WorldWideScience

Sample records for human engineering evaluation

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF HUMAN FACTORS ENGINEERING GUIDANCE FOR SAFETY EVALUATIONS OF ADVANCED REACTORS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' HARA, J.; PERSENSKY, J.; SZABO, A.

    2006-10-01

    Advanced reactors are expected to be based on a concept of operations that is different from what is currently used in today's reactors. Therefore, regulatory staff may need new tools, developed from the best available technical bases, to support licensing evaluations. The areas in which new review guidance may be needed and the efforts underway to address the needs will be discussed. Our preliminary results focus on some of the technical issues to be addressed in three areas for which new guidance may be developed: automation and control, operations under degraded conditions, and new human factors engineering methods and tools.

  2. Evaluation of viability and proliferative activity of human urothelial cells cultured onto xenogenic tissue-engineered extracellular matrices.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Davis, Niall F

    2011-04-01

    To evaluate the viability and proliferative activity of human urothelial cells (HUCs) cultured on tissue-engineered extracellular matrix scaffolds and to assess the potential of extracellular matrixes to support the growth of HUCs in their expected in vivo urine environment.

  3. Advanced human-system interface design review guideline. Evaluation procedures and guidelines for human factors engineering reviews

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Hara, J.M.; Brown, W.S. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Baker, C.C.; Welch, D.L.; Granda, T.M.; Vingelis, P.J. [Carlow International Inc., Falls Church, VA (United States)

    1994-07-01

    Advanced control rooms will use advanced human-system interface (HSI) technologies that may have significant implications for plant safety in that they will affect the operator`s overall role in the system, the method of information presentation, and the ways in which operators interact with the system. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews the HSI aspects of control rooms to ensure that they are designed to good human factors engineering principles and that operator performance and reliability are appropriately supported to protect public health and safety. The principal guidance available to the NRC, however, was developed more than ten years ago, well before these technological changes. Accordingly, the human factors guidance needs to be updated to serve as the basis for NRC review of these advanced designs. The purpose of this project was to develop a general approach to advanced HSI review and the human factors guidelines to support. NRC safety reviews of advanced systems. This two-volume report provides the results of the project. Volume I describes the development of the Advanced HSI Design Review Guideline (DRG) including (1) its theoretical and technical foundation, (2) a general model for the review of advanced HSIs, (3) guideline development in both hard-copy and computer-based versions, and (4) the tests and evaluations performed to develop and validate the DRG. Volume I also includes a discussion of the gaps in available guidance and a methodology for addressing them. Volume 2 provides the guidelines to be used for advanced HSI review and the procedures for their use.

  4. Evaluating web serch engines

    CERN Document Server

    Lewandowski, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    Every month, more than 130 billion queries worldwide are entered into the search boxes of general-purpose web search engines (ComScore, 2010). This enormous number shows that web searching is not only a large business, but also that many people rely on the search engines' results when researching information. A goal of all search engine evaluation efforts is to generate better systems. This goal is of major importance to the search engine vendors who can directly apply evaluation results to develop better ranking algorithms.

  5. NRC Reviewer Aid for Evaluating the Human Factors Engineering Aspects of Small Modular Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OHara J. M.; Higgins, J.C.

    2012-01-13

    Small modular reactors (SMRs) are a promising approach to meeting future energy needs. Although the electrical output of an individual SMR is relatively small compared to that of typical commercial nuclear plants, they can be grouped to produce as much energy as a utility demands. Furthermore, SMRs can be used for other purposes, such as producing hydrogen and generating process heat. The design characteristics of many SMRs differ from those of current conventional plants and may require a distinct concept of operations (ConOps). The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) conducted research to examine the human factors engineering (HFE) and the operational aspects of SMRs. The research identified thirty potential human-performance issues that should be considered in the NRC's reviews of SMR designs and in future research activities. The purpose of this report is to support NRC HFE reviewers of SMR applications by identifying some of the questions that can be asked of applicants whose designs have characteristics identified in the issues. The questions for each issue were identified and organized based on the review elements and guidance contained in Chapter 18 of the Standard Review Plan (NUREG-0800), and the Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model (NUREG-0711).

  6. A human factors engineering evaluation of the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donohoo, D.T. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Sarver, T.L. [ARES Corp., San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1995-06-05

    This report documents the methods and results of a human factors engineering (HFE) review conducted on the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility (MWTF), Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) Project 236A, to be constructed at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility at Hanford, Washington. This HFE analysis of the MWTF was initiated by WHC to assess how well the current facility and equipment design satisfies the needs of its operations and maintenance staff and other potential occupants, and to identify areas of the design that could benefit from improving the human interfaces at the facility. Safe and effective operations, including maintenance, is a primary goal for the MWTF. Realization of this goal requires that the MWTF facility, equipment, and operations be designed in a manner that is consistent with the abilities and limitations of its operating personnel. As a consequence, HFE principles should be applied to the MWTF design, construction, its operating procedures, and its training. The HFE review was focused on the 200-West Area facility as the design is further along than that of the 200-East Area. The review captured, to the greatest extent feasible at this stage of design, all aspects of the facility activities and included the major topics generally associated with HFE (e.g., communication, working environment). Lessons learned from the review of the 200 West facility will be extrapolated to the 200-East Area, as well as generalized to the Hanford Site.

  7. Medical devices and human engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Bronzino, Joseph D

    2014-01-01

    Known as the bible of biomedical engineering, The Biomedical Engineering Handbook, Fourth Edition, sets the standard against which all other references of this nature are measured. As such, it has served as a major resource for both skilled professionals and novices to biomedical engineering.Medical Devices and Human Engineering, the second volume of the handbook, presents material from respected scientists with diverse backgrounds in biomedical sensors, medical instrumentation and devices, human performance engineering, rehabilitation engineering, and clinical engineering.More than three doze

  8. In-depth evaluation of commercially available human vascular smooth muscle cells phenotype: Implications for vascular tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timraz, Sara B H; Farhat, Ilyas A H; Alhussein, Ghada; Christoforou, Nicolas; Teo, Jeremy C M

    2016-05-01

    In vitro research on vascular tissue engineering has extensively used isolated primary human or animal smooth muscle cells (SMC). Research programs that lack such facilities tend towards commercially available primary cells sources. Here, we aim to evaluate the capacity of commercially available human SMC to maintain their contractile phenotype, and determine if dedifferentiation towards the synthetic phenotype occurs in response to conventional cell culture and passaging without any external biochemical or mechanical stimuli. Lower passage SMC adopted a contractile phenotype marked by a relatively slower proliferation rate, higher expression of proteins of the contractile apparatus and smoothelin, elongated morphology, and reduced deposition of collagen types I and III. As the passage number increased, migratory capacity was enhanced, average cell speed, total distance and net distance travelled increased up to passage 8. Through the various assays, corroborative evidence pinpoints SMC at passage 7 as the transition point between the contractile and synthetic phenotypes, while passage 8 distinctly and consistently exhibited characteristics of synthetic phenotype. This knowledge is particularly useful in selecting SMC of appropriate passage number for the target vascular tissue engineering application, for example, a homeostatic vascular graft for blood vessel replacement versus recreating atherosclerotic blood vessel model in vitro. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. In Vitro Toxicity Evaluation of Engineered Cadmium-Coated Silica Nanoparticles on Human Pulmonary Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uliana De Simone

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytotoxicity of cadmium-containing silica nanoparticles Cd-SiO2NPs (0.05–100 µg/mL versus SiO2NPs and CdCl2 was evaluated by an in vitro test battery in A549 by assessing (i mitochondrial function, (ii membrane integrity/cell morphology, (iii cell growth/proliferation, (iv apoptotic pathway, (v oxidative stress, after short- (24–48 h and long-term (10 days exposure. Both Cd-SiO2NPs and CdCl2 produced dose-dependent cytotoxic effects: (i MTT-assay: similar cytotoxicity pattern was observed at both 24 and 48 h, with a more Cd-SiO2NPs pronounced effect than CdCl2. Cd-SiO2NPs induced mortality (about 50% at 1 μg/mL, CdCl2 at 25 μg/mL; (ii calcein-AM/PI staining: decrease in cell viability, noticeable at 25 μg/mL, enhanced markedly at 50 and 100 μg/mL, after 24 h. Cd-SiO2NPs induced higher mortality than CdCl2 (25% versus 4%, resp., at 25 μg/mL with further exacerbation after 48h; (iii clonogenic assay: exposure for longer period (10 days compromised the A549 proliferative capacity at very low dose (0.05 μg/mL; (iv a progressive activation of caspase-3 immunolabelling was detected already at 1 μg/mL; (v GSH intracellular level was modified by all compounds. In summary, in vitro data demonstrated that both Cd-SiO2NPs and CdCl2 affected all investigated endpoints, more markedly after Cd-SiO2NPs, while SiO2NPs influenced GSH only.

  10. Human Factors Evaluation Mentor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To obtain valid and reliable data, Human Factors Engineering (HFE) evaluations are currently conducted by people with specialized training and experience in HF. HFE...

  11. Evaluative Measures of Search Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra Nath Singh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The ability to search and retrieve information from the web efficiently and effectively is great challenge of search engine. Information retrieval on the Web is very different from retrieval in traditional indexed databases because it’s hyper-linked character, the heterogeneity of document types and authoring styles. Thus, since Web retrieval is substantially different from information retrieval, new or revised evaluative measures are required to assess retrieval performance using search engines. In this paper we suggested a number of evaluative measures to evaluate the effectiveness of search engines. The motivation behind each of these measures is presented, along with their descriptions and definitions.

  12. Software Engineering for Human Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredrickson, Steven E.

    2014-01-01

    The Spacecraft Software Engineering Branch of NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) provides world-class products, leadership, and technical expertise in software engineering, processes, technology, and systems management for human spaceflight. The branch contributes to major NASA programs (e.g. ISS, MPCV/Orion) with in-house software development and prime contractor oversight, and maintains the JSC Engineering Directorate CMMI rating for flight software development. Software engineering teams work with hardware developers, mission planners, and system operators to integrate flight vehicles, habitats, robotics, and other spacecraft elements. They seek to infuse automation and autonomy into missions, and apply new technologies to flight processor and computational architectures. This presentation will provide an overview of key software-related projects, software methodologies and tools, and technology pursuits of interest to the JSC Spacecraft Software Engineering Branch.

  13. Human subject research for engineers a practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    de Winter, Joost C F

    2017-01-01

    This Brief introduces engineers to the main principles in ethics, research design, statistics, and publishing of human subject research. In recent years, engineering has become strongly connected to disciplines such as biology, medicine, and psychology. Often, engineers (and engineering students) are expected to perform human subject research. Typical human subject research topics conducted by engineers include human-computer interaction (e.g., evaluating the usability of software), exoskeletons, virtual reality, teleoperation, modelling of human behaviour and decision making (often within the framework of ‘big data’ research), product evaluation, biometrics, behavioural tracking (e.g., of work and travel patterns, or mobile phone use), transport and planning (e.g., an analysis of flows or safety issues), etc. Thus, it can be said that knowledge on how to do human subject research is indispensable for a substantial portion of engineers. Engineers are generally well trained in calculus and mechanics, but m...

  14. Genome engineering in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Minjung; Kim, Young-Hoon; Kim, Jin-Soo; Kim, Hyongbum

    2014-01-01

    Genome editing in human cells is of great value in research, medicine, and biotechnology. Programmable nucleases including zinc-finger nucleases, transcription activator-like effector nucleases, and RNA-guided engineered nucleases recognize a specific target sequence and make a double-strand break at that site, which can result in gene disruption, gene insertion, gene correction, or chromosomal rearrangements. The target sequence complexities of these programmable nucleases are higher than 3.2 mega base pairs, the size of the haploid human genome. Here, we briefly introduce the structure of the human genome and the characteristics of each programmable nuclease, and review their applications in human cells including pluripotent stem cells. In addition, we discuss various delivery methods for nucleases, programmable nickases, and enrichment of gene-edited human cells, all of which facilitate efficient and precise genome editing in human cells.

  15. Functionally graded beta-TCP/PCL nanocomposite scaffolds: in vitro evaluation with human fetal osteoblast cells for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Seher; Kalyon, Dilhan M; Yu, Xiaojun

    2010-03-01

    The engineering of biomimetic tissue relies on the ability to develop biodegradable scaffolds with functionally graded physical and chemical properties. In this study, a twin-screw-extrusion/spiral winding (TSESW) process was developed to enable the radial grading of porous scaffolds (discrete and continuous gradations) that were composed of polycaprolactone (PCL), beta-tricalciumphosphate (beta-TCP) nanoparticles, and salt porogens. Scaffolds with interconnected porosity, exhibiting myriad radial porosity, pore-size distributions, and beta-TCP nanoparticle concentration could be obtained. The results of the characterization of their compressive properties and in vitro cell proliferation studies using human fetal osteoblast cells suggest the promising nature of such scaffolds. The significant degree of freedom offered by the TSESW process should be an additional enabler in the quest toward the mimicry of the complex elegance of the native tissues.

  16. Tissue Engineered Human Skin Equivalents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Human skin not only serves as an important barrier against the penetration of exogenous substances into the body, but also provides a potential avenue for the transport of functional active drugs/reagents/ingredients into the skin (topical delivery and/or the body (transdermal delivery. In the past three decades, research and development in human skin equivalents have advanced in parallel with those in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The human skin equivalents are used commercially as clinical skin substitutes and as models for permeation and toxicity screening. Several academic laboratories have developed their own human skin equivalent models and applied these models for studying skin permeation, corrosivity and irritation, compound toxicity, biochemistry, metabolism and cellular pharmacology. Various aspects of the state of the art of human skin equivalents are reviewed and discussed.

  17. Human Factors Analysis in Software Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Ren-zuo; Ma Ruo-feng; Liu Li-na; Xiong Zhong-wei

    2004-01-01

    The general human factors analysis analyzes human functions, effects and influence in a system. But in a narrow sense, it analyzes human influence upon the reliability of a system, it includes traditional human reliability analysis, human error analysis, man-machine interface analysis, human character analysis, and others. A software development project in software engineering is successful or not to be completely determined by human factors. In this paper, we discuss the human factors intensions, declare the importance of human factors analysis for software engineering by listed some instances. At last, we probe preliminarily into the mentality that a practitioner in software engineering should possess.

  18. Evaluative Measures of Search Engines

    OpenAIRE

    Jitendra Nath Singh; Dr. S.K. Dwivedi

    2012-01-01

    The ability to search and retrieve information from the web efficiently and effectively is great challenge of search engine. Information retrieval on the Web is very different from retrieval in traditional indexed databases because it’s hyper-linked character, the heterogeneity of document types and authoring styles. Thus, since Web retrieval is substantially different from information retrieval, new or revised evaluative measures are required to assess retrieval performance using search engi...

  19. A Decision Support Framework for Evaluation of Engineered Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engineered nanomaterials (ENM) are currently being developed and applied at rates that far exceed our ability to evaluate their potential for environmental or human health risks. The gap between material development and capacity for assessment grows wider every day. Transforma...

  20. Local control stations: Human engineering issues and insights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, W.S.; Higgins, J.C.; O`Hara, J.M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The objective of this research project was to evaluate current human engineering at local control stations (LCSs) in nuclear power plants, and to identify good human engineering practices relevant to the design of these operator interfaces. General literature and reports of operating experience were reviewed to determine the extent and type of human engineering deficiencies at LCSs in nuclear power plants. In-plant assessments were made of human engineering at single-function as well as multifunction LCSs. Besides confirming the existence of human engineering deficiencies at LCSs, the in-plant assessments provided information about the human engineering upgrades that have been made at nuclear power plants. Upgrades were typically the result of any of three influences regulatory activity, broad industry initiatives such as INPO, and specific in-plant programs (e.g. activities related to training). It is concluded that the quality of LCSs is quite variable and might be improved if there were greater awareness of good practices and existing human engineering guidance relevant to these operator interfaces, which is available from a variety of sources. To make such human engineering guidance more readily accessible, guidelines were compiled from such sources and included in the report as an appendix.

  1. Human Flesh Search Engine and Online Privacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Gao, Hong

    2016-04-01

    Human flesh search engine can be a double-edged sword, bringing convenience on the one hand and leading to infringement of personal privacy on the other hand. This paper discusses the ethical problems brought about by the human flesh search engine, as well as possible solutions.

  2. Tactical/Combat Engines Cetane Window Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    custom diesel fuels typically used in Homogeneous Charge Coupled Ignition ( HCCI ) research engines . These fuels are characterized by a very heavy...UNCLASSIFIED TACTICAL/COMBAT ENGINES CETANE WINDOW EVALUATION INTERIM REPORT TFLRF No. 436 by Gregory A. Hansen, Douglas Yost...report when no longer needed. Do not return it to the originator. UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED TACTICAL/COMBAT ENGINES CETANE WINDOW

  3. Human factors engineering program review model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    The staff of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission is performing nuclear power plant design certification reviews based on a design process plan that describes the human factors engineering (HFE) program elements that are necessary and sufficient to develop an acceptable detailed design specification and an acceptable implemented design. There are two principal reasons for this approach. First, the initial design certification applications submitted for staff review did not include detailed design information. Second, since human performance literature and industry experiences have shown that many significant human factors issues arise early in the design process, review of the design process activities and results is important to the evaluation of an overall design. However, current regulations and guidance documents do not address the criteria for design process review. Therefore, the HFE Program Review Model (HFE PRM) was developed as a basis for performing design certification reviews that include design process evaluations as well as review of the final design. A central tenet of the HFE PRM is that the HFE aspects of the plant should be developed, designed, and evaluated on the basis of a structured top-down system analysis using accepted HFE principles. The HFE PRM consists of ten component elements. Each element in divided into four sections: Background, Objective, Applicant Submittals, and Review Criteria. This report describes the development of the HFE PRM and gives a detailed description of each HFE review element.

  4. Bridging Resilience Engineering and Human Reliability Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald L. Boring

    2010-06-01

    There has been strong interest in the new and emerging field called resilience engineering. This field has been quick to align itself with many existing safety disciplines, but it has also distanced itself from the field of human reliability analysis. To date, the discussion has been somewhat one-sided, with much discussion about the new insights afforded by resilience engineering. This paper presents an attempt to address resilience engineering from the perspective of human reliability analysis (HRA). It is argued that HRA shares much in common with resilience engineering and that, in fact, it can help strengthen nascent ideas in resilience engineering. This paper seeks to clarify and ultimately refute the arguments that have served to divide HRA and resilience engineering.

  5. Evaluation of tumorigenic potential of CeO2 and Fe2O3 engineered nanoparticles by a human cell in vitro screening model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stueckle, Todd A; Davidson, Donna C; Derk, Raymond; Kornberg, Tiffany G; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Pirela, Sandra V; Deloid, Glen; Demokritou, Philip; Luanpitpong, Sudjit; Rojanasakul, Yon; Wang, Liying

    2017-04-01

    With rapid development of novel nanotechnologies that incorporate engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) into manufactured products, long-term, low dose ENM exposures in occupational settings is forecasted to occur with potential adverse outcomes to human health. Few ENM human health risk assessment efforts have evaluated tumorigenic potential of ENMs. Two widely used nano-scaled metal oxides (NMOs), cerium oxide (nCeO2) and ferric oxide (nFe2O3) were screened in the current study using a sub-chronic exposure to human primary small airway epithelial cells (pSAECs). Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT), a known ENM tumor promoter, was used as a positive control. Advanced dosimetry modeling was employed to ascertain delivered vs. administered dose in all experimental conditions. Cells were continuously exposed in vitro to deposited doses of 0.18 μg/cm(2) or 0.06 μg/cm(2) of each NMO or MWCNT, respectively, over 6 and 10 weeks, while saline- and dispersant-only exposed cells served as passage controls. Cells were evaluated for changes in several cancer hallmarks, as evidence for neoplastic transformation. At 10 weeks, nFe2O3- and MWCNT-exposed cells displayed a neoplastic-like transformation phenotype with significant increased proliferation, invasion and soft agar colony formation ability compared to controls. nCeO2-exposed cells showed increased proliferative capacity only. Isolated nFe2O3 and MWCNT clones from soft agar colonies retained their respective neoplastic-like phenotypes. Interestingly, nFe2O3-exposed cells, but not MWCNT cells, exhibited immortalization and retention of the neoplastic phenotype after repeated passaging (12 - 30 passages) and after cryofreeze and thawing. High content screening and protein expression analyses in acute exposure ENM studies vs. immortalized nFe2O3 cells, and isolated ENM clones, suggested that long-term exposure to the tested ENMs resulted in iron homeostasis disruption, an increased labile ferrous iron pool, and subsequent

  6. Evaluation & Optimization of Software Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asaduzzaman Noman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The term is made of two words, software and engineering. Software is more than just a program code. A program is an executable code, which serves some computational purpose. Software is considered to be collection of executable programming code, associated libraries and documentations. Software, when made for a specific requirement is called software product. Engineering on the other hand, is all about developing products, using well-defined, scientific principles and methods. The outcome of software engineering is an efficient and reliable software product. IEEE defines software engineering as: The application of a systematic, disciplined, quantifiable approach to the development, operation and maintenance of software; that is, the application of engineering to software.

  7. 130 FEMINISM AND HUMAN GENETIC ENGINEERING: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ike Odimegwu

    Abstract. Human genetic in the area of Bio-ethics is a new, rapidly advancing. Science. ... Human genetic engineering, a recent one in medical science and practice, is one ..... The Church on Cloning and Stem Cell Research. The teaching of ...

  8. Human Factors Engineering. Student Supplement,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    Psychologists as Division 21 of the APA . It seems fitting, now that engineering psychology has been recognized as a viable entity, that we examine this new...34INFIC 161ST SCALE ___________ P CIUUIOIC POP40 3 SMTCPWONSI OARIA C0" NORMA . IN. AIDS AMU Ls". PLA0D 11aw Lu". FILM PACK CLR so. RAW MOTIVE LIS mm’ 7

  9. Blade containment evaluation of civil aircraft engines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Bin

    2013-01-01

    The potential hazard resulting from uncontained turbine engine rotor blade failure has always been the long-term concern of each aero engine manufacturer,and to fully contain the failed blades under critical operating conditions is also one of the most important considerations to meet the rotor integrity requirements.Usually,there are many factors involving the engine containment capability which need to be reviewed during the engine design phases,such as case thickness,rotor support structure,blade weight and shape,etc.However,the premier method to demonstrate the engine containment capability is the fan blade-off test and margin of safety (MS) analysis.Based on a concrete engine model,this paper aims to explain the key points of aero engine containment requirements in FAR Part 33,and introduces the implementation of MS analysis and fan blade-off test in the engine airworthiness certification.Through the introduction,it would be greatly helpful to the industrial community to evaluate the engine containment capability and prepare the final test demonstration in engine certification procedure.

  10. Evaluating human resource interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joha Louw-Potgieter

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Programme evaluation is a transdiscipline, which examines whether a programme has merit or not. A programme is a coherent set of activities aimed at bringing about a change in people or their circumstances.Research purpose: The purpose of this special edition is to introduce readers to the evaluation of human resource (HR programmes.Motivation for the study: There are few comprehensive evaluations of HR programmes despite many publications on functional efficiency measures of HR (i.e. measures of cost, time, quantity, error and quality.Research design, approach and method: This article provides a value chain for HR activities and introduces the reader to programme theory-driven evaluation.Main findings: In summarising all of the contributions in this edition, one of the main findings was the lack of programme evaluation experience within HR functions and the difficulty this posed for the evaluators.Practical/managerial implications: This introductory article presents answers to two simple questions: What does HR do? and, What is programme evaluation? These answers will enable practitioners to understand what programme evaluators mean when we say that programme evaluation seeks to determine the merit of a programme.Contribution/value-add: The main contribution of this introductory article is to set the scene for the HR evaluations that follow. It alerts the reader to the rich theory contribution in HR literature and how to apply this in a theory-driven evaluation.

  11. Human Factors Interface with Systems Engineering for NASA Human Spaceflights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Douglas T.

    2009-01-01

    This paper summarizes the past and present successes of the Habitability and Human Factors Branch (HHFB) at NASA Johnson Space Center s Space Life Sciences Directorate (SLSD) in including the Human-As-A-System (HAAS) model in many NASA programs and what steps to be taken to integrate the Human-Centered Design Philosophy (HCDP) into NASA s Systems Engineering (SE) process. The HAAS model stresses systems are ultimately designed for the humans; the humans should therefore be considered as a system within the systems. Therefore, the model places strong emphasis on human factors engineering. Since 1987, the HHFB has been engaging with many major NASA programs with much success. The HHFB helped create the NASA Standard 3000 (a human factors engineering practice guide) and the Human Systems Integration Requirements document. These efforts resulted in the HAAS model being included in many NASA programs. As an example, the HAAS model has been successfully introduced into the programmatic and systems engineering structures of the International Space Station Program (ISSP). Success in the ISSP caused other NASA programs to recognize the importance of the HAAS concept. Also due to this success, the HHFB helped update NASA s Systems Engineering Handbook in December 2007 to include HAAS as a recommended practice. Nonetheless, the HAAS model has yet to become an integral part of the NASA SE process. Besides continuing in integrating HAAS into current and future NASA programs, the HHFB will investigate incorporating the Human-Centered Design Philosophy (HCDP) into the NASA SE Handbook. The HCDP goes further than the HAAS model by emphasizing a holistic and iterative human-centered systems design concept.

  12. Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-02-01

    AA NUREG -0711,Rev. 2 Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model 20081009191 I i m To] Bi U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Office of...Material As of November 1999, you may electronically access NUREG -series publications and other NRC records at NRC’s Public Electronic Reading Room at...http://www.nrc.qov/readinq-rm.html. Publicly released records include, to name a few, NUREG -series publications; Federal Register notices; applicant

  13. Information retrieval implementing and evaluating search engines

    CERN Document Server

    Büttcher, Stefan; Cormack, Gordon V

    2016-01-01

    Information retrieval is the foundation for modern search engines. This textbook offers an introduction to the core topics underlying modern search technologies, including algorithms, data structures, indexing, retrieval, and evaluation. The emphasis is on implementation and experimentation; each chapter includes exercises and suggestions for student projects. Wumpus -- a multiuser open-source information retrieval system developed by one of the authors and available online -- provides model implementations and a basis for student work. The modular structure of the book allows instructors to use it in a variety of graduate-level courses, including courses taught from a database systems perspective, traditional information retrieval courses with a focus on IR theory, and courses covering the basics of Web retrieval. In addition to its classroom use, Information Retrieval will be a valuable reference for professionals in computer science, computer engineering, and software engineering.

  14. Comparison and Evaluation of Semantic Search Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raheleh Dorri

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we evaluate the performance of five semantic search engines that are available on the web, using 45 criteria, in the form of a researcher-made checklist. Criteria provided in the checklist included both common and semantic features. Common criteria or features are those applicable to all search engines and semantic ones are those only applicable to semantic search engines. Findings show that the selected search engines do not have suitable performance and expected efficiency. DuckDuckGo, has the most points, considering regular features. Cluuz is in the second place with 20 points and Hakia with 18 points was in the third place. Lexxe and Factbites, with scores of 15 and 10 were placed in the next categories in order of their points. In semantic features, DuckDuckGo, with 10/65 points was in the first place. Hakia with 9/99 points was in the second place, and then the search engines Cluuz with 8/66 Points, Lexxe with 8/65 points and Factbites with 7/32 points were allocated to the next levels. The research results also indicated that on the whole, considering ordinary and semantic features, DuckDuckGo with 31/65 points, Cluuz with 28/66, Hakia with 27/99 points, Lexxe with 23/65 points and Factbites with 17/32 points, got the highest scores out of it.

  15. Human factors engineering report for the cold vacuum drying facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    IMKER, F.W.

    1999-06-30

    The purpose of this report is to present the results and findings of the final Human Factors Engineering (HFE) technical analysis and evaluation of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF). Ergonomics issues are also addressed in this report, as appropriate. This report follows up and completes the preliminary work accomplished and reported by the Preliminary HFE Analysis report (SNF-2825, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Human Factors Engineering Analysis: Results and Findings). This analysis avoids redundancy of effort except for ensuring that previously recommended HFE design changes have not affected other parts of the system. Changes in one part of the system may affect other parts of the system where those changes were not applied. The final HFE analysis and evaluation of the CVDF human-machine interactions (HMI) was expanded to include: the physical work environment, human-computer interface (HCI) including workstation and software, operator tasks, tools, maintainability, communications, staffing, training, and the overall ability of humans to accomplish their responsibilities, as appropriate. Key focal areas for this report are the process bay operations, process water conditioning (PWC) skid, tank room, and Central Control Room operations. These key areas contain the system safety-class components and are the foundation for the human factors design basis of the CVDF.

  16. Rapid Prototyping and the Human Factors Engineering Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-29

    Rapid prototyping and the human factors • • engineering process David Beevis* and Gaetan St Denist *Senior Human Factors Engineer , Defence and...factors engineering analyses. Therefore, an investigation of the use of the V APS virtual prototyping system was carried out in five organizations. The...factors engineering (HFE) process re- commended for the development of human-machine systems is based on a series of increasin¥ly detailed analyses of

  17. Do Software Languages Engineers Evaluate their Languages?

    CERN Document Server

    Gabriel, Pedro; Amaral, Vasco

    2011-01-01

    Domain Specific Languages (DSLs) can contribute to increment productivity, while reducing the required maintenance and programming expertise. We hypothesize that Software Languages Engineering (SLE) developers consistently skip, or relax, Language Evaluation. Based on the experience of engineering other types of software products, we assume that this may potentially lead to the deployment of inadequate languages. The fact that the languages already deal with concepts from the problem domain, and not the solution domain, is not enough to validate several issues at stake, such as its expressiveness, usability, effectiveness, maintainability, or even the domain expert's productivity while using them. We present a systematic review on articles published in top ranked venues, from 2001 to 2008, which report DSLs' construction, to characterize the common practice. This work con?rms our initial hypothesis and lays the ground for the discussion on how to include a systematic approach to DSL evaluation in the SLE proc...

  18. Incremental Scheduling Engines for Human Exploration of the Cosmos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaap, John; Phillips, Shaun

    2005-01-01

    As humankind embarks on longer space missions farther from home, the requirements and environments for scheduling the activities performed on these missions are changing. As we begin to prepare for these missions it is appropriate to evaluate the merits and applicability of the different types of scheduling engines. Scheduling engines temporally arrange tasks onto a timeline so that all constraints and objectives are met and resources are not overbooked. Scheduling engines used to schedule space missions fall into three general categories: batch, mixed-initiative, and incremental. This paper presents an assessment of the engine types, a discussion of the impact of human exploration of the moon and Mars on planning and scheduling, and the applicability of the different types of scheduling engines. This paper will pursue the hypothesis that incremental scheduling engines may have a place in the new environment; they have the potential to reduce cost, to improve the satisfaction of those who execute or benefit from a particular timeline (the customers), and to allow astronauts to plan their own tasks and those of their companion robots.

  19. Evaluating word semantic properties using Sketch Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoykova, Velislava; Simkova, Maria

    2015-02-01

    The paper describes approach to use statistically-based tools incorporated into Sketch Engine system for electronic text corpora processing to mining big textual data for search and extract word semantic properties. It presents and compares series of word search experiments using different statistical approaches and evaluates results for Bulgarian language EUROPARL 7 Corpus search to extract word semantic properties. Finally, the methodology is extended for multilingual application using Slovak language EUROPARL 7 Corpus.

  20. Evaluation of Research in Engineering Science in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Brussel, Hendrik Van Brussel; Lindberg, Bengt; Cederwall, Klas

    This report presents the conclusions of Panel 1: Construction engineering, Production and Operation. The Research Council of Norway (NFR) appointed three expert panels to evaluate Research in Engineering Science in Norway .......This report presents the conclusions of Panel 1: Construction engineering, Production and Operation. The Research Council of Norway (NFR) appointed three expert panels to evaluate Research in Engineering Science in Norway ....

  1. Evaluating Dual Activity LPA Receptor Pan-Antagonist/Autotaxin Inhibitors as Anti-Cancer Agents in vivo using Engineered Human Tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Xiaoyu; Yang, Guanghui; Zhang, Honglu; Glenn D Prestwich

    2009-01-01

    Using an in situ crosslinkable hydrogel that mimics the extracellular matrix (ECM), cancer cells were encapsulated and injected in vivo following a “tumor engineering” strategy for orthotopic xenografts. Specifically, we created several three-dimensional (3-D) human tumor xenografts and evaluated the tumor response to BrP-LPA, a novel dual function LPA antagonist/ATX inhibitor (LPAa/ATXi). First, we describe the model system and the optimization of semi-synthetic ECM (sECM) compositions and i...

  2. Translating textiles to tissue engineering: Creation and evaluation of microporous, biocompatible, degradable scaffolds using industry relevant manufacturing approaches and human adipose derived stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslauer, Carla M; Avery, Matthew R; Pourdeyhimi, Behnam; Loboa, Elizabeth G

    2015-07-01

    Polymeric scaffolds have emerged as a means of generating three-dimensional tissues, such as for the treatment of bone injuries and nonunions. In this study, a fibrous scaffold was designed using the biocompatible, degradable polymer poly-lactic acid in combination with a water dispersible sacrificial polymer, EastONE. Fibers were generated via industry relevant, facile scale-up melt-spinning techniques with an islands-in-the-sea geometry. Following removal of EastONE, a highly porous fiber remained possessing 12 longitudinal channels and pores throughout all internal and external fiber walls. Weight loss and surface area characterization confirmed the generation of highly porous fibers as observed via focused ion beam/scanning electron microscopy. Porous fibers were then knit into a three-dimensional scaffold and seeded with human adipose-derived stem cells (hASC). Confocal microscopy images confirmed hASC attachment to the fiber walls and proliferation throughout the knit structure. Quantification of cell-mediated calcium accretion following culture in osteogenic differentiation medium confirmed hASC differentiation throughout the porous constructs. These results suggest incorporation of a sacrificial polymer within islands-in-the-sea fibers generates a highly porous scaffold capable of supporting stem cell viability and differentiation with the potential to generate large three-dimensional constructs for bone regeneration and/or other tissue engineering applications.

  3. Evaluation of heat engine for hybrid vehicle application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, H. W.

    1984-01-01

    The status of ongoing heat-engine developments, including spark-ignition, compression-ignition, internal-combustion, and external-combustion engines is presented. The potential of engine concepts under consideration for hybrid vehicle use is evaluated, using self-imposed criteria for selection. The deficiencies of the engines currently being evaluated in hybrid vehicles are discussed. Focus is on recent research with two-stroke, rotary, and free-piston engines. It is concluded that these engine concepts have the most promising potential for future application in hybrid vehicles. Recommendations are made for analysis and experimentation to evaluate stop-start and transient emission behavior of recommended engine concepts.

  4. Human factors engineering plan for reviewing nuclear plant modernization programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Hara, John; Higgins, James [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)

    2004-12-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate reviews the human factors engineering (HFE) aspects of nuclear power plants (NPPs) involved in the modernization of the plant systems and control rooms. The purpose of a HFE review is to help ensure personnel and public safety by verifying that accepted HFE practices and guidelines are incorporated into the program and nuclear power plant design. Such a review helps to ensure the HFE aspects of an NPP are developed, designed, and evaluated on the basis of a structured top-down system analysis using accepted HFE principles. The review addresses eleven HFE elements: HFE Program Management, Operating Experience Review, Functional Requirements Analysis and Allocation, Task Analysis, Staffing, Human Reliability Analysis, Human-System Interface Design, Procedure Development, Training Program Development, Human Factors Verification and Validation, and Design Implementation.

  5. Training in Human Relations for Engineers at the Ecole Superieure D'Informatique-Electronique-Automatique (ESIEA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafargue, M.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Points out the need to provide engineers with training in human relations. Describes the process of developing a document defining the problem and steps to be taken toward solution, submitted to students for their evaluation. (JM)

  6. Training in Human Relations for Engineers at the Ecole Superieure D'Informatique-Electronique-Automatique (ESIEA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafargue, M.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Points out the need to provide engineers with training in human relations. Describes the process of developing a document defining the problem and steps to be taken toward solution, submitted to students for their evaluation. (JM)

  7. The human dimension of program evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vine, E.L.

    1993-05-01

    Social science issues play an important role in the evaluation of demand-side management (DSM) programs. In the very early years of DSM program evaluation in the United States, there was a fair amount of social science research applied to the behavioral aspects of energy efficiency. Since the mid-1980s, however, there has been a heavy emphasis on impact evaluation, technical measurement, and engineering methodologies. Although some have articulated the need to integrate behavioral research into energy evaluation, most emphasis has tended to center on the technical/engineering aspects. Increasingly, however, the realization is growing that it is necessary to integrate important behavioral variables into impact evaluation techniques. In addition, it is being further recognized that behavioral research questions are central to a number of critical evaluation issues: e.g., design of samples for evaluation studies, net energy savings, self-selection bias, free riders and free drivers, persistence of energy savings, process evaluation, and market impact evaluation. Finally, it is increasingly being realized that the utilization of evaluation results relies heavily on behavioral factors. Social science researchers should be poised to expect a greatly expanded role of behavioral research in evaluation. As new techniques are developed and perfected, as the results of impact evaluations become more abundant, and as the gap between technical energy savings potential and realized savings becomes more visible, research regarding the ``human dimension`` of program evaluation will be crucial. This paper provides an overview of the human dimension of program evaluation and focuses on key evaluation issues in demand-side management which will require the use of social science research for addressing these issues.

  8. Human Factors Engineering and Ergonomics in Systems Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, Mihriban

    2017-01-01

    The study, discovery, and application of information about human abilities, human limitations, and other human characteristics to the design of tools, devices, machines, systems, job tasks and environments for effective human performance.

  9. Human-Centered Software Engineering: Software Engineering Architectures, Patterns, and Sodels for Human Computer Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seffah, Ahmed; Vanderdonckt, Jean; Desmarais, Michel C.

    The Computer-Human Interaction and Software Engineering (CHISE) series of edited volumes originated from a number of workshops and discussions over the latest research and developments in the field of Human Computer Interaction (HCI) and Software Engineering (SE) integration, convergence and cross-pollination. A first volume in this series (CHISE Volume I - Human-Centered Software Engineering: Integrating Usability in the Development Lifecycle) aims at bridging the gap between the field of SE and HCI, and addresses specifically the concerns of integrating usability and user-centered systems design methods and tools into the software development lifecycle and practices. This has been done by defining techniques, tools and practices that can fit into the entire software engineering lifecycle as well as by defining ways of addressing the knowledge and skills needed, and the attitudes and basic values that a user-centered development methodology requires. The first volume has been edited as Vol. 8 in the Springer HCI Series (Seffah, Gulliksen and Desmarais, 2005).

  10. Cummins advanced turbocompound diesel engine evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoehne, J.L.; Werner, J.R.

    1982-12-01

    An advanced turbocompound diesel engine program was initiated to improve the tank mileage of the turbocompound engine by 5% over the vehicle test engines. Engine improvements could be realized by increasing the available energy of the exhaust gas at the turbine inlet, incorporating gas turbine techniques into improving the turbomachinery efficiencies, and through refined engine system optimization. The individual and cumulative performance gains achieved with the advanced turbocompound engine improvements are presented.

  11. Evaluating model of frozen soil environment change under engineering actions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU; Qingbai(吴青柏); ZHU; Yuanlin(朱元林); LIU; Yongzhi(刘永智)

    2002-01-01

    The change of frozen soil environment is evaluated by permafrost thermal stability, thermal thaw sensibility and surface landscape stability and the quantitatively evaluating model of frozen soil environment is proposed in this paper. The evaluating model of frozen soil environment is calculated by 28 ground temperature measurements along Qinghai-Xizang Highway. The relationships of thermal thaw sensibility and freezing and thawing processes and seasonally thawing depth, thermal stability and permafrost table temperature, mean annual ground temperature and seasonally thawing depth, and surface landscape stability and freezing and thawing hazards and their forming possibility are analyzed. The results show that thermal stability, thermal thaw sensibility and surface landscape stability can be used to evaluate and predict the change of frozen soil environment under human engineering action.

  12. Computer Aided Software Engineering workstation evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotcher, D.A.; Parish, R.B.; Sisson, A.M.; Wenzel, W.A.; Wiancko, B.E.

    1988-09-14

    This report presents an evaluation of interconnected high performance workstations. The evaluation specifically addresses the benefits to personnel engaged in Computer Aided Software Engineering (CASE) for the design and development of computer software aided by computer workstations. To narrow the scope of the CASE evaluation to a reasonable size, the class of workstations considered was limited to units having the following minimum capabilities: speed to issue 2 to 3 million instructions per second (Mips), 4 megabytes (MB) of central memory, 140 MB of local disk storage, a monitor with 1024 by 960 graphics resolution, and Ethernet compatibility. In addition, software requirements included a virtual memory implementation of the UNIX operating system, the defacto standard networking Transmission Control Protocol and Internet Protocol (TCP/IP), and the network file system (NFS). Support of selected third-party software, such as the TEMPLATE graphics software, and robust tools for software development were also required. These criteria are justified by the use of workstations for maintenance and support of large mainframe based FORTRAN computer programs. The evaluation concluded that workstations are excellent tools for CASE. 1 ref., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  13. Evaluating search effectiveness of some selected search engines ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluating search effectiveness of some selected search engines. ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL ... seek for information on the World Wide Web (WWW) using variety of search engines.

  14. Engineered human dicentric chromosomes show centromere plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Anne W; Gustashaw, Karen M; Willard, Huntington F

    2005-01-01

    The centromere is essential for the faithful distribution of a cell's genetic material to subsequent generations. Despite intense scrutiny, the precise genetic and epigenetic basis for centromere function is still unknown. Here, we have used engineered dicentric human chromosomes to investigate mammalian centromere structure and function. We describe three classes of dicentric chromosomes isolated in different cell lines: functionally monocentric chromosomes, in which one of the two genetically identical centromeres is consistently inactivated; functionally dicentric chromosomes, in which both centromeres are consistently active; and dicentric chromosomes heterogeneous with respect to centromere activity. A study of serial single cell clones from heterogeneous cell lines revealed that while centromere activity is usually clonal, the centromere state (i.e. functionally monocentric or dicentric) in some lines can switch within a growing population of cells. Because pulsed field gel analysis indicated that the DNA at the centromeres of these chromosomes did not change detectably, this switching of the centromere state is most likely due to epigenetic changes. Inactivation of one of the two active centromeres in a functionally dicentric chromosome was observed in a percentage of cells after treatment with Trichostatin A, an inhibitor of histone deacetylation. This study provides evidence that the activity of human centromeres, while largely stable, can be subject to dynamic change, most likely due to epigenetic modification.

  15. Human Genetic Engineering: A Survey of Student Value Stances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Sara McCormack; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Assesses the values of high school and college students relative to human genetic engineering and recommends that biology educators explore instructional strategies merging human genetic information with value clarification techniques. (LS)

  16. RNA-guided human genome engineering via Cas9

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mali, Prashant; Yang, Luhan; Esvelt, Kevin M; Aach, John; Guell, Marc; DiCarlo, James E; Norville, Julie E; Church, George M

    2013-01-01

    .... We also compute a genome-wide resource of ~190 K unique gRNAs targeting ~40.5% of human exons. Our results establish an RNA-guided editing tool for facile, robust, and multiplexable human genome engineering.

  17. A systems engineering view of the human in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, John L.

    1987-01-01

    A model of the human as an 'engineered' system provides a starting point for determining human requirements and performance on an equivalent basis with technological systems. The human as an engineered system with performance requirements is defined to consist of four subsystems: cognitive, psychological, biomechanical, and biomedical. It is suggested that the treatment of the psychological subsystem as one that modulates the efficiency and quality of human performance offers a particular approach for examining and characterizing psychological effects.

  18. Evaluating Google Compute Engine with PROOF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganis, Gerardo; Panitkin, Sergey

    2014-06-01

    The advent of private and commercial cloud platforms has opened the question of evaluating the cost-effectiveness of such solution for computing in High Energy Physics . Google Compute Engine (GCE) is a IaaS product launched by Google as an experimental platform during 2012 and now open to the public market. In this contribution we present the results of a set of CPU-intensive and I/O-intensive tests we have run with PROOF on a GCE resources made available by Google for test purposes. We have run tests on large scale PROOF clusters (up to 1000 workers) to study the overall scalability of coordinated multi-process jobs. We have studied and compared the performance of ephemeral and persistent storage with PROOF-Lite on the single machines and of standard PROOF on the whole cluster. We will discuss our results in perspective, in particular with respect to the typical analysis needs of an LHC experiment.

  19. Objective and automated protocols for the evaluation of biomedical search engines using No Title Evaluation protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campagne Fabien

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The evaluation of information retrieval techniques has traditionally relied on human judges to determine which documents are relevant to a query and which are not. This protocol is used in the Text Retrieval Evaluation Conference (TREC, organized annually for the past 15 years, to support the unbiased evaluation of novel information retrieval approaches. The TREC Genomics Track has recently been introduced to measure the performance of information retrieval for biomedical applications. Results We describe two protocols for evaluating biomedical information retrieval techniques without human relevance judgments. We call these protocols No Title Evaluation (NT Evaluation. The first protocol measures performance for focused searches, where only one relevant document exists for each query. The second protocol measures performance for queries expected to have potentially many relevant documents per query (high-recall searches. Both protocols take advantage of the clear separation of titles and abstracts found in Medline. We compare the performance obtained with these evaluation protocols to results obtained by reusing the relevance judgments produced in the 2004 and 2005 TREC Genomics Track and observe significant correlations between performance rankings generated by our approach and TREC. Spearman's correlation coefficients in the range of 0.79–0.92 are observed comparing bpref measured with NT Evaluation or with TREC evaluations. For comparison, coefficients in the range 0.86–0.94 can be observed when evaluating the same set of methods with data from two independent TREC Genomics Track evaluations. We discuss the advantages of NT Evaluation over the TRels and the data fusion evaluation protocols introduced recently. Conclusion Our results suggest that the NT Evaluation protocols described here could be used to optimize some search engine parameters before human evaluation. Further research is needed to determine if NT

  20. Objective and automated protocols for the evaluation of biomedical search engines using No Title Evaluation protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagne, Fabien

    2008-01-01

    Background The evaluation of information retrieval techniques has traditionally relied on human judges to determine which documents are relevant to a query and which are not. This protocol is used in the Text Retrieval Evaluation Conference (TREC), organized annually for the past 15 years, to support the unbiased evaluation of novel information retrieval approaches. The TREC Genomics Track has recently been introduced to measure the performance of information retrieval for biomedical applications. Results We describe two protocols for evaluating biomedical information retrieval techniques without human relevance judgments. We call these protocols No Title Evaluation (NT Evaluation). The first protocol measures performance for focused searches, where only one relevant document exists for each query. The second protocol measures performance for queries expected to have potentially many relevant documents per query (high-recall searches). Both protocols take advantage of the clear separation of titles and abstracts found in Medline. We compare the performance obtained with these evaluation protocols to results obtained by reusing the relevance judgments produced in the 2004 and 2005 TREC Genomics Track and observe significant correlations between performance rankings generated by our approach and TREC. Spearman's correlation coefficients in the range of 0.79–0.92 are observed comparing bpref measured with NT Evaluation or with TREC evaluations. For comparison, coefficients in the range 0.86–0.94 can be observed when evaluating the same set of methods with data from two independent TREC Genomics Track evaluations. We discuss the advantages of NT Evaluation over the TRels and the data fusion evaluation protocols introduced recently. Conclusion Our results suggest that the NT Evaluation protocols described here could be used to optimize some search engine parameters before human evaluation. Further research is needed to determine if NT Evaluation or variants of these

  1. Cummins advanced turbocompound diesel-engine evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoehne, J.L.; Werner, J.R.

    1982-12-01

    The turbocompound diesel engine has been under development since 1972. Development reached a mature stage following the evolution of three power turbine and gear train designs. In 1978, the Department of Energy sponsored a program for comprehensive vehicle testing of the turbocompound engine. Upon successful completion of the vehicle test program, an advanced turbocompound diesel engine program was initiated in 1980 to improve the tank mileage of the turbocompound engine by 5% over the vehicle test engines. Engine improvements could be realized by increasing the available energy of the exhaust gas at the turbine inlet, incorporating gas turbine techniques into improving the turbomachinery efficiencies, and through refined engine system optimization. This paper presents the individual and cumulative performance gains achieved with the advanced turbocompound engine improvements.

  2. Recent progress in engineering human-associated microbiomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaung, Stephanie J; Church, George M; Wang, Harris H

    2014-01-01

    Recent progress in molecular biology and genetics opens up the possibility of engineering a variety of biological systems, from single-cellular to multicellular organisms. The consortia of microbes that reside on the human body, the human-associated microbiota, are particularly interesting as targets for forward engineering and manipulation due to their relevance in health and disease. New technologies in analysis and perturbation of the human microbiota will lead to better diagnostic and therapeutic strategies against diseases of microbial origin or pathogenesis. Here, we discuss recent advances that are bringing us closer to realizing the true potential of an engineered human-associated microbial community.

  3. NASA Indexing Benchmarks: Evaluating Text Search Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esler, Sandra L.; Nelson, Michael L.

    1997-01-01

    The current proliferation of on-line information resources underscores the requirement for the ability to index collections of information and search and retrieve them in a convenient manner. This study develops criteria for analytically comparing the index and search engines and presents results for a number of freely available search engines. A product of this research is a toolkit capable of automatically indexing, searching, and extracting performance statistics from each of the focused search engines. This toolkit is highly configurable and has the ability to run these benchmark tests against other engines as well. Results demonstrate that the tested search engines can be grouped into two levels. Level one engines are efficient on small to medium sized data collections, but show weaknesses when used for collections 100MB or larger. Level two search engines are recommended for data collections up to and beyond 100MB.

  4. Genetically engineered mouse models and human osteosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ng Alvin JM

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Osteosarcoma is the most common form of bone cancer. Pivotal insight into the genes involved in human osteosarcoma has been provided by the study of rare familial cancer predisposition syndromes. Three kindreds stand out as predisposing to the development of osteosarcoma: Li-Fraumeni syndrome, familial retinoblastoma and RecQ helicase disorders, which include Rothmund-Thomson Syndrome in particular. These disorders have highlighted the important roles of P53 and RB respectively, in the development of osteosarcoma. The association of OS with RECQL4 mutations is apparent but the relevance of this to OS is uncertain as mutations in RECQL4 are not found in sporadic OS. Application of the knowledge or mutations of P53 and RB in familial and sporadic OS has enabled the development of tractable, highly penetrant murine models of OS. These models share many of the cardinal features associated with human osteosarcoma including, importantly, a high incidence of spontaneous metastasis. The recent development of these models has been a significant advance for efforts to improve our understanding of the genetics of human OS and, more critically, to provide a high-throughput genetically modifiable platform for preclinical evaluation of new therapeutics.

  5. Human Engineering Modeling and Performance Lab Study Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva-Buisson, Yvette J.

    2014-01-01

    The HEMAP (Human Engineering Modeling and Performance) Lab is a joint effort between the Industrial and Human Engineering group and the KAVE (Kennedy Advanced Visualiations Environment) group. The lab consists of sixteen camera system that is used to capture human motions and operational tasks, through te use of a Velcro suit equipped with sensors, and then simulate these tasks in an ergonomic software package know as Jac, The Jack software is able to identify the potential risk hazards.

  6. Seeking perfection: a Kantian look at human genetic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunderson, Martin

    2007-01-01

    It is tempting to argue that Kantian moral philosophy justifies prohibiting both human germ-line genetic engineering and non-therapeutic genetic engineering because they fail to respect human dignity. There are, however, good reasons for resisting this temptation. In fact, Kant's moral philosophy provides reasons that support genetic engineering-even germ-line and non-therapeutic. This is true of Kant's imperfect duties to seek one's own perfection and the happiness of others. It is also true of the categorical imperative. Kant's moral philosophy does, however, provide limits to justifiable genetic engineering.

  7. Unmasking the social engineer the human element of security

    CERN Document Server

    Hadnagy, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Learn to identify the social engineer by non-verbal behavior Unmasking the Social Engineer: The Human Element of Security focuses on combining the science of understanding non-verbal communications with the knowledge of how social engineers, scam artists and con men use these skills to build feelings of trust and rapport in their targets. The author helps readers understand how to identify and detect social engineers and scammers by analyzing their non-verbal behavior. Unmasking the Social Engineer shows how attacks work, explains nonverbal communications, and demonstrates with visuals the c

  8. Human factor engineering applied to nuclear power plant design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manrique, A. [TECNATOM SA, BWR General Electric Business Manager, Madrid (Spain); Valdivia, J.C. [TECNATOM SA, Operation Engineering Project Manager, Madrid (Spain); Jimenez, A. [TECNATOM SA, Operation Engineering Div. Manager, Madrid (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    For the design and construction of new nuclear power plants as well as for maintenance and operation of the existing ones new man-machine interface designs and modifications are been produced. For these new designs Human Factor Engineering must be applied the same as for any other traditional engineering discipline. Advantages of implementing adequate Human Factor Engineering techniques in the design of nuclear reactors have become not only a fact recognized by the majority of engineers and operators but also an explicit requirement regulated and mandatory for the new designs of the so called advanced reactors. Additionally, the big saving achieved by a nuclear power plant having an operating methodology which significantly decreases the risk of operating errors makes it necessary and almost vital its implementation. The first step for this is preparing a plan to incorporate all the Human Factor Engineering principles and developing an integral design of the Instrumentation and Control and Man-machine interface systems. (author)

  9. Design of a Human Reliability Assessment model for structural engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Haan, J.; Terwel, K.C.; Al-Jibouri, S.H.S.

    2013-01-01

    It is generally accepted that humans are the “weakest link” in structural design and construction processes. Despite this, few models are available to quantify human error within engineering processes. This paper demonstrates the use of a quantitative Human Reliability Assessment model within struct

  10. Clonality evaluation in human tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villamizar-Rivera, Nicolás

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Malignant proliferations are usually clonal. While most times the biological potential can be established through routine pathologic and clinical examinations, some cases are difficult to classify. Moreover, in some situations there are dominant clones whose analysis is important, such as in autoimmune diseases and immunodeficiency. This paper presents in an understandable way the main techniques for the study of clonality, namely: evaluation of gene rearrangements of antigen receptor, and evaluation of human antigen receptor gene.

  11. Inspiring engineering minds to advance human health: the Henry Samueli School of Engineering's Department of BME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Abraham; Wirtanen, Erik

    2012-07-01

    The growth of biomedical engineering at The Henry Samueli School of Engineering at the University of California, Irvine (UCI) has been rapid since the Center for Biomedical Engineering was first formed in 1998 [and was later renamed as the Department of Biomedical Engineering (BME) in 2002]. Our current mission statement, “Inspiring Engineering Minds to Advance Human Health,” serves as a reminder of why we exist, what we do, and the core principles that we value and by which we abide. BME exists to advance the state of human health via engineering innovation and practices. To attain our goal, we are empowering our faculty to inspire and mobilize our students to address health problems. We treasure the human being, particularly the human mind and health. We believe that BME is where minds are nurtured, challenged, and disciplined, and it is also where the health of the human is held as a core mission value that deserves our utmost priority (Figure 1). Advancing human health is not a theoretical practice; it requires bridging between disciplines (engineering and medicine) and between communities (academic and industry).

  12. Requirements engineering for human activity systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Erasmus, J

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available . Office of the Chief Engineer, NASA, 2007. —. Systems Engineering Handbook. Washington, D.C.: National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 2007. Office of the Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Technology, Systems and Software... and special tools necessary to perform the verification (NASA 2007). This information will also allow for proper planning and scheduling of the verification activities to be performed throughout the development and realisation of the product. Measures...

  13. Characterization of human myoblast cultures for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern-Straeter, Jens; Bran, Gregor; Riedel, Frank; Sauter, Alexander; Hörmann, Karl; Goessler, Ulrich Reinhart

    2008-01-01

    Skeletal muscle tissue engineering, a promising specialty, aims at the reconstruction of skeletal muscle loss. In vitro tissue engineering attempts to achieve this goal by creating differentiated, functional muscle tissue through a process in which stem cells are extracted from the patient, e.g. by muscle biopsies, expanded and differentiated in a controlled environment, and subsequently re-implanted. A prerequisite for this undertaking is the ability to cultivate and differentiate human skeletal muscle cell cultures. Evidently, optimal culture conditions must be investigated for later clinical utilization. We therefore analysed the proliferation of human cells in different environments and evaluated the differentiation potential of different culture media. It was shown that human myoblasts have a higher rate of proliferation in the alamarBlue assay when cultured on gelatin-coated culture flasks rather than polystyrene-coated flasks. We also demonstrated that myoblasts treated with a culture medium with a high concentration of growth factors [growth medium (GM)] showed a higher proliferation compared to cultures treated with a culture medium with lower amounts of growth factors [differentiation medium (DM)]. Differentiation of human myoblast cell cultures treated with GM and DM was analysed until day 16 and myogenesis was verified by expression of MyoD, myogenin, alpha-sarcomeric actin and myosin heavy chain by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Immunohistochemical staining for desmin, Myf-5 and alpha-sarcomeric actin was performed to verify the myogenic phenotype of extracted satellite cells and to prove the maturation of cells. Cultures treated with DM showed positive staining for alpha-sarcomeric actin. Notably, markers of differentiation were also detected in cultures treated with GM, but there was no formation of myotubes. In the enzymatic assay of creatine phosphokinase, cultures treated with DM showed a higher activity, evidencing a higher degree of differentiation

  14. Cooperative and human aspects of software engineering: CHASE 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dittrich, Yvonne; Sharp, Helen C.; Winschiers Theophilus, Heike

    2010-01-01

    Software is created by people -- software engineers in cooperation with domain experts, users and other stakeholders--in varied environments, under various conditions. Thus understanding cooperative and human aspects of software development is crucial to comprehend how and which methods and tools...... are required, to improve the creation and maintenance of software. The 3rd workshop on Cooperative and Human Aspects of Software Engineering held at the International Conference on Software Engineering continued the tradition from earlier workshops and provided a lively forum to discuss current developments...... and high quality research in the field. Further dissemination of research results will lead to an improvement of software development and deployment across the globe....

  15. "Human Nature": Chemical Engineering Students' Ideas about Human Relationships with the Natural World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Daphne; Assaraf, Orit Ben-Zvi; Shemesh, Julia

    2014-01-01

    While importance of environmental ethics, as a component of sustainable development, in preparing engineers is widely acknowledged, little research has addressed chemical engineers' environmental concerns. This study aimed to address this void by exploring chemical engineering students' values regarding human-nature relationships. The…

  16. "Human Nature": Chemical Engineering Students' Ideas about Human Relationships with the Natural World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Daphne; Assaraf, Orit Ben-Zvi; Shemesh, Julia

    2014-01-01

    While importance of environmental ethics, as a component of sustainable development, in preparing engineers is widely acknowledged, little research has addressed chemical engineers' environmental concerns. This study aimed to address this void by exploring chemical engineering students' values regarding human-nature relationships. The study was…

  17. Integrating the human element into the systems engineering process and MBSE methodology.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tadros, Michael Samir.

    2013-12-01

    In response to the challenges related to the increasing size and complexity of systems, organizations have recognized the need to integrate human considerations in the beginning stages of systems development. Human Systems Integration (HSI) seeks to accomplish this objective by incorporating human factors within systems engineering (SE) processes and methodologies, which is the focus of this paper. A representative set of HSI methods from multiple sources are organized, analyzed, and mapped to the systems engineering Vee-model. These methods are then consolidated and evaluated against the SE process and Models-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) methodology to determine where and how they could integrate within systems development activities in the form of specific enhancements. Overall conclusions based on these evaluations are presented and future research areas are proposed.

  18. Genetic engineering of human pluripotent cells using TALE nucleases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockemeyer, Dirk; Wang, Haoyi; Kiani, Samira; Lai, Christine S; Gao, Qing; Cassady, John P; Cost, Gregory J; Zhang, Lei; Santiago, Yolanda; Miller, Jeffrey C; Zeitler, Bryan; Cherone, Jennifer M; Meng, Xiangdong; Hinkley, Sarah J; Rebar, Edward J; Gregory, Philip D; Urnov, Fyodor D; Jaenisch, Rudolf

    2011-07-07

    Targeted genetic engineering of human pluripotent cells is a prerequisite for exploiting their full potential. Such genetic manipulations can be achieved using site-specific nucleases. Here we engineered transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) for five distinct genomic loci. At all loci tested we obtained human embryonic stem cell (ESC) and induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) clones carrying transgenic cassettes solely at the TALEN-specified location. Our data suggest that TALENs employing the specific architectures described here mediate site-specific genome modification in human pluripotent cells with similar efficiency and precision as do zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs).

  19. Buried waste integrated demonstration human engineered control station. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This document describes the Human Engineered Control Station (HECS) project activities including the conceptual designs. The purpose of the HECS is to enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of remote retrieval by providing an integrated remote control station. The HECS integrates human capabilities, limitations, and expectations into the design to reduce the potential for human error, provides an easy system to learn and operate, provides an increased productivity, and reduces the ultimate investment in training. The overall HECS consists of the technology interface stations, supporting engineering aids, platform (trailer), communications network (broadband system), and collision avoidance system.

  20. Human Factors Engineering Aspects of Modifications in Control Room Modernization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hugo, Jacques; Clefton, Gordon; Joe, Jeffrey

    2017-06-01

    This report describes the basic aspects of control room modernization projects in the U.S. nuclear industry and the need for supplementary guidance on the integration of human factors considerations into the licensing and regulatory aspects of digital upgrades. The report pays specific attention to the integration of principles described in NUREG-0711 (Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model) and how supplementary guidance can help to raise general awareness in the industry regarding the complexities of control room modernization projects created by many interdependent regulations, standards and guidelines. The report also describes how human factors engineering principles and methods provided by various resources and international standards can help in navigating through the process of licensing digital upgrades. In particular, the integration of human factors engineering guidance and requirements into the process of licensing digital upgrades can help reduce uncertainty related to development of technical bases for digital upgrades that will avoid the introduction of new failure modes.

  1. Advanced Human Factors Engineering Tool Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-20

    the mail and telephone surveys. The authors would also like to extend a special thanks to Mr. David Rose of the Naval Air Development Center for his...ADVANCED NUNAN FACTORS ENGINEERING TOOL TECHNOLOGIES 3/3 (U) CARLON ASSOCIATES INC FAIRFAX Yff S A FLEGER ET AL. UNCLRS 20 NAR B? DARI5-BS-C-NO64 WIL...34" ".--: :’-...2,,. ,..:,.- ,’-"-’:"- "’-::"-,2 ., ..,," ,.- ..’.-.-.’.-,-. : .....v. _ *’--..., ...-- ,,. - -.; , :¢ 4., 5 5 lPeter laines Mr. David M. Ilarrah

  2. Cooperative and human aspects of software engineering: CHASE 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dittrich, Yvonne; Sharp, Helen C.; Winschiers Theophilus, Heike;

    2010-01-01

    are required, to improve the creation and maintenance of software. The 3rd workshop on Cooperative and Human Aspects of Software Engineering held at the International Conference on Software Engineering continued the tradition from earlier workshops and provided a lively forum to discuss current developments...... and high quality research in the field. Further dissemination of research results will lead to an improvement of software development and deployment across the globe....

  3. Engineering

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Includes papers in the following fields: Aerospace Engineering, Agricultural Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Civil Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Environmental Engineering, Industrial Engineering, Materials Engineering, Mechanical...

  4. Cooperative and Human Aspects of Software Engineering (CHASE 2008)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    The CHASE 2008 workshop is concerned with exploring the cooperative and human aspects of software engineering, and providing a forum for discussing high-quality research. Accepted papers reflect diversity of the field of software engineering – ranging from requirements to testing, and from...... ethnographic research to experiments. Moreover, the background of attendees reflects the diversity of researchers in this domain, ranging from sociology to psychology, from informatics to software engineering. CHASE 1008 met its goals in presenting high-quality research and building community through a mixture...

  5. Cooperative and Human Aspects of Software Engineering (CHASE 2008)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    The CHASE 2008 workshop is concerned with exploring the cooperative and human aspects of software engineering, and providing a forum for discussing high-quality research. Accepted papers reflect diversity of the field of software engineering – ranging from requirements to testing, and from...... ethnographic research to experiments. Moreover, the background of attendees reflects the diversity of researchers in this domain, ranging from sociology to psychology, from informatics to software engineering. CHASE 1008 met its goals in presenting high-quality research and building community through a mixture...

  6. Plant-Derived Human Collagen Scaffolds for Skin Tissue Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard, James J.; Drexler, Jason W.; Das, Amitava; Roy, Sashwati; Shilo, Shani; Shoseyov, Oded

    2013-01-01

    Tissue engineering scaffolds are commonly formed using proteins extracted from animal tissues, such as bovine hide. Risks associated with the use of these materials include hypersensitivity and pathogenic contamination. Human-derived proteins lower the risk of hypersensitivity, but possess the risk of disease transmission. Methods engineering recombinant human proteins using plant material provide an alternate source of these materials without the risk of disease transmission or concerns regarding variability. To investigate the utility of plant-derived human collagen (PDHC) in the development of engineered skin (ES), PDHC and bovine hide collagen were formed into tissue engineering scaffolds using electrospinning or freeze-drying. Both raw materials were easily formed into two common scaffold types, electrospun nonwoven scaffolds and lyophilized sponges, with similar architectures. The processing time, however, was significantly lower with PDHC. PDHC scaffolds supported primary human cell attachment and proliferation at an equivalent or higher level than the bovine material. Interleukin-1 beta production was significantly lower when activated THP-1 macrophages where exposed to PDHC electrospun scaffolds compared to bovine collagen. Both materials promoted proper maturation and differentiation of ES. These data suggest that PDHC may provide a novel source of raw material for tissue engineering with low risk of allergic response or disease transmission. PMID:23298216

  7. Decellularization of human and porcine lung tissues for pulmonary tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, John D; Anfang, Rachel; Anandappa, Annabelle; Costa, Joseph; Javidfar, Jeffrey; Wobma, Holly M; Singh, Gopal; Freytes, Donald O; Bacchetta, Matthew D; Sonett, Joshua R; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2013-09-01

    The only definitive treatment for end-stage organ failure is orthotopic transplantation. Lung extracellular matrix (LECM) holds great potential as a scaffold for lung tissue engineering because it retains the complex architecture, biomechanics, and topologic specificity of the lung. Decellularization of human lungs rejected from transplantation could provide "ideal" biologic scaffolds for lung tissue engineering, but the availability of such lungs remains limited. The present study was designed to determine whether porcine lung could serve as a suitable substitute for human lung to study tissue engineering therapies. Human and porcine lungs were procured, sliced into sheets, and decellularized by three different methods. Compositional, ultrastructural, and biomechanical changes to the LECM were characterized. The suitability of LECM for cellular repopulation was evaluated by assessing the viability, growth, and metabolic activity of human lung fibroblasts, human small airway epithelial cells, and human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells over a period of 7 days. Decellularization with 3-[(3-Cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate (CHAPS) showed the best maintenance of both human and porcine LECM, with similar retention of LECM proteins except for elastin. Human and porcine LECM supported the cultivation of pulmonary cells in a similar way, except that the human LECM was stiffer and resulted in higher metabolic activity of the cells than porcine LECM. Porcine lungs can be decellularized with CHAPS to produce LECM scaffolds with properties resembling those of human lungs, for pulmonary tissue engineering. We propose that porcine LECM can be an excellent screening platform for the envisioned human tissue engineering applications of decellularized lungs. Copyright © 2013 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Patient safety - the role of human factors and systems engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carayon, Pascale; Wood, Kenneth E

    2010-01-01

    Patient safety is a global challenge that requires knowledge and skills in multiple areas, including human factors and systems engineering. In this chapter, numerous conceptual approaches and methods for analyzing, preventing and mitigating medical errors are described. Given the complexity of healthcare work systems and processes, we emphasize the need for increasing partnerships between the health sciences and human factors and systems engineering to improve patient safety. Those partnerships will be able to develop and implement the system redesigns that are necessary to improve healthcare work systems and processes for patient safety.

  9. Use of Computers in Human Factors Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-11-01

    SENSES (PHYSIOLOGY), THERMOPLASTIC RESINS, VISUAL ACUITY (U)R RESEARCH CONCERNS DETERMINATION OF THE INFORMATION PRESENTATION REQUIREMENTS OF HUMAN DATA...THE GEOMETRY OF THE wORK STATION, IS CURRENTLY BEING DEVELOPED. IT IS CALLED COMBIMAN, AN ACRONYM FOR COMPUTERIZED BIOMECHANICAL MAN- MODELo COMBIMAN

  10. Engineering large animal models of human disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitelaw, C Bruce A; Sheets, Timothy P; Lillico, Simon G; Telugu, Bhanu P

    2016-01-01

    The recent development of gene editing tools and methodology for use in livestock enables the production of new animal disease models. These tools facilitate site-specific mutation of the genome, allowing animals carrying known human disease mutations to be produced. In this review, we describe the various gene editing tools and how they can be used for a range of large animal models of diseases. This genomic technology is in its infancy but the expectation is that through the use of gene editing tools we will see a dramatic increase in animal model resources available for both the study of human disease and the translation of this knowledge into the clinic. Comparative pathology will be central to the productive use of these animal models and the successful translation of new therapeutic strategies.

  11. A Scheme for Evaluating XML Engine on RDBMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guannan Si

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available There are an increasing number of DBMS vendors thinking of integrating XML data management into traditional relational database, with wider use of XML. In this case, a comprehensive evaluation methodology is needed to evaluate the XML engine in RDBMS correctly. In this paper, we analyze the characteristics of XML engine and propose an evaluation strategy of XML engine in a RDBMS. We believe that the evaluation should include functional evaluation and performance evaluation, and cover several major aspects of DB such as storage, query and update. Then we designed an evaluation scheme for the XML engine in RDBMS according the strategy. The scheme describes an evaluation scene and contains a data set, workload and index set. The data set reflects the characteristics of both data-centric and document-centric XML data. The workload covers all of the requirements of XQuery in W3C. The index set covers the aspects of storage, indexing, query and update. In the end, we complete an experiment to test an actual computer system using the proposal. The result shows that the proposal is proper.

  12. Method Evaluating the Durability of Aircraft Piston Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca PIANCASTELLI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A significant issue in aircraft engines is quantifying residual life to overhaul. The algorithm described in this paper calculates with a good level of reliability the residual life of a petrol piston engine. The method was tested on small, latest-generation, naturally-aspirated aircraft and racing piston engines, and has been effective in several experiments. This method is implemented directly on the electronic control system of the engine with very few lines of C-code. The method can also be used in many industrial engines. This innovative method assumes that only two main factors (power level and wear affect engine durability or time between overhauls. These two factors are considered as separate and combined with worst case criteria. The wear is assumed to follow a logarithmic law and a formula similar to the Miner’s law for material fatigue is used, making it possible to calculate the power-level curve with knowledge of only two points. The wear-curve is also related to elapsed engine cycles. The algorithm is very simple and can be implemented with just a few lines of software code accessing data collected from existing sensors. The system is currently used to evaluate actual residual life of racing engines.

  13. Human Factors Engineering and School Furniture: A Circular Odyssey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Kenneth E.; Richardson, Michael D.

    1993-01-01

    A search reveals only six articles that concern human-factors engineering as it relates to student furniture. Contacts with five school-furniture manufacturers disclose that designs were basically unaltered for years and are claimed to reflect what schools want in furniture. Proposes recommendations to design and secure furniture to meet students'…

  14. Human Systems Engineering: A Leadership Model for Collaboration and Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Karen L.

    Human systems engineering (HSE) was created to introduce a new way of viewing collaboration. HSE emphasizes the role of leaders who welcome risk, commit to achieving positive change, and help others achieve change. The principles of HSE and its successful application to the collaborative process were illustrated through a case study representing a…

  15. Training human mesenchymal stromal cells for bone tissue engineering applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, J.

    2012-01-01

    Human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) are an interesting source for cell therapies and tissue engineering applications, because these cells are able to differentiate into various target tissues, such as bone, cartilage, fat and endothelial cells. In addition, they secrete a wide array of growth fa

  16. Evaluation of teaching in environmental engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Larsen, Bo Skjold; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup;

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the effect of changing course content and teaching methodology for an introductory course in Environmental Processes. Student evaluations were used both to monitor the effect of the changes, as well as to change the course structure and the didactics. The result of the change...

  17. Effects of mechanical loading on human mesenchymal stem cells for cartilage tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jane Ru; Yong, Kar Wey; Choi, Jean Yu

    2017-05-19

    Today, articular cartilage damage is a major health problem, affecting people of all ages. The existing conventional articular cartilage repair techniques, such as autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI), microfracture, and mosaicplasty, have many shortcomings which negatively affect their clinical outcomes. Therefore, it is essential to develop an alternative and efficient articular repair technique that can address those shortcomings. Cartilage tissue engineering, which aims to create a tissue-engineered cartilage derived from human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), shows great promise for improving articular cartilage defect therapy. However, the use of tissue-engineered cartilage for the clinical therapy of articular cartilage defect still remains challenging. Despite the importance of mechanical loading to create a functional cartilage has been well demonstrated, the specific type of mechanical loading and its optimal loading regime is still under investigation. This review summarizes the most recent advances in the effects of mechanical loading on human MSCs. First, the existing conventional articular repair techniques and their shortcomings are highlighted. The important parameters for the evaluation of the tissue-engineered cartilage, including chondrogenic and hypertrophic differentiation of human MSCs are briefly discussed. The influence of mechanical loading on human MSCs is subsequently reviewed and the possible mechanotransduction signaling is highlighted. The development of non-hypertrophic chondrogenesis in response to the changing mechanical microenvironment will aid in the establishment of a tissue-engineered cartilage for efficient articular cartilage repair. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Human Factors in Nuclear Power Engineering in Polish Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Kaczmarek-Kacprzak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper “Human factors in nuclear power engineering in Polish conditions” focuses on analysis of dynamics of preparing Polish society to build fi rst nuclear power plant in XXI century in Poland. Authors compare experience from constructing nuclear power plant Sizewell B (Great Britain and Sizewell C, which is in preparation phase with polish nuclear power program. Paper includes aspects e.g. of creating nuclear safety culture and social opinion about investment. Human factors in nuclear power engineering are as well important as relevant economical and technical factors, but very often negligible. In Poland where history about Czarnobyl is still alive, and social opinion is created on emotions after accident in Fukushima, human factors are crucial and should be under comprehensive consideration.

  19. HOW DO RADIOLOGISTS USE THE HUMAN SEARCH ENGINE?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Jeremy M; Evans, Karla K; Drew, Trafton; Aizenman, Avigael; Josephs, Emilie

    2016-06-01

    Radiologists perform many 'visual search tasks' in which they look for one or more instances of one or more types of target item in a medical image (e.g. cancer screening). To understand and improve how radiologists do such tasks, it must be understood how the human 'search engine' works. This article briefly reviews some of the relevant work into this aspect of medical image perception. Questions include how attention and the eyes are guided in radiologic search? How is global (image-wide) information used in search? How might properties of human vision and human cognition lead to errors in radiologic search?

  20. 75 FR 67364 - Decision To Evaluate a Petition To Designate a Class of Employees From Clinton Engineering Works...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-02

    ... evaluation, is as follows: Facility: Clinton Engineering Works. Location: Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Job Titles... HUMAN SERVICES Decision To Evaluate a Petition To Designate a Class of Employees From Clinton...: Notice. SUMMARY: HHS gives notice as required by 42 CFR 83.12(e) of a decision to evaluate a petition to...

  1. Integration of Social Sciences and Humanities into Mechanical Engineering Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikša Dubreta

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Article deals with ways in which social sciences and humanities have been integrated from the 1980s to the present day into curriculum of Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture at University of Zagreb, Croatia. After a brief review and summary of selected research and theoretical contributions to the subject theme, a specific research setting is indicated and contextualized. Elements of socio-historical approach are established primarily through analysis of corresponding documents: curriculums from the 1980s, 1990s and 2000s and from key documents on strategic development of the Faculty. It is stressed that social sciences and humanities topics are continually represented in mechanical engineering study program as legitimate, but separate unit, poorly integrated in the main engineering courses. Together with more or less expressed orientation toward micro-social and micro-economical issues in industry and business, it points to the main features in continuity of establishing the field of social sciences and humanities. Finally, it is shown that chances to widen and enrich aforementioned field are in close relation to the character of engineering and its social contextualization expressed in a key Faculty’s strategic documents.

  2. Evaluation of Query Generators for Entity Search Engines

    CERN Document Server

    Endrullis, Stefan; Rahm, Erhard

    2010-01-01

    Dynamic web applications such as mashups need efficient access to web data that is only accessible via entity search engines (e.g. product or publication search engines). However, most current mashup systems and applications only support simple keyword searches for retrieving data from search engines. We propose the use of more powerful search strategies building on so-called query generators. For a given set of entities query generators are able to automatically determine a set of search queries to retrieve these entities from an entity search engine. We demonstrate the usefulness of query generators for on-demand web data integration and evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of query generators for a challenging real-world integration scenario.

  3. A quantitative evaluation of the public response to climate engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Malcolm J.; Teagle, Damon A. H.; Feetham, Pamela M.

    2014-02-01

    Atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations continue to increase, with CO2 passing 400 parts per million in May 2013. To avoid severe climate change and the attendant economic and social dislocation, existing energy efficiency and emissions control initiatives may need support from some form of climate engineering. As climate engineering will be controversial, there is a pressing need to inform the public and understand their concerns before policy decisions are taken. So far, engagement has been exploratory, small-scale or technique-specific. We depart from past research to draw on the associative methods used by corporations to evaluate brands. A systematic, quantitative and comparative approach for evaluating public reaction to climate engineering is developed. Its application reveals that the overall public evaluation of climate engineering is negative. Where there are positive associations they favour carbon dioxide removal (CDR) over solar radiation management (SRM) techniques. Therefore, as SRM techniques become more widely known they are more likely to elicit negative reactions. Two climate engineering techniques, enhanced weathering and cloud brightening, have indistinct concept images and so are less likely to draw public attention than other CDR or SRM techniques.

  4. 2014 Space Human Factors Engineering Standing Review Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The 2014 Space Human Factors Engineering (SHFE) Standing Review Panel (from here on referred to as the SRP) participated in a WebEx/teleconference with members of the Space Human Factors and Habitability (SHFH) Element, representatives from the Human Research Program (HRP), the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI), and NASA Headquarters on November 17, 2014 (list of participants is in Section XI of this report). The SRP reviewed the updated research plans for the Risk of Incompatible Vehicle/Habitat Design (HAB Risk) and the Risk of Performance Errors Due to Training Deficiencies (Train Risk). The SRP also received a status update on the Risk of Inadequate Critical Task Design (Task Risk), the Risk of Inadequate Design of Human and Automation/Robotic Integration (HARI Risk), and the Risk of Inadequate Human-Computer Interaction (HCI Risk).

  5. Evaluation of the Use of Two Teaching Techniques in Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Antonio Alvarez Salas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the practical implementation of two teaching techniques so-called Problem-Based Learning and Cooperative Learning. These techniques were applied to some courses in the Department of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering and evaluated through assessment rubrics. In a sample of students and teachers, the assessment rubrics were applied to numerically evaluate the proportion of each course, in which the teacher uses traditional teaching versus teaching for meaningful learning. The results of the presented analysis allow to verify the use of these teaching techniques by professors of the Department of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering. This activity was developed as a part of the work established by the Institutional Development Plan of the Faculty of Engineering, which includes the strategic objective of developing an innovative educational model in the following ten years.

  6. Engineering complex tissue-like microgel arrays for evaluating stem cell differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guermani, Enrico; Shaki, Hossein; Mohanty, Soumyaranjan

    2016-01-01

    spreading and osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) into complex tissue-like structures. In summary, we have developed a tissue-like microgel array for evaluating stem cell differentiation within complex and heterogeneous cell microenvironments. We anticipate that the developed......Development of tissue engineering scaffolds with native-like biology and microarchitectures is a prerequisite for stem cell mediated generation of off-the-shelf-tissues. So far, the field of tissue engineering has not full-filled its grand potential of engineering such combinatorial scaffolds...... for engineering functional tissues. This is primarily due to the many challenges associated with finding the right microarchitectures and ECM compositions for optimal tissue regeneration. Here, we have developed a new microgel array to address this grand challenge through robotic printing of complex stem cell...

  7. Site-Specific Genome Engineering in Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Merkert

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The possibility to generate patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs offers an unprecedented potential of applications in clinical therapy and medical research. Human iPSCs and their differentiated derivatives are tools for diseases modelling, drug discovery, safety pharmacology, and toxicology. Moreover, they allow for the engineering of bioartificial tissue and are promising candidates for cellular therapies. For many of these applications, the ability to genetically modify pluripotent stem cells (PSCs is indispensable, but efficient site-specific and safe technologies for genetic engineering of PSCs were developed only recently. By now, customized engineered nucleases provide excellent tools for targeted genome editing, opening new perspectives for biomedical research and cellular therapies.

  8. Site-Specific Genome Engineering in Human Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkert, Sylvia; Martin, Ulrich

    2016-06-24

    The possibility to generate patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) offers an unprecedented potential of applications in clinical therapy and medical research. Human iPSCs and their differentiated derivatives are tools for diseases modelling, drug discovery, safety pharmacology, and toxicology. Moreover, they allow for the engineering of bioartificial tissue and are promising candidates for cellular therapies. For many of these applications, the ability to genetically modify pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) is indispensable, but efficient site-specific and safe technologies for genetic engineering of PSCs were developed only recently. By now, customized engineered nucleases provide excellent tools for targeted genome editing, opening new perspectives for biomedical research and cellular therapies.

  9. Performance Evaluation of search engines via user effort measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Kumar Goutam

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Many metrics exist to perform the task of search engine evaluation that are either looking for the experts judgments or believe in searchers decisions about the relevancy of the web documents. However, search logs can provide us information about how real users search. This paper explains, our attempts to incorporate the users searching behavior in formulation of user efforts centric evaluation metric. We also incorporate two dimensional users traversing approach in the ERR metric. After the formulation of the evaluation metric, authors judge its goodness and found that presented metric fulfills all the requirements that are needed for a metric to be mathematically accurate. The findings obtained from experiments, present a complete description for search engine evaluation procedure.

  10. Evaluation of Current Assessment Methods in Engineering Entrepreneurship Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purzer, Senay; Fila, Nicholas; Nataraja, Kavin

    2016-01-01

    Quality assessment is an essential component of education that allows educators to support student learning and improve educational programs. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the current state of assessment in engineering entrepreneurship education. We identified 52 assessment instruments covered in 29 journal articles and conference…

  11. Data driven uncertainty evaluation for complex engineered system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Boyuan; Huang, Shuangxi; Fan, Wenhui; Xiao, Tianyuan; Humann, James; Lai, Yuyang; Jin, Yan

    2016-09-01

    Complex engineered systems are often difficult to analyze and design due to the tangled interdependencies among their subsystems and components. Conventional design methods often need exact modeling or accurate structure decomposition, which limits their practical application. The rapid expansion of data makes utilizing data to guide and improve system design indispensable in practical engineering. In this paper, a data driven uncertainty evaluation approach is proposed to support the design of complex engineered systems. The core of the approach is a data-mining based uncertainty evaluation method that predicts the uncertainty level of a specific system design by means of analyzing association relations along different system attributes and synthesizing the information entropy of the covered attribute areas, and a quantitative measure of system uncertainty can be obtained accordingly. Monte Carlo simulation is introduced to get the uncertainty extrema, and the possible data distributions under different situations is discussed in detail. The uncertainty values can be normalized using the simulation results and the values can be used to evaluate different system designs. A prototype system is established, and two case studies have been carried out. The case of an inverted pendulum system validates the effectiveness of the proposed method, and the case of an oil sump design shows the practicability when two or more design plans need to be compared. This research can be used to evaluate the uncertainty of complex engineered systems completely relying on data, and is ideally suited for plan selection and performance analysis in system design.

  12. Data driven uncertainty evaluation for complex engineered system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Boyuan; Huang, Shuangxi; Fan, Wenhui; Xiao, Tianyuan; Humann, James; Lai, Yuyang; Jin, Yan

    2016-05-01

    Complex engineered systems are often difficult to analyze and design due to the tangled interdependencies among their subsystems and components. Conventional design methods often need exact modeling or accurate structure decomposition, which limits their practical application. The rapid expansion of data makes utilizing data to guide and improve system design indispensable in practical engineering. In this paper, a data driven uncertainty evaluation approach is proposed to support the design of complex engineered systems. The core of the approach is a data-mining based uncertainty evaluation method that predicts the uncertainty level of a specific system design by means of analyzing association relations along different system attributes and synthesizing the information entropy of the covered attribute areas, and a quantitative measure of system uncertainty can be obtained accordingly. Monte Carlo simulation is introduced to get the uncertainty extrema, and the possible data distributions under different situations is discussed in detail. The uncertainty values can be normalized using the simulation results and the values can be used to evaluate different system designs. A prototype system is established, and two case studies have been carried out. The case of an inverted pendulum system validates the effectiveness of the proposed method, and the case of an oil sump design shows the practicability when two or more design plans need to be compared. This research can be used to evaluate the uncertainty of complex engineered systems completely relying on data, and is ideally suited for plan selection and performance analysis in system design.

  13. DRUMS: a human disease related unique gene mutation search engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zuofeng; Liu, Xingnan; Wen, Jingran; Xu, Ye; Zhao, Xin; Li, Xuan; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Xiaoyan

    2011-10-01

    With the completion of the human genome project and the development of new methods for gene variant detection, the integration of mutation data and its phenotypic consequences has become more important than ever. Among all available resources, locus-specific databases (LSDBs) curate one or more specific genes' mutation data along with high-quality phenotypes. Although some genotype-phenotype data from LSDB have been integrated into central databases little effort has been made to integrate all these data by a search engine approach. In this work, we have developed disease related unique gene mutation search engine (DRUMS), a search engine for human disease related unique gene mutation as a convenient tool for biologists or physicians to retrieve gene variant and related phenotype information. Gene variant and phenotype information were stored in a gene-centred relational database. Moreover, the relationships between mutations and diseases were indexed by the uniform resource identifier from LSDB, or another central database. By querying DRUMS, users can access the most popular mutation databases under one interface. DRUMS could be treated as a domain specific search engine. By using web crawling, indexing, and searching technologies, it provides a competitively efficient interface for searching and retrieving mutation data and their relationships to diseases. The present system is freely accessible at http://www.scbit.org/glif/new/drums/index.html.

  14. Cooperative and Human Aspects of Software Engineering (CHASE 2010)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dittrich, Yvonne; De Souza, Cleidson; Korpela, Mikko

    2010-01-01

    Software is created by people---software engineers---working in varied environments, under various conditions. Thus understanding cooperative and human aspect of software development is crucial to comprehend how methods and tools are used, and thereby improving the creation and maintenance...... research on human and cooperative aspects of software engineering. We aim at providing both a meeting place for the growing community and the possibility for researchers interested in joining the field to present their work in progress and get an overview over the field....... of software. Inspired by the hosting country's concept of co-responsibility -- ubuntu -- we especially invited contributions that address community-based development like open source development and sustainability of ICT eco-systems. The goal of this workshop is to provide a forum for discussing high quality...

  15. Cooperative and Human Aspects of Software Engineering (CHASE 2010)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dittrich, Yvonne; De Souza, Cleidson; Korpela, Mikko

    2010-01-01

    of software. Inspired by the hosting country's concept of co-responsibility -- ubuntu -- we especially invited contributions that address community-based development like open source development and sustainability of ICT eco-systems. The goal of this workshop is to provide a forum for discussing high quality......Software is created by people---software engineers---working in varied environments, under various conditions. Thus understanding cooperative and human aspect of software development is crucial to comprehend how methods and tools are used, and thereby improving the creation and maintenance...... research on human and cooperative aspects of software engineering. We aim at providing both a meeting place for the growing community and the possibility for researchers interested in joining the field to present their work in progress and get an overview over the field....

  16. Computer aided systems human engineering: A hypermedia tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boff, Kenneth R.; Monk, Donald L.; Cody, William J.

    1992-01-01

    The Computer Aided Systems Human Engineering (CASHE) system, Version 1.0, is a multimedia ergonomics database on CD-ROM for the Apple Macintosh II computer, being developed for use by human system designers, educators, and researchers. It will initially be available on CD-ROM and will allow users to access ergonomics data and models stored electronically as text, graphics, and audio. The CASHE CD-ROM, Version 1.0 will contain the Boff and Lincoln (1988) Engineering Data Compendium, MIL-STD-1472D and a unique, interactive simulation capability, the Perception and Performance Prototyper. Its features also include a specialized data retrieval, scaling, and analysis capability and the state of the art in information retrieval, browsing, and navigation.

  17. Concise review: Human cell engineering: cellular reprogramming and genome editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mali, Prashant; Cheng, Linzhao

    2012-01-01

    Cell engineering is defined here as the collective ability to both reset and edit the genome of a mammalian cell. Until recently, this had been extremely challenging to achieve as nontransformed human cells are significantly refractory to both these processes. The recent success in reprogramming somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells that are self-renewable in culture, coupled with our increasing ability to effect precise and predesigned genomic editing, now readily permits cellular changes at both the genetic and epigenetic levels. These dual capabilities also make possible the generation of genetically matched, disease-free stem cells from patients for regenerative medicine. The objective of this review is to summarize the key enabling developments on these two rapidly evolving research fronts in human cell engineering, highlight unresolved issues, and outline potential future research directions.

  18. Evaluation of carcinogenic hazard of diesel engine exhaust needs to consider revolutionary changes in diesel technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, Roger O; Hesterberg, Thomas W; Wall, John C

    2012-07-01

    Diesel engines, a special type of internal combustion engine, use heat of compression, rather than electric spark, to ignite hydrocarbon fuels injected into the combustion chamber. Diesel engines have high thermal efficiency and thus, high fuel efficiency. They are widely used in commerce prompting continuous improvement in diesel engines and fuels. Concern for health effects from exposure to diesel exhaust arose in the mid-1900s and stimulated development of emissions regulations and research to improve the technology and characterize potential health hazards. This included epidemiological, controlled human exposure, laboratory animal and mechanistic studies to evaluate potential hazards of whole diesel exhaust. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (1989) classified whole diesel exhaust as - "probably carcinogenic to humans". This classification stimulated even more stringent regulations for particulate matter that required further technological developments. These included improved engine control, improved fuel injection system, enhanced exhaust cooling, use of ultra low sulfur fuel, wall-flow high-efficiency exhaust particulate filters, exhaust catalysts, and crankcase ventilation filtration. The composition of New Technology Diesel Exhaust (NTDE) is qualitatively different and the concentrations of particulate constituents are more than 90% lower than for Traditional Diesel Exhaust (TDE). We recommend that future reviews of carcinogenic hazards of diesel exhaust evaluate NTDE separately from TDE.

  19. Tissue engineered humanized bone supports human hematopoiesis in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzapfel, Boris M; Hutmacher, Dietmar W; Nowlan, Bianca; Barbier, Valerie; Thibaudeau, Laure; Theodoropoulos, Christina; Hooper, John D; Loessner, Daniela; Clements, Judith A; Russell, Pamela J; Pettit, Allison R; Winkler, Ingrid G; Levesque, Jean-Pierre

    2015-08-01

    Advances in tissue-engineering have resulted in a versatile tool-box to specifically design a tailored microenvironment for hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in order to study diseases that develop within this setting. However, most current in vivo models fail to recapitulate the biological processes seen in humans. Here we describe a highly reproducible method to engineer humanized bone constructs that are able to recapitulate the morphological features and biological functions of the HSC niches. Ectopic implantation of biodegradable composite scaffolds cultured for 4 weeks with human mesenchymal progenitor cells and loaded with rhBMP-7 resulted in the development of a chimeric bone organ including a large number of human mesenchymal cells which were shown to be metabolically active and capable of establishing a humanized microenvironment supportive of the homing and maintenance of human HSCs. A syngeneic mouse-to-mouse transplantation assay was used to prove the functionality of the tissue-engineered ossicles. We predict that the ability to tissue engineer a morphologically intact and functional large-volume bone organ with a humanized bone marrow compartment will help to further elucidate physiological or pathological interactions between human HSCs and their native niches. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Engineering Education Development to Enhance Human Skill in DENSO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isogai, Emiko; Nuka, Takeji

    Importance of human skills such as communication or instruction capability to their staff members has recently been highlighted in a workplace, due to decreasing opportunity of face-to-face communication between supervisors and their staff, or Instruction capability through OJT (On the Job Training) . Currently, communication skills are being reinforced mainly through OJT at DENSO. Therefore, as part of supplemental support tools, DENSO has established comprehensive engineers training program on off-JT basis for developing human skills, covering from newly employeed enginners up to managerial class since 2003. This paper describes education activities and reports the results.

  1. TEPCO's Approach to Power-Engineer Human Resource Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Masaki

    We think 'human resources and technology' is developed only by self-training continuously, keeping higher motivation and practicing repeatedly. Moreover it is indispensable for sustainable development of company. Management vision, top-down message with vertical communication, and bottom-up systematic approaches are necessary for sustainable human resource development, sharing the value with coordination, and in addition, OJT and Off-JT method should be used effectively. This paper shows TEPCO's attempts to develop engineers' technical skills as a reference of a in-company continuing professional development.

  2. Tissue-engineered models of human tumors for cancer research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villasante, Aranzazu; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Drug toxicity often goes undetected until clinical trials, which are the most costly and dangerous phase of drug development. Both the cultures of human cells and animal studies have limitations that cannot be overcome by incremental improvements in drug-testing protocols. A new generation of bioengineered tumors is now emerging in response to these limitations, with potential to transform drug screening by providing predictive models of tumors within their tissue context, for studies of drug safety and efficacy. An area that could greatly benefit from these models is cancer research. Areas covered In this review, the authors first describe the engineered tumor systems, using Ewing's sarcoma as an example of human tumor that cannot be predictably studied in cell culture and animal models. Then, they discuss the importance of the tissue context for cancer progression and outline the biomimetic principles for engineering human tumors. Finally, they discuss the utility of bioengineered tumor models for cancer research and address the challenges in modeling human tumors for use in drug discovery and testing. Expert opinion While tissue models are just emerging as a new tool for cancer drug discovery, they are already demonstrating potential for recapitulating, in vitro, the native behavior of human tumors. Still, numerous challenges need to be addressed before we can have platforms with a predictive power appropriate for the pharmaceutical industry. Some of the key needs include the incorporation of the vascular compartment, immune system components, and mechanical signals that regulate tumor development and function. PMID:25662589

  3. Evaluation of Information Requirements of Reliability Methods in Engineering Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marini, Vinicius Kaster; Restrepo-Giraldo, John Dairo; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to characterize the information needed to perform methods for robustness and reliability, and verify their applicability to early design stages. Several methods were evaluated on their support to synthesis in engineering design. Of those methods, FMEA, FTA and HAZOP were selected...... on their insight on design risks and wide spread application. A pilot case study has been performed with a washing machine in using these methods to assess design risks, following a reverse engineering approach. The study has shown the methods can be initiated at early design stages, but cannot be concluded...

  4. Modification and performance evaluation of a mono-valve engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Justin W.

    A four-stroke engine utilizing one tappet valve for both the intake and exhaust gas exchange processes has been built and evaluated. The engine operates under its own power, but has a reduced power capacity than the conventional 2-valve engine. The reduction in power is traced to higher than expected amounts of exhaust gases flowing back into the intake system. Design changes to the cylinder head will fix the back flow problems, but the future capacity of mono-valve engine technology cannot be estimated. The back flow of exhaust gases increases the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rate and deteriorates combustion. Intake pressure data shows the mono-valve engine requires an advanced intake valve closing (IVC) time to prevent back flow of charge air. A single actuation camshaft with advanced IVC was tested in the mono-valve engine, and was found to improve exhaust scavenging at TDC and nearly eliminated all charge air back flow at IVC. The optimum IVC timing is shown to be approximately 30 crank angle degrees after BDC. The mono-valve cylinder head utilizes a rotary valve positioned above the tappet valve. The open spaces inside the rotary valveand between the rotary valve and tappet valve represent a common volume that needs to be reduced in order to reduce the base EGR rate. Multiple rotary valve configurations were tested, and the size of the common volume was found to have no effect on back flow but a direct effect on the EGR rate and engine performance. The position of the rotary valve with respect to crank angle has a direct effect on the scavenging process. Optimum scavenging occurs when the intake port is opened just after TDC.

  5. International evaluation of the programme on engine-related combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arcoumanis, D. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Greenhalgh, D. [Cranfield Univ. (United Kingdom); Magnusson, B.F. [Norwegian Univ. of Science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway); Peters, N. [Institut fuer Technische Mechanik, RWTH Aachen (Germany)

    1996-11-01

    The 12 projects in the engine related combustion programme cover the entire range from fundamental and theoretical aspects of combustion to more applied subjects such as engine control. The common denominator in the programme clearly is the internal combustion engine, both the reciprocating as well as the gas turbine engine. Such a large coverage by a relatively small number of projects necessarily leads to an isolation of some of the projects in terms of their subject as well as the methodology that is used. On the other hand, all the research areas of interest in combustion technology are represented by at least one of the projects. These are: mathematical and numerical methods in combustion; modelling of turbulent combustion; laser diagnostics of flows with combustion; studies of engine performance and their control; semi-empirical model development for practical applications. As a conclusion, the evaluation committee believes that the programme is well balanced between fundamental and applied projects. It covers the entire range of modern methodologies that are used on the international level and thereby contributes to the application and further development of these research tools in Sweden

  6. Human factors engineering checklists for application in the SAR process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overlin, T.K.; Romero, H.A.; Ryan, T.G.

    1995-03-01

    This technical report was produced to assist the preparers and reviewers of the human factors portions of the SAR in completing their assigned tasks regarding analysis and/or review of completed analyses. The checklists, which are the main body of the report, and the subsequent tables, were developed to assist analysts in generating the needed analysis data to complete the human engineering analysis for the SAR. The technical report provides a series of 19 human factors engineering (HFE) checklists which support the safety analyses of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) reactor and nonreactor facilities and activities. The results generated using these checklists and in the preparation of the concluding analyses provide the technical basis for preparing the human factors chapter, and subsequent inputs to other chapters, required by DOE as a part of the safety analysis reports (SARs). This document is divided into four main sections. The first part explains the origin of the checklists, the sources utilized, and other information pertaining to the purpose and scope of the report. The second part, subdivided into 19 sections, is the checklists themselves. The third section is the glossary which defines terms that could either be unfamiliar or have specific meanings within the context of these checklists. The final section is the subject index in which the glossary terms are referenced back to the specific checklist and page the term is encountered.

  7. Using Innovative Technologies for Manufacturing and Evaluating Rocket Engine Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Erin M.; Hardin, Andy

    2011-01-01

    Many of the manufacturing and evaluation techniques that are currently used for rocket engine component production are traditional methods that have been proven through years of experience and historical precedence. As we enter into a new space age where new launch vehicles are being designed and propulsion systems are being improved upon, it is sometimes necessary to adopt new and innovative techniques for manufacturing and evaluating hardware. With a heavy emphasis on cost reduction and improvements in manufacturing time, manufacturing techniques such as Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) and white light scanning are being adopted and evaluated for their use on J-2X, with hopes of employing both technologies on a wide variety of future projects. DMLS has the potential to significantly reduce the processing time and cost of engine hardware, while achieving desirable material properties by using a layered powdered metal manufacturing process in order to produce complex part geometries. The white light technique is a non-invasive method that can be used to inspect for geometric feature alignment. Both the DMLS manufacturing method and the white light scanning technique have proven to be viable options for manufacturing and evaluating rocket engine hardware, and further development and use of these techniques is recommended.

  8. 77 FR 18248 - Decision To Evaluate a Petition To Designate a Class of Employees From the Winchester Engineering...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-27

    ...: Facility: Winchester Engineering and Analytical Center. Location: Winchester, Massachusetts. Job Titles and... HUMAN SERVICES Decision To Evaluate a Petition To Designate a Class of Employees From the Winchester....12(e) of a decision to evaluate a petition to designate a class of employees from the Winchester...

  9. Mechanical stimulation improves tissue-engineered human skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Courtney A.; Smiley, Beth L.; Mills, John; Vandenburgh, Herman H.

    2002-01-01

    Human bioartificial muscles (HBAMs) are tissue engineered by suspending muscle cells in collagen/MATRIGEL, casting in a silicone mold containing end attachment sites, and allowing the cells to differentiate for 8 to 16 days. The resulting HBAMs are representative of skeletal muscle in that they contain parallel arrays of postmitotic myofibers; however, they differ in many other morphological characteristics. To engineer improved HBAMs, i.e., more in vivo-like, we developed Mechanical Cell Stimulator (MCS) hardware to apply in vivo-like forces directly to the engineered tissue. A sensitive force transducer attached to the HBAM measured real-time, internally generated, as well as externally applied, forces. The muscle cells generated increasing internal forces during formation which were inhibitable with a cytoskeleton depolymerizer. Repetitive stretch/relaxation for 8 days increased the HBAM elasticity two- to threefold, mean myofiber diameter 12%, and myofiber area percent 40%. This system allows engineering of improved skeletal muscle analogs as well as a nondestructive method to determine passive force and viscoelastic properties of the resulting tissue.

  10. Mechanical stimulation improves tissue-engineered human skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Courtney A.; Smiley, Beth L.; Mills, John; Vandenburgh, Herman H.

    2002-01-01

    Human bioartificial muscles (HBAMs) are tissue engineered by suspending muscle cells in collagen/MATRIGEL, casting in a silicone mold containing end attachment sites, and allowing the cells to differentiate for 8 to 16 days. The resulting HBAMs are representative of skeletal muscle in that they contain parallel arrays of postmitotic myofibers; however, they differ in many other morphological characteristics. To engineer improved HBAMs, i.e., more in vivo-like, we developed Mechanical Cell Stimulator (MCS) hardware to apply in vivo-like forces directly to the engineered tissue. A sensitive force transducer attached to the HBAM measured real-time, internally generated, as well as externally applied, forces. The muscle cells generated increasing internal forces during formation which were inhibitable with a cytoskeleton depolymerizer. Repetitive stretch/relaxation for 8 days increased the HBAM elasticity two- to threefold, mean myofiber diameter 12%, and myofiber area percent 40%. This system allows engineering of improved skeletal muscle analogs as well as a nondestructive method to determine passive force and viscoelastic properties of the resulting tissue.

  11. Evaluation of a staged fuel combustor for turboprop engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdouw, A. J.

    1976-01-01

    Proposed EPA emission regulations require emission reduction by 1979 for various gas turbine engine classes. Extensive combustion technology advancements are required to meet the proposed regulations. The T56 turboprop engine requires CO, UHC, and smoke reduction. A staged fuel combustor design was tested on a combustion rig to evaluate emission reduction potential in turboprop engines from fuel zoning. The can-type combustor has separately fueled-pilot and main combustion zones in series. The main zone fueling system was arranged for potential incorporation into the T56 with minor or no modifications to the basic engine. Three combustor variable geometry systems were incorporated to evaluate various airflow distributions. Emission results with fixed geometry operation met all proposed EPA regulations over the EPA LTO cycle. CO reduction was 82 percent, UHC reduction was 96 percent, and smoke reduction was 84 percent. NOx increased 14 percent over the LTO cycle. At high power, NOx reduction was 40 to 55 percent. This NOx reduction has potential application to stationary gas turbine powerplants which have different EPA regulations.

  12. Engineering melanoma progression in a humanized environment in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiowski, Gregor; Biedermann, Thomas; Widmer, Daniel S; Civenni, Gianluca; Burger, Charlotte; Dummer, Reinhard; Sommer, Lukas; Reichmann, Ernst

    2012-01-01

    To overcome the lack of effective therapeutics for aggressive melanoma, new research models closely resembling the human disease are required. Here we report the development of a fully orthotopic, humanized in vivo model for melanoma, faithfully recapitulating human disease initiation and progression. To this end, human melanoma cells were seeded into engineered human dermo-epidermal skin substitutes. Transplantation onto the back of immunocompromised rats consistently resulted in the development of melanoma, displaying the hallmarks of their parental tumors. Importantly, all initial steps of disease progression were recapitulated, including the incorporation of the tumor cells into their physiological microenvironment, transition of radial to vertical growth, and establishment of highly vascularized, aggressive tumors with dermal involvement. Because all cellular components can be individually accessed using this approach, it allows manipulation of the tumor cells, as well as of the keratinocyte and stromal cell populations. Therefore, in one defined model system, tumor cell-autonomous and non-autonomous pathways regulating human disease progression can be investigated in a humanized, clinically relevant context.

  13. Maturing human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes in human engineered cardiac tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feric, Nicole T; Radisic, Milica

    2016-01-15

    Engineering functional human cardiac tissue that mimics the native adult morphological and functional phenotype has been a long held objective. In the last 5 years, the field of cardiac tissue engineering has transitioned from cardiac tissues derived from various animal species to the production of the first generation of human engineered cardiac tissues (hECTs), due to recent advances in human stem cell biology. Despite this progress, the hECTs generated to date remain immature relative to the native adult myocardium. In this review, we focus on the maturation challenge in the context of hECTs, the present state of the art, and future perspectives in terms of regenerative medicine, drug discovery, preclinical safety testing and pathophysiological studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Human Research Program Space Human Factors Engineering (SHFE) Standing Review Panel (SRP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichansky, Anna; Badler, Norman; Butler, Keith; Cummings, Mary; DeLucia, Patricia; Endsley, Mica; Scholtz, Jean

    2009-01-01

    The Space Human Factors Engineering (SHFE) Standing Review Panel (SRP) evaluated 22 gaps and 39 tasks in the three risk areas assigned to the SHFE Project. The area where tasks were best designed to close the gaps and the fewest gaps were left out was the Risk of Reduced Safety and Efficiency dire to Inadequate Design of Vehicle, Environment, Tools or Equipment. The areas where there were more issues with gaps and tasks, including poor or inadequate fit of tasks to gaps and missing gaps, were Risk of Errors due to Poor Task Design and Risk of Error due to Inadequate Information. One risk, the Risk of Errors due to Inappropriate Levels of Trust in Automation, should be added. If astronauts trust automation too much in areas where it should not be trusted, but rather tempered with human judgment and decision making, they will incur errors. Conversely, if they do not trust automation when it should be trusted, as in cases where it can sense aspects of the environment such as radiation levels or distances in space, they will also incur errors. This will be a larger risk when astronauts are less able to rely on human mission control experts and are out of touch, far away, and on their own. The SRP also identified 11 new gaps and five new tasks. Although the SRP had an extremely large quantity of reading material prior to and during the meeting, we still did not feel we had an overview of the activities and tasks the astronauts would be performing in exploration missions. Without a detailed task analysis and taxonomy of activities the humans would be engaged in, we felt it was impossible to know whether the gaps and tasks were really sufficient to insure human safety, performance, and comfort in the exploration missions. The SRP had difficulty evaluating many of the gaps and tasks that were not as quantitative as those related to concrete physical danger such as excessive noise and vibration. Often the research tasks for cognitive risks that accompany poor task or

  15. Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis for Decommissioning of the Engineering Test Reactor Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. B. Culp

    2006-10-01

    Preparation of this Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis is consistent with the joint U.S. Department of Energy and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Policy on Decommissioning of Department of Energy Facilities Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, which establishes the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act non-time-critical removal action (NTCRA) process as an approach for decommissioning.

  16. Evaluation, engineering and development of advanced cyclone processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    Evaluation, Engineering and Development of Advanced Cyclone Processes'' is a research and development project for the reduction of pyritic sulfur in coal. Project goals are to remove 80 to 90% of the ash and pyritic sulfur while retaining 80 to 90% of the parent coal's heating value. A number of media and media separator options are to be evaluated and tested, culminating with the implementation of the preferred combination in a 1,000 lb/hr bench-scale process optimization circuit.

  17. Evaluation of scaffold materials for tooth tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, Takayuki; Itaya, Toshimitsu; Usami, Kazutada; Ando, Yusuke; Sakurai, Hiroya; Honda, Masaki J; Ueda, Minoru; Kagami, Hideaki

    2010-09-01

    Recently, the possibility of tooth tissue engineering has been reported. Although there are a number of available materials, information about scaffolds for tooth tissue engineering is still limited. To improve the manageability of tooth tissue engineering, the effect of scaffolds on in vivo tooth regeneration was evaluated. Collagen and fibrin were selected for this study based on the biocompatibility to dental papilla-derived cells and the results were compared with those of polyglycolic acid (PGA) fiber and beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) porous block, which are commonly used for tooth, dentin and bone tissue engineering. Isolated porcine tooth germ-derived cells were seeded onto one of those scaffolds and transplanted to the back of nude mice. Tooth bud-like structures were observed more frequently in collagen and fibrin gels than on PGA or beta-TCP, while the amount of hard tissue formation was less. The results showed that collagen and fibrin gel support the initial regeneration process of tooth buds possibly due to their ability to support the growth of epithelial and mesenchymal cells. On the other hand, maturation of tooth buds was difficult in fibrin and collagen gels, which may require other factors.

  18. Evaluation of properties for lubricant filter in diesel engines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵新泽; 程天; 张彩香

    2004-01-01

    The properties of lubricant filters in diesel engines directly affect operation of the lubricant system,and lubricant filters are apt to be impacted by many factors. Therefore, scientific and sensible methods evaluating the properties for lubricant filter diesel engines are necessary to monitor filter properties on line and dynamically. This paper applies ferrographic techniques and adopts sampling methods that oil specimens are synchronously obtained in front of and behind filter elements to monitor the filters of ISUZU DA - 220 diesel engine in two FDS0 forklifts. Results show that the combination of ferrographic techniques and above sampling methods is effective in analyzing the whole operating process of filters used in diesel engines. The service life and ruined type of filter can be estimated through the relationship between ferrographic readings in front and behind of filter and operation time. Furthermore, through a great deal of tests, a series of experimental curves of readings and time and characteristic parameters for filters used in different machines can be gained, which has guiding significance to the selection and maintenance of the filters. But because of the limitation of the ferrographic technique, the debris on the substrate prevents determination of sizes. It is difficult to judge accurately the size of debris that a filter can filter.

  19. `Human nature': Chemical engineering students' ideas about human relationships with the natural world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Daphne; Ben-Zvi Assaraf, Orit; Shemesh, Julia

    2014-05-01

    While importance of environmental ethics, as a component of sustainable development, in preparing engineers is widely acknowledged, little research has addressed chemical engineers' environmental concerns. This study aimed to address this void by exploring chemical engineering students' values regarding human-nature relationships. The study was conducted with 247 3rd-4th year chemical engineering students in Israeli Universities. It employed the New Ecological Paradigm (NEP)-questionnaire to which students added written explanations. Quantitative analysis of NEP-scale results shows that the students demonstrated moderately ecocentric orientation. Explanations to the NEP-items reveal diverse, ambivalent ideas regarding the notions embodied in the NEP, strong scientific orientation and reliance on technology for addressing environmental challenges. Endorsing sustainability implies that today's engineers be equipped with an ecological perspective. The capacity of Higher Education to enable engineers to develop dispositions about human-nature interrelationships requires adaptation of curricula towards multidisciplinary, integrative learning addressing social-political-economic-ethical perspectives, and implementing critical-thinking within the socio-scientific issues pedagogical approach.

  20. Design Considerations for Human Rating of Liquid Rocket Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    I.Human-rating is specific to each engine; a. Context of program/project must be understood. b. Engine cannot be discussed independently from vehicle and mission. II. Utilize a logical combination of design, manufacturing, and test approaches a. Design 1) It is crucial to know the potential ways a system can fail, and how a failure can propagate; 2) Fault avoidance, fault tolerance, DFMR, caution and warning all have roles to play. b. Manufacturing and Assembly; 1) As-built vs. as-designed; 2) Review procedures for assembly and maintenance periodically; and 3) Keep personnel trained and certified. c. There is no substitute for test: 1) Analytical tools are constantly advancing, but still need test data for anchoring assumptions; 2) Demonstrate robustness and explore sensitivities; 3) Ideally, flight will be encompassed by ground test experience. III. Consistency and repeatability is key in production a. Maintain robust processes and procedures for inspection and quality control based upon development and qualification experience; b. Establish methods to "spot check" quality and consistency in parts: 1) Dedicated ground test engines; 2) Random components pulled from the line/lot to go through "enhanced" testing.

  1. Human resources in science and engineering: Policy implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leggon, C.B.

    1995-12-31

    Recently, there has been much debate concerning the adequacy of the United States` (U.S.) human resources base to meet its future needs for science and engineering (S/E) talent. Science policy analysts - and scientists and engineers themselves - disagree about whether there will be any shortages of scientists and engineers, and if so, what they will mean for the U.S. Whether or not these shortages materialize, it is necessary for the U.S. to expand the pool from which it recruits its S/E talent. This paper addresses the question of how to increases the diversity of the S/E talent pool to include those who are projected by the year 2000 to be the majority of entry-level workers in the U.S. workforce: women and racial/ethnic minorities. Market forces alone cannot increase the size and diversity of the U.S. S/E workforce. Policy intervention will continue to be required to increase the diversity of the S/E workforce.

  2. Rapid Prototyping Evaluating of Human Vertebra Scaffold in Bio Manufacturing Engineering%生物制造工程人体脊柱骨支架的快速成型制造评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程律莎; 周铁兵

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with the CT pictures of human vertebral column, which are transferred into CAD model by the computer software, so that the exact data can be acquired for manufacturing by rapid prototyping machine. In addition, we made the scaffold samples by rapid prototyping machine using PLGA/TCP biodegradable material, then plant the stem cells(hMSCs) in this biodegradable scaffold to prove the important function of rapid prototyping in the tissue engineering.%以人体脊柱骨 CT 片为例,通过计算机软件将 CT 原片转换为三维 CAD 模型,采用快速成型制造工艺对其进行制造模拟,以评估快速成型制造方法在支架宏观结构上实现的优越性。并以目前较成功的PLGA/TCP 生物降解材料为制造材料,在快速成型机上制造骨内部拓扑结构样本,最后对 PLGA/TCP 生物支架样本进行细胞种植与培养,以评估这种用快速成型制造方法制造的生物支架在支架微观结构上实现的优越性。

  3. Advancing biomaterials of human origin for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fa-Ming; Liu, Xiaohua

    2016-02-01

    Biomaterials have played an increasingly prominent role in the success of biomedical devices and in the development of tissue engineering, which seeks to unlock the regenerative potential innate to human tissues/organs in a state of deterioration and to restore or reestablish normal bodily function. Advances in our understanding of regenerative biomaterials and their roles in new tissue formation can potentially open a new frontier in the fast-growing field of regenerative medicine. Taking inspiration from the role and multi-component construction of native extracellular matrices (ECMs) for cell accommodation, the synthetic biomaterials produced today routinely incorporate biologically active components to define an artificial in vivo milieu with complex and dynamic interactions that foster and regulate stem cells, similar to the events occurring in a natural cellular microenvironment. The range and degree of biomaterial sophistication have also dramatically increased as more knowledge has accumulated through materials science, matrix biology and tissue engineering. However, achieving clinical translation and commercial success requires regenerative biomaterials to be not only efficacious and safe but also cost-effective and convenient for use and production. Utilizing biomaterials of human origin as building blocks for therapeutic purposes has provided a facilitated approach that closely mimics the critical aspects of natural tissue with regard to its physical and chemical properties for the orchestration of wound healing and tissue regeneration. In addition to directly using tissue transfers and transplants for repair, new applications of human-derived biomaterials are now focusing on the use of naturally occurring biomacromolecules, decellularized ECM scaffolds and autologous preparations rich in growth factors/non-expanded stem cells to either target acceleration/magnification of the body's own repair capacity or use nature's paradigms to create new tissues for

  4. Experimental Evaluation of the Free Piston Engine - Linear Alternator (FPLA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leick, Michael T. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Moses, Ronald W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report describes the experimental evaluation of a prototype free piston engine - linear alternator (FPLA) system developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The opposed piston design wa developed to investigate its potential for use in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). The system is mechanically simple with two - stroke uniflow scavenging for gas exchange and timed port fuel injection for fuel delivery, i.e. no complex valving. Electrical power is extracted from piston motion through linear alternators wh ich also provide a means for passive piston synchronization through electromagnetic coupling. In an HEV application, this electrical power would be used to charge the batteries. The engine - alternator system was designed, assembled and operated over a 2 - year period at Sandia National Laboratories in Livermore, CA. This report primarily contains a description of the as - built system, modifications to the system to enable better performance, and experimental results from start - up, motoring, and hydrogen combus tion tests.

  5. Experimental Evaluation of the Free Piston Engine - Linear Alternator (FPLA).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leick, Michael T. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Moses, Ronald W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report describes the experimental evaluation of a prototype free piston engine - linear alternator (FPLA) system developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The opposed piston design wa developed to investigate its potential for use in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). The system is mechanically simple with two - stroke uniflow scavenging for gas exchange and timed port fuel injection for fuel delivery, i.e. no complex valving. Electrical power is extracted from piston motion through linear alternators wh ich also provide a means for passive piston synchronization through electromagnetic coupling. In an HEV application, this electrical power would be used to charge the batteries. The engine - alternator system was designed, assembled and operated over a 2 - year period at Sandia National Laboratories in Livermore, CA. This report primarily contains a description of the as - built system, modifications to the system to enable better performance, and experimental results from start - up, motoring, and hydrogen combus tion tests.

  6. Veterinary and human vaccine evaluation methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight-Jones, T. J. D.; Edmond, K.; Gubbins, S.; Paton, D. J.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the universal importance of vaccines, approaches to human and veterinary vaccine evaluation differ markedly. For human vaccines, vaccine efficacy is the proportion of vaccinated individuals protected by the vaccine against a defined outcome under ideal conditions, whereas for veterinary vaccines the term is used for a range of measures of vaccine protection. The evaluation of vaccine effectiveness, vaccine protection assessed under routine programme conditions, is largely limited to human vaccines. Challenge studies under controlled conditions and sero-conversion studies are widely used when evaluating veterinary vaccines, whereas human vaccines are generally evaluated in terms of protection against natural challenge assessed in trials or post-marketing observational studies. Although challenge studies provide a standardized platform on which to compare different vaccines, they do not capture the variation that occurs under field conditions. Field studies of vaccine effectiveness are needed to assess the performance of a vaccination programme. However, if vaccination is performed without central co-ordination, as is often the case for veterinary vaccines, evaluation will be limited. This paper reviews approaches to veterinary vaccine evaluation in comparison to evaluation methods used for human vaccines. Foot-and-mouth disease has been used to illustrate the veterinary approach. Recommendations are made for standardization of terminology and for rigorous evaluation of veterinary vaccines. PMID:24741009

  7. ENGINES: exploring single nucleotide variation in entire human genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salas Antonio

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Next generation ultra-sequencing technologies are starting to produce extensive quantities of data from entire human genome or exome sequences, and therefore new software is needed to present and analyse this vast amount of information. The 1000 Genomes project has recently released raw data for 629 complete genomes representing several human populations through their Phase I interim analysis and, although there are certain public tools available that allow exploration of these genomes, to date there is no tool that permits comprehensive population analysis of the variation catalogued by such data. Description We have developed a genetic variant site explorer able to retrieve data for Single Nucleotide Variation (SNVs, population by population, from entire genomes without compromising future scalability and agility. ENGINES (ENtire Genome INterface for Exploring SNVs uses data from the 1000 Genomes Phase I to demonstrate its capacity to handle large amounts of genetic variation (>7.3 billion genotypes and 28 million SNVs, as well as deriving summary statistics of interest for medical and population genetics applications. The whole dataset is pre-processed and summarized into a data mart accessible through a web interface. The query system allows the combination and comparison of each available population sample, while searching by rs-number list, chromosome region, or genes of interest. Frequency and FST filters are available to further refine queries, while results can be visually compared with other large-scale Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP repositories such as HapMap or Perlegen. Conclusions ENGINES is capable of accessing large-scale variation data repositories in a fast and comprehensive manner. It allows quick browsing of whole genome variation, while providing statistical information for each variant site such as allele frequency, heterozygosity or FST values for genetic differentiation. Access to the data mart

  8. Evaluating Human Factors in Augmented Reality Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-01

    user’s location and then per- forming the (cognitive) task of Mark A. Livingston Naval Research Laboratory Evaluating Human Factors in Augmented Reality ...00-00-2005 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Evaluating Human Factors in Augmented Reality Systems 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...the basis for situation awareness or—in combina- tion with visual cues—a navigation task. Tactile tasks. Via haptic devices, we can apply vir- tual

  9. The Humanistic Side of Engineering: Considering Social Science and Humanities Dimensions of Engineering in Education and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynes, Morgan; Swenson, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    Mathematics and science knowledge/skills are most commonly associated with engineering's pre-requisite knowledge. Our goals in this paper are to argue for a more systematic inclusion of social science and humanities knowledge in the introduction of engineering to K-12 students. As part of this argument, we present a construct for framing the…

  10. 2015 Space Human Factors Engineering Standing Review Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Susan

    2015-01-01

    The 2015 Space Human Factors Engineering (SHFE) Standing Review Panel (from here on referred to as the SRP) met for a site visit in Houston, TX on December 2 - 3, 2015. The SRP reviewed the updated research plans for the Risk of Inadequate Design of Human and Automation/Robotic Integration (HARI Risk), the Risk of Inadequate Human-Computer Interaction (HCI Risk), and the Risk of Inadequate Mission, Process and Task Design (MPTask Risk). The SRP also received a status update on the Risk of Incompatible Vehicle/Habitat Design (Hab Risk) and the Risk of Performance Errors Due to Training Deficiencies (Train Risk). The SRP is pleased with the progress and responsiveness of the SHFE team. The presentations were much improved this year. The SRP is also pleased with the human-centered design approach. Below are some of the more extensive comments from the SRP. We have also made comments in each section concerning gaps/tasks in each. The comments below reflect more significant changes that impact more than just one particular section.

  11. IN VITRO EFFECT OF SILVER ENGINEERED NANOPARTICLES ON HUMAN SPERMATOZOA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Terzuoli

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Silver (Ag NPs are among the most commercialized NPs due to their antimicrobial potential. They are highly at- tractive for possible applications in manufacture of medical device. However there is a serious lack of information concerning their impact on the human health and the environment. Moreover studies on the effects of NPs on ejaculated sperm are rather limited. For these reasons our study explored the in vitro effects of Ag NPs on human ejaculated spermatozoa. Ag NPs have been produced, characterized, and furnished by Colorobbia Industry, Sovigliana (Vinci, Florence, Italy. Aliquots of total semen were incubated at 37°C for 60 minutes (min and 120 min at the concentration of 125 μM, 250 μM, and 500 μM of engineered Ag NPs. The control was represented by specimens of semen samples treated with the same procedure without NPs. After the incubations, sperm motility was evaluated following WHO guidelines and sperm viability was eval- uated by Eosin Y test. At the end of incubation with Ag NPs the samples were processed by a Field Emission Gun-based Scanning Transmition Electron Microscope/ Energy Dispertion Spectrometry (STEM/EDS. We observed that sperm motility percentage was significantly reduced in semen samples treated with 125 μM, 250 μM and 500 μM of Ag NPs after 60 min and 120 min of incubation respect to controls (P<0.001; P<0.01, 125 μM at 60 min. Sperm viability percentage significantly decreased in a progressive manner after 125 μM (P<0.05, 250 μM (P<0.05 and 500 μM (P<0.001 Ag NPs incubation at 60 min and 120 min. We did not find any significant difference between the values assessed after 60 min of NPs incubation and those estimated after 120 min of incubation. In the control samples, the sperm motility and the sperm viability percentages significantly decreased after 120 min of incubation (P<0.001 respect to the basal values. Ag NPs were undetectable in all treated samples by STEM/EDS. These in vitro results show a

  12. Human conjunctivitis. I. Diagnostic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibowitz, H W; Pratt, M V; Flagstad, I J; Berrospi, A R; Kundsin, R

    1976-10-01

    One hundred forty-three patients (207 eyes) with conjunctivitis or blepharoconjunctivitis were studied. Attempts were made to establish an etiologic diagnosis by clinical and laboratory methods. The etiologic diagnosis that was made on the basis of the initial clinical examination correlated poorly with the results of standard laboratory tests. Conversely, the standard laboratory evaluation failed to establish a definitive diagnosis in the majority of cases. These findings suggest that the diagnostic dogmatism prevalent in conjunctivitis is unwarranted. Morphologic signs and routine laboratory tests leave us without a verified etiologic diagnosis in a substantial number of cases.¿

  13. Human flexor tendon tissue engineering: decellularization of human flexor tendons reduces immunogenicity in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, Shyam S; Woon, Colin Y L; Kraus, Armin; Megerle, Kai; Choi, Matthew S S; Pridgen, Brian C; Pham, Hung; Chang, James

    2012-04-01

    In mutilating hand injuries, tissue engineered tendon grafts may provide a reconstructive solution. We have previously described a method to decellularize cadaveric human flexor tendons while preserving mechanical properties and biocompatibility. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the immunogenicity and strength of these grafts when implanted into an immunocompetent rat model. Cadaveric human flexor tendons were divided into two groups. Group 1 was untreated, and Group 2 was decellularized by treatment with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and peracetic acid (PAA). Both groups were then analyzed for the presence of major histocompatibility complexes by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Pair-matched tendons from each group were then placed into the dorsal subcutaneous tissue and anchored to the spinal ligaments of Wistar rats for 2 or 4 weeks, and harvested. The infiltration of B-cells and macrophages was determined using IHC. The explants where then subjected to mechanical testing to determine the ultimate tensile stress (UTS) and elastic modulus (EM). Statistical analysis was performed using a paired Student's t-test. The decellularization protocol successfully removed cells and MHC-1 complexes. At 2 weeks after implantation, there was increased infiltration of B-cells in Group 1 (untreated) compared with Group 2 (acellular), both in the capsule and tendon substance. There was improved ultimate tensile stress (UTS, 42.7 ± 8.3 vs. 22.8 ± 7.8 MPa, ptendons that were decellularized. At 4 weeks, there was continued B-cell infiltration in Group 1 (untreated) compared with Group 2 (acellular). There was no appreciable difference in macrophage infiltration at both time points. At 4 weeks Group 2 (acellular) demonstrated persistently greater UTS (40.5 ± 9.1 vs. 14.6 ± 4.2 MPa, ptendons that were decellularized with SDS, EDTA, and PAA resulted in removal of cellular antigens and a decreased immune response when placed into Wistar

  14. Human Thermal Model Evaluation Using the JSC Human Thermal Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bue, Grant; Makinen, Janice; Cognata, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Human thermal modeling has considerable long term utility to human space flight. Such models provide a tool to predict crew survivability in support of vehicle design and to evaluate crew response in untested space environments. It is to the benefit of any such model not only to collect relevant experimental data to correlate it against, but also to maintain an experimental standard or benchmark for future development in a readily and rapidly searchable and software accessible format. The Human thermal database project is intended to do just so; to collect relevant data from literature and experimentation and to store the data in a database structure for immediate and future use as a benchmark to judge human thermal models against, in identifying model strengths and weakness, to support model development and improve correlation, and to statistically quantify a model s predictive quality. The human thermal database developed at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) is intended to evaluate a set of widely used human thermal models. This set includes the Wissler human thermal model, a model that has been widely used to predict the human thermoregulatory response to a variety of cold and hot environments. These models are statistically compared to the current database, which contains experiments of human subjects primarily in air from a literature survey ranging between 1953 and 2004 and from a suited experiment recently performed by the authors, for a quantitative study of relative strength and predictive quality of the models.

  15. Unreviewed Disposal Question Evaluation: Waste Disposal In Engineered Trench #3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamm, L. L.; Smith, F. G. III; Flach, G. P.; Hiergesell, R. A.; Butcher, B. T.

    2013-07-29

    Because Engineered Trench #3 (ET#3) will be placed in the location previously designated for Slit Trench #12 (ST#12), Solid Waste Management (SWM) requested that the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) determine if the ST#12 limits could be employed as surrogate disposal limits for ET#3 operations. SRNL documented in this Unreviewed Disposal Question Evaluation (UDQE) that the use of ST#12 limits as surrogates for the new ET#3 disposal unit will provide reasonable assurance that Department of Energy (DOE) 435.1 performance objectives and measures (USDOE, 1999) will be protected. Therefore new ET#3 inventory limits as determined by a Special Analysis (SA) are not required.

  16. Evaluation of engineering plastic for rollover protective structure (ROPS) mounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comer, R S; Ayers, P D; Liu, J

    2007-04-01

    Agriculture has one of the highest fatality rates of any industry in America. Tractor rollovers are a significant contributor to the high death rate. Rollover protective structures (ROPS) have helped lower these high fatality rates on full-size tractors. However, a large number of older tractors still do not use ROPS due to the difficulty of designing and creating a mounting structure. To help reduce this difficulty, engineering plastics were evaluated for use in a ROPS mounting structure on older tractors. The use of engineering plastics around axle housings could provide a uniform mounting configuration as well as lower costs for aftermarket ROPS. Various plastics were examined through shear testing, scale model testing, and compressive strength testing. Once a material was chosen based upon strength and cost, full-scale testing of the plastic's strength on axle housings was conducted. Finally, a mounting structure was tested in static ROPS tests, and field upset tests were performed in accordance with SAE Standard J2194. Initial tests revealed that the ROPS mounting structure and axle housing combination had higher torsional strength with less twisting than the axle housing alone. An engineering plastic ROPS mounting structure was easily successful in withstanding the forces applied during the static longitudinal and lateral ROPS tests. Field upset testing revealed that the mounting structure could withstand the impact loads seen during actual upsets without a failure. During both static testing and field upset testing, no permanent twisting of the mounting structure was found. Engineering plastic could therefore be a viable option for a universal ROPS mounting structure for older tractors.

  17. Space Industry Commercialization: A Systems Engineering Evaluation of Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinally, Jihan

    The Constellation Program cancellation reversed the government and commercial space industry's roles and relationships by dedicating the majority of the federal funding and opportunities to the commercial space industry and left the government space industry in search of an approach to collaborate with the dominant organization, the commercial space industry service providers. The space industry government agencies, Air Force Space Command (AFSPC) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) had realized that to gain resources in the new commercially oriented economic environment, they had to work together and possess the capabilities aligned with the National Space Policy's documented goals. Multi-organizational collaboration in space industry programs is challenging, as NASA, AFSPC, and commercial providers, follow different [1] enterprise architecture guidance such as the NASA systems engineering Handbook, MIL-STD-499 and "A Guide to the systems engineering Body of Knowledge" by the International Council on systems engineering [2] [3]. A solution to streamline their enterprise architecture documentation and meet National Space Policy goals is the Multi-User Architecture Maturity Model Methodology (MAM3), which offers a tailored systems engineering technique the government agencies and private companies can implement for the program's maturity level. In order to demonstrate the MAM3, a CubeSat motivated study was conducted partnering a commercial provider with a government agency. A survey of the commercial space industry service providers' capabilities was performed to select the private companies for the study. Using the survey results, the commercial space industry service providers were ranked using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) [4]. The AHP is a structured technique for making complex decisions for representing and quantifying its weights, relating those weights to overall goals, and evaluating alternative solutions [5] - [8]. The weights

  18. Human factors evaluation of teletherapy: Human-system interfaces and procedures. Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaye, R.D.; Henriksen, K.; Jones, R. [Hughes Training, Inc., Falls Church, VA (United States); Morisseau, D.S.; Serig, D.I. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Div. of Systems Technology

    1995-07-01

    A series of human factors evaluations was undertaken to better understand the contributing factors to human error in the teletherapy environment. Teletherapy is a multidisciplinary methodology for treating cancerous tissue through selective exposure to an external beam of ionizing radiation. The principal sources of radiation are a radioactive isotope, typically cobalt60 (Co-60), or a linear accelerator device capable of producing very high energy x-ray and electron beams. A team of human factors specialists conducted site visits to radiation oncology departments at community hospitals, university centers, and free-standing clinics. In addition, a panel of radiation oncologists, medical physicists, and radiation technologists served as subject matter experts. A function and task analysis was initially performed to guide subsequent evaluations in the areas of user-system interfaces, procedures, training and qualifications, and organizational policies and practices. The present report focuses on an evaluation of the human-system interfaces in relation to the treatment machines and supporting equipment (e.g., simulators, treatment planning computers, control consoles, patient charts) found in the teletherapy environment. The report also evaluates operating, maintenance and emergency procedures and practices involved in teletherapy. The evaluations are based on the function and task analysis and established human engineering guidelines, where applicable.

  19. The development and evaluation of guidelines for the review of advanced human-system interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Hara, J.M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (US); Wachtel, J. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (US). Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research

    1992-12-31

    Advanced control rooms for future nuclear power plants are being designed utilizing computer-based technologies. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission reviews the human engineering aspects of such control rooms to ensure that they are designed to good human factors engineering principles and that operator performance and reliability are appropriately supported in order to protect public health and safety. This paper describes a general approach to advanced human-system interface review, development of human factors guidelines to support NRC safety reviews of advanced systems, and the results of a guideline test and evaluation program.

  20. Engineer Ethics Education that Treated Safety Problem to Promote Development of General Human Competence and Independent Engineer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotta, Genji

    The human race came to expect the engineer‧s international activity by an international extension of the risk. The engineer should provide with “Overall ability” and “Independent ability” to answer the demand of the society. The engineer ethics education is effective to the acquisition of the ability that the society demands. Because the engineer ethics education teaches the engineer to develop “Ethics action as the individual” to “Ethics activity as the enterprise” . In the point of development of the comprehensive capacity, it can be said that the engineer ethics education is training that supports the action power that accomplishes the social responsibility. However, it is easy to make the engineer ethics education a polite fiction. Then, we propose to take the safety problem to the ethics education for the prevention of making to the polite fiction of the education.

  1. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory analytical services performance evaluation plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connolly, J.M.; Sailer, S.J.; Anderson, D.A.

    1994-03-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory`s (INEL`s) Sample Management Office (SMO) conducts a Performance Evaluation Program that ensures that data of known quality are supplied by the analytical. chemistry service organizations with which the INEL contracts. The Analytical Services Performance Evaluation Plan documents the routine monitoring and assessment of suppliers conducted by the SMO, and it describes the procedures that are followed to ensure that suppliers meet all appropriate requirements. Because high-quality analytical support is vital to the success of DOE Environmental Management programs at the INEL, the performance of organizations providing these services must be routinely monitored and assessed. Analytical disciplines for which performance is monitored include metals, organics, radiochemical, and miscellaneous classical analysis methods.

  2. Measurement quality and uncertainty evaluation in civil engineering research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Ribeiro A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Civil engineering is a branch of science that covers a broad range of areas where experimental procedures often plays an important role. The research in this field is usually supported by experimental structures able to test physical and mathematical models and to provide measurement results with acceptable accuracy. To assure measurement quality, a metrology probabilistic approach can provide valuable mathematical and computational tools especially suited to the study, evaluation and improvement of measurement processes in its different components (modeling, instrumentation performance, data processing, data validation and traceability, emphasizing measurement uncertainty evaluation as a tool to the analysis of results and to promote the quality and capacity associated with decision-making. This paper presents some of the research held by the metrology division of the Portuguese civil engineering research institutes, focused on the contribution of measurement uncertainty studies to a variety of frameworks, such as testing for metrological characterization and physical and mathematical modeling. Experimental data will be used to illustrate practical cases.

  3. Cross-System Evaluation of Clinical Trial Search Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Silis Y.; Weng, Chunhua

    2014-01-01

    Clinical trials are fundamental to the advancement of medicine but constantly face recruitment difficulties. Various clinical trial search engines have been designed to help health consumers identify trials for which they may be eligible. Unfortunately, knowledge of the usefulness and usability of their designs remains scarce. In this study, we used mixed methods, including time-motion analysis, think-aloud protocol, and survey, to evaluate five popular clinical trial search engines with 11 users. Differences in user preferences and time spent on each system were observed and correlated with user characteristics. In general, searching for applicable trials using these systems is a cognitively demanding task. Our results show that user perceptions of these systems are multifactorial. The survey indicated eTACTS being the generally preferred system, but this finding did not persist among all mixed methods. This study confirms the value of mixed-methods for a comprehensive system evaluation. Future system designers must be aware that different users groups expect different functionalities. PMID:25954590

  4. Evaluation of immunocompatibility of tissue-engineered periosteum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Lin; Wang Shuanke; Xia Yayi; Liu Jia; He Jing; Wang Xin [Orthopaedic Institute of the 2nd Hospital of Lanzhou University, 80 CuiYingMen, ChengGuan District, Lanzhou City, 730030 (China); Zhao Junli, E-mail: bonezl@qq.com [Department of Nephrology, the 2nd Hospital of Lanzhou University, 80 CuiYingMen, ChengGuan District, Lanzhou City, 730030 (China)

    2011-02-15

    Tissue-engineered periosteum (TEP) and 'intramembranous ossification' may be an alternative approach to bone tissue engineering. In the previous study we attained successful bone defect reparation with homemade TEP in an allogenic rabbit model. But its allogenic immunocompatibility remained unknown. In this study TEP was constructed by seeding osteogenically induced mesenchymal stem cells of rabbit onto porcine small intestinal submucosa (SIS). A mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) was applied to evaluate the in vitro immunogenicity. The ratio of CD4{sup +}/CD8{sup +} T-lymphocytes was tested kinetically to evaluate the systematic reaction of the TEP allograft, and a histological examination was performed to investigate local inflammation and ectopic osteogenesis. MLR indicated that TEP had a higher in vitro immunostimulation than SIS (p < 0.05). The ratios of CD4{sup +}/CD8{sup +} lymphocytes increased in both TEP and SIS implanted groups in 2 weeks, followed by a decrease to a normal level from 2 to 4 weeks. Histological examination revealed modest lymphocyte infiltration for no more than 2 weeks. Moreover, subcutaneous ectopic ossification was observed in TEP allograft animals (8/12). Our findings imply that TEP has a certain immune reaction for the allograft, but it is not severe enough to impact osteogenesis in the allogenic rabbit model.

  5. Cross-system evaluation of clinical trial search engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Silis Y; Weng, Chunhua

    2014-01-01

    Clinical trials are fundamental to the advancement of medicine but constantly face recruitment difficulties. Various clinical trial search engines have been designed to help health consumers identify trials for which they may be eligible. Unfortunately, knowledge of the usefulness and usability of their designs remains scarce. In this study, we used mixed methods, including time-motion analysis, think-aloud protocol, and survey, to evaluate five popular clinical trial search engines with 11 users. Differences in user preferences and time spent on each system were observed and correlated with user characteristics. In general, searching for applicable trials using these systems is a cognitively demanding task. Our results show that user perceptions of these systems are multifactorial. The survey indicated eTACTS being the generally preferred system, but this finding did not persist among all mixed methods. This study confirms the value of mixed-methods for a comprehensive system evaluation. Future system designers must be aware that different users groups expect different functionalities.

  6. Evaluation of Human and AutomationRobotics Integration Needs for Future Human Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez, Jessica J.; Adelstein, Bernard D.; Ellis, Stephen; Chang, Mai Lee; Howard, Robert

    2016-01-01

    NASA employs Design Reference Missions (DRMs) to define potential architectures for future human exploration missions to deep space, the Moon, and Mars. While DRMs to these destinations share some components, each mission has different needs. This paper focuses on the human and automation/robotic integration needs for these future missions, evaluating them with respect to NASA research gaps in the area of space human factors engineering. The outcomes of our assessment is a human and automation/robotic (HAR) task list for each of the four DRMs that we reviewed (i.e., Deep Space Sortie, Lunar Visit/Habitation, Deep Space Habitation, and Planetary), a list of common critical HAR factors that drive HAR design.

  7. Reverse engineering human neurodegenerative disease using pluripotent stem cell technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Deng, Wenbin

    2016-05-01

    With the technology of reprogramming somatic cells by introducing defined transcription factors that enables the generation of "induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs)" with pluripotency comparable to that of embryonic stem cells (ESCs), it has become possible to use this technology to produce various cells and tissues that have been difficult to obtain from living bodies. This advancement is bringing forth rapid progress in iPSC-based disease modeling, drug screening, and regenerative medicine. More and more studies have demonstrated that phenotypes of adult-onset neurodegenerative disorders could be rather faithfully recapitulated in iPSC-derived neural cell cultures. Moreover, despite the adult-onset nature of the diseases, pathogenic phenotypes and cellular abnormalities often exist in early developmental stages, providing new "windows of opportunity" for understanding mechanisms underlying neurodegenerative disorders and for discovering new medicines. The cell reprogramming technology enables a reverse engineering approach for modeling the cellular degenerative phenotypes of a wide range of human disorders. An excellent example is the study of the human neurodegenerative disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) using iPSCs. ALS is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by the loss of upper and lower motor neurons (MNs), culminating in muscle wasting and death from respiratory failure. The iPSC approach provides innovative cell culture platforms to serve as ALS patient-derived model systems. Researchers have converted iPSCs derived from ALS patients into MNs and various types of glial cells, all of which are involved in ALS, to study the disease. The iPSC technology could be used to determine the role of specific genetic factors to track down what's wrong in the neurodegenerative disease process in the "disease-in-a-dish" model. Meanwhile, parallel experiments of targeting the same specific genes in human ESCs could also be performed to control

  8. Advancing Usability Evaluation through Human Reliability Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald L. Boring; David I. Gertman

    2005-07-01

    This paper introduces a novel augmentation to the current heuristic usability evaluation methodology. The SPAR-H human reliability analysis method was developed for categorizing human performance in nuclear power plants. Despite the specialized use of SPAR-H for safety critical scenarios, the method also holds promise for use in commercial off-the-shelf software usability evaluations. The SPAR-H method shares task analysis underpinnings with human-computer interaction, and it can be easily adapted to incorporate usability heuristics as performance shaping factors. By assigning probabilistic modifiers to heuristics, it is possible to arrive at the usability error probability (UEP). This UEP is not a literal probability of error but nonetheless provides a quantitative basis to heuristic evaluation. When combined with a consequence matrix for usability errors, this method affords ready prioritization of usability issues.

  9. Human Modeling Evaluations in Microgravity Workstation and Restraint Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, Mihriban; Chmielewski, Cynthia; Wheaton, Aneice; Hancock, Lorraine; Beierle, Jason; Bond, Robert L. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) will provide long-term missions which will enable the astronauts to live and work, as well as, conduct research in a microgravity environment. The dominant factor in space affecting the crew is "weightlessness" which creates a challenge for establishing workstation microgravity design requirements. The crewmembers will work at various workstations such as Human Research Facility (HRF), Microgravity Sciences Glovebox (MSG) and Life Sciences Glovebox (LSG). Since the crew will spend considerable amount of time at these workstations, it is critical that ergonomic design requirements are integral part of design and development effort. In order to achieve this goal, the Space Human Factors Laboratory in the Johnson Space Center Flight Crew Support Division has been tasked to conduct integrated evaluations of workstations and associated crew restraints. Thus, a two-phase approach was used: 1) ground and microgravity evaluations of the physical dimensions and layout of the workstation components, and 2) human modeling analyses of the user interface. Computer-based human modeling evaluations were an important part of the approach throughout the design and development process. Human modeling during the conceptual design phase included crew reach and accessibility of individual equipment, as well as, crew restraint needs. During later design phases, human modeling has been used in conjunction with ground reviews and microgravity evaluations of the mock-ups in order to verify the human factors requirements. (Specific examples will be discussed.) This two-phase approach was the most efficient method to determine ergonomic design characteristics for workstations and restraints. The real-time evaluations provided a hands-on implementation in a microgravity environment. On the other hand, only a limited number of participants could be tested. The human modeling evaluations provided a more detailed analysis of the setup. The issues identified

  10. Integrated Evaluation on Highway Engineering Geological Hazard in Mountainous Area of Enshi, Hubei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAN Bin

    2006-01-01

    Aiming at the geological features of highway engineering in mountainous area of Enshi, Hubei Province, the principles to set up an integrated evaluation system for highway engineering geological hazard are formulated. Then, the integrated evaluation system for highway engineering geological hazard in mountainous area of Enshi is established. In the evaluation system, the first-level evaluation indices are geological development degree, geological conditions, and damaging power, whereas the second-level indices including key factors affecting main kinds of geological hazard. Meanwhile, the borders of indices are determined. At last, the method of Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation (FCE) is adopted to quantitatively evaluate the highway engineering geological hazard in mountainous area of Enshi.

  11. Preliminary Evaluation of Altitude Scaling for Turbofan Engine Ice Crystal Icing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Jen-Ching

    2017-01-01

    Preliminary evaluation of altitude scaling for turbofan engine ice crystal icing simulation was conducted during the 2015 LF11 engine icing test campaign in PSL.The results showed that a simplified approach for altitude scaling to simulate the key reference engine ice growth feature and associated icing effects to the engine is possible. But special considerations are needed to address the facility operation limitation for lower altitude engine icing simulation.

  12. Human Resource Evaluation in Hotel Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Aspridis

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at presenting and analysing the performance appraisalsystems and the human potential development in hotelunits. It aims at integrating and updating many aspects of performanceappraisal while concentrating on the hotel units systemto prove the importance of human resource evaluation in hotelunits and the procedure that is to be followed by the enterprisefor further development of hotel employees. HR evaluation analysisis presented through relevant theoretical background on theevaluation method and the presentation of the practical problematicalissues in order to create an image for a whole evaluationsystem of HR in Greek hotel enterprises.

  13. Human serum provided additional values in growth factors supplemented medium for human chondrocytes monolayer expansion and engineered cartilage construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, K H; Aminuddin, B S; Fuzina, N H; Ruszymah, B H I

    2004-05-01

    We have previously formulated an optimized human chondrocytes growth medium based on 2% fetal bovine serum supplementation. For clinical usage, the animal serum must be replaced by patient own serum. We investigated the effects of human serum concentration for human nasal septum chondrocytes monolayer culture and cartilage reconstruction. Human serum demonstrated a dose dependent manner in promoting chondrocytes growth and cartilage engineering.

  14. Modern methods of human life evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raisa Viktorovna Nifantova

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the authors classified the methods of evaluation of life and human health, physical and mental suffering, identified influencing factors affecting the value of the estimate cost of living on the basis of generalization of extensive theoretical and empirical material of various domestic and foreign publications. From the perspective of human capital theory, various approaches to modeling monetary value of human life are reviewed, for example, the demographic approach, consequential, direct investments in human lived during the interval years, theory of utility to the human society, the cost of risk unit and society's willingness to pay for the damages, as well as costs to society to reduce the risk of premature death of its member.

  15. Cognitive work analysis: An influential legacy extending beyond human factors and engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naikar, Neelam

    2017-03-01

    Jens Rasmussen's multifaceted legacy includes cognitive work analysis (CWA), a framework for the analysis, design, and evaluation of complex sociotechnical systems. After considering the framework's origins, this paper reviews its progress, predictably covering experimental research on ecological interface design, case studies of the application of CWA to human factors and engineering problems in industry, and methods and modelling tools for CWA. Emphasis is placed, however, on studying the nexus between some of the recent results obtained with CWA and the original field studies of human problem-solving that motivated the framework's development. Of particular interest is a case study of the use of CWA for military doctrine development, a problem commonly regarded as lying outside the fields of human factors and engineering. It is concluded that the value of CWA, even for such diverse problems, is likely to result from its conceptual grounding in empirical observations of patterns of human reasoning in complex systems. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Preliminary systems engineering evaluations for the National Ecological Observatory Network.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, Perry J.; Kottenstette, Richard Joseph; Crouch, Shannon M.; Brocato, Robert Wesley; Zak, Bernard Daniel; Osborn, Thor D.; Ivey, Mark D.; Gass, Karl Leslie; Heller, Edwin J.; Dishman, James Larry; Schubert, William Kent; Zirzow, Jeffrey A.

    2008-11-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is an ambitious National Science Foundation sponsored project intended to accumulate and disseminate ecologically informative sensor data from sites among 20 distinct biomes found within the United States and Puerto Rico over a period of at least 30 years. These data are expected to provide valuable insights into the ecological impacts of climate change, land-use change, and invasive species in these various biomes, and thereby provide a scientific foundation for the decisions of future national, regional, and local policy makers. NEON's objectives are of substantial national and international importance, yet they must be achieved with limited resources. Sandia National Laboratories was therefore contracted to examine four areas of significant systems engineering concern; specifically, alternatives to commercial electrical utility power for remote operations, approaches to data acquisition and local data handling, protocols for secure long-distance data transmission, and processes and procedures for the introduction of new instruments and continuous improvement of the sensor network. The results of these preliminary systems engineering evaluations are presented, with a series of recommendations intended to optimize the efficiency and probability of long-term success for the NEON enterprise.

  17. Evaluation of Biodiesel Production, Engine Performance, and Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürü, Metin; Keskïn, Ali

    2016-08-01

    Nowadays, to decrease environmental pollution and dependence on fossil-based fuels, research on alternative renewable energy sources has been increasing. One such renewable energy source is biodiesel, which is used as an alternative fuel for diesel engines. Biodiesel is renewable, nontoxic, biodegradable, and environmentally friendly. Biodiesel is domestically produced from vegetable oil (edible or nonedible), animal fat, and used cooking oils. In the biodiesel production process, oil or fat undergoes transesterification reaction through use of simple alcohols such as methanol, ethanol, propanol, butanol, etc. Use of methanol is most feasible because of its low cost, and physical and chemical advantages. Acid catalysis, alkali catalysis, and enzyme catalysis are usually used to improve the reaction rate and yield. Glycerol is a byproduct of the reaction and can be used as an industrial raw material. In this study, biodiesel production methods (direct use, pyrolysis, microemulsion, transesterification, supercritical processes, ultrasound- assisted, and microwave-assisted) and types of catalyst (homogeneous, heterogeneous, and enzyme) have been evaluated and compared. In addition, the effects of biodiesel and its blends on diesel engine performance and exhaust emissions are described and reviewed.

  18. JET ENGINE INLET DISTORTION SCREEN AND DESCRIPTOR EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Pečinka

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Total pressure distortion is one of the three basic flow distortions (total pressure, total temperature and swirl distortion that might appear at the inlet of a gas turbine engine (GTE during operation. Different numerical parameters are used for assessing the total pressure distortion intensity and extent. These summary descriptors are based on the distribution of total pressure in the aerodynamic interface plane. There are two descriptors largely spread around the world, however, three or four others are still in use and can be found in current references. The staff at the University of Defence decided to compare the most common descriptors using basic flow distortion patterns in order to select the most appropriate descriptor for future department research. The most common descriptors were identified based on their prevalence in widely accessible publications. The construction and use of these descriptors are reviewed in the paper. Subsequently, they are applied to radial, angular, and combined distortion patterns of different intensities and with varied mass flow rates. The tests were performed on a specially designed test bench using an electrically driven standalone industrial centrifugal compressor, sucking air through the inlet of a TJ100 small turbojet engine. Distortion screens were placed into the inlet channel to create the desired total pressure distortions. Of the three basic distortions, only the total pressure distortion descriptors were evaluated. However, both total and static pressures were collected using a multi probe rotational measurement system.

  19. Evaluation of air pollution modelling tools as environmental engineering courseware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto González, J A; Bello Bugallo, P M; Casares Long, J J

    2004-01-01

    The study of phenomena related to the dispersion of pollutants usually takes advantage of the use of mathematical models based on the description of the different processes involved. This educational approach is especially important in air pollution dispersion, when the processes follow a non-linear behaviour so it is difficult to understand the relationships between inputs and outputs, and in a 3D context where it becomes hard to analyze alphanumeric results. In this work, three different software tools, as computer solvers for typical air pollution dispersion phenomena, are presented. Each software tool developed to be implemented on PCs, follows approaches that represent three generations of programming languages (Fortran 77, VisualBasic and Java), applied over three different environments: MS-DOS, MS-Windows and the world wide web. The software tools were tested by students of environmental engineering (undergraduate) and chemical engineering (postgraduate), in order to evaluate the ability of these software tools to improve both theoretical and practical knowledge of the air pollution dispersion problem, and the impact of the different environment in the learning process in terms of content, ease of use and visualization of results.

  20. Evaluating physicians' professionalism and humanism: the case for humanism "connoisseurs".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misch, Donald A

    2002-06-01

    Physicians' professionalism and humanism have become central foci of the efforts of medical educators as the public, various accrediting and licensing agencies, and the profession itself have expressed concerns about the apparent erosion of physicians' competency in these aspects of the art, rather than the science, of medicine. Of the many obstacles to enhancing trainees' skills in these domains, one of the most significant is the difficulty in assessing competency in physicians' professionalism and humanism. The author suggests that the assessment of these aspects of the art of medicine has more in common with the approaches used in criticism of the arts than with the quantitative assessment tools appropriate to the scientific method and the medical model. Quantitative and semi-quantitative tools, so effective in elucidating the etiology, pathophysiology, and treatment of disease, are often in-appropriate and invalid when applied to evaluation of professional and humanistic competencies. The author proposes that humanism "connoisseurs" be employed to qualitatively evaluate medical trainees' professionalism and humanism. Such connoisseurs would possess expert knowledge, training, and experience in the interpersonal aspects of the art of medicine, allowing them to deconstruct concepts such as empathy, compassion, integrity, and respect into their respective key elements while evaluating physicians' behaviors as an integrated, cohesive whole. Through the use of a rich descriptive vocabulary, humanism connoisseurs would provide valid formative and summative feedback regarding competency in medical professionalism and humanism. In the process, they would serve to counteract the relative marginalization of professionalism and humanism in the informal and lived curricula of medical trainees.

  1. Efficient derivation and genetic modifications of human pluripotent stem cells on engineered human feeder cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Chunlin; Chou, Bin-Kuan; Dowey, Sarah N; Tsang, Kitman; Huang, Xiaosong; Liu, Cyndi F; Smith, Cory; Yen, Jonathan; Mali, Prashant; Zhang, Yu Alex; Cheng, Linzhao; Ye, Zhaohui

    2012-08-10

    Derivation of pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) induced from somatic cell types and the subsequent genetic modifications of disease-specific or patient-specific iPSCs are crucial steps in their applications for disease modeling as well as future cell and gene therapies. Conventional procedures of these processes require co-culture with primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) to support self-renewal and clonal growth of human iPSCs as well as embryonic stem cells (ESCs). However, the variability of MEF quality affects the efficiencies of all these steps. Furthermore, animal sourced feeders may hinder the clinical applications of human stem cells. In order to overcome these hurdles, we established immortalized human feeder cell lines by stably expressing human telomerase reverse transcriptase, Wnt3a, and drug resistance genes in adult mesenchymal stem cells. Here, we show that these immortalized human feeders support efficient derivation of virus-free, integration-free human iPSCs and long-term expansion of human iPSCs and ESCs. Moreover, the drug-resistance feature of these feeders also supports nonviral gene transfer and expression at a high efficiency, mediated by piggyBac DNA transposition. Importantly, these human feeders exhibit superior ability over MEFs in supporting homologous recombination-mediated gene targeting in human iPSCs, allowing us to efficiently target a transgene into the AAVS1 safe harbor locus in recently derived integration-free iPSCs. Our results have great implications in disease modeling and translational applications of human iPSCs, as these engineered human cell lines provide a more efficient tool for genetic modifications and a safer alternative for supporting self-renewal of human iPSCs and ESCs.

  2. Tissue-engineered microenvironment systems for modeling human vasculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourovskaia, Anna; Fauver, Mark; Kramer, Gregory; Simonson, Sara; Neumann, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    The high attrition rate of drug candidates late in the development process has led to an increasing demand for test assays that predict clinical outcome better than conventional 2D cell culture systems and animal models. Government agencies, the military, and the pharmaceutical industry have started initiatives for the development of novel in-vitro systems that recapitulate functional units of human tissues and organs. There is growing evidence that 3D cell arrangement, co-culture of different cell types, and physico-chemical cues lead to improved predictive power. A key element of all tissue microenvironments is the vasculature. Beyond transporting blood the microvasculature assumes important organ-specific functions. It is also involved in pathologic conditions, such as inflammation, tumor growth, metastasis, and degenerative diseases. To provide a tool for modeling this important feature of human tissue microenvironments, we developed a microfluidic chip for creating tissue-engineered microenvironment systems (TEMS) composed of tubular cell structures. Our chip design encompasses a small chamber that is filled with an extracellular matrix (ECM) surrounding one or more tubular channels. Endothelial cells (ECs) seeded into the channels adhere to the ECM walls and grow into perfusable tubular tissue structures that are fluidically connected to upstream and downstream fluid channels in the chip. Using these chips we created models of angiogenesis, the blood-brain barrier (BBB), and tumor-cell extravasation. Our angiogenesis model recapitulates true angiogenesis, in which sprouting occurs from a "parent" vessel in response to a gradient of growth factors. Our BBB model is composed of a microvessel generated from brain-specific ECs within an ECM populated with astrocytes and pericytes. Our tumor-cell extravasation model can be utilized to visualize and measure tumor-cell migration through vessel walls into the surrounding matrix. The described technology can be used

  3. Quantitative Ultrasonic Evaluation of Mechanical Properties of Engineering Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vary, A.

    1978-01-01

    Progress in the application of ultrasonic techniques to nondestructive measurement of mechanical strength of engineering materials is reviewed. A dormant concept in nondestructive evaluation (NDE) is invoked. The availability of ultrasonic methods that can be applied to actual parts to assess their potential susceptibility to failure under design conditions is discussed. It was shown that ultrasonic methods yield measurements of elastic moduli, microstructure, hardness, fracture toughness, tensile strength, yield strength, and shear strength for a wide range of materials (including many types of metals, ceramics, and fiber composites). It was also indicated that although most of these methods were shown feasible in laboratory studies, more work is needed before they can be used on actual parts in processing, assembly, inspection, and maintenance lines.

  4. Digital Electronic Engine Control (DEEC) Flight Evaluation in an F-15 Airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Flight evaluation in an F-15 aircraft by digital electronic engine control (DEEC) was investigated. Topics discussed include: system description, F100 engine tests, effects of inlet distortion on static pressure probe, flight tests, digital electronic engine control fault detection and accommodation flight evaluation, flight evaluation of a hydromechanical backup control, augmentor transient capability of an F100 engine, investigation of nozzle instability, real time in flight thrust calculation, and control technology for future aircraft propulsion systems. It is shown that the DEEC system is a powerful and flexible controller for the F100 engine.

  5. A Theoretical and Empirical Evaluation of Software Component Search Engines, Semantic Search Engines and Google Search Engine in the Context of COTS-Based Development

    CERN Document Server

    Yanes, Nacim; Ghezala, Henda Hajjami Ben

    2012-01-01

    COTS-based development is a component reuse approach promising to reduce costs and risks, and ensure higher quality. The growing availability of COTS components on the Web has concretized the possibility of achieving these objectives. In this multitude, a recurrent problem is the identification of the COTS components that best satisfy the user requirements. Finding an adequate COTS component implies searching among heterogeneous descriptions of the components within a broad search space. Thus, the use of search engines is required to make more efficient the COTS components identification. In this paper, we investigate, theoretically and empirically, the COTS component search performance of eight software component search engines, nine semantic search engines and a conventional search engine (Google). Our empirical evaluation is conducted with respect to precision and normalized recall. We defined ten queries for the assessed search engines. These queries were carefully selected to evaluate the capability of e...

  6. Human Engineering Design Criteria for Modern Control/Display Components and Standard Parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-01

    Journal of Ergonomics and the Human Factors Journal indexes were reviewed. DDC and NASA STIF data bases were also searched. Human engineers specializing...addition, the Journal of Ergonomics and the Human Factors Journal indexes were reviewed. DDC and NASA STIF data bases were also searched. Human

  7. Evaluating human enhancements: the importance of ideals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roduit, Johann A R; Baumann, Holger; Heilinger, Jan-Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Is it necessary to have an ideal of perfection in mind to identify and evaluate true biotechnological human "enhancements", or can one do without? To answer this question we suggest employing the distinction between ideal and non-ideal theory, found in the debate in political philosophy about theories of justice: the distinctive views about whether one needs an idea of a perfectly just society or not when it comes to assessing the current situation and recommending steps to increase justice. In this paper we argue that evaluating human enhancements from a non-ideal perspective has some serious shortcomings, which can be avoided when endorsing an ideal approach. Our argument starts from a definition of human enhancement as improvement, which can be understood in two ways. The first approach is backward-looking and assesses improvements with regard to a status quo ante. The second, a forward-looking approach, evaluates improvements with regard to their proximity to a goal or according to an ideal. After outlining the limitations of an exclusively backward-looking view (non-ideal theory), we answer possible objections against a forward-looking view (ideal theory). Ultimately, we argue that the human enhancement debate would lack some important moral insights if a forward-looking view of improvement is not taken into consideration.

  8. Human fetal bone cells in delivery systems for bone engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenorio, Diene M H; Scaletta, Corinne; Jaccoud, Sandra; Hirt-Burri, Nathalie; Pioletti, Dominique P; Jaques, Bertrand; Applegate, Lee Ann

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study was to culture human fetal bone cells (dedicated cell banks of fetal bone derived from 14 week gestation femurs) within both hyaluronic acid gel and collagen foam, to compare the biocompatibility of both matrices as potential delivery systems for bone engineering and particularly for oral application. Fetal bone cell banks were prepared from one organ donation and cells were cultured for up to 4 weeks within hyaluronic acid (Mesolis®) and collagen foams (TissueFleece®). Cell survival and differentiation were assessed by cell proliferation assays and histology of frozen sections stained with Giemsa, von Kossa and ALP at 1, 2 and 4 weeks of culture. Within both materials, fetal bone cells could proliferate in three-dimensional structure at ∼70% capacity compared to monolayer culture. In addition, these cells were positive for ALP and von Kossa staining, indicating cellular differentiation and matrix production. Collagen foam provides a better structure for fetal bone cell delivery if cavity filling is necessary and hydrogels would permit an injectable technique for difficult to treat areas. In all, there was high biocompatibility, cellular differentiation and matrix deposition seen in both matrices by fetal bone cells, allowing for easy cell delivery for bone stimulation in vivo. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Evaluating Search Engine Relevance with Click-Based Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radlinski, Filip; Kurup, Madhu; Joachims, Thorsten

    Automatically judging the quality of retrieval functions based on observable user behavior holds promise for making retrieval evaluation faster, cheaper, and more user centered. However, the relationship between observable user behavior and retrieval quality is not yet fully understood. In this chapter, we expand upon, Radlinski et al. (How does clickthrough data reflect retrieval quality, In Proceedings of the ACM Conference on Information and Knowledge Management (CIKM), 43-52, 2008), presenting a sequence of studies investigating this relationship for an operational search engine on the arXiv.org e-print archive. We find that none of the eight absolute usage metrics we explore (including the number of clicks observed, the frequency with which users reformulate their queries, and how often result sets are abandoned) reliably reflect retrieval quality for the sample sizes we consider. However, we find that paired experiment designs adapted from sensory analysis produce accurate and reliable statements about the relative quality of two retrieval functions. In particular, we investigate two paired comparison tests that analyze clickthrough data from an interleaved presentation of ranking pairs, and find that both give accurate and consistent results. We conclude that both paired comparison tests give substantially more accurate and sensitive evaluation results than the absolute usage metrics in our domain.

  10. Human dental pulp stem cell is a promising autologous seed cell for bone tissue engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jing-hui; LIU Da-yong; ZHANG Fang-ming; WANG Fan; ZHANG Wen-kui; ZHANG Zhen-ting

    2011-01-01

    Background The seed cell is a core problem in bone tissue engineering research.Recent research indicates that human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) can differentiate into osteoblasts in vitro,which suggests that they may become a new kind of seed cells for bone tissue engineering.The aim of this study was to evaluate the osteogenic differentiation of hDPSCs in vitro and bone-like tissue formation when transplanted with three-dimensional gelatin scaffolds in vivo,and hDPSCs may become appropriate seed cells for bone tissue engineering.Methods We have utilized enzymatic digestion to obtain hDPSCs from dental pulp tissue extracted during orthodontic treatment.After culturing and expansion to three passages,the cells were seeded in 6-well plates or on three-dimensional gelatin scaffolds and cultured in osteogenic medium.After 14 days in culture,the three-dimensional gelatin scaffolds were implanted subcutaneously in nude mice for 4 weeks.In 6-well plate culture,osteogenesis was assessed by alkaline phosphatase staining,Von Kossa staining,and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis of the osteogenesis-specific genes type I collagen (COL l),bone sialoprotein (BSP),osteocalcin (OCN),RUNX2,and osterix (OSX).In three-dimensional gelatin scaffold culture,X-rays,hematoxylin/eosin staining,and immunohistochemical staining were used to examine bone formation.Results In vitro studies revealed that hDPSCs do possess osteogenic differentiation potential.In vivo studies revealed that hDPSCs seeded on gelatin scaffolds can form bone structures in heterotopic sites of nude mice.Conclusions These findings suggested that hDPSCs may be valuable as seed cells for bone tissue engineering.As a special stem cell source,hDPSCs may blaze a new path for bone tissue engineering.

  11. Mechanical and biochemical mapping of human auricular cartilage for reliable assessment of tissue-engineered constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimeskern, Luc; Pleumeekers, Mieke M; Pawson, Duncan J; Koevoet, Wendy L M; Lehtoviita, Iina; Soyka, Michael B; Röösli, Christof; Holzmann, David; van Osch, Gerjo J V M; Müller, Ralph; Stok, Kathryn S

    2015-07-16

    It is key for successful auricular (AUR) cartilage tissue-engineering (TE) to ensure that the engineered cartilage mimics the mechanics of the native tissue. This study provides a spatial map of the mechanical and biochemical properties of human auricular cartilage, thus establishing a benchmark for the evaluation of functional competency in AUR cartilage TE. Stress-relaxation indentation (instantaneous modulus, Ein; maximum stress, σmax; equilibrium modulus, Eeq; relaxation half-life time, t1/2; thickness, h) and biochemical parameters (content of DNA; sulfated-glycosaminoglycan, sGAG; hydroxyproline, HYP; elastin, ELN) of fresh human AUR cartilage were evaluated. Samples were categorized into age groups and according to their harvesting region in the human auricle (for AUR cartilage only). AUR cartilage displayed significantly lower Ein, σmax, Eeq, sGAG content; and significantly higher t1/2, and DNA content than NAS cartilage. Large amounts of ELN were measured in AUR cartilage (>15% ELN content per sample wet mass). No effect of gender was observed for either auricular or nasoseptal samples. For auricular samples, significant differences between age groups for h, sGAG and HYP, and significant regional variations for Ein, σmax, Eeq, t1/2, h, DNA and sGAG were measured. However, only low correlations between mechanical and biochemical parameters were seen (Rbiochemical map of human auricular cartilage. Regional variations in mechanical and biochemical properties were demonstrated in the auricle. This finding highlights the importance of focusing future research on efforts to produce cartilage grafts with spatially tunable mechanics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Construction and evaluation of urinary bladder bioreactor for urologic tissue-engineering purposes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Davis, Niall F

    2012-01-31

    OBJECTIVE: To design and construct a urinary bladder bioreactor for urologic tissue-engineering purposes and to compare the viability and proliferative activity of cell-seeded extracellular matrix scaffolds cultured in the bioreactor with conventional static growth conditions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A urinary bladder bioreactor was designed and constructed to replicate physiologic bladder dynamics. The bioreactor mimicked the filling pressures of the human bladder by way of a cyclical low-delivery pressure regulator. In addition, cell growth was evaluated by culturing human urothelial cells (UCs) on porcine extracellular matrix scaffolds in the bioreactor and in static growth conditions for 5 consecutive days. The attachment, viability, and proliferative potential were assessed and compared with quantitative viability indicators and by fluorescent markers for intracellular esterase activity and plasma membrane integrity. Scaffold integrity was characterized with scanning electron microscopy and 4\\

  13. Chondroprotective supplementation promotes the mechanical properties of injectable scaffold for human nucleus pulposus tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foss, Berit L; Maxwell, Thomas W; Deng, Ying

    2014-01-01

    A result of intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration, the nucleus pulposus (NP) is no longer able to withstand applied load leading to pain and disability. The objective of this study is to fabricate a tissue-engineered injectable scaffold with chondroprotective supplementation in vitro to improve the mechanical properties of a degenerative NP. Tissue-engineered scaffolds were fabricated using different concentrations of alginate and calcium chloride and mechanically evaluated. Fabrication conditions were based on structural and mechanical resemblance to the native NP. Chondroprotective supplementation, glucosamine (GCSN) and chondroitin sulfate (CS), were added to scaffolds at concentrations of 0:0µg/mL (0:0-S), 125:100µg/mL (125:100-S), 250:200µg/mL (250:200-S), and 500:400µg/mL (500:400-S), GCSN and CS, respectively. Scaffolds were used to fabricate tissue-engineered constructs through encapsulation of human nucleus pulposus cells (HNPCs). The tissue-engineered constructs were collected at days 1, 14, and 28 for biochemical and biomechanical evaluations. Confocal microscopy showed HNPC viability and rounded morphology over the 28 day period. MTT analysis resulted in significant increases in cell proliferation for each group. Collagen type II ELISA quantification and compressive aggregate moduli (HA) showed increasing trends for both 250:200-S and the 500:400-S groups on Day 28 with significantly greater HA compared to 0:0-S group. Glycosaminoglycan and water content decreased for all groups. Results indicate the increased mechanical properties of the 250:200-S and the 500:400-S was due to production of a functional matrix. This study demonstrated potential for a chondroprotective supplemented injectable scaffold to restore biomechanical function of a degenerative disc through the production of a mechanically functional matrix.

  14. Butanol/diesel blends as a CI engine fuel. Physico-chemical and engine performance characteristics evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shukla, M.K.; Thakre, G.D.; Saxena, R.C.; Sharma, Y.K.; Jain, A.K.; Singal, S.K. [CSIR - Indian Institute of Petroleum, Dehradun, Uttrakhand (India)

    2013-06-01

    Recently, butanol produced by fermentation, known as bio-butanol has emerged as a new alternative fuel for CI engines. However, very little work has been carried out on its use in C.I. engine. In this context current paper deals with the characteristic properties and performance evaluation of butanol as a blending additive in diesel fuels. The butanol-diesel blends are prepared in varying concentrations of 5-l 0% and have been studied for their Corrosion, Tribology, distillation and Physico-chemical characteristics. These characteristics properties are then compared with those of diesel. The study reveals that the butanol-diesel blends offer better cetane number, improved corrosion behaviour and comparable distillation and tribological properties. The engine performance evaluation revealed comparable performance in terms of fuel economy as compared with diesel fuel. Hence, Butanol-diesel blends can be successfully used as an alternative fuel for CI engines. (orig.)

  15. Evaluation of Authentic Human Caring Professional Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Barbara B; Watson, Jean

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to present an instrument and comparative database designed to evaluate patients' perceptions of caring behaviors of caregivers. Acute care leaders are under pressure to improve publicly reported patient satisfaction scores. Some nurse leaders have implemented professional practice environments based on human caring theory, whereas others have used scripting to standardize communication between staff and patients. The Watson Caritas Patient Score (WCPS) is collected quarterly from a random sample of patients who are admitted to acute care hospital units. The WCPS was able to discriminate across unit types and hospitals. Items were related to publicly reported nursing communication scores. Participation in research based on human caring theory has given nurse leaders the opportunity to evaluate effectiveness of professional practice environments. It may provide the opportunity to focus staff communication with patients more authentically and in a way that enriches the experience for both.

  16. Creation of a Large Adipose Tissue Construct in Humans Using a Tissue-engineering Chamber: A Step Forward in the Clinical Application of Soft Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Wayne A; Marre, Diego; Grinsell, Damien; Batty, Andrew; Trost, Nicholas; O'Connor, Andrea J

    2016-04-01

    Tissue engineering is currently exploring new and exciting avenues for the repair of soft tissue and organ defects. Adipose tissue engineering using the tissue engineering chamber (TEC) model has yielded promising results in animals; however, to date, there have been no reports on the use of this device in humans. Five female post mastectomy patients ranging from 35 to 49years old were recruited and a pedicled thoracodorsal artery perforator fat flap ranging from 6 to 50ml was harvested, transposed onto the chest wall and covered by an acrylic perforated dome-shaped chamber ranging from 140 to 350cm(3). Magnetic resonance evaluation was performed at three and six months after chamber implantation. Chambers were removed at six months and samples were obtained for histological analysis. In one patient, newly formed tissue to a volume of 210ml was generated inside the chamber. One patient was unable to complete the trial and the other three failed to develop significant enlargement of the original fat flap, which, at the time of chamber explantation, was encased in a thick fibrous capsule. Our study provides evidence that generation of large well-vascularized tissue engineered constructs using the TEC is feasible in humans.

  17. Recognizing disguised faces: human and machine evaluation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tejas Indulal Dhamecha

    Full Text Available Face verification, though an easy task for humans, is a long-standing open research area. This is largely due to the challenging covariates, such as disguise and aging, which make it very hard to accurately verify the identity of a person. This paper investigates human and machine performance for recognizing/verifying disguised faces. Performance is also evaluated under familiarity and match/mismatch with the ethnicity of observers. The findings of this study are used to develop an automated algorithm to verify the faces presented under disguise variations. We use automatically localized feature descriptors which can identify disguised face patches and account for this information to achieve improved matching accuracy. The performance of the proposed algorithm is evaluated on the IIIT-Delhi Disguise database that contains images pertaining to 75 subjects with different kinds of disguise variations. The experiments suggest that the proposed algorithm can outperform a popular commercial system and evaluates them against humans in matching disguised face images.

  18. Human resource management engineering companies Ukraine under crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redkva, Oksana Zinoviyivna

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The features of personal management at engineering enterprises in the crisis are describes and discuses in the article. The problems and causes of inefficient personnel management are identified. Jome recommendations concerming solving of problem in the sphere of personal management and effective management of engineering enterprises are giver.

  19. Experiences in the application of human factors engineering to human-system interface modernization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trueba Alonso, Pedro; Fernandez Illobre, Luis; Ortega Pascual, Fernando [Tecnatom S.A., San Sebastian de los Reyes (Spain). Simulation and Control Rooms Div.

    2015-07-15

    Almost all the existing Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) include plans to modernize their existing Instrumentation and Control (I and C) systems and associated Human System Interfaces (HSIs), due to obsolescence problems. Tecnatom, S.A. has been participating in modernization programs in NPPs to help them to plan, specify, design and implement the modernization of control rooms and associated I and C and HSIs. The application of Human Factors Engineering (HFE) in modernization programs is nowadays unavoidable. This is because is becoming a regulatory requirement, and also because it is needed to ensure that any plant modification, involving the modernization of I and C and HSI, is well designed to improve overall plant operations, reliability, and safety. This paper shows some experiences obtained during the application of HFE to the modernization of these HSIs. The experience applying HFE in modernizations and design modifications show a positive effect, improving the associated HSIs, with the acceptability of the final user.

  20. Unifying Human Centered Design and Systems Engineering for Human Systems Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boy, Guy A.; McGovernNarkevicius, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Despite the holistic approach of systems engineering (SE), systems still fail, and sometimes spectacularly. Requirements, solutions and the world constantly evolve and are very difficult to keep current. SE requires more flexibility and new approaches to SE have to be developed to include creativity as an integral part and where the functions of people and technology are appropriately allocated within our highly interconnected complex organizations. Instead of disregarding complexity because it is too difficult to handle, we should take advantage of it, discovering behavioral attractors and the emerging properties that it generates. Human-centered design (HCD) provides the creativity factor that SE lacks. It promotes modeling and simulation from the early stages of design and throughout the life cycle of a product. Unifying HCD and SE will shape appropriate human-systems integration (HSI) and produce successful systems.

  1. Cartilage tissue engineering using pre-aggregated human articular chondrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Wolf

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we first aimed at determining whether human articular chondrocytes (HAC proliferate in aggregates in the presence of strong chondrocyte mitogens. We then investigated if the aggregated cells have an enhanced chondrogenic capacity as compared to cells cultured in monolayer. HAC from four donors were cultured in tissue culture dishes either untreated or coated with 1% agarose in the presence of TGFb-1, FGF-2 and PDGF-BB. Proliferation and stage of differentiation were assessed by measuring respectively DNA contents and type II collagen mRNA. Expanded cells were induced to differentiate in pellets or in Hyaff®-11 meshes and the formed tissues were analysed biochemically for glycosaminoglycans (GAG and DNA, and histologically by Safranin O staining. The amount of DNA in aggregate cultures increased significantly from day 2 to day 6 (by 3.2-fold, but did not further increase with additional culture time. Expression of type II collagen mRNA was about two orders of magnitude higher in aggregated HAC as compared to monolayer expanded cells. Pellets generated by aggregated HAC were generally more intensely stained for GAG than those generated by monolayer-expanded cells. Scaffolds seeded with aggregates accumulated more GAG (1.3-fold than scaffolds seeded with monolayer expanded HAC. In conclusion, this study showed that HAC culture in aggregates does not support a relevant degree of expansion. However, aggregation of expanded HAC prior to loading into a porous scaffold enhances the quality of the resulting tissues and could thus be introduced as an intermediate culture phase in the manufacture of engineered cartilage grafts.

  2. Social Engineering: I-E based Model of Human Weakness for Attack and Defense Investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjun Fan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Social engineering is the attack aimed to manipulate dupe to divulge sensitive information or take actions to help the adversary bypass the secure perimeter in front of the information-related resources so that the attacking goals can be completed. Though there are a number of security tools, such as firewalls and intrusion detection systems which are used to protect machines from being attacked, widely accepted mechanism to prevent dupe from fraud is lacking. However, the human element is often the weakest link of an information security chain, especially, in a human-centered environment. In this paper, we reveal that the human psychological weaknesses result in the main vulnerabilities that can be exploited by social engineering attacks. Also, we capture two essential levels, internal characteristics of human nature and external circumstance influences, to explore the root cause of the human weaknesses. We unveil that the internal characteristics of human nature can be converted into weaknesses by external circumstance influences. So, we propose the I-E based model of human weakness for social engineering investigation. Based on this model, we analyzed the vulnerabilities exploited by different techniques of social engineering, and also, we conclude several defense approaches to fix the human weaknesses. This work can help the security researchers to gain insights into social engineering from a different perspective, and in particular, enhance the current and future research on social engineering defense mechanisms.

  3. 3D Bioprinting Human Chondrocytes with Nanocellulose-Alginate Bioink for Cartilage Tissue Engineering Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markstedt, Kajsa; Mantas, Athanasios; Tournier, Ivan; Martínez Ávila, Héctor; Hägg, Daniel; Gatenholm, Paul

    2015-05-11

    The introduction of 3D bioprinting is expected to revolutionize the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The 3D bioprinter is able to dispense materials while moving in X, Y, and Z directions, which enables the engineering of complex structures from the bottom up. In this study, a bioink that combines the outstanding shear thinning properties of nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) with the fast cross-linking ability of alginate was formulated for the 3D bioprinting of living soft tissue with cells. Printability was evaluated with concern to printer parameters and shape fidelity. The shear thinning behavior of the tested bioinks enabled printing of both 2D gridlike structures as well as 3D constructs. Furthermore, anatomically shaped cartilage structures, such as a human ear and sheep meniscus, were 3D printed using MRI and CT images as blueprints. Human chondrocytes bioprinted in the noncytotoxic, nanocellulose-based bioink exhibited a cell viability of 73% and 86% after 1 and 7 days of 3D culture, respectively. On the basis of these results, we can conclude that the nanocellulose-based bioink is a suitable hydrogel for 3D bioprinting with living cells. This study demonstrates the potential use of nanocellulose for 3D bioprinting of living tissues and organs.

  4. Clinical Application of Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells for Bone Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anindita Chatterjea

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The gold standard in the repair of bony defects is autologous bone grafting, even though it has drawbacks in terms of availability and morbidity at the harvesting site. Bone-tissue engineering, in which osteogenic cells and scaffolds are combined, is considered as a potential bone graft substitute strategy. Proof-of-principle for bone tissue engineering using mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs has been demonstrated in various animal models. In addition, 7 human clinical studies have so far been conducted. Because the experimental design and evaluation parameters of the studies are rather heterogeneous, it is difficult to draw conclusive evidence on the performance of one approach over the other. However, it seems that bone apposition by the grafted MSCs in these studies is observed but not sufficient to bridge large bone defects. In this paper, we discuss the published human clinical studies performed so far for bone-tissue regeneration, using culture-expanded, nongenetically modified MSCs from various sources and extract from it points of consideration for future clinical studies.

  5. Ground test facilities for evaluating nuclear thermal propulsion engines and fuel elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, G. C.; Beck, D. F.; Harmon, C. D.; Shipers, L. R.

    Interagency panels evaluating nuclear thermal propulsion development options have consistently recognized the need for constructing a major new ground test facility to support fuel element and engine testing. This paper summarizes the requirements, configuration, and design issues of a proposed ground test complex for evaluating nuclear thermal propulsion engines and fuel elements being developed for the Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) program.

  6. EVALUATION OF A LOW FRICTION - HIGH EFFICIENCY ROLLER BEARING ENGINE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolarik, Robert V. II; Shattuck, Charles W.; Copper, Anthony P.

    2009-06-30

    This Low Friction (High Efficiency Roller Bearing) Engine (LFE) report presents the work done by The Timken Company to conduct a technology demonstration of the benefits of replacing hydrodynamic bearings with roller bearings in the crankshaft and camshaft assemblies of an internal combustion engine for the purpose of collecting data sufficient to prove merit. The engines in the present study have been more extensively converted to roller bearings than any previous studies (40 needle roller bearings per engine) to gain understanding of the full potential of application of bearing technology. The project plan called for comparative testing of a production vehicle which was already respected for having demonstrated low engine friction levels with a rollerized version of that engine. Testing was to include industry standard tests for friction, emissions and fuel efficiency conducted on instrumented dynamometers. Additional tests for fuel efficiency, cold start resistance and other measures of performance were to be made in the actual vehicle. Comparative measurements of noise, vibration and harshness (NVH), were planned, although any work to mitigate the suspected higher NVH level in the rollerized engine was beyond the scope of this project. Timken selected the Toyota Avalon with a 3.5L V-6 engine as the test vehicle. In an attempt to minimize cost and fabrication time, a ‘made-from’ approach was proposed in which as many parts as possible would be used or modified from production parts to create the rollerized engine. Timken commissioned its test partner, FEV Engine Technology, to do a feasibility study in which they confirmed that using such an approach was possible to meet the required dimensional restrictions and tolerances. In designing the roller bearing systems for the crank and cam trains, Timken utilized as many production engine parts as possible. The crankshafts were produced from production line forgings, which use Timken steel, modified with special

  7. Implementing Systems Engineering in the Civil Engineering Consulting Firm: An Evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, Robin S.; Voordijk, Johannes T.; van den Heuvel, Len

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the challenges that civil engineering consulting firms face in their projects when they apply Systems Engineering (SE). It is also explained were these firms should focus when improving the use of SE. To conduct this study, the methodology of Eisenhardt (Building theories from

  8. Updating Human Factors Engineering Guidelines for Conducting Safety Reviews of Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O, J.M.; Higgins, J.; Stephen Fleger - NRC

    2011-09-19

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews the human factors engineering (HFE) programs of applicants for nuclear power plant construction permits, operating licenses, standard design certifications, and combined operating licenses. The purpose of these safety reviews is to help ensure that personnel performance and reliability are appropriately supported. Detailed design review procedures and guidance for the evaluations is provided in three key documents: the Standard Review Plan (NUREG-0800), the HFE Program Review Model (NUREG-0711), and the Human-System Interface Design Review Guidelines (NUREG-0700). These documents were last revised in 2007, 2004 and 2002, respectively. The NRC is committed to the periodic update and improvement of the guidance to ensure that it remains a state-of-the-art design evaluation tool. To this end, the NRC is updating its guidance to stay current with recent research on human performance, advances in HFE methods and tools, and new technology being employed in plant and control room design. This paper describes the role of HFE guidelines in the safety review process and the content of the key HFE guidelines used. Then we will present the methodology used to develop HFE guidance and update these documents, and describe the current status of the update program.

  9. New dimensions in tissue engineering: possible models for human physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baar, Keith

    2005-11-01

    Tissue engineering is a discipline of great promise. In some areas, such as the cornea, tissues engineered in the laboratory are already in clinical use. In other areas, where the tissue architecture is more complex, there are a number of obstacles to manoeuvre before clinically relevant tissues can be produced. However, even in areas where clinically relevant tissues are decades away, the tissues being produced at the moment provide powerful new models to aid the understanding of complex physiological processes. This article provides a personal view of the role of tissue engineering in advancing our understanding of physiology, with specific attention being paid to musculoskeletal tissues.

  10. Human resources evaluation in a marketing organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutić Dragutin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is first of all part of authors' initiated thinking in which in a certain way they try to promote the idea and need to accept and develop the concept of human resources management by marketing managers. This work's subject matter deals with human resources evaluation in a marketing organization as an important and certain element of this management. A new approach with critical reference to the present state of theory and practice is explained, new solutions are offered and thorough, almost radical changes and turnarounds are supported. Marketing managers mostly reluctantly accept the evaluation system for their employees. They often say that this is not their basic job, that it unnecessarily and absurdly puts a burden on them, that it takes their time, or they think however that their goal is to increase sales, to extend the existing and enter new markets, to improve the relationship with buyers and consumers etc. Evaluation enables employees to understand clearly what they are expected and how their results will be evaluated. Each member of the organization wants to know and have feedback about his or her work. This assessment of his or her work is a basis for rewarding, job security, career development, promotion in the organization, improvement and professional training etc. Evaluation is not in the least easy and simple work. On the contrary, It is a matter of a very complicated work followed by many difficulties and different restrictions in practice. It is a fact that great part of failure and poor system lies in an approach systematically incomplete and taken for granted. The authors gave a thorough review of basic restrictions and difficulties that should be count on when evaluating the employees. They come from the evaluators themselves (marketing managers, unelaborated evaluation methodology, as well as insufficient and late information as a base for evaluation. Marketing managers efficiency evaluation is focused through

  11. Evaluation of Barley as Human Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Köten

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Barley, as animal feed, raw material for malting and human food, constitute an important part among cereal sources in the world. Majority of barley that produced both in Turkey and other countries of the world, is being used as animal feed. Poor baking quality, taste and appearance of barley restricted its use in human nutrition. However, recently high protein, fiber, especially β-glucan and high starch content appeal to food industry. Many scientific researches established that β-glucan, a soluble fiber, has an effect in healing coronary-hearth diseases, lowering blood cholesterol level, balancing blood sugar level, preventing obesity. Being a healthy cereal that can be used in various purposes, and an additive in many food products, barley is considered a very promising cereal, and research to increase possibilities of its use in human nutrition is being increased. In the literature, there has been researches on making noodles, bulgur, kavut (roasted cereal, breakfast cereals. In this study the researches relating to evaluation of barley, importance of which is increased every day, as human food was reviewed.

  12. Comparative Human Health Impact Assessment of Engineered Nanomaterials in the Framework of Life Cycle Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fransman, Wouter; Buist, Harrie; Kuijpers, Eelco; Walser, Tobias; Meyer, David; Zondervan-van den Beuken, Esther; Westerhout, Joost; Klein Entink, Rinke H; Brouwer, Derk H

    2017-07-01

    For safe innovation, knowledge on potential human health impacts is essential. Ideally, these impacts are considered within a larger life-cycle-based context to support sustainable development of new applications and products. A methodological framework that accounts for human health impacts caused by inhalation of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in an indoor air environment has been previously developed. The objectives of this study are as follows: (i) evaluate the feasibility of applying the CF framework for NP exposure in the workplace based on currently available data; and (ii) supplement any resulting knowledge gaps with methods and data from the life cycle approach and human risk assessment (LICARA) project to develop a modified case-specific version of the framework that will enable near-term inclusion of NP human health impacts in life cycle assessment (LCA) using a case study involving nanoscale titanium dioxide (nanoTiO2 ). The intent is to enhance typical LCA with elements of regulatory risk assessment, including its more detailed measure of uncertainty. The proof-of-principle demonstration of the framework highlighted the lack of available data for both the workplace emissions and human health effects of ENMs that is needed to calculate generalizable characterization factors using common human health impact assessment practices in LCA. The alternative approach of using intake fractions derived from workplace air concentration measurements and effect factors based on best-available toxicity data supported the current case-by-case approach for assessing the human health life cycle impacts of ENMs. Ultimately, the proposed framework and calculations demonstrate the potential utility of integrating elements of risk assessment with LCA for ENMs once the data are available. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  13. Engineering bone tissue substitutes from human induced pluripotent stem cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Giuseppe Maria de Peppo; Iván Marcos-Campos; David John Kahler; Dana Alsalman; Linshan Shang; Gordana Vunjak-Novakovic; Darja Marolt

    2013-01-01

    ...) for bone tissue engineering. We first induced three hiPSC lines with different tissue and reprogramming backgrounds into the mesenchymal lineages and used a combination of differentiation assays, surface antigen profiling...

  14. Ideas in Practice: The Mississippi River: Humanities and Civil Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonalt, Larry; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Describes a course offered for the freshman civil engineering major at the University of Missouri-Rolla. The rationale of developing the course which focuses on the symbolic, social, and technological aspects of the Mississippi River is included. (HM)

  15. Human Factors Engineering. Part 2. HEDGE (Human Factors Engineering Data Guide for Evaluation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-11-30

    1.8.2h. pot ons. ’a t.’l’t "A1e *He;gttr:o-drb raboa 5.3; Ř" , I H-dl’t’~is teOnt’,oi by 11h% oe i’t" t’.t~t . - ott e saetdrbh der; M"&’&W’h

  16. Creating capillary networks within human engineered tissues: impact of adipocytes and their secretory products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubin, Kim; Vincent, Caroline; Proulx, Maryse; Mayrand, Dominique; Fradette, Julie

    2015-01-01

    The development of tissue-engineered substitutes of substantial volume is closely associated with the need to ensure rapid vascularization upon grafting. Strategies promoting angiogenesis include the in vitro formation of capillary-like networks within engineered substitutes. We generated both connective and adipose tissues based on a cell sheet technology using human adipose-derived stromal cells. This study evaluates the morphology and extent of the capillary networks that developed upon seeding of human microvascular endothelial cells during tissue production. We posited that adipocyte presence/secretory products could modulate the resulting capillary network when compared to connective substitutes. Analyses including confocal imaging of CD31-labeled capillary-like networks indicated slight differences in their morphological appearance. However, the total volume occupied by the networks as well as the frequency distribution of the structure's volumes were similar between connective and adipose tissues. The average diameter of the capillary structures tended to be 20% higher in reconstructed adipose tissues. Quantification of pro-angiogenic molecules in conditioned media showed greater amounts of leptin (15×), angiopoietin-1 (3.4×) and HGF (1.7×) secreted from adipose than connective tissues at the time of endothelial cell seeding. However, this difference was attenuated during the following coculture period in endothelial cell-containing media, correlating with the minor differences noted between the networks. Taken together, we developed a protocol allowing reconstruction of both connective and adipose tissues featuring well-developed capillary networks in vitro. We performed a detailed characterization of the network architecture within engineered tissues that is relevant for graft assessment before implantation as well as for in vitro screening of angiogenic modulators using three-dimensional models. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by

  17. ENGINEERING EVALUATION OF HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION WITH SULFUR RECOVERY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.W. ROBERTS; J.W. PORTZER; S.C. KOZUP; S.K. GANGWAL

    1998-05-31

    Engineering evaluations and economic comparisons of two hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) processes with elemental sulfur recovery, being developed by Research Triangle Institute, are presented. In the first process, known as the Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP), the SO{sub 2} tail gas from air regeneration of zinc-based HGD sorbent is catalytically reduced to elemental sulfur with high selectivity using a small slipstream of coal gas. DSRP is a highly efficient first-generation process, promising sulfur recoveries as high as 99% in a single reaction stage. In the second process, known as the Advanced Hot Gas Process (AHGP), the zinc-based HGD sorbent is modified with iron so that the iron portion of the sorbent can be regenerated using SO{sub 2} . This is followed by air regeneration to fully regenerate the sorbent and provide the required SO{sub 2} for iron regeneration. This second-generation process uses less coal gas than DSRP. Commercial embodiments of both processes were developed. Process simulations with mass and energy balances were conducted using ASPEN Plus. Results show that AHGP is a more complex process to operate and may require more labor cost than the DSRP. Also capital costs for the AHGP are higher than those for the DSRP. However, annual operating costs for the AHGP appear to be considerably less than those for the DSRP with a potential break-even point between the two processes after just 2 years of operation for an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant using 3 to 5 wt% sulfur coal. Thus, despite its complexity, the potential savings with the AHGP encourage further development and scaleup of this advanced process.

  18. Information access in the art history domain. Evaluating a federated search engine for Rembrandt research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verberne, S.; Boves, L.W.J.; Bosch, A.P.J. van den

    2016-01-01

    The art history domain is an interesting case for search engines tailored to the digital humanities, because the domain involves different types of sources (primary and secondary; text and images). One example of an art history search engine is RemBench, which provides access to information in four

  19. Information access in the art history domain. Evaluating a federated search engine for Rembrandt research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verberne, S.; Boves, L.W.J.; Bosch, A.P.J. van den

    2016-01-01

    The art history domain is an interesting case for search engines tailored to the digital humanities, because the domain involves different types of sources (primary and secondary; text and images). One example of an art history search engine is RemBench, which provides access to information in four

  20. Phase 2 Clinical Trial of Intraoral Grafting of Human Tissue-Engineered Oral Mucosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Engineered Oral Mucosa   PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Stephen E. Feinberg DDS, MS, PhD CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: University of Michigan Ann Arbor MI 4810...September 29, 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Phase II Clinical Trial of Intraoral Grafting of Human Tissue-Engineered Oral Mucosa   5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...human EVPOME for soft tissue intraoral grafting procedures compared to the “gold standard” palatal oral mucosa (POM) graft. The study will determine

  1. Genetic engineering of human ES and iPS cells using TALE nucleases

    OpenAIRE

    Hockemeyer, Dirk; Wang, Haoyi; Kiani, Samira; Lai, Christine S.; Gao, Qing; Cassady, John P.; Cost, Gregory J.; Zhang, Lei; Santiago, Yolanda; Miller, Jeffrey C; Zeitler, Bryan; Cherone, Jennifer M.; Meng, Xiangdong; Hinkley, Sarah J; Rebar, Edward J.

    2011-01-01

    Targeted genetic engineering of human pluripotent cells is a prerequisite for exploiting their full potential. Such genetic manipulations can be achieved using site-specific nucleases. Here we engineered transcription activator–like effector nucleases (TALENs) for five distinct genomic loci. At all loci tested we obtained human embryonic stem cell (ESC) and induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) clones carrying transgenic cassettes solely at the TALEN-specified location. Our data suggest that T...

  2. Digital electronic engine control fault detection and accommodation flight evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer-Ruedhart, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    The capabilities and performance of various fault detection and accommodation (FDA) schemes in existing and projected engine control systems were investigated. Flight tests of the digital electronic engine control (DEEC) in an F-15 aircraft show discrepancies between flight results and predictions based on simulation and altitude testing. The FDA methodology and logic in the DEEC system, and the results of the flight failures which occurred to date are described.

  3. Hydrogen-air mixing evaluation in reciprocating engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodge, L; Naegeli, D [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States)

    1994-06-01

    This report presents the results of a computational study of fuel-air mixing in a hydrogen jet using a spark-ignited, hydrogen-fueled engine. The computational results were compared with experimental measurement being conducted at the Musashi Institute of Technology in Tokyo, Japan. The hydrogen-air mixing work was directed at understanding the extreme sensitivity of ignition to spark plug location and spark timing in direct-injected, hydrogen-fueled engines.

  4. An engineering evaluation of the Space Shuttle OMS engine after 5 orbital flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, D.

    1983-01-01

    Design features, performances on the first five flights, and condition of the Shuttle OMS engines are summarized. The engines were designed to provide a vacuum-fed 6000 lb of thrust and a 310 sec specific impulse, fueled by a combination of N2O4 and monomethylhydrazine (MMH) at a mixture ratio of 1.65. The design lifetime is 1000 starts and 15 hr of cumulative firing duration. The engine assembly is throat gimballed and features yaw actuators. No degradation of the hot components was observed during the first five flights, and the injector pattern maintained a uniform, enduring level of performance. An increase in the take-off loads have led to enhancing the wall thickness in the nozzle in affected areas. The engine is concluded to be performing to design specifications and is considered an operational system.

  5. JANNAF "Test and Evaluation Guidelines for Liquid Rocket Engines": Status and Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Douglas; VanLerberghe, Wayne M.; Rahman, Shamim A.

    2017-01-01

    For many decades, the U.S. rocket propulsion industrial base has performed remarkably in developing complex liquid rocket engines that can propel critical payloads into service for the nation, as well as transport people and hardware for missions that open the frontiers of space exploration for humanity. This has been possible only at considerable expense given the lack of detailed guidance that captures the essence of successful practices and knowledge accumulated over five decades of liquid rocket engine development. In an effort to provide benchmarks and guidance for the next generation of rocket engineers, the Joint Army Navy NASA Air Force (JANNAF) Interagency Propulsion Committee published a liquid rocket engine (LRE) test and evaluation (T&E) guideline document in 2012 focusing on the development challenges and test verification considerations for liquid rocket engine systems. This document has been well received and applied by many current LRE developers as a benchmark and guidance tool, both for government-driven applications as well as for fully commercial ventures. The USAF Space and Missile Systems Center (SMC) has taken an additional near-term step and is directing activity to adapt and augment the content from the JANNAF LRE T&E guideline into a standard for potential application to future USAF requests for proposals for LRE development initiatives and launch vehicles for national security missions. A draft of this standard was already sent out for review and comment, and is intended to be formally approved and released towards the end of 2017. The acceptance and use of the LRE T&E guideline is possible through broad government and industry participation in the JANNAF liquid propulsion committee and associated panels. The sponsoring JANNAF community is expanding upon this initial baseline version and delving into further critical development aspects of liquid rocket propulsion testing at the integrated stage level as well as engine component level, in

  6. EVALUATION OF DISPERSED PARTICLE CONTENT IN EXHAUST GAS OF DIESEL ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Kuharonak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pollution of an atmosphere due to hazardous substances emissions deteriorates ecological environment in the world. Exhaust gases of diesel engines are considered as one of the main environmental pollutants. At the moment it is not possible to determine rate and limits of threshold level of air pollution which do not affect human health. The paper considers current issues pertaining to regulation and control over dispersed particles. The most convenient measuring methods for investigations are those which provide the opportunity to obtain immediate results. However, from the legislative point of view, a gravimetric investigation method is a legitimate one which requires compliance with certain procedures of adjustments and calculations. The method presupposes availability of complicated system for sample dilution and its adjustment must include temperature and kinetic parameters of the measured flow. In order to ensure measuring accuracy and results reproducibility filter loading should be in a regulated range and dilution parameters should be chosen according to not only engine type but also according to its emissions rate. Methods for evaluation of a hot exhaust gas sample is characterized by higher response and the results correlate with indices of combustion efficiency. However, such approach does not account for a number of processes that take place during gas cooling in the environment. Therefore, in this case, measuring results are to be evaluated within certain boundary conditions with respect to the object of investigations. Difficulty in achievement of modern ecologocal standards is substantiated by complicated fractional composition and multiple stage process in formation of hazardous components. The paper presents calculated dependences between particles and smokiness and contains a comparative analysis. Methods for measurement and investigations of dispersed particles have analyzed on the basis of the results obtainesd during engine

  7. Understanding human factors in rail engineering: re-analysis of detailed, qualitative data on functions and risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Brendan; Wilsona, John R; Schock, Alex

    2012-01-01

    The paper reports on the review and re-analysis of information that has been collected in earlier field studies on the functions and associated risks in rail engineering and maintenance. Two methods of Cognitive Work Analysis have been adapted and used to identify and represent important components of the rail engineering system and the situations in which activities occur. Additional classification exercises have been used to determine issues of strategic importance to the organisation, related to the functions and human factors risks in performing these functions. The effectiveness of the methods in this industrial context has been evaluated. Conclusions are drawn on how this type of approach can be used to produce relevant findings on the following: What the organisation knows about roles, functions and descriptions of tasks that are relevant for engineering and maintenance work; (2) the HF risks for today's (and unless things change), tomorrow's railway; (3) how this knowledge can help in determining organisational priorities for future work.

  8. Dynamic Evaluation Model and Application Methods for Engineering Machine Maintenance Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jian; WANG Yan-feng; DAI Ling; WANG Xi

    2012-01-01

    It is an important content of equipment management to keep the engineering machine well. Based on the theory of component technology and grey related algorithm arithmetic, the requirements and procedures of engineering machine maintenance predicting process are analyzed, and a support object evaluation system is provided. The qualitative and quantitative indexes of evaluating process are fully taken into consideration to provide scientific methods and ways for proper evaluation and decision.

  9. Evaluating 3D-printed biomaterials as scaffolds for vascularized bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Martha O; Vorwald, Charlotte E; Dreher, Maureen L; Mott, Eric J; Cheng, Ming-Huei; Cinar, Ali; Mehdizadeh, Hamidreza; Somo, Sami; Dean, David; Brey, Eric M; Fisher, John P

    2015-01-01

    There is an unmet need for a consistent set of tools for the evaluation of 3D-printed constructs. A toolbox developed to design, characterize, and evaluate 3D-printed poly(propylene fumarate) scaffolds is proposed for vascularized engineered tissues. This toolbox combines modular design and non-destructive fabricated design evaluation, evaluates biocompatibility and mechanical properties, and models angiogenesis.

  10. Information Presentation: Human Research Program - Space Human Factors and Habitability, Space Human Factors Engineering Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Kristina L.; Sandor, Aniko; Thompson, Shelby G.; Kaiser, Mary K.; McCann, Robert S.; Begault, D. R.; Adelstein, B. D.; Beutter, B. R.; Wenzel, E. M.; Godfroy, M.; Stone, L. S.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the Information Presentation Directed Research Project (DRP) is to address design questions related to the presentation of information to the crew. The major areas of work, or subtasks, within this DRP are: 1) Displays, 2) Controls, 3) Electronic Procedures and Fault Management, and 4) Human Performance Modeling. This DRP is a collaborative effort between researchers atJohnson Space Center and Ames Research Center. T

  11. Approaches to Software Engineering: A Human-Centred Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Bannon, Liam J.

    2010-01-01

    International audience; The field of software engineering has been evolving since its inception in 1968. Arguments as to the exact nature of the field, whether it should be conceived as a real engineering profession, the role of formal methods, whether it is as much an art as a science, etc., continue to divide both practitioners and academics. My purpose here is not to debate these particular topics, but rather to approach the field from the outside, coming as I do from a long period of invo...

  12. Test and evaluation of the HIDEC engine uptrim algorithm. [Highly Integrated Digital Electronic Control for aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, R. J.; Myers, L. P.

    1986-01-01

    The highly integrated digital electronic control (HIDEC) program will demonstrate and evaluate the improvements in performance and mission effectiveness that result from integrated engine-airframe control systems. Performance improvements will result from an adaptive engine stall margin mode, a highly integrated mode that uses the airplane flight conditions and the resulting inlet distortion to continuously compute engine stall margin. When there is excessive stall margin, the engine is uptrimmed for more thrust by increasing engine pressure ratio (EPR). The EPR uptrim logic has been evaluated and implemente into computer simulations. Thrust improvements over 10 percent are predicted for subsonic flight conditions. The EPR uptrim was successfully demonstrated during engine ground tests. Test results verify model predictions at the conditions tested.

  13. The chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay for the study of human bone regeneration: a refinement animal model for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Jiménez, Inés; Hulsart-Billstrom, Gry; Lanham, Stuart A; Janeczek, Agnieszka A; Kontouli, Nasia; Kanczler, Janos M; Evans, Nicholas D; Oreffo, Richard Oc

    2016-08-31

    Biomaterial development for tissue engineering applications is rapidly increasing but necessitates efficacy and safety testing prior to clinical application. Current in vitro and in vivo models hold a number of limitations, including expense, lack of correlation between animal models and human outcomes and the need to perform invasive procedures on animals; hence requiring new predictive screening methods. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) can be used as a bioreactor to culture and study the regeneration of human living bone. We extracted bone cylinders from human femoral heads, simulated an injury using a drill-hole defect, and implanted the bone on CAM or in vitro control-culture. Micro-computed tomography (μCT) was used to quantify the magnitude and location of bone volume changes followed by histological analyses to assess bone repair. CAM blood vessels were observed to infiltrate the human bone cylinder and maintain human cell viability. Histological evaluation revealed extensive extracellular matrix deposition in proximity to endochondral condensations (Sox9+) on the CAM-implanted bone cylinders, correlating with a significant increase in bone volume by μCT analysis (p < 0.01). This human-avian system offers a simple refinement model for animal research and a step towards a humanized in vivo model for tissue engineering.

  14. The chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay for the study of human bone regeneration: a refinement animal model for tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Jiménez, Inés; Hulsart-Billstrom, Gry; Lanham, Stuart A.; Janeczek, Agnieszka A.; Kontouli, Nasia; Kanczler, Janos M.; Evans, Nicholas D.; Oreffo, Richard Oc

    2016-08-01

    Biomaterial development for tissue engineering applications is rapidly increasing but necessitates efficacy and safety testing prior to clinical application. Current in vitro and in vivo models hold a number of limitations, including expense, lack of correlation between animal models and human outcomes and the need to perform invasive procedures on animals; hence requiring new predictive screening methods. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) can be used as a bioreactor to culture and study the regeneration of human living bone. We extracted bone cylinders from human femoral heads, simulated an injury using a drill-hole defect, and implanted the bone on CAM or in vitro control-culture. Micro-computed tomography (μCT) was used to quantify the magnitude and location of bone volume changes followed by histological analyses to assess bone repair. CAM blood vessels were observed to infiltrate the human bone cylinder and maintain human cell viability. Histological evaluation revealed extensive extracellular matrix deposition in proximity to endochondral condensations (Sox9+) on the CAM-implanted bone cylinders, correlating with a significant increase in bone volume by μCT analysis (p < 0.01). This human-avian system offers a simple refinement model for animal research and a step towards a humanized in vivo model for tissue engineering.

  15. Flight evaluation of a digital electronic engine control system in an F-15 airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, L. P.; Mackall, K. G.; Burcham, F. W., Jr.; Walter, W. A.

    1982-01-01

    Benefits provided by a full-authority digital engine control are related to improvements in engine efficiency, performance, and operations. An additional benefit is the capability of detecting and accommodating failures in real time and providing engine-health diagnostics. The digital electronic engine control (DEEC), is a full-authority digital engine control developed for the F100-PW-100 turbofan engine. The DEEC has been flight tested on an F-15 aircraft. The flight tests had the objective to evaluate the DEEC hardware and software over the F-15 flight envelope. A description is presented of the results of the flight tests, which consisted of nonaugmented and augmented throttle transients, airstarts, and backup control operations. The aircraft, engine, DEEC system, and data acquisition and reduction system are discussed.

  16. A HUMAN FACTORS ENGINEERING PROCESS TO SUPPORT HUMAN-SYSTEM INTERFACE DESIGN IN CONTROL ROOM MODERNIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovesdi, C.; Joe, J.; Boring, R.

    2017-05-01

    The primary objective of the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program is to sustain operation of the existing commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) through a multi-pathway approach in conducting research and development (R&D). The Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control (II&C) System Technologies pathway conducts targeted R&D to address aging and reliability concerns with legacy instrumentation and control (I&C) and other information systems in existing U.S. NPPs. Control room modernization is an important part following this pathway, and human factors experts at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) have been involved in conducting R&D to support migration of new digital main control room (MCR) technologies from legacy analog and legacy digital I&C. This paper describes a human factors engineering (HFE) process that supports human-system interface (HSI) design in MCR modernization activities, particularly with migration of old digital to new digital I&C. The process described in this work is an expansion from the LWRS Report INL/EXT-16-38576, and is a requirements-driven approach that aligns with NUREG-0711 requirements. The work described builds upon the existing literature by adding more detail around key tasks and decisions to make when transitioning from HSI Design into Verification and Validation (V&V). The overall objective of this process is to inform HSI design and elicit specific, measurable, and achievable human factors criteria for new digital technologies. Upon following this process, utilities should have greater confidence with transitioning from HSI design into V&V.

  17. GEP 6.5LT Engine Cetane Window Evaluation for ATJ/JP-8 Fuel Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Engine Products H/C Hydrogen Atom to Carbon Atom Ratio HC Hydrocarbon HCCI Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition HRJ8 Hydro Treated Renewable Jet...UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED GEP 6.5LT ENGINE CETANE WINDOW EVALUATION FOR ATJ/JP-8 FUEL BLENDS INTERIM REPORT TFLRF No. 470 by...Destroy this report when no longer needed. Do not return it to the originator. UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED GEP 6.5LT ENGINE CETANE WINDOW

  18. Evaluation of the hydrogen-fueled rotary engine for hybrid vehicle applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salanki, P.A.; Wallace, J.S. [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    1996-09-01

    The hydrogen-fueled engine has been identified as a viable power unit for ultra-low emission series-hybrid vehicles. The Wankel engine is particularly well suited to the use of hydrogen fuel, since its design minimizes most of the combustion difficulties. In order to evaluate the possibilities offered by the hydrogen fueled rotary engine, dynamometer tests were conducted with a small (2.2 kW) Wankel engine fueled with hydrogen. Preliminary results show an absence of the combustion difficulties present with hydrogen-fueled homogeneous charge piston engines. The engine was operated unthrottled and power output was controlled by quality governing, i.e. by varying the fuel-air equivalence ratio on the lean side of stoichiometric. The ability to operate with quality governing is made possible by the wide flammability limits of hydrogen-air mixtures. NO{sub x} emissions are on the order of 5 ppm for power outputs up to 70% of the maximum attainable on hydrogen fuel. Thus, by operating with very lean mixtures, which effectively derates the engine, very low NO{sub x} emissions can be achieved. Since the rotary engine has a characteristically high power to weight ratio and a small volume per unit power compared to the piston engine, operating a rotary engine on hydrogen and derating the power output could yield an engine with extremely low emissions which still has weight and volume characteristics comparable to a gasoline-fueled piston engine. Finally, since engine weight and volume affect vehicle design, and consequently in-use vehicle power requirements, those factors, as well as engine efficiency, must be taken into account in evaluating overall hybrid vehicle efficiency.

  19. Experimental Evaluation of Integral Transformations for Engineering Drawings Vectorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaský Jozef

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of digital manufacturing supposes application of digital technologies in the whole product life cycle. Direct digital manufacturing includes such information technology processes, where products are directly manufactured from 3D CAD model. In digital manufacturing, engineering drawing is replaced by CAD product model. In the contemporary practice, lots of engineering paper-based drawings are still archived. They could be digitalized by scanner and stored to one of the raster graphics format and after that vectorized for interactive editing in the specific software system for technical drawing or for archiving in some of the standard vector graphics file format. The vector format is suitable for 3D model generating, too.The article deals with using of selected integral transformations (Fourier, Hough in the phase of digitalized raster engineering drawings vectorization.

  20. High altitude aerodynamic platform concept evaluation and prototype engine testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkerman, J. W.

    1984-01-01

    A design concept has been developed for maintaining a 150-pound payload at 60,000 feet altitude for about 50 hours. A 600-pound liftoff weight aerodynamic vehicle is used which operates at sufficient speeds to withstand prevailing winds. It is powered by a turbocharged four-stoke cycle gasoline fueled engine. Endurance time of 100 hours or more appears to be feasible with hydrogen fuel and a lighter payload. A prototype engine has been tested to 40,000 feet simulated altitude. Mismatch of the engine and the turbocharger system flow and problems with fuel/air mixture ratio control characteristics prohibited operation beyond 40,000 feet. But there seems to be no reason why the concept cannot be developed to function as analytically predicted.

  1. Cultivating Engineers' Humanity: Fostering Cosmopolitanism in a Technical University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boni, Alejandra; MacDonald, Penny; Peris, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to explore the potential of a curriculum designed to develop Nussbaum's cosmopolitan abilities through two elective subjects offered to future engineers in a Spanish Technical University. To this end, Nussbaum's proposition of cosmopolitan abilities is presented in relation to the broader academic literature on cosmopolitanism and…

  2. Musculoskeletal tissue engineering with human umbilical cord mesenchymal stromal cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Limin; Ott, Lindsey; Seshareddy, Kiran; Weiss, Mark L; Detamore, Michael S

    2011-01-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) hold tremendous promise for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, yet with so many sources of MSCs, what are the primary criteria for selecting leading candidates? Ideally, the cells will be multipotent, inexpensive, lack donor site morbidity, donor materials should be readily available in large numbers, immunocompatible, politically benign and expandable in vitro for several passages. Bone marrow MSCs do not meet all of these criteria and neither do embryonic stem cells. However, a promising new cell source is emerging in tissue engineering that appears to meet these criteria: MSCs derived from Wharton’s jelly of umbilical cord MSCs. Exposed to appropriate conditions, umbilical cord MSCs can differentiate in vitro along several cell lineages such as the chondrocyte, osteoblast, adipocyte, myocyte, neuronal, pancreatic or hepatocyte lineages. In animal models, umbilical cord MSCs have demonstrated in vivo differentiation ability and promising immunocompatibility with host organs/tissues, even in xenotransplantation. In this article, we address their cellular characteristics, multipotent differentiation ability and potential for tissue engineering with an emphasis on musculoskeletal tissue engineering. PMID:21175290

  3. Human Resources Development in the Field of Electrical Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishigame, Atsushi

    It is becoming increasingly clear that the decline in popularity in the field of electrical engineering is undergoing rapidly due to the fact that more young people are moving away from the science. The primary goal of this paper is to recognize the importance of educational new effort and, second, suggest social-provided education support needed to meet this challenge.

  4. Evaluation of mass spectrometric techniques for characterization of engineered proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roepstorff, P; Schram, K H; Andersen, Jens S.;

    1995-01-01

    Mass spectrometric characterization of engineered proteins has been examined using bovine recombinant Acyl-CoA-Binding Protein (rACBP), [15N]-labeled rACBP, and a number of sequence variants of ACBP produced by site-directed mutagenesis. The mass spectrometric techniques include ESIMS and MALDIMS...... was obtained by LC-ESIMS and by direct mixture analysis by MALDIMS. The latter technique was favorable in terms of sensitivity and speed. A general strategy for mass spectrometric characterization of engineered proteins is suggested....

  5. Engineering Ethics In Islam: An Evaluative And Comparative Study Between Code Of Ethics Of Institution Of Engineers, Bangladesh (Ieb And Code Of Professional Conduct Of Board Of Engineers Malaysia (BEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Amanullah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available During the past two centuries or so a number of buildings and bridges had been structurally failed and collapsed all over the world. Some of these incidents caused a sizeable number of human casualties. For instance, collapse of Tay Bridge in 1879 killed at least sixty persons. Beside the problems related to their design and construction, probably the failure to follow engineering ethics properly was partially responsible for these incidents. Growing engineering professionalism during the nineteenth century gave rise to the development of a number of famous engineering societies, such as American Institute of Electrical Engineers (AIEE ( (1884, American Institute of Mining Engineers (AIME (1871, etc. On the other hand, responding to series of significant structural failures mentioned above, some engineering societies developed formal codes of ethics. Following these societies, engineers of Bangladesh (previous East Pakistan established Institution of Engineers, Bangladesh (IEB. Likewise, Malaysian engineers established Board of Engineers Malaysia (BEM. Both of these societies have their codes of ethics. Islam also has offered a number of ethics to be followed by the engineers. Analyzing the related verses of the Qur'an and ahadith of the Prophet (pbuh, this paper intends to highlight these Islamic ethics and in light of them, tries to evaluate the codes of ethics of these two societies and compare between them. The paper may conclude that although the codes of ethics of IEB and BEM are supported by Islamic ethics they require further modification.ABSTRAK - Sejak lebih kurang dua abad kebelakangan ini, banyak binaan yang gagal dari segi strukturnya dan juga jambatan yang runtuh di merata dunia. Sesetengah tragedi yang berlaku juga mengakibatkan kehilangan nyawa manusia. Contohnya, robohnya Jambatan Tay pada 1879 telah meragut nyawa lebih kurang enam puluh orang. Selain daripada masalah yang berkaitan dengan reka bentuk dan pembinaanya, mungkin

  6. Comparative study on seeding methods of human bone marrow stromal cells in bone tissue engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐欣; 刘建国; 常颖; 徐莘香

    2004-01-01

    Background In general the traditional static seeding method has its limitation while the dynamic seeding method reveals its advantages over traditional static method. We compared static and dynamic seeding method for human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) in bone tissue engineering.Methods DNA assay was used for detecting the maximal initial seeding concentration for static seeding. Dynamic and static seeding methods were compared, when scaffolds were loaded with hBMSCs at this maximal initial cell seeding concentration. Histology and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were examined to evaluate the distribution of cells inside the constructs. Markers encoding osteogenic genes were measured by fluorescent RT-PCR. The protocol for dynamic seeding of hBMSCs was also investigated.Results DNA assay showed that the static maximal initial seeding concentration was lower than that in dynamic seeding. Histology and SEM showed even distribution and spread of cells in the dynamically seeded constructs, while their statically seeded counterparts showed cell aggregation.Fluorescent RT-PCR again showed stronger osteogenic potential of dynamically seeded constructs.Conclusion dynamic seeding of hBMSCs is a promising technique in bone tissue engineering.

  7. Mechanical Stimulation Protocols of Human Derived Cells in Articular Cartilage Tissue Engineering - A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khozoee, Baktash; Mafi, Pouya; Mafi, Reza; Khan, Wasim S

    2017-01-01

    Mechanical stimulation is a key factor in articular cartilage generation and maintenance. Bioreactor systems have been designed and built in order to deliver specific types of mechanical stimulation. The focus has been twofold, applying a type of preconditioning in order to stimulate cell differentiation, and to simulate in vivo conditions in order to gain further insight into how cells respond to different stimulatory patterns. Due to the complex forces at work within joints, it is difficult to simulate mechanical conditions using a bioreactor. The aim of this review is to gain a deeper understanding of the complexities of mechanical stimulation protocols by comparing those employed in bioreactors in the context of tissue engineering for articular cartilage, and to consider their effects on cultured cells. Allied and Complementary Medicine 1985 to 2016, Ovid MEDLINE[R] 1946 to 2016, and Embase 1974 to 2016 were searched using key terms. Results were subject to inclusion and exclusion criteria, key findings summarised into a table and subsequently discussed. Based on this review it is overwhelmingly clear that mechanical stimulation leads to increased chondrogenic properties in the context of bioreactor articular cartilage tissue engineering using human cells. However, given the variability and lack of controlled factors between research articles, results are difficult to compare, and a standardised method of evaluating stimulation protocols proved challenging. With improved standardisation in mechanical stimulation protocol reporting, bioreactor design and building processes, along with a better understanding of joint behaviours, we hope to perform a meta-analysis on stimulation protocols and methods.

  8. An Evaluation of a Project-Based Learning Initiative in Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Stuart; Hall, Wayne

    2011-01-01

    Project-based learning (PBL) is a well-known methodology for engineering design education due to a number of benefits it is claimed to offer. This paper presents the initial offering of a first-year engineering PBL unit at Griffith University in Australia. An evaluation of student perceptions of the unit revealed that students generally enjoyed…

  9. Engineering tool for the evaluation of global IED effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Heider

    2016-04-01

    The engineering tool is validated with small size generic vehicle tests where jump height and the vehicle motion are compared. The software allows a detailed analysis of global IED effects and can be additionally used in an inverse mode for the analysis of incidents with the determination of used HE masses in an IED attack.

  10. Evaluating Risk Awareness in Undergraduate Students Studying Mechanical Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langdon, G. S.; Balchin, K.; Mufamadi, P.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the development of risk awareness among undergraduate students studying mechanical engineering at a South African university. A questionnaire developed at the University of Liverpool was modified and used on students from the first, second and third year cohorts to assess their awareness in the areas of professional…

  11. Evaluating Risk Awareness in Undergraduate Students Studying Mechanical Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langdon, G. S.; Balchin, K.; Mufamadi, P.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the development of risk awareness among undergraduate students studying mechanical engineering at a South African university. A questionnaire developed at the University of Liverpool was modified and used on students from the first, second and third year cohorts to assess their awareness in the areas of professional…

  12. Human resource practices as predictors of engineering staff's organisational commitment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Melinde Coetzee; Jeremy Mitonga-Monga; Benita Swart

    2014-01-01

      Human resource practices are an important means of retaining professionally qualified employees and improving and increasing their future level of organisational performance in today's turbulent...

  13. Disposal systems evaluations and tool development : Engineered Barrier System (EBS) evaluation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutqvist, Jonny (LBNL); Liu, Hui-Hai (LBNL); Steefel, Carl I. (LBNL); Serrano de Caro, M. A. (LLNL); Caporuscio, Florie Andre (LANL); Birkholzer, Jens T. (LBNL); Blink, James A. (LLNL); Sutton, Mark A. (LLNL); Xu, Hongwu (LANL); Buscheck, Thomas A. (LLNL); Levy, Schon S. (LANL); Tsang, Chin-Fu (LBNL); Sonnenthal, Eric (LBNL); Halsey, William G. (LLNL); Jove-Colon, Carlos F.; Wolery, Thomas J. (LLNL)

    2011-01-01

    Key components of the nuclear fuel cycle are short-term storage and long-term disposal of nuclear waste. The latter encompasses the immobilization of used nuclear fuel (UNF) and radioactive waste streams generated by various phases of the nuclear fuel cycle, and the safe and permanent disposition of these waste forms in geological repository environments. The engineered barrier system (EBS) plays a very important role in the long-term isolation of nuclear waste in geological repository environments. EBS concepts and their interactions with the natural barrier are inherently important to the long-term performance assessment of the safety case where nuclear waste disposition needs to be evaluated for time periods of up to one million years. Making the safety case needed in the decision-making process for the recommendation and the eventual embracement of a disposal system concept requires a multi-faceted integration of knowledge and evidence-gathering to demonstrate the required confidence level in a deep geological disposal site and to evaluate long-term repository performance. The focus of this report is the following: (1) Evaluation of EBS in long-term disposal systems in deep geologic environments with emphasis on the multi-barrier concept; (2) Evaluation of key parameters in the characterization of EBS performance; (3) Identification of key knowledge gaps and uncertainties; and (4) Evaluation of tools and modeling approaches for EBS processes and performance. The above topics will be evaluated through the analysis of the following: (1) Overview of EBS concepts for various NW disposal systems; (2) Natural and man-made analogs, room chemistry, hydrochemistry of deep subsurface environments, and EBS material stability in near-field environments; (3) Reactive Transport and Coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical-Chemical (THMC) processes in EBS; and (4) Thermal analysis toolkit, metallic barrier degradation mode survey, and development of a Disposal Systems

  14. Biological and mechanical evaluation of a Bio-Hybrid scaffold for autologous valve tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahnavi, S; Saravanan, U; Arthi, N; Bhuvaneshwar, G S; Kumary, T V; Rajan, S; Verma, R S

    2017-04-01

    Major challenge in heart valve tissue engineering for paediatric patients is the development of an autologous valve with regenerative capacity. Hybrid tissue engineering approach is recently gaining popularity to design scaffolds with desired biological and mechanical properties that can remodel post implantation. In this study, we fabricated aligned nanofibrous Bio-Hybrid scaffold made of decellularized bovine pericardium: polycaprolactone-chitosan with optimized polymer thickness to yield the desired biological and mechanical properties. CD44(+), αSMA(+), Vimentin(+) and CD105(-) human valve interstitial cells were isolated and seeded on these Bio-Hybrid scaffolds. Subsequent biological evaluation revealed interstitial cell proliferation with dense extra cellular matrix deposition that indicated the viability for growth and proliferation of seeded cells on the scaffolds. Uniaxial mechanical tests along axial direction showed that the Bio-Hybrid scaffolds has at least 20 times the strength of the native valves and its stiffness is nearly 3 times more than that of native valves. Biaxial and uniaxial mechanical studies on valve interstitial cells cultured Bio-Hybrid scaffolds revealed that the response along the axial and circumferential direction was different, similar to native valves. Overall, our findings suggest that Bio-Hybrid scaffold is a promising material for future development of regenerative heart valve constructs in children.

  15. Peer Evaluation in Chemical Engineering Capstone Design via Wikis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldt, Caryn L.

    2012-01-01

    Inter-group peer evaluation through wikis was implemented as a method for senior capstone design teams to improve writing and the critical evaluation of data. Each group was evaluated by peers using a qualitative discussion and evaluated quantitatively by instructors. Students had an increased interest in contributing to online knowledge centers,…

  16. Using human factors engineering to improve the effectiveness of infection prevention and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Judith; Gosbee, Laura Lin; Bessesen, Mary; Williams, Linda

    2010-08-01

    Human factors engineering is a discipline that studies the capabilities and limitations of humans and the design of devices and systems for improved performance. The principles of human factors engineering can be applied to infection prevention and control to study the interaction between the healthcare worker and the system that he or she is working with, including the use of devices, the built environment, and the demands and complexities of patient care. Some key challenges in infection prevention, such as delayed feedback to healthcare workers, high cognitive workload, and poor ergonomic design, are explained, as is how human factors engineering can be used for improvement and increased compliance with practices to prevent hospital-acquired infections.

  17. Is Law a Humanity: (Or Is It More like Engineering)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howarth, David

    2004-01-01

    Law often appears to be in a limbo between the Social Sciences and the Humanities. Movements within legal scholarship itself, the law and economics movement and the law and literature movement, represent efforts to portray law as a social science or as a humanity. But if one looks at what lawyers do, one finds that law is more like…

  18. Reverse Engineering Human Pathophysiology with Organs-on-Chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingber, Donald E

    2016-03-10

    While studies of cultured cells have led to new insights into biological control, greater understanding of human pathophysiology requires the development of experimental systems that permit analysis of intercellular communications and tissue-tissue interactions in a more relevant organ context. Human organs-on-chips offer a potentially powerful new approach to confront this long-standing problem.

  19. Engineering Substantially Prolonged Human Lifespans: Biotechnological Enhancement and Ethics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derkx, P.H.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Substantial extension of the human lifespan has recently become a subject of lively debate. One reason for this is the completion in 2001 of the Human Genome Project and the experimental avenues for biogerontological research it has opened. Another is recent theoretical progress in biogerontology.

  20. Active Tectonic Research for Seismic Safety Evaluation of Long-Line Engineering Sites in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ran Yongkang; Chen Lichun

    2005-01-01

    Long-line engineering sites usually have to pass through active tectonics, so the research of active tectonics is of great importance to seismic safety evaluation of this sort of site. In the paper, basing on the summarization and analysis of the requirements for seismic safety evaluation of long-line engineering site and the status quo of active tectonics research, we propose the focal points of active tectonics research for seismic safety evaluation of long-line engineering sites, including the research contents, technical targets and routes, and the submission of the achievements, etc. Finally, we make a preliminary analysis and discussion about the problems existing in the present-day active tectonics research for seismic safety evaluation of long-line engineering sites.

  1. Evaluation of histological scoring systems for tissue-engineered, repaired and osteoarthritic cartilage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutgers, M.; van Pelt, M.J.; Dhert, W.J.A.; Creemers, L.B.; Saris, D.B.F.

    2010-01-01

    Osteoarthritis and Cartilage Volume 18, Issue 1, January 2010, Pages 12-23 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Review Evaluation of histological scoring systems for tissue-engineered, repaired and osteoarthritic cartilage M. Rutgers†, M.J.P. van Pelt†, W.

  2. Evaluation of histological scoring systems for tissue-engineered, repaired and osteoarthritic cartilage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutgers, M.; van Pelt, M.J.; Dhert, W.J.A.; Creemers, L.B.; Saris, D.B.F.

    2010-01-01

    Osteoarthritis and Cartilage Volume 18, Issue 1, January 2010, Pages 12-23 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Review Evaluation of histological scoring systems for tissue-engineered, repaired and osteoarthritic cartilage M. Rutgers†, M.J.P. van Pelt†,

  3. Evaluation of environmental filtration control of engineered nanoparticles using the Harvard Versatile Engineered Nanomaterial Generation System (VENGES)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Candace S.-J., E-mail: candace.umass@gmail.com [University of Massachusetts Lowell, NSF Center for High-rate Nanomanufacturing (CHN) (United States); Echevarria-Vega, Manuel E. [University of Puerto Rico Mayagueez, Industrial Engineering Department (Puerto Rico); Sotiriou, Georgios A. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH Zurich), Particle Technology Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Process Engineering (Switzerland); Santeufemio, Christopher [University of Massachusetts Lowell, Campus Materials Characterization Laboratory (United States); Schmidt, Daniel [University of Massachusetts Lowell, Department of Plastic Engineering (United States); Demokritou, Philip [Center for Nanotechnology and Nanotoxicology at the Harvard School of Public Health (United States); Ellenbecker, Michael [University of Massachusetts Lowell, NSF Center for High-rate Nanomanufacturing (CHN) (United States)

    2012-05-15

    Applying engineering controls to airborne engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) is critical to prevent environmental releases and worker exposure. This study evaluated the effectiveness of two air sampling and six air cleaning fabric filters at collecting ENPs using industrially relevant flame-made engineered nanoparticles generated using a versatile engineered nanomaterial generation system (VENGES), recently designed and constructed at Harvard University. VENGES has the ability to generate metal and metal oxide exposure atmospheres while controlling important particle properties such as primary particle size, aerosol size distribution, and agglomeration state. For this study, amorphous SiO{sub 2} ENPs with a 15.4 nm primary particle size were generated and diluted with HEPA-filtered air. The aerosol was passed through the filter samples at two different filtration face velocities (2.3 and 3.5 m/min). Particle concentrations as a function of particle size were measured upstream and downstream of the filters using a specially designed filter test system to evaluate filtration efficiency. Real time instruments (FMPS and APS) were used to measure particle concentration for diameters from 5 to 20,000 nm. Membrane-coated fabric filters were found to have enhanced nanoparticle collection efficiency by 20-46 % points compared to non-coated fabric and could provide collection efficiency above 95%.

  4. The case for applying an early-lifecycle technology evaluation methodology to comparative evaluation of requirements engineering research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feather, Martin S.

    2003-01-01

    The premise of this paper is taht there is a useful analogy between evaluation of proposed problem solutions and evaluation of requirements engineering research itself. Both of these application areas face the challenges of evaluation early in the lifecycle, of the need to consider a wide variety of factors, and of the need to combine inputs from multiple stakeholders in making thse evaluation and subsequent decisions.

  5. The case for applying an early-lifecycle technology evaluation methodology to comparative evaluation of requirements engineering research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feather, Martin S.

    2003-01-01

    The premise of this paper is taht there is a useful analogy between evaluation of proposed problem solutions and evaluation of requirements engineering research itself. Both of these application areas face the challenges of evaluation early in the lifecycle, of the need to consider a wide variety of factors, and of the need to combine inputs from multiple stakeholders in making thse evaluation and subsequent decisions.

  6. Establishment and characterization of human engineered cells stably expressing large extracellular matrix proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Daekee; Kang, Gwang-Sik; Han, Dong Keun; Park, Kwideok; Kim, Jae-Hwan; Lee, Soo-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Commercially available extracellular matrix (ECM) hydrogel-coated culture plates have been used to study the relationship between the ECM microenvironment and stem cell behavior. However, it is unclear whether ECM-coated dishes mimic the natural ECM microenvironment because the architecture of the ECM is constructed of randomly distributed fibers. The purpose of this study was the production and confirmation of human engineered cell lines stably expressing large ECM proteins such as collagen I/II and fibronectin. First, large (over 10 kb) ECM vectors encoding human collagen I/II and fibronectin were constructed and the circular vectors were linearized. Second, the linear ECM vectors were introduced into immortalized human embryonic kidney cells using various transfection methods. The polyethylenimine and liposome methods showed higher efficiencies than electroporation for transfection of these large vectors. Third, human ECM engineered cells were established by stable integration of the vector into the genomic DNA and resulted in stable overexpression of mRNA and proteins. In summary, human engineered cell lines stably expressing large ECM proteins such as human collagen I/II and fibronectin were successfully prepared, and secretion of the ECM components into the surrounding environment was confirmed by immunocytochemistry. Thus, human ECM engineered cells naturally secreting ECM components could be valuable for studying the relationship between the native ECM microenvironment and stem cell behavior.

  7. Engineering evaluation/cost analysis for the 233-S Plutonium Concentration Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    The deactivated 233-S Plutonium Concentration Facility (233-S Facility) is located in the 200 Area. The facility has undergone severe degradation due to exposure to extreme weather conditions. A rapid freeze and thaw cycle occurred at the Hanford Site during February 1996, which caused cracking to occur on portions of the building`s roof. This has resulted in significantly infiltration of water into the facility, which provides a pathway for potential release of radioactive material into the environment (air and/or ground). The weather caused several existing cracks in the concrete portions of the structure to lengthen, increasing the potential for failed confinement of the radioactive material in the building. Differential settlement has also occurred, causing portions of the facility to separate from the main building structure thus creating a potential for release of radioactive material t the environment. An expedited removal action is proposed to ensure that a release from the 233-S Facility does not occur. The US Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL), in cooperation with the EPA, has prepared this Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis (EE/CA) pursuant to CERCLA. Based on the evaluation, RL has determined that hazardous substances in the 233-S Facility may present a potential threat to human health and/or the environment, and that an expedited removal action is warranted. The purpose of the EE/CA is to provide the framework for the evaluation and selection of a technology from a viable set of alternatives for a removal action.

  8. Performance Evaluation of the T6 Ion Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, John Steven; Goebel, Dan M.; Hofer, Richard R.; Polk, James E.; Wallace, Neil C.; Simpson, Huw

    2010-01-01

    The T6 ion engine is a 22-cm diameter, 4.5-kW Kaufman-type ion thruster produced by QinetiQ, Ltd., and is baselined for the European Space Agency BepiColombo mission to Mercury and is being qualified under ESA sponsorship for the extended range AlphaBus communications satellite platform. The heritage of the T6 includes the T5 ion thruster now successfully operating on the ESA GOCE spacecraft. As a part of the T6 development program, an engineering model thruster was subjected to a suite of performance tests and plume diagnostics at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The engine was mounted on a thrust stand and operated over its nominal throttle range of 2.5 to 4.5 kW. In addition to the typical electrical and flow measurements, an E x B mass analyzer, scanning Faraday probe, thrust vector probe, and several near-field probes were utilized. Thrust, beam divergence, double ion content, and thrust vector movement were all measured at four separate throttle points. The engine performance agreed well with published data on this thruster. At full power the T6 produced 143 mN of thrust at a specific impulse of 4120 seconds and an efficiency of 64%; optimization of the neutralizer for lower flow rates increased the specific impulse to 4300 seconds and the efficiency to nearly 66%. Measured beam divergence was less than, and double ion content was greater than, the ring-cusp-design NSTAR thruster that has flown on NASA missions. The measured thrust vector offset depended slightly on throttle level and was found to increase with time as the thruster approached thermal equilibrium.

  9. Intuitive engineering, human factors, and the design of future interfaces (Invited Paper)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, James B.

    2005-05-01

    Human factors engineering (HFE) professionals complain that they are often called in after-the-fact to help correct human interface problems. They believe many design flaws can be avoided if design teams involve them early on. However, in the case of innovative technology, such post hoc human factors may not be avoidable unless the inventor is also a human factors engineer or the prospective user. In rare cases an inventor of a new technology has an intuitive understanding of human engineering principles and knows well the capabilities and limitations of operators. This paper outlines the importance of focusing on the user-system interface and encouraging engineers to develop their own intuitive sense of users through mental imagery. If design engineers start with a clear mental picture of a specific user and task rather than generalities of use, fewer interface problems are likely to be encountered later in development. Successful technology innovators often use a visual thinking approach in the development of new concepts. Examples are presented to illustrate the successful application of intuitive design. An approach is offered on how designers can improve their non-verbal thinking skills. The author shares the view that the mission of HFE should not be to make system developers dependent on the small community of HF experts but rather to help them learn the value of applying user-centered design techniques.

  10. Predictive tests to evaluate oxidative potential of engineered nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiazza, Mara; Carella, Emanuele; Oliaro-Bosso, Simonetta; Corazzari, Ingrid; Viola, Franca; Fenoglio, Ivana

    2013-04-01

    Oxidative stress constitutes one of the principal injury mechanisms through which particulate toxicants (asbestos, crystalline silica, hard metals) and engineered nanomaterials can induce adverse health effects. ROS may be generated indirectly by activated cells and/or directly at the surface of the material. The occurrence of these processes depends upon the type of material. Many authors have recently demonstrated that metal oxides and carbon-based nanoparticles may influence (increasing or decreasing) the generation of oxygen radicals in a cell environment. Metal oxide, such as iron oxides, crystalline silica, and titanium dioxide are able to generate free radicals via different mechanisms causing an imbalance within oxidant species. The increase of ROS species may lead to inflammatory responses and in some cases to the development of cancer. On the other hand carbon-based nanomaterials, such as fullerene, carbon nanotubes, carbon black as well as cerium dioxide are able to scavenge the free radicals generated acting as antioxidant. The high numbers of new-engineered nanomaterials, which are introduced in the market, are exponentially increasing. Therefore the definition of toxicological strategies is urgently needed. The development of acellular screening tests will make possible the reduction of the number of in vitro and in vivo tests to be performed. An integrated protocol that may be used to predict the oxidant/antioxidant potential of engineered nanoparticles will be here presented.

  11. Evaluation of Vortex Chamber Concepts for Liquid Rocket Engine Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Huu Phuoc; Knuth, Williams; Michaels, Scott; Turner, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Rocket-based combined-cycle engines (RBBC) being considered at NASA for future generation launch vehicles feature clusters of small rocket thrusters as part of the engine components. Depending on specific RBBC concepts, these thrusters may be operated at various operating conditions including power level and/or propellant mixture ratio variations. To pursue technology developments for future launch vehicles, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is examining vortex chamber concepts for the subject cycle engine application. Past studies indicated that the vortex chamber schemes potentially have a number of advantages over conventional chamber methods. Due to the nature of the vortex flow, relatively cooler propellant streams tend to flow along the chamber wall. Hence, the thruster chamber can be operated without the need of any cooling techniques. This vortex flow also creates strong turbulence, which promotes the propellant mixing process. Consequently, the subject chamber concepts not only offer the system simplicity but they also would enhance the combustion performance. The test results showed that the chamber performance was markedly high even at a low chamber length-to- diameter ratio (L/D). This incentive can be translated to a convenience in the thrust chamber packaging.

  12. Evaluating Open-Source Full-Text Search Engines for Matching ICD-10 Codes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurcău, Daniel-Alexandru; Stoicu-Tivadar, Vasile

    2016-01-01

    This research presents the results of evaluating multiple free, open-source engines on matching ICD-10 diagnostic codes via full-text searches. The study investigates what it takes to get an accurate match when searching for a specific diagnostic code. For each code the evaluation starts by extracting the words that make up its text and continues with building full-text search queries from the combinations of these words. The queries are then run against all the ICD-10 codes until a match indicates the code in question as a match with the highest relative score. This method identifies the minimum number of words that must be provided in order for the search engines choose the desired entry. The engines analyzed include a popular Java-based full-text search engine, a lightweight engine written in JavaScript which can even execute on the user's browser, and two popular open-source relational database management systems.

  13. Radial oil injection applied to main engine bearings: evaluation of injection control rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Estupiñan, EA; Santos, Ilmar

    2012-01-01

    The performance of main bearings in a combustion engine affects key functions such as durability, noise and vibration. Thus, with the aim of reducing friction losses and vibrations between the crankshaft and the bearings, the work reported here evaluates different strategies for applying controll......The performance of main bearings in a combustion engine affects key functions such as durability, noise and vibration. Thus, with the aim of reducing friction losses and vibrations between the crankshaft and the bearings, the work reported here evaluates different strategies for applying......, the dynamic behaviour of the main bearing of a medium-size engine is theoretically analysed when the engine operates with controllable radial oil injection and four different injection control rules. The theoretical investigation is based on a single-cylinder combustion engine model. The performance...

  14. A Human Resource Development Program for Information Technology Engineers using Project-Based Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minoru Nakayama

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the case of an educational practice and evaluation of team learning using project-based learning to develop Information Technology engineers. This program aims to develop the competencies of engineers, such as their communication skills, problem solving within teams, and other abilities. Its subject is the “Upper Process” of Information Technology systems development. To determine the feasibility of the course, it was conducted at a computer college. The team’s products and team learning activities were evaluated using rubrics and self evaluation inventories, and learning performance was discussed. Also, the evaluation of the learning management system affected the learning activity.

  15. Collision Avoidance System (CAS): Human Factors Engineering Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    personnel indicated that the CAS console was much too big for the limited amount of space available on RANGER’s bridge. The console is 40 inches wide...avoidance (C/A) data. > RANGE * 12//2 < (T >~ LOG SPEED 4 10.0 KT < E1 i >~ HEADING 4 270 DEG * < J [ > BRGCRSR * 000 DEG4C/ ADATA < - > TRIAL SPD 4 0 <EJ

  16. NATO Guidelines on Human Engineering Testing and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-05-01

    Messung der psychischen Beanspruchung während des Fahrens durch eine simultane Nebentätigkeit. Zeitschrift für experimentelle und angewandte...Forschungsinstitut für Anthropotechnik, FAT Report No. 30. Wiegand, D. (1974). Die quantitative Messung der psychischen Beanspruchung während des Fahrens durch... autonomic , the somatic and the endocrine system. According to Hart and Wickens (1990) there are two classes of physiological measures: Measures of

  17. Human Biomonitoring of Engineered Nanoparticles: An Appraisal of Critical Issues and Potential Biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Bergamaschi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the applicability of biological monitoring to the assessment of exposure and possible effects deriving from exposure to engineered nanomaterials (NM. After establishing a conceptual framework in which human biomonitoring should be placed, the paper reviews the critical issues related to the unusual properties of NM affecting the implementation of biomonitoring activities for this new class of chemicals. Relying on the recent advances in the toxicogenomic, it is possible to assess whether specific biological pathways are activated or perturbed by specific NM. However, to evaluate if quantitative changes in these biomarkers can be used as indicators or predictors for toxicity in humans, validation on well characterised groups of exposed people is needed. At present, it appears more pragmatic to evolve NM-associated biomarker identification considering relevant biological responses found in environmental and occupational studies and assessing the early events associated with exposure to these NM. The battery of biochemical markers includes soluble molecules, antioxidant capacity, peroxidated lipids and carbonyl groups in serum proteins as a biomarkers of systemic inflammation and vascular adhesion molecules to assess endothelial activation/damage. Abnormalities in exhaled breath condensate chemistry reflecting intrinsic changes in the airway lining fluid and lung inflammation seem promising tools suitable for BM studies and are broadly discussed.

  18. Reflections and Future Prospects for Evaluation in Human Resource Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Heeyoung; Boulay, David

    2013-01-01

    Human resource development (HRD) evaluation has often been criticized for its limited function in organizational decision making. This article reviews evaluation studies to uncover the current status of HRD evaluation literature. The authors further discuss general evaluation theories in terms of value, use, and evaluator role to extend the…

  19. Reflections and Future Prospects for Evaluation in Human Resource Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Heeyoung; Boulay, David

    2013-01-01

    Human resource development (HRD) evaluation has often been criticized for its limited function in organizational decision making. This article reviews evaluation studies to uncover the current status of HRD evaluation literature. The authors further discuss general evaluation theories in terms of value, use, and evaluator role to extend the…

  20. Duct injection technology prototype development: Evaluation of engineering data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-07-01

    The objective of the Duct Injection Technology Prototype Development Project is to develop a sound design basis for applying duct injection technology as a post-combustion SO{sub 2}emissions control method to existing coal-fired power plants. The necessary engineering design and scale-up criteria will be developed for the commercialization of duct injection technology for the control of SO{sub 2} emissions from coal-fired boilers in the utility industry. The primary focus of the analyses summarized in this Topical Report is the review of the known technical and economic information associated with duct injection technology. (VC)

  1. Engineering tool for the evaluation of global IED effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N. HEIDER; V. DENEFELD; A. STEINBRENNER; A. HOLZWARTH

    2016-01-01

    The detonation of an IED near a military vehicle induces different damage effects on the vehicle and its occupants. There are local effects from fragments and projectiles but there are also global effects from a momentum transfer on the complete vehicle structure and a subsequent dynamical motion of the vehicle with phenomena like overturning or vehicle displacement from the road. Questions like this can be answered with numerical finite-element simulations but there is also the need for engineering tools that allow a quick and nearly instantaneous simulation of these phenomena. The following work presents an approach for a fast analysis of global IED effects on vehicles. The physical modelling is based on analytical formula and empirical data that describe the momentum transfer of a detonation on a nearby structure. This momentum is the initial condition for the calculation of the following vehicle motion and the simulation of vehicle dynamics and jump height. The software itself has a modern GUI that allows the generation of the vehicle structure and the threat scenario together with an interactive analysis of the simulation results. The engineering tool is validated with small size generic vehicle tests where jump height and the vehicle motion are compared. The software allows a detailed analysis of global IED effects and can be additionally used in an inverse mode for the analysis of incidents with the determination of used HE masses in an IED attack.

  2. Evaluation of Biosynthetic Pathway and Engineered Biosynthesis of Alkaloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji Kishimoto

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Varieties of alkaloids are known to be produced by various organisms, including bacteria, fungi and plants, as secondary metabolites that exhibit useful bioactivities. However, understanding of how those metabolites are biosynthesized still remains limited, because most of these compounds are isolated from plants and at a trace level of production. In this review, we focus on recent efforts in identifying the genes responsible for the biosynthesis of those nitrogen-containing natural products and elucidating the mechanisms involved in the biosynthetic processes. The alkaloids discussed in this review are ditryptophenaline (dimeric diketopiperazine alkaloid, saframycin (tetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloid, strictosidine (monoterpene indole alkaloid, ergotamine (ergot alkaloid and opiates (benzylisoquinoline and morphinan alkaloid. This review also discusses the engineered biosynthesis of these compounds, primarily through heterologous reconstitution of target biosynthetic pathways in suitable hosts, such as Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus nidulans. Those heterologous biosynthetic systems can be used to confirm the functions of the isolated genes, economically scale up the production of the alkaloids for commercial distributions and engineer the biosynthetic pathways to produce valuable analogs of the alkaloids. In particular, extensive involvement of oxidation reactions catalyzed by oxidoreductases, such as cytochrome P450s, during the secondary metabolite biosynthesis is discussed in details.

  3. Experimental evaluation of diesel engine performance and emission using blends of jojoba oil and diesel fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huzayyin, A.S.; Rady, M.A.; Dawood, A. [Benha High Inst. of Technology (Egypt). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering Technology; Bawady, A.H. [University of Ain Shams, Cairo (Egypt). Faculty of Engineering

    2004-08-01

    An experimental evaluation of using jojoba oil as an alternate diesel engine fuel has been conducted in the present work. Measurements of jojoba oil chemical and physical properties have indicated a good potential of using jojoba oil as an alternative diesel engine fuel. Blending of jojoba oil with gas oil has been shown to be an effective method to reduce engine problems associated with the high viscosity of jojoba oil. Experimental measurements of different performance parameters of a single cylinder, naturally aspirated, direct injection, diesel engine have been performed using gas oil and blends of gas oil with jojoba oil. Measurements of engine performance parameters at different load conditions over the engine speed range have generally indicated a negligible loss of engine power, a slight increase in brake specific fuel consumption and a reduction in engine NO{sub x} and soot emission using blends of jojoba oil with gas oil as compared to gas oil. The reduction in engine soot emission has been observed to increase with the increase of jojoba oil percentage in the fuel blend. (Author)

  4. Survey Result of the Engineering Undergraduate Student's “Human Performance”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Minoru; Takahashi, Hideaki; Kusakabe, Osamu; Ohtaguchi, Kazuhisa; Mizutani, Nobuyasu

    Development of engineer's “Human Performance” is being required to respond to various changes. “Human Performace” is defined as an ability of putting own knowledge and skill to a practical issue. Current engineering undergraduate education promotes to learn this ability. To examine effectiveness of the educational program, a questionnaire consisting of 66 items was developed and the survey was conducted across eight universities. As results, most students recognize importance of the ability, but their achievement is lower for English communication skill and adaptation of cultural difference. They learned the ability on laboratory experience for their thesis, experiment class, club activities, part-time jobs and other activities.

  5. Human Cardiac Tissue Engineering: From Pluripotent Stem Cells to Heart Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Christopher P.; Shadrin, Ilya Y.; Carlson, Aaron L.; Bursac, Nenad

    2014-01-01

    Engineered cardiac tissues hold great promise for use in drug and toxicology screening, in vitro studies of human physiology and disease, and as transplantable tissue grafts for myocardial repair. In this review, we discuss recent progress in cell-based therapy and functional tissue engineering using pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes and we describe methods for delivery of cells into the injured heart. While significant hurdles remain, notable advances have been made in the methods to derive large numbers of pure human cardiomyocytes, mature their phenotype, and produce and implant functional cardiac tissues, bringing the field a step closer to widespread in vitro and in vivo applications. PMID:25599018

  6. A Virtual Campus Based on Human Factor Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuting; Kang, Houliang

    2014-01-01

    Three Dimensional or 3D virtual reality has become increasingly popular in many areas, especially in building a digital campus. This paper introduces a virtual campus, which is based on a 3D model of The Tourism and Culture College of Yunnan University (TCYU). Production of the virtual campus was aided by Human Factor and Ergonomics (HF&E), an…

  7. A Virtual Campus Based on Human Factor Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuting; Kang, Houliang

    2014-01-01

    Three Dimensional or 3D virtual reality has become increasingly popular in many areas, especially in building a digital campus. This paper introduces a virtual campus, which is based on a 3D model of The Tourism and Culture College of Yunnan University (TCYU). Production of the virtual campus was aided by Human Factor and Ergonomics (HF&E), an…

  8. Engineering Data Compendium. Human Perception and Performance. Volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    Breitmeyer, B. G. (1975). Sim- cies to sinusoidal gratings. Vision human observers: A probabilistic pie reaction time as a measure of Research. 16...oscilloscope; viewed at optical infinity through a plano - convex lens (153 mm diameter, 340 mm focal length) one focal length from display • Patch wom

  9. Engineering targeted chromosomal amplifications in human breast epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Simeon; Yi, Kyung H; Park, Jeenah; Rajpurohit, Anandita; Price, Amanda J; Lauring, Josh

    2015-07-01

    Chromosomal amplifications are among the most common genetic alterations found in human cancers. However, experimental systems to study the processes that lead to specific, recurrent amplification events in human cancers are lacking. Moreover, some common amplifications, such as that at 8p11-12 in breast cancer, harbor multiple driver oncogenes, which are poorly modeled by conventional overexpression approaches. We sought to develop an experimental system to model recurrent chromosomal amplification events in human cell lines. Our strategy is to use homologous-recombination-mediated gene targeting to deliver a dominantly selectable, amplifiable marker to a specified chromosomal location. We used adeno-associated virus vectors to target human MCF-7 breast cancer cells at the ZNF703 locus, in the recurrent 8p11-12 amplicon, using the E. coli inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) enzyme as a marker. We applied selective pressure using IMPDH inhibitors. Surviving clones were found to have increased copy number of ZNF703 (average 2.5-fold increase) by droplet digital PCR and FISH. Genome-wide array comparative genomic hybridization confirmed that amplifications had occurred on the short arm of chromosome 8, without changes on 8q or other chromosomes. Patterns of amplification were variable and similar to those seen in primary human breast cancers, including "sawtooth" patterns, distal copy number loss, and large continuous regions of copy number gain. This system will allow study of the cis- and trans-acting factors that are permissive for chromosomal amplification and provide a model to analyze oncogene cooperativity in amplifications harboring multiple candidate driver genes.

  10. Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation of Training Effect on Human Resource Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾建权

    2003-01-01

    On the basis of the essential connotation of the training effect on human resource development and the basic principles of setting up a index system, the evaluation index system of the training effect on human resource development in enterprises has been established. It evaluates the training effect on human resource development with the method of fuzzy comprehensive evaluation and achieves better results. It also provides a scientific, practical and quantitative method for the systematic analysis and comprehensive evaluation of the training effect on human resource development.

  11. A comparative analysis of reading strategies across ESP students of humanities and engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Vaez Dalili

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study set out to explore whether significant differences existed between two groups of EFL students of different fields of study (i.e. humanities and engineering in terms of their metacognitive awareness and use of certain reading strategies while reading English for Specific Purposes (ESP texts. Seventy lower-intermediate college-level students (35 engineering students and 35 students of humanities completed the Metacognitive Awareness of Reading Strategies Inventory (Mokhtari & Reichard, 2002 to measure their metacognitive awareness of ESP reading strategies. The inventory includes 3 strategy subscales with 30 items: Global Reading Strategies (GLOB, Problem-Solving Strategies (PROB, and Support Reading Strategies (SUP. A series of t-tests were conducted to figure out the differences between the two groups of students in connection with each of the strategies in the MARSI inventory. The results showed that in spite of the fact that the two groups were studying different fields of study, they reported strikingly similar patterns of reading strategy awareness and confirmed having used almost all of the strategies while reading ESP materials. However, the engineering students reported using some types of reading strategies more frequently than did the humanities students. The findings of the study will not only explain the differences and similarities between engineering and humanities students, but also help to challenge the purely speculative assumption as to the deficiencies in strategy-based ESP reading comprehension of humanities students.

  12. Evaluation of water injection effect on compressor and engine performance and operability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roumeliotis, I.; Mathioudakis, K. [Laboratory of Thermal Turbomachines, National Technical University of Athens, Iroon Polytechniou 9, Athens 15773 (Greece)

    2010-04-15

    Gas turbine performance enhancement technologies such as inlet fogging, combustor water/steam injection and overspray are being employed by users in recent years without fully evaluating their effect on gas turbine performance and operability. The water injection techniques can significantly affect the engine operating point thus a careful analysis should precede the application of performance enhancement devices, especially when the devices are retrofitted to old engines or engines operating at extreme conditions. The present paper examines the most widespread techniques that implement water injection by using in-house models that can reproduce the effects of water injection on the gas turbine and compressor off-design operation. The results are analyzed with respect to both performance augmentation and engine operability in order to give further insight on gas turbine operation with water injection. The behaviour of the gas turbine is interpreted while the risks on engine integrity due to water injection are identified. (author)

  13. Test Method Designed to Evaluate Cylinder Liner-Piston Ring Coatings for Advanced Heat Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radil, Kevin C.

    1997-01-01

    Research on advanced heat engine concepts, such as the low-heat-rejection engine, have shown the potential for increased thermal efficiency, reduced emissions, lighter weight, simpler design, and longer life in comparison to current diesel engine designs. A major obstacle in the development of a functional advanced heat engine is overcoming the problems caused by the high combustion temperatures at the piston ring/cylinder liner interface, specifically at top ring reversal (TRR). Therefore, advanced cylinder liner and piston ring materials are needed that can survive under these extreme conditions. To address this need, researchers at the NASA Lewis Research Center have designed a tribological test method to help evaluate candidate piston ring and cylinder liner materials for advanced diesel engines.

  14. Engineered human broncho-epithelial tissue-like assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Thomas J. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Three-dimensional human broncho-epithelial tissue-like assemblies (TLAs) are produced in a rotating wall vessel (RWV) with microcarriers by coculturing mesenchymal bronchial-tracheal cells (BTC) and bronchial epithelium cells (BEC). These TLAs display structural characteristics and express markers of in vivo respiratory epithelia. TLAs are useful for screening compounds active in lung tissues such as antiviral compounds, cystic fibrosis treatments, allergens, and cytotoxic compounds.

  15. Metaphors of Human Thinking: A New Tool in User Interface Design and Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøkjær, Erik; Hornbæk, Kasper

    2003-01-01

    human thinking, inspection technique, usability evaluation, heuristic evaluation, quantitative study......human thinking, inspection technique, usability evaluation, heuristic evaluation, quantitative study...

  16. Evaluation of the Science, Technology, and Engineering Leadership Program, Year Three

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolanin, Natalie; Wade, Julie

    2014-01-01

    The Office of Shared Accountability conducted an evaluation of the implementation of the third and final year (2012-2013) of the "Science, Technology, and Engineering Leadership Program" (STELP) in Montgomery County (Maryland) Public Schools (MCPS). Funding for STELP, including the evaluation study, is provided by a grant from the Howard…

  17. Evaluation of the Science, Technology, and Engineering Leadership Program, Year Two

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolanin, Natalie L.; Wade, Julie H.

    2013-01-01

    The Office of Shared Accountability (OSA) conducted an evaluation of the implementation of the second year (2011-2012) of the Science, Technology, and Engineering Leadership Program (STELP) in Montgomery County (Maryland) Public Schools (MCPS). Funding for STELP, including the evaluation study, is provided by a grant from the Howard Hughes Medical…

  18. Tissue engineering potential of human dermis-isolated adult stem cells from multiple anatomical locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Heenam; Haudenschild, Anne K; Brown, Wendy E; Vapniarsky, Natalia; Paschos, Nikolaos K; Arzi, Boaz; Hu, Jerry C; Athanasiou, Kyriacos A

    2017-01-01

    Abundance and accessibility render skin-derived stem cells an attractive cell source for tissue engineering applications. Toward assessing their utility, the variability of constructs engineered from human dermis-isolated adult stem (hDIAS) cells was examined with respect to different anatomical locations (foreskin, breast, and abdominal skin), both in vitro and in a subcutaneous, athymic mouse model. All anatomical locations yielded hDIAS cells with multi-lineage differentiation potentials, though adipogenesis was not seen for foreskin-derived hDIAS cells. Using engineered cartilage as a model, tissue engineered constructs from hDIAS cells were compared. Construct morphology differed by location. The mechanical properties of human foreskin- and abdominal skin-derived constructs were similar at implantation, remaining comparable after 4 additional weeks of culture in vivo. Breast skin-derived constructs were not mechanically testable. For all groups, no signs of abnormality were observed in the host. Addition of aggregate redifferentiation culture prior to construct formation improved chondrogenic differentiation of foreskin-derived hDIAS cells, as evident by increases in glycosaminoglycan and collagen contents. More robust Alcian blue staining and homogeneous cell populations were also observed compared to controls. Human DIAS cells elicited no adverse host responses, reacted positively to chondrogenic regimens, and possessed multi-lineage differentiation potential with the caveat that efficacy may differ by anatomical origin of the skin. Taken together, these results suggest that hDIAS cells hold promise as a potential cell source for a number of tissue engineering applications.

  19. The experimental study of genetic engineering human neural stem cells mediated by lentivirus to express multigene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Pei-qiang; TANG Xun; LIN Yue-qiu; Oudega Martin; SUN Guang-yun; XU Lin; YANG Yun-kang; ZHOU Tian-hua

    2006-01-01

    Objective:To explore the feasibility to construct genetic engineering human neural stem cells (hNSCs)mediated by lentivirus to express multigene in order to provide a graft source for further studies of spinal cord injury (SCI).Methods: Human neural stem cells from the brain cortex of human abortus were isolated and cultured, then gene was modified by lentivirus to express both green fluorescence protein (GFP) and rat neurotrophin-3(NT-3); the transgenic expression was detected by the methods of fluorescence microscope, dorsal root ganglion of fetal rats and slot blot.Results: Genetic engineering hNSCs were successfully constructed. All of the genetic engineering hNSCs which expressed bright green fluorescence were observed under the fluorescence microscope. The conditioned medium of transgenic hNSCs could induce neurite flourishing outgrowth from dorsal root ganglion (DRG). The genetic engineering hNSCs expressed high level NT-3 which could be detected by using slot blot.Conclusions: Genetic engineering hNSCs mediated by lentivirus can be constructed to express multigene successfully.

  20. Transplantation of genetically engineered cardiac fibroblasts producing recombinant human erythropoietin to repair the infarcted myocardium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruvinov Emil

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Erythropoietin possesses cellular protection properties. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that in situ expression of recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO would improve tissue repair in rat after myocardial infarction (MI. Methods and results RhEPO-producing cardiac fibroblasts were generated ex vivo by transduction with retroviral vector. The anti-apoptotic effect of rhEPO-producing fibroblasts was evaluated by co-culture with rat neonatal cardiomyocytes exposed to H2O2-induced oxidative stress. Annexin V/PI assay and DAPI staining showed that compared with control, rhEPO forced expression markedly attenuated apoptosis and improved survival of cultured cardiomyocytes. To test the effect of rhEPO on the infarcted myocardium, Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to permanent coronary artery occlusion, and rhEPO-producing fibroblasts, non-transduced fibroblasts, or saline, were injected into the scar tissue seven days after infarction. One month later, immunostaining identified rhEPO expression in the implanted engineered cells but not in controls. Compared with non-transduced fibroblasts or saline injection, implanted rhEPO-producing fibroblasts promoted vascularization in the scar, and prevented cell apoptosis. By two-dimensional echocardiography and postmortem morphometry, transplanted EPO-engineered fibroblasts did not prevent left ventricular (LV dysfunction and adverse LV remodeling 5 and 9 weeks after MI. Conclusion In situ expression of rhEPO enhances vascularization and reduces cell apoptosis in the infarcted myocardium. However, local EPO therapy is insufficient for functional improvement after MI in rat.

  1. Optimal Configuration of Human Motion Tracking Systems: A Systems Engineering Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Steve

    2005-01-01

    Human motion tracking systems represent a crucial technology in the area of modeling and simulation. These systems, which allow engineers to capture human motion for study or replication in virtual environments, have broad applications in several research disciplines including human engineering, robotics, and psychology. These systems are based on several sensing paradigms, including electro-magnetic, infrared, and visual recognition. Each of these paradigms requires specialized environments and hardware configurations to optimize performance of the human motion tracking system. Ideally, these systems are used in a laboratory or other facility that was designed to accommodate the particular sensing technology. For example, electromagnetic systems are highly vulnerable to interference from metallic objects, and should be used in a specialized lab free of metal components.

  2. Developing Novel Therapeutic Approaches in Small Cell Lung Carcinoma Using Genetically Engineered Mouse Models and Human Circulating Tumor Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Using Genetically Engineered Mouse Models and Human Circulating Tumor Cells PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Jeffrey Engelman MD PhD CONTRACTING...SUBTITLE Developiing Novel Therapeutic Approaches in Small Cell Lung 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Carcinoma Using Genetically Engineered Mouse Models and 5b...biomarkers. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Small cell lung cancer (SCLC), Genetically engineered mouse model (GEMM), BH3 mimetic, TORC inhibitor, Apoptosis

  3. Evaluation of Game Engines for Cross-Platform Development of Mobile Serious Games for Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinschmidt, Carina; Haag, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Studies have shown that serious games for health can improve patient compliance and help to increase the quality of medical education. Due to a growing availability of mobile devices, especially the development of cross-platform mobile apps is helpful for improving healthcare. As the development can be highly time-consuming and expensive, an alternative development process is needed. Game engines are expected to simplify this process. Therefore, this article examines the question whether using game engines for cross-platform serious games for health can simplify the development compared to the development of a plain HTML5 app. At first, a systematic review of the literature was conducted in different databases (MEDLINE, ACM and IEEE). Afterwards three different game engines were chosen, evaluated in different categories and compared to the development of a HTML5 app. This was realized by implementing a prototypical application in the different engines and conducting a utility analysis. The evaluation shows that the Marmalade engine is the best choice for development in this scenario. Furthermore, it is obvious that the game engines have great benefits against plain HTML5 development as they provide components for graphics, physics, sounds, etc. The authors recommend to use the Marmalade Engine for a cross-platform mobile Serious Game for Health.

  4. Evaluation and Control of Cyclic Variation in Spark Ignited Engines by a Thermodynic Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪常伟; 张红光

    2004-01-01

    An evaluation method of engine cyclic variation is proposed based on fuzzy mathematics concept. The degree of engine cyclic variation is divided into 4 levels: stable, slight variation, moderate variation and serious variation based on the statistic standard deviation of residual gas temperatures within the specified simulation cycles and the function of cyclic variation is also inducted for the cyclic variation control. Because the degree of engine cyclic variation can be estimated qualitatively, the effective control means can be applied to appease the undesired cyclic variation. Simulation result shows that for a very serious cyclic variation through the proper adjustment of the spark angle and the cyclic variation will disappear.

  5. Comparative Analysis of Thermoeconomic Evaluation Criteria for an Actual Heat Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özel, Gülcan; Açıkkalp, Emin; Savaş, Ahmet Fevzi; Yamık, Hasan

    2016-07-01

    In the present study, an actual heat engine is investigated by using different thermoeconomic evaluation criteria in the literature. A criteria that has not been investigated in detail is considered and it is called as ecologico-economical criteria (F_{EC}). It is the difference of power cost and exergy destruction rate cost of the system. All four criteria are applied to an irreversible Carnot heat engine, results are presented numerically and some suggestions are made.

  6. Human Systems Engineering for Launch processing at Kennedy Space Center (KSC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Gena; Stambolian, Damon B.; Stelges, Katrine

    2012-01-01

    Launch processing at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is primarily accomplished by human users of expensive and specialized equipment. In order to reduce the likelihood of human error, to reduce personal injuries, damage to hardware, and loss of mission the design process for the hardware needs to include the human's relationship with the hardware. Just as there is electrical, mechanical, and fluids, the human aspect is just as important. The focus of this presentation is to illustrate how KSC accomplishes the inclusion of the human aspect in the design using human centered hardware modeling and engineering. The presentations also explain the current and future plans for research and development for improving our human factors analysis tools and processes.

  7. Human amniotic fluid derived cells can competently substitute dermal fibroblasts in a tissue-engineered dermo-epidermal skin analog

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartmann-Fritsch, Fabienne; Hosper, Nynke; Luginbuehl, Joachim; Biedermann, Thomas; Reichmann, Ernst; Meuli, Martin

    Human amniotic fluid comprises cells with high differentiation capacity, thus representing a potential cell source for skin tissue engineering. In this experimental study, we investigated the ability of human amniotic fluid derived cells to substitute dermal fibroblasts and support epidermis

  8. Draft audit report, human factors engineering control room design review: Saint Lucie Nuclear Power Plant, Unit No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, L.R.; Lappa, D.A.; Moore, J.W.

    1981-09-03

    A human factors engineering preliminary design review of the Saint Lucie Unit 2 control room was performed at the site on August 3 through August 7, 1981. This design review was carried out by a team from the Human Factors Engineering Branch, Division of Human Factors Safety. This report was prepared on the basis of the HFEB's review of the applicant's Preliminary Design Assessment and the human factors engineering design review/audit performed at the site. The review team included human factors consultants from BioTechnology, Inc., Falls Church, Virginia, and from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (University of California), Livermore, California.

  9. Development, optimization and characterization of a full-thickness tissue engineered human oral mucosal model for biological assessment of dental biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moharamzadeh, K; Brook, I M; Van Noort, R; Scutt, A M; Smith, K G; Thornhill, M H

    2008-04-01

    Restorative dental materials and oral health care products come into direct contact with oral mucosa and can cause adverse reactions. In order to obtain an accurate risk assessment, the in vitro test model must reflect the clinical situation as closely as possible. The aim of this study was to develop and optimize a three-dimensional full-thickness engineered human oral mucosal model, which can be used for biological assessment of dental materials. In this study human oral fibroblasts and keratinocytes were isolated from patients and seeded onto a number of collagen-based and synthetic scaffolds using a variety of cell seeding techniques and grown at the air/liquid interface to construct human oral mucosa equivalents. Suitability of 10 different scaffolds for engineering human oral mucosa was evaluated in terms of biocompatibility, biostability, porosity, and the ability to mimic normal human oral mucosa morphology. Finally an optimized full-thickness engineered human oral mucosa was developed and characterized using transmission electron microscopy and immunostaining. The oral mucosa reconstruct resembled native human oral mucosa and it has the potential to be used as an accurate and reproducible test model in mucotoxicity and biocompatibility evaluation of dental materials.

  10. Normal human epithelial cells regulate the size and morphology of tissue-engineered capillaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochon, Marie-Hélène; Fradette, Julie; Fortin, Véronique; Tomasetig, Florence; Roberge, Charles J; Baker, Kathleen; Berthod, François; Auger, François A; Germain, Lucie

    2010-05-01

    The survival of thick tissues/organs produced by tissue engineering requires rapid revascularization after grafting. Although capillary-like structures have been reconstituted in some engineered tissues, little is known about the interaction between normal epithelial cells and endothelial cells involved in the in vitro angiogenic process. In the present study, we used the self-assembly approach of tissue engineering to examine this relationship. An endothelialized tissue-engineered dermal substitute was produced by adding endothelial cells to the tissue-engineered dermal substitute produced by the self-assembly approach. The latter consists in culturing fibroblasts in the medium supplemented with serum and ascorbic acid. A network of tissue-engineered capillaries (TECs) formed within the human extracellular matrix produced by dermal fibroblasts. To determine whether epithelial cells modify TECs, the size and form of TECs were studied in the endothelialized tissue-engineered dermal substitute cultured in the presence or absence of epithelial cells. In the presence of normal keratinocytes from skin, cornea or uterine cervix, endothelial cells formed small TECs (cross-sectional area estimated at less than 50 microm(2)) reminiscent of capillaries found in the skin's microcirculation. In contrast, TECs grown in the absence of epithelial cells presented variable sizes (larger than 50 microm(2)), but the addition of keratinocyte-conditioned media or exogenous vascular endothelial growth factor induced their normalization toward a smaller size. Vascular endothelial growth factor neutralization inhibited the effect of keratinocyte-conditioned media. These results provide new direct evidence that normal human epithelial cells play a role in the regulation of the underlying TEC network, and advance our knowledge in tissue engineering for the production of TEC networks in vitro.

  11. Evaluation of biodegradable elastic scaffolds made of anionic polyurethane for cartilage tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Meng-Chao; Hung, Kun-Che; Hung, Shih-Chieh; Hsu, Shan-hui

    2015-01-01

    Biodegradable polyurethane (PU) was synthesized by a water-based process. The process rendered homogenous PU nanoparticles (NPs). Spongy PU scaffolds in large dimensions were obtained by freeze-drying the PU NP dispersion. The spongy scaffolds were characterized in terms of the porous structure, wettability, mechanical properties, degradation behavior, and degradation products. The capacity as cartilage tissue engineering scaffolds was evaluated by growing chondrocytes and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in the scaffolds. Scaffolds made from the PU dispersion had excellent hydrophilicity, porosity, and water absorption. Examination by micro-computed tomography confirmed that PU scaffolds had good pore interconnectivity. The degradation rate of the scaffolds in phosphate buffered saline was much faster than that in papain solution or in deionized water at 37°C. The biodegradable PU appeared to be degraded via the cleavage of ester linkage The intrinsic elastic property of PU and the gyroid-shape porous structure of the scaffolds may have accounted for the outstanding strain recovery (87%) and elongation behavior (257%) of the PU scaffolds, compared to conventional poly(d,l-lactide) (PLA) scaffolds. Chondrocytes were effectively seeded in PU scaffolds without pre-wetting. They grew better and secreted more glycosaminoglycan in PU scaffolds vs. PLA scaffolds. Human MSCs showed greater chondrogenic gene expression in PU scaffolds than in PLA scaffolds after induction. Based on the favorable hydrophilicity, elasticity, and regeneration capacities, the novel biodegradable PU scaffolds may be superior to the conventional biodegradable scaffolds in cartilage tissue engineering applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of proteomic search engines for the analysis of histone modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zuo-Fei; Lin, Shu; Molden, Rosalynn C; Garcia, Benjamin A

    2014-10-03

    Identification of histone post-translational modifications (PTMs) is challenging for proteomics search engines. Including many histone PTMs in one search increases the number of candidate peptides dramatically, leading to low search speed and fewer identified spectra. To evaluate database search engines on identifying histone PTMs, we present a method in which one kind of modification is searched each time, for example, unmodified, individually modified, and multimodified, each search result is filtered with false discovery rate less than 1%, and the identifications of multiple search engines are combined to obtain confident results. We apply this method for eight search engines on histone data sets. We find that two search engines, pFind and Mascot, identify most of the confident results at a reasonable speed, so we recommend using them to identify histone modifications. During the evaluation, we also find some important aspects for the analysis of histone modifications. Our evaluation of different search engines on identifying histone modifications will hopefully help those who are hoping to enter the histone proteomics field. The mass spectrometry proteomics data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium with the data set identifier PXD001118.

  13. In vitro evaluation of cytotoxicity of engineered metal oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu Xiaoke; Cook, Sean; Wang Peng [Department of Biology, Jackson State University, P.O. Box 18540, Jackson, MS 39217 (United States); Hwang Hueymin [Department of Biology, Jackson State University, P.O. Box 18540, Jackson, MS 39217 (United States)], E-mail: hwang@jsums.edu

    2009-04-01

    The recent advances in nanotechnology and the corresponding popular usage of nanomaterials have resulted in uncertainties regarding their environmental impacts. In this study, we used a systematic approach to study and compare the in vitro cytotoxicity of selected engineered metal oxide nanoparticles to the test organisms - E. coli. Among the seven test nano-sized metal oxides, ZnO, CuO, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3,} La{sub 2}O{sub 3,} Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3,} SnO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2,} ZnO showed the lowest LD{sub 50} of 21.1 mg/L and TiO{sub 2} had the highest LD{sub 50} of 1104.8 mg/L. Data of {sup 14}C-glucose mineralization test paralleled the results of bacteria viability test. After regression calculation, the cytotoxicity was found to be correlated with cation charges (R{sup 2} = 0.9785). The higher the cation charge is, the lower the cytotoxicity of the nano-sized metal oxide becomes. To the best of our knowledge, this finding is the first report in nanotoxicology.

  14. Sequential use of human-derived medium supplements favours cardiovascular tissue engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vis, Paul W. Riem; Sluijter, Joost P. G.; Soekhradj-Soechit, R. Sarita; van Herwerden, Lex A.; Kluin, Jolanda; Bouten, Carlijn V. C.

    2012-01-01

    For clinical application of tissue engineering strategies, the use of animal-derived serum in culture medium is not recommended, because it can evoke immune responses in patients. We previously observed that human platelet-lysate (PL) is favourable for cell expansion, but generates weaker tissue as

  15. Sequential use of human-derived medium supplements favours cardiovascular tissue engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vis, Paul W. Riem; Sluijter, Joost P. G.; Soekhradj-Soechit, R. Sarita; van Herwerden, Lex A.; Kluin, Jolanda; Bouten, Carlijn V. C.

    2012-01-01

    For clinical application of tissue engineering strategies, the use of animal-derived serum in culture medium is not recommended, because it can evoke immune responses in patients. We previously observed that human platelet-lysate (PL) is favourable for cell expansion, but generates weaker tissue as

  16. A search engine for retrieval and inspection of events with 48 human actions in realistic videos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burghouts, G.J.; Penning, H.L.H. de; Hove, R.J.M. ten; Landsmeer, S.; Broek, S.P. van den; Hollander, R.J.M.; Hanckmann, P.; Kruithof, M.C.; Leeuwen, C.J. van; Korzec, S.; Bouma, H.; Schutte, K.

    2013-01-01

    The contribution of this paper is a search engine that recognizes and describes 48 human actions in realistic videos. The core algorithms have been published recently, from the early visual processing (Bouma, 2012), discriminative recognition (Burghouts, 2012) and textual description (Hankmann, 2012

  17. Human factors engineering for the TERF (Tritium Emissions Reduction Facility) project. [Tritium Emissions Reduction Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedley, W.H.; Adams, F.S. (EG and G Mound Applied Technologies, Miamisburg, OH (USA)); Wells, J.E. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA))

    1990-12-14

    The Tritium Emissions Reduction Facility (TERF) is being built by EG G Mound Applied Technologies to provide improved control of the tritium emissions from gas streams being processed. Mound handles tritium in connection with production, development, research, disassembly, recovery, and surveillance operations. During these operations, a small fraction of the tritium being processed escapes from its original containment. The objective of this report is to describe the human factors engineering as performed in connection with the design, construction, and testing of the TERF as required in DOE Order 6430.1A, section 1300-12. Human factors engineering has been involved at each step of the process and was considered during the preliminary research on tritium capture before selecting the specific process to be used. Human factors engineering was also considered in determining the requirements for the TERF and when the specific design work was initiated on the facility and the process equipment. Finally, human factors engineering was used to plan the specific acceptance tests that will be made during TERF installation and after its completion. These tests will verify the acceptability of the final system and its components. 16 refs., 8 figs.

  18. Comparative DNA damage and transcriptomic effects of engineered nanoparticles in human lung cells in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    A series of six titanium dioxide and two cerium oxide engineered nanomaterials were assessed for their ability to induce cytotoxicity, reactive oxygen species (ROS), various types of DNA damage, and transcriptional changes in human respiratory BEAS-2B cells exposed in vitro at se...

  19. TDmat--Mathematics Diagnosis Evaluation Test for Engineering Sciences Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, J. S.; Oliveira, M. P.; Anjo, A. B.; Pais, S. I. Vieira; Isidro, R. O.; Silva, M. H.

    2007-01-01

    Since 1989, the Mathematics Education Project (PmatE--Projecto Matematica Ensino) has developed several strategies to improve the success of students in Mathematics. The most important of these are mathematical games for all grades above primary school. The online evaluation of Mathematics subjects is one of PmatE's goals. The implementation of an…

  20. TDmat--Mathematics Diagnosis Evaluation Test for Engineering Sciences Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, J. S.; Oliveira, M. P.; Anjo, A. B.; Pais, S. I. Vieira; Isidro, R. O.; Silva, M. H.

    2007-01-01

    Since 1989, the Mathematics Education Project (PmatE--Projecto Matematica Ensino) has developed several strategies to improve the success of students in Mathematics. The most important of these are mathematical games for all grades above primary school. The online evaluation of Mathematics subjects is one of PmatE's goals. The implementation of an…

  1. Ergonomics and human factors: the paradigms for science, engineering, design, technology and management of human-compatible systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karwowski, W

    2005-04-15

    This paper provides a theoretical perspective on human factors and ergonomics (HFE), defined as a unique and independent discipline that focuses on the nature of human-artefact interactions, viewed from the unified perspective of the science, engineering, design, technology and management of human-compatible systems. Such systems include a variety of natural and artificial products, processes and living environments. The distinguishing features of the contemporary HFE discipline and profession are discussed and a concept of ergonomics literacy is proposed. An axiomatic approach to ergonomics design and a universal measure of system-human incompatibility are also introduced. It is concluded that the main focus of the HFE discipline in the 21st century will be the design and management of systems that satisfy human compatibility requirements.

  2. Genetic engineering of human embryonic stem cells with lentiviral vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Chen; Tang, Dong-Qi; Xie, Chang-Qing; Zhang, Li; Xu, Ke-Feng; Thompson, Winston E; Chou, Wayne; Gibbons, Gary H; Chang, Lung-Ji; Yang, Li-Jun; Chen, Yuqing E

    2005-08-01

    Human embryonic stem (hES) cells present a valuable source of cells with a vast therapeutic potential. However, the low efficiency of directed differentiation of hES cells remains a major obstacle in their uses for regenerative medicine. While differentiation may be controlled by the genetic manipulation, effective and efficient gene transfer into hES cells has been an elusive goal. Here, we show stable and efficient genetic manipulations of hES cells using lentiviral vectors. This method resulted in the establishment of stable gene expression without loss of pluripotency in hES cells. In addition, lentiviral vectors were effective in conveying the expression of an U6 promoter-driven small interfering RNA (siRNA), which was effective in silencing its specific target. Taken together, our results suggest that lentiviral gene delivery holds great promise for hES cell research and application.

  3. Evaluation of a ubiquitous learning system in a design engineering environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vroom, R.W.; Horvath, I.; Rusak, Z.; De Smit, A.; Opiyo, E.Z.

    2012-01-01

    Ubiquitous computing is computing power that is integrated in devices and environments in such a way that they offer optimal support to human daily life activities. For industrial design engineering students, applying ubiquitous technologies offer a great opportunity and challenge for innovating eve

  4. Evaluation of a ubiquitous learning system in a design engineering environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vroom, R.W.; Horvath, I.; Rusak, Z.; De Smit, A.; Opiyo, E.Z.

    2012-01-01

    Ubiquitous computing is computing power that is integrated in devices and environments in such a way that they offer optimal support to human daily life activities. For industrial design engineering students, applying ubiquitous technologies offer a great opportunity and challenge for innovating

  5. Identification, Characterization, and Evaluation Criteria for Systems Engineering Agile Enablers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-16

    lifecycle, and the changing economic and political factors that undergird and enable system development. The ultimate result of the process is an evaluation...and political factors that undergird and enable system development. Perhaps one of the most important concepts in Agile SE is the reconciliation and...monitoring communications in social media groups and websites (such as LinkedIn or Facebook groups associated with the Scaled Agile Framework, Lean

  6. Genetically Engineered Corn Rootworm Resistance: Potential for Reduction of Human Health Effects From Pesticides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Objective and Methods Insecticide use, grower preferences regarding genetically engineered (GE) corn resistant to corn rootworm (CRW), and the health effects of using various CRW insecticides (organophosphates, pyrethroids, fipronil and carbamates) are reviewed for current and future farm practices. Results Pest damage to corn has been reduced only one-third by insecticide applications. Health costs from insecticide use appear significant, but costs attributable to CRW control are not quantifiable from available data. Methods reducing health-related costs of insecticide-based CRW control should be evaluated. As a first step, organophosphate insecticide use has been reduced as they have high acute toxicity and risk of long-term neurological consequences. A second step is to use agents which more specifically target the CRW. Conclusion Whereas current insecticides may be poisonous to many species of insects, birds, mammals and humans, a protein derived from Bacillus thurigiensis and produced in plants via genetic modification can target the specific insect of CRW (Coleoptra), sparing other insect and non-insect species from injury.

  7. Engineered Human Ferritin Nanoparticles for Direct Delivery of Tumor Antigens to Lymph Node and Cancer Immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bo-Ram; Ko, Ho Kyung; Ryu, Ju Hee; Ahn, Keum Young; Lee, Young-Ho; Oh, Se Jin; Na, Jin Hee; Kim, Tae Woo; Byun, Youngro; Kwon, Ick Chan; Kim, Kwangmeyung; Lee, Jeewon

    2016-01-01

    Efficient delivery of tumor-specific antigens (TSAs) to lymph nodes (LNs) is essential to eliciting robust immune response for cancer immunotherapy but still remains unsolved. Herein, we evaluated the direct LN-targeting performance of four different protein nanoparticles with different size, shape, and origin [Escherichia coli DNA binding protein (DPS), Thermoplasma acidophilum proteasome (PTS), hepatitis B virus capsid (HBVC), and human ferritin heavy chain (hFTN)] in live mice, using an optical fluorescence imaging system. Based on the imaging results, hFTN that shows rapid LN targeting and prolonged retention in LNs was chosen as a carrier of the model TSA [red fluorescence protein (RFP)], and the flexible surface architecture of hFTN was engineered to densely present RFPs on the hFTN surface through genetic modification of subunit protein of hFTN. The RFP-modified hFTN rapidly targeted LNs, sufficiently exposed RFPs to LN immune cells during prolonged period of retention in LNs, induced strong RFP-specific cytotoxic CD8+ T cell response, and notably inhibited RFP-expressing melanoma tumor growth in live mice. This suggests that the strategy using protein nanoparticles as both TSA-carrying scaffold and anti-cancer vaccine holds promise for clinically effective immunotherapy of cancer. PMID:27725782

  8. Human resources evaluation in a marketing organization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gutić Dragutin; Matković Ivan

    2009-01-01

    This work is first of all part of authors' initiated thinking in which in a certain way they try to promote the idea and need to accept and develop the concept of human resources management by marketing managers...

  9. Molecular basis of engineered meganuclease targeting of the endogenous human RAG1 locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Inés G; Prieto, Jesús; Subramanian, Sunita; Coloma, Javier; Redondo, Pilar; Villate, Maider; Merino, Nekane; Marenchino, Marco; D'Abramo, Marco; Gervasio, Francesco L; Grizot, Sylvestre; Daboussi, Fayza; Smith, Julianne; Chion-Sotinel, Isabelle; Pâques, Frédéric; Duchateau, Philippe; Alibés, Andreu; Stricher, François; Serrano, Luis; Blanco, Francisco J; Montoya, Guillermo

    2011-01-01

    Homing endonucleases recognize long target DNA sequences generating an accurate double-strand break that promotes gene targeting through homologous recombination. We have modified the homodimeric I-CreI endonuclease through protein engineering to target a specific DNA sequence within the human RAG1 gene. Mutations in RAG1 produce severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), a monogenic disease leading to defective immune response in the individuals, leaving them vulnerable to infectious diseases. The structures of two engineered heterodimeric variants and one single-chain variant of I-CreI, in complex with a 24-bp oligonucleotide of the human RAG1 gene sequence, show how the DNA binding is achieved through interactions in the major groove. In addition, the introduction of the G19S mutation in the neighborhood of the catalytic site lowers the reaction energy barrier for DNA cleavage without compromising DNA recognition. Gene-targeting experiments in human cell lines show that the designed single-chain molecule preserves its in vivo activity with higher specificity, further enhanced by the G19S mutation. This is the first time that an engineered meganuclease variant targets the human RAG1 locus by stimulating homologous recombination in human cell lines up to 265 bp away from the cleavage site. Our analysis illustrates the key features for à la carte procedure in protein-DNA recognition design, opening new possibilities for SCID patients whose illness can be treated ex vivo.

  10. The rotational velocities evaluation for the engine mounts gyroscopic loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan BOGOS

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The default values for the maximum pitch and yaw speeds from CS 23.371, seem to be too conservative that would result in overstressing of the structure.A simplified dynamic simulation is proposed to evaluate more confident velocities for a specific aircraft. The yawing condition is related to the “sudden rudder deflection” and a maneuver with “lateral gust”. The pitching conditions are a result of a “sudden elevator deflection”. The model takes into account the nonlinear effects of the aerodynamic coefficients and controls efficiencies.

  11. Evaluation of the Migrating Combustion Chamber (MCC) Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE OHINo. 0704-018 Pubk repatng burden bv hs cBig da inimmaion is wabdd lo aage 1 hour p. e .r wkdud toor Isen kN imo.ng ismucm...2. REPORT DATE 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED I January 1993 Final 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Evaluation of the Migrating Combustion...Data Energy Balance Data Point Date Torque Speed Power Air Flow T1 T2 Delta T(*K) Number (oz-in) (rpm) (hp) (CFM) (IF) (OF) 23-Aug 1 3470 0.004 165 82

  12. An Engineering Evaluation of Spherical Resorcinol Formaldehyde Resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birdwell Jr, Joseph F [ORNL; Lee, Denise L [ORNL; Taylor, Paul Allen [ORNL; Collins, Robert T [ORNL; Hunt, Rodney Dale [ORNL

    2010-09-01

    A small column ion exchange (SCIX) system has been proposed for removal of cesium from caustic, supernatant, and dissolved salt solutions stored or generated from high-level tank wastes at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site and Savannah River Sites. In both instances, deployment of SCIX systems, either in-tank or near-tank, is a means of expediting waste pretreatment and dispositioning with minimal or no new infrastructure requirements. Conceptually, the treatment approach can utilize a range of ion exchange media. Previously, both crystalline silicotitanate (CST), an inorganic, nonelutable sorbent, and resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF), an organic, elutable resin, have been considered for cesium removal from tank waste. More recently, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) evaluated use of SuperLig{reg_sign} 644, an elutable ion exchange medium, for the subject application. Results of testing indicate hydraulic limitations of the SuperLig{reg_sign} resin, specifically a high pressure drop through packed ion exchange columns. This limitation is likely the result of swelling and shrinkage of the irregularly shaped (granular) resin during repeated conversions between sodium and hydrogen forms as the resin is first loaded then eluted. It is anticipated that a similar flow limitation would exist in columns packed with conventional, granular RF resin. However, use of spherical RF resin is a likely means of mitigating processing limitations due to excessive pressure drop. Although size changes occur as the spherical resin is cycled through loading and elution operations, the geometry of the resin is expected to effectively mitigate the close packing that leads to high pressure drops across ion exchange columns. Multiple evaluations have been performed to determine the feasibility of using spherical RF resin and to obtain data necessary for design of an SCIX process. The work performed consisted of examination of radiation effects on resin performance

  13. Performance evaluation of trimethylamine-carbon dioxide thermolytic draw solution for engineered osmosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boo, C; Khalil, YF; Elimelech, M

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the performance of trimethylamine-carbon dioxide (TMA-CO2) as a potential thermolytic draw solution for engineered osmosis. Water flux and reverse solute flux with TMA-CO2 draw solution were measured in forward osmosis (FO) and pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) modes using thin-film composite (TFC) and cellulose triacetate (CTA) FO membranes. Water flux with the TMA-CO2 draw solution was comparable to that obtained with the more common ammonia-carbon dioxide (NH3-CO2) thermolytic draw solution at similar (1 M) concentration. Using a TFC-FO membrane, the water fluxes produced by 1 M TMA-CO2 and NH3-CO2 draw solutions with a DI water feed were, respectively, 33.4 and 35.6 L m(-2) h(-1) in PRO mode and 14.5 and 152 L m(-2) h(-1) in FO mode. Reverse draw permeation of TMA-CO2 was relatively low compared to NH3-CO2, ranging from 0.1 to 0.2 mol m(-2) h(-1) in all experiments, due to the larger molecular size of TMA. Thermal separation and recovery efficiency for TMA-CO2 was compared to NH3-CO2 by modeling low-temperature vacuum distillation utilizing low-grade heat sources. We also discuss possible challenges in the use TMA-CO2, including potential adverse impact on human health and environments. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Engine Company Evaluation of Feasibility of Aircraft Retrofit Water-Injected Turbomachines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Arthur

    2006-01-01

    This study supports the NASA Glenn Research Center and the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory in their efforts to evaluate the effect of water injection on aircraft engine performance and emissions. In this study, water is only injected during the takeoff and initial climb phase of a flight. There is no water injection during engine start or ground operations, nor during climb, cruise, descent, or landing. This study determined the maintenance benefit of water injection during takeoff and initial climb and evaluated the feasibility of retrofitting a current production engine, the PW4062 (Pratt & Whitney, East Hartford, CT), with a water injection system. Predicted NO(x) emissions based on a 1:1 water-tofuel ratio are likely to be reduced between 30 to 60 percent in Environmental Protection Agency parameter (EPAP). The maintenance cost benefit for an idealized combustor water injection system installed on a PW4062 engine in a Boeing 747-400ER aircraft (The Boeing Company, Chicago, IL) is computed to be $22 per engine flight hour (EFH). Adding water injection as a retrofit kit would cost up to $375,000 per engine because of the required modifications to the fuel system and addition of the water supply system. There would also be significant nonrecurring costs associated with the development and certification of the system that may drive the system price beyond affordability.

  15. Angiogenesis in tissue-engineered nerves evaluated objectively using MICROFIL perfusion and micro-CT scanning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-kui Wang; Ya-xian Wang; Cheng-bin Xue; Zhen-mei-yu Li; Jing Huang; Ya-hong Zhao; Yu-min Yang; Xiao-song Gu

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenesis is a key process in regenerative medicine generally, as well as in the speciifc ifeld of nerve regeneration. However, no conve-nient and objective method for evaluating the angiogenesis of tissue-engineered nerves has been reported. In this study, tissue-engineered nerves were constructedin vitro using Schwann cells differentiated from rat skin-derived precursors as supporting cells and chitosan nerve conduits combined with silk ifbroin ifbers as scaffolds to bridge 10-mm sciatic nerve defects in rats. Four weeks after surgery, three-di-mensional blood vessel reconstructions were made through MICROFIL perfusion and micro-CT scanning, and parameter analysis of the tissue-engineered nerves was performed. New blood vessels grew into the tissue-engineered nerves from three main directions: the prox-imal end, the distal end, and the middle. The parameter analysis of the three-dimensional blood vessel images yielded several parameters, including the number, diameter, connection, and spatial distribution of blood vessels. The new blood vessels were mainly capillaries and microvessels, with diameters ranging from 9 to 301µm. The blood vessels with diameters from 27 to 155µm accounted for 82.84% of the new vessels. The microvessels in the tissue-engineered nerves implantedin vivo were relatively well-identiifed using the MICROFIL perfusion and micro-CT scanning method, which allows the evaluation and comparison of differences and changes of angiogenesis in tis-sue-engineered nerves implantedin vivo.

  16. Performance Evaluation of Particle Sampling Probes for Emission Measurements of Aircraft Jet Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Poshin; Chen, Da-Ren; Sanders, Terry (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Considerable attention has been recently received on the impact of aircraft-produced aerosols upon the global climate. Sampling particles directly from jet engines has been performed by different research groups in the U.S. and Europe. However, a large variation has been observed among published data on the conversion efficiency and emission indexes of jet engines. The variation results surely from the differences in test engine types, engine operation conditions, and environmental conditions. The other factor that could result in the observed variation is the performance of sampling probes used. Unfortunately, it is often neglected in the jet engine community. Particle losses during the sampling, transport, and dilution processes are often not discussed/considered in literatures. To address this issue, we evaluated the performance of one sampling probe by challenging it with monodisperse particles. A significant performance difference was observed on the sampling probe evaluated under different temperature conditions. Thermophoretic effect, nonisokinetic sampling and turbulence loss contribute to the loss of particles in sampling probes. The results of this study show that particle loss can be dramatic if the sampling probe is not well designed. Further, the result allows ones to recover the actual size distributions emitted from jet engines.

  17. International evaluation of current and future requirements for environmental engineering education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenroth, E; Daigger, G T; Ledin, A; Keller, J

    2004-01-01

    The field of environmental engineering is developing as a result of changing environmental requirements. In response, environmental engineering education (E3) needs to ensure that it provides students with the necessary tools to address these challenges. In this paper the current status and future development of E3 is evaluated based on a questionnaire sent to universities and potential employers of E3 graduates. With increasing demands on environmental quality, the complexity of environmental engineering problems to be solved can be expected to increase. To find solutions environmental engineers will need to work in interdisciplinary teams. Based on the questionnaire there was a broad agreement that the best way to prepare students for these future challenges is to provide them with a fundamental education in basic sciences and related engineering fields. Many exciting developments in the environmental engineering profession will be located at the interface between engineering, science, and society. Aspects of all three areas need to be included in E3 and the student needs to be exposed to the tensions associated with linking the three.

  18. Phased Array Ultrasonic Evaluation of Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) Nozzle Weld

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Steve; Engel, J.; Kimbrough, D.; Suits, M.; Hopson, George (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of the phased array ultrasonic evaluation of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) nozzle weld. Details are given on the nondestructive testing evaluation approach, conventional shear wave and phased array techniques, and an x-ray versus phased array risk analysis. The field set-up was duplicated to the greatest extent possible in the laboratory and the phased array ultrasonic technique was developed and validated prior to weld evaluation. Results are shown for the phased array ultrasonic evaluation and conventional ultrasonic evaluation results.

  19. Tissue-engineered human bioartificial muscles expressing a foreign recombinant protein for gene therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, C.; Shansky, J.; Del Tatto, M.; Forman, D. E.; Hennessey, J.; Sullivan, K.; Zielinski, B. A.; Vandenburgh, H. H.

    1999-01-01

    Murine skeletal muscle cells transduced with foreign genes and tissue engineered in vitro into bioartificial muscles (BAMs) are capable of long-term delivery of soluble growth factors when implanted into syngeneic mice (Vandenburgh et al., 1996b). With the goal of developing a therapeutic cell-based protein delivery system for humans, similar genetic tissue-engineering techniques were designed for human skeletal muscle stem cells. Stem cell myoblasts were isolated, cloned, and expanded in vitro from biopsied healthy adult (mean age, 42 +/- 2 years), and elderly congestive heart failure patient (mean age, 76 +/- 1 years) skeletal muscle. Total cell yield varied widely between biopsies (50 to 672 per 100 mg of tissue, N = 10), but was not significantly different between the two patient groups. Percent myoblasts per biopsy (73 +/- 6%), number of myoblast doublings prior to senescence in vitro (37 +/- 2), and myoblast doubling time (27 +/- 1 hr) were also not significantly different between the two patient groups. Fusion kinetics of the myoblasts were similar for the two groups after 20-22 doublings (74 +/- 2% myoblast fusion) when the biopsy samples had been expanded to 1 to 2 billion muscle cells, a number acceptable for human gene therapy use. The myoblasts from the two groups could be equally transduced ex vivo with replication-deficient retroviral expression vectors to secrete 0.5 to 2 microg of a foreign protein (recombinant human growth hormone, rhGH)/10(6) cells/day, and tissue engineered into human BAMs containing parallel arrays of differentiated, postmitotic myofibers. This work suggests that autologous human skeletal myoblasts from a potential patient population can be isolated, genetically modified to secrete foreign proteins, and tissue engineered into implantable living protein secretory devices for therapeutic use.

  20. Tissue-engineered human bioartificial muscles expressing a foreign recombinant protein for gene therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, C.; Shansky, J.; Del Tatto, M.; Forman, D. E.; Hennessey, J.; Sullivan, K.; Zielinski, B. A.; Vandenburgh, H. H.

    1999-01-01

    Murine skeletal muscle cells transduced with foreign genes and tissue engineered in vitro into bioartificial muscles (BAMs) are capable of long-term delivery of soluble growth factors when implanted into syngeneic mice (Vandenburgh et al., 1996b). With the goal of developing a therapeutic cell-based protein delivery system for humans, similar genetic tissue-engineering techniques were designed for human skeletal muscle stem cells. Stem cell myoblasts were isolated, cloned, and expanded in vitro from biopsied healthy adult (mean age, 42 +/- 2 years), and elderly congestive heart failure patient (mean age, 76 +/- 1 years) skeletal muscle. Total cell yield varied widely between biopsies (50 to 672 per 100 mg of tissue, N = 10), but was not significantly different between the two patient groups. Percent myoblasts per biopsy (73 +/- 6%), number of myoblast doublings prior to senescence in vitro (37 +/- 2), and myoblast doubling time (27 +/- 1 hr) were also not significantly different between the two patient groups. Fusion kinetics of the myoblasts were similar for the two groups after 20-22 doublings (74 +/- 2% myoblast fusion) when the biopsy samples had been expanded to 1 to 2 billion muscle cells, a number acceptable for human gene therapy use. The myoblasts from the two groups could be equally transduced ex vivo with replication-deficient retroviral expression vectors to secrete 0.5 to 2 microg of a foreign protein (recombinant human growth hormone, rhGH)/10(6) cells/day, and tissue engineered into human BAMs containing parallel arrays of differentiated, postmitotic myofibers. This work suggests that autologous human skeletal myoblasts from a potential patient population can be isolated, genetically modified to secrete foreign proteins, and tissue engineered into implantable living protein secretory devices for therapeutic use.

  1. FORMALIZATION OF DIESEL ENGINE OPERATION CONSIDERING THE EVALUATION OF VELOCITY DURING THE COMBUSTION PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Litvinenko

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Under modern conditions the applying methods and design models as well as the evaluation of the operational characteristics of diesel engines do not completely take into consideration the specifics of the combustion processes. In part, such situation is characterized by the complexity of considering of varied by its nature processes that haven’t been completely investigated. In this context it is necessary to find the new methods and models which would provide relatively simple solutions through the use of integrated factors based on the analysis of parameters of diesel engines. Methodology. The proposed algorithms for the estimating of the combustion process in the form of volumetric and linear velocities is based on the well-known parameters of power and mean effective pressure and allows to compare the efficiency of their behavior in various versions of diesel engines. Findings. The author specified that the volumetric / linear velocity ratio is characterized by some strength and depends on the geometric dimensions of the cylinder-piston group. Due to the assumptions it has become possible to consider the operation of a diesel engine as a system comprising: 1 the subsystem that provides the possibility of obtaining the thermal energy; 2 the subsystem providing the thermal energy transformation; 3 the subsystem that provides the necessary diesel engine power depending on terms of combustion of air-fuel mixture. Originality. The author of the paper proposed the indices of volumetric and linear combustion velocity of air-fuel mixture in the engine cylinder, that allow to obtain the comparative value in different modifications taking into account the possible choice of optimum ratio. Practical value. The usage of indices of volumetric and linear velocities of the combustion processes in the engine cylinder combined with a mathematical model will simplify the method of diesels calculating. Parametric indices of the mentioned velocities

  2. Evaluation technology of human behavior cognition; Ningen kodo ninchi hyoka gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    For human engineering and improvement of the living environment, the evaluation technology of human behavior cognition was studied. For the future reformation and creation of economic structure, the following are required: establishment of safe and affluent communities, further improvement of the safety and harmonious balance of people, lives and society, and R & D close to people and social needs. Introduction of Product Liability law and a fail-safe concept are examples of such efforts. However, since many accidents are found in the human society, the relation between human errors and human characteristics should be studied in detail. The cognitive science of human behavior is an objective evaluation technology from the viewpoint of human being, object, environment and society. Based on these social and technological background, the feasibility of the evaluation technology is studied, and the future trend and skeleton of this project are clarified. The domestic and foreign trends of technologies concerned are thus surveyed, and the important points, features, skeleton and ripple effect of the technology are summarized. 500 refs., 70 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. IARC Monographs: 40 Years of Evaluating Carcinogenic Hazards to Humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pearce, Neil E; Blair, Aaron; Vineis, Paolo; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Andersen, Aage; Anto, Josep M; Armstrong, Bruce K; Baccarelli, Andrea A; Beland, Frederick A; Berrington, Amy; Bertazzi, Pier A; Birnbaum, Linda S; Brownson, Ross C; Bucher, John R; Cantor, Kenneth P; Cardis, Elisabeth; Cherrie, John W; Christiani, David C; Cocco, Pierluigi; Coggon, David; Comba, Pietro; Demers, Paul A; Dement, John M; Douwes, Jeroen; Eisen, Ellen A; Engel, Lawrence S; Fenske, Richard A; Fleming, Lora E; Fletcher, Tony; Fontham, Elizabeth; Forastiere, Francesco; Frentzel-Beyme, Rainer; Fritschi, Lin; Gerin, Michel; Goldberg, Marcel; Grandjean, Philippe; Grimsrud, Tom K; Gustavsson, Per; Haines, Andy; Hartge, Patricia; Hansen, Johnni; Hauptmann, Michael; Heederik, Dick; Hemminki, Kari; Hemon, Denis; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Hoppin, Jane A; Huff, James; Jarvholm, Bengt; Kang, Daehee; Karagas, Margaret R; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Kjuus, Helge; Kogevinas, Manolis; Kriebel, David; Kristensen, Petter; Kromhout, Hans; Laden, Francine; Lebailly, Pierre; LeMasters, Grace; Lubin, Jay H; Lynch, Charles F; Lynge, Elsebeth; 't Mannetje, Andrea; McMichael, Anthony J; McLaughlin, John R; Marrett, Loraine; Martuzzi, Marco; Merchant, James A; Merler, Enzo; Merletti, Franco; Miller, Anthony; Mirer, Franklin E; Monson, Richard; Nordby, Karl-Kristian; Olshan, Andrew F; Parent, Marie-Elise; Perera, Frederica P; Perry, Melissa J; Pesatori, Angela C; Pirastu, Roberta; Porta, Miquel; Pukkala, Eero; Rice, Carol; Richardson, David B; Ritter, Leonard; Ritz, Beate; Ronckers, Cecile M; Rushton, Lesley; Rusiecki, Jennifer A; Rusyn, Ivan; Samet, Jonathan M; Sandler, Dale P; de Sanjose, Silvia; Schernhammer, Eva; Seniori Constantini, Adele; Seixas, Noah; Shy, Carl; Siemiatycki, Jack; Silvermann, Debra T; Simonato, Lorenzo; Smith, Allan H; Smith, Martyn T; Spinelli, John J; Spitz, Margaret R; Stallones, Lorann; Stayner, Leslie T; Steenland, Kyle; Stenzel, Mark; Stewart, Bernard W; Stewart, Patricia A; Symanski, Elaine; Terracini, Benedetto; Tolbert, Paige E; Vainio, Harri; Vena, John; Vermeulen, Roel; Victora, Cesar G; Ward, Elizabeth M; Weinberg, Clarice R; Weisenburger, Dennis; Wesseling, Catharina; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Zahm, Shelia H

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recently the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Programme for the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans has been criticized for several of its evaluations, and also the approach used to perform these evaluations. Some critics have claimed that IARC Working Groups' fa

  4. IARC Monographs: 40 Years of Evaluating Carcinogenic Hazards to Humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pearce, Neil E; Blair, Aaron; Vineis, Paolo; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Andersen, Aage; Anto, Josep M; Armstrong, Bruce K; Baccarelli, Andrea A; Beland, Frederick A; Berrington, Amy; Bertazzi, Pier A; Birnbaum, Linda S; Brownson, Ross C; Bucher, John R; Cantor, Kenneth P; Cardis, Elisabeth; Cherrie, John W; Christiani, David C; Cocco, Pierluigi; Coggon, David; Comba, Pietro; Demers, Paul A; Dement, John M; Douwes, Jeroen; Eisen, Ellen A; Engel, Lawrence S; Fenske, Richard A; Fleming, Lora E; Fletcher, Tony; Fontham, Elizabeth; Forastiere, Francesco; Frentzel-Beyme, Rainer; Fritschi, Lin; Gerin, Michel; Goldberg, Marcel; Grandjean, Philippe; Grimsrud, Tom K; Gustavsson, Per; Haines, Andy; Hartge, Patricia; Hansen, Johnni; Hauptmann, Michael; Heederik, Dick; Hemminki, Kari; Hemon, Denis; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Hoppin, Jane A; Huff, James; Jarvholm, Bengt; Kang, Daehee; Karagas, Margaret R; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Kjuus, Helge; Kogevinas, Manolis; Kriebel, David; Kristensen, Petter; Kromhout, Hans; Laden, Francine; Lebailly, Pierre; LeMasters, Grace; Lubin, Jay H; Lynch, Charles F; Lynge, Elsebeth; 't Mannetje, Andrea; McMichael, Anthony J; McLaughlin, John R; Marrett, Loraine; Martuzzi, Marco; Merchant, James A; Merler, Enzo; Merletti, Franco; Miller, Anthony; Mirer, Franklin E; Monson, Richard; Nordby, Karl-Kristian; Olshan, Andrew F; Parent, Marie-Elise; Perera, Frederica P; Perry, Melissa J; Pesatori, Angela C; Pirastu, Roberta; Porta, Miquel; Pukkala, Eero; Rice, Carol; Richardson, David B; Ritter, Leonard; Ritz, Beate; Ronckers, Cecile M; Rushton, Lesley; Rusiecki, Jennifer A; Rusyn, Ivan; Samet, Jonathan M; Sandler, Dale P; de Sanjose, Silvia; Schernhammer, Eva; Seniori Constantini, Adele; Seixas, Noah; Shy, Carl; Siemiatycki, Jack; Silvermann, Debra T; Simonato, Lorenzo; Smith, Allan H; Smith, Martyn T; Spinelli, John J; Spitz, Margaret R; Stallones, Lorann; Stayner, Leslie T; Steenland, Kyle; Stenzel, Mark; Stewart, Bernard W; Stewart, Patricia A; Symanski, Elaine; Terracini, Benedetto; Tolbert, Paige E; Vainio, Harri; Vena, John; Vermeulen, Roel; Victora, Cesar G; Ward, Elizabeth M; Weinberg, Clarice R; Weisenburger, Dennis; Wesseling, Catharina; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Zahm, Shelia H

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recently the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Programme for the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans has been criticized for several of its evaluations, and also the approach used to perform these evaluations. Some critics have claimed that IARC Working Groups' fa

  5. IARC Monographs: 40 Years of Evaluating Carcinogenic Hazards to Humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pearce, Neil E; Blair, Aaron; Vineis, Paolo; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Andersen, Aage; Anto, Josep M; Armstrong, Bruce K; Baccarelli, Andrea A; Beland, Frederick A; Berrington, Amy; Bertazzi, Pier A; Birnbaum, Linda S; Brownson, Ross C; Bucher, John R; Cantor, Kenneth P; Cardis, Elisabeth; Cherrie, John W; Christiani, David C; Cocco, Pierluigi; Coggon, David; Comba, Pietro; Demers, Paul A; Dement, John M; Douwes, Jeroen; Eisen, Ellen A; Engel, Lawrence S; Fenske, Richard A; Fleming, Lora E; Fletcher, Tony; Fontham, Elizabeth; Forastiere, Francesco; Frentzel-Beyme, Rainer; Fritschi, Lin; Gerin, Michel; Goldberg, Marcel; Grandjean, Philippe; Grimsrud, Tom K; Gustavsson, Per; Haines, Andy; Hartge, Patricia; Hansen, Johnni; Hauptmann, Michael; Heederik, Dick|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072910542; Hemminki, Kari; Hemon, Denis; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Hoppin, Jane A; Huff, James; Jarvholm, Bengt; Kang, Daehee; Karagas, Margaret R; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Kjuus, Helge; Kogevinas, Manolis; Kriebel, David; Kristensen, Petter; Kromhout, Hans|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074385224; Laden, Francine; Lebailly, Pierre; LeMasters, Grace; Lubin, Jay H; Lynch, Charles F; Lynge, Elsebeth; 't Mannetje, Andrea; McMichael, Anthony J; McLaughlin, John R; Marrett, Loraine; Martuzzi, Marco; Merchant, James A; Merler, Enzo; Merletti, Franco; Miller, Anthony; Mirer, Franklin E; Monson, Richard; Nordby, Karl-Kristian; Olshan, Andrew F; Parent, Marie-Elise; Perera, Frederica P; Perry, Melissa J; Pesatori, Angela C; Pirastu, Roberta; Porta, Miquel; Pukkala, Eero; Rice, Carol; Richardson, David B; Ritter, Leonard; Ritz, Beate; Ronckers, Cecile M; Rushton, Lesley; Rusiecki, Jennifer A; Rusyn, Ivan; Samet, Jonathan M; Sandler, Dale P; de Sanjose, Silvia; Schernhammer, Eva; Seniori Constantini, Adele; Seixas, Noah; Shy, Carl; Siemiatycki, Jack; Silvermann, Debra T; Simonato, Lorenzo; Smith, Allan H; Smith, Martyn T; Spinelli, John J; Spitz, Margaret R; Stallones, Lorann; Stayner, Leslie T; Steenland, Kyle; Stenzel, Mark; Stewart, Bernard W; Stewart, Patricia A; Symanski, Elaine; Terracini, Benedetto; Tolbert, Paige E; Vainio, Harri; Vena, John; Vermeulen, Roel|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/216532620; Victora, Cesar G; Ward, Elizabeth M; Weinberg, Clarice R; Weisenburger, Dennis; Wesseling, Catharina; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Zahm, Shelia H

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recently the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Programme for the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans has been criticized for several of its evaluations, and also the approach used to perform these evaluations. Some critics have claimed that IARC Working Groups'

  6. TOXICITY EVALUATION OF NEW ENGINEERED NANOMATERIALS IN ZEBRAFISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Violetta Brundo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the nanoparticles on the marine organisms, depends on their size, chemical composition, surface structure, solubility and shape.In order to take advantage from their activity, preserving the surrounding environment from a possible pollution, we are trying to trap the nanoparticles into new nanomaterials. The nanomaterials tested were synthesized proposing a ground-breaking approach by an upside-down vision of the Au/TiO2nano-system to avoid the release of nanoparticles. The system was synthesized by wrapping Au nanoparticles with a thin layer of TiO2. The non-toxicity of the nano-system was established by testing the effect of the material on zebrafish larvae. Danio rerio o zebrafish was considered a excellent model for the environmental biomonitoring of aquatic environments and the Zebrafish Embryo Toxicity Test is considered an alternative method of animal test. For this reason zebrafish larvae were exposed to different concentrations of nanoparticles of TiO2 and Au and new nanomaterials. As biomarkers of exposure, we evaluated the expression of metallothioneins by immunohistochemistry analysis and western blotting analysis also. The results obtained by toxicity test showed that neither mortality as well as sublethal effects were induced by the different nanomaterials and nanoparticles tested. Only zebrafish larvae exposed to free Au nanoparticles showed a different response to anti-MT antibody. In fact, the immunolocalization analysis highlighted an increase of the metallothioneins synthesis.

  7. The case for applying tissue engineering methodologies to instruct human organoid morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti-Figueroa, Carlos R; Ashton, Randolph S

    2017-05-01

    Three-dimensional organoids derived from human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) derivatives have become widely used in vitro models for studying development and disease. Their ability to recapitulate facets of normal human development during in vitro morphogenesis produces tissue structures with unprecedented biomimicry. Current organoid derivation protocols primarily rely on spontaneous morphogenesis processes to occur within 3-D spherical cell aggregates with minimal to no exogenous control. This yields organoids containing microscale regions of biomimetic tissues, but at the macroscale (i.e. 100's of microns to millimeters), the organoids' morphology, cytoarchitecture, and cellular composition are non-biomimetic and variable. The current lack of control over in vitro organoid morphogenesis at the microscale induces aberrations at the macroscale, which impedes realization of the technology's potential to reproducibly form anatomically correct human tissue units that could serve as optimal human in vitro models and even transplants. Here, we review tissue engineering methodologies that could be used to develop powerful approaches for instructing multiscale, 3-D human organoid morphogenesis. Such technological mergers are critically needed to harness organoid morphogenesis as a tool for engineering functional human tissues with biomimetic anatomy and physiology. Human PSC-derived 3-D organoids are revolutionizing the biomedical sciences. They enable the study of development and disease within patient-specific genetic backgrounds and unprecedented biomimetic tissue microenvironments. However, their uncontrolled, spontaneous morphogenesis at the microscale yields inconsistences in macroscale organoid morphology, cytoarchitecture, and cellular composition that limits their standardization and application. Integration of tissue engineering methods with organoid derivation protocols could allow us to harness their potential by instructing standardized in vitro morphogenesis

  8. Explore-create-share study: An evaluation of teachers as curriculum innovators in engineering education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Ayora

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a curriculum design-based (CDB) professional development model on K-12 teachers' capacity to integrate engineering education in the classroom. This teacher professional development approach differs from other training programs where teachers learn how to use a standard curriculum and adopt it in their classrooms. In a CDB professional development model teachers actively design lessons, student resources, and assessments for their classroom instruction. In other science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) disciplines, CDB professional development has been reported to (a) position teachers as architects of change, (b) provide a professional learning vehicle for educators to reflect on instructional practices and develop content knowledge, (c) inspire a sense of ownership in curriculum decision-making among teachers, and (d) use an instructional approach that is coherent with teachers' interests and professional goals. The CDB professional development program in this study used the Explore-Create-Share (ECS) framework as an instructional model to support teacher-led curriculum design and implementation. To evaluate the impact of the CDB professional development and associated ECS instructional model, three research studies were conducted. In each study, the participants completed a six-month CDB professional development program, the PTC STEM Certificate Program, that included sixty-two instructional contact hours. Participants learned about industry and education engineering concepts, tested engineering curricula, collaborated with K-12 educators and industry professionals, and developed project-based engineering curricula using the ECS framework. The first study evaluated the impact of the CDB professional development program on teachers' engineering knowledge, self-efficacy in designing engineering curriculum, and instructional practice in developing project-based engineering units. The study

  9. Human Factors Engineering and Ergonomics Analysis for the Canister Storage Building (CSB) Results and Findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GARVIN, L.J.

    1999-09-20

    The purpose for this supplemental report is to follow-up and update the information in SNF-3907, Human Factors Engineering (HFE) Analysis: Results and Findings. This supplemental report responds to applicable U.S. Department of Energy Safety Analysis Report review team comments and questions. This Human Factors Engineering and Ergonomics (HFE/Erg) analysis was conducted from April 1999 to July 1999; SNF-3907 was based on analyses accomplished in October 1998. The HFE/Erg findings presented in this report and SNF-3907, along with the results of HNF-3553, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project, Final Safety Analysis Report, Annex A, ''Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report,'' Chapter A3.0, ''Hazards and Accidents Analyses,'' provide the technical basis for preparing or updating HNF-3553. Annex A, Chaptex A13.0, ''Human Factors Engineering.'' The findings presented in this report allow the HNF-3553 Chapter 13.0, ''Human Factors,'' to respond fully to the HFE requirements established in DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports.

  10. Human and mouse tissue-engineered small intestine both demonstrate digestive and absorptive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Christa N; Mojica, Salvador Garcia; Sala, Frederic G; Hill, J Ryan; Levin, Daniel E; Speer, Allison L; Barthel, Erik R; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Zachos, Nicholas C; Grikscheit, Tracy C

    2015-04-15

    Short bowel syndrome (SBS) is a devastating condition in which insufficient small intestinal surface area results in malnutrition and dependence on intravenous parenteral nutrition. There is an increasing incidence of SBS, particularly in premature babies and newborns with congenital intestinal anomalies. Tissue-engineered small intestine (TESI) offers a therapeutic alternative to the current standard treatment, intestinal transplantation, and has the potential to solve its biggest challenges, namely donor shortage and life-long immunosuppression. We have previously demonstrated that TESI can be generated from mouse and human small intestine and histologically replicates key components of native intestine. We hypothesized that TESI also recapitulates native small intestine function. Organoid units were generated from mouse or human donor intestine and implanted into genetically identical or immunodeficient host mice. After 4 wk, TESI was harvested and either fixed and paraffin embedded or immediately subjected to assays to illustrate function. We demonstrated that both mouse and human tissue-engineered small intestine grew into an appropriately polarized sphere of intact epithelium facing a lumen, contiguous with supporting mesenchyme, muscle, and stem/progenitor cells. The epithelium demonstrated major ultrastructural components, including tight junctions and microvilli, transporters, and functional brush-border and digestive enzymes. This study demonstrates that tissue-engineered small intestine possesses a well-differentiated epithelium with intact ion transporters/channels, functional brush-border enzymes, and similar ultrastructural components to native tissue, including progenitor cells, whether derived from mouse or human cells.

  11. Quantitative Evaluation of the Stability of Engineered Water Soluble Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvihill, M. J.; Habas, S.; Mokari, T.; Wan, J.

    2009-12-01

    Stability of nanoparticle solutions is a key factor dictating the bioavailability and transport characteristics of nanoparticles (NPs) in the environment. The synthesis of materials with dimensions less than 100 nm relies on the ability to stabilize surfaces. If the stabilization of the material is disrupted by aggregation, precipitation, or dissolution, the chemical and physical properties often revert to the properties of the bulk material or molecular constituents. We synthesized CdSe and gold NPs, and studied their aggregation rate and the critical coagulation concentration (CCC) using Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS). The chemical and physical properties of our NPs have been characterized by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), UV-VIS spectroscopy, IR spectroscopy, Zeta potential measurements, and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) measurements. This comprehensive approach to synthesis and characterization enables the isolation of design parameters with greater precision that can be obtained using commercially available NPs. This research evaluates NP design parameters including composition, size, and surface coating, as a function of concentration, pH, and ionic strength, to determine which factors most affect NP stability. The aggregation characteristics of both gold NPs and cadmium selinide NPs, which are between 2-12 nm in diameter, and have been capped with various ligands, have been studied. While previous work demonstrates that these variables influence stability, it does not systematically compare their relative significance. Our results indicate that changing the ligand shell radically affects the stability of NP as a function of both pH and ionic strength, while changing the material from CdSe to gold has only a moderate influence on the stability and aggregation characteristics of our particles. Additionally, the ligand charge, length, and binding affinity all significantly effect NP stability. Funding was provided by the U.S. Department of Energy

  12. The Design and Evaluation of a Cryptography Teaching Strategy for Software Engineering Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, T.

    2006-01-01

    The present paper describes the design, implementation and evaluation of a cryptography module for final-year software engineering students. The emphasis is on implementation architectures and practical cryptanalysis rather than a standard mathematical approach. The competitive continuous assessment process reflects this approach and rewards…

  13. Evaluating Educational Software Authoring Environments Using a Model Based on Software Engineering and Instructional Design Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collis, Betty A.; Gore, Marilyn

    1987-01-01

    This study suggests a new model for the evaluation of educational software authoring systems and applies this model to a particular authoring system, CSR Trainer 4000. The model used is based on an integrated set of software engineering and instructional design principles. (Author/LRW)

  14. Multimedia Modeling of engineered Nanoparticles with SimpleBox4Nano: Model Definition and Evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meesters, J.; Koelmans, A.A.; Quik, J.T.K.; Hendriks, A.J.; Meent, van de D.

    2014-01-01

    Screening level models for environmental assessment of engineered nanoparticles (ENP) are not generally available. Here we present SimpleBox for Nano (SB4N) as the first model of this type, motivate its validity and evaluate it by comparisons with a known material flow model. SB4N expresses ENP tran

  15. Women in engineering program advocates network (WEPAN): Evaluation of the fourth annual conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brainard, S.G.

    1994-08-01

    The 1994 WEPAN conference highlighted the establishment of the three Regional Centers for Women in Engineering, which are located at the University of Washington, Purdue University, and Stevens Insitute of Technology. An overall evaluation was conducted on the effectiveness of the conference, including the quality of plenary sessions, workshops, registration, accommodations and reception.

  16. Multimedia Modeling of engineered Nanoparticles with SimpleBox4Nano: Model Definition and Evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meesters, J.; Koelmans, A.A.; Quik, J.T.K.; Hendriks, A.J.; Meent, van de D.

    2014-01-01

    Screening level models for environmental assessment of engineered nanoparticles (ENP) are not generally available. Here we present SimpleBox for Nano (SB4N) as the first model of this type, motivate its validity and evaluate it by comparisons with a known material flow model. SB4N expresses ENP

  17. Objective parameters for engine noise quality evaluation; Objektive Parameter zur Bewertung der Motorgeraeuschqualitaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graf, Bernhard; Brandl, Stephan [AVL List GmbH, Graz (Austria); Sontacchi, Alois [Univ. fuer Musik und Darstellende Kunst, Graz (Austria). Inst. fuer Elektronische Musik und Akustik; Girstmair, Josef [Kompetenzzentrum Das Virtuelle Fahrzeug, Graz (Austria). Gruppe Antriebsstrang Dynamik und Akustik

    2013-06-01

    Due to ongoing downsizing efforts and more stringent emission regulations, relevance of sound quality monitoring during engine and vehicle development is strongly increasing. Therefore AVL developed new sound quality parameters like CKI (Combustion Knocking Index) and HI (Harshness Index). Using these parameters sound quality can be objectively monitored, without subjective evaluations, online throughout the complete development process. (orig.)

  18. A Longitudinal Evaluation of a Project-Based Learning Initiative in an Engineering Undergraduate Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Wayne; Palmer, Stuart; Bennett, Mitchell

    2012-01-01

    Project-based learning (PBL) is a well-known student-centred methodology for engineering design education. The methodology claims to offer a number of educational benefits. This paper evaluates the student perceptions of the initial and second offering of a first-year design unit at Griffith University in Australia. It builds on an earlier…

  19. The Design and Evaluation of a Cryptography Teaching Strategy for Software Engineering Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, T.

    2006-01-01

    The present paper describes the design, implementation and evaluation of a cryptography module for final-year software engineering students. The emphasis is on implementation architectures and practical cryptanalysis rather than a standard mathematical approach. The competitive continuous assessment process reflects this approach and rewards…

  20. The National Evaluation of NASA's Science, Engineering, Mathematics and Aerospace Academy (SEMAA) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Alina; Cosentino de Cohen, Clemencia

    2010-01-01

    This report presents findings from a NASA requested evaluation in 2008, which contains both implementation and impact modules. The implementation study investigated how sites implement Science, Engineering, Mathematics, and Aerospace Academy (SEMAA) and the contextual factors important in this implementation. The implementation study used data…

  1. Development and Performance Evaluation of Optical Sensors for High Temperature Engine Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamovsky, G.; Varga, D.; Floyd, B.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses fiber optic sensors designed and constructed to withstand extreme temperatures of aircraft engine. The paper describes development and performance evaluation of fiber optic Bragg grating based sensors. It also describes the design and presents test results of packaged sensors subjected to temperatures up to 1000 C for prolonged periods of time.

  2. The Effect of Rubric Rating Scale on the Evaluation of Engineering Design Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, Mary Kathryn; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder; Ahn, Beung-uk

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the impact of the rubric rating scale on the evaluation of projects from a first year engineering design course.Asmall experiment was conducted in which twenty-one experienced graders scored five technical posters using one of four rating scales. All rating scales tested...

  3. ENGINEERING AND ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF GAS RECOVERY AND UTILIZATION TECHNOLOGIES AT SELECTED U.S. MINES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methane liberated in underground coal mines is a severe safety hazard to miners. It is also a major contributor to the build-up of greenhouse gases in the global atmosphere. This report presents an engineering and economic evaluation of several methane recovery and end-use techno...

  4. A KARAOKE System Singing Evaluation Method that More Closely Matches Human Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Hideyo; Hoguro, Masahiro; Umezaki, Taizo

    KARAOKE is a popular amusement for old and young. Many KARAOKE machines have singing evaluation function. However, it is often said that the scores given by KARAOKE machines do not match human evaluation. In this paper a KARAOKE scoring method strongly correlated with human evaluation is proposed. This paper proposes a way to evaluate songs based on the distance between singing pitch and musical scale, employing a vibrato extraction method based on template matching of spectrum. The results show that correlation coefficients between scores given by the proposed system and human evaluation are -0.76∼-0.89.

  5. Evaluation of Diesel Engine Noise Reduction Measures Based on Hierarchy Diagnosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Effect of different noise reduction measures for diesel engines was evaluated based on hierarchy diagnosis. The hierarchy diagnosis chart and hierarchy judgment matrix were given.Through evaluation of noise reduction measures, the main strategies of noise reduction were found.The result shows that the noise reduction level of different frequency belts varies from measure to measure. The reduction capacity of different measures could not add simply, which relates to the problem of parameter matching.

  6. Human Kunitz-type protease inhibitor engineered for enhanced matrix retention extends longevity of fibrin biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briquez, Priscilla S; Lorentz, Kristen M; Larsson, Hans M; Frey, Peter; Hubbell, Jeffrey A

    2017-08-01

    Aprotinin is a broad-spectrum serine protease inhibitor used in the clinic as an anti-fibrinolytic agent in fibrin-based tissue sealants. However, upon re-exposure, some patients suffer from hypersensitivity immune reactions likely related to the bovine origin of aprotinin. Here, we aimed to develop a human-derived substitute to aprotinin. Based on sequence homology analyses, we identified the Kunitz-type protease inhibitor (KPI) domain of human amyloid-β A4 precursor protein as being a potential candidate. While KPI has a lower intrinsic anti-fibrinolytic activity than aprotinin, we reasoned that its efficacy is additionally limited by its fast release from fibrin material, just as aprotinin's is. Thus, we engineered KPI variants for controlled retention in fibrin biomaterials, using either covalent binding through incorporation of a substrate for the coagulation transglutaminase Factor XIIIa or through engineering of extracellular matrix protein super-affinity domains for sequestration into fibrin. We showed that both engineered KPI variants significantly slowed plasmin-mediated fibrinolysis in vitro, outperforming aprotinin. In vivo, our best engineered KPI variant (incorporating the transglutaminase substrate) extended fibrin matrix longevity by 50%, at a dose at which aprotinin did not show efficacy, thus qualifying it as a competitive substitute of aprotinin in fibrin sealants. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Three-Dimensionally Engineered Normal Human Lung Tissue-Like Assemblies: Target Tissues for Human Respiratory Viral Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Thomas J.; McCarthy, M.; Lin, Y-H.; Deatly, A. M.

    2008-01-01

    In vitro three-dimensional (3D) human lung epithelio-mesenchymal tissue-like assemblies (3D hLEM TLAs) from this point forward referred to as TLAs were engineered in Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) technology to mimic the characteristics of in vivo tissues thus providing a tool to study human respiratory viruses and host cell interactions. The TLAs were bioengineered onto collagen-coated cyclodextran microcarriers using primary human mesenchymal bronchial-tracheal cells (HBTC) as the foundation matrix and an adult human bronchial epithelial immortalized cell line (BEAS-2B) as the overlying component. The resulting TLAs share significant characteristics with in vivo human respiratory epithelium including polarization, tight junctions, desmosomes, and microvilli. The presence of tissue-like differentiation markers including villin, keratins, and specific lung epithelium markers, as well as the production of tissue mucin, further confirm these TLAs differentiated into tissues functionally similar to in vivo tissues. Increasing virus titers for human respiratory syncytial virus (wtRSVA2) and the detection of membrane bound glycoproteins over time confirm productive infection with the virus. Therefore, we assert TLAs mimic aspects of the human respiratory epithelium and provide a unique capability to study the interactions of respiratory viruses and their primary target tissue independent of the host s immune system.

  8. Three-Dimensionally Engineered Normal Human Broncho-epithelial Tissue-Like Assemblies: Target Tissues for Human Respiratory Viral Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, T. J.; McCarthy, M.; Lin, Y-H

    2006-01-01

    In vitro three-dimensional (3D) human broncho-epithelial (HBE) tissue-like assemblies (3D HBE TLAs) from this point forward referred to as TLAs were engineered in Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) technology to mimic the characteristics of in vivo tissues thus providing a tool to study human respiratory viruses and host cell interactions. The TLAs were bioengineered onto collagen-coated cyclodextran microcarriers using primary human mesenchymal bronchial-tracheal cells (HBTC) as the foundation matrix and an adult human bronchial epithelial immortalized cell line (BEAS-2B) as the overlying component. The resulting TLAs share significant characteristics with in vivo human respiratory epithelium including polarization, tight junctions, desmosomes, and microvilli. The presence of tissue-like differentiation markers including villin, keratins, and specific lung epithelium markers, as well as the production of tissue mucin, further confirm these TLAs differentiated into tissues functionally similar to in vivo tissues. Increasing virus titers for human respiratory syncytial virus (wtRSVA2) and parainfluenza virus type 3 (wtPIV3 JS) and the detection of membrane bound glycoproteins over time confirm productive infections with both viruses. Therefore, TLAs mimic aspects of the human respiratory epithelium and provide a unique capability to study the interactions of respiratory viruses and their primary target tissue independent of the host's immune system.

  9. Three-Dimensionally Engineered Normal Human Broncho-epithelial Tissue-Like Assemblies: Target Tissues for Human Respiratory Viral Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, T. J.; McCarthy, M.; Lin, Y-H

    2006-01-01

    In vitro three-dimensional (3D) human broncho-epithelial (HBE) tissue-like assemblies (3D HBE TLAs) from this point forward referred to as TLAs were engineered in Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) technology to mimic the characteristics of in vivo tissues thus providing a tool to study human respiratory viruses and host cell interactions. The TLAs were bioengineered onto collagen-coated cyclodextran microcarriers using primary human mesenchymal bronchial-tracheal cells (HBTC) as the foundation matrix and an adult human bronchial epithelial immortalized cell line (BEAS-2B) as the overlying component. The resulting TLAs share significant characteristics with in vivo human respiratory epithelium including polarization, tight junctions, desmosomes, and microvilli. The presence of tissue-like differentiation markers including villin, keratins, and specific lung epithelium markers, as well as the production of tissue mucin, further confirm these TLAs differentiated into tissues functionally similar to in vivo tissues. Increasing virus titers for human respiratory syncytial virus (wtRSVA2) and parainfluenza virus type 3 (wtPIV3 JS) and the detection of membrane bound glycoproteins over time confirm productive infections with both viruses. Therefore, TLAs mimic aspects of the human respiratory epithelium and provide a unique capability to study the interactions of respiratory viruses and their primary target tissue independent of the host's immune system.

  10. Genetic engineering of human NK cells to express CXCR2 improves migration to renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Veronika; Ligtenberg, Maarten; Zendehdel, Rosa; Seitz, Christina; Duivenvoorden, Annet; Wennerberg, Erik; Colón, Eugenia; Scherman-Plogell, Ann-Helén; Lundqvist, Andreas

    2017-09-19

    Adoptive natural killer (NK) cell transfer is being increasingly used as cancer treatment. However, clinical responses have so far been limited to patients with hematological malignancies. A potential limiting factor in patients with solid tumors is defective homing of the infused NK cells to the tumor site. Chemokines regulate the migration of leukocytes expressing corresponding chemokine receptors. Various solid tumors, including renal cell carcinoma (RCC), readily secrete ligands for the chemokine receptor CXCR2. We hypothesize that infusion of NK cells expressing high levels of the CXCR2 chemokine receptor will result in increased influx of the transferred NK cells into tumors, and improved clinical outcome in patients with cancer. Blood and tumor biopsies from 14 primary RCC patients were assessed by flow cytometry and chemokine analysis. Primary NK cells were transduced with human CXCR2 using a retroviral system. CXCR2 receptor functionality was determined by Calcium flux and NK cell migration was evaluated in transwell assays. We detected higher concentrations of CXCR2 ligands in tumors compared with plasma of RCC patients. In addition, CXCL5 levels correlated with the intratumoral infiltration of CXCR2-positive NK cells. However, tumor-infiltrating NK cells from RCC patients expressed lower CXCR2 compared with peripheral blood NK cells. Moreover, healthy donor NK cells rapidly lost their CXCR2 expression upon in vitro culture and expansion. Genetic modification of human primary NK cells to re-express CXCR2 improved their ability to specifically migrate along a chemokine gradient of recombinant CXCR2 ligands or RCC tumor supernatants compared with controls. The enhanced trafficking resulted in increased killing of target cells. In addition, while their functionality remained unchanged compared with control NK cells, CXCR2-transduced NK cells obtained increased adhesion properties and formed more conjugates with target cells. To increase the success of NK

  11. Engineering and commercialization of human-device interfaces, from bone to brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knothe Tate, Melissa L; Detamore, Michael; Capadona, Jeffrey R; Woolley, Andrew; Knothe, Ulf

    2016-07-01

    Cutting edge developments in engineering of tissues, implants and devices allow for guidance and control of specific physiological structure-function relationships. Yet the engineering of functionally appropriate human-device interfaces represents an intractable challenge in the field. This leading opinion review outlines a set of current approaches as well as hurdles to design of interfaces that modulate transfer of information, i.a. forces, electrical potentials, chemical gradients and haptotactic paths, between endogenous and engineered body parts or tissues. The compendium is designed to bridge across currently separated disciplines by highlighting specific commonalities between seemingly disparate systems, e.g. musculoskeletal and nervous systems. We focus on specific examples from our own laboratories, demonstrating that the seemingly disparate musculoskeletal and nervous systems share common paradigms which can be harnessed to inspire innovative interface design solutions. Functional barrier interfaces that control molecular and biophysical traffic between tissue compartments of joints are addressed in an example of the knee. Furthermore, we describe the engineering of gradients for interfaces between endogenous and engineered tissues as well as between electrodes that physically and electrochemically couple the nervous and musculoskeletal systems. Finally, to promote translation of newly developed technologies into products, protocols, and treatments that benefit the patients who need them most, regulatory and technical challenges and opportunities are addressed on hand from an example of an implant cum delivery device that can be used to heal soft and hard tissues, from brain to bone. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Recommendations to the NRC on human engineering guidelines for nuclear power plant maintainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badalamente, R.V.; Fecht, B.A.; Blahnik, D.E.; Eklund, J.D.; Hartley, C.S.

    1986-03-01

    This document contains human engineering guidelines which can enhance the maintainability of nuclear power plants. The guidelines have been derived from general human engineering design principles, criteria, and data. The guidelines may be applied to existing plants as well as to plants under construction. They apply to nuclear power plant systems, equipment and facilities, as well as to maintenance tools and equipment. The guidelines are grouped into seven categories: accessibility and workspace, physical environment, loads and forces, maintenance facilities, maintenance tools and equipment, operating equipment design, and information needs. Each chapter of the document details specific maintainability problems encountered at nuclear power plants, the safety impact of these problems, and the specific maintainability design guidelines whose application can serve to avoid these problems in new or existing plants.

  13. Operation Evaluation Method for Marine Turbine Combustion Engines in Terms of Energetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzida Marek

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An evaluation proposal (quantitative determination of any combustion turbine engine operation has been presented, wherein the impact energy occurs at a given time due to Energy conversion. The fact has been taken into account that in this type of internal combustion engines the energy conversion occurs first in the combustion chambers and in the spaces between the blade of the turbine engine. It was assumed that in the combustion chambers occurs a conversion of chemical energy contained in the fuel-air mixture to the internal energy of the produced exhaust gases. This form of energy conversion has been called heat. It was also assumed that in the spaces between the blades of the rotor turbine, a replacement occurs of part of the internal energy of the exhaust gas, which is their thermal energy into kinetic energy conversion of its rotation. This form of energy conversion has been called the work. Operation of the combustion engine has been thus interpreted as a transmission of power receivers in a predetermined time when there the processing and transfer in the form (means of work and heat occurs. Valuing the operation of this type of internal combustion engines, proposed by the authors of this article, is to determine their operation using physical size, which has a numerical value and a unit of measurement called joule-second [joule x second]. Operation of the combustion turbine engine resulting in the performance of the turbine rotor work has been presented, taking into account the fact that the impeller shaft is connected to the receiver, which may be a generator (in the case of one-shaft engine or a propeller of the ship (in the case of two or three shaft engine.

  14. Latent Transforming Growth Factor-beta1 Functionalised Electrospun Scaffolds Promote Human Cartilage Differentiation: Towards an Engineered Cartilage Construct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erh-Hsuin Lim

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundTo overcome the potential drawbacks of a short half-life and dose-related adverse effects of using active transforming growth factor-beta 1 for cartilage engineering, a cell-mediated latent growth factor activation strategy was developed incorporating latent transforming growth factor-β1 (LTGF into an electrospun poly(L-lactide scaffold.MethodsThe electrospun scaffold was surface modified with NH3 plasma and biofunctionalised with LTGF to produce both random and orientated biofunctionalised electrospun scaffolds. Scaffold surface chemical analysis and growth factor bioavailability assays were performed. In vitro biocompatibility and human nasal chondrocyte gene expression with these biofunctionalised electrospun scaffold templates were assessed. In vivo chondrogenic activity and chondrocyte gene expression were evaluated in athymic rats.ResultsChemical analysis demonstrated that LTGF anchored to the scaffolds was available for enzymatic, chemical and cell activation. The biofunctionalised scaffolds were non-toxic. Gene expression suggested chondrocyte re-differentiation after 14 days in culture. By 6 weeks, the implanted biofunctionalised scaffolds had induced highly passaged chondrocytes to re-express Col2A1 and produce type II collagen.ConclusionsWe have demonstrated a proof of concept for cell-mediated activation of anchored growth factors using a novel biofunctionalised scaffold in cartilage engineering. This presents a platform for development of protein delivery systems and for tissue engineering.

  15. Morphological evaluation of normal human corneal epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehlers, Niels; Heegaard, Steffen; Hjortdal, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: The human corneal epithelium is usually described as a 50-µm-thick layer of regular stratified squamous non-keratinized cells with a thickness of 5-7 cells. The purpose of this study is systemically to revisit the histopathological appearance of 100 corneas. METHODS: 5-µm-thick sections...... in Bowman's membrane. No intraepithelial microcysts, as found in Meesmann corneal dystrophy, were observed. CONCLUSION: The total corneal thickness was higher than reported in in vivo studies and with a wider variation. This may be an effect of uncontrolled swelling and dehydration during preparation...

  16. A Review on the Regulatory Strategy of Human Factors Engineering Consideration in Pakistan Nuclear Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohail, Sabir [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Seong Nam [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    In this paper, the legal and regulatory infrastructure available in Pakistan for HFE requirements is assessed, and the methodology for strengthening of legal infrastructure is presented. The regulatory strategy on evaluation of HFE consideration should provide reviewers with guidance on review process. Therefore, the suggested methodology is based on preparation of guidance documents such as checklist, working procedures, S and Gs etc.; incorporation of PRM elements in regulatory system; and finally the development of PRM implementation criteria. Altogether, the scheme provide the enhancement in regulatory infrastructure and also the effective and efficient review process. The Three Mile Island (TMI) accident brought the general consensus among the nuclear community on the integration of human factors engineering (HFE) principles in all phases of nuclear power. This notion has further strengthened after the recent Fukushima nuclear accident. Much effort has been put over to incorporate the lesson learned and continuous technical evolution on HFE to device different standards. The total of 174 ergonomics standards are alone identified by Dul et al. (2004) published by International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) and number of standards and HFE guidelines (S and Gs) are also published by organizations like Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineering (IEEE), International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC), etc. The ambition of effective review on HFE integration in nuclear facility might be accomplished through the development of methodology for systematic implementation of S and Gs. Such kind of methodology would also be beneficial for strengthening the regulatory framework and practices for countries new in the nuclear arena and with small scale nuclear program. The objective of paper is to review the

  17. High seeding density of human chondrocytes in agarose produces tissue-engineered cartilage approaching native mechanical and biochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cigan, Alexander D; Roach, Brendan L; Nims, Robert J; Tan, Andrea R; Albro, Michael B; Stoker, Aaron M; Cook, James L; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana; Hung, Clark T; Ateshian, Gerard A

    2016-06-14

    Animal cells have served as highly controllable model systems for furthering cartilage tissue engineering practices in pursuit of treating osteoarthritis. Although successful strategies for animal cells must ultimately be adapted to human cells to be clinically relevant, human chondrocytes are rarely employed in such studies. In this study, we evaluated the applicability of culture techniques established for juvenile bovine and adult canine chondrocytes to human chondrocytes obtained from fresh or expired osteochondral allografts. Human chondrocytes were expanded and encapsulated in 2% agarose scaffolds measuring ∅3-4mm×2.3mm, with cell seeding densities ranging from 15 to 90×10(6)cells/mL. Subsets of constructs were subjected to transient or sustained TGF-β treatment, or provided channels to enhance nutrient transport. Human cartilaginous constructs physically resembled native human cartilage, and reached compressive Young's moduli of up to ~250kPa (corresponding to the low end of ranges reported for native knee cartilage), dynamic moduli of ~950kPa (0.01Hz), and contained 5.7% wet weight (%/ww) of glycosaminoglycans (≥ native levels) and 1.5%/ww collagen. We found that the initial seeding density had pronounced effects on tissue outcomes, with high cell seeding densities significantly increasing nearly all measured properties. Transient TGF-β treatment was ineffective for adult human cells, and tissue construct properties plateaued or declined beyond 28 days of culture. Finally, nutrient channels improved construct mechanical properties, presumably due to enhanced rates of mass transport. These results demonstrate that our previously established culture system can be successfully translated to human chondrocytes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Social distance evaluation in human parietal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakawa, Yoshinori; Kanai, Ryota; Matsumura, Michikazu; Naito, Eiichi

    2009-01-01

    Across cultures, social relationships are often thought of, described, and acted out in terms of physical space (e.g. "close friends" "high lord"). Does this cognitive mapping of social concepts arise from shared brain resources for processing social and physical relationships? Using fMRI, we found that the tasks of evaluating social compatibility and of evaluating physical distances engage a common brain substrate in the parietal cortex. The present study shows the possibility of an analytic brain mechanism to process and represent complex networks of social relationships. Given parietal cortex's known role in constructing egocentric maps of physical space, our present findings may help to explain the linguistic, psychological and behavioural links between social and physical space.

  19. A new method to evaluate human-robot system performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, G.; Weisbin, C. R.

    2003-01-01

    One of the key issues in space exploration is that of deciding what space tasks are best done with humans, with robots, or a suitable combination of each. In general, human and robot skills are complementary. Humans provide as yet unmatched capabilities to perceive, think, and act when faced with anomalies and unforeseen events, but there can be huge potential risks to human safety in getting these benefits. Robots provide complementary skills in being able to work in extremely risky environments, but their ability to perceive, think, and act by themselves is currently not error-free, although these capabilities are continually improving with the emergence of new technologies. Substantial past experience validates these generally qualitative notions. However, there is a need for more rigorously systematic evaluation of human and robot roles, in order to optimize the design and performance of human-robot system architectures using well-defined performance evaluation metrics. This article summarizes a new analytical method to conduct such quantitative evaluations. While the article focuses on evaluating human-robot systems, the method is generally applicable to a much broader class of systems whose performance needs to be evaluated.

  20. A Human Capabilities Framework for Evaluating Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Melanie

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a human capabilities approach for evaluating student learning and the social and pedagogical arrangements that support equality in capabilities for all students. It outlines the focus on valuable beings and doings in the capability approach developed by Amartya Sen, and Martha Nussbaum's capabilities focus on human flourishing.…

  1. Workshop on cooperative and human aspects of software engineering (CHASE 2011)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cataldo, Marcelo; de Souza, Cleidson; Dittrich, Yvonne

    2011-01-01

    is to provide a forum for discussing high quality research on human and cooperative aspects of software engineering. We aim at providing both a meeting place for the growing community and the possibility for researchers interested in joining the field to present their work in progress and get an overview over......Software is created by people for people working in varied environments, under various conditions. Thus understanding cooperative and human aspects of software development is crucial to comprehend how methods and tools are used, and thereby improve the creation and maintenance of software. Over...

  2. Workshop on cooperative and human aspects of software engineering (CHASE 2011)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cataldo, Marcelo; de Souza, Cleidson; Dittrich, Yvonne

    2011-01-01

    is to provide a forum for discussing high quality research on human and cooperative aspects of software engineering. We aim at providing both a meeting place for the growing community and the possibility for researchers interested in joining the field to present their work in progress and get an overview over......Software is created by people for people working in varied environments, under various conditions. Thus understanding cooperative and human aspects of software development is crucial to comprehend how methods and tools are used, and thereby improve the creation and maintenance of software. Over...

  3. Scaffold-free cartilage tissue engineering with a small population of human nasoseptal chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Loraine L Y; To, William T H; Lee, John M; Waldman, Stephen D

    2017-03-01

    Cartilage tissue engineering is a promising approach to provide suitable materials for nasal reconstruction; however, it typically requires large numbers of cells. We have previously shown that a small number of chondrocytes cultivated within a continuous flow bioreactor can elicit substantial tissue growth, but translation to human chondrocytes is not trivial. Here, we aimed to demonstrate the application of the bioreactor to generate large-sized tissues from a small population of primary human nasoseptal chondrocytes. Experimental study. Chondrocytes were cultured in the bioreactor using different medium compositions, with varying amounts of serum and with or without growth factors. Resulting engineered tissues were analyzed for physical properties, biochemical composition, tissue microstructure, and protein localization. Bioreactor-cultivated constructs grown with serum and growth factors (basic fibroblast growth factor and transforming growth factor beta 2) had greater thickness, as well as DNA and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) contents, compared to low serum and no growth factor controls. These constructs also showed the most intense proteoglycan and collagen II staining. The combination of bioreactor conditions, serum, and growth factors allowed the generation of large, thick scaffold-free human cartilaginous tissues that resembled the native nasoseptal cartilage. There also may be implications for patient selection in future clinical applications of these engineered tissues because their GAG content decreased with donor age. NA. Laryngoscope, 127:E91-E99, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  4. Engineering and Humanities Students' Strategies for Vocabulary Acquisition: An Iranian Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Soodmand Afshar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study set out to investigate the differences between EAP (English for Academic Purposes students of Humanities and Engineering in terms of vocabulary strategy choice and use. One hundred and five undergraduate Iranian students (39 students from Engineering Faculty and 66 from Humanities Faculty studying at Bu-Ali Sina University Hamedan, during the academic year of 2011–2012 participated in this study. For data collection purposes, a pilot-tested factor-analyzed five-point Likert-scale vocabulary learning strategies questionnaire (VLSQ containing 45 statements was adopted. The results of independent samples t-test indicated that, overall, the two groups were not significantly different in the choice and use of vocabulary learning strategies. However, running Chi square analyses, significant differences were found in individual strategy use in 6 out of 45 strategies. That is, while Humanities students used more superficial and straightforward strategies like repetition strategy and seeking help from others, the Engineering students preferred much deeper, thought-provoking and sophisticated strategies like using a monolingual dictionary and learning vocabulary through collocations and coordinates. Further, the most and the least frequently used vocabulary learning strategies by the two groups were specified, out of which only two strategies in each category were commonly shared by both groups. The possible reasons why the results have turned out to be so as well as the implications of the study are discussed in details in the paper.

  5. Noninvasive metabolic imaging of engineered 3D human adipose tissue in a perfusion bioreactor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Ward

    Full Text Available The efficacy and economy of most in vitro human models used in research is limited by the lack of a physiologically-relevant three-dimensional perfused environment and the inability to noninvasively quantify the structural and biochemical characteristics of the tissue. The goal of this project was to develop a perfusion bioreactor system compatible with two-photon imaging to noninvasively assess tissue engineered human adipose tissue structure and function in vitro. Three-dimensional (3D vascularized human adipose tissues were engineered in vitro, before being introduced to a perfusion environment and tracked over time by automated quantification of endogenous markers of metabolism using two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF. Depth-resolved image stacks were analyzed for redox ratio metabolic profiling and compared to prior analyses performed on 3D engineered adipose tissue in static culture. Traditional assessments with H&E staining were used to qualitatively measure extracellular matrix generation and cell density with respect to location within the tissue. The distribution of cells within the tissue and average cellular redox ratios were different between static and perfusion cultures, while the trends of decreased redox ratio and increased cellular proliferation with time in both static and perfusion cultures were similar. These results establish a basis for noninvasive optical tracking of tissue structure and function in vitro, which can be applied to future studies to assess tissue development or drug toxicity screening and disease progression.

  6. Noninvasive metabolic imaging of engineered 3D human adipose tissue in a perfusion bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Andrew; Quinn, Kyle P; Bellas, Evangelia; Georgakoudi, Irene; Kaplan, David L

    2013-01-01

    The efficacy and economy of most in vitro human models used in research is limited by the lack of a physiologically-relevant three-dimensional perfused environment and the inability to noninvasively quantify the structural and biochemical characteristics of the tissue. The goal of this project was to develop a perfusion bioreactor system compatible with two-photon imaging to noninvasively assess tissue engineered human adipose tissue structure and function in vitro. Three-dimensional (3D) vascularized human adipose tissues were engineered in vitro, before being introduced to a perfusion environment and tracked over time by automated quantification of endogenous markers of metabolism using two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF). Depth-resolved image stacks were analyzed for redox ratio metabolic profiling and compared to prior analyses performed on 3D engineered adipose tissue in static culture. Traditional assessments with H&E staining were used to qualitatively measure extracellular matrix generation and cell density with respect to location within the tissue. The distribution of cells within the tissue and average cellular redox ratios were different between static and perfusion cultures, while the trends of decreased redox ratio and increased cellular proliferation with time in both static and perfusion cultures were similar. These results establish a basis for noninvasive optical tracking of tissue structure and function in vitro, which can be applied to future studies to assess tissue development or drug toxicity screening and disease progression.

  7. Efficient CRISPR/Cas9-based Genome Engineering in Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kime, Cody; Mandegar, Mohammad A.; Srivastava, Deepak; Yamanaka, Shinya; Conklin, Bruce R.; Rand, Tim A.

    2016-01-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) are rapidly emerging as a powerful tool for biomedical discovery. The advent of human induced pluripotent stem (hiPS) cells with human embryonic stem (hES) cell-like properties has led to hPSCs with disease-specific genetic backgrounds for in-vitro disease modeling, drug discovery, mechanistic and developmental studies. To fully realize this potential it will be necessary to modify the genome of hPSCs with precision and flexibility. Pioneering experiments utilizing site-specific double strand break (DSB)-mediated genome engineering tools, including Zinc Finger Nucleases (ZFNs) and Transcription Activator-Like Effector Nucleases (TALENs), have paved the way to genome engineering in previously recalcitrant systems such as hPSCs. However, these methods are technically cumbersome and require significant expertise, which limited adoption. A major recent advance involving the Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) endonuclease has dramatically simplified the effort required for genome engineering and will likely be adopted widely as the most rapid and flexible system for genome editing in hPSCs. Herein, we describe commonly practiced methods for CRISPR endonuclease genomic editing of hPSCs to cell lines containing genomes altered by Insertion/Deletion (INDEL) mutagenesis or insertion of recombinant genomic DNA. PMID:26724721

  8. Efficient CRISPR/Cas9-Based Genome Engineering in Human Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kime, Cody; Mandegar, Mohammad A; Srivastava, Deepak; Yamanaka, Shinya; Conklin, Bruce R; Rand, Tim A

    2016-01-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPS cells) are rapidly emerging as a powerful tool for biomedical discovery. The advent of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPS cells) with human embryonic stem (hES)-cell-like properties has led to hPS cells with disease-specific genetic backgrounds for in vitro disease modeling and drug discovery as well as mechanistic and developmental studies. To fully realize this potential, it will be necessary to modify the genome of hPS cells with precision and flexibility. Pioneering experiments utilizing site-specific double-strand break (DSB)-mediated genome engineering tools, including zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) and transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), have paved the way to genome engineering in previously recalcitrant systems such as hPS cells. However, these methods are technically cumbersome and require significant expertise, which has limited adoption. A major recent advance involving the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) endonuclease has dramatically simplified the effort required for genome engineering and will likely be adopted widely as the most rapid and flexible system for genome editing in hPS cells. In this unit, we describe commonly practiced methods for CRISPR endonuclease genomic editing of hPS cells into cell lines containing genomes altered by insertion/deletion (indel) mutagenesis or insertion of recombinant genomic DNA.

  9. The Design of the Internet's Architecture by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) and Human Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cath, Corinne; Floridi, Luciano

    2017-04-01

    The debate on whether and how the Internet can protect and foster human rights has become a defining issue of our time. This debate often focuses on Internet governance from a regulatory perspective, underestimating the influence and power of the governance of the Internet's architecture. The technical decisions made by Internet Standard Developing Organisations (SDOs) that build and maintain the technical infrastructure of the Internet influences how information flows. They rearrange the shape of the technically mediated public sphere, including which rights it protects and which practices it enables. In this article, we contribute to the debate on SDOs' ethical responsibility to bring their work in line with human rights. We defend three theses. First, SDOs' work is inherently political. Second, the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), one of the most influential SDOs, has a moral obligation to ensure its work is coherent with, and fosters, human rights. Third, the IETF should enable the actualisation of human rights through the protocols and standards it designs by implementing a responsibility-by-design approach to engineering. We conclude by presenting some initial recommendations on how to ensure that work carried out by the IETF may enable human rights.

  10. Meganucleases Revolutionize the Production of Genetically Engineered Pigs for the Study of Human Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redel, Bethany K; Prather, Randall S

    2016-04-01

    Animal models of human diseases are critically necessary for developing an in-depth knowledge of disease development and progression. In addition, animal models are vital to the development of potential treatments or even cures for human diseases. Pigs are exceptional models as their size, physiology, and genetics are closer to that of humans than rodents. In this review, we discuss the use of pigs in human translational research and the evolving technology that has increased the efficiency of genetically engineering pigs. With the emergence of the clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated (Cas) protein 9 system technology, the cost and time it takes to genetically engineer pigs has markedly decreased. We will also discuss the use of another meganuclease, the transcription activator-like effector nucleases , to produce pigs with severe combined immunodeficiency by developing targeted modifications of the recombination activating gene 2 (RAG2).RAG2mutant pigs may become excellent animals to facilitate the development of xenotransplantation, regenerative medicine, and tumor biology. The use of pig biomedical models is vital for furthering the knowledge of, and for treating human, diseases.

  11. Photoacoustic evaluation of human inflammatory arthritis in human joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Janggun; Xu, Guan; Marquardt, April; Girish, Gandikota; Wang, Xueding

    2017-03-01

    Photoacoustic (PA) imaging combined with ultrasonography (US) holds promise to offer a novel and powerful tool for clinical management of inflammatory arthritis, including early detection and treatment monitoring. As a complement to US, PA imaging can assess additional hemodynamic changes in inflammatory synovium, including hyperemia and hypoxia, both important and early physiological biomarkers of synovitis reflecting the increased metabolic demand and the relatively inadequate oxygen delivery of the inflammatory synovial tissue. In this study on arthritis patients and normal volunteers, the targeted metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joints were imaged using our real-time US-PA dual-modality imaging system. The blood volume and the blood oxygenation in the segmented synovium were quantified, and the results from the arthritis patients were compared to those from the normal volunteers. This initial study on human subjects demonstrated that PA imaging, by working at the optical wavelengths that are sensitive to oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin, is capable of identifying and characterizing inflammation in joints based on the detection of hemodynamic changes.

  12. Engineering antigen-specific T cells from genetically modified human hematopoietic stem cells in immunodeficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott G Kitchen

    Full Text Available There is a desperate need for effective therapies to fight chronic viral infections. The immune response is normally fastidious at controlling the majority of viral infections and a therapeutic strategy aimed at reestablishing immune control represents a potentially powerful approach towards treating persistent viral infections. We examined the potential of genetically programming human hematopoietic stem cells to generate mature CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes that express a molecularly cloned, "transgenic" human anti-HIV T cell receptor (TCR. Anti-HIV TCR transduction of human hematopoietic stem cells directed the maturation of a large population of polyfunctional, HIV-specific CD8+ cells capable of recognizing and killing viral antigen-presenting cells. Thus, through this proof-of-concept we propose that genetic engineering of human hematopoietic stem cells will allow the tailoring of effector T cell responses to fight HIV infection or other diseases that are characterized by the loss of immune control.

  13. Applications of human factors engineering to LNG release prevention and control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shikiar, R.; Rankin, W.L.; Rideout, T.B.

    1982-06-01

    The results of an investigation of human factors engineering and human reliability applications to LNG release prevention and control are reported. The report includes a discussion of possible human error contributions to previous LNG accidents and incidents, and a discussion of generic HF considerations for peakshaving plants. More specific recommendations for improving HF practices at peakshaving plants are offered based on visits to six facilities. The HF aspects of the recently promulgated DOT regulations are reviewed, and recommendations are made concerning how these regulations can be implemented utilizing standard HF practices. Finally, the integration of HF considerations into overall system safety is illustrated by a presentation of human error probabilities applicable to LNG operations and by an expanded fault tree analysis which explicitly recognizes man-machine interfaces.

  14. [Studies on genetic engineering of human insulin-purification and characterization of human proinsulin and insulin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, L H; Zhou, M Y; Shen, M H; Wang, E B; Liu, J F; Yu, Y J

    1992-06-01

    E. coli DH 5 alpha cells harboring a plasmid pWR 590-BCA 4 for fused human proinsulin production were cultured. The fused human proinsulin was isolated from the fermented cells and then subjected it to cleavage with BrCN. The cleaved product was then converted to crude proinsulin-S-sulfonate using oxidative sulfitolysis. The isolation of human proinsulin-S-sulfonate was accomplished by ion exchange chromatography on QAE-sephadex A-25, followed by gel filtration on sephadex G-50. The purified human proinsulin-S-sulfonate was folded using a disulfide interchange method. The folding mixture was then chromatographed on sephadex G-50 and purified proinsulin was obtained. The proinsulin was then converted to human insulin and C-peptide by a combination cleavage with trypsin and carboxypeptidase B. The total yield of human insulin was about 5 mg/L The Zinc insulin crystals were obtained with amorphous human insulin using citrate method. The amino acid composition N-terminal sequences as well as C-terminal amino acid residues are in agreement with expected results. The hypoglycemic activity of purified human insulin is 26-27 U/mg, as judged by mouse convulsion assay, and the RIA activity is about 99% of that of porcine insulin.

  15. Effective combination of aligned nanocomposite nanofibers and human unrestricted somatic stem cells for bone tissue engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Behnaz BAKHSHANDEH; Masoud SOLEIMANI; Nasser GHAEMI; Iman SHABANI

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Bioartificial bone tissue engineering is an increasingly popular technique to solve bone defect challenges. This study aimed to investigate the interactions between matrix composition and appropriate cell type, focusing on hydroxyapatite (HA), to achieve a more effective combination for bone regeneration.Methods: Human unrestricted somatic stem cells (USSCs) were isolated from placental cord blood. The cellular and molecular events during the osteo-induction of USSCs were evaluated for 21 d under the following conditions: (1) in basal culture, (2) supplemented with hydroxyapatite nanoparticle (nHA) suspension, and (3) seeded on electrospun aligned nanoflbrous poly-ε-caprolactone/poly-L-lactic acid/nHA (PCL/PLLA/nHA) scaffolds. The scaffolds were characterized using scanning electron microscope (SEM), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and tensile test.Results: Maintenance of USSCs for 21 d in basal or osteogenic culture resulted in significant increase in osteoblast differentiation. With nHA suspension, even soluble osteo-inductive additives were ineffective, probably due to induced apoptosis of the cells. In con-trast to the hindrance of proliferation by nHA suspension, the scaffolds improved cell growth. The scaffolds mimic the nanostructure of natural bone matrix with the combination of PLLA/PCL (organic phase) and HA (inorganic phase) offering a favorable surface topogra-phy, which was demonstrated to possess suitable properties for supporting USSCs. Quantitative measurement of osteogenic markers, enzymatic activity and mineralization indicated that the scaffolds did not disturb, but enhanced the osteogenic potential of USSCs.Moreover, the alignment of the fibers led to cell orientation during cell growth.Conclusion: The results demonstrated the synergism of PCL/PLLA/nHA nanoflbrous scaffolds and USSCs in the augmentation of osteo-genic differentiation. Thus, nHA grafted into PCI./PLLA scaffolds can be a suitable choice for bone tissue

  16. A Qualitative Evaluation of the Use of Multimedia Case Studies in an Introductory Engineering Course at Two Southeastern Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huett, Kim C.; Kawulich, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Collaborating at two universities to improve teaching and learning in undergraduate engineering, an interdisciplinary team of researchers, instructors, and evaluators planned and implemented the use of multimedia case studies with students enrolled in an introductory engineering course. This qualitative action evaluation study focuses on results…

  17. A Qualitative Evaluation of the Use of Multimedia Case Studies in an Introductory Engineering Course at Two Southeastern Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huett, Kim C.; Kawulich, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Collaborating at two universities to improve teaching and learning in undergraduate engineering, an interdisciplinary team of researchers, instructors, and evaluators planned and implemented the use of multimedia case studies with students enrolled in an introductory engineering course. This qualitative action evaluation study focuses on results…

  18. Species-Specific Chromosome Engineering Greatly Improves Fully Human Polyclonal Antibody Production Profile in Cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Matsushita

    Full Text Available Large-scale production of fully human IgG (hIgG or human polyclonal antibodies (hpAbs by transgenic animals could be useful for human therapy. However, production level of hpAbs in transgenic animals is generally very low, probably due to the fact that evolutionarily unique interspecies-incompatible genomic sequences between human and non-human host species may impede high production of fully hIgG in the non-human environment. To address this issue, we performed species-specific human artificial chromosome (HAC engineering and tested these engineered HAC in cattle. Our previous study has demonstrated that site-specific genomic chimerization of pre-B cell receptor/B cell receptor (pre-BCR/BCR components on HAC vectors significantly improves human IgG expression in cattle where the endogenous bovine immunoglobulin genes were knocked out. In this report, hIgG1 class switch regulatory elements were subjected to site-specific genomic chimerization on HAC vectors to further enhance hIgG expression and improve hIgG subclass distribution in cattle. These species-specific modifications in a chromosome scale resulted in much higher production levels of fully hIgG of up to 15 g/L in sera or plasma, the highest ever reported for a transgenic animal system. Transchromosomic (Tc cattle containing engineered HAC vectors generated hpAbs with high titers against human-origin antigens following immunization. This study clearly demonstrates that species-specific sequence differences in pre-BCR/BCR components and IgG1 class switch regulatory elements between human and bovine are indeed functionally distinct across the two species, and therefore, are responsible for low production of fully hIgG in our early versions of Tc cattle. The high production levels of fully hIgG with hIgG1 subclass dominancy in a large farm animal species achieved here is an important milestone towards broad therapeutic applications of hpAbs.

  19. The Psychometric Evaluation of Human Life Histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copping, Lee T; Campbell, Anne; Muncer, Steven; Richardson, George B

    2017-01-01

    A recent critique of Copping, Campbell, and Muncer raised several issues concerning the validity of psychometric assessment techniques in the study of life history (LH) strategies. In this reply, some of our key concerns about relying on aggregated psychometric measures are explained, and we raise questions generally regarding the use of higher order factor structures. Responses to some of the statistical issues raised by Figueredo et al. are also detailed. We stand by our original conclusions and call for more careful consideration of instruments used to evaluate hypotheses derived from LH theory.

  20. ExoMars 2016 EDM SM Mechanical Test Campaign Engineering Results Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luison, Dario; Tenore, Amedeo Giancarlo

    2014-06-01

    This paper describes the analytical engineering activities done in the frame of ExoMars Descent Module (EDM) Structural Model (SM) Mechanical Test Campaign performed in ESTEC (for Sinusoidal Test) and in Thales Alenia Space Turin (Italy) laboratories (for Static Test) in the period from February and July 2013.The main results of Sine and Static Tests are described, as well as the updating of the Mathematical Model based on the results of the Base Excitation Vibration Modal Parameters Extraction. The engineering test evaluation activity was concentrated in particular on the simulation of the failure occurred during the sine test. This failure represented a serious issues never encountered in previous tests. Despite the gravity of the phenomenon, in a short time, the engineering was able to prove the structural integrity and to conclude successfully the test.

  1. Evaluation Tests of Select Fuel Additives for Potential Use in U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Diesel Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    for similar engine families , year of manufacture, and operating regimes. While the Envirofuels, DurAlt, and Lucas additives showed limited fuel...conditions. The results are applicable to the host engines and operating conditions, but similar results can be expected for similar engine families , year...the same injection pressure at all engine loads. Because of this constant injection pressure , alcohol flow was slightly reduced at higher load

  2. Observations and lessons learnt from non health professionals evaluating a health search engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pletneva, Natalia; Uresova, Zdenka; Altman, Jean-Jacques; Postel Vinay, Nicolas; Degoulet, Patrice; Hajic, Jan; Boyer, Celia

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the results of one of the stages of the user-centered evaluation conducted in a framework of the EU project Khresmoi. In a controlled environment, users were asked to perform health-related tasks using a search engine specifically developed for trustworthy online health information. Twenty seven participants from largely the Czech Republic and France took part in the evaluation. All reported overall a positive experience, while some features caused some criticism. Learning points are summed up regarding running such types of evaluations with the general public and specifically with patients.

  3. Human Factors Evaluation of Advanced Electric Power Grid Visualization Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Dauenhauer, Peter M.; Wierks, Tamara G.; Podmore, Robin

    2009-04-01

    This report describes initial human factors evaluation of four visualization tools (Graphical Contingency Analysis, Force Directed Graphs, Phasor State Estimator and Mode Meter/ Mode Shapes) developed by PNNL, and proposed test plans that may be implemented to evaluate their utility in scenario-based experiments.

  4. Department of Defense Human Factors Engineering Technical Advisory Group Minutes of the Meeting, (15th), Held at San Diego, California, on 5-7 November 1985

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-11-01

    Anthropometry of US Military Personnel 30 Jun 81 Human Factors Engineering Design for Army Materiel 28 Jun 85 HE Guidelines for Mgt Info Sys I SAE...tor_and system effectiveness. Paper presented at NATd~De" fence "Research Group Panel Vl£l~Uorkshop, Shrivenhara, England. Geer, C.W...DUE OT«E [ SPE CIFICATION CHECKS jwj] ANTHROPOMETRY ENVIRONMENTAL EVALUATIONS FACILITY, WORKSTATION EVAl DISPIAYTASK ANALYSIS ERROR RATE

  5. Development of an evaluation technique for human-machine interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Dae Hwan; Koo, Sang Hui; Ahn, Won Yeong; Ryu, Yeong Shin [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-15

    The purpose of this study is two-fold : firstly to establish an evaluation technique for HMI(Human Machine Interface) in NPPs(Nuclear Power Plants) and secondly to develop an architecture of a support system which can be used for the evaluation of HMI. In order to establish an evaluation technique, this study conducted literature review on basic theories of cognitive science studies and summarized the cognitive characteristics of humans. This study also surveyed evaluation techniques of HMI in general, and reviewed studies on the evaluation of HMI in NPPs. On the basis of this survey, the study established a procedure for the evaluation of HMI in NPPs in Korea and laid a foundation for empirical verification.

  6. A Cognitive Systems Engineering Approach to Developing Human Machine Interface Requirements for New Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fern, Lisa Carolynn

    This dissertation examines the challenges inherent in designing and regulating to support human-automation interaction for new technologies that will be deployed into complex systems. A key question for new technologies with increasingly capable automation, is how work will be accomplished by human and machine agents. This question has traditionally been framed as how functions should be allocated between humans and machines. Such framing misses the coordination and synchronization that is needed for the different human and machine roles in the system to accomplish their goals. Coordination and synchronization demands are driven by the underlying human-automation architecture of the new technology, which are typically not specified explicitly by designers. The human machine interface (HMI), which is intended to facilitate human-machine interaction and cooperation, typically is defined explicitly and therefore serves as a proxy for human-automation cooperation requirements with respect to technical standards for technologies. Unfortunately, mismatches between the HMI and the coordination and synchronization demands of the underlying human-automation architecture can lead to system breakdowns. A methodology is needed that both designers and regulators can utilize to evaluate the predicted performance of a new technology given potential human-automation architectures. Three experiments were conducted to inform the minimum HMI requirements for a detect and avoid (DAA) system for unmanned aircraft systems (UAS). The results of the experiments provided empirical input to specific minimum operational performance standards that UAS manufacturers will have to meet in order to operate UAS in the National Airspace System (NAS). These studies represent a success story for how to objectively and systematically evaluate prototype technologies as part of the process for developing regulatory requirements. They also provide an opportunity to reflect on the lessons learned in order

  7. Regenerative potential of human airway stem cells in lung epithelial engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilpin, Sarah E; Charest, Jonathan M; Ren, Xi; Tapias, Luis F; Wu, Tong; Evangelista-Leite, Daniele; Mathisen, Douglas J; Ott, Harald C

    2016-11-01

    Bio-engineered organs for transplantation may ultimately provide a personalized solution for end-stage organ failure, without the risk of rejection. Building upon the process of whole organ perfusion decellularization, we aimed to develop novel, translational methods for the recellularization and regeneration of transplantable lung constructs. We first isolated a proliferative KRT5(+)TP63(+) basal epithelial stem cell population from human lung tissue and demonstrated expansion capacity in conventional 2D culture. We then repopulated acellular rat scaffolds in ex vivo whole organ culture and observed continued cell proliferation, in combination with primary pulmonary endothelial cells. To show clinical scalability, and to test the regenerative capacity of the basal cell population in a human context, we then recellularized and cultured isolated human lung scaffolds under biomimetic conditions. Analysis of the regenerated tissue constructs confirmed cell viability and sustained metabolic activity over 7 days of culture. Tissue analysis revealed extensive recellularization with organized tissue architecture and morphology, and preserved basal epithelial cell phenotype. The recellularized lung constructs displayed dynamic compliance and rudimentary gas exchange capacity. Our results underline the regenerative potential of patient-derived human airway stem cells in lung tissue engineering. We anticipate these advances to have clinically relevant implications for whole lung bioengineering and ex vivo organ repair.

  8. Engineering humanized antibody framework sequences for optimal site-specific conjugation of cytotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spidel, Jared L; Albone, Earl F; Cheng, Xin; Vaessen, Benjamin; Jacob, Sara; Milinichik, Andrew Z; Verdi, Arielle; Kline, J Bradford; Grasso, Luigi

    The prevailing techniques used to generate antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) involve random conjugation of the linker-drug to multiple lysines or cysteines in the antibody. Engineering natural and non-natural amino acids into an antibody has been demonstrated to be an effective strategy to produce homogeneous ADC products with defined drug-to-antibody ratios. We recently reported an efficient residue-specific conjugation technology (RESPECT) where thiol-reactive payloads can be efficiently conjugated to a native unpaired cysteine in position 80 (C80) of rabbit light chains. Deimmunizing the rabbit variable domains through humanization is necessary to reduce the risk of anti-drug antibody responses in patients. However, we found that first-generation humanized RESPECT ADCs showed high levels of aggregation and low conjugation efficiency. We correlated these negative properties to the phenylalanine at position 83 present in most human variable kappa frameworks. When position 83 was substituted with selected amino acids, conjugation was restored and aggregation was reduced to levels similar to the chimeric ADC. This engineering strategy allows for development of second-generation humanized RESPECT ADCs with desirable biopharmaceutical properties.

  9. A cognitive evaluation of four online search engines for answering definitional questions posed by physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hong; Kaufman, David

    2007-01-01

    The Internet is having a profound impact on physicians' medical decision making. One recent survey of 277 physicians showed that 72% of physicians regularly used the Internet to research medical information and 51% admitted that information from web sites influenced their clinical decisions. This paper describes the first cognitive evaluation of four state-of-the-art Internet search engines: Google (i.e., Google and Scholar.Google), MedQA, Onelook, and PubMed for answering definitional questions (i.e., questions with the format of "What is X?") posed by physicians. Onelook is a portal for online definitions, and MedQA is a question answering system that automatically generates short texts to answer specific biomedical questions. Our evaluation criteria include quality of answer, ease of use, time spent, and number of actions taken. Our results show that MedQA outperforms Onelook and PubMed in most of the criteria, and that MedQA surpasses Google in time spent and number of actions, two important efficiency criteria. Our results show that Google is the best system for quality of answer and ease of use. We conclude that Google is an effective search engine for medical definitions, and that MedQA exceeds the other search engines in that it provides users direct answers to their questions; while the users of the other search engines have to visit several sites before finding all of the pertinent information.

  10. NOTION, ELEMENTS AND EVALUATION OF HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGMENT IN SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milorad M. Drobac

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Principal object of the author’s research in work is identification of notion, cru- cial elements and evaluation of human resources management in general and apart in sport. From the beginning of usage of term “human resources management”, we use foretoken “strategic” that has especially signified meaning. Strategic approach to the exploration of this problem points to the fact that human resources are from particularly significance for all forms of human organization (firms, associations, institutions etc., regardless are we talking about economy, social activity, politics, science, sport or any other area of human activity. Experience shows that, in our society, we mainly considered human resources management from the aspect of formulation and implementation of strategy in any shape and segment of altogether human activity, but we pay a little interest to the control, or in other words evaluation of human resources performance. What is attained in world rela- tions, on the human resources management plan, admonish and binds that we must ac- cept employees in our environment (it implies sport as an equal partner in management

  11. Human Factors Engineering Requirements for the International Space Station - Successes and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, M.; Blume, J.

    2003-01-01

    Advanced technology coupled with the desire to explore space has resulted in increasingly longer human space missions. Indeed, any exploration mission outside of Earth's neighborhood, in other words, beyond the moon, will necessarily be several months or even years. The International Space Station (ISS) serves as an important advancement toward executing a successful human space mission that is longer than a standard trip around the world or to the moon. The ISS, which is a permanently occupied microgravity research facility orbiting the earth, will support missions four to six months in duration. In planning for the ISS, the NASA developed an agency-wide set of human factors standards for the first time in a space exploration program. The Man-Systems Integration Standard (MSIS), NASA-STD-3000, a multi-volume set of guidelines for human-centered design in microgravity, was developed with the cooperation of human factors experts from various NASA centers, industry, academia, and other government agencies. The ISS program formed a human factors team analogous to any major engineering subsystem. This team develops and maintains the human factors requirements regarding end-to-end architecture design and performance, hardware and software design requirements, and test and verification requirements. It is also responsible for providing program integration across all of the larger scale elements, smaller scale hardware, and international partners.

  12. In Genes We Trust: Germline Engineering, Eugenics, and the Future of the Human Genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Russell

    2015-12-01

    Liberal proponents of genetic engineering maintain that developing human germline modification technologies is morally desirable because it will result in a net improvement in human health and well-being. Skeptics of germline modification, in contrast, fear evolutionary harms that could flow from intervening in the human germline, and worry that such programs, even if well intentioned, could lead to a recapitulation of the scientifically and morally discredited projects of the old eugenics. Some bioconservatives have appealed as well to the value of retaining our "given" human biological nature as a reason for restraining the development and use of human genetic modification technologies even where they would tend to increase well-being. In this article, I argue that germline intervention will be necessary merely to sustain the levels of genetic health that we presently enjoy for future generations-a goal that should appeal to bioliberals and bioconservatives alike. This is due to the population-genetic consequences of relaxed selection pressures in human populations caused by the increasing efficacy and availability of conventional medicine. This heterodox conclusion, which I present as a problem of intergenerational justice, has been overlooked in medicine and bioethics due to certain misconceptions about human evolution, which I attempt to rectify, as well as the sordid history of Darwinian approaches to medicine and social policy, which I distinguish from the present argument.

  13. The development of human factors experimental evaluation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sim, Bong Shick; Oh, In Suk; Cha, Kyung Ho; Lee, Hyun Chul; Park, Geun Ok; Cheon, Se Woo; Suh, Sang Moon

    1997-07-01

    New human factors issues, such as evaluation of information navigation, the consideration of operator characteristics, and operator performance assessment, related to the HMI design based on VDUs are being risen. Thus, in order to solve these human factors issues, this project aims to establish the experimental technologies including the techniques for experimental design, experimental measurement, data collection and analysis, and to develop ITF (Integrated Test Facility) suitable for the experiment of HMI design evaluation. For the establish of the experimental data analysis and evaluation methodologies, we developed as the following: (1) a paradigm for human factors experimentation including experimental designs, procedures, and data analysis. (2) the methods for the assessment of operator`s mental workload (3) DAEXESS (data analysis and experiment evaluation supporting system). Also, we have established a experiment execution technologies through the preliminary experiments, such as the suitability evaluation of information display on a LSDP, the evaluation of information display on a LSDP, the evaluation of computerized operation procedure and an experiment of advanced alarm system (ADIOS). Finally, we developed the ITF including human machine simulator, telemetry system, an eye tracking system, an audio/video data measurement system, and three dimensional micro behaviour analysis system. (author). 81 refs., 68 tabs., 73 figs.

  14. Development and characterization of decellularized human nasoseptal cartilage matrix for use in tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, M Elise; Gratzer, Paul F; Bezuhly, Michael; Hong, Paul

    2016-10-01

    Reconstruction of cartilage defects in the head and neck can require harvesting of autologous cartilage grafts, which can be associated with donor site morbidity. To overcome this limitation, tissue-engineering approaches may be used to generate cartilage grafts. The objective of this study was to decellularize and characterize human nasoseptal cartilage with the aim of generating a biological scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering. Laboratory study using nasoseptal cartilage. Remnant human nasoseptal cartilage specimens were collected and subjected to a novel decellularization treatment. The decellularization process involved several cycles of enzymatic detergent treatments. For characterization, decellularized and fresh (control) specimens underwent histological, biochemical, and mechanical analyses. Scanning electron microscopy and biocompatibility assay were also performed. The decellularization process had minimal effect on glycosaminoglycan content of the cartilage extracellular matrix. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) analysis revealed the near-complete removal of genomic DNA from decellularized tissues. The effectiveness of the decellularization process was also confirmed on histological and scanning electron microscopic analyses. Mechanical testing results showed that the structural integrity of the decellularized tissue was maintained, and biocompatibility was confirmed. Overall, the current decellularization treatment resulted in significant reduction of genetic/cellular material with preservation of the underlying extracellular matrix structure. This decellularized material may serve as a potential scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering. N/A. Laryngoscope, 126:2226-2231, 2016. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  15. APPLICATION OF EYE TRACKING FOR MEASUREMENT AND EVALUATION IN HUMAN FACTORS STUDIES IN CONTROL ROOM MODERNIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovesdi, C.; Spielman, Z.; LeBlanc, K.; Rice, B.

    2017-05-01

    An important element of human factors engineering (HFE) pertains to measurement and evaluation (M&E). The role of HFE-M&E should be integrated throughout the entire control room modernization (CRM) process and be used for human-system performance evaluation and diagnostic purposes with resolving potential human engineering deficiencies (HEDs) and other human machine interface (HMI) design issues. NUREG-0711 describes how HFE in CRM should employ a hierarchical set of measures, particularly during integrated system validation (ISV), including plant performance, personnel task performance, situation awareness, cognitive workload, and anthropometric/ physiological factors. Historically, subjective measures have been primarily used since they are easier to collect and do not require specialized equipment. However, there are pitfalls with relying solely on subjective measures in M&E such that negatively impact reliability, sensitivity, and objectivity. As part of comprehensively capturing a diverse set of measures that strengthen findings and inferences made of the benefits from emerging technologies like advanced displays, this paper discusses the value of using eye tracking as an objective method that can be used in M&E. A brief description of eye tracking technology and relevant eye tracking measures is provided. Additionally, technical considerations and the unique challenges with using eye tracking in full-scaled simulations are addressed. Finally, this paper shares preliminary findings regarding the use of a wearable eye tracking system in a full-scale simulator study. These findings should help guide future full-scale simulator studies using eye tracking as a methodology to evaluate human-system performance.

  16. Human Factors for Clinical Engineering - The Realization of a Guidance Text

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A C Easty; A L Cassano-Pich; M Griffin; Y-L Lin; P Trbovich

    2016-01-01

    Industries such as aviation and nuclear power have greatly improved their safety performance through the application of human factors methods to the design, development, selection and deployment of a range of technologies and work processes. Health care safety performance generally lags behind these industries and would benefit from a similar application of human factors methods. Clinical engineers are in an ideal position to acquire and apply this human factors knowledge, and lead its adoption in health care. This paper describes a text that has been written speciifcally for clinical engineers and others who design, develop, select and support the use of health care technologies, to enable them to learn the key methods of human factors and adopt them as part of their ongoing work. Early indications are that these approaches help to ensure that health care technologies are used more safely and effectively, and it is hoped that large-scale adoption will result in a noticeable and worthwhile improvement in overall health care safety. The described text is now ready and has been published in English on the IFMBE website. It is available as a free download in PDF format. Clinical engineers and others working around the world in the area of health technology are encouraged to learn and adopt these methods, and use them as appropriate in their local setting. At time of writing, plans are underway for a translation of this book into Spanish. Once completed, this version will also be made available online at no charge. The authors encourage readers to contact them with their experiences, and the aim is to build a worldwide community that gradually adopts these methods and helps to drive safety improvements in health care.

  17. Metabolic engineering of Salmonella vaccine bacteria to boost human Vγ2Vδ2 T cell immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workalemahu, Grefachew; Wang, Hong; Puan, Kia-Joo; Nada, Mohanad H; Kuzuyama, Tomohisa; Jones, Bradley D; Jin, Chenggang; Morita, Craig T

    2014-07-15

    Human Vγ2Vδ2 T cells monitor isoprenoid metabolism by recognizing foreign (E)-4-hydroxy-3-methyl-but-2-enyl pyrophosphate (HMBPP), a metabolite in the 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol-4-phosphate pathway used by most eubacteria and apicomplexan parasites, and self isopentenyl pyrophosphate, a metabolite in the mevalonate pathway used by humans. Whereas microbial infections elicit prolonged expansion of memory Vγ2Vδ2 T cells, immunization with prenyl pyrophosphates or aminobisphosphonates elicit short-term Vγ2Vδ2 expansion with rapid anergy and deletion upon subsequent immunizations. We hypothesized that a live, attenuated bacterial vaccine that overproduces HMBPP would elicit long-lasting Vγ2Vδ2 T cell immunity by mimicking a natural infection. Therefore, we metabolically engineered the avirulent aroA(-) Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium SL7207 strain by deleting the gene for LytB (the downstream enzyme from HMBPP) and functionally complementing for this loss with genes encoding mevalonate pathway enzymes. LytB(-) Salmonella SL7207 had high HMBPP levels, infected human cells as efficiently as did the wild-type bacteria, and stimulated large ex vivo expansions of Vγ2Vδ2 T cells from human donors. Importantly, vaccination of a rhesus monkey with live lytB(-) Salmonella SL7207 stimulated a prolonged expansion of Vγ2Vδ2 T cells without significant side effects or anergy induction. These studies provide proof-of-principle that metabolic engineering can be used to derive live bacterial vaccines that boost Vγ2Vδ2 T cell immunity. Similar engineering of metabolic pathways to produce lipid Ags or B vitamin metabolite Ags could be used to derive live bacterial vaccine for other unconventional T cells that recognize nonpeptide Ags.

  18. 3D engineered cardiac tissue models of human heart disease: learning more from our mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralphe, J Carter; de Lange, Willem J

    2013-02-01

    Mouse engineered cardiac tissue constructs (mECTs) are a new tool available to study human forms of genetic heart disease within the laboratory. The cultured strips of cardiac cells generate physiologic calcium transients and twitch force, and respond to electrical pacing and adrenergic stimulation. The mECT can be made using cells from existing mouse models of cardiac disease, providing a robust readout of contractile performance and allowing a rapid assessment of genotype-phenotype correlations and responses to therapies. mECT represents an efficient and economical extension to the existing tools for studying cardiac physiology. Human ECTs generated from iPSCMs represent the next logical step for this technology and offer significant promise of an integrated, fully human, cardiac tissue model.

  19. KEPCO‧s Activity to Power-Engineer Human Resource Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobashi, Kazushi

    While business environment changes a lot, in order to aim at realization of “what we want the Group to look like in 2030” , it is necessary to cultivate human resources with a strong sense of mission. We need to prepare an opportunity to teach and to be taught, in order to cultivate resources and a measure for connecting every person‧s growth to growth of a company. In chapter one, we show Five Trends for attaining what KANSAI Electric Power Corporation wants to be and explain the importance of human resource development under the changing environment. In chapter two, we explain the fundamental policy of human resource cultivation and describe the development plan and the facilities for training based on the policy in chapter two. In chapter three, we express the specific efforts in the field of maintenance, construction, and operation at the department of Engineering and Operation.

  20. Evaluation of engineered foods for Closed Ecological Life Support System (CELSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karel, M.

    1981-01-01

    A system of conversion of locally regenerated raw materials and of resupplied freeze-dried foods and ingredients into acceptable, safe and nutritious engineered foods is proposed. The first phase of the proposed research has the following objectives: (1) evaluation of feasibility of developing acceptable and reliable engineered foods from a limited selection of plants, supplemented by microbially produced nutrients and a minimum of dehydrated nutrient sources (especially those of animal origin); (2) evaluation of research tasks and specifications of research projects to adapt present technology and food science to expected space conditions (in particular, problems arising from unusual gravity conditions, problems of limited size and the isolation of the food production system, and the opportunities of space conditions are considered); (3) development of scenarios of agricultural production of plant and microbial systems, including the specifications of processing wastes to be recycled.

  1. Biodiesel Production from Waste Cooking Oil & Its Evaluation in Compression Ignition Engine Using RSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jashan Deep Singha

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Lack of energy, deterioration of the environment and hunger,these are the three problems the humans are facing in todays era. There is an exponential rise in the demand is arrising for petroleum based energy. This has been followed by problem of depleting conventional petroleum fuels and a hike in price of these fuels, almost on a regular basis. Moreover, these green house emissions are results of petroleum fuels and other forms of pollution in the environment. The rise in the price of the fuel has also been alarming for us to find alternate energy resource.The vegetable oils has proved to be a promising source to obtain fuels for IC engines. Like, biodiesel is biodegradable, non- toxic and renewable fuel. It is obtained from vegetable oils, animal fats and waste cooking oil by transesterification with alcohols. The high cost of raw materials and lack of modern technology has led to the commercialization which can optimize the biodiesel yield. A modified engine can lead to better engine performance along with lesser specific fuel consumption. In this thesis, Response Surface Methodology (RSM has been used which has focused on the optimization of biodiesel production, engine performance and exhaust emission parameters.

  2. Clinical evaluation of using semantic searching engine for radiological imaging services in RIS-integrated PACS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Tonghui; Zhang, Kai; Yang, Yuanyuan; Hua, Yanqing; Zhang, Jianguo

    2015-03-01

    We had designed a semantic searching engine (SSE) for radiological imaging to search both reports and images in RIS-integrated PACS environment. In this presentation, we present evaluation results of this SSE about how it impacting the radiologists' behaviors in reporting for different kinds of examinations, and how it improving the performance of retrieval and usage of historical images in RIS-integrated PACS.

  3. Laser-assisted cold-sprayed hydroxyapatite/titanium composites: evaluation for tissues engineering applications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tlotleng, Monnamme

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available -1 Laser-assisted cold-sprayed hydroxyapatite/titanium composites: evaluation for tissues engineering applications Monnamme Tlotleng, Mukul Shukla, Esther Akinlabi and Sisa Pityana AIMS AND OBJECTIVES This research work seeks to establish titanium... and hydroxyapatite (Ti-HAP) using Laser- Assisted Cold Spray (LACS) technique on Ti-6Al-4V substrate. The produced coatings must be characterised for: a) Micro-structure (porosity, cracks, etc.) using Optical Microscope (OM); b) Mechanical properties (Hardness...

  4. Evaluation of Biodiesel Fuels to Reduce Fossil Fuel Use in Corps of Engineers Floating Plant Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    ER D C/ CH L TR -1 6- 11 Dredging Operations and Environmental Research Program Evaluation of Biodiesel Fuels to Reduce Fossil Fuel Use...Fuels to Reduce Fossil Fuel Use in Corps of Engineers Floating Plant Operations Michael Tubman and Timothy Welp Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory...sensitive emissions, increase use of renewable energy, and reduce the use of fossil fuels was conducted with funding from the U.S. Army Corps of

  5. Evaluation of engineering foods for Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karel, M.

    1982-01-01

    The feasibility of developing acceptable and reliable engineered foods for use in controlled ecological support systems (CELSS) was evaluated. Food resupply and regeneration are calculated, flow charts of food processes in a multipurpose food pilot plant are presented, and equipment for a multipurpose food pilot plant and potential simplification of processes are discussed. Food-waste treatment and water usage in food processing and preparation are also considered.

  6. Collagen and chitosan membranes from alternative sources: evaluation of their potential for Tissue Engineering applications

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Natural polymers such as collagen and chitosan possess physical, chemical and biological characteristics that make them good candidates as extracellular matrix scaffolds with potential applications in Tissue Engineering. In the present work, collagen and chitosan biopolymer membranes made from waste material, were evaluated for dermal fibroblasts cell culture. Several membrane compositions were analyzed, including 100% collagen, 100% chitosan, 8:2, 2:8, 6:4, 4:6 collagen-chitosan, obtained fr...

  7. Evaluation of 25-Percent ATJ Fuel Blends in the John Deere 4045HF 280 Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    advertising or product endorsement purposes. Contracted Author As the author(s) is(are) not a Government employee(s), this document was only...ABSTRACT A 25% blend of Alcohol to Jet (ATJ) and JP8 fuel was evaluated in the mechanically fuel injected John Deere 4045HF280 engine. Pre and post...TERMS Alcohol to Jet (ATJ), JP8, Alternative Fuels, Stanadyne, Rotary Fuel Injection Pump, John Deere 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF

  8. Genetic engineering of mesenchymal stem cells and its application in human disease therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgkinson, Conrad P; Gomez, José A; Mirotsou, Maria; Dzau, Victor J

    2010-11-01

    The use of stem cells for tissue regeneration and repair is advancing both at the bench and bedside. Stem cells isolated from bone marrow are currently being tested for their therapeutic potential in a variety of clinical conditions including cardiovascular injury, kidney failure, cancer, and neurological and bone disorders. Despite the advantages, stem cell therapy is still limited by low survival, engraftment, and homing to damage area as well as inefficiencies in differentiating into fully functional tissues. Genetic engineering of mesenchymal stem cells is being explored as a means to circumvent some of these problems. This review presents the current understanding of the use of genetically engineered mesenchymal stem cells in human disease therapy with emphasis on genetic modifications aimed to improve survival, homing, angiogenesis, and heart function after myocardial infarction. Advancements in other disease areas are also discussed.

  9. Towards breaking the silence between the two cultures: Engineering and the other humanities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prausnitz, John M.

    2003-01-01

    Over the years, I have attended numerous meetings like this one at the Center for the Study of Higher Education. I have noticed that most of the attendees, and certainly the speakers, tend to come from the social sciences or humanities. Only rarely do I see anyone here from Berkeley's College of Chemistry or College of Engineering. I come from the College of Chemistry that includes Berkeley's Department of Chemical Engineering. I mention this background to indicate that my remarks here are necessarily less abstract, less theoretical and less philosophical than those of most previous seminar speakers. My remarks are probably somewhat simplistic because, as a result of my engineering background, I tend to focus less on generalities and principles, giving more attention to possible solutions of limited practical problems. About seven weeks ago, I was invited to attend a conference sponsored by the Berlin Academy of Sciences where ''Sciences'' is not confined to natural sciences but includes also humanities and social sciences. The topic of the Conference was ''Sprachlosigkeit'', a German word that roughly translated means inability to speak. The subtitle was ''Silence Between the Disciplines''. The German universities are worried about the increasing gulf between what is often called ''the two cultures''. This gulf is a problem everywhere, including Berkeley, but it is my impression that it is much worse in Europe than in America. The International Conference in Berlin was attended by some big names including the presidents of the Humboldt University in Berlin, the University of Uppsala in Sweden and the Central European University of Budapest, as well as some distinguished academics from a variety of institutions including Harvard and Stanford, and the presidents of three major funding organizations: The Volkswagen Foundation, The German National Science Foundation and the Max

  10. Evaluation of the health impact of nanoparticles emitted from combustion sources: Comprehensive characterization of the physicochemical properties of nanoparticle emissions from wood combustion compliances, car- and ship diesel-engines as well as investigation of their toxicological effects on human lung cells and macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, R.; Dittmar, G.; Kanashova, T.; Buters, J.; Öder, S.; Paur, H. R.; Mülhopt, S.; Dilger, M.; Weiss, C.; Harndorf, H.; Stengel, B.; Hirvonen, M. R.; Jokiniemi, J.; Hiller, K.; Sapcariu, S.; Sippula, O.; Streibel, T.; Karg, E.; Weggler, B.; Schnelle-Kreis, J.; Lintelmann, J.; Sklorz, M.; Orasche, J.; Müller, L.; Passig, J.; Gröger, T.; BéruBé, K.; Krebs, T.

    2016-12-01

    Combustion emissions cause health effects. The HICE-Aerosol and Health project team studies the physicochemical properties as well as biological and toxicological effects on lung cells of combustion particle emissions. The chemical composition and physical parameters thoroughly characterized. Human lung cells are exposed to the diluted combustion exhaust fumes at the air-liquid interface (ALI), allowing a realistic lung-cell exposure by simulation of the lung situation. After exposure, cellular responses of the exposed lung cells are studied by multi-omics molecular biological analyses on transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolomic level. Emissions of wood combustion (log wood, pellet heater), ship diesel engines and car gasoline engines are addressed. Special field deployable ALI-exposition systems in a mobile S2-biological laboratory were set up and applied. Human alveolar epithelial cells (A549, BEAS2B and primary cells) as well as murine macrophages were ALI-exposed to diluted emissions. The cellular effects were then comprehensively characterized (viability, cyto-toxicology, multi-omics effects monitoring) and put in context with the chemical and physical aerosol data. The following order of overall cellular response-strength was observed: A relatively mild cellular effect is observed for the diluted wood combustion emissions. Interestingly the effects-strength for log-wood and pellet burner emissions are similar, although PM-concentrations are much higher for the log-wood heater. Similar mild biological effects are observed for the gasoline car emissions. The ship diesel engine emissions induced the most intense biological responses. A surprising result in this context is, that heavy fuel oil (HFO)-emissions showed lower biological effect strengths than the supposedly cleaner diesel fuel emissions (DF). The HFO-emission contain high concentrations of known toxicants (transition metals, polycyclic aromatics). This result was recently confirmed by experiments

  11. Comprehensive Evaluation of Entropy-hierarchical Grey Correlation Analysis for Highway Safety Life Protection Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Shuxins

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Different highway safety life protection engineering decision-making have important meaning. The achieving goals and optimal highway safety life protection engineering scheme can not only improve the function of the highway facilities and service level, still can reduce the traffic accident, which caused by the imperfect highway facilities. Different highway safety life protection engineering decision-making is a multiple targets, multi-layers and multi-schemes system evaluation problem. With regard to lack of concrete data on multiple targets, multi-layers and multi-schemes system evaluation problem, make analytical hierarchy process combined with the entropy value analysis into the grey relational comprehensive evaluation method, and then get entropy-hierarchical grey correlation analysis method. This method is a qualitative and quantitative decision method, which combine comparison principle of analytic hierarchy process (AHP and the entropy principle of entropy value analysis method to determine the relative weight of various indexes between factors layer-by-layer. Then using grey relational analysis by low-layer to high-layer step by step in the possible scheme and referenced scheme. Finally, calculating the comprehensive correlation degree between the possible scheme and referenced scheme, the best plan which has maximum grey correlation degree can be selected.

  12. A modified rabbit ulna defect model for evaluating periosteal substitutes in bone engineering: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rania M El Backly

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work defines a modified critical size rabbit ulna defect model for bone regeneration in which a non-resorbable barrier membrane was used to separate the radius from the ulna to create a valid model for evaluation of tissue-engineered periosteal substitutes. Eight rabbits divided into two groups were used. Critical defects (15 mm were made in the ulna completely eliminating periosteum. For group I, defects were filled with a nanohydroxyapatite poly(ester urethane scaffold soaked in PBS and left as such (group Ia or wrapped with a tissue-engineered periosteal substitute (group Ib. For group II, an e-PTFE (GORE-TEX® membrane was inserted around the radius then the defects received either scaffold alone (group IIa or scaffold wrapped with periosteal substitute (group IIb. Animals were euthanized after 12-16 weeks, and bone regeneration was evaluated by radiography, computed microtomography (µCT, and histology. In the first group, we observed formation of radio-ulnar synostosis irrespective of the treatment. This was completely eliminated upon placement of the e-PTFE (GORE-TEX® membrane in the second group of animals. In conclusion, modification of the model using a non-resorbable e-PTFE membrane to isolate the ulna from the radius was a valuable addition allowing for objective evaluation of the tissue-engineered periosteal substitute.

  13. Use of an additive in biofuel to evaluate emissions, engine component wear and lubrication characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalam, M.A.; Majsuki, H.H. [Malaya Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2003-07-01

    This paper presents the results of experiments carried out to evaluate the effect of adding an anticorrosion additive to blended biofuel and lubricating oil on emissions, engine component wear and lubrication characteristics. The blended biofuels consist of 7.5 and 15 per cent palm olein (PO) with ordinary diesel oil (OD). Pure OD was used for comparison purposes. Exhaust emission gases such as NO{sub x}, CO and hydrocarbons (HCs) were measured by an exhaust emission analyser for engine operation on 50 per cent throttle at speeds of 800-3600 r/min. To measure engine component wear and lubricating oil characteristics, the engine was operated at 50 per cent throttle at a speed of 2000 r/min for a period of 100 h with each of the fuel samples. The same lubricating oil, conventional SAE 40, was used in all the fuels. A multielement oil analyser (MOA) was used to measure the increase in wear of metals (Fe, Cu, Al, Pd) and the decrease in lubricating oil additives (Zn, Ca) in the lubricating oil used. An ISL automatic Houillon viscometer (ASTM D445) and potentiometric titration (ASTM D2896) were used to measure viscosity and total base number (TBN) respectively. The results show that the addition of anticorrosion additive with biofuel and lubricating oil improves the emission and engine wear characteristics; both the exhaust emission gases (NO{sub x}, CO and HCs) and the wear of metals (Fe, Cu, Al and Pd) decrease with the blended fuels in comparison with the base fuel OD. Detailed results, including engine brake power, are discussed. (Author)

  14. Natural and genetically engineered viral agents for oncolysis and gene therapy of human cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinkovics, Joseph G; Horvath, Joseph C

    2008-12-01

    Based on personal acquaintances and experience dating back to the early 1950s, the senior author reviews the history of viral therapy of cancer. He points out the difficulties encountered in the treatment of human cancers, as opposed by the highly successful viral therapy of experimentally maintained tumors in laboratory animals, especially that of ascites carcinomas in mice. A detailed account of viral therapy of human tumors with naturally oncolytic viruses follows, emphasizing the first clinical trials with viral oncolysates. The discrepancy between the high success rates, culminating in cures, in the treatment of tumors of laboratory animals, and the moderate results, such as stabilizations of disease, partial responses, very rare complete remissions, and frequent relapses with virally treated human tumors is recognized. The preclinical laboratory testing against established human tumor cell lines that were maintained in tissue cultures for decades, and against human tumors extricated from their natural habitat and grown in xenografts, may not yield valid results predictive of the viral therapy applied against human tumors growing in their natural environment, the human host. Since the recent discovery of the oncosuppressive efficacy of bacteriophages, the colon could be regarded as the battlefield, where incipient tumor cells and bacteriophages vie for dominance. The inner environment of the colon will be the teaching ground providing new knowledge on the value of the anti-tumor efficacy of phage-induced innate anti-tumor immune reactions. Genetically engineered oncolytic viruses are reviewed next. The molecular biology of viral oncolysis is explained in details. Elaborate efforts are presented to elucidate how gene product proteins of oncolytic viruses switch off the oncogenic cascades of cancer cells. The facts strongly support the conclusion that viral therapy of human cancers will remain in the front lines of modern cancer therapeutics. It may be a

  15. Targeting human microRNA genes using engineered Tal-effector nucleases (TALENs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruozhen Hu

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs have quickly emerged as important regulators of mammalian physiology owing to their precise control over the expression of critical protein coding genes. Despite significant progress in our understanding of how miRNAs function in mice, there remains a fundamental need to be able to target and edit miRNA genes in the human genome. Here, we report a novel approach to disrupting human miRNA genes ex vivo using engineered TAL-effector (TALE proteins to function as nucleases (TALENs that specifically target and disrupt human miRNA genes. We demonstrate that functional TALEN pairs can be designed to enable disruption of miRNA seed regions, or removal of entire hairpin sequences, and use this approach to successfully target several physiologically relevant human miRNAs including miR-155*, miR-155, miR-146a and miR-125b. This technology will allow for a substantially improved capacity to study the regulation and function of miRNAs in human cells, and could be developed into a strategic means by which miRNAs can be targeted therapeutically during human disease.

  16. EVALUATING HUMAN CAPITAL IN A KNOWLEDGE – BASED APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanoil MUSCALU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The widespread enthusiasm for a knowledge-based approach to understanding the nature of a business and the possible basis for sustained competitive advantage have renewed interest in human capital evaluation or measurement. While many attempts have been made to develop methods for measuring intellectual capital, none have been widely adopted in the business world. In the knowledge-based organizations, and generally, in the information society, human capital is recognized as the fundamental factor of overall progress, and experts agree that long-term investment in human capital has strong drive-propagation effects at the individual, organizational, national and global level. In this paper, we consider that a knowledge-based approach can offer new possibilities and answers to illustrate the importance of evaluation the human capital and knowledge assets by consistently generating added value in the business world.

  17. Human Factors Engineering (HFE) insights for advanced reactors based upon operating experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higgins, J.; Nasta, K.

    1997-01-01

    The NRC Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model (HFE PRM, NUREG-0711) was developed to support a design process review for advanced reactor design certification under 10CFR52. The HFE PRM defines ten fundamental elements of a human factors engineering program. An Operating Experience Review (OER) is one of these elements. The main purpose of an OER is to identify potential safety issues from operating plant experience and ensure that they are addressed in a new design. Broad-based experience reviews have typically been performed in the past by reactor designers. For the HFE PRM the intent is to have a more focussed OER that concentrates on HFE issues or experience that would be relevant to the human-system interface (HSI) design process for new advanced reactors. This document provides a detailed list of HFE-relevant operating experience pertinent to the HSI design process for advanced nuclear power plants. This document is intended to be used by NRC reviewers as part of the HFE PRM review process in determining the completeness of an OER performed by an applicant for advanced reactor design certification. 49 refs.

  18. Towards breaking the silence between the two cultures: Engineering and the other humanities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prausnitz, John M.

    2003-01-01

    Over the years, I have attended numerous meetings like this one at the Center for the Study of Higher Education. I have noticed that most of the attendees, and certainly the speakers, tend to come from the social sciences or humanities. Only rarely do I see anyone here from Berkeley's College of Chemistry or College of Engineering. I come from the College of Chemistry that includes Berkeley's Department of Chemical Engineering. I mention this background to indicate that my remarks here are necessarily less abstract, less theoretical and less philosophical than those of most previous seminar speakers. My remarks are probably somewhat simplistic because, as a result of my engineering background, I tend to focus less on generalities and principles, giving more attention to possible solutions of limited practical problems. About seven weeks ago, I was invited to attend a conference sponsored by the Berlin Academy of Sciences where ''Sciences'' is not confined to natural sciences but includes also humanities and social sciences. The topic of the Conference was ''Sprachlosigkeit'', a German word that roughly translated means inability to speak. The subtitle was ''Silence Between the Disciplines''. The German universities are worried about the increasing gulf between what is often called ''the two cultures''. This gulf is a problem everywhere, including Berkeley, but it is my impression that it is much worse in Europe than in America. The International Conference in Berlin was attended by some big names including the presidents of the Humboldt University in Berlin, the University of Uppsala in Sweden and the Central European University of Budapest, as well as some distinguished academics from a variety of institutions including Harvard and Stanford, and the presidents of three major funding organizations: The Volkswagen Foundation, The German National Science Foundation and the Max

  19. Enhanced Electrical Integration of Engineered Human Myocardium via Intramyocardial versus Epicardial Delivery in Infarcted Rat Hearts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaytlyn A Gerbin

    Full Text Available Cardiac tissue engineering is a promising approach to provide large-scale tissues for transplantation to regenerate the heart after ischemic injury, however, integration with the host myocardium will be required to achieve electromechanical benefits. To test the ability of engineered heart tissues to electrically integrate with the host, 10 million human embryonic stem cell (hESC-derived cardiomyocytes were used to form either scaffold-free tissue patches implanted on the epicardium or micro-tissue particles (~1000 cells/particle delivered by intramyocardial injection into the left ventricular wall of the ischemia/reperfusion injured athymic rat heart. Results were compared to intramyocardial injection of 10 million dispersed hESC-cardiomyocytes. Graft size was not significantly different between treatment groups and correlated inversely with infarct size. After implantation on the epicardial surface, hESC-cardiac tissue patches were electromechanically active, but they beat slowly and were not electrically coupled to the host at 4 weeks based on ex vivo fluorescent imaging of their graft-autonomous GCaMP3 calcium reporter. Histologically, scar tissue physically separated the patch graft and host myocardium. In contrast, following intramyocardial injection of micro-tissue particles and suspended cardiomyocytes, 100% of the grafts detected by fluorescent GCaMP3 imaging were electrically coupled to the host heart at spontaneous rate and could follow host pacing up to a maximum of 300-390 beats per minute (5-6.5 Hz. Gap junctions between intramyocardial graft and host tissue were identified histologically. The extensive coupling and rapid response rate of the human myocardial grafts after intramyocardial delivery suggest electrophysiological adaptation of hESC-derived cardiomyocytes to the rat heart's pacemaking activity. These data support the use of the rat model for studying electromechanical integration of human cardiomyocytes, and they

  20. Comparison of different fabrication techniques for human adipose tissue engineering in severe combined immunodeficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frerich, Bernhard; Winter, Karsten; Scheller, Konstanze; Braumann, Ulf-Dietrich

    2012-03-01

    Adipose tissue engineering has been advocated for soft-tissue augmentation and for the treatment of soft tissue defects. The efficacy in terms of persistence of the engineered fat is, however, not yet understood and could depend on the nature of fabrication and application. The high metabolic demand of adipose tissue also points to the problem of vascularization. Endothelial cell (EC) cotransplantation could be a solution. Human adipose tissue-derived stromal cells were seeded on collagen microcarriers and submitted to adipogenic differentiation ("microparticles"). In a first run of experiments, these microparticles were implanted under the skin of severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice (n = 45) with and without the addition of human umbilical vein ECs (HUVECs). A group of carriers without any cells served as control. In a second run, adipose tissue constructs were fabricated by embedding microparticles in fibrin matrix with and without the addition of HUVEC, and were also implanted in SCID mice (n = 30). The mice were sacrificed after 12 days, 4 weeks, and 4 months. Mature adipose tissue, fibrous tissue, and acellular regions were quantified on whole-specimen histological sections. The implantation of microparticles showed a better sustainment of tissue volume and a higher degree of mature adipose tissue compared with adipose tissue constructs. Immunohistology proved obviously perfused human tissue-engineered vessels. There was a limited but not significant advantage in EC cotransplantation after 4 weeks in terms of tissue volume. In groups with EC cotransplantation, there were significantly fewer acellular/necrotic areas after 4 weeks and 4 months. In conclusion, the size of the implanted tissue equivalents is a crucial parameter, affecting volume maintenance and the gain of mature adipose tissue. EC cotransplantation leads to functional stable vascular networks connecting in part to the host vasculature and contributing to tissue perfusion; however

  1. Modeling and performance evaluation of an electromechanical valve actuator for a camless IC engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eid Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Valve train control is one of the best strategies for optimizing efficiency and emissions of Internal Combustion (IC engines. Applications of solenoid valve actuators in (IC engines can facilitate operations such as variable valve timing and variable valve lifting for improved the engine performance, fuel economy and reduce emission, the electromechanical valve actuator (EMVA uses solenoid to actuate valve movement independently for the application of (IC engine. In this work presents the effects of design and operating parameters on the system dynamic performances of the actuator and the proposed an (EMVA structure by incorporating the hybrid magneto-motive force (MMF implementation in which the magnetic flux is combined by the coil excitation and permanent magnets. A two-degree-of-freedom lumped parameter model is used to simulate the response of valve actuator system in the opening and closing. The model and control of an electromagnetic valve (EMV are described. This is done using electromagnetic force to open and close the valve and a controller regulates the motion specifications required. The developments controller is based on a state-space description of the actuator that is derived based on physical principles and parameter identification. Linear-quadratic regulator design (LQR optimal control is designed with the evaluation reasonable the performance and energy of (EMV valve are obtained with the design.

  2. Modeling and performance evaluation of an electromechanical valve actuator for a camless IC engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamed, Eid [Automotive and Tractors Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Helwan University, Cairo (Egypt)

    2012-07-01

    Valve train control is one of the best strategies for optimizing efficiency and emissions of Internal Combustion (IC) engines. Applications of solenoid valve actuators in (IC) engines can facilitate operations such as variable valve timing and variable valve lifting for improved the engine performance, fuel economy and reduce emission, the electromechanical valve actuator (EMVA) uses solenoid to actuate valve movement independently for the application of (IC) engine. In this work presents the effects of design and operating parameters on the system dynamic performances of the actuator and the proposed an (EMVA) structure by incorporating the hybrid magneto-motive force (MMF) implementation in which the magnetic flux is combined by the coil excitation and permanent magnets. A two-degree-of-freedom lumped parameter model is used to simulate the response of valve actuator system in the opening and closing. The model and control of an electromagnetic valve (EMV) are described. This is done using electromagnetic force to open and close the valve and a controller regulates the motion specifications required. The developments controller is based on a state-space description of the actuator that is derived based on physical principles and parameter identification. Linear-quadratic regulator design (LQR) optimal control is designed with the evaluation reasonable the performance and energy of (EMV) valve are obtained with the design.

  3. Thrust Performance Evaluation of a Turbofan Engine Based on Exergetic Approach and Thrust Management in Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalcin, Enver

    2017-05-01

    The environmental parameters such as temperature and air pressure which are changing depending on altitudes are effective on thrust and fuel consumption of aircraft engines. In flights with long routes, thrust management function in airplane information system has a structure that ensures altitude and performance management. This study focused on thrust changes throughout all flight were examined by taking into consideration their energy and exergy performances for fuel consumption of an aircraft engine used in flight with long route were taken as reference. The energetic and exergetic performance evaluations were made under the various altitude conditions. The thrust changes for different altitude conditions were obtained to be at 86.53 % in descending direction and at 142.58 % in ascending direction while the energy and exergy efficiency changes for the referenced engine were found to be at 80.77 % and 84.45 %, respectively. The results revealed here can be helpful to manage thrust and reduce fuel consumption, but engine performance will be in accordance with operation requirements.

  4. Evaluation of engine performance and emission with methyl ester of Karanja oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shikha Gangil

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel has been considered as potential alternative to petroleum diesel with the renewable origin for the existing compression ignition engine. The main objective of the present work is evaluating performance and emission characteristics of diesel engine for various blends (B20, B40, B60, B80 and B100 of Karanja biodiesel and commercial diesel. The experimental investigation was carried out in IC (internal combustion at variable loads and compared with conventional diesel fuel with respect to engine performance parameters i.e. brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC, brake specific power consumption (BSEC, brake thermal efficiency (η-B.Th, for varying load conditions. The results obtained indicated the better fuel properties and engine performance at B40. For all cases, BSFC reduced with increase in load. It can be observed that the BSEC for various blends is lower as compared with that of diesel fuel. The availability of oxygen in the Karanja oil methyl ester-diesel fuel blend may be the reason for the lower BSEC. Brake thermal efficiency is increased due reduced heat loss with increased in load. It was found that the emission level of CO and HC level decreased with increased in blend proportion in diesel fuel. NOx emission increased with increase in blend proportion in diesel fuel.

  5. Evaluation of the Rural Human Settlement in Shandong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Hong; Shen Meiyu; Chen Xiangxiang

    2012-01-01

    Taking Shandong Province as the research object, this paper uses the principal component analysis method to evaluate the status of the rural human settlement in Shandong Province. It establishes the evaluation index system of the rural residential environment in Shandong Province, including living environment, economy, infrastructure, public service facilities, and ecological environment, in total five comprehensive index, and 20 second~ ary indexes. Through measurement and sorting of rural human environment development level of Shandong Province in 2010, the 17 cities are divided into-excellent, good, ordinary, poor-four development areas and are analyzed based on the restriction factor in the development of the region.

  6. Fuzzy synthetic evaluation on layoff mechanism for human resource

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEI Yong; PU Yong-jian

    2004-01-01

    According to the modern theory of human resource management, the condition of buyout mainly depends on two variables of an employee: his interior value of product and exterior work reward. There exist shortages in evaluating the value of the employees in an enterprise. Consequently, a lot of employees might be laid off. Hence, this paper puts forward a two-stage method for decision-making to carry out a selective plan of buyout, based on the fuzzy synthetic evaluation involing many factors impacting on human resource. Moreover, a positive analysis is also given.

  7. Evaluating human, social and cultural capital in nurse education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royal, Jan

    2012-07-01

    Using the concepts of human, social and cultural capital this paper will review the literature on these theories and evaluate their application to nurse education in the United Kingdom (UK). Each concept will be explored before considering the impact and application within nurse education. Issues of sponsorship via mentoring and increased skills and contribution to the knowledge economy alongside the delivery of quality care by nursing students will be discussed with reference to theory and current policy drivers. As nursing education moves to a graduate profession in the UK this paper evaluates the drivers of human, social and cultural capital that affect this development.

  8. Rotating three-dimensional dynamic culture of adult human bone marrow-derived cells for tissue engineering of hyaline cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Shinsuke; Mishima, Hajime; Ishii, Tomoo; Akaogi, Hiroshi; Yoshioka, Tomokazu; Ohyabu, Yoshimi; Chang, Fei; Ochiai, Naoyuki; Uemura, Toshimasa

    2009-04-01

    The method of constructing cartilage tissue from bone marrow-derived cells in vitro is considered a valuable technique for hyaline cartilage regenerative medicine. Using a rotating wall vessel (RWV) bioreactor developed in a NASA space experiment, we attempted to efficiently construct hyaline cartilage tissue from human bone marrow-derived cells without using a scaffold. Bone marrow aspirates were obtained from the iliac crest of nine patients during orthopedic operation. After their proliferation in monolayer culture, the adherent cells were cultured in the RWV bioreactor with chondrogenic medium for 2 weeks. Cells from the same source were cultured in pellet culture as controls. Histological and immunohistological evaluations (collagen type I and II) and quantification of glycosaminoglycan were performed on formed tissues and compared. The engineered constructs obtained using the RWV bioreactor showed strong features of hyaline cartilage in terms of their morphology as determined by histological and immunohistological evaluations. The glycosaminoglycan contents per microg DNA of the tissues were 10.01 +/- 3.49 microg/microg DNA in the case of the RWV bioreactor and 6.27 +/- 3.41 microg/microg DNA in the case of the pellet culture, and their difference was significant. The RWV bioreactor could provide an excellent environment for three-dimensional cartilage tissue architecture that can promote the chondrogenic differentiation of adult human bone marrow-derived cells.

  9. Enabling Robotic Social Intelligence by Engineering Human Social-Cognitive Mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiltshire, Travis; Warta, Samantha F.; Barber, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    for artificial cognitive systems. We discuss a recent integrative perspective of social cognition to provide a systematic theoretical underpinning for computational instantiations of these mechanisms. We highlight several commitments of our approach that we refer to as Engineering Human Social Cognition. We...... then provide a series of recommendations to facilitate the development of the perceptual, motor, and cognitive architecture for this proposed artificial cognitive system in future work. For each recommendation, we highlight their relation to the discussed social-cognitive mechanisms, provide the rationale...

  10. Construction of tissue-engineered cartilage using human placenta-derived stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Human placenta-derived stem cells (hPDSCs) were isolated by trypsinization and further induced into cartilage cells in vitro.The engineered cartilage was constructed by combining hPDSCs with collagen sponge and the cartilage formation was observed by implantation into nude mice.Results showed that hPDSCs featured mesenchymal stem cells and maintained proliferation in vitro for over 30 passages while remaining undifferentiated.All results indicated that hPDSCs have the potential to differentiate into functional cartilage cells in vitro when combined with collagen sponge,which provided experimental evidence for prospective clinical application.

  11. Human Factors Engineering. A Self-Paced Text, Lessons 6-10,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    saga of his super chopper. Eager presented to the manager some of the very problems you’ve had to deal with in the last several lessons. Their talk...in the continuing saga (soap opera?) of I. M. Eager. As you recall from the last few lessons, Eager was dreaming that he had de- signed a perfect...importance of some of the things Captain B. Smart had been saying about Human Factors Engineering. As twilight set in, Eager realized that in lis rush to

  12. ThermoData engine (TDE): software implementation of the dynamic data evaluation concept. 4. Chemical reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diky, Vladimir; Chirico, Robert D; Kazakov, Andrei F; Muzny, Chris D; Frenkel, Michael

    2009-12-01

    ThermoData Engine (TDE) is the first full-scale software implementation of the dynamic data evaluation concept, as reported recently in this journal. This paper describes the first application of this concept to the evaluation of thermodynamic properties for chemical reactions. Reaction properties evaluated are the enthalpies, entropies, Gibbs energies, and thermodynamic equilibrium constants. Details of key considerations in the critical evaluation of enthalpies of formation and of standard entropies for organic compounds are discussed in relation to their application in the calculation of reaction properties. Extensions to the class structure of the program are described that allow close linkage between the derived reaction properties and the underlying pure-component properties. Derivation of pure-component enthalpies of formation and of standard entropies through the use of directly measured reaction properties (enthalpies of reaction and equilibrium constants) is described. Directions for future enhancements are outlined.

  13. Proliferation and Differentiation of Human Hair Follicle Stem Cells on Chitosan-Skin Engineered Template in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Bakar Mohd Hilmi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Hair follicles repeatedly regress and reconstitute themselves, suggesting the presence of intrinsic tissue stem cells. Among the unique characteristics of adult stem cells isolated from hair follicles is their ability to differentiate into keratinocytes. Study on chitosan skin-engineered templates (SETs as scaffolds for the proliferation of human fibroblasts have shown the promise of SETs in facilitating skin cell growth in three-dimensional culture. High proliferation in three-dimensional culture using human cells allows the researcher to extensively evaluate the cultivation of desirable cell types on chitosan SETs. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the in vitro attachment, proliferation and differentiation of hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs on a chitosan SETs. HFSCs were isolated from human scalp tissues using collagenase type I prior to propagation in supplemented CnT-07 media. The phenotype of the HFSCs was verified using the markers keratin-15 (K15 and CD200, as detected by immunocytochemical staining. The attachment and proliferation of the HFSCs on the chitosan SETs were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, an alamar blue assay and a live/dead assay. Subsequently, the HFSCs were differentiated using CnT-2D differentiation media. The cells’ differentiation was verified using the markers involucrin and keratin-6 (K6, as detected by immunofluorescence staining. The HFSCs were successfully isolated, proliferated and differentiated according to staining positivity and microscopy imaging. HFSCs are able to proliferate and directly differentiate into keratinocytes on a chitosan SETs, which may facilitate their use in regenerative medicine.

  14. [Development of human embryonic stem cell model for toxicity evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guang-yan; Cao, Tong; Ouyang, Hong-wei; Peng, Shuang-qing; Deng, Xu-liang; Li, Sheng-lin; Liu, He; Zou, Xiao-hui; Fu, Xin; Peng, Hui; Wang, Xiao-ying; Zhan, Yuan

    2013-02-18

    The current international standard for toxicity screening of biomedical devices and materials recommend the use of immortalized cell lines because of their homogeneous morphologies and infinite proliferation which provide good reproducibility for in vitro cytotoxicity screening. However, most of the widely used immortalized cell lines are derived from animals and may not be representative of normal human cell behavior in vivo, in particular in terms of the cytotoxic and genotoxic response. Therefore, It is vital to develop a model for toxicity evaluation. In our studies, two Chinese human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines as toxicity model were established. hESC derived tissue/organ cell model for tissue/organ specific toxicity evaluation were developed. The efficiency and accuracy of using hESC model for cytoxicity, embryotoxicity and genotoxicity evaluation were confirmed. The results indicated that hESCs might be good tools for toxicity testing and biosafety evaluation in vitro.

  15. A Path to Planetary Protection Requirements for Human Exploration: A Literature Review and Systems Engineering Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James E.; Conley, Cassie; Siegel, Bette

    2015-01-01

    As systems, technologies, and plans for the human exploration of Mars and other destinations beyond low Earth orbit begin to coalesce, it is imperative that frequent and early consideration is given to how planetary protection practices and policy will be upheld. While the development of formal planetary protection requirements for future human space systems and operations may still be a few years from fruition, guidance to appropriately influence mission and system design will be needed soon to avoid costly design and operational changes. The path to constructing such requirements is a journey that espouses key systems engineering practices of understanding shared goals, objectives and concerns, identifying key stakeholders, and iterating a draft requirement set to gain community consensus. This paper traces through each of these practices, beginning with a literature review of nearly three decades of publications addressing planetary protection concerns with respect to human exploration. Key goals, objectives and concerns, particularly with respect to notional requirements, required studies and research, and technology development needs have been compiled and categorized to provide a current 'state of knowledge'. This information, combined with the identification of key stakeholders in upholding planetary protection concerns for human missions, has yielded a draft requirement set that might feed future iteration among space system designers, exploration scientists, and the mission operations community. Combining the information collected with a proposed forward path will hopefully yield a mutually agreeable set of timely, verifiable, and practical requirements for human space exploration that will uphold international commitment to planetary protection.

  16. Human engineered heart tissue as a versatile tool in basic research and preclinical toxicology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Schaaf

    Full Text Available Human embryonic stem cell (hESC progenies hold great promise as surrogates for human primary cells, particularly if the latter are not available as in the case of cardiomyocytes. However, high content experimental platforms are lacking that allow the function of hESC-derived cardiomyocytes to be studied under relatively physiological and standardized conditions. Here we describe a simple and robust protocol for the generation of fibrin-based human engineered heart tissue (hEHT in a 24-well format using an unselected population of differentiated human embryonic stem cells containing 30-40% α-actinin-positive cardiac myocytes. Human EHTs started to show coherent contractions 5-10 days after casting, reached regular (mean 0.5 Hz and strong (mean 100 µN contractions for up to 8 weeks. They displayed a dense network of longitudinally oriented, interconnected and cross-striated cardiomyocytes. Spontaneous hEHT contractions were analyzed by automated video-optical recording and showed chronotropic responses to calcium and the β-adrenergic agonist isoprenaline. The proarrhythmic compounds E-4031, quinidine, procainamide, cisapride, and sertindole exerted robust, concentration-dependent and reversible decreases in relaxation velocity and irregular beating at concentrations that recapitulate findings in hERG channel assays. In conclusion this study establishes hEHT as a simple in vitro model for heart research.

  17. On recent advances in human engineering Provocative trends in embryology, genetics, and regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Roman

    2016-01-01

    Advances in embryology, genetics, and regenerative medicine regularly attract attention from scientists, scholars, journalists, and policymakers, yet implications of these advances may be broader than commonly supposed. Laboratories culturing human embryos, editing human genes, and creating human-animal chimeras have been working along lines that are now becoming intertwined. Embryogenic methods are weaving traditional in vivo and in vitro distinctions into a new "in vivitro" (in life in glass) fabric. These and other methods known to be in use or thought to be in development promise soon to bring society to startling choices and discomfiting predicaments, all in a global effort to supply reliably rejuvenating stem cells, to grow immunologically non-provocative replacement organs, and to prevent, treat, cure, or even someday eradicate diseases having genetic or epigenetic mechanisms. With humanity's human-engineering era now begun, procedural prohibitions, funding restrictions, institutional controls, and transparency rules are proving ineffective, and business incentives are migrating into the most basic life-sciences inquiries, wherein lie huge biomedical potentials and bioethical risks. Rights, health, and heritage are coming into play with bioethical presumptions and formal protections urgently needing reassessment.

  18. Human-factors engineering for smart transport: design support for car drivers and train traffic controllers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenior, Dick; Janssen, Wiel; Neerincx, Mark; Schreibers, Kirsten

    2006-07-01

    The theme Smart Transport can be described as adequate human-system symbiosis to realize effective, efficient and human-friendly transport of goods and information. This paper addresses how to attune automation to human (cognitive) capacities (e.g. to take care of information uncertainty, operator trust and mutual man-machine adaptations). An introduction to smart transport is presented, including examples of best practice for engineering human factors in the vehicle ergonomics and train traffic control domain. The examples are representative of an ongoing trend in automation and they show how the human role changes from controller to supervisor. Section 2 focuses on the car driver and systems that support, or sometimes even take over, critical parts of the driving task. Due to the diversity of driver ability, driving context and dependence between driver and context factors, there is a need for personalised, adaptive and integrated support. Systematic research is needed to establish sound systems. Section 3 focuses on the train dispatcher support systems that predict train movements, detect potential conflicts and show the dispatcher the possibilities available to solve the detected problems. Via thorough analysis of both the process to be controlled and the dispatcher's tasks and cognitive needs, support functions were developed as part of an already very complex supervision and control system. The two examples, although from a different field, both show the need for further development in cognitive modelling as well as for the value of sound ergonomics task analysis in design practice.

  19. In vitro cytokeratin expression profiling of human oral mucosa substitutes developed by tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzon, Ingrid; Serrato, Deyanira; Roda, Olga; Del Carmen Sanchez-Quevedo, Maria; Gonzales-Jaranay, Maximino; Moreu, Gerardo; Nieto-Aguilar, Renato; Alaminos, Miguel; Campos, Antonio

    2009-10-01

    In this work we performed a study of cytokeratin (CK) expression profiling on human artificial oral mucosa developed in vitro by tissue engineering at different stages of maturation (from immature to well-developed stages) at the protein and mRNA levels. Human artificial oral mucosa was generated in the laboratory using fibrin-agarose biomaterials. As controls, we used human native normal oral mucosa and embryonic oral tissues. Our results demonstrated that human embryonic oral tissues tended to express CK8 and CK19. In contrast, monolayered bioengineered oral mucosa did not show any CK expression by immunohistochemistry, whereas bilayered and multilayered artificial oral mucosa showed several markers of stratified epithelia, but did not express CK10. These results suggest that the CK expression pattern is strongly dependent on the maturation state of the artificial tissues and that the CK expression profile of our model of artificial oral mucosa was partially similar to that of the non-keratinized human adult oral mucosa. However, the expression of CK8 by the artificial oral mucosa suggests that these samples correspond to an early stage of development while kept in vitro.

  20. A novel comprehensive approach for human vascular allografts cryopreservation and radiation sterilization for the tissue engineering industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauk-Dubitsky S.E.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to verify new techniques for human cadaveric vascular allografts cryopreservation, thawing and sterilization for the tissue engineering purposes. We use polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS as a well-known, promising coolant. This allowed us to completely omit any cryoprotective or vitrifying solutions. Using of PDMS also makes possible an applying these allografts directly after freezing and decellularization and also it will also provide an opportunity to develop secure protocols of tissue— engineered vascular conduits cryopreservation. Matherial and methods. After mathematical modeling of cooling process and its validation the experiment for sealed (isolated freezing at low temperature conditions of 30 femoral arterial segments has been conducted. The segments were at least 10 cm in length and taken from 15 cadaveric donors in the age of 65-85 years. The freezing process was carried out using the abovementioned coolant— PDMS, and then physico-mechanical properties of these allografts were evaluated with the special Instron machine. According to the results obtained, a modeling of their sterilization conditions was conducted (the grafts were freezed. Results. By physico-mechanical properties validation and restricted histological analysis it was shown that there was an accordance between freezed/thawed allografts properties and native vessels. Conclusion. The abovementioned approach for allografts cryopreservation and thawing was efficient enough for further work in this direction.

  1. The development and evaluation of human factors guidelines for the review of advanced human-system interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Hara, J.M.

    1992-09-01

    Advanced control rooms for future nuclear power plants are being designed utilizing computer-based technologies. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission reviews the human engineering of such control rooms to ensure that they are designed to good human factors engineering principles and that operator performance and reliability are approximately supported in order to protect public health and safety. This paper describes the rationale, general approach, and initial development of an NRC Advanced Control Room Design Review Guideline.

  2. The development and evaluation of human factors guidelines for the review of advanced human-system interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Hara, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    Advanced control rooms for future nuclear power plants are being designed utilizing computer-based technologies. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission reviews the human engineering of such control rooms to ensure that they are designed to good human factors engineering principles and that operator performance and reliability are approximately supported in order to protect public health and safety. This paper describes the rationale, general approach, and initial development of an NRC Advanced Control Room Design Review Guideline.

  3. The Virtual Employment Test Bed: An Immersive Synthetic Environment Allows Engineers to Test and Evaluate Material Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-03

    synthetic environment allows engineers to test and evaluate material solutions Robert DeMarco, MSBME; Gordon Cooke, MEME ; John Riedener, MSSE...ROBERT DEMARCO, MSBME, is a Project Lead Engineer and Certified LabVIEW Associate Developer. GORDON COOKE, MEME , is a Principal Investigator at the

  4. Martian Surface Boundary Layer Characterization: Enabling Environmental Data for Science, Engineering and Human Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, C.

    2000-01-01

    For human or large robotic exploration of Mars, engineering devices such as power sources will be utilized that interact closely with the Martian environment. Heat sources for power production, for example, will use the low ambient temperature for efficient heat rejection. The Martian ambient, however, is highly variable, and will have a first order influence on the efficiency and operation of all large-scale equipment. Diurnal changes in temperature, for example, can vary the theoretical efficiency of power production by 15% and affect the choice of equipment, working fluids, and operating parameters. As part of the Mars Exploration program, missions must acquire the environmental data needed for design, operation and maintenance of engineering equipment including the transportation devices. The information should focus on the variability of the environment, and on the differences among locations including latitudes, altitudes, and seasons. This paper outlines some of the WHY's, WHAT's and WHERE's of the needed data, as well as some examples of how this data will be used. Environmental data for engineering design should be considered a priority in Mars Exploration planning. The Mars Thermal Environment Radiator Characterization (MTERC), and Dust Accumulation and Removal Technology (DART) experiments planned for early Mars landers are examples of information needed for even small robotic missions. Large missions will require proportionately more accurate data that encompass larger samples of the Martian surface conditions. In achieving this goal, the Mars Exploration program will also acquire primary data needed for understanding Martian weather, surface evolution, and ground-atmosphere interrelationships.

  5. Martian Surface Boundary Layer Characterization: Enabling Environmental Data for Science, Engineering and Human Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, C.

    2000-01-01

    For human or large robotic exploration of Mars, engineering devices such as power sources will be utilized that interact closely with the Martian environment. Heat sources for power production, for example, will use the low ambient temperature for efficient heat rejection. The Martian ambient, however, is highly variable, and will have a first order influence on the efficiency and operation of all large-scale equipment. Diurnal changes in temperature, for example, can vary the theoretical efficiency of power production by 15% and affect the choice of equipment, working fluids, and operating parameters. As part of the Mars Exploration program, missions must acquire the environmental data needed for design, operation and maintenance of engineering equipment including the transportation devices. The information should focus on the variability of the environment, and on the differences among locations including latitudes, altitudes, and seasons. This paper outlines some of the WHY's, WHAT's and WHERE's of the needed data, as well as some examples of how this data will be used. Environmental data for engineering design should be considered a priority in Mars Exploration planning. The Mars Thermal Environment Radiator Characterization (MTERC), and Dust Accumulation and Removal Technology (DART) experiments planned for early Mars landers are examples of information needed for even small robotic missions. Large missions will require proportionately more accurate data that encompass larger samples of the Martian surface conditions. In achieving this goal, the Mars Exploration program will also acquire primary data needed for understanding Martian weather, surface evolution, and ground-atmosphere interrelationships.

  6. Human umbilical cord stem cell encapsulation in novel macroporous and injectable fibrin for muscle tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Xu, Hockin H.K.; Zhou, Hongzhi; Weir, Michael D.; Chen, Qianming; Trotman, Carroll Ann

    2012-01-01

    There has been little research on the seeding of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) in three-dimensional scaffolds for muscle tissue engineering. The objectives of this study were: (i) to seed hUCMSCs in a fibrin hydrogel containing fast-degradable microbeads (dMBs) to create macropores to enhance cell viability; and (ii) to investigate the encapsulated cell proliferation and myogenic differentiation for muscle tissue engineering. Mass fractions of 0–80% of dMBs were tested, and 35% of dMBs in fibrin was shown to avoid fibrin shrinkage while creating macropores and promoting cell viability. This construct was referred to as “dMB35”. Fibrin without dMBs was termed “dMB0”. Microbead degradation created macropores in fibrin and improved cell viability. The percentage of live cells in dMB35 reached 91% at 16 days, higher than the 81% in dMB0 (p muscle tissue engineering applications. PMID:22902812

  7. The Use of Value Engineering in the Evaluation and Selection of Digitization Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael H. Boock

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective‐ The authors describe a simple and effective tool for selecting digitization projects from competing alternatives, providing decision makers with objective, quantitative data.Methods ‐ The paper adopts the value engineering methodology for the selection, evaluation and ranking of digitization project proposals. Project selection steps are described. Selection criteria are developed. Digitization costs are presented as an equation. Project value is determined by calculating projected performance of digital collections based on the established criteria over cost.Results ‐ Scenarios are presented that evaluate and rank projects based on an evaluation of performance criteria and cost. The communication and use of rating criteria provides selectors with information about how proposed collections are evaluated. The transparency of the process output is easily communicated to stakeholders.Conclusion‐ Value engineering methodology provides a tool and a process that gives decision makers a set of objective, quantitative data upon which selection of digitization projects is based. This approach simplifies the selection process, and creates transparency so that all stakeholders are able to see how a decision was made.

  8. Evaluation of Ceramic Matrix Composite Technology for Aircraft Turbine Engine Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbig, Michael C.; Jaskowiak, Martha H.; Kiser, James D.; Zhu, Dongming

    2013-01-01

    The goals of the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Project are to reduce the NO(x) emissions, fuel burn, and noise from turbine engines. In order to help meet these goals, commercially-produced ceramic matrix composite (CMC) components and environmental barrier coatings (EBCs) are being evaluated as parts and panels. The components include a CMC combustor liner, a CMC high pressure turbine vane, and a CMC exhaust nozzle as well as advanced EBCs that are tailored to the operating conditions of the CMC combustor and vane. The CMC combustor (w/EBC) could provide 2700 F temperature capability with less component cooling requirements to allow for more efficient combustion and reductions in NOx emissions. The CMC vane (w/EBC) will also have temperature capability up to 2700 F and allow for reduced fuel burn. The CMC mixer nozzle will offer reduced weight and improved mixing efficiency to provide reduced fuel burn. The main objectives are to evaluate the manufacturability of the complex-shaped components and to evaluate their performance under simulated engine operating conditions. Progress in CMC component fabrication, evaluation, and testing is presented in which the goal is to advance from the proof of concept validation (TRL 3) to a system/subsystem or prototype demonstration in a relevant environment (TRL 6).

  9. Human amniotic fluid derived cells can competently substitute dermal fibroblasts in a tissue-engineered dermo-epidermal skin analog

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartmann-Fritsch, Fabienne; Hosper, Nynke; Luginbuehl, Joachim; Biedermann, Thomas; Reichmann, Ernst; Meuli, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Human amniotic fluid comprises cells with high differentiation capacity, thus representing a potential cell source for skin tissue engineering. In this experimental study, we investigated the ability of human amniotic fluid derived cells to substitute dermal fibroblasts and support epidermis formati

  10. Re-Engineered Data Acquisition Model: A Statistical Evaluation and Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Uzedhe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a statistical evaluation of a re-engineered data acquisition model for implementation. Data acquisition systems development is a dynamic field in industrial automation, especially in the search for low-cost and wide data coverage solutions. A re-engineered data acquisition model has been proposed and described by the authors, and can be implemented in diverse ways. This paper presents a statistical analysis of the model equation and performed a regressive calculation on a set of test signals for offset and gain determination. A simulation in SIMULINK showed that multi-parameter data can be acquired and stored in tables of records in a database for industrial process control and future operational behavioral predictions

  11. Toward a comprehensive and realistic risk evaluation of engineered nanomaterials in the urban water system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duester, Lars; Burkhardt, Michael; Gutleb, Arno C; Kaegi, Ralf; Macken, Ailbhe; Meermann, Björn; von der Kammer, Frank

    2014-01-01

    The European COoperation in Science and Technology (COST) Action ES1205 on the transfer of Engineered Nano materials from wastewater Treatment and stormwatEr to Rivers (ENTER) aims to create and to maintain a trans European network among scientists. This perspective article delivers a brief overview on the status quo at the beginning of the project by addressing the following aspects on engineered nano materials (ENMs) in the urban systems: (1) ENMs that need to be considered on a European level; (2) uncertainties on production-volume estimations; (3) fate of selected ENMs during waste water transport and treatment; (4) analytical strategies for ENM analysis; (5) ecotoxicity of ENMs, and (6) future needs. These six step stones deliver the derivation of the position of the ES1205 network at the beginning of the projects runtime, by defining six fundamental aspects that should be considered in future discussions on risk evaluation of ENMs in urban water systems.

  12. The development of human factors technologies -The development of human factors experimental evaluation techniques-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Bong Sik; Oh, In Suk; Cha, Kyung Hoh; Lee, Hyun Chul [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    In this year, we studied the followings: (1) Development of operator mental workload evaluation techniques, (2) Development of a prototype for preliminary human factors experiment, (3) Suitability test of information display on a large scale display panel, (4) Development of guidelines for VDU-based control room design, (5) Development of integrated test facility (ITF). (6) Establishment of an eye tracking system, and we got the following results: (1) Mental workload evaluation techniques for MMI evaluation, (2) PROTOPEX (PROTOtype for preliminary human factors experiment) for preliminary human factors experiments, (3) Usage methods of APTEA (Analysis-Prototyping-Training-Experiment-Analysis) experiment design, (4) Design guidelines for human factors verification, (5) Detail design requirements and development plan of ITF, (6) Eye movement measurement system. 38 figs, 20 tabs, 54 refs. (Author).

  13. Learned predictiveness influences automatic evaluations in human contingency learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le Pelley, M. E.; Calvini, G.; Spears, R.

    2013-01-01

    Experiments used an affective priming procedure to investigate whether evaluative conditioning in humans is subject to bias as a consequence of differences in the learned predictiveness of the cues involved. Experiment 1, using brief prime presentation, demonstrated stronger affective priming for

  14. Evaluation of the effect of horse blood supplemented with human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of horse blood supplemented with ..... proportion of lighter pupae (<22 mg) produced by the flies fed human blood .... Vreysen, M.J., Saleh, K.M., Ali, M.Y., Abdulla, A.M., Zhu, Z.R., Juma, K.G., ...

  15. Learned predictiveness influences automatic evaluations in human contingency learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le Pelley, M. E.; Calvini, G.; Spears, R.

    2013-01-01

    Experiments used an affective priming procedure to investigate whether evaluative conditioning in humans is subject to bias as a consequence of differences in the learned predictiveness of the cues involved. Experiment 1, using brief prime presentation, demonstrated stronger affective priming for cu

  16. Hemocompatibility evaluation of poly(diol citrate) in vitro for vascular tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motlagh, Delara; Allen, Josephine; Hoshi, Ryan; Yang, Jian; Lui, Karen; Ameer, Guillermo

    2007-09-15

    One of the ongoing challenges in tissue engineering is the synthesis of a hemocompatible vascular graft. Specifically, the material used in the construct should have antithrombogenic properties and support the growth of vascular cells. Our laboratory has designed a novel biodegradable, elastomeric copolymer, poly(1,8-octanediol citrate) (POC), with mechanical and degradation properties suitable for vascular tissue engineering. The hemocompatibility of POC in vitro and its ability to support the attachment and differentiation of human aortic endothelial cell (HAEC) was assessed. The thrombogenicity and inflammatory potential of POC were assessed relative to poly(l-lactide-co-glycolide) and expanded poly(tetrafluoroethylene), as they have been used in FDA-approved devices for blood contact. Specifically, platelet aggregation and activation, protein adsorption, plasma clotting, and hemolysis were investigated. To assess the inflammatory potential of POC, the release of IL-1beta and TNF-alpha from THP-1 cells was measured. The cell compatibility of POC was assessed by confirming HAEC differentiation and attachment under flow conditions. POC exhibited decreased platelet adhesion and clotting relative to control materials. Hemolysis was negligible and protein adsorption was comparable to reference materials. IL-1beta and TNF-alpha release from THP-1 cells was comparable among all materials tested, suggesting minimal inflammatory potential. POC supported HAEC differentiation and attachment without any premodification of the surface. The results described herein are encouraging and suggest that POC is hemocompatible and an adequate candidate biomaterial for in vivo vascular tissue engineering.

  17. Accident Sequence Evaluation Program: Human reliability analysis procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swain, A.D.

    1987-02-01

    This document presents a shortened version of the procedure, models, and data for human reliability analysis (HRA) which are presented in the Handbook of Human Reliability Analysis With emphasis on Nuclear Power Plant Applications (NUREG/CR-1278, August 1983). This shortened version was prepared and tried out as part of the Accident Sequence Evaluation Program (ASEP) funded by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and managed by Sandia National Laboratories. The intent of this new HRA procedure, called the ''ASEP HRA Procedure,'' is to enable systems analysts, with minimal support from experts in human reliability analysis, to make estimates of human error probabilities and other human performance characteristics which are sufficiently accurate for many probabilistic risk assessments. The ASEP HRA Procedure consists of a Pre-Accident Screening HRA, a Pre-Accident Nominal HRA, a Post-Accident Screening HRA, and a Post-Accident Nominal HRA. The procedure in this document includes changes made after tryout and evaluation of the procedure in four nuclear power plants by four different systems analysts and related personnel, including human reliability specialists. The changes consist of some additional explanatory material (including examples), and more detailed definitions of some of the terms. 42 refs.

  18. Engineering the oxygen sensing regulation results in an enhanced recombinant human hemoglobin production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, José L; Liu, Lifang; Petranovic, Dina; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Efficient production of appropriate oxygen carriers for transfusions (blood substitutes or artificial blood) has been pursued for many decades, and to date several strategies have been used, from synthetic polymers to cell-free hemoglobin carriers. The recent advances in the field of metabolic engineering also allowed the generation of different genetically modified organisms for the production of recombinant human hemoglobin. Several studies have showed very promising results using the bacterium Escherichia coli as a production platform, reporting hemoglobin titers above 5% of the total cell protein content. However, there are still certain limitations regarding the protein stability and functionality of the recombinant hemoglobin produced in bacterial systems. In order to overcome these limitations, yeast systems have been proposed as the eukaryal alternative. We recently reported the generation of a set of plasmids to produce functional human hemoglobin in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with final titers of active hemoglobin exceeding 4% of the total cell protein. In this study, we propose a strategy for further engineering S. cerevisiae by altering the oxygen sensing pathway by deleting the transcription factor HAP1, which resulted in an increase of the final recombinant active hemoglobin titer exceeding 7% of the total cellular protein.

  19. Cartilage tissue engineering of nasal septal chondrocyte-macroaggregates in human demineralized bone matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liese, Juliane; Marzahn, Ulrike; El Sayed, Karym; Pruss, Axel; Haisch, Andreas; Stoelzel, Katharina

    2013-06-01

    Tissue Engineering is an important method for generating cartilage tissue with isolated autologous cells and the support of biomaterials. In contrast to various gel-like biomaterials, human demineralized bone matrix (DBM) guarantees some biomechanical stability for an application in biomechanically loaded regions. The present study combined for the first time the method of seeding chondrocyte-macroaggregates in DBM for the purpose of cartilage tissue engineering. After isolating human nasal chondrocytes and creating a three-dimensional macroaggregate arrangement, the DBM was cultivated in vitro with the macroaggregates. The interaction of the cells within the DBM was analyzed with respect to cell differentiation and the inhibitory effects of chondrocyte proliferation. In contrast to chondrocyte-macroaggregates in the cell-DBM constructs, morphologically modified cells expressing type I collagen dominated. The redifferentiation of chondrocytes, characterized by the expression of type II collagen, was only found in low amounts in the cell-DBM constructs. Furthermore, caspase 3, a marker for apoptosis, was detected in the chondrocyte-DBM constructs. In another experimental setting, the vitality of chondrocytes as related to culture time and the amount of DBM was analyzed with the BrdU assay. Higher amounts of DBM tended to result in significantly higher proliferation rates of the cells within the first 48 h. After 96 h, the vitality decreased in a dose-dependent fashion. In conclusion, this study provides the proof of concept of chondrocyte-macroaggregates with DBM as an interesting method for the tissue engineering of cartilage. The as-yet insufficient redifferentiation of the chondrocytes and the sporadic initiation of apoptosis will require further investigations.

  20. Flexor tendon tissue engineering: acellularization of human flexor tendons with preservation of biomechanical properties and biocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pridgen, Brian C; Woon, Colin Y L; Kim, Maxwell; Thorfinn, Johan; Lindsey, Derek; Pham, Hung; Chang, James

    2011-08-01

    Acellular human tendons are a candidate scaffold for tissue engineering flexor tendons of the hand. This study compared acellularization methods and their compatibility with allogeneic human cells. Human flexor tendons were pretreated with 0.1% ethylenediaminetetracetic acid (EDTA) for 4  h followed by 24  h treatments of 1% Triton X-100, 1% tri(n-butyl)phosphate, or 0.1% or 1% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in 0.1% EDTA. Outcomes were assessed histologically by hematoxylin and eosin and SYTO green fluorescent nucleic acid stains and biochemically by a QIAGEN DNeasy kit, Sircol collagen assay, and 1,9 dimethylmethylene blue glycosaminoglycan assay. Mechanical data were collected using a Materials Testing System to pull to failure tendons acellularized with 0.1% SDS. Acellularized tendons were re-seeded in a suspension of human dermal fibroblasts. Attachment of viable cells to acellularized tendon was assessed biochemically by a cell viability assay and histologically by a live/dead stain. Data are reported as mean±standard deviation. Compared with the DNA content of fresh tendons (551±212  ng DNA/mg tendon), only SDS treatments significantly decreased DNA content (1% SDS [202.8±37.4  ng DNA/mg dry weight tendon]; 0.1% SDS [189±104  ng DNA/mg tendon]). These findings were confirmed by histology. There was no decrease in glycosaminoglycans or collagen following acellularization with SDS. There was no difference in the ultimate tensile stress (55.3±19.2 [fresh] vs. 51.5±6.9 [0.1% SDS] MPa). Re-seeded tendons demonstrated attachment of viable cells to the tendon surface using a viability assay and histology. Human flexor tendons were acellularized with 0.1% SDS in 0.1% EDTA for 24  h with preservation of mechanical properties. Preservation of collagen and glycoaminoglycans and re-seeding with human cells suggest that this scaffold is biocompatible. This will provide a promising scaffold for future human flexor tendon tissue engineering studies to

  1. A Dynamic Model for the Evaluation of Aircraft Engine Icing Detection and Control-Based Mitigation Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Donald L.; Rinehart, Aidan W.; Jones, Scott M.

    2017-01-01

    Aircraft flying in regions of high ice crystal concentrations are susceptible to the buildup of ice within the compression system of their gas turbine engines. This ice buildup can restrict engine airflow and cause an uncommanded loss of thrust, also known as engine rollback, which poses a potential safety hazard. The aviation community is conducting research to understand this phenomena, and to identify avoidance and mitigation strategies to address the concern. To support this research, a dynamic turbofan engine model has been created to enable the development and evaluation of engine icing detection and control-based mitigation strategies. This model captures the dynamic engine response due to high ice water ingestion and the buildup of ice blockage in the engines low pressure compressor. It includes a fuel control system allowing engine closed-loop control effects during engine icing events to be emulated. The model also includes bleed air valve and horsepower extraction actuators that, when modulated, change overall engine operating performance. This system-level model has been developed and compared against test data acquired from an aircraft turbofan engine undergoing engine icing studies in an altitude test facility and also against outputs from the manufacturers customer deck. This paper will describe the model and show results of its dynamic response under open-loop and closed-loop control operating scenarios in the presence of ice blockage buildup compared against engine test cell data. Planned follow-on use of the model for the development and evaluation of icing detection and control-based mitigation strategies will also be discussed. The intent is to combine the model and control mitigation logic with an engine icing risk calculation tool capable of predicting the risk of engine icing based on current operating conditions. Upon detection of an operating region of risk for engine icing events, the control mitigation logic will seek to change the

  2. Human-factors engineering control-room design review/audit: Waterford 3 SES Generating Station, Louisiana Power and Light Company

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savage, J.W.

    1983-03-10

    A human factors engineering design review/audit of the Waterford-3 control room was performed at the site on May 10 through May 13, 1982. The report was prepared on the basis of the HFEB's review of the applicant's Preliminary Human Engineering Discrepancy (PHED) report and the human factors engineering design review performed at the site. This design review was carried out by a team from the Human Factors Engineering Branch, Division of Human Factors Safety. The review team was assisted by consultants from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (University of California), Livermore, California.

  3. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Engineering Production Processes using Pareto Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darina Matisková

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to illustrate possibilities of using Pareto method in evaluating the effectiveness of engineering production processes. The essence of this issue is dividing materials by using progressive technologies on the specific component and the evaluation of its effectiveness and quality. For the production of component was used method of dividing by the plasma, laser and water jet. To eliminate the irregularities in the quality of the resulting component was used Pareto method. The aim was to determine from the available technical knowledge the most efficient method using established evaluation model of efficiency. The result is the finding that the most effective device for dividing the chosen component is the plasma device.

  4. Cylindricity Error Measuring and Evaluating for Engine Cylinder Bore in Manufacturing Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available On-line measuring device of cylindricity error is designed based on two-point method error separation technique (EST, which can separate spindle rotation error from measuring error. According to the principle of measuring device, the mathematical model of the minimum zone method for cylindricity error evaluating is established. Optimized parameters of objective function decrease to four from six by assuming that c is equal to zero and h is equal to one. Initial values of optimized parameters are obtained from least square method and final values are acquired by the genetic algorithm. The ideal axis of cylinder is fitted in MATLAB. Compared to the error results of the least square method, the minimum circumscribed cylinder method, and the maximum inscribed cylinder method, the error result of the minimum zone method conforms to the theory of error evaluation. The results indicate that the method can meet the requirement of engine cylinder bore cylindricity error measuring and evaluating.

  5. Semantic snippet construction for search engine results based on segment evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Kuppusamy, K S

    2012-01-01

    The result listing from search engines includes a link and a snippet from the web page for each result item. The snippet in the result listing plays a vital role in assisting the user to click on it. This paper proposes a novel approach to construct the snippets based on a semantic evaluation of the segments in the page. The target segment(s) is/are identified by applying a model to evaluate segments present in the page and selecting the segments with top scores. The proposed model makes the user judgment to click on a result item easier since the snippet is constructed semantically after a critical evaluation based on multiple factors. A prototype implementation of the proposed model confirms the empirical validation.

  6. Evaluation of computer-aided software engineering tools for data base development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woyna, M.A.; Carlson, C.R.

    1989-02-01

    More than 80 computer-aided software engineering (CASE) tools were evaluated to determine their usefulness in data base development projects. The goal was to review the current state of the CASE industry and recommend one or more tools for inclusion in the uniform development environment (UDE), a programming environment being designed by Argonne National Laboratory for the US Department of Defense Organization of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, J-8 Directorate. This environment gives a computer programmer a consistent user interface and access to a full suite of tools and utilities for software development. In an effort to identify tools that would be useful in the planning, analysis, design, implementation, and maintenance of Argonne's data base development projects for the J-8 Directorate, we evaluated 83 commercially available CASE products. This report outlines the method used and presents the results of the evaluation.

  7. Evolutionary origins of human handedness: evaluating contrasting hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochet, Hélène; Byrne, Richard W

    2013-07-01

    Variation in methods and measures, resulting in past dispute over the existence of population handedness in nonhuman great apes, has impeded progress into the origins of human right-handedness and how it relates to the human hallmark of language. Pooling evidence from behavioral studies, neuroimaging and neuroanatomy, we evaluate data on manual and cerebral laterality in humans and other apes engaged in a range of manipulative tasks and in gestural communication. A simplistic human/animal partition is no longer tenable, and we review four (nonexclusive) possible drivers for the origin of population-level right-handedness: skilled manipulative activity, as in tool use; communicative gestures; organizational complexity of action, in particular hierarchical structure; and the role of intentionality in goal-directed action. Fully testing these hypotheses will require developmental and evolutionary evidence as well as modern neuroimaging data.

  8. Heart research advances using database search engines, Human Protein Atlas and the Sydney Heart Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Amy; Estigoy, Colleen; Raftery, Mark; Cameron, Darryl; Odeberg, Jacob; Pontén, Fredrik; Lal, Sean; Dos Remedios, Cristobal G

    2013-10-01

    This Methodological Review is intended as a guide for research students who may have just discovered a human "novel" cardiac protein, but it may also help hard-pressed reviewers of journal submissions on a "novel" protein reported in an animal model of human heart failure. Whether you are an expert or not, you may know little or nothing about this particular protein of interest. In this review we provide a strategic guide on how to proceed. We ask: How do you discover what has been published (even in an abstract or research report) about this protein? Everyone knows how to undertake literature searches using PubMed and Medline but these are usually encyclopaedic, often producing long lists of papers, most of which are either irrelevant or only vaguely relevant to your query. Relatively few will be aware of more advanced search engines such as Google Scholar and even fewer will know about Quertle. Next, we provide a strategy for discovering if your "novel" protein is expressed in the normal, healthy human heart, and if it is, we show you how to investigate its subcellular location. This can usually be achieved by visiting the website "Human Protein Atlas" without doing a single experiment. Finally, we provide a pathway to discovering if your protein of interest changes its expression level with heart failure/disease or with ageing. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Enhanced homology-directed human genome engineering by controlled timing of CRISPR/Cas9 delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Steven; Staahl, Brett T; Alla, Ravi K; Doudna, Jennifer A

    2014-12-15

    The CRISPR/Cas9 system is a robust genome editing technology that works in human cells, animals and plants based on the RNA-programmed DNA cleaving activity of the Cas9 enzyme. Building on previous work (Jinek et al., 2013), we show here that new genetic information can be introduced site-specifically and with high efficiency by homology-directed repair (HDR) of Cas9-induced site-specific double-strand DNA breaks using timed delivery of Cas9-guide RNA ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes. Cas9 RNP-mediated HDR in HEK293T, human primary neonatal fibroblast and human embryonic stem cells was increased dramatically relative to experiments in unsynchronized cells, with rates of HDR up to 38% observed in HEK293T cells. Sequencing of on- and potential off-target sites showed that editing occurred with high fidelity, while cell mortality was minimized. This approach provides a simple and highly effective strategy for enhancing site-specific genome engineering in both transformed and primary human cells.

  10. Human factors engineering in healthcare systems: the problem of human error and accident management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciabue, P C; Vella, G

    2010-04-01

    This paper discusses some crucial issues associated with the exploitation of data and information about health care for the improvement of patient safety. In particular, the issues of human factors and safety management are analysed in relation to exploitation of reports about non-conformity events and field observations. A methodology for integrating field observation and theoretical approaches for safety studies is described. Two sample cases are discussed in detail: the first one makes reference to the use of data collected in the aviation domain and shows how these can be utilised to define hazard and risk; the second one concerns a typical ethnographic study in a large hospital structure for the identification of most relevant areas of intervention. The results show that, if national authorities find a way to harmonise and formalize critical aspects, such as the severity of standard events, it is possible to estimate risk and define auditing needs, well before the occurrence of serious incidents, and to indicate practical ways forward for improving safety standards.

  11. Human amniotic fluid derived cells can competently substitute dermal fibroblasts in a tissue-engineered dermo-epidermal skin analog

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: Human amniotic fluid comprises cells with high differentiation capacity, thus representing a potential cell source for skin tissue engineering. In this experimental study, we investigated the ability of human amniotic fluid derived cells to substitute dermal fibroblasts and support epidermis formation and stratification in a humanized animal model. METHODS: Dermo-epidermal skin grafts with either amniocytes or with fibroblasts in the dermis were compared in a rat model. Full-thicknes...

  12. Teaching Empirical Software Engineering Using Expert Teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhrmann, Marco

    Empirical software engineering aims at making software engineering claims measurable, i.e., to analyze and understand phenomena in software engineering and to evaluate software engineering approaches and solutions. Due to the involvement of humans and the multitude of fields for which software...... is crucial, software engineering is considered hard to teach. Yet, empirical software engineering increases this difficulty by adding the scientific method as extra dimension. In this paper, we present a Master-level course on empirical software engineering in which different empirical instruments...

  13. Field cage studies and progressive evaluation of genetically-engineered mosquitoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Facchinelli

    Full Text Available A genetically-engineered strain of the dengue mosquito vector Aedes aegypti, designated OX3604C, was evaluated in large outdoor cage trials for its potential to improve dengue prevention efforts by inducing population suppression. OX3604C is engineered with a repressible genetic construct that causes a female-specific flightless phenotype. Wild-type females that mate with homozygous OX3604C males will not produce reproductive female offspring. Weekly introductions of OX3604C males eliminated all three targeted Ae. aegypti populations after 10-20 weeks in a previous laboratory cage experiment. As part of the phased, progressive evaluation of this technology, we carried out an assessment in large outdoor field enclosures in dengue endemic southern Mexico.OX3604C males were introduced weekly into field cages containing stable target populations, initially at 10:1 ratios. Statistically significant target population decreases were detected in 4 of 5 treatment cages after 17 weeks, but none of the treatment populations were eliminated. Mating competitiveness experiments, carried out to explore the discrepancy between lab and field cage results revealed a maximum mating disadvantage of up 59.1% for OX3604C males, which accounted for a significant part of the 97% fitness cost predicted by a mathematical model to be necessary to produce the field cage results.Our results indicate that OX3604C may not be effective in large-scale releases. A strain with the same transgene that is not encumbered by a large mating disadvantage, however, could have improved prospects for dengue prevention. Insights from large outdoor cage experiments may provide an important part of the progressive, stepwise evaluation of genetically-engineered mosquitoes.

  14. Functional characterisation of an engineered multidomain human P450 2E1 by molecular Lego.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairhead, Michael; Giannini, Silva; Gillam, Elizabeth M J; Gilardi, Gianfranco

    2005-12-01

    The human cytochrome P450s constitute an important family of monooxygenase enzymes that carry out essential roles in the metabolism of endogenous compounds and foreign chemicals. We present here results of a fusion between a human P450 enzyme and a bacterial reductase that for the first time is shown does not require the addition of lipids or detergents to achieve wild-type-like activities. The fusion enzyme, P450 2E1-BMR, contains the N-terminally modified residues 22-493 of the human P450 2E1 fused at the C-terminus to residues 473-1049 of the P450 BM3 reductase (BMR). The P450 2E1-BMR enzyme is active, self-sufficient and presents the typical marker activities of the native human P450 2E1: the hydroxylation of p-nitrophenol (KM=1.84+/-0.09 mM and kcat of 2.98+/-0.04 nmol of p-nitrocatechol formed per minute per nanomole of P450) and chlorzoxazone (KM=0.65+/-0.08 mM and kcat of 0.95+/-0.10 nmol of 6-hydroxychlorzoxazone formed per minute per nanomole of P450). A 3D model of human P450 2E1 was generated to rationalise the functional data and to allow an analysis of the surface potentials. The distribution of charges on the model of P450 2E1 compared with that of the FMN domain of BMR provides the ground for the understanding of the interaction between the fused domains. The results point the way to successfully engineer a variety of catalytically self-sufficient human P450 enzymes for drug metabolism studies in solution.

  15. Evaluation of LES models for flow over bluff body from engineering application perspective

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Vengadesan; A Nakayama

    2005-02-01

    Three SGS stress closure LES models are evaluated for turbulent flow over a square cylinder. Emphasis is placed on solving engineering-applicationtype problems on affordable computer resources and within reasonable turnaround times. Results are compared with available experimental data and previously published workshop results. Numerical strategies are kept the same for all the cases. Results are also discussed keeping in view limitations of LES methodology of modelling for practical problems and current developments. It is concluded that a one-equation model for subgrid kinetic energy is the best choice.

  16. Engineering Cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Matters NIH Research Matters March 3, 2014 Engineering Cartilage Artistic rendering of human stem cells on ... situations has been a major goal in tissue engineering. Cartilage contains water, collagen, proteoglycans, and chondrocytes. Collagens ...

  17. Human factors evaluation of teletherapy: Literature review. Volume 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriksen, K.; Kaye, R.D.; Jones, R. [Hughes Training, Inc., Falls Church, VA (United States); Morisseau, D.S.; Serig, D.L. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Div. of Systems Technology

    1995-07-01

    A series of human factors evaluations were undertaken to better understand the contributing factors to human error in the teletherapy environment. Teletherapy is a multidisciplinary methodology for treating cancerous tissue through selective exposure to an external beam of ionizing radiation. A team of human factors specialists, assisted by a panel of radiation oncologists, medical physicists, and radiation therapists, conducted site visits to radiation oncology departments at community hospitals, university centers, and free-standing clinics. A function and task analysis was performed initially to guide subsequent evaluations in the areas of workplace environment, system-user interfaces, procedures, training, and organizational practices. To further acquire an in-depth and up-to-date understanding of the practice of teletherapy in support of these evaluations, a systematic literature review was conducted. Factors that have a potential impact on the accuracy of treatment delivery were of primary concern. The present volume is the literature review. The volume starts with an overview of the multiphased nature of teletherapy, and then examines the requirement for precision, the increasing role of quality assurance, current conceptualizations of human error, and the role of system factors such as the workplace environment, user-system interfaces, procedures, training, and organizational practices.

  18. A Novel Human Tissue-Engineered 3-D Functional Vascularized Cardiac Muscle Construct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valarmathi, Mani T.; Fuseler, John W.; Davis, Jeffrey M.; Price, Robert L.

    2017-01-01

    Organ tissue engineering, including cardiovascular tissues, has been an area of intense investigation. The major challenge to these approaches has been the inability to vascularize and perfuse the in vitro engineered tissue constructs. Attempts to provide oxygen and nutrients to the cells contained in the biomaterial constructs have had varying degrees of success. The aim of this current study is to develop a three-dimensional (3-D) model of vascularized cardiac tissue to examine the concurrent temporal and spatial regulation of cardiomyogenesis in the context of postnatal de novo vasculogenesis during stem cell cardiac regeneration. In order to achieve the above aim, we have developed an in vitro 3-D functional vascularized cardiac muscle construct using human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived embryonic cardiac myocytes (hiPSC-ECMs) and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). First, to generate the prevascularized scaffold, human cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (hCMVECs) and hMSCs were co-cultured onto a 3-D collagen cell carrier (CCC) for 7 days under vasculogenic culture conditions. In this milieu, hCMVECs/hMSCs underwent maturation, differentiation, and morphogenesis characteristic of microvessels, and formed extensive plexuses of vascular networks. Next, the hiPSC-ECMs and hMSCs were co-cultured onto this generated prevascularized CCCs for further 7 or 14 days in myogenic culture conditions. Finally, the vascular and cardiac phenotypic inductions were analyzed at the morphological, immunological, biochemical, molecular, and functional levels. Expression and functional analyses of the differentiated cells revealed neo-angiogenesis and neo-cardiomyogenesis. Thus, our unique 3-D co-culture system provided us the apt in vitro functional vascularized 3-D cardiac patch that can be utilized for cellular cardiomyoplasty. PMID:28194397

  19. Evaluation of hazelnut kernel oil of Turkish origin as alternative fuel in diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gumus, M. [Automotive Division, Department of Mechanical Education, Marmara University, Ziverbey, 34722 Istanbul (Turkey)

    2008-11-15

    In the present study, hazelnut kernel oil of Turkish origin was evaluated as alternative fuel in a diesel engine. Potential hazelnut production throughout the world and the status of Turkey were examined. Hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) kernel oil was transesterified with methanol using potassium hydroxide as catalyst to obtain hazelnut kernel oil methyl ester (HOME) and a comprehensive experimental investigation was carried out to examine performance and emissions of a direct injection diesel engine running with HOME and its blends with diesel fuel. Experimental parameters included the percentage of HOME in the blend, engine load, injection timing, compression ratio, and injector. The cost analysis of HOME production comparing to the price of conventional diesel fuel was performed for last decade was performed. Results showed that HOME and its blends with diesel fuel are generally comparable to diesel fuel and small modifications such as increasing injection timing, compression ratio and injector opening pressure provide significant improvement in performance and emissions. It is also expected that the price of HOME will be lower than the price of conventional diesel fuel in the near future. (author)

  20. Performance Evaluation of an Ultra-Lean Combustion Studies in IC Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puli Ravi Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was made to determine the effects of ethanol at ultra-lean effective systems utilizing an experimental study. The present study is planned to develop and evaluate the performance, emission and combustion characteristics of the ultra-lean burn Internal Combustion engine was modified to operate on ethanol blends fuels. The study looked at part throttle, constant speed operation of 0%, 10%, and 15% ethanol blends with gasoline mixtures operating in ultra-lean operating systems. In experiment practice the use of homogeneous lean mixtures in engine has been handicapped by several difficulties. The most serious one is that the flame propagation through mixtures becomes gradually slower as the mixture becomes leaner. The mixture distribution in a multi-cylinder engine is a problem because even small variation in mixture ratio on the linear side will strongly effect power output. Enhancement of lean combustion of homogeneous mixtures can be achieved by (i using ethanol blends with gasoline (ii using high-ignition energy (iii providing high compression ratios (iv creating high swirl in the combustion chamber.