WorldWideScience

Sample records for human energy expenditure

  1. Human Energy Expenditure and Postural Coordination on the Mechanical Horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillet, Héloïse; Thouvarecq, Régis; Vérin, Eric; Tourny, Claire; Benguigui, Nicolas; Komar, John; Leroy, David

    2017-01-01

    The authors investigated and compared the energy expenditure and postural coordination of two groups of healthy subjects on a mechanical horse at 4 increasing oscillation frequencies. Energy expenditure was assessed from the oxygen consumption, respiratory quotient, and heart rate values, and postural coordination was characterized by relative phase computations between subjects (elbow, head, trunk) and horse. The results showed that the postural coordination of the riders was better adapted (i.e., maintenance of in-phase and antiphase) than that of the nonriders, but the energy expenditure remains the same. Likewise, we observed an energy system shifting only for nonriders (from aerobic to lactic anaerobic mode). Finally, cross-correlations showed a link between energy expenditure and postural coordination in the riders (i.e., effectiveness).

  2. Constrained Total Energy Expenditure and Metabolic Adaptation to Physical Activity in Adult Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontzer, Herman; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon; Dugas, Lara R; Plange-Rhule, Jacob; Bovet, Pascal; Forrester, Terrence E; Lambert, Estelle V; Cooper, Richard S; Schoeller, Dale A; Luke, Amy

    2016-02-08

    Current obesity prevention strategies recommend increasing daily physical activity, assuming that increased activity will lead to corresponding increases in total energy expenditure and prevent or reverse energy imbalance and weight gain [1-3]. Such Additive total energy expenditure models are supported by exercise intervention and accelerometry studies reporting positive correlations between physical activity and total energy expenditure [4] but are challenged by ecological studies in humans and other species showing that more active populations do not have higher total energy expenditure [5-8]. Here we tested a Constrained total energy expenditure model, in which total energy expenditure increases with physical activity at low activity levels but plateaus at higher activity levels as the body adapts to maintain total energy expenditure within a narrow range. We compared total energy expenditure, measured using doubly labeled water, against physical activity, measured using accelerometry, for a large (n = 332) sample of adults living in five populations [9]. After adjusting for body size and composition, total energy expenditure was positively correlated with physical activity, but the relationship was markedly stronger over the lower range of physical activity. For subjects in the upper range of physical activity, total energy expenditure plateaued, supporting a Constrained total energy expenditure model. Body fat percentage and activity intensity appear to modulate the metabolic response to physical activity. Models of energy balance employed in public health [1-3] should be revised to better reflect the constrained nature of total energy expenditure and the complex effects of physical activity on metabolic physiology.

  3. Effects of robotic knee exoskeleton on human energy expenditure.

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    Gams, Andrej; Petric, Tadej; Debevec, Tadej; Babic, Jan

    2013-06-01

    A number of studies discuss the design and control of various exoskeleton mechanisms, yet relatively few address the effect on the energy expenditure of the user. In this paper, we discuss the effect of a performance augmenting exoskeleton on the metabolic cost of an able-bodied user/pilot during periodic squatting. We investigated whether an exoskeleton device will significantly reduce the metabolic cost and what is the influence of the chosen device control strategy. By measuring oxygen consumption, minute ventilation, heart rate, blood oxygenation, and muscle EMG during 5-min squatting series, at one squat every 2 s, we show the effects of using a prototype robotic knee exoskeleton under three different noninvasive control approaches: gravity compensation approach, position-based approach, and a novel oscillator-based approach. The latter proposes a novel control that ensures synchronization of the device and the user. Statistically significant decrease in physiological responses can be observed when using the robotic knee exoskeleton under gravity compensation and oscillator-based control. On the other hand, the effects of position-based control were not significant in all parameters although all approaches significantly reduced the energy expenditure during squatting.

  4. Energy expenditure, sex, and endogenous fuel availability in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Søren; Guo, ZengKui; Albu, Jeanine B.; Klein, Samuel; O’Brien, Peter C.; Jensen, Michael D.

    2003-01-01

    Adipose tissue lipolysis supplies circulating FFAs, which largely meet lipid fuel needs; however, excess FFAs, can contribute to the adverse health consequences of obesity. Because “normal” FFA release has not been well defined, average (mean of 4 days) basal FFA release and its potential regulation factors were measured in 50 lean and obese adults (25 women). Resting energy expenditure (REE), but not body composition, predicted most of the interindividual variation in FFA release. There was a significant, positive linear relationship between palmitate release and REE; however, women released approximately 40% more FFA than men relative to REE. Neither plasma palmitate concentrations nor respiratory quotient by indirect calorimetry differed between men and women. Glucose release rates were not different in men and women whether related to REE or fat free mass. These findings indicate that nonoxidative FFA clearance is greater in women than in men. This could be an advantage at times of increased fuel needs. We conclude that “normal” adipose tissue lipolysis is different in men and women and that the fuel export role of adipose tissue in obesity will need to be reassessed. PMID:12671047

  5. Modeling of Human Arm Energy Expenditure for Predicting Energy Optimal Trajectories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zhou

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Human arm motion can inspire the trajectory planning of anthropomorphic robotic arms to achieve energy-efficient movements. An approach for predicting metabolic cost in the planar human arm motion by means of the biomechanical simulation is proposed in this work. Two biomechanical models, including an analytical model and a musculoskeletal model, are developed to implement the proposed approach. The analytical model is developed by modifying a human muscle expenditure model, in which the muscles are grouped as torque providers for computation efficiency. In the musculoskeletal model, the predication of metabolic cost is conducted on the basis of individual muscles. With the proposed approach, metabolic costs for parameterized target-reaching arm motions are calculated and utilized to identify optimal arm trajectories.

  6. Energy Expenditure and Intake Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerterp, K.R.

    2015-01-01

    The main components of total energy expenditure are energy expenditure for maintenance or basal metabolic rate, the thermic effect of food or diet-induced energy expenditure (DEE), and the energy cost of physical activity or activity-induced energy expenditure (AEE). This chapter describes methods t

  7. Energy expenditure during sleep, sleep deprivation and sleep following sleep deprivation in adult humans

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Christopher M.; Melanson, Edward L.; Frydendall, Emily J; Perreault, Leigh; Eckel, Robert H.; Wright, Kenneth P

    2010-01-01

    Sleep has been proposed to be a physiological adaptation to conserve energy, but little research has examined this proposed function of sleep in humans. We quantified effects of sleep, sleep deprivation and recovery sleep on whole-body total daily energy expenditure (EE) and on EE during the habitual day and nighttime. We also determined effects of sleep stage during baseline and recovery sleep on EE. Seven healthy participants aged 22 ± 5 years (mean ± s.d.) maintained ∼8 h per night sleep s...

  8. Changes in Energy Expenditure with Weight Gain and Weight Loss in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Manfred J; Enderle, Janna; Bosy-Westphal, Anja

    2016-12-01

    Metabolic adaptation to weight changes relates to body weight control, obesity and malnutrition. Adaptive thermogenesis (AT) refers to changes in resting and non-resting energy expenditure (REE and nREE) which are independent from changes in fat-free mass (FFM) and FFM composition. AT differs in response to changes in energy balance. With negative energy balance, AT is directed towards energy sparing. It relates to a reset of biological defence of body weight and mainly refers to REE. After weight loss, AT of nREE adds to weight maintenance. During overfeeding, energy dissipation is explained by AT of the nREE component only. As to body weight regulation during weight loss, AT relates to two different set points with a settling between them. During early weight loss, the first set is related to depleted glycogen stores associated with the fall in insulin secretion where AT adds to meet brain's energy needs. During maintenance of reduced weight, the second set is related to low leptin levels keeping energy expenditure low to prevent triglyceride stores getting too low which is a risk for some basic biological functions (e.g., reproduction). Innovative topics of AT in humans are on its definition and assessment, its dynamics related to weight loss and its constitutional and neuro-endocrine determinants.

  9. Energy expenditure in caving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoni, Giorgia; Marini, Elisabetta; Curreli, Nicoletta; Tuveri, Valerio; Comandini, Ornella; Cabras, Stefano; Gabba, Silvia; Madeddu, Clelia; Crisafulli, Antonio; Rinaldi, Andrea C

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the energy expenditure of a group of cavers of both genders and different ages and experience during a 10 hour subterranean exploration, using portable metabolimeters. The impact of caving activity on body composition and hydration were also assessed through bioelectrical impedance, and nutritional habits of cavers surveyed. During cave activity, measured total energy expenditure (TEE) was in the range 225-287 kcal/h for women-men (MET = 4.1), respectively; subjects had an energy intake from food in the range 1000-1200 kcal, thus inadequate to restore lost calories. Bayesian statistical analysis estimated the effect of predictive variables on TEE, revealing that experienced subjects had a 5% lower TEE than the less skilled ones and that women required a comparatively larger energy expenditure than men to perform the same task. BIVA (bioelectrical impedance vector analysis) showed that subjects were within the range of normal hydration before and after cave activity, but bioelectrical changes indicated a reduction of extracellular water in men, which might result in hypo-osmolal dehydration in the case of prolonged underground exercise. All these facts should be considered when planning cave explorations, preparing training programs for subjects practising caving, and optimizing a diet for cavers. Further, information gathered through this study could be of value to reduce accidents in caves related to increase in fatigue.

  10. Is energy expenditure taken into account in human sub-maximal jumping?--A simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanrenterghem, Jos; Bobbert, Maarten F; Casius, L J Richard; De Clercq, Dirk

    2008-02-01

    This paper presents a simulation study that was conducted to investigate whether the stereotyped motion pattern observed in human sub-maximal jumping can be interpreted from the perspective of energy expenditure. Human sub-maximal vertical countermovement jumps were compared to jumps simulated with a forward dynamic musculo-skeletal model. This model consisted of four interconnected rigid segments, actuated by six Hill-type muscle actuators. The only independent input of the model was the stimulation of muscles as a function of time. This input was optimized using an objective function, in which targeting a specific sub-maximal height value was combined with minimizing the amount of muscle work produced. The characteristic changes in motion pattern observed in humans jumping to different target heights were reproduced by the model. As the target height was lowered, two major changes occurred in the motion pattern. First, the countermovement amplitude was reduced; this helped to save energy because of reduced dissipation and regeneration of energy in the contractile elements. Second, the contribution of rotation of the heavy proximal segments of the lower limbs to the vertical velocity of the centre of gravity at take-off was less; this helped to save energy because of reduced ineffective rotational energies at take-off. The simulations also revealed that, with the observed movement adaptations, muscle work was reduced through improved relative use of the muscle's elastic properties in sub-maximal jumping. According to the results of the simulations, the stereotyped motion pattern observed in sub-maximal jumping is consistent with the idea that in sub-maximal jumping, subjects are trying to achieve the targeted jump height with minimal energy expenditure.

  11. Proteomic Analysis of Human Brown Adipose Tissue Reveals Utilization of Coupled and Uncoupled Energy Expenditure Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Sebastian; Balaz, Miroslav; Stefanicka, Patrik; Varga, Lukas; Amri, Ez-Zoubir; Ukropec, Jozef; Wollscheid, Bernd; Wolfrum, Christian

    2016-07-15

    Human brown adipose tissue (BAT) has become an attractive target to combat the current epidemical spread of obesity and its associated co-morbidities. Currently, information on its functional role is primarily derived from rodent studies. Here, we present the first comparative proteotype analysis of primary human brown adipose tissue versus adjacent white adipose tissue, which reveals significant quantitative differences in protein abundances and in turn differential functional capabilities. The majority of the 318 proteins with increased abundance in BAT are associated with mitochondrial metabolism and confirm the increased oxidative capacity. In addition to uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), the main functional effector for uncoupled respiration, we also detected the mitochondrial creatine kinases (CKMT1A/B, CKMT2), as effective modulators of ATP synthase coupled respiration, to be exclusively expressed in BAT. The abundant expression and utilization of both energy expenditure pathways in parallel highlights the complex functional involvement of BAT in human physiology.

  12. Energy expenditure during sleep, sleep deprivation and sleep following sleep deprivation in adult humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Christopher M; Melanson, Edward L; Frydendall, Emily J; Perreault, Leigh; Eckel, Robert H; Wright, Kenneth P

    2011-01-01

    Sleep has been proposed to be a physiological adaptation to conserve energy, but little research has examined this proposed function of sleep in humans. We quantified effects of sleep, sleep deprivation and recovery sleep on whole-body total daily energy expenditure (EE) and on EE during the habitual day and nighttime. We also determined effects of sleep stage during baseline and recovery sleep on EE. Seven healthy participants aged 22 ± 5 years (mean ± s.d.) maintained ∼8 h per night sleep schedules for 1 week before the study and consumed a weight-maintenance diet for 3 days prior to and during the laboratory protocol. Following a habituation night, subjects lived in a whole-room indirect calorimeter for 3 days. The first 24 h served as baseline – 16 h wakefulness, 8 h scheduled sleep – and this was followed by 40 h sleep deprivation and 8 h scheduled recovery sleep. Findings show that, compared to baseline, 24 h EE was significantly increased by ∼7% during the first 24 h of sleep deprivation and was significantly decreased by ∼5% during recovery, which included hours awake 25-40 and 8 h recovery sleep. During the night time, EE was significantly increased by ∼32% on the sleep deprivation night and significantly decreased by ∼4% during recovery sleep compared to baseline. Small differences in EE were observed among sleep stages, but wakefulness during the sleep episode was associated with increased energy expenditure. These findings provide support for the hypothesis that sleep conserves energy and that sleep deprivation increases total daily EE in humans.

  13. Energy expenditure during sleep, sleep deprivation and sleep following sleep deprivation in adult humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Christopher M; Melanson, Edward L; Frydendall, Emily J; Perreault, Leigh; Eckel, Robert H; Wright, Kenneth P

    2011-01-01

    Sleep has been proposed to be a physiological adaptation to conserve energy, but little research has examined this proposed function of sleep in humans. We quantified effects of sleep, sleep deprivation and recovery sleep on whole-body total daily energy expenditure (EE) and on EE during the habitual day and nighttime. We also determined effects of sleep stage during baseline and recovery sleep on EE. Seven healthy participants aged 22 ± 5 years (mean ± s.d.) maintained ∼8 h per night sleep schedules for 1 week before the study and consumed a weight-maintenance diet for 3 days prior to and during the laboratory protocol. Following a habituation night, subjects lived in a whole-room indirect calorimeter for 3 days. The first 24 h served as baseline – 16 h wakefulness, 8 h scheduled sleep – and this was followed by 40 h sleep deprivation and 8 h scheduled recovery sleep. Findings show that, compared to baseline, 24 h EE was significantly increased by ∼7% during the first 24 h of sleep deprivation and was significantly decreased by ∼5% during recovery, which included hours awake 25–40 and 8 h recovery sleep. During the night time, EE was significantly increased by ∼32% on the sleep deprivation night and significantly decreased by ∼4% during recovery sleep compared to baseline. Small differences in EE were observed among sleep stages, but wakefulness during the sleep episode was associated with increased energy expenditure. These findings provide support for the hypothesis that sleep conserves energy and that sleep deprivation increases total daily EE in humans. PMID:21059762

  14. Energy expenditure in women boxing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, P; Banerjee, A K; Majumdar, P; Chatterjee, P

    2006-01-01

    Women boxing have got recognition recently and so far no work has been reported on energy expenditure of national women boxers in India. This study was aimed to estimate the energy expenditure in Indian female boxers during sparring. A total of 20 female boxers were subjected. Energy expenditure was estimated using the same individual's HR-VO2 regression equation. Heart rate was recorded through radiotelemetry. Results reveal that average and maximum energy expenditure considering the total duration of boxing are 12.7 +/- 1.3 and 14.4 +/- 1.6 kcal/min. It is concluded that depending on the severity of energy expenditure female boxing comes under heavy category and as it is a pioneer attempt in India, further studies in this aspect are really required which will guide the coaches regarding the energy expenditure pattern in women boxing.

  15. Body composition and energy expenditure predict ad-libitum food and macronutrient intake in humans.

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    Weise, C M; Hohenadel, M G; Krakoff, J; Votruba, S B

    2014-02-01

    Obesity is the result of chronic positive energy balance. The mechanisms underlying the regulation of energy homeostasis and food intake are not understood. Despite large increases in fat mass (FM), recent evidence indicates that fat-free mass (FFM) rather than FM is positively associated with intake in humans. In 184 humans (73 females/111 males; age 34.5±8.8 years; percentage body fat: 31.6±8.1%), we investigated the relationship of FFM index (FFMI, kg m(-2)), FM index (FMI, kg m(-2)); and 24-h energy expenditure (EE, n=127) with ad-libitum food intake using a 3-day vending machine paradigm. Mean daily calories (CAL) and macronutrient intake (PRO, CHO, FAT) were determined and used to calculate the relative caloric contribution of each (%PRO, %CHO, %FAT) and percent of caloric intake over weight maintaining energy needs (%WMENs). FFMI was positively associated with CAL (Pintake (all PFood and macronutrient intake are predicted by FFMI and to a lesser degree by FMI. FFM and FM may have opposing effects on energy homeostasis.

  16. Control of human energy expenditure by cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV-2.

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    Schiffer, Tomas A; Peleli, Maria; Sundqvist, Michaela L; Ekblom, Björn; Lundberg, Jon O; Weitzberg, Eddie; Larsen, Filip J

    2016-09-01

    Resting metabolic rate (RMR) in humans shows pronounced individual variations, but the underlying molecular mechanism remains elusive. Cytochrome c oxidase (COX) plays a key role in control of metabolic rate, and recent studies of the subunit 4 isoform 2 (COX IV-2) indicate involvement in the cellular response to hypoxia and oxidative stress. We evaluated whether the COX subunit IV isoform composition may explain the pronounced individual variations in resting metabolic rate (RMR). RMR was determined in healthy humans by indirect calorimetry and correlated to levels of COX IV-2 and COX IV-1 in vastus lateralis. Overexpression and knock down of the COX IV isoforms were performed in primary myotubes followed by evaluation of the cell respiration and production of reactive oxygen species. Here we show that COX IV-2 protein is constitutively expressed in human skeletal muscle and strongly correlated to RMR. Primary human myotubes overexpressing COX IV-2 displayed markedly (>60%) lower respiration, reduced (>50%) cellular H2O2 production, higher resistance toward both oxidative stress, and severe hypoxia compared with control cells. These results suggest an important role of isoform COX IV-2 in the control of energy expenditure, hypoxic tolerance, and mitochondrial ROS homeostasis in humans.

  17. A Ser311Cys mutation in the human dopamine receptor D2 gene is associated with reduced energy expenditure.

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    Tataranni, P A; Baier, L; Jenkinson, C; Harper, I; Del Parigi, A; Bogardus, C

    2001-04-01

    Brain dopaminergic pathways play a major role in the control of movement. Absence of the murine dopamine D2 receptor gene (drd2) produces bradykinesia and hypothermia. A Ser311Cys mutation of the human DRD2 produces a marked functional impairment of the receptor and is associated with higher BMI in some populations. We hypothesized that the Ser311Cys mutation of DRD2 may inhibit energy expenditure. Here we report that total energy expenditure (doubly labeled water) measured in 89 nondiabetic Pima Indians was 244 kcal/ day lower in homozygotes for the Cys311-encoding allele when compared with those heterozygous and homozygous for the Ser311-encoding allele (P = 0.056). The 24-h resting energy expenditure (respiratory chamber) measured in 320 nondiabetic Pimas was also 87 kcal/day lower in homozygotes for the Cys311-encoding allele when compared with those heterozygous and homozygous for the Ser311-encoding allele (P = 0.026). These findings are the first evidence that a genetic mutation is associated with reduced energy expenditure in humans. Because the impact of this mutation on human obesity is small, we suggest that either the energy deficit induced is not large enough to significantly influence body weight in this population and/or that the Cys311-encoding allele is also associated with reduced energy intake.

  18. Energy expenditure in the etiology of human obesity: spendthrift and thrifty metabolic phenotypes and energy-sensing mechanisms.

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    Piaggi, P; Vinales, K L; Basolo, A; Santini, F; Krakoff, J

    2017-07-24

    The pathogenesis of human obesity is the result of dysregulation of the reciprocal relationship between food intake and energy expenditure (EE), which influences daily energy balance and ultimately leads to weight gain. According to principles of energy homeostasis, a relatively lower EE in a setting of energy balance may lead to weight gain; however, results from different study groups are contradictory and indicate a complex interaction between EE and food intake which may differentially influence weight change in humans. Recently, studies evaluating the adaptive response of one component to perturbations of the other component of energy balance have revealed both the existence of differing metabolic phenotypes ("spendthrift" and "thrifty") resulting from overeating or underfeeding, as well as energy-sensing mechanisms linking EE to food intake, which might explain the propensity of an individual to weight gain. The purpose of this review is to debate the role that human EE plays on body weight regulation and to discuss the physiologic mechanisms linking EE and food intake. An increased understanding of the complex interplay between human metabolism and food consumption may provide insight into pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying weight gain, which may eventually lead to prevention and better treatment of human obesity.

  19. Physical activity and physical activity induced energy expenditure in humans: measurement, determinants, and effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerterp, Klaas R

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity is defined as any bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles that results in energy expenditure. The doubly labeled water method for the measurement of total energy expenditure (TEE), in combination with resting energy expenditure, is the reference for physical activity under free-living conditions. To compare the physical activity level (PAL) within and between species, TEE is divided by resting energy expenditure resulting in a figure without dimension. The PAL for sustainable lifestyles ranges between a minimum of 1.1-1.2 and a maximum of 2.0-2.5. The average PAL increases from 1.4 at age 1 year to 1.7-1.8 at reproductive age and declines again to 1.4 at age 90 year. Exercise training increases PAL in young adults when energy balance is maintained by increasing energy intake. Professional endurance athletes can reach PAL values around 4.0. Most of the variation in PAL between subjects can be ascribed to predisposition. A higher weight implicates higher movement costs and less body movement but not necessarily a lower PAL. Changes in physical activity primarily affect body composition and to a lesser extent body weight. Modern man has a similar PAL as a wild mammal of a similar body size.

  20. Adaptive Thermogenesis in Resistance to Obesity Therapies: Issues in Quantifying Thrifty Energy Expenditure Phenotypes in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulloo, Abdul G; Schutz, Yves

    2015-06-01

    Dieting and exercise are likely to remain the core approaches in the management of obesity in the foreseeable future despite their well-documented failures for achieving long-term weight loss. Explanations for such poor prognosis are centered on patient's self-regulatory failure and lack of compliance to the prescribed diet or exercise regimen. While a role for physiological adaptations leading to diminished rates of heat production has also been advocated, there are considerable uncertainties about the quantitative importance of such regulated heat production (i.e., adaptive thermogenesis) to the less-than-expected weight loss and ease for weight regain. This paper first reviews the most compelling evidence of what is often considered as weight loss-induced adaptive thermogenesis in various compartments of daily energy expenditure. It then discusses the major limitations and issues in quantifying such thrifty energy expenditure phenotypes and underscores the plausibility of diminished core temperature as a thrifty metabolic trait in resistance to weight loss. Although an accurate quantification of adaptive thermogenesis will have to await the applications of deep body composition phenotyping and better discrimination of physical activity energy expenditures, the magnitude of diminished energy expenditure in response to weight loss in certain individuals is large enough to support the concept that adaptive thermogenesis contribute importantly to their resistance to obesity therapies.

  1. Energy expenditure evaluation in humans and non-human primates by SenseWear Armband. Validation of energy expenditure evaluation by SenseWear Armband by direct comparison with indirect calorimetry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Casiraghi

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to compare and validate the use of SenseWear Armband (SWA placed on the arm (SWA ARM and on the back (SWA BACK in healthy humans during resting and a cycle-ergometer exercise and to evaluate the SWA to estimate Resting Energy Expenditure (REE and Total Energy Expenditure (TEE in healthy baboons. METHODS: We studied 26 (15F/11M human subjects wearing SWA in two different anatomical sites (arm and back during resting and a cycle-ergometer test and directly compared these results with indirect calorimetry evaluation (IC, performed at the same time. We then inserted the SWA in a metabolic jacket for baboons and evaluated the TEE and REE in free living condition for 6 days in 21 (8F/13M non-human primates. RESULTS: In humans we found a good correlation between SWA place on the ARM and on the BACK with IC during the resting experiment (1.1±0.3 SWAs, 1±0.2 IC kcal/min and a slight underestimation in the SWAs data compared with IC during the cycle-ergometer exercise (5±1.9 SWA ARM, 4.5±1.5 SWA BACK and 5.4±2.1 IC kcal/min. In the non-human primate (baboons experiment SWA estimated a TEE of 0.54±0.009 kcal/min during free living and a REE of 0.82±0.06 kcal/min. CONCLUSION: SWA, an extremely simple and inexpensive apparatus, provides quite accurate measurements of energy expenditure in humans and in baboons. Energy expenditure data obtained with SWA are highly correlated with the data obtained with "gold standard", IC, in humans.

  2. A joint-space numerical model of metabolic energy expenditure for human multibody dynamic system.

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    Kim, Joo H; Roberts, Dustyn

    2015-09-01

    Metabolic energy expenditure (MEE) is a critical performance measure of human motion. In this study, a general joint-space numerical model of MEE is derived by integrating the laws of thermodynamics and principles of multibody system dynamics, which can evaluate MEE without the limitations inherent in experimental measurements (phase delays, steady state and task restrictions, and limited range of motion) or muscle-space models (complexities and indeterminacies from excessive DOFs, contacts and wrapping interactions, and reliance on in vitro parameters). Muscle energetic components are mapped to the joint space, in which the MEE model is formulated. A constrained multi-objective optimization algorithm is established to estimate the model parameters from experimental walking data also used for initial validation. The joint-space parameters estimated directly from active subjects provide reliable MEE estimates with a mean absolute error of 3.6 ± 3.6% relative to validation values, which can be used to evaluate MEE for complex non-periodic tasks that may not be experimentally verifiable. This model also enables real-time calculations of instantaneous MEE rate as a function of time for transient evaluations. Although experimental measurements may not be completely replaced by model evaluations, predicted quantities can be used as strong complements to increase reliability of the results and yield unique insights for various applications.

  3. Kaempferia parviflora extract increases whole-body energy expenditure in humans: roles of brown adipose tissue.

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    Matsushita, Mami; Yoneshiro, Takeshi; Aita, Sayuri; Kamiya, Tomoyasu; Kusaba, Nobutaka; Yamaguchi, Kazuya; Takagaki, Kinya; Kameya, Toshimitsu; Sugie, Hiroki; Saito, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    Kaempferia parviflora extract (KP) has been reported to have a preventive effect on obesity in mice, probably by increasing energy expenditure (EE). The aims of the current study were to examine the acute effects of KP ingestion on whole-body EE in humans and to analyze its relation to the activity of brown adipose tissue (BAT), a site of non-shivering thermogenesis. After an oral ingestion of an ethanol extract of KP, EE increased significantly, showing a maximal increase of 229±69 kJ/d at 60 min, while it did not change after placebo ingestion. To evaluate BAT activity, the subjects underwent fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography, and divided into two groups with high- and low-BAT activities. A similar and greater response of EE to KP ingestion was observed in the high-BAT group (351±50 kJ/d at 60 min), but not in the low activity group. Placebo ingestion did not cause any significant EE change in either group. These results indicate that a single oral ingestion of the KP extract can potentially increase whole-body EE probably through the activation of BAT in healthy men, and may be useful as an anti-obesity regimen.

  4. Energy expenditure in chow-fed female non-human primates of various weights

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    Kral John G

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Until now no technology has been available to study energy metabolism in monkeys. The objective of this study was to determine daily energy expenditures (EE and respiratory quotients (RQ in female monkeys of various body weights and ages. Methods 16 socially reared Bonnet Macaque female monkeys [5.5 ± 1.4 kg body weight, modified BMI (length measurement from head to base of the tail = 28.8 ± 6.7 kg/crown-rump length, m2 and 11.7 ± 4.6 years] were placed in the primate Enhanced Metabolic Testing Activity Chamber (Model 3000a, EMTAC Inc. Santa Barbara, CA for 22-hour measurements of EE (kcal/kg and RQ (VCO2/VO2. All were fed monkey chow (4.03 kcal/g ad-libitum under a 12/12 hour light/dark cycle. Metabolic data were corrected for differences in body weight. Results were divided into day (8-hours, dark (12 hours and morning (2-hours periods. Data analysis was conducted utilizing SPSS (Version 13. Results Modified BMI negatively correlated with 22-hour energy expenditure in all monkeys (r = -0.80, p 23 kcal/kg. There were reductions (p 30. The obese group had lower EE (p Conclusion The EMTAC proved to be a valuable tool for metabolic measurements in monkeys. The accuracy and sensitivity of the instrument allowed detection of subtle metabolic changes in relation to energy intake. Moreover, there is an association between a reduction of energy expenditure and a gain in body weight.

  5. Impacts of office design characteristics on human energy expenditure: developing a ''KINESIS'' model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rassia, Stamatina T.; Baker, Nick V. [University of Cambridge, Martin Centre for Architectural and Urban Studies, Department of Architecture, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Alexiou, Alexandros [University of Cambridge, Department of Land Economy, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2011-03-15

    Over the last few decades, research in public health has associated inactivity with a number of ailments and chronic diseases, such as colon cancer, type II diabetes, osteoporosis and coronary heart disease. In the belief that the office building substantially shapes occupant daily activity, this work draws upon qualitative and quantitative monitoring of human activity within office buildings during typical working weeks. This research is based on data collection results regarding the design of space in relation to energy expenditure and it presents a quantitative model (named KINESIS after the Greek word for activity) that, in the form of a set equation, can simulate and estimate the total energy expenditure per person per day in a given office layout. (orig.)

  6. Validation and comparison of two methods to assess human energy expenditure during free-living activities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiota Anastasopoulou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The measurement of activity energy expenditure (AEE via accelerometry is the most commonly used objective method for assessing human daily physical activity and has gained increasing importance in the medical, sports and psychological science research in recent years. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine which of the following procedures is more accurate to determine the energy cost during the most common everyday life activities; a single regression or an activity based approach. For this we used a device that utilizes single regression models (GT3X, ActiGraph Manufacturing Technology Inc., FL., USA and a device using activity-dependent calculation models (move II, movisens GmbH, Karlsruhe, Germany. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Nineteen adults (11 male, 8 female; 30.4±9.0 years wore the activity monitors attached to the waist and a portable indirect calorimeter (IC as reference measure for AEE while performing several typical daily activities. The accuracy of the two devices for estimating AEE was assessed as the mean differences between their output and the reference and evaluated using Bland-Altman analysis. RESULTS: The GT3X overestimated the AEE of walking (GT3X minus reference, 1.26 kcal/min, walking fast (1.72 kcal/min, walking up-/downhill (1.45 kcal/min and walking upstairs (1.92 kcal/min and underestimated the AEE of jogging (-1.30 kcal/min and walking upstairs (-2.46 kcal/min. The errors for move II were smaller than those for GT3X for all activities. The move II overestimated AEE of walking (move II minus reference, 0.21 kcal/min, walking up-/downhill (0.06 kcal/min and stair walking (upstairs: 0.13 kcal/min; downstairs: 0.29 kcal/min and underestimated AEE of walking fast (-0.11 kcal/min and jogging (-0.93 kcal/min. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that the activity monitor using activity-dependent calculation models is more appropriate for predicting AEE in daily life than the activity monitor using a single

  7. Effects of fructose-containing caloric sweeteners on resting energy expenditure and energy efficiency: a review of human trials

    OpenAIRE

    Tappy, L; L. Egli; Lecoultre, V.; Schneider, P.

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological studies indicate that the consumption of fructose-containing caloric sweeteners (FCCS: mainly sucrose and high-fructose corn syrup) is associated with obesity. The hypothesis that FCCS plays a causal role in the development of obesity however implies that they would impair energy balance to a larger extent than other nutrients, either by increasing food intake, or by decreasing energy expenditure. We therefore reviewed the literature comparing a) diet-induced thermogenesis (DI...

  8. Use of a Wireless Network of Accelerometers for Improved Measurement of Human Energy Expenditure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander H. Montoye

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Single, hip-mounted accelerometers can provide accurate measurements of energy expenditure (EE in some settings, but are unable to accurately estimate the energy cost of many non-ambulatory activities. A multi-sensor network may be able to overcome the limitations of a single accelerometer. Thus, the purpose of our study was to compare the abilities of a wireless network of accelerometers and a hip-mounted accelerometer for the prediction of EE. Thirty adult participants engaged in 14 different sedentary, ambulatory, lifestyle and exercise activities for five minutes each while wearing a portable metabolic analyzer, a hip-mounted accelerometer (AG and a wireless network of three accelerometers (WN worn on the right wrist, thigh and ankle. Artificial neural networks (ANNs were created separately for the AG and WN for the EE prediction. Pearson correlations (r and the root mean square error (RMSE were calculated to compare criterion-measured EE to predicted EE from the ANNs. Overall, correlations were higher (r = 0.95 vs. r = 0.88, p < 0.0001 and RMSE was lower (1.34 vs. 1.97 metabolic equivalents (METs, p < 0.0001 for the WN than the AG. In conclusion, the WN outperformed the AG for measuring EE, providing evidence that the WN can provide highly accurate estimates of EE in adults participating in a wide range of activities.

  9. Body Composition and Energy Expenditure Predict Ad-Libitum Food and Macronutrient Intake in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Weise, Christopher M.; Hohenadel, Maximilian G.; Krakoff, Jonathan; Votruba, Susanne B.

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity is the result of chronic positive energy balance. The mechanisms underlying the regulation of energy homeostasis and food intake are not understood. Despite large increases in fat mass (FM), recent evidence indicates that fat-free mass (FFM) rather than FM is positively associated with intake in humans. Methods In 184 humans (73F/111M; age 34.5±8.8y; % body fat [PFAT] 31.6±8.1%) we investigated the relationship of FFM index (FFMI kg*m2), FM index (FMI kg*m2;), and 24-hour e...

  10. Measuring energy expenditure in sports by thermal video analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Rikke; Larsen, Ryan Godsk; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2017-01-01

    Estimation of human energy expenditure in sports and exercise contributes to performance analyses and tracking of physical activity levels. The focus of this work is to develop a video-based method for estimation of energy expenditure in athletes. We propose a method using thermal video analysis...

  11. Energy expenditure, nutrition and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiskin, A E; Davies, J H; Wootton, S A; Beattie, R M

    2011-06-01

    Fundamental to appropriate nutritional prescription is an understanding of the conditions necessary for growth that include the requirements for energy in health and illness. Energy requirements need to be met by the dietary intake to prevent weight loss. A positive energy balance will result in weight gain. Energy requirement includes several components; the largest is the basal metabolic rate, although physical activity level and the energy needs of growth are important components. All aspects of energy metabolism are likely to be influenced by illness and impact on energy balance. Changes in dietary intake and physical activity are observed clinically but poorly described in most childhood illnesses. Changes in metabolic rate are poorly described in part owing to methodological problems. This review explores changes in energy expenditure associated with health and disease, highlights the lack of evidence underpinning this aspect of practical nutritional support and provides the clinician with a guide to the factors involved in estimating energy requirements, emphasising the importance of measuring the child's response to nutritional support.

  12. State energy price and expenditure report 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The State Energy Price and Expenditure Report (SEPER) presents energy price and expenditure estimates individually for the 50 States and the District of Columbia and in aggregate for the United States. The price and expenditure estimates developed in the State Energy Price and Expenditure Data System (SEPEDS) are provided by energy source and economic sector and are published for the years 1970 through 1994. Consumption estimates used to calculate expenditures and the documentation for those estimates are taken from the State Energy Data Report 1994, Consumption Estimates (SEDR), published in October 1996. Expenditures are calculated by multiplying the price estimates by the consumption estimates, which are adjusted to remove process fuel; intermediate petroleum products; and other consumption that has no direct fuel costs, i.e., hydroelectric, geothermal, wind, solar, and photovoltaic energy sources. Documentation is included describing the development of price estimates, data sources, and calculation methods. 316 tabs.

  13. State energy price and expenditure report 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-01

    The State Energy Price and Expenditure Report (SEPER) presents energy price and expenditure estimates individually for the 50 States and the District of Columbia and in aggregate for the United States. The price and expenditure estimates are provided by energy source and economic sector and are published for the years 1970, 1980, and 1985 through 1992. Data for all years, 1970 through 1992, are available on personal computer diskettes.

  14. Effects of fructose-containing caloric sweeteners on resting energy expenditure and energy efficiency: a review of human trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tappy, Luc; Egli, Leonie; Lecoultre, Virgile; Schneider, Pascal

    2013-08-13

    Epidemiological studies indicate that the consumption of fructose-containing caloric sweeteners (FCCS: mainly sucrose and high-fructose corn syrup) is associated with obesity. The hypothesis that FCCS plays a causal role in the development of obesity however implies that they would impair energy balance to a larger extent than other nutrients, either by increasing food intake, or by decreasing energy expenditure. We therefore reviewed the literature comparing a) diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) after ingestion of isocaloric FCCS vs glucose meals, and b) basal metabolic rate (BMR) or c) post-prandial energy expenditure after consuming a high FCCS diet for > 3 days vs basal,weight-maintenance low FCCS diet. Nine studies compared the effects of single isocaloric FCCS and glucose meals on DIT; of them, six studies reported that DIT was significantly higher with FCCS than with glucose, 2 reported a non-significant increase with FCCS, and one reported no difference. The higher DIT with fructose than glucose can be explained by the low energy efficiency associated with fructose metabolism. Five studies compared BMR after consumption of a high FCCS vs a low FCCS diet for > 3 days. Four studies reported no change after 4-7 day on a high FCCS diet, and only one study reported a 7% decrease after 12 week on a high FCCS diet. Three studies compared post-prandial EE after consumption of a high FCCS vs a low FCCS diet for > 3 days, and did not report any significant difference. One study compared 24-EE in subjects fed a weight-maintenance diet and hypercaloric diets with 50% excess energy as fructose, sucrose and glucose during 4 days: 24-EE was increased with all 3 hypercaloric diets, but there was no difference between fructose, sucrose and glucose. We conclude that fructose has lower energy efficiency than glucose. Based on available studies, there is presently no hint that dietary FCCS may decrease EE. Larger, well controlled studies are however needed to assess the longer

  15. Government expenditure and energy intensity in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuxiang, Karl [School of Economics and Business Administration, Room 230 of the 11th Dormitory at Campus B, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Chen, Zhongchang [Center for Population, Resources, and Environment Research, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2010-02-15

    The recent economic stimulus package of China has raised growing concern about its potential impact on energy demand and efficiency. To what extent does such expansion of government expenditure influence energy intensity? This question has not been well answered by the previous research. Using provincial panel data, this paper provides some evidence of a link between government expenditure and energy intensity in China. The empirical results demonstrate that the expansion of government expenditure since Asian financial crisis has exerted a significant influence on energy intensity. An increase in government expenditure in China leads to an increase in energy intensity. Further analysis compares such relationships in different economic situations. The comparison shows that such positive effect of government expenditure remains significant after the alteration in economic situation. Therefore, the results suggest introducing some measures to consolidate China's existing gains in energy efficiency. The analysis also explains why the downward trend in energy intensity is reversed in China since 2002. (author)

  16. Energy expenditure in HIV infection123

    OpenAIRE

    Kosmiski, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    Energy intake recommendations for adults should be based preferably on direct measurements of total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) in corresponding populations who are maintaining healthy body weight and satisfactory physical activity levels. During adolescence, pregnancy, and lactation, energy requirements should be based on TDEE plus the additional energy required to advance these physiologic states. With illness, energy expenditure and energy intake change, but nutritional intervention is...

  17. State energy price and expenditure report, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    The State Energy Price and Expenditure Report (SEPER) presents energy price and expenditure estimates individually for the 50 States and the District of Columbia and in aggregate for the US. The estimates developed in the State Energy Price and Expenditure Data System (SEPEDS) are provided by energy source and economic sector and are published for the years 1970 through 1995. Data for all years are available on a CD-ROM and via Internet. Consumption estimates used to calculate expenditures and the documentation for those estimates are taken from the State Energy Data Report 1995, Consumption Estimates (SEDR), published in December 1997. Expenditures are calculated by multiplying the price estimates by the consumption estimates, which are adjusted to remove process fuel; intermediate petroleum products; and other consumption that has no direct fuel costs, i.e., hydroelectric, geothermal, wind, solar, and photovoltaic energy sources.

  18. Effect of shortened sleep on energy expenditure, core body temperature, and appetite: a human randomised crossover trial

    OpenAIRE

    Masanobu Hibi; Chie Kubota; Tomohito Mizuno; Sayaka Aritake; Yuki Mitsui; Mitsuhiro Katashima; Sunao Uchida

    2017-01-01

    The effects of sleep restriction on energy metabolism and appetite remain controversial. We examined the effects of shortened sleep duration on energy metabolism, core body temperature (CBT), and appetite profiles. Nine healthy men were evaluated in a randomised crossover study under two conditions: a 3.5-h sleep duration and a 7-h sleep duration for three consecutive nights followed by one 7-h recovery sleep night. The subjects’ energy expenditure (EE), substrate utilisation, and CBT were co...

  19. State energy price and expenditure report 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-30

    The State Energy Price and Expenditure Report (SEPER) presents energy price and expenditure estimates for the 50 States, the District of Columbia, and the United States. The estimates are provided by energy source (e.g., petroleum, natural gas, coal, and electricity) and by major consuming or economic sector. This report is an update of the State Energy Price and Expenditure Report 1988 published in September 1990. Changes from the last report are summarized in a section of the documentation. Energy price and expenditure estimates are published for the years 1970, 1975, 1980, and 1985 through 1989. Documentation follows the tables and describes how the price estimates are developed, including sources of data, methods of estimation, and conversion factors applied. Consumption estimates used to calculate expenditures, and the documentation for those estimates, are from the State Energy Data Report, Consumption Estimates, 1960--1989 (SEDR), published in May 1991. Expenditures are calculated by multiplying the price estimates by the consumption estimates, adjusted to remove process fuel and intermediate product consumption. All expenditures are consumer expenditures, that is, they represent estimates of money directly spent by consumers to purchase energy, generally including taxes. 11 figs., 43 tabs.

  20. Energy expenditure of acutely ill hospitalised patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gariballa Salah

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To measure energy expenditure of acutely ill elderly patients in hospital and following discharge in the community. Design Sixty-three consecutive hospitalised acutely ill elderly patients were recruited. Eight patients were studied to assess the reliability of the Delta Tract Machine as a measure of energy expenditure; 35 patients had their energy expenditure studied in hospital on two occasions and 20 patients had their energy expenditure measured in hospital and at 6 weeks in the community Results Men had higher basal energy expenditure (BMR values compared to women however the difference was not statistically significant [Men, mean (SD 1405 (321 Kcal, women 1238 (322 kcal; mean difference (95% CI 166 kcal (-17 to 531, p = 0.075]. After adjusting for age, gender and body mass index both medication and C-reactive protein (CRP, concentrations showed significant correlation with measured energy expenditure in hospital, (r = -0.36, "p Conclusion Tissue inflammation and medications were associated with change in measured energy expenditure in acutely ill patients.

  1. State energy price and expenditure report 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The State Energy Price and Expenditure Report (SEPER) presents energy price and expenditure estimates individually for the 50 states and the District of Columbia and in aggregate for the US. The five economic sectors used in SEPER correspond to those used in SEDR and are residential, commercial, industrial, transportation, and electric utility. Documentation in appendices describe how the price estimates are developed, provide conversion factors for measures used in the energy analysis, and include a glossary. 65 tabs.

  2. MODELING ENERGY EXPENDITURE AND OXYGEN CONSUMPTION IN HUMAN EXPOSURE MODELS: ACCOUNTING FOR FATIGUE AND EPOC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human exposure and dose models often require a quantification of oxygen consumption for a simulated individual. Oxygen consumption is dependent on the modeled Individual's physical activity level as described in an activity diary. Activity level is quantified via standardized val...

  3. MODELING ENERGY EXPENDITURE AND OXYGEN CONSUMPTION IN HUMAN EXPOSURE MODELS: ACCOUNTING FOR FATIGUE AND EPOC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human exposure and dose models often require a quantification of oxygen consumption for a simulated individual. Oxygen consumption is dependent on the modeled Individual's physical activity level as described in an activity diary. Activity level is quantified via standardized val...

  4. Impact of physical fitness and daily energy expenditure on sleep efficiency in young and older humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudegeest-Sander, M.H.; Eijsvogels, T.M.H.; Verheggen, R.J.; Poelkens, F.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Jones, H.; Thijssen, D.H.J.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Physical activity is known to influence sleep efficiency. Relatively little is known about the relationship between physical activity and sleep efficiency in young and older humans and the impact of exercise training on sleep efficiency in healthy older individuals. OBJECTIVES: To determ

  5. Impact of physical fitness and daily energy expenditure on sleep efficiency in young and older humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudegeest-Sander, M.H.; Eijsvogels, T.M.H.; Verheggen, R.J.; Poelkens, F.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Jones, H.; Thijssen, D.H.J.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Physical activity is known to influence sleep efficiency. Relatively little is known about the relationship between physical activity and sleep efficiency in young and older humans and the impact of exercise training on sleep efficiency in healthy older individuals. OBJECTIVES: To

  6. Household energy consumption and expenditures 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-05

    This presents information about household end-use consumption of energy and expenditures for that energy. These data were collected in the 1993 Residential Energy Consumption Survey; more than 7,000 households were surveyed for information on their housing units, energy consumption and expenditures, stock of energy-consuming appliances, and energy-related behavior. The information represents all households nationwide (97 million). Key findings: National residential energy consumption was 10.0 quadrillion Btu in 1993, a 9% increase over 1990. Weather has a significant effect on energy consumption. Consumption of electricity for appliances is increasing. Houses that use electricity for space heating have lower overall energy expenditures than households that heat with other fuels. RECS collected data for the 4 most populous states: CA, FL, NY, TX.

  7. Energy expenditure in rock/pop drumming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Rue, S E; Draper, S B; Potter, C R; Smith, M S

    2013-10-01

    Despite the vigorous nature of rock/pop drumming, there are no precise data on the energy expenditure of this activity. The aim of this study was to quantify the energy cost of rock/pop drumming. Fourteen male drummers (mean±SD; age 27±8 yrs.) completed an incremental drumming test to establish the relationship between energy expenditure and heart rate for this activity and a ramped cycle ergometer test to exhaustion as a criterion measure for peak values (oxygen uptake and heart rate). During live concert performance heart rate was continuously measured and used to estimate energy expenditure (from the energy expenditure vs. heart rate data derived from the drumming test). During concert performance, estimated energy expenditure (mean±SD) was 623±168 kcal.h⁻¹ (8.1±2.2 METs) during performances of 38.6±15.6 min, and drummers achieved a peak heart rate of 186±16 b.min⁻¹. During the drumming test participants attained 78.7±8.3% of the cycle ergometer peak oxygen uptake. Rock/pop drumming represents a relatively high-intensity form of physical activity and as such involves significant energy expenditure. Rock/pop drumming should be considered as a viable alternative to more traditional forms of physical activity.

  8. Energy Expenditure in Infants in Health and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Shepherd

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurement of energy balance represents a basic theoretical concept in the determination of nutritional and fluid requirements in humans in health and disease. Infants have special nutrient requirements, more limited reserves and relative immaturity of organ function. Energy requirements of infants have been based either retrospectively on intakes required to achieve normal growth or on equations derived from energy expenditure studies performed early this century. Recently, improved techniques for studying resting energy expenditure (REE, total energy expenditure (TEE and metabolically active body compartments in infants have facilitated more accurate estimates of energy requirements. Such studies indicated that current reference values for energy requirements are overestimates, and that compared with measured values, predicted values vary markedly between the various predictive equations with wide co-efficients of variation. In disease states with altered body composition, such as cystic fibrosis and end-stage liver disease, predictive equations markedly underestimate both energy and fluid requirements. In cystic fibrosis, both TEE and REE are 25% higher than values in healthy infants. In extrahepatic biliary atresia, energy expenditure per unit body cell mass is markedly elevated, suggesting that this is a catabolic condition in infants. Current estimates of energy and fluid requirements in both health and disease in infants need reappraisal. Bedside and free living energy expenditure methodology should be used to define accurately components of energy requirement in individual infants.

  9. Research for the Relationships between Body Acceleration and Energy Expenditure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUYi; RUANXing-yun; SHENGYi; XUZhi-rong; GUOHai

    2004-01-01

    During our research, It has been found that body acceleration has strong relationships with the human energy expenditure. This paper discusses the methods to assess physical activity and concludes that for accurate assessment of physical activity under free living conditions the recently introduced accelerometer looks most promising. We developed a new computerized machine to assess the body activity and energy expenditure. Test datas of the treadmill experiment, respiration experiment and 5-kilometer-running experiment have been archieved,we found that body acceration integrals with time has linear relations with body energy expenture.

  10. Acute sleep deprivation reduces energy expenditure in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Christian; Hallschmid, Manfred; Lassen, Arne; Mahnke, Christin; Schultes, Bernd; Schiöth, Helgi Birgir; Born, Jan; Lange, Tanja

    2011-06-01

    Epidemiologic evidence indicates that chronic sleep curtailment increases risk of developing obesity, but the mechanisms behind this relation are largely unknown. We examined the influence of a single night of total sleep deprivation on morning energy expenditures and food intakes in healthy humans. According to a balanced crossover design, we examined 14 normal-weight male subjects on 2 occasions during a regular 24-h sleep-wake cycle (including 8 h of nocturnal sleep) and a 24-h period of continuous wakefulness. On the morning after regular sleep and total sleep deprivation, resting and postprandial energy expenditures were assessed by indirect calorimetry, and the free-choice food intake from an opulent buffet was tested in the late afternoon at the end of the experiment. Circulating concentrations of ghrelin, leptin, norepinephrine, cortisol, thyreotropin, glucose, and insulin were repeatedly measured over the entire 24-h session. In comparison with normal sleep, resting and postprandial energy expenditures assessed on the subsequent morning were significantly reduced after sleep deprivation by ≈5% and 20%, respectively (P sleep conditions were detected. Our findings show that one night of sleep deprivation acutely reduces energy expenditure in healthy men, which suggests that sleep contributes to the acute regulation of daytime energy expenditure in humans.

  11. From the past to future: from energy expenditure to energy intake to energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, M J; Geisler, C

    2017-03-01

    Although most recent research on energy balance focusses on energy intake (EI) there is still need to think about both sides of the energy balance. Current research on energy expenditure (EE) relates to metabolic adaptation to negative energy balance, mitochondrial metabolism associated with aging, obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus, the role of EE in hunger and appetite control, non-shivering thermogenesis and brown adipose tissue activity, cellular bioenergetics as a target of obesity treatment and the evolutionary and ecological determinants of EE in humans and other primates. As far as regulation of energy balance is concerned there is recent evidence that EE rather than body weight is under tight control. Biologically, EE is maintained within a narrow physiological range. An EE-set point has been proposed as the width between the upper and lower boundaries of the individual EE range. Regulation of EE may fail in very obese patients with an EI above their upper boundary and after drastic weight loss when patients may go far below their lower EE boundary and thus are loosing control. In population studies, fat-free mass (FFM) and its composition (that is, the proportion of high to low metabolic rate organs) are major determinants of EE. It is tempting to speculate that tight biologic control of EE is related to brain energy need, which is preserved at the cost of peripheral metabolism. There is a moderate heritability of EE, which is independent of the heritability of FFM. In future, metabolic phenotyping should focus on the EE-FFM relationship rather than on EE-values alone.

  12. Functional data analysis of sleeping energy expenditure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adequate sleep is crucial during childhood for metabolic health, and physical and cognitive development. Inadequate sleep can disrupt metabolic homeostasis and alter sleeping energy expenditure (SEE). Functional data analysis methods were applied to SEE data to elucidate the population structure of ...

  13. The biological control of voluntary exercise, spontaneous physical activity and daily energy expenditure in relation to obesity : human and rodent perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garland, Theodore; Schutz, Heidi; Chappell, Mark A.; Keeney, Brooke K.; Meek, Thomas H.; Copes, Lynn E.; Acosta, Wendy; Drenowatz, Clemens; Maciel, Robert C.; van Dijk, Gertjan; Kotz, Catherine M.; Eisenmann, Joey C.; Garland, Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Mammals expend energy in many ways, including basic cellular maintenance and repair, digestion, thermoregulation, locomotion, growth and reproduction. These processes can vary tremendously among species and individuals, potentially leading to large variation in daily energy expenditure (DEE). Locomo

  14. The biological control of voluntary exercise, spontaneous physical activity and daily energy expenditure in relation to obesity : human and rodent perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garland, Theodore; Schutz, Heidi; Chappell, Mark A.; Keeney, Brooke K.; Meek, Thomas H.; Copes, Lynn E.; Acosta, Wendy; Drenowatz, Clemens; Maciel, Robert C.; van Dijk, Gertjan; Kotz, Catherine M.; Eisenmann, Joey C.; Garland, Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Mammals expend energy in many ways, including basic cellular maintenance and repair, digestion, thermoregulation, locomotion, growth and reproduction. These processes can vary tremendously among species and individuals, potentially leading to large variation in daily energy expenditure (DEE). Locomo

  15. Estimating energy expenditure during front crawl swimming using accelerometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordsborg, Nikolai Baastrup; Espinosa, Hugo G.; Van Thiel, David H

    2014-01-01

    The determination of energy expenditure is of major interest in training load and performance assessment. Small, wireless accelerometer units have the potential to characterise energy expenditure during swimming. The correlation between absorbed oxygen versus flume swimming speed and absorbed...

  16. Resting energy expenditure is not influenced by classical music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slinde Frode

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Obesity shows an increasing prevalence worldwide and a decrease in energy expenditure has been suggested to be one of the risk factors for developing obesity. An increase in resting energy expenditure would have a great impact on total energy expenditure. This study shows that classical music do not influence resting energy expenditure compared to complete silence. Further studies should be performed including other genres of music and other types of stress-inductors than music.

  17. New indoor environment chambers and field experiment offices for research on human comfort, health and productivity at moderate energy expenditure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toftum, J.; Langkilde, G.; Fanger, P.O. [Technical Univ., Lyngby (Denmark). International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy

    2004-09-01

    This article describes three new indoor environment chambers, a new laboratory for the study of air movement in spaces and five offices for controlled environment exposures of human subjects in field experiments at the International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Technical University of Denmark. Together with three older chambers, the Centre now has at its disposal 12 spaces for studying indoor environments and their impact on human comfort, health, productivity at moderate energy demands. [Author].

  18. Assessment of physical activity and energy expenditure: an overview of objective measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew P Hills

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability to assess energy expenditure and estimate physical activity in free-living individuals is extremely important in the global context of non-communicable diseases including malnutrition, overnutrition (obesity and diabetes. It is also important to appreciate that physical activity and energy expenditure are different constructs with physical activity defined as any bodily movement that results in energy expenditure and accordingly, energy is expended as a result of physical activity. However, total energy expenditure, best assessed using the criterion doubly labelled water technique, includes components in addition to physical activity energy expenditure, namely resting energy expenditure and the thermic effect of food. Given the large number of assessment techniques currently used to estimate physical activity in humans, it is imperative to understand the relative merits of each. The goal of this review is to provide information on the utility and limitations of a range of objective measures of physical activity and their relationship with energy expenditure. The measures discussed include those based on energy expenditure or oxygen uptake including doubly labelled water, activity energy expenditure, physical activity level, and metabolic equivalent; those based on heart rate monitoring and motion sensors; and because of their widespread use, selected subjective measures.

  19. Preprandial ghrelin is not affected by macronutrient intake, energy intake or energy expenditure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumpler William V

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ghrelin, a peptide secreted by endocrine cells in the gastrointestinal tract, is a hormone purported to have a significant effect on food intake and energy balance in humans. The influence of factors related to energy balance on ghrelin, such as daily energy expenditure, energy intake, and macronutrient intake, have not been reported. Secondly, the effect of ghrelin on food intake has not been quantified under free-living conditions over a prolonged period of time. To investigate these effects, 12 men were provided with an ad libitum cafeteria-style diet for 16 weeks. The macronutrient composition of the diets were covertly modified with drinks containing 2.1 MJ of predominantly carbohydrate (Hi-CHO, protein (Hi-PRO, or fat (Hi-FAT. Total energy expenditure was measured for seven days on two separate occasions (doubly labeled water and physical activity logs. Results Preprandial ghrelin concentrations were not affected by macronutrient intake, energy expenditure or energy intake (all P > 0.05. In turn, daily energy intake was significantly influenced by energy expenditure, but not ghrelin. Conclusion Preprandial ghrelin does not appear to be influenced by macronutrient composition, energy intake, or energy expenditure. Similarly, ghrelin does not appear to affect acute or chronic energy intake under free-living conditions.

  20. The biological control of voluntary exercise, spontaneous physical activity and daily energy expenditure in relation to obesity: human and rodent perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Theodore; Schutz, Heidi; Chappell, Mark A.; Keeney, Brooke K.; Meek, Thomas H.; Copes, Lynn E.; Acosta, Wendy; Drenowatz, Clemens; Maciel, Robert C.; van Dijk, Gertjan; Kotz, Catherine M.; Eisenmann, Joey C.

    2011-01-01

    Mammals expend energy in many ways, including basic cellular maintenance and repair, digestion, thermoregulation, locomotion, growth and reproduction. These processes can vary tremendously among species and individuals, potentially leading to large variation in daily energy expenditure (DEE). Locomotor energy costs can be substantial for large-bodied species and those with high-activity lifestyles. For humans in industrialized societies, locomotion necessary for daily activities is often relatively low, so it has been presumed that activity energy expenditure and DEE are lower than in our ancestors. Whether this is true and has contributed to a rise in obesity is controversial. In humans, much attention has centered on spontaneous physical activity (SPA) or non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT), the latter sometimes defined so broadly as to include all energy expended due to activity, exclusive of volitional exercise. Given that most people in Western societies engage in little voluntary exercise, increasing NEAT may be an effective way to maintain DEE and combat overweight and obesity. One way to promote NEAT is to decrease the amount of time spent on sedentary behaviours (e.g. watching television). The effects of voluntary exercise on other components of physical activity are highly variable in humans, partly as a function of age, and have rarely been studied in rodents. However, most rodent studies indicate that food consumption increases in the presence of wheels; therefore, other aspects of physical activity are not reduced enough to compensate for the energetic cost of wheel running. Most rodent studies also show negative effects of wheel access on body fat, especially in males. Sedentary behaviours per se have not been studied in rodents in relation to obesity. Several lines of evidence demonstrate the important role of dopamine, in addition to other neural signaling networks (e.g. the endocannabinoid system), in the control of voluntary exercise. A

  1. The biological control of voluntary exercise, spontaneous physical activity and daily energy expenditure in relation to obesity: human and rodent perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Theodore; Schutz, Heidi; Chappell, Mark A; Keeney, Brooke K; Meek, Thomas H; Copes, Lynn E; Acosta, Wendy; Drenowatz, Clemens; Maciel, Robert C; van Dijk, Gertjan; Kotz, Catherine M; Eisenmann, Joey C

    2011-01-15

    Mammals expend energy in many ways, including basic cellular maintenance and repair, digestion, thermoregulation, locomotion, growth and reproduction. These processes can vary tremendously among species and individuals, potentially leading to large variation in daily energy expenditure (DEE). Locomotor energy costs can be substantial for large-bodied species and those with high-activity lifestyles. For humans in industrialized societies, locomotion necessary for daily activities is often relatively low, so it has been presumed that activity energy expenditure and DEE are lower than in our ancestors. Whether this is true and has contributed to a rise in obesity is controversial. In humans, much attention has centered on spontaneous physical activity (SPA) or non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT), the latter sometimes defined so broadly as to include all energy expended due to activity, exclusive of volitional exercise. Given that most people in Western societies engage in little voluntary exercise, increasing NEAT may be an effective way to maintain DEE and combat overweight and obesity. One way to promote NEAT is to decrease the amount of time spent on sedentary behaviours (e.g. watching television). The effects of voluntary exercise on other components of physical activity are highly variable in humans, partly as a function of age, and have rarely been studied in rodents. However, most rodent studies indicate that food consumption increases in the presence of wheels; therefore, other aspects of physical activity are not reduced enough to compensate for the energetic cost of wheel running. Most rodent studies also show negative effects of wheel access on body fat, especially in males. Sedentary behaviours per se have not been studied in rodents in relation to obesity. Several lines of evidence demonstrate the important role of dopamine, in addition to other neural signaling networks (e.g. the endocannabinoid system), in the control of voluntary exercise. A

  2. Development of a Compendium of Energy Expenditures for Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Ainsworth Barbara E; Ridley Kate; Olds Tim S

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background This paper presents a Compendium of Energy Expenditures for use in scoring physical activity questionnaires and estimating energy expenditure levels in youth. Method/Results Modeled after the adult Compendium of Physical Activities, the Compendium of Energy Expenditures for Youth contains a list of over 200 activities commonly performed by youth and their associated MET intensity levels. A review of existing data collected on the energy cost of youth performing activities ...

  3. Acutely decreased thermoregulatory energy expenditure or decreased activity energy expenditure both acutely reduce food intake in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl J Kaiyala

    Full Text Available Despite the suggestion that reduced energy expenditure may be a key contributor to the obesity pandemic, few studies have tested whether acutely reduced energy expenditure is associated with a compensatory reduction in food intake. The homeostatic mechanisms that control food intake and energy expenditure remain controversial and are thought to act over days to weeks. We evaluated food intake in mice using two models of acutely decreased energy expenditure: 1 increasing ambient temperature to thermoneutrality in mice acclimated to standard laboratory temperature or 2 exercise cessation in mice accustomed to wheel running. Increasing ambient temperature (from 21 °C to 28 °C rapidly decreased energy expenditure, demonstrating that thermoregulatory energy expenditure contributes to both light cycle (40 ± 1% and dark cycle energy expenditure (15 ± 3% at normal ambient temperature (21 °C. Reducing thermoregulatory energy expenditure acutely decreased food intake primarily during the light cycle (65 ± 7%, thus conflicting with the delayed compensation model, but did not alter spontaneous activity. Acute exercise cessation decreased energy expenditure only during the dark cycle (14 ± 2% at 21 °C; 21 ± 4% at 28 °C, while food intake was reduced during the dark cycle (0.9 ± 0.1 g in mice housed at 28 °C, but during the light cycle (0.3 ± 0.1 g in mice housed at 21 °C. Cumulatively, there was a strong correlation between the change in daily energy expenditure and the change in daily food intake (R(2 = 0.51, p<0.01. We conclude that acutely decreased energy expenditure decreases food intake suggesting that energy intake is regulated by metabolic signals that respond rapidly and accurately to reduced energy expenditure.

  4. Development of a Compendium of Energy Expenditures for Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainsworth Barbara E

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper presents a Compendium of Energy Expenditures for use in scoring physical activity questionnaires and estimating energy expenditure levels in youth. Method/Results Modeled after the adult Compendium of Physical Activities, the Compendium of Energy Expenditures for Youth contains a list of over 200 activities commonly performed by youth and their associated MET intensity levels. A review of existing data collected on the energy cost of youth performing activities was undertaken and incorporated into the compendium. About 35% of the activity MET levels were derived from energy cost data measured in youth and the remaining MET levels estimated from the adult compendium. Conclusion The Compendium of Energy Expenditures for Youth is useful to researchers and practitioners interested in identifying physical activity and energy expenditure values in children and adolescents in a variety of settings.

  5. Development of a compendium of energy expenditures for youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridley, Kate; Ainsworth, Barbara E; Olds, Tim S

    2008-09-10

    This paper presents a Compendium of Energy Expenditures for use in scoring physical activity questionnaires and estimating energy expenditure levels in youth. Modeled after the adult Compendium of Physical Activities, the Compendium of Energy Expenditures for Youth contains a list of over 200 activities commonly performed by youth and their associated MET intensity levels. A review of existing data collected on the energy cost of youth performing activities was undertaken and incorporated into the compendium. About 35% of the activity MET levels were derived from energy cost data measured in youth and the remaining MET levels estimated from the adult compendium. The Compendium of Energy Expenditures for Youth is useful to researchers and practitioners interested in identifying physical activity and energy expenditure values in children and adolescents in a variety of settings.

  6. Preprandial ghrelin is not affected by macronutrient intake, energy intake or energy expenditure

    OpenAIRE

    Rumpler William V; Rhodes Donna G; Kramer Matthew; Paul David R

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Ghrelin, a peptide secreted by endocrine cells in the gastrointestinal tract, is a hormone purported to have a significant effect on food intake and energy balance in humans. The influence of factors related to energy balance on ghrelin, such as daily energy expenditure, energy intake, and macronutrient intake, have not been reported. Secondly, the effect of ghrelin on food intake has not been quantified under free-living conditions over a prolonged period of time. To inve...

  7. Measured energy expenditure in pediatric intensive care patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilden, S J; Watkins, S; Tong, T K; Jeevanandam, M

    1989-04-01

    Few data are available on energy requirements of mechanically ventilated, critically ill children. We measured the resting energy expenditure in 18 mechanically ventilated patients between ages 2 and 18 years, using indirect calorimetry. All patients had fractional inspired oxygen concentration less than 0.6, no spontaneous respirations, hemodynamic stability, and no fever or active infection, and were receiving 5% dextrose. All subjects were hypermetabolic, since the measured resting energy expenditure divided by the predicted basal energy expenditure from the Harris-Benedict equations was 1.48 +/- 0.09 (mean +/- SEM). The energy requirements calculated using "injury factors" and "activity factors" adapted for adults is 1.62 times basal energy expenditure. The injury factor for the pediatric multiple trauma patients should be 1.25 compared with 1.35 in adults. In these pediatric intensive care patients 33% +/- 8% of the energy is derived from carbohydrates, 53% +/- 8% from fat, and 14% +/- 2% from protein oxidation. In individual critically ill pediatric patients, energy requirements should be estimated by measuring their resting energy expenditure whenever possible and adding 5% for their activity. In the absence of the actual measurement of resting energy expenditure, the recommended energy requirement is 1.5 times basal energy expenditure. In this acute phase of injury, the daily nitrogen requirement is 250 mg per kilogram of body weight.

  8. Daily ingestion of grains of paradise (Aframomum melegueta) extract increases whole-body energy expenditure and decreases visceral fat in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugita, Jun; Yoneshiro, Takeshi; Sugishima, Yuuki; Ikemoto, Takeshi; Uchiwa, Hideyo; Suzuki, Isao; Saito, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    We reported previously that a single ingestion of an alcohol extract of grains of paradise (GP, Aframomum melegueta), a species of the ginger family, increases energy expenditure (EE) through the activation of brown adipose tissue, a site of sympathetically mediated metabolic theromogenesis. The present study aimed to examine a daily ingestion of GP extract on whole-body EE and body fat in humans. Whole-body EE and body fat content were measured before and after daily oral ingestion of GP extract (30 mg/d) for 4 wk in 19 non-obese female volunteers aged 20-22 y in a single-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover design. Four-week daily ingestion of GP and a placebo decreased and increased slightly the visceral fat area at the umbilicus level, respectively. The GP-induced change was significantly different from that induced by the placebo (pwhole-body EE (p<0.05). These results suggest that GP extract may be an effective and safe tool for reducing body fat, mainly by preventing visceral fat accumulation.

  9. Daily energy expenditure, physical activity, and weight loss in Parkinson's disease patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) commonly exhibit weight loss (WL) which investigators attribute to various factors, including elevated energy expenditure. We tested the hypothesis that daily energy expenditure (DEE) and its components, resting energy expenditure (REE) and physical activity (P...

  10. Exercise Training and Energy Expenditure following Weight Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Gary R; Fisher, Gordon; Neumeier, William H; Carter, Stephen J; Plaisance, Eric P

    2015-09-01

    This study aims to determine the effects of aerobic or resistance training on activity-related energy expenditure (AEE; kcal·d(-1)) and physical activity index (activity-related time equivalent (ARTE)) following weight loss. It was hypothesized that weight loss without exercise training would be accompanied by decreases in AEE, ARTE, and nontraining physical activity energy expenditure (nonexercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT)) and that exercise training would prevent decreases in free-living energy expenditure. One hundred forty premenopausal women had an average weight loss of 25 lb during a diet (800 kcal·d(-1)) of furnished food. One group aerobically trained 3 times per week (40 min·d(-1)), another group resistance-trained 3 times per week (10 exercises/2 sets × 10 repetitions), and the third group did not exercise. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry was used to measure body composition, indirect calorimetry was used to measure resting energy expenditure (REE) and walking energy expenditure, and doubly labeled water was used to measure total energy expenditure (TEE). AEE, ARTE, and nontraining physical activity energy expenditure (NEAT) were calculated. TEE, REE, and NEAT all decreased following weight loss for the no-exercise group, but not for aerobic and resistance trainers. Only REE decreased in the two exercise groups. Resistance trainers increased ARTE. HR and oxygen uptake while walking on the flat and up a grade were consistently related to TEE, AEE, NEAT, and ARTE. Exercise training prevents a decrease in energy expenditure, including free-living energy expenditure separate from exercise training, following weight loss. Resistance training increases physical activity, whereas economy/ease of walking is associated with increased TEE, AEE, NEAT, and ARTE.

  11. Acute effects of mustard, horseradish, black pepper and ginger on energy expenditure, appetite, ad libitum energy intake and energy balance in human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Nikolaj Ture; Belza, Anita; Jensen, M.G.

    2013-01-01

    produced DIT, which tended to be larger than that of placebo (14 %, 59 (se 3) v. 52 (se 2) kJ/h, respectively, P = 0·08). No other spice induced thermogenic effects approaching statistical significance. Subjective measures of appetite (P>0·85), ad libitum EI (P = 0·63) and energy balance (P = 0·67) also...

  12. Resting energy expenditure, substrate use, and video tapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, B. G.; Matthews, J. N.; Alberti, K. G.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate the effect of watching different types of video on energy expenditure. DESIGN--Randomised study assessing a "pleasant," an "amusing," an "exciting," and no video film clips. SUBJECTS--12 volunteers who did not know the purpose of the study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Changes in energy expenditure, substrate use, heart rate, and aural temperature during each film clip. RESULTS--Energy expenditure was raised slightly (0.21 kJ/day) during the "exciting" film. Individual responses varied greatly. CONCLUSION--Watching different types of video seems to have little effect on resting metabolic rate. Images p1664-a PMID:8541750

  13. Role of energy expenditure in the development of pediatric obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLany, J P

    1998-10-01

    The role that energy expenditure plays in pediatric obesity was somewhat confused by early research purporting to show that, as a group, obese children have lower energy intakes than do lean children. On the basis of this intake data, the conclusion was drawn that obese persons are somehow energy efficient, leading to weight gain. More recent research examining energy expenditure has shown clearly that, as a group, obese children have higher energy expenditures than do their lean counterparts. With the advent of the doubly labeled water method for determining free-living energy expenditure, it has been shown that obese children underreport intake significantly more than do lean children. When measurements are properly adjusted for differences in body size, there are generally no major differences in energy expenditure between lean and obese groups. However, in some cross-sectional studies, a low level of physical activity has been shown to be related to current body fatness. In addition, longitudinal studies have shown that a low level of energy expenditure, particularly energy expended in physical activity, is associated with both body fatness and weight gain.

  14. Bicycle messengers: energy expenditure and exposure to air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernmark, Eva; Wiktorin, Christina; Svartengren, Magnus; Lewné, Marie; Aberg, Samuel

    2006-11-15

    The purpose of the study was to determine the level of energy expenditure and exposure to air pollution for bicycle messengers. Relationships between heart rate (HR) and oxygen uptake, and between HR and pulmonary ventilation (VE) for each participant were established in laboratory tests. Air pollution and HR were measured during one working day. The total oxygen uptake was then described as the total energy expenditure in Joule (J) and in multiples of the energy expenditure at rest (MET). The mean energy expenditure during a working day (8 h) was 12 MJ, (4.8 MET). The level of air pollution exposure when cycling seemed to be comparable with the levels of exposure when sitting inside a vehicle. The VE during cycling was four times higher than resting value. Increased VE led to increased exposure to air pollution.

  15. Activities contributing to energy expenditure among Guatemalan adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martorell Reynaldo

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Guatemala has experienced a substantial increase in overweight and obesity in recent years, yet physical activity patterns and consequent energy expenditure are largely unexplored in this population. Methods To describe overall physical activity levels (PAL and activities contributing to daily energy expenditure, we analyzed time spent in daily activities as reported by 985 women and 819 men, living in rural and urban areas of Guatemala in 2002–04. Results Physical activity levels recommended to prevent obesity (PAL ≥ 1.70 differed by residence/occupation among men (agricultural-rural: 77%; nonagricultural-rural: 36%; urban: 24%; P Conclusion Overall, energy expenditure was low in the population not dedicated to agricultural occupations; an increased focus on active leisure-time behaviors may be needed to counterbalance reductions in energy expenditure consequent to sedentarization of primary occupations.

  16. Activities contributing to energy expenditure among Guatemalan adults

    OpenAIRE

    Martorell Reynaldo; Ramirez-Zea Manuel; Gregory Cria O; Stein Aryeh D

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Guatemala has experienced a substantial increase in overweight and obesity in recent years, yet physical activity patterns and consequent energy expenditure are largely unexplored in this population. Methods To describe overall physical activity levels (PAL) and activities contributing to daily energy expenditure, we analyzed time spent in daily activities as reported by 985 women and 819 men, living in rural and urban areas of Guatemala in 2002–04. Results Physical activi...

  17. Circadian rhythm of energy expenditure and oxygen consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuck, Marlene; Levandovski, Rosa; Harb, Ana; Quiles, Caroline; Hidalgo, Maria Paz

    2014-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of continuous and intermittent methods of enteral nutrition (EN) administration on circadian rhythm. Thirty-four individuals, aged between 52 and 80 years, were fed through a nasoenteric tube. Fifteen individuals received a continuous infusion for 24 hours/d, and 19 received an intermittent infusion in comparable quantities, every 4 hours from 8:00 to 20:00. In each patient, 4 indirect calorimetric measurements were carried out over 24 hours (A: 7:30, B: 10:30, C: 14:30, and D: 21:30) for 3 days. Energy expenditure and oxygen consumption were significantly higher in the intermittent group than in the continuous group (1782 ± 862 vs 1478 ± 817 kcal/24 hours, P = .05; 257 125 vs 212 117 ml/min, P = .048, respectively). The intermittent group had higher levels of energy expenditure and oxygen consumption at all the measured time points compared with the continuous group. energy expenditure and oxygen consumption in both groups were significantly different throughout the day for 3 days. There is circadian rhythm variation of energy expenditure and oxygen consumption with continuous and intermittent infusion for EN. This suggests that only one indirect daily calorimetric measurement is not able to show the patient's true needs. Energy expenditure is higher at night with both food administration methods. Moreover, energy expenditure and oxygen consumption are higher with the intermittent administration method at all times.

  18. Acute oral intake of a higenamine-based dietary supplement increases circulating free fatty acids and energy expenditure in human subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sang-rok; Schriefer, JohnHenry M; Trint A. Gunnels; Harvey, Innocence C; Bloomer, Richard J

    2013-01-01

    Background Higenamine, also known as norcoclaurine, is an herbal constituent thought to act as a beta-2 adrenergic receptor agonist—possibly stimulating lipolysis. It was the purpose of this study to determine the impact of a higenamine-based dietary supplement on plasma free fatty acids and energy expenditure following acute oral ingestion. Methods Sixteen healthy subjects (8 men; 26.1 ± 2.5 yrs; 8 women 22.4 ± 3.1 yrs) ingested a dietary supplement containing a combination of higenamine, ca...

  19. Energy expenditure during sexual activity in young healthy couples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Frappier

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine energy expenditure in kilocalories (kcal during sexual activity in young healthy couples in their natural environment and compare it to a session of endurance exercise. METHODS: The study population consisted of twenty one heterosexual couples (age: 22.6 ± 2.8 years old from the Montreal region. Free living energy expenditure during sexual activity and the endurance exercise was measured using the portable mini SenseWear armband. Perceived energy expenditure, perception of effort, fatigue and pleasure were also assessed after sexual activity. All participants completed a 30 min endurance exercise session on a treadmill at a moderate intensity. RESULTS: Mean energy expenditure during sexual activity was 101 kCal or 4.2 kCal/min in men and 69.1 kCal or 3.1 kCal/min in women. In addition, mean intensity was 6.0 METS in men and 5.6 METS in women, which represents a moderate intensity. Moreover, the energy expenditure and intensity during the 30 min exercise session in men was 276 kCal or 9.2 kCal/min and 8.5 METS, respectively and in women 213 kCal or 7.1 kCal/min and 8.4 METS, respectively. Interestingly, the highest range value achieved by men for absolute energy expenditure can potentially be higher than that of the mean energy expenditure of the 30 min exercise session (i.e. 306.1 vs. 276 kCal, respectively whereas this was not observed in women. Finally, perceived energy expenditure during sexual activity was similar in men (100 kCal and in women (76.2 kCal when compared to measured energy expenditure. CONCLUSION: The present study indicates that energy expenditure during sexual activity appears to be approximately 85 kCal or 3.6 kCal/min and seems to be performed at a moderate intensity (5.8 METS in young healthy men and women. These results suggest that sexual activity may potentially be considered, at times, as a significant exercise.

  20. Analysis of temperature difference on the total of energy expenditure during static bicycle exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiono

    2016-04-01

    How to manage energy expenditure for cyclist is very crucial part to achieve a good performance. As the tropical situation, the differences of temperature level might be contributed in energy expenditure and durability. The aim of the paper is to estimate and to analysis the configuration of energy expenditure for static cycling activity based on heart rate value in room with air conditioning (AC)/no AC treatment. The research is started with study literatures of climate factors, temperature impact on human body, and definition of energy expenditure. The next step is design the experiment for 5 participants in 2 difference models for 26.80C - 74% relative humidity (room no AC) and 23,80C - 54.8% relative humidity (room with AC). The participants’ heart rate and blood pressure are measured in rest condition and in cycling condition to know the impact of difference temperature in energy expenditure profile. According to the experiment results, the reducing of the temperature has significantly impact on the decreasing of energy expenditure at average 0.3 Kcal/minute for all 5 performers. Finally, the research shows that climate condition (temperature and relative humidity) are very important factors to manage and to reach a higher performance of cycling sport.

  1. Relations of Nosological Factors and Energy Expenditure in Newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Shmakov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. With the aid of indirect calorimetry, to evaluate whether the nosological factors affect energy exchange in severely ill newborns.Materials and methods. Indirect calorimetry was employed to determine the true energy expenditure in new borns under the mechanical ventilation because of intranatal postanoxia encephalopathy (n=19, severe sepsis (n=18, and urgent surgery (n=19. Energy expenditure at rest was estimated at the beginning of intensive therapy and in in 48 hours. Sedation in groups was similar.Results. At the first stage, the energy exchange in all newborns was characterized by hypometabolism. In cases of damage of the central nervous system the anaerobic metabolism was increased, and the principal used substrate was glucose; the most prolonged hypometabolism was revealed in newborns with sepsis, in which the utilization of lactate was decreased, and the main energetic substrate were lipids; in early postoperative period, the decrease in energy expenditure was not associated with preferential oxidation of glucose or lipids, and disappeared due to elimination of anesthetics.Conclusion. Energetic hypometabolism can be considered as a main reaction of the newborn organism to previous invasion. Acute posthypoxic brain damage in newborns is characterized by high activity of peroxidation associated with hypometabolism. For newborns with severe sepsis a slow recovery of aerobic metabolism and intensity of energy expenditure were evident. Early postoperative period in newborns was characterized by profound iatrogenic hypometabolism with fast normalization of energy expenditure.

  2. Allometric Prediction of Energy Expenditure in Infants and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinman, Thane; Cook, Robin

    2011-08-01

    Predicting energy needs in children is complicated by the wide range of patient sizes, confusing traditional estimation equations, nonobjective stress-activity factors, and so on. These complications promote errors in bedside estimates of nutritional needs by rendering the estimation methods functionally unavailable to bedside clinicians. Here, the authors develop a simple heuristic energy prediction equation that requires only body mass (not height, age, or sex) as input. Expert estimation of energy expenditure suggested a power-law relationship between mass and energy. A similar mass-energy expenditure relationship was derived from published pediatric echocardiographic data using a Monte Carlo model of energy expenditure based on oxygen delivery and consumption. A simplified form of the equation was compared with energy required for normal growth in a cohort of historical patients weighing 2 to 70 kg. All 3 methods demonstrate that variation in energy expenditure in children is dominated by mass and can be estimated by the following equation: Power(kcal/kg/d) = 200 × [Mass(kg)((-0.4))]. This relationship explains 85% of the variability in energy required to maintain expected growth over a broad range of surgical clinical contexts. A simplified power-law equation predicts real-world energy needs for growth in patients over a wide range of body sizes and clinical contexts, providing a more useful bedside tool than traditional estimators.

  3. Energy expenditure characteristics of weight lifting: 2 sets to fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Christopher B; Leary, Michael P; Tenbraak, Andrew J

    2011-02-01

    We investigated the work performed and energy expenditure characteristics within and among 2 sets of the bench press at 70%, 80%, and 90% of 1 repetition maximum (1RM). For both sets fatigue was the end point. We asked: do multiple sets affect subsequent work output along with aerobic, anaerobic, and excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) contributions? Ten males participated. Work was significantly less for the 2nd set within the 70% and 80% protocols, but not the 90% protocol. Anaerobic (glycolytic) energy expenditure was less for the 2nd set within all protocols. However, within all protocols, the work / energy expenditure ratio was not different between sets. Overall work was significantly different among protocols, becoming less as the weight lifted was increased: 70%, 637.1 ± 122.4 J; 80%, 512.4 ± 93.4 J; 90%, 324.7 ± 92.6 J (p EPOC was not different among protocols after the 1st set, 2nd set, or combined overall. Moreover, the overall EPOC did not correlate with overall work performed (r = 0.31, p = 0.11). EPOC overall did correlate with aerobic (r = 0.68, p EPOC that is similar for all. As more work is completed (i.e., lower weight, more repetitions), aerobic and anaerobic exercise energy expenditures appear to increase accordingly, yet absolute EPOC remains essentially unchanged, contributing less to the overall energy expenditure.

  4. Active Video Games and Energy Expenditure in Overweight Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddock, Bryan L; Brandt, Andrea M; Siegel, Shannon R; Wilkin, Linda D; Han, Joung-Kyue

    2008-07-01

    The prevalence of overweight in children has increased significantly in recent years. Frequent television viewing and the playing of video games have often been linked to the high prevalence of overweight. The purpose of this study was to determine if overweight children, given access to active video games, will play them at an intensity that will significantly increase energy expenditure. Twenty-three children, classified as "at risk for overweight" or "overweight," participated in this study. After a 10-minute baseline period in which the children watched a cartoon, the participants played the Jackie Chan Fitness Studio® (Xavix, Hong Kong) games for 30 minutes while rotating through the games as desired and resting whenever needed. Energy expenditure significantly increased from a mean at baseline of 1.15 ± 0.32 kcal/min to 4.08±1.18 kcal/min during the 30-minutes that the participants were given access to the games (p <.001). The total energy expenditure during the 30-minute time frame was 122.30 ± 35.40 kcal. The energy expenditure varied between individuals, with a low value of 75.00 kcal to a high of 205.86 kcal. Although a modest level of energy expenditure, this level of exertion could contribute to an overall weight control program in children.

  5. Validation of a wireless accelerometer network for energy expenditure measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoye, Alexander H K; Dong, Bo; Biswas, Subir; Pfeiffer, Karin A

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate a wireless network of accelerometers and compare it to a hip-mounted accelerometer for predicting energy expenditure in a semi-structured environment. Adults (n = 25) aged 18-30 engaged in 14 sedentary, ambulatory, exercise, and lifestyle activities over a 60-min protocol while wearing a portable metabolic analyser, hip-mounted accelerometer, and wireless network of three accelerometers worn on the right wrist, thigh, and ankle. Participants chose the order and duration of activities. Artificial neural networks were created separately for the wireless network and hip accelerometer for energy expenditure prediction. The wireless network had higher correlations (r = 0.79 vs. r = 0.72, P  0.05) to the hip accelerometer. Measured (from metabolic analyser) and predicted energy expenditure from the hip accelerometer were significantly different for the 3 of the 14 activities (lying down, sweeping, and cycle fast); conversely, measured and predicted energy expenditure from the wireless network were not significantly different for any activity. In conclusion, the wireless network yielded a small improvement over the hip accelerometer, providing evidence that the wireless network can produce accurate estimates of energy expenditure in adults participating in a range of activities.

  6. Energy intake and energy expenditure for determining excess weight gain in pregnant women

    Science.gov (United States)

    To conduct a secondary analysis designed to test whether gestational weight gain is the result of increased energy intake or adaptive changes in energy expenditures. In this secondary analysis, energy intake and energy expenditure of 45 pregnant women (body mass index [BMI] 18.5-24.9 [n=33] and BMI ...

  7. Gross efficiency and energy expenditure in kayak ergometer exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, B B; Mourão, L; Massart, A; Figueiredo, P; Vilas-Boas, J P; Santos, A M C; Fernandes, R J

    2012-08-01

    We purposed to study energy expenditure, power output and gross efficiency during kayak ergometer exercise in 12 elite sprint kayakers. 6 males (age 24.2±4.8 years, height 180.4±4.8 cm, body mass 79.7±8.5 kg) and 6 females (age 24.3±4.5 years, height 164.5±3.9 cm, body mass 65.4±3.5 kg), performed an incremental intermittent protocol on kayak ergometer with VO2 and blood lactate concentration assessment, a non-linear increase between power output and energy expenditure being observed. Paddling power output, energy expenditure and gross efficiency corresponding to VO2max averaged 199.92±50.41 W, 75.27±6.30 ml.kg - 1.min - 1, and 10.10±1.08%. Male kayakers presented higher VO2max, power output and gross efficiency at the VO2max, and lower heart rate and maximal lactate concentration than females, but no differences were found between genders regarding energy expenditure at VO2max. Aerobic and anaerobic components of energy expenditure evidenced a significant contribution of anaerobic energy sources in sprint kayak performance. Results also suggested the dependence of the gross efficiency on the changes in the amount of the aerobic and anaerobic contributions, at heavy and severe intensities. The inter-individual variance of the relationship between energy expenditure and the corresponding paddling power output revealed a relevant tracking for females (FDγ=0.73±0.06), conversely to the male group (FDγ=0.27±0.08), supporting that some male kayakers are more skilled in some paddling intensities than others.

  8. Predicting energy expenditure from accelerometry counts in adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Kathryn H; Treuth, Margarita; Hannan, Peter; McMurray, Robert; Ring, Kimberly B; Catellier, Diane; Pate, Russ

    2005-01-01

    Calibration of accelerometer counts against oxygen consumption to predict energy expenditure has not been conducted in middle school girls. We concurrently assessed energy expenditure and accelerometer counts during physical activities on adolescent girls to develop an equation to predict energy expenditure. Seventy-four girls aged 13-14 yr performed 10 activities while wearing an Actigraph accelerometer and a portable metabolic measurement unit (Cosmed K4b2). The activities were resting, watching television, playing a computer game, sweeping, walking 2.5 and 3.5 mph, performing step aerobics, shooting a basketball, climbing stairs, and running 5 mph. Height and weight were also assessed. Mixed-model regression was used to develop an equation to predict energy expenditure (EE) (kJ.min(-1)) from accelerometer counts. Age (mean [SD] = 14 yr [0.34]) and body-weight-adjusted correlations of accelerometer counts with EE (kJ.min(-1)) for individual activities ranged from -0.14 to 0.59. Higher intensity activities with vertical motion were best correlated. A regression model that explained 85% of the variance of EE was developed: [EE (kJ.min(-1)) = 7.6628 + 0.1462 [(Actigraph counts per minute - 3000)/100] + 0.2371 (body weight in kilograms) - 0.00216 [(Actigraph counts per minute - 3000)/100](2) + 0.004077 [((Actigraph counts per minute - 3000)/100) x (body weight in kilograms)]. The MCCC = 0.85, with a standard error of estimate = 5.61 kJ.min(-1). We developed a prediction equation for kilojoules per minute of energy expenditure from Actigraph accelerometer counts. This equation may be most useful for predicting energy expenditure in groups of adolescent girls over a period of time that will include activities of broad-ranging intensity, and may be useful to intervention researchers interested in objective measures of physical activity.

  9. Measuring Government Expenditure Efficiencies Towards Peace and Human Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Danu Prasetyo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the efficiency level of government expenditure in 82 countries towards the human development and peace index of the respective countries by using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA approach during 2007-2011. We found that only few countries that always being positioned in the efficient frontier during the sample period, namely: Japan, Nigeria, and Norway.  By using Malmquist index approach, we also found that Cyprus has the largest government expenditure efficiency improvement.Keywords: Government Expenditure Efficiencies, Human Development Index, Global Peace Indexdoi:10.12695/ajtm.2013.6.2.3 How to cite this article:Prasetyo, A.D., and Pudjono, A.N.S. (2013. Measuring Government Expenditure Efficiencies Towards Peace and Human Development. The Asian Journal of Technology Management 6 (2: 82-91. Print ISSN: 1978-6956; Online ISSN: 2089-791X. doi:10.12695/ajtm.2013.6.2.3

  10. Body weight gain in free-living Pima Indians: effect of energy intake vs expenditure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tataranni, P A; Harper, I T; Snitker, S;

    2003-01-01

    Obesity results from a chronic imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure. However, experimental evidence of the relative contribution of interindividual differences in energy intake and expenditure (resting or due to physical activity) to weight gain is limited.......Obesity results from a chronic imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure. However, experimental evidence of the relative contribution of interindividual differences in energy intake and expenditure (resting or due to physical activity) to weight gain is limited....

  11. Vagus nerve stimulation increases energy expenditure: relation to brown adipose tissue activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy H E J Vijgen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human brown adipose tissue (BAT activity is inversely related to obesity and positively related to energy expenditure. BAT is highly innervated and it is suggested the vagus nerve mediates peripheral signals to the central nervous system, there connecting to sympathetic nerves that innervate BAT. Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS is used for refractory epilepsy, but is also reported to generate weight loss. We hypothesize VNS increases energy expenditure by activating BAT. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Fifteen patients with stable vns therapy (age: 45 ± 10 yrs; body mass index; 25.2 ± 3.5 kg/m(2 were included between January 2011 and June 2012. Ten subjects were measured twice, once with active and once with inactivated VNS. Five other subjects were measured twice, once with active VNS at room temperature and once with active VNS under cold exposure in order to determine maximal cold-induced BAT activity. BAT activity was assessed by 18-Fluoro-Deoxy-Glucose-Positron-Emission-Tomography-and-Computed-Tomography. Basal metabolic rate (BMR was significantly higher when VNS was turned on (mean change; +2.2%. Mean BAT activity was not significantly different between active VNS and inactive VNS (BAT SUV(Mean; 0.55 ± 0.25 versus 0.67 ± 0.46, P = 0.619. However, the change in energy expenditure upon VNS intervention (On-Off was significantly correlated to the change in BAT activity (r = 0.935, P<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: VNS significantly increases energy expenditure. The observed change in energy expenditure was significantly related to the change in BAT activity. This suggests a role for BAT in the VNS increase in energy expenditure. Chronic VNS may have a beneficial effect on the human energy balance that has potential application for weight management therapy. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was registered in the Clinical Trial Register under the ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT01491282.

  12. Modeling energy expenditure in children and adolescents using quantile regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advanced mathematical models have the potential to capture the complex metabolic and physiological processes that result in energy expenditure (EE). Study objective is to apply quantile regression (QR) to predict EE and determine quantile-dependent variation in covariate effects in nonobese and obes...

  13. Determining Energy Expenditure during Some Household and Garden Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Simon M.; Brooks, Anthony G.; Withers, Robert T.; Gore, Christopher J.; Owen, Neville; Booth, Michael L.; Bauman, Adrian E.

    2002-01-01

    Calculated the reproducibility and precision for VO2 during moderate paced walking and four housework and gardening activities, examining which rated at least 3.0 when calculating exercise intensity in METs and multiples of measured resting metabolic rate (MRM). VO2 was measured with reproducibility and precision. Expressing energy expenditure in…

  14. Comparing Metabolic Energy Expenditure Estimation Using Wearable Multi-Sensor Network and Single Accelerometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Bo; Biswas, Subir; Montoye, Alexander; Pfeiffer, Karin

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the implementation details, system architecture and performance of a wearable sensor network that was designed for human activity recognition and energy expenditure estimation. We also included ActiGraph GT3X+ as a popular single sensor solution for detailed comparison with the proposed wearable sensor network. Linear regression and Artificial Neural Network are implemented and tested. Through a rigorous system study and experiment, it is shown that the wearable multi-sensor network outperforms the single sensor solution in terms of energy expenditure estimation. PMID:24110325

  15. Metabolic efficiency and energy expenditure during short-term overfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosen, Annemiek M C P; Bakker, Arjen H F; Westerterp, Klaas R

    2005-08-07

    To investigate whether efficiency of weight gain during a short period of overfeeding is related to adaptive differences in basal metabolic rate (BMR) and physical activity. Fourteen healthy females (age 25+/-4 years, BMI 22.1+/-2.3 kg/m2). Subjects were overfed with a diet supplying 50% more energy than baseline energy requirements for 14 days. Overfeeding diets provided 7% of energy from protein, 40% from fat and 53% from carbohydrates. Body composition was determined using hydrodensitometry and isotope dilution, total energy expenditure (TEE) with doubly labeled water and basal metabolic rate (BMR) with indirect calorimetry. Physical activity (PA) was recorded with a tri-axial accelerometer. Body weight increased by 1.45+/-0.86 kg (mean+/-S.D.) (P<0.0001), fat mass increased by 1.05+/-0.75 kg. Energy storage was 57.0+/-17.9 MJ, which is the difference between energy intake (207.2 MJ) and energy expenditure (150.2 MJ) during overfeeding. There was no difference between metabolically efficient and metabolically inefficient subjects in changes in BMR and PA. These results indicate that the metabolic efficiency of weight gain was not related to adaptive changes in energy expenditure.

  16. Contribution of anaerobic energy expenditure to whole body thermogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Christopher B

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Heat production serves as the standard measurement for the determination of energy expenditure and efficiency in animals. Estimations of metabolic heat production have traditionally focused on gas exchange (oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide production although direct heat measurements may include an anaerobic component particularly when carbohydrate is oxidized. Stoichiometric interpretations of the ratio of carbon dioxide production to oxygen uptake suggest that both anaerobic and aerobic heat production and, by inference, all energy expenditure – can be accounted for with a measurement of oxygen uptake as 21.1 kJ per liter of oxygen. This manuscript incorporates contemporary bioenergetic interpretations of anaerobic and aerobic ATP turnover to promote the independence of these disparate types of metabolic energy transfer: each has different reactants and products, uses dissimilar enzymes, involves different types of biochemical reactions, takes place in separate cellular compartments, exploits different types of gradients and ultimately each operates with distinct efficiency. The 21.1 kJ per liter of oxygen for carbohydrate oxidation includes a small anaerobic heat component as part of anaerobic energy transfer. Faster rates of ATP turnover that exceed mitochondrial respiration and that are supported by rapid glycolytic phosphorylation with lactate production result in heat production that is independent of oxygen uptake. Simultaneous direct and indirect calorimetry has revealed that this anaerobic heat does not disappear when lactate is later oxidized and so oxygen uptake does not adequately measure anaerobic efficiency or energy expenditure (as was suggested by the "oxygen debt" hypothesis. An estimate of anaerobic energy transfer supplements the measurement of oxygen uptake and may improve the interpretation of whole-body energy expenditure.

  17. 1H-NMR-based metabolic analysis of human serum reveals novel markers of myocardial energy expenditure in heart failure patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyong Du

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Elevated myocardial energy expenditure (MEE is related with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction, and has also been documented as an independent predictor of cardiovascular mortality. However, the serum small-molecule metabolite profiles and pathophysiological mechanisms of elevated MEE in heart failure (HF are still lacking. Herein, we used 1H-NMR-based metabolomics analysis to screen for potential biomarkers of MEE in HF. METHODS: A total of 61 subjects were enrolled, including 46 patients with heart failure and 15 age-matched controls. Venous serum samples were collected from subjects after an 8-hour fast. An INOVA 600 MHz nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer with Carr-Purcell-Melboom-Gill (CPMG pulse sequence was employed for the metabolomics analysis and MEE was calculated using colored Doppler echocardiography. Metabolomics data were processed using orthogonal signal correction and regression analysis was performed using the partial least squares method. RESULTS: The mean MEE levels of HF patients and controls were 139.61±58.18 cal/min and 61.09±23.54 cal/min, respectively. Serum metabolomics varied with MEE changed, and 3-hydroxybutyrate, acetone and succinate were significantly elevated with the increasing MEE. Importantly, these three metabolites were independent of administration of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, β-receptor blockers, diuretics and statins (P>0.05. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggested that in patients with heart failure, MEE elevation was associated with significant changes in serum metabolomics profiles, especially the concentration of 3-hydroxybutyrate, acetone and succinate. These compounds could be used as potential serum biomarkers to study myocardial energy mechanism in HF patients.

  18. Diet, energy expenditure, and body composition of lactating Ribeirinha women in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piperata, Barbara A; Dufour, Darna L

    2007-01-01

    Lactation is the most energetically demanding part of human reproduction; yet, compared with pregnancy, we know little about the strategies women in different settings employ to cope with these increased energy demands. This paper takes a biocultural approach and reports longitudinal data on the anthropometry, dietary intakes and energy expenditure of a sample of 23 rural, lactating Ribeirinha women living in subsistence-based communities in the eastern Amazon. The dietary intakes of these lactating women were insufficient to meet their lactating energy needs and were least sufficient during resguardo, a 40-day period in the immediate postpartum when the women observed a series of food taboos and work restrictions. Instead, the women in this study met the increased energy demands of lactation by drawing on their energy reserves and reducing their energy expenditure in physical activity. The women showed a significant reduction in weight (Penergy expenditure (TDEE) was lowest during resguardo and increased as lactation progressed (P=0.01). While the practice of resguardo reduced maternal energy expenditure and allowed women more time to spend with their newborn infants, it came at a cost (low dietary intake), which appears to be related to the loss of the adult woman from subsistence activities. By taking a biocultural approach this study illustrates the role the social environment plays in shaping the experience of lactating women.

  19. Activities Contributing to Total Energy Expenditure in the United States: Results from the NHAPS Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Block Gladys

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity is increasingly recognized as an important factor influencing health and disease status. Total energy expenditure, both low-intensity and high-intensity, contributes to maintenance of healthy body weight. This paper presents the results of a quantitative approach to determining the activities that contribute to total energy expenditure in the United States. Methods Data from the National Human Activity Pattern Survey (NHAPS were used. In 1992–1994 the NHAPS sampled 4,185 females and 3,330 males, aged 18 years and over, weighted to be representative of the 48 contiguous United States. A detailed report of each activity performed in the previous 24 hours was obtained. A score was created for each activity, by multiplying duration and intensity for each individual and summing across individuals. This score was then used to rank each activity according to its contribution to total population energy expenditure, for the total sample and separately for each gender, race, age, region, and season. Results This analysis reveals our society to be primarily sedentary; leisure time physical activity contributed only approximately 5% of the population's total energy expenditure. Not counting sleeping, the largest contributor to energy expenditure was "Driving a car", followed by "Office work" and "Watching TV". Household activities accounted for 20.1% and 33.3% of energy expenditure for males and females respectively. Conclusion The information presented in this paper may be useful in identifying common activities that could be appropriate targets for behavioral interventions to increase physical activity.

  20. Energy expenditure and sex differences of golf playing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zunzer, Stefan C; von Duvillard, Serge P; Tschakert, Gerhard; Mangus, Brent; Hofmann, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the average physical intensity and energy expenditure during a single round of golf on hilly and flat courses in a heterogeneous group of healthy men and women of varying age and golf handicap. Forty-two males and 24 females completed an incremental cycle-ergometer exercise test to determine exercise performance markers. The heart rate (HR), duration, distance, walking speed, ascent and descent were measured via a global positioning system (GPS)/HR monitor during the game and energy expenditure was calculated. Playing 9 or 18-holes of golf, independent of the golf course design, the average HR was not significantly different between sexes or the subgroups. The intensities were light with respect to the percentage of maximal HR and metabolic equivalents of task (METs). Total energy expenditure of all participants was not significantly different for hilly (834 ± 344 kcal) vs. flat courses (833 ± 295 kcal) whereas male players expended significantly greater energy than female players (926 ± 292 vs. 556 ± 180 kcal), but did not have significantly greater relative energy expenditure (2.8 ± 0.8 vs. 2.2 ± 0.7 METs). As a high volume physical activity, playing golf is suggested to yield health benefits. Since the intensity was well below recommended limits, golf may have health related benefits unrelated to the intensity level of the activity.

  1. Postprandial energy expenditure in whole-food and processed-food meals: implications for daily energy expenditure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadie B. Barr

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Empirical evidence has shown that rising obesity rates closely parallel the increased consumption of processed foods (PF consumption in USA. Differences in postprandial thermogenic responses to a whole-food (WF meal vs. a PF meal may be a key factor in explaining obesity trends, but currently there is limited research exploring this potential link. Objective: The goal was to determine if a particular PF meal has a greater thermodynamic efficiency than a comparable WF meal, thereby conferring a greater net-energy intake. Design: Subjective satiation scores and postprandial energy expenditure were measured for 5–6 h after isoenergetic meals were ingested. The meals were either ‘whole’ or ‘processed’ cheese sandwiches; multi-grain bread and cheddar cheese were deemed whole, while white bread and processed cheese product were considered processed. Meals were comparable in terms of protein (15–20%, carbohydrate (40–50%, and fat (33–39% composition. Subjects were healthy women (n=12 and men (n=5 studied in a crossover design. Results: There were no significant differences in satiety ratings after the two meals. Average energy expenditure for the WF meal (137±14.1 kcal, 19.9% of meal energy was significantly larger than for the PF meal (73.1±10.2 kcal, 10.7% of meal energy. Conclusion: Ingestion of the particular PF meal tested in this study decreases postprandial energy expenditure by nearly 50% compared with the isoenergetic WF meal. This reduction in daily energy expenditure has potential implications for diets comprised heavily of PFs and their associations with obesity.

  2. Machine Learning and Sensor Fusion for Estimating Continuous Energy Expenditure

    OpenAIRE

    Vyas, Nisarg; BodyMedia, Inc.; Farringdon, Jonathan; BodyMedia Inc.; Andre, David; Cerebellum Capital, Inc.; Stivoric, John Ivo; BodyMedia

    2012-01-01

    In this article we provide insight into the BodyMedia FIT armband system — a wearable multi-sensor technology that continuously monitors physiological events related to energy expenditure for weight management using machine learning and data modeling methods. Since becoming commercially available in 2001, more than half a million users have used the system to track their physiological parameters and to achieve their individual health goals including weight-loss. We describe several challenges...

  3. Oxygen Consumption Rate and Energy Expenditure in Mice: Indirect Calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Ran; Tong, Qingchun

    2017-01-01

    Global obesity epidemic demands more effective therapeutic treatments and better understanding of obesity pathophysiology. Since obesity results from energy imbalance, accurate quantification of energy intake and energy expenditure (EE) becomes an essential prerequisite to phenotype the cause for obesity development. Indirect calorimetry has long been used as one of the most established methods in EE quantification by detecting changes in levels of O2 consumption and CO2 production. In this article, we describe procedures and important considerations for an effective measurement using indirect calorimetry.

  4. Physiological effects of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on energy expenditure for prospective fat oxidation in humans: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Mahendra P; Sugita, Masaaki; Fukuzawa, Yoshitaka; Okubo, Tsutomu

    2017-05-01

    Green tea catechins (GTCs) are known to improve fat oxidation (FOX) during fasted, rested and exercise conditions wherein epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is thought to be the most pharmacologically active and has been studied extensively. From the available data of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on EGCG, we carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis to elucidate whether EGCG consumption indeed increase energy expenditure (EE) and promote FOX. A systematic review of the literature was conducted using electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, JICST, JSTPLUS, and JMEDPLUS and others) and eight RCTs were included. RCTs were reviewed using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines and methodological quality was assessed. After data extraction, results were aggregated using fixed- and random-effect approaches and expressed to quantify the relationship between the dose of EGCG for respiratory quotient (RQ), EE and rate of FOX to compare the EGCG and placebo treatments. The meta-analysis results of verities of studies in terms of dose and length of duration revealed that EGCG supplementation provided significant mean difference (MD) when compared with placebo for RQ [MD: -0.02; 95% confidence intervals (95% CI), -0.04 to 0.00; I(2)=67%; P=.01] and EE [MD: 158.05 kJ/day; 95% CI, 4.72 to 311.38; I(2)=0%; P=.04] in fixed-effect approach. Changes in FOX did not reach the level of statistical significance. Meta-analyses of EGCG influence on the body mass index, waist circumference and total body fat mass (TBFM) were also examined and their impact on the promotion of FOX is reported. Effect of EGCG doses was also systematically reviewed. Finding showed that EGCG intake moderately accelerates EE and reduces RQ. The analyses revealed that the EGCG resulted in difference in RQ and EE but the effect on the other measures of energy metabolism was relatively mild. Possibly, EGCG alone has the potential to increase

  5. Physiological responses and energy expenditure during competitive fencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milia, Raffaele; Roberto, Silvana; Pinna, Marco; Palazzolo, Girolamo; Sanna, Irene; Omeri, Massimo; Piredda, Simone; Migliaccio, Gianmario; Concu, Alberto; Crisafulli, Antonio

    2014-03-01

    Fencing is an Olympic sport in which athletes fight one against one using bladed weapons. Contests consist of three 3-min bouts, with rest intervals of 1 min between them. No studies investigating oxygen uptake and energetic demand during fencing competitions exist, thus energetic expenditure and demand in this sport remain speculative. The aim of this study was to understand the physiological capacities underlying fencing performance. Aerobic energy expenditure and the recruitment of lactic anaerobic metabolism were determined in 15 athletes (2 females and 13 males) during a simulation of fencing by using a portable gas analyzer (MedGraphics VO2000), which was able to provide data on oxygen uptake, carbon dioxide production and heart rate. Blood lactate was assessed by means of a portable lactate analyzer. Average group energetic expenditure during the simulation was (mean ± SD) 10.24 ± 0.65 kcal·min(-1), corresponding to 8.6 ± 0.54 METs. Oxygen uptakeand heart rate were always below the level of anaerobic threshold previously assessed during the preliminary incremental test, while blood lactate reached its maximum value of 6.9 ± 2.1 mmol·L(-1) during the final recovery minute between rounds. Present data suggest that physical demand in fencing is moderate for skilled fencers and that both aerobic energy metabolism and anaerobic lactic energy sources are moderately recruited. This should be considered by coaches when preparing training programs for athletes.

  6. Role of leptin in energy expenditure: the hypothalamic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, R; Beerens, S; Adan, R A H

    2017-06-01

    The adipocyte-derived hormone leptin is a peripheral signal that informs the brain about the metabolic status of an organism. Although traditionally viewed as an appetite-suppressing hormone, studies in the past decade have highlighted the role of leptin in energy expenditure. Leptin has been shown to increase energy expenditure in particular through its effects on the cardiovascular system and brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis via the hypothalamus. The current review summarizes the role of leptin signaling in various hypothalamic nuclei and its effects on the sympathetic nervous system to influence blood pressure, heart rate, and BAT thermogenesis. Specifically, the role of leptin signaling on three different hypothalamic nuclei, the dorsomedial hypothalamus, the ventromedial hypothalamus, and the arcuate nucleus, is reviewed. It is known that all of these brain regions influence the sympathetic nervous system activity and thereby regulate BAT thermogenesis and the cardiovascular system. Thus the current work focuses on how leptin signaling in specific neuronal populations within these hypothalamic nuclei influences certain aspects of energy expenditure. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Measured energy expenditure in critically ill infants and young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chwals, W J; Lally, K P; Woolley, M M; Mahour, G H

    1988-05-01

    Technological limitations have impeded accurate energy expenditure assessment in critically ill infants and young children. Instead, a predicted energy expenditure (PEE) is derived based on weight, heat loss, activity, growth requirements, and degree of stress. This study compared actual measured energy expenditure (MEE) with conventional predicted values in 20 critically ill infants and children using a validated metabolic cart designed for use in this age group. All patients were studied either within 4 days of major surgery or during an acute disease process necessitating intensive care. All were severely stressed clinically and were studied while mechanically ventilated in a temperature-controlled environment. The study interval ranged from 1 to 12 hr and averaged 4 hr after a stabilization period of 30 min. The mean MEE was significantly lower than the mean PEE (52.2 +/- 16 kcal/kg/day vs 101.8 +/- 17 kcal/kg/day, P less than 0.001) with a mean MEE/PEE of 52.6 +/- 17% (range 26 to 92%). In a subgroup of 7 paralyzed patients, the mean MEE was significantly lower than in the 13 nonparalyzed patients when compared with PEE and predicted basal metabolic rate (PBMR). The coefficient of variance, conventionally recognized to be approximately 15% for PEE, averaged 6.35% for MEE in this study. These data indicate that if PEE is used as the sole guide for caloric repletion in the stressed infant or child, these patients will be substantially overfed.

  8. Presence or absence of carbohydrates and the proportion of fat in a high-protein diet affect appetite suppression but not energy expenditure in normal-weight human subjects fed in energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhorst, Margriet A B; Westerterp, Klaas R; van Vught, Anneke J A H; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2010-11-01

    Two types of relatively high-protein diets, with a normal or low proportion of carbohydrates, have been shown effective for weight loss. The objective was to assess the significance of the presence or absence of carbohydrates and the proportion of fat in high-protein diets for affecting appetite suppression, energy expenditure, and fat oxidation in normal-weight subjects in energy balance. Subjects (aged 23 (sd 3) years and BMI 22·0 (sd 1·9) kg/m2) were stratified in two groups. Each was offered two diets in a randomised cross-over design: group 1 (n 22) - normal protein (NP; 10, 60 and 30 % energy (En%) from protein, carbohydrate and fat), high protein (HP; 30, 40 and 30 En%); group 2 (n 23) - normal protein (NP-g; 10, 60 and 30 En%), high protein, carbohydrate-free (HP-0C; 30, 0 and 70 En%) for 2 d; NP-g and HP-0C were preceded by glycogen-lowering exercise (day 1). Appetite was measured throughout day 2 using visual analogue scales (VAS). Energy expenditure (EE) and substrate oxidation (respiratory quotient; RQ) were measured in a respiration chamber (08.00 hours on day 2 until 07.30 hours on day 3). Fasting plasma β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentration was measured (day 3). NP-g and NP did not differ in hunger, EE, RQ and BHB. HP-0C and HP v. NP-g and NP, respectively, were lower in hunger (P diet without than with carbohydrates exchanged for fat. Energy expenditure was not affected by the carbohydrate content of a high-protein diet.

  9. Effects of RYGB on energy expenditure, appetite and glycemic control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Julie Berg; Pedersen, Susie Dawn; Gregersen, Nikolaj Ture

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Increased energy expenditure (EE) has been proposed an important mechanism for weight loss following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). However, this has never been investigated in a controlled setting independent of changes in energy balance. Likewise, only few studies have investigated...... different between the groups, but RYGB operated had lower fasting glucose (Pafter RYGB. More likely, RYGB promotes weight loss by reducing appetite, partly mediated...... by changes in gastrointestinal hormone secretion. Furthermore, we found that the early changes in glycaemic control after RYGB is to a large extent mediated by caloric restriction....

  10. Impact of insufficient sleep on total daily energy expenditure, food intake, and weight gain

    OpenAIRE

    Markwald, Rachel R.; Edward L. Melanson; Smith, Mark R.; Higgins, Janine; Perreault, Leigh; Eckel, Robert H.; Wright, Kenneth P.

    2013-01-01

    Insufficient sleep is associated with obesity, yet little is known about how repeated nights of insufficient sleep influence energy expenditure and balance. We studied 16 adults in a 14- to 15-d-long inpatient study and quantified effects of 5 d of insufficient sleep, equivalent to a work week, on energy expenditure and energy intake compared with adequate sleep. We found that insufficient sleep increased total daily energy expenditure by ∼5%; however, energy intake—especially at night after ...

  11. Energy expenditure of autoperfusing heart-lung preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riveron, F A; Ross, J H; Schwartz, K A; Casey, G; Sanders, O; Eisiminger, R; Magilligan, D J

    1988-11-01

    The autoperfused heart-lung preparation was developed as a method for extending the acceptable donor-to-recipient interval in clinical heart-lung transplantation. Metabolic substrate enhancement has been shown to be necessary for the survival and homeostasis of the functioning preparation. To define basic metabolic requirements and to determine the resting energy expenditure of the working canine heart-lung preparation, two groups were studied. Ten canine heart-lung blocks were placed in a normothermic autoperfusion circuit. In Group 1 (n = 5), a hyperalimentation solution of balanced substrate was infused (15% dextrose, 4.25% amino acids, 8 meq magnesium sulfate, 30 IU/dl insulin, and 10% lipids). In Group 2 (n = 5), no substrate was given. The preparations were ventilated with a mixture of room air and 5% CO2 at a rate of 4 breaths/min to maintain physiological pH. Myocardial function was assessed by cardiac output determinations and mixed venous gases. Pulmonary function was assessed with arterial blood gases. The oxygen consumption (VO2) and carbon dioxide production (VCO2) were measured with a Metabolic Cart, and the resting energy expenditure was calculated. The mean survival time for Group 1 was 360 minutes, and all preparations were terminated electively. The mean survival time for Group 2 was 219 +/- 43 minutes (p less than 0.01) with congestive heart failure as the common terminal event. All parameters of cardiac function and blood gases remained within physiological limits without significant differences between groups. The resting energy expenditure, a measure of metabolic rate, was 2.5 +/- 0.3 kcal/hr in Group 1 and 1.0 +/- 0.2 in Group 2 at termination (mean +/- SD) (p less than 0.01).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. [Sedentary lifestyle: physical activity duration versus percentage of energy expenditure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera de León, Antonio; Rodríguez-Pérez, María del C; Rodríguez-Benjumeda, Luis M; Anía-Lafuente, Basilio; Brito-Díaz, Buenaventura; Muros de Fuentes, Mercedes; Almeida-González, Delia; Batista-Medina, Marta; Aguirre-Jaime, Armando

    2007-03-01

    To compare different definitions of a sedentary lifestyle and to determine which is the most appropriate for demonstrating its relationship with the metabolic syndrome and other cardiovascular risk factors. A cross-sectional study of 5814 individuals was carried out. Comparisons were made between two definitions of a sedentary lifestyle: one based on active energy expenditure being less than 10% of total energy expenditure, and the other, on performing less than 25-30 minutes of physical activity per day. Reported levels of physical activity, anthropometric measurements, and biochemical markers of cardiovascular risk were recorded. The associations between a sedentary lifestyle and metabolic syndrome and other risk factors were adjusted for gender, age and tobacco use. The prevalence of a sedentary lifestyle was higher in women (70%) than in men (45-60%, according to the definition used). The definitions based on physical activity duration and on energy expenditure were equally useful: there were direct associations between a sedentary lifestyle and metabolic syndrome, body mass index, abdominal and pelvic circumferences, systolic blood pressure, heart rate, apolipoprotein B, and triglycerides, and inverse associations with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and paraoxonase activity, which demonstrated the greatest percentage difference between sedentary and active individuals. An incidental finding was that both definitions of a sedentary lifestyle were more strongly associated with the metabolic syndrome as defined by International Diabetes Federation criteria than by Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Given that it is relatively easy to determine whether a patient performs less than 25 minutes of physical activity per day, use of this definition of a sedentary lifestyle is recommended for clinical practice. The serum paraoxonase activity level could provide a useful marker for studying sedentary lifestyles.

  13. Production of cement requiring low energy expenditure. An industrial test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gimenez, S.; Blanco, M.T.; Palomo, A.; Puertas, F. (Instituto de Ciencias de la Construccion, Madrid (Spain))

    1991-01-01

    A new method for making cement is proposed. It is based on the use of CaF{sub 2} and CaSO{sub 4} for partial replacement of the usual raw materials in cement manufacturing. This paper shows the feasibility of the proposed method on an industrial scale. A test carried out in a Spanish cement factory (1500 t yield of the new cement) has revealed that the mehtod can not only be adapted to the current technology but also requires a much lower energy expenditure. The final product is shown to have excellent properties in comparison with OPC. (orig.).

  14. Assessment of physical activity and energy expenditure: an overview of objective measures

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew P. Hills; Najat eMokhtar; Byrne, Nuala M.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to assess energy expenditure and estimate physical activity in free-living individuals is extremely important in the global context of non-communicable diseases including malnutrition, overnutrition (obesity) and diabetes. It is also important to appreciate that physical activity and energy expenditure are different constructs with physical activity defined as any bodily movement that results in energy expenditure and accordingly, energy is expended as a result of physical activit...

  15. Impact of energy and protein restriction on energy expenditure of gestation in twin-bearing ewes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiani, Alishir; Chwalibog, Andrzej; Tauson, Anne-Helene

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the impact of energy and protein restriction on energy expenditure of gestation (EEgest) in twin-bearing ewes. Multiparous twin-bearing ewes were fed either adequate (A: n = 10) or restricted to 60% of energy and protein requirements (R: n = 10) during the last 6...

  16. Energy expenditure on recreational visits to different natural environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Lewis R; White, Mathew P; Taylor, Adrian H; Herbert, Stephen

    2015-08-01

    Physical inactivity poses a significant challenge to physical and mental health. Environmental approaches to tackle physical inactivity have identified natural environments as potentially important public health resources. Despite this, little is known about characteristics of the activity involved when individuals visit different types of natural environment. Using Natural England's Monitor of Engagement with the Natural Environment Survey, we examined 71,603 English respondents' recreational visits to natural environments in the past week. Specifically, we examined the intensity of the activities they undertook on the visits (METs), the duration of their visit, and the associated total energy expenditure (MET minutes). Visits to countryside and urban greenspace environments were associated with more intense activities than visits to coastal environments. However, visits to coastal environments were associated with the most energy expenditure overall due to their relatively long duration. Results differed by the urbanity or rurality of the respondent's residence and also how far respondents travelled to their destination. Knowledge of what types of natural environment afford the highest volumes and intensities of physical activity could inform landscape architecture and exercise prescriptions. Isolating activity-supporting characteristics of natural environments that can be translated into urban design is important in providing physical activity opportunities for those less able to access expansive environments.

  17. Effects of commercially available dietary supplements on resting energy expenditure: a brief report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Roger A; Conn, Carole A; Mermier, Christine M

    2014-01-01

    Commercially available dietary products advertised to promote weight loss are an underresearched but heavily purchased commodity in the United States. Despite only limited evidence, interest in dietary supplements continues to increase. This work uniquely summarizes the current evidence evaluating the efficacy of several over-the-counter thermogenic products for their effects on resting energy expenditure. Currently, there is some evidence suggesting dietary products containing select ingredients can increase energy expenditure in healthy young people immediately following consumption (within 6 hours). It is unclear if supplement-induced increases in metabolic rate provide additional benefit beyond that provided by dietary constituents that contain similar ingredients. It is also unclear if dietary supplements are effective for weight loss in humans.

  18. Increases in Physical Activity Result in Diminishing Increments in Daily Energy Expenditure in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neal, Timothy J; Friend, Danielle M; Guo, Juen; Hall, Kevin D; Kravitz, Alexxai V

    2017-02-06

    Exercise is a common component of weight loss strategies, yet exercise programs are associated with surprisingly small changes in body weight [1-4]. This may be due in part to compensatory adaptations, in which calories expended during exercise are counteracted by decreases in other aspects of energy expenditure [1, 5-10]. Here we examined the relationship between a rodent model of voluntary exercise- wheel running- and total daily energy expenditure. Use of a running wheel for 3 to 7 days increased daily energy expenditure, resulting in a caloric deficit of ∼1 kcal/day; however, total daily energy expenditure remained stable after the first week of wheel access, despite further increases in wheel use. We hypothesized that compensatory mechanisms accounted for the lack of increase in daily energy expenditure after the first week. Supporting this idea, we observed a decrease in off-wheel ambulation when mice were using the wheels, indicating behavioral compensation. Finally, we asked whether individual variation in wheel use within a group of mice would be associated with different levels of daily energy expenditure. Despite a large variation in wheel running, we did not observe a significant relationship between the amount of daily wheel running and total daily energy expenditure or energy intake across mice. Together, our experiments support a model in which the transition from sedentary to light activity is associated with an increase in daily energy expenditure, but further increases in physical activity produce diminishingly small increments in daily energy expenditure.

  19. Information Integration and Energy Expenditure in Gene Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Javier; Wong, Felix; DePace, Angela; Gunawardena, Jeremy

    2016-06-30

    The quantitative concepts used to reason about gene regulation largely derive from bacterial studies. We show that this bacterial paradigm cannot explain the sharp expression of a canonical developmental gene in response to a regulating transcription factor (TF). In the absence of energy expenditure, with regulatory DNA at thermodynamic equilibrium, information integration across multiple TF binding sites can generate the required sharpness, but with strong constraints on the resultant "higher-order cooperativities." Even with such integration, there is a "Hopfield barrier" to sharpness; for n TF binding sites, this barrier is represented by the Hill function with the Hill coefficient n. If, however, energy is expended to maintain regulatory DNA away from thermodynamic equilibrium, as in kinetic proofreading, this barrier can be breached and greater sharpness achieved. Our approach is grounded in fundamental physics, leads to testable experimental predictions, and suggests how a quantitative paradigm for eukaryotic gene regulation can be formulated.

  20. ENERGY EXPENDITURE AND HABITUAL PHYSICAL ACTIVITIES IN ADOLESCENT SPRINT ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Aerenhouts

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess total energy expenditure (TEE and specific habitual physical activities in adolescent sprint athletes. Two methods used to estimate TEE, an activity diary (AD and SenseWear armband (SWA, were compared. Sixteen athletes (6 girls, 10 boys, mean age 16.5 ± 1.6 yr simultaneously wore a SWA and completed an AD and food diary during one week. Basal energy expenditure as given by the SWA when taken off was corrected for the appropriate MET value using the AD. TEE as estimated by the AD and SWA was comparable (3196 ± 590 kcal and 3012 ± 518 kcal, p = 0.113 without day-to-day variations in TEE and energy expended in activities of high intensity. Daily energy intake (2569 ± 508 kcal did not match TEE according to both the AD and SWA (respectively p < 0.001 and p = 0.007. Athletes were in a supine position for a longer time on weekend days than on week days and slept longer on Sundays. Athletes reported a longer time of high-intensive physical activities in the AD than registered by the SWA on 4 out of 7 days. In addition to specific sprint activities on 3 to 7 days per week, 11 out of 16 athletes actively commuted to school where they participated in sports once or twice per week. The AD and the SWA are comparable in the estimation of TEE, which appears realistic and sustainable. The SWA offers an appropriate and objective method in the assessment of TEE, sleeping and resting in adolescent athletes on the condition that detailed information is given for the times the armband is not worn. The AD offers activity specific information but relies on the motivation, compliance and subjectivity of the individual, especially considering high-intensive intermittent training

  1. Fat free mass explains the relationship between stunting and energy expenditure in urban Mexican Maya children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Hannah J; Dickinson, Federico; Hoffman, Daniel J; Griffiths, Paula L; Bogin, Barry; Varela-Silva, Maria Inês

    2012-09-01

    Childhood stunting has been associated with an increased risk of obesity in adulthood, but the causes are unclear. This study hypothesizes that stunting significantly reduces both resting and activity energy expenditure. To assess and describe energy expenditure of low socio-economic Maya children and to determine whether stunting is independently related to energy expenditure after controlling for lean mass. Thirty-three urban Maya children, 17 boys, aged 7-9 years, living in Merida, Mexico, were measured for height, weight and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Body composition was estimated from BIA. Energy expenditure was measured for one week using the Actiheart (combined heart rate and accelerometer). Stunting (height-for-age below the 5(th) percentile of NHANES III based references) affected 35% of these physically active children. Using multiple linear regression analysis, greater lean body mass predicted higher resting and activity energy expenditure. Stature was not a significant predictor of resting energy expenditure. A lower height-for-age z-score, but not stunting as a categorical variable, significantly predicted lower activity energy expenditure. The hypothesis that stunting reduces total energy expenditure (resting + active) in children is not supported. Rather, children with shorter stature and less lean body mass have lower total energy expenditure. Complex interactions between body size, body composition, and metabolic activity appear to elevate the risk for later life obesity in these Maya children.

  2. Exercise, energy expenditure and energy balance, as measured with doubly labelled water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerterp, Klaas R

    2017-07-20

    The doubly labelled water method for the measurement of total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) over 1-3 weeks under daily living conditions is the indicated method to study effects of exercise and extreme environments on energy balance. Subjects consume a measured amount of doubly labelled water (2H2 18O) to increase background enrichment of body water for 18O and 2H, and the subsequent difference in elimination rate between 18O and 2H, as measured in urine, saliva or blood samples, is a measure for carbon dioxide production and thus allows calculation of TDEE. The present review describes research showing that physical activity level (PAL), calculated as TDEE (assessed with doubly labelled water) divided by resting energy expenditure (REE, PAL = TDEE/REE), reaches a maximum value of 2·00-2·40 in subjects with a vigorously active lifestyle. Higher PAL values, while maintaining energy balance, are observed in professional athletes consuming additional energy dense foods to compete at top level. Exercise training can increase TDEE/REE in young adults to a value of 2·00-2·40, when energy intake is unrestricted. Furthermore, the review shows an exercise induced increase in activity energy expenditure can be compensated by a reduction in REE and by a reduction in non-exercise physical activity, especially at a negative energy balance. Additionally, in untrained subjects, an exercise-induced increase in activity energy expenditure is compensated by a training-induced increase in exercise efficiency.

  3. Energy Expenditure associated with the use of neighborhood parks in 2 cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luis J. Suau; Myron F. Floyd; John O. Spengler; Jay E. Maddock; Paul H. Gobster

    2012-01-01

    Context: Availability of public neighborhood parks is associated with physical activity. Little is known about how parks contribute to population energy balance. Purpose: This study estimated energy expenditure associated with the use of neighborhood parks and compared energy expenditure by activity areas within parks and by neighborhood race/ethnicity and income....

  4. Energy Intake and Energy Expenditure for Determining Excess Weight Gain in Pregnant Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, L. Anne; Butte, Nancy F.; Ravussin, Eric; Han, Hongmei; Burton, Jeffrey H.; Redman, Leanne M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To conduct a secondary analysis designed to test whether gestational weight gain is due to increased energy intake or adaptive changes in energy expenditures. Methods In this secondary analysis, energy intake and energy expenditure of 45 pregnant women (BMI 18.5–24.9 kg/m2, n=33 and BMI ≥ 25, n=12) were measured preconceptionally 22, and 36 weeks of gestation. Energy intake was calculated as the sum of total energy expenditure measured by doubly labeled water and energy deposition determined by the 4-compartment body composition model. Weight, body composition, and metabolic chamber measurement were completed preconceptionally, 9, 22, and 36 weeks of gestation. Basal metabolic rate was measured by indirect calorimetry in a room calorimeter and activity energy expenditure by doubly labeled water. Results Energy intake from 22 to 36 weeks of gestation was significantly higher in high gainers (n=19) (3437 ± 99 kcal/d) versus low + ideal gainers (n=26) (2687 ± 110 pbody composition changes with gestational weight gain was not significantly different between high gainers and low + ideal gainers (151 ± 33 vs. 129 ± 36 kcal/d; p=.66). Activity energy expenditure decreased throughout pregnancy in both groups (low + ideal gainers: −150 ± 70 kcal/d; p=.04 and high gainers: −230 ± 92 kcal/day; p=.01), but there was no difference between high gainers and low + ideal gainers (p=.49). Conclusion Interventions designed to increase adherence to the IOM guidelines for weight gain in pregnancy may have increased efficacy if focused on limiting energy intake while increasing nutrient density and maintaining levels of physical activity. PMID:27054928

  5. Integration of body temperature into the analysis of energy expenditure in the mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Abreu-Vieira

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: At 22 °C, cold-induced thermogenesis is ∼120% of basal metabolic rate. The higher body temperature during physical activity is due to a higher set point, not simply increased heat generation during exercise. Most insulation in mice is via physiological mechanisms, with little from fur or fat. Our analysis suggests that the definition of the upper limit of the thermoneutral zone should be re-considered. Measuring body temperature informs interpretation of energy expenditure data and improves the predictiveness and utility of the mouse to model human energy homeostasis.

  6. Effects of capsinoid ingestion on energy expenditure and lipid oxidation at rest and during exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staples Aaron W

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The thermogenic and metabolic properties of capsinoids appear to mimic those of the more pungent sister compound capsaicin. However, few data exist on how capsinoid ingestion affects energy expenditure in humans and no data exist on its interaction with exercise. We aimed to determine how ingestion of capsinoids affected energy expenditure, lipid oxidation and blood metabolites at rest and during moderate intensity exercise. Methods Twelve healthy young men (age = 24.3 ± 3 yr, BMI = 25.5 ± 1.7 kg·m-2 were studied on two occasions in a double-blind design following ingestion of either placebo or 10 mg of purified capsinoids at rest, after 90 min of cycling at 55% VO2 peak, and for 30 min into recovery. Subjects ingested the capsules 30 min prior to exercise. Results At rest, following ingestion of capsinoids, we observed increases in VO2 and plasma norepinephrine levels, and decreases in concentrations of serum free fatty acids, plasma glycerol and the respiratory exchange ratio (all P Conclusion The ingestion of 10 mg of capsinoids increased adrenergic activity, energy expenditure, and resulted in a shift in substrate utilization toward lipid at rest but had little effect during exercise or recovery. The changes we observed confirm previous data on the thermogenic and metabolic effects of capsinoids at rest and further promote its potential role as an adjunct weight loss aid, in addition to diet and exercise.

  7. Improving energy expenditure estimation by using a triaxial accelerometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, K Y; Sun, M

    1997-12-01

    In our study of 125 subjects (53 men and 72 women) for two 24-h periods, we validated energy expenditure (EE), estimated by a triaxial accelerometer (Tritrac-R3D), by using a whole-room indirect calorimeter under close-to-normal living conditions. The estimated EE was correlated with the measured total EE for the 2 days (r = 0. 925 and r = 0.855; P linear and a nonlinear model to predict EE by using the acceleration components from the Tritrac. Predicted EE was significantly improved with both models in estimating total EE, total EE for physical activities, EE in low-intensity activities, minute-by-minute averaged relative difference, and minute-by-minute SEE (all P acceleration, EE can be estimated with higher accuracy (averaged SEE = 0.418 W/kg) than with the Tritrac model.

  8. Total energy expenditure estimated using foot-ground contact pedometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, Reed W; Buller, Mark J; Santee, William R; Yokota, Miyo; Weyand, Peter G; Delany, James P

    2004-02-01

    Routine walking and running, by increasing daily total energy expenditure (TEE), can play a significant role in reducing the likelihood of obesity. The objective of this field study was to compare TEE estimated using foot-ground contact time (Tc)-pedometry (TEE(PEDO)) with that measured by the criterion doubly labeled water (DLW) method. Eight male U.S. Marine test volunteers [27 +/- 4 years of age (mean +/- SD); weight = 83.2 +/- 10.7 kg; height = 182.2 +/- 4.5 cm; body fat = 17.0 +/- 2.9%] engaged in a field training exercise were studied over 2 days. TEE(PEDO) was defined as (calculated resting energy expenditure + estimated thermic effect of food + metabolic cost of physical activity), where physical activity was estimated by Tc-pedometry. Tc-pedometry was used to differentiate inactivity, activity other than exercise (i.e., non-exercise activity thermogenesis, or NEAT), and the metabolic cost of locomotion (M(LOCO)), where M(LOCO) was derived from total weight (body weight + load weight) and accelerometric measurements of Tc. TEE(PEDO) data were compared with TEEs measured by the DLW (2H2(18)O) method (TEE(DLW)): TEE(DLW) = 15.27 +/- 1.65 MJ/day and TEE(PEDO) = 15.29 +/- 0.83 MJ/day. Mean bias (i.e., TEE(PEDO) - TEE(DLW)) was 0.02 MJ, and mean error (SD of individual differences between TEE(PEDO) and TEE(DLW)) was 1.83 MJ. The Tc-pedometry method provided a valid estimate of the average TEE of a small group of physically active subjects where walking was the dominant activity.

  9. AMPK and the neuroendocrine regulation of appetite and energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Romana; Ashley, Sarah E; Andrews, Zane B

    2013-02-25

    This review highlights recent advances in the hormonal control of hypothalamic AMPK activity and the impact on appetite and energy metabolism. AMPK is an intracellular energy sensor that switches off ATP-consuming pathways and switches on ATP-producing pathways such as glucose uptake and fatty acid oxidation. In this regard, it is well positioned to respond to dynamic changes in metabolic state and nutritional over- or under-supply. Within the hypothalamus, AMPK responds to peripheral hormones that convey metabolic information based on increased plasma concentrations. For example, negative energy balance increases plasma ghrelin concentrations, increases hypothalamic AMPK and drives food intake. Conversely, plasma leptin concentrations are secreted in proportion to adipose levels and leptin suppresses hypothalamic AMPK activity and restricts food intake. This review explains that hypothalamic AMPK mediates neuroendocrine feedback control of energy metabolism. A current working model suggests that endocrine feedback influences hypothalamic AMPK via a number of mechanisms designed to shift an organism from negative to neutral energy balance. These mechanisms include (1) ghrelin stimulation of AMPK in NPY/AgRP in the arcuate nucleus (2) ghrelin stimulation of AMPK in the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus, (3) a novel ghrelin-stimulated AMPK-dependent presynaptic mechanism that sustains AgRP neuron firing via a local synaptic memory system, (4) adiponectin stimulation of hypothalamic AMPK and (5) hypothalamic AMPK control of energy expenditure by thyroid hormone or leptin. The number of diverse mechanisms ensures hypothalamic AMPK drives the shift from negative to neutral energy balance and underscores the fundamental importance of hypothalamic AMPK to maintain neutral energy balance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. An analysis of energy expenditure in Goodwin Creek

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnár, Peter; Ramírez, Jorge A.

    The local optimality hypothesis that natural river systems adjust their average channel properties toward an optimal state in which the rate of energy dissipation per unit channel area, Pa, is constant throughout the river network is explored on an analysis of Goodwin Creek, Mississippi. River network parameters describing the variation of channel forming and maintaining discharge, channel downstream hydraulic geometry, bed slope, and sediment concentration as a function of cumulative drainage area are estimated from Goodwin Creek data. Optimal channel characteristics that produce constant Pa are determined and superposed onto the digital elevation model-extracted river network with reach averaged bed slopes, and the spatial distribution of the energy dissipation rate Pa throughout the network is analyzed. Channel reaches with average energy dissipation rates different from the constant value of the optimal network are identified. We argue that these reaches are potentially unstable relative to the remainder of the network, and that their average channel properties will adjust in the direction of constant Pa. Qualitative statements are made about the direction of this adjustment through differences between the observed and optimal channel widths, and comparisons are made with recent observations of channel change in Goodwin Creek. This energy expenditure analysis suggests that the hypothesis of local optimality can be a useful tool for studying the relative stability and potential channel adjustment of river networks.

  11. High Vegetable Fats Intake Is Associated with High Resting Energy Expenditure in Vegetarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Montalcini

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been demonstrated that a vegetarian diet may be effective in reducing body weight, however, the underlying mechanisms are not entirely clear. We investigated whether there is a difference in resting energy expenditure between 26 vegetarians and 26 non-vegetarians and the correlation between some nutritional factors and inflammatory markers with resting energy expenditure. In this cross-sectional study, vegetarians and non-vegetarians were matched by age, body mass index and gender. All underwent instrumental examinations to assess the difference in body composition, nutrient intake and resting energy expenditure. Biochemical analyses and 12 different cytokines and growth factors were measured as an index of inflammatory state. A higher resting energy expenditure was found in vegetarians than in non-vegetarians (p = 0.008. Furthermore, a higher energy from diet, fibre, vegetable fats intake and interleukin-β (IL-1β was found between the groups. In the univariate and multivariable analysis, resting energy expenditure was associated with vegetarian diet, free-fat mass and vegetable fats (p < 0.001; Slope in statistic (B = 4.8; β = 0.42. After adjustment for cytokines, log10 interleukin-10 (IL-10 still correlated with resting energy expenditure (p = 0.02. Resting energy expenditure was positively correlated with a specific component of the vegetarian’s diet, i.e., vegetable fats. Furthermore, we showed that IL-10 was positively associated with resting energy expenditure in this population.

  12. Energy intake and energy expenditure of pre-professional female contemporary dancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Meghan A.; Howatson, Glyn; Quin, Edel; Redding, Emma; Stevenson, Emma J.

    2017-01-01

    Many athletes in aesthetic and weight dependent sports are at risk of energy imbalance. However little is known about the exercise and eating behaviours of highly trained dance populations. This investigation sought to determine the energy intake and energy expenditure of pre-professional female contemporary dancers. Twenty-five female contemporary dance students completed the study. Over a 7-day period, including five week days (with scheduled dance training at a conservatoire) and two weekend days (with no scheduled dance training at the conservatoire), energy intake (self-reported weighed food diary and 24 h dietary recall) and expenditure (tri-axial accelerometry) were recorded. Mean daily energy intake and expenditure were different over the 7-day period (P = 0.014) equating to an energy deficit of -356 ± 668 kcal·day-1 (or -1.5 ± 2.8 MJ·day-1). Energy expenditure was not different when comparing week and weekend days (P = 0.297). However daily energy intake (P = 0.002), energy availability (P = 0.003), and energy balance (P = 0.004) were lower during the week compared to the weekend, where energy balance became positive. The percentage contribution of macronutrients to total energy intake also differed; with higher fat (P = 0.022) and alcohol (P = 0.020), and lower carbohydrate (P = 0.001) and a trend for lower protein (P = 0.051) at the weekend. Energy balance and appropriate macronutrient intake are essential for maintaining the demands of training, performance and recovery. Whilst aesthetics are important, female contemporary dancers may be at risk of the numerous health and performance impairments associated with negative energy balance, particularly during periods of scheduled training. PMID:28212449

  13. Energy intake and energy expenditure of pre-professional female contemporary dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Meghan A; Howatson, Glyn; Quin, Edel; Redding, Emma; Stevenson, Emma J

    2017-01-01

    Many athletes in aesthetic and weight dependent sports are at risk of energy imbalance. However little is known about the exercise and eating behaviours of highly trained dance populations. This investigation sought to determine the energy intake and energy expenditure of pre-professional female contemporary dancers. Twenty-five female contemporary dance students completed the study. Over a 7-day period, including five week days (with scheduled dance training at a conservatoire) and two weekend days (with no scheduled dance training at the conservatoire), energy intake (self-reported weighed food diary and 24 h dietary recall) and expenditure (tri-axial accelerometry) were recorded. Mean daily energy intake and expenditure were different over the 7-day period (P = 0.014) equating to an energy deficit of -356 ± 668 kcal·day-1 (or -1.5 ± 2.8 MJ·day-1). Energy expenditure was not different when comparing week and weekend days (P = 0.297). However daily energy intake (P = 0.002), energy availability (P = 0.003), and energy balance (P = 0.004) were lower during the week compared to the weekend, where energy balance became positive. The percentage contribution of macronutrients to total energy intake also differed; with higher fat (P = 0.022) and alcohol (P = 0.020), and lower carbohydrate (P = 0.001) and a trend for lower protein (P = 0.051) at the weekend. Energy balance and appropriate macronutrient intake are essential for maintaining the demands of training, performance and recovery. Whilst aesthetics are important, female contemporary dancers may be at risk of the numerous health and performance impairments associated with negative energy balance, particularly during periods of scheduled training.

  14. Thermal-Work Strain and Energy Expenditure during Marine Rifle Squad Operations in Afghanistan (August 2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-10

    TECHNICAL REPORT NO. T15-7 DATE August 2015 ADA THERMAL-WORK STRAIN AND ENERGY EXPENDITURE ...USARIEM TECHNICAL REPORT T15-7 THERMAL-WORK STRAIN AND ENERGY EXPENDITURE DURING MARINE RIFLE SQUAD OPERATIONS IN AFGHANISTAN...0704-0188 The public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for

  15. Prediction of Energy Expenditure from Wrist Accelerometry in People with and without Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agiovlasitis, Stamatis; Motl, Robert W.; Foley, John T.; Fernhall, Bo

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between energy expenditure and wrist accelerometer output during walking in persons with and without Down syndrome (DS). Energy expenditure in metabolic equivalent units (METs) and activity-count rate were respectively measured with portable spirometry and a uniaxial wrist accelerometer in 17 persons with DS…

  16. Effect of Exercise Intensity on Spontaneous Physical Activity Energy Expenditure in Overweight Boys: A Crossover Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paravidino, Vitor Barreto; Mediano, Mauro Felippe Felix; Hoffman, Daniel J.; Sichieri, Rosely

    2016-01-01

    Objective Evaluate the effect of different exercise intensities on spontaneous physical activity energy expenditure in overweight adolescents. Methods A crossover study was developed with a control session, followed by moderate and vigorous exercise sessions, with six days of monitoring each. Twenty-four adolescents, 11–13 years old, male and overweight were selected. Spontaneous physical activity energy expenditure was assessed by accelerometers. Linear mixed effects models were used to evaluate the differences per session across time. Results Energy expenditure during the 1st hour was different between all three sessions, with averages of 82, 286 and 343 kcal to the control, moderate and vigorous sessions, respectively (p <0.001). The same pattern of difference in energy expenditure between the sessions remained after 24 hours (704 vs 970 vs 1056 kcal, p <0.001). However, energy expenditure during the six days indicates compensation from second to the sixth day, although small differences remained at the end of the 6-day period (5102 vs 5193 vs 5271 kcal, p <0.001). Conclusions A single aerobic session seems to modify the spontaneous physical activities in overweight adolescents but still keeping the vigorous session with higher total energy expenditure during the follow-up period. Despite the observed compensatory effect, the greater energy expenditure observed in both moderate and vigorous exercise sessions indicates that physical activity should be recommended to promote an increased energy expenditure in adolescents. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT 02272088 PMID:26771742

  17. Mex3c mutation reduces adiposity and increases energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Yan; George, Sunil K; Zhao, Qingguo; Hulver, Matthew W; Hutson, Susan M; Bishop, Colin E; Lu, Baisong

    2012-11-01

    The function of MEX3C, the mammalian homolog of Caenorhabditis elegans RNA-binding protein muscle excess 3 (MEX-3), was unknown until our recent report that MEX3C is necessary for normal postnatal growth and enhances the expression of local bone Igf1 expression. Here we report the pivotal role of Mex3c in energy balance regulation. Mex3c mutation caused leanness in both heterozygous and homozygous transgenic mice, as well as a more beneficial blood glucose and lipid profile in homozygous transgenic mice, in both sexes. Although transgenic mice showed normal food intake and fecal lipid excretion, they had increased energy expenditure independent of physical activity. Mutant mice had normal body temperature, Ucp1 expression in brown adipose tissue, and muscle and liver fatty acid oxidation. Mex3c is expressed in neurons and is detectable in the arcuate nucleus, the ventromedial nucleus, and the dorsomedial nucleus of the hypothalamus. Mex3c was not detected in NPY or POMC neurons but was detected in leptin-responsive neurons in the ventromedial nucleus. Mex3c and Leptin double mutant mice were growth retarded and obese and had blood profiles similar to those of ob/ob mice but showed none of the steatosis observed in ob/ob mice. Our data show that Mex3c is involved in energy balance regulation.

  18. Energy expenditure and habitual physical activities in adolescent sprint athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerenhouts, Dirk; Zinzen, Evert; Clarys, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to assess total energy expenditure (TEE) and specific habitual physical activities in adolescent sprint athletes. Two methods used to estimate TEE, an activity diary (AD) and SenseWear armband (SWA), were compared. Sixteen athletes (6 girls, 10 boys, mean age 16.5 ± 1.6 yr) simultaneously wore a SWA and completed an AD and food diary during one week. Basal energy expenditure as given by the SWA when taken off was corrected for the appropriate MET value using the AD. TEE as estimated by the AD and SWA was comparable (3196 ± 590 kcal and 3012 ± 518 kcal, p = 0.113) without day-to-day variations in TEE and energy expended in activities of high intensity. Daily energy intake (2569 ± 508 kcal) did not match TEE according to both the AD and SWA (respectively p < 0.001 and p = 0.007). Athletes were in a supine position for a longer time on weekend days than on week days and slept longer on Sundays. Athletes reported a longer time of high-intensive physical activities in the AD than registered by the SWA on 4 out of 7 days. In addition to specific sprint activities on 3 to 7 days per week, 11 out of 16 athletes actively commuted to school where they participated in sports once or twice per week. The AD and the SWA are comparable in the estimation of TEE, which appears realistic and sustainable. The SWA offers an appropriate and objective method in the assessment of TEE, sleeping and resting in adolescent athletes on the condition that detailed information is given for the times the armband is not worn. The AD offers activity specific information but relies on the motivation, compliance and subjectivity of the individual, especially considering high-intensive intermittent training. Key pointsThe activity diary and Sensewear armband provide comparable estimates of TEE in adolescent sprint athletes.A high inter-individual variation was observed in time spent in high-intensity physical activities, advocating an individual based assessment when coaching

  19. Increased resting energy expenditure in subjects with Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaisman, N; Katzenellenbogen, S; Nevo, Y

    2004-02-01

    We have studied changes in energy expenditure and body composition in adult males with Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy, age-matched males with hyperCKemia and age-matched healthy controls. All participants were studied twice, 2-3 years apart. Resting energy expenditure was studied by indirect calorimetry, lean body mass and body fat by dual X-ray absorptiometry, and muscle mass was estimated based on 24-h urinary creatinine excretion. At baseline and 2-3 years later, body fat was significantly higher (P energy expenditure, over the study period, increased significantly in patients with Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (P energy expenditure relative to healthy subjects. If not met by increased caloric intake, this greater energy expenditure may partially contribute to a further deterioration in their muscle performance.

  20. Effect of photoperiod on body mass, and daily energy intake and energy expenditure in young rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, P; Visser, H; Daan, S

    1997-01-01

    In this experiment we investigate the effect of photoperiod on locomotor activity, body mass, food intake, growth efficiency (relationship between body mass change and food intake), energy expenditure, and body composition in growing Wistar rats. Two groups of animals were subjected to either a

  1. Resting Energy Expenditure in Anorexia Nervosa: Measured versus Estimated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwan El Ghoch

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Aim of this study was to compare the resting energy expenditure (REE measured by the Douglas bag method with the REE estimated with the FitMate method, the Harris-Benedict equation, and the Müller et al. equation for individuals with BMI < 18.5 kg/m2 in a severe group of underweight patients with anorexia nervosa (AN. Methods. 15 subjects with AN participated in the study. The Douglas bag method and the FitMate method were used to measure REE and the dual energy X-ray absorptiometry to assess body composition after one day of refeeding. Results. FitMate method and the Müller et al. equation gave an accurate REE estimation, while the Harris-Benedict equation overestimated the REE when compared with the Douglas bag method. Conclusion. The data support the use of the FitMate method and the Müller et al. equation, but not the Harris-Benedict equation, to estimate REE in AN patients after short-term refeeding.

  2. Measuring energy expenditure in clinical populations: rewards and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psota, T; Chen, K Y

    2013-05-01

    The measurement of energy expenditure (EE) is recommended as an important component of comprehensive clinical nutrition assessments in patients with altered metabolic states, who failed to respond to nutrition support and with critical illness that require individualized nutrition support. There is evidence that EE is variable in patients with metabolic diseases, such as chronic renal disease, cirrhosis, HIV, cancer cachexia, cystic fibrosis and patients under intensive care. By using appropriate techniques and interpretations of basal or resting EE, clinicians can facilitate the adequate nutrition support with minimum negative impacts from under- or overfeeding in these patients. This review is based on our current understanding of the different components of EE and the techniques to measure them, and to re-examine advances and challenges to determine energy needs in clinical populations with more focuses on the obese, pediatric and elderly patients. In addition, technological advances have expanded the choices of market-available equipments for assessing EE, which also bring specific challenges and rewards in selecting the right equipment with specific performance criteria. Lastly, analytical considerations of interpreting the results of EE in the context of changing body composition are presented and discussed.

  3. Human energy

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    In the midst of big-oil record profits and growing debate on global warming, the Chevron Corporation launched its “Human Energy” public relations campaign. In television commercials and print advertisements, Chevron portrays itself as a compassionate entity striving to solve the planet’s energy crisis. Yet, the first term in this corporate oxymoron misleadingly reframes the significance of the second, suggesting that the corporation has a renewed focus. In depicting Chevron as a green/human o...

  4. Population Growth, Human Capital Expenditures and Economic Growth: A Macroeconometric Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Aniceto C. Orbeta Jr

    1992-01-01

    The paper presents an econometrically estimated model where economic and demographic variables are determined simultaneously. It is used to quantify the importance of human capital expenditures in socioeconomic and demographic development as well as analyze the effects of rapid population growth on human capital expenditures. The simulation results indicate that human capital expenditures are important determinants of economic development, have appreciable negative effects on both fertility a...

  5. Energy expenditure estimates during school physical education: Potential vs. reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahan, David; McKenzie, Thomas L

    2017-02-01

    Schools are salient locations for addressing the high prevalence of overweight and obesity. Most US states require some physical education (PE) and the energy expended during PE has potential to positively affect energy balance. We previously used 2012 data to examine state policies for PE to calculate estimated student energy expenditure (EEE) under potential (i.e., recommendations followed) and existing conditions. Since then, data have been updated on both state policies and the conduct of PE. Based on updated data, we used PE frequency, duration, and intensity, student mass, and class size to calculate EEE for the delivery of PE under (a) national professional recommendations, (b) 2016 state policies, and (c) school-reported conditions. Although increased from four years ago, only 22 states currently have policies mandating specific PE minutes. EEE over 10years shows the enormous impact PE could have on energy balance. For the average recommended-size PE class, resultant annual EEE based on professional recommendations for min/week far exceeded those based on average state (n=22) policy for min/week by 44.5% for elementary, 62.7% for middle, and 59.5% for high schools. Since 2012 more states adopted policies for PE minutes than dropped them, however, EEE over 10years showed a net loss of 1200kcal/student. With no overall recent improvements in state PE policy and professional recommendations currently not being met, PE remains an underutilized public health resource for EEE. Strong policies, coupled with enhanced accountability of PE teachers and administrators, are needed to ensure PE exists in schools.

  6. Evaluation of the energy expenditure in competitive swimming strokes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, T M; Fernandes, R; Keskinen, K L; Colaço, P; Cardoso, C; Silva, J; Vilas-Boas, J P

    2006-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure and compare the total energy expenditure of the four competitive swimming strokes. Twenty-six swimmers of international level were submitted to an incremental set of 200-m swims (5 swimmers at Breaststroke, 5 swimmers at Backstroke, 4 swimmers at Butterfly and 12 swimmers at Front Crawl). The starting velocity was approximately 0.3 m x s (-1) less than a swimmer's best performance and thereafter increased by 0.05 m x s (-1) after each swim until exhaustion. Cardio-pulmonary and gas exchange parameters were measured breath-by-breath (BxB) for each swim to analyze oxygen consumption (VO2) and other energetic parameters by portable metabolic cart (K4b(2), Cosmed, Rome, Italy). A respiratory snorkel and valve system with low hydrodynamic resistance was used to measure pulmonary ventilation and to collect breathing air samples. Blood samples from the ear lobe were collected before and after each swim to analyze blood lactate concentration (YSI 1500 L, Yellow Springs, Ohio, USA). Total energy expenditure (E(tot)), was calculated for each 200-m stage. E (tot) differed significantly between the strokes at all selected velocities. At the velocity of 1.0 m x s (-1) and of 1.2 m x s (-1) the E(tot) was significantly higher in Breaststroke than in Backstroke, in Breaststroke than in Freestyle and in Butterfly than in Freestyle. At the velocity of 1.4 m x s (-1), the E(tot) was significantly higher in Breaststroke than in Backstroke, in Backstroke than in Freestyle, in Breaststroke than in Freestyle and in Butterfly than in Freestyle. At the velocity of 1.6 m x s (-1), the E(tot) was significantly higher in Breaststroke and in Butterfly than in Freestyle. As a conclusion, E(tot) of well-trained competitive swimmers was measured over a large range of velocities utilising a new BxB technique. Freestyle was shown to be the most economic among the competitive swimming strokes, followed by the Backstroke, the Butterfly and the Breaststroke.

  7. Regulation of energy expenditure by estradiol in premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanson, Edward L; Gavin, Kathleen M; Shea, Karen L; Wolfe, Pamela; Wierman, Margaret E; Schwartz, Robert S; Kohrt, Wendy M

    2015-11-01

    Suppressing sex hormones in women for 1 wk reduces resting energy expenditure (REE). The effects of more chronic suppression on REE and other components of total energy expenditure (TEE), and whether the reduction in REE is specifically due to loss of estradiol (E2), are not known. We compared the effects of 5 mo of sex hormone suppression (gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist therapy, GnRHAG) with placebo (PL) or E2 add-back therapy on REE and the components of TEE. Premenopausal women received GnRHAG (leuprolide acetate 3.75 mg/mo) and were randomized to receive transdermal therapy that was either E2 (0.075 mg/d; n = 24; means ± SD, aged = 37 ± 8 yr, BMI = 27.3 ± 6.2 kg/m(2)) or placebo (n = 21; aged = 34 ± 9 yr, BMI = 26.8 ± 6.2 kg/m(2)). REE was measured by using a metabolic cart, and TEE, sleep EE (SEE), exercise EE (ExEE, 2 × 30 min bench stepping), non-Ex EE (NExEE), and the thermic effect of feeding (TEF) were measured by using whole room indirect calorimetry. REE decreased in GnRHAG+PL [mean (95% CI), -54 (-98, -15) kcal/d], but not GnRHAG+E2 [+6 (-33, +45) kcal/d] (difference in between-group changes, P < 0.05). TEE decreased in GnRHAG+PL [-128 (-214, -41) kcal/d] and GnRHAG+E2 [-96 (-159, -32) kcal/d], with no significant difference in between-group changes (P = 0.55). SEE decreased similarly in both GnRHAG+PL [-0.07 (-0.12, -0.03) kcal/min] and GnRHAG+E2 [-0.07 (-0.12, -0.02) kcal/min]. ExEE decreased in GnRHAG+PL [-0.46 (-0.79, -0.13) kcal/min], but not GnRHAG+E2 [-0.30 (-0.65, +0.06) kcal/min]. There were no changes in TEF or NExEE in either group. In summary, chronic pharmacologic suppression of sex hormones reduced REE and this was prevented by E2 therapy.

  8. The impacts of climate change on energy: An aggregate expenditure model for the US

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, W. [Boston Univ., MA (United States); Mendelsohn, R. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States). School of Forestry and Environmental Studies

    1998-09-01

    This paper develops a theoretical model to measure the climate change impacts to the energy sector. Welfare effects are approximately equal to the resulting change in expenditures on energy and buildings. Using micro data on individuals and firms across the United States, energy expenditures are regressed on climate and other control variables to estimate both short-run and long-run climate response functions. The analysis suggests that energy expenditures have a quadratic U-shaped relationship with respect to temperature. Future warming of 2 C is predicted to cause annual damages of about $6 billion but increases of 5 C would increase damages to almost $30 billion.

  9. Assessment of physical activity, energy expenditure and energy intakes of young men practicing aerobic sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierniuk, Alicja; Włodarek, Dariusz

    2014-01-01

    Adequate nutrition and energy intake play key rule during the training period and recovery time. The assessment of athlete's energetic needs should be calculated individually, based on personal energy expenditure and Sense Wear PRO3 Armband (SWA) mobile monitor is a useful tool to achieve this goal. However, there is still few studies conducted with use of this monitor. To assess individual energy needs of athletes by use of SWA and to determine whether their energy intake fulfils the body's energy expenditure. Subjects were 15 male students attending Military University of Technology in Warsaw, aged 19-24 years, practicing aerobic. The average body mass was 80.7 ± 7.7 kg and average height was 186.9 ± 5.2 cm, (BMI 23.09 ± 1.85 kg/m2). Assessment of physical activity and energy expenditure (TEE) was established using SWA, which was placed on the back side of dominant hand and worn continuously for 48 hours (during the training and non-training day). The presented results are the average values of these 2 days. Assessment of athletes' physical activity level was established by use of metabolic equivalent of task (MET) and number of steps (NS). Estimation of energy intake was based on three-day dietary recalls (two weekdays and one day of the weekend), evaluated using the Polish Software 'Energia' package. The average TEE of examined athletes was 3877 ± 508 kcal/day and almost half of this energy was spend on physical activity (1898 ± 634 kcal/day). The number of steps was on average 19498 ± 5407 and average MET was 2.05 ± 2.09. The average daily energy intake was 2727 ± 576 kcal. Athletes consumed inadequate amount of energy in comparison to their energy expenditure. Examined group did not have an adequate knowledge about their energy requirement, which shows the need of nutritional consulting and education among these athletes. athletes, aerobic sports, energy expenditure, energy intake.

  10. Differences of energy intake and energy expenditure of elite Taekwondo players receiving summer vs. winter intensive training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kang Ok

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the energy expenditure and energy intake as an experiment of energy balance of elite Taekwondo players receiving summer vs. winter intensive training. The summer training group (STG, n = 15) and the winter training group (WTG, n = 18) wore an accelerometer for the measurement of energy expenditure and maintained a daily dietary record for measurement of energy intake, for seven consecutive days during summer or winter intensive training. The total energy expenditure (TEE) (834.1 kcal, p Taekwondo players should be considered.

  11. Evaluation of nutritional status and energy expenditure in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielgo-Ayuso, Juan; Maroto-Sánchez, Beatriz; Luzardo-Socorro, Raquel; Palacios, Gonzalo; Palacios Gil-Antuñano, Nieves; González-Gross, Marcela

    2015-02-26

    Continuous physical exercise leads the athlete to maintain an unstable balance between dietary intake, energy expenditure and the additional demands of a high amount of physical activity. Thus, an accurate assessment of nutritional status is essential to optimize the performance, since it affects health, body composition, and the recovery of the athlete. Specific aspects like the type of sport, specialty or playing position, training schedule and competition calendar, category, specific objectives, which differ from the general population, must be considered. A biochemical assessment can give us a general idea of the nutritional status, lipid profile, liver or kidney function, if diet is too high in proteins or fats, as well as possible nutritional deficiencies and the need for supplementation. Sport kinanthropometry has great utility that enables the assessment of body mass, height, length, diameter, perimeter and skinfolds, where information is processed by applying different equations, obtaining information on somatotype, body composition, and the proportionality of different parts of the body. To give proper nutritional counselling, energy needs of the athlete must be known. If objective measurement is not possible, there are tables including theoretically established energy requirements of different sports. Dietary assessment should include information about food consumption and nutrient intake to establish the relationship between diet, health status and athlete's performance. On the other hand, an adequate hydration status in athletes is essential to maintain adequate performance. Hence, the knowledge of fluid intake by the athlete is a matter of the utmost importance. Dehydration can cause harmful effects on athletes' health. As there is no gold standard, urine gravidity and urine colour are the most extended methods for analyzing hydration status. There is consensus that due to complexity, the combination of different methods assures an effective data

  12. Chewing gum increases energy expenditure before and after controlled breakfasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresge, Daniel L; Melanson, Kathleen

    2015-04-01

    Chewing has been associated with improved satiation and satiety, but little is known about the metabolic impact of gum chewing. We tested the hypothesis that gum chewing would increase energy expenditure (EE) and reduce respiratory exchange ratio (RER) before and after a controlled test meal. Seventeen males and 13 females (age 21.5 ± 6.6 years, body mass index 23.9 ± 2.8 kg/m(2)) participated in a randomized crossover study in which subjects chewed sugar-free gum for a total of 1 h (3 sessions of 20 min) on the test day (GC) and did not chew gum on a control day (NG). EE and RER were measured by indirect calorimetry after an overnight fast. Subjects consumed a breakfast shake containing 30% of their measured energy needs, and then postprandial EE and RER were measured for 3 h. Blood glucose (GLC) was measured in the fasting and postprandial states at regular intervals. Fasting EE was higher during GC (1.23 ± 0.04 kcal/min; 1 kcal = 4.2 kJ) than during NG (1.17 ± 0.04 kcal/min; p = 0.016). Postprandial EE was also higher during GC (1.46 ± 0.05 kcal/min) than during NG (1.42 ± 0.05 kcal/min; p = 0.037). Fasting and postprandial RER and GLC did not differ between GC and NG. The findings demonstrate that GC is associated with higher fasting and postprandial EE without altering blood glucose or substrate oxidation as measured by RER. These data suggest that gum chewing potentially could influence short-term energy balance in this population; however, longer-term research is needed.

  13. Isometric thermogenesis at rest and during movement: a neglected variable in energy expenditure and obesity predisposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulloo, A G; Miles-Chan, J L; Montani, J-P; Schutz, Y

    2017-02-01

    Isometric thermogenesis as applied to human energy expenditure refers to heat production resulting from increased muscle tension. While most physical activities consist of both dynamic and static (isometric) muscle actions, the isometric component is very often essential for the optimal performance of dynamic work given its role in coordinating posture during standing, walking and most physical activities of everyday life. Over the past 75 years, there has been sporadic interest into the relevance of isometric work to thermoregulatory thermogenesis and to adaptive thermogenesis pertaining to body-weight regulation. This has been in relation to (i) a role for skeletal muscle minor tremor or microvibration - nowadays referred to as 'resting muscle mechanical activity' - in maintaining body temperature in response to mild cooling; (ii) a role for slowed skeletal muscle isometric contraction-relaxation cycle as a mechanism for energy conservation in response to caloric restriction and weight loss and (iii) a role for spontaneous physical activity (which is contributed importantly by isometric work for posture maintenance and fidgeting behaviours) in adaptive thermogenesis pertaining to weight regulation. This paper reviews the evidence underlying these proposed roles for isometric work in adaptive thermogenesis and highlights the contention that variability in this neglected component of energy expenditure could contribute to human predisposition to obesity.

  14. Acute effects of capsaicin on energy expenditure and fat oxidation in negative energy balance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilou L H R Janssens

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Addition of capsaicin (CAPS to the diet has been shown to increase energy expenditure; therefore capsaicin is an interesting target for anti-obesity therapy. AIM: We investigated the 24 h effects of CAPS on energy expenditure, substrate oxidation and blood pressure during 25% negative energy balance. METHODS: Subjects underwent four 36 h sessions in a respiration chamber for measurements of energy expenditure, substrate oxidation and blood pressure. They received 100% or 75% of their daily energy requirements in the conditions '100%CAPS', '100%Control', '75%CAPS' and '75%Control'. CAPS was given at a dose of 2.56 mg (1.03 g of red chili pepper, 39,050 Scoville heat units (SHU with every meal. RESULTS: An induced negative energy balance of 25% was effectively a 20.5% negative energy balance due to adapting mechanisms. Diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT and resting energy expenditure (REE at 75%CAPS did not differ from DIT and REE at 100%Control, while at 75%Control these tended to be or were lower than at 100%Control (p = 0.05 and p = 0.02 respectively. Sleeping metabolic rate (SMR at 75%CAPS did not differ from SMR at 100%CAPS, while SMR at 75%Control was lower than at 100%CAPS (p = 0.04. Fat oxidation at 75%CAPS was higher than at 100%Control (p = 0.03, while with 75%Control it did not differ from 100%Control. Respiratory quotient (RQ was more decreased at 75%CAPS (p = 0.04 than at 75%Control (p = 0.05 when compared with 100%Control. Blood pressure did not differ between the four conditions. CONCLUSION: In an effectively 20.5% negative energy balance, consumption of 2.56 mg capsaicin per meal supports negative energy balance by counteracting the unfavorable negative energy balance effect of decrease in components of energy expenditure. Moreover, consumption of 2.56 mg capsaicin per meal promotes fat oxidation in negative energy balance and does not increase blood pressure significantly. TRIAL REGISTRATION

  15. Global positioning system watches for estimating energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongu, Nobuko; Orr, Barron J; Roe, Denise J; Reed, Rebecca G; Going, Scott B

    2013-11-01

    Global positioning system (GPS) watches have been introduced commercially, converting frequent measurements of time, location, speed (pace), and elevation into energy expenditure (EE) estimates. The purpose of this study was to compare EE estimates of 4 different GPS watches (Forerunner, Suunto, Polar, Adeo), at various walking speeds, with EE estimate from a triaxial accelerometer (RT3), which was used as a reference measure in this study. Sixteen healthy young adults completed the study. Participants wore 4 different GPS watches and an RT3 accelerometer and walked at 6-minute intervals on an outdoor track at 3 speeds (3, 5, and 7 km/hr). The statistical significance of differences in EE between the 3 watches was assessed using linear contrasts of the coefficients from the overall model. Reliability across trials for a given device was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients as estimated in the mixed model. The GPS watches demonstrated lower reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient) across trials when compared with the RT3, particularly at the higher speed, 7 km/hr. Three GPS watches (Forerunner, Polar, and Suunto) significantly and consistently underestimated EE compared with the reference EE given by the RT3 accelerometer (average mean difference: Garmin, -50.5%; Polar, -41.7%; and Suunto, -41.7%; all p GPS watches to estimate EE in athletes during field-based testing and training.

  16. Energy expenditure, aerodynamics and medical problems in cycling. An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, I E

    1992-07-01

    The cyclist's ability to maintain an extremely high rate of energy expenditure for long durations at a high economy of effort is dependent upon such factors as the individual's anaerobic threshold, muscle fibre type, muscle myoglobin concentration, muscle capillary density and certain anthropometric dimensions. Although laboratory tests have had some success predicting cycling potential, their validity has yet to be established for trained cyclists. Even in analysing the forces producing propulsive torque, cycling effectiveness cannot be based solely on the orientation of applied forces. Innovations of shoe and pedal design continue to have a positive influence on the biomechanics of pedalling. Although muscle involvement during a complete pedal revolution may be similar, economical pedalling rate appears to differ significantly between the novice and racing cyclist. This difference emanates, perhaps, from long term adaptation. Air resistance is by far the greatest retarding force affecting cycling. The aerodynamics of the rider and the bicycle and its components are major contributors to cycling economy. Correct body posture and spacing between riders can significantly enhance speed and efficiency. Acute and chronic responses to cycling and training are complex. To protect the safety and health of the cyclist there must be close monitoring and cooperation between the cyclist, coach, exercise scientist and physician.

  17. Energy Expenditure of Standing Compared to Sitting While Conducting Office Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Jill; Forde, Cuisle; Dockrell, Sara

    2017-11-01

    Objectives This study aimed to investigate the energy expenditure of common office-based tasks. The objectives were to: (a) test the classification of tasks as sedentary or light-intensity physical activity and (b) compare the energy expenditure of tasks under two postural conditions (sitting and standing). Background The sedentary nature of office work has been highlighted as a health risk, and strategies to reduce sedentary behavior at work have been developed. However, there is limited evidence to guide the utilization of sit-stand workstations in the workplace for metabolic health benefits. Method A repeated measures laboratory-based study compared the energy expenditure of common office tasks in sitting and standing using indirect calorimetry ( n = 22). Four standardized tasks (sitting/standing quietly, reading, typing, sorting paper) under two postural conditions (sitting, standing) were performed in a randomized order. Results The mean energy expenditure for all tasks in sitting and standing was energy expenditure of doing the same task in sitting compared to standing. In a repeated measures ANOVA, task ( p energy expenditure of tasks carried out in sitting compared to standing is negligible. Application The ubiquitous use and utility of sit-stand workstations in the workplace needs to be reviewed. Notwithstanding the potential benefits of movement that may occur naturally, this study confirmed that standing as opposed to sitting does not produce a clinically important increase in energy expenditure.

  18. Effect of Neuromuscular Electrical Muscle Stimulation on Energy Expenditure in Healthy Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Ju Chang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Weight loss/weight control is a major concern in prevention of cardiovascular disease and the realm of health promotion. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the effect of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES at different intensities on energy expenditure (oxygen and calories in healthy adults. The secondary aim was to develop a generalized linear regression (GEE model to predict the increase of energy expenditure facilitated by NMES and identify factors (NMES stimulation intensity level, age, body mass index, weight, body fat percentage, waist/hip ratio, and gender associated with this NMES-induced increase of energy expenditure. Forty sedentary healthy adults (18 males and 22 females participated. NMES was given at the following stimulation intensities for 10 minutes each: sensory level (E1, motor threshold (E2, and maximal intensity comfortably tolerated (E3. Cardiopulmonary gas exchange was evaluated during rest, NMES, and recovery stage. The results revealed that NMES at E2 and E3 significantly increased energy expenditure and the energy expenditure at recovery stage was still significantly higher than baseline. The GEE model demonstrated that a linear dose-response relationship existed between the stimulation intensity and the increase of energy expenditure. No subject’s demographic or anthropometric characteristics tested were significantly associated with the increase of energy expenditure. This study suggested NMES may be used to serve as an additional intervention for weight loss programs. Future studies to develop electrical stimulators or stimulation electrodes to maximize the comfort of NMES are recommended.

  19. The effects of acylation stimulating protein supplementation VS antibody neutralization on energy expenditure in wildtype mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Ying

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acylation stimulating protein (ASP is an adipogenic hormone that stimulates triglyceride (TG synthesis and glucose transport in adipocytes. Previous studies have shown that ASP-deficient C3 knockout mice are hyperphagic yet lean, as they display increased oxygen consumption and fatty acid oxidation compared to wildtype mice. In the present study, antibodies against ASP (Anti-ASP and human recombinant ASP (rASP were tested in vitro and in vivo. Continuous administration for 4 weeks via osmotic mini-pump of Anti-ASP or rASP was evaluated in wildtype mice on a high-fat diet (HFD to examine their effects on body weight, food intake and energy expenditure. Results In mature murine adipocytes, rASP significantly stimulated fatty acid uptake (+243% vs PBS, P Conclusion In vitro, Anti-ASP effectively neutralized ASP stimulated fatty acid uptake. In vivo, Anti-ASP treatment increased whole body energy utilization while rASP increased energy storage. Therefore, ASP is a potent anabolic hormone that may also be a mediator of energy expenditure.

  20. Effect of undernutrition in foetal life on energy expenditure during gestation in ewes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiani, Alishir; Chwalibog, André; Tygesen, Malin P;

    2008-01-01

    The long-term effect of early life undernutrition on late gestation energy expenditure (EEgest) was investigated in sheep. Ewes were fed either adequate (100%) or restricted (60%) energy and protein during late foetal life as well as during last trimester of gestation later in life, resulting in ...... nutrient restriction in early life impairs the ability of ewes to respond to nutritional restriction in terms of energy expenditure of gestation....

  1. Estimating physical activity energy expenditure with the Kinect Sensor in an exergaming environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Nathan

    Full Text Available Active video games that require physical exertion during game play have been shown to confer health benefits. Typically, energy expended during game play is measured using devices attached to players, such as accelerometers, or portable gas analyzers. Since 2010, active video gaming technology incorporates marker-less motion capture devices to simulate human movement into game play. Using the Kinect Sensor and Microsoft SDK this research aimed to estimate the mechanical work performed by the human body and estimate subsequent metabolic energy using predictive algorithmic models. Nineteen University students participated in a repeated measures experiment performing four fundamental movements (arm swings, standing jumps, body-weight squats, and jumping jacks. Metabolic energy was captured using a Cortex Metamax 3B automated gas analysis system with mechanical movement captured by the combined motion data from two Kinect cameras. Estimations of the body segment properties, such as segment mass, length, centre of mass position, and radius of gyration, were calculated from the Zatsiorsky-Seluyanov's equations of de Leva, with adjustment made for posture cost. GPML toolbox implementation of the Gaussian Process Regression, a locally weighted k-Nearest Neighbour Regression, and a linear regression technique were evaluated for their performance on predicting the metabolic cost from new feature vectors. The experimental results show that Gaussian Process Regression outperformed the other two techniques by a small margin. This study demonstrated that physical activity energy expenditure during exercise, using the Kinect camera as a motion capture system, can be estimated from segmental mechanical work. Estimates for high-energy activities, such as standing jumps and jumping jacks, can be made accurately, but for low-energy activities, such as squatting, the posture of static poses should be considered as a contributing factor. When translated into the

  2. Energy expenditure of paraplegic patients standing and walking with two knee-ankle-foot orthoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkel, K D; Miller, N E; Westbrook, P R; Merritt, J L

    1984-03-01

    To determine which kind of knee-ankle-foot orthosis (KAFO) is more efficient, we measured energy expenditure in standing, walking with a walker, and walking with crutches by eight subjects using the Scott-Craig KAFO and a single-stopped long-leg KAFO. All subjects had complete motor paralysis below the level of their lesion and had been fully trained to use KAFOs. Every subject used both types of KAFO, and energy expenditure--per minute and per meter traveled--was measured by oxygen consumption. No significant difference in energy expenditure appeared during standing. During ambulation, however, mean energy expenditure was less with the Scott-Craig KAFO than with the single-stopped type: 31% less kcal/m with a walker and 25% less kcal/min with crutches. These results suggest that the Scott-Craig KAFO is more energy-efficient than the single-stopped long-leg KAFO.

  3. Comparison of effects of lower extremity orthoses on energy expenditure in patients with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliskan Uckun, Asli; Celik, Canan; Ucan, Halil; Ordu Gokkaya, Nilufer Kutay

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the effects of lower extremity orthoses on energy expenditure in patients with cerebral palsy (CP). We included 48 children with CP using lower extremity orthosis. Energy expenditures determined based on heart rate, yielded an energy expenditure index (EEI) with and without orthosis during walking. RESULTS were compared statistically between orthosis groups (solid polyethylene ankle foot orthosis (PAFO), articulated PAFO, ground reaction foot orthosis (GRAFO), plastic and metallic knee-ankle-foot-orthosis (KAFO), and metallic AFO). It was found that an advancement in energy expenditure was seen with plastic orthoses which is more prominent by solid PAFO (p = 0.008). It was concluded that especially solid PAFO can be more beneficial in terms of energy consumption in CP patients. In rehabilitation phase, the EEI measurement was seen to be a useful and practical method for choosing the proper orthosis type.

  4. Does the energy expenditure status in obstructive sleep apnea favour a positive energy balance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Geneviève C; Sériès, Frédéric; Tremblay, Angelo

    2007-01-01

    The effect of the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome on energy expenditure is controversial. The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between 24-hr energy expenditure or sleeping metabolic rate and features of the obstructive sleep apnea. Twenty-four apneic men took part in this cross-sectional study and were classified in quartiles of nocturnal desaturation severity, i.e. of percentage total sleep time with SaO2 hydrodensitometry. During the stay in the respiratory chamber, urine was collected to assess catecholamine concentration and percentage recording time with SaO2 < 90% (%TRT SaO2 < 90%) was measured with nocturnal oximetry. Mean fat free mass and fat mass were greater in quartile 4 than in quartile 1 (P < 0.05). %TRT SaO2 < 90% was higher in quartile 4 than in other quartiles (P < 0.0001). 24-hr energy expenditure and sleeping metabolic rate were similar among quartiles. However, when expressed on a per kg body weight basis (kcal/kg), these variables were negatively correlated with the %TRT SaO2 < 90% in the whole group (r = -0.46 and -0.48, respectively, P < 0.05). %TRT SaO2 < 90% was found to be a predictor of sleeping metabolic rate which explained, together with fat mass and fat free mass, 86% of this variance (P < 0.05). In apneic men energy expenditure relative to body weight decreases with increasing severity of oxygen desaturation which could favour a positive energy balance.

  5. Nutritional state, energy intakes and energy expenditure of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genton, L; Viatte, V; Janssens, J-P; Héritier, A-C; Pichard, C

    2011-10-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) alters nutritional state, energy intake and energy expenditure. This article aims at reviewing present knowledge on these topics in order to determine energy requirements for maintaining a neutral energy balance in ALS patients. Maintaining a neutral energy balance prevents malnutrition and its complications and may improve physical functioning, quality of life and survival. Prevalence of malnutrition varies between 16 and 55% in ALS patients. Energy intakes are below recommended dietary allowances in 70% of ALS patients at least. These elements suggest a chronic negative energy balance with an imbalance between requirements and intakes. While insufficient intakes can be compensated with nutritional support, the energy requirements are unclear. Studies generally report hypermetabolism in ALS patients. Estimation of total energy expenditure and as a corollary energy needs, necessitates taking into account this hypermetabolism, physical activity and possibly mechanical ventilation. The review suggests a flow chart for optimal nutritional follow-up in clinics. Further studies are required to assess whether optimal nutritional follow-up improves outcome.

  6. Energy expenditure and substrate utilization during whole body vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravena Santos Raulino

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: the aim of this study was to investigate whether the addition of vibration during interval training would raise oxygen consumption VO2 to the extent necessary for weight management and to evaluate the influence of the intensity of the vibratory stimulus for prescribing the exercise program in question. METHODS: VO2, measured breath by breath, was evaluated at rest and during the four experimental conditions to determine energy expenditure, metabolic equivalent MET, respiratory exchange ratio RER, % Kcal from fat, and rate of fat oxidation. Eight young sedentary females age 22±1 years, height 163.88± 7.62 cm, body mass 58.35±10.96 kg, and VO2 max 32.75±3.55 mLO2.Kg-1.min-1 performed interval training duration = 13.3 min to the upper and lower limbs both with vibration 35 Hz and 2 mm, 40 Hz and 2 mm, 45 Hz and 2 mm and without vibration. The experimental conditions were randomized and balanced at an interval of 48 hours. RESULTS: the addition of vibration to exercise at 45 Hz and 2 mm resulted in an additional increase of 17.77±12.38% of VO2 compared with exercise without vibration. However, this increase did not change the fat oxidation rate p=0.42 because intensity of exercise 29.1±3.3 %VO2max, 2.7 MET was classified as mild to young subjects. CONCLUSION: despite the influence of vibration on VO2 during exercise, the increase was insufficient to reduce body weight and did not reach the minimum recommendation of exercise prescription for weight management for the studied population.

  7. Are Predictive Energy Expenditure Equations in Ventilated Surgery Patients Accurate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tignanelli, Christopher J; Andrews, Allan G; Sieloff, Kurt M; Pleva, Melissa R; Reichert, Heidi A; Wooley, Jennifer A; Napolitano, Lena M; Cherry-Bukowiec, Jill R

    2017-01-01

    While indirect calorimetry (IC) is the gold standard used to calculate specific calorie needs in the critically ill, predictive equations are frequently utilized at many institutions for various reasons. Prior studies suggest these equations frequently misjudge actual resting energy expenditure (REE) in medical and mixed intensive care unit (ICU) patients; however, their utility for surgical ICU (SICU) patients has not been fully evaluated. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare the REE measured by IC with REE calculated using specific calorie goals or predictive equations for nutritional support in ventilated adult SICU patients. A retrospective review of prospectively collected data was performed on all adults (n = 419, 18-91 years) mechanically ventilated for >24 hours, with an Fio2 ≤ 60%, who met IC screening criteria. Caloric needs were estimated using Harris-Benedict equations (HBEs), and 20, 25, and 30 kcal/kg/d with actual (ABW), adjusted (ADJ), and ideal body (IBW) weights. The REE was measured using IC. The estimated REE was considered accurate when within ±10% of the measured REE by IC. The HBE, 20, 25, and 30 kcal/kg/d estimates of REE were found to be inaccurate regardless of age, gender, or weight. The HBE and 20 kcal/kg/d underestimated REE, while 25 and 30 kcal/kg/d overestimated REE. Of the methods studied, those found to most often accurately estimate REE were the HBE using ABW, which was accurate 35% of the time, and 25 kcal/kg/d ADJ, which was accurate 34% of the time. This difference was not statistically significant. Using HBE, 20, 25, or 30 kcal/kg/d to estimate daily caloric requirements in critically ill surgical patients is inaccurate compared to REE measured by IC. In SICU patients with nutrition requirements essential to recovery, IC measurement should be performed to guide clinicians in determining goal caloric requirements.

  8. Increased postprandial energy expenditure in obese women after peroral K- and Mg-phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaedig, S; Lindgärde, F; Arborelius, M

    1994-01-01

    Energy expenditure (EE) was studied in 15 obese (BMI > 27.5, median 29.2) and 15 lean (BMI magnesium-phosphate to glucose increases the postprandial thermogenesis in obese postmenopausal women, but not in lean ones.

  9. Evaluation of a smartphone food diary application using objectively measured energy expenditure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Felicity J Pendergast; Nicola D Ridgers; Anthony Worsley; Sarah A McNaughton

    2017-01-01

    .... The aim of this study is to evaluate the capability of a Smartphone meal diary app (“FoodNow”) to measure food intake using a validated objective method for assessing energy expenditure among young adults...

  10. High Vegetable Fats Intake Is Associated with High Resting Energy Expenditure in Vegetarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalcini, Tiziana; De Bonis, Daniele; Ferro, Yvelise; Carè, Ilaria; Mazza, Elisa; Accattato, Francesca; Greco, Marta; Foti, Daniela; Romeo, Stefano; Gulletta, Elio; Pujia, Arturo

    2015-07-17

    It has been demonstrated that a vegetarian diet may be effective in reducing body weight, however, the underlying mechanisms are not entirely clear. We investigated whether there is a difference in resting energy expenditure between 26 vegetarians and 26 non-vegetarians and the correlation between some nutritional factors and inflammatory markers with resting energy expenditure. In this cross-sectional study, vegetarians and non-vegetarians were matched by age, body mass index and gender. All underwent instrumental examinations to assess the difference in body composition, nutrient intake and resting energy expenditure. Biochemical analyses and 12 different cytokines and growth factors were measured as an index of inflammatory state. A higher resting energy expenditure was found in vegetarians than in non-vegetarians (p = 0.008). Furthermore, a higher energy from diet, fibre, vegetable fats intake and interleukin-β (IL-1β) was found between the groups. In the univariate and multivariable analysis, resting energy expenditure was associated with vegetarian diet, free-fat mass and vegetable fats (p vegetarian's diet, i.e., vegetable fats. Furthermore, we showed that IL-10 was positively associated with resting energy expenditure in this population.

  11. A randomized, controlled trial to assess short-term black pepper consumption on 24-hour energy expenditure and substrate utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalouise O’Connor

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground: Thermogenic ingredients may play a role in weight management. In vitro and rodent work suggests that components of black pepper may impact energy expenditure, and in humans, other TPRV1 agonists e.g. capsaicin, augment EE. Objectives: To determine the impact of BP on 24-hour EE, respiratory quotient, and biochemical markers of metabolism and satiety, a randomized, controlled, cross-over study of black pepper (0.5mg/meal versus no pepper control was conducted in post-menopausal women. Subjects spent two 24-hour periods in a whole room indirect calorimeter. Results: Post-meal glucose, insulin, gut peptides and catecholamines were measured. Energy expenditure, respiratory quotient, or biochemical markers assessed did not differ significantly between the black pepper and no pepper control study days. Conclusions: Our findings do not support a role for black pepper in modulating energy expenditure in overweight postmenopausal women. Future work targeting alternative populations, administering black pepper in the fasted state, or in combination with other spices, may reveal the thermogenic effect of this spice.Trial registration: This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01729143.Key words: Black pepper, piperine, energy expenditure, metabolic chamber

  12. The association between different types of exercise and energy expenditure in young nonoverweight and overweight adults

    OpenAIRE

    Drenowatz, Clemens; Hand, Gregory A; Robin P. Shook; Jakicic, John M.; Hebert, James R.; Burgess, Stephanie; Blair, Steven N.

    2014-01-01

    With decades of trends for decreasing activity during work and travel, exercise becomes an important contributor to total physical activity (PA) and energy expenditure. The purpose of this study was to examine the contribution of different types of exercise to the variability in energy expenditure and time spent at different PA intensities in young adults. Four hundred and seventeen adults (49.9% male; 46.2 overweight/obese) between 21 and 36 years of age provided valid objective PA and energ...

  13. Exploring Metrics to Express Energy Expenditure of Physical Activity in Youth

    OpenAIRE

    McMurray, Robert G.; Butte, Nancy F; Scott E Crouter; Trost, Stewart G.; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Bassett, David R.; Puyau, Maurice R; David Berrigan; Watson, Kathleen B; Fulton, Janet E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Several approaches have been used to express energy expenditure in youth, but no consensus exists as to which best normalizes data for the wide range of ages and body sizes across a range of physical activities. This study examined several common metrics for expressing energy expenditure to determine whether one metric can be used for all healthy children. Such a metric could improve our ability to further advance the Compendium of Physical Activities for Youth. Methods A secondary...

  14. Physiologic responses and energy expenditure of kinect active video game play in schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallwood, Stephen R; Morris, Michael M; Fallows, Stephen J; Buckley, John P

    2012-11-01

    To evaluate the physiologic responses and energy expenditure of active video gaming using Kinect for the Xbox 360. Comparison study. Kirkby Sports College Centre for Learning, Liverpool, England. Eighteen schoolchildren (10 boys and 8 girls) aged 11 to 15 years. A comparison of a traditional sedentary video game and 2 Kinect activity-promoting video games, Dance Central and Kinect Sports Boxing, each played for 15 minutes. Physiologic responses and energy expenditure were measured using a metabolic analyzer. Heart rate, oxygen uptake, and energy expenditure. Heart rate, oxygen uptake, and energy expenditure were considerably higher (P < .05) during activity-promoting video game play compared with rest and sedentary video game play. The mean (SD) corresponding oxygen uptake values for the sedentary, dance, and boxing video games were 6.1 (1.3), 12.8 (3.3), and 17.7 (5.1) mL · min-1 · kg-1, respectively. Energy expenditures were 1.5 (0.3), 3.0 (1.0), and 4.4 (1.6) kcal · min-1, respectively. Dance Central and Kinect Sports Boxing increased energy expenditure by 150% and 263%, respectively, above resting values and were 103% and 194% higher than traditional video gaming. This equates to an increased energy expenditure of up to 172 kcal · h-1 compared with traditional sedentary video game play. Played regularly, active gaming using Kinect for the Xbox 360 could prove to be an effective means for increasing physical activity and energy expenditure in children.

  15. Measurements of physical workload with special reference to energy expenditure and work postures

    OpenAIRE

    Bernmark, Eva

    2011-01-01

    Background: There is a need in preventive ergonomics for accurate and valid methods of quantifying exposure to physical workload. Aims: Two technical instruments were evaluated for quantifying occupational physical workloads: 1) A heart rate (HR) monitor system to measure energy expenditure and 2) An inclinometer system based on triaxial accelerometers to measure work postures. Methods: HR measurements in work with light to moderate energy expenditure were validated against ...

  16. Interhabitat differences in energy acquisition and expenditure in a lizard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karasov, W.H.; Anderson, R.A.

    1984-02-01

    Cnemidophorus hyperythrus, a small (approx. =4-g) teiid lizard, occurs along an elevational thorn scrub-thorn woodland-thorn forest habitat gradient in the cape region of Baja California. The authors compared body size, daily energy expenditure (DEE, measured with double labeled water), relative feeding rate (as reflected by H/sub 2/O influx rate), behavior, and abundance of this species at two sites along the gradient. At the inland thorn woodland site C. hyperythrus were more abundant (approx. =50 lizards/ha.). Mean body mass of woodland site lizards was 13% greater than that of scrub lizards. The DEE of the thorn woodland lizards, 330 site J x g/sup -1/ x d/sup -1/, and their H/sub 2/O influx, 99 mm/sup 3/ x g/sup -1/ x d/sup -1/, were also higher than the thorn scrub lizards', 219 J x g/sup -1/ x d/sup -1/ and 52 mm/sup 3/ x g/sup -1/ x d/sup -1/. Diets at the two sites were similar. There were no differences between sexes in diet, DEE, or H/sub 2/ influx. Daily maintenance energy costs were calculated based upon laboratory measures of O/sub 2/ consumption of resting lizards at a series of temperatures that represented the daily range of body temperatures experienced by lizards in the field. Activity costs (=DEE minus maintenance) were three times higher in the woodland lizards. Behavioral observations showed that woodland lizards were active most of the day (approx. =9 h/d) whereas scrub lizards were active primarily in the morning (approx. =3.5 h/d). Thus, the higher activity cost, DEE, and feeding rate of woodland lizards can be explained by their longer daily activity period. We suggest causal factors for the difference in daily activity period, and discuss implications of length of daily forging period for adult body size, population density, and various life history parameters of lizards.

  17. Electronic Noses for Well-Being: Breath Analysis and Energy Expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Julian W; Vincent, Timothy A

    2016-06-23

    The wealth of information concealed in a single human breath has been of interest for many years, promising not only disease detection, but also the monitoring of our general well-being. Recent developments in the fields of nano-sensor arrays and MEMS have enabled once bulky artificial olfactory sensor systems, or so-called "electronic noses", to become smaller, lower power and portable devices. At the same time, wearable health monitoring devices are now available, although reliable breath sensing equipment is somewhat missing from the market of physical, rather than chemical sensor gadgets. In this article, we report on the unprecedented rise in healthcare problems caused by an increasingly overweight population. We first review recently-developed electronic noses for the detection of diseases by the analysis of basic volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Then, we discuss the primary cause of obesity from over eating and the high calorific content of food. We present the need to measure our individual energy expenditure from our exhaled breath. Finally, we consider the future for handheld or wearable devices to measure energy expenditure; and the potential of these devices to revolutionize healthcare, both at home and in hospitals.

  18. Daily energy intake, energy expenditure and activity patterns of selected Malaysian sportsmen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, M N; Wannudri, W; Zawiah, H

    1995-09-01

    Seventeen members of the national sepaktakraw squad undergoing centralised training participated in a comprehensive study to determine their daily food intake, activity patterns and energy requirements. Food intake was recorded as a mean of 3-days weighed food intake and the nutrient contents were calculated using a local food composition table. The energy cost of standardised activities was determined by indirect calorimetry while time and motion study was used to estimate the daily energy expenditure of each subject. The mean daily energy intake was 2784±373 kcal (11.6±1.6 MJ) while the mean daily energy expenditure was 3004±298 kcal (12.6±1.2 MJ), with a negative energy balance of 220 kcal ((0.9 MJ). Intake of other nutrients were adequate when compared with the Malaysian RDA, with the exception of niacin. The results of the activity pattern study indicated that the subjects spent about 80% of the day doing light activities while 20% of the day was devoted to their training programme comprising of moderate to heavy activities. This data set represents the first of its kind in Malaysia and should provide impetus for further research in this area which would help establish dietary guidelines for Malaysian sportsmen.

  19. The C-174G promoter polymorphism of the IL-6 gene affects energy expenditure and insulin sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubaszek, Agata; Pihlajamäki, Jussi; Punnonen, Kari; Karhapää, Pauli; Vauhkonen, Ilkka; Laakso, Markku

    2003-02-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a pleiotropic cytokine expressed in many tissues. IL-6 null mice show low energy expenditure, but the effect of the variants of the IL-6 gene on energy expenditure has not been previously studied in humans. Therefore, we investigated the effect of the C-174G promoter polymorphism of the IL-6 gene on energy expenditure, measured by indirect calorimetry in healthy Finnish subjects (n = 124). We also measured insulin sensitivity by the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Subjects with the C-174C genotype of the IL-6 gene had significantly lower energy expenditure than subjects with the G-174C or G-174G genotypes both in fasting (CC 13.68 +/- 1.98, CG 14.73 +/- 1.57, GG 14.81 +/- 2.01 kcal x kg(-1) x min(-1); P = 0.012) and during the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp (CC 15.24 +/- 2.05, CG 16.62 +/- 2.06, GG 16.66 +/- 2.50 kcal x kg(-1) x min(-1); P = 0.007). Moreover, subjects homozygous for the C allele had lower rates of whole-body glucose uptake than carriers of the G allele (CC 50.95 +/- 13.91, CG 59.40 +/- 14.17, GG 59.21 +/- 15.93 micro mol x kg(-1) x min(-1); P = 0.016). The rates of both oxidative (P = 0.013) and nonoxidative (P = 0.016) glucose disposal were significantly affected by the IL-6 promoter polymorphism. In conclusion, the C-174C promoter polymorphism of the IL-6 gene influences energy expenditure and insulin sensitivity in healthy normoglycemic subjects. Whether this polymorphism is a risk factor for obesity or type 2 diabetes can be estimated only in prospective population-based studies.

  20. Variations in resting energy expenditure: impact on gestational weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berggren, E K; O'Tierney-Ginn, P; Lewis, S; Presley, L; De-Mouzon, S Hauguel; Catalano, P M

    2017-10-01

    There are significant variations in gestational weight gain, with many women gaining in excess of the Institute of Medicine guidelines. Unfortunately, efforts to improve appropriate gestational weight gain have had only limited success. To date, interventions have focused primarily on decreasing energy intake and/or increasing physical activity. Maternal resting energy expenditure, which comprises ∼60% of total energy expenditure compared with the ∼20% that comes from physical activity, may be an important consideration in understanding variations in gestational weight gain. Our objective was to quantify the changes in resting energy expenditure during pregnancy and their relationship to gestational weight gain and body composition changes among healthy women. We hypothesized that greater gestational weight gain, and fat mass accrual in particular, are inversely related to variations in resting energy expenditure. We conducted a secondary analysis of a prospective cohort studied before conception and late pregnancy (34-36 weeks). Body composition (estimated using hydrodensitometry) and resting energy expenditure (estimated using indirect calorimetry) were measured. The relationship between the changes in resting energy expenditure and gestational weight gain and the change in fat mass and fat-free mass were quantified. Resting energy expenditure was expressed as kilocalories per kilogram of fat-free mass per day (kilocalories per kilogram of fat-free mass(-1)/day(-1)) and kilocalories per day. Correlations are reported as r. Among 51 women, preconception body mass index was 23.0 (4.7) kg/m(2); gestational weight gain was 12.8 (4.7) kg. Preconception and late pregnancy resting energy expenditure (kilocalories per day) correlated positively with the change in fat-free mass (r = 0.37, P = .008; r = 0.51, P = .001). Late-pregnancy resting energy expenditure (kilocalories per kilogram of fat-free mass(-1)/day(-1)) was inversely associated with the change in fat

  1. Energy expenditure in brass and woodwind instrumentalists: the effect of body posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baadjou, Vera A E; van Eijsden-Besseling, Marjon D F; Samama-Polak, Ans L W; Smeets, Rob J E M; Passos, Valéria Lima; Westerterp, Klaas R

    2011-12-01

    Body posture appears to influence fatigue and musculoskeletal complaints in musicians. Our aim was to determine energy expenditure and to investigate whether energy expenditure is affected by body posture in brass and woodwind instrumentalists. Eighteen musicians (10 women, 8 men; 6 brass, 12 woodwinds), with a mean age of 39 ± 14 years and mean body mass index of 23.8 ± 4.9 kg/m², played their instruments for 30 minutes twice: once in nonoptimized body posture (posture A), and once in a posture according to the postural exercise therapy method Mensendieck (posture B). Patients were randomized to the order of postures in a crossover design AB/BA. Playing sessions were preceded and followed by 60 minutes of rest. Energy expenditure was measured in a respiration chamber with indirect calorimetry. Basal metabolic rate was measured with a ventilated hood. Mean metabolic equivalents (MET) for playing a wind instrument in the sitting position in a nonoptimized posture and posture according postural exercise therapy were 1.69 (SD 0.18) and 1.80 (SD 0.22), respectively. Percent change between resting metabolic rate and total energy expenditure while playing was 32% (95% CI 25-39%) in posture B and 23% (95% CI 17-30%) in posture A (p = 0.021). Average physical activity while playing a wind instrument approximates 1.8 MET. Our data show an association between energy expenditure and body posture while playing a brass or woodwind instrument: playing a musical instrument in a posture according to postural exercise therapy leads to higher energy expenditure as compared to a nonoptimized body posture. These results suggest that fatigue and the general feeling of lack of energy after playing a musical instrument are not related to actual higher energy expenditure.

  2. Low Levels of Energy Expenditure in Childhood Cancer Survivors: Implications for Obesity Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fang Fang; Roberts, Susan B; Parsons, Susan K; Must, Aviva; Kelly, Michael J; Wong, William W; Saltzman, Edward

    2015-04-01

    Childhood cancer survivors are at an increased risk of obesity but causes for this elevated risk are uncertain. We evaluated total energy expenditure in childhood cancer survivors using the doubly labeled water method in a cross-sectional study of 17 survivors of pediatric leukemia or lymphoma (median age, 11.5 y). Mean total energy expenditure was 2073 kcal/d, which was nearly 500 kcal/d lower than estimated energy requirements with recommended levels of physical activity. This energy gap is likely to contribute to the risk of obesity in this population and future trials are needed to assess implications and potential treatment strategies.

  3. Energy metabolism during human pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsum, Elisabet; Löf, Marie

    2007-01-01

    This review summarizes information regarding how human energy metabolism is affected by pregnancy, and current estimates of energy requirements during pregnancy are presented. Such estimates can be calculated using either increases in basal metabolic rate (BMR) or increases in total energy expenditure (TEE). The two modes of calculation give similar results for a complete pregnancy but different distributions of energy requirements in the three trimesters. Recent information is presented regarding the effect of pregnancy on BMR, TEE, diet-induced thermogenesis, and physical activity. The validity of energy intake (EI) data recently assessed in well-nourished pregnant women was evaluated using information regarding energy metabolism during pregnancy. The results show that underreporting of EI is common during pregnancy and indicate that additional longitudinal studies, taking the total energy budget during pregnancy into account, are needed to satisfactorily define energy requirements during the three trimesters of gestation.

  4. Energy Expenditure is Affected by Rate of Accumulation of Sleep Deficit in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Aimee M.; Stephenson, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Study Objectives: Short sleep is a putative risk factor for obesity. However, prolonged total sleep deprivation (TSD) leads to negative energy balance and weight loss in rodents, whereas sleep-restricted humans tend to gain weight. We hypothesized that energy expenditure (V̇O2) is influenced by the rate of accumulation of sleep deficit in rats. Design and Intervention: Six Sprague-Dawley rats underwent chronic sleep-restriction (CSR, 6-h sleep opportunity at ZT0-6 for 10 days) and stimulus-control protocols (CON, 12-h sleep opportunity for 10 days, matched number of stimuli) in a balanced cross-over design. Four additional rats underwent TSD (4 days). Sleep was manipulated using a motor-driven walking wheel. Measurements and Results: Electroencephalography, electromyography, and body temperature were measured by telemetry, and V̇O2, by respirometry. Total sleep deficits of 55.1 ± 6.4 hours, 31.8 ± 6.8 hours, and 38.2 ± 2.3 hours accumulated over the CSR, CON, and TSD protocols, respectively. Responses to TSD confirmed previous reports of elevated V̇O2 and body temperature. These responses were attenuated in CSR, despite a greater cumulative sleep deficit. Rate of rise of O2 was strongly correlated with rate of accumulation of sleep deficit, above a threshold deficit of 3.6 h·day−1. Conclusion: The change in V̇O2 is affected by rate of accumulation of sleep deficit and not the total sleep loss accrued. Negative energy balance, observed during TSD, is strongly attenuated when brief daily sleep opportunities are available to rats (CSR), despite greater accumulated sleep deficit. Citation: Caron AM; Stephenson R. Energy expenditure is affected by rate of accumulation of sleep deficit in rats. SLEEP 2010;33(9):1226-1235. PMID:20857870

  5. Apports nutritionnels, dépense et bilan énergétiques chez l’homme et les primates non-humains : aspects méthodologiques Nutritional intakes, energy expenditure and energy balance in human and non-human primates: methodological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Tarnaud

    2011-02-01

    intègrent des approches quantitatives dont la précision dépend des populations étudiées et des conditions de terrain. L'approche comportementale est le plus souvent complétée par des analyses réalisées en laboratoire et pouvant nécessiter des équipements lourds et des personnels qualifiés. La présente revue a donc pour objectif d'orienter le(s choix du chercheur en fonction de sa thématique de recherche et des conditions de son étude. Le choix de la ou des techniques sera nécessairement le fruit d’un compromis entre la précision, la faisabilité et le coût des études.This paper presents field methods and laboratory techniques used to evaluate food intake, energy and nutrient input, activity patterns, energy expenditure, and body energy storage in human and non-human primates. The aim is to review both traditional techniques and recent advances in the methods designed to investigate energetic parameters in an anthropobiological perspective. Although most of human habits and behaviours are regarded as culturally determined, Homo as a species share with non-human primates a number of psycho-physiological features originating from biological adaptations and close phylogenetic relationships. Therefore, determining the mechanisms involved in the energetic dynamics in non-human primates may contribute to identify some of these shared biological bases. In this respect, several methods in the field of energetics are applicable to both humans and non-human primates bringing out the similarities of approaches. Besides interspecific comparisons that provide a background to assess the evolution of energy strategies among primates, contrasting the energy fluxes at the population or group level highlights the range of bio-cultural adjustments of humans and non-human primate species to their social and natural environment.The present review distinguishes methods according to the energetic parameters the researcher wishes to describe and quantify: food intake

  6. GABAergic RIP-Cre neurons in the arcuate nucleus selectively regulate energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Dong; Tong, Qingchun; Ye, Chianping; Koda, Shuichi; Fuller, Patrick M; Krashes, Michael J; Vong, Linh; Ray, Russell S; Olson, David P; Lowell, Bradford B

    2012-10-26

    Neural regulation of energy expenditure is incompletely understood. By genetically disrupting GABAergic transmission in a cell-specific fashion, and by combining this with selective pharmacogenetic activation and optogenetic mapping techniques, we have uncovered an arcuate-based circuit that selectively drives energy expenditure. Specifically, mice lacking synaptic GABA release from RIP-Cre neurons have reduced energy expenditure, become obese and are extremely sensitive to high-fat diet-induced obesity, the latter due to defective diet-induced thermogenesis. Leptin's ability to stimulate thermogenesis, but not to reduce feeding, is markedly attenuated. Acute, selective activation of arcuate GABAergic RIP-Cre neurons, which monosynaptically innervate PVH neurons projecting to the NTS, rapidly stimulates brown fat and increases energy expenditure but does not affect feeding. Importantly, this response is dependent upon GABA release from RIP-Cre neurons. Thus, GABAergic RIP-Cre neurons in the arcuate selectively drive energy expenditure, contribute to leptin's stimulatory effect on thermogenesis, and protect against diet-induced obesity.

  7. Mitochondrial DNA sequence variation is associated with free-living activity energy expenditure in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranah, Gregory J; Lam, Ernest T; Katzman, Shana M; Nalls, Michael A; Zhao, Yiqiang; Evans, Daniel S; Yokoyama, Jennifer S; Pawlikowska, Ludmila; Kwok, Pui-Yan; Mooney, Sean; Kritchevsky, Stephen; Goodpaster, Bret H; Newman, Anne B; Harris, Tamara B; Manini, Todd M; Cummings, Steven R

    2012-09-01

    The decline in activity energy expenditure underlies a range of age-associated pathological conditions, neuromuscular and neurological impairments, disability, and mortality. The majority (90%) of the energy needs of the human body are met by mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). OXPHOS is dependent on the coordinated expression and interaction of genes encoded in the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. We examined the role of mitochondrial genomic variation in free-living activity energy expenditure (AEE) and physical activity levels (PAL) by sequencing the entire (~16.5 kilobases) mtDNA from 138 Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study participants. Among the common mtDNA variants, the hypervariable region 2 m.185G>A variant was significantly associated with AEE (p=0.001) and PAL (p=0.0005) after adjustment for multiple comparisons. Several unique nonsynonymous variants were identified in the extremes of AEE with some occurring at highly conserved sites predicted to affect protein structure and function. Of interest is the p.T194M, CytB substitution in the lower extreme of AEE occurring at a residue in the Qi site of complex III. Among participants with low activity levels, the burden of singleton variants was 30% higher across the entire mtDNA and OXPHOS complex I when compared to those having moderate to high activity levels. A significant pooled variant association across the hypervariable 2 region was observed for AEE and PAL. These results suggest that mtDNA variation is associated with free-living AEE in older persons and may generate new hypotheses by which specific mtDNA complexes, genes, and variants may contribute to the maintenance of activity levels in late life.

  8. Estimation of Energy Expenditure Using a Patch-Type Sensor Module with an Incremental Radial Basis Function Neural Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meina; Kwak, Keun-Chang; Kim, Youn Tae

    2016-09-22

    Conventionally, indirect calorimetry has been used to estimate oxygen consumption in an effort to accurately measure human body energy expenditure. However, calorimetry requires the subject to wear a mask that is neither convenient nor comfortable. The purpose of our study is to develop a patch-type sensor module with an embedded incremental radial basis function neural network (RBFNN) for estimating the energy expenditure. The sensor module contains one ECG electrode and a three-axis accelerometer, and can perform real-time heart rate (HR) and movement index (MI) monitoring. The embedded incremental network includes linear regression (LR) and RBFNN based on context-based fuzzy c-means (CFCM) clustering. This incremental network is constructed by building a collection of information granules through CFCM clustering that is guided by the distribution of error of the linear part of the LR model.

  9. Estimation of Energy Expenditure Using a Patch-Type Sensor Module with an Incremental Radial Basis Function Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meina Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Conventionally, indirect calorimetry has been used to estimate oxygen consumption in an effort to accurately measure human body energy expenditure. However, calorimetry requires the subject to wear a mask that is neither convenient nor comfortable. The purpose of our study is to develop a patch-type sensor module with an embedded incremental radial basis function neural network (RBFNN for estimating the energy expenditure. The sensor module contains one ECG electrode and a three-axis accelerometer, and can perform real-time heart rate (HR and movement index (MI monitoring. The embedded incremental network includes linear regression (LR and RBFNN based on context-based fuzzy c-means (CFCM clustering. This incremental network is constructed by building a collection of information granules through CFCM clustering that is guided by the distribution of error of the linear part of the LR model.

  10. Effect of 3 modified fats and a conventional fat on appetite, energy intake, energy expenditure, and substrate oxidation in healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, H.; Flint, A.; Raben, A.

    2002-01-01

    Background: Different dietary fats are metabolized differently in humans and may influence energy expenditure, substrate oxidation, appetite regulation, and body weight regulation.Objective: We examined the short-term effects of 4 triacylglycerols (test fats) on subjective appetite, ad libitum en...... fat)] in a randomized, double-blind, crossover design.Results: No significant differences in appetite sensations or ad libitum energy intakes were observed between the 4 test fats. Overall, the 4 fats exerted different effects on energy expenditure (meal effect: P...... energy intake, meal-induced thermogenesis, and postprandial substrate oxidation.Design: Eleven healthy, normal-weight men (mean age: 25.1 +/-0.5 y) consumed 4 different test fats [conventional fat (rapeseed oil) and 3 modified fats (lipase-structured fat, chemically structured fat, and physically mixed...

  11. Validity of predictive equations for resting energy expenditure in Belgian normal weight to morbid obese women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijs, J.M. Peter; Vansant, A.A.M. Greet

    2010-01-01

    Background & aims: Individual energy requirements of overweight and obese adults can often not be measured by indirect calorimetry, mainly due to the time-consuming procedure and the high costs. To analyze which resting energy expenditure(REE)predictive equation is the best alternative for indirect

  12. Latitudinal variation in parental energy expenditure during brood rearing in the great tit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanz, Juan José; Tinbergen, Joost M.; Moreno, J.; Orell, Markku; Verhulst, Simon

    2000-01-01

    The variation in time and energy allocation of female great tits, Pants major, was studied in five different European populations across a latitudinal gradient. Daily energy expenditure (DEE) was measured in fe males tending 12-day-old broods. The number of daylight hours used by the parents to coll

  13. Prediction of energy expenditure from heart rate and accelerometry in children and adolescents using multivariate adaptive regression splines modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Free-living measurements of 24-h total energy expenditure (TEE) and activity energy expenditure (AEE) are required to better understand the metabolic, physiological, behavioral, and environmental factors affecting energy balance and contributing to the global epidemic of childhood obesity. The spec...

  14. National Health Expenditure Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — National Health Expenditure Accounts are comprised of the following, National Health Expenditures - Historical and Projected, Age Estimates, State Health...

  15. The energy expenditure of sedentary behavior: a whole room calorimeter study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert L Newton

    Full Text Available It has recently been recommended that sedentary behavior be defined as sitting or reclining activities expending less than 1.5 metabolic equivalents (METs, which is distinct from the traditional viewpoint based on insufficient moderate-vigorous activity or formal exercise. This study was designed to determine the energy expenditure associated with common sedentary behaviors. Twenty-five African American adults (BMI 27.8 ± 5.5 participated in the metabolic chamber study. Participants entered the metabolic chamber in the morning and their basal metabolic rate was estimated. They were fed breakfast and then engaged in four different sedentary behaviors sequentially, lasting 30 minutes each. The activities included reclining, watching TV, reading, and typing on a computer. In the afternoon, the participants were fed lunch and then the activities were repeated. The results show that the energy expenditure values between the morning and afternoon sessions were not significantly different (p = .232. The mean energy expenditure of postprandial reclining (0.97 METs was slightly, but significantly, lower than postprandial watching TV (p = .021 and typing (p<.001. There were no differences in energy cost (1.03-1.06 METs between the seated (i.e., reading, typing, watching TV sedentary activities. The energy expenditure of several common sedentary behaviors was approximately 1.0 METs in the postprandial state. The results support the conclusion that the average energy cost of common sedentary behaviors is narrowly banded around 1.0 METs in the postprandial state.

  16. Accuracy of energy expenditure estimation by activity monitors differs with ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazeau, A-S; Suppere, C; Strychar, I; Belisle, V; Demers, S-P; Rabasa-Lhoret, R

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this project is to explore the accuracy of 2 activity monitors (SenseWear Armband & Actical) to estimate energy expenditure during rest and light to moderate intensity exercises in 2 ethnic groups. 18 Caucasian and 20 Black adults (age: 26.8±5.2 years; body mass index: 23.9±3.0 kg/m(2)) wore the 2 devices simultaneously during 3 standardised activities: 30-min rest, 45-min of treadmill at 40% of their V˙O2peak and 45-min of stationary cycling at 50% of their V˙O2peak. Energy estimated with the 2 devices was compared to indirect calorimetry measurements. Both devices overestimated energy expenditure during rest (SenseWear: 36% in Black vs. 16% in Caucasian; Actical: 26% vs. 11%, p<0.01 between groups) and treadmill (SenseWear: 50% vs. 25%; Actical: 67% vs. 32%, p<0.01 between groups). Both devices significantly underestimated energy expenditure during stationary cycling (SenseWear: 24% vs. 26%; Actical: 58% vs. 70%, p=NS between groups). Equations used to estimate energy expenditure from accelerometer data is less precise among Black adults than Caucasian adults. Ethnic-specific formulas are probably required.

  17. Energy expenditure and enjoyment during video game play: differences by game type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Elizabeth J; Tate, Deborah F; Ward, Dianne S; Bowling, J Michael; Ribisl, Kurt M; Kalyararaman, Sriram

    2011-10-01

    Play of physically active video games may be a way to increase physical activity and/or decrease sedentary behavior, but games are not universally active or enjoyable. Active games may differ from traditional games on important attributes, which may affect frequency and intensity of play. The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in energy expenditure and enjoyment across four game types: shooter (played with traditional controllers), band simulation (guitar or drum controller), dance simulation (dance mat controller), and fitness (balance board controller). Energy expenditure (METs) and enjoyment were measured across 10 games in 100 young adults age 18-35 yr (50 women). All games except shooter games significantly increased energy expenditure over rest (P games increased energy expenditure by 322% (mean ± SD = 3.10 ± 0.89 METs) and 298% (2.91 ± 0.87 METs), which was greater than that produced by band simulation (73%, 1.28 ± 0.28 METs) and shooter games (23%, 0.91 ± 0.16 METs). However, enjoyment was higher in band simulation games than in other types (P game types (P games can significantly increase energy expended during screen time, but these games are less enjoyable than other more sedentary games, suggesting that they may be less likely to be played over time. Less active but more enjoyable video games may be a promising method for decreasing sedentary behavior.

  18. Effect of photoperiod on body weight gain, and daily energy intake and energy expenditure in Japanese quail (Coturnix c. Japonica)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, P; Visser, GH; Daan, S

    2000-01-01

    Effect of photoperiod and food duration on body weight gain, energy intake, energy expenditure, and sexual development were investigated in two strains of Japanese quail (Coturnix c. japonica), bred for meat (broilers) or egg production (layers), from 7 to 71 days of age. In a first experiment

  19. Comparisons of energy intake and energy expenditure in overweight and obese women with and without binge eating disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether there are differences in energy intake or energy expenditure that distinguish obese women with and without binge eating disorder (BED). Seventeen obese women with BED and 17 obese controls completed random 24-hour dietary recall interviews, and had ...

  20. Daily energy expenditure in precocial shorebird chicks : Smaller species perform at higher levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijgsveld, Karen L.; Ricklefs, Robert E.; Visser, G. Henk

    2012-01-01

    We measured daily energy expenditure (DEE) during the development periods of precocial chicks of five species of Arctic shorebirds spanning a broad range in size, in order to investigate the relationships between DEE, body size, and growth rate. We also quantified the effect of weather conditions on

  1. Energy expenditure of three public and three home-based active video games in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, Monique; De Vries, Sanne I.; Jongert, Tinus; Verheijden, Marieke W.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the energy expenditure (EE) experienced by children when playing six active video games, which can be used in a home environment and in a public setting (e.g. game center), and to evaluate whether the intensity of playing these games can meet the threshold for

  2. Moderate exercise, postprandial energy expenditure, and substrate use in varying meals in lean and obese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiegler, Petra; Sparks, S Andrew; Cunliffe, Adam

    2008-02-01

    Maximizing postprandial energy expenditure and fat oxidation could be of clinical relevance for the treatment of obesity. This study investigated the effect of prior exercise on energy expenditure and substrate utilization after meals containing varying amounts of macronutrients. Eight lean (11.6%+/-4.0% body fat, M+/-SD) and 12 obese (35.9%+/-5.3% body fat) men were randomly assigned to a protein (43% protein, 30% carbohydrate) or a carbohydrate (10% protein, 63% carbohydrate) meal. The metabolic responses to the meals were investigated during 2 trials, when meals were ingested after a resting period (D) or cycling exercise (Ex+D; 65% of oxygen consumption reserve, 200 kcal). Energy expenditure, substrate utilization, and glucose and insulin responses were measured for 4 hr during the postprandial phase. Although postprandial energy expenditure was not affected by prior exercise, the total amount of fat oxidized was higher during Ex+D than during D (170.8+/-60.1 g vs. 137.8+/-50.8 g, pexercise. Plasma insulin tended to be lower during Ex+D (p= .072) and after the protein meal (p= .066). No statistically significant change in postprandial blood glucose was induced by prior exercise. Exercising before meal consumption can result in a marked increase in fat oxidation, which is independent of the type of meal consumed.

  3. Daily energy expenditure in free-ranging Gopher Tortoises (Gopherus polyphemus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jodice, PGR; Epperson, DM; Visser, GH

    2006-01-01

    Studies of ecological energetics in chelonians are rare. Here, we report the first measurements of daily energy expenditure (DEE) and water influx rates (WIRS) in free-ranging adult Gopher Tortoises (Gopherus polyphemus). We used the doubly labeled water (DLW) method to measure DEE in six adult tort

  4. The relationship between basal metabolic rate and daily energy expenditure in birds and mammals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ricklefs, RE; Konarzewski, M; Daan, S

    1996-01-01

    We examined the relationship between daily energy expenditure (DEE) and basal metabolic rate (BMR) in birds and mammals. Two models of the relationship between DEE and BMR were distinguished: a ''shared pathways'' model in which DEE replaces BMR in the active organism and a ''partitioned pathways''

  5. Male weasels decrease activity and energy expenditure in response to high ambient temperatures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol Zub

    Full Text Available The heat dissipation limit (HDL hypothesis suggests that the capacity of endotherms to dissipate body heat may impose constraints on their energy expenditure. Specifically, this hypothesis predicts that endotherms should avoid the detrimental consequences of hyperthermia by lowering their energy expenditure and reducing their activity in response to high ambient temperatures (T(a. We used an extensive data set on the daily energy expenditure (DEE, n = 27 and the daily activity time (AT, n = 48 of male weasels (Mustela nivalis during the spring and summer breeding season to test these predictions. We found that T(a was related in a "hump-shaped" (i.e. convex manner to AT, DEE, resting metabolic rate (RMR and metabolic scope (the ratio of DEE to RMR. These results support the HDL hypothesis because in response to warm Tas male weasels reduced their AT, DEE, and RMR. Although the activity and energy expenditure of large endotherms are most likely to be constrained in response to warm Tas because they are less able to dissipate heat, our results suggest that small endotherms may also experience constraints consistent with the HDL hypothesis.

  6. The relationship between basal metabolic rate and daily energy expenditure in birds and mammals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ricklefs, RE; Konarzewski, M; Daan, S

    We examined the relationship between daily energy expenditure (DEE) and basal metabolic rate (BMR) in birds and mammals. Two models of the relationship between DEE and BMR were distinguished: a ''shared pathways'' model in which DEE replaces BMR in the active organism and a ''partitioned pathways''

  7. Daily energy expenditure of great cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis wintering at Lake Chiemsee, Southern Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keller, T.M; Visser, G.H.

    1999-01-01

    In the winters of 1993/94 and 1994/95 the daily energy expenditure (DEE) of Great Cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis was measured using the doubly labelled water technique (DLW). This was the first time the method has been used on a Phalacrocoracid species. DLW trials were carried out on 5 cage

  8. Differences in energy expenditure between high- and low-volume training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drenowatz, Clemens; Eisenmann, Joey C; Pivarnik, James M; Pfeiffer, Karin A; Carlson, Joseph J

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have examined energy expenditure in various sports but there is a lack of research on the contribution of exercise and habitual activity during different training periods. This study examined changes in total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) and its components during high- and low-volume training periods. Further, changes in time spent in sedentary, light, moderate and vigorous activity in response to different training volumes were explored. Energy expenditure was measured in 15 male endurance athletes during 2 non-consecutive weeks - 1 week of high volume (>13 hours) training and another week of low volume (energy expenditure (EEE) and resting metabolic rate, respectively. Time spent at different intensities was assessed using previously established MET cutpoints. TDEE as well as EEE increased significantly with higher training volume, while no difference in NEAT occurred. Further, significantly less time was spent in sedentary activities during the high-volume week. These results suggest that highly trained athletes do not compensate for increased training volume and reduce sedentary activities to allow for more training time.

  9. A comprehensive evaluation of commonly used accelerometer energy expenditure and MET prediction equations

    OpenAIRE

    Lyden, Kate; Kozey, Sarah L.; Staudenmeyer, John W.; Freedson, Patty S

    2010-01-01

    Numerous accelerometers and prediction methods are used to estimate energy expenditure (EE). Validation studies have been limited to small sample sizes in which participants complete a narrow range of activities and typically validate only one or two prediction models for one particular accelerometer.

  10. Physical activity energy expenditure vs cardiorespiratory fitness level in impaired glucose metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, Lærke P; Hansen, Anne-Louise Smidt; Johansen, Nanna B

    2015-01-01

    AIM/HYPOTHESIS: Little is known about the relative roles of physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) as determinants of glucose regulation. The aim of this study was to examine the associations of PAEE and CRF with markers of glucose metabolism, and to test...

  11. Daily energy expenditure in free-ranging Gopher Tortoises (Gopherus polyphemus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jodice, PGR; Epperson, DM; Visser, GH

    2006-01-01

    Studies of ecological energetics in chelonians are rare. Here, we report the first measurements of daily energy expenditure (DEE) and water influx rates (WIRS) in free-ranging adult Gopher Tortoises (Gopherus polyphemus). We used the doubly labeled water (DLW) method to measure DEE in six adult tort

  12. Effects of neonatal overfeeding on juvenile and adult feeding and energy expenditure in the rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Stefanidis

    Full Text Available Overfeeding during perinatal life leads to an overweight phenotype that persists throughout the juvenile stage and into adulthood, however, the mechanism(s underlying this effect are poorly understood. We hypothesized that obesity due to neonatal overfeeding is maintained by changes in energy expenditure and that these changes differ between males and females. We investigated feeding, physical activity, hormonal and metabolic alterations that occur in adult rats made obese by having been nursed in small litters (SL compared with those from control litters (CL. There were no differences in absolute food intake between the groups, and juvenile and adult SL rats ate less chow per gram body weight than the CL did in the dark (active phase. Juvenile, but not adult SL rats did have reduced whole body energy expenditure, but there were no differences between the groups by the time they reached adulthood. Adult SL females (but not males had reduced brown adipose tissue (BAT temperatures compared with CL in the first half of the dark phase. Our results indicate a persistent overweight phenotype in rats overfed as neonates is not associated with hyperphagia at any stage, but is reflected in reduced energy expenditure into the juvenile phase. The reduced dark phase BAT activity in adult SL females is not sufficient to reduce total energy expenditure at this stage of life and there is an apparently compensatory effect that prevents SL and CL from continuing to diverge in weight that appears between the juvenile and adult stages.

  13. Growth Failure in Children with Intractable Epilepsy Is Not Due to Increased Resting Energy Expenditure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergqvist, A. G. Christina; Trabulsi, Jillian; Schall, Joan I.; Stallings, Virginia A.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the resting energy expenditure (REE) of children with intractable epilepsy (IE) compared with healthy children, and to determine factors that contribute to the pattern of REE. REE, growth status, and body composition were assessed in 25 prepubertal children with IE (15 males, 10 females; mean age 5y 5mo [SD 2y…

  14. Energy Expenditure and Metabolic Changes of Free-Flying Migrating Northern Bald Ibis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bairlein, Franz; Fritz, Johannes; Scope, Alexandra; Schwendenwein, Ilse; Stanclova, Gabriela; van Dijk, Gertjan; Meijer, Harro A J; Verhulst, Simon; Dittami, John

    2015-01-01

    Many migrating birds undertake extraordinary long flights. How birds are able to perform such endurance flights of over 100-hour durations is still poorly understood. We examined energy expenditure and physiological changes in Northern Bald Ibis Geronticus eremite during natural flights using birds

  15. Energy expenditure and metabolism during exercise in persons with a spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Michael

    2010-08-01

    Resting energy expenditure of persons with a spinal cord injury (SCI) is generally lower than that seen in able-bodied (AB) individuals due to the reduced amounts of muscle mass and sympathetic nervous system available. However, outside of clinical studies, much less data is available regarding athletes with an SCI. In order to predict the energy expenditure of persons with SCI, the generation and validation of prediction equations in relation to specific levels of SCI and training status are required. Specific prediction equations for the SCI would enable a quick and accurate estimate of energy requirements. When compared with the equivalent AB individuals, sports energy expenditure is generally reduced in SCI with values representing 30-75% of AB values. The lowest energy expenditure values are observed for sports involving athletes with tetraplegia and where the sport is a static version of that undertaken by the AB, such as fencing. As with AB sports there is a lack of SCI data for true competition situations due to methodological constraints. However, where energy expenditure during field tests are predicted from laboratory-based protocols, wheelchair ergometry is likely to be the most appropriate exercise mode. The physiological and metabolic responses of persons with SCI are similar to those for AB athletes, but at lower absolute levels. However, the underlying mechanisms pertaining to substrate utilization appear to differ between the AB and SCI. Carbohydrate feeding has been shown to improve endurance performance in athletes with generally low levels of SCI, but no data have been reported for mid to high levels of SCI or for sport-specific tests of an intermittent nature. Further research within the areas reviewed may help to bridge the gap between what is known regarding AB athletes and athletes with SCI (and other disabilities) during exercise and also the gap between clinical practice and performance.

  16. Energy Expenditure and Bone Formation Share a Common Sensitivity to AP-1 Transcription in the Hypothalamus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Glenn C.; Vialou, Vincent; Sato, Kazusa; Saito, Hiroaki; Yin, Min; Green, Thomas A.; Lotinun, Sutada; Kveiborg, Marie; Horne, William C.; Nestler, Eric J.; Baron, Roland

    2012-01-01

    The regulation of bone and fat homeostasis and its relationship to energy expenditure has recently been the focus of increased attention due to its potential relevance to osteoporosis, obesity and diabetes. Although central effectors within the hypothalamus have been shown to contribute to the regulation of both energy balance and bone homeostasis, little is known of the underlying mechanisms, including the possible involvement of transcriptional factors within the hypothalamus. Transgenic mice overexpressing ΔFosB, a splice variant of the AP1 transcription factor FosB with mixed agonist-antagonistic properties, have increased energy expenditure and bone mass. Since these mice express ΔFosB in bone, fat and hypothalamus, we sought to determine 1) whether overexpression of ΔFosB within the hypothalamus was sufficient to regulate energy expenditure and whether it would also regulate bone mass, and 2) whether these effects were due to antagonism to AP1. Our results show that stereotactic injection of an adeno-associated virus vector to restrict overexpression of ΔFosB to the ventral hypothalamus of wildtype mice induced a profound increase in both energy expenditure and bone formation and bone mass. This effect was phenocopied, at an even stronger level, by overexpressiong of a dominant-negative DNJunD, a pure AP1 antagonist. Taken together these results suggest that downregulation of AP1 activity in the hypothalamus profoundly increases energy expenditure and bone formation, leading to both a decrease in adipose mass and an increase in bone mass. These findings may have physiological implications since ΔFosB is expressed and regulated in the hypothalamus. PMID:22461201

  17. Differences in oxygen uptake but equivalent energy expenditure between a brief bout of cycling and running

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bunker Michael P

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We examined aerobic and anaerobic exercise energy expenditure and excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC between a 250 Watt, 1-minute bout of cycling and uphill treadmill running. Methods Fourteen active to well-trained subjects volunteered for the investigation (VO2 max: 57.0 ± 12.9 ml·kg·min-1 cycle; 59.3 ± 13.7 ml·kg·min-1 run; p = 0.44. Anaerobic energy expenditure was estimated from △blood lactate. Statistical analysis was completed using a paired t-test (mean ± SD. Results Perceived exertion did not differ between exercise bouts (14.0 ± 2.3 cycle; 13.2 ± 2.1 run; p = 0.29. Exercise oxygen uptake was significantly greater for running (41.4 ± 6.9 kJ compared to cycling (31.7 ± 7.7 kJ (p = 0.0001. EPOC was not different between cycling and running (p = 0.21 so that exercise oxygen uptake + EPOC was greater for running (103.0 ± 13.5 kJ as compared to cycling (85.4 ± 20.2 kJ; p = 0.008. Anaerobic energy expenditure was significantly greater for cycling (32.7 ± 8.9 kJ versus running (22.5 ± 11.1 kJ (p = 0.009. Aerobic + anaerobic exercise energy expenditure (cycle 64.3 ± 12.2 kJ; run 63.9 ± 10.1 kJ (p = 0.90 and total energy expenditure (including EPOC; cycle 118.0 ± 21.8 kJ; run 125.4 ± 19.1 kJ; p = 0.36 were similar for cycling and running. Conclusion Oxygen-only measures reveal discrepancy in energy expenditure between cycling and uphill running. Measurements of exercise oxygen uptake, △blood lactate and a modified EPOC promote the hypothesis of a similarity in exercise and total energy expenditure between 1-minute work-equivalent bouts of cycling and uphill running.

  18. Putting Desire on a Budget: Dopamine and Energy Expenditure, Reconciling Reward and Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff A Beeler

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence indicates integration of dopamine function with metabolic signals, highlighting a potential role for dopamine in energy balance, frequently construed as modulating reward in response to homeostatic state. Though its precise role remains controversial, the reward perspective of dopamine has dominated investigation of motivational disorders, including obesity. In the hypothesis outlined here, we suggest instead that the primary role of dopamine in behavior is to modulate activity to adapt behavioral energy expenditure to the prevailing environmental energy conditions, with the role of dopamine in reward and motivated behaviors derived from its primary role in energy balance. Dopamine has long been known to modulate activity, exemplified by psychostimulants that act via dopamine. More recently, there has been nascent investigation into the role of dopamine in modulating voluntary activity, with some investigators suggesting that dopamine may serve as a final common pathway that couples energy sensing to regulated voluntary energy expenditure. We suggest that interposed between input from both the internal and external world, dopamine modulates behavioral energy expenditure along two axes: a conserve-expend axis that regulates generalized activity and an explore-exploit axes that regulates the degree to which reward value biases the distribution of activity. In this view, increased dopamine does not promote consumption of tasty food. Instead increased dopamine promotes energy expenditure and exploration while decreased dopamine favors energy conservation and exploitation. This hypothesis provides a mechanistic interpretation to an apparent paradox: the well-established role of dopamine in food seeking and the findings that low dopaminergic functions are associated with obesity. Our hypothesis provides an alternative perspective on the role of dopamine in obesity and reinterprets the ‘reward deficiency hypothesis’ as a

  19. Improving assessment of daily energy expenditure by identifying types of physical activity with a single accelerometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonomi, A G; Plasqui, G; Goris, A H C; Westerterp, K R

    2009-09-01

    Accelerometers are often used to quantify the acceleration of the body in arbitrary units (counts) to measure physical activity (PA) and to estimate energy expenditure. The present study investigated whether the identification of types of PA with one accelerometer could improve the estimation of energy expenditure compared with activity counts. Total energy expenditure (TEE) of 15 subjects was measured with the use of double-labeled water. The physical activity level (PAL) was derived by dividing TEE by sleeping metabolic rate. Simultaneously, PA was measured with one accelerometer. Accelerometer output was processed to calculate activity counts per day (AC(D)) and to determine the daily duration of six types of common activities identified with a classification tree model. A daily metabolic value (MET(D)) was calculated as mean of the MET compendium value of each activity type weighed by the daily duration. TEE was predicted by AC(D) and body weight and by AC(D) and fat-free mass, with a standard error of estimate (SEE) of 1.47 MJ/day, and 1.2 MJ/day, respectively. The replacement in these models of AC(D) with MET(D) increased the explained variation in TEE by 9%, decreasing SEE by 0.14 MJ/day and 0.18 MJ/day, respectively. The correlation between PAL and MET(D) (R(2) = 51%) was higher than that between PAL and AC(D) (R(2) = 46%). We conclude that identification of activity types combined with MET intensity values improves the assessment of energy expenditure compared with activity counts. Future studies could develop models to objectively assess activity type and intensity to further increase accuracy of the energy expenditure estimation.

  20. The role of the endocannabinoid system in the regulation of energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavuoto, Paul; Wittert, Gary A

    2009-02-01

    Endocannabinoids, a lipid-derived signaling system, regulate appetite and motivation to eat via effects in the hypothalamus and nucleus accumbens. Not all the effects of endocannabinoids on fat mass can be explained by the regulation of food intake alone. Endocannabinoids and their receptors are located in areas of the central nervous system and multiple peripheral tissues involved in the regulation of intermediary metabolism and energy expenditure. In addition to regulating food intake by both central and peripherally mediated effects, endocannabinoids modify glucose and lipid metabolism so as to promote energy storage via lipogenesis and reduce energy expenditure. The endocannabinoid system appears to be overactive in obesity and may serve to maintain fat mass and underlies some of the metabolic consequences of obesity. Inhibition of the cannabinoid type-1 receptor ameliorates the effects of endocannabinoids on food intake and energy metabolism; lipogenesis is inhibited, lipolysis, fatty acid oxidation and glucose uptake increase.

  1. Basal Metabolic Rate and Energy Expenditure of Rural Farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BRIAN

    2013-09-04

    Sep 4, 2013 ... Department of Food Science and Technology, Sokoine University of Agriculture,. P.O. Box ... caloric intake per capita and the WHO/FAO recommended energy ... The meals, drinks and activities done were monitored to ensure.

  2. Modelling of Energy Expenditure at Welding Workstations: Effect of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Particular emphasis is placed on the effect of temperature on work performance. The important principle of conduction is applied through the human flesh that experiences temperature changes at the welding workstation.

  3. Total Energy Expenditure and Body Composition in Two Free-Living Sympatric Lemurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmen, Bruno; Bayart, Françoise; Rasamimanana, Hanta; Zahariev, Alexandre; Blanc, Stéphane; Pasquet, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Background Evolutionary theories that account for the unusual socio-ecological traits and life history features of group-living prosimians, compared with other primates, predict behavioral and physiological mechanisms to conserve energy. Low energy output and possible fattening mechanisms are expected, as either an adaptive response to drastic seasonal fluctuations of food supplies in Madagascar, or persisting traits from previously nocturnal hypometabolic ancestors. Free ranging ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) and brown lemurs (Eulemur sp.) of southern Madagascar have different socio-ecological characteristics which allow a test of these theories: Both gregarious primates have a phytophagous diet but different circadian activity rhythms, degree of arboreality, social systems, and slightly different body size. Methodology and Results Daily total energy expenditure and body composition were measured in the field with the doubly labeled water procedure. High body fat content was observed at the end of the rainy season, which supports the notion that individuals need to attain a sufficient physical condition prior to the long dry season. However, ring-tailed lemurs exhibited lower water flux rates and energy expenditure than brown lemurs after controlling for body mass differences. The difference was interpreted to reflect higher efficiency for coping with seasonally low quality foods and water scarcity. Daily energy expenditure of both species was much less than the field metabolic rates predicted by various scaling relationships found across mammals. Discussion We argue that low energy output in these species is mainly accounted for by low basal metabolic rate and reflects adaptation to harsh, unpredictable environments. The absence of observed sex differences in body weight, fat content, and daily energy expenditure converge with earlier investigations of physical activity levels in ring-tailed lemurs to suggest the absence of a relationship between energy

  4. Total energy expenditure and body composition in two free-living sympatric lemurs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Simmen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evolutionary theories that account for the unusual socio-ecological traits and life history features of group-living prosimians, compared with other primates, predict behavioral and physiological mechanisms to conserve energy. Low energy output and possible fattening mechanisms are expected, as either an adaptive response to drastic seasonal fluctuations of food supplies in Madagascar, or persisting traits from previously nocturnal hypometabolic ancestors. Free ranging ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta and brown lemurs (Eulemur sp. of southern Madagascar have different socio-ecological characteristics which allow a test of these theories: Both gregarious primates have a phytophagous diet but different circadian activity rhythms, degree of arboreality, social systems, and slightly different body size. METHODOLOGY AND RESULTS: Daily total energy expenditure and body composition were measured in the field with the doubly labeled water procedure. High body fat content was observed at the end of the rainy season, which supports the notion that individuals need to attain a sufficient physical condition prior to the long dry season. However, ring-tailed lemurs exhibited lower water flux rates and energy expenditure than brown lemurs after controlling for body mass differences. The difference was interpreted to reflect higher efficiency for coping with seasonally low quality foods and water scarcity. Daily energy expenditure of both species was much less than the field metabolic rates predicted by various scaling relationships found across mammals. DISCUSSION: We argue that low energy output in these species is mainly accounted for by low basal metabolic rate and reflects adaptation to harsh, unpredictable environments. The absence of observed sex differences in body weight, fat content, and daily energy expenditure converge with earlier investigations of physical activity levels in ring-tailed lemurs to suggest the absence of a relationship

  5. Association of lower limb muscle mass and energy expenditure with visceral fat mass in healthy men

    OpenAIRE

    Yagi, S.; Kadota, M; Aihara, K; Nishikawa, K.; Hara, T.; Ise, T.; Ueda, Y; Iwase, T; Akaike, M; Shimabukuro, M; Katoh, S.; Sata, M

    2014-01-01

    Background A high-calorie diet and physical inactivity, an imbalance between caloric intake and energy consumption, are major causes of metabolic syndrome (MetS), which manifests as accumulation of visceral fat and insulin resistance. However, the lifestyle-related factors associated with visceral fat mass in healthy men are not fully understood. Methods We evaluated visceral fat area (VFA), skeletal muscle mass, caloric intake, and energy expenditure in 67 healthy male participants (mean age...

  6. [Energy expenditure on different physical activities of rural adults in North China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhimin; Wang, Xiaolu; Zhuo, Qin; Wang, Jing; Hu, Feng; Piao, Jianhua; Liu, Fenghai; Cao, Haiyi

    2012-01-01

    To test the energy metabolism of healthy adults in rural north China and to obtain the data of energy expenditure on different physical activities, in order to provide the basis for the Dietary Reference Intakes for Chinese people and the prevention and treatment of diseases related to energy and nutrition imbalance. The energy expenditures on different physical activities of 30 healthy adult men and women were investigated under strictly controlled experimental conditions by using portable cardiopulmonary function determinator k4b2 to examine the oxygen consumption (VO2) and carbon dioxide production (VCO2) during basal metabolic conditions and seven kinds of physical activities (walking, brisk walking, jogging, cycling, stair climbing, and watching TV). The content of 24-hour urine nitrogen was measured by micro Kjeldahl method. Combining with the change of body weight, the energy expenditures on different physical activities of normal adult men and women in north China were obtained. The average energy expenditure on physical activities (kJ x h(-1) x kg(-1)) were: walking 12.60 +/- 5.54 (11.46 +/- 2.19 for male and 15.47 +/- 6.97 for female), brisk walking 20.79 +/- 10.46 (15.95 +/- 3.59 for male and 25.33 +/- 12.70 for female), jogging 34.78 +/- 16.00 (30.45 +/- 5.07 for male and 38.84 +/- 21.58 for female) cycling 16.47 +/- 3.95 (14.77 +/- 2.57 for male and 18.74 +/- 4.85 for female), going up stairs 23.55 +/- 5.05 (23.61 +/- 3.43 for male and 23.49 +/- 6.41 for female) going down stairs 12.46 +/- 6.30 (10.43 +/- 1.27 for male and 14.49 +/- 8.48 for female) and watching TV 3.85 +/- 1.97 (3.56 +/- 0.86 for male and 4.16 +/- 2.79 for female). The average energy expenditure on physical activities of males was lower than that of females (P stairs, which was roughly equal in males and females. The average energy expenditure on various physical activities was different. Walking, watching TV and going downstairs are low-intensity physical activities; brisk walking

  7. Application of cross-sectional time series modeling for the prediction of energy expenditure from heart rate and accelerometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accurate estimation of energy expenditure (EE) in children and adolescents is required for a better understanding of physiological, behavioral, and environmental factors affecting energy balance. Cross-sectional time series (CSTS) models, which account for correlation structure of repeated observati...

  8. Plasma bile acids are not associated with energy metabolism in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brufau, Gemma; Bahr, Matthias J.; Staels, Bart; Claudel, Thierry; Ockenga, Johann; Boker, Klaus H. W.; Murphy, Elizabeth J.; Prado, Kris; Stellaard, Frans; Manns, Michael P.; Kuipers, Folkert; Tietge, Uwe J. F.

    2010-01-01

    Bile acids (BA) have recently been shown to increase energy expenditure in mice, but this concept has not been tested in humans. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between plasma BA levels and energy expenditure in humans. Type 2 diabetic (T2DM) patients (n = 12) and gender, age and BMI-mat

  9. Energy expenditure for thermoregulation and locomotion in emperor penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinshow, B; Fedak, M A; Battles, D R; Schmidt-Nielsen, K

    1976-09-01

    During the antarctic winter emperor penguins (Aptenodytes forsteri) spend up to four mo fasting while they breed at rookeries 80 km or more from the sea, huddling close together in the cold. This breeding cycle makes exceptional demands on their energy reserves, and we therefore studied their thermoregulation and locomotion. Rates of metabolism were measured in five birds (mean body mass, 23.37 kg) at ambient temperatures ranging from 25 to -47 degrees C. Between 20 and -10 degrees C the metabolic rate (standard metabolic rate (SMR)) remained neraly constant, about 42.9 W. Below -10 degrees C metabolic rate increased lineraly with decreasing ambient temperature and at -47 degrees C it was 70% above the SMR. Mean thermal conductance below -10 degrees C was 1.57 W m-2 degrees C-1. Metabolic rate during treadmill walking increased linearly with increasing speed. Our data suggest that walking 200 km (from the sea to the rookery and back) requires less than 15% of the energy reserves of a breeding male emperor penguin initially weighing 35 kg. The high energy requirement for thermoregulation (about 85%) would, in the absence of huddling, probably exceed the total energy reserves.

  10. Energy expenditure and food requirement of Cassin's Auklets provisioning nestlings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hodum, PJ; Sydeman, WJ; Visser, GH; Weathers, WW

    We used the doubly-labeled water technique to measure the field metabolic rate (FMR) of free-ranging adult Cassin's Auklets (Ptychoramphus aleuticus) that were provisioning half-grown nestlings. FMR averaged 3.68 +/- 0.38 mL CO(2) g(-1) hr(-1) (n = 9), which is equivalent to a daily energy

  11. Caffeine consumption around an exercise bout: effects on energy expenditure, energy intake, and exercise enjoyment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Matthew M; Hall, Susan; Leveritt, Michael; Grant, Gary; Sabapathy, Surendran; Desbrow, Ben

    2014-10-01

    Combining an exercise and nutritional intervention is arguably the optimal method of creating energy imbalance for weight loss. This study sought to determine whether combining exercise and caffeine supplementation was more effective for promoting acute energy deficits and manipulations to substrate metabolism than exercise alone. Fourteen recreationally active participants (mean ± SD body mass index: 22.7 ± 2.6 kg/m2) completed a resting control trial (CON), a placebo exercise trial (EX), and a caffeine exercise trial (EX+CAF, 2 × 3 mg/kg of caffeine 90 min before and 30 min after exercise) in a randomized, double-blinded design. Trials were 4 h in duration with 1 h of rest, 1 h of cycling at ∼65% power at maximum O2 consumption or rest, and a 2-h recovery. Gas exchange, appetite perceptions, and blood samples were obtained periodically. Two hours after exercise, participants were offered an ad libitum test meal where energy and macronutrient intake were recorded. EX+CAF resulted in significantly greater energy expenditure and fat oxidation compared with EX (+250 kJ; +10.4 g) and CON (+3,126 kJ; +29.7 g) (P Caffeine also led to exercise being perceived as less difficult and more enjoyable (P caffeine with exercise creates a greater acute energy deficit, and the implications of this protocol for weight loss or maintenance over longer periods of time in overweight/obese populations should be further investigated. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  12. A creatine-driven substrate cycle enhances energy expenditure and thermogenesis in beige fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazak, Lawrence; Chouchani, Edward T; Jedrychowski, Mark P; Erickson, Brian K; Shinoda, Kosaku; Cohen, Paul; Vetrivelan, Ramalingam; Lu, Gina Z; Laznik-Bogoslavski, Dina; Hasenfuss, Sebastian C; Kajimura, Shingo; Gygi, Steve P; Spiegelman, Bruce M

    2015-10-22

    Thermogenic brown and beige adipose tissues dissipate chemical energy as heat, and their thermogenic activities can combat obesity and diabetes. Herein the functional adaptations to cold of brown and beige adipose depots are examined using quantitative mitochondrial proteomics. We identify arginine/creatine metabolism as a beige adipose signature and demonstrate that creatine enhances respiration in beige-fat mitochondria when ADP is limiting. In murine beige fat, cold exposure stimulates mitochondrial creatine kinase activity and induces coordinated expression of genes associated with creatine metabolism. Pharmacological reduction of creatine levels decreases whole-body energy expenditure after administration of a β3-agonist and reduces beige and brown adipose metabolic rate. Genes of creatine metabolism are compensatorily induced when UCP1-dependent thermogenesis is ablated, and creatine reduction in Ucp1-deficient mice reduces core body temperature. These findings link a futile cycle of creatine metabolism to adipose tissue energy expenditure and thermal homeostasis. PAPERCLIP.

  13. The ‘39 steps’: an algorithm for performing statistical analysis of data on energy intake and expenditure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Speakman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The epidemics of obesity and diabetes have aroused great interest in the analysis of energy balance, with the use of organisms ranging from nematode worms to humans. Although generating energy-intake or -expenditure data is relatively straightforward, the most appropriate way to analyse the data has been an issue of contention for many decades. In the last few years, a consensus has been reached regarding the best methods for analysing such data. To facilitate using these best-practice methods, we present here an algorithm that provides a step-by-step guide for analysing energy-intake or -expenditure data. The algorithm can be used to analyse data from either humans or experimental animals, such as small mammals or invertebrates. It can be used in combination with any commercial statistics package; however, to assist with analysis, we have included detailed instructions for performing each step for three popular statistics packages (SPSS, MINITAB and R. We also provide interpretations of the results obtained at each step. We hope that this algorithm will assist in the statistically appropriate analysis of such data, a field in which there has been much confusion and some controversy.

  14. Yeast adaptation to weak acids prevents futile energy expenditure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azmat eUllah

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Weak organic acids (WOA are widely used preservatives to prevent fungal spoilage of foods and beverages. Exposure of baker’s yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to WOA leads to cellular acidification and anion accumulation. Pre-adaptation of cultures reduced the rate of acidification caused by weak acid exposure, most likely as a result of changes in plasma membrane or cell wall composition. In order to adapt to sublethal concentrations of the acids and grow, yeast cells activate ATP consuming membrane transporters to remove protons and anions. We explored to what extent ATP depletion contributes to growth inhibition in sorbic or acetic acid treated cells. Therefore, we analyzed the effect of the reduction of proton and anion pumping activity on intracellular pH (pHi, growth, and energy status upon exposure to the hydrophilic acetic acid (HA and the lipophilic sorbic acid (HS. ATP concentrations were dependent on the severity of the stress. Unexpectedly, we observed a stronger reduction of ATP with growth reducing than with growth inhibitory concentrations of both acids. We deduce that the not the ATP reduction caused by proton pumping, but rather the cost of sorbate anion pumping contributes to growth inhibition. A reduction of proton pumping activity may reduce ATP consumption, but the resulting decrease of intracellular pH affects growth more. ATP utilization was differentially regulated during moderate and severe stress conditions. We propose that the energy depletion alone is not the cause of growth inhibition during HA or HS stress. Rather, the cells appear to reduce ATP consumption in high stress conditions, likely to prevent futile cycling and maintain energy reserves for growth resumption in more favorable conditions. The mechanism for such decision making remains to be established.

  15. Impact of insufficient sleep on total daily energy expenditure, food intake, and weight gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markwald, Rachel R.; Melanson, Edward L.; Smith, Mark R.; Higgins, Janine; Perreault, Leigh; Eckel, Robert H.; Wright, Kenneth P.

    2013-01-01

    Insufficient sleep is associated with obesity, yet little is known about how repeated nights of insufficient sleep influence energy expenditure and balance. We studied 16 adults in a 14- to 15-d-long inpatient study and quantified effects of 5 d of insufficient sleep, equivalent to a work week, on energy expenditure and energy intake compared with adequate sleep. We found that insufficient sleep increased total daily energy expenditure by ∼5%; however, energy intake—especially at night after dinner—was in excess of energy needed to maintain energy balance. Insufficient sleep led to 0.82 ± 0.47 kg (±SD) weight gain despite changes in hunger and satiety hormones ghrelin and leptin, and peptide YY, which signaled excess energy stores. Insufficient sleep delayed circadian melatonin phase and also led to an earlier circadian phase of wake time. Sex differences showed women, not men, maintained weight during adequate sleep, whereas insufficient sleep reduced dietary restraint and led to weight gain in women. Our findings suggest that increased food intake during insufficient sleep is a physiological adaptation to provide energy needed to sustain additional wakefulness; yet when food is easily accessible, intake surpasses that needed. We also found that transitioning from an insufficient to adequate/recovery sleep schedule decreased energy intake, especially of fats and carbohydrates, and led to −0.03 ± 0.50 kg weight loss. These findings provide evidence that sleep plays a key role in energy metabolism. Importantly, they demonstrate physiological and behavioral mechanisms by which insufficient sleep may contribute to overweight and obesity. PMID:23479616

  16. Impact of insufficient sleep on total daily energy expenditure, food intake, and weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markwald, Rachel R; Melanson, Edward L; Smith, Mark R; Higgins, Janine; Perreault, Leigh; Eckel, Robert H; Wright, Kenneth P

    2013-04-02

    Insufficient sleep is associated with obesity, yet little is known about how repeated nights of insufficient sleep influence energy expenditure and balance. We studied 16 adults in a 14- to 15-d-long inpatient study and quantified effects of 5 d of insufficient sleep, equivalent to a work week, on energy expenditure and energy intake compared with adequate sleep. We found that insufficient sleep increased total daily energy expenditure by ∼5%; however, energy intake--especially at night after dinner--was in excess of energy needed to maintain energy balance. Insufficient sleep led to 0.82 ± 0.47 kg (±SD) weight gain despite changes in hunger and satiety hormones ghrelin and leptin, and peptide YY, which signaled excess energy stores. Insufficient sleep delayed circadian melatonin phase and also led to an earlier circadian phase of wake time. Sex differences showed women, not men, maintained weight during adequate sleep, whereas insufficient sleep reduced dietary restraint and led to weight gain in women. Our findings suggest that increased food intake during insufficient sleep is a physiological adaptation to provide energy needed to sustain additional wakefulness; yet when food is easily accessible, intake surpasses that needed. We also found that transitioning from an insufficient to adequate/recovery sleep schedule decreased energy intake, especially of fats and carbohydrates, and led to -0.03 ± 0.50 kg weight loss. These findings provide evidence that sleep plays a key role in energy metabolism. Importantly, they demonstrate physiological and behavioral mechanisms by which insufficient sleep may contribute to overweight and obesity.

  17. High levels of whole-body energy expenditure are associated with a lower coupling of skeletal muscle mitochondria in C57Bl/6 mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, S.A.A. van den; Nabben, M.; Bijland, S.; Voshol, P.J.; Klinken, J.B. van; Havekes, L.M.; Romijn, J.A.; Hoeks, J.; Hesselink, M.K.; Schrauwen, P.; Dijk, K.W. van

    2010-01-01

    Considerable variation in energy expenditure is observed in C57Bl/6 mice on a high-fat diet. Because muscle tissue is a major determinant of whole-body energy expenditure, we set out to determine the variation in energy expenditure and its possible association with skeletal muscle mitochondrial func

  18. Budgetary Expenditure on Health and Human Development in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brijesh C. Purohit

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at analyzing the differentials across rich and poor states and across rich and poorer strata and rural urban segments of 19 major Indian states. The study indicates that besides individual health financing policies of the respective state governments, there are significant disparities even between rural and urban strata and rich and poorer sections of the society. These are indicated by high inequality coefficients and an emerging pattern of life style second generation health problems as well as levels of utilization of both preventive and curative care both in public and private sectors. Our results emphasise that there is a need to increase public expenditure on health, improve efficiency in utilization of existing public facilities, and popularize government run health insurance schemes meant primarily for the poor. These steps may help to mitigate partly the inequitable outcomes.

  19. Effect of exercise and protein intake on energy expenditure in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barenys, M; Recasens, M A; Martí-Henneberg, C; Salas-Salvadó, J

    1993-12-01

    In order to evaluate the influence of physical exercise and protein intake on Resting Metabolic Rate (RMR) and Postprandial Energy Expenditure (PEE), 16 healthy, normal-weight, 15 year-old, adolescent males at the same stage of pubertal development were studied. They were assigned to two dietary groups receiving the same energy intake (1.3 x by measured RMR) and different proportions of macronutrients (13% protein, 39% fat, 48% CHO in Group A; 30% protein, 32% fat, 38% CHO in Group B). An increase in postprandial energy expenditure, relative to basal, was observed in all individuals. The postprandial energy expenditure was higher in group B than in group A. Postprandial Post-exercise Thermogenesis (expressed as Kcal/3 h) was significantly higher in group B than group A (p hyperproteic diet followed by moderately-intensive exercise induces increases in EE and decreases in RQ in the postprandial post-exercise period and is accompanied by increase in the RMR the following day.

  20. Validation of the Fitbit wireless activity tracker for prediction of energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Jeffer Eidi; Hickey, Amanda; Mavilia, Marianna; Tedesco, Jacquelynne; John, Dinesh; Kozey Keadle, Sarah; Freedson, Patty S

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the accuracy of the Fitbit wireless activity tracker in assessing energy expenditure (EE) for different activities. Twenty participants (10 males, 10 females) wore the Fitbit Classic wireless activity tracker on the hip and the Oxycon Mobile portable metabolic system (criterion). Participants performed walking and running trials on a treadmill and a simulated free-living activity routine. Paired t tests were used to test for differences between estimated (Fitbit) and criterion (Oxycon) kcals for each of the activities. Mean bias for estimated energy expenditure for all activities was -4.5 ± 1.0 kcals/6 min (95% limits of agreement: -25.2 to 15.8 kcals/6 min). The Fitbit significantly underestimated EE for cycling, laundry, raking, treadmill (TM) 3 mph at 5% grade, ascent/descent stairs, and TM 4 mph at 5% grade, and significantly overestimated EE for carrying groceries. Energy expenditure estimated by the Fitbit was not significantly different than EE calculated from the Oxycon Mobile for 9 activities. The Fitbit worn on the hip significantly underestimates EE of activities. The variability in underestimation of EE for the different activities may be problematic for weight loss management applications since accurate EE estimates are important for tracking/monitoring energy deficit.

  1. The contribution of body composition, substrates and hormones to the variability in energy expenditure and substrate utilization in premenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, A.; Buemann, Benjamin; Christensen, N.J.

    1992-01-01

    of body weight were examined in the follicular menstrual phase under weight stable conditions. Most of the variance in the sleeping energy expenditure (82%) was accounted for by two covariates, lean body mass (75%, P less than 0.0001), and fat mass (7%, P less than 0.0001). An additional 6......% of the variance in sleeping energy expenditure was accounted for by plasma androstenedione concentration (4%, P = 0.0005) and by free T3 index (2%, P = 0.03). Thus physiological variation among individuals in plasma androstenedione concentration may result in a difference in energy expenditure of 908 k...

  2. Only lower limb controlled interactive computer gaming enables an effective increase in energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Mark; Donne, Bernard; Fletcher, David

    2011-07-01

    Limited research documents if new and existing interactive computer gaming "exergaming" increase energy expenditure and cardio-respiratory costs comparable to common exercise modalities. To address this, healthy male volunteers (n = 15) completed six by 12-min test elements: PlayStation2 (PS2(hand)), Nintendo Wii boxing, walk at 5.6 km h(-1), cycle at 120 W, playing an adapted lower limb controlled PS2 (PS2(limb)) and run at 9.6 km h(-1). In addition, they played PS2(limb) for 30 min and performed an incremental treadmill test to exhaustion. Data were analysed using repeated measures ANOVA with post hoc Tukey tests, P energy expenditure (EE) and post-exercise blood lactate (BLa) significantly higher (P met ACSM guidelines for cardiovascular fitness; however, current Wii technology failed. In conclusion, gaming interactive technology must be adapted or designed to include the lower limbs in order to provide a significant exercise stimulus.

  3. Engaging inner city middle school students in development of an energy expenditure food label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaulding, Carol J; Mcneal, Catherine J; Coppin, John David; Shimek, Christine; Field, Lindsey; Murano, Peter S

    2015-01-01

    Using food labels can be an important component of maintaining healthy weight, but young adolescents are unlikely to have the requisite skills to make use of food labeling information. Our objectives were to determine knowledge about calories and comprehension and use of the Nutrition Facts Panel among a group of inner city African-American and Hispanic middle school students, and to engage the students in refining a Calorie Converter energy expenditure food label. We used quantitative and qualitative methods including questionnaires, focus groups, and hands-on graphic design activities. Correctly defining the word "calorie" was associated with correct answers to three of four questions requiring interpretation of the Nutrition Facts Panel [χ(2)(1, 138, p students' design and content modifications for the Calorie Converter label, and the majority indicated that the energy expenditure label would influence their food selection practices.

  4. Change in energy expenditure and physical activity in response to aerobic and resistance exercise programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drenowatz, Clemens; Grieve, George L; DeMello, Madison M

    2015-01-01

    Exercise is considered an important component of a healthy lifestyle but there remains controversy on effects of exercise on non-exercise physical activity (PA). The present study examined the prospective association of aerobic and resistance exercise with total daily energy expenditure and PA in previously sedentary, young men. Nine men (27.0 ± 3.3 years) completed two 16-week exercise programs (3 exercise sessions per week) of aerobic and resistance exercise separated by a minimum of 6 weeks in random order. Energy expenditure and PA were measured with the SenseWear Mini Armband prior to each intervention as well as during week 1, week 8 and week 16 of the aerobic and resistance exercise program. Body composition was measured via dual x-ray absorptiometry. Body composition did not change in response to either exercise intervention. Total daily energy expenditure on exercise days increased by 443 ± 126 kcal/d and 239 ± 152 kcal/d for aerobic and resistance exercise, respectively (p change in total daily energy expenditure and PA on non-exercise days with aerobic exercise while resistance exercise was associated with an increase in moderate-to-vigorous PA during non-exercise days (216 ± 178 kcal/d, p = 0.01). Results of the present study suggest a compensatory reduction in PA in response to aerobic exercise. Resistance exercise, on the other hand, appears to facilitate non-exercise PA, particularly on non-exercise days, which may lead to more sustainable adaptations in response to an exercise program.

  5. Influence of Weight Classification on Walking and Jogging Energy Expenditure Prediction in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heden, Timothy D.; LeCheminant, James D.; Smith, John D.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of weight classification on predicting energy expenditure (EE) in women. Twelve overweight (body mass index [BMI] = 25-29.99 kg/m[superscript 2]) and 12 normal-weight (BMI = 18.5-24.99 kg/m[superscript 2]) women walked and jogged 1,609 m at 1.34 m.s[superscript -1] and 2.23 m.s[superscript…

  6. Hierarchical approaches to estimate energy expenditure using phone-based accelerometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vathsangam, Harshvardhan; Schroeder, E Todd; Sukhatme, Gaurav S

    2014-07-01

    Physical inactivity is linked with increase in risk of cancer, heart disease, stroke, and diabetes. Walking is an easily available activity to reduce sedentary time. Objective methods to accurately assess energy expenditure from walking that is normalized to an individual would allow tailored interventions. Current techniques rely on normalization by weight scaling or fitting a polynomial function of weight and speed. Using the example of steady-state treadmill walking, we present a set of algorithms that extend previous work to include an arbitrary number of anthropometric descriptors. We specifically focus on predicting energy expenditure using movement measured by mobile phone-based accelerometers. The models tested include nearest neighbor models, weight-scaled models, a set of hierarchical linear models, multivariate models, and speed-based approaches. These are compared for prediction accuracy as measured by normalized average root mean-squared error across all participants. Nearest neighbor models showed highest errors. Feature combinations corresponding to sedentary energy expenditure, sedentary heart rate, and sex alone resulted in errors that were higher than speed-based models and nearest-neighbor models. Size-based features such as BMI, weight, and height produced lower errors. Hierarchical models performed better than multivariate models when size-based features were used. We used the hierarchical linear model to determine the best individual feature to describe a person. Weight was the best individual descriptor followed by height. We also test models for their ability to predict energy expenditure with limited training data. Hierarchical models outperformed personal models when a low amount of training data were available. Speed-based models showed poor interpolation capability, whereas hierarchical models showed uniform interpolation capabilities across speeds.

  7. The dancer : Physical effort, muscle fibre types, and energy intake and expenditure

    OpenAIRE

    Dahlström, Monica

    1996-01-01

    The Dancer Physical Effort, Muscle Fibre Types, and Energy Intake and Expenditure Monica Dahlström From Karolinska Institutet, Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences and Technology, Division of Clinical Physiology, Huddinge University Hospital, Huddinge, Sweden. The aims of this thesis were: -to estimate aerobic fitness in dancers and analyse possible changes during a three-year dance course and after a detraining period. -to compare different dance style...

  8. Exploring Metrics to Express Energy Expenditure of Physical Activity in Youth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G McMurray

    Full Text Available Several approaches have been used to express energy expenditure in youth, but no consensus exists as to which best normalizes data for the wide range of ages and body sizes across a range of physical activities. This study examined several common metrics for expressing energy expenditure to determine whether one metric can be used for all healthy children. Such a metric could improve our ability to further advance the Compendium of Physical Activities for Youth.A secondary analysis of oxygen uptake (VO2 data obtained from five sites was completed, that included 947 children ages 5 to 18 years, who engaged in 14 different activities. Resting metabolic rate (RMR was computed based on Schofield Equations [Hum Nutr Clin Nut. 39(Suppl 1, 1985]. Absolute oxygen uptake (ml.min-1, oxygen uptake per kilogram body mass (VO2 in ml.kg-1.min-1, net oxygen uptake (VO2 - resting metabolic rate, allometric scaled oxygen uptake (VO2 in ml.kg-0.75.min-1 and YOUTH-MET (VO2.[resting VO2] -1 were calculated. These metrics were regressed with age, sex, height, and body mass.Net and allometric-scaled VO2, and YOUTH-MET were least associated with age, sex and physical characteristics. For moderate-to-vigorous intensity activities, allometric scaling was least related to age and sex. For sedentary and low-intensity activities, YOUTH-MET was least related to age and sex.No energy expenditure metric completely eliminated the influence of age, physical characteristics, and sex. The Adult MET consistently overestimated EE. YOUTH-MET was better for expressing energy expenditure for sedentary and light activities, whereas allometric scaling was better for moderate and vigorous intensity activities. From a practical perspective, The YOUTH-MET may be the more feasible metric for improving of the Compendium of Physical Activities for Youth.

  9. Effects of Commercially Available Dietary Supplements on Resting Energy Expenditure: A Brief Report

    OpenAIRE

    Vaughan, Roger A; Conn, Carole A; Christine M. Mermier

    2014-01-01

    Commercially available dietary products advertised to promote weight loss are an underresearched but heavily purchased commodity in the United States. Despite only limited evidence, interest in dietary supplements continues to increase. This work uniquely summarizes the current evidence evaluating the efficacy of several over-the-counter thermogenic products for their effects on resting energy expenditure. Currently, there is some evidence suggesting dietary products containing select ingredi...

  10. Evaluation of energy expenditure in forward and backward movements performed by soccer referees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Paes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to measure the energy expenditure for locomotor activities usually performed by soccer referees during a match (walking, jogging, and running under laboratory conditions, and to compare forward with backward movements. The sample was composed by 10 male soccer referees, age 29±7.8 years, body mass 77.5±6.2 kg, stature 1.78±0.07 m and professional experience of 7.33±4.92 years. Referees were evaluated on two separate occasions. On the first day, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max was determined by a maximal treadmill test, and on the second day, the oxygen consumption was determined in different speeds of forward and backward movements. The mean VO2max was 41.20±3.60 mL·kg-1·min-1 and the mean heart rate achieved in the last stage of the test was 190.5±7.9 bpm. When results of forward and backward movements were compared at 1.62 m/s (walking speed, we found significant differences in VO2, in metabolic equivalents, and in kcal. However, the same parameters in forward and backward movements at jogging velocities (2.46 m/s were not significantly different, showing that these motor activities have similar intensity. Backward movements at velocities equivalent to walking and jogging are moderate-intensity activities, with energy expenditure less than 9 kcal. Energy expenditure was overestimated by at least 35% when calculated by mathematical equations. In summary, we observed that backward movements are not high-intensity activities as has been commonly reported, and when calculated using equations available in the literature, energy expenditure was overestimated compared to the values obtained by indirect calorimetry.

  11. Panax red ginseng extract regulates energy expenditures by modulating PKA dependent lipid mobilization in adipose tissue.

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    Cho, Hae-Mi; Kang, Young-Ho; Yoo, Hanju; Yoon, Seung-Yong; Kang, Sang-Wook; Chang, Eun-Ju; Song, Youngsup

    2014-05-16

    Regulation of balance between lipid accumulation and energy consumption is a critical step for the maintenance of energy homeostasis. Here, we show that Panax red ginseng extract treatments increased energy expenditures and prevented mice from diet induced obesity. Panax red ginseng extracts strongly activated Hormone Specific Lipase (HSL) via Protein Kinase A (PKA). Since activation of HSL induces lipolysis in WAT and fatty acid oxidation in brown adipose tissue (BAT), these results suggest that Panax red ginseng extracts reduce HFD induced obesity by regulating lipid mobilization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Relationship between tactics and energy expenditure according to level of experience in badminton.

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    Dieu, Olivier; Blondeau, Thomas; Vanhelst, Jérémy; Fardy, Paul S; Bui-Xuân, Gilles; Mikulovic, Jacques

    2014-10-01

    Research on racket sports has traditionally focused on expert players and has treated energy expenditure and tactics as independent factors. These prior studies could not assess how energy expenditure and tactics changed as a function of experience and skill. Here, the specific relationship between playing tactics and energy expenditure in badminton were assessed. Participants were classified into five stages of badminton experience on the basis of conative criteria: structural (physical abilities), technical (technical skills), and functional (tactics). The physical activity of 99 players (47 beginners, 15 intermediates, 30 advanced, and 7 experts) was measured using a three-axis accelerometer during a badminton set (21 points, no extra scoring). The results showed that physical activity (counts/sec.) ranged between about 115 (Stage 1) and 155 (Stage 5), and differed significantly across the conative stages. For Stages 2 and 4, defined by an increase in use of tactics, physical activity increased substantially. For Stage 3, defined by a decrease in use of tactics, physical activity decreased significantly. Thus, tactically-oriented play appears to be closely related to physical activity.

  13. Genotype by Energy Expenditure Interaction and Body Composition Traits: The Portuguese Healthy Family Study

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    D. M. Santos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims. Energy expenditure has been negatively correlated with fat accumulation. However, this association is highly variable. In the present study we applied a genotype by environment interaction method to examine the presence of Genotype x by Total Daily Energy Expenditure and Genotype x by Daily Energy Expenditure interactions in the expression of different body composition traits. Methods and Results. A total of 958 subjects from 294 families of The Portuguese Healthy Family Study were included in the analysis. TDEE and DEE were assessed using a physical activity recall. Body fat percentages were measured with a bioelectrical impedance scale. GxTDEE and GxDEE examinations were performed using SOLAR 4.0 software. All BC traits were significantly heritable, with heritabilities ranging from 21% to 34%. The GxTDEE and GxDEE interaction models fitted the data better than the polygenic model for all traits. For all traits, a significant GxTDEE and GxDEE interaction was due to variance heterogeneity among distinct levels of TDEE and DEE. For WC, GxTDEE was also significant due to the genetic correlation function. Conclusions. TDEE and DEE are environmental constraints associated with the expression of individuals’ BC genotypes, leading to variability in the phenotypic expression of BC traits.

  14. Which equation should be used to measure energy expenditure in HIV-infected patients?

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    Helena Siqueira Vassimon

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In view of the practical need to use equations for the evaluation of energy expenditure in HIV-infected patients, the objective of the present study was to determine the concordance between the energy expenditure values obtained by indirect calorimetry as the gold standard and those obtained by predictive equations elaborated from data for the healthy population: Harris-Benedict, Schofield and Cunningham, and by equations elaborated from data for HIV-infected patients: Melchior (1991-1993. METHODS: The study was conducted at the Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto on 32 HIV-infected men under treatment with highly active antiretroviral therapy. Resting energy expenditure was measured by indirect calorimetry and estimated on the basis of measurement of O2 consumption and CO2 production. RESULTS: Statistical analysis revealed weak concordance for the Harris-Benedict (0.38 and Cunningham (0.34 equations and satisfactory concordance for the Schofield equation (0.47. Only the two Melchior equations (1991 and 1993 showed strong concordance with the values obtained by indirect calorimetry (0.63 and 0.66, respectively and could be used in practice. CONCLUSION: The best equations seem to be population-specific, such as the Melchior equations elaborated for HIV-infected patients.

  15. Do patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes have impaired physical fitness, and energy expenditures?

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    Ucok, K; Yalcinkaya, H; Acay, A; Coban, N F; Aslanalp, S; Akkan, G; Aydin, S; Celikagi, C; Ahsen, A

    2015-07-01

    The disease-related components such as physical fitness and daily energy expenditure may change in each progressive period of type 2 diabetes. The purpose of this study was to compare the maximal aerobic capacity (VO2 max), muscle strength, trunk flexibility, total energy expenditure, daily physical activity, resting metabolic rate (RMR), body composition, and body fat distribution in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients with those of healthy controls. Eighty patients (40 male, 40 female) with type 2 diabetes and 80 (40 male, 40 female) controls were included in this study. All participants completed the measurements. It was determined that the VO2 max, muscle strength, daily number of steps, and total energy expenditure were lower, and the body fat percentage, and central obesity were higher in male and female type 2 diabetic patients, when compared with the controls. In addition, the lean body mass was decreased in male diabetic patients, compared with the controls. The fasting plasma glucose showed negative correlations with the maximal aerobic capacity, daily number of steps, and muscle strength in the patients in both genders. RMR and trunk flexibility values were not significantly different between the patients and the controls in either gender. We suggest that using exercise intervention especially comprised of strength training and aerobic activities, including not only daily slow activities but also moderate to vigorous activities, as a lifestyle modification in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients might be helpful for the development of earlier and more successful illness management strategies.

  16. Ageing Fxr deficient mice develop increased energy expenditure, improved glucose control and liver damage resembling NASH.

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    Mikael Bjursell

    Full Text Available Nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group H, member 4 (Nr1h4, FXR is a bile acid activated nuclear receptor mainly expressed in the liver, intestine, kidney and adrenal glands. Upon activation, the primary function is to suppress cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase (Cyp7a1, the rate-limiting enzyme in the classic or neutral bile acid synthesis pathway. In the present study, a novel Fxr deficient mouse line was created and studied with respect to metabolism and liver function in ageing mice fed chow diet. The Fxr deficient mice were similar to wild type mice in terms of body weight, body composition, energy intake and expenditure as well as behaviours at a young age. However, from 15 weeks of age and onwards, the Fxr deficient mice had almost no body weight increase up to 39 weeks of age mainly because of lower body fat mass. The lower body weight gain was associated with increased energy expenditure that was not compensated by increased food intake. Fasting levels of glucose and insulin were lower and glucose tolerance was improved in old and lean Fxr deficient mice. However, the Fxr deficient mice displayed significantly increased liver weight, steatosis, hepatocyte ballooning degeneration and lobular inflammation together with elevated plasma levels of ALT, bilirubin and bile acids, findings compatible with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH and cholestasis. In conclusion, ageing Fxr deficient mice display late onset leanness associated with elevated energy expenditure and improved glucose control but develop severe NASH-like liver pathology.

  17. Energy Expenditure and Metabolic Changes of Free-Flying Migrating Northern Bald Ibis.

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    Franz Bairlein

    Full Text Available Many migrating birds undertake extraordinary long flights. How birds are able to perform such endurance flights of over 100-hour durations is still poorly understood. We examined energy expenditure and physiological changes in Northern Bald Ibis Geronticus eremite during natural flights using birds trained to follow an ultra-light aircraft. Because these birds were tame, with foster parents, we were able to bleed them immediately prior to and after each flight. Flight duration was experimentally designed ranging between one and almost four hours continuous flights. Energy expenditure during flight was estimated using doubly-labelled-water while physiological properties were assessed through blood chemistry including plasma metabolites, enzymes, electrolytes, blood gases, and reactive oxygen compounds. Instantaneous energy expenditure decreased with flight duration, and the birds appeared to balance aerobic and anaerobic metabolism, using fat, carbohydrate and protein as fuel. This made flight both economic and tolerable. The observed effects resemble classical exercise adaptations that can limit duration of exercise while reducing energetic output. There were also in-flight benefits that enable power output variation from cruising to manoeuvring. These adaptations share characteristics with physiological processes that have facilitated other athletic feats in nature and might enable the extraordinary long flights of migratory birds as well.

  18. A low-cost method for estimating energy expenditure during soccer refereeing.

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    Ardigò, Luca Paolo; Padulo, Johnny; Zuliani, Andrea; Capelli, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to apply a validated bioenergetics model of sprint running to recordings obtained from commercial basic high-sensitivity global positioning system receivers to estimate energy expenditure and physical activity variables during soccer refereeing. We studied five Italian fifth division referees during 20 official matches while carrying the receivers. By applying the model to the recorded speed and acceleration data, we calculated energy consumption during activity, mass-normalised total energy consumption, total distance, metabolically equivalent distance and their ratio over the entire match and the two halves. Main results were as follows: (match) energy consumption = 4729 ± 608 kJ, mass normalised total energy consumption = 74 ± 8 kJ · kg(-1), total distance = 13,112 ± 1225 m, metabolically equivalent distance = 13,788 ± 1151 m and metabolically equivalent/total distance = 1.05 ± 0.05. By using a very low-cost device, it is possible to estimate the energy expenditure of soccer refereeing. The provided predicting mass-normalised total energy consumption versus total distance equation can supply information about soccer refereeing energy demand.

  19. Activity pattern and energy expenditure due to physical activity before and during pregnancy in healthy Swedish women.

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    Lof, Marie; Forsum, Elisabet

    2006-02-01

    Human pregnancy is associated with increased requirements for dietary energy and this increase may be partly offset by reductions in physical activity during gestation. Studies in well-nourished women have shown that the physical activity level (PAL), obtained as the total energy expenditure (TEE) divided by the BMR, decreases in late pregnancy. However, it is not known if this decrease is really caused by reductions in physical activity or if it is the result of decreases in energy expenditure/BMR (the so-called metabolic equivalent, MET) for many activities in late pregnancy. In the present study activity pattern, TEE and BMR were assessed in twenty-three healthy Swedish women before pregnancy as well as in gestational weeks 14 and 32. Activity pattern was assessed using a questionnaire and heart rate recording. TEE was assessed using the doubly labelled water method and BMR was measured by means of indirect calorimetry. When compared to the pre-pregnant value, there was little change in the PAL in gestational week 14 but it was significantly reduced in gestational week 32. Results obtained by means of the questionnaire and by heart rate recording showed that the activity pattern was largely unaffected by pregnancy. The findings support the following conclusion: in a population of well-nourished women where the activity pattern is maintained during pregnancy, the increase in BMR represents approximately the main part of the pregnancy-induced increase in TEE, at least until gestational week 32.

  20. Energy Expenditure and Intensity of Physical Activity in Soccer Referees During Match-Play

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    da Silva, Alberto Inácio; Fernandes, Luiz Cláudio; Fernandez, Ricardo

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the caloric expenditure and the intensity of physical activities performed by official soccer referees during a match expressed in Metabolic Equivalent (METs). The physical activity of referees accredited by CBF (Brazilian Confederation of Soccer) was video-recorded during twenty-nine official games of Paraná Championship (Brasil), Series A and B of the 2005/2006. Computerized video analysis was used to determine the time spent in 6 locomotor activities (standing still, walking, jogging, backwards running, running and sprint). The frequency and duration of each activity were recorded and these data were utilized to calculate the distance covered by the referee. Energy expenditure values were estimated, utilizing specific equations, from the time players spent in each motor activity. The referees observed in this study had a mean age of 38.9 ± 3.8 years, body mass of 86.1 ± 7.1 kg, stature of 1.80 ± 0.07 m and a body mass index of 26.5 ± 0.6 kg·m-2. During match-play, referees covered an average distance of 9155.4 ± 70.3 meters (8411 - 9765), with a mean energy expenditure of 734.7 ± 65 kcal. This energy expenditure was significantly reduced in the second half: 359.9 ± 6.3 vs 374.7 ± 6.6 kcal (p = 0.006), and averaged to be moderate energy intensity (5 METs) with predominant utilization of the aerobic energy system. In total, during 67% of match-play the intensity was equal or lower than 3.8 METs and in 33% it was higher than 9.8 METs. The pattern of movement observed in the present study confirms that soccer refereeing may be considered as a highly intermittent exercise mode. The high to low-intensity activity ratio may be defined as 1:7.1. In conclusion, referees officiating in professional soccer matches in Brazil should perform a physical conditioning regime that provides the stamina required at this level and consume appropriate and adequate nutrition to meet the energetic demands for match-play. Key points

  1. Dystropathology increases energy expenditure and protein turnover in the mdx mouse model of duchenne muscular dystrophy.

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    Hannah G Radley-Crabb

    Full Text Available The skeletal muscles in Duchenne muscular dystrophy and the mdx mouse model lack functional dystrophin and undergo repeated bouts of necrosis, regeneration, and growth. These processes have a high metabolic cost. However, the consequences for whole body energy and protein metabolism, and on the dietary requirements for these macronutrients at different stages of the disease, are not well-understood. This study used juvenile (4- to 5- wk-old and adult (12- to 14-wk-old male dystrophic C57BL/10ScSn-mdx/J and age-matched C57BL/10ScSn/J control male mice to measure total and resting energy expenditure, food intake, spontaneous activity, body composition, whole body protein turnover, and muscle protein synthesis rates. In juvenile mdx mice that have extensive muscle damage, energy expenditure, muscle protein synthesis, and whole body protein turnover rates were higher than in age-matched controls. Adaptations in food intake and decreased activity were insufficient to meet the increased energy and protein needs of juvenile mdx mice and resulted in stunted growth. In (non-growing adult mdx mice with less severe dystropathology, energy expenditure, muscle protein synthesis, and whole body protein turnover rates were also higher than in age-matched controls. Food intake was sufficient to meet their protein and energy needs, but insufficient to result in fat deposition. These data show that dystropathology impacts the protein and energy needs of mdx mice and that tailored dietary interventions are necessary to redress this imbalance. If not met, the resultant imbalance blunts growth, and may limit the benefits of therapies designed to protect and repair dystrophic muscles.

  2. Dystropathology increases energy expenditure and protein turnover in the mdx mouse model of duchenne muscular dystrophy.

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    Radley-Crabb, Hannah G; Marini, Juan C; Sosa, Horacio A; Castillo, Liliana I; Grounds, Miranda D; Fiorotto, Marta L

    2014-01-01

    The skeletal muscles in Duchenne muscular dystrophy and the mdx mouse model lack functional dystrophin and undergo repeated bouts of necrosis, regeneration, and growth. These processes have a high metabolic cost. However, the consequences for whole body energy and protein metabolism, and on the dietary requirements for these macronutrients at different stages of the disease, are not well-understood. This study used juvenile (4- to 5- wk-old) and adult (12- to 14-wk-old) male dystrophic C57BL/10ScSn-mdx/J and age-matched C57BL/10ScSn/J control male mice to measure total and resting energy expenditure, food intake, spontaneous activity, body composition, whole body protein turnover, and muscle protein synthesis rates. In juvenile mdx mice that have extensive muscle damage, energy expenditure, muscle protein synthesis, and whole body protein turnover rates were higher than in age-matched controls. Adaptations in food intake and decreased activity were insufficient to meet the increased energy and protein needs of juvenile mdx mice and resulted in stunted growth. In (non-growing) adult mdx mice with less severe dystropathology, energy expenditure, muscle protein synthesis, and whole body protein turnover rates were also higher than in age-matched controls. Food intake was sufficient to meet their protein and energy needs, but insufficient to result in fat deposition. These data show that dystropathology impacts the protein and energy needs of mdx mice and that tailored dietary interventions are necessary to redress this imbalance. If not met, the resultant imbalance blunts growth, and may limit the benefits of therapies designed to protect and repair dystrophic muscles.

  3. Influence of basal energy expenditure and body composition on bone mineral density in postmenopausal women

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    Quirino MA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Maria Aparecida Bezerra Quirino,1 João Modesto-Filho,2 Sancha Helena de Lima Vale,3 Camila Xavier Alves,3 Lúcia Dantas Leite,4 José Brandão-Neto51Department of Physiotherapy, 2Department of Clinical Medicine, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, João Pessoa, Brazil; 3Postgraduate Health Science Program, 4Department of Nutrition, 5Department of Clinical Medicine, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, BrazilBackground: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of body mass index, body weight, lean mass, fat mass, and basal energy expenditure on bone mineral density in postmenopausal women.Methods: This was a cross-sectional, descriptive study of a sample of 50 women, with minimum time since menopause between 1 and 10 years. Bone mineral density was assessed at the lumbar spine (L2–L4, femoral neck, Ward's triangle, and trochanter using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Body mass index, lean mass, fat mass, and basal energy expenditure were measured by bioimpedance.Results: The mean age of the women was 51.49 ± 3.86 years and time since menopause was 3.50 ± 2.59 years. Significant negative correlations were found between chronological age and lumbar spine, femoral neck, Ward's triangle, and trochanteric bone mineral density. In regard to time since menopause, we also observed significant negative correlations with bone mineral density at the lumbar spine and Ward's triangle. The following significant positive correlations were recorded: body mass index with bone mineral density at the femoral neck and trochanter; fat mass with bone mineral density at the femoral neck and trochanter; lean mass with bone mineral density at the lumbar spine, femoral neck, and trochanter; and basal energy expenditure with bone mineral density at all sites assessed. On the other hand, the multiple linear regression model showed that: 20.2% of bone mineral density variability at the lumbar spine is related to lean mass and time since

  4. Geomorphically Effective Energy Expenditure for Quantifying Channel Responses to Extreme Floods

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    Amponsah, William; Righini, Margherita; Wohl, Ellen E.; Borga, Marco; Marchi, Lorenzo; Rathburn, Sara L.; Surian, Nicola; Zoccatelli, Davide

    2016-04-01

    Flash floods are characterized by strong spatio-temporal rainfall variability and therefore show variations in energy expenditure and associated geomorphic impacts that depend on geological controls on channel geometry and sediment characteristics, as well as on variations in flood intensity. Geomorphic modification is expected to occur in river channels when driving forces (i.e., hydraulic and abrasive forces of water and sediment acting on the channel) exceed threshold of resisting forces (i.e., the ability of channel boundaries to remain unchanged by the passage of water and sediments). However, these forces that determine the capacity of floods to modify existing channel configuration are extremely difficult to quantify. Geomorphic impacts or hazards usually take the form of erosional and depositional modification of the pre-flood channel and valley geometry. A central question in hydrogeomorphology relates to why flash floods of similar magnitudes and intensities sometimes produce dissimilar geomorphic results? In fact, some less magnitude floods in terms of discharge per unit of drainage area have been found to produce major geomorphic damage than some high magnitude events. Furthermore, the use of peak instantaneous flow parameters such as discharge, velocity, shear stress and stream power to quantify geomorphic changes have often been non-deterministic and/or inconclusive. Investigations are therefore needed on how factors such as channel geometry, substrate, riparian vegetation, sediment supply, and flood magnitude and duration can interact and influence geomorphic effectiveness of high magnitude floods. The main objective of this study is to assess the coupled influence of flood-flow duration and total energy expenditure on geomorphic response to extreme flash floods, which is aimed at developing an index that combines flow duration, stream power per unit area and threshold for major channel erosion to be evaluated as a predictor of geomorphic adjustment

  5. ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY. Exceptionally low daily energy expenditure in the bamboo-eating giant panda.

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    Nie, Yonggang; Speakman, John R; Wu, Qi; Zhang, Chenglin; Hu, Yibo; Xia, Maohua; Yan, Li; Hambly, Catherine; Wang, Lu; Wei, Wei; Zhang, Jinguo; Wei, Fuwen

    2015-07-10

    The carnivoran giant panda has a specialized bamboo diet, to which its alimentary tract is poorly adapted. Measurements of daily energy expenditure across five captive and three wild pandas averaged 5.2 megajoules (MJ)/day, only 37.7% of the predicted value (13.8 MJ/day). For the wild pandas, the mean was 6.2 MJ/day, or 45% of the mammalian expectation. Pandas achieve this exceptionally low expenditure in part by reduced sizes of several vital organs and low physical activity. In addition, circulating levels of thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) averaged 46.9 and 64%, respectively, of the levels expected for a eutherian mammal of comparable size. A giant panda-unique mutation in the DUOX2 gene, critical for thyroid hormone synthesis, might explain these low thyroid hormone levels. A combination of morphological, behavioral, physiological, and genetic adaptations, leading to low energy expenditure, likely enables giant pandas to survive on a bamboo diet. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  6. The effect of disease activity on body composition and resting energy expenditure in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

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    Binymin K

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available K Binymin1,3, AL Herrick1, GL Carlson2, SJ Hopkins21University of Manchester, Rheumatic Diseases Centre, 2Infection Injury and Inflammation Group, and Brain Injury Research Group, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre and University of Manchester Faculty of Medical and Human Sciences, Salford Royal Hospitals NHS Trust, Salford, UK; 3Southport District General Hospital, Southport, UKIntroduction: Cachexia is associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA, but whether it is attributable primarily to reduced dietary intake or increased metabolism is unclear, as is the association with inflammation. To examine whether rheumatoid cachexia is related to increased energy expenditure, reduced food intake, or an inflammatory cytokine response we undertook a prospective, longitudinal study of patients with RA, during periods of relative relapse and remission of inflammation.Methods: Sixteen patients admitted to hospital with a flare of RA were assessed clinically to determine disease activity and were re-examined 6 weeks later. Their fat-free mass (FFM, dietary intake, resting energy expenditure (REE, and plasma concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6 were also measured. Data were compared with those from 16 healthy, age- and sex-matched controls.Results: At baseline the body weight, body mass index, and FFM of patients with RA were significantly lower than those of controls. Disease activity scores of patients (6.39 ± 0.8 were reduced when the patients were re-examined 6 weeks later (5.23 ± 1.26 and FFM was no longer statistically different from that of controls (visit 1 = 25.8 ± 10.1 and visit 2 = 26.8 ± 9.5 versus controls = 32.3 ± 10.9. There were no differences in food intake between patients and controls or between patients studied at the 2 time points, but REE was greater in patients after correcting for FMM (visit 1 = 62.2 ± 24.7, visit 2 = 59.7 ± 26.3 versus controls = 46.0 ± 13.7. Plasma IL-6 concentrations were significantly higher in

  7. Validity of the SenseWear Armband to assess energy expenditure during intermittent exercise and recovery in rugby union players.

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    Zanetti, Sara; Pumpa, Kate L; Wheeler, Keane W; Pyne, David B

    2014-04-01

    Portable wearable devices that assess energy expenditure during intermittent exercise and recovery would be useful in team sports. Fourteen state-level male rugby union players (mean ± SD: age, 22 ± 4 years; body mass, 88.8 ± 11.2 kg; height, 1.81 ± 0.07 m, body fat, 18 ± 6%) participated in this study. Energy expenditure was measured by the SenseWear Armband (SWA) and validated against indirect calorimetry as the criterion measure during a 42-minute rugby-specific intermittent exercise test and an immediate postexercise 10-minute recovery period. Energy expenditure measurements from indirect calorimetry and the SWA were only moderately correlated during both the exercise test (r = 0.55, ±0.34; mean, ±90% confidence limits) and recovery period (r = 0.58, ±0.33). The SWA estimate of energy expenditure during exercise was unclear, with a mean bias of -1.9% (±5.3%), and during recovery energy expenditure was overestimated, with a mean bias of 17% (±12%) at the mean estimated energy expenditure. Typical error of SWA energy expenditure estimates expressed as a coefficient of variation (±90% confidence interval) was 10% (8-16%) during exercise and 19% (14-30%) during recovery. The SWA did not provide a valid measure of energy expenditure during rugby-specific intermittent exercise or 10-minute postexercise recovery. Further improvements are required in the performance of the SWA before it can be used routinely in intermittent sports and provide worthwhile information in relation to workloads of athletes for sport scientists and coaches.

  8. Early effects of neutering on energy expenditure in adult male cats.

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    Alfreda Wei

    Full Text Available The initial cause of post-neutering weight gain in male cats is not entirely known. There is evidence that energy intake (EI increases rapidly post-neutering, but it is not clear if neutering also decreases energy expenditure (EE prior to weight gain. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine if a decrease in EE contributes to the initial shift toward positive energy balance in neutered male cats. To determine the influence of neutering on EE independent of changes in EI and body weight (BW, male cats were fed at their pre-neutering maintenance EI and EE was measured at 4 days pre-neutering, 3-4 days post-neutering, and 9 days post- neutering. Ad libitum food access was then provided for 6 months. Body composition was measured and blood samples collected for serum chemistry at pre-neutering and 7 days, 13 days and 6 months post-neutering. Total energy expenditure (TEE adjusted for lean body mass (LBM did not change in cats from pre-neutering to 9 days post-neutering. However, TEE adjusted for BW and resting energy expenditure adjusted for either LBM or BW showed a small, but significant (P<0.05 increase from pre-neutering to 9 days post-neutering. When allowed free choice food access, cats showed significant increases of food intake (FI and BW. Circulating concentrations of ghrelin increased, while adiponectin levels decreased following neutering. The results of this study indicate that initial post-neutering weight gain in male cats results from increased FI and not decreased EE. Long-term control of FI should be initiated after neutering to prevent hyperphagia and weight gain in male cats.

  9. Effects of rapid weight loss and regain on body composition and energy expenditure.

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    Sagayama, Hiroyuki; Yoshimura, Eiichi; Yamada, Yosuke; Ichikawa, Mamiko; Ebine, Naoyuki; Higaki, Yasuki; Kiyonaga, Akira; Tanaka, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    Weight-classified athletes need an energy intake plan to accomplish target weight reduction. They have to consider body composition and energy metabolism during rapid weight loss followed by rapid weight regain to achieve their energy intake plan. We investigated the effects of rapid weight loss, followed by weight regain, on body composition and energy expenditure. Ten weight-classified athletes were instructed to reduce their body weight by 5% in 7 days. Following the weight loss, they were asked to try to regain all of their lost weight with an ad libitum diet for 12 h. Food intake was recorded during the baseline, weight loss, and regain periods. Fat mass, total body water, and fat-free dry solids were estimated by underwater weighing and stable isotope dilution methods. A three-component model was calculated using Siri's equation. Basal and sleeping metabolic rates were measured by indirect calorimetry. Body composition and energy expenditure were measured before and after weight loss and after weight regain. Body weight, total body water, and fat-free dry solids were decreased after the weight loss period but recovered after weight regain (p weight loss but recovered after weight regain. Changes in total body water greatly affect body weight during rapid weight loss and regain. In addition, rapid weight loss and regain did not greatly affect the basal metabolic rate in weight-classified athletes.

  10. Energy expenditure during cane-assisted gait in patients with knee osteoarthritis

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    Anamaria Jones

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the energy expenditure in patients with unilateral knee osteoarthritis while walking with canes of different lengths. METHODS: A quasi-experimental study (single-group was carried out on thirty patients with unilateral knee osteoarthritis. An adjustable aluminum cane was used, and three different cane lengths were determined for each subject: C1 - length from the floor to the greater trochanter; C2 - length from the floor to the distal wrist crease; and C3 - length obtained by the formula: height x 0.45 + 0.87 m. Resting and walking heart rates were measured with a Polar hear rate meter. Walking speed was calculated by the time required for the patient to walk 10 m. Gait energy cost was estimated using the physiological cost index, and results were compared. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 25 women and five men (average age of 68 years. Statistically significant differences in physiological cost index measurements were observed between unassisted walking and assisted walking with a cane of any length (p<0.001, as well as between walking with a C2-length cane and unassisted walking, and walking with a C1-length cane and walking with a C3-length cane (p=0.001; p = 0.037; p=0.001; respectively. CONCLUSION: These data demonstrate that small alterations in the length of canes used for weight-bearing ambulation in patients with unilateral knee osteoarthritis increase the energy expenditure measured by the physiological cost index during walking. Further studies are needed for a more precise quantification of the increase in energy expenditure during cane-assisted gait and an assessment of the effectiveness of cane use in relieving pain and improving function in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

  11. Association between estimated total daily energy expenditure and stage of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

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    Lee, Jihye; Baek, Heejoon; Kim, Seung Hyun; Park, Yongsoon

    2017-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease, and nutritional status is one of the major prognostic factors of ALS. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) and progression of disease in ALS patients, as well as sex differences in TDEE. Patients with ALS (N = 370) were diagnosed according to El Escorial criteria and categorized into stage 2, 3, or 4 using a clinical staging system. TDEEs were calculated by summing resting energy expenditure (REE) and physical activity. REE was calculated using equations of Harris-Benedict or Mifflin St. Jeor, and physical activity was calculated using the ALS Functional Rating Scale-Revised, a physical activity coefficient, or adding 30% of REE. TDEE significantly decreased with progression of ALS stage and did not vary by sex. Actual energy intake was lower than TDEE in patients in all stages and lowest in patients with stage 3 ALS. Comparing TDEEs 1 to 5, TDEE 2 decreased with progression of ALS stage and was similar to the average TDEE. The present study suggests that TDEE decreases with progression of ALS, and patients consume insufficient energy compared with required intake at all stages, particularly at stage 3, suggesting that nutrition support should be started at least before stage 3. Additionally, among the five equations for TDEE, TDEE 2 could be the best for evaluating the nutritional status of patients with ALS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The effect of parasympathetic drugs on energy expenditure: relevance to the autonomic hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulloo, A G; Miller, D S

    1986-05-01

    The influence of the parasympathetic nervous system in the control of energy expenditure was investigated in obese and lean rodents during chronic administration of drugs that alter parasympathetic transmission. In the genetically obese ob/ob mice and fa/fa rats and in monosodium glutamate induced hypothalamic obese mice, administration of the parasympathetic inhibitors hyoscine, benztropine, and mecamylamine either had no effect on energy balance or caused losses in body weight that could entirely be accounted for by a reduction in food intake; 24-h oxygen consumption in drug-treated animals was no different from that of the nontreated controls. In the lean animals, both the parasympathetic inhibitors (hyoscine, benztropine, and mecamylamine) and stimulators (bethanecol and neostigmine) had no influence on energy balance nor on body composition. These studies refute the concept that an overactive parasympathetic tone underlies the elevated energetic efficiency of obese models and suggests that the parasympathetic nervous system is unlikely to play an important role in the long-term control of energy expenditure.

  13. ENERGY EXPENDITURE AND INTENSITY OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IN SOCCER REFEREES DURING MATCH-PLAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Inácio da Silva

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the caloric expenditure and the intensity of physical activities performed by official soccer referees during a match expressed in Metabolic Equivalent (METs. The physical activity of referees accredited by CBF (Brazilian Confederation of Soccer was video-recorded during twenty-nine official games of Paraná Championship (Brasil, Series A and B of the 2005/2006. Computerized video analysis was used to determine the time spent in 6 locomotor activities (standing still, walking, jogging, backwards running, running and sprint. The frequency and duration of each activity were recorded and these data were utilized to calculate the distance covered by the referee. Energy expenditure values were estimated, utilizing specific equations, from the time players spent in each motor activity. The referees observed in this study had a mean age of 38.9 ± 3.8 years, body mass of 86.1 ± 7.1 kg, stature of 1.80 ± 0.07 m and a body mass index of 26.5 ± 0.6 kg·m-2. During match-play, referees covered an average distance of 9155.4 ± 70.3 meters (8411 - 9765, with a mean energy expenditure of 734.7 ± 65 kcal. This energy expenditure was significantly reduced in the second half: 359.9 ± 6.3 vs 374.7 ± 6.6 kcal (p = 0.006, and averaged to be moderate energy intensity (5 METs with predominant utilization of the aerobic energy system. In total, during 67% of match-play the intensity was equal or lower than 3.8 METs and in 33% it was higher than 9.8 METs. The pattern of movement observed in the present study confirms that soccer refereeing may be considered as a highly intermittent exercise mode. The high to low-intensity activity ratio may be defined as 1:7.1. In conclusion, referees officiating in professional soccer matches in Brazil should perform a physical conditioning regime that provides the stamina required at this level and consume appropriate and adequate nutrition to meet the energetic demands for match-play

  14. Differences in energy expenditure during high-speed versus standard-speed yoga: A randomized sequence crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potiaumpai, Melanie; Martins, Maria Carolina Massoni; Rodriguez, Roberto; Mooney, Kiersten; Signorile, Joseph F

    2016-12-01

    To compare energy expenditure and volume of oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production during a high-speed yoga and a standard-speed yoga program. Randomized repeated measures controlled trial. A laboratory of neuromuscular research and active aging. Sun-Salutation B was performed, for eight minutes, at a high speed versus and a standard-speed separately while oxygen consumption was recorded. Caloric expenditure was calculated using volume of oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production. Difference in energy expenditure (kcal) of HSY and SSY. Significant differences were observed in energy expenditure between yoga speeds with high-speed yoga producing significantly higher energy expenditure than standard-speed yoga (MD=18.55, SE=1.86, pyoga for volume of oxygen consumed and carbon dioxide produced. High-speed yoga results in a significantly greater caloric expenditure than standard-speed yoga. High-speed yoga may be an effective alternative program for those targeting cardiometabolic markers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Quality of life and energy expenditure in transplant recipient football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totti, V; Zancanaro, M; Trerotola, M; Nanni Costa, A; Antonetti, T; Anedda, A; Roi, G S

    2013-09-01

    Football (soccer) is a highly motivating leisure activity with important potential as a health-promoting activity also for transplant recipients. The aim of this study was to assess the "on the field" energy expenditure during football games and the quality of life of transplant recipients practicing football. Twenty-two recipients of kidney (n = 11), bone marrow (n = 7), liver (n = 3) or corneal (n = 1) transplantations had an overall mean age of 37 ± 9 years, body mass index of 23.5 ± 2.4 kg/m(2), and time after transplantation of 9.3 ± 6.4 years. They were compared with 25 healthy football players of mean age 41 ± 10 years and body mass index of 26.3 ± 3.9 kg/m(2). There were no significant differences between transplant recipients and controls regarding mean energy expenditure (393 ± 113 vs 392 ± 132 kcal/h) number of steps (3.978 ± 1.317 vs 3.933 ± 1.563) during, and capillary blood lactate concentrations (4.8 ± 0.9 vs 5.2 ± 1.3 mmol/L) after the matches. The SF-36 questionnaire administered before the matches showed transplant recipient players to score significantly worse in the scales of general (P football matches attained a level of energy expenditure and a quality of life consistent with a healthy lifestyle. Football has the potential to be implemented as a permanent health-promoting activity also for transplant recipients.

  16. Lamp-2 deficiency prevents high-fat diet-induced obese diabetes via enhancing energy expenditure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasuda-Yamahara, Mako [Department of Medicine, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Shiga (Japan); Kume, Shinji, E-mail: skume@belle.shiga-med.ac.jp [Department of Medicine, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Shiga (Japan); Yamahara, Kosuke; Nakazawa, Jun; Chin-Kanasaki, Masami; Araki, Hisazumi; Araki, Shin-ichi [Department of Medicine, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Shiga (Japan); Koya, Daisuke [Department of Diabetology and Endocrinology, Kanazawa Medical University, Kahoku-Gun, Ishikawa (Japan); Haneda, Masakzu [Division of Metabolism and Biosystemic Science, Asahikawa Medical University, Asahikawa, Hokkaido (Japan); Ugi, Satoshi; Maegawa, Hiroshi; Uzu, Takashi [Department of Medicine, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Shiga (Japan)

    2015-09-18

    Autophagy process is essential for maintaining intracellular homeostasis and consists of autophagosome formation and subsequent fusion with lysosome for degradation. Although the role of autophagosome formation in the pathogenesis of diabetes has been recently documented, the role of the latter process remains unclear. This study analyzed high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice lacking lysosome-associated membrane protein-2 (lamp-2), which is essential for the fusion with lysosome and subsequent degradation of autophagosomes. Although lamp-2 deficient mice showed little alteration in glucose metabolism under normal diet feeding, they showed a resistance against high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity, hyperinsulinemic hyperglycemia and tissues lipid accumulation, accompanied with higher energy expenditure. The expression levels of thermogenic genes in brown adipose tissue were significantly increased in HFD-fed lamp-2-deficient mice. Of some serum factors related to energy expenditure, the serum level of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 21 and its mRNA expression level in the liver were significantly higher in HFD-fed lamp-2-deficient mice in an ER stress-, but not PPARα-, dependent manner. In conclusion, a lamp-2-depenedent fusion and degradation process of autophagosomes is involved in the pathogenesis of obese diabetes, providing a novel insight into autophagy and diabetes. - Highlights: • Lamp-2 is essential for autophagosome fusion with lysosome and its degradation. • Lamp-2 deficiency lead to a resistance to diet-induced obese diabetes in mice. • Lamp-2 deficiency increased whole body energy expenditure under HFD-feeding. • Lamp-2 deficiency elevated the serum level of FGF21 under HFD-feeding.

  17. Daily Energy Expenditure and Its Relation to Health Care Costs in Patients Undergoing Ambulatory Electrocardiographic Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Jason; Abdulla, Rami Khoury; Yeow, Raymond; Aggarwal, Anshul; Boura, Judith; Wegner, James; Franklin, Barry A

    2017-02-15

    Our increasingly sedentary lifestyle is associated with a heightened risk of obesity, diabetes, heart disease, and cardiovascular mortality. Using the recently developed heart rate index formula in 843 patients (mean ± SD age 62.3 ± 15.7 years) who underwent 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiographic (ECG) monitoring, we estimated average and peak daily energy expenditure, expressed as metabolic equivalents (METs), and related these data to subsequent hospital encounters and health care costs. In this cohort, estimated daily average and peak METs were 1.7 ± 0.7 and 5.5 ± 2.1, respectively. Patients who achieved daily bouts of peak energy expenditure ≥5 METs had fewer hospital encounters (p = 0.006) and median health care costs that were nearly 50% lower (p health care costs depending on whether they achieved monitoring (p = 0.005). Interestingly, patients who achieved ≥5 METs had lower and no significant difference in their health care costs, regardless of their body mass index (p = 0.46). Patients with previous percutaneous coronary intervention who achieved ≥5 METs had lower health care costs (p = 0.044) and fewer hospital encounters (p = 0.004) than those who achieved monitoring may provide useful information regarding health care utilization in patients with and without previous percutaneous coronary intervention, irrespective of body habitus. Our findings are the first to link lower intensities of peak daily energy expenditure, estimated from ambulatory ECG monitoring, with increased health care utilization.

  18. Minimizing the expenditure of energy when scheduling the sequence of observations of astronomical objects from spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaev, M. Yu.; Legostaev, V. P.; Rulev, D. N.

    2013-12-01

    An approach to solving the problem of optimal scheduling of the sequence of spacecraft reorientations during observations of astronomical objects is discussed. The approach is based on problem formalization within the framework of graph theory and reduction of the problem to routing. Examples of constructing optimal observational programs for chosen stars are given. These examples show that the proposed approach offers the possibility of a significant reduction in energy expenditures for spacecraft reorientation. The applicability of the mentioned approach to optimizing traffic routes in various subnational entities is noted.

  19. Loss of the liver X receptor LXRα/β in peripheral sensory neurons modifies energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansuy-Aubert, Virginie; Gautron, Laurent; Lee, Syann; Bookout, Angie L; Kusminski, Christine; Sun, Kai; Zhang, Yuan; Scherer, Philipp E; Mangelsdorf, David J; Elmquist, Joel K

    2015-06-15

    Peripheral neural sensory mechanisms play a crucial role in metabolic regulation but less is known about the mechanisms underlying vagal sensing itself. Recently, we identified an enrichment of liver X receptor alpha and beta (LXRα/β) in the nodose ganglia of the vagus nerve. In this study, we show mice lacking LXRα/β in peripheral sensory neurons have increased energy expenditure and weight loss when fed a Western diet (WD). Our findings suggest that the ability to metabolize and sense cholesterol and/or fatty acids in peripheral neurons is an important requirement for physiological adaptations to WDs.

  20. Effect of energy expenditure and training status on leptin response to sub-maximal cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouassida, Anissa; Chatard, Jean-Claude; Chamari, Karim; Zaouali, Monia; Feki, Youssef; Gharbi, Najoua; Zbidi, Abdelkarim; Tabka, Zouhaïr

    2009-01-01

    We examined the leptin response and related hormones during and after two sub-maximal exercise protocols in trained and untrained subjects. During this study, plasma concentrations of leptin [Lep], insulin [I], cortisol [C], growth hormone [GH], glucose [G] and lactate [La] were measured. 7 elite volleyball trained players (TR) and 7 untrained (UTR) subjects (percent body fat: 13.2 ± 1.8 versus 15.7 ± 1.0, p < 0.01, respectively) were examined after short and prolonged sub-maximal cycling exercise protocols (SP and PP). Venous blood samples were collected before each protocol, during, at the end, and after 2 and 24 h of recovery. SP and PP energy expenditures ranged from 470 ± 60 to 740 ± 90 kcal for TR and from 450 ± 60 to 710 ± 90 kcal for UTR, respectively. [Lep] was related to body fat percentage and body fat mass in TR (r = 0. 84, p < 0.05 and r = 0.93, p < 0.01) and in UTR (r = 0.89, p < 0.01 and r = 0.92, p < 0. 01, respectively). [Lep] did not change significantly during both protocols for both groups but was lower (p < 0.05) in all sampling in TR when compared to UTR. Plasma [I] decreased (p < 0.01) and [GH] increased (p < 0.01) significantly during both SP and PP and these hormones remained lower (I: p < 0.01) and higher (GH: p < 0.01) than pre-exercise levels after a 2-h recovery period, returning to base-line at 24-h recovery. Plasma [La] increased (p < 0.01) during both protocols for TR and UTR. There was no significant change in [C] and [G] during and after both protocols for all subjects. It is concluded that 1) leptin is not sensitive to acute short or prolonged sub-maximal exercises (with energy expenditure under 800 kcal) in volleyball/ anaerobically trained athletes as in untrained subjects, 2) volleyball athletes showed significantly lower resting and exercise leptin response with respect to untrained subjects and 3) it appears that in these anaerobically trained athletes leptin response to exercise is more sensitive to the level of energy

  1. Factors predicting the capacity of Los Angeles city-region recreation programs to promote energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Kim D; Dahmann, Nicholas; Wolch, Jennifer; Joassart-Marcelli, Pascale; Dunton, Genevieve; Rudulph, Diana; Newell, Joshua; Thayer, Jennifer; Jerrett, Michael

    2014-07-01

    An audit of recreation programs with moderate or higher levels of physical activity (PA) in Los Angeles area cities (N=82) was conducted using internet, telephone, and survey methods. Metabolic Equivalents (METs) were used to code programs׳ physical activity intensity. MET-hours per recreation program was associated with required age for enrollment, percent of residents >64 years of age, and fiscal capacity of cities. Capacity to promote energy expenditure may depend on targeted age groups, age of population, and municipal fiscal capacity. Cities with lower fiscal capacity might offer those higher MET-hour activities which require less specialized equipment and seek outside funding to offer higher MET programs.

  2. Change in energy expenditure and physical activity in response to aerobic and resistance exercise programs

    OpenAIRE

    Drenowatz, Clemens; Grieve, George L.; Madison M. DeMello

    2015-01-01

    Exercise is considered an important component of a healthy lifestyle but there remains controversy on effects of exercise on non-exercise physical activity (PA). The present study examined the prospective association of aerobic and resistance exercise with total daily energy expenditure and PA in previously sedentary, young men. Nine men (27.0 ± 3.3 years) completed two 16-week exercise programs (3 exercise sessions per week) of aerobic and resistance exercise separated by a minimum of 6 week...

  3. Obesity therapy: altering the energy intake-and-expenditure balance sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Vivion E F; Yeo, Giles S H; O'Rahilly, Stephen

    2002-04-01

    Obesity is associated with numerous health complications, which range from non-fatal debilitating conditions such as osteoarthritis, to life-threatening chronic diseases such as coronary heart disease, diabetes and certain cancers. The psychological consequences of obesity can range from lowered self-esteem to clinical depression. Despite the high prevalence of obesity and the many advances in our understanding of how it develops, current therapies have persistently failed to achieve long-term success. This review focuses on how fat mass can be reduced by altering the balance between energy intake and expenditure.

  4. Energy expenditure in chronic stroke patients playing Wii Sports: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stam Henk J

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stroke is one of the leading causes of long-term disability in modern western countries. Stroke survivors often have functional limitations which might lead to a vicious circle of reduced physical activity, deconditioning and further physical deterioration. Current evidence suggests that routine moderate- or vigorous-intensity physical activity is essential for maintenance and improvement of health among stroke survivors. Nevertheless, long-term participation in physical activities is low among people with disabilities. Active video games, such as Nintendo Wii Sports, might maintain interest and improve long-term participation in physical activities; however, the intensity of physical activity among chronic stroke patients while playing Wii Sports is unknown. We investigated the energy expenditure of chronic stroke patients while playing Wii Sports tennis and boxing. Methods Ten chronic (≥ 6 months stroke patients comprising a convenience sample, who were able to walk independently on level ground, were recruited from a rehabilitation centre. They were instructed to play Wii Sports tennis and boxing in random order for 15 minutes each, with a 10-minute break between games. A portable gas analyzer was used to measure oxygen uptake (VO2 during sitting and during Wii Sports game play. Energy expenditure was expressed in metabolic equivalents (METs, calculated as VO2 during Wii Sports divided by VO2 during sitting. We classified physical activity as moderate (3-6 METs or vigorous (> 6 METs according to the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Heart Association Guidelines. Results Among the 10 chronic stroke patients, 3 were unable to play tennis because they had problems with timing of hitting the ball, and 2 were excluded from the boxing group because of a technical problem with the portable gas analyzer. The mean (± SD energy expenditure during Wii Sports game play was 3.7 (± 0.6 METs for tennis and 4.1 (

  5. Nonresidential buildings energy consumption survey: 1979 consumption and expenditures. Part 2. Steam, fuel oil, LPG, and all fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patinkin, L.

    1983-12-01

    This report presents data on square footage and on total energy consumption and expenditures for commercial buildings in the contiguous United States. Also included are detailed consumption and expenditures tables for fuel oil or kerosene, liquid petroleum gas (LPG), and purchased steam. Commercial buildings include all nonresidential buildings with the exception of those where industrial activities occupy more of the total square footage than any other type of activity. 7 figures, 23 tables.

  6. Estimating exergy prices for energy carriers in heating systems: Country analyses of exergy substitution with capital expenditures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, A.; Kranzl, L.; Tuominen, P.; Boelman, E.; Molinari, M.; Entrop, A.G.

    2011-01-01

    Exergy represents the ability of an energy carrier to perform work and can be seen as a core indicator for measuring its quality. In this article we postulate that energy prices reflect the exergy content of the underlying energy carrier and that capital expenditures can substitute for exergy to som

  7. Self-Directed Weight Loss Strategies: Energy Expenditure Due to Physical Activity Is Not Increased to Achieve Intended Weight Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulf Elbelt

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Reduced physical activity and almost unlimited availability of food are major contributors to the development of obesity. With the decline of strenuous work, energy expenditure due to spontaneous physical activity has attracted increasing attention. Our aim was to assess changes in energy expenditure, physical activity patterns and nutritional habits in obese subjects aiming at self-directed weight loss. Methods: Energy expenditure and physical activity patterns were measured with a portable armband device. Nutritional habits were assessed with a food frequency questionnaire. Results: Data on weight development, energy expenditure, physical activity patterns and nutritional habits were obtained for 105 patients over a six-month period from an initial cohort of 160 outpatients aiming at weight loss. Mean weight loss was −1.5 ± 7.0 kg (p = 0.028. Patients with weight maintenance (n = 75, with substantial weight loss (>5% body weight, n = 20 and with substantial weight gain (>5% body weight, n = 10 did not differ in regard to changes of body weight adjusted energy expenditure components (total energy expenditure: −0.2 kcal/kg/day; non-exercise activity thermogenesis: −0.3 kcal/kg/day; exercise-related activity thermogenesis (EAT: −0.2 kcal/kg/day or patterns of physical activity (duration of EAT: −2 min/day; steps/day: −156; metabolic equivalent unchanged measured objectively with a portable armband device. Self-reported consumption frequency of unfavorable food decreased significantly (p = 0.019 over the six-month period. Conclusions: An increase in energy expenditure or changes of physical activity patterns (objectively assessed with a portable armband device are not employed by obese subjects to achieve self-directed weight loss. However, modified nutritional habits could be detected with the use of a food frequency questionnaire.

  8. Induction of Energy Expenditure by Sitagliptin Is Dependent on GLP-1 Receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicia Goldsmith

    Full Text Available Sitagliptin (SG increases serum GLP-1 (Glucagon-like peptide-1 through inhibition of the hormone degradation. Resistant starch (RS induces GLP-1 expression by stimulating L-cells in the intestine. Sitagliptin and resistant starch may have a synergistic interaction in the induction of GLP-1. This possibility was tested in current study in a mouse model of type 2 diabetes. Hyperglycemia was induced in the diet-induced obese mice by a signal injection of streptozotocin (STZ. Sitagliptin (0.4g/100g diet was tested in the mice (n = 55 with dietary RS (HAM-RS2 at three dosages (0, 15, or 28g/100g diet. Energy and glucose metabolism were monitored in the evaluation of synergistic activity, and GLP-1 activity was determined in the GLP-1 receptor knockout (KO mice. In the wild type mice, body weight and adiposity were reduced by sitagliptin, which was enhanced by RS (28g. Serum GLP-1 was induced and energy expenditure was enhanced by sitagliptin. Fasting glucose, insulin, and leptin levels were decreased by sitagliptin. The sitagliptin effects were lost in the KO mice (n = 25 although induction of serum GLP-1 by sitagliptin was even stronger in KO mice. The data suggests that sitagliptin is able to reduce adiposity and insulin resistance through induction of energy expenditure. The effect of sitagliptin is partially enhanced by RS. GLP-1 receptor may regulate serum GLP-1 by facilitating the hormone clearance.

  9. Mitochondrial ROS regulate thermogenic energy expenditure and sulfenylation of UCP1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouchani, Edward T; Kazak, Lawrence; Jedrychowski, Mark P; Lu, Gina Z; Erickson, Brian K; Szpyt, John; Pierce, Kerry A; Laznik-Bogoslavski, Dina; Vetrivelan, Ramalingam; Clish, Clary B; Robinson, Alan J; Gygi, Steve P; Spiegelman, Bruce M

    2016-04-07

    Brown and beige adipose tissues can dissipate chemical energy as heat through thermogenic respiration, which requires uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). Thermogenesis from these adipocytes can combat obesity and diabetes, encouraging investigation of factors that control UCP1-dependent respiration in vivo. Here we show that acutely activated thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue is defined by a substantial increase in levels of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS). Remarkably, this process supports in vivo thermogenesis, as pharmacological depletion of mitochondrial ROS results in hypothermia upon cold exposure, and inhibits UCP1-dependent increases in whole-body energy expenditure. We further establish that thermogenic ROS alter the redox status of cysteine thiols in brown adipose tissue to drive increased respiration, and that Cys253 of UCP1 is a key target. UCP1 Cys253 is sulfenylated during thermogenesis, while mutation of this site desensitizes the purine-nucleotide-inhibited state of the carrier to adrenergic activation and uncoupling. These studies identify mitochondrial ROS induction in brown adipose tissue as a mechanism that supports UCP1-dependent thermogenesis and whole-body energy expenditure, which opens the way to improved therapeutic strategies for combating metabolic disorders.

  10. A Single Oral Administration of Theaflavins Increases Energy Expenditure and the Expression of Metabolic Genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoto Kudo

    Full Text Available Theaflavins are polyphenols found in black tea, whose physiological activities are not well understood. This study on mice evaluated the influence of a single oral administration of theaflavins on energy metabolism by monitoring the initial metabolic changess in skeletal muscle and brown adipose tissue (BAT. Oxygen consumption (VO2 and energy expenditure (EE were increased significantly in mice treated with theaflavin rich fraction (TF compared with the group administered vehicle alone. There was no difference in locomotor activity. Fasting mice were euthanized under anesthesia before and 2 and 5, 20-hr after treatment with TF or vehicle. The mRNA levels of uncoupling protein-1 (UCP-1 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1α (PGC-1α in BAT were increased significantly 2-hr after administration ofTF. The levels of UCP-3 and PGC-1α in the gastrocnemius muscle were increased significantly 2 and 5-hr after administration of TF. The concentration of phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK 1α was also increased significantly in the gastrocnemius 2 and 5-hr after treatment with TF. These results indicate that TF significantly enhances systemic energy expenditure, as evidenced by an increase in expression of metabolic genes.

  11. Total energy expenditure as measured by doubly-labeled water in outpatients with bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, L A; Devlin, M J; Matthews, D E; Walsh, B T

    2001-05-01

    This study measured total energy expenditure (TEE) in symptomatic outpatient women with bulimia nervosa and normal controls. The study aimed to test the conceptual model of bulimia nervosa as an illness characterized by a physiological state of starvation, despite normal weight. Total fat and fat-free mass were measured using hydrodensitometry and total energy expenditure was assessed via the doubly-labeled water method, in nine normal weight outpatient females with DSM-III-R bulimia nervosa and ten healthy female controls. Patients and controls were similar in age, body mass index, weight, lean body mass, and levels of exercise and general activity. Patients had an average baseline binge frequency of 14.7 episodes per week and purge frequency of 16.8 times per week, and had been ill for an average of 11.9 years. Group mean TEE did not differ between patients and controls (patients 2380 +/- 482 kcal/day, controls 2368 +/- 515 kcal day). Observed TEE in the bulimic subjects did not differ significantly from TEE predicted on the basis of data from the controls. This finding of normal TEE in symptomatic outpatients with bulimia nervosa is consistent with a previous study that found no difference in TEE in a sample of symptomatic inpatients with bulimia nervosa. These data suggest that the energy conserving metabolic adaptations characteristic of semi-starvation do not occur in patients with bulimia nervosa. Copyright 2001 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  12. Resting energy expenditure in critically ill patients: Evaluation methods and clinical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cláudia Soncini Sanches

    Full Text Available Summary Patients on intensive care present systemic, metabolic, and hormonal alterations that may adversely affect their nutritional condition and lead to fast and important depletion of lean mass and malnutrition. Several factors and medical conditions can influence the energy expenditure (EE of critically ill patients, such as age, gender, surgery, serious infections, medications, ventilation modality, and organ dysfunction. Clinical conditions that can present with EE change include acute kidney injury, a complex disorder commonly seen in critically ill patients with manifestations that can range from minimum elevations in serum creatinine to renal failure requiring dialysis. The nutritional needs of this population are therefore complex, and determining the resting energy expenditure is essential to adjust the nutritional supply and to plan a proper diet, ensuring that energy requirements are met and avoiding complications associated with overfeeding and underfeeding. Several evaluation methods of EE in this population have been described, but all of them have limitations. Such methods include direct calorimetry, doubly labeled water, indirect calorimetry (IC, various predictive equations, and, more recently, the rule of thumb (kcal/kg of body weight. Currently, IC is considered the gold standard.

  13. Resting energy expenditure in critically ill patients: Evaluation methods and clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanches, Ana Cláudia Soncini; Góes, Cassiana Regina de; Bufarah, Marina Nogueira Berbel; Balbi, André Luiz; Ponce, Daniela

    2016-10-01

    Patients on intensive care present systemic, metabolic, and hormonal alterations that may adversely affect their nutritional condition and lead to fast and important depletion of lean mass and malnutrition. Several factors and medical conditions can influence the energy expenditure (EE) of critically ill patients, such as age, gender, surgery, serious infections, medications, ventilation modality, and organ dysfunction. Clinical conditions that can present with EE change include acute kidney injury, a complex disorder commonly seen in critically ill patients with manifestations that can range from minimum elevations in serum creatinine to renal failure requiring dialysis. The nutritional needs of this population are therefore complex, and determining the resting energy expenditure is essential to adjust the nutritional supply and to plan a proper diet, ensuring that energy requirements are met and avoiding complications associated with overfeeding and underfeeding. Several evaluation methods of EE in this population have been described, but all of them have limitations. Such methods include direct calorimetry, doubly labeled water, indirect calorimetry (IC), various predictive equations, and, more recently, the rule of thumb (kcal/kg of body weight). Currently, IC is considered the gold standard.

  14. Daily energy expenditure in free-ranging Gopher Tortoises (Gopherus polyphemus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jodice, P.G.R.; Epperson, D.M.; Visser, G. Henk

    2006-01-01

    Studies of ecological energetics in chelonians are rare. Here, we report the first measurements of daily energy expenditure (DEE) and water influx rates (WIRs) in free-ranging adult Gopher Tortoises (Gopherus polyphemus). We used the doubly labeled water (DLW) method to measure DEE in six adult tortoises during the non-breeding season in south-central Mississippi, USA. Tortoise DEE ranged from 76.7-187.5 kj/day and WIR ranged from 30.6-93.1 ml H2O/day. Daily energy expenditure did not differ between the sexes, but DEE was positively related to body mass. Water influx rates varied with the interaction of sex and body mass. We used a log/log regression model to assess the allometric relationship between DEE and body mass for Gopher Tortoises, Desert Tortoises (Gopherus agassizii), and Box Turtles (Terrapene carolina), the only chelonians for which DEE has been measured. The slope of this allometric model (0.626) was less than that previously calculated for herbivorous reptiles (0.813), suggesting that chelonians may expend energy at a slower rate per unit of body mass compared to other herbivorous reptiles. We used retrospective power analyses and data from the DLW isotope analyses to develop guidelines for sample sizes and duration of measurement intervals, respectively, for larger-scale energetic studies in this species. ?? 2006 by the American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists.

  15. Resting energy expenditure and gut microbiota in obese and normal weight subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocełak, P; Zak-Gołąb, A; Zahorska-Markiewicz, B; Aptekorz, M; Zientara, M; Martirosian, G; Chudek, J; Olszanecka-Glinianowicz, M

    2013-10-01

    It is suggested that gut microbiota play a role in the pathogenesis of obesity enhancing energy utilization from digested food. The influence of gut microbiota on resting energy expenditure (REE) has not been evaluated yet. The aim of the study is to assess the composition on gut microbiota and its association with REE in obese and normal weight subjects. REE measurement and semi-quantitative analysis of gut microbiota composition in aerobic and anaerobic conditions were performed in 50 obese and 30 normal weight subjects without concomitant diseases. A count of bacterial colony was greater in obese than in normal weight subjects. However, the proportion of Bacteroides spp. and Firmicutes was similar in both study groups. A positive correlation between REE (kcal/d) and total bacterial count (r = 0.26, p Bacteroides spp. and Firmicutes counts on REE. The composition of gut microbiota is not associated with the level of resting energy expenditure. The proportion of Bacteroides and Firmicutes in gut microbiota is not related to body mass.

  16. Effects of PYY3-36 and GLP-1 on energy intake, energy expenditure and appetite in overweight men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Julie Berg; Gregersen, Nikolaj Ture; Pedersen, Sue D

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To examine the effects of GLP-1 and PYY3-36, separately and in combination, on energy intake, energy expenditure, appetite sensations, glucose and fat metabolism, ghrelin and vital signs in healthy overweight men. Methods: 25 healthy, male subjects participated in this randomized, double...... of appetite sensations, energy expenditure and fat oxidation, vital signs and blood variables were collected throughout the infusion period. Results: No effect on energy intake was found after monoinfusions of PYY3-36 (-4.2±4.8%, P=0.8) or GLP-1 (-3.0±4.5%, P=0.9). However, the co-infusion reduced energy......-blinded, placebo-controlled 4-arm crossover study (BMI:29±3 kg/m2, age:33±9 years). On separate days they received a 150 min intravenous infusion of either a) 0.8pmol/kg/min PYY3-36, b) 1.0 pmol/kg/min GLP-1, c) a+b, or d) placebo. Ad libitum energy intake was assessed during the final 30 min. Measurements...

  17. [Estimation of energy expenditure and the validity of pitch counting during walking and jogging by piezoelectric materials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, T; Udo, M; Mizuno, C; Yamanaka, H; Tasaka, I

    1992-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the validity of Piezo-electric accelerometer for estimating energy expenditure in walking and jogging. Energy consumption by oxygen uptake was determined during steady state level of treadmill walking at the speed of 60, 80 and 100 m/min and jogging at the speed of 100, 120, 140, and 160 m/min for 10 subjects. There was a highly significant correlation between the energy consumption and the estimated energy expenditure by an accelerometer despite the attached position (r = 0.912 at the waist, r = 0.915 at the chest, P < 0.001), which suggests accurate estimating energy expenditure in the field.

  18. Total Energy Expenditure of 16 Chinese Young Men Measured by the Doubly Labeled Water Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUO Qin; SUN Rui; GOU Ling Yan; PIAO Jian Hua; LIU Jian Min; TIAN Yuan; ZHANG Yu Hui; YANG Xiao Guang

    2013-01-01

    Objective Doubly labeled water (DLW) method is the gold standard for measuring total energy expenditure (TEE). We used this method to measure TEE in Chinese young men. Methods Sixteen healthy young men age 23±1 years with body mass index 22.0±1.4 kg/m2 were recruited. TEE was measured by the DLW method, and basal energy expenditure (BEE) was determined by indirect calorimetry. We also conducted 24-h activity, energy balance and factorial approach to estimate energy requirements of the subjects. Results TEE of subjects by DLW method was 9.45±0.57 MJ/day (2258±180 kcal/day). The 24-h activity was 10.80±0.33 MJ/day (2582±136 kcal/day). The energy requirement, derived from energy balance observations, was 9.93±1.32 MJ/day (2373±315 kcal/day). The BEE of 6.65±0.28 MJ/day (1589±67 kcal/day), calculated by the adjusted Schofield equation, was significantly higher (P<0.001) than that measured by indirect calorimetry, 5.99±0.66 MJ/day (1433±158 kcal/day). The TEE derived from the factorial approach was 10.31±0.43 MJ/day (2463±104 kcal/day). Conclusion The TEE of Chinese young men measured by the DLW method was about 10%lower than the current recommended nutrient intake (RNI), suggesting that the RNI for Chinese men maybe overestimated. Further studies are warranted to determine the value of the estimated energy requirement.

  19. Resting energy expenditure of morbidly obese patients using indirect calorimetry: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kee, A-L; Isenring, E; Hickman, I; Vivanti, A

    2012-09-01

    The increasing proportion of acutely ill hospital patient admissions presenting with a morbidly obese body mass index (BMI ≥ 40 kg m(-2) ) as a comorbidity is an emerging clinical concern. Suboptimal food intake and malnutrition is prevalent in the acute care hospital setting. The energy requirements necessary to prevent malnutrition in acutely ill patients with morbid obesity remains unclear. The aim of this systematic review was to identify studies in the literature that have used indirect calorimetry to measure the resting energy expenditure of patients with morbid obesity to establish their minimum energy requirements and the implications for optimal feeding practices in acutely ill hospitalized patients. A total of 20 studies from PubMed, Cochrane Library and Embase met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed. All articles were graded using the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council levels of evidence and given a quality rating using the American Dietetic Association recommendations. Studies were categorized according to the mean BMI of its subjects. The most commonly measured resting energy expenditures for morbidly obese patients are between 2,000 and 3,000 kcal d(-1) (8,400-12,600 kJ d(-1) ). Activity and injury factors of acutely ill morbidly obese patients could result in significantly greater energy requirements for this patient group and are unlikely to be met by standard hospital menus. Establishing the minimum energy requirements for this population group will help inform adequate and accurate energy provision in the acute setting. Outcomes of underfeeding and overfeeding in morbidly obese patients warrant further research.

  20. Heart Rate and Energy Expenditure in Division I Field Hockey Players During Competitive Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sell, Katie M; Ledesma, Allison B

    2016-08-01

    Sell, KM and Ledesma, AB. Heart rate and energy expenditure in Division I field hockey players during competitive play. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2122-2128, 2016-The purpose of this study was to quantify energy expenditure and heart rate data for Division I female field hockey players during competitive play. Ten female Division I collegiate field hockey athletes (19.8 ± 1.6 years; 166.4 ± 6.1 cm; 58.2 ± 5.3 kg) completed the Yo-Yo intermittent endurance test to determine maximal heart rate. One week later, all subjects wore a heart rate monitor during a series of 3 matches in an off-season competition. Average heart rate (AvHR), average percentage of maximal heart rate (AvHR%), peak exercise heart rate (PExHR), and percentage of maximal heart rate (PExHR%), time spent in each of the predetermined heart rate zones, and caloric expenditure per minute of exercise (kcalM) were determined for all players. Differences between positions (backs, midfielders, and forwards) were assessed. No significant differences in AvHR, AvHR%, PExHR, PExHR%, and %TM were observed between playing positions. The AvHR% and PExHR% for each position fell into zones 4 (77-93% HRmax) and 5 (>93% HRmax), respectively, and significantly more time was spent in zone 4 compared with zones 1, 2, 3, and 5 across all players (p ≤ 0.05). The kcalM reflected very heavy intensity exercise. The results of this study will contribute toward understanding the sport-specific physiological demands of women's field hockey and has specific implications for the duration and schedule of training regimens.

  1. Energy expenditure during golfing and lawn mowing in older adult men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dear, James B; Porter, Michelle M; Ready, A Elizabeth

    2010-04-01

    This study compared the intensity and energy cost of playing 9 holes of golf with 40 min of lawn mowing in older men and determined whether both met the current recommendations for health benefits. Eighteen men (age 71.2 +/- 4.4 yr, BMI 27.3 +/- 2.3; M +/- SD) completed a graded treadmill test. During golfing and lawn-mowing field tests, oxygen consumption and walking velocity and distance were measured using a portable metabolic system and global positioning system receiver. The net energy costs of golfing and lawn mowing were 310 and 246 kcal, respectively. The average intensities in metabolic equivalents of golfing and lawn mowing were 2.8 +/- 0.5 and 5.5 +/- 0.9, respectively. Both lawn mowing and golfing met the original intensity and energy expenditure requirements for health benefits specified by the American College of Sports Medicine in 1998, but only lawn mowing met the 2007 intensity recommendations.

  2. Energy expenditure and intake during puberty in healthy nonobese adolescents: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hoi Lun; Amatoury, Mazen; Steinbeck, Katharine

    2016-10-01

    Puberty is a time of rapid growth and changing energy requirements and is a risk period for obesity. There is little high-quality evidence on the pubertal alterations of energy expenditure and intake, and this has limited our understanding of energy balance during this important life stage. The purpose of this study was to summarize existing evidence on pubertal energy expenditure and intake in healthy nonobese adolescents. Studies were identified through CINAHL, the Cochrane Library, Embase, MEDLINE, and Web of Science databases up to August 2015. Articles presenting objectively measured data for basal or resting metabolic rate (BMR/RMR), total daily energy expenditure (TDEE), and/or energy intake (EI) for ≥2 categories of puberty were included. Relevant data adjusted for fat-free mass (FFM) also were extracted. Data were dichotomized into prepubertal and pubertal groups and compared through the use of standardized mean differences (SMDs). Heterogeneous study methodologies precluded meta-analysis. The search netted 6770 articles, with 12 included for review. From these, 6 of 9 studies supported significantly higher absolute BMR/RMR during puberty (SMD: 1.10-5.93), and all of the studies favored significantly higher absolute TDEE during puberty (SMD: 0.46-9.55). These corresponded to a 12% difference and an 18% difference in absolute BMR/RMR and TDEE, respectively. Results adjusted for FFM were equivocal, with 3 studies favoring higher (1 significantly) and 3 favoring significantly lower adjusted BMR/RMR during puberty. Only 1 study reported EI, showing 41% and 25% greater absolute intakes in pubertal males and females, respectively. These differences were not significant after adjustment for FFM. Reasonably consistent evidence exists to support higher absolute BMR/RMR and TDEE in pubertal than in prepubertal adolescents. Differences are largely accounted for by FFM, among other potential factors such as growth- and puberty-related hormones. This review argues

  3. Thyroid hormones correlate with resting metabolic rate, not daily energy expenditure, in two charadriiform seabirds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle H. Elliott

    2013-04-01

    Thyroid hormones affect in vitro metabolic intensity, increase basal metabolic rate (BMR in the lab, and are sometimes correlated with basal and/or resting metabolic rate (RMR in a field environment. Given the difficulty of measuring metabolic rate in the field—and the likelihood that capture and long-term restraint necessary to measure metabolic rate in the field jeopardizes other measurements—we examined the possibility that circulating thyroid hormone levels were correlated with RMR in two free-ranging bird species with high levels of energy expenditure (the black-legged kittiwake, Rissa tridactyla, and thick-billed murre, Uria lomvia. Because BMR and daily energy expenditure (DEE are purported to be linked, we also tested for a correlation between thyroid hormones and DEE. We examined the relationships between free and bound levels of the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4 and triiodothyronine (T3 with DEE and with 4-hour long measurements of post-absorptive and thermoneutral resting metabolism (resting metabolic rate; RMR. RMR but not DEE increased with T3 in both species; both metabolic rates were independent of T4. T3 and T4 were not correlated with one another. DEE correlated with body mass in kittiwakes but not in murres, presumably owing to the larger coefficient of variation in body mass during chick rearing for the more sexually dimorphic kittiwakes. We suggest T3 provides a good proxy for resting metabolism but not DEE in these seabird species.

  4. Prediction of bodyweight and energy expenditure using point pressure and foot acceleration measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sazonova, Nadezhda A; Browning, Raymond; Sazonov, Edward S

    2011-01-01

    Bodyweight (BW) is an essential outcome measure for weight management and is also a major predictor in the estimation of daily energy expenditure (EE). Many individuals, particularly those who are overweight, tend to underreport their BW, posing a challenge for monitors that track physical activity and estimate EE. The ability to automatically estimate BW can potentially increase the practicality and accuracy of these monitoring systems. This paper investigates the feasibility of automatically estimating BW and using this BW to estimate energy expenditure with a footwear-based, multisensor activity monitor. The SmartShoe device uses small pressure sensors embedded in key weight support locations of the insole and a heel-mounted 3D accelerometer. Bodyweight estimates for 9 subjects are computed from pressure sensor measurements when an automatic classification algorithm recognizes a standing posture. We compared the accuracy of EE prediction using estimated BW compared to that of using the measured BW. The results show that point pressure measurement is capable of providing rough estimates of body weight (root-mean squared error of 10.52 kg) which in turn provide a sufficient replacement of manually-entered bodyweight for the purpose of EE prediction (root-mean squared error of 0.7456 METs vs. 0.6972 METs). Advances in the pressure sensor technology should enable better accuracy of body weight estimation and further improvement in accuracy of EE prediction using automatic BW estimates.

  5. Evaluation of daily energy expenditure and health-related physical fitness parameters in patients with cholelithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celikagi, Cemil; Genc, Abdurrahman; Bal, Ahmet; Ucok, Kagan; Turamanlar, Ozan; Ozkececi, Z Taner; Yalcinkaya, Hatice; Coban, Necip F; Yorulmaz, Sueda

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the daily energy expenditure; resting metabolic rate (RMR); health-related physical fitness parameters such as maximal aerobic capacity, muscle strength, and flexibility; pulmonary function tests (PFTs); and body composition and body fat distribution changes in patients with cholelithiasis, and to compare them with healthy controls. Thirty female patients with cholelithiasis and 30 controls were included in this study. Daily physical activity was monitored using a metabolic Holter and the maximal aerobic capacity was estimated using the Astrand submaximal exercise protocol. The body composition was established with a bioelectrical impedance analyzer. RMR, PFTs, strength, flexibility, circumference, and skinfold measurements were also carried out. Maximal aerobic capacity, trunk flexibility, daily moderate activity duration, daily vigorous activity duration, total energy expenditure, RMR, PFT, lean body mass, adiposity, and body fat distribution values were not significantly different between the patients and the controls. The cholelithiasis patients had lower daily step numbers, handgrip strength, and back-leg strength values, whereas their higher daily sleep duration values were comparable with those of the controls. Our results suggest that daily physical activity and muscle strength were impaired in female cholelithiasis patients when compared with the healthy controls. We suggest that using daily exercises, including not only aerobic but also strength training as lifestyle modifications in cholelithiasis patients, might be helpful for the development of more beneficial illness management strategies.

  6. Genotype by energy expenditure interaction with metabolic syndrome traits: the Portuguese healthy family study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel M V Santos

    Full Text Available Moderate-to-high levels of physical activity are established as preventive factors in metabolic syndrome development. However, there is variability in the phenotypic expression of metabolic syndrome under distinct physical activity conditions. In the present study we applied a Genotype X Environment interaction method to examine the presence of GxEE interaction in the phenotypic expression of metabolic syndrome. A total of 958 subjects, from 294 families of The Portuguese Healthy Family study, were included in the analysis. Total daily energy expenditure was assessed using a 3 day physical activity diary. Six metabolic syndrome related traits, including waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, glucose, HDL cholesterol, total cholesterol and triglycerides, were measured and adjusted for age and sex. GxEE examination was performed on SOLAR 4.3.1. All metabolic syndrome indicators were significantly heritable. The GxEE interaction model fitted the data better than the polygenic model (p<0.001 for waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, glucose, total cholesterol and triglycerides. For waist circumference, glucose, total cholesterol and triglycerides, the significant GxEE interaction was due to rejection of the variance homogeneity hypothesis. For waist circumference and glucose, GxEE was also significant by the rejection of the genetic correlation hypothesis. The results showed that metabolic syndrome traits expression is significantly influenced by the interaction established between total daily energy expenditure and genotypes. Physical activity may be considered an environmental variable that promotes metabolic differences between individuals that are distinctively active.

  7. Genotype by energy expenditure interaction with metabolic syndrome traits: the Portuguese healthy family study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Daniel M V; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Diego, Vincent P; Souza, Michele C; Chaves, Raquel N; Blangero, John; Maia, José A R

    2013-01-01

    Moderate-to-high levels of physical activity are established as preventive factors in metabolic syndrome development. However, there is variability in the phenotypic expression of metabolic syndrome under distinct physical activity conditions. In the present study we applied a Genotype X Environment interaction method to examine the presence of GxEE interaction in the phenotypic expression of metabolic syndrome. A total of 958 subjects, from 294 families of The Portuguese Healthy Family study, were included in the analysis. Total daily energy expenditure was assessed using a 3 day physical activity diary. Six metabolic syndrome related traits, including waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, glucose, HDL cholesterol, total cholesterol and triglycerides, were measured and adjusted for age and sex. GxEE examination was performed on SOLAR 4.3.1. All metabolic syndrome indicators were significantly heritable. The GxEE interaction model fitted the data better than the polygenic model (pwaist circumference, systolic blood pressure, glucose, total cholesterol and triglycerides. For waist circumference, glucose, total cholesterol and triglycerides, the significant GxEE interaction was due to rejection of the variance homogeneity hypothesis. For waist circumference and glucose, GxEE was also significant by the rejection of the genetic correlation hypothesis. The results showed that metabolic syndrome traits expression is significantly influenced by the interaction established between total daily energy expenditure and genotypes. Physical activity may be considered an environmental variable that promotes metabolic differences between individuals that are distinctively active.

  8. The Addition of a Video Game to Stationary Cycling: The Impact on Energy Expenditure in Overweight Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddock, Bryan L; Siegel, Shannon R; Wikin, Linda D

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of obesity in children has reached epidemic proportions with over 37% of children aged 6-11 years in the U.S. being classified as "at risk for overweight" or "overweight." Utilization of active video games has been proposed as one possible mechanism to help shift the tide of the obesity epidemic. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine if riding a stationary bike that controlled a video game would lead to significantly greater energy expenditure than riding the same bike without the video game connected. METHODS: Twenty children, 7-14 years old, with a BMI classification of "at risk for overweight" or "overweight" participated in this study. Following familiarization, energy expenditure was evaluated while riding a stationary bike for 20 minutes. One test was performed without the addition of a video game and one test with the bike controlling the speed of a car on the video game. RESULTS: Oxygen consumption and energy expenditure were significantly elevated above baseline in both conditions. Energy expenditure was significantly higher while riding the bike as it controlled the video game (4.4 ± 1.2 Kcal·min(-1)) than when riding the bike by itself (3.7 ± 1.1 Kcal·min(-1)) (p0.05). CONCLUSION: Using a stationary bike to control a video game led to greater energy expenditure than riding a stationary bike without the video game and without a related increase in perceived exertion.

  9. The effect of long-term dexfenfluramine treatment on 24-hour energy expenditure in man. A double-blind placebo controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breum, L; Astrup, A; Andersen, T;

    1990-01-01

    In order to investigate the effect of long-term treatment with dexfenfluramine (dF) on 24-hour energy expenditure (EE), 10 obese females were studied in a double-blind design. Shortly before and 4 weeks after cessation of a 13 months treatment period with either dF (30 mg/day) or placebo (PL...... C and at a humidity between 3 and 11 g/m3. Discontinuation of dF treatment did not change energy expenditure significantly from placebo, neither when expressed in kJ/kg lean body mass nor in kJ/kg body weight. After cessation of treatment total 24-hour EE decreased likewise nonsignificantly by 2...... differences. The conclusion is therefore that dF possesses no significant thermogenic effect during long-term administration in human obese subjects....

  10. Pharmacologic activation of estrogen receptor β increases mitochondrial function, energy expenditure, and brown adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnusamy, Suriyan; Tran, Quynh T; Harvey, Innocence; Smallwood, Heather S; Thiyagarajan, Thirumagal; Banerjee, Souvik; Johnson, Daniel L; Dalton, James T; Sullivan, Ryan D; Miller, Duane D; Bridges, Dave; Narayanan, Ramesh

    2017-01-01

    Most satiety-inducing obesity therapeutics, despite modest efficacy, have safety concerns that underscore the need for effective peripherally acting drugs. An attractive therapeutic approach for obesity is to optimize/maximize energy expenditure by increasing energy-utilizing thermogenic brown adipose tissue. We used in vivo and in vitro models to determine the role of estrogen receptor β (ER-β) and its ligands on adipose biology. RNA sequencing and metabolomics were used to determine the mechanism of action of ER-β and its ligands. Estrogen receptor β (ER-β) and its selective ligand reprogrammed preadipocytes and precursor stem cells into brown adipose tissue and increased mitochondrial respiration. An ER-β-selective ligand increased markers of tricarboxylic acid-dependent and -independent energy biogenesis and oxygen consumption in mice without a concomitant increase in physical activity or food consumption, all culminating in significantly reduced weight gain and adiposity. The antiobesity effects of ER-β ligand were not observed in ER-β-knockout mice. Serum metabolite profiles of adult lean and juvenile mice were comparable, while that of adult obese mice was distinct, indicating a possible impact of obesity on age-dependent metabolism. This phenotype was partially reversed by ER-β-selective ligand. These data highlight a new role for ER-β in adipose biology and its potential to be a safer alternative peripheral therapeutic target for obesity.-Ponnusamy, S., Tran, Q. T., Harvey, I., Smallwood, H. S., Thiyagarajan, T., Banerjee, S., Johnson, D. L., Dalton, J. T., Sullivan, R. D., Miller, D. D., Bridges, D., Narayanan, R. Pharmacologic activation of estrogen receptor β increases mitochondrial function, energy expenditure, and brown adipose tissue. © FASEB.

  11. Effects of PYY1-36 and PYY3-36 on appetite, energy intake, energy expenditure, glucose and fat metabolism in obese and lean subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Birgitte; Holst, Jens Juul; Flint, Anne

    2006-01-01

    and eight obese participants completed 0.2 pmol x kg(-1) x min(-1) PYY(3-36) and 1.6 pmol x kg(-1) x min(-1) PYY(1-36) infusions. PYY(3-36) [corrected] produced [corrected] lower ratings of well-being and [corrected] increases in heart rate, [corrected] FFA, and [corrected] postprandial [corrected] insulin......Peptide YY (PYY)(3-36) has been shown to produce dramatic reductions in energy intake (EI), but no human data exist regarding energy expenditure (EE), glucose and fat metabolism. Nothing is known regarding PYY1-36. To compare effects of PYY(1-36) and PYY(3-36) on appetite, EI, EE, insulin, glucose...

  12. Comparison of steps and energy expenditure assessment in adults of Fitbit Tracker and Ultra to the Actical and indirect calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam Noah, J; Spierer, David K; Gu, Jialu; Bronner, Shaw

    2013-10-01

    Epidemic levels of inactivity are associated with chronic diseases and rising healthcare costs. To address this, accelerometers have been used to track levels of activity. The Fitbit and Fitbit Ultra are some of the newest commercially available accelerometers. The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability and validity of the Fitbit and Fitbit Ultra. Twenty-three subjects were fitted with two Fitbit and Fitbit Ultra accelerometers, two industry-standard accelerometers and an indirect calorimetry device. Subjects participated in 6-min bouts of treadmill walking, jogging and stair stepping. Results indicate the Fitbit and Fitbit Ultra are reliable and valid for activity monitoring (step counts) and determining energy expenditure while walking and jogging without an incline. The Fitbit and standard accelerometers under-estimated energy expenditure compared to indirect calorimetry for inclined activities. These data suggest the Fitbit and Fitbit Ultra are reliable and valid for monitoring over-ground energy expenditure.

  13. The contribution of body composition, substrates, and hormones to the variability in energy expenditure and substrate utilization in premenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, A; Buemann, B; Christensen, N J;

    1992-01-01

    Twenty-four-hour energy expenditure and substrate use were measured by indirect calorimetry in respiration chambers on a fixed physical program and related to body composition and plasma concentrations of various substrates and thermogenic hormones. Fifty premenopausal women with a wide range...... of body weight were examined in the follicular menstrual phase under weight stable conditions. Most of the variance in the sleeping energy expenditure (82%) was accounted for by two covariates, lean body mass (75%, P less than 0.0001), and fat mass (7%, P less than 0.0001). An additional 6...... circumference, plasma nonesterified fatty acids, and estradiol concentrations explained 49% of the variance in 24-h lipid oxidation. An obese subgroup of women (n = 27) had significantly higher 24-h energy expenditure, lipid, and carbohydrate oxidation rates than an age-matched normal weight group (n = 16...

  14. Novel Approaches to Obesity Prevention: Effects of Game Enjoyment and Game Type on Energy Expenditure in Active Video Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Elizabeth J.; Tate, Deborah F.; Komoski, Stephanie E.; Carr, Philip M.; Ward, Dianne S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Some active video games have been found to promote physical activity adherence because of enjoyment. However, many active games are exercise themed, which may interfere with the distracting properties that make game-based exercise more enjoyable than traditional exercise. This study compared exercise-themed and game-themed active games to investigate differences in energy expenditure and enjoyment. Method Young adults (N = 100, 50 female, 55 overweight, aged 18–35 years) played two of four Wii Fit games (one aerobic game and one balance game per person) for 10 min each. Of the two aerobic games, one was exercise themed (jogging) and the other was game themed (hula hooping). Both balance games were game themed. Energy expenditure and enjoyment were measured. Results After adjustment for gender and weight, aerobic games produced 2.70 kcal/kg-1/h-1 (95% confidence interval 2.41, 3.00) greater energy expenditure than balance games (p games were more enjoyable (p games, jogging produced greater energy expenditure than hula hooping in normal-weight and male participants (p .17). Hula hooping was enjoyed more than jogging (p = .008). Enjoyment predicted energy expenditure in aerobic games (B = 0.767, p = .010). Conclusions Aerobic games produced greater energy expenditure but lower enjoyment than balance games, and a game-themed aerobic game was found more enjoyable than an exercise-themed aerobic game. Integrating more strenuous activity into entertaining games instead of games that simply simulate exercise may be a fruitful avenue for active game development. PMID:22920810

  15. Daily energy expenditure, cardiorespiratory fitness and glycaemic control in people with type 1 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Joseph Valletta

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Encouraging daily physical activity improves cardiorespiratory fitness and many cardiovascular risk factors. However, increasing physical activity often creates a challenge for people with type 1 diabetes, because of difficulties maintaining euglycemia in the face of altered food intake and adjustments to insulin doses. Our aim was to examine the triangular relationship between glucose control measured by continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS, objective measures of total daily energy expenditure (TEE recorded by a multi-sensory monitoring device, and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF, in free-living subjects with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Twenty-three individuals (12 women with type 1 diabetes who were free from micro- and macrovascular complications were recruited. TEE and glucose control were monitored simultaneously for up to 12 days, using a multi-sensory device and CGMS respectively. CRF was recorded as V02 max from a maximal treadmill test with the Bruce protocol. RESULTS: Subjects (mean±SD were aged 37±11 years, with BMI = 26.5±5.1 kg.m⁻², HbA1c = 7.7±1.3% (61±14 mmol/mol and V02 max (ml.min⁻¹.kg⁻¹  = 39.9±8.4 (range 22.4-58.6. TEE (36.3±5.5 kcal.kg⁻¹.day⁻¹ was strongly associated with CRF(39.9±8.4 ml.min⁻¹.kg⁻¹ independently of sex (r = 0.63, p<0.01. However, neither TEE (r = -0.20, p = 0.36 nor CRF (r = -0.20, p = 0.39; adjusted for sex, were significantly associated with mean glycaemia measured by CGMS. CONCLUSION: Higher levels of energy expenditure (due to a more active lifestyle are associated with increased cardiorespiratory fitness, but not necessarily better glycaemic control. Since increased levels of energy expenditure and good glycaemic control are both needed to protect against diabetes-related complications our data suggest they need to be achieved independently.

  16. EFFECT OF ENERGY EXPENDITURE AND TRAINING STATUS ON LEPTIN RESPONSE TO SUB-MAXIMAL CYCLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anissa Bouassida

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available We examined the leptin response and related hormones during and after two sub-maximal exercise protocols in trained and untrained subjects. During this study, plasma concentrations of leptin [Lep], insulin [I], cortisol [C], growth hormone [GH], glucose [G] and lactate [La] were measured. 7 elite volleyball trained players (TR and 7 untrained (UTR subjects (percent body fat: 13.2 ± 1.8 versus 15.7 ± 1.0, p < 0.01, respectively were examined after short and prolonged sub-maximal cycling exercise protocols (SP and PP. Venous blood samples were collected before each protocol, during, at the end, and after 2 and 24 h of recovery. SP and PP energy expenditures ranged from 470 ± 60 to 740 ± 90 kcal for TR and from 450 ± 60 to 710 ± 90 kcal for UTR, respectively. [Lep] was related to body fat percentage and body fat mass in TR (r = 0. 84, p < 0.05 and r = 0.93, p < 0.01 and in UTR (r = 0.89, p < 0.01 and r = 0.92, p < 0. 01, respectively. [Lep] did not change significantly during both protocols for both groups but was lower (p < 0.05 in all sampling in TR when compared to UTR. Plasma [I] decreased (p < 0.01 and [GH] increased (p < 0.01 significantly during both SP and PP and these hormones remained lower (I: p < 0.01 and higher (GH: p < 0.01 than pre-exercise levels after a 2-h recovery period, returning to base-line at 24-h recovery. Plasma [La] increased (p < 0.01 during both protocols for TR and UTR. There was no significant change in [C] and [G] during and after both protocols for all subjects. It is concluded that 1 leptin is not sensitive to acute short or prolonged sub-maximal exercises (with energy expenditure under 800 kcal in volleyball/ anaerobically trained athletes as in untrained subjects, 2 volleyball athletes showed significantly lower resting and exercise leptin response with respect to untrained subjects and 3 it appears that in these anaerobically trained athletes leptin response to exercise is more sensitive to the level of

  17. Increased lipolysis and energy expenditure in a mouse model with severely impaired glucagon secretion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phing-How Lou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Secretion of insulin and glucagon is triggered by elevated intracellular calcium levels. Although the precise mechanism by which the calcium signal is coupled to insulin and glucagon granule exocytosis is unclear, synaptotagmin-7 has been shown to be a positive regulator of calcium-dependent insulin and glucagon secretion, and may function as a calcium sensor for insulin and glucagon granule exocytosis. Deletion of synaptotagmin-7 leads to impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and nearly abolished Ca(2+-dependent glucagon secretion in mice. Under non-stressed resting state, however, synaptotagmin-7 KO mice exhibit normal insulin level but severely reduced glucagon level. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied energy expenditure and metabolism in synaptotagmin-7 KO and control mice using indirect calorimetry and biochemical techniques. Synaptotagmin-7 KO mice had lower body weight and body fat content, and exhibited higher oxygen consumption and basal metabolic rate. Respiratory exchange ratio (RER was lower in synaptotagmin-7 KO mice, suggesting an increased use of lipid in their energy production. Consistent with lower RER, gene expression profiles suggest enhanced lipolysis and increased capacity for fatty acid transport and oxidation in synaptotagmin-7 KO mice. Furthermore, expression of uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3 in skeletal muscle was approximately doubled in the KO mice compared with control mice. CONCLUSIONS: These results show that the lean phenotype in synaptotagmin-7 KO mice was mostly attributed to increased lipolysis and energy expenditure, and suggest that reduced glucagon level may have broad influence on the overall metabolism in the mouse model.

  18. Free living energy expenditure in post menopausal women before and after exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keytel, L R; Lambert, M I; Johnson, J; Noakes, T D; Lambert, E V

    2001-06-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effects of 8 weeks of moderate exercise training, on 24-hour free living energy expenditure in previously sedentary post-menopausal women. The experimental group (EX) included 9 women. Ten non-exercising control subjects (CON) were recruited to undergo pre- and post-testing. Estimated total daily energy expenditure (TDEE), total 24-hour heart beats (HB), total energy intake (TEI), resting metabolic rate, maximal oxygen consumption (VáO2max), body composition, and submaximal heart rate were measured before and after the exercise intervention. Body composition did not change (body fat % in CON 34.0 +/- 4.0% vs. 33.9 +/- 3.6% and EX 34.1 +/- 4.0% vs. 34.0 +/- 3.4%). Mean submaximal heart rate during steady-state exercise in EX was lower after training compared to CON (p post, respectively), RMR (CON 134.2 +/- 9.4 vs. 136.9 +/- 15.0 KJ/kgFFM/day, and EX 138.4 +/- 6.4 vs. 140.7 +/- 14.2 KJ/kgFFM/day, pre vs. post, respectively), TEI (CON 7.9 +/- 2.2 vs. 8.2 +/- 2.5 MJ, and EX 9.4 +/-1.6 vs. 8.3 +/- 2.8 MJ), nor HB (CON 110,808 +/- 12,574 vs. 107,366 +/- 12,864 beats, and EX 110,188 +/- 9,219 vs. 114,590 +/- 12,750 beats) change over 8 weeks in either group. These data suggest that a moderate exercise program may not impact on TDEE, RMR, TEI, or HB in previously sedentary, older women.

  19. The energy expenditure of non-weight bearing crutch walking on the level and ascending stairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Jonathan; Murphy, Alexandra; Murphy, David; Austin, Andy; Moran, Danielle; Cronin, Caitriona; Guinan, Emer; Hussey, Juliette

    2015-06-01

    Crutches are commonly prescribed to patients with lower limb dysfunction during rehabilitation to assist with mobility. The aim of this study was to determine the energy expenditure for non-weight bearing crutch walking on level ground and ascending stairs at a self selected speed in a healthy adult population. Thirty-one healthy male and female adults (mean±SD: age 21.6±1.2 years; height 170.8±10.8 cm; weight 70.8±11.4 kg) mobilised non-weight bearing with elbow crutches along a 30 m corridor and (with one crutch) up a flight of 13 stairs. Energy expenditure for each activity was measured by indirect calorimetry using the COSMED K4b(2) portable ergospirometry system. The established VO2 values were 16.4ml/kg/min for crutch walking on level ground and 17.85 ml/kg/min for stair climbing. Non-weight bearing crutch walking at a self selected speed on the level ground and up a flight of stairs resulted in a MET value of 4.57 and 5.06 respectively. The mean heart rate (HR) for crutch walking along the flat was 117.06±20.54 beats per minute (bpm), while the mean HR for ambulating upstairs with crutches was 113.91±19.32 bpm. The increased energy demands of non-weight bearing crutch walking should be considered by physical therapists when instructing patients on crutch use. Further investigation to determine the implications of these results in populations with chronic disease is warranted.

  20. Lack of association of fatness-related FTO gene variants with energy expenditure or physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berentzen, T; Kring, S I I; Holst, C; Zimmermann, E; Jess, T; Hansen, T; Pedersen, O; Toubro, S; Astrup, A; Sørensen, T I A

    2008-07-01

    A common variant in the first intron of FTO (rs9939609, T/A) is associated with fatness in Caucasians. FTO may regulate energy homeostasis through the hypothalamus, and we hypothesized that AA-genotypes of rs9939609 FTO have lower energy expenditure and/or a lower level of physical activity. The study population included all obese young men (body mass index > or = 31 kg/m(2)) at the mandatory draft board examinations in the Copenhagen area from 1943 to 1977 and a randomly selected control group from this population. Subgroups of 234 obese and 323 controls were examined in 1998-2000 (median age 48 yr). Fat mass (FM), lean body mass (LBM), leisure-time physical activity (LTPA), maximum oxygen uptake (VO(2)max), resting energy expenditure (REE), and glucose-induced thermogenesis (GIT) were measured. The FTO rs9939609 variant was genotyped. A recessive transmission mode fit the data best. Logistic regression was used to assess the odds ratios of the AA-genotype in relation to LTPA, VO(2)max, REE, and GIT. The AA-genotype of FTO rs9939609 had higher REE in the age-adjusted model, but the association was eliminated when adjusting for FM and LBM. The AA-genotype was not associated with LTPA, VO(2)max, or GIT. This was not influenced by adjustment for age, FM, or LBM. The AA-genotype had increased FM, even with adjustment for age, LBM, REE, GIT, VO(2)max, and LTPA. Results were similar for FTO rs8050136 and rs7193144. Homozygous carriers of the A-allele of rs9939609 FTO do not have lower REE, GIT, VO(2)max, or LTPA but higher FM, irrespective of LBM, REE, GIT, VO(2)max, and LTPA.

  1. Common variants near MC4R in relation to body fat, body fat distribution, metabolic traits and energy expenditure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kring, Sofia Inez Iqbal; Holst, C; Toubro, Søren

    2010-01-01

    Common variants near melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) have been related to fatness and type 2 diabetes. We examined the associations of rs17782313 and rs17700633 in relation to body fat, body fat distribution, metabolic traits, weight development and energy expenditure.......Common variants near melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) have been related to fatness and type 2 diabetes. We examined the associations of rs17782313 and rs17700633 in relation to body fat, body fat distribution, metabolic traits, weight development and energy expenditure....

  2. The influence of vessel movements on the energy expenditure of fishermen in relation to activities and occupational tasks on board

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breidahl, Tomas; Christensen, Michael; Jepsen, Jørgen Riis

    2015-01-01

    recorded their work activities on an hourly basis during a 4 days fishing voyage. The energy expenditure was estimated with a body monitoring system (SenseWear Pro 3) carried as an armband, placed on the right upper arm. The vessels’ movements were assessed by a gyroscope placed in the wheelhouse......o for both vessels during the voyages. The fishermen’s energy expenditure differed with the tasks undertaken and correlated with the vessels’ movements, but for navigation and fishing the correlation was only significant in the highest — fourth quartile of — pitch/roll. Conclusions: This study has...

  3. Elevated energy expenditure and reduced energy intake in obese prepubertal children: paradox of poor dietary reliability in obesity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffeis, C; Schutz, Y; Zaffanello, M; Piccoli, R; Pinelli, L

    1994-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the validity of two common methods used to assess energy intake. A 3-day weighed dietary record and a dietary history were collected and compared with the total daily energy expenditure (TEE) assessed by the heart rate method in a group of 12 obese and 12 nonobese prepubertal children (mean age 9.3 +/- 1.1 years vs 9.3 +/- 0.4 years). The TEE value was higher in obese than in nonobese children (9.89 +/- 1.08 vs 8.13 +/- 1.39 MJ/day; p obese children (7.06 +/- 0.98 MJ/day; p obese children (8.37 +/- 1.35 MJ/day, p obese children underreport food intake and that the dietary record and the diet history are not valid means of assessing energy intake in obese prepubertal children.

  4. Combustion, Respiration and Intermittent Exercise: A Theoretical Perspective on Oxygen Uptake and Energy Expenditure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Christopher B.

    2014-01-01

    While no doubt thought about for thousands of years, it was Antoine Lavoisier in the late 18th century who is largely credited with the first “modern” investigations of biological energy exchanges. From Lavoisier’s work with combustion and respiration a scientific trend emerges that extends to the present day: the world gains a credible working hypothesis but validity goes missing, often for some time, until later confirmed using proper measures. This theme is applied to glucose/glycogen metabolism where energy exchanges are depicted as conversion from one form to another and, transfer from one place to another made by both the anaerobic and aerobic biochemical pathways within working skeletal muscle, and the hypothetical quantification of these components as part of an oxygen (O2) uptake measurement. The anaerobic and aerobic energy exchange components of metabolism are represented by two different interpretations of O2 uptake: one that contains a glycolytic component (1 L O2 = 21.1 kJ) and one that does not (1 L O2 = 19.6 kJ). When energy exchange transfer and oxygen-related expenditures are applied separately to exercise and recovery periods, an increased energy cost for intermittent as compared to continuous exercise is hypothesized to be a direct result. PMID:24833508

  5. Longitudinal assessment of energy expenditure in pregnancy by the doubly labeled water method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, G R; Prentice, A M; Coward, W A; Davies, H L; Murgatroyd, P R; Wensing, C; Black, A E; Harding, M; Sawyer, M

    1993-04-01

    Twelve women were studied before pregnancy and at 6-wk intervals from 6 to 36 wk gestation. Total energy expenditure (TEE) by the doubly labeled water method, basal metabolic rate (BMR), energy intake, and body composition were assessed on each occasion. There was substantial interindividual variation in the response to pregnancy. Mean total energy costs were as follows: delta BMR 112 +/- 104 MJ (range -53 to 273), delta TEE 243 +/- 279 MJ (range -61 to 869 MJ), and fat deposition 132 +/- 127 MJ (range -99 to 280 MJ). The mean total cost of pregnancy (cumulative TEE above baseline+energy deposited as fat and as products of conception) was 418 +/- 348 MJ (range 34-1192 MJ). This was much higher than current recommendations for incremental energy intakes. Self-recorded incremental intakes (208 +/- 272 MJ) seriously underestimated the additional costs. The variability in response emphasizes the problems in making prescriptive recommendations for individual women, because there is no way of predicting metabolic or behavioral responses to pregnancy.

  6. Total energy expenditure of healthy Swedish women during pregnancy and lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsum, E; Kabir, N; Sadurskis, A; Westerterp, K

    1992-08-01

    Total energy expenditure (TEE) was estimated in healthy Swedish women by the doubly labeled water method in a longitudinal study during pregnancy and lactation. Measurements were made before pregnancy (A); in gestational weeks 16-18 (B), 30 (C), and 36 (D); as well as 2 (F) and 6 (G) mo after delivery. When the results were interpreted, earlier published data regarding resting metabolic rate (RMR), energy intake, and energy in breast milk were also considered. TEE (MJ/d) and TEE/RMR were 10.5 +/- 2.2 (mean +/- SD) and 1.87 +/- 0.42 (n = 28), 9.6 +/- 2.8 and 1.65 +/- 0.67 (n = 22), 12.5 +/- 3.4 and 1.82 +/- 0.45 (n = 22), 12.2 +/- 4.1 and 1.66 +/- 0.52 (n = 19), 10.6 +/- 2.0 and 1.82 +/- 0.41 (n = 23), and 10.8 +/- 2.7 and 1.79 +/- 0.42 (n = 23) at A, B, C, D, F, and G, respectively. The results indicated that physical activity tended to be decreased during early pregnancy. Taking changes in body energy stores into consideration, it was estimated that subjects recorded 86% and 77% of their energy intakes at A and F respectively.

  7. Combustion, Respiration and Intermittent Exercise: A Theoretical Perspective on Oxygen Uptake and Energy Expenditure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher B. Scott

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available While no doubt thought about for thousands of years, it was Antoine Lavoisier in the late 18th century who is largely credited with the first “modern” investigations of biological energy exchanges. From Lavoisier’s work with combustion and respiration a scientific trend emerges that extends to the present day: the world gains a credible working hypothesis but validity goes missing, often for some time, until later confirmed using proper measures. This theme is applied to glucose/glycogen metabolism where energy exchanges are depicted as conversion from one form to another and, transfer from one place to another made by both the anaerobic and aerobic biochemical pathways within working skeletal muscle, and the hypothetical quantification of these components as part of an oxygen (O2 uptake measurement. The anaerobic and aerobic energy exchange components of metabolism are represented by two different interpretations of O2 uptake: one that contains a glycolytic component (1 L O2 = 21.1 kJ and one that does not (1 L O2 = 19.6 kJ. When energy exchange transfer and oxygen-related expenditures are applied separately to exercise and recovery periods, an increased energy cost for intermittent as compared to continuous exercise is hypothesized to be a direct result.

  8. A switch from white to brown fat increases energy expenditure in cancer-associated cachexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruzzelli, Michele; Schweiger, Martina; Schreiber, Renate; Campos-Olivas, Ramon; Tsoli, Maria; Allen, John; Swarbrick, Michael; Rose-John, Stefan; Rincon, Mercedes; Robertson, Graham; Zechner, Rudolf; Wagner, Erwin F

    2014-09-02

    Cancer-associated cachexia (CAC) is a wasting syndrome characterized by systemic inflammation, body weight loss, atrophy of white adipose tissue (WAT) and skeletal muscle. Limited therapeutic options are available and the underlying mechanisms are poorly defined. Here we show that a phenotypic switch from WAT to brown fat, a phenomenon termed WAT browning, takes place in the initial stages of CAC, before skeletal muscle atrophy. WAT browning is associated with increased expression of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), which uncouples mitochondrial respiration toward thermogenesis instead of ATP synthesis, leading to increased lipid mobilization and energy expenditure in cachectic mice. Chronic inflammation and the cytokine interleukin-6 increase UCP1 expression in WAT, and treatments that reduce inflammation or β-adrenergic blockade reduce WAT browning and ameliorate the severity of cachexia. Importantly, UCP1 staining is observed in WAT from CAC patients. Thus, inhibition of WAT browning represents a promising approach to ameliorate cachexia in cancer patients.

  9. Increased lipolysis and energy expenditure in a mouse model with severely impaired glucagon secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lou, Phing-How; Gustavsson, Natalia; Wang, Yue

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Secretion of insulin and glucagon is triggered by elevated intracellular calcium levels. Although the precise mechanism by which the calcium signal is coupled to insulin and glucagon granule exocytosis is unclear, synaptotagmin-7 has been shown to be a positive regulator of calcium......-dependent insulin and glucagon secretion, and may function as a calcium sensor for insulin and glucagon granule exocytosis. Deletion of synaptotagmin-7 leads to impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and nearly abolished Ca(2+)-dependent glucagon secretion in mice. Under non-stressed resting state, however......, synaptotagmin-7 KO mice exhibit normal insulin level but severely reduced glucagon level. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied energy expenditure and metabolism in synaptotagmin-7 KO and control mice using indirect calorimetry and biochemical techniques. Synaptotagmin-7 KO mice had lower body weight...

  10. Effects of hydrolysed casein, intact casein and intact whey protein on energy expenditure and appetite regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Line Quist; Lorenzen, Janne Kunchel; Gomes, Sisse

    2014-01-01

    Casein and whey differ in amino acid composition and in the rate of absorption; however, the absorption rate of casein can be increased to mimic that of whey by exogenous hydrolysis. The objective of the present study was to compare the effects of hydrolysed casein (HC), intact casein (IC......) and intact whey (IW) on energy expenditure (EE) and appetite regulation, and thereby to investigate the influence of amino acid composition and the rate of absorption. In the present randomised cross-over study, twenty-four overweight and moderately obese young men and women consumed three isoenergetic...... dietary treatments that varied in protein source. The study was conducted in a respiration chamber, where EE, substrate oxidation and subjective appetite were measured over 24 h at three independent visits. Moreover, blood and urine samples were collected from the participants. The results showed...

  11. Unpredictable Variable Prenatal Stress Programs Expression of Genes Involved in Appetite Control and Energy Expenditure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, E. L.; Al-Shayeb, B.; Baer, L. A.; Ronca, A. E.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to stress in the womb shapes neurobiological and physiological outcomes of offspring in later life, including body weight regulation and metabolic profiles. Our previous work utilizing a centrifugation-induced hyper-gravity demonstrated significantly increased (8-15%) body mass in male, but not female, rats exposed throughout gestation to chronic 2-g from conception to birth. We reported a similar outcome in adult offspring exposed throughout gestation to Unpredictable Variable Prenatal Stress (UVPS). Here we examine gene expression changes and the plasma of animals treated with our UVPS model to identify a potential role for prenatal stress in this hypergravity programming effect. Specifically we focused on appetite control and energy expenditure pathways in prenatally stressed adult (90-day-old) male Sprague-Dawley rats.

  12. Adipose Tissue CLK2 Promotes Energy Expenditure during High-Fat Diet Intermittent Fasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatting, Maximilian; Rines, Amy K; Luo, Chi; Tabata, Mitsuhisa; Sharabi, Kfir; Hall, Jessica A; Verdeguer, Francisco; Trautwein, Christian; Puigserver, Pere

    2017-02-07

    A promising approach to treating obesity is to increase diet-induced thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT), but the regulation of this process remains unclear. Here we find that CDC-like kinase 2 (CLK2) is expressed in BAT and upregulated upon refeeding. Mice lacking CLK2 in adipose tissue exhibit exacerbated obesity and decreased energy expenditure during high-fat diet intermittent fasting. Additionally, tissue oxygen consumption and protein levels of UCP1 are reduced in CLK2-deficient BAT. Phosphorylation of CREB, a transcriptional activator of UCP1, is markedly decreased in BAT cells lacking CLK2 due to enhanced CREB dephosphorylation. Mechanistically, CREB dephosphorylation is rescued by the inhibition of PP2A, a phosphatase that targets CREB. Our results suggest that CLK2 is a regulatory component of diet-induced thermogenesis in BAT through increased CREB-dependent expression of UCP1.

  13. Disruption of the Class IIa HDAC Corepressor Complex Increases Energy Expenditure and Lipid Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidhi Gaur

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Drugs that recapitulate aspects of the exercise adaptive response have the potential to provide better treatment for diseases associated with physical inactivity. We previously observed reduced skeletal muscle class IIa HDAC (histone deacetylase transcriptional repressive activity during exercise. Here, we find that exercise-like adaptations are induced by skeletal muscle expression of class IIa HDAC mutants that cannot form a corepressor complex. Adaptations include increased metabolic gene expression, mitochondrial capacity, and lipid oxidation. An existing HDAC inhibitor, Scriptaid, had similar phenotypic effects through disruption of the class IIa HDAC corepressor complex. Acute Scriptaid administration to mice increased the expression of metabolic genes, which required an intact class IIa HDAC corepressor complex. Chronic Scriptaid administration increased exercise capacity, whole-body energy expenditure and lipid oxidation, and reduced fasting blood lipids and glucose. Therefore, compounds that disrupt class IIa HDAC function could be used to enhance metabolic health in chronic diseases driven by physical inactivity.

  14. Comparison of direct and indirect measures of walking energy expenditure in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefer, Daniel J; Tseh, Wayland; Caputo, Jennifer L; Apperson, Kathy; McGreal, Sheri; Morgan, Don W

    2004-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of the heartrate (HR) version of the energy expenditure index (EEIHR) as a proxy for measurement of walking oxygen consumption (VO2) in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Thirteen children (eight males, five females; mean age 11 years 2 months [SD 3 years], age range 6 to 15 years) with hemiplegic CP, participated in this study. The study was conducted over three sessions. During session 1, participants were familiarized with testing procedures and given 5 minutes of treadmill walking practice. In session 2, participants completed three 5-minute walking bouts on the treadmill at 0.67m x s(-1) to familiarize themselves with treadmill locomotion. During the final session participants walked at 0.67, 0.89, and 1.12m x s(-1) for 5 minutes while gross oxygen consumption (gross VO2; walking VO2/speed), net VO2 ([walking VO2-resting VO2]/speed), and EEIHR ([walking HR-resting HR]/speed) were measured during the last 2 minutes of each bout. Correlational analyses indicated no relationship (p>0.05) between measures of gross VO2 and EEIHR at each speed. Although no association was evident between net VO2 and EEIHR at 0.67 and 0.89m x s(-1), a moderate relationship (r=0.64; p<0.05) was present between these variables at 1.12m x s(-1). Examination of individual data revealed that most participants displayed an unmatched pattern of response between net VO2 and EEIHR. Our results suggest that caution should be applied when using EEIHR to estimate walking energy expenditure in children with CP.

  15. A Comparative Study on the Suitability of Smartphones and IMU for Mobile, Unsupervised Energy Expenditure Calculi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Zafra, Angel; Orantes-González, Eva; Noguera, Manuel; Benghazi, Kawtar; Heredia-Jimenez, Jose

    2015-07-27

    The metabolic equivalent of task (MET) is currently the most used indicator for measuring the energy expenditure (EE) of a physical activity (PA) and has become an important measure for determining and supervising a person's state of health. The use of new devices which are capable of measuring inertial movements by means of built-in accelerometers enable the PA to be measured objectively on the basis of the reckoning of "counts". These devices are also known as inertial measurement units (IMUs) and each count is an aggregated value indicating the intensity of a movement and can be used in conjunction with other parameters to determine the MET rate of a particular physical activity and thus it's associated EE. Various types of inertial devices currently exist that enable count calculus and physical activity to be monitored. The advent of mobile devices, such as smartphones, with empowered computation capabilities and integrated inertial sensors, has enabled EE to be measure in a distributed, ubiquitous and natural way, thereby overcoming the reluctance of users and practitioners associated with in-lab studies. From the point of view of the process analysis and infrastructure needed to manage data from inertial devices, there are also various differences in count computing: extra devices are required, out-of-device processing, etc. This paper presents a study to discover whether the estimation of energy expenditure is dependent on the accelerometer of the device used in measurements and to discover the suitability of each device for performing certain physical activities. In order to achieve this objective, we have conducted several experiments with different subjects on the basis of the performance of various daily activities with different smartphones and IMUs.

  16. Development and evaluation of an adult use-of-time instrument with an energy expenditure focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomersall, Sjaan R; Olds, Tim S; Ridley, Kate

    2011-03-01

    Measurement in behavioural epidemiology depends on high resolution and precise and accurate measures of the behaviour of interest. Few questionnaires in the adult population are able to simultaneously collect the multidimensional information that is emerging as being important in the relationship between behaviour and health. This project had two objectives: (1) to develop an adult version of the computer-delivered Multimedia Activity Recall for Children and Adolescents (MARCA), a 24-h activity recall instrument that can measure use-of-time and estimate energy expenditure and (2) to determine the test-retest reliability and convergent validity of the developed adult MARCA. Thirty-eight healthy subjects (mean±SD, 31.7±12.1 yr) completed two recalls of the adult MARCA within 24-h and accelerometer counts were measured on 30 of the subjects. Bland-Altman analysis and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were used to quantify the test-retest reliability of the adult MARCA. Spearman rank correlation coefficients (rho) were used to quantify convergent validity of the adult MARCA compared to accelerometer counts. The test-retest reliability coefficients of the adult MARCA were high with intra-class coefficients ranging from 0.99 to 1.00. Moderate to strong validity was observed for physical activity level (PAL) (MET.min score of accelerometer wear time) and accelerometer counts per minute (rho=0.72). The adult MARCA is a valid and reliable self-report measure of use-of-time and energy expenditure, capable of a wide variety of flexible use-of-time analyses related to a wide range of behaviours.

  17. A Comparative Study on the Suitability of Smartphones and IMU for Mobile, Unsupervised Energy Expenditure Calculi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Ruiz-Zafra

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The metabolic equivalent of task (MET is currently the most used indicator for measuring the energy expenditure (EE of a physical activity (PA and has become an important measure for determining and supervising a person’s state of health. The use of new devices which are capable of measuring inertial movements by means of built-in accelerometers enable the PA to be measured objectively on the basis of the reckoning of “counts”. These devices are also known as inertial measurement units (IMUs and each count is an aggregated value indicating the intensity of a movement and can be used in conjunction with other parameters to determine the MET rate of a particular physical activity and thus it’s associated EE. Various types of inertial devices currently exist that enable count calculus and physical activity to be monitored. The advent of mobile devices, such as smartphones, with empowered computation capabilities and integrated inertial sensors, has enabled EE to be measure in a distributed, ubiquitous and natural way, thereby overcoming the reluctance of users and practitioners associated with in-lab studies. From the point of view of the process analysis and infrastructure needed to manage data from inertial devices, there are also various differences in count computing: extra devices are required, out-of-device processing, etc. This paper presents a study to discover whether the estimation of energy expenditure is dependent on the accelerometer of the device used in measurements and to discover the suitability of each device for performing certain physical activities. In order to achieve this objective, we have conducted several experiments with different subjects on the basis of the performance of various daily activities with different smartphones and IMUs.

  18. Estimating Heart Rate, Energy Expenditure, and Physical Performance With a Wrist Photoplethysmographic Device During Running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parak, Jakub; Uuskoski, Maria; Machek, Jan; Korhonen, Ilkka

    2017-07-25

    Wearable sensors enable long-term monitoring of health and wellbeing indicators. An objective evaluation of sensors' accuracy is important, especially for their use in health care. The aim of this study was to use a wrist-worn optical heart rate (OHR) device to estimate heart rate (HR), energy expenditure (EE), and maximal oxygen intake capacity (VO2Max) during running and to evaluate the accuracy of the estimated parameters (HR, EE, and VO2Max) against golden reference methods. A total of 24 healthy volunteers, of whom 11 were female, with a mean age of 36.2 years (SD 8.2 years) participated in a submaximal self-paced outdoor running test and maximal voluntary exercise test in a sports laboratory. OHR was monitored with a PulseOn wrist-worn photoplethysmographic device and the running speed with a phone GPS sensor. A physiological model based on HR, running speed, and personal characteristics (age, gender, weight, and height) was used to estimate EE during the maximal voluntary exercise test and VO2Max during the submaximal outdoor running test. ECG-based HR and respiratory gas analysis based estimates were used as golden references. OHR was able to measure HR during running with a 1.9% mean absolute percentage error (MAPE). VO2Max estimated during the submaximal outdoor running test was closely similar to the sports laboratory estimate (MAPE 5.2%). The energy expenditure estimate (n=23) was quite accurate when HR was above the aerobic threshold (MAPE 6.7%), but MAPE increased to 16.5% during a lighter intensity of exercise. The results suggest that wrist-worn OHR may accurately estimate HR during running up to maximal HR. When combined with physiological modeling, wrist-worn OHR may be used for an estimation of EE, especially during higher intensity running, and VO2Max, even during submaximal self-paced outdoor recreational running.

  19. Association between resting energy expenditure, psychopathology and HPA-axis in eating disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellini, Giovanni; Castellani, Walter; Lelli, Lorenzo; Sauro, Carolina Lo; Dini, Carla; Lazzeretti, Lisa; Bencini, Lorenza; Mannucci, Edoardo; Ricca, Valdo

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the complex relationships between resting energy expenditure (REE), eating psychopathology, and Hypothalamus Pituitary Adrenal axis functioning in patients with eating disorders. METHODS: The study was designed as a cross-sectional survey, and it was planned by the Clinic for Eating Disorders of the University of Florence (Italy). The protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Institution. Twenty two anorexia nervosa and twenty one Bulimia Nervosa patients were assessed by means of a clinical interview and the structured clinical interview for diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fourth edition. Eating attitudes and behaviour were specifically investigated by means of the eating disorder examination questionnaire (EDE-Q). Patients were also evaluated by means of the symptom checklist (SCL 90-R), REE was measured by means of indirect calorimetry, and blood cortisol morning levels were evaluated. RESULTS: Both anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa patients showed a reduced REE as compared with predicted REE. Body mass index (BMI) was positively associated with resting energy expenditure in Bulimics, whereas a strong, negative association between BMI and REE was observed in Anorectics. The pattern of associations between variables supported a mediation model, where shape concern accounted for variations in REE and cortisol levels (mediator), and variations in the mediator significantly accounted for variations in REE. When these associations where taken into account together, the relationship between shape concern and REE was no longer significant, whereas the association between cortisol levels and REE retained its significance, showing strong evidence for a single, dominant mediator. Anorectics and Bulimics showed an opposite pattern of association between BMI and REE. In Anorectics only, a higher REE was associated with a more severe eating disorder specific psychopathology, and cortisol levels represent a possible

  20. Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-3 knockout mice exhibit enhanced energy expenditure through thermogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohsuke Hanaoka

    Full Text Available Tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs regulate matrix metalloproteinase activity and maintain extracellular matrix homeostasis. Although TIMP-3 has multiple functions (e.g., apoptosis, inhibition of VEGF binding to VEGF receptor, and inhibition of TNFα converting enzyme, its roles in thermogenesis and metabolism, which influence energy expenditure and can lead to the development of metabolic disorders when dysregulated, are poorly understood. This study aimed to determine whether TIMP-3 is implicated in metabolism by analyzing TIMP-3 knockout (KO mice. TIMP-3 KO mice had higher body temperature, oxygen consumption, and carbon dioxide production than wild-type (WT mice, although there were no differences in food intake and locomotor activity. These results suggest that metabolism is enhanced in TIMP-3 KO mice. Real-time PCR analysis showed that the expression of PPAR-δ, UCP-2, NRF-1 and NRF-2 in soleus muscle, and PGC-1α and UCP-2 in gastrocnemius muscle, was higher in TIMP-3 KO mice than in WT mice, suggesting that TIMP-3 deficiency may increase mitochondrial activity. When exposed to cold for 8 hours to induce thermogenesis, TIMP-3 KO mice had a higher body temperature than WT mice. In the treadmill test, oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production were higher in TIMP-3 KO mice both before and after starting exercise, and the difference was more pronounced after starting exercise. Our findings suggest that TIMP-3 KO mice exhibit enhanced metabolism, as reflected by a higher body temperature than WT mice, possibly due to increased mitochondrial activity. Given that TIMP-3 deficiency increases energy expenditure, TIMP-3 may present a novel therapeutic target for preventing metabolic disorders.

  1. Estimating Heart Rate, Energy Expenditure, and Physical Performance With a Wrist Photoplethysmographic Device During Running

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uuskoski, Maria; Machek, Jan; Korhonen, Ilkka

    2017-01-01

    Background Wearable sensors enable long-term monitoring of health and wellbeing indicators. An objective evaluation of sensors’ accuracy is important, especially for their use in health care. Objective The aim of this study was to use a wrist-worn optical heart rate (OHR) device to estimate heart rate (HR), energy expenditure (EE), and maximal oxygen intake capacity (VO2Max) during running and to evaluate the accuracy of the estimated parameters (HR, EE, and VO2Max) against golden reference methods. Methods A total of 24 healthy volunteers, of whom 11 were female, with a mean age of 36.2 years (SD 8.2 years) participated in a submaximal self-paced outdoor running test and maximal voluntary exercise test in a sports laboratory. OHR was monitored with a PulseOn wrist-worn photoplethysmographic device and the running speed with a phone GPS sensor. A physiological model based on HR, running speed, and personal characteristics (age, gender, weight, and height) was used to estimate EE during the maximal voluntary exercise test and VO2Max during the submaximal outdoor running test. ECG-based HR and respiratory gas analysis based estimates were used as golden references. Results OHR was able to measure HR during running with a 1.9% mean absolute percentage error (MAPE). VO2Max estimated during the submaximal outdoor running test was closely similar to the sports laboratory estimate (MAPE 5.2%). The energy expenditure estimate (n=23) was quite accurate when HR was above the aerobic threshold (MAPE 6.7%), but MAPE increased to 16.5% during a lighter intensity of exercise. Conclusions The results suggest that wrist-worn OHR may accurately estimate HR during running up to maximal HR. When combined with physiological modeling, wrist-worn OHR may be used for an estimation of EE, especially during higher intensity running, and VO2Max, even during submaximal self-paced outdoor recreational running. PMID:28743682

  2. No differences in rates of energy expenditure between post-obese women and their matched, lean controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Peuter, R; Withers, R T; Brinkman, M; Tomas, F M; Clark, D G

    1992-10-01

    Rates of energy expenditure at rest, during different daily activities and following a standardized liquid meal were compared in eight post-obese women, with a mean weight loss of 21.5 kg (range 14.1 to 33.3 kg) and eight controls who had never been overweight. Age, height, body mass index, fat-free mass and average daily energy intake were similar for both experimental groups. Resting metabolic rate averaged 23.04 cal/min/kg FFM (s.e.m. 1.14) in the post-obese and 22.70 cal/min/kg FFM (s.e.m. 0.64) in the controls on their first visit to the laboratory. Metabolic rates in the two groups rose in parallel as energy expenditure was increased by sitting, standing and walking at three different speeds (2.4, 3.9 and 5.4 km/h). At the highest walking speed energy expenditure averaged 95.30 cal/min/kg FFM (s.e.m. 4.18) in the post-obese and 93.42 cal/min/kg FFM (s.e.m. 2.97) in the control women. Comparisons of postprandial thermogenesis revealed no significant differences between the two groups. The results of the present study do not support the thesis that rates of energy expenditure, whether at rest, during different activities, or after eating, are reduced in post-obese women.

  3. Brown Adipose YY1 Deficiency Activates Expression of Secreted Proteins Linked to Energy Expenditure and Prevents Diet-Induced Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdeguer, Francisco; Soustek, Meghan S; Hatting, Maximilian; Blättler, Sharon M; McDonald, Devin; Barrow, Joeva J; Puigserver, Pere

    2015-10-26

    Mitochondrial oxidative and thermogenic functions in brown and beige adipose tissues modulate rates of energy expenditure. It is unclear, however, how beige or white adipose tissue contributes to brown fat thermogenic function or compensates for partial deficiencies in this tissue and protects against obesity. Here, we show that the transcription factor Yin Yang 1 (YY1) in brown adipose tissue activates the canonical thermogenic and uncoupling gene expression program. In contrast, YY1 represses a series of secreted proteins, including fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), bone morphogenetic protein 8b (BMP8b), growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15), angiopoietin-like 6 (Angptl6), neuromedin B, and nesfatin, linked to energy expenditure. Despite substantial decreases in mitochondrial thermogenic proteins in brown fat, mice lacking YY1 in this tissue are strongly protected against diet-induced obesity and exhibit increased energy expenditure and oxygen consumption in beige and white fat depots. The increased expression of secreted proteins correlates with elevation of energy expenditure and promotion of beige and white fat activation. These results indicate that YY1 in brown adipose tissue controls antagonistic gene expression programs associated with energy balance and maintenance of body weight. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Seasonality of energy expenditure during pregnancy and lactation for rural Nepali women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panter-Brick, C

    1993-05-01

    Total energy expenditure (TEE) was estimated for 19 nonpregnant, nonlactating (NPNL) and 24 pregnant (P) or lactating (L) women from 3601 h of minute-by-minute observation and 168 measurements of the energy cost of activities. NPNL women significantly increased subsistence activity and TEE from 9.9 MJ [1.89 x basal metabolic rate (BMR)] in the winter to 10.5 MJ (2.01 x BMR) in the monsoon season. There were differences between NPNL,P, and L women in the winter, but not in the spring or monsoon season when all individuals sustained very heavy physical activity. High TEE values resulted from spending very long hours in tasks that, although appearing physically demanding to the casual observer, were characterized by light or moderate energy cost. The study highlights the importance of seasonal constraints on women's work, which prevent P and L women from significantly curtailing physical activity during the monsoon season, and which effectively limit the scope of behavioral mechanisms for saving energy and reducing TEE.

  5. The energy expenditure of people with spinal cord injury whilst walking compared to an able-bodied population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Vosloo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the field of spinal cord injury (SCI research there is an emphasis on the ability to ambulate.Purpose: To determine the ambulation energy expenditure (EE and factors that affect ambulation EE in SCI participants compared to able-bodied participants.Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. Participants were recruited from seven SCI rehabilitation units within the Johannesburg area. The following were used: demographic questionnaire to capture participants’ characteristics, modified Ashworth scale for spasticity; goniometer for range of movement (ROM; American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA scale for patient classification; accelerometer for EE and the six-minute walk test (6MWT for endurance. Characteristics of the study participants were summarised using descriptive statistics. Data were analysed as follows: two-sample t-test for comparison between the able-bodied and SCI sample and Pearson product moment correlations for relationship between identified factors and EE.Results: Participants comprised 45 in the SCI group and 21 in the able-bodied group. The mean energy expenditure per metre (EE/m for the SCI participants was 0.33 (± 0.29 calories compared to 0.08 (± 0.02 calories for the able-bodied participants. A decrease in walking velocity resulted in an increase in EE. For SCI participants, every decrease in degree of hip flexion ROM resulted in a 0.003 increase in EE/m walked. A unit decrease in velocity resulted in an increase of 0.41 in EE/m walked. Energy expenditure per metre decreased from ASIA A to ASIA D. Crutch walking utilised 0.34 calories per metre less energy than walking frames (p = 0.03.Conclusion: Based on this study’s findings, factors to consider in order to maximise energy efficiency whilst walking are maintaining hip flexion ROM and optimising velocity of walking.Keywords: Energy expenditure; Factors affecting energy expenditure; Range of motion; Walking Velocity

  6. Twelve weeks of moderate aerobic exercise without dietary intervention or weight loss does not affect 24-h energy expenditure in lean and obese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exercise might have a persistent effect on energy expenditure and fat oxidation, resulting in increased fat loss. However, even without weight loss, exercise results in positive metabolic effects. The effect of an aerobic exercise program on 24-h total energy expenditure (TEE), and its components-ba...

  7. Twelve weeks of moderate aerobic exercise without dietary intervention or weight loss does not affect 24-h energy expenditure in lean and obese adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, Gert-Jan; Sauer, Pieter J. J.; Sunehag, Agneta L.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Exercise might have a persistent effect on energy expenditure and fat oxidation, resulting in increased fat loss. However, even without weight loss, exercise results in positive metabolic effects. The effect of an aerobic exercise program on 24-h total energy expenditure (TEE) and its co

  8. Twelve weeks of moderate aerobic exercise without dietary intervention or weight loss does not affect 24-h energy expenditure in lean and obese adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, Gert-Jan; Sauer, Pieter J. J.; Sunehag, Agneta L.

    Background: Exercise might have a persistent effect on energy expenditure and fat oxidation, resulting in increased fat loss. However, even without weight loss, exercise results in positive metabolic effects. The effect of an aerobic exercise program on 24-h total energy expenditure (TEE) and its

  9. Physical activity energy expenditure is associated with 2-h insulin independently of obesity among Inuit in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl-Petersen, Inger Katrine; Bjerregaard, Peter; Brage, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Indigenous populations throughout the Arctic are experiencing a rapid increase in the prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes. The role of physical activity in relation to glucose metabolism in Arctic populations is not well studied. We examined the association between objectively measured phys...... physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) and glucose metabolism in a population-based study of adult Inuit in Greenland....

  10. Validity and reproducibility of crutch force and heart rate measurements to assess energy expenditure of paraplegic gait

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJzerman, Maarten J.; Baardman, Gert; Hof, van 't Martin A.; Boom, Herman B.K.; Hermens, Hermie J.; Veltink, Peter H.

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To determine the validity and reproducibility of heart rate (HR) and crutch force measurements to estimate energy expenditure during paraplegic walking. Usefulness of these outcome measures in comparative trials was assessed in terms of responsiveness. Design: Cross-sectional validity was

  11. Daily energy expenditure and short-term reproductive costs in free-ranging Eurasian Kestrels (Falco tinnunculus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonsson, K.I.; Korpimaki, E.; Pen, I.R.; Tolonen, P.

    1996-01-01

    1. The relationship between daily energy expenditure (DEE), measured using the doubly labelled water technique, and flight activity, rate of food delivery, daily mass change and body condition was studied in a population of the Eurasian Kestrel in Finland. Only female Kestrels were recorded for flig

  12. The energy expenditure of stair climbing one step and two steps at a time: estimations from measures of heart rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsey, Lewis G; Watkins, David A R; Duggan, Brendan M

    2012-01-01

    Stairway climbing provides a ubiquitous and inconspicuous method of burning calories. While typically two strategies are employed for climbing stairs, climbing one stair step per stride or two steps per stride, research to date has not clarified if there are any differences in energy expenditure between them. Fourteen participants took part in two stair climbing trials whereby measures of heart rate were used to estimate energy expenditure during stairway ascent at speeds chosen by the participants. The relationship between rate of oxygen consumption ([Formula: see text]) and heart rate was calibrated for each participant using an inclined treadmill. The trials involved climbing up and down a 14.05 m high stairway, either ascending one step per stride or ascending two stair steps per stride. Single-step climbing used 8.5±0.1 kcal min(-1), whereas double step climbing used 9.2±0.1 kcal min(-1). These estimations are similar to equivalent measures in all previous studies, which have all directly measured [Formula: see text] The present study findings indicate that (1) treadmill-calibrated heart rate recordings can be used as a valid alternative to respirometry to ascertain rate of energy expenditure during stair climbing; (2) two step climbing invokes a higher rate of energy expenditure; however, one step climbing is energetically more expensive in total over the entirety of a stairway. Therefore to expend the maximum number of calories when climbing a set of stairs the single-step strategy is better.

  13. The energy expenditure of stair climbing one step and two steps at a time: estimations from measures of heart rate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewis G Halsey

    Full Text Available Stairway climbing provides a ubiquitous and inconspicuous method of burning calories. While typically two strategies are employed for climbing stairs, climbing one stair step per stride or two steps per stride, research to date has not clarified if there are any differences in energy expenditure between them. Fourteen participants took part in two stair climbing trials whereby measures of heart rate were used to estimate energy expenditure during stairway ascent at speeds chosen by the participants. The relationship between rate of oxygen consumption ([Formula: see text] and heart rate was calibrated for each participant using an inclined treadmill. The trials involved climbing up and down a 14.05 m high stairway, either ascending one step per stride or ascending two stair steps per stride. Single-step climbing used 8.5±0.1 kcal min(-1, whereas double step climbing used 9.2±0.1 kcal min(-1. These estimations are similar to equivalent measures in all previous studies, which have all directly measured [Formula: see text] The present study findings indicate that (1 treadmill-calibrated heart rate recordings can be used as a valid alternative to respirometry to ascertain rate of energy expenditure during stair climbing; (2 two step climbing invokes a higher rate of energy expenditure; however, one step climbing is energetically more expensive in total over the entirety of a stairway. Therefore to expend the maximum number of calories when climbing a set of stairs the single-step strategy is better.

  14. Variation in energy expenditure among black-legged kittiwakes : Effects of activity-specific metabolic rates and activity budgets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jodice, PGR; Roby, DD; Suryan, RM; Irons, DB; Kaufman, AM; Turco, KR; Visser, GH

    2003-01-01

    We sought to determine the effect of variation in time-activity budgets (TABs) and foraging behavior on energy expenditure rates of parent black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla). We quantified TABs using direct observations of radio-tagged adults and simultaneously measured field metabolic rates

  15. Validity and reliability of measuring activities, movement intensity and energy expenditure with the DynaPort MoveMonitor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Sonja; Nieuwenhuizen, Mieke G.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of assessing activities, movement intensity (MI) and energy expenditure (EE) measured by accelerometry. 28 Able-bodied participants performed standardized tasks while an accelerometer was worn and oxygen uptake was measured. Afte

  16. Visceral fat and weight loss in obese subjects : relationship to serum lipids, energy expenditure and sex hormones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenen, R.

    1993-01-01

    This thesis describes the relationships between visceral fat accumulation and serum lipids, energy expenditure, and sex hormone levels in healthy obese men and premenopausal women undergoing weight loss therapy. The subjects, aged 27-51 years, with an initial body mass index of 28-38 kg/m &

  17. The effect of segmental weight of prosthesis on hemodynamic responses and energy expenditure of lower extremity amputees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu, Akmer; Kharooty, Mohammad Dawood; Yakut, Yavuz

    2017-04-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of segmental weight of the prosthesis on hemodynamic responses and energy expenditure in lower extremity amputees. [Subjects and Methods] Thirteen patients with a mean age of 44 ± 15.84 years and with unilateral transtibial, transfemoral and Syme's amputation were included to the study. The difference between the lightest and the heaviest prosthesis, 250 g used as the weight. All the patients completed the measurements first without weight and then with 250 g weight on the ankle joint. The blood pressure and heart rate of the patients were recorded before and after Six Minute Walk Test (6MWT) and 10 stairs up & down stairs test. Physiological Cost Index was used to calculate the energy expenditure. [Results] Heart rate and energy expenditure increased significantly when without weight and with weight results compared. [Conclusion] We conclude that the segmental weight of the prosthetic limb has a significant effect on the heart rate and energy expenditure but has no effect on the systolic and diastolic blood pressure of lower limb amputees. In order to generalize our results to lower limb amputees, more patients need to be included in future studies.

  18. Technical Note: The Relationship Between Heart Rate and Energy Expenditure in Growing Crossbred Boer and Spanish Wethers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eight Boer (75%) x Spanish (BS) and 8 Spanish (S) wethers (155 +/- 8 d of age and 19.2 +/- 2.3 kg BW, initial) were used in a replicated crossover design with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments to determine effects of genotype, diet quality, and time of the day on energy expenditure (EE), r...

  19. COMPARISON STUDY OF ENERGY EXPENDITURE CALCULATION BETWEEN CONVENTIONAL METHOD AND IRETON-JONES METHOD FOR CRITICALLY ILL PATIENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhartini Ismail

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The critically ill patients are having nutrition problems in dealing with the critical condition. The problem of nutrition is demanding on the severity of illness. Therefore, the ICU nurses should understand how nutrition can support the patients’ recovery. Objective: This study’s aim was to compare the result of energy expenditure calculation of conventional method with Ireton-Jones method for critically ill patients in the intensive care unit. Methods: This was a comparative and cross sectional study which recruited 40 samples. The samples were divided into two groups, conventional group method and Ireton-Jones group method, and they met the inclusion criteria. The sample of this study was determined by convenience sampling. To answer the hypothesis, the hypothesis test used Independent sample t-test. Results: The results revealed that there is no significance difference between energy expenditure calculation conventional method and Ireton-Jones method statically. In the other word, either used the conventional method or the Ireton Jones method, the result of energy expenditure calculation has statically significant difference. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the nurse can use both method to calculate the energy expenditure for critically ill patients to meet their nutrition need. We suggest that for further investigation will recruit many samples and do control of other factors that might be influenced in the study.

  20. Visceral fat and weight loss in obese subjects : relationship to serum lipids, energy expenditure and sex hormones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenen, R.

    1993-01-01

    This thesis describes the relationships between visceral fat accumulation and serum lipids, energy expenditure, and sex hormone levels in healthy obese men and premenopausal women undergoing weight loss therapy. The subjects, aged 27-51 years, with an initial body mass index of 28-38 kg/m

  1. Resting energy expenditure and nitrogen balance in critically ill pediatric patients on mechanical ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coss-Bu, J A; Jefferson, L S; Walding, D; David, Y; Smith, E O; Klish, W J

    1998-09-01

    Nutritional support is important in critically ill patients, with variable energy and nitrogen requirements (e.g., sepsis, trauma, postsurgical state) in this population. This study investigates how age, severity of illness, and mechanical ventilation are related to resting energy expenditure (REE) and nitrogen balance. Nineteen critically ill children (mean age, 8 +/- 6 [SD] y and range 0.4-17.0 y) receiving total parenteral nutrition (TPN) were enrolled. We used indirect calorimetry to measure REE. Expected energy requirements (EER) were obtained from Talbot tables. Pediatric Risk of Mortality (PRISM) and Therapeutic Intervention Scoring System (TISS) score were calculated. Total urinary nitrogen was measured using the Kjeldahl method. PRISM and TISS scores were 9 +/- 5 and 31 +/- 6 points, respectively. REE was 62 +/- 25 kcal.kg-1.d-1, EER was 42 +/- 11 kcal.kg-1. d-1, and caloric intake was 49 +/- 22 kcal.kg-1.d-1. Nitrogen intake was 279 +/- 125 mg.kg-1.d-1, total urinary nitrogen was 324 +/- 133 mg.kg-1.d-1, and nitrogen balance was -120 +/- 153 mg.kg-1.d-1. The protein requirement in this population was approximately 2.8 g.kg-1.d-1. These critically ill children were hypermetabolic, with REE 48% higher (20 kcal.kg-1.d-1) than expected. Nitrogen balance significantly correlated with caloric and protein intake, urinary nitrogen, and age, but not with severity of illness scores or ventilatory parameters.

  2. Physical activity and total energy expenditure of child-bearing Gambian village women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, M; Whitehead, R G

    1988-02-01

    In a longitudinal study of pregnancy and lactation levels of physical activity and total energy expenditure (TEE) were measured in 32 rural Gambian women using an activity diary technique. TEE, which was higher than previously measured food intake in this community, ranged from a minimum of 9.6 MJ (2300 kcal)/d (1.7 X BMR) in the months January-March to a maximum of 11.3 MJ (2700 kcal)/d (2 X BMR) during the agricultural season (July-October). During pregnancy and early lactation women went less often to the fields and also reduced the amount of time spent walking and performing household tasks. Standardizing for season and for changes in BMR and the energy cost of activity, reductions in physical activity reduced TEE by 0.59 +/- 0.08 MJ (140 +/- 18 kcal)/d between the 28th week of gestation and 4 weeks post-partum (P less than 0.001). While reduced physical activity may have had an adverse effect on agricultural productivity, energy was spared for other processes including fetal growth and milk output immediately post-partum. Dietary supplementation was without effect on activity pattern.

  3. Temperature-independent energy expenditure in early development of the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagano, Yatsuhisa; Ode, Koji L.

    2014-08-01

    The thermal dissipation of activated eggs and embryos undergoing development from cleavage to the tailbud stage of the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis was measured as a function of incubation time at temperatures ranging from T = 288.2 K to 295.2 K, using a high-precision isothermal calorimeter. A23187-mediated activation of mature eggs induced stable periodic thermal oscillations lasting for 8-34 h. The frequency agreed well with the cell cycle frequency of initial cleavages at the identical temperature. In the developing embryo, energy metabolism switches from embryonic to adult features during gastrulation. The thermal dissipation after gastrulation fit well with a single modified Avrami equation, which has been used for modeling crystal-growth. Both the oscillation frequency of the activated egg and the growth rate of the embryo strongly depend on temperature with the same apparent activation energy of approximately 87 kJ mole-1. This result suggests that early development proceeds as a single biological time, attributable to a single metabolic rate. A temperature-independent growth curve was derived by scaling the thermogram to the biological time, indicating that the amount of energy expenditure during each developmental stage is constant over the optimal temperature range.

  4. Exploration of Energy Metabolism in the Mouse Using Indirect Calorimetry: Measurement of Daily Energy Expenditure (DEE) and Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Carola W; Reitmeir, Peter; Tschöp, Matthias H

    2015-09-01

    Current comprehensive mouse metabolic phenotyping involves studying energy balance in cohorts of mice via indirect calorimetry, which determines heat release from changes in respiratory air composition. Here, we describe the measurement of daily energy expenditure (DEE) and basal metabolic rate (BMR) in mice. These well-defined metabolic descriptors serve as meaningful first-line read-outs for metabolic phenotyping and should be reported when exploring energy expenditure in mice. For further guidance, the issue of appropriate sample sizes and the frequency of sampling of metabolic measurements is also discussed.

  5. Comparison of estimated energy intake using Web-based Dietary Assessment Software with accelerometer-determined energy expenditure in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Biltoft-Jensen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The OPUS (Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet project carried out a school meal study to assess the impact of a New Nordic Diet (NND. The random controlled trial involved 834 children aged 8–11 in nine local authority schools in Denmark. Dietary assessment was carried out using a program known as WebDASC (Web-based Dietary Assessment Software for Children to collect data from the children. Objective: To compare the energy intake (EI of schoolchildren aged 8–11 estimated using the WebDASC system against the total energy expenditure (TEE as derived from accelerometers worn by the children during the same period. A second objective was to evaluate the WebDASC's usability. Design: Eighty-one schoolchildren took part in what was the pilot study for the OPUS project, and they recorded their total diet using WebDASC and wore an accelerometer for two periods of seven consecutive days: at baseline, when they ate their usual packed lunches and at intervention when they were served the NND. EI was estimated using WebDASC, and TEE was calculated from accelerometer-derived activity energy expenditure, basal metabolic rate, and diet-induced thermogenesis. WebDASC's usability was assessed using a questionnaire. Parents could help their children record their diet and answer the questionnaire. Results: Evaluated against TEE as derived from the accelerometers worn at the same time, the WebDASC performed just as well as other traditional methods of collecting dietary data and proved both effective and acceptable with children aged 8–11, even with perhaps less familiar foods of the NND. Conclusions: WebDASC is a useful method that provided a reasonably accurate measure of EI at group level when compared to TEE derived from accelerometer-determined physical activity in children. WebDASC will benefit future research in this area.

  6. Seasonal adjustment of energy budget in a large wild mammal, the Przewalski horse (Equus ferus przewalskii) II. Energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Walter; Ruf, Thomas; Kuntz, Regina

    2006-11-01

    Many large mammals show pronounced seasonal fluctuations of metabolic rate (MR). It has been argued, based on studies in ruminants, that this variation merely results from different levels of locomotor activity (LA), and heat increment of feeding (HI). However, a recent study in red deer (Cervus elaphus) identified a previously unknown mechanism in ungulates--nocturnal hypometabolism--that contributed significantly to reduced energy expenditure, mainly during late winter. The relative contribution of these different mechanisms to seasonal adjustments of MR is still unknown, however. Therefore, in the study presented here we quantified for the first time the independent contribution of thermoregulation, LA and HI to heart rate (f(H)) as a measure of MR in a free-roaming large ungulate, the Przewalski horse or Takhi (Equus ferus przewalskii Poljakow). f(H) varied periodically throughout the year with a twofold increase from a mean of 44 beats min(-1) during December and January to a spring peak of 89 beats min(-1) at the beginning of May. LA increased from 23% per day during December and January to a mean level of 53% per day during May, and declined again thereafter. Daily mean subcutaneous body temperature (T(s)) declined continuously during winter and reached a nadir at the beginning of April (annual range was 5.8 degrees C), well after the annual low of air temperature and LA. Lower T(s) during winter contributed considerably to the reduction in f(H). In addition to thermoregulation, f(H) was affected by reproduction, LA, HI and unexplained seasonal variation, presumably reflecting to some degree changes in organ mass. The observed phase relations of seasonal changes indicate that energy expenditure was not a consequence of energy uptake but is under endogenous control, preparing the organism well in advance of seasonal energetic demands.

  7. Energy expenditure in repose related to body composition in adults GASTO ENERGÉTICO EN REPOSO Y COMPOSICIÓN CORPORAL EN ADULTOS

    OpenAIRE

    Melier Vargas Z; Lilia Lancheros P; María del Pilar Barrera P

    2011-01-01

    People's energy requirements are related to their energy expenditure (EE); this is defined as being the energy which an organism consumes. It is represented by the basal metabolic rate (BMR), physical activity (PA) and dietinduced thermogenesis (DIT). The BMR is the minimum amount of energy which an organism requires to stay alive and represents 60%-70% of total energy expenditure (TEE) in most sedentary adults. The PA represents 25%- 75% of TEE whilst DIT represents around 10% of TEE. Anthro...

  8. Evaluation of the ability of three physical activity monitors to predict weight change and estimate energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, John B; Apolzan, John W; Shepard, Desti N; Heil, Daniel P; Rood, Jennifer C; Martin, Corby K

    2016-07-01

    Activity monitors such as the Actical accelerometer, the Sensewear armband, and the Intelligent Device for Energy Expenditure and Activity (IDEEA) are commonly validated against gold standards (e.g., doubly labeled water, or DLW) to determine whether they accurately measure total daily energy expenditure (TEE) or activity energy expenditure (AEE). However, little research has assessed whether these parameters or others (e.g., posture allocation) predict body weight change over time. The aims of this study were to (i) test whether estimated energy expenditure or posture allocation from the devices was associated with weight change during and following a low-calorie diet (LCD) and (ii) compare free-living TEE and AEE predictions from the devices against DLW before weight change. Eighty-seven participants from 2 clinical trials wore 2 of the 3 devices simultaneously for 1 week of a 2-week DLW period. Participants then completed an 8-week LCD and were weighed at the start and end of the LCD and 6 and 12 months after the LCD. More time spent walking at baseline, measured by the IDEEA, significantly predicted greater weight loss during the 8-week LCD. Measures of posture allocation demonstrated medium effect sizes in their relationships with weight change. Bland-Altman analyses indicated that the Sensewear and the IDEEA accurately estimated TEE, and the IDEEA accurately measured AEE. The results suggest that the ability of energy expenditure and posture allocation to predict weight change is limited, and the accuracy of TEE and AEE measurements varies across activity monitoring devices, with multi-sensor monitors demonstrating stronger validity.

  9. Incidence of public expenditure on the human development index in Bogota, 1995-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Consuelo Rodríguez Torres

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to test the hypothesis that social public expenditure per capita invested in Bogota has had a significant influence on the improvement of the city’s human development. For this purpose, the Human Development Index (HDI for the capital between 1995-2010 is estimated, using the new methodology proposed by the UNDP in 2010. Thus, a retrospective estimation of the life expectancy, salaries, and educational achievement rates is carried out, the last as a combination between the average years of education and expected years of instruction. A qualitative analysis is then presented, between the HDI components and the social public expenditure invested through politics, programs, projects carried out in the city, according to the District Development Plan “Bogotá positiva, para vivir mejor (Positive Bogota, to Live Better”. Finally, a quantitative analysis of this relation is made and it is concluded that social public spending per capita is significant to explain the HDI, since there is a long-term and stable relation between the two variables.

  10. Energy Expenditure in Adolescents With Cerebral Palsy: Comparison of the SenseWear Armband and Indirect Calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Karsten; Abel, Thomas; Wallmann-Sperlich, Birgit; Dreuscher, Annika; Anneken, Volker

    2015-04-01

    Inactivity and overweight are major health concerns in children and adolescents with disabilities. Methods for the assessment of activity and energy expenditure may be affected negatively by the underlying disability, especially when motor function is impaired. The purpose of this study was to assess the validity of the SenseWear Armband in adolescents with cerebral palsy and hemiparesis. Ten volunteers (age: 13.4 ± 1.6 years) were equipped with SenseWear Armbands on the hemiparetic and nonhemiparetic side of the body. Energy expenditure was measured at rest and during treadmill exercise (speed range: 0.85 to 2.35 m/s). Indirect calorimetry served as independent reference method. The mean error was between -0.6 and 0.8 kcal/min and there were no significant differences between SenseWear and indirect calorimetry at any speed. Differences between body sides in expenditure (mean: -0.2 to 0.0 kcal/min) and step count (mean: -3.4 to 9.7 steps/min) were not significant. The validity of the SenseWear Armband does not appear to be negatively affected by cerebral palsy during laboratory treadmill exercise. Future field studies are necessary to assess the validity and practicability energy expenditure and physical activity in children and adolescents with physical disabilities.

  11. Hatha yoga practices: energy expenditure, respiratory changes and intensity of exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Uday Sankar; Pathak, Anjana; Tomer, Omveer Singh

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to critically observe the energy expenditure, exercise intensity and respiratory changes during a full yoga practice session. Oxygen consumption ([Formula: see text]), carbon dioxide output ([Formula: see text]), pulmonary ventilation ([Formula: see text]E), respiratory rate (Fr) and tidal volume (VT), were measured in 16 physical posture (asanas), five yoga breathing maneuvers (BM) and two types of meditation. Twenty male (age 27.3 ± 3.5 years, height 166.6 ± 5.4 cm and body weight 58.8 ± 9.6 kg) yoga instructors were studied. Their maximal oxygen consumption ([Formula: see text]) was recorded. The exercise intensity in asanas was expressed in percentage [Formula: see text] . In asanas, exercise intensity varied from 9.9 to 26.5% of [Formula: see text] . Highest energy cost was 3.02 kcal min(-1). In BM highest [Formula: see text]E was 53.7 ± 15.5 l min(-1). VT was 0.97 ± 0.59, 1.41 ± 1.27 and 1.28 ± l/breath with corresponding Fr of 14.0 ± 5.3, 10.0 ± 6.35, 10.0 ± 5.8 breaths/min. Average energy expenditure in asanas, BM and meditation were 2.29, 1.91 and 1.37 kcal min(-1), respectively. Metabolic rate was generally in the range of 1-2 metabolic equivalents (MET) except in three asanas where it was >2 MET. [Formula: see text] was 0.27 ± 0.05 and 0.24 ± 0.04 l min(-1) in meditation and Shavasana, respectively. Although yogic practices are low intensity exercises within lactate threshold, physical performance improvement is possible owing to both better economy of breathing by BM and also by improvement in cardiovascular reserve. Other factors such as psycho-physiological and better relaxation may contribute to it.

  12. Relationship between the metabolic syndrome and physical activity energy expenditure: a MONET study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karelis, Antony D; Lavoie, Marie-Eve; Messier, Virginie; Mignault, Diane; Garrel, Dominique; Prud'homme, Denis; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine the association between the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) in overweight and obese sedentary postmenopausal women. The study population consisted of 137 overweight and obese sedentary postmenopausal women (age, 57.7 +/- 4.8 years; BMI, 32.4 +/- 4.6 kg.m(-2)). Subjects had the MetS if 3 out of the following 5 criteria were met: visceral fat > 130 cm2, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol or = 1.7 mmol.L(-1), blood pressure > or = 130/85 mmHg, and fasting glucose > or =5.6 mmol.L(-1). We measured (i) body composition (by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry); (ii) visceral fat (by computed tomography); (iii) insulin sensitivity (using the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp); (iv) plasma lipids, fasting glucose, and insulin, as well as 2 h glucose during an oral glucose tolerance test; (v) resting blood pressure; (vi) peak oxygen consumption (VO2 peak); (vii) PAEE (using doubly labeled water); and (viii) lower-body muscle strength (using weight-training equipment). Forty-two women (30.7%) had the MetS in our cohort. Individuals without the MetS had significantly higher levels of PAEE (962 +/- 296 vs. 837 +/- 271 kcal.d(-1); p energy expenditure, resting metabolic rate, and muscle strength between groups were observed. Logistic regression analysis showed that 2 h glucose (odds ratio (OR): 1.50 (95% CI 1.17-1.92)), central lean body mass (OR: 1.17 (95% CI 1.05-1.31)), and PAEE (OR: 0.998 (95% CI 0.997-1.000)), but not VO2 peak and (or) muscle strength, were independent predictors of the MetS. Lower levels of PAEE and higher levels of 2 h glucose, as well as central lean body mass, are independent determinants of the MetS in our cohort of overweight and obese postmenopausal women.

  13. Hatha Yoga Practices: Energy Expenditure, Respiratory Changes and Intensity of Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Uday Sankar; Pathak, Anjana; Tomer, Omveer Singh

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to critically observe the energy expenditure, exercise intensity and respiratory changes during a full yoga practice session. Oxygen consumption (V˙O2), carbon dioxide output (V˙CO2), pulmonary ventilation (V˙E), respiratory rate (Fr) and tidal volume (VT), were measured in 16 physical posture (asanas), five yoga breathing maneuvers (BM) and two types of meditation. Twenty male (age 27.3 ± 3.5 years, height 166.6 ± 5.4 cm and body weight 58.8 ± 9.6 kg) yoga instructors were studied. Their maximal oxygen consumption (V˙O2max) was recorded. The exercise intensity in asanas was expressed in percentage V˙O2max . In asanas, exercise intensity varied from 9.9 to 26.5% of V˙O2max . Highest energy cost was 3.02 kcal min−1. In BM highest V˙E was 53.7 ± 15.5 l min−1. VT was 0.97 ± 0.59, 1.41 ± 1.27 and 1.28 ± l/breath with corresponding Fr of 14.0 ± 5.3, 10.0 ± 6.35, 10.0 ± 5.8 breaths/min. Average energy expenditure in asanas, BM and meditation were 2.29, 1.91 and 1.37 kcal min−1, respectively. Metabolic rate was generally in the range of 1-2 metabolic equivalents (MET) except in three asanas where it was >2 MET. V˙O2 was 0.27 ± 0.05 and 0.24 ± 0.04 l min−1 in meditation and Shavasana, respectively. Although yogic practices are low intensity exercises within lactate threshold, physical performance improvement is possible owing to both better economy of breathing by BM and also by improvement in cardiovascular reserve. Other factors such as psycho-physiological and better relaxation may contribute to it. PMID:21799675

  14. Comparison of estimated energy intake from 224-hour recalls and a seven-day food record with objective measurements of energy expenditure in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothausen, Berit Worm; Matthiessen, Jeppe; Groth, Margit Velsing

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the present study was to evaluate energy intake (EI) estimated from two nonconsecutive 24-hour recalls (24-HDRs) and a pre-coded seven-day food record (7-dFR) against objective measurements of energy expenditure (EE) in children. Design: A total of 67 78 year-olds and 64...

  15. Low resting energy expenditure in Asians can be attributed to body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters-Adriaens, Mirjam P E; Westerterp, Klaas R

    2008-10-01

    To compare resting energy expenditure (REE) between Asians and whites after adjusting for fat-free mass measured with a two- or more-compartment model. Participants were 10 white men (28 +/- 3 years), 10 Asian men (30 +/- 4 years), 10 white women (22 +/- 4 years), and 11 Asian women (31 +/- 7 years). REE was measured with a ventilated hood system under strictly controlled conditions. Body composition was measured with a two-compartment model based on body mass (BM) and body volume (hydrodensitometry), a three-compartment model adding total body water (TBW) (deuterium dilution), and a four-compartment model incorporating bone mass (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)) as well. Lean BM in the trunk and in the extremities was assessed with DXA. All measurements were performed at Maastricht University. Measurements on Asian subjects were performed within 3 months after their arrival in the Netherlands. Absolute REE was lower in Asians (5.87 +/- 0.91 MJ/day) than in whites (7.00 +/- 1.11 MJ/day). There was no significant difference in REE between the two races after adjustment for fat-free mass. There were no significant differences in REE between Asians and whites after adjustment for differences in body composition based on a two- or more-compartment model.

  16. Hatha Yoga Practices: Energy Expenditure, Respiratory Changes and Intensity of Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uday Sankar Ray

    2011-01-01

    . Highest energy cost was 3.02 kcal min-1. In BM highest ̇VE was 53.7 ± 15.5 l min-1. VT was 0.97 ± 0.59, 1.41 ± 1.27 and 1.28 ± l/breath with corresponding Fr of 14.0 ± 5.3, 10.0 ± 6.35, 10.0 ± 5.8 breaths/min. Average energy expenditure in asanas, BM and meditation were 2.29, 1.91 and 1.37 kcal min-1, respectively. Metabolic rate was generally in the range of 1-2 metabolic equivalents (MET except in three asanas where it was >2 MET. ̇VO2 was 0.27 ± 0.05 and 0.24 ± 0.04 l min-1 in meditation and Shavasana, respectively. Although yogic practices are low intensity exercises within lactate threshold, physical performance improvement is possible owing to both better economy of breathing by BM and also by improvement in cardiovascular reserve. Other factors such as psycho-physiological and better relaxation may contribute to it.

  17. Prenatal high protein exposure decreases energy expenditure and increases adiposity in young rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daenzer, Maren; Ortmann, Sylvia; Klaus, Susanne; Metges, Cornelia C

    2002-02-01

    Epidemiologic results suggest that protein intake in infancy and later adiposity might be related. We examined whether high dietary protein exposure in utero and/or during postnatal life affects body fatness. Two groups of female rats were mated and pair-fed isocaloric high (40% protein; HP) or adequate protein (20% protein; AP) diets throughout pregnancy. The male offspring were suckled (3 wk) by foster mothers pair-fed HP or AP diets, resulting in 4 pre-/postnatal groups (AP-AP, AP-HP, HP-AP, HP-HP). Subsequently, they were pair-fed the same diets their nurses received during lactation until wk 9. Offspring of HP dams had a lower body weight on d 2 of life than their AP counterparts (7.6 +/- 0.7 vs. 8.3 +/- 0.8 g; P total energy expenditure at wk 9 (P < 0.05). Postnatal HP alone had no significant effect on body composition or metabolic rate. These results indicate that in utero exposure to a high protein level reprograms body weight and energy homeostasis.

  18. A look at commercial buildings in 1995: Characteristics, energy consumption, and energy expenditures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    The commercial sector consists of business establishments and other organizations that provide services. The sector includes service businesses, such as retail and wholesale stores, hotels and motels, restaurants, and hospitals, as well as a wide range of facilities that would not be considered commercial in a traditional economic sense, such as public schools, correctional institutions, and religious and fraternal organizations. Nearly all energy use in the commercial sector takes place in, or is associated with, the buildings that house these commercial activities. Analysis of the structures, activities, and equipment associated with different types of buildings is the clearest way to evaluate commercial sector energy use. The Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) is a national-level sample survey of commercial buildings and their energy suppliers conducted quadrennially (previously triennially) by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The target population for the 1995 CBECS consisted of all commercial buildings in the US with more than 1,000 square feet of floorspace. Decision makers, businesses, and other organizations that are concerned with the use of energy--building owners and managers, regulators, legislative bodies and executive agencies at all levels of government, utilities and other energy suppliers--are confronted with a buildings sector that is complex. Data on major characteristics (e.g., type of building, size, year constructed, location) collected from the buildings, along with the amount and types of energy the buildings consume, help answer fundamental questions about the use of energy in commercial buildings.

  19. Plasma bile acids are not associated with energy metabolism in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brufau Gemma

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bile acids (BA have recently been shown to increase energy expenditure in mice, but this concept has not been tested in humans. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between plasma BA levels and energy expenditure in humans. Type 2 diabetic (T2DM patients (n = 12 and gender, age and BMI-matched healthy controls (n = 12 were studied before and after 8 weeks of treatment with a BA sequestrant. In addition, patients with liver cirrhosis (n = 46 were investigated, since these display elevated plasma BA together with increased energy expenditure. This group was compared to gender-, age- and BMI-matched healthy controls (n = 20. Fasting plasma levels of total BA and individual BA species as well as resting energy expenditure were determined. In response to treatment with the BA sequestrant, plasma deoxycholic acid (DCA levels decreased in controls (-60%, p

  20. Comparison of predictive equations for resting energy expenditure among patients with schizophrenia in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugawara N

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Norio Sugawara,1 Norio Yasui-Furukori,1 Tetsu Tomita,1,2 Hanako Furukori,3 Kazutoshi Kubo,1,4 Taku Nakagami,1,4 Sunao Kaneko1 1Department of Neuropsychiatry, Hirosaki University School of Medicine, Hirosaki, 2Department of Psychiatry, Hirosaki-Aiseikai Hospital, Hirosaki, 3Department of Psychiatry, Kuroishi-Akebono Hospital, Kuroishi, 4Department of Psychiatry, Odate Municipal General Hospital, Odate, Japan Background: Recently, a relationship between obesity and schizophrenia has been reported. The prediction of resting energy expenditure (REE is important to determine the energy expenditure of patients with schizophrenia. However, there is a lack of research concerning the most accurate REE predictive equations among Asian patients with schizophrenia. The purpose of the study reported here was to compare the validity of four REE equations for patients with schizophrenia taking antipsychotics. Methods: For this cross-sectional study, we recruited patients (n=110 who had a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition, diagnosis of schizophrenia and were admitted to four psychiatric hospitals. The mean (± standard deviation age of these patients was 45.9±13.2 years. Anthropometric measurements (of height, weight, body mass index were taken at the beginning of the study. REE was measured using indirect calorimetry. Comparisons between the measured and estimated REEs from the four equations (Harris–Benedict, Mifflin–St Jeor, Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization/United Nations University, and Schofield were performed using simple linear regression analysis and Bland–Altman analysis. Results: Significant trends were found between the measured and predicted REEs for all four equations (P<0.001, with the Harris–Benedict equation demonstrating the strongest correlation in both men and women (r=0.617, P<0.001. In all participants, Bland–Altman analysis revealed that the Harris–Benedict and

  1. 45-Year trends in women's use of time and household management energy expenditure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Archer

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Relationships between socio-environmental factors and obesity are poorly understood due to a dearth of longitudinal population-level research. The objective of this analysis was to examine 45-year trends in time-use, household management (HM and energy expenditure in women. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: Using national time-use data from women 19-64 years of age, we quantified time allocation and household management energy expenditure (HMEE from 1965 to 2010. HM was defined as the sum of time spent in food preparation, post-meal cleaning activities (e.g., dish-washing, clothing maintenance (e.g., laundry, and general housework. HMEE was calculated using body weights from national surveys and metabolic equivalents. RESULTS: The time allocated to HM by women (19-64 yrs decreased from 25.7 hr/week in 1965 to 13.3 hr/week in 2010 (P<0.001, with non-employed women decreasing by 16.6 hr/week and employed women by 6.7 hr/week (P<0.001. HMEE for non-employed women decreased 42% from 25.1 Mj/week (6004 kilocalories per week in 1965 to 14.6 Mj/week (3486 kcal/week in 2010, a decrement of 10.5 Mj/week or 1.5 Mj/day (2518 kcal/week; 360 kcal/day (P<0.001, whereas employed women demonstrated a 30% decrement of 3.9 Mj/week, 0.55 Mj/day (923 kcal/week, 132 kcal/day (P<0.001. The time women spent in screen-based media use increased from 8.3 hr/week in 1965 to 16.5 hr/week in 2010 (P<0.001, with non-employed women increasing 9.6 hr/week and employed women 7.5 hr/week (P<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: From 1965 to 2010, there was a large and significant decrease in the time allocated to HM. By 2010, women allocated 25% more time to screen-based media use than HM (i.e., cooking, cleaning, and laundry combined. The reallocation of time from active pursuits (i.e., housework to sedentary pastimes (e.g., watching TV has important health consequences. These results suggest that the decrement in HMEE may have contributed to the increasing prevalence of obesity in women during

  2. Influence of water drinking on resting energy expenditure in overweight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubnov-Raz, G; Constantini, N W; Yariv, H; Nice, S; Shapira, N

    2011-10-01

    It was previously demonstrated that drinking water significantly elevates the resting energy expenditure (REE) in adults, and that low water intake is associated with obesity and lesser success in weight reduction. This study addressed the potential of water drinking to increase the REE in children, as an additional tool for weight management. To examine the effect of drinking water on the REE of overweight children. A total of 21 overweight, otherwise-healthy children (age 9.9±1.4 years, 11 males) drank 10 ml kg(-1) cold water (4 °C). REE was measured before and after water ingestion, for 66 min. The main outcome measure was the change in mean REE from baseline values. Immediately after drinking water, there was a transient decrease in REE, from a baseline value of 3.32±1.15 kilojoule (kJ) per min to 2.56±0.66 kJ per min at minute 3 (P=0.005). A subsequent rise in REE was then observed, which was significantly higher than baseline after 24 min (3.89±0.78 kJ/min (P=0.021)), and at most time points thereafter. Maximal mean REE values were seen at 57 min after water drinking (4.16±1.43 kJ per min (P=0.004)), which were 25% higher than baseline. REE was significantly correlated with age, height, weight and fat-free mass; the correlations with maximal REE values after water drinking were stronger than with baseline REE values. This study demonstrated an increase of up to 25% in REE following the drinking of 10 ml kg(-1) of cold water in overweight children, lasting for over 40 min. Consuming the recommended daily amount of water for children could result in an energy expenditure equivalent to an additional weight loss of about 1.2 kg per year. These findings reinforce the concept of water-induced REE elevation shown in adults, suggesting that water drinking could assist overweight children in weight loss or maintenance, and may warrant emphasis in dietary guidelines against the obesity epidemic.

  3. Longitudinal assessment of food intake, fecal energy loss, and energy expenditure after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery in high-fat-fed obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Andrew C; Zheng, Huiyuan; Townsend, R Leigh; Patterson, Laurel M; Holmes, Gregory M; Berthoud, Hans-Rudolf

    2013-04-01

    The efficacy of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery to produce weight loss has been well-documented, but few studies have measured the key components of energy balance, food intake, and energy expenditure longitudinally. Male Sprague-Dawley rats on a high-fat diet underwent either RYGB, sham operation, or pair feeding and were compared to chow-fed lean controls. Body weight and composition, food intake and preference, energy expenditure, fecal output, and gastric emptying were monitored before and up to 4 months after intervention. Despite the recovery of initially decreased food intake to levels slightly higher than before surgery and comparable to sham-operated rats after about 1 month, RYGB rats maintained a lower level of body weight and fat mass for 4 months that was not different from chow-fed age-matched controls. Energy expenditure corrected for lean body mass at 1 and 4 months after RYGB was not different from presurgical levels and from all other groups. Fecal energy loss was significantly increased at 6 and 16 weeks after RYGB compared to sham operation, and there was a progressive decrease in fat preference after RYGB. In this rat model of RYGB, sustained weight loss is achieved by a combination of initial hypophagia and sustained increases in fecal energy loss, without change in energy expenditure per lean mass. A shift away from high-fat towards low-fat/high-carbohydrate food preference occurring in parallel suggests long-term adaptive mechanisms related to fat absorption.

  4. Inability to match energy intake with energy expenditure at sustained near-maximal rates of energy expenditure in older men during a 14-d cycling expedition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde Larsen, Mads; Morville, Thomas; Riis Andersen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    .02) after cycling. CONCLUSIONS: Older male cyclists sustained near-maximal rates of EE during prolonged cycling but were unable to upregulate EI to maintain energy balance. Despite the presence of increased motivation to eat, a more profound counteracting physiologic stimulus inhibiting increases in EI...

  5. Sex difference in physical activity, energy expenditure and obesity driven by a subpopulation of hypothalamic POMC neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke K. Burke

    2016-03-01

    Conclusions: These data provide support for the functional heterogeneity of hypothalamic POMC neurons, revealing that Pomc expression within 5-HT2CR expressing neurons is sufficient to regulate energy intake and insulin sensitivity in male and female mice. However, an unexpected sex difference in the function of this subset of POMC neurons was identified with regard to energy expenditure. We reveal that a large sex difference in physical activity, energy expenditure and the development of obesity is driven by this subpopulation, which constitutes approximately 40% of all POMC neurons in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus. This may have broad implications for strategies utilized to combat obesity, which at present largely ignore the sex of the obese individual.

  6. Sleep disturbances, body fat distribution, food intake and/or energy expenditure: pathophysiological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Onge, Marie-Pierre; Shechter, Ari

    2014-01-01

    Data from cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have illustrated a relationship between short sleep duration (SSD) and weight gain. Individuals with SSD are heavier and gain more weight over time than normal-duration sleepers. This sleep-obesity relationship may have consequences for obesity treatments, as it appears that short sleepers have reduced ability to lose weight. Laboratory-based clinical studies found that experimental sleep restriction affects energy expenditure and intake, possibly providing a mechanistic explanation for the weight gain observed in chronic short sleepers. Specifically, compared to normal sleep duration, sleep restriction increases food intake beyond the energetic costs of increased time spent awake. Reasons for this increased energy intake after sleep restriction are unclear but may include disrupted appetite-regulating hormones, altered brain mechanisms involved in the hedonic aspects of appetite, and/or changes in sleep quality and architecture. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a disorder at the intersection of sleep and obesity, and the characteristics of the disorder illustrate many of the effects of sleep disturbances on body weight and vice versa. Specifically, while obesity is among the main risk factors for OSA, the disorder itself and its associated disturbances in sleep quality and architecture seem to alter energy balance parameters and may induce further weight gain. Several intervention trials have shown that weight loss is associated with reduced OSA severity. Thus, weight loss may improve sleep, and these improvements may promote further weight loss. Future studies should establish whether increasing sleep duration/improving sleep quality can induce weight loss.

  7. EFFECT OF A DIETARY INTERVENTION ON GROWTH AND ENERGY EXPENDITURE IN CHILDREN WITH CYSTIC FIBROSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groleau, Veronique; Schall, Joan I.; Dougherty, Kelly A.; Latham, Norma E.; Maqbool, Asim; Mascarenhas, Maria R.; Stallings, Virginia A.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND The study aim was to determine the effect of a dietary intervention on growth, body composition and resting energy expenditure (REE) in children with cystic fibrosis (CF) and pancreatic insufficiency (PI) in a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial. METHODS Subjects (5 to 17 yrs) participated in a 12-month trial of the organized lipid matrix LYM-X-SORB™ (LXS) vs. placebo dietary supplements with similar calories, total fat and fatty acids. Dietary intake was assessed using 3-day weighed food records. Height (HAZ), weight (WAZ), BMI (BMIZ), mid-upper arm muscle (UAMAZ) and fat area (UAFAZ) Z-scores were calculated. Fat mass (FM) and fat free mass (FFM) were obtained by whole body DXA. REE (kcal/d) was evaluated by indirect calorimetry at baseline, 3 and 12 months and %REE calculated using Schofield equations. No growth or REE differences were observed between LXS and placebo groups so data were pooled for analysis. RESULTS 63 children (57% males, age 10.6±2.9 yr, 43% receiving LXS) completed REE measurements. Caloric intake increased from a median of 2502 [1478, 4909] to 2616 [1660, 4125] kcal/d at 12 months. HAZ, WAZ and UAMAZ increased (p < 0.05) over 12 months. Mean REE was 109±8% predicted at baseline and 107±9% at 12 months (p < 0.05). REE (kcal/d) adjusted for FFM and FM decreased over 12 months ([mean±SE] −31±12 kcals, p < 0.01), significant only in males (−49±16 kcals, p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS Over a 12 month nutrition intervention with either LXS or placebo, the growth status, muscle stores and REE improved. Sustained increased energy intake improved energy metabolism, growth and nutritional status in school age children with CF, PI and mild lung disease. PMID:24518280

  8. Effects of a low-glycemic load diet on resting energy expenditure and heart disease risk factors during weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Mark A; Swain, Janis; Goldfine, Allison B; Rifai, Nader; Ludwig, David S

    2004-11-24

    Weight loss elicits physiological adaptations relating to energy intake and expenditure that antagonize ongoing weight loss. To test whether dietary composition affects the physiological adaptations to weight loss, as assessed by resting energy expenditure. DESIGN, STUDY, AND PARTICIPANTS: A randomized parallel-design study of 39 overweight or obese young adults aged 18 to 40 years who received an energy-restricted diet, either low-glycemic load or low-fat. Participants were studied in the General Clinical Research Centers of the Brigham and Women's Hospital and the Children's Hospital, Boston, Mass, before and after 10% weight loss. The study was conducted from January 4, 2001, to May 6, 2003. Resting energy expenditure measured in the fasting state by indirect calorimetry, body composition by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and self-reported hunger. Resting energy expenditure decreased less with the low-glycemic load diet than with the low-fat diet, expressed in absolute terms (mean [SE], 96 [24] vs 176 [27] kcal/d; P = .04) or as a proportion (5.9% [1.5%] vs 10.6% [1.7%]; P = .05). Participants receiving the low-glycemic load diet reported less hunger than those receiving the low-fat diet (P = .04). Insulin resistance (P = .01), serum triglycerides (P = .01), C-reactive protein (P = .03), and blood pressure (P = .07 for both systolic and diastolic) improved more with the low-glycemic load diet. Changes in body composition (fat and lean mass) in both groups were very similar (P = .85 and P = .45, respectively). Changes in dietary composition within prevailing norms can affect physiological adaptations that defend body weight. Reduction in glycemic load may aid in the prevention or treatment of obesity, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes mellitus.

  9. Intelligent Predictor of Energy Expenditure with the Use of Patch-Type Sensor Module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meina Li

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with an intelligent predictor of energy expenditure (EE using a developed patch-type sensor module for wireless monitoring of heart rate (HR and movement index (MI. For this purpose, an intelligent predictor is designed by an advanced linguistic model (LM with interval prediction based on fuzzy granulation that can be realized by context-based fuzzy c-means (CFCM clustering. The system components consist of a sensor board, the rubber case, and the communication module with built-in analysis algorithm. This sensor is patched onto the user’s chest to obtain physiological data in indoor and outdoor environments. The prediction performance was demonstrated by root mean square error (RMSE. The prediction performance was obtained as the number of contexts and clusters increased from 2 to 6, respectively. Thirty participants were recruited from Chosun University to take part in this study. The data sets were recorded during normal walking, brisk walking, slow running, and jogging in an outdoor environment and treadmill running in an indoor environment, respectively. We randomly divided the data set into training (60% and test data set (40% in the normalized space during 10 iterations. The training data set is used for model construction, while the test set is used for model validation. The experimental results revealed that the prediction error on treadmill running simulation was improved by about 51% and 12% in comparison to conventional LM for training and checking data set, respectively.

  10. Validation of predictive equations for resting energy expenditure in Japanese pediatric Crohn's disease patients: preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Katsuhiro; Funayama, Rie; Takahashi, Mieko; Sakai, Rie; Shimizu, Hirotaka; Obayashi, Naho; Matsui, Akira

    2015-04-01

    Predictive equations are often used to estimate resting energy expenditure (REE). Determining the appropriate equation for different patient types, however, remains inconclusive, as in the case of Japanese children with Crohn's disease (CD). The aim of this study was to identify an appropriate predictive equation for measuring REE in Japanese children with CD. Twelve Japanese children with CD managed at the National Center for Child Health and Development in Tokyo, Japan, were studied. REE (kcal/day) was measured using indirect calorimetry. The predictive equations used were the Japanese Dietary Reference Intakes (2010), the Schofield equation, the Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization/United Nations University (FAO/WHO/UNU) equation and the Cunningham equation. Difference between predicted and measured REE was analyzed on Bland-Altman plot. Japanese Dietary Reference Intakes (2010) had the smallest difference between predicted and measured REE. Weight was the primary predictor of REE on multiple regression analysis. As well, Japanese Dietary Reference Intakes (2010) had the highest ratio of weight to predicted REE (98.5%). Of the four equations, Japanese Dietary Reference Intakes (2010) appeared to be the most practical and accurate predictive equation for REE in Japanese children with CD. © 2014 Japan Pediatric Society.

  11. Effects of the Visual Exercise Environments on Cognitive Directed Attention, Energy Expenditure and Perceived Exertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogerson, Mike; Barton, Jo

    2015-06-30

    Green exercise research often reports psychological health outcomes without rigorously controlling exercise. This study examines effects of visual exercise environments on directed attention, perceived exertion and time to exhaustion, whilst measuring and controlling the exercise component. Participants completed three experimental conditions in a randomized counterbalanced order. Conditions varied by video content viewed (nature; built; control) during two consistently-ordered exercise bouts (Exercise 1: 60% VO2peakInt for 15-mins; Exercise 2: 85% VO2peakInt to voluntary exhaustion). In each condition, participants completed modified Backwards Digit Span tests (a measure of directed attention) pre- and post-Exercise 1. Energy expenditure, respiratory exchange ratio and perceived exertion were measured during both exercise bouts. Time to exhaustion in Exercise 2 was also recorded. There was a significant time by condition interaction for Backwards Digit Span scores (F2,22 = 6.267, p = 0.007). Scores significantly improved in the nature condition (p attention. Via psychological mechanisms alone, visual nature facilitates attention restoration during moderate-intensity exercise.

  12. Phosphoproteomics Identifies CK2 as a Negative Regulator of Beige Adipocyte Thermogenesis and Energy Expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinoda, Kosaku; Ohyama, Kana; Hasegawa, Yutaka; Chang, Hsin-Yi; Ogura, Mayu; Sato, Ayaka; Hong, Haemin; Hosono, Takashi; Sharp, Louis Z; Scheel, David W; Graham, Mark; Ishihama, Yasushi; Kajimura, Shingo

    2015-12-01

    Catecholamines promote lipolysis both in brown and white adipocytes, whereas the same stimuli preferentially activate thermogenesis in brown adipocytes. Molecular mechanisms for the adipose-selective activation of thermogenesis remain poorly understood. Here, we employed quantitative phosphoproteomics to map global and temporal phosphorylation profiles in brown, beige, and white adipocytes under β3-adrenenoceptor activation and identified kinases responsible for the adipose-selective phosphorylation profiles. We found that casein kinase2 (CK2) activity is preferentially higher in white adipocytes than brown/beige adipocytes. Genetic or pharmacological blockade of CK2 in white adipocytes activates the thermogenic program in response to cAMP stimuli. Such activation is largely through reduced CK2-mediated phosphorylation of class I HDACs. Notably, inhibition of CK2 promotes beige adipocyte biogenesis and leads to an increase in whole-body energy expenditure and ameliorates diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. These results indicate that CK2 is a plausible target to rewire the β3-adrenenoceptor signaling cascade that promotes thermogenesis in adipocytes.

  13. A smartphone-driven methodology for estimating physical activities and energy expenditure in free living conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidoux, Romain; Duclos, Martine; Fleury, Gérard; Lacomme, Philippe; Lamaudière, Nicolas; Manenq, Pierre-Henri; Paris, Ludivine; Ren, Libo; Rousset, Sylvie

    2014-12-01

    This paper introduces a function dedicated to the estimation of total energy expenditure (TEE) of daily activities based on data from accelerometers integrated into smartphones. The use of mass-market sensors such as accelerometers offers a promising solution for the general public due to the growing smartphone market over the last decade. The TEE estimation function quality was evaluated using data from intensive numerical experiments based, first, on 12 volunteers equipped with a smartphone and two research sensors (Armband and Actiheart) in controlled conditions (CC) and, then, on 30 other volunteers in free-living conditions (FLC). The TEE given by these two sensors in both conditions and estimated from the metabolic equivalent tasks (MET) in CC served as references during the creation and evaluation of the function. The TEE mean gap in absolute value between the function and the three references was 7.0%, 16.4% and 2.7% in CC, and 17.0% and 23.7% according to Armband and Actiheart, respectively, in FLC. This is the first step in the definition of a new feedback mechanism that promotes self-management and daily-efficiency evaluation of physical activity as part of an information system dedicated to the prevention of chronic diseases.

  14. Effects of the Visual Exercise Environments on Cognitive Directed Attention, Energy Expenditure and Perceived Exertion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Rogerson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Green exercise research often reports psychological health outcomes without rigorously controlling exercise. This study examines effects of visual exercise environments on directed attention, perceived exertion and time to exhaustion, whilst measuring and controlling the exercise component. Participants completed three experimental conditions in a randomized counterbalanced order. Conditions varied by video content viewed (nature; built; control during two consistently-ordered exercise bouts (Exercise 1: 60% VO2peakInt for 15-mins; Exercise 2: 85% VO2peakInt to voluntary exhaustion. In each condition, participants completed modified Backwards Digit Span tests (a measure of directed attention pre- and post-Exercise 1. Energy expenditure, respiratory exchange ratio and perceived exertion were measured during both exercise bouts. Time to exhaustion in Exercise 2 was also recorded. There was a significant time by condition interaction for Backwards Digit Span scores (F2,22 = 6.267, p = 0.007. Scores significantly improved in the nature condition (p < 0.001 but did not in the built or control conditions. There were no significant differences between conditions for either perceived exertion or physiological measures during either Exercise 1 or Exercise 2, or for time to exhaustion in Exercise 2. This was the first study to demonstrate effects of controlled exercise conducted in different visual environments on post-exercise directed attention. Via psychological mechanisms alone, visual nature facilitates attention restoration during moderate-intensity exercise.

  15. Resting energy expenditure and body composition in children with cancer: indirect calorimetry and bioimpedance analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Konovalova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Resting energy expenditure (REE by indirect calorimetry and body composition by bioimpedance analysis are studied in three groups of children aged 5–18 years. Group 1 (n = 181 – patients in remission of cancer, group 2 (n = 55 – children with oncology diseases receiving chemotherapy or who are in the early period after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, group 3 (n = 63 – children with non-malignant diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. To eliminate the influence of age and gender on the intergroup comparisons, body composition parameters were expressed as standardized values (z-scores relative to a reference group of healthy Russian children (n = 138,191. Group 1 was characterized by excess fat content with intact lean body mass, and groups 2 and 3 by protein depletion, more pronounced in Group 2 with a higher percentage of body fat. All used conventional formulas (WHO, Harris–Benedict and others in groups 1 and 3 underestimated REE as compared with indirect calorimetry. A new formula for REE, giving an unbiased estimate in the group 1 was proposed: REE (kcal/day = 28.7 × BCM (kg +10.5 × Height (cm – 38.6 × Age (years – 134, where BCM – body cell mass according to bioimpedance analysis (R2 = 0.67, the standard deviation of 196 kcal/day.

  16. The effect of carrying a portable respiratory gas analysis system on energy expenditure during incremental running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, S Andy; Orme, Duncan; Mc Naughton, Lars R

    2013-05-01

    This study aimed to assess the effect of portable gas analysis system carriage on energy expenditure (EE) during incremental treadmill running. Eight males (Mean ± SD) age 25.0 ± 9.47 y, body mass 78.5 ± 8.39 kg, completed an experimental trial (PT) during which they wore the system in a chest harness and a control trial (CT) when the system was externally supported. Each protocol consisted of 4 min stages at speeds of 0, 4, 7, 10, 12, 14 km h(-1). Increments continued until volitional exhaustion. The EE was greater (3.95 and 7.02% at 7 and 14 km h(-1) respectively) during PT (p gas analysis systems therefore only increase EE when running sub-maximally, but VO(2max) is unaffected, suggesting that using portable gas analysis systems in field-based situations is appropriate for maximal aerobic capacity measurement, but the effects of prolonged use on EE remains unclear. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparison of Resting Energy Expenditure Between Cancer Subjects and Healthy Controls: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thi Yen Vi; Batterham, Marijka J; Edwards, Cheree

    2016-01-01

    There is conflicting evidence surrounding the extent of changes in resting energy expenditure (REE) in cancer. This meta-analysis aimed to establish the mean difference in REE, as kilojoules per kilogram fat-free mass, among cancer patients when compared to healthy control subjects. The secondary aim was to determine differences among different cancer types. PubMed, Cochrane Library, Medline, Science Direct, Scopus, Web of Science, Wiley Online Library, and ProQuest Central were searched from the earliest records until March 2014. Studies were included if measured REE was reported as kilojoules or kilocalories per kilogram fat-free mass (FFM) in adult subjects with cancer. Twenty-seven studies were included in the meta-analysis. Fourteen studies included both cancer (n = 1453) and control (n = 1145) groups. The meta-analysis shows an average increase in REE of 9.66 (95% confidence interval: 3.34, 15.98) kJ/kgFFM/day in cancer patients when compared to control subjects. Heterogeneity was detected (P < 0.001) which suggest variations in REE among cancer types. Elevations are most noticeable in patients with cancers of metabolically demanding organs.

  18. Posture and activity recognition and energy expenditure prediction in a wearable platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sazonova, Nadezhda; Browning, Raymond; Melanson, Edward; Sazonov, Edward

    2014-01-01

    The use of wearable sensors coupled with the processing power of mobile phones may be an attractive way to provide real-time feedback about physical activity and energy expenditure (EE). Here we describe use of a shoe-based wearable sensor system (SmartShoe) with a mobile phone for real-time prediction and display of time spent in various postures/physical activities and the resulting EE. To deal with processing power and memory limitations of the phone, we introduce new algorithms that require substantially less computational power. The algorithms were validated using data from 15 subjects who performed up to 15 different activities of daily living during a four-hour stay in a room calorimeter. Use of Multinomial Logistic Discrimination (MLD) for posture and activity classification resulted in an accuracy comparable to that of Support Vector Machines (SVM) (90% vs. 95%-98%) while reducing the running time by a factor of 190 and reducing the memory requirement by a factor of 104. Per minute EE estimation using activity-specific models resulted in an accurate EE prediction (RMSE of 0.53 METs vs. RMSE of 0.69 METs using previously reported SVM-branched models). These results demonstrate successful implementation of real-time physical activity monitoring and EE prediction system on a wearable platform.

  19. Posture and activity recognition and energy expenditure estimation in a wearable platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sazonov, Edward; Hegde, Nagaraj; Browning, Raymond C; Melanson, Edward L; Sazonova, Nadezhda A

    2015-07-01

    The use of wearable sensors coupled with the processing power of mobile phones may be an attractive way to provide real-time feedback about physical activity and energy expenditure (EE). Here, we describe the use of a shoe-based wearable sensor system (SmartShoe) with a mobile phone for real-time recognition of various postures/physical activities and the resulting EE. To deal with processing power and memory limitations of the phone, we compare the use of support vector machines (SVM), multinomial logistic discrimination (MLD), and multilayer perceptrons (MLP) for posture and activity classification followed by activity-branched EE estimation. The algorithms were validated using data from 15 subjects who performed up to 15 different activities of daily living during a 4-h stay in a room calorimeter. MLD and MLP demonstrated activity classification accuracy virtually identical to SVM (∼ 95%) while reducing the running time and the memory requirements by a factor of >10 3. Comparison of per-minute EE estimation using activity-branched models resulted in accurate EE prediction (RMSE = 0.78 kcal/min for SVM and MLD activity classification, 0.77 kcal/min for MLP versus RMSE of 0.75 kcal/min for manual annotation). These results suggest that low-power computational algorithms can be successfully used for real-time physical activity monitoring and EE estimation on a wearable platform.

  20. Dexamethasone reduces energy expenditure and increases susceptibility to diet-induced obesity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poggioli, Raffaella; Ueta, Cintia B; Drigo, Rafael Arrojo E; Castillo, Melany; Fonseca, Tatiana L; Bianco, Antonio C

    2013-09-01

    To investigate how long-term treatment with dexamethasone affects energy expenditure and adiposity in mice and whether this is influenced by feeding on a high-fat diet (HFD). Mice were placed on a HFD for 2 weeks and started on dexamethasone at 5 mg/kg every other day during the next 7 weeks. Treatment with dexamethasone increased body fat, an effect that was more pronounced in the animals kept on HFD; dexamethasone treatment also worsened liver steatosis caused by the HFD. At the same time, treatment with dexamethasone lowered the respiratory quotient in chow-fed animals and slowed nightly metabolic rate in the animals kept on HFD. In addition, the acute VO2 acceleration in response to β3 adrenergic-stimulation was significantly limited in the dexamethasone-treated animals, as a result of marked decrease in UCP-1 mRNA observed in the brown adipose tissue of these animals. Long-term treatment with dexamethasone in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity decreases brown adipose tissue thermogenesis and exaggerates adiposity and liver steatosis. © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers AIChE J, 2013. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  1. Comparison of Energy Expenditure During Single-Set vs. Multiple-Set Resistance Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mookerjee, Swapan; Welikonich, Michael J; Ratamess, Nicholas A

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare energy expenditure (EE) of single-set and multiple-set resistance exercise protocols using indirect calorimetry. Twelve men and twelve women (age = 21.4 ± 1.3 years) performed a single-set (SS) and multiple-set (MS) resistance exercise protocol in random order. The subjects performed two protocols at 70% of their 1-repetition maximum. The protocols consisted of 5 upper-body exercises of either 1 or 3 sets per exercise performed in random order. Metabolic and cardiorespiratory data were recorded over the entire exercise session and during 5 minutes of recovery by a portable metabolic measurement system. Gross (167.9 ± 58.7 kcal) and net (88.3 ± 41.6 kcal) EE for the MS protocol were significantly greater (p protocol. Conversely, there was no significant difference in the rate of EE between both protocols. Significant gender differences (p protocols where values in men were higher than women. Heart rate, respiratory rate, relative V[Combining Dot Above]O2, respiratory exchange ratio, and minute ventilation values were significantly higher during the MS than the SS protocol. The results of this study indicated that MS protocols yield greater metabolic and cardiovascular demands than SS protocols when the number of exercises performed is the same.

  2. Reading and listening to music increase resting energy expenditure during an indirect calorimetry test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Blaire; Fullmer, Susan; Eggett, Dennis L

    2014-12-01

    Indirect calorimetry is often done early in the morning in a fasting state, with the subject unshowered and abstained from caffeine or other stimulants. Subjects often fall asleep, resulting in measurement of a sleeping metabolic rate rather than a resting metabolic rate. The objective of this study was to determine whether listening to self-selected relaxing music or reading an electronic device or magazine affects resting energy expenditure (REE) during measurement in healthy adults. A randomized trial comparing three different conditions (ie, resting, reading, and listening to music) was performed. Sixty-five subjects (36 female and 29 male) were used in final data analysis. Inclusion criteria included healthy subjects between the ages of 18 and 50 years with a stable weight. Exclusion criteria included pregnant or lactating women or use of medications known to affect metabolism. Results showed that reading either a magazine or an electronic device significantly increased REE by 102.7 kcal/day when compared with resting (Pmusic increased REE by 27.6 kcal/day compared with rest (P=0.0072). Based on our results, we recommend subjects refrain from reading a magazine or electronic device during an indirect calorimetry test. Whether or not the smaller difference found while listening to music is practically significant would be a decision for the indirect calorimetry test administrator.

  3. Effect of music by Mozart on energy expenditure in growing preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubetzky, Ronit; Mimouni, Francis B; Dollberg, Shaul; Reifen, Ram; Ashbel, Gina; Mandel, Dror

    2010-01-01

    The rate of weight gain in preterm infants who are exposed to music seems to improve. A potential mechanism could be increased metabolic efficiency; therefore, we conducted this study to test the hypothesis that music by Mozart reduces resting energy expenditure (REE) in growing healthy preterm infants. DESIGN. A prospective, randomized clinical trial with crossover was conducted in 20 healthy, appropriate-weight-for-gestational-age, gavage-fed preterm infants. Infants were randomly assigned to be exposed to a 30-minute period of Mozart music or no music on 2 consecutive days. Metabolic measurements were performed by indirect calorimetry. REE was similar during the first 10-minute period of both randomization groups. During the next 10-minute period, infants who were exposed to music had a significantly lower REE than when not exposed to music (P = .028). This was also true during the third 10-minute period (P = .03). Thus, on average, the effect size of music on REE is a reduction of approximately 10% to 13% from baseline, an effect obtained within 10 to 30 minutes. Exposure to Mozart music significantly lowers REE in healthy preterm infants. We speculate that this effect of music on REE might explain, in part, the improved weight gain that results from this "Mozart effect."

  4. Bach music in preterm infants: no 'Mozart effect' on resting energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keidar, H Rosenfeld; Mandel, D; Mimouni, F B; Lubetzky, R

    2014-02-01

    To study whether Johan Sebastian Bach music has a lowering effect on resting energy expenditure (REE) similar to that of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart music. Prospective, randomized clinical trial with cross-over in 12 healthy, appropriate weights for gestational age (GA), gavage fed, metabolically stable, preterm infants. Infants were randomized to a 30-min period of either Mozart or Bach music or no music over 3 consecutive days. REE was measured every minute by indirect calorimetry. Three REE measurements were performed in each of 12 infants at age 20±15.8 days. Mean GA was 30.17±2.44 weeks and mean birthweight was 1246±239 g. REE was similar during the first 10-min of all three randomization periods. During the next 10-min period, infants exposed to music by Mozart had a trend toward lower REE than when not exposed to music. This trend became significant during the third 10-min period. In contrast, music by Bach or no music did not affect significantly REE during the whole study. On average, the effect size of Mozart music upon REE was a reduction of 7.7% from baseline. Mozart music significantly lowers REE in preterm infants, whereas Bach music has no similar effect. We speculate that 'Mozart effect' must be taken into account when incorporating music in the therapy of preterm infants, as not all types of music may have similar effects upon REE and growth.

  5. Energy expenditure in US automotive technicians and occupation-specific cardiac rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, J; Jordan, S; Spencer, K; Belanger, J; Cheng, D; Shock, T; Karcher, J

    2013-03-01

    The standard exercise protocol for patients in a traditional cardiac rehabilitation (rehab) programme may not be adequate for preparing manual workers for a safe return to work, as these activities bear little resemblance to the physical movements and force exertion required in most industrial jobs. To measure the energy expenditure as metabolic equivalents (METs) required for automotive technicians, to compare this MET level with that normally attained in traditional cardiac rehab programmes and to suggest cardiac rehab exercises for automotive technicians based on specificity of training. Automotive technicians who volunteered to participate had their MET levels measured while they performed a defined series of work tasks in the service department of an automobile dealership. Their daily walking distance was also determined. Thirty-six of 95 eligible subjects participated; a response rate of 38%. Mean peak MET level was 7.1, less than the 8 METs target training goal often used in traditional cardiac rehab programmes. However, patients' outcome MET levels in cardiac rehab are usually measured by a treadmill stress test, whereas the subjects reached 7.1 METs while performing work tasks. The subjects walked an average of 5 km during a normal workday. Because MET level measurements are work specific, automotive technicians in a cardiac rehab programme should strive to reach and maintain a level of >7 METs while performing specific training exercises that mimic the work tasks they must do throughout the day. They can also benefit from traditional endurance training such as treadmill walking.

  6. Chronic oxytocin administration inhibits food intake, increases energy expenditure, and produces weight loss in fructose-fed obese rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blevins, James E; Graham, James L; Morton, Gregory J; Bales, Karen L; Schwartz, Michael W; Baskin, Denis G; Havel, Peter J

    2015-03-01

    Despite compelling evidence that oxytocin (OT) is effective in reducing body weight (BW) in diet-induced obese (DIO) rodents, studies of the effects of OT in humans and rhesus monkeys have primarily focused on noningestive behaviors. The goal of this study was to translate findings in DIO rodents to a preclinical translational model of DIO. We tested the hypothesis that increased OT signaling would reduce BW in DIO rhesus monkeys by inhibiting food intake and increasing energy expenditure (EE). Male DIO rhesus monkeys from the California National Primate Research Center were adapted to a 12-h fast and maintained on chow and a daily 15% fructose-sweetened beverage. Monkeys received 2× daily subcutaneous vehicle injections over 1 wk. We subsequently identified doses of OT (0.2 and 0.4 mg/kg) that reduced food intake and BW in the absence of nausea or diarrhea. Chronic administration of OT for 4 wk (0.2 mg/kg for 2 wk; 0.4 mg/kg for 2 wk) reduced BW relative to vehicle by 3.3 ± 0.4% (≈0.6 kg; P intake by 26 ± 7% (P intake by 27 ± 5% (P intake by 18 ± 8% (P food intake as well as increased EE and lipolysis.

  7. Food intake and energy expenditure are increased in high-fat-sensitive but not in high-carbohydrate-sensitive obesity-prone rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzout-Marniche, Dalila; Chaumontet, Catherine; Nadkarni, Nachiket A; Piedcoq, Julien; Fromentin, Gilles; Tomé, Daniel; Even, Patrick C

    2014-08-01

    Obesity-prone (OP) rodents are used as models of human obesity predisposition. The goal of the present study was to identify preexisting defects in energy expenditure components in OP rats. Two studies were performed. In the first one, male Wistar rats (n = 48) were fed a high-carbohydrate diet (HCD) for 3 wk and then a high-fat diet (HFD) for the next 3 wk. This study showed that adiposity gain under HCD was 2.9-fold larger in carbohydrate-sensitive (CS) than in carbohydrate-resistant (CR) rats, confirming the concept of "carbohydrate-sensitive" rats. Energy expenditure (EE), respiratory quotient (RQ), caloric intake (CI), and locomotor activity measured during HFD identified no differences in EE and RQ between fat-resistant (FR) and fat-sensitive (FS) rats, and indicated that obesity developed in FS rats only as the result of a larger CI not fully compensated by a parallel increase in EE. A specific pattern of spontaneous activity, characterized by reduced activity burst intensity, was identified in FS rats but not in CS ones. This mirrors a previous observation that under HCD, CS but not FS rats, exhibited bursts of activity of reduced intensity. In a second study, rats were fed a HFD for 3 wk, and the components of energy expenditure were examined by indirect calorimetry in 10 FR and 10 FS rats. This study confirmed that a low basal EE, reduced thermic effect of feeding, defective postprandial energy partitioning, or a defective substrate utilization by the working muscle are not involved in the FS phenotype. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Maternal diabetes status does not influence energy expenditure or physical activity in 5-year-old Pima Indian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salbe, A D; Fontvieille, A M; Pettitt, D J; Ravussin, E

    1998-10-01

    Children of women who have diabetes during pregnancy are more likely to become obese by early adulthood than those of women with normal glucose tolerance during pregnancy. Obesity can result from either excess food intake, low levels of energy expenditure or both. In our study, we tested whether maternal diabetes status influences total energy expenditure (TEE by doubly labelled water), resting metabolic rate (RMR by ventilated hood) and physical activity level (PAL = TEE/RMR and assessed by activity questionnaire). Measurements were taken in 88 5-year-old Pima Indian children, 24 children of women with diabetes (2-h plasma glucose > or = 11.1 mmol/l) diagnosed before or during pregnancy and 64 children of women with normal glucose tolerance (2-h plasma glucose pregnancy and no prior history of abnormal glucose tolerance). Although birth weight was higher in children of diabetic than of nondiabetic women (mean +/- SD; 3.8 +/- 0.6 vs 3.5 +/- 0.4 kg, p obesity seen at older ages in the children of women with diabetes could be due to excess energy intake. Alternatively, if energy expenditure does have a role in the aetiology of obesity in these children, perhaps it does so only in older children.

  9. Exposure to environmentally persistent free radicals during gestation lowers energy expenditure and impairs skeletal muscle mitochondrial function in adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Erin J; Ragauskas, Alyse; Jaligama, Sridhar; Redd, JeAnna R; Parvathareddy, Jyothi; Peloquin, Matthew J; Saravia, Jordy; Han, Joan C; Cormier, Stephania A; Bridges, Dave

    2016-06-01

    We have investigated the effects of in utero exposure to environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) on growth, metabolism, energy utilization, and skeletal muscle mitochondria in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. Pregnant mice were treated with laboratory-generated, combustion-derived particular matter (MCP230). The adult offspring were placed on a high-fat diet for 12 wk, after which we observed a 9.8% increase in their body weight. The increase in body size observed in the MCP230-exposed mice was not associated with increases in food intake but was associated with a reduction in physical activity and lower energy expenditure. The reduced energy expenditure in mice indirectly exposed to MCP230 was associated with reductions in skeletal muscle mitochondrial DNA copy number, lower mRNA levels of electron transport genes, and reduced citrate synthase activity. Upregulation of key genes involved in ameliorating oxidative stress was also observed in the muscle of MCP230-exposed mice. These findings suggest that gestational exposure to MCP230 leads to a reduction in energy expenditure at least in part through alterations to mitochondrial metabolism in the skeletal muscle.

  10. ESTIMATING BASAL ENERGY EXPENDITURE IN LIVER TRANSPLANT RECIPIENTS: THE VALUE OF THE HARRIS-BENEDICT EQUATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    PINTO, Andressa S.; CHEDID, Marcio F.; GUERRA, Léa T.; ÁLVARES-DA-SILVA, Mario R.; de ARAÚJO, Alexandre; GUIMARÃES, Luciano S.; LEIPNITZ, Ian; CHEDID, Aljamir D.; KRUEL, Cleber R. P.; GREZZANA-FILHO, Tomaz J. M.; KRUEL, Cleber D. P.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Reliable measurement of basal energy expenditure (BEE) in liver transplant (LT) recipients is necessary for adapting energy requirements, improving nutritional status and preventing weight gain. Indirect calorimetry (IC) is the gold standard for measuring BEE. However, BEE may be estimated through alternative methods, including electrical bioimpedance (BI), Harris-Benedict Equation (HBE), and Mifflin-St. Jeor Equation (MSJ) that carry easier applicability and lower cost. Aim: To determine which of the three alternative methods for BEE estimation (HBE, BI and MSJ) would provide most reliable BEE estimation in LT recipients. Methods: Prospective cross-sectional study including dyslipidemic LT recipients in follow-up at a 735-bed tertiary referral university hospital. Comparisons of BEE measured through IC to BEE estimated through each of the three alternative methods (HBE, BI and MSJ) were performed using Bland-Altman method and Wilcoxon Rank Sum test. Results: Forty-five patients were included, aged 58±10 years. BEE measured using IC was 1664±319 kcal for males, and 1409±221 kcal for females. Average difference between BEE measured by IC (1534±300 kcal) and BI (1584±377 kcal) was +50 kcal (p=0.0384). Average difference between the BEE measured using IC (1534±300 kcal) and MSJ (1479.6±375 kcal) was -55 kcal (p=0.16). Average difference between BEE values measured by IC (1534±300 kcal) and HBE (1521±283 kcal) was -13 kcal (p=0.326). Difference between BEE estimated through IC and HBE was less than 100 kcal for 39 of all 43patients. Conclusions: Among the three alternative methods, HBE was the most reliable for estimating BEE in LT recipients. PMID:27759783

  11. Energy intake and expenditure assessed 'in-season' in an elite European rugby union squad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Warren J; Cavanagh, Bryce; Douglas, William; Donovan, Timothy F; Twist, Craig; Morton, James P; Close, Graeme L

    2015-01-01

    Rugby union (RU) is a complex high-intensity intermittent collision sport with emphasis placed on players possessing high lean body mass and low body fat. After an 8 to 12-week pre-season focused on physiological adaptations, emphasis shifts towards competitive performance. However, there are no objective data on the physiological demands or energy intake (EI) and energy expenditure (EE) for elite players during this period. Accordingly, in-season training load using global positioning system and session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE), alongside six-day assessments of EE and EI were measured in 44 elite RU players. Mean weekly distance covered was 7827 ± 954 m and 9572 ± 1233 m with a total mean weekly sRPE of 1776 ± 355 and 1523 ± 434 AU for forwards and backs, respectively. Mean weekly EI was 16.6 ± 1.5 and 14.2 ± 1.2 megajoules (MJ) and EE was 15.9 ± 0.5 and 14 ± 0.5 MJ. Mean carbohydrate (CHO) intake was 3.5 ± 0.8 and 3.4 ± 0.7 g.kg(-1) body mass, protein intake was 2.7 ± 0.3 and 2.7 ± 0.5 g.kg(-1) body mass, and fat intake was 1.4 ± 0.2 and 1.4 ± 0.3 g.kg(-1) body mass. All players who completed the food diary self-selected a 'low' CHO 'high' protein diet during the early part of the week, with CHO intake increasing in the days leading up to a match, resulting in the mean EI matching EE. Based on EE and training load data, the EI and composition seems appropriate, although further research is required to evaluate if this diet is optimal for match day performance.

  12. Implementation of field cardio-respiratory measurements to assess energy expenditure in Arabian endurance horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goachet, A G; Julliand, V

    2015-05-01

    Measurements of respiratory exchanges in genuine exercise conditions are undoubtedly of interest to further define the energy needs of endurance horses. However, the equine K4b2, the gas exchanges portable device validated for equines, has not been used in Arabian endurance horses yet. Therefore, the objective of this study was to implement field cardio-respiratory measurements in such horses using the equine K4b2 in order to assess energy expenditure (EE). Measurements of heart rate (HR), oxygen uptake (VO2), carbon dioxide production (VCO2), respiratory frequency (RF), tidal volume (VT) and minute expired volume (VE) were carried out at rest and during a 20-min submaximal incremental field exercise in five trained Arabian endurance horses equipped with the K4b2 system. The relationship between HR and VO2 was determined for each horse. EE of the exercise session was calculated from direct VO2 measurements and individual HR-VO2 regression. Out of the five horses, four tolerated the equipment. Respiratory and metabolic variables at rest and during exercise, as well as EE measured at the different gaits, were consistent with reported values in exercising horses: VO2 ranged from 4.8 to 54.1 ml/min per kg from rest to canter, respectively, and EE from 82 to 1095 J/min per kg BW. The 20-min exercise session EE accounted for 6258 and 6332 J from direct VO2 measurements and individual HR-VO2 regression, respectively, which did not differ significantly. Providing an adaptation period and several technical adjustments, the present equine K4b2 could be used to assess EE in Arabian endurance horses in a controlled environment. The prediction of EE from the individual VO2-HR relationship might be an alternative method to evaluate EE when VO2 measurements are not possible.

  13. Dietary Mannoheptulose Does Not Significantly Alter Daily Energy Expenditure in Adult Labrador Retrievers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie L McKnight

    Full Text Available Mannoheptulose (MH, a sugar found in avocados that inhibits glycolysis in vitro, has been preliminarily investigated as a novel food ingredient for dogs. This study aimed to determine the effects of dietary MH, delivered as an extract of un-ripened avocado, on energy expenditure (EE in healthy adult Labrador Retriever dogs (total of 12 dogs, 26.99 ± 0.634 kg, 4.9 ± 0.2 y. The study was a double-blind, cross-over with each dog receiving both dietary treatments, control (CON and MH (400 mg/kg of diet; 6 mg/kg BW, in random order. Resting and post-prandial (10 h EE and respiratory quotient (RQ were determined by indirect calorimetry (d 42. The following day, body composition was assessed using dual X-ray absorptiometry. Continuous activity monitoring was conducted using an Atical® accelerometer (d 43-47. A vastus lateralis muscle biopsy was obtained prior to the morning meal (d 49 and 4 h after consumption of their meal (d 56 to determine the protein content and phosphorylation of 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK. Diet did not affect body weight, resting EE or skeletal muscle AMPK phosphorylation. Dogs fed MH had significantly lower post-prandial RQ (p = 0.02 and ratio of fat to lean body mass (p = 0.02. Physical activity during light time periods (but not dark was lower in dogs fed MH (p < 0.05 during weekends, but not on weekdays. These results suggest that MH affects energy balance of adult dogs, but that these effects are not dose dependent and not due to physical activity.

  14. Does low daily energy expenditure drive low metabolic capacity in the tropical robin, Turdus grayi?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Dominique N; Mineo, Patrick M; Sgueo, Carrie; Wikelski, Martin; Schaeffer, Paul J

    2013-08-01

    Temperate and tropical birds possess divergent life history strategies. Physiological parameters including energy metabolism correlate with the life history such that tropical species with a slower 'pace of life' have lower resting and maximal metabolic rates than temperate congeners. To better understand the physiological mechanisms underlying these differences, we investigated the relationship of metabolic capacity, muscle oxidative capacity and activity patterns to variation in life history patterns in American robins (Turdus migratorius), while resident in central North America and Clay-colored robins (Turdus grayi) resident in Panama. We measured summit metabolism [Formula: see text] in birds from both tropical and temperate habitats and found that the temperate robins have a 60 % higher metabolic capacity. We also measured the field metabolic rate (FMR) of free-living birds using heart rate (HR) telemetry and found that temperate robins' daily energy expenditure was also 60 % higher. Thus, [Formula: see text] and FMR both reflect life history differences between the species. Further, both species operate at a nearly identical ~50 % of their thermogenic capacity throughout a given day. As a potential mechanism to explain differences in activity and metabolic capacity, we ask whether oxidative properties of flight muscle are altered in accordance with life history variation and found minimal differences in oxidative capacity of skeletal muscle. These data demonstrate a close relationship between thermogenic capacity and daily activity in free-living birds. Further, they suggest that the slow pace of life in tropical birds may be related to the maintenance of low activity rather than functional capacity of the muscle tissue.

  15. Resting energy expenditure and adiposity accretion among children with Down syndrome: a three year prospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Douglas L.; Parks, Elizabeth P.; Zemel, Babette S.; Shults, Justine; Stallings, Virginia A; Stettler, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Background Children with Down syndrome (DS) have a higher prevalence of obesity than other children. Whether this increased risk for obesity is due to a lower resting energy expenditure (REE) is controversial. Our study assessed whether 1) the REE of children with DS adjusted for fat free mass (FFM) was lower than that of sibling controls and 2) the changes in fat mass (FM) over three years were associated with FFM-adjusted baseline REE. Methods This study used cross-sectional and prospective cohort designs. Four annual measurement visits were conducted with 28 children with DS and 35 sibling controls aged 3–10y. REE and serum thyroxine (T4) were measured at baseline. Anthropometry, skinfold thicknesses measures, and, in a subsample, dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were used at each visit to calculate FM. Results Children with DS had significantly lower REE adjusted for FFM (−78 kcal/day, 95% CI: −133 to −27, p=0.003). The difference remained significant after adjustment for FM, sex, and African ancestry (−49 kcal/day, 95% CI: −94 to −4, p=0.03). In the longitudinal analysis, the baseline REE adjusted for baseline FFM was not predictive of FM accretion over time (p=0.8). Conclusion Children with DS have lower REE than sibling controls, but REE was not associated with changes in FM over time. The results suggest that the lower REE of children with DS does not explain their increased risk for obesity. PMID:23900244

  16. A comparison of energy expenditure estimation of several physical activity monitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannecker, Kathryn L; Sazonova, Nadezhda A; Melanson, Edward L; Sazonov, Edward S; Browning, Raymond C

    2013-11-01

    Accurately and precisely estimating free-living energy expenditure (EE) is important for monitoring energy balance and quantifying physical activity. Recently, single and multisensor devices have been developed that can classify physical activities, potentially resulting in improved estimates of EE. This study aimed to determine the validity of EE estimation of a footwear-based physical activity monitor and to compare this validity against a variety of research and consumer physical activity monitors. Nineteen healthy young adults (10 men, 9 women) completed a 4-h stay in a room calorimeter. Participants wore a footwear-based physical activity monitor as well as Actical, ActiGraph, IDEEA, DirectLife, and Fitbit devices. Each individual performed a series of postures/activities. We developed models to estimate EE from the footwear-based device, and we used the manufacturer's software to estimate EE for all other devices. Estimated EE using the shoe-based device was not significantly different than measured EE (mean ± SE; 476 ± 20 vs 478 ± 18 kcal, respectively) and had a root-mean-square error of 29.6 kcal (6.2%). The IDEEA and the DirectLlife estimates of EE were not significantly different than the measured EE, but the ActiGraph and the Fitbit devices significantly underestimated EE. Root-mean-square errors were 93.5 (19%), 62.1 kcal (14%), 88.2 kcal (18%), 136.6 kcal (27%), 130.1 kcal (26%), and 143.2 kcal (28%) for Actical, DirectLife, IDEEA, ActiGraph, and Fitbit, respectively. The shoe-based physical activity monitor provides a valid estimate of EE, whereas the other physical activity monitors tested have a wide range of validity when estimating EE. Our results also demonstrate that estimating EE based on classification of physical activities can be more accurate and precise than estimating EE based on total physical activity.

  17. Metabolic power and energy expenditure in an international men's hockey tournament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polglaze, Ted; Dawson, Brian; Buttfield, Alec; Peeling, Peter

    2017-02-20

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain the typical metabolic power characteristics of elite men's hockey, and whether changes occur within matches and throughout an international tournament. National team players (n = 16), divided into 3 positional groups (strikers, midfielders, defenders), wore Global Positioning System devices in 6 matches. Energetic (metabolic power, energy expenditure) and displacement (distance, speed, acceleration) variables were determined, and intensity was classified utilising speed, acceleration and metabolic power thresholds. Midfielder's average metabolic power (11.8 ± 1.0 W · kg(-)(1)) was similar to strikers (11.1 ± 1.3 W · kg(-)(1)) and higher than defenders (10.8 ± 1.2 W · kg(-)(1), P = 0.001). Strikers (29.71 ± 3.39 kJ · kg(-)(1)) expended less energy than midfielders (32.18 ± 2.67 kJ · kg(-)(1), P = 0.014) and defenders (33.23 ± 3.96 kJ · kg(-)(1), P 20 W · kg(-)(1)). International hockey matches are intense and highly intermittent; however, intensity is maintained throughout matches and over a tournament. In isolation, displacement measures underestimate the amount of high-intensity activity, whereas the integration of instantaneous speed and acceleration provides a more comprehensive assessment of the demands for variable-speed activity typically occurring in hockey matches.

  18. [Effect of 3-month exercise training on daily energy expenditure in formerly obese women with reduced and stable weight].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buemann, B; Astrup, A V

    1993-06-14

    Predisposition to obesity has been suggested to be related to a low energy expenditure (EE). This condition could be counteracted by physical exercise. In the present study we wanted to elucidate if aerob training could increase sedentary 24-hour energy expenditure in formerly obese subjects. Seven reduced-obese premenopausal women were studied in a respiration chamber before and after a three month period of aerobic training. No significant effects of training were seen on daytime, sleeping or total 24-hour EE. However, the change in daytime EE was positively correlated to the change in VO2max. Sleeping and 24-hour respiratory quotients were slightly increased after the training period. In order to reveal a possible role of the sympathetic nervous system in the observed effect of training, additional experiments were performed with beta blockade. However, no interactions between training and beta blockade were found.

  19. The public expenditure for the research and development on the energy in France. Synthesis of the study realized for the energy observatory; Les depenses publiques de recherche et developpement sur l'energie en France. Synthese de l'etude realisee a la demande de l'Observatoire de l'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this study is to provide a fine photography of the public expenditure on the energy, following the IEA format. This synthesis presents the study methodology and data on the expenditure in function of years 2002 to 2005. The repartition of the public expenditure by categories, by financing origin, and by the different sources or energy, are presented. (A.L.B.)

  20. Dietary protein content alters energy expenditure and composition of the mass gain in grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felicetti, Laura A; Robbins, Charles T; Shipley, Lisa A

    2003-01-01

    Many fruits contain high levels of available energy but very low levels of protein and other nutrients. The discrepancy between available energy and protein creates a physiological paradox for many animals consuming high-fruit diets, as they will be protein deficient if they eat to meet their minimum energy requirement. We fed young grizzly bears both high-energy pelleted and fruit diets containing from 1.6% to 15.4% protein to examine the role of diet-induced thermogenesis and fat synthesis in dealing with high-energy-low-protein diets. Digestible energy intake at mass maintenance increased 2.1 times, and composition of the gain changed from primarily lean mass to entirely fat when the protein content of the diet decreased from 15.4% to 1.6%. Daily fat gain was up to three times higher in bears fed low-protein diets ad lib., compared with bears consuming the higher-protein diet and gaining mass at the same rate. Thus, bears eating fruit can either consume other foods to increase dietary protein content and reduce energy expenditure, intake, and potentially foraging time or overeat high-fruit diets and use diet-induced thermogenesis and fat synthesis to deal with their skewed energy-to-protein ratio. These are not discrete options but a continuum that creates numerous solutions for balancing energy expenditure, intake, foraging time, fat accumulation, and ultimately fitness, depending on food availability, foraging efficiency, bear size, and body condition.

  1. Sports with low energy expenditure. An energy-optimized gym; Sport auf Sparflamme. Sporthalle in Niedrigenergiebauweise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruckner, M.

    1998-09-01

    Heating halls without wasting energy is by no means impossible, as shown by the new gym at Breidt, a municipal district of Lohmar. A concept was developed which is easy to realize and which safeguards low operating costs. (orig.) [Deutsch] Auch fuer Hallengebaeude lassen sich energiesparende Loesungen finden, wie das Beispiel der neuen Sporthalle im Ortsteil Breidt der Stadt Lohmar zeigt. Hier wird deutlich, dass es moeglich ist, Konzepte zum Energiesparen zu entwickeln, die sich einfach realisieren lassen und einen kostenguenstigen Betrieb gewaehrleisten. (orig.)

  2. Ecological Energetics of the Kestrel : Daily Energy Expenditure throughout the Year Based on Time-Energy Budget, Food Intake and Doubly Labeled Water Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masman, Dirkjan; Daan, Serge; Beldhuis, Hans J.A.

    1988-01-01

    1. Three methods were employed to determine the daily energy expenditure (DEE) of free-living Kestrels, throughout the year in a study area in the northern Netherlands. - TEB (time budget analysis) - Food intake (observational method) - DLW (doubly labeled water method) 2. The TEB model used here re

  3. Empowering Sedentary Adults to Reduce Sedentary Behavior and Increase Physical Activity Levels and Energy Expenditure: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal A. Barwais

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a 4-week intervention in which an online personal activity monitor (Gruve-Technologies™ was used to reduce sedentary behavior among sedentary adults. Method: Eighteen, sedentary adult volunteers (12 men, six women, mean age 29 ± 4.0 years were recruited to participate in the study. Time spent in sedentary activities and light-, moderate-, and vigorous-intensity physical activity and energy expenditure were assessed during waking hours using the monitor and the 7-day SLIPA Log at both baseline and post-intervention. Results: A significant decrease of 33% (3.1 h/day; p < 0.001 was found between the time spent in sedentary activities measured at baseline (9.4 ± 1.1 h/day and at the end of the 4-week intervention (6.3 ± 0.8 h/day. Consequent to the changes in sedentary time, significant increases were found in the amount of time spent in light- (45% (2.6 h/day, p < 0.001, moderate- (33% (1 h/day p < 0.001, vigorous-intensity physical activity (39% (0.16 h/day, p < 0.001, and energy expenditure (47% (216.7 kcal/day, p < 0.001. Conclusion: This monitor contributes to a meaningful reduction in time spent in sedentary activities and has a large effect on energy expenditure and physical activity patterns.

  4. Neuropeptide Y and agouti-related peptide mediate complementary functions of hyperphagia and reduced energy expenditure in leptin receptor deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Na; Marcelin, Genevieve; Liu, Shun Mei; Schwartz, Gary; Chua, Streamson

    2011-03-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti-related peptide (AGRP) can produce hyperphagia, reduce energy expenditure, and promote triglyceride deposition in adipose depots. As these two neuropeptides are coexpressed within the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus and mediate a major portion of the obesity caused by leptin signaling deficiency, we sought to determine whether the two neuropeptides mediated identical or complementary actions. Because of separate neuropeptide receptors and signal transduction mechanisms, there is a possibility of distinct encoding systems for the feeding and energy expenditure aspects of leptin-regulated metabolism. We have genetically added NPY deficiency and/or AGRP deficiency to LEPR deficiency isolated to AGRP cells. Our results indicate that the obesity of LEPR deficiency in AGRP/NPY neurons can produce obesity with either AGRP or NPY alone with AGRP producing hyperphagia while NPY promotes reduced energy expenditure. The absence of both NPY and AGRP prevents the development of obesity attributable to isolated LEPR deficiency in AGRP/NPY neurons. Operant behavioral testing indicated that there were no alterations in the reward for a food pellet from the AGRP-specific LEPR deficiency.

  5. Aerobic Capacity, Activity Levels and Daily Energy Expenditure in Male and Female Adolescents of the Kenyan Nandi Sub-Group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander R Gibson

    Full Text Available The relative importance of genetic and socio-cultural influences contributing to the success of east Africans in endurance athletics remains unknown in part because the pre-training phenotype of this population remains incompletely assessed. Here cardiopulmonary fitness, physical activity levels, distance travelled to school and daily energy expenditure in 15 habitually active male (13.9±1.6 years and 15 habitually active female (13.9±1.2 adolescents from a rural Nandi primary school are assessed. Aerobic capacity ([Formula: see text] was evaluated during two maximal discontinuous incremental exercise tests; physical activity using accelerometry combined with a global positioning system; and energy expenditure using the doubly labelled water method. The [Formula: see text] of the male and female adolescents were 73.9±5.7 ml(. kg(-1. min(-1 and 61.5±6.3 ml(. kg(-1. min(-1, respectively. Total time spent in sedentary, light, moderate and vigorous physical activities per day was 406±63 min (50% of total monitored time, 244±56 min (30%, 75±18 min (9% and 82±30 min (10%. Average total daily distance travelled to and from school was 7.5±3.0 km (0.8-13.4 km. Mean daily energy expenditure, activity-induced energy expenditure and physical activity level was 12.2±3.4 MJ(. day(-1, 5.4±3.0 MJ(. day(-1 and 2.2±0.6. 70.6% of the variation in [Formula: see text] was explained by sex (partial R(2 = 54.7% and body mass index (partial R(2 = 15.9%. Energy expenditure and physical activity variables did not predict variation in [Formula: see text] once sex had been accounted for. The highly active and energy-demanding lifestyle of rural Kenyan adolescents may account for their exceptional aerobic fitness and collectively prime them for later training and athletic success.

  6. Differences in Energy Expenditures and Growth Dilution Explain Higher PCB Concentrations in Male Summer Flounder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles P Madenjian

    Full Text Available Comparison of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB concentrations between the sexes of mature fish may reveal important behavioral and physiological differences between the sexes. We determined whole-fish PCB concentrations in 23 female summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus and 27 male summer flounder from New Jersey coastal waters. To investigate the potential for differences in diet or habitat utilization between the sexes, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios were also determined. In 5 of the 23 female summer flounder, PCB concentrations in the somatic tissue and ovaries were determined. In addition, we used bioenergetics modeling to assess the contribution of the growth dilution effect to the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. Whole-fish PCB concentrations for females and males averaged 87 and 124 ng/g, respectively; thus males were 43% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios did not significantly differ between the sexes, suggesting that diet composition and habitat utilization did not vary between the sexes. Based on PCB determinations in the somatic tissue and ovaries, we predicted that PCB concentration of females would increase by 0.6%, on average, immediately after spawning due to release of eggs. Thus, the change in PCB concentration due to release of eggs did not explain the higher PCB concentrations observed in males. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the growth dilution effect could account for males being 19% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Thus, the bulk of the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes was not explained by growth dilution. We concluded that a higher rate of energy expenditure in males, stemming from greater activity and a greater resting metabolic rate, was most likely the primary driver for the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes.

  7. Earbud-Based Sensor for the Assessment of Energy Expenditure, Heart Rate, and VO2max

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBoeuf, Steven F.; Aumer, Michael E.; Kraus, William E.; Johnson, Johanna L.; Duscha, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Introduction/Purpose The goal of this program was to determine the feasibility of a novel noninvasive, highly miniaturized optomechanical earbud sensor for accurately estimating total energy expenditure (TEE) and maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max). The optomechanical sensor module, small enough to fit inside commercial audio earbuds, was previously developed to provide a seamless way to measure blood flow information during daily life activities. The sensor module was configured to continuously measure physiological information via photoplethysmography (PPG) and physical activity information via accelerometry. This information was digitized and sent to a microprocessor where digital signal processing (DSP) algorithms extract physiological metrics in real-time. These metrics were streamed wirelessly from the earbud to a computer. Methods In this study, 23 subjects of multiple physical habitus were divided into a training group of 14 subjects and a validation group of 9 subjects. Each subject underwent the same exercise measurement protocol consisting of treadmill-based cardiopulmonary exercise (CPX) testing to reach VO2max. Benchmark sensors included a 12-lead electrocardiography (ECG) sensor for measuring heart rate, a calibrated treadmill for measuring distance and speed, and a gas-exchange analysis instrument for measuring TEE and VO2max. The earbud sensor was the device under test (DUT). Benchmark and DUT data collected from the 14-person training dataset study were integrated into a preconceived statistical model for correlating benchmark data with earbud sensor data. Coefficients were optimized, and the optimized model was validated in the 9-person validation dataset. Results It was observed that the earbud sensor estimated TEE and VO2max with mean ± SD percent estimation errors of −0.7 ± 7.4% and −3.2 ± 7.3% respectively. Conclusion The earbud sensor can accurately estimate TEE and VO2max during CPX testing. PMID:24743110

  8. Earbud-based sensor for the assessment of energy expenditure, HR, and VO2max.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leboeuf, Steven Francis; Aumer, Michael E; Kraus, William E; Johnson, Johanna L; Duscha, Brian

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this program was to determine the feasibility of a novel noninvasive, highly miniaturized optomechanical earbud sensor for accurately estimating total energy expenditure (TEE) and maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max). The optomechanical sensor module, small enough to fit inside commercial audio earbuds, was previously developed to provide a seamless way to measure blood flow information during daily life activities. The sensor module was configured to continuously measure physiological information via photoplethysmography and physical activity information via accelerometry. This information was digitized and sent to a microprocessor where digital signal-processing algorithms extract physiological metrics in real time. These metrics were streamed wirelessly from the earbud to a computer. In this study, 23 subjects of multiple physical habitus were divided into a training group of 14 subjects and a validation group of 9 subjects. Each subject underwent the same exercise measurement protocol consisting of treadmill-based cardiopulmonary exercise testing to reach VO2max. Benchmark sensors included a 12-lead ECG sensor for measuring HR, a calibrated treadmill for measuring distance and speed, and a gas-exchange analysis instrument for measuring TEE and VO2max. The earbud sensor was the device under test. Benchmark and device under test data collected from the 14-person training data set study were integrated into a preconceived statistical model for correlating benchmark data with earbud sensor data. Coefficients were optimized, and the optimized model was validated in the 9-person validation data set. It was observed that the earbud sensor estimated TEE and VO2max with mean ± SD percent estimation errors of -0.7 ± 7.4% and -3.2 ± 7.3%, respectively. The earbud sensor can accurately estimate TEE and VO2max during cardiopulmonary exercise testing.

  9. A Comparison of Energy Expenditure During "Wii Boxing" Versus Heavy Bag Boxing in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perusek, Kristen; Sparks, Kenneth; Little, Kathleen; Motley, Mary; Patterson, Sheila; Wieand, Jennifer

    2014-02-01

    Traditional computer videogames are sedentary, whereas new computer videogames, such as the Nintendo(®) (Redmond, WA) "Wii™ Sports" games, allow users to physically interact while playing the sport. Energy expenditure (EE), heart rate (HR), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) during heavy bag boxing versus the Nintendo "Wii Boxing" game were compared. Fifteen males and 14 females (mean age, 25.6 years; height, 171.3 cm; weight, 71.8 kg) randomly selected (by a coin toss) heavy bag boxing or "Wii Boxing" for their first test session and completed the other protocol at their second session at least 2 days later. Each session lasted for a total duration of 30 minutes and consisted of 10 3-minute exercise bouts with measurements of HR, RPE, and EE obtained from indirect calorimetry. A paired-samples t test was used to analyze the results. Significant differences were found for HR (bag, 156 beats per minute; Wii, 138 beats per minute; P=0.001) and RPE (bag, 13.8; Wii, 11.4; P=0.0001) but not for EE (bag, 8.0 kcal/minute; Wii, 7.1 kcal/minute; bag, 241 total kcal; Wii, 213 total kcal; P=0.078). The results suggest that computer active videogames, such as the Nintendo Wii, have the potential to provide similar EE as their traditional forms of exercise and may be a sufficient replacement for traditional target HR zone activities, especially in less fit individuals. Further research is needed to compare EE for different "Wii Sports" games with those for their traditional forms of exercise.

  10. Differences in Energy Expenditures and Growth Dilution Explain Higher PCB Concentrations in Male Summer Flounder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P; Jensen, Olaf P; Rediske, Richard R; O'Keefe, James P; Vastano, Anthony R; Pothoven, Steven A

    2016-01-01

    Comparison of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations between the sexes of mature fish may reveal important behavioral and physiological differences between the sexes. We determined whole-fish PCB concentrations in 23 female summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus and 27 male summer flounder from New Jersey coastal waters. To investigate the potential for differences in diet or habitat utilization between the sexes, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios were also determined. In 5 of the 23 female summer flounder, PCB concentrations in the somatic tissue and ovaries were determined. In addition, we used bioenergetics modeling to assess the contribution of the growth dilution effect to the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. Whole-fish PCB concentrations for females and males averaged 87 and 124 ng/g, respectively; thus males were 43% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios did not significantly differ between the sexes, suggesting that diet composition and habitat utilization did not vary between the sexes. Based on PCB determinations in the somatic tissue and ovaries, we predicted that PCB concentration of females would increase by 0.6%, on average, immediately after spawning due to release of eggs. Thus, the change in PCB concentration due to release of eggs did not explain the higher PCB concentrations observed in males. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the growth dilution effect could account for males being 19% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Thus, the bulk of the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes was not explained by growth dilution. We concluded that a higher rate of energy expenditure in males, stemming from greater activity and a greater resting metabolic rate, was most likely the primary driver for the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes.

  11. Greater than predicted decrease in resting energy expenditure with age: cross-sectional and longitudinal evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonzo-González, G; Doucet, E; Bouchard, C; Tremblay, A

    2006-01-01

    To determine whether the age-related decrease in resting energy expenditure (REE) is explained by variations in body composition. In Study 1, adult subjects (20-70 years) from the Quebec Family Study were classified into five different age groups. Body composition was measured by hydrodensitometry to determine fat mass and fat-free mass as predictors of REE. In the youngest group of individuals these predictors were used to plot a reference regression that was then used to predict REE in the other age groups. In Study 2, this issue was investigated in a longitudinal design (6-year follow-up). Subjects were subdivided into three groups and a reference regression was plotted at the beginning of the follow-up and was then used to predict REE 6 years later in the three age groups. In Study 1, 627 adults (288 men and 339 women), aged between 20 and 70 years. In Study 2, 191 adults (93 men and 98 women). In Study 1, measured REE was 329, 302, 528 and 636 kJ/day (P < 0.0001) below predicted REE at 34, 44, 54 and 64 years, respectively. In Study 2 the most marked deviation from predicted REE in response to the 6-year follow-up in men was observed in young adults (-548 kJ/day, P < 0.001) while in women, the largest deviation occurred later in life (-720 kj/day, P < 0.001). Aging is accompanied by a decrease in REE that is significantly greater than what is predicted by variations in body composition. This decrease may reach a mean level of about 500-800 kj/day.

  12. Greater than predicted decrease in energy expenditure during exercise after body weight loss in obese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucet, Eric; Imbeault, Pascal; St-Pierre, Sylvie; Alméras, Natalie; Mauriège, Pascale; Després, Jean-Pierre; Bouchard, Claude; Tremblay, Angelo

    2003-07-01

    This study was performed retrospectively to investigate whether exercise energy expenditure (EE) measured during a standardized treadmill protocol (4.5 km/h at 0% grade) falls below predicted values after body weight loss in obese men. A reference equation was established to predict net exercise EE in a control sample of 83 obese individuals (27 kg/m(2)hydrodensitometry. Net exercise EE, insulin, leptin, 3,3',5-tri-iodothyronine and free thyroxine were measured after an overnight fast at baseline and 2-4 weeks after the end of the programme, when subjects were weight stable. Body weight was significantly reduced (-11%; P <0.01) at the end of the weight loss programme. At baseline, measured net exercise EE was similar to that predicted from the regression equation [19.6 and 19.8 kJ/min (4.69 and 4.74 kcal/min) respectively; not significant]. However, after the end of the intervention, measured net exercise EE was significantly below the predicted value [15.5 and 17.3 kJ/min (3.71 and 4.14 kcal/min) respectively; P <0.01]. The difference between the predicted and the measured fall in net exercise EE was significantly associated with changes in leptin concentration ( r =0.79, P <0.01), even after correction for changes in fat mass and insulin. These observations suggest that net exercise EE falls below predicted values after body weight loss. In addition, this greater than predicted decrease in net exercise EE was associated with changes in leptin.

  13. Validity and reliability of Nike + Fuelband for estimating physical activity energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Wesley J; Bhammar, Dharini M; Sawyer, Brandon J; Buman, Matthew P; Gaesser, Glenn A

    2015-01-01

    The Nike + Fuelband is a commercially available, wrist-worn accelerometer used to track physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) during exercise. However, validation studies assessing the accuracy of this device for estimating PAEE are lacking. Therefore, this study examined the validity and reliability of the Nike + Fuelband for estimating PAEE during physical activity in young adults. Secondarily, we compared PAEE estimation of the Nike + Fuelband with the previously validated SenseWear Armband (SWA). Twenty-four participants (n = 24) completed two, 60-min semi-structured routines consisting of sedentary/light-intensity, moderate-intensity, and vigorous-intensity physical activity. Participants wore a Nike + Fuelband and SWA, while oxygen uptake was measured continuously with an Oxycon Mobile (OM) metabolic measurement system (criterion). The Nike + Fuelband (ICC = 0.77) and SWA (ICC = 0.61) both demonstrated moderate to good validity. PAEE estimates provided by the Nike + Fuelband (246 ± 67 kcal) and SWA (238 ± 57 kcal) were not statistically different than OM (243 ± 67 kcal). Both devices also displayed similar mean absolute percent errors for PAEE estimates (Nike + Fuelband = 16 ± 13 %; SWA = 18 ± 18 %). Test-retest reliability for PAEE indicated good stability for Nike + Fuelband (ICC = 0.96) and SWA (ICC = 0.90). The Nike + Fuelband provided valid and reliable estimates of PAEE, that are similar to the previously validated SWA, during a routine that included approximately equal amounts of sedentary/light-, moderate- and vigorous-intensity physical activity.

  14. Approximate time to steady state resting energy expenditure using indirect calorimetry in young, healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collin Popp

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Indirect calorimetry (IC measurements to estimate resting energy expenditure (REE necessitate a stable measurement period, or steady state (SS. There is limited evidence when assessing the time to reach SS in young, healthy adults. The aims of this prospective study are to determine the approximate time to necessary reach SS using open-circuit IC and to establish the appropriate duration of SS needed to estimate REE. One hundred young, healthy participants (54 males and 46 females; age = 20.6 ± 2.1 years; body weight = 73.6 ± 16.3 kg; height 172.5 ± 9.3 cm; BMI = 24.5 ± 3.8 kg/m2 completed IC measurement for approximately 30-minutes while the volume of oxygen (VO2 and volume of carbon dioxide (VCO2 were collected. SS was defined by variations in the VO2 and VCO2 of ≤10% coefficient of variation (%CV over a period of 5- consecutive minutes. The 30-minute IC measurement was divided into six 5-minute segments, S1, S2, S3, S4, S5 and S6. The results show that SS was achieved during S2 (%CV = 6.81 ± 3.2%, and the %CV continued to met the SS criteria for the duration of the IC measurement (S3= 8.07 ± 4.4%; S4 = 7.93 ± 3.7%; S5 = 7.75 ± 4.1%; S6 = 8.60 ± 4.6%. The current study found that in a population of young, healthy adults the duration of the IC measurement period could be a minimum of 10 minutes. The first 5-minute segment was discarded, while SS occurred by the second 5-minute segment.

  15. Neural network versus activity-specific prediction equations for energy expenditure estimation in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruch, Nicole; Joss, Franziska; Jimmy, Gerda; Melzer, Katarina; Hänggi, Johanna; Mäder, Urs

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the energy expenditure (EE) estimations of activity-specific prediction equations (ASPE) and of an artificial neural network (ANNEE) based on accelerometry with measured EE. Forty-three children (age: 9.8 ± 2.4 yr) performed eight different activities. They were equipped with one tri-axial accelerometer that collected data in 1-s epochs and a portable gas analyzer. The ASPE and the ANNEE were trained to estimate the EE by including accelerometry, age, gender, and weight of the participants. To provide the activity-specific information, a decision tree was trained to recognize the type of activity through accelerometer data. The ASPE were applied to the activity-type-specific data recognized by the tree (Tree-ASPE). The Tree-ASPE precisely estimated the EE of all activities except cycling [bias: -1.13 ± 1.33 metabolic equivalent (MET)] and walking (bias: 0.29 ± 0.64 MET; P MET) and walking (bias: 0.61 ± 0.72 MET) and underestimated the EE of cycling (bias: -0.90 ± 1.18 MET; P MET, Tree-ASPE: 0.08 ± 0.21 MET) and walking (ANNEE 0.61 ± 0.72 MET, Tree-ASPE: 0.29 ± 0.64 MET) were significantly smaller in the Tree-ASPE than in the ANNEE (P < 0.05). The Tree-ASPE was more precise in estimating the EE than the ANNEE. The use of activity-type-specific information for subsequent EE prediction equations might be a promising approach for future studies.

  16. A comprehensive evaluation of commonly used accelerometer energy expenditure and MET prediction equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyden, Kate; Kozey, Sarah L; Staudenmeyer, John W; Freedson, Patty S

    2011-02-01

    Numerous accelerometers and prediction methods are used to estimate energy expenditure (EE). Validation studies have been limited to small sample sizes in which participants complete a narrow range of activities and typically validate only one or two prediction models for one particular accelerometer. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity of nine published and two proprietary EE prediction equations for three different accelerometers. Two hundred and seventy-seven participants completed an average of six treadmill (TRD) (1.34, 1.56, 2.23 ms(-1) each at 0 and 3% grade) and five self-paced activities of daily living (ADLs). EE estimates were compared with indirect calorimetry. Accelerometers were worn while EE was measured using a portable metabolic unit. To estimate EE, 4 ActiGraph prediction models were used, 5 Actical models, and 2 RT3 proprietary models. Across all activities, each equation underestimated EE (bias -0.1 to -1.4 METs and -0.5 to -1.3 kcal, respectively). For ADLs EE was underestimated by all prediction models (bias -0.2 to -2.0 and -0.2 to -2.8, respectively), while TRD activities were underestimated by seven equations, and overestimated by four equations (bias -0.8 to 0.2 METs and -0.4 to 0.5 kcal, respectively). Misclassification rates ranged from 21.7 (95% CI 20.4, 24.2%) to 34.3% (95% CI 32.3, 36.3%), with vigorous intensity activities being most often misclassified. Prediction equations did not yield accurate point estimates of EE across a broad range of activities nor were they accurate at classifying activities across a range of intensities (light METs, moderate 3-5.99 METs, vigorous ≥ 6 METs). Current prediction techniques have many limitations when translating accelerometer counts to EE.

  17. Energy Expenditure in Playground Games in Primary School Children Measured by Accelerometer and Heart Rate Monitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Prieto, Jorge Cañete; Martinez-Vizcaino, Vicente; García-Hermoso, Antonio; Sánchez-López, Mairena; Arias-Palencia, Natalia; Fonseca, Juan Fernando Ortega; Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo

    2017-04-07

    The aim of this study was to examine the energy expenditure (EE) measured using indirect calorimetry (IC) during playground games and to assess the validity of heart rate (HR) and accelerometry counts as indirect indicators of EE in children´s physical activity games. 32 primary school children (9.9 ± 0.6 years old, 19.8 ± 4.9 kg · m(-2) BMI and 37.6 ± 7.2 mL · kg(-1) · min(-1) VO2max). Indirect calorimetry (IC), accelerometry and HR data were simultaneously collected for each child during a 90 min session of 30 playground games. Thirty-eight sessions were recorded in 32 different children. Each game was recorded at least in three occasions in other three children. The inter-subject coefficient of variation within a game was 27% for IC, 37% for accelerometry and 13% for HR. The overall mean EE in the games was 4.2 ± 1.4 kcals · min(-1) per game, totaling to 375 ± 122 kcals/per 90 min/session. The correlation coefficient between indirect calorimetry and accelerometer counts was 0.48 (p=0.026) for endurance games and 0.21 (p=0.574) for strength games. The correlation coefficient between indirect calorimetry and HR was 0.71 (p=0.032) for endurance games and 0.48 (p=0.026) for strength games. Our data indicate that both accelerometer and HR monitors are useful devices for estimating EE during endurance games, but only HR monitors estimates are accurate for endurance games.

  18. Measuring energy expenditure in sub-adult and hatchling sea turtles via accelerometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsey, Lewis G; Jones, T Todd; Jones, David R; Liebsch, Nikolai; Booth, David T

    2011-01-01

    Measuring the metabolic of sea turtles is fundamental to understanding their ecology yet the presently available methods are limited. Accelerometry is a relatively new technique for estimating metabolic rate that has shown promise with a number of species but its utility with air-breathing divers is not yet established. The present study undertakes laboratory experiments to investigate whether rate of oxygen uptake (VO2) at the surface in active sub-adult green turtles Chelonia mydas and hatchling loggerhead turtles Caretta caretta correlates with overall dynamic body acceleration (ODBA), a derivative of acceleration used as a proxy for metabolic rate. Six green turtles (25-44 kg) and two loggerhead turtles (20 g) were instrumented with tri-axial acceleration logging devices and placed singly into a respirometry chamber. The green turtles were able to submerge freely within a 1.5 m deep tank and the loggerhead turtles were tethered in water 16 cm deep so that they swam at the surface. A significant prediction equation for mean VO2 over an hour in a green turtle from measures of ODBA and mean flipper length (R(2) = 0.56) returned a mean estimate error across turtles of 8.0%. The range of temperatures used in the green turtle experiments (22-30 °C) had only a small effect on Vo₂. A VO2-ODBA equation for the loggerhead hatchling data was also significant (R(2) = 0.67). Together these data indicate the potential of the accelerometry technique for estimating energy expenditure in sea turtles, which may have important applications in sea turtle diving ecology, and also in conservation such as assessing turtle survival times when trapped underwater in fishing nets.

  19. Estimating energy expenditure using heat flux measured at a single body site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyden, Kate; Swibas, Tracy; Catenacci, Victoria; Guo, Ruixin; Szuminsky, Neil; Melanson, Edward L

    2014-11-01

    The Personal Calorie Monitor (PCM) is a portable direct calorimeter that estimates energy expenditure (EE) from measured heat flux (i.e., the sum of conductive, convective, radiative, and evaporative heat). The primary aim of this study was to compare EE estimated from measures of heat flux with those measured using indirect calorimetry in a thermoneutral environment (26°C). A secondary aim was to determine whether exposure to ambient temperature below thermoneutral condition (19°C) influences the accuracy of the PCM. Thirty-four adults (mean ± SD: age, 28 ± 5 yr; body mass index, 22.9 ± 2.6 kg · m(-2)) were studied for 5 h in a whole-room indirect calorimeter (IC) in thermoneutral and cool conditions. Participants wore the PCM on their upper arm and completed two 20-min treadmill walking bouts (0% grade, 3 mph). The remaining time was spent sedentary (e.g., watching television, using a computer). In thermoneutral conditions, EE values (mean (95% confidence interval)) measured by IC and PCM were 560.0 (526.5-593.5) and 623.3 (535.5-711.1) kcal, respectively. In cool conditions, EE values measured by IC and PCM were 572.5 (540.9-604.0) and 745.5 (668.1-822.8) kcal, respectively. Under thermoneutral conditions, mean PCM minute-by-minute EE tracked closely with IC, resulting in a small nonsignificant bias (63 kcal (-5.8 to 132.4)). During cool conditions, mean PCM minute-by-minute EE did not track IC, resulting in a large bias (173.0 kcal (93.9-252.1)) (P <; 0.001). This study demonstrated the validity of using measured heat flux to estimate EE. However, accuracy may be impaired in cool conditions possibly because of excess heat loss from the exposed limbs.

  20. Total daily energy expenditure is increased following a single bout of sprint interval training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevits, Kyle J; Melanson, Edward L; Swibas, Tracy; Binns, Scott E; Klochak, Anna L; Lonac, Mark C; Peltonen, Garrett L; Scalzo, Rebecca L; Schweder, Melani M; Smith, Amy M; Wood, Lacey M; Melby, Christopher L; Bell, Christopher

    2013-10-01

    REGULAR ENDURANCE EXERCISE IS AN EFFECTIVE STRATEGY FOR HEALTHY WEIGHT MAINTENANCE, MEDIATED VIA INCREASED TOTAL DAILY ENERGY EXPENDITURE (TDEE), AND POSSIBLY AN INCREASE IN RESTING METABOLIC RATE (RMR: the single largest component of TDEE). Sprint interval training (SIT) is a low-volume alternative to endurance exercise; however, the utility of SIT for healthy weight maintenance is less clear. In this regard, it is feasible that SIT may evoke a thermogenic response above and beyond the estimates required for prevention of weight gain (i.e., >200-600 kJ). The purpose of these studies was to investigate the hypotheses that a single bout of SIT would increase RMR and/or TDEE. Study 1: RMR (ventilated hood) was determined on four separate occasions in 15 healthy men. Measurements were performed over two pairs of consecutive mornings; each pair was separated by 7 days. Immediately following either the first or third RMR measurement (randomly assigned) subjects completed a single bout of SIT (cycle ergometer exercise). RMR was unaffected by a single bout of SIT (7195 ± 285 kJ/day vs. 7147 ± 222, 7149 ± 246 and 6987 ± 245 kJ/day (mean ± SE); P = 0.12). Study 2: TDEE (whole-room calorimeter) was measured in 12 healthy men, on two consecutive days, one of which began with a single bout of SIT (random order). Sprint exercise increased TDEE in every research participant (9169 ± 243 vs. 10,111 ± 260 kJ/day; P < 0.0001); the magnitude of increase was 946 ± 62 kJ/day (∼10%). These data provide support for SIT as a strategy for increasing TDEE, and may have implications for healthy body weight maintenance.

  1. Effects of exercise training on resting energy expenditure and lean mass during pediatric burn rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mousawi, Ahmed M; Williams, Felicia N; Mlcak, Ronald P; Jeschke, Marc G; Herndon, David N; Suman, Oscar E

    2010-01-01

    Severe burns cause profound hormonal and metabolic disturbances resulting in hypermetabolism, reflected in extreme elevation of resting energy expenditure (REE) and extensive skeletal muscle catabolism. Aerobic and resistive exercise programs during rehabilitation have shown substantial benefits, although whether such training potentially exacerbates basal metabolism is unknown. Therefore, the effects of exercise training on REE during the rehabilitation of severely burned pediatric patients were examined. Children with 40% total body surface area burns and greater were enrolled at admission to the burn intensive care unit to participate in a 12-week, hospital-based exercise program (EX) or a home-based standard of care program (SOC), commencing 6 months after injury. Twenty-one patients (aged 7-17 years) were enrolled and randomized to SOC (n = 10) or EX (n = 11). Age, sex, and total body surface area burned were similar. Mean change (+/-standard deviation) in REE, normalized to individual lean body mass, was almost negligible between SOC and EX group patients (SOC, 0.03 +/- 17.40% vs EX, 0.01 +/- 26.38%). A significant increase in lean body mass was found for EX patients (SOC, 2.06 +/- 3.17% vs EX, 8.75 +/- 5.65%; P = .004), which persisted when normalized to height (SOC, 0.70 +/- 2.39% vs EX, 6.14 +/- 6.46%; P = .02). Peak torque also improved significantly more in EX patients (SOC, 12.29 +/- 16.49% vs EX, 54.31 +/- 44.25%; P = .02), reflecting improved strength. Exercise training significantly enhanced lean mass and strength, without observed exacerbation of postburn hypermetabolism. Therefore, the use of exercise conditioning as a safe and effective component of pediatric burn rehabilitation is advocated.

  2. Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Surgery Increases Respiratory Quotient and Energy Expenditure during Food Intake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malin Werling

    Full Text Available The mechanisms determining long-term weight maintenance after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB remain unclear. Cross sectional studies have suggested that enhanced energy expenditure (EE may play a significant role and the aim of this study was to reveal the impact of RYGB on each major component constituting total EE.Six obese female subjects, without other co-morbidities, were assessed before and at 10 days, 3 and 20 months after RYGB. Indirect calorimetry in a metabolic chamber was used to assess 24 h EE at each study visit. Other measurements included body composition by DEXA, gut hormone profiles and physical activity (PA using high sensitivity accelerometers.Median Body Mass Index decreased from 41.1 (range 39.1-44.8 at baseline to 28 kg/m2 (range 22.3-30.3 after 20 months (p<0.05. Lean tissue decreased from 55.9 (range 47.5-59.3 to 49.5 (range 41.1-54.9 kg and adipose tissue from 61 (range 56-64.6 to 27 (range 12-34.3 kg (both p<0.05. PA over 24 h did not change after surgery whereas 24 h EE and basal metabolic rate (BMR decreased. EE after a standard meal increased after surgery when adjusted for total tissue (p<0.05. After an initial drop, RQ (respiratory quotient had increased at 20 months, both as measured during 24 h and after food intake (p<0.05.RYGB surgery up-regulates RQ and EE after food intake resulting in an increased contribution to total EE over 24 h when corrected for total tissue.

  3. Differences in energy expenditures and growth dilution explain higher PCB concentrations in male summer flounder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Jensen, Olaf P.; Rediske, Richard R.; O'Keefe, James P.; Vastano, Anthony R.; Pothoven, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    Comparison of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations between the sexes of mature fish may reveal important behavioral and physiological differences between the sexes. We determined whole-fish PCB concentrations in 23 female summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus and 27 male summer flounder from New Jersey coastal waters. To investigate the potential for differences in diet or habitat utilization between the sexes, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios were also determined. In 5 of the 23 female summer flounder, PCB concentrations in the somatic tissue and ovaries were determined. In addition, we used bioenergetics modeling to assess the contribution of the growth dilution effect to the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. Whole-fish PCB concentrations for females and males averaged 87 and 124 ng/g, respectively; thus males were 43% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios did not significantly differ between the sexes, suggesting that diet composition and habitat utilization did not vary between the sexes. Based on PCB determinations in the somatic tissue and ovaries, we predicted that PCB concentration of females would increase by 0.6%, on average, immediately after spawning due to release of eggs. Thus, the change in PCB concentration due to release of eggs did not explain the higher PCB concentrations observed in males. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the growth dilution effect could account for males being 19% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Thus, the bulk of the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes was not explained by growth dilution. We concluded that a higher rate of energy expenditure in males, stemming from greater activity and a greater resting metabolic rate, was most likely the primary driver for the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes.

  4. Energy Expenditures for Activities of Daily Living in Korean Young Adults: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the energy expenditure (EE) of Korean young adults based on activities refined to a deskbound lifestyle. Methods Sixty-four healthy office workers aged between 25 and 46 years participated in this study. EE was expressed as metabolic equivalent of task (MET). Participants were evaluated in terms of their EE during physical activities of sleeping (n=22), typing (n=37), folding laundry (n=34), dishwashing (n=32), studying (n=18), mopping (n=35), walking (n=33), stair climbing (n=23), and running (n=29). Volume of oxygen consumption was measured by indirect calorimetry K4b2 (COSMED). The results were compared to the established Compendium MET. Results The MET of activities were: sleeping, 1.24±0.43; typing, 1.35±0.25; folding laundry, 1.58±0.51; dishwashing, 2.20±0.51; studying, 2.11±0.90; mopping, 2.72±0.69; walking at 4 km/hr, 3.48±0.65; stair climbing of five stories, 6.18±1.08; and running at 8 km/hr, 7.57±0.57. The values of typing and mopping were similar to those in the Compendium, whereas those of sleeping, folding laundry, dishwashing, studying, walking, stair climbing and running were different. Conclusion To our knowledge, this estimation of EE in MET during activities of daily living is the first data of young adults in Korea. These data could be used as a reference to modify the guidelines of physical activities for the age group examined in this study. PMID:27606280

  5. Regression-based prediction of net energy expenditure in children performing activities at high altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarton-Miller, Isabelle; Holman, Darryl J; Spielvogel, Hilde

    2003-01-01

    We developed a simple, non-invasive, and affordable method for estimating net energy expenditure (EE) in children performing activities at high altitude. A regression-based method predicts net oxygen consumption (VO(2)) from net heart rate (HR) along with several covariates. The method is atypical in that, the "net" measures are taken as the difference between exercise and resting VO(2) (DeltaVO(2)) and the difference between exercise and resting HR (DeltaHR); DeltaVO(2) partially corrects for resting metabolic rate and for posture, and DeltaHR controls for inter-individual variation in physiology and for posture. Twenty children between 8 and 13 years of age, born and raised in La Paz, Bolivia (altitude 3,600m), made up the reference sample. Anthropometric measures were taken, and VO(2) was assessed while the children performed graded exercise tests on a cycle ergometer. A repeated-measures prediction equation was developed, and maximum likelihood estimates of parameters were found from 75 observations on 20 children. The final model included the variables DeltaHR, DeltaHR(2), weight, and sex. The effectiveness of the method was established using leave-one-out cross-validation, yielding a prediction error rate of 0.126 for a mean DeltaVO(2) of 0.693 (SD 0.315). The correlation between the predicted and measured DeltaVO(2) was r = 0.917, suggesting that a useful prediction equation can be produced using paired VO(2) and HR measurements on a relatively small reference sample. The resulting prediction equation can be used for estimating EE from HR in free-living children performing habitual activities in the Bolivian Andes.

  6. Measuring energy expenditure in sub-adult and hatchling sea turtles via accelerometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewis G Halsey

    Full Text Available Measuring the metabolic of sea turtles is fundamental to understanding their ecology yet the presently available methods are limited. Accelerometry is a relatively new technique for estimating metabolic rate that has shown promise with a number of species but its utility with air-breathing divers is not yet established. The present study undertakes laboratory experiments to investigate whether rate of oxygen uptake (VO2 at the surface in active sub-adult green turtles Chelonia mydas and hatchling loggerhead turtles Caretta caretta correlates with overall dynamic body acceleration (ODBA, a derivative of acceleration used as a proxy for metabolic rate. Six green turtles (25-44 kg and two loggerhead turtles (20 g were instrumented with tri-axial acceleration logging devices and placed singly into a respirometry chamber. The green turtles were able to submerge freely within a 1.5 m deep tank and the loggerhead turtles were tethered in water 16 cm deep so that they swam at the surface. A significant prediction equation for mean VO2 over an hour in a green turtle from measures of ODBA and mean flipper length (R(2 = 0.56 returned a mean estimate error across turtles of 8.0%. The range of temperatures used in the green turtle experiments (22-30 °C had only a small effect on Vo₂. A VO2-ODBA equation for the loggerhead hatchling data was also significant (R(2 = 0.67. Together these data indicate the potential of the accelerometry technique for estimating energy expenditure in sea turtles, which may have important applications in sea turtle diving ecology, and also in conservation such as assessing turtle survival times when trapped underwater in fishing nets.

  7. Physical Activity, Energy Expenditure, and Defense of Body Weight in Melanocortin 4 Receptor-Deficient Male Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almundarij, Tariq I; Smyers, Mark E; Spriggs, Addison; Heemstra, Lydia A; Beltz, Lisa; Dyne, Eric; Ridenour, Caitlyn; Novak, Colleen M

    2016-11-25

    Melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) variants contribute to human obesity, and rats lacking functional MC4R (Mc4r(K314X/K314X)) are obese. We investigated the hypothesis that low energy expenditure (EE) and physical activity contribute to this obese phenotype in male rats, and determined whether lack of functional MC4R conferred protection from weight loss during 50% calorie restriction. Though Mc4r(K314X/K314X) rats showed low brown adipose Ucp1 expression and were less physically active than rats heterozygous for the mutation (Mc4r(+/K314X)) or wild-type (Mc4r(+/+)) rats, we found no evidence of lowered EE in Mc4r(K314X/K314X) rats once body weight was taken into account using covariance. Mc4r(K314X/K314X) rats had a significantly higher respiratory exchange ratio. Compared to Mc4r(+/+) rats, Mc4r(K314X/K314X) and Mc4r(+/K314X) rats lost less lean mass during calorie restriction, and less body mass when baseline weight was accounted for. Limited regional overexpression of Mc3r was found in the hypothalamus. Although lower physical activity levels in rats with nonfunctional MC4R did not result in lower total EE during free-fed conditions, rats lacking one or two functional copies of Mc4r showed conservation of mass, particularly lean mass, during energy restriction. This suggests that variants affecting MC4R function may contribute to individual differences in the metabolic response to food restriction.

  8. Grains of paradise (Aframomum melegueta) extract activates brown adipose tissue and increases whole-body energy expenditure in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugita, Jun; Yoneshiro, Takeshi; Hatano, Takuya; Aita, Sayuri; Ikemoto, Takeshi; Uchiwa, Hideyo; Iwanaga, Toshihiko; Kameya, Toshimitsu; Kawai, Yuko; Saito, Masayuki

    2013-08-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is responsible for cold- and diet-induced thermogenesis, and thereby contributes to the control of whole-body energy expenditure (EE) and body fat content. BAT activity can be assessed by fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET) in human subjects. Grains of paradise (GP, Aframomum melegueta), a species of the ginger family, contain pungent, aromatic ketones such as 6-paradol, 6-gingerol and 6-shogaol. An alcohol extract of GP seeds and 6-paradol are known to activate BAT thermogenesis in small rodents. The present study aimed to examine the effects of the GP extract on whole-body EE and to analyse its relation to BAT activity in men. A total of nineteen healthy male volunteers aged 20-32 years underwent FDG-PET after 2 h of exposure to cold at 19°C with light clothing. A total of twelve subjects showed marked FDG uptake into the adipose tissue of the supraclavicular and paraspinal regions (BAT positive). The remaining seven showed no detectable uptake (BAT negative). Within 4 weeks after the FDG-PET examination, whole-body EE was measured at 27°C before and after oral ingestion of GP extract (40 mg) in a single-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, crossover design. The resting EE of the BAT-positive group did not differ from that of the BAT-negative group. After GP extract ingestion, the EE of the BAT-positive group increased within 2 h to a significantly greater (Pwhole-body EE through the activation of BAT in human subjects.

  9. Energy expenditure and body composition changes after an isocaloric ketogenic diet in overweight and obese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Kevin D; Chen, Kong Y; Guo, Juen; Lam, Yan Y; Leibel, Rudolph L; Mayer, Laurel Es; Reitman, Marc L; Rosenbaum, Michael; Smith, Steven R; Walsh, B Timothy; Ravussin, Eric

    2016-08-01

    The carbohydrate-insulin model of obesity posits that habitual consumption of a high-carbohydrate diet sequesters fat within adipose tissue because of hyperinsulinemia and results in adaptive suppression of energy expenditure (EE). Therefore, isocaloric exchange of dietary carbohydrate for fat is predicted to result in increased EE, increased fat oxidation, and loss of body fat. In contrast, a more conventional view that "a calorie is a calorie" predicts that isocaloric variations in dietary carbohydrate and fat will have no physiologically important effects on EE or body fat. We investigated whether an isocaloric low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet (KD) is associated with changes in EE, respiratory quotient (RQ), and body composition. Seventeen overweight or obese men were admitted to metabolic wards, where they consumed a high-carbohydrate baseline diet (BD) for 4 wk followed by 4 wk of an isocaloric KD with clamped protein. Subjects spent 2 consecutive days each week residing in metabolic chambers to measure changes in EE (EEchamber), sleeping EE (SEE), and RQ. Body composition changes were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Average EE during the final 2 wk of the BD and KD periods was measured by doubly labeled water (EEDLW). Subjects lost weight and body fat throughout the study corresponding to an overall negative energy balance of ∼300 kcal/d. Compared with BD, the KD coincided with increased EEchamber (57 ± 13 kcal/d, P = 0.0004) and SEE (89 ± 14 kcal/d, P < 0.0001) and decreased RQ (-0.111 ± 0.003, P < 0.0001). EEDLW increased by 151 ± 63 kcal/d (P = 0.03). Body fat loss slowed during the KD and coincided with increased protein utilization and loss of fat-free mass. The isocaloric KD was not accompanied by increased body fat loss but was associated with relatively small increases in EE that were near the limits of detection with the use of state-of-the-art technology. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01967563. © 2016

  10. Re-interpreting anaerobic metabolism: an argument for the application of both anaerobic glycolysis and excess post-exercise oxygen comsumption (EPOC) as independent sources of energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, C B

    1998-02-01

    Due to current technical difficulties and changing cellular conditions, the measurement of anaerobic and recovery energy expenditure remains elusive. During rest and low-intensity steady-state exercise, indirect calorimetric measurements successfully represent energy expenditure. The same steady-state O2 uptake methods are often used to describe the O2 deficit and excess post-oxygen consumption (EPOC): 1 l O2 = 5 kcal = 20.9 kJ. However, an O2 deficit plus exercise O2 uptake measurement ignores energy expenditure during recovery, and an exercise O2 uptake plus EPOC measurement misrepresents anaerobic energy expenditure. An alternative solution has not yet been proposed. Anaerobic glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration are construed here as a symbiotic union of metabolic pathways, each contributing independently to energy expenditure and heat production. Care must be taken when using O2 uptake alone to quantify energy expenditure because various high-intensity exercise models reveal that O2 uptake can lag behind estimated energy demands or exceed them. The independent bioenergetics behind anaerobic glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration can acknowledge these discrepancies. Anaerobic glycolysis is an additive component to an exercise O2 uptake measurement. Moreover, it is the assumptions behind steady-state O2 uptake that do not permit proper interpretation of energy expenditure during EPOC; 1 l O2 not = 20.9 kJ. Using both the O2 deficit and a modified EPOC for interpretation, rather than one or the other, leads to a better method of quantifying energy expenditure for higher intensity exercise and recovery.

  11. The adaptive metabolic response to exercise-induced weight loss influences both energy expenditure and energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, M; Gibbons, C; Caudwell, P; Hellström, P M; Näslund, E; King, N A; Finlayson, G; Blundell, J E

    2014-05-01

    A decline in resting energy expenditure (REE) beyond that predicted from changes in body composition has been noted following dietary-induced weight loss. However, it is unknown whether a compensatory downregulation in REE also accompanies exercise (EX)-induced weight loss, or whether this adaptive metabolic response influences energy intake (EI). Thirty overweight and obese women (body mass index (BMI)=30.6±3.6 kg/m(2)) completed 12 weeks of supervised aerobic EX. Body composition, metabolism, EI and metabolic-related hormones were measured at baseline, week 6 and post intervention. The metabolic adaptation (MA), that is, difference between predicted and measured REE was also calculated post intervention (MApost), with REE predicted using a regression equation generated in an independent sample of 66 overweight and obese women (BMI=31.0±3.9 kg/m(2)). Although mean predicted and measured REE did not differ post intervention, 43% of participants experienced a greater-than-expected decline in REE (-102.9±77.5 kcal per day). MApost was associated with the change in leptin (r=0.47; P=0.04), and the change in resting fat (r=0.52; P=0.01) and carbohydrate oxidation (r=-0.44; P=0.02). Furthermore, MApost was also associated with the change in EI following EX (r=-0.44; P=0.01). Marked variability existed in the adaptive metabolic response to EX. Importantly, those who experienced a downregulation in REE also experienced an upregulation in EI, indicating that the adaptive metabolic response to EX influences both physiological and behavioural components of energy balance.

  12. Food intake and energy expenditure are increased in high-fat-sensitive but not in high-carbohydrate-sensitive obesity-prone rats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Azzout-Marniche, Dalila; Chaumontet, Catherine; Nadkarni, Nachiket A; Piedcoq, Julien; Fromentin, Gilles; Tomé, Daniel; Even, Patrick C

    2014-01-01

    .... Energy expenditure (EE), respiratory quotient (RQ), caloric intake (CI), and locomotor activity measured during HFD identified no differences in EE and RQ between fat-resistant (FR) and fat-sensitive (FS...

  13. Survey of the Relationship Between Activity Energy Expenditure Metabolic Equivalents and Barrier Factors of Physical Activity in the Elderly in Kashan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadrollahi, Ali; Khalili, Zahra; Pour Nazari, Robab; Mohammadi, Majid; Ahmadi Khatir, Maryam; Mossadegh, Najima

    2016-01-01

    Background Physical activity in the elderly is influenced by aspects of aging that cause personal, mental, environmental, and social changes. Increases in factors that are barriers to activity cause physical energy expenditure to decrease. Objectives The aim of the present study was to survey the relationship between energy expenditure in metabolic equivalent units (MET) and factors that are barriers to physical activity in elderly people in Kashan, Iran Methods This is a descriptive analysis done in 2014. The study population was 400 people above 60 years old in medical facilities in Kashan. Multistage sampling was used in 10 clinics in 5 areas of Kashan. The sample size was varied according to gender and elderly population. Contributors were given questionnaires concerning energy expenditure levels in physical activity and factors that are barriers to being active. Results The average age among the study population was 67.6 ± 6.8 years median, and the interquartile range (IQR) of barriers to physical activity among Kashan’s elderly was (8.75) ± 33. Average energy expenditure was 326.21 ± 364.84 based on metabolic equivalent units (MET). In fact, 340 persons (85%) were practically without any active energy expenditure. The most common barrier was the lack of an appropriate place for doing physical activity; 298 (74%) of the participants cited this barrier. The results show the Spearman rank-order correlation is significant (P = 0.038, r = 0.104) between barriers to physical activity and activity energy expenditure in Kashan’s elderly. Conclusions Decreasing barriers to physical activity among the elderly causes physical activities to increase; therefore, energy expenditure is increased. Decreasing social and environmental problems for the elderly is effective in increasing physical activity and energy expenditure. PMID:28191341

  14. Global IP6K1 deletion enhances temperature modulated energy expenditure which reduces carbohydrate and fat induced weight gain

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Qingzhang; Ghoshal, Sarbani; Tyagi, Richa; Chakraborty, Anutosh

    2017-01-01

    Objective: IP6 kinases (IP6Ks) regulate cell metabolism and survival. Mice with global (IP6K1-KO) or adipocyte-specific (AdKO) deletion of IP6K1 are protected from diet induced obesity (DIO) at ambient (23 °C) temperature. AdKO mice are lean primarily due to increased AMPK mediated thermogenic energy expenditure (EE). Thus, at thermoneutral (30 °C) temperature, high fat diet (HFD)-fed AdKO mice expend energy and gain body weight, similar to control mice. IP6K1 is ubiquitously expressed; thus,...

  15. Hypothalamic over-expression of VGF in the Siberian hamster increases energy expenditure and reduces body weight gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brameld, John M.; Hill, Phil; Cocco, Cristina; Noli, Barbara; Ferri, Gian-Luca; Barrett, Perry; Ebling, Francis J. P.; Jethwa, Preeti H.

    2017-01-01

    VGF (non-acronymic) was first highlighted to have a role in energy homeostasis through experiments involving dietary manipulation in mice. Fasting increased VGF mRNA in the Arc and levels were subsequently reduced upon refeeding. This anabolic role for VGF was supported by observations in a VGF null (VGF-/-) mouse and in the diet-induced and gold-thioglucose obese mice. However, this anabolic role for VGF has not been supported by a number of subsequent studies investigating the physiological effects of VGF-derived peptides. Intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusion of TLQP-21 increased resting energy expenditure and rectal temperature in mice and protected against diet-induced obesity. Similarly, ICV infusion of TLQP-21 into Siberian hamsters significantly reduced body weight, but this was due to a decrease in food intake, with no effect on energy expenditure. Subsequently NERP-2 was shown to increase food intake in rats via the orexin system, suggesting opposing roles for these VGF-derived peptides. Thus to further elucidate the role of hypothalamic VGF in the regulation of energy homeostasis we utilised a recombinant adeno-associated viral vector to over-express VGF in adult male Siberian hamsters, thus avoiding any developmental effects or associated functional compensation. Initially, hypothalamic over-expression of VGF in adult Siberian hamsters produced no effect on metabolic parameters, but by 12 weeks post-infusion hamsters had increased oxygen consumption and a tendency to increased carbon dioxide production; this attenuated body weight gain, reduced interscapular white adipose tissue and resulted in a compensatory increase in food intake. These observed changes in energy expenditure and food intake were associated with an increase in the hypothalamic contents of the VGF-derived peptides AQEE, TLQP and NERP-2. The complex phenotype of the VGF-/- mice is a likely consequence of global ablation of the gene and its derived peptides during development, as well

  16. Effects of Dietary Protein Source and Quantity during Weight Loss on Appetite, Energy Expenditure, and Cardio-Metabolic Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Higher protein meals increase satiety and the thermic effect of feeding (TEF in acute settings, but it is unclear whether these effects remain after a person becomes acclimated to energy restriction or a given protein intake. This study assessed the effects of predominant protein source (omnivorous, beef/pork vs. lacto-ovo vegetarian, soy/legume and quantity (10%, 20%, or 30% of energy from protein on appetite, energy expenditure, and cardio-metabolic indices during energy restriction (ER in overweight and obese adults. Subjects were randomly assigned to one protein source and then consumed diets with different quantities of protein (4 weeks each in a randomized crossover manner. Perceived appetite ratings (free-living and in-lab, TEF, and fasting cardio-metabolic indices were assessed at the end of each 4-week period. Protein source and quantity did not affect TEF, hunger, or desire to eat, other than a modestly higher daily composite fullness rating with 30% vs. 10% protein diet (p = 0.03. While the 20% and 30% protein diets reduced cholesterol, triacylglycerol, and APO-B vs. 10% protein (p < 0.05, protein source did not affect cardio-metabolic indices. In conclusion, diets varying in protein quantity with either beef/pork or soy/legume as the predominant source have minimal effects on appetite control, energy expenditure and cardio-metabolic risk factors during ER-induced weight loss.

  17. [Modern medical problems of energy exchange in humans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, K P

    2013-01-01

    In a living organism 72% of energy exchange occur in the visceral organs, which comprise only 5-6% of the total body mass. The remaining energy is spent at the expense of the skin, bones, connective tissues, resting muscles. The level ofenergy expenditure determines the general physiological state of a human organism, serves for the diagnostics of various diseases, in particular, the diseases of endocrine system, the disruptions of thermoregulation, protein, carbohydrate, and lipometabolism, etc. It should be mentioned that in modern textbooks of physiology, pathophysiology, and biology the problem of energy exchange in humans and animals is given inadequate consideration. Traditionally it occupies only 2-2.5% of the content. Meanwhile, new problems of energy exchange have appeared recently, which almost never were advanced earlier. These are,for example, the reasons and mechanisms of high energy expenditure under conditions of metabolism, the significance of the coefficient of efficiency of a human organism in physiology, special processes previously unknown of the organism heat exchange with the environment, physiological and social components of human energy exchange. There is also a problem of a theoretical possibility of life without energy.

  18. Are predictive equations for estimating resting energy expenditure accurate in Asian Indian male weightlifters?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mini Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The accuracy of existing predictive equations to determine the resting energy expenditure (REE of professional weightlifters remains scarcely studied. Our study aimed at assessing the REE of male Asian Indian weightlifters with indirect calorimetry and to compare the measured REE (mREE with published equations. A new equation using potential anthropometric variables to predict REE was also evaluated. Materials and Methods: REE was measured on 30 male professional weightlifters aged between 17 and 28 years using indirect calorimetry and compared with the eight formulas predicted by Harris–Benedicts, Mifflin-St. Jeor, FAO/WHO/UNU, ICMR, Cunninghams, Owen, Katch-McArdle, and Nelson. Pearson correlation coefficient, intraclass correlation coefficient, and multiple linear regression analysis were carried out to study the agreement between the different methods, association with anthropometric variables, and to formulate a new prediction equation for this population. Results: Pearson correlation coefficients between mREE and the anthropometric variables showed positive significance with suprailiac skinfold thickness, lean body mass (LBM, waist circumference, hip circumference, bone mineral mass, and body mass. All eight predictive equations underestimated the REE of the weightlifters when compared with the mREE. The highest mean difference was 636 kcal/day (Owen, 1986 and the lowest difference was 375 kcal/day (Cunninghams, 1980. Multiple linear regression done stepwise showed that LBM was the only significant determinant of REE in this group of sportspersons. A new equation using LBM as the independent variable for calculating REE was computed. REE for weightlifters = −164.065 + 0.039 (LBM (confidence interval −1122.984, 794.854]. This new equation reduced the mean difference with mREE by 2.36 + 369.15 kcal/day (standard error = 67.40. Conclusion: The significant finding of this study was that all the prediction equations

  19. Influence of accelerometer type and placement on physical activity energy expenditure prediction in manual wheelchair users.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Edward Nightingale

    Full Text Available To assess the validity of two accelerometer devices, at two different anatomical locations, for the prediction of physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE in manual wheelchair users (MWUs.Seventeen MWUs (36 ± 10 yrs, 72 ± 11 kg completed ten activities; resting, folding clothes, propulsion on a 1% gradient (3,4,5,6 and 7 km·hr-1 and propulsion at 4km·hr-1 (with an additional 8% body mass, 2% and 3% gradient on a motorised wheelchair treadmill. GT3X+ and GENEActiv accelerometers were worn on the right wrist (W and upper arm (UA. Linear regression analysis was conducted between outputs from each accelerometer and criterion PAEE, measured using indirect calorimetry. Subsequent error statistics were calculated for the derived regression equations for all four device/location combinations, using a leave-one-out cross-validation analysis.Accelerometer outputs at each anatomical location were significantly (p < .01 associated with PAEE (GT3X+-UA; r = 0.68 and GT3X+-W; r = 0.82. GENEActiv-UA; r = 0.87 and GENEActiv-W; r = 0.88. Mean ± SD PAEE estimation errors for all activities combined were 15 ± 45%, 14 ± 50%, 3 ± 25% and 4 ± 26% for GT3X+-UA, GT3X+-W, GENEActiv-UA and GENEActiv-W, respectively. Absolute PAEE estimation errors for devices varied, 19 to 66% for GT3X+-UA, 17 to 122% for GT3X+-W, 15 to 26% for GENEActiv-UA and from 17.0 to 32% for the GENEActiv-W.The results indicate that the GENEActiv device worn on either the upper arm or wrist provides the most valid prediction of PAEE in MWUs. Variation in error statistics between the two devices is a result of inherent differences in internal components, on-board filtering processes and outputs of each device.

  20. Approximate Time to Steady-state Resting Energy Expenditure Using Indirect Calorimetry in Young, Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Collin J; Tisch, Jocelyn J; Sakarcan, Kenan E; Bridges, William C; Jesch, Elliot D

    2016-01-01

    Indirect calorimetry (IC) measurements to estimate resting energy expenditure (REE) necessitate a stable measurement period or steady state (SS). There is limited evidence when assessing the time to reach SS in young, healthy adults. The aims of this prospective study are to determine the approximate time to necessary reach SS using open-circuit IC and to establish the appropriate duration of SS needed to estimate REE. One hundred young, healthy participants (54 males and 46 females; age = 20.6 ± 2.1 years; body weight = 73.6 ± 16.3 kg; height 172.5 ± 9.3 cm; BMI = 24.5 ± 3.8 kg/m(2)) completed IC measurement for approximately 30 min while the volume of oxygen (VO2) and volume of carbon dioxide (VCO2) were collected. SS was defined by variations in the VO2 and VCO2 of ≤10% coefficient of variation (%CV) over a period of five consecutive minutes. The 30-min IC measurement was divided into six 5-min segments, such as S1, S2, S3, S4, S5, and S6. The results show that SS was achieved during S2 (%CV = 6.81 ± 3.2%), and the %CV continued to met the SS criteria for the duration of the IC measurement (S3 = 8.07 ± 4.4%, S4 = 7.93 ± 3.7%, S5 = 7.75 ± 4.1%, and S6 = 8.60 ± 4.6%). The current study found that in a population of young, healthy adults the duration of the IC measurement period could be a minimum of 10 min. The first 5-min segment was discarded, while SS occurred by the second 5-min segment.

  1. Distributed lag and spline modeling for predicting energy expenditure from accelerometry in youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Leena; Chen, Kong Y; Acra, Sari A; Buchowski, Maciej S

    2010-02-01

    Movement sensing using accelerometers is commonly used for the measurement of physical activity (PA) and estimating energy expenditure (EE) under free-living conditions. The major limitation of this approach is lack of accuracy and precision in estimating EE, especially in low-intensity activities. Thus the objective of this study was to investigate benefits of a distributed lag spline (DLS) modeling approach for the prediction of total daily EE (TEE) and EE in sedentary (1.0-1.5 metabolic equivalents; MET), light (1.5-3.0 MET), and moderate/vigorous (> or = 3.0 MET) intensity activities in 10- to 17-year-old youth (n = 76). We also explored feasibility of the DLS modeling approach to predict physical activity EE (PAEE) and METs. Movement was measured by Actigraph accelerometers placed on the hip, wrist, and ankle. With whole-room indirect calorimeter as the reference standard, prediction models (Hip, Wrist, Ankle, Hip+Wrist, Hip+Wrist+Ankle) for TEE, PAEE, and MET were developed and validated using the fivefold cross-validation method. The TEE predictions by these DLS models were not significantly different from the room calorimeter measurements (all P > 0.05). The Hip+Wrist+Ankle predicted TEE better than other models and reduced prediction errors in moderate/vigorous PA for TEE, MET, and PAEE (all P MET at sedentary PA (P = 0.020 and 0.021) compared with the Hip. Models that included Wrist correctly classified time spent at light PA better than other models. The means and standard deviations of the prediction errors for the Hip+Wrist+Ankle and Hip were 0.4 +/- 144.0 and 1.5 +/- 164.7 kcal for the TEE, 0.0 +/- 84.2 and 1.3 +/- 104.7 kcal for the PAEE, and -1.1 +/- 97.6 and -0.1 +/- 108.6 MET min for the MET models. We conclude that the DLS approach for accelerometer data improves detailed EE prediction in youth.

  2. Energy expenditure estimation during normal ambulation using triaxial accelerometry and barometric pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingjing; Redmond, Stephen J; Voleno, Matteo; Narayanan, Michael R; Wang, Ning; Cerutti, Sergio; Lovell, Nigel H

    2012-11-01

    Energy expenditure (EE) is an important parameter in the assessment of physical activity. Most reliable techniques for EE estimation are too impractical for deployment in unsupervised free-living environments; those which do prove practical for unsupervised use often poorly estimate EE when the subject is working to change their altitude by walking up or down stairs or inclines. This study evaluates the augmentation of a standard triaxial accelerometry waist-worn wearable sensor with a barometric pressure sensor (as a surrogate measure for altitude) to improve EE estimates, particularly when the subject is ascending or descending stairs. Using a number of features extracted from the accelerometry and barometric pressure signals, a state space model is trained for EE estimation. An activity classification algorithm is also presented, and this activity classification output is also investigated as a model input parameter when estimating EE. This EE estimation model is compared against a similar model which solely utilizes accelerometry-derived features. A protocol (comprising lying, sitting, standing, walking, walking up stairs, walking down stairs and transitioning between activities) was performed by 13 healthy volunteers (8 males and 5 females; age: 23.8 ± 3.7 years; weight: 70.5 ± 14.9 kg), whose instantaneous oxygen uptake was measured by means of an indirect calorimetry system (K4b(2), COSMED, Italy). Activity classification improves from 81.65% to 90.91% when including barometric pressure information; when analyzing walking activities alone the accuracy increases from 70.23% to 98.54%. Using features derived from both accelerometry and barometry signals, combined with features relating to the activity classification in a state space model, resulted in a VO(2) estimation bias of -0.00 095 and precision (1.96SD) of 3.54 ml min(-1) kg(-1). Using only accelerometry features gives a relatively worse performance, with a bias of -0.09 and precision (1.96SD) of 5

  3. An artificial neural network to predict resting energy expenditure in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disse, Emmanuel; Ledoux, Séverine; Bétry, Cécile; Caussy, Cyrielle; Maitrepierre, Christine; Coupaye, Muriel; Laville, Martine; Simon, Chantal

    2017-09-01

    The resting energy expenditure (REE) determination is important in nutrition for adequate dietary prescription. The gold standard i.e. indirect calorimetry is not available in clinical settings. Thus, several predictive equations have been developed, but they lack of accuracy in subjects with extreme weight including obese populations. Artificial neural networks (ANN) are useful predictive tools in the area of artificial intelligence, used in numerous clinical fields. The aim of this study was to determine the relevance of ANN in predicting REE in obesity. A Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) feed-forward neural network with a back propagation algorithm was created and cross-validated in a cohort of 565 obese subjects (BMI within 30-50 kg m(-2)) with weight, height, sex and age as clinical inputs and REE measured by indirect calorimetry as output. The predictive performances of ANN were compared to those of 23 predictive REE equations in the training set and in two independent sets of 100 and 237 obese subjects for external validation. Among the 23 established prediction equations for REE evaluated, the Harris & Benedict equations recalculated by Roza were the most accurate for the obese population, followed by the USA DRI, Müller and the original Harris & Benedict equations. The final 5-fold cross-validated three-layer 4-3-1 feed-forward back propagation ANN model developed in that study improved precision and accuracy of REE prediction over linear equations (precision = 68.1%, MAPE = 8.6% and RMSPE = 210 kcal/d), independently from BMI subgroups within 30-50 kg m(-2). External validation confirmed the better predictive performances of ANN model (precision = 73% and 65%, MAPE = 7.7% and 8.6%, RMSPE = 187 kcal/d and 200 kcal/d in the 2 independent datasets) for the prediction of REE in obese subjects. We developed and validated an ANN model for the prediction of REE in obese subjects that is more precise and accurate than established REE predictive

  4. Effects of T3 treatment on brown adipose tissue and energy expenditure in a patient with craniopharyngioma and hypothalamic obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Santen, Hanneke M; Schouten-Meeteren, Antoinette Y; Serlie, Mireille; Meijneke, Ruud W H; van Trotsenburg, A S; Verberne, Hein; Holleman, Frits; Fliers, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Patients treated for childhood craniopharyngioma often develop hypothalamic obesity (HO), which has a huge impact on the physical condition and quality of life of these patients. Treatment for HO thus far has been disappointing, and although several different strategies have been attempted, all interventions had only transient effects. Since thyroid hormones increase energy expenditure metabolism (thyroid hormone induced thermogenesis), it was speculated that treatment with tri-iodothyronine (T3) may be beneficial. In 2002, a case report was published on reduction of body weight after T3 treatment for HO. No studies have been reported since. Recent experimental studies in rodents showed that T3 increases brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity via (pre)sympathetic pathways between the hypothalamus and BAT. Our aim was to investigate whether T3 treatment increases BAT activity in a patient with HO resulting from (treatment of) childhood craniopharyngioma. Thyroxine treatment for central hypothyroidism was switched to T3 monotherapy. Serum T3 and free thyroxine (FT4) concentrations were measured twice weekly for 2 months. ¹²³I-MIBG and ¹⁸F-FDG-PET after induction of non-shivering thermogenesis for the assessment of sympathetic and metabolic activity of BAT as well as indirect calorimetry for assessment of resting energy expenditure were performed before and during T3 treatment. No change in sympathetic and metabolic BAT activity, energy expenditure, or BMI was seen during T3 treatment despite the expected changes in thyroid hormone plasma concentrations. We conclude that T3 monotherapy does not seem to be effective in decreasing HO in childhood craniopharyngioma.

  5. A combination of exercise and capsinoid supplementation additively suppresses diet-induced obesity by increasing energy expenditure in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohyama, Kana; Nogusa, Yoshihito; Suzuki, Katsuya; Shinoda, Kosaku; Kajimura, Shingo; Bannai, Makoto

    2015-02-15

    Exercise effectively prevents the development of obesity and obesity-related diseases such as type 2 diabetes. Capsinoids (CSNs) are capsaicin analogs found in a nonpungent pepper that increase whole body energy expenditure. Although both exercise and CSNs have antiobesity functions, the effectiveness of exercise with CSN supplementation has not yet been investigated. Here, we examined whether the beneficial effects of exercise could be further enhanced by CSN supplementation in mice. Mice were randomly assigned to four groups: 1) high-fat diet (HFD, Control), 2) HFD containing 0.3% CSNs, 3) HFD with voluntary running wheel exercise (Exercise), and 4) HFD containing 0.3% CSNs with voluntary running wheel exercise (Exercise + CSN). After 8 wk of ingestion, blood and tissues were collected and analyzed. Although CSNs significantly suppressed body weight gain under the HFD, CSN supplementation with exercise additively decreased body weight gain and fat accumulation and increased whole body energy expenditure compared with exercise alone. Exercise together with CSN supplementation robustly improved metabolic profiles, including the plasma cholesterol level. Furthermore, this combination significantly prevented diet-induced liver steatosis and decreased the size of adipocyte cells in white adipose tissue. Exercise and CSNs significantly increased cAMP levels and PKA activity in brown adipose tissue (BAT), indicating an increase of lipolysis. Moreover, they significantly activated both the oxidative phosphorylation gene program and fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle. These results indicate that CSNs efficiently promote the antiobesity effect of exercise, in part by increasing energy expenditure via the activation of fat oxidation in skeletal muscle and lipolysis in BAT. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Validity of the Modified Baecke Questionnaire: comparison with energy expenditure according to the doubly labeled water method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peeters Petra HM

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In epidemiological research, physical activity is usually assessed by questionnaires. Questionnaires are suitable for large study populations since they are relatively inexpensive and not very time consuming. However, questionnaire information is by definition subjective and prone to recall bias, especially among elderly subjects. The Modified Baecke Questionnaire, developed by Voorrips and coworkers, measures habitual physical activity in the elderly. The questionnaire includes questions on household activities, sports, and leisure time activities, over a time period of one year. The Modified Baecke Questionnaire results in a score to classify people as high, moderate, or low in daily physical activity, based on tertiles. Methods The validity of the Modified Baecke Questionnaire score was assessed among 21 elderly men and women using the doubly labeled water method as the reference criterion. This method is considered to be the gold standard for measuring energy expenditure in free-living individuals. Energy expenditure on physical activity is estimated by the ratio of total energy expenditure measured by the doubly labeled water method and resting metabolic rate measured by indirect calorimetry. This ratio is called the physical activity ratio. Results The Spearman correlation coefficient between the questionnaire score and the physical activity ratio (PAR was 0.54 (95% CI 0.22–0.66. Correct classification by the questionnaire occurred in 71% of participants who were in the lowest tertile of PAR, in 14% of participants in the middle tertile, and in 43% of participants in the highest tertile. Subjects were not wrongly classified in an opposite tertile. Conclusion The validity of the Modified Baecke Questionnaire is fair-to-moderate. This study shows that the questionnaire can correctly classify individuals as low or high active, but does a poor job for moderately active individuals.

  7. Uncoupling of inflammation and insulin resistance by NF-kappaB in transgenic mice through elevated energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tianyi; Zhang, Jin; Yin, Jun; Staszkiewicz, Jaroslaw; Gawronska-Kozak, Barbara; Jung, Dae Young; Ko, Hwi Jin; Ong, Helena; Kim, Jason K; Mynatt, Randy; Martin, Roy J; Keenan, Michael; Gao, Zhanguo; Ye, Jianping

    2010-02-12

    To study the metabolic activity of NF-kappaB, we investigated phenotypes of two different mouse models with elevated NF-kappaB activities. The transcriptional activity of NF-kappaB is enhanced either by overexpression of NF-kappaB p65 (RelA) in aP2-p65 mice or inactivation of NF-kappaB p50 (NF-kappaB1) through gene knock-out. In these models, energy expenditure was elevated in day and night time without a change in locomotion. The mice were resistant to adulthood obesity and diet-induced obesity without reduction in food intake. The adipose tissue growth and adipogenesis were inhibited by the elevated NF-kappaB activity. Peroxisome proliferator-activator receptor gamma expression was reduced by NF-kappaB at the transcriptional level. The two models exhibited elevated inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6) in adipose tissue and serum. However, insulin sensitivity was not reduced by the inflammation in the mice on a chow diet. On a high fat diet, the mice were protected from insulin resistance. The glucose infusion rate was increased more than 30% in the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp test. Our data suggest that the transcription factor NF-kappaB promotes energy expenditure and inhibits adipose tissue growth. The two effects lead to prevention of adulthood obesity and dietary obesity. The energy expenditure may lead to disassociation of inflammation with insulin resistance. The study indicates that inflammation may prevent insulin resistance by eliminating lipid accumulation.

  8. Re-examination of the contribution of substrates to energy expenditure during high-intensity intermittent exercise in endurance athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zübeyde Aslankeser

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background It has been believed that the contribution of fat oxidation to total energy expenditure is becoming negligible at higher exercise intensities (about 85% VO2max. The aim of the present study was to examine the changes in substrate oxidation during high-intensity interval exercise in young adult men. Methods A total of 18 healthy well-trained (aged 19.60 ± 0.54 years, BMI = 22.19 ± 0.64 kg/m2, n = 10 and untrained (aged 20.25 ± 0.41 years, BMI = 22.78 ± 0.38 kg/m2, n = 8 young men volunteered to participate in this study. After an overnight fast, subjects were tested on a cycle ergometer and completed six 4-min bouts of cycling (at ∼80% VO2max with 2 min of rests between intervals. Energy expenditure and the substrate oxidation rate were measured during the experiment by using indirect calorimetry. The blood lactate concentration was collected immediately after each interval workout. Results The fat oxidation rate during each workout was significantly different between the untrained and the athlete groups (p  0.05. Moreover, lactate concentration significantly increased in the untrained group (p  0.05. Fat contribution to energy expenditure was significantly higher in the athlete group (∼25% than in the untrained group (∼2%. Conclusions The present study indicates that 17 times more fat oxidation was measured in the athlete group compared to the untrained group. However, the athletes had the same CHO oxidation rate as the recreationally active subjects during high-intensity intermittent exercise. Higher fat oxidation rate despite the same CHO oxidation rate may be related to higher performance in the trained group.

  9. Diet with LPP for renal patients increases daily energy expenditure and improves motor function in Parkinsonian patients with motor fluctuations

    OpenAIRE

    Barichella, Michela; Savardi, Chiara; Mauri, Andrea; Marczewska, Agnieszka; Vairo, Antonella; Baldo, Cinzia; Massarotto, Arianna; Cordara, Sara Elisabetta; Pezzoli, Gianni

    2007-01-01

    Objective To establish whether a diet based on the usage of low-protein products for renal patients (LPP) is associated with higher energy expenditure (EE) than a free low-protein diet (NO-LPP) by calculating 24 h EE by indirect calorimetry using an electronic armband monitor. Design Randomized, cross-over, single-blind, pilot clinical trial performed comparing two different low-protein dietary regimens. Subjects Forty-two days with LPP and 42 days with NO-LPP regimen in six patients with Par...

  10. The effect of segmental weight of prosthesis on hemodynamic responses and energy expenditure of lower extremity amputees

    OpenAIRE

    Mutlu, Akmer; Kharooty, Mohammad Dawood; Yakut, Yavuz

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of segmental weight of the prosthesis on hemodynamic responses and energy expenditure in lower extremity amputees. [Subjects and Methods] Thirteen patients with a mean age of 44 ± 15.84 years and with unilateral transtibial, transfemoral and Syme’s amputation were included to the study. The difference between the lightest and the heaviest prosthesis, 250 g used as the weight. All the patients completed the measurements first withou...

  11. Impact of sit-stand desks at work on energy expenditure and sedentary time: protocol for a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantzari, Eleni; Wijndaele, Katrien; Brage, Soren; Griffin, Simon J; Marteau, Theresa M

    2016-01-01

    Prolonged sitting, an independent risk factor for disease development and premature mortality, is increasing in prevalence in high- and middle-income countries, with no signs of abating. Adults in such countries spend the largest proportion of their day in sedentary behaviour, most of which is accumulated at work. One promising method for reducing workplace sitting is the use of sit-stand desks. However, key uncertainties remain about this intervention, related to the quality of existing studies and a lack of focus on key outcomes, including energy expenditure. We are planning a randomised controlled trial to assess the impact of sit-stand desks at work on energy expenditure and sitting time in the short and longer term. To reduce the uncertainties related to the design of this trial, we propose a preliminary study to assess the feasibility and acceptability of the recruitment, allocation, measurement, retention and intervention procedures. Five hundred office-based employees from two companies in Cambridge, UK, will complete a survey to assess their interest in participating in a trial on the use of sit-stand desks at work. The workspaces of 100 of those interested in participating will be assessed for sit-stand desk installation suitability, and 20 participants will be randomised to either the use of sit-stand desks at work for 3 months or a waiting list control group. Energy expenditure and sitting time, measured via Actiheart and activPAL monitors, respectively, as well as cardio-metabolic and anthropometric outcomes and other outcomes relating to health and work performance, will be assessed in 10 randomly selected participants. All participants will also be interviewed about their experience of using the desks and participating in the study. The findings are expected to inform the design of a trial assessing the impact of sit-stand desks at work on short and longer term workplace sitting, taking into account their impact on energy expenditure and the extent

  12. Effects of a 12-week aerobic exercise intervention on eating behaviour, food cravings, and 7-day energy intake and energy expenditure in inactive men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Joel; Paxman, Jenny; Dalton, Caroline; Winter, Edward; Broom, David R

    2016-11-01

    This study examined effects of 12 weeks of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise on eating behaviour, food cravings, and weekly energy intake and expenditure in inactive men. Eleven healthy men (mean ± SD: age, 26 ± 5 years; body mass index, 24.6 ± 3.8 kg·m(-2); maximum oxygen uptake, 43.1 ± 7.4 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) completed the 12-week supervised exercise programme. Body composition, health markers (e.g., blood pressure), eating behaviour, food cravings, and weekly energy intake and expenditure were assessed before and after the exercise intervention. There were no intervention effects on weekly free-living energy intake (p = 0.326, d = -0.12) and expenditure (p = 0.799, d = 0.04) or uncontrolled eating and emotional eating scores (p > 0.05). However, there was a trend with a medium effect size (p = 0.058, d = 0.68) for cognitive restraint to be greater after the exercise intervention. Total food cravings (p = 0.009, d = -1.19) and specific cravings of high-fat foods (p = 0.023, d = -0.90), fast-food fats (p = 0.009, d = -0.71), and carbohydrates/starches (p = 0.009, d = -0.56) decreased from baseline to 12 weeks. Moreover, there was a trend with a large effect size for cravings of sweets (p = 0.052, d = -0.86) to be lower after the exercise intervention. In summary, 12 weeks of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise reduced food cravings and increased cognitive restraint, but these changes were not accompanied by changes in other eating behaviours or weekly energy intake and expenditure. The results indicate the importance of exercising for health improvements even when reductions in body mass are modest.

  13. Recycling energy to restore impaired ankle function during human walking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven H Collins

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Humans normally dissipate significant energy during walking, largely at the transitions between steps. The ankle then acts to restore energy during push-off, which may be the reason that ankle impairment nearly always leads to poorer walking economy. The replacement of lost energy is necessary for steady gait, in which mechanical energy is constant on average, external dissipation is negligible, and no net work is performed over a stride. However, dissipation and replacement by muscles might not be necessary if energy were instead captured and reused by an assistive device. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We developed a microprocessor-controlled artificial foot that captures some of the energy that is normally dissipated by the leg and "recycles" it as positive ankle work. In tests on subjects walking with an artificially-impaired ankle, a conventional prosthesis reduced ankle push-off work and increased net metabolic energy expenditure by 23% compared to normal walking. Energy recycling restored ankle push-off to normal and reduced the net metabolic energy penalty to 14%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that reduced ankle push-off contributes to the increased metabolic energy expenditure accompanying ankle impairments, and demonstrate that energy recycling can be used to reduce such cost.

  14. Comparison of estimated energy intake i