Jur, J. S.

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this work is to perform an in depth investigation of garment-based thermal energy harvesting. The effect of human and environmental factors on the working efficiency of a thermal energy harvesting devices, or a thermoelectric generator (TEG), placed on the body is explored.. Variables that strongly effect the response of the TEG are as follows: skin temperature, human motion or speed, body location, environmental conditions, and the textile properties surrounding the TEG. In this study, the use of textiles for managing thermal comfort of wearable technology and energy harvesting are defined. By varying the stitch length and/or knit structure, one can manipulate the thermal conductivity of the garment in a specific location. Another method of improving TEG efficiency is through the use of a heat spreader, which increases the effective collection area of heat on the TEG hot side. Here we show the effect of a TEG on the thermal properties of a garment with regard to two knit stitches, jersey and 1 × 1 rib.

  7. Energy and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spurny, Z.

    1987-01-01

    The objectives and the proceedings are presented of the conference ''Energy and the environment'' held in Pardubice, Czechoslovakia, on 9-10 June, 1987. A total of 31 papers were presented; 4 papers were centred on nuclear power: an assessment of the impact of ionizing radiation from power generation on the health of the population and on the environment; an assessment of the impact of the nuclear power plant complex in the Jaslovske Bohunice locality on the environment; an assessment of the impact of the Vychodni Cechy (Eastern Bohemia) plant on the environment; and a paper on the ecological optimization of the landscape during the development of the uranium industry. (J.B.)

  8. Energy and global environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fyfe, W.S.; Powell, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    At present about 90% of the world's energy consumption is met by the fossil carbon fuel used in the form of coal, oil and natural gas. This results into release of vast amounts of waste gas CO 2 into the atmosphere posing a threat to the global environment. Moreover this energy source is not sustainable (renewable) and its use amounts to spending Earth's capital resources. The options to this energy source are biomass energy, hydro power, solar energy, geothermal energy and nuclear energy. The potentials, limitations, geological impact and environmental dangers, if any, of these sources are discussed in brief. Energy conservation through energy efficient systems is also one more option. Problems and potential for change to sustainable energy systems with respect to India and Canada are examined. Finally it is pointed out that the ultimate solution to the world's energy problem lies in population control and population reduction. This will make possible for the world to have a sustainable energy system primarily based on solar energy. (M.G.B.). 15 refs

  9. Energy - environment - nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The special edition contains contributions made by different authors on the array of problems presented by the environment, energy, and nutrition, biosphere and man, economic growth and energy supplies for future security, new environmental awareness, - the end of market economy., power plant safety, conditions for the evolution of mankind, policy and criminal law demonstrated by means of environmental protection. The concept of ecology and the development of world energy supplies are documented. The bibliography report goes into detail as far as studies are concerned which deal with the hazards of nuclear power plants, related pros and cons, with the energy crisis in general, and with nuclear weapons. (HSCH) [de

  10. Nuclear energy and the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1972-07-01

    This issue of the Bulletin contains a series of articles discussing various aspects of the interplay between the use of nuclear energy for electricity production, and the acknowledged need to protect the human environment, to conserve natural resources for the benefit of mankind. This article, the keynote to the series, has been contributed by Dr. Glenn T. Seaborg, immediate past Chairman of the United States Atomic Energy Commission and now of the University of California, Berkeley, California. (author)

  11. Energy, Environment and IMCC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2012-01-01

    This paper gives a brief description of the important role that the ionic and mixed conducting ceramics (IMCC) type of materials will play in the R&D of energy and environment technologies of the - presumably - near future. IMCC materials based technologies for energy harvesting, conversion...... and storage as well as for monitoring and protection of our environment are exemplified. The strong impact of the international IMCC research on development of devices based on such materials is illustrated, and some recent trends in the scientific exploration of IMCC are highlighted. Important groups...

  12. Energy and Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, L.A.; Rincon, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    Energy has been the fundamental tool in the development of the humanity for the production of estates and essential services in its nourishment and general welfare. In the measure that that has increased the population, it has been generated greater demand of energy to produce the necessary estates for the survival mainly in the urban centers or of consumption. This situation has generated the accelerated intervention of the energetic resources not renewable, originating imbalances in the natural ecosystems, during the exploration stages, development of large projects or in the direct consumption (when is tried of a primary consumption of energy as the firewood). Of other side, catastrophic environmental effects in the urban or industrial concentrations have been generated, caused by the combustion or burnt in a way primary or secondary of energy as the hot gases emission and radiations in concentrations that the troposphere can not dilute or deaden

  13. Environment and energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirkner, H.; Kneller, P.

    1981-01-01

    FACIT is a periodical intended to provide the reader with a survey of outstanding publications on topical subjects. At the same time, it offers a first insight into the subject field, enabling the reader to select among the literature cited the publications he may need to enhance his knowledge and information. The periodical is aimed at serving as a guide to the complex variety of publications in a subject field, and to offer information in brief. Vol. 1, Environment and Energy, cites representative statements and samples from the German-language literature in this field and gives hints for further reading. (orig./HSCH) [de

  14. Energy, economics, environment and politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    The pressure on the Earth's environment and resources is the ultimate result of population growth and the only humane means available for stabilizing world population is to increase per capita living standards in the developing countries. However, this will require a very large increase in global energy consumption. If, as at present, the energy demand is met largely by fossil fuels, atmospheric concentrations of CO 2 will rise rapidly. Until the end of the century, and perhaps beyond it, any actions to control CO 2 emissions will be taken for precautionary reasons alone, because no reliable basis will exist for predicting their global (or regional) impact on the climate. The sustainability of the natural environment is also under threat from human activities such as the clearing of forests for crop-growing and grazing. The resulting elimination of habitats for, and genetic variability in, the victor is as serious a concern as global warming. The economic and social consequences of rigidly curtailing the growth of energy use in developed countries would be severe, and in developing countries extreme; even then greenhouse gas build up could only be slowed not prevented. On the other hand, a wealthier world would be more able to bear the financial burden of protecting biodiversity. It is concluded that since the developed countries on whom the main cost would have to fall, adequate effort into both biodiversity and greenhouse gas reduction, biodiversity must take procedence. (1 figure, 2 tables). (UK)

  15. Energy, ecology, and the environment

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Richard F

    1974-01-01

    Energy, Ecology, and the Environment discusses how our need for energy and the different means required to obtain it affect the environment and the harnessing of different natural resources. The book also aims to show more efficient ways to use and generate energy. The book, after a brief introduction to the concept of energy, covers topics such as the different energy resources and the demands, costs, and policies regarding energy. The book also discusses the problems brought about by the production of energy such as the hazards to nature and man; environmental problems and pollution; and

  16. Nuclear Energy and the Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria).

    "Nuclear Energy and the Environment" is a pocket folder of removable leaflets concerned with two major topics: Nuclear energy and Nuclear Techniques. Under Nuclear Energy, leaflets concerning the topics of "Radiation--A Fact of Life,""The Impact of a Fact: 1963 Test Ban Treaty,""Energy Needs and Nuclear Power,""Power Reactor Safety,""Transport,"…

  17. Energy, environment, and economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Commoner, B

    1979-09-01

    In this interview, Dr. Barry Commoner discusses his analysis of energy problems as a function of the Second Law of Thermodynamics, i.e., that energy is necessary in order to perform work. As outlined in his book The Poverty of Power, a good thermodynamic approach matches the amount of energy expended with the task to be done. Electric transport is more energy efficient than private automobiles and illustrates how capital is wasted and social harm done to increase private profit. Inefficient energy use is the result of basing conservation efforts on the First rather than the Second Law. Commoner advocates social changes that give society more control over the means of production and the way resources are used. He feels the relative merits of solar energy and breeder reactors should be debated and a choice made, preferably for solar, to make a gradual transition to renewable resources. (DCK)

  18. International environment, enterprise environment and energy environment giving different look

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubo, Shunsuke

    1987-04-01

    0he international environment, enterprise environment and energy environment surrounding Japan are changing their looks. In such situation, what Japan should do for the development of the world was discussed. Internationally, in the Western Pacific economical block including Japan and Asian NICs, Japan promotes the international exchange of materials, capital, technology, information and people, and creates various international public properties. Enterprisers should have global mind, and cope with the internationalization, technical innovation and information orientation which are in progress at present through international exchange, interindustrial exchange, industry-university-government exchange and so on. In the aspect of energy environment, Japan carries out the technical development of energy conservation, energy, creation and the exploration of energy resources, in this way, contributes to the stabilization of energy in the world. (3 figs, 1 tab)

  19. Energy and the Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Niels I

    1996-01-01

    Denmark was one of the first countries in the world to commit itself to reduction targets for CO2 emission. Official Danish energy plans are reviewed in the light of the actual energy development. The EU Commission has been promoting a liberalisation of the electricity market for some years. At a...

  20. Nuclear energy and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, R.N.

    1987-01-01

    A general view about the use of energy for brazilian development is presented. The international situation of the nuclear field and the pacific utilization of nuclear energy in Brazil are commented. The safety concepts used for reactor and nuclear facilities licensing, the environmental monitoring program and radiation protection program used in Brazil are described. (E.G.) [pt

  1. Energy and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamenov, J.

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear energy has a strategic place within the structure of the country’s energy system. The energy transformation technology as well as the extremely high requirements regarding nuclear safety call for the availability of scientific, applied, and operational potential, and for an adequate culture of safe use of nuclear energy. In that aspect, the research reactor as a material base, and its scientific and technical personnel, represent a solid basis for the development of nuclear energy in our country. The acquired scientific experience and qualification in reactor operation are a precondition for the equal in rights participation of the country in the international cooperation and the approaching to the European structures, and assurance of the national interests

  2. Wind energy renewable energy and the environment

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, Vaughn; Nelson, Vaughn

    2009-01-01

    Due to the mounting demand for energy and increasing population of the world, switching from nonrenewable fossil fuels to other energy sources is not an option-it is a necessity. Focusing on a cost-effective option for the generation of electricity, Wind Energy: Renewable Energy and the Environment covers all facets of wind energy and wind turbines. The book begins by outlining the history of wind energy, before providing reasons to shift from fossil fuels to renewable energy. After examining the characteristics of wind, such as shear, power potential, and turbulence, it discusses the measur

  3. Transport, energy and environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    Transportation demands a large and increasing share of total energy consumption in Europe. At the same time many European countries are facing difficult decisions in achieving their long term environmental goals. Therefore energy policy, environmental policy and transport policy should be seen and discussed in a common perspective. In particular the relative contribution from the transport sector and the energy sector involves a number of important and difficult issues. The aim of the conference was to bring together economists, scientists, manufactures, energy planners, transport planners, and decision makers in order to discuss the importance of the transport sector in relation to energy demand and long term environmental goals. General conference sessions covered. Trends in Transport Energy Demand and Environmental constraints, Technological Development and New Transport Systems, Lifestyle Changes and the Transport Sector, Megacities: Solutions to the Transport and Air Pollution Problems, Effectiveness of Public Policies, Transport and Energy sector, and Methods, Models and Data. The conference took place at Hotel Marienlyst, Elsinore, Denmark and attracted wide interest. The participants represented 14 different countries covering international organisations, ministries, universities, research centres, consulting firms, industry etc. (EG)

  4. Man - Energy - Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagge, E.

    1975-01-01

    In the present work an introduction is given on the coal, oil and energy demand of mankind, and the emissions due to coal and oil combustion are dealt with. Nuclear energy is then introduced as a new energy source, the nuclear fuel supplies are estimated and the radiation and environmental impact of nuclear power plants is discussed. Furthermore, the possibility of nuclear accidents and the role of the atomic waste is dealt with. Finally, prognoses are made on the future development. (RW/LH) [de

  5. Energy and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a study on the understanding of inpending scientific, technical, and economic problems as well as the standards and criteria that have to be set from a Christian point of view in order to serve an ethics of progress. In the field of energy demand and its coverage, security and environmental impacts of energy conversion, and of the securing of energy supply, 12 theses are laid down. Among other things they vote for the further development of nuclear energy utilization - with circumspection and caution, however -, for new technologies, technical improvements, the electrification of coal, and for better information of the citizens. The development of the THTR-300 reactor ought to be urged. (HSCH) [de

  6. Energy and environment policies. International Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    An analysis is made of how energy policies can be adapted to environmental concerns. The efficiency of measures solving environmental problems is investigated, in particular measures substituting energy carriers, improving energy efficiency rates, postfitting pollution control devices, and applying clean energy technologies. In connection with methods of state control the report deals with questions of taxation and regularization which are to induce the private sector to actively to something for the protection of the environment. (orig.) [de

  7. Energy and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casale, G.; Kirchmann, R.

    1982-01-01

    The impact of pollution at the different stages of exploitation of the primary energy sources is examined. According to Holdren, the social and environmental constraints much more than fuel supply will be the factor limiting the energy utilization rate for the next hundred years. Energy sources can be divided on one hand in non-renewable raw materials (coal, oil, natural gas, fissile and fusion materials) and, on the other hand, in renewable sources (hydraulic, solar, geothermal, wind). With regard to the appraisal of the environmental effects, the different steps of the fuel cycle have been considered: production or extraction, transport, treatment (enrichment, refining, purification etc.). The radiation dose rate from airborne releases of radionuclides are compared for geothermal, coal-fired and nuclear power plants

  8. Energy in Italian regions. Energy environment situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Angelo, E.; Coralli, L.; Porpiglia, V.; Perrella, G.; De Lauretis, R.; Romagnoli, A.; Gomboli, M.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this report is to provide a representative picture of the choice regions in energy and environment field. Are singled out the laws and regulations of some regions and concrete territorial applications [it

  9. Energy and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parrott, L.; Floyd, H.L.; Goetsch, B.; Doran, L.

    1993-03-01

    This bulletin discusses the following: decontamination of polluted water by using a photocatalyst to convert ultraviolet energy into electrochemical energy capable of destroying organic waste and removing toxic metals; monitoring oil spills with SAR by collecting data in digital form, processing the data, and creating digital images that are recorded for post-mission viewing and processing; revitalization of a solar industrial process heat system which uses parabolic troughs to heat water for foil production of integrated circuits; and an electronic information system, EnviroTRADE (Environmental Technologies for Remedial Actions Data Exchange) for worldwide exchange of environmental restoration and waste management information

  10. Nuclear energy and environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-12-31

    The film stresses that a drastic reduction in carbon dioxide emissions, mainly from the burning of fossil fuels, must be achieved to limit a dangerous concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. It compares the environmental costs of different energy sources, in particular the wastes of a coal-fired versus a nuclear plant, and mentions the measures taken to reinforce protection against the risk of nuclear accidents

  11. Environment protection and energy politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grawe, J.

    1993-01-01

    The lecture first deals with the aims and legal basis in German and European law of environment protection with regard to energy politics. It then goes to deal with European regulations for environment protection and their effects on the energy supply: Air pollution abatement, tax for the protection of the climate, internalisation of external costs. The following European energy-political measures impinge on environment protection: Sponsored projects, least-cost planning, third-party access to the public electricity supply. The discrepancy between European and national policies can be lessened or resolved by the following means: Harmonisation, subsidiarity principle, and scope for entrepreneurial solutions. (orig.) [de

  12. Nuclear energy and natural environment. Information seminar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The material of the Jadwisin 93' seminar is the collection 20 of 19 articles discussing aspects of the subject of nuclear energy and natural environment. The lectures were presented at six sessions: 1) Nuclear energy applications in medicine, agriculture, industry, food preservation and protection of the environment; 2) Nuclear power in the world; 3) Public attitudes towards different energy options, the example of Sweden; 4) Nuclear power in neighbouring countries; 5) Radiation and human health; 6) Radioactive waste management and potential serious radiological hazards. The general conclusion of the seminar can be as follows. In some cases the nuclear power is a source of environment pollution but very often nuclear techniques are now used and certainly more often in the future will be used for environment and human health protection

  13. Balancing energy and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    This paper summarizes the energy policy statement presented by the Queensland Minister for Minerals and Energy for the 'Great Energy Debate' in Brisbane. The Queensland Government is committed to achieving a responsible balance between protecting the environment and meeting community expectations. A broad and integrated framework is under development for guiding energy policies consistent with the market enhancement approach. Some of the recent initiatives and the expected outcome are highlighted

  14. Wind energy renewable energy and the environment

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, Vaughn

    2013-01-01

    As the demand for energy increases, and fossil fuels continue to decrease, Wind Energy: Renewable Energy and the Environment, Second Edition considers the viability of wind as an alternative renewable energy source. This book examines the wind industry from its start in the 1970s until now, and introduces all aspects of wind energy. The phenomenal growth of wind power for utilities is covered along with applications such as wind-diesel, village power, telecommunications, and street lighting.. It covers the characteristics of wind, such as shear, power potential, turbulence, wind resource, wind

  15. Energy use and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winteringham, F.P.W.

    1992-01-01

    A global review is presented with particular reference to energy use, society, environment, resources and the future. The text has been prepared as a course of lectures in scientifically accurate but nontechnical language for the student in general education. The first chapters cover the nature of energy, energy use in the global context and energy technologies, resources and uses. A chapter is devoted to each of the different energy types including fossil-carbon based energy, biomass fuels, alternative energies such as solar, wind, geothermal and water, and nuclear based power. After covering the technical basics, the author moves on to the socioeconomic and environmental impacts of energy use. Topics discussed include: energy, agriculture, forestry and fisheries; global trends, problems and needs; sustainable agriculture, food, water, and environmental quality; and energy use, attitudes, and conservation. Finally, the author looks to the future in discussions on education and peaceful planetary management

  16. Energy - environment - nutrition. Energie - Umwelt - Ernaehrung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The special edition contains contributions made by different authors on the array of problems presented by the environment, energy, and nutrition, biosphere and man, economic growth and energy supplies for future security, new environmental awareness, - the end of market economy., power plant safety, conditions for the evolution of mankind, policy and criminal law demonstrated by means of environmental protection. The concept of ecology and the development of world energy supplies are documented. The bibliography report goes into detail as far as studies are concerned which deal with the hazards of nuclear power plants, related pros and cons, with the energy crisis in general, and with nuclear weapons.

  17. Energy law and the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosemary Lyster; Adrian Bradbrook [University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2006-08-15

    The current unsustainable practices worldwide in energy production and consumption have led to a plethora of environmental problems. Until recently environmental law largely overlooked the relevance of energy production and consumption; energy was seen to be of little significance to the advancement of sustainable development. This has changed since 2000 with the global concern attached to climate change, the publication by the United Nations of the World Energy Assessment and the detailed consideration given to this issue at the World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg in 2002. Australia has been seen to be lagging behind the other major industrialised nations of the world in addressing sustainable energy issues. Contents are: Overview of energy production and use in Australia; 2. Energy technologies and sustainable development; 3. Energy, international environmental law and sustainable development; 4. Evaluating Australian government initiatives relating to energy, climate change and the environment; 5. Sustainable energy in the Australian electricity and gas sectors; 6. State government initiatives relating to energy and the environment; 7. A sustainable energy law future for Australia. 2 apps.

  18. Environment protection and energy politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pernice, I.

    1993-01-01

    Three aspects make the issue of energy politics and environment protection in the European Community interesting: Questions of competence, international stipulations, and the concrete measures the Community implements or plans in fulfillment of its duty to integrate these two political spheres. At the international level impulses for an environmentally benign energy policy are given by the World Climate Convention, the Agenda 21 passed at the Rio Conference, and by the European Energy Charter and its consequential documents. (orig./HSCH) [de

  19. Nuclear energy and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skjoeldebrand, R.

    1994-01-01

    The thesis of this paper is that the world will need more energy and not less in the coming decades but that this enormous energy consumption entails dangers to the environment not only locally but regionally and internationally through the emissions from the burning of fossil fuels which now provide 85% of the world's commercial energy supply. The solution to this problem is nuclear power. It does not contribute to global warming. 12 figs

  20. Energy and human needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curran, S.C.; Curran, J.S.

    1979-01-01

    The subject is dealt with in five parts, as follows: energy sources and converted forms; fossil fuels and their depletion; the nuclear option (fission and fusion phenomena; fission reactors; the economics of nuclear power; energy from fusion); the provision of energy (including - energy as electricity, transmission, the hydrogen economy, energy storage, heat pumps, energy conservation and energy from waste, energy analysis); social, environmental and international aspects (the environment - non radioactive pollution; nuclear power and safety, reprocessing and waste disposal; political aspects of the civil uses of nuclear power; proliferation and terrorism, summary and some thoughts for the future). (U.K.)

  1. Genes, Environment, and Human Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Mark V.; Cutter, Mary Ann; Davidson, Ronald; Dougherty, Michael J.; Drexler, Edward; Gelernter, Joel; McCullough, Laurence B.; McInerney, Joseph D.; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Vogler, George P.; Zola, John

    This curriculum module explores genes, environment, and human behavior. This book provides materials to teach about the nature and methods of studying human behavior, raise some of the ethical and public policy dilemmas emerging from the Human Genome Project, and provide professional development for teachers. An extensive Teacher Background…

  2. Mobile Robots in Human Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenstrup, Mikael

    intelligent mobile robotic devices capable of being a more natural and sociable actor in a human environment. More specific the emphasis is on safe and natural motion and navigation issues. First part of the work focus on developing a robotic system, which estimates human interest in interacting......, lawn mowers, toy pets, or as assisting technologies for care giving. If we want robots to be an even larger and more integrated part of our every- day environments, they need to become more intelligent, and behave safe and natural to the humans in the environment. This thesis deals with making...... as being able to navigate safely around one person, the robots must also be able to navigate in environments with more people. This can be environments such as pedestrian streets, hospital corridors, train stations or airports. The developed human-aware navigation strategy is enhanced to formulate...

  3. Energy and environment in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menna, P.; Capra, M.; D'Acunto, A.; Del Ciello, R.; Molinas, P.; Virdis, M.

    2001-01-01

    Based upon the more meaningful changing recorded within the Italian energy sector in the year 2000, the Studies Department of ENEA (the Italian National board for new technologies, energy and environment) prepared the 'Rapporto Energia e Ambiente 2000', which provides a picture of the country energy and energy-related activities concerning the environment. In this paper, it is only provided a summary of the whole work. The complete report can be downloaded from the ENEA main page (www.enea.it). Italy gross domestic product (Gdp) grew by almost 3% in the year 2000, mostly sustained by an increase in the industrial production and services, as well. At the same time the total energy consumption rose to almost 185 Mtoe (+1% over 1999). Because Gdp grew more than the energy consumption, the energy intensity decreases in the year 2000. Almost 82% of the Italian energy needs (mainly oil and gas, even if electricity imports are increasing) depend upon imports. This heavy burden makes Italy particularly sensitive to both the oil price fluctuations and the euro/dollar exchange rate. Transportation absorbs a large and growing share of the energy consumption while showing quite an impact on the environment. From the supply side, renewable energy sources appear very promising because they allow the use of local resources, promote local development and may create new jobs, in area of the country with less favourable economic conditions. First among the European countries, a market mechanism to increase the use of renewable by establishing that a share of the whole electricity production (currently set at 2%) has to come from renewable has been introduced. However among the OECD countries, Italy records the lowest rate of R/D investments to GDP. This rate should more than double if the new opportunities coming from the development of innovative energy technologies have to be fully exploited [it

  4. Energy, pollution, environment and health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Many of the major environmental problems of today, such as climate change, air pollution, acidification of lakes and forests, deforestation and desertification, share a common causal factor: energy - its production, transformation and final use. The burning of fossil fuels has already contributed to acidification of lakes and forests, and threatens to alter the world's climate. Traditional open fires cause indoor air pollution, thereby harming the health of women and children in the Third World. In many developing countries, the disappearing forest base is increasingly unable to supply enough wood for energy needs, leading to even greater pressure on forests, which in turn can lead to desertification. Nuclear reactor accidents may release large quantities of radioactive materials, and hydro dams may fail and inundate large areas of land. Indeed, every energy system has some impact on health and the environment, either affecting the same group of people who enjoy the benefits: the exposure of a small group to fumes from a poorly vented common cooking device; or a different group: acid rain in one country caused by the burning of fossil fuels in another, or harm to the health of future generations from today's radioactive nuclear waste. During the past two decades, these energy- environment impacts have become so serious that they may limit further growth of the world's energy economy. Consequently, these problems are now being examined more closely by decision makers throughout the world, as well as by the general public. In addition, it has become clear that energy cannot be viewed in isolation and that pollution, environment and health issues must be integrated into the development of national and international energy policies, so that the adverse impacts of energy can be reduced. To do this, the relationships among different energy systems and their impacts need to be defined clearly. To that end, UNEP has convened conferences on this topic and prepared several

  5. Energy and environment design guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harman, K. [Royal Australian Institute of Architects, Canberra, ACT (Australia)

    1996-04-01

    The Royal Australian Institute of Architects (RAIA) released an Environment Policy for architects in September 1994 which forms part of the RAIA Code of Professional Conduct. Prior to releasing the policy, it was recognised that members needed information and education in the area of energy and environment in order to adopt and implement the guide. This document is a report on the scope, work programme and achievements of a project to provide an easy reference resource for architects and other building designers, and bring together a wide range of information and research. It includes the Environment Policy as an appendix. The project produced 24 notes entitled the `Environment Design Guide - energy/environment notes` covering a wide range of topics, and four newsletters. Feedback received from architects to date indicates that the development of the notes has had a positive effect on their knowledge of these issues, resulting in the making of informed design decisions. The topics covered by the notes are expected to expand in 1996 with the preparation of additional notes which provide information on products and sustainable construction.

  6. Energy and Environment : volume 1

    OpenAIRE

    ANDRE, Michel; SAMARAS, Zissis; JACOB, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    This book is part of a set of six books called the 'Research for Innovative Transports' set. This collection presents an update of the latest academic and applied research, case studies, best practices and user perspectives on transport carried out in Europe and worldwide. The volumes are made up of a selection of the best papers presented at TRA2014. In this volume 1, recent research works are reported around the triptych : 'transport, energy and environment', which demonstrates that vehicl...

  7. Energy, environment and sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omer, Abdeen Mustafa

    2008-01-01

    Globally, buildings are responsible for approximately 40% of the total world annual energy consumption. Most of this energy is for the provision of lighting, heating, cooling, and air conditioning. Increasing awareness of the environmental impact of CO 2 and NO x emissions and CFCs triggered a renewed interest in environmentally friendly cooling, and heating technologies. Under the 1997 Montreal Protocol, governments agreed to phase out chemicals used as refrigerants that have the potential to destroy stratospheric ozone. It was therefore considered desirable to reduce energy consumption and decrease the rate of depletion of world energy reserves and pollution of the environment. One way of reducing building energy consumption is to design building, which are more economical in their use of energy for heating, lighting, cooling, ventilation and hot water supply. Passive measures, particularly natural or hybrid ventilation rather than air-conditioning, can dramatically reduce primary energy consumption. However, exploitation of renewable energy in buildings and agricultural greenhouses can, also, significantly contribute towards reducing dependency on fossil fuels. Therefore, promoting innovative renewable applications and reinforcing the renewable energy market will contribute to preservation of the ecosystem by reducing emissions at local and global levels. This will also contribute to the amelioration of environmental conditions by replacing conventional fuels with renewable energies that produce no air pollution or greenhouse gases. The provision of good indoor environmental quality while achieving energy and cost-efficient operation of the heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) plants in buildings represents a multi-variant problem. The comfort of building occupants is dependent on many environmental parameters including air speed, temperature, relative humidity and quality in addition to lighting and noise. The overall objective is to provide a high

  8. Nuclear energy and the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1971-07-01

    Despite a generally excellent history of protecting man and his environment against the harmful effects of radioactive and thermal contamination from the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, civilian nuclear programmes in many countries are beset by a doubting and, in some cases, highly critical reaction from some sections of the public. The genesis and evolution of public controversy over nuclear power were explored in a number of papers presented at general and technical sessions during the Fourth Geneva Conference, and were the subject of a panel discussion on one afternoon. (author)

  9. Resource area environment/energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The document comprises a detailed analysis of the business economics of resources related to energy and the environment. Non-domestic and domestic conditions influencing the business economics of this subject area, its infrastructure, problems and future perspectives are dealt with. Tables (amongst other forms of information) indicate the turnover, exports, and numbers of involved employees, workplaces and firms involved in supply, general production, consultancy and production connected with the building sector. The energy sector is the most significant in this respect, giving 30,000 employed (18% in state institutions), a turnover of 63 billion Danish kroner, and with an export of 16 billion Danish kroner. The environmental sector employs 15,000 (29% in the public sector), the total turnover is 20 billion Danish kroner and of this 3 billion Danish kroner is related to export. Many firms are relatively small. A number of firms could compete internationally and this number is growing. (AB) (79 refs.)

  10. 40 CFR 1508.14 - Human environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Human environment. 1508.14 Section 1508.14 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX § 1508.14 Human environment. Human environment shall be interpreted comprehensively to include the natural and...

  11. The energy-development-environment nexus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Bertrand

    1992-01-01

    Energy is the key factor in tackling two of the major problems now facing humanity: the environment and development. Adequate and appropriate energy supplies are essential to economic and social development, especially for Third World countries, but at the same time energy production and utilization are responsible for much of the damage being done to the environment. As everyone now knows, the combustion of fossil fuels is the main source of greenhouse gases and of the threat to the stability of world climate. Nuclear power, which once seemed an answer to the constantly increasing demand for energy, is now challenged by public opinion in many countries as a result of various nuclear accidents and the problems of processing and storing nuclear waste. So how do we extricate ourselves from the energy environment-development tangle? Clearly, advanced countries have an interest in transferring environment-friendly technologies to developing countries in order to reduce the pollution which puts the global as well as the local environment at risk. The North is, by and large, becoming aware of the choices involved in protecting the environment versus industrial growth and unlimited use of motor vehicles. For the South, these choices are a luxury they can ill afford, given the imperative of rapid development. The solution must be for greater international co-operation, with the North assisting the South (and the former Communist bloc) financially and through transfer of appropriate technologies at affordable cost. Reconciling the environment and development with respect to the energy cycle is a task of fundamental importance for the future. The prime responsibility for this task obviously lies with industries, but action is also required from governments, to enable them to play their part effectively. Advanced countries must demonstrate that development is fully compatible with protecting the environment. They can do so by using market forces, provided that the appropriate

  12. Energy and environment. Annual report, 1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barton, R.G.; Lizama, L.R. (eds.)

    1976-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following programs: geothermal and geosciences; controlled thermonuclear research; chemical processing; instrument development; environment; energy use and conservation; energy analysis; and engineering sciences.

  13. Nuclear energy and environment of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Kunmin

    1993-01-01

    The paper included following contents: China needs to develop nuclear energy; China pays attention to the radiation environment management; the role of China National Environmental Protection Agency in nuclear energy and the environment

  14. Energy and the Environment: Volume 24

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Socolow, R.H.

    1999-01-01

    The 24 papers in this volume are entitled: The art of energy efficiency--Protecting the environment with better technology; On the road to global ecology; Best practices for renewable energy implementation--Integrating end-user and commercial-sector opportunities and constraints; Biomass conversion to fuels; Changing trends in greenhouse gases other than carbon dioxide; Economic growth, liberalization, and the environment--A review of the evidence; Harmful algal blooms--A model for emergence of pathogenic microorganisms under conditions of ecological stress; Enhancing the performance of nuclear power reactors--Issues and opportunities; Environmental issues along the US-Mexico border--Drivers of change and the response of citizens and institutions; Ethics and international business; Fuel cells; High-level nuclear waste--The status of Yucca Mountain; Hydrogen production, transmission, and distribution; It's not easy being green--Innovative environmental technologies enhance hydropower's role in sustainable development; Megacities and the atmosphere; Methods for attributing ambient air pollutants to emission sources; Nuclear energy in the twenty-first century--Examination of a contentious subject; Pollution and human health in the St. Lawrence estuary; Southern perspectives in technology transfer; The post-Kyoto regime on climate change--Southern perspectives; Flexibility in the timing and mechanisms of greenhouse gas controls--A review of economic arguments; How much is energy R and D worth as insurance; A review of technical change in assessments of climate policy; and Energy technology and global change--Modeling techniques developed at NASA

  15. Man, environment and nuclear energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardan, J

    1978-10-01

    The acceptability of nuclear fission as energy source is governed by three factors, economic, ecological and sociological. the economic context the gradual exhaustion of fossil fuels is a result of ever-increasing demands. The biological risk concept which determines the acceptable industrial application level is the second factor to be considered. The danger of radioactive contamination is almost unexistent except in the accident hypothesis, and power stations are built with excessive safeguards against hypothetical accidents. The idea of systematic processing of all working effluent to reduce radioactive waste discharge by several orders of magnitude is being examined. The only serious problems seem to be the disposal of radioactive wastes and the plutonium non-proliferation question bound up with breeder reactors. Whereas vitrification offers some solution to the radioactive waste conditioning problem, responsibility for the proliferation of nuclear weapons rests with the human conscience alone. The development of nuclear power stations over several decades seems to present no inacceptable danger and offers the best compromise betweengrowth and minimum risk requirements. The third factor to be accounted for is the opposition displayed by a fraction of the population to the development of nuclear energy for peaceful applications.

  16. Man, environment and nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardan, Jacques.

    1978-10-01

    The acceptability of nuclear fission as energy source is governed by three factors, economic, ecological and sociological. It is necessary to account first for the economic context and for the state of natural resources: gradual exhaustion of fossil fuels as a result of ever-increasing demands. The biological risk concept which determines the acceptable industrial application level is the second factor to be considered. The danger of radioactive contamination is almost inexistent except in the accident hypothesis, and power stations are built with excessive safeguards against hypothetical accidents. The idea of systematic processing of all working effluent to reduce radioactive waste discharge by several orders of magnitude (zero release principle) is being examined. At present, the waste discharge levels are always well below the limits set by the CIPR and present no danger to the population. The only serious problems seem to be the disposal of radioactive wastes and the plutonium non-proliferation question bound up with breeder reactors. Whereas vitrification, the new 'Synroc' process, offer some solution to the radioactive waste conditioning problem, responsibility for the proliferation of nuclear weapons rests with the human conscience alone. The development of nuclear power stations over several decades seems to present no inacceptable danger and offers the best compromise between growth and minimum risk requirements. The third factor to be accounted for is the opposition displayed by a fraction of the population to the development of nuclear energy for peaceful applications [fr

  17. Green energy. Biomass fuels and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The United Nations Environment Programme has been concerned with energy/environment issues since it was first set up after the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment held in Stockholm in 1972. In the late 1970s, UNEP compiled three comprehensive reports on the the environmental impacts of the production and use of fossil fuels, nuclear energy and renewable energy sources. In 1987 it was decided to update the volume on renewable energy since knowledge of biofuels and their effects on the environment had greatly improved. Among many innovations, Brazil's decision to embark on a major, and now successful, programme to produce ethanol from sugarcane as a substitute vehicle fuel is one of the most significant. At the same time, energy tree crops, agroforestry systems and the use of plantations for environmental improvement have become issues of key importance to sustainable development in developing countries. Biomass fuels, of course, have always been important in terms of the numbers of people who use them; the significant change during the 1980s was that the potential advantages of these fuels took on a new significance in the light of environmental degradation and related issues such as greenhouse warming. The biomass fuels began to be considered as attractive energy sources in their own right - not simply as 'last resort' fuels for developing countries with only limited energy options. While this development may solve some environmental problems, it certainly raises others - the improper utilization of biomass fuels in the past has been responsible for deforestation, desertification and the ill health of many millions of the women in developing countries who use biomass fuels in unventilated huts. These issues currently affect about half of the world population. The new UNEP study was intended to provide an up-to-date evaluation of the environmental issues raised by the use of biomass fuels, and hence to reduce or eliminate their adverse impacts while

  18. Environment, energy, and economic performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberndorfer, Ulrich

    2009-09-25

    This thesis analyzes the relationship between environmental regulation as well as energy market developments on the one hand, and economic performance on the other. Due to its economic effects environmental regulation is controversially disputed. The thesis shows, however, that the economic impacts of the recently adopted climate policy in Europe, namely of the implementation of the European Union Emission Trading Scheme, have been modest at most. Consistent with economic theory, the low stringency of this regulatory measure that is aimed at combating man-made climate change is identified as one important driver of this result. Moreover, results presented in this thesis also indicate the important role which the political economy plays for the design of environmental regulation in general. These mechanisms are shown to be a driver of the low stringency and, consequently, of the small economic effects during the first phase of the European Union Emission Trading Scheme. The thesis highlights the role of investment stimulation if the goal of environmental regulation is not only the protection of the environment, but also the compatibility with economic goals. This thesis also provides new insights into the role of energy market developments for the economy. In this respect, the relevance of the EU carbon market for the financial market performance of European electricity generators is shown. Besides, this thesis particularly demonstrates the paramount importance of oil market developments for the economy as a whole. It suggests that amongst all natural resources, oil is the most relevant one to the pricing of Eurozone energy stocks. It is also shown that besides oil prices, oil volatility plays an important role for stock market development. Finally, the thesis highlights the relevance of oil market developments to the overall economy, in showing that unemployment in Germany is strongly affected by oil price shocks. In this respect, it also opposes claims that the

  19. Coal, energy and environment: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mead, J.S.; Hawse, M.L.

    1994-01-01

    This international conference held in Czechoslovakia was a bold attempt to establish working relationships among scientists and engineers from three world areas: Taiwan, the United States of America, and Czechoslovakia. The magic words unifying this gathering were ''clean coal utilization.'' For the ten nationalities represented, the common elements were the clean use of coal as a domestic fuel and as a source of carbon, the efficient and clean use of coal in power generation, and other uses of coal in environmentally acceptable processes. These three world areas have serious environmental problems, differing in extent and nature, but sufficiently close to create a working community for discussions. Beyond this, Czechoslovakia is emerging from the isolation imposed by control from Moscow. The need for each of these nations to meet and know one another was imperative. The environmental problems in Czechoslovakia are extensive and deep-seated. These proceedings contain 63 papers grouped into the following sections: The research university and its relationship with accrediting associations, government and private industry; Recent advances in coal utilization research; New methods of mining and reclamation; Coal-derived waste disposal and utilization; New applications of coal and environmental technologies; Mineral and trace elements in coal; Human and environmental impacts of coal production and utilization in the Silesian/Moravian region; and The interrelationships between fossil energy use and environmental objectives. Most papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  20. Problems of environment pollution in energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soyberk, Oe.

    2000-01-01

    This publication relates to nuclear fuel cycle and environment, nuclear accidents, risk analysis, test of nuclear weapon, security problems of nuclear power plants, advantages and disadvantages of energy sources, climate variation due to environment pollution

  1. Nuclear energy, radiation and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajan, M.P.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past few decades, energy has been the subject of much debate. Energy is the backbone of technology and economic development. Today, most machines run on electricity and they are needed to make anything and everything. Hence, our energy requirements have spiraled in the years following the industrial revolution. This rapid increase in use of energy has created problems of demand and supply in addition to the environmental consciousness which picked momentum in last decades of 20 th century. The impending crisis the world over due to overuse of nonrenewable energy sources to reduce this gap shall soon lead to a situation for all concerned to take a prudent decision to tap other sources of energy, including relatively new renewable sources. Future economic growth crucially depends on the long-term availability of energy from sources that are affordable, accessible and environmentally friendly. The drive for more energy has had the happy consequences of spawning new technologies and improving earlier ones. Emphasis on renewable sources has resulted in viable harnessing of solar, wind and tidal energies. Even though these sources offer relatively clean energy, their potential to supply reliable energy in large scale in an economically viable way is limited. Nuclear energy offers a major source of commercial energy, which is economic, reliable and environmentally benign

  2. The 2005 Energy/Environment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The Report, of which we publish the compendium, is the annual analysis of the energy/environment situation in Italy. After an overview of the international economic and energy scene, the Report investigates energy supply and demand in Italy, the scenarios until 2020 in the presence of high prices, greenhouse gas emission, the role of the Regions in energy planning, and research expenditure [it

  3. New energy visions for the Town of Naie district. Human-friendly Town of Naie City by environment-friendly energies; Naiemachi chiiki shin energy vision. Kankyo ni yasashii energy ga tsukuru hito ni yasashii machi Naie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The new energy visions are drawn for Town of Naie, Sorachi-gun in Hokkaido, where the industrial sector (manufacturing industries) consumes more than 60% of the total energy consumption. By energy type, oil and others account for 80%. When arranged in the order of expected recoverable quantity, the new energies for the town include utilization of solar energy, photovoltaic power generation, wind power generation, and utilization of wastes, biomass energy (agricultural products) and snow energy. The basic guidelines for introduction of new energies are for health and welfare, clearing and utilization of snow, environmental education and bringing up talented persons, supporting the related entrepreneurs, and integration of new energy with promotion of energy-saving movement. The priority projects the town plans to promote include utilization of biogas and temperature-differential energy for the town's water purification center; foundation of the Naie eco-school; and drawing conceptions for utilization of underground heat, utilization of low-temperature and snow/ice energy, co-energy around the spa of Naie, and mega-solar and eco-park at the Sorachi housing complex. (NEDO)

  4. New energy visions for the Town of Naie district. Human-friendly Town of Naie City by environment-friendly energies; Naiemachi chiiki shin energy vision. Kankyo ni yasashii energy ga tsukuru hito ni yasashii machi Naie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The new energy visions are drawn for Town of Naie, Sorachi-gun in Hokkaido, where the industrial sector (manufacturing industries) consumes more than 60% of the total energy consumption. By energy type, oil and others account for 80%. When arranged in the order of expected recoverable quantity, the new energies for the town include utilization of solar energy, photovoltaic power generation, wind power generation, and utilization of wastes, biomass energy (agricultural products) and snow energy. The basic guidelines for introduction of new energies are for health and welfare, clearing and utilization of snow, environmental education and bringing up talented persons, supporting the related entrepreneurs, and integration of new energy with promotion of energy-saving movement. The priority projects the town plans to promote include utilization of biogas and temperature-differential energy for the town's water purification center; foundation of the Naie eco-school; and drawing conceptions for utilization of underground heat, utilization of low-temperature and snow/ice energy, co-energy around the spa of Naie, and mega-solar and eco-park at the Sorachi housing complex. (NEDO)

  5. Nuclear energy and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Hinnawi, E.E.

    1980-01-01

    Chapters are presented concerning the environmental impact of mining and milling of radioactive ores, upgrading processes, and fabrication of nuclear fuels; environmental impacts of nuclear power plants; non-radiological environmental implications of nuclear energy; radioactive releases from nuclear power plant accidents; environmental impact of reprocessing; nuclear waste disposal; fuel cycle; and the future of nuclear energy

  6. Energy supply and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, H.; Geiger, B.; Rudolph, M.

    1995-01-01

    Today we know that there is no such thing as an ecologically harmless energy source. This applies also to the industrial-scale utilisation of alternative energy sources. In the case of nuclear power, a reevaluation of its risks may be useful in view of the impending global climate change which, however, the author denies. It is an illusion to think that the causes of the exorbitant increase in energy consumption can be remedied on a medium-term basis, so the only possible solution is an optimum utilisation of energy and maximum energy conservation. The book discusses key problems of environmental protechtion and environmental policy from a global point of view. (orig./UA) [de

  7. Energy, environment and technological innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando José Pereira da Costa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The development problems can not be addressed without taking account of the environmental and energy issues, as well as the intimate relationship and the intense interaction between the two. In fact, the energy issue can not be analyzed separately from environmental issues, nor the advances in technological innovation, integrating dynamic-systemic way and so positioning address the issue of the development model to set the bulge the transition process experienced by the world since the seventies of the twentieth century. This transition, in turn, implies the passage of Paradigm of Fossil Fuels to Renewable Energy also called the Paradigm of renewable sources of energy, not just holding the energy problem, but towards to environmental and technological components. It is within this relatively slow and long process, instigator of high levels of volatility, turbulence inducing and motor of technological innovation, which is (re raises the question of the development model that defines how a new model/style development.

  8. Housing, energy and the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-02-01

    In 1985 the Association published An Energy Policy for Housing, setting out recommendations for action by local authorities and central Government to tackle the problem of fuel poverty and the improvement of the energy efficiency of the nation's housing. Based on a survey of Association members and discussions with other relevant organisations, the report then concluded that, ''the Government has yet to demonstrate any real commitment to positive investment in an energy efficient housing stock''. Five years later, the Association decided to undertake another survey to establish the extent to which its recommendations have been acted upon and to assess other factors which might have affected the achievement of any energy efficient housing stock. This report is the result of that new survey and it shows that, whilst many more authorities have made progress in developing good practice, much local authority housing is still energy inefficient and many low income households still suffer from fuel poverty. (author).

  9. Energy, environment and the market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letta, E.

    2000-01-01

    Policy choices regarding energy and sustainable development need to be geared to the instruments that science and the economy make available in each country, partly because competitiveness restrictions be sustainable for the economy [it

  10. Renewable energy and our environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suter, P.; Kesselring, P.

    1993-01-01

    The weak points of environmental balance sheets are indicated: lack of transparency, too narrow system limits, neglect of important pollutants, outdated state of the art, unsuitable energy mix and incorrect weighting of pollutants. tabs., 4 refs

  11. Energy taxes, environment and competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munksgaard, J.; Gaern Hansen, L.; Bech-Ravn, C.; Ramskov, J.L.

    2006-11-01

    Economic theory about foreign trade and competition as well as empirical studies of relevance are not making evident that industries in general should pay lower environmental taxes than other kind of consumers. Consequently, economic theory cannot justify the present Danish energy tax regime where households are required to pay high energy taxes whereas industries are allowed to pay low energy taxes. On the contrary, it is more likely that reduced industry taxes will result in reduced welfare to society, lower income and lower employment as compared to a scenario of equal energy taxes. Theory can justify, however, a stepwise introduction of green taxes in order to make industries and markets adapt to the new regulatory framework. Moreover, some theoretical contributions argue that under certain circumstances one could point to a need for protecting certain kinds of industries (e.g. industries employing unskilled labour), but an exclusive tax reduction given to all industries is not supported by economic theory. By using the GTAP model we have calculated the welfare effect of levelling Danish energy taxes so households and industries have to pay equal energy taxes. The GTAP model has a good and international reputation for being designed to analyse international trade and competitiveness. We find that levelling the Danish energy taxes will increase welfare in Denmark by 1.3% equivalent to DKK 8 billion. The Danish energy tax reform, however, will cause an increase in CO 2 emissions in neighbouring countries. The calculation does not consider the influence of the EU market for tradable CO 2 permits introduced as from January 2005. (au)

  12. Changing international environments, business environments and energy environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubo, Shunsuke

    1987-04-01

    Japan has grown up to an economic superpower with more than 10% of the world GNP. This means that Japan should bear a role to be a member to explore and contribute to the world of the future. In order to attain this, it is necessary to examine how the enterprises which are promoting and leading the Japanese economy are changing. It is also important to consider what Japan can contribute to the world, on the basis of the past experience as a minor power in the natural resources and the energy. (4 figs, 1 tab)

  13. Reduction of energy essential to human life by 70%. Environment-friendly residence `ED-1` utilizing the sunlight effectively; Seikatsu ni hitsuyona energy no 70% sakugen. Taiyoko riyo no kankyo kyosei jutaku ED-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    This paper presents the environment-friendly residence `ED-1` utilizing the sunlight effectively. ED-1 of 97m{sup 2} in first floor area and 81m{sup 2} in second one has, on its roof, the photovoltaic power generation system, the solar hot water collector which supplies hot water by circulating heated antifreezing solution into a hot storage tank, and the solar hot wind collector which largely contributes to energy saving together with a hot room named an S unit on the first floor. The small S unit faced toward the south adjacent to a dining room is made of timber and thermal insulation glass. The S unit stores heat in a floor by taking the sunlight into a room in winter, while enhances a heating effect by discharging stored heat in nighttime. In some cases, duct circulation of heated wind is possible. Solar radiation of 90% can be removed by outside glass fiber screen of the S unit together with double glazing coated by special metal film. Roof material is superior in heat insulation, air tightness and energy saving, while floor material in sound insulation and heat storage. The target for reducing energy essential to human life by 70% was thus nearly achieved. 1 fig.

  14. European integration, energy and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurmento, L.

    1993-01-01

    Today the creation of the internal market in EC is even reaching the field of energy although there are many difficulties caused by differences between the Member States. The Scandinavian Countries are advancing considerably further in liberating the energy market than the EC-outlines in evidence today. Environmental protection has gained more significance in EC recently. The most important regulations and directives are included in the EEA agreement. The directives are included in the EEA agreement. The implementation of the norms would not demand an increase in the level of environmental protection we have in Finland but it seems to be the target of enforcement to issue more strict limits than those in EC-directives. This kind of development can severely weaken Finland's ability to compete: especially as compliance with the directives is still a significant problem in EC

  15. Energy resources and the environment. [6 essays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenihan, J; Fletcher, W W [eds.

    1975-01-01

    Exploitation of energy has some impact on the environment. Six essays are presented to examine the variety of problems: (1) Sir Samuel Curran, in Energy and the Needs of Man, concludes that techniques to produce new energy sources will be found, bur conservation and the population explosion must be seriously examined; (2) Dr. Earl Cook, in Flow of Energy Through Technological Society, shows where energy comes from, how it is used and how it returns to the environment; he emphasizes the inefficiency of many energy conversion processes in consequence of the Second law of Thermodynamics; (3) Dr. Andrew Parteous, in Economical Use of Energy and Materials, explains energy not only used in heating, lighting, and transport, but in industry; his accounting of energy shows waste, and he stresses recycling and recovering the energy in domestic waste; (4) Sir Frank McFadzean, in Energy--the International Scene, examines the interplay of economics, technology, and politics in the oil industry; he suggests that more mature international leadership is needed to overcome the current difficulties facing producers and consumers; (5) J. D. Dunster, in The Atom and the Environment, examines the environmental impact of nuclear energy where the safety standards are more strenuous, but are feared more; he is a proponent of nuclear energy, but says an overall energy policy, balancing environmental factors against economic and political considerations, is needed; Dr. B. J. Brinkworth, in Direct Use of Solar Energy, reminds us that the Sun is the ultimate source of energy, and says solar energy can be exploited globally without damaging the environment. (MCW)

  16. Energy and environment: Risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombo, U.

    1993-01-01

    Two problems connected to the concept of 'risk' were analyzed: nuclear power production and global climate changes. In fact, nuclear power, despite of the risk management of the plants, does not produce gaseous emissions and can be used to reduce environmental risks. Even if a cost benefit analysis of nuclear power is very difficult, to perform it is author's opinion that, very probably, industrial countries will continue to use this form of energy

  17. A worldwide perspective on energy, environment and sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dincer, Ibrahim; Rosen, Marc A.

    1998-01-01

    Problems with energy supply and use are related not only to global warming, but also to such environmental concerns as air pollution, ozone depletion forest destruction and emission of radioactive substances. These issues must be taken into consideration simultaneously if humanity is to achieve a bright energy future with minimal environmental impacts. Much evidence exists which suggests that the future will be negatively impacted if humans keep degrading the environment. There is an intimate connection between energy, the environment and sustainable development. A society seeking sustainable development ideally must utilise only energy resources which cause no environmental impact (e.g. which release no emissions to the environment). However, since all energy resources lead to some environmental impact, it is reasonable to suggest that some (not all) of the concerns regarding the limitations imposed on sustainable development by environmental emissions and their negative impacts can be part overcome through increased energy efficiency. A strong relation clearly exists between energy efficiency and environmental impact since, for the same services or products, less resource utilisation and pollution is normally associated with higher efficiency processes. Anticipated patterns of future energy use and consequent environmental impact (Focusing on acid precipitation, stratospheric ozone depletion and the greenhouse effect) are comprehensively discussed in this paper. Also, some solutions to current environmental issues in terms of energy conservation and renewable energy technologies are identified and some theoretical and practical limitations on increased energy efficiency are explained. The relations between energy and sustainable development, and between the environment and sustainable development, are described, and in illustrative example is presented. Throughout the paper several issues relating to energy, environment and sustainable development are examined

  18. Development, energy, environment: changing the paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    A first set of contributions comments the various risks and challenges which are to be faced in terms of energy, climate and environment: the deadlock of present 'laisser-faire' policies, recent findings in climate science in 2005, oil as the reason of a possible economic crisis in developing countries, recent evolution of energy systems. The next set of contributions discusses the possible solutions and their limits: CO 2 capture and sequestration in coal plants, nuclear renaissance, renewable energies, hydro-electricity, CO 2 capture by biomass, energy sobriety, urban morphology and transports in emerging cities, integration of service demand with energy supply, energy decentralized production

  19. Ecological Environment in Terms of Human Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xiaogang; Zhou, Dehu; Lin, Hui

    2013-01-01

    In terms of human behavior, company and government policy, it is proposed that the ecological behavior of human being is the basis of influence on the ecological environment construction in Poyang Lake and measures to ensure the sustainable development of ecological environment in Poyang Lake.

  20. US National energy policy: conservation and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michna, J.; Bednarz, L.M.

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents extracts from an extended review devoted to recent changes and current trends in the national energy policy pursued in the USA. In 2001 the President Bush proposed an energy strategy for the period to 2025 that would promote energy conservation, repair and expand energy infrastructure, and increase energy supply while protecting the environment. The material stresses the importance of a sound national energy policy addressing supply, energy distribution and conservation. Well - illustrated data are given on the energy production and consumption (total, per capita, per $, by category, by fuel, etc.) and on the emissions (by sector, by fuel, by region, etc.). Giving an accurate account of the current situation with energy in America and a vision of its development for the first quarter of our century, these data are helpful for analyzing the national energy policies in other countries, post - transitional included. (authors)

  1. Advances in energy and environment. Vol. 1: Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sharkawy, A.L.; Kummler, R.H.

    1996-01-01

    The 5th conference of energy and environment was held on 3-6 June 1996 in Cairo. The specialists discussed the effects of advances in energy and environment. The applications of solar energy, heat transfer, thermal application, storage and bio-conversion, fuels, energy and development. Studies were discussed at the meeting and more than 1000 papers were presented. This first volume covers papers presented on the following topics: solar thermal, heat transfer and thermal applications, storage and bio-conversion, refrigeration and iar conditioning, combustion, fuels and engines, energy and development. tabs., figs

  2. Intelligent computing for sustainable energy and environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Kang [Queen' s Univ. Belfast (United Kingdom). School of Electronics, Electrical Engineering and Computer Science; Li, Shaoyuan; Li, Dewei [Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ., Shanghai (China). Dept. of Automation; Niu, Qun (eds.) [Shanghai Univ. (China). School of Mechatronic Engineering and Automation

    2013-07-01

    Fast track conference proceedings. State of the art research. Up to date results. This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the Second International Conference on Intelligent Computing for Sustainable Energy and Environment, ICSEE 2012, held in Shanghai, China, in September 2012. The 60 full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions and present theories and methodologies as well as the emerging applications of intelligent computing in sustainable energy and environment.

  3. Energy harvesting schemes for building interior environment monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zylka, Pawel; Pociecha, Dominik

    2016-11-01

    A vision to supply microelectronic devices without batteries making them perpetual or extending time of service in battery-oriented mobile supply schemes is the driving force of the research related to ambient energy harvesting. Energy harnessing aims thus at extracting energy from various ambient energy "pools", which generally are cost- or powerineffective to be scaled up for full-size, power-plant energy generation schemes supplying energy in electric form. These include - but are not limited to - waste heat, electromagnetic hum, vibrations, or human-generated power in addition to traditional renewable energy resources like water flow, tidal and wind energy or sun radiation which can also be exploited at the miniature scale by energy scavengers. However, in case of taking advantage of energy harvesting strategies to power up sensors monitoring environment inside buildings adaptable energy sources are restrained to only some which additionally are limited in spatial and temporal accessibility as well as available power. The paper explores experimentally an energy harvesting scheme exploiting human kinesis applicable in indoor environment for supplying a wireless indoor micro-system, monitoring ambient air properties (pressure, humidity and temperature).

  4. [Nuclear energy and environment: review of the IAEA environmental projects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesenko, S; Fogt, G

    2012-01-01

    The review of the environmental projects of the International Atomic Energy Agency is presented. Basic IAEA documents intended to protect humans and the Environment are considered and their main features are discussed. Some challenging issues in the area of protection of the Environment and man, including the impact of nuclear facilities on the environment, radioactive waste management, and remediation of the areas affected by radiological accidents, nuclear testing and sites of nuclear facilities are also discussed. The need to maintain the existing knowledge in radioecology and protection of the environment is emphasised.

  5. New energy vision of the Tagawa city area. Aiming at a town for symbiosis of humans and the environment; 2001 nendo Tagawa shi chiiki shin energy vision. Hito to kankyo ga kyoseisuru machi wo mezashite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-03-01

    For the purpose of promoting the introduction of new energy and enhancing the awareness of it in Tagawa City, Fukuoka Prefecture, an investigational study was conducted of the energy supply/demand of the city, existence amount of new energy, project for new energy introduction, etc., and a vision was worked out. The energy consumption amount of the city was estimated at 6,678,932 GJ/y. It consisted of 42% in the industrial sector, 35% in the transportation sector and 23% in the commercial/residential sector. The rate of energy source was 75% of petroleum-base energy and 25% of electric power. As the project for new energy introduction, the following were studied: power generation/thermal exchange/composting by fermentation of methane from stockbreeding waste; environmental preservation type agriculture such as large-scale hothouse using exhaust heat from cement plant; utilization of ground mine water at coal goaf for space cooling and as water source; introduction of photovoltaic power generation/solar energy use hot water supply system to public facilities; introduction of clean energy car to vehicle in welfare/education fields; preparation of a program for energy environment education; preparation of bases for energy environment education. (NEDO)

  6. Energy, order, humanity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knizia, K.

    1981-01-01

    This book aims to give discussion contributions on the questions how the energy problem can be managed. It deals with technology and philosophy side by side and tries to clarify the background and development tendencies. The main factors of influence are presented with the aim to talk to those citizens who seek for a realistic alternative from existential fear and ideological illusion. Main chapters are: energy turns into working capability, fundamental questions of power plants, ways to the future, turning away from oil, risk of ignorance, hostility to technology. (HSCH) [de

  7. Renewable energy for sustainable development and environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omer, Abdeen

    2010-09-15

    The increased availability of reliable and efficient energy services stimulates new development alternatives. This article discusses the potential for such integrated systems in the stationary and portable power market in response to the critical need for a cleaner energy technology. Throughout the theme several issues relating to renewable energies, environment and sustainable development are examined from both current and future perspectives. It is concluded that renewable environmentally friendly energy must be encouraged, promoted, implemented and demonstrated by full-scale plan especially for use in remote rural areas.

  8. AMBIO -A JOURNAL OF THE HUMAN ENVIRONMENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    message I took from the Mooi River Conference at Treverton. It is entitled .... human behaviour and the natural environment" will be stimu~ lated. The document identifies ... mental educationists, is the appeal to all recipients of the document to ...

  9. The nuclear energy for the environment protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Jair A.M. de.

    1992-01-01

    The environmental question is currently the greater preoccupation all the world, particularly, the atmospheric pollution, generating the acid rains and the heater effect. The transportation, residential, agricultural, industrial and electric sectors contribute for the atmospheric pollution. In this work, the author analyzes important actions in Europe and United States of America in order to reduce this pollution. The paper intends to demystifies that the nuclear energy would be harmful to the environment, demonstrating exactly the contrary - due to the emission cares and controls coming from the nuclear power plants, this source of electric energy generation constitutes is an important factor of environment protection

  10. International Cooperation and Energy/Environment crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clo, A.

    2009-01-01

    A combination of old and new tensions led to a new energy crisis. This crisis is very difficult to solve due to the multiple interests and the global and sovranational nature of its interdependent dimensions (economic, political and environmental). In a deep global economic crisis context, the challenges posed to the modern world by energy and the environment have to be faced with the international cooperation and dialogue, as it was in the past. [it

  11. Energy and environment: the ecological debate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blair, I.

    1983-01-01

    The development of man's use of energy, from earliest times to the present, is briefly sketched. The present energy problem is discussed under three headings: availability of energy (standard of living of developed and developing countries; rate of depletion of non-renewable energy sources with special reference to oil); price (effect on practical availability); environmental pollution (hazards to workers and public; 'greenhouse effect' due to carbon dioxide; radioactivity in the environment due to the operations associated with the use of nuclear power; comparison of hazards associated with oil, coal and nuclear power); response to the energy problem (economy of use of existing energy sources; development of renewable sources; nuclear fusion); what future for industrial society; what is a post-industrial society (sociological and ethical aspects). (U.K.)

  12. Renewable energy to the Indian environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, R.K.

    2005-12-01

    Fossil fuel reserves are diminishing rapidly across the world. Greenhouse gas emissions, climatic changes and global warming have a direct impact on the environment. A secure and accessible supply of energy is very crucial for the sustainability of modern societies. There is an urgent need for a quicker switch over of energy systems from conventional to renewable that are sustainable and can meet the present and projected world energy demand. Renewable energy has a large potential to become the fuel of the future. The present study is aimed to explore such potential and achievements in India. India is expected to have high growth rate in energy demand over the coming years due to its huge population and rapid economic development. The renewable energy prospects/spectrums of India have been highlighted. (author)

  13. Human Schistosomiasis, And Nigerian Environment And Climate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human Schistosomiasis, And Nigerian Environment And Climate Change. ... There are two types of human schistosomiasis in Nigeria: urinary schistosomiasis caused by infection of S. haematobium and intestinal schistosomiasis caused by the infection of S. mansoni. Different species of freshwater snail which breed in ...

  14. Bio energy - Environment, technique and market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohle, Erik Eid

    2001-01-01

    Leading abstract. In this book, a group of experts discusses everything about the use of bio fuels, from the briquettes of dry alder used in automobile gas generators during World War II to the most advanced present-day use. The chapters are: (1) Energy and society, (2) Production of biomass, (3) Bio fuel - properties and production, (4) Bio fuel - conversion and use, (5) Environment and environmental engineering, (6) Economy and planning and (7) Bio energy in the energy system of the future. There is a list of literature and a glossary at the end of the book

  15. The Industrial Engineer and Energy and Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirichan Thongprasert

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Industries have always been a major consumer of energy and a major source of greenhouse gas emissions, causing environmental problems. Concerns about the impact of industries on the environment have led industries to change or adapt their methodologies to be more efficient and environmentally responsible. This article explains the impact that has on the industrial engineer.

  16. Energy and the environment in Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that three preeminent factors determine the nexus between energy policies and the environment in Eastern Europe. Economic planners in the region traditionally have emphasized supply-side policies to expand the amount, rather than demand-side policies to limit the consumption, of energy. Consequently, the East European economies have developed, in the words of Hungarian economists, an insatiable appetite for fuels and power that engenders among them a persisting propensity to overconsume these resources. All states in the region continue to devote between 40 and 45 percent of their total investments in industry to increase the indigenous production of fuels and power. The quality of the environment suffers considerably from these policies. The more energy an economy consumes (all other things being equal), the more wastes it creates, and so the more it pollutes the environment. Further, the enormous output of fiscal resources that these states devote to increasing their supply of energy severely constrains their capacity to pursue other investment opportunities, including opportunities to protect the environment

  17. The Industrial Engineer and Energy and Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Sirichan Thongprasert

    2009-01-01

    Industries have always been a major consumer of energy and a major source of greenhouse gas emissions, causing environmental problems. Concerns about the impact of industries on the environment have led industries to change or adapt their methodologies to be more efficient and environmentally responsible. This article explains the impact that has on the industrial engineer.

  18. ACCOUNTANCY REFLECTION OF ENVIRONMENT INFORMATION REGARDING THE ENERGY SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucean MIHALCEA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Natural resources, especially energetical ones, have continuously influenced the evolution of human society, including the economical developement, and so the problem of their deficiency and their limited character is a problem of major interest for the human kind in their quest to find the balance betwen the need of economical expansion and the environment protection. The purpose of this paper work is to show the importancy of energy eficiency by asuming two main action directions: to encrease the quantity of renewable energy and to emprove the energetical efficiency. After the researches we made, we brought in attention the main mechanisms used in the insurance of sustainability security and competitiveness of the energy sector. These practices the objectives of the sustainable development principle, exemplified from accountancy point of view through a new instrument in the economical theory: environmental accountancy which ensures the background regarding the recognition, evaluation and presentation of environment information.

  19. Energy and environment: a challenge for materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchand, Ch.; Walle, E.; Hody, St.; Alleau, Th.; Bassat, J.M.; Pourcelly, G.; Aitelli, P.; Crepy, Ch. de; Le Douaron, A.; Moussy, F.; Guibert, A. de; Mogensen, P.C.; Beauvy, M.

    2005-01-01

    The ESIREM (Ecole Superieure d'Ingenieurs de Recherche en Electronique et en Materiaux) has organized its yearly colloquium in Dijon on the 20. of January 2005. The topic was 'energy and environment: a challenge for materials'. Here are presented the summaries of the speeches of Mr C. Marchand: how to conciliate increasing needs in energy, limited resources in hydrocarbons and to control the releases of greenhouse gases: a main challenge for the 21. century; of Mr E. Walle: materials for the future nuclear systems; of Mr S. Hody: which future prospect for the energy production: the point of view of Gaz de France; of Mr T. Alleau: the hydrogen, the energy of the future; of Mr J.M. Bassat: the specificities of the SOFC, new materials for a carrying out at ambient temperature; of Mr G. Pourcelly: the PEMFC; of Mrs A. Le Douaron and F. Moussy: materials, energy and environment in automotive industry; of Ms A. de Guibert: the key role of materials in the lithium-ion accumulators; of Mr P. C. Mogensen: the photovoltaic materials: the key of the solar energy; and of Mr M. Beauvy: the future reactors: challenges for materials. (O.M.)

  20. Environment and power; Umwelt und Energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franz, W.; Ramser, H.J.; Stadler, M. (eds.)

    2006-07-01

    Within the scope of the 35th economic seminar with he title '' Environment and power'' held between 18th and 21st September, 2006, at the monastery Ottobeuren (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (a) Environment and power: introduction into the subject matter (Karl Heinrich Opplaender); (b) Theoretical fundamentals of the sustainability (Wolfgang Buchholz); (c) Ecological fiscal reform and double dividend (Ronnie Schoeb); (d) ''My friend, that is all mere theory'' - Notes to the emission trading (Christoph Boehringer); (e) Environmental policy and locational competition (Michael Rauscher); (f) Dynamical incentives of environment political instruments - a survey (Till Requate); (g) Product differentiation in the presence of environmental concern, network effects and compatibility: The automobile market (Klaus Conrad); (h) The liability right as an instrument of environment policy (Alfred Endres); (i) environment economy and experimental evidence (Joachim Weimann); (j) Market design in the energy economy (Felix Muesgen, Axel Ockenfels); (k) Re-regulation of the liberalized energy markets in Europe (Carl Christian von Weizsaecker).

  1. Dilemmas for China: Energy, Economy and Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Tang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available China’s current national policies promote high levels of economic growth, transforming China into a “world factory”, but at a high cost in terms of energy and the environment. At the same time, this growth and transformation also forms the backbone of China’s economy, underpinning social stability. China faces a dilemma to reconcile its economy, energy system and environmental security. Each aspect of this triad is discussed in this study to illuminate the challenges faced by China, and China’s dilemma in energy, economy and environment is analyzed from the perspective of its participation in current global supply chains. While China must import a significant proportion of its energy and a large proportion of primary materials, a large share of these imports are returned to the global market as industrial exports. China is bound by its own course of action and unable to radically change its position for the foreseeable future as the road to economic development and employment stability is through policies built on exports and shifting development models, presenting a tough socio-economic trade-off. China’s growth challenges are discussed as an example of challenges more broadly faced in the developing world. China’s success or failure in achieving a sustainable developmental pattern will inevitably have a significant influence on the global environment.

  2. HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT IN MULTIPROJECT ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyara Slavyanska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available А monograph is presented, whose purpose is to justify the need to adapt the system for human resources management to a multiproject context and to propose alternatives for making appropriate amendments. First chapter "Human resources management as a function of general management" examines the relationship between human resource management and organizational effectiveness in the light of the perception of human resources as the main competitive advantage of the modern organization and the criteria for evaluating the effectiveness of the management of human resources. Special attention is paid to the content and structure of this system. Chapter Two "The multiproject organization as a modern working environment" is dedicated to the project management as a management concept and clarifies the essence of project management, the concept of the project lifecycle, criteria and critical success factors of the project. Emphasis is placed on the multiproject organization as a natural environment of project management by clarifying the nature and characteristics of this type of organization and positioning options for structural projects in it. The focus in the chapter “Specifications of human resource management in the multiproject environment" is the need for changes in the management of human resources and alternatives to adapt the system for managing human resources to conditions of the multiproject environment through specific changes in its content and structure. Chapter Four "Human Resource Management in the multiproject environment" presents the results of an empirical study. Based on the outlined conceptual framework of the study, specifying the purpose, objectives, methodology and tools, consistently carried out a comparative analysis of human resources management as a strategic organizational priority project activity as a strategic organizational priority, efficiency and basic problems of multiproject medium degree of adapting the system

  3. Human Performance in Simulated Reduced Gravity Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, Matthew; Harvill, Lauren; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2014-01-01

    NASA is currently designing a new space suit capable of working in deep space and on Mars. Designing a suit is very difficult and often requires trade-offs between performance, cost, mass, and system complexity. Our current understanding of human performance in reduced gravity in a planetary environment (the moon or Mars) is limited to lunar observations, studies from the Apollo program, and recent suit tests conducted at JSC using reduced gravity simulators. This study will look at our most recent reduced gravity simulations performed on the new Active Response Gravity Offload System (ARGOS) compared to the C-9 reduced gravity plane. Methods: Subjects ambulated in reduced gravity analogs to obtain a baseline for human performance. Subjects were tested in lunar gravity (1.6 m/sq s) and Earth gravity (9.8 m/sq s) in shirt-sleeves. Subjects ambulated over ground at prescribed speeds on the ARGOS, but ambulated at a self-selected speed on the C-9 due to time limitations. Subjects on the ARGOS were given over 3 minutes to acclimate to the different conditions before data was collected. Nine healthy subjects were tested in the ARGOS (6 males, 3 females, 79.5 +/- 15.7 kg), while six subjects were tested on the C-9 (6 males, 78.8 +/- 11.2 kg). Data was collected with an optical motion capture system (Vicon, Oxford, UK) and was analyzed using customized analysis scripts in BodyBuilder (Vicon, Oxford, UK) and MATLAB (MathWorks, Natick, MA, USA). Results: In all offloaded conditions, variation between subjects increased compared to 1-g. Kinematics in the ARGOS at lunar gravity resembled earth gravity ambulation more closely than the C-9 ambulation. Toe-off occurred 10% earlier in both reduced gravity environments compared to earth gravity, shortening the stance phase. Likewise, ankle, knee, and hip angles remained consistently flexed and had reduced peaks compared to earth gravity. Ground reaction forces in lunar gravity (normalized to Earth body weight) were 0.4 +/- 0.2 on

  4. Energy, environment and development in Bhutan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uddin, Sk Noim; Taplin, Ros [Graduate School of the Environment, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia); Yu, Xiaojiang [Department of Geography, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon (China)

    2007-12-15

    Bhutan's energy and environmental situation and approaches to development are reviewed and analyzed in this paper. Conservation of natural resources and human happiness have been placed as central strategic policy themes and have been given high priority in the national development plans of Bhutan. Bhutan's unique approach to development via Gross National Happiness (GNH) or the Middle Path of development is being facilitated by the Royal Government of Bhutan as a tool to balance poverty alleviation, environmental conservation and development. However, challenges exist due to the constraints of resources, good governance, legal frameworks, and human capacity. This paper reviews selected sustainable energy projects (e.g. energy from renewables or energy conservation) in Bhutan and finds that in fact, Bhutan's renewable energy resources (e.g. water and forests) which have proved to be indispensable for development are vulnerable due to the adverse impacts of climate change and environmental degradation. Appropriate measures in order to reduce potential environmental degradation and mitigate climate change impacts have been acknowledged globally and these have potential for application in Bhutan. For example, implementation of sustainable energy projects under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) of the Kyoto Protocol could offer an opportunity for mitigating climate change impacts and also contributing to sustainable development. (author)

  5. Energy and the environment: 'the nuclear option'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawley, Robert

    1997-01-01

    The world's consumption of primary energy continues to rise rapidly, mainly because of the developing countries who cannot yet provide the services essential to improving the quality of life. Increasing energy consumption, the effect it will have on the world's finite resources and, more importantly, on the environment, leave the world's population facing serious challenges. This paper will briefly consider the power generation technology options that offer sustainable development including the role that nuclear power plays today, and will need to play in the next century, to preserve and improve the quality of life worldwide. (author)

  6. Bio energy: Environment and Environmental Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soma, Morten; Noreng, Katrina; Soerensen, Heidi; Teslo, Einar; Daehlen, Knut; Liodden, Ole Joergen; Wilhelmsen, Gunnar; Hohle, Erik Eid

    2001-01-01

    This is Chapter 5 of the book ''Bio energy - Environment, technique and market''. Its main sections are: (1) Environmental issues in the use of energy, (2) Environmental issues in the production of biomass, (3) Forestry, (4) Agriculture, (5) Environmental issues in fuel production and storage, (6) Environmental issues in combustion, (7) Environmental issues in using bio fuel, (8) Life cycle analyses, (9) Laws, regulations and norms for the use of bio fuel. Unlike the other sections, the one on laws is mostly concerned with Norwegian conditions

  7. ENVIRONMENT IN THE HUMAN PERCEPTION: GEOGRAPHICAL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Dushkova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work highlights the different aspects of human perception of environment, specific characteristics of the subjective estimation of its state and attitudes to environmental quality. The authors claim more scientific awareness for the understanding of the motivations determining human behavior during interaction with the environment and knowledge about the objective functional system “perception—action” as part of complex geoecological analyses. Furthermore the populations view on the further development of the landscape to improve its living conditions etc. is a crucial part of this concept.

  8. Nuclear, energy, environment, wastes, society - NEEDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This document presents the seven projects based on partnerships between several bodies, companies and agencies (CNRS, CEA, Areva, EDF, IRSN, ANDRA, BRGM) on research programmes on nuclear systems and scenarios, on resources (mines, processes, economy), on the processing and packaging of radioactive wastes, on the behaviour of materials for storage, on the impact of nuclear activities on the environment, on the relationship between nuclear, risks and society, and on materials for nuclear energy

  9. Energy transfer in structured and unstructured environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iles-Smith, Jake; Dijkstra, Arend G.; Lambert, Neill

    2016-01-01

    of motion over a wide range of parameters. Furthermore, we show that the Zusman equations, which may be obtained in a semiclassical limit of the reaction coordinate model, are often incapable of describing the correct dynamical behaviour. This demonstrates the necessity of properly accounting for quantum......We explore excitonic energy transfer dynamics in a molecular dimer system coupled to both structured and unstructured oscillator environments. By extending the reaction coordinate master equation technique developed by Iles-Smith et al. [Phys. Rev. A 90, 032114 (2014)], we go beyond the commonly...... correlations generated between the system and its environment when the Born-Markov approximations no longer hold. Finally, we apply the reaction coordinate formalism to the case of a structured environment comprising of both underdamped (i.e., sharply peaked) and overdamped (broad) components simultaneously...

  10. Energy efficiency improvement and environment in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouhier, Stephane

    2010-01-01

    Massive reliance on polluting sources of energy (coal, traditional biomass and oil) has damaged the environment in China over years. Now, China is the world's first carbon dioxide emitter and air pollution represents between 2 and 7 percent of loss of Gross Domestic Product per year, depending on the studies chosen. In order to reduce the level of pollution, one can either enhance the technology in use or reduce the share of polluting fuels in the energy mix. Indeed, current Chinese technologies are far less efficient than those of developed countries and the energy mix is massively composed of polluting sources of energy. So, they both represent huge potential savings. This article enquires the link between diversification, efficiency in the power sector and the per capita emissions and shows that emissions are negatively correlated to a diversification of the energy mix as well as an improvement of power generating technologies. Hence, it justifies the diversification of the energy mix and technology improvement as viable strategies to tackle pollution

  11. Optimal Energy Taxation for Environment and Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pak, Y.D. [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    2001-11-01

    Main purpose of this research is to investigate about how to use energy tax system to reconcile environmental protection and economic growth, and promote sustainable development with the emphasis of double dividend hypothesis. As preliminary work to attain this target, in this limited study I will investigate the specific conditions under which double dividend hypothesis can be valid, and set up the model for optimal energy taxation. The model will be used in the simulation process in the next project. As the beginning part in this research, I provide a brief review about energy taxation policies in Sweden, Netherlands, and the United States. From this review it can be asserted that European countries are more aggressive in the application of environmental taxes like energy taxes for a cleaner environment than the United States. In next part I examined the rationale for optimal environmental taxation in the first-best and the second-best setting. Then I investigated energy taxation how it can provoke various distortions in markets and be connected to the marginal environmental damages and environmental taxation. In the next chapter, I examined the environmentally motivated taxation in the point of optimal commodity taxation view. Also I identified the impacts of environmental taxation in various circumstances intensively to find out when the environment tax can yield double dividend after taking into account of even tax-interaction effects. Then it can be found that even though in general the environmental tax exacerbates the distortion in the market rather than alleviates, it can also improve the welfare and the employment under several specific circumstances which are classified as various inefficiencies in the existing tax system. (author). 30 refs.

  12. Energy production and human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, J.R.; Brown, C.D.; Dixon-Davis, D.K.; Grahn, D.; Ludy, R.T.

    1977-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following research projects: development and evaluation of socioeconomic and demographic factors; and quantitative aspects of the impacts of energy-related effluents on human health. Environmental effects of electric power generation by gas, oil, coal, nuclear energy, and water were studied at 15 sites. A system of general demographic models was developed for projecting number of deaths and population size by sex, age, and cause of death through time for any defined initial population and set of vital rates

  13. Chemistry, sun, energy and environment; Chimie, soleil, energie et environnement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouchy, M. [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Industries Chimiques (ENSIC), 54 - Villers-les-Nancy (France); Enea, O. [Poitiers Univ., 86 (France); Flamant, G. [IMP-Odeillo-CNRS (France)] (and others)

    2000-07-01

    This document provides the 35 papers presented at the 'Chemistry, Sun, Energy and Environment' meeting, held February 3-4, 2000 in Saint-Avold, France. The main studied topic was the use of solar radiation for water treatment, volatile organic compounds decomposition and in some thermochemical processes. These research subjects are tackled in a fundamental and practical point of view. (O.M.)

  14. The environment and nuclear energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velez O, C.

    1989-01-01

    In the last years we have testified the concern about deterioration of environment, especially, for changes in global scale, either measured or calculated, with unlucky predictions for human kind. Phenomena as acid rain, destruction in the ozone layer and Greenhouse effect, has increased successively the state of alarm in global public opinion, which is already translated either in proliferation of International meetings or in the adoption of recommendations not always pondered and justified. With all these preoccupations, many people is rediscovering that nuclear power dose not produce acid rain, neither CO 2 or Greenhouse effect gases. (Author)

  15. NASA spinoffs to energy and the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Ray L.; Lehrman, Stephen A.

    1989-01-01

    Thousands of aerospace innovations have found their way into everyday use, and future National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) missions promise to provide many more spinoff opportunities. Each spinoff has contributed some measure of benefit to the national economy, productivity, or lifestyle. In total, these spinoffs represent a substantial dividend on the national investment in aerospace research. Along with examples of the many terrestrial applications of NASA technology to energy and the environment, this paper presents the mechanisms by which NASA promotes technology transfer. Also discussed are new NASA initiatives in superconductivity research, global warming, and aeropropulsion.

  16. Environment, Renewable Energy and Reduced Carbon Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, S.; Khazanov, G.; Kishimoto, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Increased energy security and reduced carbon emissions pose significant challenges for science and technology. However, they also create substantial opportunities for innovative research and development. In this review paper, we highlight some of the key opportunities and mention public policies that are needed to enable the efforts and to maximize the probability of their success. Climate is among the uttermost nonlinear behaviors found around us. As recent studies showed the possible effect of cosmic rays on the Earth's climate, we investigate how complex interactions between the planet and its environment can be responsible for climate anomalies.

  17. Environment and Climate of Early Human Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Naomi E.

    2015-05-01

    Evaluating the relationships between climate, the environment, and human traits is a key part of human origins research because changes in Earth's atmosphere, oceans, landscapes, and ecosystems over the past 10 Myr shaped the selection pressures experienced by early humans. In Africa, these relationships have been influenced by a combination of high-latitude ice distributions, sea surface temperatures, and low-latitude orbital forcing that resulted in large oscillations in vegetation and moisture availability that were modulated by local basin dynamics. The importance of both climate and tectonics in shaping African landscapes means that integrated views of the ecological, environmental, and tectonic histories of a region are necessary in order to understand the relationships between climate and human evolution.

  18. Exergy energy, environment and sustainable development

    CERN Document Server

    Dincer, Ibrahim; Rosen, Marc A

    2007-01-01

    This book deals with exergy and its applications to various energy systems and applications as a potential tool for design, analysis and optimization, and its role in minimizing and/or eliminating environmental impacts and providing sustainable development. In this regard, several key topics ranging from the basics of the thermodynamic concepts to advanced exergy analysis techniques in a wide range of applications are covered as outlined in the contents. - Comprehensive coverage of exergy and its applications - Connects exergy with three essential areas in terms of energy, environment and sustainable development - Presents the most up-to-date information in the area with recent developments - Provides a number of illustrative examples, practical applications, and case studies - Easy to follow style, starting from the basics to the advanced systems.

  19. The energy for the 21. century: techniques, economy and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    12 papers have been presented. 1) Climate changing. The atmospheric circulation model coupled to the ocean model is the most powerful current tool to explain climate processes and to validate possible climate evolutions. 2) Health hazards due to the combustion of fossil fuels. The effects of atmospheric particles on mortality, cancer risks and on respiratory organs, are considered. 3) The evaluation of external effects of transport on the environment. The paper gives examples of exposure-response function relating to impacts on the built environment, atmospheric visibility, vegetation and human health. 4) Energy consumption and economic growth. 5) Impact of low radiation doses on human health. 6) Hydrogen: production methods and costs. 7) Fossil energies reserves: incertitude on definition, volume and forecasting. 8) Energetic valorization of biomass by thermo-chemical way. 9) Technical and economic aspects of wind energy. 10) Nuclear energy: the French example. 11) The future of photovoltaic energy, its actual growth rate is about 25-35 % a year and its main asset is to benefit technological progress that allows a sharp 50 % cut in costs every 10 years. 12) Fuel cells, their operating principle, the fuel used, their applications and perspective. (A.C.)

  20. Research highlights in energy and eco-efficient built environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Airaksinen, M. (ed.)

    2012-06-15

    This publication presents a compilation of VTT's recent research on energy and eco-efficient built environment. Sustainability as a dominating driver of technology development can also be seen in the R and D portfolio of VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland. A clear focus of our research for the building sector is sustainable construction, particularly the energy efficiency of the built environment. Buildings and the whole built environment are in a key role when societies are mitigating climate change and adapting to its consequences. Despite the temporary economic downturn, construction globally remains one of the most significant areas of human activities globally. Due to the urgency of measures related to climate change and the need to provide a proper environment for living and working, a large number of national and international measures have been agreed to guarantee the future development of sustainable built environment for all. Indirectly, this has lead to a need to develop existing and completely new technologies and processes for the built environment with a speed faster than ever and with a more holistic performance metrics than ever.

  1. Energy-environment scenarios for Senegal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazarus, M. [Stockholm Environment Inst. Boston, MA (United States); Diallo, S.; Sokona, Y. [Environment and Development in the Third World, Dakar (Senegal)

    1994-06-01

    This paper explores the energy and environmental dimensions of proposed energy strategies for Senegal. We do so using a quantitative analytical framework, and begin to explore how useful such numerical methods can be in an African context. Based on past studies and the environmental database system, we develop a set of emission factors for use in Senegal. Finally, we address ways to integrate the often unquantifiable environmental and economics cost and benefits for environmentally informed decision making. In summary, we find that polices intended to promote the substitution of liquid petroleum gas (LPG) for charcoal in households can actually reduce greenhouse gas emissions while contributing to the improvement of more important near-term environmental problems. At the same time, the impacts of LPG substitution on increasing the oil import bill is relatively small when compared to other petroleum product usage.Improving end-use energy efficiency also shows promise, suggesting that new demand-side initiatives are needed. Overall, the integrated energy-environment scenario approach can reveal combined policy impacts that might otherwise be missed in a single project or policy approach. 13 figs, 5 tabs

  2. Human-Computer Interaction in Smart Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paravati, Gianluca; Gatteschi, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    Here, we provide an overview of the content of the Special Issue on “Human-computer interaction in smart environments”. The aim of this Special Issue is to highlight technologies and solutions encompassing the use of mass-market sensors in current and emerging applications for interacting with Smart Environments. Selected papers address this topic by analyzing different interaction modalities, including hand/body gestures, face recognition, gaze/eye tracking, biosignal analysis, speech and activity recognition, and related issues.

  3. Energy, environment and development in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohmann, J.

    1990-01-01

    Mexico is a country at the crossroads. It has huge potentials in energy, in natural resources and in human resources. It is currently experiencing one of the most serious crises in its history - economic, ecological, political - and it is making efforts to overcome the problems behind these crises, which may affect us all because of Mexico's importance as energy producer and energy consumer. Mexico is one of the developing countries which has participated actively in finding solutions to the worlds environmental problems not least the problem of climatic changes as a result of increasing energy consumption. Mexico is seeing the consequences at local and national level, and is taking steps to change course. At the same time, it has also expressed interest in participating in international initiatives and cooperation to solve these problem. But Mexico finds itself in a situation not unlike that of many East European countries after the fall of the communist regimes. The old system is tumbling, the will to change is present, but there is a lack of resources. 123 refs., 45 tabs

  4. Renewable energies and environment. Energias renovables y medio ambiente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez Garrido, U

    1994-01-01

    This volume summarizes the conferences about ''Energy and environment: renewable energies'' held in Valladolid and sponsored by the Valladolid and Salamanca Universities. The book focusses on the energy consumption, energy laws, wind power, hydroelectric power, environment, biomass, solar thermal energy and their influence into the Energetic National Plan.

  5. Atomic energy, environment and energy conservation in Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, Koko

    1990-01-01

    About 12 % of generated electric power is the nuclear power in Eastern European countries. Generally electric power is short in these countries, and as the countermeasures for environment, the promotion of nuclear power generation is considered. However, the public opinion opposing it is also strong. The situation in respective countries is briefly discussed. The prevention of warming of the earth and the reduction of carbon dioxide gas release are the largest environmental problems discussed in western countries, but in Eastern European countries, the far more primitive problem of the damage due to SO 2 is serious. Notwithstanding high sulfur brown coal is the main fuel, the installation of desulfurizing facilities has been neglected. The demand for the countermeasures to environmental pollution by people has become strong. The energy efficiency in Eastern European countries is poor, and it is one of the causes of environmental pollution. The industrial structure is centering around heavy industries which consume much energy, the energy loss arises due to the delay of equipment modernization, and the energy is cheap, so its saving is neglected. Energy conservation is important. (K.I.)

  6. Human responsibility towards environment in the Quran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deni Wahyudi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The research aims to describe the view of Islam about human relation with theenvironment according to the verses related to the duties and functions of thehuman being. This is interesting issue in the middle of allegations that the religionand the human perspective is one of the roots of the ecological crises thathappen in the world. By doing research on verses on the concept of humanbeing, concept of the environment and interaction between human theenvirontment, wil be drawn islamic teachings on relationship between humanbeing and the environment. The research will figure out comprehensive islamicconcept on the functions and duties of human being toward environment. Islambelieves that man and nature are interdependent and has an obligation to maintainthe balance of nature as manifestation of the faith and at the same time ashis mission as ‘abdulla>h and successor of god (khali>fatulla>h the earth.Kajian dalam artikel ini bertujuan untuk menguraikan pandangan Islam mengenaiinteraksi manusia dengan lingkungan hidup menurut ayat-ayat terkait tugas danfungsi manusia. Isu ini menarik di tengah tuduhan bahwa agama dan cara pandangmanusia merupakan salah satu akar dari berbagai krisis ekologis yang dihadapioleh dunia. Dengan melakukan kajian terhadap ayat-ayat fungsi dan tugas manusia,pengertian lingkungan hidup dan interaksi antara manusia dan lingkuangannyaakan tergambar ajaran islam tentang hubungan antara manusia dengan lingkungan hidup. Dengan menguraikan ayat-ayat yang membahas fungsi dantugas manusia serta ayat yang terkait lingkungan hidup akan tergambar bahwaIslam memiliki pandangan yang komprehensif mengenai hubungan mansuia danlingkungan hidup dan tugas-tugasnya. Islam memandang bahwa manusia danalam merupakan satu kesatuan dan saling tergantung serta memiliki kewajibanuntuk menjaga keseimbangan sebagai manifestasi dari keimanan seorang hambasebagai ‘abdulla>h dan khalifah di muka bumi.

  7. Utica Shale Energy and Environment Laboratory (USEEL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, D. R.

    2017-12-01

    Despite the rapid growth of the UOG industry in the Appalachian Basin of Pennsylvania and neighboring states, there are still fundamental concerns regarding the environmentally sound and cost efficient extraction of this unique asset. To address these concerns, Ohio State University has established the Department of Energy-funded Utica Shale Energy and Environment Laboratory, a dedicated research program where scientists from the university will work with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), academia, industry, and regulatory partners, to measure and monitor reservoir response to UOG development and any associated environmental concerns. The USEEL site will be located in Greene County, Pennsylvania, in the heart of the deep Utica-Pt. Pleasant Shale play of the Appalachian Basin. The USEEL project team will characterize and quantify the gas-producing attributes of one of the deepest portions of the Utica-Pt. Pleasant formations in the Appalachian Basin via a multi-disciplinary collaboration that leverages state-of-the-art capabilities in geochemistry, core assessment, well design and logging, 3-D and micro-seismic, DTS and DAS fiber optics, and reservoir modelling. Fracture and rock strength analyses will be complemented by a comprehensive suite of geophysical and geochemical logs, water and chip samples, and cores (pressure sidewall and whole core) to evaluate fluids, mineral alteration, microbes, pore structure, and hydrocarbon formation and alteration in the shale pore space. Located on an existing Marcellus drill pads in southwestern Pennsylvania, USEEL will provide an unprecedented opportunity to evaluate the economic and environmental effects of Marcellus pad expansion on the integrity of near-by existing production wells, ground disruption and slope stability, and ultimate efforts to conduct site reclamation. Combined with the overall goal of an improved understanding of the Utica-Pt. Pleasant system, USEEL

  8. School education on energy and environment problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imakita, Manami

    2005-01-01

    In Japanese school, elementary and junior- and senior-high, it is widely agreed that teaching of energy and environment is desirable, as has been adopted in a course of study of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. This paper reports the present state of affairs on these problems from elementary schools to high schools, describing of each school year or grade and each lessons separately. It contains the results of the author's investigation on curriculum and syllabus including some classroom practices and measurement of natural radioactivity and radiation with the help of adequate measuring instruments and visits to some related facilities. Methods of learning and teaching are also studied together with some future prospect. (S. Ohno)

  9. Energy and environment: A political ecology of woodfuels in Senegal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, E. Mark

    This study examines relationships between energy use and the exploitation of woodland natural resources in the West African nation of Senegal. As in many other countries in the developing world, the majority of the population in Senegal depend on woodfuels, i.e., firewood and charcoal, to satisfy most of their household energy needs. Consequences of this situation include added pressure on the country's limited natural resource base, and increased socioeconomic hardship, particularly for women, as woodfuel resources become increasingly scarce. Woodfuel energy problems in developing countries are typically described in terms of an imbalance between supply and demand that is driven by rapid population growth. However, recent research suggests that a number of other factors should be explored in order to achieve a more thorough understanding of the relationship between woodfuel energy and forest resource management. This study attempts to determine what some of these factors are, and to explain how they inform the energy-environment situation in the case of Senegal. In addition, I examine the scope for addressing Senegal's woodfuel problem through greater local community participation in managing energy and natural resources, a current thrust in many international initiatives designed to help the country cope with this persistent problem. A relatively new conceptual framework for the analysis of human-environment relationships---viz. political ecology---is employed in this study. I attempt to show how political ecology can contribute to the resolution of Senegal's energy-environment dilemma by considering a more inclusive suite of social, economic, political, and environmental variables than has been explored by previous approaches. Findings from the research demonstrate the ability of the political ecology approach to capture many heretofore unexplored factors related to the energy-environment nexus in Senegal. A detailed matrix is generated that illustrates the

  10. Some aspects of Italian energy systems and the effects on the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morici, Alessandro

    1998-01-01

    The priority goals of the Italian energy system in 1998 were; energy savings, protection of the environment and human health, development of domestic resource, diversification of energy sources and suppliers, international competitiveness of the energy system. Current and future actions include: energy conservation measures, energy developments, national plan for sustainable development implementing national program for limiting carbon related emissions to 1990 level by year 2000, and periodic reports to comply with the requirements of convention on climatic change

  11. Fungal Genomics for Energy and Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2013-03-11

    Genomes of fungi relevant to energy and environment are in focus of the Fungal Genomic Program at the US Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI). One of its projects, the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi, targets fungi related to plant health (symbionts, pathogens, and biocontrol agents) and biorefinery processes (cellulose degradation, sugar fermentation, industrial hosts) by means of genome sequencing and analysis. New chapters of the Encyclopedia can be opened with user proposals to the JGI Community Sequencing Program (CSP). Another JGI project, the 1000 fungal genomes, explores fungal diversity on genome level at scale and is open for users to nominate new species for sequencing. Over 200 fungal genomes have been sequenced by JGI to date and released through MycoCosm (www.jgi.doe.gov/fungi), a fungal web-portal, which integrates sequence and functional data with genome analysis tools for user community. Sequence analysis supported by functional genomics leads to developing parts list for complex systems ranging from ecosystems of biofuel crops to biorefineries. Recent examples of such parts suggested by comparative genomics and functional analysis in these areas are presented here.

  12. Public Relations - 2003 Energy and Environment Calendar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novosel, N.; Valcic, I.

    2003-01-01

    Ministry of Economy in co-operation with the Ministry of Education and Sport, Croatian Electric Utility and Enconet International during the year 2002 realized the project of preparing the calendar for 2003 containing primary school pupils' paintings about energy and environment and additional information about preparedness in the Republic of Croatia in the case of nuclear accident and recommendations for acting. The calendar is primarily created for families living in the circle 25 km from the Nuclear Power Plant Krsko and will be distributed to all pupils of primary schools on that territory. Therefore the collecting of paintings was carried out between pupils from fifth to eight grades in those schools. Expert commission chose twelve best paintings from fifty-two collected and ceremonial promotion of the calendar was held in the Technical museum in Zagreb. This kind of project is only one example of public relations with the purpose of knowledge building about successful living together with energy technologies. In this text the course of the project of realizing the calendar will be presented with the special accent on content and purpose of the text about preparedness in the Republic of Croatia in the case of nuclear accident and recommendations for acting. (author)

  13. Proposal for an energy - environment strategy in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leca, A.; Scripcariu, D.; Scripcariu, M.

    1996-01-01

    The paper presents the results of a study carried out from a environmental protection point of view by a multi-branch team of 25 Romanian experts. A general block diagram type procedure of elaborating a national energy-environment strategy has been proposed. The sustainable development has been chosen as an overall evaluating criterion involving the fulfillment of the following conditions: the environmental protection; the best use of material, financial and human resources; the promotion of equity. For strategic objectives have been identified: increasing energy efficiency; reconsidering the existing generation capacities and their future trends; diversifying the primary resources and their suppliers; reducing the energy impacts on the environment, and three support objectives: creation of an economic and financial framework market oriented; setting up a regulatory system for efficient market operation; establishing an institutional framework for the energy sector. The fundamental concepts promoted and recommended to be used have been: sustainable development, energy efficiency, competition, integrated resources planning, demand-side management. (author). 2 figs. 4 refs

  14. Human response to combined indoor environment exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn

    2002-01-01

    Most thermal comfort standards and guidelines presume sedentary, light activity and a neutral overall thermal sensation when predicting local thermal discomfort. In addition, current standards specify criteria for separate aspects of the indoor environment, e.g. thermal climate, air quality...... or noise, with only little consideration of possible interactions between the different types of exposure. The studies summarized in this article found a clear impact of activity and overall thermal sensation on human sensitivity to air movement, whereas no interaction effects of exposure to several local...... thermal discomfort factors were observed. Limited evidence was found of significant interactions between different aspects of the indoor environment. Only for the effect of air temperature and air humidity on sensory air quality were well-estabished relationships available....

  15. Energy Generation in the Human Body by the Human Cells ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We adapted the thermodynamics equation for energy generation in a diesel engine in modeling energy generation in human body by the human cells by doing a thorough study on both systems and saw that the process of energy generation is the same in them. We equally saw that the stages involved in energy generation ...

  16. Human-Computer Interaction in Smart Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Paravati

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Here, we provide an overview of the content of the Special Issue on “Human-computer interaction in smart environments”. The aim of this Special Issue is to highlight technologies and solutions encompassing the use of mass-market sensors in current and emerging applications for interacting with Smart Environments. Selected papers address this topic by analyzing different interaction modalities, including hand/body gestures, face recognition, gaze/eye tracking, biosignal analysis, speech and activity recognition, and related issues.

  17. Energy, The Environment And Astronomy: Education And Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Bernadette; Doppmann, G.; Kalas, P.; Lacy, J.; Beck, T.; Marshall, P. J.

    2010-01-01

    The specter of global climate change is arguably the most pressing scientific, social and ethical issue of our time. Although the relatively small field of astronomy represents only a fraction of the total human carbon emissions, astronomers have a great potential, and therefore perhaps a great responsibility, to educate themselves and the public on this issue. In addition, the average per capita carbon emissions of professional astronomers are not small, and our profession can do much to reduce its energy consumption and maximize the cost-benefit ratio of our work. At the January AAS meeting, we are organizing a half-day splinter meeting titled "Energy, the Environment and Astronomy: Education and Action". The focus will be on energy conservation and education as it relates to professional astronomy. Education focuses on informing ourselves, our students and the general public with which we interact, about the real issues, the necessary actions, and the likely consequences of various energy consumption and carbon emission scenarios. Action focuses on effective energy conservation and renewable energy initiatives within professional astronomy. Air travel, solar energy at ground-based observatories, and Gemini's "Green Initiative” are among the topics that will be discussed. The splinter meeting will be open to all and will include expert speakers from outside astronomy, contributed talks by astronomers, and a discussion session.

  18. Energy, environment and pursuit of happiness; Energy kankyo mondai ningen no kofuku kara kangaeru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shingu, H. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)

    1997-05-05

    The energy and environment issue was considered from a viewpoint of human happiness. The paper picks up economy, philosophy, energy and humans as organisms, and considered how the principle of the increase by geometrical progression plays an important role in these. That the repetition in phenomena is like the increase by geometrical progression means that changes increase not linearly but exponentially and nonlinearly and bring such large changes as are unimaginable. The increase in entropy, which is caused by a nonlinear increase of the state, is an irreparable change. The problem of the pursuit of happiness also cannot be solved by the linear thought. The energy and environment problem cannot reach the solution in an extension of the linear thought in which humans have overcome poverty and lacks since the past and pursued richness earnestly. Namely, it is necessary for the 21st century to stop thinking of the energy utilization for seeking for much more richness and to try to think the energy issue in the social system where happiness with not too much richness is presupposed. 16 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  19. Human Pathophysiological Adaptations to the Space Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian C. Demontis

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Space is an extreme environment for the human body, where during long-term missions microgravity and high radiation levels represent major threats to crew health. Intriguingly, space flight (SF imposes on the body of highly selected, well-trained, and healthy individuals (astronauts and cosmonauts pathophysiological adaptive changes akin to an accelerated aging process and to some diseases. Such effects, becoming manifest over a time span of weeks (i.e., cardiovascular deconditioning to months (i.e., loss of bone density and muscle atrophy of exposure to weightlessness, can be reduced through proper countermeasures during SF and in due time are mostly reversible after landing. Based on these considerations, it is increasingly accepted that SF might provide a mechanistic insight into certain pathophysiological processes, a concept of interest to pre-nosological medicine. In this article, we will review the main stress factors encountered in space and their impact on the human body and will also discuss the possible lessons learned with space exploration in reference to human health on Earth. In fact, this is a productive, cross-fertilized, endeavor in which studies performed on Earth yield countermeasures for protection of space crew health, and space research is translated into health measures for Earth-bound population.

  20. Energy and Environment Division, annual report FY 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osowitt, M. (ed.)

    1981-07-01

    This report covers research in: energy analysis; energy efficiency studies; solar energy; chemical process; energy-efficient buildings; environmental pollutant studies; combustion research; laser spectroscopy and trace elements; and oil shale and coal research. An energy and environment personnel listing is appended. Separate projects are indexed individually for the database. (PSB)

  1. Energy, society and environment. Technology for a sustainable future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, D.

    1997-04-01

    Energy, Society and Environment examines energy and energy use, and the interactions between technology, society and the environment. The book is clearly structured to examine; Key environmental issues, and the harmful impacts of energy use; New technological solutions to environmental problems; Implementation of possible solutions, and Implications for society in developing a sustainable approach to energy use. Social processes and strategic solutions to problems are located within a clear, technological context with topical case studies. (UK)

  2. International symposium on energy, environment and economics: Transactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colville, E.J.

    1995-01-01

    The conference deals with a comprehensive range of topics on energy sources and technologies, the economic impacts of energy use and production, and environmental issues. The papers are grouped into chapters covering environmental policy, environment education, environment economics, new and renewable energy sources, utilities, electricity and planning software, domestic energy, commercial energy, heat pumps and cogeneration, and transport. A number of un-presented papers and abstracts of contributions are included. Relevant papers are individually indexed/abstracted. Tabs. figs., refs

  3. Wind energy in the built environment : Concentrator effects of buildings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mertens, S.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis deals with wind energy conversion in the built environment. It gives a description of the wind resources in the built environment that can be converted into energy by a wind turbine. With a focus on maximum energy yield of the wind turbine, it especially deals with the integration of

  4. Energy and Environment Division annual report, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camp, J.A. (ed.)

    1978-01-01

    Research activities of this Division are reported under nine separate programs, namely: Energy Analysis; Solar Energy; Energy-Efficient Buildings; Chemical Process Research and Development; Environmental Research; Atmospheric Aerosol Research; Oil Shale Research; Instrumentation Development; and Combustion Research. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the nine programs, each of which contained several individual research summaries, with responsible researchers listed. All of the abstracts will appear in Energy Research Abstracts (ERA), and five will appear in Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis (EAPA).

  5. Energy-water-environment nexus underpinning future desalination sustainability

    KAUST Repository

    Shahzad, Muhammad Wakil

    2017-03-11

    Energy-water-environment nexus is very important to attain COP21 goal, maintaining environment temperature increase below 2°C, but unfortunately two third share of CO2 emission has already been used and the remaining will be exhausted by 2050. A number of technological developments in power and desalination sectors improved their efficiencies to save energy and carbon emission but still they are operating at 35% and 10% of their thermodynamic limits. Research in desalination processes contributing to fuel World population for their improved living standard and to reduce specific energy consumption and to protect environment. Recently developed highly efficient nature-inspired membranes (aquaporin & graphene) and trend in thermally driven cycle\\'s hybridization could potentially lower then energy requirement for water purification. This paper presents a state of art review on energy, water and environment interconnection and future energy efficient desalination possibilities to save energy and protect environment.

  6. New indoor environment chambers and field experiment offices for research on human comfort, health and productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn; Langkilde, Gunnar; Fanger, Povl Ole

    2004-01-01

    The article describes three new indoor environment chambers, a new laboratory for the study of air movement in spaces and five offices for controlled environment exposures of human subjects in field experiments at the International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Technical University of...... of Denmark. Together with three older chambers, the Centre now has at its disposal 12 spaces for studying indoor environments and their impact on human comfort, health and productivity.......The article describes three new indoor environment chambers, a new laboratory for the study of air movement in spaces and five offices for controlled environment exposures of human subjects in field experiments at the International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Technical University...

  7. 48 CFR 952.223 - Clauses related to environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies, occupational safety, and drug-free workplace. 952.223 Section 952.223 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLAUSES AND... related to environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies, occupational safety...

  8. Energy, environment and sustainable rural development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Best, G [Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome (Italy)

    1992-12-01

    This paper addresses the energy needs of the three quarters of the World's population living in the rural populations of many developing countries whose daily struggle to obtain the energy needed for survival is unaffected by international energy politics. It aims to identify energy-related actions in certain policy and technical areas which may contribute to ending rural poverty. The mutual benefits of a transition to modern technologies is stressed both for rural and urban groups, especially in terms of a more efficient use of fossil fuels and renewable energy sources such as biomass or solar power. Recommendations for sustainable rural and agricultural development are made. (UK)

  9. The development of energy and its influences on the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Yunhua; Wang DeLi; Zhu Jiaheng.

    1989-01-01

    Energy consumption is increasing substantially as the world economy rapidly develops. The influences of energy development on the environment will become more conspicuous. Among them, pollution caused by burning fossil fuels draws the greatest attention from all nations. Some experts hold that, since the early eighties, a second upsurge of environmental concern has occurred because of the increasing environmental pollution and damage to the ecological balance on a large scale. The first environmental movement occurred between the fifties and the sixties. At that time, environmental pollution in industrialized countries was so serious that it threatened directly the life and security of people, exerted a tremendous influence on economic development, and caused serious social disturbances. Despite all these disadvantages, however, it appeared only in some factories and districts in those countries. Comparatively, both the pollution sources and their range were more limited. The United Nations held the Conference of Human Environment at Stockholm in Sweden at this time. It was a milestone for mankind to recognize the importance of and make efforts for environmental improvement. In the recent environmental movement, people are more concerned about problems that have an extremely harmful impact on large areas, including the problems of acid rain, ozonosphere destruction, greenhouse effects, etc. These problems attract a great deal of attention in countries all over the world. Concerned authorities in China have also begun to attach importance to these problems. This is especially true of energy consumption in China, as the main fuels in cities and large industrial bases coal and other fossil fuels, whereas 75 percent of the energy in the countryside is dependent on biomass energy. Such a pattern undoubtedly exerts a big influence on environmental pollution and undermines the ecological balance

  10. Fossil energy use and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sage, P.W.

    1994-01-01

    Energy demand projections indicate that fossil energy will provide some ninety per cent of global primary energy demand for the foreseeable future. This paper considers the principal environmental impacts associated with fossil energy use and describes approaches to minimise them. Technologies are now available to reduce significantly pollutant emissions from fossil fuel use. Emerging technologies offer higher conversion efficiencies to reduce still further specific emissions per unit of energy output. It is essential, particularly in those areas of rapid growth in energy use, that best practice and technology are deployed. Technology transfer and training will help to achieve this and enable fossil energy use to be fully compatible with increasingly stringent environmental requirements. (author) 4 figs., 12 refs

  11. Does nuclear energy save global environment?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Kazuaki

    2006-01-01

    Since the ecological footprint analysis in 1970s suggested changing consumption patterns and overpopulation concerns, energy policy such as energy conservation and use of renewable energy has become of prime importance. Several results of the long-term energy demand and supply analysis in 2050 or 2100 to reduce drastically carbon dioxide emission as a measure against global warming, showed the necessity of nuclear power deployment as well as maximum efforts to save energy, exploitation of the separation and disposal of carbon dioxide, and shifting energy sources to fuels that emit less greenhouse gases or non-fossil fuels. As a promising means to contribute to long-term energy supply, nuclear power generation is expected with improving safety, economic efficiency, environmental adaptability, and nuclear proliferation resistance of the technologies. (T.Tanaka)

  12. Human development and sustainability of energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This seminar on human development and sustainability was jointly organized by the French agency of environment and energy mastery (Ademe) and Enerdata company. This document summarises the content of the different presentations and of the minutes of the discussions that took place at the end of each topic. The different themes discussed were: 1 - Political and methodological issues related to sustainability (sustainability concept in government policy, sustainability and back-casting: lessons from EST); 2 - towards a socially viable world: thematic discussions (demography and peoples' migration; time budget and life style change - equal sex access to instruction and labour - geopolitical regional and inter-regional universal cultural acceptability; welfare, poverty and social link and economics); 3 - building up an environmentally sustainable energy world, keeping resources for future generations and preventing geopolitical ruptures (CO{sub 2} emissions; nuclear issues; land-use, noise, and other industrial risks). The memorandum on sustainability issues in view of very long term energy studies is reprinted in the appendix. The transparencies of seven presentations are attached to this document. (J.S.)

  13. Human development and sustainability of energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This seminar on human development and sustainability was jointly organized by the French agency of environment and energy mastery (Ademe) and Enerdata company. This document summarises the content of the different presentations and of the minutes of the discussions that took place at the end of each topic. The different themes discussed were: 1 - Political and methodological issues related to sustainability (sustainability concept in government policy, sustainability and back-casting: lessons from EST); 2 - towards a socially viable world: thematic discussions (demography and peoples' migration; time budget and life style change - equal sex access to instruction and labour - geopolitical regional and inter-regional universal cultural acceptability; welfare, poverty and social link and economics); 3 - building up an environmentally sustainable energy world, keeping resources for future generations and preventing geopolitical ruptures (CO{sub 2} emissions; nuclear issues; land-use, noise, and other industrial risks). The memorandum on sustainability issues in view of very long term energy studies is reprinted in the appendix. The transparencies of seven presentations are attached to this document. (J.S.)

  14. Human thermal physiological and psychological responses under different heating environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaojun; Ning, Haoran; Ji, Yuchen; Hou, Juan; He, Yanan

    2015-08-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggests that many residents of severely cold areas of China who use floor heating (FH) systems feel warmer but drier compared to those using radiant heating (RH) systems. However, this phenomenon has not been verified experimentally. In order to validate the empirical hypothesis, and research the differences of human physiological and psychological responses in these two asymmetrical heating environments, an experiment was designed to mimic FH and RH systems. The subjects participating in the experiment were volunteer college-students. During the experiment, the indoor air temperature, air speed, relative humidity, globe temperature, and inner surface temperatures were measured, and subjects' heart rate, blood pressure and skin temperatures were recorded. The subjects were required to fill in questionnaires about their thermal responses during testing. The results showed that the subjects' skin temperatures, heart rate and blood pressure were significantly affected by the type of heating environment. Ankle temperature had greatest impact on overall thermal comfort relative to other body parts, and a slightly cool FH condition was the most pleasurable environment for sedentary subjects. The overall thermal sensation, comfort and acceptability of FH were higher than that of RH. However, the subjects of FH felt drier than that of RH, although the relative humidity in FH environments was higher than that of the RH environment. In future environmental design, the thermal comfort of the ankles should be scrutinized, and a FH cool condition is recommended as the most comfortable thermal environment for office workers. Consequently, large amounts of heating energy could be saved in this area in the winter. The results of this study may lead to more efficient energy use for office or home heating systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. SOURCES OF ENERGY AND THE ENVIRONMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Spash, Clive L.; Young, A.

    1994-01-01

    Energy from fossil fuels have become dominant in the industrialised and industrialising economies of the world. However, fossil fuels are also recognised as heavily polluting and responsible for a range of modern environmental and health problems. Nuclear power is a similar conventional energy source in that it relies upon depletion of a limited stock resource and is associated with a range of social and environmental problems. However, the alternative energy sources relying upon flow reso...

  16. Wind energy's role in a deregulated environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, F.M.

    1998-01-01

    The current status of wind energy in Canada was the focus of this presentation. Wind energy is the fastest growing source of new electrical power in the world. In 1997 the world-wide capacity was 1495 MW, with Germany (535 MW), Spain (263 MW) and Denmark (259 MW) leading the way. It is clear that Canadian markets lag behind the world in recognizing the value of wind energy. The rationale for this is economic downturn, cheap hydrocarbon energy, a closed electricity market, minimal commitment to greenhouse gas reduction, and a significant oversupply of installed capacity. Nevertheless, there are many potential benefits for Canadian grids by wind generated electricity, not the least of which are tangible reductions in carbon emissions per kWh. It was noted that significant risk reductions have resulted from size and technological improvements. Besides being environmentally benign, wind energy also provides unequaled opportunities for load matching, distributed generation, and low operating and ongoing fuel costs. Aggressive marketers such as Enron and Vision Quest have predicted that because of these advantages, and the willingness of many potential customers to pay more for 'green' energy, renewable energy sources such as wind and solar, will capture a significant share of the world energy market over the next 20 years. tabs., figs

  17. The Environment, Energy, and the Tinbergen Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudson, William A.

    2009-01-01

    Higher energy prices and the growing concern about global warming have led to a number of policy goals and targets designed to curb global warming and/or the development of alternative sources of energy. However, the Tinbergen Rule states that for each and every policy target there must be at least one policy tool. If there are fewer tools than…

  18. Energy forum 92: Efficiency, trade and the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    In 1992 B.C. Hydro's annual Electric Energy Forum was held in conjunction with the National Energy Forum to provide an opportunity for delegates from utilities, government, industry, international development agencies, environmental groups, universities and interested members of the public to discuss major energy issues of today and tomorrow. Three main themes were addressed: Efficiency (the latest developments in energy-efficient technologies and their role in sustainable development), trade (strategies for trade in energy and related technologies), and environment (the effects of energy production, use and trade on the local, regional and global environment). This document presents opening remarks, speeches presented, and panel discussions.

  19. Induced innovation, energy prices, and the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, David Clifford

    The process of developing new technologies is a central question for economic theory as well as for public policy in many areas. For example, the development of cleaner, more efficient energy technologies will play an important role in reducing the threat of global warming. To study how technology evolves over time, this dissertation uses patent data on energy innovations from 1970 to 1991 to examine the impact of energy prices on energy-efficient innovations. Before this can be done, however, information on supply-side factors which influence innovation is also needed. In the case of innovation, supply-side factors are the usefulness of the existing base of scientific knowledge. Patent citations are used for this purpose. Subsequent citations to patents granted each year since 1970 are used to show that the returns to research and development (R&D) fall over time for most of the technologies studied. These estimates are then combined with data on demand-side factors, such as energy prices, to estimate a model of induced innovation in energy technologies. Both energy prices and the supply of knowledge are found to have strongly significant positive effects on innovation. Next, the Yale Technology Concordance (YTC), which maps patents to the industries in which they are used, is employed to construct a stock of energy-related knowledge for 14 energy intensive industries. The effect of changes in this stock on energy consumption in these industries is estimated. On average, the present value of energy savings resulting from a new patent is eight million dollars, with the maximum savings coming about five years after the initial patent application. Finally, the results of each regression are combined to simulate the impact of a ten percent energy tax. Initially, simple factor substitution due to the price change has the largest effect. However, because of the cumulative nature of R&D, induced innovation has a much larger effect than factor substitution in the long run

  20. Wood for energy production. Technology - environment - economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serup, H.; Falster, H.; Gamborg, C.

    1999-01-01

    'Wood for Energy Production', 2nd edition, is a readily understood guide to the application of wood in the Danish energy supply. The first edition was named 'Wood Chips for Energy Production'. It describes the wood fuel from forest to consumer and provides a concise introduction to technological, environmental, and financial matters concerning heating systems for farms, institutions, district heating plants, and CHP plants. The individual sections deal with both conventional, well known technology, as well as the most recent technological advances in the field of CHP production. The purpose of this publication is to reach the largest possible audiance, and it is designed so that the layman may find its background information of special relevance. 'Wood for Energy Production' is also available in German and Danish. (au)

  1. Energy and environment scenarios for Senegal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarus, M.; Diallo, S.; Sokona, Y.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, the energy and environmental dimensions of several proposed energy strategies for Senegal are explored. An analytical framework to compare the energy and measurable environmental impacts of a set of scenarious is developed, and the limitations of the quantitative approach are discussed. It is found that policies to promote substitution of liquid petroleum gas (LPG) for charcoal use in households may actually reduce greenhouse gas emission, while also improving more important near-term environmental problems. Substitution of LPG for charcoal would not necessarily lead to a significant increase in Senegal's oil import bill, since other petroleum product usage will continue to dominate. Despite past industrial sector initiatives, considerable potential for energy efficiency investment remains, and presents additional opportunities for minimizing environmental impacts. (author). 33 refs, 9 figs, 4 tabs

  2. E3: Economy, Energy and Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    E3 is a technical assistance framework helping communities, manufacturers, and manufacturing supply chains adapt and thrive in today's green economy. Find information on pollution prevention, sustainable business practices, and energy efficiency.

  3. Energy behaviour engagement in smart urban environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carreira, Paulo; Mendes, Gonçalo; Barroca, Bruno; Amaral, Vasco; Honkapuro, Samuli; Prada, Rui

    2018-01-01

    In today’s ubiquitously connected society, citizens are continuously exposed to information energy usage- related. information However, users are not interpreting or taking appropriate action to benefit from the opportunities such information embodies. This concern is particularly relevant when

  4. Wood for energy production. Technology - environment - economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serup, H.; Falster, H.; Gamborg, C. [and others

    1999-10-01

    `Wood for Energy Production`, 2nd edition, is a readily understood guide to the application of wood in the Danish energy supply. The first edition was named `Wood Chips for Energy Production`. It describes the wood fuel from forest to consumer and provides a concise introduction to technological, environmental, and financial matters concerning heating systems for farms, institutions, district heating plants, and CHP plants. The individual sections deal with both conventional, well known technology, as well as the most recent technological advances in the field of CHP production. The purpose of this publication is to reach the largest possible audiance, and it is designed so that the layman may find its background information of special relevance. `Wood for Energy Production` is also available in German and Danish. (au)

  5. Interconnections between energy and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darmstadter, J.; Fri, R.W.

    1992-01-01

    Virtually every phase of energy production, delivery, and use exacts some environmental toll: land disturbance from coal mining, toxic residues as a by-product of petroleum extraction, oil spillage from tanker operations, airborne emissions from power pants, buildup of radioactive nuclear wastes. Despite these cost, however, energy delivers services that are essential to economic well-being. The challenge is to mange the energy system to produce both the economic and environmental benefits that people value. Meeting this goal is a global challenge on both fronts. The economic challenge is neither less daunting nor less global. The purpose of this article is to assess whether the energy system can in fact be managed to produce both the economic and environmental services likely to be demanded of it. There is as yet not definitive answer to this question, and we do not provide one here. The authors can, however, sketch some of the prerequisites to a successful outcome

  6. Energy and environment by common language

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlstroem, B.

    1988-01-01

    The article describes how to express difficult matters involved with nuclear energy, irradiation etc. to the general public. The text is a combination of quotations from the book 'Villakoiran Ydin' (Heart of Poodle) written by Wahlstroem in 1986

  7. Energy options and the global environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombo, U.

    1986-01-01

    First, a brief historical sketch of the progress of industrialized society and the change in the quantity and quality of energy system accompanying it is made. It is likely to see a very unstable oil market in future, and it is irresponsible to continue the use of oil simply by burning it to obtain heat and electricity. This time is the opportunity to complete a new energy transition, preserving oil for more effective utilization. There is no single energy source which is as versatile, easy to transport and to use, and cheap as oil, therefore, the relative merits and demerits of various available resources must be carefully assessed. Natural gas, the green-house effect caused by burning fossil fuel, hydroelectric power, nuclear fission power, solar, biomass, wind and geothermal energies are discussed. The important alternatives for the future are nuclear fission power, biomass, and by the middle of the next century, nuclear fusion energy. A pluralistic system is the best suitable to the complex society of the next century, having about 8 billion population. A scenario representing the contribution of nuclear energy in 2050 is illustrated, but the clouds on the nuclear horizon must be dispelled. (Kako, I.)

  8. Energy and environment: the relationship love-hate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toharias Cortes, M.

    1995-01-01

    From the beginning of mankind, the obtaining and use of energy was always made against the natural environment. But only after the Industrial Revolution the human civilization has endangered some ecosystems because an immeasurable, but also harmful in regard to natural resources, economic, sanitary and cultural development. The solutions pass through preserving what we have yet obtained, including its generalisation to the poor people of the world, but above all it needs the harmonization between this kind of development and the conservation of natural resources if we want a sustainable situation. In this way, the environmental management of the economic resources must replace gradually the mere economist management that we are using until all over the world. (Author)

  9. Radioecology: nuclear energy and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whicker, F.W.; Schultz, V.

    1982-01-01

    Radioecology is the field of study in which elements of physical and biological sciences are combined to pursue knowledge of radioactivity in the environment, including movement of radioactive materials and the effects of ionizing radiation on populations and on ecological organization. Volume I contains chapters on ecological principles, radiological principles, environmental radioactivity and radionuclide behavior in ecosystems. Chapter Four on environmental radioactivity characterizes sources, types, and amounts of material and man-made radioactive materials and radiation in the environment. Concepts of radionuclide behavior in ecosystems and behavior (movements and concentrations) of several important element groups in selected ecosystems are surveyed. A chapter on methods used for quantitative predictions of radionuclide transport in the environment gives a reasonably complete treatment to environmental transport processes, radionuclide kinetics in ecosystem compartments, and the use of transport models. Two chapters summarize the known effects of ionizing radiation on species, populations, and higher levels of ecological organization. This information is put into perspective in terms of risk and other consequences. Both volumes are well referenced. Appendices contain listings of major proceedings and books, reviews of specific radionuclides in the environment, and physical data used to characterize radionuclides. The authors succeed in presenting an excellent survey of a broad field of study, and these volumes should serve as a standard reference work on radioecology for a long while

  10. Issues - II. Renewable energies and environment law: the exploitation of renewable energies or when the implementation of a measure aimed at the protection of the environment impacts the environment; water as a renewable energy source: to which price?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cans, Chantal; Boucheix, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    A first article discusses the different impacts that renewable energies may have on the environment, i.e. on the human environment (risks associated with dams, aesthetic impacts, impacts on landscapes, neighbouring nuisances) or on the natural environment (natural media, wildlife and flora). A second article outlines that the legal framework of hydroelectricity is rather old and therefore ignored (willingly or not?) environmental concerns whereas environmental impacts actually exist. Therefore, a new legal context must be defined, notably by taking into account objectives defined in the international and European Union law, in particularly the requirements related to ecological continuity

  11. Human factors at the Department of Energy National Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pond, D.J.; Waters, R.M.

    1991-01-01

    After World War II, a system of national laboratories was created to foster a suitable environment for scientific research. This paper reports that today, human factors activities are in evidence at most of the nine U.S. Department of Energy multi-program national laboratories as well as at a number of special program facilities. This paper provides historical and future perspectives on the DOE's human factors programs

  12. Annual review of energy and the environment. Volume 23

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Socolow, R.H. [ed.] [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Anderson, D. [ed.] [Imperial College of Science, Technology, and Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Harte, J. [ed.] [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1998-12-31

    Thirteen papers are included in this volume. The titles and authors are: From Physics to Development Strategies by Jose Goldemberg; Rewards and Penalties of Monitoring the Earth by Charles D. Keeling; Science and Nonscience Concerning Human-Caused Climate Warming by J. D. Mahlman; Consumption of Materials in the United States, 1990--1995 by Grecia Matos and Lorie Wagner; Future Technologies for Energy-Efficient Iron and Steel Making by Jeroen de Beer, Ernst Worrell, and Kornelis Blok; The O{sub 2} Balance of the Atmosphere: A Tool for Studying the Fate of Fossil Fuel CO{sub 2} by Michael L. Bender, Mark Battle, and Ralph F. Keeling; Mexican Electric End-Use Efficiency: Experiences to Date by Rafael Friedmann and Claudia Sheinbaum; Drinking Water in Developing Countries by Ashok Gadgil; Engineering-Economic Studies of Energy Technologies to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Opportunities and Challenges by Marilyn A. Brown, Mark D. Levine, Joseph P. Romm, Arthur H. Rosenfeld, and Jonathan G. Koomey; Climate Change Mitigation in the Energy and Forestry Sectors of Developing Countries by Jayant A. Sathaye and N. H. Ravindranath; Toward a Productive Divorce: Separating DOE Cleanups from Transition Assistance by M. Russell; Recycling Metals for the Environment by Iddo K. Wernick and Nickolas J. Themelis; and Environmentally Conscious Chemical Process Design by J. A. Cano-Ruiz and G. J. McRae.

  13. Effects of wind turbines on human health and environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramanan, G [RV College of Engineering, Bangalore (India); Pandian, A; Gowda, G; Raghunandan, A [MS RAMAIAH Institute of Technology, Bangalore (India)

    2012-07-01

    The impact of climate change through global warming has been a concern for some time now. Targets are being set for ratifying countries to reduce their CO{sup 2} emissions. In order to achieve reduction in CO{sup 2} emissions, there must be sustained move in the production of electricity from renewable sources other than fossil fuel combustion. Of the renewable energy sources, the most realistic and economic is Wind Power. The Asian continent is developing into one of the main powerhouses of Wind Energy. The strongest market leader in Wind Energy in the continent is India. On the flip side, there are some effects of Wind Turbines which are hazardous to human health like noise generated. Such hazards are also likely and known to affect the migratory birds during transition. This paper will address the effects of Wind Turbine on Human Health and Environment. The paper will focus on the following questions: (1)What are the potential health and environmental impacts of Wind Turbines? (2)How is exposure to Wind Turbine Noise assessed? (3)What consultation process with the community is required before Wind Farms are constructed? (Author)

  14. Straw for energy production. Technology - Environment - Economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolaisen, L.; Nielsen, C.; Larsen, M.G.; Nielsen, V.; Zielke, U.; Kristensen, J.K.; Holm-Christensen, B.

    1998-12-31

    `Straw for Energy Production`, second edition, provides a readily accessible background information of special relevance to the use of straw in the Danish energy supply. Technical, environmental, and economic aspects are described in respect of boiler plants for farms, district heating plants, and combined heat and power plants (CHP). The individual sections deal with both well-known, tested technology and the most recent advances in the field of CHP production. This publication is designed with the purpose of reaching the largest possible numbers of people and so adapted that it provides a valuable aid and gives the non-professional, general reader a thorough knowledge of the subject. `Straw for Energy Production` is also available in German and Danish. (au)

  15. Conflicting energy, environment, economy policies in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, M.; Quintanilla, J.

    2000-01-01

    Environmental concerns, both at the local and global levels, have been present in Mexico's energy planning and national and international commitments. However, deregulation policies and financial constraints in the public sector seem to come in conflict with respect to greenhouse gas emissions in the development of the Mexican energy system. This is specially noticeable in the power sector where expansion of non fossil fuel generation has been essentially postponed at present and only the substitution of fuel oil and diesel by natural gas is contemplated. (Author)

  16. Western Energy Resources and the Environment: Geothermal Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-05-01

    This document on geothermal energy is the first in a series of summary reports prepared by the Office of Energy, Minerals and Industry of the Environmental Protection Agency. The series describes what environmental effects are known or expected from new energy resource development in the western third of the United States. The series indicates some of the research and development activities under way and reviews the non-environmental constraints to resource development. It also serves as a reference for planners and policymakers on the entire range of problems and prospects associated with the development of new energy resources. [DJE-2005

  17. Electronic Energy Transfer in Polarizable Heterogeneous Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Casper Steinmann; Kongsted, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    such couplings provide important insight into the strength of interaction between photo-active pigments in protein-pigment complexes. Recently, attention has been payed to how the environment modifies or even controls the electronic couplings. To enable such theoretical predictions, a fully polarizable embedding......-order multipole moments. We use this extended model to systematically examine three different ways of obtaining EET couplings in a heterogeneous medium ranging from use of the exact transition density to a point-dipole approximation. Several interesting observations are made including that explicit use...... of transition densities in the calculation of the electronic couplings - also when including the explicit environment contribution - can be replaced by a much simpler transition point charge description without comprising the quality of the model predictions....

  18. Impacts of non-nuclear energy sources on the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavkaya, E.

    2006-01-01

    Fossil fuels (i.e., petroleum, natural gas and coal) , which meet most of the world's energy demand today, are being depleted fast. Also, their combustion products are causing the global problems, such as the greenhouse effect, ozone layer depletion, acid rains and pollution, which are posing great danger for our environment and eventually for the life in our planet. If humankind is going to have a future on this planet, at least a high-technology future, with a significant population of several billions of humans continuing to inhabit the Earth, it is absolutely inevitable that we will have to find another energy source. Table 1: The environmental effects for some energy systems; SOURCES: Fossil fuels (petroleum, natural gas and coal) ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS : - Ozone layer depletion - Changes of atmospheric conditions - Decrease of air quality (Coal , petroleum) - Acid rains and destroy of forests (coal, petroleum ) - Pollution from toxic wastes (coal ash, slag and smoke hole gases) - Pollution of surface water - Seaside and sea pollutions (petroleum) - Terrain devolution - Large amount of fuel and transportation requirements - Sources depletion SOURCES: Hydroelectric ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS - Large area requirements - Population situation changes - Erosion and usage changes - Ecosystem changes and health effects - Disappearing of biological variety - Downfall of dams - Leave out of production SOURCES: Renewable (sun, wind, geothermal, biomass) ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS : - Decrease of air quality (geothermal, biomass) - Large area usage - Ecologic system changes - Fabrication effects (CO 2 effect due to production of photovoltaic cells that work with sun) - Noise (wind) SOURCES: Nuclear (All energy chain) ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS : - Radioactive oscillation because of serious reactor accident - Radiation of waste storage. In this study, the environmental effects for some energy systems are investigated with all details

  19. Energy biomass and environment. The French programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-31

    The main themes of the french program for energy from biomass are presented: agriculture and forest products (short rotation plantations, waste products, etc.), enhancement of the biomass production, mobilization of biomass resources, biomass processing technics (biofuels, combustion processes, biotechnologies); vulgarization for diffusion of technics from laboratories to industry or domestic sectors.

  20. Landfill gas from environment to energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gendebien, A.; Pauwels, M.; Constant, M.; Ledrut-Damanet, M.J.; Nyns, E.J.; Fabry, R.; Ferrero, G.L.; Willumsen, H.C.; Butson, J.

    1992-01-01

    Landfill gas is an alternative source of energy which can be commercially exploited wherever municipal solid wastes are disposed of in sanitary landfills. In this context, it was decided to launch a comprehensive study on the subject of energy valorization of landfill gas. The main topics dealt with in the study, which is supported by a comprehensive literature survey and six detailed case-studies, include; (i) the environmental impact of landfill gas, (ii) the process of landfill gas genesis and the technology of landfill gas control by its exploitation, (iii) the monitoring of landfill gas emissions, (iv) the policies and legal aspects of landfill gas in the European Community and in the world, (v) the estimation of landfill gas potentials and economics of landfill gas control and exploitation, (vi) the status of landfill gas exploitation in the European Community and in the world. (authors). refs., figs., tabs

  1. Energy and environment: transitions in Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The proceedings contain 91 abstracts of contributions delivered as lectures and 47 abstracts of contributions presented as posters. Out of them, 4 have been inputted in INIS. They deal with air pollution in Turkey, with impacts of open pit mines in North Bohemia on the quality of air, environmental impacts of the thermal power plant at Drobeta Turnu Severin in Romania, and with Latvia's environmental problems associated with energy supplies. (M.D.)

  2. Energy and environment: an intergovernmental perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keenan, B.R. (ed.)

    1978-01-01

    The Ohio River Valley Assembly was convened for round table discussions of the development of the energy resources of the valley and the environmental impacts. The participation was limited to government officials and participants included representatives from local, state, and federal governments and from several regional organizations with particular responsibilities in the Ohio River Valley. The background papers, comments by legislators, speeches, and the final report of the Assembly are compiled. (JSR)

  3. Overview of Nepal's energy sources and environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, C. K.

    In the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal faces environmental problems of most industrialized countries whereas it has problems similar to the least developed countries, in the hills. Types and quantity of energy use have a close link with the environmental degradation in Nepal Himalaya. Over dependence on the forest to meet the energy demand in the hills has aggravated the environmental problems. Lack of forest cover on the hills, the intense monsoon rain, the fragile geology and steep terrain are contributing to the acceleration of landslides, soil erosion and temperature rise. The rise of average minimum temperature is causing glaciers to retreat and thereby the development of large bodies of glacial lake. Glacial lake outbursts of 1981 in Kodari and of 1985 in Namche bazar area caused extensive damage on infrastructures down stream. Heavy use of commercial fuel (hydrocarbons) in the bowl shaped Kathmandu valley is causing air and water pollution and an increase in the average minimum temperature. Extensive development of hydropower, biogas plants and massive reforestation on naked hills and efficient use of imported hydrocarbons are the solution to existing energy and environmental problems.

  4. Energy, the environment and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodgson, Peter E.

    2005-01-01

    The paper describes the author's view on the environmental problems and nuclear power. The world demand for energy has increased rapidly due to the increase of population and the overall rise in living standards, resulting in many signs that the world is experiencing a growing shortage of energy and continuing need for flexible planning and the search for new sources. Fossil fuels are polluting the atmosphere, leading to climate change, acid rain and global warming. This has led many countries to look again at nuclear power. For the widespread opposition to nuclear power, the author lists up the fear of nuclear weapons, the fear of nuclear radiations including reprocessing plants as well as natural radioactivity and cosmic rays, the fear about the safety of nuclear reactors, and production of large amount of radioactive wastes. The author compares various energy sources, and insists that there is a strong reluctance to face the truth, as Governments knowing that nuclear power is politically so unpopular would not advocate the construction of new nuclear stations. (S. Ohno)

  5. Sensing power transfer between the human body and the environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltink, Petrus H.; Kortier, H.G.; Schepers, H. Martin

    The power transferred between the human body and the environment at any time and the work performed are important quantities to be estimated when evaluating and optimizing the physical interaction between the human body and the environment in sports, physical labor, and rehabilitation. It is the

  6. Sacrificed country sides. How the energy revolution degrades the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etscheit, Georg

    2016-01-01

    The volume covers a variety of contributions on the consequences for the environment due to the energy revolution in Germany, including challenges and pitfalls. A realistic survey on the development of the energy revolution is requested in relation to the effectiveness of environmental protection and the legal protection of cultivated landscapes. Architectural aspects concerning wind energy and solar energy plants are discussed in the view of the population.

  7. Energy: sources, economics and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coles, G.

    2003-01-01

    The demands of providing energy whilst reducing greenhouse gas emissions makes the use of nuclear power and hydroelectricity a practical alternative. The Australian government accepts that present global greenhouse gas emissions produce global warming. It is not apparent that any degree of global warming can be prevented by less than global elimination of greenhouse gas emissions or even that this will remove any such global warming which has already occurred. The evidence and references discussed also indicate that the effect of the total elimination of CO 2 emissions by Australia at the 2000 rate of 279.9 million tonnes will be overwhelmed by global levels and increases, for example the present emission of 3500 million tonnes by China at 2.8 tonnes per capita from 1250 billion people and the virtual certainty of its increase . It is therefore necessary to question whether a country like Australia is otherwise justified (unless nuclear power or other measures to eliminate greenhouse gas emissions are accepted worldwide) in adopting an) energy-generating systems intended to lead to its own elimination of CO 2 emissions if they create social, economic and resource costs (and possibly other environmental non-greenhouse gas problems) exceeding those of nuclear sources

  8. Environment-Crisis and Human Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Kalachanis Konstantinos

    2014-01-01

    Our attitude towards the Environment has been changed since Industrial Revolution because our civilization is characterized by the overconsumption of natural resources, resulting in the appearance on health problems, while millions of people have also condemned into poverty. In order to change this harmful model of economy, we need to change our way of thinking by realizing our unity with the Environment. In such a case, it is obvious that a new model of economic growth will ar...

  9. A sociology of energy, buildings and the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guy, Simon; Shove, Elizabeth

    2000-07-01

    Focusing upon energy conservation and the built environment, this book engages with areas of debate and policy currently dominated by technologists and natural scientists using both empirical research and theory. (Author)

  10. Policy Enabling Environment for Corporate Renewable Energy Sourcing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-05-09

    Interest in renewable energy (RE) procurement in new markets is on the rise. Corporations are increasing their commitments to procuring RE, motivated by an interest in using clean energy sources and reducing their energy expenses. Many large companies have facilities and supply chains in multiple countries, and are interested in procuring renewable energy in the grids where they use energy. The policy environment around the world plays a key role in shaping where and how corporations will invest in renewables. This fact sheet details findings from a recent 21st Century Power Partnership report, Policies to Enable Corporate Renewable Energy Sourcing Internationally.

  11. Environment: renewable energy, environmental protection and energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The second in the series of IPPSO policy papers for discussion deals with the place of renewable energy sources and environmental protection in relation to the soon-to-be deregulated electricity industry in Ontario. The paper provides a broad statement of principles, defines the issues, identifies the problems, and discusses the various options under consideration. Some of the more important design questions regarding a renewable portfolio standard were discussed, among them the technologies to be included, the treatment of existing generators and expansions, establishment of minimum amounts and targets, responsibility for and means of compliance, compensation for the intermittent nature of some of the renewable resources, mandatory disclosure and labelling, development by the IMO of environmental dispatch protocols, research and development funding for renewable energy technologies, emission caps with tradeable targets, and concerns about the operation of a system benefits fund for energy efficiency. 5 refs

  12. Energy and the environment, Czech energy policy and plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dlouhy, V.

    1995-01-01

    The article is the text of a lecture delivered by the Minister of Industry and Trade of the Czech Republic. The changes in the Czech energy sector following the political change in 1989 are highlighted. The basic strategic goal in the energy policy of the Czech Government consists in ensuring a stable and reliable power supply while promoting provisions in the production and energy raw material procurement and in the related pricing that would be in support of the strong system provisions within the whole Czech national economy. In the short run, the privatization and restructuring of the Czech power sector will be completed, the share of state ownership in utilities will be reduced, and control mechanisms to affect the function of natural monopolies will be developed. Environmental aspects of the Czech energy policy are particularly aimed at reducing the final consumption of solid fuels, reducing air pollution by flue ashes, phasing-out fossil fuel fired power plants, and increasing power generation by nuclear power plants. The governmental pricing control policy expects that the fuel and power retail prices will be increasing about 15% annually till the year 2000. (J.B.)

  13. Energy, economic growth, and human welfare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schurr, S.H.

    1984-01-01

    The subject is covered in sections, entitled: economic growth and human welfare; world-wide economic growth; economic growth and energy consumption; assessing the future; caution advised; energy supply and economic growth; supply as constraint; sound policies needed. (U.K.)

  14. Economy, environment and energy: an application to the construction sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amarilla, Beatriz Cecilia

    1992-01-01

    This paper aims to study the relationships between energy, environment, economy and the construction sector. An economical evaluation of environmental benefits is presented, discussing different aspects about the environment and the impacts from the constructions. 10 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  15. Environment. 1980-1994. International Atomic Energy Agency publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    The catalogue lists all publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with the Environment issued during the period 1980-1993. The major subjects covered include: effect of agrochemical residues on soils and aquatic ecosystems, application of radioisotopes in conservation of the environment, siting of nuclear power plants, environmental isotope data and environmental contamination due to nuclear accidents

  16. Energy-water-environment nexus underpinning future desalination sustainability

    KAUST Repository

    Shahzad, Muhammad Wakil; Burhan, Muhammad; Ang, Li; Ng, Kim Choon

    2017-01-01

    Energy-water-environment nexus is very important to attain COP21 goal, maintaining environment temperature increase below 2°C, but unfortunately two third share of CO2 emission has already been used and the remaining will be exhausted by 2050. A

  17. Energy conservation and the environment: conflict or complement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schipper, L.

    1978-09-01

    The policy discussion following the Oil Embargo was clouded with fears of a return to a primitive existence based on drastically reduced energy inputs to society, or, on the other hand, an abandoning of environmental goals, allegedly a major barrier to development of new energy supplies. Often the energy use associated with environmental improvements was cited as a reason for expanding energy supplies, as if to say that a conflict existed between a clean environment and reductions in energy use. Or it was argued that a relaxation of environmental goals would lower the direct costs of harvesting and using energy and thereby alleviate the need for energy conservation. It has also been argued that the geopolitics of energy alone will force us to substitute riskier or ''dirtier'' energy sources for relatively clean oil and gas. Indeed, there is no question that the relationship among energy, the environment, and economic well-being is complicated. This essay sorts out many of the confusing aspects in order to show how goals relating to the efficient use of energy are aligned both with traditional economic goals and with modern environmental goals. To do this the author analyzes in depth the role of energy in the economy and, using examples, traces the origins of many of the misconceptions about that role--misconceptions that have inhibited a profound discussion of energy-related goals.

  18. The environment and energy sector in the Czech republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-08-01

    The objective of this report is to give Danish investors, consultants, and subcontractors With interest in the Czech environment and energy sector, a basis for evaluating its market opportunities. Furthermore, the report will provide the reader With an overview of potential finance sources for projects within the environment and energy sector. With the prospects of EU membership, the Czech Republic has put a great effort into improving the country's environmental conditions as well as restructuring its energy sector. In particular in the area of the environment, the Czech Republic has experienced considerable progress. However, in several environmental areas, the Czech Republic is still lacking behind other EU countries. The process of meeting the environmental standards of the EU continues to demand large investments, especially within the field of water and waste treatment. In the process of adapting to the requirements of the EU in the field of the environment, the Czech Republic can expect to receive around EUR 615 million in EU funds betaveen 2004 and 2006. The Czech energy sector is the most air-polluting sector in the country and there is a general demand for knove-hove and technology in the field of energy efficiency and udlisation of renewable energy. Renewable energy makes up only 2% of the Czech Republic's total energy production. The goal of the Czech government is to increase the share to 8% before 2010. This report illustrates hove the large investments required in the area of environment and energy combmed with a wide range of national and international financing opportunities open up for significant market opportunities in the Czech Republic for Danish companies specialised within the environment and energy sector. As a foundation of the report there will first be a brief explanation of the inarket conditions in the Czech Republic. Secondly, the report will describe the environmental sector in depth within the areas water, waste, and air, and

  19. Human-Robot Teamwork in USAR Environments: The TRADR Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greeff, J. de; Hindriks, K.; Neerincx, M.A.; Kruijff-Korbayova, I.

    2015-01-01

    The TRADR project aims at developing methods and models for human-robot teamwork, enabling robots to operate in search and rescue environments alongside humans as teammates, rather than as tools. Through a user-centered cognitive engineering method, human-robot teamwork is analyzed, modeled,

  20. Energy and the environment. A global view and strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasztor, J.

    1988-01-01

    It should be recognized that the key to the future is in the rational use of energy, that is, a more efficient use of energy rather than a continuous increase in the supply of energy. Every unit of energy saved is a unit of energy which does not have to be produced, and whose environmental impacts do not have to be dealt with. Massive reductions in the growth rates, and, where possible, in the absolute use of energy will help us to gain time to better understand and develop response strategies to problems like climate change on the acidification of the environment. In this sense the rational use of energy, including intensified energy efficiency measures is the most environmentally sound energy option with which we should move into the next century. 25 refs., 4 figs

  1. Human Avatars in Playful and Humorous Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; Chung, WJ.; Sungsoo Shin, C.

    2016-01-01

    In future smart environments sensors and actuators know about the environment’s inhabitants and visitors. This knowledge allows them to predict and suggest activities and behavior and even to take care that certain activities and behavior are enforced on inhabitants and visitors. For example, in a

  2. Energy and environment: the risks and the challenges of a predicted crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, B.

    2007-01-01

    The human development is closely correlated to the energies use. And the energy consumption is correlated to the environmental pollution. This book allows to understand the nature of the difficulties and their importance, and to identify actions to fight against the crisis. Bringing many data, it provides information on the different energies sources, the primary, final and use energy, the reserves, the potential of the renewable energies, the risks for the health and the environment, the constraints and the 21 century perspectives. (A.L.B.)

  3. Essays in energy, environment and technological change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yichen Christy

    This dissertation studies technological change in the context of energy and environmental economics. Technology plays a key role in reducing greenhouse gas emissions from the transportation sector. Chapter 1 estimates a structural model of the car industry that allows for endogenous product characteristics to investigate how gasoline taxes, R&D subsidies and competition affect fuel efficiency and vehicle prices in the medium-run, both through car-makers' decisions to adopt technologies and through their investments in knowledge capital. I use technology adoption and automotive patents data for 1986-2006 to estimate this model. I show that 92% of fuel efficiency improvements between 1986 and 2006 were driven by technology adoption, while the role of knowledge capital is largely to reduce the marginal production costs of fuel-efficient cars. A counterfactual predicts that an additional 1/gallon gasoline tax in 2006 would have increased the technology adoption rate, and raised average fuel efficiency by 0.47 miles/gallon, twice the annual fuel efficiency improvement in 2003-2006. An R&D subsidy that would reduce the marginal cost of knowledge capital by 25% in 2006 would have raised investment in knowledge capital. This subsidy would have raised fuel efficiency only by 0.06 miles/gallon in 2006, but would have increased variable profits by 2.3 billion over all firms that year. Passenger vehicle fuel economy standards in the United States will require substantial improvements in new vehicle fuel economy over the next decade. Economic theory suggests that vehicle manufacturers adopt greater fuel-saving technologies for vehicles with larger market size. Chapter 2 documents a strong connection between market size, measured by sales, and technology adoption. Using variation consumer demographics and purchasing pattern to account for the endogeneity of market size, we find that a 10 percent increase in market size raises vehicle fuel efficiency by 0.3 percent, as compared

  4. ENERGY EFFICIENT BUILDINGS PROGRAM. CHAPTER FROM THE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT DIVISION ANNUAL REPORT 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Authors, Various

    1979-12-01

    The research reported in this volume was undertaken during FY 1979 within the Energy & Environment Division of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. This volume will comprise a section of the Energy & Environment Division 1979 Annual Report, to be published in the summer of 1980. Work reported relate to: thermal performance of building envelopes; building ventilation and indoor air quality; a computer program for predicting energy use in buildings; study focused specifically on inherently energy intensive hospital buildings; energy efficient windows and lighting; potential for energy conservation and savings in the buildings sector; and evaluation of energy performance standards for residential buildings.

  5. Industrial energy efficiency: Achieving success in a difficult environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castellow, Carl

    2010-09-15

    Energy use and the resulting environmental impacts are major points of concern for the world in the 21st century. Opinions that define the challenges of sustainable energy options are as diverse as the proposed solutions. The industrial sector is a key area both from the standpoint of the amount of energy consumed and the magnitude of the energy options that exist there. However, history has shown that success in the industrial energy sector requires careful planning and consideration of the unique challenges of the manufacturing environment.

  6. Wind energy technology: an option for a renewable clean environment energy. Low impact renewable energy: options for a clean environment and healthy Canadian economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmon, J.

    1999-01-01

    As Canada debates ways to address climate change, the country's low-impact renewable energy industries want to ensure that Canadians are provided with all of the options available to them. Accordingly, they have come together to create Options for a Clean Environment and Healthy Canadian Economy. Recognizing there is no 'silver bullet' solution to climate change, this document identifies an important suite of measures that, along with others, will allow Canada to achieve its long-term economic and environmental goals. The measures described in this document represent an investment in Canada's future. If implemented, they will reduce annual greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by more than 12 million tonnes (Mt) by the year 2010 (roughly 8% of Canada's reduction target), create thousands of new jobs, and reduce health-care costs by millions of dollars each year. The most significant dividends from these measures, however, will occur after 2010 as a result of having set in motion fundamental changes in the attitudes of Canadians and the nature of the Canadian energy market. By 2020, the spin-off actions prompted by these measures will likely have resulted in GHG reductions twice as great as those achieved in 2010. This document highlights the opportunities associated specifically with Canada's low-impact renewable energy resources. These are non-fossil-fuel resources that are replenished through the earth's natural cycles and have a minimal impact on the environment and human health. They include wind, solar, earth energy, run-of-river hydro and sustainable biomass fuels. These resources can replace fossil fuels in a variety of areas, including electricity and space and water heating. Fuel cells, although not a renewable resource in themselves, are a promising technology that in combination with renewables have the potential to deliver versatile low-impact electricity. The document also identifies opportunities associated with the increased use of passive renewable energy

  7. Human error mechanisms in complex work environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, J.

    1988-01-01

    Human error taxonomies have been developed from analysis of industrial incident reports as well as from psychological experiments. In this paper the results of the two approaches are reviewed and compared. It is found, in both cases, that a fairly small number of basic psychological mechanisms will account for most of the action errors observed. In addition, error mechanisms appear to be intimately related to the development of high skill and know-how in a complex work context. This relationship between errors and human adaptation is discussed in detail for individuals and organisations. The implications for system safety and briefly mentioned, together with the implications for system design. (author)

  8. Human error mechanisms in complex work environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, Jens; Danmarks Tekniske Hoejskole, Copenhagen)

    1988-01-01

    Human error taxonomies have been developed from analysis of industrial incident reports as well as from psychological experiments. In this paper the results of the two approaches are reviewed and compared. It is found, in both cases, that a fairly small number of basic psychological mechanisms will account for most of the action errors observed. In addition, error mechanisms appear to be intimately related to the development of high skill and know-how in a complex work context. This relationship between errors and human adaptation is discussed in detail for individuals and organisations. The implications for system safety are briefly mentioned, together with the implications for system design. (author)

  9. Human Sound Externalization in Reverberant Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Catic, Jasmina

    In everyday environments, listeners perceive sound sources as externalized. In listening conditions where the spatial cues that are relevant for externalization are not represented correctly, such as when listening through headphones or hearing aids, a degraded perception of externalization may...... occur. In this thesis, the spatial cues that arise from a combined effect of filtering due to the head, torso, and pinna and the acoustic environment were analysed and the impact of such cues for the perception of externalization in different frequency regions was investigated. Distant sound sources...... were simulated via headphones using individualized binaural room impulse responses (BRIRs). An investigation of the influence of spectral content of a sound source on externalization showed that effective externalization cues are present across the entire frequency range. The fluctuation of interaural...

  10. Human Error Mechanisms in Complex Work Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens

    1988-01-01

    will account for most of the action errors observed. In addition, error mechanisms appear to be intimately related to the development of high skill and know-how in a complex work context. This relationship between errors and human adaptation is discussed in detail for individuals and organisations...

  11. An environment for high energy physics code development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wisinski, D.E.

    1987-01-01

    As the size and complexity of high energy experiments increase there will be a greater need for better software tools and new programming environments. If these are not commercially available, then we must build them ourselves. This paper describes a prototype programming environment featuring a new type of file system, a ''smart'' editor, and integrated file management tools. This environment was constructed under the IBM VM/SP operating system. It uses the system interpreter, the system editor and the NOMAD2 relational database management system to create a software ''shell'' for the programmer. Some extensions to this environment are explored. (orig.)

  12. Energy and environment: a primer for scientists and engineers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorndike, E.H.

    1976-01-01

    The book is written for practicing scientists and engineers and for students to introduce them to the field of energy and the environment; it is concerned with energy and how it affects the Earth's environment and how it affects man. Natural processes (weather and climate and biological systems) and man-made energy processes (such as the generation and distribution of electricity) are discussed. Chapter titles following an introductory chapter are Global Energy Flows; Biological Energy and Ecosystems; Sources of Energy; The Technology of Energy Use; Energy-Related Environmental Problems with five parts (General Considerations, Thermal Pollution, Radioactivity, Air Pollution, and Other Energy-Related Environmental Problems); Energy Use--History and Projections; Energy Conservation and Growth Reduction; and Conclusions and Biased Opinions. Questions are posed at the end of each chapter. Appendixes are entitled: A Short Course in Thermodynamics; A Short Course in Nuclear Physics; Electromagnetic Radiation; Title I of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969; Units, Conversion Factors, Physical Constants, and Useful Numerical Data; and Answers to Selected Problems. (MCW)

  13. A Review of Solar Energy and the Built Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raha Sulaiman

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Solar Energy has been acknowledged as a free and infinite source of energy. In Built Environment (BE, solar energy has been used since pre-historic time. Many improvements and technologies .have been developed with respect to their potential. As solar supplies free energy, the issues with regard to their development in the BE will be examined. The solar energy is used in building either in Passive Solar Design (PSD or Active Solar Design (ASD. Rapid development in BE has caused global warming effect where the heating and cooling of the building contribute to half the total energy consumption of the nation and the construction industry leading to CO2 emission level at 300 million tonnes. It is found that solar energy produces different energy performances which result from different building technique that affected the environment in various ways. Whether or not the energy performances depend on the materials used, the equipment installed in the building or the energy sources supplied to the building , the improvement and development of solar energy still continues and grows.

  14. P-marking of indoor environment and energy use - Considerations prior to certification of energy use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahlstroem, Aasa

    2008-02-15

    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden's P-marking quality assurance scheme for buildings, products, services etc., now includes P-marking of the indoor environment and energy use performance of buildings. The rules for the system, which cover new buildings, renovation and existing buildings, are set out in SP's Certification Rules no. SPCR 114E, specifying requirements in respect of both energy use and indoor environment management. Over the last ten years, SP has carried out considerable work in the field of the indoor environment, resulting in the development of a quality assurance system concentrating on achieving a high-quality indoor environment. This quality assurance system has been successfully applied to schools, offices and dwellings. However, the performance of a building is determined not only by a good indoor environment, but also by low impact on the external environment as a result of energy use in the building. In some cases, concentrating on either good indoor environment or energy efficiency may result in an adverse effect on the other aspect, and so the quality assurance system for indoor environments been extended with a section dealing with energy use. This document is a handbook for inspection of documentation concerning quality assurance of energy use (primary energy analysis, determination of energy targets, energy management systems etc.). It can also be helpful for the organisation that is applying for P-marking when drawing up checklists. The document concentrates on requirements for approved certification of energy use in connection with P-marking of indoor environments and energy use in existing buildings: it does not cover requirements for certification of indoor environments. It starts by describing targeting, aims and requirements for P-marking of energy use, followed by presentation of some examples of inspections of collected documentation

  15. Straw and energy crops- analysis of economy, energy and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsby, M.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of the biomass agreement of 14 June 1993 was to increase the use of biomass fuels in the Danish power plants to 1.2 million tons straw and 200 000 wood chips. Contribution from straw combustion should reach 25 PJ in year 2000. However biomass cultivation can endanger the governmental policy of pesticide and nitrogen reduction in agriculture. In the worst harvest years straw quantity can be reduced to 70 % of the normal level, while in good years there would occur a 3-4 fold excess of straw. Supply depends in a decisive degree on the offered price as the indirect cost can vary much (wet straw, delayed sawing, lost fertilizer value etc.). Potential for energy crops can be based on ca 300 000 ha present fallow agricultural areas. Cost is higher than that for straw, the most probable plants are elephant grass, willow, rape, sugar beets, winter cereals. Cost is lower for perennial plants, but at least 10-12 years are necessary for such crops to become profitable. Generally the biofuel crops are more expensive than crops for immediate combustion. Expenses for energy crops will decrease with time per ton dry matter, but ground rent for soils previously fallow has to be taken into account. A reduced nitrogen fertilization will reduce the economic profits quite essentially due to smaller harvests. Pesticide consumption will not have to grow as straw and elephant grass do not require any larger quantities (unless very large areas of one crop are cultivated).(EG) 92 refs

  16. Long term energy system analysis of Japan based on 'options for energy and environment' by the energy and environmental council

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagiwara, Naoto; Kurosawa, Atsushi

    2013-01-01

    Implications to Japanese energy system are discussed especially in terms of primary energy supply and power generation portfolio, using sensitivity analysis results by an optimization type energy model based on TIMES modeling framework. We updated energy service demand, efficiency in energy conversion and consumption, and power generation costs based on the recent energy policy document called 'Options for Energy and Environment'. The time horizon of the model is 2050. The sensitivity analysis results are presented for 'Three scenarios for 2030' including nuclear phase out scenarios with/without CO 2 emission constraint. The results are compared with 'Options for Energy and Environment'. (author)

  17. Interdisciplinarity at the Human-Environment Interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kjeld; Arler, Finn

    2010-01-01

    Current environmental problems increasingly call for research - as well as education - which crosses the traditional divides between well-established scientific disciplines and between natural science, technical sciences, social sciences and the humanities. This paper addresses the issue of what...... and methodological nature. Particular attention is paid to differences between disciplines in the way they 'explain' and 'interpret' phenomena and regularities, and in 'world-views', pre-analytic assumptions and in time scales....

  18. Sustainable development of energy, water and environment systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duić, Neven; Guzović, Zvonimir; Kafarov, Vyatcheslav; Klemeš, Jiří Jaromír; Mathiessen, Brian vad; Yan, Jinyue

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► This special issue of contributions presented at the 6th SDEWES Conference. ► Buildings are becoming energy neutral. ► Process integration enables significant improvements of energy efficiency. ► The electrification of transport and measures to increase its efficiency are needed. ► Renewable energy is becoming more viable while being complicated to integrate. -- Abstract: The 6th Dubrovnik Conference on Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems (SDEWES Conference), attended by 418 scientists from 55 countries representing six continents. It was held in 2011 and dedicated to the improvement and dissemination of knowledge on methods, policies and technologies for increasing the sustainability of development, taking into account its economic, environmental and social pillars, as well as methods for assessing and measuring sustainability of development, regarding energy, transport, water and environment systems and their many combinations.

  19. Energy and environment: Vital challenges of our society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, B.

    1978-01-01

    Attempt of report on the present situation of coping with an imminent energy crisis and at the same time saving an environment worth living in with stress being laid on energy policy, economical growth, energy supply and -saving. Without a reasonable extension of the nuclear energy, there won't be sufficient energy basis in the FRG in the future. In the author's opinion, already in the 80ies, economical growth, employment, and living standards will be in danger, to an unjustifiable extent. An evalution of questionnaires on environmental problems shows, among other things, that increasingly more inhabitants of the FRG are ready to make sacrifices for measures of environment protection (in May 77 : 73%). (GL) [de

  20. Expressive Communication and Human Development in the New Broadband Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, John

    2004-01-01

    An understanding of the structure and functions of expressive communication in face-to-face communication and audiovisual media can inform the development of new educational services for human development across cultures in the emerging broadband environment.

  1. Sampling Based Trajectory Planning for Robots in Dynamic Human Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenstrup, Mikael

    2010-01-01

    Open-ended human environments, such as pedestrian streets, hospital corridors, train stations etc., are places where robots start to emerge. Hence, being able to plan safe and natural trajectories in these dynamic environments is an important skill for future generations of robots. In this work...... the problem is formulated as planning a minimal cost trajectory through a potential field, defined from the perceived position and motion of persons in the environment. A modified Rapidlyexploring Random Tree (RRT) algorithm is proposed as a solution to the planning problem. The algorithm implements a new...... for the uncertainty in the dynamic environment. The planning algorithm is demonstrated in a simulated pedestrian street environment....

  2. Thermal indoor environment and energy consumption in a plus-energy house: cooling season measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazanci, Ongun Berk; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2015-01-01

    indoor environment. For the energy consumption of the HVAC system, air-to-brine heat pump, mixing station and controller of the radiant floor, and the air handling unit were considered. The measurements were analyzed based on the achieved indoor environment category (according to EN 15251...... the floor cooling system) and increasing the ventilation rate provided a better thermal indoor environment but with increased energy consumption. The thermal indoor environment and energy performance of the house can be improved with decreased glazing area, increased thermal mass, installation of solar...

  3. Role of nuclear produced hydrogen for global environment and energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashimo, M.; Kurosawa, A.; Ikeda, K.

    2004-01-01

    Sustainability on economical growth, energy supply and environment are major issues for the 21. century. Within this context, one of the promising concepts is the possibility of nuclear-produced hydrogen. In this study, the effect of nuclear-produced hydrogen on the environment is discussed, based on the output of the computer code 'Grape', which simulates the effects of the energy, environment and economy in 21. century. Five cases are assumed in this study. The first case is 'Business as usual by Internal Combustion Engine (ICE)', the second 'CO 2 limited to 550 ppm by ICE', the third 'CO 2 limited to 550 ppm by Hybrid Car', the fourth 'CO 2 limited to 550 ppm by Fuel Cell Vehicle (FCV) with Hydrogen produced by conventional Steam Methane Reforming (SMR)' and the fifth 'CO 2 limited to 550 ppm by FCV with Nuclear Produced-Hydrogen'. The energy used for transportation is at present about 25% of the total energy consumption in the world and is expected to be the same in the future, if there is no improvement of energy efficiency for transportation. On this point, the hybrid car shows the much better efficiency, about 2 times better than traditional internal combustion engines. Fuel Cell powered Vehicles are expected to be a key to resolving the combined issue of the environment and energy in this century. The nuclear-produced hydrogen is a better solution than conventional hydrogen production method using steam methane reforming. (author)

  4. Modelling human behaviours and reactions under dangerous environment

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, J; Wright, D K; Qin, S F; Zhao, Y

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the framework of a real-time simulation system to model human behavior and reactions in dangerous environments. The system utilizes the latest 3D computer animation techniques, combined with artificial intelligence, robotics and psychology, to model human behavior, reactions and decision making under expected/unexpected dangers in real-time in virtual environments. The development of the system includes: classification on the conscious/subconscious behaviors and reactions...

  5. DISTRIBUTED SYSTEM FOR HUMAN MACHINE INTERACTION IN VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Obed Chan-Canche

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The communication networks built by multiple devices and sensors are becoming more frequent. These device networks allow human-machine interaction development which aims to improve the human performance generating an adaptive environment in response to the information provided by it. The problem of this work is the quick integration of a device network that allows the development of a flexible immersive environment for different uses.

  6. Proceedings of the international conference on environment and energy: souvenir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The theme of the conference has great relevance to address various emerging Environmental and Energy issues under growing economies of developing countries like India. Energy consumption and environmental protection go hand-in-hand, and pollution problems posed by the use of fossil fuels are major concern throughout world. Global consensus has now emerged on the need for implementation of radical technological and structural changes on both the generation and energy usage sectors in-order to protect the environment even as we maintain economic growth where renewable and clean energy technologies are expected to play vital role. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  7. Energy, economy, and environment analysis and optimization on manufacturing plant energy supply system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Lujia; Mears, Laine; Beaufort, Cleveland; Schulte, Joerg

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Single objective and multicriteria optimization approaches are proposed. • Objectives of energy, economy, and environment are proved conflicting. • 3-input-5-output energy supply system of an automotive plant is studied. - Abstract: Increasing attention has recently been drawn to energy consumption in manufacturing plants. Facing the challenges from reducing emissions coupled with rising raw material prices and energy costs, manufacturers are trying to balance the energy usage strategy among the total energy consumption, economy, and environment, which can be self-conflicting at times. In this paper, energy systems in manufacturing environments are reviewed, and the current status of onsite energy system and renewable energy usage are discussed. Single objective and multicriteria optimization approaches are effectively formulated for making the best use of energy delivered to the production processes. Energy supply operation suggestions based on the optimization results are obtained. Finally, an example from an automotive assembly manufacturer is described to demonstrate the energy usage in the current manufacturing plants and how the optimization approaches can be applied to satisfy the energy management objectives. According to the optimization results, in an energy oriented operation, it takes 35% more in monetary cost; while in an economy oriented operation, it takes 17% more in megawatt hour energy supply and tends to rely more on the inexpensive renewable energy.

  8. Young people and environment, technology, nuclear energy in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernhardt-Crochet, L.

    1995-01-01

    Young people have a particular attitude on the questions about environment and energy, and also about technology. Several inquiries show that young people are more aware of environmental questions than their elders. Their anxiety is bigger against pollution than the average of French people and it seems that they are more attentive to dangers for the planet: it is the sign of a broader opening on the world. Young people are ready to adhere to a group or association for environment and have sympathy for ecologists; they have hostility against nuclear energy. Age and education level have to be specified to complicate the question. This contribution gives some elements about the opinion of young people between 15-25 years old on environment, technology and nuclear energy in France. (N.C.)

  9. Statistics and predictions of population, energy and environment problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobajima, Makoto

    1999-03-01

    In the situation that world's population, especially in developing countries, is rapidly growing, humankind is facing to global problems that they cannot steadily live unless they find individual places to live, obtain foods, and peacefully get energy necessary for living for centuries. For this purpose, humankind has to think what behavior they should take in the finite environment, talk, agree and execute. Though energy has been long respected as a symbol for improving living, demanded and used, they have come to limit the use making the global environment more serious. If there is sufficient energy not loading cost to the environment. If nuclear energy regarded as such one sustain the resource for long and has market competitiveness. What situation of realization of compensating new energy is now in the case the use of nuclear energy is restricted by the society fearing radioactivity. If there are promising ones for the future. One concerning with the study of energy cannot go without knowing these. The statistical materials compiled here are thought to be useful for that purpose, and are collected mainly from ones viewing future prediction based on past practices. Studies on the prediction is so important to have future measures that these data bases are expected to be improved for better accuracy. (author)

  10. Assessment of the Human Environment 2012; Balans van de Leefomgeving 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dassen, T.; Van Veen, M. (eds.)

    2012-09-15

    The Assessment of the Human Environment evaluates the extent to which policy objectives, as set by the Dutch Cabinet, are being met in the fields that concern the human environment (the environment, nature and space). The human environment is determined by local surroundings and accessibility of the workplace, as well as by more abstract or globally felt factors, such as climate change and the use of natural resources, such as land, water and fertilisers for food production. Although these factors together form the physical human environment, they do not add up to a single quality standard for the human environment. The issues that provide the concept of the human environment with concrete, relevant meaning are all separate, such as the quality of the local surroundings or global climate change. These findings present the most prominent developments in relation to the status of the various factors that determine the quality of the human environment, and compare these with government objectives for the policy areas. In areas where objectives are unlikely to be achieved, suggestions for policy improvements have been provided. Developments around all environmental, nature and spatial objectives can be found in the digital assessment - the website that accompanies this Assessment of the Human Assessment of the Human Environment 2012 (www.pbl.nl/balans2012; in Dutch) [Dutch] Deze Balans is een ex-durante evaluatie van het nationale beleid voor milieu, natuur, water en ruimte. In de Balans evalueert het PBL tweejaarlijks de effecten van het huidige vastgestelde en voorgenomen beleid. Dit keer inclusief de afspraken in het Lenteakkoord voor zover die voldoende concreet zijn uitgewerkt. De evaluatie is geordend rond zes thema's of maatschappelijke handelingssystemen waarin overheden, maatschappelijke partijen en burgers bij het nastreven van hun diverse doelen, van elkaar afhankelijk zijn: energie, voedsel, landelijk gebied, water, bereikbaarheid en het stedelijk

  11. Assessment of the Human Environment 2012; Balans van de Leefomgeving 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dassen, T.; Van Veen, M. [eds.

    2012-09-15

    The Assessment of the Human Environment evaluates the extent to which policy objectives, as set by the Dutch Cabinet, are being met in the fields that concern the human environment (the environment, nature and space). The human environment is determined by local surroundings and accessibility of the workplace, as well as by more abstract or globally felt factors, such as climate change and the use of natural resources, such as land, water and fertilisers for food production. Although these factors together form the physical human environment, they do not add up to a single quality standard for the human environment. The issues that provide the concept of the human environment with concrete, relevant meaning are all separate, such as the quality of the local surroundings or global climate change. These findings present the most prominent developments in relation to the status of the various factors that determine the quality of the human environment, and compare these with government objectives for the policy areas. In areas where objectives are unlikely to be achieved, suggestions for policy improvements have been provided. Developments around all environmental, nature and spatial objectives can be found in the digital assessment - the website that accompanies this Assessment of the Human Assessment of the Human Environment 2012 (www.pbl.nl/balans2012; in Dutch) [Dutch] Deze Balans is een ex-durante evaluatie van het nationale beleid voor milieu, natuur, water en ruimte. In de Balans evalueert het PBL tweejaarlijks de effecten van het huidige vastgestelde en voorgenomen beleid. Dit keer inclusief de afspraken in het Lenteakkoord voor zover die voldoende concreet zijn uitgewerkt. De evaluatie is geordend rond zes thema's of maatschappelijke handelingssystemen waarin overheden, maatschappelijke partijen en burgers bij het nastreven van hun diverse doelen, van elkaar afhankelijk zijn: energie, voedsel, landelijk gebied, water, bereikbaarheid en het stedelijk gebied

  12. Transfer of radionuclides from the environment to human milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eaman, M.

    1986-06-01

    The author reviews literature from an on-line bibliographic search and describes what is known about radionuclide and elemental transfer from the environment to human milk. Included in the review are factors affecting elemental transfer, element concentrations observed in human milk, as well as sampling and analytical methods used. Recommendations are given for the development of a field survey. 59 refs

  13. Review: The impact of changing human environment and climate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The impact of human-induced climate change through industrialization with the consequent depletion of the ozone layer of the environment is now observed to compromise the sustainability of human development as it threatens the ecological support system on which life depends in addition to encouraging the emergence ...

  14. On the Concept of Fundamental Human Right to Favourable Environment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blahož, Josef

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 150/1, č. 12/3 TLQ (2011), s. 170-180 ISSN 0231-6625 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70680506 Keywords : European Court of Human Right * the human rights idea and the right to environment * constitutional law Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences

  15. Transfer of fallout tritium from environment to human body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hisamatsu, Shun-ichi; Takizawa, Yukio

    1989-01-01

    A large quntity of tritium will be used as a fuel of nuclear fusion in the future. It is, therefore, considered important to elucidate tritium behavior present in the environment and the process of tritium transfer from the environment to the human body. Fallout tritium is an applicable material in searching for the long term behavior of tritium in the environment. This paper focuses on the American, Italian, Japanese literature concerning fallout tritium in food and in the human body. The specific activity ratio of bound to free tritium poses an important problem. The mechanism of biological concentration must await further studies. (N.K.) 63 refs

  16. The urban environment, its hazards and human behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Polič

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The physical environment is only a tool, a medium or a place enabling human interrelations to develop. This is perhaps the most evident in cases of dangers people confront within an environment. Everything from disasters and minor incidents to vandalism and crime is reflected in human behaviour, from satisfying our basic needs all the way to discerning the sense of reality. The article presents an array of reflections from accidents and dangers in an urban environment that can hurt the largest number of people, to less dangerous, but unpleasant acts for an individual.

  17. 10. Symposium energy and environment - responsibility for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The symposium discussed important aspects relating to the subject of energy and environment. The detailed and well-funded lectures and statements were received with great interest by the 120 attendants. The discussion focused on problems of power generation and consumption, increased shares of renewable energy sources, ethical and theological questions. The symposium received funds from Deutsche Bundesstiftung Umwelt and was well accepted by the press [de

  18. Energy, environment and technological innovation: Rome 2nd international congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    From the three volumes containing the proceedings of the October 12-16, 1992 2nd International Congress on Energy, Environment and Technological Innovation held at the University of Rome 'La Sapienza', separate abstracts were prepared for 41 papers. The selection of papers included recent developments and research trends in the following high-tech areas: biomass plantations, wind turbines, photovoltaic power plants, solar architecture, building energy management, global warming, automobile air pollution abatement, district heating with cogeneration, and hydrogen fuels for transportation

  19. Accounting for derivative contracts in an energy environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewthwaite, T.; Majid, H.; Swingler, N.

    1999-01-01

    This chapter reviews the latest developments in the accounting for derivative contracts in the energy environment, covering the US accounting and disclosure requirements and the Statement of Financial Accounting Standards (SFAS) 133 Accounting for Derivative Instruments and Hedging Activities, and the Emerging Issues Task Force Consensus (EITF) 98-10 accounting for energy trading and risk management activities. UK accounting and disclosure requirements and the international point of view are discussed. Three different types of hedges are described

  20. Energy and Environment in the Lake Victoria basin.

    OpenAIRE

    Arungu-Olende, S.

    2006-01-01

    The local and national economies of Lake Victoria basin communities are heavily dependent on energy that fuels agriculture, industry, commerce, transportation and other economic activities; and powers our houses, offices, hospitals and buildings. Energy is therefore key to facilitating the development income generating opportunities, improving living standards, reducing poverty, and ensuring the protection of the environment. The development and use of various forms of renewable and non-renew...

  1. Accounting for derivative contracts in an energy environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewthwaite, T.; Majid, H.; Swingler, N. [Arthur Andersen (United Kingdom)

    1999-07-01

    This chapter reviews the latest developments in the accounting for derivative contracts in the energy environment, covering the US accounting and disclosure requirements and the Statement of Financial Accounting Standards (SFAS) 133 Accounting for Derivative Instruments and Hedging Activities, and the Emerging Issues Task Force Consensus (EITF) 98-10 accounting for energy trading and risk management activities. UK accounting and disclosure requirements and the international point of view are discussed. Three different types of hedges are described.

  2. Energy in the environment and the second law of thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, R. F.

    1972-01-01

    The relationship between the consumption of energy by technological cultures and the second law of thermodynamics is discussed. The analysis is based on a description of the operation of a mechanical device which consumes energy. It is concluded that the flow of energy in manifold spontaneous conditions, which play a vital role in the operation of any technological process, remove most of the energy flow path from the control of the operator. It is stated that the increased efficiency of a process can benefit the environment only as much as this efficiency enables the total energy input to be reduced for a given level of production and increasing efficiency cannot meet the problems of an increased rate of energy utilization.

  3. Human Machine Interfaces for Teleoperators and Virtual Environments Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    In a teleoperator system the human operator senses, moves within, and operates upon a remote or hazardous environment by means of a slave mechanism (a mechanism often referred to as a teleoperator). In a virtual environment system the interactive human machine interface is retained but the slave mechanism and its environment are replaced by a computer simulation. Video is replaced by computer graphics. The auditory and force sensations imparted to the human operator are similarly computer generated. In contrast to a teleoperator system, where the purpose is to extend the operator's sensorimotor system in a manner that facilitates exploration and manipulation of the physical environment, in a virtual environment system, the purpose is to train, inform, alter, or study the human operator to modify the state of the computer and the information environment. A major application in which the human operator is the target is that of flight simulation. Although flight simulators have been around for more than a decade, they had little impact outside aviation presumably because the application was so specialized and so expensive.

  4. Vulnerability assessment of atmospheric environment driven by human impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Shen, Jing; Ding, Feng; Li, Yu; He, Li

    2016-11-15

    Atmospheric environment quality worsening is a substantial threat to public health worldwide, and in many places, air pollution due to the intensification of the human activity is increasing dramatically. However, no studies have been investigated the integration of vulnerability assessment and atmospheric environment driven by human impacts. The objective of this study was to identify and prioritize the undesirable environmental changes as an early warning system for environment managers and decision makers in term of human, atmospheric environment, and social economic elements. We conduct a vulnerability assessment method of atmospheric environment associated with human impact, this method integrates spatial context of Geographic Information System (GIS) tool, multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) method, ordered weighted averaging (OWA) operators under the Exposure-Sensitivity- Adaptive Capacity (ESA) framework. Decision makers can find out relevant vulnerability assessment results with different vulnerable attitudes. In the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region, China, we further applied this developed method and proved it to be reliable and consistent with the China Environmental Status Bulletin. Results indicate that the vulnerability of atmospheric environment in the BTH region is not optimistic, and environment managers should do more about air pollution. Thus, the most appropriate strategic decision and development program of city or state can be picked out assisting by the vulnerable results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Explaining human uniqueness: genome interactions with environment, behaviour and culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varki, Ajit; Geschwind, Daniel H; Eichler, Evan E

    2008-10-01

    What makes us human? Specialists in each discipline respond through the lens of their own expertise. In fact, 'anthropogeny' (explaining the origin of humans) requires a transdisciplinary approach that eschews such barriers. Here we take a genomic and genetic perspective towards molecular variation, explore systems analysis of gene expression and discuss an organ-systems approach. Rejecting any 'genes versus environment' dichotomy, we then consider genome interactions with environment, behaviour and culture, finally speculating that aspects of human uniqueness arose because of a primate evolutionary trend towards increasing and irreversible dependence on learned behaviours and culture - perhaps relaxing allowable thresholds for large-scale genomic diversity.

  6. Enhancing energy security in Malayia: the challenges towards sustainable environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahid, E J M; Peng, L Y; Siang, C Ch

    2013-01-01

    Energy is known as one of the essential ingredients for economic development and security of energy supply is crucial in ensuring continuous economic development of a country. Malaysia's proven domestic oil reserves are estimated to last for another 25 years, while that of gas for another 39 years as of 2011. Despite the depleting indigenous energy resources, the primary energy demand has continued to grow robustly, at an annual rate of 6.3 percent per year from 1990 to 2010, while the primary energy import has grown 7.2% per year and the primary energy export has grown at a slower rate of 1.9% per year. This worrying trend is further compounded by the faster rate of primary oil import averaging 10.5% per year while the primary energy export has shrink at a rate of 1.4% per year. This paper has identified two main concerns namely overdependence on fossil fuel and increasing energy import dependency in creating a precarious position towards energy self-sufficiency. The study will analyse the energy security of the country and explore possible options and challenges in enhancing the energy supply security toward sustainable environment.

  7. Deconditioning and Reconditioning: Humans in Stressful Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, John E. (Editor); Dalton, Bonnie (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Deconditioning is an integrated physiological response of the body to a reduction in metabolic rate; that is, to a reduction in energy use or in exercise level. While it may involve assumption of a horizontal body position, it certainly perturbs bodily homeostasis - at least temporarily. The reduction in physical activity that causes deconditioning is often associated with an increase in the time spent, for whatever reason, in a sitting or horizontal position. As a result, orthostatic factors may also contribute to the deconditioning mechanism. The word decondition may be defined as "1: to cause extinction of (a conditioned response) 2: to cause to lose physical fitness". This definition implies that psychological/emotional factors may accompany physical deconditioning, and it is this interpretation of the word that is used throughout this volume. It is apparent that deconditioning plays a major role in the mechanism of the general adaptive (homeostatic) response that is initiated by exposure to prolonged bed rest (BR). And the total homeostatic response to BR involves more than deconditioning per se. For example, it has been shown that the restoration of plasma volume and maximal work capacity after 4 weeks of BR deconditioning left other bodily functions (submaximal exercise oxygen uptake and cardiac output, leg proprioception and posterior leg muscle thickness and volume, head-up tilt tolerance, and sleep quality) functioning at decreased levels. The precise effect of deconditioning on BR homeostasis is difficult to determine, because the fundamental interactive neuro-endocrine-immune control networks that facilitate conditioning and deconditioning also act to maintain basic wholebody homeostasis. For example, is the mechanism of BR-induced deconditioning independent of the mechanism that provokes concomitant orthostatic intolerance; that is, fainting? Assumption of the recumbent body position for prolonged periods of time, results in a new adaptive

  8. Human Physiology in an Aquatic Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendergast, David R; Moon, Richard E; Krasney, John J; Held, Heather E; Zamparo, Paola

    2015-09-20

    Water covers over 70% of the earth, has varying depths and temperatures and contains much of the earth's resources. Head-out water immersion (HOWI) or submersion at various depths (diving) in water of thermoneutral (TN) temperature elicits profound cardiorespiratory, endocrine, and renal responses. The translocation of blood into the thorax and elevation of plasma volume by autotransfusion of fluid from cells to the vascular compartment lead to increased cardiac stroke volume and output and there is a hyperperfusion of some tissues. Pulmonary artery and capillary hydrostatic pressures increase causing a decline in vital capacity with the potential for pulmonary edema. Atrial stretch and increased arterial pressure cause reflex autonomic responses which result in endocrine changes that return plasma volume and arterial pressure to preimmersion levels. Plasma volume is regulated via a reflex diuresis and natriuresis. Hydrostatic pressure also leads to elastic loading of the chest, increasing work of breathing, energy cost, and thus blood flow to respiratory muscles. Decreases in water temperature in HOWI do not affect the cardiac output compared to TN; however, they influence heart rate and the distribution of muscle and fat blood flow. The reduced muscle blood flow results in a reduced maximal oxygen consumption. The properties of water determine the mechanical load and the physiological responses during exercise in water (e.g. swimming and water based activities). Increased hydrostatic pressure caused by submersion does not affect stroke volume; however, progressive bradycardia decreases cardiac output. During submersion, compressed gas must be breathed which introduces the potential for oxygen toxicity, narcosis due to nitrogen, and tissue and vascular gas bubbles during decompression and after may cause pain in joints and the nervous system. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  9. HUMAN EXPOSURE TO THE ARTIFICIAL RADIONUCLIDES IN ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Vukanac

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Artificial radionuclides are product of different human activities and their presence in the environment is negative side effect of civilization progress. They have been spread in the environment by events such as nuclear weapon tests, nuclear accidents and by deliberate and negligent discharge of radioactive waste from nuclear and other installation. Once released in to the nature, the artificial radionuclides start to circle in the same manner as naturally occurring ones, and finally they fall out from air and water onto the ground and build into the foodstuff and drinking water resulting in radiation doses to human beings. The short overview of presence of artificial radioactivity in human environment and its impact on human life is presented in this paper.

  10. HUMAN EXPOSURE TO THE ARTIFICIAL RADIONUCLIDES IN ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Vukanac

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Artificial radionuclides are product of different human activities and their presence in the environment is negative side effect of civilization progress. They have been spread in the environment by events such as nuclear weapon tests, nuclear accidents and by deliberate and negligent discharge of radioactive waste from nuclear and other installation. Once released in to the nature, the artificial radionuclides start to circle in the same manner as naturally occurring ones, and finally they fall out from air and water onto the ground and build into the foodstuff and drinking water resulting in radiation doses to human beings. The short overview of presence of artificial radioactivity in human environment and its impact on human life is presented in this paper

  11. Energy and environment: for harmonization of 3E's. Energy, environment and economies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujime, Kazuya

    1996-01-01

    When the future society of Asian countries is considered, three points of view have to be taken into account. As to energy security, the rate of oil self-supply in this region, which is 45% now, is expected to decrease, and oil import will be required. As to environmental protection, the increase of energy consumption results in the increase of pollutant emission which causes acid rain, global warming and so on. Economic development involves the expansion of energy consumption, the lowering of energy supply stability, and the increase of harmful gas emission. It partly depends on policy administration whether the three Es described above can be brought into well balanced harmony. In Asia, it is essential to transfer technologies from industrialized nations to developing countries. The problems of sulfur oxides and carbon dioxide are discussed. The harmonization of the three Es should be carried out at the regional level of whole Asia through international cooperation. The dependence on coal in total energy demand is as high as 60% in East Asia. Long term energy supply/demand outlooks for East Asian countries and the positioning of coal, and coal-related environmental measures are reported. (K.I.)

  12. Sustainable development of energy, water and environment systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duić, Neven; Guzović, Zvonimir; Kafarov, Vyatcheslav

    2013-01-01

    The 6th Dubrovnik Conference on Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems (SDEWES Conference), attended by 418 scientists from 55 countries representing six continents. It was held in 2011 and dedicated to the improvement and dissemination of knowledge on methods, policies...

  13. Simulation of indoor environment in low energy housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vagiannis, Georgios; Knudsen, Henrik N.; Toftum, Jørn

    2012-01-01

    was selected and sensitivity analyses were conducted for the importance of occupancy, ventilation, window opening, and heat recovery efficiency. In particular occupancy and venting played significant roles for the indoor environment and energy consumption. It was also shown that with passive measures, but also...

  14. Taxing energy to improve the environment : Efficiency and distributional effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijdra, BJ; van der Horst, A

    We study the effects of environmental tax policy in a dynamic overlapping generations model of a small open economy with environmental quality incorporated as a durable consumption good. Raising the energy tax may yield an efficiency gain if agents care enough about the environment. The benefits are

  15. Environment. 1990-2001. International Atomic Energy Agency publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-05-01

    This catalog lists all sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with the Environment, and issued during the period 1 January 1990 - 30 April 2001. Most publications are issued in English, though some are also available in other languages. These are noted in the catalogue

  16. Neutron activation analysis applied to energy and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, W.S.

    1975-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis was applied to a number of problems concerned with energy production and the environment. Burning of fossil fuel, the search for new sources of uranium, possible presence of toxic elements in food and water, and the relationship of trace elements to cardiovascular disease are some of the problems in which neutron activation was used. (auth)

  17. A survey on human behavior towards energy efficiency for office worker in malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, N. H.; Husain, M. N.; Abd Aziz, M. Z. A.; Othman, M. A.; Malek, F.

    2014-04-01

    Green environment has become an important topic around the world. This campaign can be realized if everybody understands and shares similar objectives on managing energy in an efficient way. This paper will present and analyse the survey on energy usage by office workers in Malaysia. The survey will focus on the workers in government sector. In social science surveys, it is important to support the tested data for a project. For issues related to human behaviour we must compare with real situations to verify the tested data and the results in energy monitoring system. The energy monitoring system will improve energy usage efficiency for the basic human activities in different situations and environments.

  18. Investigation of building energy autonomy in the sahelian environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulibaly, O; Koulidiati, J; Ouedraogo, A; Kuznik, F; Baillis, D

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the energy generation of a set of photovoltaic panels is compared with the energy load of a building in order to analyse its autonomy in the sahelian environment when taking into account, the orientation, the insulation and the energy transfer optimisation of its windows. The Type 56 TRNSYS multizone building model is utilized for the energy load simulation and the Type 94 model of the same code enables the coupling of photovoltaic (PV) panels with the building. Without insulation, the PV energy generation represents 73.52 and 111.79% of the building electric energy load, respectively for poly-crystalline and mono-crystalline panels. For the same PV characteristics and when we insulate the roof and the floor, the energy generation increases to represent successively 121.09 and 184.13%. In the meantime, for building without insulation and with insulate the roof, the floor and 2 cm insulated walls, the energy consumption ratios decrease respectively from 201.13 to 105.20 kWh/m 2 /year. The investigations finally show that it is even possible to generate excess energy (positive energy building) and reduce the number and incident surface area of the PV panels if we conjugate the previous model with building passive architectural design mode (orientation, solar protection ...).

  19. The Representation of Human-Environment Interactions in Land Change Research and Modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verburg, P.H.; Manfredo, M.J.; Vaske, J.J.; Rechkemmer, A.; Duke, E.A.

    2014-01-01

    Land change is the result of multiple human-environment interactions operating across different scales. Land change research needs to account for processes ranging from global trade of food and energy to the local management of land resources at farm and landscape level. Land change has a pronounced

  20. Ecological determinants of health: food and environment on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Alice M L

    2017-04-01

    Human health and diseases are determined by many complex factors. Health threats from the human-animal-ecosystems interface (HAEI) and zoonotic diseases (zoonoses) impose an increasing risk continuously to public health, from those emerging pathogens transmitted through contact with animals, food, water and contaminated environments. Immense challenges forced on the ecological perspectives on food and the eco-environments, including aquaculture, agriculture and the entire food systems. Impacts of food and eco-environments on human health will be examined amongst the importance of human interventions for intended purposes in lowering the adverse effects on the biodiversity. The complexity of relevant conditions defined as factors contributing to the ecological determinants of health will be illuminated from different perspectives based on concepts, citations, examples and models, in conjunction with harmful consequential effects of human-induced disturbances to our environments and food systems, together with the burdens from ecosystem disruption, environmental hazards and loss of ecosystem functions. The eco-health literacy should be further promoting under the "One Health" vision, with "One World" concept under Ecological Public Health Model for sustaining our environments and the planet earth for all beings, which is coincidentally echoing Confucian's theory for the environmental ethics of ecological harmony.

  1. Communication as a management task: Energy and environment. Lectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung. H.

    1993-01-01

    The energy utilities are working in an area of the community confronted by critical questions. The motto fo the 2nd IZE Communications Day proceedings was: 'Energy and the Environment - Public relations in the area of tension between Ecology and Economy'. It was a meeting of domestic and international business directors, politicians, public-relations specialists and journalists. The main concern of the lectures, discussions, workshops and conversation topics was how communication with the medium could be improved, thus enhancing their image in the press, on the radio and television. Top editors from the leading newspapers have strated and discussed their policy. A workshop case-study showed how readily the credibility and acceptance of the energy and environment sector could be improved through longterm, honest, dialogue-oriented and professional public relations work. (orig./UA) [de

  2. Human and positive aspects of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salem, W.M.M.

    2014-01-01

    With the beginning of the exploitation of nuclear energy by over fifty years experience, a new kind of human disasters which were not known by all world languages were included as new terms not audible before such as radiation protection and risk issues. This was given the attention of people at all levels in view of nuclear terror by bombing the first nuclear bomb on Hiroshima-Japan on 6 August 1945 and the second nuclear bomb on Nagasaki on 9 August 1945. At the end of World War II scientists and officials realized the political and military risks of nuclear energy and its destructive side with benefits and positive repercussions. Atomic energy is produced from great power that God placed in the nucleus of the atom, where nuclear energy is liberated when a change in the structure of the atom and its formations happens or so-called nuclear reaction. (author)

  3. Solar energy: an environment friendly reliable and sustainable source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddique, M.A.; Akhtar, W.

    2011-01-01

    The rapid enhancement in consumption of fossil fuels in order to meet the day-to day increasing energy requirements has blown a danger sign for all nations. Global warming effect has compelled researchers to discover other techniques of energy generation instead of traditional ways in order to reduce adverse effects on global terrain. Renewable energy resources have got attention of global entrepreneurs due to their long lasting availability and environment friendliness. Solar technology is finding increased application in both domestic and military application. This paper discusses the ideas behind the art of design of solar cells and their historical developments. It also covers the kind of techniques/ methodologies used for solar energy conversion into electrical energy with comparison between different renewable technologies and solar technology. This paper gives the brief review of world energy resources and their consumption v/s Solar energy production percentage. Researchers in the field of energy generation have impressed by the Prodigious results of Renewable Energies. Today's most of the high ranked international universities of developed countries in collaboration with government/ industries have been carrying on advance researches in the field of renewable technologies. (author)

  4. Development, energy, environment: changing the paradigm; Developpement, Energie, Environnement: changer de paradigme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    A first set of contributions comments the various risks and challenges which are to be faced in terms of energy, climate and environment: the deadlock of present 'laisser-faire' policies, recent findings in climate science in 2005, oil as the reason of a possible economic crisis in developing countries, recent evolution of energy systems. The next set of contributions discusses the possible solutions and their limits: CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration in coal plants, nuclear renaissance, renewable energies, hydro-electricity, CO{sub 2} capture by biomass, energy sobriety, urban morphology and transports in emerging cities, integration of service demand with energy supply, energy decentralized production

  5. Evaluation of the Humanity Research Paradigms based on Analysis of HumanEnvironment Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Sameh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available As claimed by many behavioral scientists, designing should be based on the knowledge of interaction between human and environment. Environmental quality is also created in the context in which humans interact with their environment. To achieve such quality, designers should develop appropriate models for explaining this relationship, and this requires an understanding of human nature and the environment. Criticisms on the Modern Movement have shown that architects have often used incomplete and simplistic models in this regard, while most of design ideas are based on the definitions of human and environment and the interaction between them. However, the most important question that is raised is that how understanding of human nature and the environment and their interaction, which depends on foundations of different views, can affect the pursuit of quality in designing? Therefore, the present paper, in addition to introduction and comparison of common paradigms in humanities as the and methodological foundation of human sciences, aims to deal with the relationship of human and the environment from the perspective of objectivist, relativist, and critical paradigms in order to identify the characteristics and differences in their views on the analysis of the quality of this interaction. This is the most important step that paves the way for understanding the qualitative foundations of the environment and human life quality and also the quality of interaction between them.

  6. Human walking in virtual environments perception, technology, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Visell, Yon; Campos, Jennifer; Lécuyer, Anatole

    2013-01-01

    This book presents a survey of past and recent developments on human walking in virtual environments with an emphasis on human self-motion perception, the multisensory nature of experiences of walking, conceptual design approaches, current technologies, and applications. The use of virtual reality and movement simulation systems is becoming increasingly popular and more accessible to a wide variety of research fields and applications. While, in the past, simulation technologies have focused on developing realistic, interactive visual environments, it is becoming increasingly obvious that our everyday interactions are highly multisensory. Therefore, investigators are beginning to understand the critical importance of developing and validating locomotor interfaces that can allow for realistic, natural behaviours. The book aims to present an overview of what is currently understood about human perception and performance when moving in virtual environments and to situate it relative to the broader scientific and ...

  7. Knowledge environments representing molecular entities for the virtual physiological human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann-Apitius, Martin; Fluck, Juliane; Furlong, Laura; Fornes, Oriol; Kolárik, Corinna; Hanser, Susanne; Boeker, Martin; Schulz, Stefan; Sanz, Ferran; Klinger, Roman; Mevissen, Theo; Gattermayer, Tobias; Oliva, Baldo; Friedrich, Christoph M

    2008-09-13

    In essence, the virtual physiological human (VPH) is a multiscale representation of human physiology spanning from the molecular level via cellular processes and multicellular organization of tissues to complex organ function. The different scales of the VPH deal with different entities, relationships and processes, and in consequence the models used to describe and simulate biological functions vary significantly. Here, we describe methods and strategies to generate knowledge environments representing molecular entities that can be used for modelling the molecular scale of the VPH. Our strategy to generate knowledge environments representing molecular entities is based on the combination of information extraction from scientific text and the integration of information from biomolecular databases. We introduce @neuLink, a first prototype of an automatically generated, disease-specific knowledge environment combining biomolecular, chemical, genetic and medical information. Finally, we provide a perspective for the future implementation and use of knowledge environments representing molecular entities for the VPH.

  8. Human Machine Interfaces for Teleoperators and Virtual Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durlach, Nathaniel I. (Compiler); Sheridan, Thomas B. (Compiler); Ellis, Stephen R. (Compiler)

    1991-01-01

    In Mar. 1990, a meeting organized around the general theme of teleoperation research into virtual environment display technology was conducted. This is a collection of conference-related fragments that will give a glimpse of the potential of the following fields and how they interplay: sensorimotor performance; human-machine interfaces; teleoperation; virtual environments; performance measurement and evaluation methods; and design principles and predictive models.

  9. Bridging the gap between energy and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, Robert A.; Scott, Kate; Hinton, Emma D.; Austen, Melanie C.; Barrett, John; Beaumont, Nicola; Blaber-Wegg, Tina; Brown, Gareth; Carter-Silk, Eleanor; Cazenave, Pierre; Eigenbrod, Felix; Hiscock, Kevin; Hooper, Tara; Lovett, Andrew; Papathanasopoulou, Eleni

    2016-01-01

    Meeting the world’s energy demand is a major challenge for society over the coming century. To identify the most sustainable energy pathways to meet this demand, analysis of energy systems on which policy is based must move beyond the current primary focus on carbon to include a broad range of ecosystem services on which human well-being depends. Incorporation of a broad set of ecosystem services into the design of energy policy will differentiates between energy technology options to identify policy options that reconcile national and international obligations to address climate change and the loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services. In this paper we consider our current understanding of the implications of energy systems for ecosystem services and identify key elements of an assessment. Analysis must consider the full life cycle of energy systems, the territorial and international footprint, use a consistent ecosystem service framework that incorporates the value of both market and non-market goods, and consider the spatial and temporal dynamics of both the energy and environmental system. While significant methodological challenges exist, the approach we detail can provide the holistic view of energy and ecosystem services interactions required to inform the future of global energy policy. - Highlights: •Obligations for climate, biodiversity and ecosystem services must be aligned. •Ecosystem service based assessments of energy systems can inform energy policy. •Assessment to incorporate life cycle stages across spatial and temporal scales. •Implications for ecosystem services differentiate between energy options. •Pathways to decarbonisation should be identified based on such a holistic assessment.

  10. Energy storage and the environment: the role of battery technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruetschi, Paul

    Batteries can store energy in a clean, convenient and efficient manner. Battery-powered electric vehicles are expected to contribute to a cleaner environment. In today's world, batteries are used everywhere: in electronic watches, pocket calculators, flashlights, toys, radios, tape recorders, cameras, camcorders, laptop computers, cordless telephones, paging devices, hearing aids, heart pacers, instruments, detectors, sensors, memory back-up devices, drug dispensing, wireless tools, toothbrushes, razors, stationary emergency power equipment, automobile starters, electric vehicles, boats, submarines, airplanes and satellites. Worldwide, about 15 billion primary batteries, and well over 200 million starter batteries are produced per year. What is the impact of this widespread use of batteries on the environment? What role can battery technology play in order to reduce undue effects on the environment? Since this paper is presented at a lead/acid battery conference, the discussion refers, in particular, to this system. The following aspects are covered: (i) the three "E" criteria that are applicable to batteries: Energy, Economics, Environment; (ii) service life and environment; (iii) judicious use and service life; (iv) recycling.

  11. The global resource balance table, an integrated table of energy, materials and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchiya, Haruki

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces the Global Resource Balance Table (GRBT), which is an extension of the energy balance tables that expresses the relationships between energy, materials and the environment. The material division of the GRBT includes steel, cement, paper, wood and grain. In contrast, the environmental division of the GRBT includes oxygen, CO 2 and methane. The transaction division rows in the GRBT include production, conversion, end use and stock. Each cell of the GRBT contains the quantities of the respective resources that were generated or consumed. The relationships between the cells were constructed from the laws of conservation of the materials and energy. We constructed a GRBT for 2007 and discussed the increasing air temperature due to waste heat and the CO 2 equivalent from human breathing. The GRBT is a comprehensive integrated table that represents the resources that are consumed by human activities and is useful for energy and environmental studies. - Highlights: • We extended energy balance table and introduced Global Resource Balance Table. • It shows relationships between energy, materials and the environment. • The material division includes steel, cement, paper, wood and grain. • The environmental division includes oxygen, CO 2 and methane. • We discussed on waste heat and CO 2 emission by human breathing

  12. An Energy-Economy-Environment Model for Simulating the Impacts of Socioeconomic Development on Energy and Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyi Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many rapidly developing regions have begun to draw the attention of the world. Meanwhile, the energy and environmental issues associated with rapid economic growth have aroused widespread critical concern. Therefore, studying energy, economic, and environmental systems is of great importance. This study establishes a system dynamic model that covers multiple aspects of those systems, such as energy, economy, population, water pollution, air pollution, solid waste, and technology. The model designed here attempts to determine the impacts of socioeconomic development on the energy and environment of Tongzhou District in three scenarios: under current, planning, and sustainable conditions. The results reveal that energy shortages and water pollutions are very serious and are the key issues constraining future social and economic development. Solid waste emissions increase with population growth. The prediction results provide valuable insights into social advancement.

  13. An energy-economy-environment model for simulating the impacts of socioeconomic development on energy and environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenyi; Zeng, Weihua; Yao, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Many rapidly developing regions have begun to draw the attention of the world. Meanwhile, the energy and environmental issues associated with rapid economic growth have aroused widespread critical concern. Therefore, studying energy, economic, and environmental systems is of great importance. This study establishes a system dynamic model that covers multiple aspects of those systems, such as energy, economy, population, water pollution, air pollution, solid waste, and technology. The model designed here attempts to determine the impacts of socioeconomic development on the energy and environment of Tongzhou District in three scenarios: under current, planning, and sustainable conditions. The results reveal that energy shortages and water pollutions are very serious and are the key issues constraining future social and economic development. Solid waste emissions increase with population growth. The prediction results provide valuable insights into social advancement.

  14. Distributed energy resources and benefits to the environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akorede, Mudathir Funsho; Hizam, Hashim; Pouresmaeil, Edris

    2010-01-01

    generation in 2030 would be produced from fossil fuels. This global dependence on fossil fuels is dangerous to our environment in terms of their emissions unless specific policies and measures are put in place. Nevertheless, recent research reveals that a reduction in the emissions of these gases is possible...... on fossil fuels to our environment. The study finally justifies how DG technologies could substantially reduce greenhouse gas emissions when fully adopted; hence, reducing the public concerns over human health risks caused by the conventional method of electricity generation....

  15. Environment-adjusted regional energy efficiency in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Jin-Li; Lio, Mon-Chi; Yeh, Fang-Yu; Lin, Cheng-Hsun

    2011-01-01

    This study applies the four-stage DEA procedure to calculate the energy efficiency of 23 regions in Taiwan from 1998 to 2007. After controlling for the effects of external environments, only Taipei City, Chiayi City, and Kaohsiung City are energy efficient. Note that Kaohsiung City reaches the efficiency frontier due to the adjustment via partial environmental factors such as higher education attainment and transport vehicles. We also find a worsening trend for Taiwan's energy efficiency. Not only is there a gap of energy efficiency between Taiwan's metropolitan areas and the other regions, but the gap has also widened in recent years. Those inefficient counties should be given priority and the savings potential. Except for road density, the evidence indicates that each environmental factor has partial incremental effects on input slacks. As more cars and motorcycles are unfavorable externalities affecting partial energy efficiency, the central government should help local governments retire inefficient old motor vehicles, encourage energy-saving vehicle models, and provide convenient mass transportation systems. Besides, people with higher education cause industrial energy inefficient in Taiwan. The conscious of effective energy saving is necessary to schools, communities, and employee accordingly.

  16. Energy Metabolism and Human Dosimetry of Tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galeriu, D.; Takeda, H.; Melintescu, A.; Trivedi, A.

    2005-01-01

    In the frame of current revision of human dosimetry of 14 C and tritium, undertaken by the International Commission of Radiological Protection, we propose a novel approach based on energy metabolism and a simple biokinetic model for the dynamics of dietary intake (organic 14 C, tritiated water and Organically Bound Tritium-OBT). The model predicts increased doses for HTO and OBT comparing to ICRP recommendations, supporting recent findings

  17. RENEWABLE ENERGY, A KEY TO INTEGRATING COMPETITIVE POLICIES WITH ADVANCED ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinade Lucian Ovidiu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Development of competitive policies and improvement of environment protection strategies are two basic trends of the development of the European Unique Market. Energy, also known as 'industry bread', is basic product and strategic resource, where energy industry plays an obvious role in the economic and social development of any community. Traditional energy production is marred by three major drawbacks: it generates negative externalities by polluting; it is totally in the hands of the producers; hence, prices rise at their will, of fossil fuels such as oil and gas. Present study focuses on electric energy industry, yet bearing over the whole length of the chain producer-to-end-consumer, thus revealed as particularly complex. The question is do alternative energy sources meet the prerequisite of market being competitive meanwhile environment protection being highly observed. We identify limits in point, of the energy market; effects of market liberalization; entry barriers; interchangeability level of energy sources; active forces on the energy market. Competitive rivalry has been expressed as per market micro-economic analysis, based on Michael Porter's 5-forces model. It will thus be noticed that, morphologically, competition evolution depends firstly on the market type. For the time being, the consumer on the energy market stays captive, for various reasons such as: legislation; limits of energy transfer infrastructure; scarcity of resources; resources availability imbalance; no integrative strategy available, of renewable energy resources usage. Energy availability is vital for human society to function. Comparative advantages of renewable energy resources are twofold, as manifested: in terms of economics, i.e. improving competition by substitute products entered at the same time as new producers enter market; and in terms of ecology, by reducing CO2 emissions. As to energy production technology and transfer, the complementary nature will

  18. Systems approach to regional energy/environment management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foell, W K

    1980-08-01

    Energy and environmental systems have become a well-established component of national and regional planning and management. The University of Wisconsin, in collaboration with the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis and other institutions, has over the past several years conducted a number of case studies in which a family of energy/environment models was developed and applied to the assessment of alternative policies. This linked set of models, which treats energy demand, energy supply, and environmental impacts, has provided long-term planning information to a spectrum of public and private institution in the regions studied. The philosophy has been to maintain the flexibility to handle rapid change with innovation. 17 references, 7 figures, 1 table.

  19. Competitive energy markets. The effective route to improving the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinden, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    Market forces, operating in an increasingly competitive energy market, are a preferred route to achieving environmental and energy efficiency benefits, than those which can be achieved through a managed approach adopted by many governments. It is shown, through examples, how electricity is a catalyst for change at several levels in business, the community and the general economy. Experience in the United Kingdom indicates that free market forces and inter-energy competition not only help improve the regional and therefore national economy, but they offer a very effective way of introducing improvements in energy efficiency and the environment. Governments should establish the framework for competition and regulation but not attempt to manage an industry, which is invariably done more effectively by those who run them. (author)

  20. III international congress, energy, environment and technological innovation. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The first volume covers: energy, transportation systems and planning; treatment, disposal and effective use of urban waste; treatment and recovery of industrial effluents; and new materials for bioclimatic architecture - energy saving and environmental protection. Topics covered in the second volume are: heavy and extraheavy oils - production, transportation and marketing; heavy and extraheavy oils, residues and bitumen - chemistry, treatment and upgrading; mining and environmental protection; assessing and managing environmental risks in the energy sector; natural disasters impact on civil constructions; and energy autonomy in isolated communities. The last volume discusses: impact of climate change on water and forest resources; urban policies - planning informal settlements and environmental problems; sustainable development, environmental conservation and protection; and electronic systems for the environment. Selected papers have been abstracted separately on the IEA Coal Research CD-ROM.

  1. Does energy-price regulation benefit China's economy and environment? Evidence from energy-price distortions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju, Keyi; Su, Bin; Zhou, Dequn; Wu, Junmin

    2017-01-01

    China's energy prices have long been regulated due to the critical role energy plays in economic growth and social development, which leads to energy-price distortion to some extent. To figure out whether energy-price regulations will benefit China's economy (measured by GDP growth) and environment (measured by carbon emissions), we conducted an in-depth simulation using path analysis, where five energy products (natural gas, gasoline, fuel oil, steam coal, and coking coal) are selected and three measurements (absolute, relative, and moving) of energy-price distortions are calculated. The results indicate that, with a series of energy pricing policies, the price distortion for a single type of energy has gradually transformed, while the energy pricing system in China is not fully market-oriented yet. Furthermore, China's economy benefits from relative and moving distortions, while the absolute distortions of energy prices have negative impacts on economic growth. Finally, with regard to the environment, carbon emissions call for fewer distortions. - Highlights: • Price distortion for a single type of energy has gradually transformed. • Energy pricing system in China is not yet fully market-oriented. • China's economy benefits from relative and moving distortions. • Absolute distortions of energy prices have negative effects on economic growth. • Carbon emissions call for less pricing distortions.

  2. Human-inspired sound environment recognition system for assistive vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Vidal, Eduardo; Fredes Zarricueta, Ernesto; Auat Cheein, Fernando

    2015-02-01

    Objective. The human auditory system acquires environmental information under sound stimuli faster than visual or touch systems, which in turn, allows for faster human responses to such stimuli. It also complements senses such as sight, where direct line-of-view is necessary to identify objects, in the environment recognition process. This work focuses on implementing human reaction to sound stimuli and environment recognition on assistive robotic devices, such as robotic wheelchairs or robotized cars. These vehicles need environment information to ensure safe navigation. Approach. In the field of environment recognition, range sensors (such as LiDAR and ultrasonic systems) and artificial vision devices are widely used; however, these sensors depend on environment constraints (such as lighting variability or color of objects), and sound can provide important information for the characterization of an environment. In this work, we propose a sound-based approach to enhance the environment recognition process, mainly for cases that compromise human integrity, according to the International Classification of Functioning (ICF). Our proposal is based on a neural network implementation that is able to classify up to 15 different environments, each selected according to the ICF considerations on environment factors in the community-based physical activities of people with disabilities. Main results. The accuracy rates in environment classification ranges from 84% to 93%. This classification is later used to constrain assistive vehicle navigation in order to protect the user during daily activities. This work also includes real-time outdoor experimentation (performed on an assistive vehicle) by seven volunteers with different disabilities (but without cognitive impairment and experienced in the use of wheelchairs), statistical validation, comparison with previously published work, and a discussion section where the pros and cons of our system are evaluated. Significance

  3. The role of built environment energy efficiency in a sustainable UK energy economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, Joseph A.; Johnstone, Cameron M.; Kelly, Nicolas J.; Strachan, Paul A.; Tuohy, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Energy efficiency in the built environment can make significant contributions to a sustainable energy economy. In order to achieve this, greater public awareness of the importance of energy efficiency is required. In the short term, new efficient domestic appliances, building technologies, legislation quantifying building plant performance, and improved building regulations to include installed plant will be required. Continuing these improvements in the longer term is likely to see the adoption of small-scale renewable technologies embedded in the building fabric. Internet-based energy services could deliver low-cost building energy management and control to the mass market enabling plant to be operated and maintained at optimum performance levels and energy savings quantified. There are many technology options for improved energy performance of the building fabric and energy systems and it is not yet clear which will prove to be the most economic. Therefore, flexibility is needed in legislation and energy-efficiency initiatives

  4. The Swedish dilemma - Nuclear energy v. the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordhaus, W D [Yale Univ. (United States)

    1995-11-01

    A phaseout of nuclear power in Sweden is supposed to be accomplished by year 2010. This study is an economic analysis of the questions that are parts of the nuclear dilemma. Even though the economic questions are in focus, the important environmental, health and safety questions are also treated. The basic argument is that Sweden should choose an energy system that allows its citizens to maximize their consumption in a long-term perspective. Consumption is here given a meaning that includes elements outside the market, such as environmental, health and safety aspects valued in a reasonable way. Considerations must also be given to international aspects like global environment, a free and open system of trade and the value of a stable set of rules and proprietary rights. The study compares the economic pros and cons of different energy systems within this general frame. A detailed model of the Swedish energy and power sectors was developed for the study, called the Swedish Energy and Environment Policy (SEEP) model. the SEEP model is built on modern economic theory and includes energy and environmental factors in a uniform way. 8 figs 16 tabs.

  5. The Swedish dilemma - Nuclear energy v. the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordhaus, W.D.

    1995-11-01

    A phaseout of nuclear power in Sweden is supposed to be accomplished by year 2010. This study is an economic analysis of the questions that are parts of the nuclear dilemma. Even though the economic questions are in focus, the important environmental, health and safety questions are also treated. The basic argument is that Sweden should choose an energy system that allows its citizens to maximize their consumption in a long-term perspective. Consumption is here given a meaning that includes elements outside the market, such as environmental, health and safety aspects valued in a reasonable way. Considerations must also be given to international aspects like global environment, a free and open system of trade and the value of a stable set of rules and proprietary rights. The study compares the economic pros and cons of different energy systems within this general frame. A detailed model of the Swedish energy and power sectors was developed for the study, called the Swedish Energy and Environment Policy (SEEP) model. the SEEP model is built on modern economic theory and includes energy and environmental factors in a uniform way. 8 figs 16 tabs

  6. The Swedish Dilemma: Nuclear Energy v. the Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordhaus, W.D.

    1995-01-01

    A phaseout of nuclear power in Sweden is supposed to be accomplished by year 2010. This study is an economic analysis of the questions that are parts of the Swedish nuclear dilemma. Even though the economic questions are in focus, the important environmental, health and safety questions are also treated. The basic argument is that Sweden should choose an energy system that allows its citizens to maximize their consumption in a long-term perspective. Consumption is here given a meaning that includes elements outside the market, such as environmental, health and safety aspects valued in a reasonable way. Considerations must also be given to international aspects like global environment, a free and open system of trade and the value of a stable set of rules and proprietary rights. The study compares the economic pros and cons of different energy systems within this general frame. A detailed model of the Swedish energy and power sectors was developed for the study, called the Swedish Energy and Environment Policy (SEEP) model. The SEEP model is built on modern economic theory and includes energy and environmental factors in a uniform way. 51 refs, 36 tabs, 6 figs

  7. Wind energy in a competitive electricity supply environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strbac, G; Jenkins, N [Manchester Centre for Electrical Energy, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-31

    In the UK, there has been an increasing interest in the commercial aspects of the impact of wind energy on transmission and distribution networks. In a competitive electricity supply environment, mechanisms for pricing network services are considered to be the main vehicle for evaluating that impact. This article reviews the major pricing strategies based on embedded costs, short and long run marginal costing theory as well as time-of-use pricing, and comments on the influence of each particular strategy on the calculated value of wind energy. Also, prospective tools for evaluating savings in capital and operating network costs due to wind generation, are identified. (author)

  8. Wind energy in a competitive electricity supply environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strbac, G.; Jenkins, N. [Manchester Centre for Electrical Energy, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    1995-12-31

    In the UK, there has been an increasing interest in the commercial aspects of the impact of wind energy on transmission and distribution networks. In a competitive electricity supply environment, mechanisms for pricing network services are considered to be the main vehicle for evaluating that impact. This article reviews the major pricing strategies based on embedded costs, short and long run marginal costing theory as well as time-of-use pricing, and comments on the influence of each particular strategy on the calculated value of wind energy. Also, prospective tools for evaluating savings in capital and operating network costs due to wind generation, are identified. (author)

  9. The energy for the 21. century: techniques, economy and environment; Energie au 21. siecle: techniques, economie, environnement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    12 papers have been presented. 1) Climate changing. The atmospheric circulation model coupled to the ocean model is the most powerful current tool to explain climate processes and to validate possible climate evolutions. 2) Health hazards due to the combustion of fossil fuels. The effects of atmospheric particles on mortality, cancer risks and on respiratory organs, are considered. 3) The evaluation of external effects of transport on the environment. The paper gives examples of exposure-response function relating to impacts on the built environment, atmospheric visibility, vegetation and human health. 4) Energy consumption and economic growth. 5) Impact of low radiation doses on human health. 6) Hydrogen: production methods and costs. 7) Fossil energies reserves: incertitude on definition, volume and forecasting. 8) Energetic valorization of biomass by thermo-chemical way. 9) Technical and economic aspects of wind energy. 10) Nuclear energy: the French example. 11) The future of photovoltaic energy, its actual growth rate is about 25-35 % a year and its main asset is to benefit technological progress that allows a sharp 50 % cut in costs every 10 years. 12) Fuel cells, their operating principle, the fuel used, their applications and perspective. (A.C.)

  10. Economy, energy and environment - Methods to analyze connections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlroth, Sofia; Finnveden, Goeran; Hochschorner Elisabeth; Ekvall, Thomas; Wadeskog, Anders; Palm, Viveka

    2003-12-01

    This report gives a review of instruments that can be used for finding economic, structural and environmental effects of decisions in the environmental area, and describe what is possible to achieve, economically and technically. Twelve different aspects are used for characterizing the instruments. Applications and limitations of the instruments are discussed. For many instruments there exists a lively discussion on their weaknesses and limitations. We focus on system analytical instruments, i.e. environment-economic methods, energy and energy-economic modelling and environment-system-analytical tools In the economic area we discuss I/O-analyses, CGE-models and econometric models as well as a few descriptive analytica tools: Cost-benefit analysis, CBA and Life Cycle Analyses.

  11. Analysis on Energy Consumption and Indoor Environment in Kunming, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianchi Hu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this study are to investigate and analyze the actual conditions of the urban residential energy consumption, and hence to ascertain what will be the important factors that influence the annual energy consumption in Kunming, which has a mild climate. The questionnaire surveys reveal building characteristics, housing appliances, household characteristics, indoor thermal environment and aspects of life style, during winter and summer seasons. The questionnaire analyses show that only 5% of the investigated households have air conditioning, and 12% have heating appliances. Most households use solar energy as a water heater energy source because the sunshine hours in Kunming are long. The energy consumption analyses show that the average annual energy consumption of households in Kunming reached 12.2 GJ, and cooking accounted for 5.3 GJ, which is the largest part. Most of the time in summer, the outdoor temperature is lower than living room and bedroom temperatures; thus, natural ventilation is a useful cooling method for households in Kunming. The absolute humidity in summer is about 11 g/kg, while in winter it is about 5 g/kg. The influence factor analyses show that building construction year, water heater type and annual income are important influential factors on annual energy consumption.

  12. Spatial variation in energy exchange across coastal environments in Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, M.; Abermann, J.; Citterio, M.; Hansen, B. U.; Larsen, S. H.; Stiegler, C.; Sørensen, L. L.; van As, D.

    2015-12-01

    The surface energy partitioning in Arctic terrestrial and marine areas is a crucial process, regulating snow, glacier ice and sea ice melt, and permafrost thaw, as well as modulating Earth's climate on both local, regional, and eventually, global scales. The Arctic region has warmed approximately twice as much as the global average, due to a number of feedback mechanisms related to energy partitioning, most importantly the snow and ice-albedo feedback. However, direct measurements of surface energy budgets in the Arctic are scarce, especially for the cold and dark winter period and over transects going from the ice sheet and glaciers to the sea. This study aims to describe annual cycles of the surface energy budget from various surface types in Arctic Greenland; e.g. glacier, snow, wet and dry tundra and sea ice, based on data from a number of measurement locations across coastal Greenland related to the Greenland Ecosystem Monitoring (GEM) program, including Station Nord/Kronprins Christians Land, Zackenberg/Daneborg, Disko, Qaanaq, Nuuk/Kobbefjord and Upernaviarsuk. Based on the available time series, we will analyze the sensitivity of the energy balance partitioning to variations in meteorological conditions (temperature, cloudiness, precipitation). Such analysis would allow for a quantification of the spatial variation in the energy exchange in aforementioned Arctic environments. Furthermore, this study will identify uncertainties and knowledge gaps in Arctic energy budgets and related climate feedback effects.

  13. Energy technologies and the environment: Environmental information handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-10-01

    This revision of Energy Technologies and the Environment reflects the changes in energy supply and demand, focus of environmental concern, and emphasis of energy research and development that have occurred since publication of the earlier edition in 1980. The increase in availability of oil and natural gas, at least for the near term, is responsible in part for a reduced emphasis on development of replacement fuels and technologies. Trends in energy development also have been influenced by an increased reliance on private industry initiatives, and a correspondingly reduced government involvement, in demonstrating more developed technologies. Environmental concerns related to acid rain and waste management continue to increase the demand for development of innovative energy systems. The basic criteria for including a technology in this report are that (1) the technology is a major current or potential future energy supply and (2) significant changes in employing or understanding the technology have occurred since publication of the 1980 edition. Coal is seen to be a continuing major source of energy supply, and thus chapters pertaining to the principal coal technologies have been revised from the 1980 edition (those on coal mining and preparation, conventional coal-fired power plants, fluidized-bed combustion, coal gasification, and coal liquefaction) or added as necessary to include emerging technologies (those on oil shale, combined-cycle power plants, coal-liquid mixtures, and fuel cells).

  14. Environment, 1986-1997. International Atomic Energy Agency publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-04-01

    This catalogue lists all sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with Environment and issued during the period of 1986-1997. Some earlier titles which form part of an established series or are still considered of importance have been included. Most publications are in English. Proceedings of conferences, symposia and panels of experts may contain papers in languages other than English, but all of these papers have abstracts in English

  15. Health Impacts from Human Interaction with the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, S. E.

    2008-12-01

    Humans have produced far greater impact on the environment than any other living form. The impact has been so significant-particularly during the past 50 years-that a new word, Anthrposphere has started appearing in recent literature. It is now being used along with the four major components of the system earth to underscore humans' influence on the environment. Human activities have produced a myriad of impacts on the environment that span the scale from local to global. The slow process that brought humanity to the present environmental crisis began with the Industrial Revolution and has greatly accelerated since the World War II. The past 50 years mark a unique period in human history that is characterized by rapid technological advances and unprecedented population growth. While the use of technology has been very effective in meeting the needs of the growing population, it has also produced serious impact on the environment. Large scale exploitation of mineral, fuel, water, forest, and marine resources has led to severe environmental degradation; and the resulting pollution of air, water, and land has caused serious consequences to human and ecological health. The presentation deals with the adverse impact on human health associated with mining, dam and reservoir construction, improper waste management, use of fossil fuels, and climate change. Case studies are included to illustrate health impacts from metal and coal mining; dam and reservoir construction and preponderance of disease vectors; pollution caused by improper waste disposal and the resulting incidence of cancer and other diseases; and emergence of vector-borne diseases at hitherto unknown locations, cardiovascular and respiratory track ailments, and increased morbidity and mortality triggered by elevated temperatures associated with climate change. A brief discussion of possible measures to mitigate the health consequences is also included in the presentation.

  16. Progress in integrated energy-economy-environment model system development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasukawa, Shigeru; Mankin, Shuichi; Sato, Osamu; Tadokoro, Yoshihiro; Nakano, Yasuyuki; Nagano, Takao

    1987-11-01

    The Integrated Energy-Economy-Environment Model System has been developed for providing analytical tools for the system analysis and technology assessments in the field of nuclear research and development. This model system consists of the following four model groups. The first model block installs 5 models and can serve to analyze and generate long-term scenarios on economy-energy-environment evolution. The second model block installs 2 models and can serve to analyze the structural transition phenomena in energy-economy-environment interactions. The third model block installs 2 models and can handle power reactor installation strategy problem and long-term fuel cycle analysis. The fourth model block installs 5 models and codes and can treats cost-benefit-risk analysis and assessments. This report describes mainly the progress and the outlines of application of the model system in these years after the first report on the research and development of the model system (JAERI-M 84 - 139). (author)

  17. Designing a Social Environment for Human-Robot Cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amram, Fred M.

    Noting that work is partly a social activity, and that workers' psychological and emotional needs influence their productivity, this paper explores avenues for improving human-robot cooperation and for enhancing worker satisfaction in the environment of flexible automation. The first section of the paper offers a brief overview of the…

  18. Contamination of living environment and human organism with plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benes, J.

    1981-01-01

    The applicability of 239 Pu in nuclear power is discussed. The radiotoxic properties of plutonium, its tissue distribution and the effects of internal and external contamination are described. The contamination of the atmosphere, water, and soil with plutonium isotopes is discussed. Dosimetry is described of plutonium in the living and working environments as is plutonium determination in the human organism. (H.S.)

  19. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Renewable Energy: Environment Protection and Energy Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-12-01

    The International Symposium and Exhibition on Renewable Energy 2003 organized by the Malaysian Institute of Energy (INTEM), the Malaysia Energy centre (PTM), Islamic Scientific, Education, and Cultural Organization (ISESCO), World Renewable Energy Network (WREN), Ministry of Energy, Communication and Multimedia, and the Ministry of Education, Malaysia has the following objectives (a) highlighting the role of renewable in meeting the energy demand particularly of developing countries (b) encouraging the effective transfer and efficient application of economic renewable energy technologies (c) assisting in the promotion of the environmental benefits of renewable energy (d) promoting business opportunities for renewable energy projects and their successful implementation (e) enhancing improved information, knowledge and education on renewable energy (f) providing a technical exhibition where manufacturers, suppliers and others can display their products and services and finally (h) providing a focal points for international networking. The topics covered are Solar Materials, Solar Thermal Applications, Photovoltaic technology, Biomass Conversion, Hydrogen and Fuel Cells, Wind Energy, Hydro Energy, Climate and the Environment, Low Energy Architecture, related Topics (Energy Management; Economics, Policy and Financing; Sustainable Energy Business Practices, Carbon tax and trading, Gender and Poverty Reduction). A total of 97 papers have been received from countries such as Malaysia, United States of America, United Kingdom, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Armenia, Romania, Denmark, Bahrain, Iraq, Italy, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Libya, Australia, Brunei, Belgium, New Zealand, Indonesia, Singapore, Thailand, India, Iran, Russia, and Turkey

  20. HUMAN COMMUNICATION AS MEDIATING THE UNITS OF PARAMETERISED ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Stepanic

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Human communication is prevalently a mediated process. Mediators are units of environment, which are attributed functions within the local value set. They are utilised in such a way as to optimise the change of human states. In this article, a mediator-centred interpretation of the human communication is given. The interpretation follows closely the concept of mediated interaction developed within physics. It is conjectured that collection of mediators, which the humans use, has a well-defined average. The averaged collection permits reliable interpretation as a human communication spectrum. Relation of the intensity of a spectral component with regard to different senses, and with regard to intensity of interaction is discussed.

  1. Technological learning in energy-environment-economy modelling: A survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahouli-Brahmi, Sondes

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims at providing an overview and a critical analysis of the technological learning concept and its incorporation in energy-environment-economy models. A special emphasis is put on surveying and discussing, through the so-called learning curve, both studies estimating learning rates in the energy field and studies incorporating endogenous technological learning in bottom-up and top-down models. The survey of learning rate estimations gives special attention to interpreting and explaining the sources of variability of estimated rates, which is shown to be mainly inherent in R and D expenditures, the problem of omitted variable bias, the endogeneity relationship and the role of spillovers. Large-scale models survey show that, despite some methodological and computational complexity related to the non-linearity and the non-convexity associated with the learning curve incorporation, results of the numerous modelling experiments give several new insights with regard to the analysis of the prospects of specific technological options and their cost decrease potential (bottom-up models), and with regard to the analysis of strategic considerations, especially inherent in the innovation and energy diffusion process, in particular the energy sector's endogenous responses to environment policy instruments (top-down models)

  2. Dielectric polymer: scavenging energy from human motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Mistral, Claire; Basrour, Skandar; Chaillout, Jean-Jacques

    2008-03-01

    More and more sensors are embedded in human body for medical applications, for sport. The short lifetime of the batteries, available on the market, reveals a real problem of autonomy of these systems. A promising alternative is to scavenge the ambient energy such as the mechanical one. Up to now, few scavenging structures have operating frequencies compatible with ambient one. And, most of the developed structures are rigid and use vibration as mechanical source. For these reasons, we developed a scavenger that operates in a large frequency spectrum from quasi-static to dynamic range. This generator is fully flexible, light and does not hamper the human motion. Thus, we report in this paper an analytical model for dielectric generator with news electrical and mechanical characterization, and the development of an innovating application: scavenging energy from human motion. The generator is located on the knee and design to scavenge 0.1mJ per scavenging cycle at a frequency of 1Hz, enough to supply a low consumption system and with a poling voltage as low as possible to facilitate the power management. Our first prototype is a membrane with an area of 5*3cm and 31µm in thickness which scavenge 0.1mJ under 170V at constant charge Q.

  3. Taxing energy to improve the environment. Efficiency and distributional effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heijdra, B.J.; Van der Horst, A.

    1998-02-01

    The effects of environmental tax policy in a dynamic overlapping-generations model of a small open economy with environmental quality incorporated as a durable consumption good have been studied. Raising the energy tax may deliver an efficiency gain if agents care enough about the environment. The benefits are unevenly distributed across generations since capital ownership, and the capital loss induced by a tax increase, rises with age. A suitable egalitarian bond policy can be employed in order to ensure everybody gains to the same extent. With this additional instrument the optimal energy tax can be computed. The authors further considered a tax reform that simultaneously lowers labour taxation and raises the energy tax. This policy delivers qualitatively similar consequences as the first scenario, though all changes are less pronounced. A double dividend may appear soon after the reform but vanishes in the course of the transition. 22 refs

  4. Taxing energy to improve the environment. Efficiency and distributional effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heijdra, B.J.; Van der Horst, A. [Faculty of Economics and Econometrics, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1998-02-01

    The effects of environmental tax policy in a dynamic overlapping-generations model of a small open economy with environmental quality incorporated as a durable consumption good have been studied. Raising the energy tax may deliver an efficiency gain if agents care enough about the environment. The benefits are unevenly distributed across generations since capital ownership, and the capital loss induced by a tax increase, rises with age. A suitable egalitarian bond policy can be employed in order to ensure everybody gains to the same extent. With this additional instrument the optimal energy tax can be computed. The authors further considered a tax reform that simultaneously lowers labour taxation and raises the energy tax. This policy delivers qualitatively similar consequences as the first scenario, though all changes are less pronounced. A double dividend may appear soon after the reform but vanishes in the course of the transition. 22 refs.

  5. Saving energy and protecting environment of electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Lina; Chen, Huajun; Gong, Jing

    2017-05-01

    With the concept of low carbon economy, saving energy, and protecting environment spread, the development of the electric promotes the research pace of wireless charging electronic vehicles, which will become the best choice of energy supply in the future. To generalize and exploit the corresponding alternative fuels and the research and development, and promotion of electric vehicles, becomes the effective means to directly reduce the consumption of fuel, effectively relieves the problem of nervous energy and environmental pollution, and really conforms to the requirements of the national strategy of sustainable development in China. This paper introduces the status of electronic cars and wireless charging, expounds the principle of wireless charging, and concludes the full text.

  6. Sustainability concept for energy, water and environment systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afgan, N.H.

    2004-01-01

    This review is aimed to introduce historical background for the sustainability concept development for energy, water and environment systems. In the assessment of global energy and water resources attention is focussed in on the resource consumption and its relevancy to the future demand. In the review of the sustainability concept development special emphasize is devoted to the definition of sustainability and its relevancy to the historical background of the sustainability idea. In order to introduce measuring of sustainability the attention is devoted to the definition of respective criteria. There have been a number of attempts to define the criterions for the assessment of the sustainability of the market products. Having those criterions as bases, it was introduced a specific application in the energy system design

  7. Modeling human behaviors and reactions under dangerous environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, J; Wright, D K; Qin, S F; Zhao, Y

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the framework of a real-time simulation system to model human behavior and reactions in dangerous environments. The system utilizes the latest 3D computer animation techniques, combined with artificial intelligence, robotics and psychology, to model human behavior, reactions and decision making under expected/unexpected dangers in real-time in virtual environments. The development of the system includes: classification on the conscious/subconscious behaviors and reactions of different people; capturing different motion postures by the Eagle Digital System; establishing 3D character animation models; establishing 3D models for the scene; planning the scenario and the contents; and programming within Virtools Dev. Programming within Virtools Dev is subdivided into modeling dangerous events, modeling character's perceptions, modeling character's decision making, modeling character's movements, modeling character's interaction with environment and setting up the virtual cameras. The real-time simulation of human reactions in hazardous environments is invaluable in military defense, fire escape, rescue operation planning, traffic safety studies, and safety planning in chemical factories, the design of buildings, airplanes, ships and trains. Currently, human motion modeling can be realized through established technology, whereas to integrate perception and intelligence into virtual human's motion is still a huge undertaking. The challenges here are the synchronization of motion and intelligence, the accurate modeling of human's vision, smell, touch and hearing, the diversity and effects of emotion and personality in decision making. There are three types of software platforms which could be employed to realize the motion and intelligence within one system, and their advantages and disadvantages are discussed.

  8. Energy, entropy, environment: Why is protection of the environment objectively difficult?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebane, Karl K [Institute of Physics, Tartu (Estonia)

    1995-05-01

    Evolution and man`s history indicate that the winners are the species and societies that act faster and consume more high-quality energy and materials: in other words, those which cause more pollution and faster growth of entropy. This could be the reason why protection of the environment is objectively difficult and, in particular, why it is almost impossible to considerably reduce man`s consumption of energy and materials in a world of competition. To escape this fatal evolutionary outcome, fundamentally new thinking is needed, thinking which takes the survival of mankind as the primary value. The role of religion in solving this tremendously difficult task should not be neglected

  9. Water energy: a wealth to exploit in the respect of environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaillard, M.

    2009-01-01

    Men have developed technologies, sometimes surprising, allowing to capture a small part of the kinetic energy carried by rivers, streams or waves. Classical hydropower plants, from big dams to micro-hydroelectric plants, are well-known technologies, but beside these, the most ingenious systems can be found on the marine side: submarine turbines, 'sea snake' wave energy converters, offshore wind turbines or production of biomass fuels from algae cultivation. These new energy sources are going to occupy an increasing place in tomorrow's energy landscape but, like for any human intervention in the natural ecosystems, care must be taken to exploit the energy of the precious water resource in the respect of the environment. (J.S.)

  10. 3D recovery of human gaze in natural environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paletta, Lucas; Santner, Katrin; Fritz, Gerald; Mayer, Heinz

    2013-01-01

    The estimation of human attention has recently been addressed in the context of human robot interaction. Today, joint work spaces already exist and challenge cooperating systems to jointly focus on common objects, scenes and work niches. With the advent of Google glasses and increasingly affordable wearable eye-tracking, monitoring of human attention will soon become ubiquitous. The presented work describes for the first time a method for the estimation of human fixations in 3D environments that does not require any artificial landmarks in the field of view and enables attention mapping in 3D models. It enables full 3D recovery of the human view frustum and the gaze pointer in a previously acquired 3D model of the environment in real time. The study on the precision of this method reports a mean projection error ≈1.1 cm and a mean angle error ≈0.6° within the chosen 3D model - the precision does not go below the one of the technical instrument (≈1°). This innovative methodology will open new opportunities for joint attention studies as well as for bringing new potential into automated processing for human factors technologies.

  11. VITAL ENERGY AND SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT: INTERFACES BETWEEN WESTERN THOUGHT AND INDIGENOUS COSMOLOGY – THE JAVAÉ CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Panosso

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Unlike what happens in Western capitalist societies, who think the world so disruptive, creating dichotomies as culture / nature and society / environment, indigenous thought in such oppositions are not common. Thus, indigenous peoples do not live a crisis mentality on the environment. The Javaé provides elements with which it becomes possible to think about their "ideas" of body and vital energy and how these inform their practices and their relationship with social and environmental. Understanding this concept as something that includes a social totality that includes humans and nonhumans, and thus, maintaining a social and ecological balance.

  12. Comments about MERCOSUL and their relationship with the nuclear energy and environment protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaldivar, M. Enrique; Favini, Jorge Martinez

    1995-01-01

    The MERCOSUL is a project for economic and market integration that embraces the geographic space confined within limits of Argentine, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay. The paper sets forth the previous studies about the instruments and mechanisms, in the most important aspects, that were responsible for MERCOSUL's foundation. All the stages, in the course of the integration process are mentioned, as well as the regional treaties and agreements (Montevideo Treaty, Cartagena Agreement, Centro-American Common Market, Caribbean Community (CARICON, Andean Pact, Assuncion Treaty). In the context, the author also makes careful considerations concerning nuclear energy environment, considering this matter not included in the MERCOSUL Agenda. Conclusions are drawn expecting that in the near future, the nuclear energy and nuclear energy environment should be assert emphatically and added in the MERCOSUL calendar, having the regional technical support, qualified human resources and the existing natural bilateral collaboration and cooperation. 10 refs

  13. Environment and future of the nuclear energy in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebas, G.

    1999-01-01

    This work presents the problem of the renewal of the French electro-nuclear park with respect to the energetic, economical, environmental, political and ethical aspects. The theoretical framework chosen for this analysis is the one of sustainable development because of the uncertainty, irreversibility and equity aspects characterizing this choice. Thus, this work evaluates the capacity of the nuclear technology to ensure the simultaneous reproduction of the economical sphere, of the human sphere and of the biosphere. The past, present and future energy situation of France is analyzed in the first chapter together with the characteristics of the nuclear choice. In the second chapter, the analysis of the different possible energy options leads to the conclusion that the nuclear option remains the most suitable for a conciliation between economy and ecology, but that a diversification of the reactor technologies is necessary to take advantage of the efficiency of each technology with respect to its use. The nuclear choice has the advantage to limit the arbitration between the economical, ecological, political and human stakes. The realization of the diversification project supposes to leave opened all energy options and to be prepared to the replacement of the present day power plants by 2010-2020. The success of this policy will depend on the risk mastery and information efforts that public authorities and nuclear industry actors will carry on to avoid any social opposition with respect to nuclear energy. (J.S.)

  14. Essays on economic development, energy demand, and the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medlock, Kenneth Barry, III

    2000-10-01

    The rapid expansion of industry at the outset of economic development and the subsequent growth of the transportation and residential and commercial sectors dictate both the rate at which energy demand increases and the composition of primary fuel sources used to meet secondary requirements. Each of these factors each has an impact on the pollution problems that nations may face. Growth in consumer wealth, however, appears to eventually lead to a shift in priorities. In particular, the importance of the environment begins to take precedent over the acquisition of goods. Accordingly, cleaner energy alternatives are sought out. The approach taken here is to determine the energy profile of an average nation, and apply those results to a model of economic growth. Dematerialization of production and saturation of consumer bundles results in declining rates of growth of energy demand in broadly defined end-use sectors. The effects of technological change in fossil fuel efficiency, fossil fuel recovery, and 'backstop' energy resources on economic growth and the emissions of carbon dioxide are then analyzed. A central planner is assumed to optimize the consumption of goods and services subject to capital and resource constraints. Slight perturbations in the parameters are used to determine their local elasticities with respect to different endogenous variables, and give an indication of the effects of changes in the various assumptions.

  15. Heuristic Scheduling in Grid Environments: Reducing the Operational Energy Demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodenstein, Christian

    In a world where more and more businesses seem to trade in an online market, the supply of online services to the ever-growing demand could quickly reach its capacity limits. Online service providers may find themselves maxed out at peak operation levels during high-traffic timeslots but too little demand during low-traffic timeslots, although the latter is becoming less frequent. At this point deciding which user is allocated what level of service becomes essential. The concept of Grid computing could offer a meaningful alternative to conventional super-computing centres. Not only can Grids reach the same computing speeds as some of the fastest supercomputers, but distributed computing harbors a great energy-saving potential. When scheduling projects in such a Grid environment however, simply assigning one process to a system becomes so complex in calculation that schedules are often too late to execute, rendering their optimizations useless. Current schedulers attempt to maximize the utility, given some sort of constraint, often reverting to heuristics. This optimization often comes at the cost of environmental impact, in this case CO 2 emissions. This work proposes an alternate model of energy efficient scheduling while keeping a respectable amount of economic incentives untouched. Using this model, it is possible to reduce the total energy consumed by a Grid environment using 'just-in-time' flowtime management, paired with ranking nodes by efficiency.

  16. Energy, Transport, & the Environment Addressing the Sustainable Mobility Paradigm

    CERN Document Server

    King, Sir

    2012-01-01

    Sustainable mobility is a highly complex problem as it is affected by the interactions between socio-economic, environmental, technological and political issues. Energy, Transport, & the Environment: Addressing the Sustainable Mobility Paradigm brings together leading figures from business, academia and governments to address the challenges and opportunities involved in working towards sustainable mobility. Key thinkers and decision makers approach topics and debates including:   ·         energy security and resource scarcity ·         greenhouse gas and pollutant emissions ·         urban planning, transport systems and their management ·         governance and finance of transformation ·         the threats of terrorism and climate change to our transport systems.   Introduced by a preface from U.S. Secretary Steven Chu and an outline by the editors, Dr Oliver Inderwildi and Sir David King, Energy, Transport, & the Environment is divided into six secti...

  17. The Operation Consequence of Nuclear Energy to Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suhariyono, Gatot; Sutarman

    2003-01-01

    Objective of the paper is to give information the operation consequence of nuclear energy to environment, so that expected as organizer of PLTN can anticipate or depress as minimum as possible radiology impact to the radiation workers and society in general, and also socialization that operation of nuclear energy do not give the negative impact, if conducted its control to environment seriously. Parts of which it is important to know from this paper are : one. Estimate of equivalent dose of collective effective in a normal condition is the operation cycle for nuclear energy at worker and local or regional resident 10, 100 or 10.000 next years. 2. Equivalent dose of global collective effective is for various the radiation sources. 3. Estimate of dose per cap ut annual of nuclear electric power until year 2500. 4. Aspect of non-radiology is to cooler system, usage of farm, dismissal of chemistry, advantage of hot water waste, its effect to fish, benthos, plankton, vegetation, animal and preparation of nuclear emergency

  18. Trajectory Planning for Robots in Dynamic Human Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenstrup, Mikael; Bak, Thomas; Andersen, Hans Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    This paper present a trajectory planning algorithm for a robot operating in dynamic human environments. Environments such as pedestrian streets, hospital corridors and train stations. We formulate the problem as planning a minimal cost trajectory through a potential field, defined from...... is enhanced to direct the search and account for the kinodynamic robot constraints. Compared to standard RRT, the algorithm proposed here find the robot control input that will drive the robot towards a new sampled point in the configuration space. The effect of the input is simulated, to add a reachable...

  19. Human Activity Recognition in AAL Environments Using Random Projections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robertas Damaševičius

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Automatic human activity recognition systems aim to capture the state of the user and its environment by exploiting heterogeneous sensors attached to the subject’s body and permit continuous monitoring of numerous physiological signals reflecting the state of human actions. Successful identification of human activities can be immensely useful in healthcare applications for Ambient Assisted Living (AAL, for automatic and intelligent activity monitoring systems developed for elderly and disabled people. In this paper, we propose the method for activity recognition and subject identification based on random projections from high-dimensional feature space to low-dimensional projection space, where the classes are separated using the Jaccard distance between probability density functions of projected data. Two HAR domain tasks are considered: activity identification and subject identification. The experimental results using the proposed method with Human Activity Dataset (HAD data are presented.

  20. Human Activity Recognition in AAL Environments Using Random Projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damaševičius, Robertas; Vasiljevas, Mindaugas; Šalkevičius, Justas; Woźniak, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    Automatic human activity recognition systems aim to capture the state of the user and its environment by exploiting heterogeneous sensors attached to the subject's body and permit continuous monitoring of numerous physiological signals reflecting the state of human actions. Successful identification of human activities can be immensely useful in healthcare applications for Ambient Assisted Living (AAL), for automatic and intelligent activity monitoring systems developed for elderly and disabled people. In this paper, we propose the method for activity recognition and subject identification based on random projections from high-dimensional feature space to low-dimensional projection space, where the classes are separated using the Jaccard distance between probability density functions of projected data. Two HAR domain tasks are considered: activity identification and subject identification. The experimental results using the proposed method with Human Activity Dataset (HAD) data are presented.

  1. The Centres for Environment-friendly Energy Research (FME)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    High expectations for Norway's Centres for Environment-friendly Energy Research (FME).The FME centres address a broad range of areas, allcentral to developing the energy sector of the future. The activities of the eight centres established in 2009 focus on renewable energy, raising energy efficiency, energy planning, and carbon capture and storage (CCS). In 2011 three new FME centres were established which focus on social science-related energy research. The FME scheme is a direct follow-up of the broad-based political agreement on climate policy achieved in the Storting in January 2008, and of the national RandD Energi21 strategy submitted in February 2008 to the Ministry of Petroleum and Energy. In April 2008 the Research Council of Norway's Executive Board decided to launch a process to establish centres for environment-friendly energy research, and a funding announcement was issued that same year. In 2010 it was decided that additional FME centres would be established in the field of social science-related energy research. After a thorough assessment of each project (based on feasibility, scientific merit, potential to generate value creation and innovation, and composition of the consortium) eight applicants were selected to become FME centres in February 2009. A new call for proposals was issued in 2010, and three more centres were awarded FME status in February 2011. The objective of the FME scheme is to establish time-limited research centres which conduct concentrated, focused and long-term research of high international calibre in order to solve specific challenges in the energy sphere. The selected centres must exhibit higher goals, a longer-term perspective and a more concentrated focus than is required under other funding instruments for the same scientific area. The make-up of the centres is critical to achieving this objective. The centres bring together Norway's leading research institutions and key players in private enterprise, the

  2. Lightweight Sensor Authentication Scheme for Energy Efficiency in Ubiquitous Computing Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaeseung; Sung, Yunsick; Park, Jong Hyuk

    2016-12-01

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is the intelligent technologies and services that mutually communicate information between humans and devices or between Internet-based devices. In IoT environments, various device information is collected from the user for intelligent technologies and services that control the devices. Recently, wireless sensor networks based on IoT environments are being used in sectors as diverse as medicine, the military, and commerce. Specifically, sensor techniques that collect relevant area data via mini-sensors after distributing smart dust in inaccessible areas like forests or military zones have been embraced as the future of information technology. IoT environments that utilize smart dust are composed of the sensor nodes that detect data using wireless sensors and transmit the detected data to middle nodes. Currently, since the sensors used in these environments are composed of mini-hardware, they have limited memory, processing power, and energy, and a variety of research that aims to make the best use of these limited resources is progressing. This paper proposes a method to utilize these resources while considering energy efficiency, and suggests lightweight mutual verification and key exchange methods based on a hash function that has no restrictions on operation quantity, velocity, and storage space. This study verifies the security and energy efficiency of this method through security analysis and function evaluation, comparing with existing approaches. The proposed method has great value in its applicability as a lightweight security technology for IoT environments.

  3. Energy in the Environment - Initiatives 2004-08

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Jehn

    2009-09-11

    Under the Energy and Environment Initiative, the GWPC/GWPRF will expand the oil and gas electronic commerce initiatives used to enhance the Risk Based Data Management System (RBDMS) and the Cost Effective Regulatory Approach (CERA). The GWPC/GWPRF has identified the following priorities for work efforts during the time period that will act as the base from which selections for each work period will be proposed. Work tasks will be presented for each reporting period by the GWPC from areas selected from the general list of priorities.

  4. In Brief: Hidden environment and health costs of energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2009-10-01

    The hidden costs of energy production and use in the United States amounted to an estimated $120 billion in 2005, according to a 19 October report by the U.S. National Research Council. The report, “Hidden Costs of Energy: Unpriced Consequences of Energy Production and Use,” examines hidden costs, including the cost of air pollution damage to human health, which are not reflected in market prices of energy sources, electricity, or gasoline. The report found that in 2005, the total annual external damages from sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter created by coal-burning power plants that produced 95% of the nation's coal-generated electricity were about $62 billion, with nonclimate damages averaging about 3.2 cents for every kilowatt-hour of energy produced. It is estimated that by 2030, nonclimate damages will fall to 1.7 cents per kilowatt-hour. The 2030 figure assumes that new policies already slated for implementation are put in place.

  5. Building environment assessment and energy consumption estimation using smart phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangli; Zhang, Li; Jia, Yingqi; Wang, Zihan; Jin, Xin; Zhao, Xuefeng

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, an APP for building indoor environment evaluation and energy consumption estimation based on Android platform is proposed and established. While using the APP, the smart phone built-in sensors are called for real-time monitoring of the building environmental information such as temperature, humidity and noise, etc. the built-in algorithm is developed to calculate the heat and power consumption, and questionnaires, grading and other methods are used to feed back to the space heating system. In addition, with the application of the technology of big data and cloud technology, the data collected by users will be uploaded to the cloud. After the statistics of the uploaded data, regional difference can be obtained, thus providing a more accurate basis for macro-control and research of energy, thermal comfort, greenhouse effect.

  6. Human thermal sensation and comfort in a non-uniform environment with personalized heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Qihong; Wang, Runhuai; Li, Yuguo; Miao, Yufeng; Zhao, Jinping

    2017-02-01

    Thermal comfort in traditionally uniform environment is apparent and can be improved by increasing energy expenses. To save energy, non-uniform environment implemented by personalized conditioning system attracts considerable attention, but human response in such environment is unclear. To investigate regional- and whole-body thermal sensation and comfort in a cool environment with personalized heating. In total 36 subjects (17 males and 19 females) including children, adults and the elderly, were involved in our experiment. Each subject was first asked to sit on a seat in an 18°C chamber (uniform environment) for 40min and then sit on a heating seat in a 16°C chamber (non-uniform environment) for another 40min after 10min break. Subjects' regional- and whole-body thermal sensation and comfort were surveyed by questionnaire and their skin temperatures were measured by wireless sensors. We statistically analyzed subjects' thermal sensation and comfort and their skin temperatures in different age and gender groups and compared them between the uniform and non-uniform environments. Overall thermal sensation and comfort votes were respectively neutral and just comfortable in 16°C chamber with personalized heating, which were significantly higher than those in 18°C chamber without heating (pthermal sensation and comfort was consistent in subjects of different age and gender. However, adults and the females were more sensitive to the effect of personalized heating and felt cooler and less comfort than children/elderly and the males respectively. Variations of the regional thermal sensation/comfort across human body were consistent with those of skin temperature. Personalized heating significantly improved human thermal sensation and comfort in non-uniform cooler environment, probably due to the fact that it increased skin temperature. However, the link between thermal sensation/comfort and variations of skin temperature is rather complex and warrant further

  7. Acoustic environments matter: Synergistic benefits to humans and ecological communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Clinton D; Newman, Peter; Taff, B Derrick; White, Crow; Monz, Christopher A; Levenhagen, Mitchell; Petrelli, Alissa R; Abbott, Lauren C; Newton, Jennifer; Burson, Shan; Cooper, Caren B; Fristrup, Kurt M; McClure, Christopher J W; Mennitt, Daniel; Giamellaro, Michael; Barber, Jesse R

    2017-12-01

    Protected areas are critical locations worldwide for biodiversity preservation and offer important opportunities for increasingly urbanized humans to experience nature. However, biodiversity preservation and visitor access are often at odds and creative solutions are needed to safeguard protected area natural resources in the face of high visitor use. Managing human impacts to natural soundscapes could serve as a powerful tool for resolving these conflicting objectives. Here, we review emerging research that demonstrates that the acoustic environment is critical to wildlife and that sounds shape the quality of nature-based experiences for humans. Human-made noise is known to affect animal behavior, distributions and reproductive success, and the organization of ecological communities. Additionally, new research suggests that interactions with nature, including natural sounds, confer benefits to human welfare termed psychological ecosystem services. In areas influenced by noise, elevated human-made noise not only limits the variety and abundance of organisms accessible to outdoor recreationists, but also impairs their capacity to perceive the wildlife that remains. Thus soundscape changes can degrade, and potentially limit the benefits derived from experiences with nature via indirect and direct mechanisms. We discuss the effects of noise on wildlife and visitors through the concept of listening area and demonstrate how the perceptual worlds of both birds and humans are reduced by noise. Finally, we discuss how management of soundscapes in protected areas may be an innovative solution to safeguarding both and recommend several key questions and research directions to stimulate new research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Energy situation and energy-related environment issues of Pacific Island countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siwatibau, Suliana

    1991-01-01

    Pacific Islands have experienced low economic growth during the 1980s, and face significant energy problems. Petroleum products are imported at very high prices and biofuel use often leads to resource over-exploitation. However, perhaps the most basic energy-environment concern is the potential for sea level rise. Some Pacific Island nations would vanish altogether, while others would lose their most productive areas. (author)

  9. Symposium on Pacific Energy Cooperation '99. Changing economic environment and energy cooperation in Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-16

    Compiled in this publication are the papers delivered at the above conference held in Tokyo on February 16-17, 1999. Presented in Session 1, entitled 'economic reforms and energy situation in Asian countries,' are the causes and lessons of economic and financial crisis in the Asian countries and the prospect of restoration; the outlook of energy supply and demand in the Asia Pacific region; and a message from APEC (Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Conference) Okinawa Energy Ministers' Meeting. Discussed in Session 2, entitled 'energy security in the Asia Pacific region,' are the outlook for world oil prices; and the stable supply of oil and gas in the Asia Pacific region. Discussed in Session 3, entitled the 'deregulation of the energy sector in the Asia Pacific region,' are the deregulation of the power sector, progress and problems; and the privatization of the oil and gas sectors. Many papers are presented also in Session 4, entitled the 'energy and environment in the Asia Pacific region, and in Session 5 entitled 'pacific energy cooperation in the changing economic and energy environment.' (NEDO)

  10. Symposium on Pacific Energy Cooperation '99. Changing economic environment and energy cooperation in Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-16

    Compiled in this publication are the papers delivered at the above conference held in Tokyo on February 16-17, 1999. Presented in Session 1, entitled 'economic reforms and energy situation in Asian countries,' are the causes and lessons of economic and financial crisis in the Asian countries and the prospect of restoration; the outlook of energy supply and demand in the Asia Pacific region; and a message from APEC (Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Conference) Okinawa Energy Ministers' Meeting. Discussed in Session 2, entitled 'energy security in the Asia Pacific region,' are the outlook for world oil prices; and the stable supply of oil and gas in the Asia Pacific region. Discussed in Session 3, entitled the 'deregulation of the energy sector in the Asia Pacific region,' are the deregulation of the power sector, progress and problems; and the privatization of the oil and gas sectors. Many papers are presented also in Session 4, entitled the 'energy and environment in the Asia Pacific region, and in Session 5 entitled 'pacific energy cooperation in the changing economic and energy environment.' (NEDO)

  11. Energy demand, poverty and the urban environment in Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaber, J.O.; Probert, S.D.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents some insights into the prime problems of energy and related environmental issues as well as urbanisation in Jordan. The country has very limited natural resources: water is scarce; arable land is limited; and fossil-fuel sources are few. Moreover, the population is increasing rapidly. Hence, problems are arising. During the last 30 years, the country has experienced vast changes in its infrastructure with respect to the housing, urbanisation, commerce, agriculture and industry. Such developments have led to increasing demographic stresses: unemployment has increased and poverty is experienced by more than half of the population. The pressures have resulted in a high percentage of the population moving from rural to urban areas and so society is becoming less self-sufficient. At present, energy consumption in the residential sector accounts for about one quarter of the kingdom's fuel consumption. Kerosene, bottled LPG, diesel fuel and electricity are the main forms of energy used by households, but kerosene is still the dominant fuel because about 83% of households depend on it for space and water heating. The use of open fires and/or portable stoves has led to an increasing number of people being killed each year by suffocation or suffering health problems due to the inhalation of fumes and gaseous pollutants. Thus a national plan to achieve energy thrift and protect the environment, as well as accomplish the more rational utilisation of the limited natural resources available, is urgently needed and should be enacted soon. (author)

  12. Renewable energy technologies and its adaptation in an urban environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thampi, K. Ravindranathan, E-mail: ravindranathan.thampi@ucd.ie; Byrne, Owen, E-mail: ravindranathan.thampi@ucd.ie; Surolia, Praveen K., E-mail: ravindranathan.thampi@ucd.ie [SFI Strategic Research Cluster in Solar Energy Conversion, School of Chemical and Bioprocess Engineering, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland)

    2014-01-28

    This general article is based on the inaugural talk delivered at the opening of OMTAT 2013 conference. It notes that the integration of renewable energy sources into living and transport sectors presents a daunting task, still. In spite of the fact that the earth and its atmosphere continually receive 1.7 × 10{sup 17} watts of radiation from the sun, in the portfolio of sustainable and environment friendly energy options, which is about 16% of the world’s energy consumption and mostly met by biomass, only a paltry 0.04% is accredited to solar. First and second generation solar cells offer mature technologies for applications. The most important difficulty with regards to integration with structures is not only the additional cost, but also the lack of sufficient knowledge in managing the available energy smartly and efficiently. The incorporation of PV as a part of building fabric greatly reduces the overall costs compared with retrofitting. BIPV (Building Integrated photovoltaic) is a critical technology for establishing aesthetically pleasing solar structures. Infusing PV and building elements is greatly simplified with some of the second generation thin film technologies now manufactured as flexible panels. The same holds true for 3{sup rd} generation technologies under development such as, and dye- and quantum dot- sensitized solar cells. Additionally, these technologies offer transparent or translucent solar cells for incorporation into windows and skylights. This review deals with the present state of solar cell technologies suitable for BIPV and the status of BIPV applications and its future prospects.

  13. Investigation of human-robot interface performance in household environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremer, Sven; Mirza, Fahad; Tuladhar, Yathartha; Alonzo, Rommel; Hingeley, Anthony; Popa, Dan O.

    2016-05-01

    Today, assistive robots are being introduced into human environments at an increasing rate. Human environments are highly cluttered and dynamic, making it difficult to foresee all necessary capabilities and pre-program all desirable future skills of the robot. One approach to increase robot performance is semi-autonomous operation, allowing users to intervene and guide the robot through difficult tasks. To this end, robots need intuitive Human-Machine Interfaces (HMIs) that support fine motion control without overwhelming the operator. In this study we evaluate the performance of several interfaces that balance autonomy and teleoperation of a mobile manipulator for accomplishing several household tasks. Our proposed HMI framework includes teleoperation devices such as a tablet, as well as physical interfaces in the form of piezoresistive pressure sensor arrays. Mobile manipulation experiments were performed with a sensorized KUKA youBot, an omnidirectional platform with a 5 degrees of freedom (DOF) arm. The pick and place tasks involved navigation and manipulation of objects in household environments. Performance metrics included time for task completion and position accuracy.

  14. Yeast Biodiversity in Vineyard Environments Is Increased by Human Intervention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Drumonde-Neves

    Full Text Available One hundred and five grape samples were collected during two consecutive years from 33 locations on seven oceanic islands of the Azores Archipelago. Grape samples were obtained from vineyards that were either abandoned or under regular cultivation involving common viticultural interventions, to evaluate the impact of regular human intervention on grape yeast biota diversity in vineyards. A total of 3150 yeast isolates were obtained and 23 yeast species were identified. The predominant species were Hanseniaspora uvarum, Pichia terricola, Starmerella bacillaris and Issatchenkia hanoiensis. The species Barnettozyma californica, Candida azymoides and Pichia cecembensis were reported in grapes or wine-associated environments for the first time. A higher biodiversity was found in active vineyards where regular human intervention takes place (Shannon index: 1.89 and 1.53 in the first and second years, respectively when compared to the abandoned ones (Shannon index: 0.76 and 0.31. This finding goes against the assumptions that human intervention can destroy biodiversity and lead to homogeneity in the environment. Biodiversity indices were considerably lower in the year with the heaviest rainfall. This study is the first to report on the grape yeast communities from several abandoned vineyards that have undergone no human intervention.

  15. Human activities and climate and environment changes: an inevitable relation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, Aretha

    2009-01-01

    The human interference in the environment and the consequent climate change is today a consensus. The climate change can be local, regional and global. The global climate change is mainly caused by the greenhouse gases, and consequently the climate change intervenes in the environment. The interference cycle emerges in several forms and results in several consequences. However, the Global Warming has certainly the most import global impact. The main cause of the increase in the temperature (Greenhouse Effect) is the intensive use of the fossil fuels. Thus, to minimize the climatic changes actions are necessary to reduce, to substitute and to use with more efficient the fossil fuels. Looking at the past, the old agriculturists may have released greenhouse gases since thousand years ago, thus, modifying slowly but in significant form the earth climate much before the Industrial Age. If this theory is confirmed, its consequences would be decisive for the man history in the planet. For example, in parts of the North America and Europe the current temperatures could be even four Celsius degrees smaller. This change in temperature is enough to hinder agricultural used of these regions and consequently to diminish the human development. The main focus of this work is to perform a retrospective in some of civilizations who collapse due to environmental problems and make a historical description of the human activities (agriculture and livestock) since the primordium of the man up to the Industrial Age, aiming at the man interference on the natural dynamics of the global climate and the environment. This work will show through data comparisons and inferences that the gases emissions from these activities had a significant magnitude comparatively by the emissions after the Industrial Age. It is also demonstrated that the climate and environment interference was inevitable because the human evolution was caused by these activities. Another important point of this work is to

  16. Proceedings of the 8. Brazilian congress on energy: energy policy, regulation and sustainable development. v. 1: energy, environment and energy sector regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The theme energy policy, regulation and sustainable development chosen for the 8. Brazilian congress on energy to be held in Rio de Janeiro from 30 November of 1999 to 02 December of 1999, specifically means the contribution of energy to a satisfactory quality of life for everyone. Within such a context, the congress technical programme theme has been structured around six different divisions: energy, environment and development; energy sector regulation; energy policy and planning; technology innovation; energy conservation; and renewable energy sources and rural areas energy supply

  17. Corrosion of well casings in compressed air energy storage environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmore, R.P.; Stottlemyre, J.A.

    1980-10-01

    The goal of this study was to determine corrosive effects of compressed air energy storage (CAES) environments on several well casing materials to aid in material selections. A literature search on corrosion behavior of well casing material in similar environments revealed that corrosion rates of 0.20 to 0.25 mm/y might be expected. This information was employed in designing the laboratory study. Unstressed electrically isolate samples of various carbon steels were autoclaved at varying humidities, temperatures, and exposure durations to simulate anticipated environments in the well bore during CAES operation. All compressed air tests were run at 12.1 MPa. Temperatures varied from 323/sup 0/K to 573/sup 0/K, and humidity varied from 100% to completely dry air. The effects of salts in the humidified air were also studied. Results indicated that typical well casings of carbon steel as used in oil, gas, and water production wells adequately withstand the anticipated CAES reservoir environment. An acceptable corrosion rate arrived at by these laboratory simulations was between 0.0015 and 0.15 mm/y. Corrosion was caused by metal oxidation that formed a protective scale of iron oxide. Higher temperatures, humidity rates, or salinity content of the humid air increased corrosion. Corrosion also increased on a metal coupon in contact with a sandstone sample, possibly due to crevice corrosion. For each of these factors either singularly or collectively, the increased corrosion rates were still acceptable with the maximum measured at 0.15 mm/y. When coupons were reused in an identical test, the corrosion rates increased beyond the anticipated values that had been determined by extrapolation from one-time runs. Fine cracking of the protective scale probably occurred due to thermal variations, resulting in increased corrosion rates and a greater potential for particulates, which could plug the reservoir.

  18. Nuclear energy and environment: abstracts; Energia nuclear y medio ambiente: resumenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    In this meeting on nuclear energy and environment, abstracts on the following subjects were presented: nuclear fuels; materials; radioisotopes and its applications; reactors and nuclear power plants; regulations, energy and environment; radioactive wastes; and analytical techniques.

  19. Perspectives of Nuclear Energy for Human Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouyer, Jean-Loup

    2002-01-01

    In this period of expectation and short term viewing, everyone has difficulties to draw long term perspectives. A positive global world vision of sustainable development gives confidence in the preparation of energy future in a moving international context. This presentation proposes to share such a long term vision inside which energy scenarios for nuclear development take their right place. It is founded on a specific analysis of an index of countries global development which is representative of a country efficiency. Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite international index recommended and calculated every year since 1990 by the United Nations Development Program (UNDP). This index is still very dependent of GNP, which ignores the disparities of revenues inside the country. That is why a Country Efficiency Index (CEI) has been defined to better represent the capacity of a country to utilize its resources for welfare of its inhabitants. CEI is a ratio of health and education levels to the capacity of the country to satisfy this welfare. CEI has been calculated for the 70 more populated countries of the world for the year 1997. CEI calculation has been also performed for European Countries, the United States, China and India on the period from 1965 to 1997. It is observed a growth of CEI. for France from 0.6 to 0.78, and from 0.7 to 0.85 for USA. In 1997, CEI of China was 0.46, and 0.38 for India. This index is a good tool to measure the progression of development of the countries and the related energy needs. Comparison of the evolutions of CEI of these different countries shows a similar positive trend with some delay between OECD countries and China or India. A positive scenario for the future is based on a similar curve for these developing countries with learning effect which produces development with less energy consumption. This simulation results however in energy needs that exceed fossil fuel today available resources in 2070. Ultimate fossil

  20. Energy and environment efficiency analysis based on an improved environment DEA cross-model: Case study of complex chemical processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng, ZhiQiang; Dong, JunGen; Han, YongMing; Zhu, QunXiong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •An improved environment DEA cross-model method is proposed. •Energy and environment efficiency analysis framework of complex chemical processes is obtained. •This proposed method is efficient in energy-saving and emission reduction of complex chemical processes. -- Abstract: The complex chemical process is a high pollution and high energy consumption industrial process. Therefore, it is very important to analyze and evaluate the energy and environment efficiency of the complex chemical process. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) is used to evaluate the relative effectiveness of decision-making units (DMUs). However, the traditional DEA method usually cannot genuinely distinguish the effective and inefficient DMU due to its extreme or unreasonable weight distribution of input and output variables. Therefore, this paper proposes an energy and environment efficiency analysis method based on an improved environment DEA cross-model (DEACM) method. The inputs of the complex chemical process are divided into energy and non-energy inputs. Meanwhile, the outputs are divided into desirable and undesirable outputs. And then the energy and environment performance index (EEPI) based on the cross evaluation is used to represent the overall performance of each DMU. Moreover, the improvement direction of energy-saving and carbon emission reduction of each inefficiency DMU is quantitatively obtained based on the self-evaluation model of the improved environment DEACM. The results show that the improved environment DEACM method has a better effective discrimination than the original DEA method by analyzing the energy and environment efficiency of the ethylene production process in complex chemical processes, and it can obtain the potential of energy-saving and carbon emission reduction of ethylene plants, especially the improvement direction of inefficient DMUs to improve energy efficiency and reduce carbon emission.

  1. Obesity and the built environment: changes in environmental cues cause energy imbalances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, D A

    2008-12-01

    The past 30 years have seen dramatic changes in the food and physical activity environments, both of which contribute to the changes in human behavior that could explain obesity. This paper reviews documented changes in the food environment, changes in the physical activity environment and the mechanisms through which people respond to these environments, often without conscious awareness or control. The most important environmental changes have been increases in food accessibility, food salience and decreases in the cost of food. The increases in food marketing and advertising create food cues that artificially stimulate people to feel hungry. The existence of a metabolic pathway that allows excess energy to be stored as fat suggests that people were designed to overeat. Many internal mechanisms favor neurophysiologic responses to food cues that result in overconsumption. External cues, such as food abundance, food variety and food novelty, cause people to override internal signals of satiety. Other factors, such as conditioning and priming, tie food to other desirable outcomes, and thus increase the frequency that hunger is stimulated by environmental cues. People's natural response to the environmental cues are colored by framing, and judgments are flawed and biased depending on how information is presented. People lack insight into how the food environment affects them, and subsequently are unable to change the factors that are responsible for excessive energy consumption. Understanding the causal pathway for overconsumption will be necessary to interrupt the mechanisms that lead to obesity.

  2. Energy and Environment Directorate Status Report March 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, J S

    2006-01-01

    The Energy and Environment Directorate (E and ED) is one of 13 directorates at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), which is operated by the University of California (UC) for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). We operate in the context of a national security laboratory and focus on meeting major national needs, especially from a long-term perspective. In the LLNL context, E and ED is a hybrid ''program'' and ''discipline'' directorate, combining the program development responsibilities in the national energy and environment arenas to the benefit of the entire Laboratory and also serving as the Laboratory's science base of atmospheric, earth, environmental, and energy science. This Status Report is part of the annual evaluation process required by the Department of Energy (DOE) as part of its contract with UC. The annual review typically will focus on about one third of the activities and programs of a directorate, so that the entire organization is evaluated over a three-year window. This year's review is focused on the basic science foundations for the directorate and two major program areas in the directorate, with an update from a third program. The programs for review are: (1) Earth System Science and Engineering; (2) Nuclear Systems Science and Engineering; and (3) NARAC/IMAAC update. Major questions to be addressed during this review include: (1) Are the programmatic directions appropriate? How can they be improved? (2) What actions can E and ED take to ensure success? How well poised for success are the current staff and facilities? What additions are needed? (3) What recommendations can be made to the Director and the University? This Status Report provides background information on the entire directorate including the parts of the directorate that are the focus of this year's review by the Energy and Environment Directorate Review Committee, to be held March 6-9, 2006. The following sections describe

  3. ENERGY-NET (Energy, Environment and Society Learning Network): Best Practices to Enhance Informal Geoscience Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, R.; Elliott, E. M.; Bain, D.; Crowley, K. J.; Steiner, M. A.; Divers, M. T.; Hopkins, K. G.; Giarratani, L.; Gilmore, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    While energy links all living and non-living systems, the integration of energy, the environment, and society is often not clearly represented in 9 - 12 classrooms and informal learning venues. However, objective public learning that integrates these components is essential for improving public environmental literacy. ENERGY-NET (Energy, Environment and Society Learning Network) is a National Science Foundation funded initiative that uses an Earth Systems Science framework to guide experimental learning for high school students and to improve public learning opportunities regarding the energy-environment-society nexus in a Museum setting. One of the primary objectives of the ENERGY-NET project is to develop a rich set of experimental learning activities that are presented as exhibits at the Carnegie Museum of Natural History in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (USA). Here we detail the evolution of the ENERGY-NET exhibit building process and the subsequent evolution of exhibit content over the past three years. While preliminary plans included the development of five "exploration stations" (i.e., traveling activity carts) per calendar year, the opportunity arose to create a single, larger topical exhibit per semester, which was assumed to have a greater impact on museum visitors. Evaluative assessments conducted to date reveal important practices to be incorporated into ongoing exhibit development: 1) Undergraduate mentors and teen exhibit developers should receive additional content training to allow richer exhibit materials. 2) The development process should be distributed over as long a time period as possible and emphasize iteration. This project can serve as a model for other collaborations between geoscience departments and museums. In particular, these practices may streamline development of public presentations and increase the effectiveness of experimental learning activities.

  4. Renewable building energy systems and passive human comfort solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omer, Abdeen Mustafa [17 Juniper Court, Forest Road West, Nottingham NG7 4EU (United Kingdom)

    2008-08-15

    With environmental protection posing as the number one global problem, man has no choice but to reduce his energy consumption. One way to accomplish this is to resort to passive and low-energy systems to maintain thermal comfort in buildings. The conventional and modern designs of wind towers can successfully be used in hot arid regions to maintain thermal comfort (with or without the use of ceiling fans) during all hours of the cooling season, or a fraction of it. Climatic design is one of the best approaches to reduce the energy cost in buildings. Proper design is the first step of defence against the stress of the climate. Buildings should be designed according to the climate of the site, reducing the need for mechanical heating or cooling. Hence maximum natural energy can be used for creating a pleasant environment inside the built envelope. Technology and industry progress in the last decade diffused electronic and informatics' devices in many human activities, and also in building construction. The utilisation and operating opportunities components, increase the reduction of heat losses by varying the thermal insulation, optimise the lighting distribution with louver screens and operate mechanical ventilation for coolness in indoor spaces. In addition to these parameters the intelligent envelope can act for security control and became an important part of the building domotic revolution. Application of simple passive cooling measure is effective in reducing the cooling load of buildings in hot and humid climates. Fourty-three percent reductions can be achieved using a combination of well-established technologies such as glazing, shading, insulation, and natural ventilation. More advanced passive cooling techniques such as roof pond, dynamic insulation, and evaporative water jacket need to be considered more closely. The building sector is a major consumer of both energy and materials worldwide, and that consumption is increasing. Most industrialised

  5. Evaluation of influence on environment exerted by nuclear and non-nuclear energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Kazuto

    1981-10-01

    Mankind must consume some form of energy, therefore, it is meaningless to discuss the danger or safety of atomic energy only, and the discussion should be made in comparison with the safety when other energy resources are used. The upper limit of the use of fossil fuel is not determined by its amount of deposits, but the danger of changing the climate by the greenhouse effect of carbon dioxide is a serious problem. This book is originated from the text for the one-day seminar on the comparison of the influence on environment exerted by atomic energy and other energy resources, held by the Atomic Energy Information Center on August 29, 1980, of which the contents were made more circumstantial by adding many new data and discussions. Almost all influences produced by the use of energy are treated in it. It is the result of discussions with many experts in the world. The logics of introducing atomic energy, radioactivity, ordinary chemical contamination, chemical carcinogen, large accidents, acid rain, the change of climate due to carbon dioxide and other causes, the effect of greenhouse effect on human society, and the actual state of greenhouse effect and the countermeasures are discussed. (Kako, I.)

  6. Human resources challenges for wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cottingham, C. [Electricity Sector Council, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    The potential role of the Electricity Sector Council in wind power workforce development was reviewed. Canada is a major exporter of electricity, and production of electricity in the country has grown by 10 per cent in the last 10 years. The electric industry has become increasingly interested in the development of renewable and sustainable energy sources in order to reduce the environmental impacts of electricity production and use, as well to address potential supply shortages. However, total labour force growth in Canada is expected to drop to 0.5 per cent by 2010, and is expected to keep falling. Engineering and science enrolments in post-secondary institutions are declining. Many immigrants to Canada choose to settle in metropolitan areas, and only 4 in 10 immigrants are able to achieve validation of their credentials in the Canadian education system. One-third of Canadian employees are expected to retire in the next 8 years. The wind energy sector is the fastest growing energy source sector in Canada, and there are limited training facilities available. Competency profiles for roles in the industry are not clearly defined. Many provinces have very little development to support or sustain educational services for wind power training. This presentation suggested that the wind energy sector should prepare for the anticipated workforce shortage by planning training programs and building partnerships in workforce development. Investments in wind power research and development should have contract provisions regarding labour and skills development. Retiring electricity workers may provide a source of labour support. Sector councils provide a neutral forum for employers, educators, and employees, with a focus on human resource development for specific industry sectors. The councils represent an estimated 45 to 50 per cent of the labour market, and have significant federal funding. The Electricity Sector Council offers advanced career and workforce training; youth

  7. Chemical energy powered nano/micro/macromotors and the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moo, James Guo Sheng; Pumera, Martin

    2015-01-02

    The rise of miniaturized artificial self-powered devices, demonstrating autonomous motion, has brought in new considerations from the environmental perspective. This review addresses the interplay between these nano/micro/macromotors and the environment, recent advances, and their applications in pollution management. Such self-propelled devices are able to actuate chemical energy into mechanical motion in situ, adding another powerful dimension towards solving environmental problems. Use of synthetic nano/micro/macromotors has demonstrated potential in environmental remediation, both in pollutant removal and contaminant degradation, owing to motion-induced mixing. At the same time, the chemical environment exerts influence on the locomotion of the motors. These sensitized self-powered devices demonstrate capabilities for being deployed as sensors and their chemotactic behaviors show efficacy to act as first responders towards a chemical leakage. Thus, the notion of a self-propelling entity also entails further investigation into its inherent toxicity and possible implications as a pollutant. Future challenges and outlook of the use of these miniaturized devices are discussed, with specific regard to the fields of environmental remediation and monitoring, as we move towards their wider acceptance. We believe that these tiny machines will stand up to the task as solutions for environmental sustainability in the 21st century. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Coupled human-environment timelines of SWP small island societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reenberg, Anette; Birch-Thomsen, Torben; Fog, Bjarne

    2007-01-01

    despite an increase in de facto population (47% from 1966-2006). A questionnaire survey of 48 households provide data on the entire household livelihood portfolio and reveal that the natural resources remains a widespread activity, yet increasingly supplemented by other income generating activities( ex....... shop keeping, private business, government employment). Group interviews have been employed to reveal how local farmers perceive cause-effect relationships between societal and ecological events and their individual and collective management of resources. The coupled human-environment timelines...

  9. Human performance data collected in a virtual environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashrura Musharraf

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This data article describes the experimental data used in the research article “Incorporating individual differences in human reliability analysis: an extension to the virtual experimental technique” (Musharraf et al., 2017 [1]. The article provides human performance data for 36 individuals collected using a virtual environment. Each participant was assigned to one of two groups for training: 1 G1: high level training and 2 G2: low level training. Participants’ performance was tested in 4 different virtual scenarios with different levels of visibility and complexity. Several performance metrics of the participants were recorded during each scenario. The metrics include: time to muster, time spent running, interaction with fire doors and watertight doors, interaction with hazards, and reporting at different muster locations.

  10. Human performance data collected in a virtual environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musharraf, Mashrura; Smith, Jennifer; Khan, Faisal; Veitch, Brian; MacKinnon, Scott

    2017-12-01

    This data article describes the experimental data used in the research article "Incorporating individual differences in human reliability analysis: an extension to the virtual experimental technique" (Musharraf et al., 2017) [1]. The article provides human performance data for 36 individuals collected using a virtual environment. Each participant was assigned to one of two groups for training: 1) G1: high level training and 2) G2: low level training. Participants' performance was tested in 4 different virtual scenarios with different levels of visibility and complexity. Several performance metrics of the participants were recorded during each scenario. The metrics include: time to muster, time spent running, interaction with fire doors and watertight doors, interaction with hazards, and reporting at different muster locations.

  11. Utilizing the Human, Machine, and Environment Matrix in investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curry, David; McKinney, John M.

    2006-01-01

    'How did we get into this situation?' How many times has this question been asked at the outset of an investigation, or more importantly, at the completion of an investigation? If the answer is not readily and thoroughly apparent, the investigation is not complete. Subsequently, those who will have the responsibility for correction of the conditions leading to the incident will not have all the information necessary to properly complete their task. For many years, in many writings, the Human/Machine interaction and its impact on process design has been discussed. The same impact should be examined when performing incident investigations. Consideration of the interaction of human and machine along with the environment in which they are used has long been recommended by the National Safety Council, in both design and investigation

  12. Radiation in the human environment: health effects, safety and acceptability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, A.J.; Anderer, J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports selectively on three other aspects of radiation (used throughout to mean ionizing radiation) in the human environment: the human health effects of radiation, radiation safety policy and practices, and the acceptability of scientifically justified practices involving radiation exposures. Our argument is that the science of radiation biology, the judgemental techniques of radiation safety, and the social domain of radiation acceptability express different types of expertise that should complement - and not conflict with or substitute for - one another. Unfortunately, communication problems have arisen among these three communities and even between the various disciplines represented within a community. These problems have contributed greatly to the misperceptions many people have about radiation and which are frustrating a constructive dialogue on how radiation can be harnessed to benefit mankind. Our analysis seeks to assist those looking for a strategic perspective from which to reflect on their interaction with practices involving radiation exposures. (author)

  13. Human exposure, biomarkers, and fate of organotins in the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoro, Hussein K; Fatoki, Olalekan S; Adekola, Folahan A; Ximba, Bhekumusa J; Snyman, Reinette G; Opeolu, Beatrice

    2011-01-01

    Organotin compounds result from the addition of organic moieties to inorganic tin.Thus, one or more tin-carbon bonds exist in each organotin molecule. The organo-tin compounds are ubiquitous in the environment. Organotin compounds have many uses, including those as fungicides and stabilizers in plastics, among others in industry. The widespread use of organotins as antifouling agents in boat paints has resulted in pollution of freshwater and marine ecosystems. The presence of organotin compounds in freshwater and marine ecosystems is now understood to be a threat, because of the amounts found in water and the toxicity of some organotin compounds to aquatic organisms, and perhaps to humans as well. Organotin com-pounds are regarded by many to be global pollutants of a stature similar to biphenyl,mercury, and the polychlorinated dibenzodioxins. This stature results from the high toxicity, persistence, bioaccumulation, and endocrine disruptive features of even very low levels of selected organotin compounds.Efforts by selected governmental agencies and others have been undertaken to find a global solution to organotin pollution. France was the first country to ban the use of the organotins in 1980. This occurred before the international maritime organization (IMO) called for a global treaty to ban the application of tributyltin (TBT)-based paints. In this chapter, we review the organotin compounds with emphasis on the human exposure, fate, and distribution of them in the environment. The widespread use of the organotins and their high stability have led to contamination of some aquatic ecosystems. As a result, residues of the organotins may reach humans via food consumption. Notwithstanding the risk of human exposure, only limited data are available on the levels at which the organotins exist in foodstuffs consumed by humans. Moreover, the response of marine species to the organotins, such as TBT, has not been thoroughly investigated. Therefore, more data on the

  14. Economically viable and environment-friendly hydro energy in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saks, Ants; Velner, Harald

    2001-01-01

    Hydro energy has been in oblivion in Estonia for about 30 years now. During the 1960s, most of Estonia's small hydropower plants were closed down, just as it was done in the whole Soviet Union. As the only larger hydro plant, the 125 MW plant in Narva, was situated on the Russian side of the Narva River, there were only two or three small hydro plants left. Even those were exploited at low capacity and mainly for heating the buildings. It was not until the 1990s that a number of enthusiasts started to re-establish the hydro plants by reconstructing old installations. The pre-feasibility study 'Hydropower in Estonia' proposed by Estonian and Swedish experts, showed that the restoration of the hydropower plants and watermills is economically feasible and technically possible if advanced technology is used. Hydropower as an alternative ('green') energy source should be used in the best technical-economical way. The first pilot plant in Estonia, the 200 kW Kamari plant was constructed in 1998 with compact-propeller units, in co-operation with Waterpumps WP Oy and ABB. Today, ten new plants have been constructed or are under construction. Hydropower plants/watermills should be reconstructed in accordance with the legislative acts on environment protection

  15. Adaptations to local environments in modern human populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Choongwon; Di Rienzo, Anna

    2014-12-01

    After leaving sub-Saharan Africa around 50000-100000 years ago, anatomically modern humans have quickly occupied extremely diverse environments. Human populations were exposed to further environmental changes resulting from cultural innovations, such as the spread of farming, which gave rise to new selective pressures related to pathogen exposures and dietary shifts. In addition to changing the frequency of individual adaptive alleles, natural selection may also shape the overall genetic architecture of adaptive traits. Here, we review recent advances in understanding the genetic architecture of adaptive human phenotypes based on insights from the studies of lactase persistence, skin pigmentation and high-altitude adaptation. These adaptations evolved in parallel in multiple human populations, providing a chance to investigate independent realizations of the evolutionary process. We suggest that the outcome of adaptive evolution is often highly variable even under similar selective pressures. Finally, we highlight a growing need for detecting adaptations that did not follow the classical sweep model and for incorporating new sources of genetic evidence such as information from ancient DNA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Economy, energy and environment - Methods to analyze connections; Ekonomi, energi och miljoe - metoder att analysera samband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlroth, Sofia; Finnveden, Goeran; Hochschorner Elisabeth [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Industrial Ecology; Ekvall, Thomas [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Energy Systems Technology; Wadeskog, Anders; Palm, Viveka [Statistics Sweden, Stockholm (Sweden). Environmental Accounts

    2003-12-01

    This report gives a review of instruments that can be used for finding economic, structural and environmental effects of decisions in the environmental area, and describe what is possible to achieve, economically and technically. Twelve different aspects are used for characterizing the instruments. Applications and limitations of the instruments are discussed. For many instruments there exists a lively discussion on their weaknesses and limitations. We focus on system analytical instruments, i.e. environment-economic methods, energy and energy-economic modelling and environment-system-analytical tools In the economic area we discuss I/O-analyses, CGE-models and econometric models as well as a few descriptive analytica tools: Cost-benefit analysis, CBA and Life Cycle Analyses.

  17. Energy in the urban environment: the role of energy use and energy efficiency in buildings; Final

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, Mark D.; Meier, Alan K.

    1999-01-01

    A century ago, the world had many cities of which the greatest were magnificent centers of culture and commerce. However, even in the most industrialized countries at the time, only a tiny fraction of the people lived in these cities. Most people lived in rural areas, in small towns, in villages, and on farms. Visits to a great city were, for most of the population, uncommon events often of great fascination. The world has changed dramatically in the intervening years. Now most of the industrial world lives in urban areas in close proximity to large cities. Industry is often located in these vast urban areas. As the urbanized zones grow in extent, they begin to approach one another, as on the East Coast of the United States. The phenomenon of urbanization has moved to developing countries as well. There has been a flood of migrants who have left impoverished rural areas to seek economic opportunities in urban areas throughout the developing world. This movement from the countryside to cities has changed the entire landscape and economies of developing nations. Importantly, the growth of cities places very great demands on infrastructure. Transportation systems are needed to assure that a concentrated population can receive food from the countryside without fail. They are needed to assure personal and work-related travel. Water supplies must be created, water must be purified and maintained pure, and this water must be made available to a large population. Medical services - and a host of other vital services - must be provided to the population. Energy is a vital underpinning of all these activities, and must be supplied to the city in large quantities. Energy is, in many ways, the enabler of all the other services on which the maintenance of urban life depends. In this paper, we will discuss the evolution of energy use in residential and commercial buildings. This topic goes beyond urban energy use, as buildings exist in both urban and non-urban areas. The topic

  18. Economy, energy and environment in the Netherlands, 1980-2000. Economie, energie en milieu in Nederland, 1980-2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Driehuis, W; van Ierland, E C; van den Noord, P J

    1983-01-01

    The CE (Center for Energy conservation) has developed an energy policy plan based on energy conservation (families and industries), total energy systems, intensivation of non fossil energy sources like wind power, solar energy, biogas, geothermal energy and non use of nuclear energy in the Netherlands (CE-scenario). This energy plan is compared with the Netherlands Energy Plan developed for the Broad Public Discussion and meant as unchanged policy (Reference-scenario) and an energy policy plan based on a somewhat different energy plan with a somewhat lower aggregation level based on the same starting points. A summary is given of the data of the Reference-scenario, the basic projection and the CE-scenario. Among others the data refer to the Netherlands' energy consumption in million ton oil equivalents MTOE, welfare, unemployment and environment indicators. As environment indicators are summed up sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and radioactive waste.

  19. THE RIGHT TO A CLEAN ENVIRONMENT. INTERNATIONAL RECOGNITION OF A HUMAN RIGHT TO A CLEAN ENVIRONEMENT BY ECTHR JURISPRUDENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Oana Maria HANCIU

    2015-01-01

    European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) does not specifically recognize a right to a clean environment, nor speaks specifically about environmental issues. However, there are many cases in the ECtHR jurisprudence which indirectly have a linkage with environmental protection. Often, throughout its decisions, ECtHR considers a positive obligation of States to take all necessary measures to protect human life and thus to provide a suitable environment for human living. The paper analyses the ...

  20. Technical energy savings versus changes in human behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    1996-01-01

    Energy savings seems to be the most environmentally benign element in an energy policy. The paper is a reflection on the work on saving energy both by improving technology and by adapting human daily behaviour. A simple model is suggested for the energy chain which converts the primary energy all...... the way into human satisfaction via energy services. Results of various analyses and field experiments show saving potentials for electricity of 50 - 80 per cents. Barriers for implementing these technical saving options are discussed. Also the necessity and potentials for changing behavioural or life...

  1. Renewable energy sources project appraisal under uncertainty: the case of wind energy exploitation within a changing energy market environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venetsanos, K.; Angelopoulou, P.; Tsoutsos, T.

    2002-01-01

    There are four elements, which contribute to the oncoming increase of electricity demand: climate changes, the expected growth rates of EU Member State economies, changes in the consumption patterns and the introduction of new technologies. The new deregulated Electricity Market is expected to respond to this challenge and the energy supply will be adequate and cost effective within this new environment which offers promising opportunities for power producers both existing and newcomers. In this paper a framework for the appraisal of power projects under uncertainty within a competitive market environment is identified, focusing on the electricity from Renewable Energy Sources. To this end the wind energy-to-electricity, production in Greece will serve as a case study. The subject matter is centred on the following areas: the uncertainties within the new deregulated energy market; the evaluation methods including an analysis of the introduced uncertainties after deregulation and a new approach to project evaluation using the real options, as well as comparison of the valuation methodologies within the new environment drawing from the case for Greece. (author)

  2. Energy and environment annual report 1974. [Environmental Research programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumstein, C. (ed.)

    1974-01-01

    Research in the Division's environmental science program includes air pollution, water pollution, and the effects of pollutants on man and natural ecosystems. Work has focused on the chemistry and physics of particle surfaces. Using the technique of electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA), surface reactions of sulfur and nitrogen compounds have been studied, and results include the identification of new chemical forms of nitrogen on particle surfaces and evidence for the importance of particle surfaces in the catalysis of sulfur dioxide to sulfuric acid. The Division's work in water pollution has been devoted to the study of trace metals in the estuarine environment, especially in San Francisco Bay. Studies on the effect of dredging operations on trace metals in the Mare Island ship channel and on the distribution of cadmium in Bay sediments have been performed. Research has also been conducted on the distribution of trace elements between bound states on suspended particles and in solution in Bay waters. Research is being conducted on a variety of problems relating to effects of pollutants. Biological studies seeking to discover effects of specific environmental insults such as oxidants at the cellular level have been done, and epidemiological studies have been initiated on the impacts of trace metals on human health. Theoretical studies in an attempt to develop a basis for assessing the stability of ecological systems are also being undertaken.

  3. IN SITU GEOTHERMAL ENERGY TECHNOLOGY: AN APPROACH FOR BUILDING CLEANER AND GREENER ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Faruque Hossain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Geothermal energy is abundant everywhere in the world. It certainly would be a great benefit for human being once it is produced by a sophisticated technology. Consequently, it would be the biggest console for earth considering environmental sustainability. Unfortunately, the current status of commercial production of geothermal energy primarily from hydrothermal, geopressured, hot dry rock, and magma are limited to a few countries due to technological difficulties and production cost. This paper describes a simple technology where an in situ geothermal plant assisted by a heat pump would act as a high-temperature production (>150°C to provide excellent capacity of energy generation. The issue related to costs is interestingly cheaper on production, comparing to other technologies, such as solar, hydro, wind, and traditional geothermal technology as described in this article. Therefore, it is suggested that heat pump assisted in situ geothermal energy sources has a great potentiality to be a prime energy source in near future. Since the technology has a number of positive characteristics (simple, safe, and provides continuous baseload, load following, or peaking capacity and benign environmental attributes (zero emissions of CO2, SOx, and NOx, it certainly would be an interesting technology in both developed, and developing countries as an attractive option to produce clean energy to confirm a better environment.

  4. Energy market environments in Europe and the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puettgen, H.B.; Haubrich, H.J.; Stotz, J.; Winje, D.; Klappa, G.; Denton, D.H.

    1997-01-01

    On July 21, the technical program of the IEEE Power Engineering Society (PES) 1997 Summer Meeting began with a joint plenary, cosponsored by VDE-ETG. Simultaneous translation allowed the audience to listen to the presentations in either German or English. Emerging Energy Market Environments in Europe and the United states was chaired by H.J. Haubrich, RWTH, and H.B. Puettgen, Georgia Institute of Technology. Following welcome addresses and introductory remarks by E.F. Peschke, chair or the local organizing committee, K. Bechtold, BEWAG, Berlin, H. Wolters, VDE chair, L. Bochanky, ETG chair, Charles K. Alexander, IEEE president, and Robert A. Dent, PES president, the following presentations were given: The Process of Integration of the East and West European Networks, Juergen Stotz, VEAG, Germany; Electric Power Turns into a Commodity: A Change of Paradigm in the Power Industry, Dietmar Winje, BEWAG, Germany; The Brave New World of Customer Satisfaction, Gale Klappa, Southwest Utilities, United Kingdom; Deregulation Risks and Opportunities, Donald H. Denton, Jr., Duke Power Company, United States. Summaries of the four presentations are included

  5. Some aspects on hydraulic energy and environment in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvarli, Huseyin

    2006-01-01

    Turkey is not rich in petroleum and natural gas resources and is dependent on energy. Electricity generation in Turkey from its own domestic resources is, at present, about 40% and is expected to be at 20% by the year 2020. It has been planned that the maximum capacity for hydraulic and other national resources will be reached by the year 2020. This means that the total electricity generated by domestic resources is to be 245 TWh/yr, and the remaining electricity demand of about 302 TWh/yr for the year 2020 must be ensured by imported resources. In Turkey, hydropower projects are part of integrated water resources development. Most new powerplants will be developed as build, operate and transfer (BOT) or build, own and operate (BOO ) projects with the private sector. It is expected that many foreign investors and financiers will also be interested in the Turkish hydropower market. For a sustainable development the next investments should be made for clean technologies such as hydropower. Depending upon the latest technological developments, other economic and political factors will also affect the quality of the environment

  6. Some aspects on hydraulic energy and environment in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huseyin Salvarli [Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir (Turkey). Izmir Vocational School

    2006-12-15

    Turkey is not rich in petroleum and natural gas resources and is dependent on energy. Electricity generation in Turkey from its own domestic resources is, at present, about 40% and is expected to be at 20% by the year 2020. It has been planned that the maximum capacity for hydraulic and other national resources will be reached by the year 2020. This means that the total electricity generated by domestic resources is to be 245 TWh/yr, and the remaining electricity demand of about 302 TWh/yr for the year 2020 must be ensured by imported resources. In Turkey, hydropower projects are part of integrated water resources development. Most new powerplants will be developed as build, operate and transfer (BOT) or build, own and operate (BOO ) projects with the private sector. It is expected that many foreign investors and financiers will also be interested in the Turkish hydropower market. For a sustainable development the next investments should be made for clean technologies such as hydropower. Depending upon the latest technological developments, other economic and political factors will also affect the quality of the environment. (author)

  7. Some aspects on hydraulic energy and environment in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvarli, Huseyin [Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir Vocational School, 35160 Buca-Izmir (Turkey)]. E-mail: huseyin.salvarli@deu.edu.tr

    2006-12-15

    Turkey is not rich in petroleum and natural gas resources and is dependent on energy. Electricity generation in Turkey from its own domestic resources is, at present, about 40% and is expected to be at 20% by the year 2020. It has been planned that the maximum capacity for hydraulic and other national resources will be reached by the year 2020. This means that the total electricity generated by domestic resources is to be 245 TWh/yr, and the remaining electricity demand of about 302 TWh/yr for the year 2020 must be ensured by imported resources. In Turkey, hydropower projects are part of integrated water resources development. Most new powerplants will be developed as build, operate and transfer (BOT) or build, own and operate (BOO ) projects with the private sector. It is expected that many foreign investors and financiers will also be interested in the Turkish hydropower market. For a sustainable development the next investments should be made for clean technologies such as hydropower. Depending upon the latest technological developments, other economic and political factors will also affect the quality of the environment.

  8. Energy pricing and implications for the Nigerian environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwayemi, A.

    1999-01-01

    Energy pricing has been shown to have direct impact on energy demand and hence on energy efficiency. Regulated pricing which is below actual production price encourages inefficient use of energy with sometimes associated environmental problems. The important consideration presently being given to development of energy in an environmentally safe and economically prosperous society implies that energy pricing an play an important role in achieving these objectives

  9. Estimating physical activity energy expenditure with the Kinect Sensor in an exergaming environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Nathan

    Full Text Available Active video games that require physical exertion during game play have been shown to confer health benefits. Typically, energy expended during game play is measured using devices attached to players, such as accelerometers, or portable gas analyzers. Since 2010, active video gaming technology incorporates marker-less motion capture devices to simulate human movement into game play. Using the Kinect Sensor and Microsoft SDK this research aimed to estimate the mechanical work performed by the human body and estimate subsequent metabolic energy using predictive algorithmic models. Nineteen University students participated in a repeated measures experiment performing four fundamental movements (arm swings, standing jumps, body-weight squats, and jumping jacks. Metabolic energy was captured using a Cortex Metamax 3B automated gas analysis system with mechanical movement captured by the combined motion data from two Kinect cameras. Estimations of the body segment properties, such as segment mass, length, centre of mass position, and radius of gyration, were calculated from the Zatsiorsky-Seluyanov's equations of de Leva, with adjustment made for posture cost. GPML toolbox implementation of the Gaussian Process Regression, a locally weighted k-Nearest Neighbour Regression, and a linear regression technique were evaluated for their performance on predicting the metabolic cost from new feature vectors. The experimental results show that Gaussian Process Regression outperformed the other two techniques by a small margin. This study demonstrated that physical activity energy expenditure during exercise, using the Kinect camera as a motion capture system, can be estimated from segmental mechanical work. Estimates for high-energy activities, such as standing jumps and jumping jacks, can be made accurately, but for low-energy activities, such as squatting, the posture of static poses should be considered as a contributing factor. When translated into the

  10. Influence of horse stable environment on human airways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfman, Lena; Riihimäki, Miia; Pringle, John; Wålinder, Robert

    2009-05-25

    Many people spend considerable amount of time each day in equine stable environments either as employees in the care and training of horses or in leisure activity. However, there are few studies available on how the stable environment affects human airways. This study examined in one horse stable qualitative differences in indoor air during winter and late summer conditions and assessed whether air quality was associated with clinically detectable respiratory signs or alterations to selected biomarkers of inflammation and lung function in stable personnel. The horse stable environment and stable-workers (n = 13) in one stable were investigated three times; first in the winter, second in the interjacent late summer and the third time in the following winter stabling period. The stable measurements included levels of ammonia, hydrogen sulphide, total and respirable dust, airborne horse allergen, microorganisms, endotoxin and glucan. The stable-workers completed a questionnaire on respiratory symptoms, underwent nasal lavage with subsequent analysis of inflammation markers, and performed repeated measurements of pulmonary function. Measurements in the horse stable showed low organic dust levels and high horse allergen levels. Increased viable level of fungi in the air indicated a growing source in the stable. Air particle load as well as 1,3-beta-glucan was higher at the two winter time-points, whereas endotoxin levels were higher at the summer time-point. Two stable-workers showed signs of bronchial obstruction with increased PEF-variability, increased inflammation biomarkers relating to reported allergy, cold or smoking and reported partly work-related symptoms. Furthermore, two other stable-workers reported work-related airway symptoms, of which one had doctor's diagnosed asthma which was well treated. Biomarkers involved in the development of airway diseases have been studied in relation to environmental exposure levels in equine stables. Respirable dust and 1

  11. Influence of horse stable environment on human airways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pringle John

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many people spend considerable amount of time each day in equine stable environments either as employees in the care and training of horses or in leisure activity. However, there are few studies available on how the stable environment affects human airways. This study examined in one horse stable qualitative differences in indoor air during winter and late summer conditions and assessed whether air quality was associated with clinically detectable respiratory signs or alterations to selected biomarkers of inflammation and lung function in stable personnel. Methods The horse stable environment and stable-workers (n = 13 in one stable were investigated three times; first in the winter, second in the interjacent late summer and the third time in the following winter stabling period. The stable measurements included levels of ammonia, hydrogen sulphide, total and respirable dust, airborne horse allergen, microorganisms, endotoxin and glucan. The stable-workers completed a questionnaire on respiratory symptoms, underwent nasal lavage with subsequent analysis of inflammation markers, and performed repeated measurements of pulmonary function. Results Measurements in the horse stable showed low organic dust levels and high horse allergen levels. Increased viable level of fungi in the air indicated a growing source in the stable. Air particle load as well as 1,3-β-glucan was higher at the two winter time-points, whereas endotoxin levels were higher at the summer time-point. Two stable-workers showed signs of bronchial obstruction with increased PEF-variability, increased inflammation biomarkers relating to reported allergy, cold or smoking and reported partly work-related symptoms. Furthermore, two other stable-workers reported work-related airway symptoms, of which one had doctor's diagnosed asthma which was well treated. Conclusion Biomarkers involved in the development of airway diseases have been studied in relation to

  12. Extending human potential in a technical learning environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielden, Kay A.

    This thesis is a report of a participatory inquiry process looking at enhancing the learning process in a technical academic field in high education by utilising tools and techniques which go beyond the rational/logical, intellectual domain in a functional, objective world. By empathising with, nurturing and sustaining the whole person, and taking account of past patterning as well as future visions including technological advances to augment human awareness, the scene is set for depth learning. Depth learning in a tertiary environment can only happen as a result of the dynamic that exists between the dominant, logical/rational, intellectual paradigm and the experiential extension of the boundaries surrounding this domain. Any experiences which suppress the full, holistic expression of our being alienate us from the fullness of the expression and hence from depth learning. Depth learning is indicated by intrinsic motivation, which is more likely to occur in a trusting and supporting environment. The research took place within a systemic intellectual framework, where emergence is the prime characteristic used to evaluate results.

  13. Servey of the oil and gas pollutant impacts on the human and environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Dobaradaran

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Oil has vital importance in many industries and is the main source of energy internationally it supplies 32% of energy in Europe and Asia and more than 53% in Middle East. The most volume of oil industry products includes fuel oil and gasoline (diesel. Oil is used as the basic material in producing chemical products such as medicines, solvents, chemical fertilizers, pesticides and etc. Considering the importance of petroleum industry in the world we should not ignore its harms to humans and the environment and should look for solutions to reduce them. Nowaday petroleum refineries emit million pounds of air pollutants that pose a serious risk of harm to human health and the environment as well as impairs the life quality of the people that living nearby these industries. These pollutants consist of volatile organic compounds, SO2, NOx, particulate matter, CO, H2S and HAPs. These pollutants have different adverse impacts on different parts of ecosystem, environment and animals. So this paper deals with some of these problems.

  14. Energy, environment and sustainable development - tough decisions for a democracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossin, A.D.

    1994-01-01

    Electricity is recognized to be essential to attaining even minimum modern levels of human welfare in any country. However, where electricity is available, the public shows little concern about where it comes from or what it takes to make sure supply continues to be adequate. In the next century, the world will have to face the difficult decision about the long-term use of plutonium as fuel, and deal with its implications for nonproliferation. What the United States does on this issue will affect all nations, and particularly those around the Pacific Basin. How do responsible leaders set rational priorities in a democracy, when every issue has its vocal advocates and the news media can reach every household? If democracies are to avoid the down side risks of energy shortages, leadership will have to emerge that has the courage to tell the people the truth, by providing scientific facts and explanations in terms that people can understand. The issues discussed in this paper illustrate how policies are being decided by populism and not by leaders on the basics of scientific evidence. 2 refs

  15. Law in Transition Biblioessay: Globalization, Human Rights, Environment, Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Marien

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available As globalization continues, many transformations in international and domestic laws areunderway or called for. There are too many laws and too few, too much law that is inadequateor obsolete, and too much law-breaking. This biblioessay covers some 100 recentbooks, nearly all recently published, arranged in four categories. 1 International Lawincludes six overviews/textbooks on comparative law, laws related to warfare and security,pushback against demands of globalization, and gender perspectives; 2 Human Rightsencompasses general overviews and normative visions, several books on how some statesviolate human rights, five items on how good laws can end poverty and promote prosperity,and laws regulating working conditions and health rights; 3 Environment/Resources coversgrowth of international environmental law, visions of law for a better environmental future,laws to govern genetic resources and increasingly stressed water resources, two books onprospects for climate change liability, and items on toxic hazards and problems of compliance;4 Technology, Etc. identifies eight books on global crime and the failed war on drugs,books on the response to terrorism and guarding privacy and mobility in our high-tech age,seven books on how infotech is changing law and legal processes while raising intellectualproperty questions, biomedical technologies and the law, and general views on the need forupdated laws and constitutions. In sum, this essay suggests the need for deeper and timelyanalysis of the many books on changes in law.

  16. Whole high-quality light environment for humans and plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharakshane, Anton

    2017-11-01

    Plants sharing a single light environment on a spaceship with a human being and bearing a decorative function should look as natural and attractive as possible. And consequently they can be illuminated only with white light with a high color rendering index. Can lighting optimized for a human eye be effective and appropriate for plants? Spectrum-based effects have been compared under artificial lighting of plants by high-pressure sodium lamps and general-purpose white LEDs. It has been shown that for the survey sample phytochrome photo-equilibria does not depend significantly on the parameters of white LED light, while the share of phytoactive blue light grows significantly as the color temperature increases. It has been revealed that yield photon flux is proportional to luminous efficacy and increases as the color temperature decreases, general color rendering index Ra and the special color rendering index R14 (green leaf) increase. General-purpose white LED lamps with a color temperature of 2700 K, Ra > 90 and luminous efficacy of 100 lm/W are as efficient as the best high-pressure sodium lamps, and at a higher luminous efficacy their yield photon flux per joule is even bigger in proportion. Here we show that demand for high color rendering white LED light is not contradictory to the agro-technical objectives.

  17. Environment as reflected in human tissue and hair: a comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dale, I.M.; Lenihan, J.M.A.; Smith, H.

    1974-01-01

    This study looks at variations in trace metal content of a range of human tissues over a period of 10 years, extended comparison of metal concentrations in hair specimens over 200 years, the influence of geographical location on trace element levels in hair and nails and investigates groups of people with particular exposure problems. It is found that there has been little or no change in the concentration of some of the trace elements in human tissue over the past ten years. An extended survey of hair over the past 200 years shows a similar result. Investigation of trace element levels from widely separated localities also indicates little or no change in metal concentrations. It appears from these studies that man's contamination from his environment has remained fairly constant with respect to time and place. However it is shown in further studies that local pockets of significant exposure, e.g., particular professions, industry, agriculture and self-medication, do occur and certainly warrant close attention

  18. Psychological biases affecting human cognitive performance in dynamic operational environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takano, Kenichi; Reason, J.

    1999-01-01

    In order to identify cognitive error mechanisms observed in the dynamic operational environment, the following materials were analyzed giving special attention to psychological biases, together with possible cognitive tasks and these location, and internal and external performance shaping factors: (a) 13 human factors analyses of US nuclear power plant accidents, (b) 14 cases of Japanese nuclear power plant incidents, and (c) 23 cases collected in simulator experiments. In the resulting analysis, the most frequently identified cognitive process associated with error productions was situation assessment, and following varieties were KB processes and response planning, all of that were the higher cognitive activities. Over 70% of human error cases, psychological bias was affecting to cognitive errors, especially those to higher cognitive activities. In addition, several error occurrence patterns, including relations between cognitive process, biases, and PSFs were identified by the multivariate analysis. According to the identified error patterns, functions that an operator support system have to equip were discussed and specified for design base considerations. (author)

  19. [Elderly human being with ostomy and environments of care: reflection on the perspective of complexity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Edaiane Joana Lima; Santos, Silvana Sidney Costa; Lunardi, Valéria Lerch; Lunardi Filho, Wilson Danilo

    2012-01-01

    This is discussion about the relationship between elderly human beings with ostomy and their environments care, under the perspective of Complexity Edgar Morin. An axis holds the reflection: environments of care for elderly humans with ostomy. In this sense, we present three types of environment that surround the context of elderly humans with ostomy: home environment, group environment and hospital environment. This brings, as a social contribution, a new look about resizing caring of elderly humans with ostomy in their environment. It is considered that the environment hosting this human being contains a diversity of feelings, emotions, experiences; it binds multiple meanings, from the Complexity perspective, about the relationship between the environment and the caring process.

  20. Assessment of anthropogen aerosols : influence on environment and human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwasny, F.

    2010-01-01

    The term aerosol describes a dispersion of liquid or solid particles in a gaseous medium, usually including particles at a size ranging from 0.001 to 100 μm. The size of an aerosol's particle is of special interest, as it influences its fate. Together with other physical properties like shape, density and mass of the particles, it defines the aerosol's possibilities of sedimentation, diffusion, dispersion, coagulation or impaction onto surfaces. As aerosols are by definition composed of a number of particles, this regime of constituent parts varies. Aerosols are well known with their common names such as dust, smoke, fume, fog, mist, spray or haze. The projects of this thesis deal with different aspects of anthropogenic aerosols. We investigated their influence on human health and environmental impact by looking at particle concentrations and size distributions of aerosols. Ultimately, we examined their fate in a human lung model to reveal a direct influence on humans. Our studies included brine inhalation at an open-air spa, exposure to ultrafine particles while driving a car through a heavy impacted environment, and the influence of aerosols on spectators while watching fireworks. In a project with the local environmental authorities we investigated the correlation of air quality, meteorological and traffic data with ultrafine particles. Resulting from our studies, we found beneficial effects of salt aerosols used for inhalation therapy, showing the positive influence in lung deposition, as well as, an effect on ultrafine particle inventory of the ambient air. Combustion aerosols and other man-made particulate matter proved to have adverse effects on human lung deposition, allowing ultrafine particles to reach deep into the human lung. This not only poses a threat to respiratory organs; particles can be translocated from the respiratory tract into the blood stream and from there to other organs, affecting the entire body. For the purpose of finding reasonable

  1. A survey on human behavior towards energy saving for office worker in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Nur Hanim; Husain, Mohd Nor; Aziz, Mohamad Zoinol Abidin Abdul; Othman, Mohd Azlishah; Malek, Fared

    2015-05-01

    Green environment is a space and energy efficient household, which can offer coziness and healthy living environment to its occupants. Human behavior is focuses to see the impact toward energy and also into green building. This probe can be taken in if everybody reads and share similar objectives in bringing off the energy in an efficient manner. This paper will present and watched over the survey feedback on energy usage by federal agency workers in Malaysia. The study will focus on the proletarians in the government sector since this population is the majority work in place. It is authoritative to present and support the tested data for a project doing, particularly connected to human existence. The matter is referred to discussing about human behavior to compare with the real situation information. Today, there are many researchers thought that the human activity as the primary ingredient for a monitoring arrangement. As a consequence, the energy monitoring system will improve the energy usage efficiency of the basic human actions in different places and surroundings.

  2. Recycling Energy to Restore Impaired Ankle Function during Human Walking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collins, S.H.; Kuo, A.D.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Humans normally dissipate significant energy during walking, largely at the transitions between steps. The ankle then acts to restore energy during push-off, which may be the reason that ankle impairment nearly always leads to poorer walking economy. The replacement of lost energy is

  3. Energy booklet. Energy saving tips for more pocket money and environment. Booklet 2; EnergieSparFibel. EnergieSparTipps fuer mehr Taschengeld und Umwelt. Heft 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The effective environmental protection begins when saving. Energy which is not used at all also cannot burden the environment. Pleasant side effect: also the purse is treated gently. One of the most important measures for the reduction of energy consumption is the correct thermal insulation of a building so that heating energy cannot escape unused in the free. Thus, between 50 and 75 per cent of energy can be saved. Investments within this range usually are profitable already after a short time. The utilization of damming materials from regenerative raw materials enables application of financial incentives. In addition, within other ranges of the house modernizations and a change of the behaviour of utilization help to save energy. The contribution under consideration gives advices in order to improve dwellings energy-technically. The environment and the purse will thank it.

  4. Energy booklet. Part 2. Energy saving tips for more pocket money and environment; EnergieFibel. Heft 2. EnergieSparTipps fuer mehr Taschengeld und Umwelt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    The effective environmental protection begins when saving. Energy which is not used at all also cannot burden the environment. Pleasant side effect: also the purse is treated gently. One of the most important measures for the reduction of energy consumption is the correct thermal insulation of a building so that heating energy cannot escape unused in the free. Thus, between 50 and 75 per cent of energy can be saved. Investments within this range usually are profitable already after a short time. The utilization of damming materials from regenerative raw materials enables application of financial incentives. In addition, within other ranges of the house modernizations and a change of the behaviour of utilization help to save energy. The contribution under consideration gives advices in order to improve dwellings energy-technically. The environment and the purse will thank it.

  5. Human Security and Energy Security: A Sustainable Energy System as a Public Good

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karlsson-Vinkhuyzen, S.I.S.E.; Jollands, N.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter is dedicated to the concept of human security and its link to energy and energy governance, particularly global energy governance. Through this focus emerges the need to look at the links between the concept of public goods and energy. Our starting argument is that conventional notions

  6. Wave energy transmission apparatus for high-temperature environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, John D. (Inventor); Edwards, William C. (Inventor); Kelliher, Warren C. (Inventor); Carlberg, Ingrid A. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A wave energy transmission apparatus has a conduit made from a refractory oxide. A transparent, refractory ceramic window is coupled to the conduit. Wave energy passing through the window enters the conduit.

  7. Energy scope of handoff strategies in macro-femtocell environments

    KAUST Repository

    Leon, Jaime; Bader, Faouzi; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2012-01-01

    Energy consumption in downlink mode is becoming an important topic as cellular communications grow into a large scale enterprise. The search for high rates keeping energy constraints low has put forward the idea that cells with smaller size may

  8. Opening the gas market - Effects on energy consumption, energy prices and the environment and compensation measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dettli, R.; Signer, B.; Kaufmann, Y.

    2001-01-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) examines the effects of a future liberalisation of the gas market in Switzerland. The report first examines the current situation of the gas supply industry in Switzerland. The contents of European Union Guidelines are described and their implementation in Switzerland is discussed. Experience already gained in other countries is looked at, including market opening already implemented in the USA and Great Britain. The effect of market-opening on gas prices is discussed; the various components of the gas price are examined and comparisons are made with international figures. The pressure of competition on the individual sectors of the gas industry are looked at and the perspectives in the gas purchasing market are examined. The report presents basic scenarios developed from these considerations. Further effects resulting from a market opening are discussed, including those on the structure of the gas industry, its participants, electricity generation, energy use and the environment, consumers in general, security of supply and the national economy. Possible compensatory measures are discussed and factors for increasing efficiency and the promotion of a competitive environment are discussed. In the appendix, two price scenarios are presented

  9. Energy, environment and economics: greenhouse policy in the balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkenfeld, G.L.

    1990-01-01

    Taking New South Wales as a case study, this paper reviews the government's major economic and environmental concerns, and analyses how they bear on energy and greenhouse policy options. The government's economic strategy emphasises the continuing importance of primary resources, minerals processing and energy-intensive manufacturing, where the State is perceived to have a competitive advantage because of its extensive coal resources. The implications of these trends for the energy utilities and for greenhouse energy policy are analysed. 22 refs., 1 tab

  10. CALORSTOCK'94. Thermal energy storage. Better economy, environment, technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kangas, M.T.; Lund, P.D.

    1994-01-01

    This publication is the first volume of the proceedings of CALORSTOCK'94, the sixth international conference on thermal energy storage held in Espoo, Finland on August 22-25, 1994. This volume contains 58 presentations from the following six sessions: Aquifer storage, integration into energy systems, Simulation models and design tools, IEA energy conservation through energy storage programme workshop, Earth coupled storage, District heating and utilities

  11. Do humans still forage in an obesogenic environment? Mechanisms and implications for weight maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunstrom, Jeffrey M; Cheon, Bobby K

    2018-02-19

    Many people struggle to control their food intake and bodyweight. This is often interpreted as evidence that humans are generally predisposed to consume food when it is available, because adiposity offered insurance against the threat of starvation in our ancestral environment. In this paper we suggest that modern humans have actually inherited a far broader range of foraging skills that continue to influence our dietary behaviour. To evaluate this idea, we identify three challenges that would need to be addressed to achieve efficient foraging; (1) monitoring the 'procurement cost' of foods, (2) determining the energy content of foods, and (3) proactively adapting to perceived food insecurity. In each case, we review evidence drawn from controlled and observational studies of contemporary humans and conclude that psychological mechanisms that address these challenges are conserved. For contemporary humans who live in fast-paced obesogenic environments, this foraging 'toolkit' no longer serves the same function to which it was adapted, and in many cases, this leads to an increase in food intake. Understanding these forms of 'evolutionary mismatch' is important because it can provide a stronger theoretical basis for informed dietary interventions that leverage fundamental foraging goals rather than work against them. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Local Measurement of Fuel Energy Deposition and Heat Transfer Environment During Fuel Lifetime Using Controlled Calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Don W. Miller; Andrew Kauffmann; Eric Kreidler; Dongxu Li; Hanying Liu; Daniel Mills; Thomas D. Radcliff; Joseph Talnagi

    2001-01-01

    A comprehensive description of the accomplishments of the DOE grant titled, ''Local Measurement of Fuel Energy Deposition and Heat Transfer Environment During Fuel Lifetime using Controlled Calorimetry''

  13. Renewable energies, development, and environment: discourses, realities, and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    After two contributions describing the context of renewable energies and their different objectives and roles in the North and in the South, a set of contributions discusses some controversies and generally accepted ideas about renewable energies: fossil energy appraisal and the greenhouse effect of presently used fuels, the issue of irregularity and climate hazards, photovoltaic energy as a development key for South countries, vulnerability of energy systems, renewable energies and energy market privatisation. The next set of contributions deals with different examples: renewable energies in Africa, electricity and high dams, small hydro developments in China, wind energy in Morocco, solar water-heaters in Tunisia, bio-energies and food security, second generation bio-fuels, biomass energy in Cambodia. Sheets are then proposed with a brief historical overview, a description of the state of the art, an indication of the installed power, of market shares, and a brief discussion of perspectives for the different renewable energy sources: large and small hydro, photovoltaic, thermodynamic solar, wind, geothermal, thermal solar, bio-fuels, biomass, and biogas

  14. Wind turbines in your environment? Wind turbines and energy context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-02-01

    Renewable energy sources allow to anticipate the depletion of fossil energy reserves and to limit the use of fissile resources. Moreover, their use avoids the emission of enormous amounts of pollutants and greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. This document presents the French energy context (national resources, electricity production and uses); the international political commitments (Kyoto protocol); the position of nuclear power in France and the development of renewable energy sources; and the evolution of the share of wind power with respect to other energy sources in France, in Europe and in the rest of the world. (J.S.)

  15. Food and agriculture in relation to energy, environment and resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winteringham, F P.W. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria). Joint FAO/IAEA Div. of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture

    1980-03-01

    Current trends in cultivated land, world population, agricultural practices food and energy are briefly reviewed. The rise in energy input/food energy output ratios with modernization is indicated. Nutritional needs, and trends in food and energy demand per capita are also indicated. Some emerging constraints in relation to soil fertility and agrochemical usage are identified. A growing pressure on land for ''energy and chemical farming'' is foreseen. Losses of native and added soil nitrogen, comparable with total industrial fertilizer nitrogen fixation, seem unavoidable for two decades at least. This consideration of trends and their interactions suggests the need for more effective interdisciplinary study, longer-term planning and international cooperation.

  16. China energy, environment, and climate study: Background issues paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinton, Jonathan E.; Fridley, David G.; Logan, Jeffrey; Guo, Yuan; Wang, Bangcheng; Xu, Qing

    2000-10-10

    The total costs and impacts of expanding energy use in China will depend, in part, on a number of important factors, an understanding of which is vital for China's policy-makers. These issues include the additional environmental and public health impacts associated with energy use, the economic costs of infrastructure expansion to meet growing energy needs, and the potential role that renewable energy technologies could play if pushed hard in China's energy future. This short report summarizes major trends and issues in each of these three areas.

  17. Food and agriculture in relation to energy, environment and resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winteringham, F.P.W.

    1980-01-01

    Current trends in cultivated land, world population, agricultural practices food and energy are briefly reviewed. The rise in energy input/food energy output ratios with modernization is indicated. Nutritional needs, and trends in food and energy demand per capita are also indicated. Some emerging constraints in relation to soil fertility and agrochemical usage are identified. A growing pressure on land for ''energy and chemical farming'' is foreseen. Losses of native and added soil nitrogen, comparable with total industrial fertilizer nitrogen fixation, seem unavoidable for two decades at least. This consideration of trends and their interactions suggests the need for more effective interdisciplinary study, longer-term planning and international cooperation. (author)

  18. BUILT ENVIRONMENT: RELATING THE BENEFITS OF RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdeen Mustafa Omer

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, environmental issues have been the focus of much of the world’s attention. This has stimulated a response in many countries, which has led to a closer examination of energy conservation strategies for conventional fossil fuels. One way of reducing building energy consumption is to design buildings, which are more economical in their use of energy for: heating, lighting, cooling, ventilation and hot water supply. Passive measures, particularly natural or hybrid ventilation rather than air-conditioning, can dramatically reduce primary energy consumption. However, exploitation of renewable energy in buildings and agricultural greenhouses, can significantly contribute in reducing dependency on fossil fuels. Therefore, promoting innovative renewable applications and reinforcing the renewable energy market will contribute to preserving the ecosystem by reducing emissions at local and global levels. This will also contribute to the amelioration of environmental conditions, through a reduction in air pollution and greenhouse gases, by the replacement of conventional fuels with renewable energies.

  19. Energy and environment in the ASEAN: challenges and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karki, S.K.; Mann, M.D.; Salehfar, Hossein

    2005-01-01

    The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is one of the most dynamic economic regions of the world. Its economy is linked with its diverse energy resources, high-level urbanization, and rapid industrialization. ASEAN's growing economy in the last two decades has increased the concern of sustainable development in the face of deteriorating energy security, environmental pollution, and economic hardship in energy investment. However, opportunities exist to tackle these issues. Increasing energy efficiency (both supply and demand side), exploitation of renewable energy resources (mostly hydro), and an integrated approach on energy resource management are some of the important approaches toward the sustainable energy path. Because the options are capital-intensive, cooperation and development of appropriate institutional structures and decision mechanism across the region are urgently needed

  20. Advances in energy and environment. Vol. 2: Air quality, water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sharkawy, A.L.; Kummler, R.H.

    1996-01-01

    The 5th conference of energy and environment was held on 3-6 June 1996 in Cairo. The specialists discussed the effects of advances in energy and environment. The applications of solar energy, heat transfer, thermal application, storage and bio-conversion, fuels, energy and development. This second volume covers papers presented on the subjects air pollution, environmental protection, solid and hazardous wastes, water and wastewater treatment. tabs., figs

  1. Radiation Environments for Future Human Exploration Throughout the Solar System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwadron, N.; Gorby, M.; Linker, J.; Riley, P.; Torok, T.; Downs, C.; Spence, H. E.; Desai, M. I.; Mikic, Z.; Joyce, C. J.; Kozarev, K. A.; Townsend, L. W.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.

    2016-12-01

    mission durations. If the heliospheric magnetic field continues to weaken over time, as is likely, then allowable mission durations will decrease correspondingly. Thus, we examine the rapidly changing radiation environment and its implications for human exploration destinations throughout the inner solar system.

  2. Human-Robot Teams for Unknown and Uncertain Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Terry

    2015-01-01

    Man-robot interaction is the study of interactions between humans and robots. It is often referred as HRI by researchers. Human-robot interaction is a multidisciplinary field with contributions from human-computer interaction, artificial intelligence.

  3. The Human Exposure Potential from Propylene Releases to the Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Morgott

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A detailed literature search was performed to assess the sources, magnitudes and extent of human inhalation exposure to propylene. Exposure evaluations were performed at both the community and occupational levels for those living or working in different environments. The results revealed a multitude of pyrogenic, biogenic and anthropogenic emission sources. Pyrogenic sources, including biomass burning and fossil fuel combustion, appear to be the primary contributors to atmospheric propylene. Despite a very short atmospheric lifetime, measurable levels could be detected in highly remote locations as a result of biogenic release. The indoor/outdoor ratio for propylene has been shown to range from about 2 to 3 in non-smoking homes, which indicates that residential sources may be the largest contributor to the overall exposure for those not occupationally exposed. In homes where smoking takes place, the levels may be up to thirty times higher than non-smoking residences. Atmospheric levels in most rural regions are typically below 2 ppbv, whereas the values in urban levels are much more variable ranging as high as 10 ppbv. Somewhat elevated propylene exposures may also occur in the workplace; especially for firefighters or refinery plant operators who may encounter levels up to about 10 ppmv.

  4. Air-conditioning in the 21st century: impact on human productivity and energy consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fanger, Povl Ole

    2000-01-01

    Although air-conditioning has played a positive role for economic development in warm climates, its image is globally mixed. Field studies demonstrate that there are substantial numbers of dissatisfied people in many buildings, among them those suffering from Sick Building Syndrome (SBS) symptoms...... environment on human productivity, health and comfort. The principles of excellence can be provided with moderate energy consumption. But the success of excellent indoor environments will increase the demand for improvement globally and the required energy supply will provide a challenge for the world...

  5. The competitive environment of the North American energy marketing industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonkin, S.L.

    1999-01-01

    Various issues regarding U.S. wholesale energy marketing were discussed with particular emphasis on how energy marketing is changing industries in North America. In 1998, the energy industry reported a growth in revenue of 26 per cent despite declining natural gas prices. It was emphasized that several major competitive issues need to be addressed by industry competitors in order to operate in this unpredictable market. These issues include profitability, market volatility and mergers and acquisitions. This paper presented a list of the top 10 North American Energy marketers in 1998. Although the number of marketers in the energy sector continues to grow, it is expected that the numbers will decline significantly within three years. This will be due mostly to the continuation of major mergers and acquisitions. It was concluded that in general, energy marketing may become an even more attractive industry because of increasing operating margins. 5 tabs., 2 figs

  6. Energy scope of handoff strategies in macro-femtocell environments

    KAUST Repository

    Leon, Jaime

    2012-06-01

    Energy consumption in downlink mode is becoming an important topic as cellular communications grow into a large scale enterprise. The search for high rates keeping energy constraints low has put forward the idea that cells with smaller size may improve not only the capacity of the network, but also reduce the amount of energy that is needed to achieve such capacities. When using heterogeneous networks, users can be encouraged to handoff to a femtocell, that offers better capacity per unit energy spent, by means of different handoff strategies. These strategies may also improve the energy use of the network if the handoff priority is given to both, capacity, and energy use. © 2012 IEEE.

  7. Appetite and Energy Intake in Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lone Brinkmann

    ratings of prospective food consumption between lunch and dinner, and after dinner than the participants who received artificial sweetener supplements. Both groups had a high energy intake during the test day, but the sucrose supplements induced a higher energy intake, compared with the artificial...... chocolate. Ratings of the desire to eat something sweet, salty, fatty, and savoury were all lower after consumption of the dark chocolate than after the milk chocolate. The results suggest that it could be beneficial to use dark chocolate as a substitute for milk chocolate. In summary, these results suggest...

  8. Energy options and implications for the Nigerian environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salau, A. M.

    1999-01-01

    The paper presents the significance and importance of energy in national life, energy conversion factors and an overview of the various energy resources in Nigeria. It also presents the impacts of fuels in terms of emissions resulting from the exploitation of fuels and their environmental impacts. A number of concepts are put forward in order to evolve a new paradigm for mitigating global effects of environmental pollution

  9. Long-term perspectives: energy, development and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakicenovic, N.

    1997-01-01

    The worldwide demand for energy and the need to minimize the environmental impact present a challenge which has been addressed by the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) and the World Energy Council (WEC). This paper summarizes the findings of a joint two-year IIASA-WEC study to explore the prospects for improving the global availability and quality of energy services, and the wider implications that these improvements may have. (Author)

  10. Energy and the environment: Technology assessment and policy options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silveira, M.P.W.

    1990-01-01

    While the energy crisis of the 1970s stimulated technological innovation in developed countries, it often had the opposite effect in the third world. However, developing countries can be considered to have two types of energy systems: ''connected'' and ''disconnected''. The connected system is affected by changes in the price of commercial energy, but the disconnected system is usually rural and remote. Commercial forms of energy may be needed in the disconnected system, but they are largely unavailable. In some of the developing countries, new energy technologies have therefore been developed which adapt traditional technologies still existing in the disconnected sector. In this article some of the work of the United National Centre for Science and Technology for Development is described. Through its ATAS (Advance Technology Alert System) programme, international and regional workshops are held to discuss policy questions arising in regard to new technologies and developments. Workshops have been held in Moscow on new energy technologies in the industry subsystem (connected), in Guatemala City on new energy technologies and the disconnected system, and in Ottawa on new energy technologies, transportation and development. Initial assessments made by or through these workshops are outlined here. A fourth workshop will be held in June 1990 in Saarbrucken on energy technologies and climate change. (author). 3 figs

  11. Energy policy seesaw between security and protecting the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finon, D.

    1994-01-01

    It is just the price of oil that causes the energy policies of importing countries to vacillate. Changing perceptions of energy supply factors has had as much to do with transfiguring government action modes since 1973 as has the idea of the legitimacy of that action. The present paper thus draws a parallel between the goal of energy security twenty years ago and that of global environmental protection today, which explains the critical reversion to a view of minimum government action in the energy field - a view that marked the eighties. (author). 20 refs

  12. Renewable energy and environment ally sustainable development in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harijan, K.; Memon, M.; Uqaili, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    In Pakistan, about two-thirds of the primary energy requirements are met through conventional sources while traditional biomass accounts the remaining one-third The primary commercial energy is largely based on fossil fuels. Indigenous reserves of oil and gas are limited and the coal available in the country is of poor quality. Environmental pollution and greenhouse gas emissions from energy use are becoming significant environmental issues in the country. Achieving solutions to these environmental problems requires long-term potential actions for sustainable development. In this regard, renewable energy resources appear to be one of the most efficient and effective solutions. Pakistan's geographical location has several advantages for extensive use of most of these renewable energy sources. This paper presents review of the present energy situation and environmental sustainability, and assesses the potential of renewable energy sources in Pakistan. Also, potential solutions to current environmental problems are identified along with renewable energy technologies. Several problems relating to renewable energy sources, environmentally sustainable development are discussed from both current and future perspectives. The present study shows that there is substantial potential of renewables in Pakistan. For achieving environmentally sustainable development, renewables must be developed and utilized. (author)

  13. Center for Advanced Energy Studies: Computer Assisted Virtual Environment (CAVE)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The laboratory contains a four-walled 3D computer assisted virtual environment - or CAVE TM — that allows scientists and engineers to literally walk into their data...

  14. Research into energy and human settlements planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapporten bringer indlæg og referater af diskussionerne på et kollokvium afholdt som led i samarbejdet inden for FN's økonomiske kommission for Europa (ECE) i marts 1980. Hovedemnerne er energipolitik, regionale energi-scenarier, varmeplanlægning og transport. Rapporten er på engelsk....

  15. Managing human resources in the field of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The nuclear field, comprising industry, government authorities, regulators, R and D organizations and educational institutions, relies heavily on a specialized, highly trained and motivated workforce for its sustainability. An ageing workforce, declining student enrolment and the resultant risk of losing accumulated nuclear knowledge and experience for expanding or newly established nuclear programmes are all serious challenges that influence the management of human resources (HR) in the nuclear field. The management of human resources requires particular attention in the field of nuclear energy, both because of the high standards of performance expected in this field and the considerable time needed to develop such specialists. The peaceful uses of nuclear energy were primarily developed during the second half of the twentieth century. The nuclear field is now at a mature stage of development, with those who were pioneers in the field having retired and their responsibilities handed over to subsequent generations. For those aspects of the nuclear field related to nuclear power, a great deal of effort has been devoted to managing and continuing to improve the safety and operational performance of existing facilities. However, indications are that the next decades may see considerable expansion to meet increasing energy needs, while responding to concerns about the environment, including global warming. Thus, in the nuclear field, those Member States with existing nuclear power programmes may be forced to replace a large part of their current workforce, while also attracting, recruiting and preparing a fresh workforce for the new facilities being planned. At the same time, those who will be initiating nuclear power programmes, or other peaceful applications, will be developing HR for their programmes. In the past, the development of human resources in the nuclear field has depended on considerable support from organizations in the country of origin of the technology

  16. Assessment of Human Interaction with Virtual Environment Training Technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ntuen, Celestine A; Yoon, S

    2002-01-01

    ...: altitude control, heading control, airspeed control, and vertical airspeed control. Overall, results failed to demonstrate enhanced training effectiveness for an immersive VR training environment compared to a desktop (nonimmersive) environment...

  17. OECD/IEA/ETSAP energy-environment systems analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasukawa, Shigeru; Sato, Osamu; Tadokoro, Yoshihiro; Nagano, Takao; Shiraki, Hajimu; Shimoyamada, Yoshinori

    1988-12-01

    Fuel supply and demand mix as well as energy technology configuration are analyzed by the MARKAL model for the future Japanese energy system, when reduction of environmental emissions is taken into consideration. The Reference Energy System (RES) covers whole sectors, i.e., fuel conversion and energy transformation, industry, residential and commercial, and transportation sectors. Environmental emissions considered here are SOx, NOx, CO 2 , and radio activity, and the time horizon is an interval from 1985 to 2030. Both SOx and NOx emission can be reduced much by present art of reduction measures. From the view points of cost effectiveness, abatement technologies including fluegas treatments take the highest priority and fuel switching and technology substitution follow in this order. For CO 2 reduction, both nuclear and renewable energy technologies are essential among them. (author)

  18. Evaluation of The Role and Contribution of UNDP in Environment and Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wells, Michael P.; Marcussen, Henrik Secher; Uitto, Juha I.

    Evaluation and assessment of UNDP´s positioning and contribution to managing environment and energy for sustainable development. The scope of the evaluation covers all programmatic and operational aspects of the environment and energy area in all UNDP´s geographic regions and at the global...

  19. Looped energy harvester for human motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisler, M.; Boisseau, S.; Gasnier, P.; Willemin, J.; Gobbo, C.; Despesse, G.; Ait-Ali, I.; Perraud, S.

    2017-10-01

    The development of energy harvesters for smart wearables is a challenging topic, with a difficult combination of ergonomics constraints, lifetime and electrical requirements. In this work, we focus on an inertial inductive structure, composed of a magnetic ball circulating inside a closed-loop guide and converting the kinetic energy of the user’s limbs into electricity during the run. A specific induction issue related to the free self-rotation of the ball is underlined and addressed using a ferromagnetic ‘rail’ component. From a 2 g moving ball, a 5 cm-diameter 21 cm3 prototype generated up to 4.8 mW of average power when worn by someone running at 8 km h-1. This device is demonstrated to charge a 2.4 V NiMH battery and supply an acceleration and temperature Wireless Sensor Node at 20 Hz.

  20. Combining a survey approach and energy and indoor environment auditing in historic buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohdin, Patrik; Dalewski, Mariusz; Moshfegh, Bahram

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – This paper presents an approach where a survey study is combined with energy and indoor environment auditing in the built environment. The combination of methods presented in this paper is one way to obtain a wider perspective on the indoor environment and energy use and also let...... this research project. Design/methodology/approach – A combination of energy and indoor environment auditing and standardized occupant surveys. Findings – The main findings in the paper are related to the good agreement between results from standardized occupant surveys and physical measurements...

  1. Global energy futures and human development: a framework for analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasternak, A.D.

    2001-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between measures of human well-being and consumption of energy and electricity. A correlation is shown between the United Nations Human Development Index (HDI) and annual per- capita electricity consumption for 60 populous countries comprising 90% of the world population. In this correlation, HDI reaches a maximum value when electricity consumption is about 4,000 kWh per person per year, well below consumption levels for most developed countries but also well above the level for developing countries. The correlation with electricity use is better than with total primary energy use. Global electricity consumption associated with a ''Human Development Scenario'' is estimated by adding to U.S. Department of Energy projections for the year 2020 increments of additional electricity consumption sufficient to reach 4,000 kWh per capita on a country-by-country basis. A roughly constant ratio of primary energy consumption to electric energy consumption is observed for countries with high levels of electricity use, and this ratio is used to estimate global primary energy consumption in the Human Development Scenario. The Human Development Scenario implies significantly greater global consumption of electricity and primary energy than do projections for 2020 by the DOE and others. (author)

  2. Global energy futures and human development: a framework for analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasternak, A.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    2001-07-01

    This paper explores the relationship between measures of human well-being and consumption of energy and electricity. A correlation is shown between the United Nations Human Development Index (HDI) and annual per- capita electricity consumption for 60 populous countries comprising 90% of the world population. In this correlation, HDI reaches a maximum value when electricity consumption is about 4,000 kWh per person per year, well below consumption levels for most developed countries but also well above the level for developing countries. The correlation with electricity use is better than with total primary energy use. Global electricity consumption associated with a ''Human Development Scenario'' is estimated by adding to U.S. Department of Energy projections for the year 2020 increments of additional electricity consumption sufficient to reach 4,000 kWh per capita on a country-by-country basis. A roughly constant ratio of primary energy consumption to electric energy consumption is observed for countries with high levels of electricity use, and this ratio is used to estimate global primary energy consumption in the Human Development Scenario. The Human Development Scenario implies significantly greater global consumption of electricity and primary energy than do projections for 2020 by the DOE and others. (author)

  3. Energy and the environment as an optimization problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walbeck, M.; Wagner, H.J.; Martinsen, D.; Bundschuh, V.

    1988-01-01

    The authors develop approaches and outline solutions leading to a more ecologically oriented strategy of energy utilisation, including outline solutions envisaging a possible change-over to a novel energy system. The frame of the study is set by the following conditions: Represent the energy systems as a combination of technologies; geographic area under review is the Federal Republic of Germany; the time period to be considered is 50 years; consider rates of change; compare currently available and novel energy systems to be set out and defined; cost (market criteria) and emissions (environmental criteria) are the criteria of comparison; energy supply and energy utilisation are the functions of the technology combinations of energy systems to be described. The book almost like a textbook explains the path from problem definition to model establishment and finally to description of possible applications, using as the leading example the MARNES model developed by the systems analysis project group of KfA Juelich. (orig./HSCH) With 52 figs., 27 tabs [de

  4. Regional energy and environment exploration in Belgium 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciujpers, C.

    1994-01-01

    The prospects for energy consumption and related emission of NO x , SO 2 , and CO 2 gases for the year 2000 are reported for three regions (the Flanders, Brussels Metropolitan, and Wallonie region) in Belgium. Two scenarios were developed: a reference scenario in which the policy of 1990 is continued on the one hand and a policy making scenario in which the energy and carbon taxes, proposed by the European Commission are introduced on the other hand. This methodology allows to estimate the impact of the energy and carbon taxes on energy consumption and the emission of greenhouse gases. In conclusion is stated that at continued policy, primary energy consumption in Belgium will rise 22.4 percent from 1990 to 2000. The introduction of energy and carbon taxes will result in a reduction of the primary energy consumption with 5.9 percent. At a continued policy NO X , SO 2 emissions will reduce respectively 27.2 percent, 18.8 percent while CO 2 emissions will increase 21.4 percent from 1990 till 2000. Compared to the continued scenario, the introduction of energy and carbon taxes in Belgium will lead to additional NO X and CO 2 emissions of respectively 6.5 and 13.6 percent, while the CO 2 emission will be reduced by 9.5 percent in 2000. It is concluded that the proposed energy and carbon taxes are important impulses for the realization of the Belgian objective to reduce the CO 2 -emission from 1990 to 2000 by five percent. (A.S.) 5 Figs. 9 Tabs

  5. Long term perspectives: energy, development and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakicenovic, N.

    1996-01-01

    The International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) is investigating the linkages between energy use, development, and environmental change. In a collaborative study with the World Energy Council (WEC) an integrated assessment framework has been used to explore the prospects for improving the global availability and quality of energy services and the wider implications of such improvements. Consequences, such as the likely financing needs and environmental impacts, have been considered. The main features and findings of the joint IIASA-WEC two-year study are summarised in this paper. (8 figures; 6 references). (UK)

  6. Nuclear Accidents: Consequences for Human, Society and Energy Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Bolshov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines radiation and hygienic regulations with regard to the elimination of consequences of the Chernobyl NPP accident in the context of relationships with other aspects, primarily socio-economic and political factors. This experience is reasonable to take into account when defining criteria in other regulatory fields, for example, in radioactive waste classification and remediation of areas. The article presents an analysis of joint features and peculiarities of nuclear accidents in the industry and energy sectors. It is noted that the scale of global consequences of the Chernobyl NPP accident is defined by the large-scale release of radioactivity into the environment, as well as an affiliation of the nuclear installation with the energy sector. Large-scale radiation accidents affect the most diverse spheres of human activities, what, in its turn, evokes the reverse reaction from the society and its institutions, including involvement of political means of settlement. If the latter is seeing for criteria that are scientifically justified and feasible, then the preconditions for minimizing socio-economic impacts are created. In other cases, political decisions, such as nuclear units’ shutdown and phasing out of nuclear energy, appear to be an economic price which society, as a whole and a single industry sector, pay to compensate the negative public response. The article describes fundamental changes in approaches to ensure nuclear and radiation safety that occurred after the Chernobyl NPP accident. Multiple and negative consequences of the Chernobyl accident for human and society are balanced to some extent by a higher level of operational safety, emergency preparedness, and life-cycle safety. The article indicates that harmonization and ensuring consistency of regulations that involve different aspects of nuclear and radiation safety are important to implement practical solutions to the nuclear legacy problems. The

  7. Homeostasis lighting control based on relationship between lighting environment and human behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Risa; Mita, Akira

    2015-03-01

    Although each person has own preferences, living spaces which can respond to various preferences and needs have not become reality. Focusing on the lighting environments which influence on the impression of living spaces, this research aims to offer comfortable lighting environments for each resident by a flexible control. This research examines the relationship between lighting environments and human behaviors considering colored lights. In accord with the relationship, this research proposes an illuminance-color control system which flexibly changes spatial environments responding to human conditions. Firstly, the psychological evaluation was conducted in order to build human models for various environments. As a result, preferred lighting environments for each examinee were determined for particular behaviors. Moreover, satisfaction levels of lighting environments were calculated by using seven types of impression of the environments as parameters. The results were summarized as human models. Secondly, this research proposed "Homeostasis Lighting Control System", which employs the human models. Homeostasis lighting control system embodies the algorithm of homeostasis, which is one of the functions of the physiological adaptation. Human discomfort feelings are obtained automatically by the sensor agent robot. The system can offer comfortable lighting environments without controlling environments by residents autonomously based on the information from the robot. This research takes into accounts both illuminance and color. The robot communicates with the server which contains human models, then the system corresponds to individuals. Combining these three systems, the proposed system can effectively control the lighting environment. At last, the feasibility of the proposed system was verified by simulation experiments.

  8. An Energy-Economy-Environment Model for Simulating the Impacts of Socioeconomic Development on Energy and Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Wenyi; Zeng, Weihua; Yao, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Many rapidly developing regions have begun to draw the attention of the world. Meanwhile, the energy and environmental issues associated with rapid economic growth have aroused widespread critical concern. Therefore, studying energy, economic, and environmental systems is of great importance. This study establishes a system dynamic model that covers multiple aspects of those systems, such as energy, economy, population, water pollution, air pollution, solid waste, and technology. The model de...

  9. Students' Conceptions about Energy and the Human Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Michael; Treagust, David F.

    2010-01-01

    Students' understanding of energy has been primarily within the domain of physics. This study sought to examine students' understanding of concepts relating to energy and the human body using pencil and paper questionnaires administered to 610 students in Years 8-12. From students' responses to the questionnaires, conceptual patterns were…

  10. Energy harvesting for human wearable and implantable bio-sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitcheson, Paul D

    2010-01-01

    There are clear trade-offs between functionality, battery lifetime and battery volume for wearable and implantable wireless-biosensors which energy harvesting devices may be able to overcome. Reliable energy harvesting has now become a reality for machine condition monitoring and is finding applications in chemical process plants, refineries and water treatment works. However, practical miniature devices that can harvest sufficient energy from the human body to power a wireless bio-sensor are still in their infancy. This paper reviews the options for human energy harvesting in order to determine power availability for harvester-powered body sensor networks. The main competing technologies for energy harvesting from the human body are inertial kinetic energy harvesting devices and thermoelectric devices. These devices are advantageous to some other types as they can be hermetically sealed. In this paper the fundamental limit to the power output of these devices is compared as a function of generator volume when attached to a human whilst walking and running. It is shown that the kinetic energy devices have the highest fundamental power limits in both cases. However, when a comparison is made between the devices using device effectivenesses figures from previously demonstrated prototypes presented in the literature, the thermal device is competitive with the kinetic energy harvesting device when the subject is running and achieves the highest power density when the subject is walking.

  11. Energy, sustainability and the environment technology, incentives, behavior

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    The complexity of carbon reduction and economic sustainability is significantly complicated by competing aspects of socioeconomic practices as well as legislative, regulatory, and scientific requirements and protocols. An easy to read and understand guide, Sioshansi, along with an international group of contributors, moves through the maze of carbon reduction methods and technologies, providing steps and insights to meet carbon reduction requirements and maintaining the health and welfare of the firm. The book's three part treatment is based on a clear and rigorous exposition of a wide range of options to reduce the carbon footprint Part 1 of the book, Challenge of Sustainability, examines the fundamental drivers of energy demand - economic growth, the need for basic energy services, and the interdependence of economic, political, environmental, social, equity, legacy and policy issues. Part 2 of the book, Technological Solutions, examines how energy can be used to support basic energy service needs of homes...

  12. Evaluation of social and environment effect of using biomass energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alighardashi, A.; Adl, M.; Karbasi, A.R.; Naeiji, K.

    2001-01-01

    Biomass is one of the most important sources for clean and renewable energy. International studies show that potential of power generation from biomass has been equal of amount of electricity generated from all centralized sources in the world at 1993. this paper considers social and environmental effects of biomass energy utilization instead of fossil fuels. This study is performed in several sections; destruction of natural resources, emission of pollutants, creation of new job opportunities and public welfare. In each section, some of world experiences and statistics are mentioned. Estimated and calculated results for Iran have been presented. In public welfare section, security cost in different Iranian energy consumption sections have been considered and resulted fuel savings due to biomass energy consumption, are mentioned in detail

  13. Wood for energy production. Technology - environment - economy[Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serup, H.; Falster, H.; Gamborg, C. [and others

    1999-07-01

    'Wood for Energy Production', 2nd edition, is a readily understood guide to the application of wood in the Danish energy supply. The first edition was named 'Wood Chips for Energy Production'. It describes the wood fuel from forest to consumer and provides a concise introduction to technological, environmental, and financial matters concerning heating systems for farms, institutions, district heating plants, and CHP plants. The individual sections deal with both conventional, well known technology, as well as the most recent technological advances in the field of CHP production. The purpose of this publication is to reach the largest possible audiance, and it is designed so that the layman may find its background information of special relevance. 'Wood for Energy Production' is also available in German and Danish. (au)

  14. Smart sustainable energy for the rural built environment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Szewczuk, S

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available robust methodology to adapt innovative and renewable smart grid technologies to deliver real and sustainable decentralised energy solutions for remote and rural communities, thereby improving livelihoods and opportunities for inclusive growth...

  15. Energy technologies and the environment: environmental information handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-06-01

    This manual draws together information on the environmental consequences of energy technologies that will be in use in the United States during the next 20 years. We hope it will prove useful to planners, policymakers, legislators, researchers, and environmentalists. The information on environmental issues, control technologies, and energy production and conservation processes should also be a convenient starting point for deeper exploration. Published references are given for the statements, data, and conclusions so that the interested reader can obtain more detailed information where necessary. Environmental aspects of energy technologies are presented in a form suitable for government and public use and are intended to assist decisionmakers, researchers, and the public with basic information and references that can be relied upon through changing policies and changing world energy prices

  16. The role of hydropower in environment ally sustainable energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriel, H.F.

    2005-01-01

    Hydropower has historically been the renewable energy leader, and from a technical-cost perspective, is very likely to remain the only viable renewable energy source for many countries. In recent years, hydropower has been much maligned, especially by NGOs, for not being a sustainable source of energy. Though hydropower is clearly a renewable source of energy, but the question arises whether it can also be sustainable. Hydropower can play an increasingly important role in enabling communities around the world to meet sustainability objectives. To become more accepted as a key contributor to sustainable energy systems, new and existing hydropower projects need to be built and operated in an environmentally, socially and economically sustainable manner. This paper highlights the sustain ability aspects of hydropower and discusses the criteria for selection of environmentally friendly hydropower project sites so that that hydropower can be developed in a sustainable manner and once again be considered favorably in the planning of generation mix for new energy development. Sustainability of hydropower projects involves treating both the social and environmental sustainability of the project at an early stage and including the interests of all stakeholders of the project. As a case study, the Ghazi- Barotha Hydropower Project (GBHP) in Pakistan has been selected, as it is the best example in managing the social issues and gaining public acceptance because of proper planning and addressing environmental and social issues at an early stage. (author)

  17. Waste from rearing and slaughter of poultry – treat to the environment or feedstock for energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Myszograj

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of poultry has systematically grown for over 10 years. In 2007, Poland, with the participation of 11% dealt third place in Europe in the production of poultry meat with the input of 11% has taken the third place in Europe after France and the UK (about 14%. Intensification of poultry production on one hand provides to higher profitability, on the other hand generates more and more waste products, such as manure, slaughter wastes, dead birds, and the emission of gases (e.g. ammonia into the environment. Management of waste in breeding and slaughter plants of poultry rarely complies with current regulations. This is connected with high costs of waste disposal hazardous to the environment, harmful and dangerous to human health. because of chemical composition and potential health risks. The article, based on literature data and our own research, characterizes the waste from rearing and slaughter of poultry and define the possible ways to negative impact on human health: directly by microbial infections or indirectly by emissions of ammonia to the atmosphere, the migration of pollutants into groundwater and surface water. Options of waste utilization in methane fermentation process have been presented. This technology reduces the risk of environmental hazard , while allowing for recovery renewable energy of biogas from biowaste. Waste from the turkey farm and slaughterhouse (the size of slaughterhouse about 26,000 units per week were of mesophilic anaerobic digestion. Nine types of waste: turkey manure on straw, fresh straw used for bedding, heads, guts, feet and feathers were chosen. Flotation sediment, sewage from the slaughtering and chemical sludge was also fermented. High potential for methane from slaughterhouse waste (ca. 73% and manure (63%, indicate for simultaneous disposal and energy recovery from methane fermentation process.

  18. A Software Environment for an Adaptive Human-Aware Software Agent Supporting Attention-Demanding Tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosse, T.; Memon, Z.A.; Oorburg, R.; Umair, M.; Treur, J.; de Vos, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a software environment providing human-aware ambient support for a human performing a task that demands substantial amounts of attention. The agent obtains human attention-awareness in an adaptive manner by use of a dynamical model of human attention, gaze sensoring by an

  19. Renewable energy: technology and the environment. V. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayigh, A.A.M.

    1992-01-01

    The World Renewable Energy Congress took place a few months after the Earth Summit in Rio. Under the auspices of UNESCO, the World Renewable Energy Network has been established with the aim of acting as a catalyst for large-scale regional projects. The proceedings of this Congress consist of five volumes. Volume one consists of 12 papers presented in special sessions on the first day of the conference and 76 papers on photovoltaic technology which were presented during the rest of the Congress. These dealt with global warming issues, replacement of CFC gases, solar and low-energy architecture, hydrogen as an alternative fuel and photovoltaic conversion systems. The photovoltaic technology was divided into: solar materials; advanced concepts; crystalline silicon; thin films; systems and components; and applications. Two of these on radiation effects in silicon solar cells, are indexed separately. Volume two deals with solar thermal conversion systems and consists of 101 papers on: solar water heaters; solar drying; solar engines and heat pumps; solar cooling and refrigeration; solar thermal fundamentals; and process heat. Volume three is divided into two parts, biomass conversion technology which consists of 47 papers, and wind energy technology which contains 32 papers. Volume four deals with solar and low energy architecture: there are 83 papers. Volume five (106 papers) deals with the various issues which are not discussed in the previous volumes. (author)

  20. PSI Scientific Report 2005. Volume 3: Energy and Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlaepfer-Miller, J; Gerber, B [eds.

    2006-04-15

    The overarching goal of energy research at PSI is to provide scientific nd technical solutions for the development of cost-effective, reliable, socially acceptable and environmentally sustainable energy. his research is done within two departments: General Energy and nuclear Energy and Safety, their research highlights from 2005 are documented in the following chapter. Major accomplishments of the past year include: a pioneer solar power-plant; improvements in catalysts and processes for the production of methane from wood; development of characterization tools to improve combustion processes; fuel cells, and batteries under operating conditions; carbon dioxide in forests; and a new dating method for glacial ice. Progress was made in determining the suitability of opalinus clay to store radioactive waste and how iodine exposure could be reduced under normal operation and in the event of a severe accident at a nuclear power-plant. Systems analysis research also included a report on the external environmental costs of electricity and whether the Swiss population are willing to pay for renewable energy. This report only highlights a selection of the work done at PSI in the past year; information about many other ongoing projects can be accessed through our website, (www.psi.ch). (author)

  1. PSI Scientific Report 2005. Volume 3: Energy and Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlaepfer-Miller, J.; Gerber, B.

    2006-04-01

    The overarching goal of energy research at PSI is to provide scientific nd technical solutions for the development of cost-effective, reliable, socially acceptable and environmentally sustainable energy. his research is done within two departments: General Energy and nuclear Energy and Safety, their research highlights from 2005 are documented in the following chapter. Major accomplishments of the past year include: a pioneer solar power-plant; improvements in catalysts and processes for the production of methane from wood; development of characterization tools to improve combustion processes; fuel cells, and batteries under operating conditions; carbon dioxide in forests; and a new dating method for glacial ice. Progress was made in determining the suitability of opalinus clay to store radioactive waste and how iodine exposure could be reduced under normal operation and in the event of a severe accident at a nuclear power-plant. Systems analysis research also included a report on the external environmental costs of electricity and whether the Swiss population are willing to pay for renewable energy. This report only highlights a selection of the work done at PSI in the past year; information about many other ongoing projects can be accessed through our website, (www.psi.ch). (author)

  2. Strategic environments (SWOT) for nuclear energy innovation in the 21. century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Tae Joon; Oh, Keun-Bae

    2004-01-01

    In prospecting the role of nuclear energy in a future society, it is necessary to foresee the social attitudes towards energy, economy and environment, and to analyze their interactions with the exploitation of nuclear energy itself. As those issues, this article looks upon the change of the socio-economic environment, the concerns about nuclear power and eco-environment, and the sustainability and limits of the energy resources, etc. With this perception, the so-called SWOT analysis is employed to identify the internal strengths (S) and/or weaknesses (W) of nuclear energy compared with other energy competitors on the basis of the evaluation of the external factors which are likely to play the roles of opportunities (O) for and/or threats (T) against the technological change in nuclear energy. (authors)

  3. Energy-Environment interface: an economic model approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glot-Sanchez, N.

    1995-01-01

    This thesis is separated in two parts. The first part has four chapters, from the first to the fourth one;the second part has four chapters, from the fifth to the eighth one. The first part describes an analysis of different areas about the subject: the energy sphere, the environmental sphere, the notion of external effects and environmental policy in terms of instruments. The second part is the analysis of the results of a model, aiming to determine the energy strategies in matter of electricity production and their investments to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. 181 refs

  4. Energy and environment in an architectural design application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiller, Silvia de; Evans, John Martin [Universidad de Buenos Aires, Facultad de Arquitectura, Diseno y Urbanismo, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    1998-09-01

    Office buildings with important administrative functions can produce high energy demands for lighting, cooling and heating. However, appropriate architectural design can achieve significant energy savings and improve environmental conditions, without sacrificing architectural quality. Intense solar radiation and high temperature swings in dry continental climates favour deep plan offices, though natural daylight requires limited depth. This paper presents a case study of a large administrative complex project for the Justice Palace, Neuquen Province, in the cold windy sem-desert climate in the Northern Patagonia Region of Argentina, demonstrating the relevance of specialised advisory services in the architectural field. (Author)

  5. European Nuclear Young Generation. Position Paper on Nuclear Energy and the Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    predictable and provides base-load electricity with high reliability to the end-user. It is not subject to variations in fuel availability as uranium is largely available from diverse politically stable countries that secure its supply. Nuclear power is therefore a key asset for energy security and independence. Nuclear energy is part of the solution. The European Nuclear Society Young Generation Network believes that nuclear is part of the solution. Current nuclear power plants operate safely with negligible CO 2 emissions and provide energy to millions of people. Existing and future nuclear reactors will help humanity to overcome energy challenges whilst respecting the environment. Research is still on-going for more efficient use of nuclear fuel and the transmutation of high activity long-term waste. These objectives are carried out by the promising implementation of Generation IV of nuclear power plants with commercial prospects by 2030-2040. Research on nuclear fusion such as the ITER project aims to provide an almost inexhaustible source of energy while suppressing the issue of handling long-lived radioactive waste. This is the future of the nuclear industry. Our belief is that fighting climate change cannot discard, on ideological background and judgment, such promising technologies. It is our duty to inform the public in an objective and scientific way of the benefits of nuclear power. COP21 is a unique opportunity to internationally develop a low-carbon society in which nuclear power will have a key role to play. (authors)

  6. Energy Consumption and Indoor Environment Predicted by a Combination of Computational Fluid Dynamics and Building Energy Performance Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm

    2003-01-01

    An interconnection between a building energy performance simulation program and a Computational Fluid Dynamics program (CFD) for room air distribution is introduced for improvement of the predictions of both the energy consumption and the indoor environment.The article describes a calculation...

  7. Proceedings of the Symposium on Nuclear Energy and Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The symposium was organized and set against the background of the industry is traditional concern for safety and the environment. The purpose of the symposium was to contribute further to the international bank of knowledge by describing recent experience, especially of Latin-America countries, in adopting, adapting and developing the practices of the industry for ensuring safety and compatibility with the environment. In the cause of four days, june 28 to july 1993, thirty five papers were presented, besides fourteen articles were arranged in the following sessions: invited speakers, safety and risk assessment, environmental protection, waste management and disposal emergency planning and public acceptance and health aspects. The Latin American Section of the American Nuclear Society convened the symposium in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. (B.C.A.)

  8. Food, energy and the environment from a Swedish perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engstroem, Rebecka

    2006-10-01

    National sector responsibility legislation places specific obligations on Swedish sector authorities to handle environmental issues within their sector. Because of this responsibility, there is a need to map environmental impacts from sectors and to identify key problems and strategies to reduce impacts in each sector. Agriculture and energy are two sectors causing severe environmental impacts, and these are therefore interesting as case studies. Employing a systems perspective when exploring impacts and options for their reduction ensures that problems are not simply shifted in time or space or between problems, but are considered in a holistic manner. Using this perspective, indirect effects such as changes upstream or downstream of the production chain, as well as among consumers, can be considered when seeking strategies to reduce environmental impacts in a sector. A method to investigate environmental impacts from a sector was developed and tested in the cases of agriculture and energy (Papers I and II). The method was based on environmentally extended Input-Output Analysis (IOA) and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). IOA-data from Swedish Environmental Accounts were used as the starting point for the inventory. Such data provide information on direct and indirect impacts from the sector. To capture those aspects not included in the Environmental Accounts, the Swedish Environmental Quality Objectives were subsequently used as a checklist, and information on the missing aspects was obtained from literature. For further processing of the data, characterisation and weighting methods from LCA methodology were used to identify hotspots, i.e. the most important problems. The results showed that biodiversity, greenhouse effect, eutrophication, use of non-renewable resources and toxicity were potential hotspots in the agriculture sector. In the energy sector, the hotspots were air quality, greenhouse effect, use of non-renewable resources and toxicity. Analysis of sector

  9. ENERGY BUDGETS IN FREE-LIVING GREEN IGUANAS IN A SEASONAL ENVIRONMENT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LICHTENBELT, WDV; WESSELINGH, RA; VOGEL, JT; ALBERS, KBM

    Using a variety of techniques we estimated energy expenditure and allocation of energy in free-living green iguanas (Iguana iguana) in a seasonal environment on Curacao, Netherlands Antilles. 1) Daily energy expenditure (DEE) was measured by means of the doubly labeled water (DLW) technique, using

  10. Policies and measures for economic efficiency, energy security and environment protection in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkaiah, M.; Kaushik, S.C.; Dewangan, M.L.

    2007-01-01

    India needs to sustain 8-10% economic growth to meet energy needs of people below poverty line. India would, at least, need to grow its primary energy supply (3-4 times) of present consumption to deliver a sustained growth of 8% by 2031. This paper discusses India's policies and measures for economic efficiency, environment protection and energy security (3-E). (author)

  11. A target-oriented data envelopment analysis for energy-environment efficiency improvement in Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suzuki, S.; Nijkamp, P.; Rietveld, P.

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to offer a quantitative contribution to energy-environment policy in Japan in the aftermath of the Fukushima nuclear power accident. Since then, nuclear power energy supply has almost entirely been banned, and consequently, an intensive search for alternative forms of energy supply

  12. The energy-economy-environment interaction and the rebound-effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musters, A.P.A.

    1995-01-01

    This study examines the Energy-Economy-Environment (3-E) interaction ingeneral and the rebound-effect in particular. The rebound-effect can be defined as that part of the initially expected energy savings, resulting from energy efficiency improvements, that is lost because of the 3-E interaction. To

  13. Ecological validity of virtual environments to assess human navigation ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ineke eVan Der Ham

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Route memory is frequently assessed in virtual environments. These environments can be presented in a fully controlled manner and are easy to use. Yet they lack the physical involvement that participants have when navigating real environments. For some aspects of route memory this may result in reduced performance in virtual environments. We assessed route memory performance in four different environments: real, virtual, virtual with directional information (compass, and hybrid. In the hybrid environment, participants walked the route outside on an open field, while all route information (i.e. path, landmarks was shown simultaneously on a handheld tablet computer. Results indicate that performance in the real life environment was better than in the virtual conditions for tasks relying on survey knowledge, like pointing to start and end point, and map drawing. Performance in the hybrid condition however, hardly differed from real life performance. Performance in the virtual environment did not benefit from directional information. Given these findings, the hybrid condition may offer the best of both worlds: the performance level is comparable to that of real life for route memory, yet it offers full control of visual input during route learning.

  14. The Natural and Human Environments in Nigeria: Their Implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    difficult. The paper separates these factors into natural and artificial components and relates them to the sociocultural environments prevalent in Nigeria. This paper elaborates on the various features, which designers often ignore, and recommends a simultaneous interaction between architecture and the environment.

  15. Corrosion performance of iron aluminides in fossil energy environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natesan, K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Technology Div.

    1997-12-01

    Corrosion of metallic structural materials in complex gas environments of coal gasification and combustion is a potential problem. The corrosion process is dictated by concentrations of two key constituents: sulfur as H{sub 2}S or SO{sub 2} and chlorine as HCl. This paper presents a comprehensive review of the current status of the corrosion performance of alumina scales that are thermally grown on Fe-base alloys, including iron aluminides, in multicomponent gas environments of typical coal-conversion systems. Mechanisms of scale development/breakdown, performance envelopes for long-term usage of these materials, approaches to modifying the surfaces of engineering alloys by cladding or coating them with intermetallics, and in-service experience with these materials are emphasized. The results are compared with the performance of chromia-forming alloys in similar environments. The paper also discusses the available information on corrosion performance of alloys whose surfaces were enriched with Al by the electrospark deposition process or by weld overlay techniques.

  16. An Empirical Study on Human Performance according to the Physical Environment (Potential Human Error Hazard) in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ar Ryum; Jang, In Seok; Seong, Proong Hyun

    2014-01-01

    The management of the physical environment for safety is more effective than a nuclear industry. Despite the physical environment such as lighting, noise satisfy with management standards, it can be background factors may cause human error and affect human performance. Because the consequence of extremely human error and human performance is high according to the physical environment, requirement standard could be covered with specific criteria. Particularly, in order to avoid human errors caused by an extremely low or rapidly-changing intensity illumination and masking effect such as power disconnection, plans for better visual environment and better function performances should be made as a careful study on efficient ways to manage and continue the better conditions is conducted

  17. Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markovska, Natasa; Duić, Neven; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2016-01-01

    understanding, improvement of long-term scientific assessments, strengthening of scientific capacities around the world and at ensuring that the sciences are responsive to the emerging international, European, regional and national challenges. The dedicated Energy special issue includes 24 papers, which...

  18. The Economy, Energy, and the Environment. A Background Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joint Economic Committee, Washington, DC.

    This study surveys the existing literature related to various technical aspects of electric power production, with primary emphasis on the supply of the various fuels used in the production of electricity and on the environmental consequences of energy conversion. It was prepared by the Environmental Policy Division, Legislative Reference Service,…

  19. Balancing energy and the environment: the case of geothermal development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellickson, P.L.; Brewer, S.

    1978-06-01

    The results of part of a Rand study on the federal role in resolving environmental issues arising out of the implementation of energy projects are reported. The projects discussed are two geothermal programs in California: the steam resource development at The Geysers (Lake and Sonoma counties) in northern California, and the wet brine development in the Imperial Valley in southern California.

  20. What energy transition for France? Priority to employment and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    France is one of the countries with the lowest greenhouse gas emissions per inhabitant ratio. Even if this environmental effort must be maintained, it has to be done in the respect of competitiveness and employment. In this paper, the authors reviewed some received ideas and shed light on the objectives to be pursued in the framework of the announced energy transition

  1. The Impact of Energy Price Decline on China's Energy-Economy-Environment System Variables Using a CGE Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Zhengquan; Wang, Daojuan; Chen, Chong

    In recent years, prices of coal and crude oil have fallen significantly. These declines have had a large impact on China’s energy-economy-environment system variables. This paper establishes a computable general equilibrium model to systematically analyse the impact of coal price changes alone...... or the decline of both coal and oil prices on the variables of China's energy-economy-environment system. The results of the analysis show that the decline of the coal price alone or of coal and crude oil prices together will lead to a significant increase in demand for either coal and total energy or coal...

  2. Energy potential mapping : Visualising energy characteristics for the exergetic optimisation of the built environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broersma, S.; Fremouw, M.A.; Van den Dobbelsteen, A.A.J.F.

    2013-01-01

    It is difficult to fully satisfy the energy demand of today’s society with renewables. Nevertheless, most of the energy we use is lost as non-functional waste energy, whereas a large part of the built environment’s energy demand is only for low-quality energy, so the initial demand for primary,

  3. Human body micro-environment: The benefits of controlling airflow interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the micro-environment around a human body, and especially on its interaction with the surrounding environment. Research on the free convection flow generated by a human body (including the convective boundary layer around the body and the thermal plume above the body), its...

  4. Perspectives in nuclear power, energy and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerholm, T.R.

    1975-01-01

    An experiment in informing the public on the pros and cons of nuclear power was carried out in Sweden during the autumn and winter of 1974. Study groups were arranged in collaboration with various organisations involved in adult education. The Ministry for Industry provided the background material, consisting of various official publications and a literature list, and general information. Almost 100,000 persons participated in these study circles. Neither protagonists or antagonists of nuclear power were satisfied with the material provided. A subjective conclusion is that the public opinion requires continued economic growth and increased consumption of energy, though conservation is to be strived for. There are considerable doubts regarding nuclear energy and a majority are probably opposed, but there is also opposition to dependence on imported fuel. Further hydroelectric construction would be accepted but there is scepsis regarding wind, solar and geothermal power. (JIW)

  5. Energy, environment and labor unions; Energia, meio ambiente e sindicatos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moral Hernandez, Francisco del; Bermann, Celio [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia. Programa Interunidades de Pos-graduacao em Energia]. E-mail: delmoral@hotmail.com; cbermann@iee.usp.br

    2006-07-01

    This article rises up reflexions on the energy policy perception and formulation by the syndicate movements, as far the socio environmental aspects are concerning. In the first part conceptual reflexions are reached on the political and possible conflicts and limitation of the syndicate acting specifically those one connected to the electrical sector. The second one which is based on an investigation of syndicate documents and interviews, develops comments with base on observed syndicate behaviours, the adhesion, subordination or resistance (some elements usual of marxist analysis of the relationship capital-labor) from the syndicate movements on environmental aspects of the energy politics in force. The conclusive part reflexions are made on the possible alliances (tactical or strategic) between the syndical movements and environmental movement.

  6. Political-administrative approaches towards energy-environment issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degli Espinosa, P.

    1992-01-01

    A discussion is made of how Italian regional administrations could best approach the implementation of environmental strategies mirroring those proposed by the United Nations, especially those calling for a rapid reduction in carbon dioxide emissions to abate the risk of greenhouse gas induced climate change. Citing the current difficulties being had by the Italian national government in securing adequate funding to allow the fulfillment of already legislated and urgently needed energy conservation/environmental protection proposals, this paper calls for greater involvement and high level of social awareness on the part of regional governments. It is noted that, within the Italian context, the best approach towards the cost effective implementation of energy conservation/environmental protection strategies is to have a combined effort, involving municipally run power and gas utilities and transport departments acting together with concerned citizens, under the direct management of regional administrations

  7. Energy and the new politics of the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leggett, J.

    1991-01-01

    Prevent pollution, with clean technologies. These may be words befitting an industry with wastes affected by international laws such as the London Dumping Convention, but what about the wastes of the energy business? The LDC has adopted the precautionary principle. Where global warming is concerned - if the world's climate scientists are to be believed - adopting the precautionary principle would require a global cut in anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions of more than 60%. The LDC intends to outlaw, globally, all dumping of industrial waste at sea by 1995. Who can imagine a world in which the Global Climate Convention (for which negotiations begin in February) could or would countenance outlawing, globally, all dumping of energy-related waste in the atmosphere by 199 5 (author)

  8. Energy, environment, and policy choices: Summer institutes for science and social studies educators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marek, E.A.; Chiodo, J.J.; Gerber, B.L.

    1997-06-01

    The Center for Energy Education (CEE) is a partnership linking the University of Oklahoma, Close Up Foundation and Department of Energy. Based upon the theme of energy, environment and public policy, the CEE`s main purposes are to: (1) educate teachers on energy sources, environmental issues and decisionmaking choices regarding public policy; (2) develop interdisciplinary curricula that are interactive in nature (see attachments); (3) disseminate energy education curricula; (4) serve as a resource center for a wide variety of energy education materials; (5) provide a national support system for teachers in energy education; and (6) conduct research in energy education. The CEE conducted its first two-week experimentially-based program for educators during the summer of 1993. Beginning at the University of Oklahoma, 57 teachers from across the country examined concepts and issues related to energy and environment, and how the interdependence of energy and environment significantly influences daily life. During the second week of the institute, participants went to Washington, D.C. to examine the processes used by government officials to make critical decisions involving interrelationships among energy, environment and public policy. Similar institutes were conducted during the summers of 1994 and 1995 resulting in nearly 160 science and social studies educators who had participated in the CEE programs. Collectively the participants represented 36 states, the Pacific Territories, Puerto Rico, and Japan.

  9. Protecting the environment in a liberalised energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voss, A.

    2000-01-01

    The alleged conflicting situation between environmental protection and liberalisation can be resolved if we make both the market and competition serve the interests of environmental and climate protection to a greater extent. The exploitation of the allocation efficiency of markets for protecting the environment is legitimate according to the experience that the well-husbanded and efficient use of sparse resources is not achieved by government planning and control, but allowing market prices to form on functioning markets which reflect the shortage of such resources. This approach would also put into perspective the much debated conflict between economy and ecology. (orig.) [de

  10. Energy and the environment - the case for electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The case is argued that in certain situations the use of electricity as opposed to natural gas for residential and industrial applications can be environmentally friendly. Topics covered include carbon dioxide and equivalent greenhouse gas emissions at the point of use from a variety of energy sources, the average mix of UK electricity generation both now and in the future and alternative vehicle fuels including electric vehicles. (UK)

  11. Study on modeling of Energy-Economy-Environment system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Seung Jin [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    1999-07-01

    This study analyzed the effect of carbon dioxide reduction policy generated by energy use by developing a new operation general equilibrium model. This model is a multi sector successive dynamic model, designed to be able to forecast economic variables as well as GDP, energy consumption, and carbon dioxide emission amount until 2030 for every 5 years. Using this model, it analyzed three greenhouse gas reduction policy scenarios, the introduction of world single carbon tax, the setting up limit of greenhouse gas discharge, and the introduction of international discharge permit trading system. It analyzes that it gives a heavy burden to Korean economy when Korean government implements the greenhouse gas reduction policy with only domestic policy instrument. Therefore it is considered that it is required to reduce greenhouse gas cost-effectively by using Kyoto Protocol actively, such as international permit trading, co-implementation, and clean development system, when greenhouse gas reduction gives a heavy burden. Moreover, a policy that is dependent only on price mechanism, such as carbon tax or permit trading, to reduce greenhouse gas requires a very high cost and has a limitation. Therefore, to relieve some burden on economy requires to implement non-price mechanism simultaneously such as energy technology development and restructuring on industry and transportation system. (author). 70 refs., 11 figs., 34 tabs.

  12. Low Energy Electrons in the Mars Plasma Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Richard

    2001-01-01

    The ionosphere of Mars is rather poorly understood. The only direct measurements were performed by the Viking 1 and 2 landers in 1976, both of which carried a Retarding Potential Analyzer. The RPA was designed to measure ion properties during the descent, although electron fluxes were estimated from changes in the ion currents. Using these derived low-energy electron fluxes, Mantas and Hanson studied the photoelectron and the solar wind electron interactions with the atmosphere and ionosphere of Mars. Unanswered questions remain regarding the origin of the low-energy electron fluxes in the vicinity of the Mars plasma boundary. Crider, in an analysis of Mars Global Surveyor Magnetometer/Electron Reflectometer measurements, has attributed the formation of the magnetic pile-up boundary to electron impact ionization of exospheric neutral species by solar wind electrons. However, the role of photoelectrons escaping from the lower ionosphere was not determined. In the proposed work, we will examine the role of solar wind and ionospheric photoelectrons in producing ionization in the upper ionosphere of Mars. Low-energy (internal (photoelectron) sources of ionization, and accounts for Auger electron production. The code will be used to analyze Mars Global Surveyor measurements of solar wind and photoelectrons down to altitudes below 200 km in the Mars ionosphere, in order to determine the relative roles of solar wind and escaping photoelectrons in maintaining plasma densities in the region of the Mars plasma boundary.

  13. Energy taxation and the environment: A developing country perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, S.C.

    1997-01-01

    Economists prefer to monitor environmental protection and sustainable development through the use o economic instruments rather than with 'command and control' mechanisms. Energy, taxes and subsidies have emerged as a standard prescription for internalizing externalities. Yet existing energy tax policies, both in developed and developing countries, show, considerable contradictions in terms of environmental considerations. The question needs to be asked why this is so. Moreover, the suitability of fiscal measures for internalizing negative externalities in developing countries needs to be questioned. The objective of this article is to reveal the inherent contradictions and ambiguities in the application of taxes or subsidies to satisfy multiple objectives. It is argued that economic theory does not provide any ready-made solution to the problem and often sociopolitical considerations determine the outcome. Similarly, certain characteristics of developing countries, such as the existence of an important informal sector and the extensive use of traditional energies, violate certain basic assumptions a the underlying theory and require special attention in the application of pricing mechanism for internalizing externalities. (author)

  14. Impacts of energy utilization in a tropical environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleemann, M.; Penner, K.; Seele, U.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the approach and the interim results of the Indonesian-German scientific co-operation on environmental impacts of future energy utilization in Indonesia. The aim of the planning study is to provide decision support for Indonesian authorities in order to develop environmentally compatible energy supply strategies. The environmental problems will focus on the island of Java with a population density of more than 800 inhabitants/km 2 which might reach 1200 within the next 25 years. Due to the further economic growth and the population increase the energy consumption of the industry, the traffic, and the household sector will increase significantly. In particular the polluting coal utilization will grow overproportionally because of declining oil reserves. Additionally, the industrial development is concentrated on the island of Java which covers only 8% of the land area of the country. A serious pollution of the sensitive tropical ecosystems in the future would be the consequence of this unbalanced developments if no efforts are made to reduce the pollutant emissions. Even today the air quality has already reached critical levels in many parts of Java. 3 figs., 3 tabs

  15. Influence of Nanotoxicity on Human Health and Environment: The Alternative Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanath, Buddolla; Kim, Sanghyo

    Currently, nanotechnology revolutionizing both scientific and industrial community due to their applications in the fields of medicine, environmental protection, energy, and space exploration. Despite of the evident benefits of nanoparticles, there are still open questions about the influence of these nanoparticles on human health and environment. This is one of the critical issues that have to be addressed in the near future, before massive production of nanomaterials. Manufactured nanoparticles, which are finding ever-increasing applications in industry and consumer products fall into the category of emerging contaminants with ecological and toxicological effects on populations, communities and ecosystems. The existing experimental knowledge gave evidence that inhaled nanoparticles are less efficiently separated than larger particles by the macrophage clearance mechanisms and these nanoparticles are known to translocate through the lymphatic, circulatory and nervous systems to many tissues and organs, including the brain. In this review we highlight adverse impacts of nanoparticles on human and the environment with special emphasis on green nanoscience as a sustainable alternative.

  16. Research on biomass energy and environment from the past to the future: A bibliometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Guozhu; Huang, Ning; Chen, Lu; Wang, Hongmei

    2018-09-01

    The development and utilization of biomass energy can help to change the ways of energy production and consumption and establish a sustainable energy system that can effectively promote the development of the national economy and strengthen the protection of the environment. Here,we perform a bibliometric analysis of 9514 literature reports in the Web of Science Core Collection searched with the key words "Biomass energy" and "Environment*" date from 1998 to 2017; hot topics in the research and development of biomass energy utilization, as well as the status and development trends of biomass energy utilization and the environment, were analyzed based on content analysis and bibliometrics. The interaction between biomass energy and the environment began to become a major concern as the research progressively deepened. This work is of great significance for the development and utilization of biomass energy to put forward specific suggestions and strategies based on the analysis and demonstration of relationships and interactions between biomass energy utilization and environment. It is also useful to researchers for selecting the future research topics. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Negotiating energy dynamics through embodied action in a materially structured environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel E. Scherr

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We provide evidence that a learning activity called Energy Theater engages learners with key conceptual issues in the learning of energy, including disambiguating matter flow and energy flow and theorizing mechanisms for energy transformation. A participationist theory of learning, in which learning is indicated by changes in speech and behavior, supports ethnographic analysis of learners’ embodied interactions with each other and the material setting. We conduct detailed analysis to build plausible causal links between specific features of Energy Theater and the conceptual engagement that we observe. Disambiguation of matter and energy appears to be promoted especially by the material structure of the Energy Theater environment, in which energy is represented by participants, while objects are represented by areas demarcated by loops of rope. Theorizing mechanisms of energy transformation is promoted especially by Energy Theater’s embodied action, which necessitates modeling the time ordering of energy transformations.

  18. Design of wearable hybrid generator for harvesting heat energy from human body depending on physiological activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myoung-Soo; Kim, Min-Ki; Kim, Kyongtae; Kim, Yong-Jun

    2017-09-01

    We developed a prototype of a wearable hybrid generator (WHG) that is used for harvesting the heat energy of the human body. This WHG is constructed by integrating a thermoelectric generator (TEG) in a circular mesh polyester knit fabric, circular-shaped pyroelectric generator (PEG), and quick sweat-pickup/dry-fabric. The fabric packaging enables the TEG part of the WHG to generate energy steadily while maintaining a temperature difference in extreme temperature environments. Moreover, when the body sweats, the evaporation heat of the sweat leads to thermal fluctuations in the WHG. This phenomenon further leads to an increase in the output power of the WHG. These characteristics of the WHG make it possible to produce electrical energy steadily without reduction in the conversion efficiency, as both TEG and PEG use the same energy source of the human skin and the ambient temperature. Under a temperature difference of ˜6.5 °C and temperature change rate of ˜0.62 °C s-1, the output power and output power density of the WHG, respectively, are ˜4.5 nW and ˜1.5 μW m-2. Our hybrid approach will provide a framework to enhance the output power of the wearable generators that harvest heat energy from human body in various environments.

  19. The dielectric environment dependent exchange self-energy of the energy structure in graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, C.H.; Xu, W.

    2010-01-01

    We theoretically calculate the energy dispersion in the presence of the screened exchange self-energy in extrinsic monolayer graphene. It is found that the exchange self-energy enhances the renormalized Fermi velocity. With decreasing the dielectric constant, the screening effect and the electron correlation effect increase which induces the Fermi velocity increasing. The screened exchange energy has an energy shift at the Dirac points. The self-energy from the valance band carriers gives the main contribution to the effective energy. We also discuss the electron density dependence of the self-energy.

  20. The dielectric environment dependent exchange self-energy of the energy structure in graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, C.H., E-mail: chyang@nuist.edu.c [Faculty of Maths and Physics, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); Xu, W. [Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2010-10-01

    We theoretically calculate the energy dispersion in the presence of the screened exchange self-energy in extrinsic monolayer graphene. It is found that the exchange self-energy enhances the renormalized Fermi velocity. With decreasing the dielectric constant, the screening effect and the electron correlation effect increase which induces the Fermi velocity increasing. The screened exchange energy has an energy shift at the Dirac points. The self-energy from the valance band carriers gives the main contribution to the effective energy. We also discuss the electron density dependence of the self-energy.

  1. Human rights in the energy sector: where are we going?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Jim [KBC Advanced Technologies, Surrey (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    There is considerable guidance and tools to avoid and remediate adverse Human Rights impacts; Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), specific Human Right Impact Assessments or stand alone assessments across the whole spectrum of Human Rights. However the oil and gas sector has yet to address Human Rights risks in a comprehensive manner. In 2011 the Special Representative of the Secretary-General issued Guiding Principles (GP) to implement the United Nations 'Protect, Respect and Remedy' Framework. A survey of Human Rights performance against GP16 by the largest International Oil Companies (IOCs) and National Oil Companies (NOCs) shows a dichotomy with most (93%) of IOCs having a Human Rights Policy, approved at the highest level and available via the www to the general public (compliant with GP16) whilst 27% of NOCs have a Policy, of which, 9% are GP16 compliant. When service companies are included, only 23% are GP16 compliant. Only 8% provide Human Rights training. Human Rights in 41% of new projects are assessed via an EIA process, 18% via a specific Human Rights process, and 41% do not focus on Human Rights at all. Most companies do not have a Human Rights grievance mechanism. Whilst the IOCs are performing well the rest of the oil and gas sector, including the NOCs and service companies, are under-performing. The apparent reliance on the EIA process to Protect, Respect and Remedy Human Rights may be inadequate as the delivery of EIA is: still heavily biased toward environment compared to social and health impacts; they are time consuming and the Human Rights landscape can change during the EIA process; and the EIA disclosure process may expose vulnerable people to abuse. The oil and gas sector needs to address the record of poor compliance and develop and integrate some of the widely available Human rights tools. (author)

  2. Distributed Energy Systems in the Built Environment - European Legal Framework on Distributed Energy Systems in the Built Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pront-van Bommel, S.; Bregman, A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to outline the stimuli provided by European law for promoting integrated planning of distributed renewable energy installations on the one hand and its limitations thereof on the other hand, also with regard to the role of local governments.

  3. Energy and the environment: a review of the main features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cottrell, A.

    1976-01-01

    Science and technology have so far failed to discover practicable methods of tapping, on a large scale, the almost limitless supplies of energy in the form of solar radiation and its geophysical effects, the hot rocks inside the earth, and the thermonuclear potential of the hydrogen in the oceans. The problem with the natural energy sources is primarily an economic one. Despite its immense technical difficulties, thermonuclear fusion power seems a better long-term prospect. Biological methods of capturing solar energy, through photosynthesis, are not very promising. To meet this country's needs for petrol and gas from methane made from wood, about half the land area would have to be covered with coniferous forests. Fossil oil and gas supplies are unlikely to meet world needs for more than about 30 years longer. Coal supplies are much more plentiful and there is a good case for a strong technical effort on the desulphurisation of coal, to make it environmentally more acceptable, and on the conversion of coal to high-grade oil and gas. There is not enough uranium to support a world programme of thermal neutron reactors for more than about 20 years. The fast breeder reactor can overcome this problem, but the large-scale usage of these, in the next century, will aggravate the already deep anxieties about the risks to Society from radioactivity and other nuclear hazards. It is thus important to press forward strongly with programmes of fusion nuclear power, which would be more acceptable socially and environmentally. Later in the next century, the effects of man's sctivities on the world's climate may become important. It is already time to begin now to investigate these scientifically. (author)

  4. Human environment and cultural influence on the development of international business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae ȚÂU

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Peoples always seek to improve their life conditions. This sought had significantly contributed to the improvement of human life. Urbanization was a major turning point in the history of human development. It contributed to a change of lifestyle and a progress of business. The establishment of urban areas led to a transformation in the human and cultural environments. Furthermore, globalization processes contributed considerably to the alteration of human and cultural environments. In this work, we are going to explore the components of the human and cultural environment. The main aim of this work is reveal how can human environment and cultural influence the development of international business. This work is similarly meant to exhibit how cultural differences can and cultural transformation caused by globalization processes, affect communication, negotiation and management processes, thus influencing the development of international business.

  5. Recycling energy to restore impaired ankle function during human walking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven H Collins

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Humans normally dissipate significant energy during walking, largely at the transitions between steps. The ankle then acts to restore energy during push-off, which may be the reason that ankle impairment nearly always leads to poorer walking economy. The replacement of lost energy is necessary for steady gait, in which mechanical energy is constant on average, external dissipation is negligible, and no net work is performed over a stride. However, dissipation and replacement by muscles might not be necessary if energy were instead captured and reused by an assistive device. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We developed a microprocessor-controlled artificial foot that captures some of the energy that is normally dissipated by the leg and "recycles" it as positive ankle work. In tests on subjects walking with an artificially-impaired ankle, a conventional prosthesis reduced ankle push-off work and increased net metabolic energy expenditure by 23% compared to normal walking. Energy recycling restored ankle push-off to normal and reduced the net metabolic energy penalty to 14%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that reduced ankle push-off contributes to the increased metabolic energy expenditure accompanying ankle impairments, and demonstrate that energy recycling can be used to reduce such cost.

  6. The limits of human development and the use of energy and natural resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Rubens A.; Mattos, Cristiano R.; Balestieri, Jose A.P.

    2006-01-01

    The development of nations is an unquestionable requirement. A lot of challenges concerning health, education and economy are present. A discussion on these development models has occupied the minds of decision makers in recent years. When energy supply and demand is considered, the situation becomes critical and the crucial question is: how to improve the quality of life of developing countries based on available models of development that are related to the life style of developed countries, for which the necessary use and waste of energy are present? How much energy is essential to humanity for not so as to endangering the survival conditions of future generations? The human development index (HDI) establishes the relationship among energy use, economic growth and social growth. Here it can be seen that 75% of the world population has a significant energy consumption potential. This is a strong reason to consider that the sustainable development concepts on energy policies are strategic to the future of the planet. This paper deals with the importance of seeking alternative development models for human development balance, natural resources conservation and environment through rational energy use concepts

  7. Electrical energy alternatives and their effect on the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    The US has alternated its favored electrical energy sources several times over the past fifty years. It may soon change course again. Fifty years ago, the favored source was hydroelectric power. Electricity demand at the time was relatively small in comparison to today. Many rivers provided excellent, economical sites. In the 1950s, rapid growth in demand shifted interest to gas and oil because they were relatively clean, cheap, and easily transportable. A growing dependency on foreign oil led to the oil embargo and the rapid increase of prices in the 1970s. Use of oil was then discouraged by cost and federal regulation. Natural gas prices rose with oil prices, and federal regulations multiplied. Coal and uranium emerged as the favored fuels. However, nuclear power then came into disfavor in the late 1970s and throughout the 1980s. Emphasis on coal increased. The need for short construction schedules and reduced atmospheric emissions has since returned the emphasis to natural gas. Now pollution concerns are calling all fossil fuels into question. Hydroelectric sites are unavailable. Oil supplies are limited and foreign sourced. Coal is recognized as a major source of pollution. Natural gas is costly and limited. Renewable energy sources are incapable of meeting needs. And nuclear power safety and waste disposal issues still hinder its acceptance. So, where does the US go from here?

  8. A guide to geothermal energy and the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kagel, Alyssa; Bates, Diana; Gawell, Karl

    2005-04-22

    Geothermal energy, defined as heat from the Earth, is a statute-recognized renewable resource. The first U.S. geothermal power plant, opened at The Geysers in California in 1960, continues to operate successfully. The United States, as the world's largest producer of geothermal electricity, generates an average of 15 billion kilowatt hours of power per year, comparable to burning close to 25 million barrels of oil or 6 million short tons of coal per year. Geothermal has a higher capacity factor (a measure of the amount of real time during which a facility is used) than many other power sources. Unlike wind and solar resources, which are more dependent upon weather fluctuations and climate changes, geothermal resources are available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. While the carrier medium for geothermal electricity (water) must be properly managed, the source of geothermal energy, the Earth's heat, will be available indefinitely. A geothermal resource assessment shows that nine western states together have the potential to provide over 20 percent of national electricity needs. Although geothermal power plants, concentrated in the West, provide the third largest domestic source of renewable electricity after hydropower and biomass, they currently produce less than one percent of total U.S. electricity.

  9. Transfer of radionuclides from the environment to human milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, N.; Dean, J.; Veska, E.

    1988-03-01

    This report gives detailed procedures for: collecting, storing and shipping human milk samples; complete decomposition of human milk samples by nitric acid-perchloric acid oxidation; and sequential separation and determinations of lead 210, radium 226, thorium 230, natural thorium and natural uranium from decomposed human milk solutions. This sequential separation method is capable of detecting 0.025 Bq of radium 226, thorium 230 and thorium 232 and 0.05 Bq of lead 210. Recoveries are approximately 70% for radium 226 and 90% for thorium 230, thorium 232 and lead 210. This report also outlines a proposed field study program

  10. Proceedings of the Standing Senate committee on Energy, the Environment and Natural Resources. Issue no.13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Second Proceedings on: Study on the policy options available to the government to achieve the objective of containing emissions associated with energy production and use in Canada with a view to improving the environment and to make recommendations thereon

  11. Energy/environment 112/98 italian law. From model to feasibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amorosino, S.; Mennella, M.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper reported some considerations related to the organization and management in matter of energy and environment in regional and local government. Administrative procedures, organizational models and feasibility in the italian regions are reported [it

  12. Proceedings of the Standing Senate committee on Energy, the Environment and Natural Resources. Issue no.13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-10-20

    Second Proceedings on: Study on the policy options available to the government to achieve the objective of containing emissions associated with energy production and use in Canada with a view to improving the environment and to make recommendations thereon.

  13. Considerations for a regional energy - environment game. [Development and application of methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denton, J; Saaty, T; Blair, P; Ma, F; Ojalvo, S; Rahbar, F; Shimamoto, G

    1975-06-30

    The elements and structure of a small-scale regional energy-environment game are presented, with special emphasis on the definition of appropriate actors and state variables as well as characterization of the target region for which the game is designed. The results of this Phase I game will be used to aid the design of components in a more comprehensive game (Phase II) that can be used for investigating various energy-environment scenarios in a regional assessment study program. The principal results that will be used in the Phase II effort are: (1) definition of the target region; (2) development of reference scenarios describing energy-environment trends and mechanisms within the target region; (3) characterization of principal actors involved in the regional energy - environment system; and (4) definition of a set of factors or state variables that reflect the state of that system. (auth)

  14. Data resources for assessing regional impacts of energy facilities on health and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, R.J.

    1982-01-01

    Atmospheric emissions from fossil-fuel power plants and other sources continue to cause concern about impacts of these pollutants on human health and the environment. Assessing these impacts requires a regional-scale approach that integrates spatial and temporal patterns of emissions, environmental factors and human populations. Two examples of regional studies are presented, including a comparison of patterns of coal-fired power plants and selected diseases and identification of areas sensitive to acid rain which may transfer acid and toxic metals to aquatic systems and man. Energy, socio-economic, health and environmental data are often collected and summarized for counties in the USA. Counties are well-defined geopolitical units which can be used to integrate data, to aggregate data into larger regional units, and to display data as thematic maps. However, researchers are too frequently faced with the tedious task of assembling and reformatting files from several data-collection agencies prior to conducting regional studies. Systems such as UPGRADE, DIDS, SEEDIS and Geoecology have standardized many files into integrated data bases which utilize counties as the primary spatial unit. These systems are compared and data resources discussed. (author)

  15. A study of human performance in a rotating environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, J. A.; Peacock, J. L.; Holm, A. P.

    1971-01-01

    Consideration is given to the lack of sufficient data relative to the response of man to the attendant oculovestibular stimulations induced by multi-directional movement of an individual within the rotating environment to provide the required design criteria. This was done to determine the overall impact of artificial gravity simulations on potential design configurations and crew operational procedures. Gross locomotion and fine motor performance were evaluated. Results indicate that crew orientation, rotational rates, vehicle design configurations, and operational procedures may be used to reduce the severity of the adverse effects of the Coriolis and cross-coupled angular accelerations acting on masses moving within a rotating environment. Results further indicate that crew selection, motivation, and short-term exposures to the rotating environment may be important considerations for future crew indoctrination and training programs.

  16. Energy and environment market conditions in Mexico. Business focus series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    The report provides: (1) an overview of the Mexican economy and the energy and environmental sectors; (2) specific market assessments of the oil and gas sector, the electric power sector, the industrial air pollution control sector, and the municipal and industrial water pollution control sector; and (3) an analysis of the Mexican business climate and procedures. Each of the sectors is projected to show significant growth over the next several years. The Mexican government has taken many positive steps to improve the country's business climate, including trade and foreign exchange liberalization, foreign investment incentives, and strengthened intellectual property regulation. The North American Free Trade Agreement is expected to further improve the business climate in Mexico

  17. Mass independent kinetic energy reducing inlet system for vacuum environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Peter T. A. [Knoxville, TN

    2010-12-14

    A particle inlet system comprises a first chamber having a limiting orifice for an incoming gas stream and a micrometer controlled expansion slit. Lateral components of the momentum of the particles are substantially cancelled due to symmetry of the configuration once the laminar flow converges at the expansion slit. The particles and flow into a second chamber, which is maintained at a lower pressure than the first chamber, and then moves into a third chamber including multipole guides for electromagnetically confining the particle. The vertical momentum of the particles descending through the center of the third chamber is minimized as an upward stream of gases reduces the downward momentum of the particles. The translational kinetic energy of the particles is near-zero irrespective of the mass of the particles at an exit opening of the third chamber, which may be advantageously employed to provide enhanced mass resolution in mass spectrometry.

  18. Solar cells: An environment-benign energy source?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alsema, E.; Van Engelenburg, B.

    1993-01-01

    Attention is paid to a study on the environmental aspects of solar cell production techniques and the possibility of recycling solar cell materials. In the study the following types of solar cell modules are dealt with: CdTe and CuInSe 2 , amorphous silicon, crystalline silicon, and GaAs. It appears that silicon solar cells have minor environmental effects and are controllable. However, attention should be paid to the energy consumption and the use of etching and purification materials during the production of solar cells, and the emission of heavy metals from f.e. CdTe/CIS solar cells during and after usage. Without effective recycling enough supplies of indium, selenium and tellurium cannot be guaranteed. 3 figs., 1 ill

  19. Providing a computing environment for a high energy physics workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholls, J.

    1991-03-01

    Although computing facilities have been provided at conferences and workshops remote from the hose institution for some years, the equipment provided has rarely been capable of providing for much more than simple editing and electronic mail over leased lines. This presentation describes the pioneering effort involved by the Computing Department/Division at Fermilab in providing a local computing facility with world-wide networking capability for the Physics at Fermilab in the 1990's workshop held in Breckenridge, Colorado, in August 1989, as well as the enhanced facilities provided for the 1990 Summer Study on High Energy Physics at Snowmass, Colorado, in June/July 1990. Issues discussed include type and sizing of the facilities, advance preparations, shipping, on-site support, as well as an evaluation of the value of the facility to the workshop participants

  20. Human-like robots for space and hazardous environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The three year goal for the Kansas State USRA/NASA Senior Design team is to design and build a walking autonomous robotic rover. The rover should be capable of crossing rough terrain, traversing human made obstacles (such as stairs and doors), and moving through human and robot occupied spaces without collision. The rover is also to evidence considerable decision making ability, navigation, and path planning skills.