WorldWideScience

Sample records for human ecology review

  1. Annual Research Review: What is Resilience within the Social Ecology of Human Development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungar, Michael; Ghazinour, Mehdi; Richter, Jorg

    2013-01-01

    Background: The development of Bronfenbrenner's bio-social-ecological systems model of human development parallels advances made to the theory of resilience that progressively moved from a more individual (micro) focus on traits to a multisystemic understanding of person-environment reciprocal processes. Methods: This review uses…

  2. Nutritional Ecology and Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Stephen J

    2016-07-17

    In contrast to the spectacular advances in the first half of the twentieth century with micronutrient-related diseases, human nutrition science has failed to stem the more recent rise of obesity and associated cardiometabolic disease (OACD). This failure has triggered debate on the problems and limitations of the field and what change is needed to address these. We briefly review the two broad historical phases of human nutrition science and then provide an overview of the main problems that have been implicated in the poor progress of the field with solving OACD. We next introduce the field of nutritional ecology and show how its ecological-evolutionary foundations can enrich human nutrition science by providing the theory to help address its limitations. We end by introducing a modeling approach from nutritional ecology, termed nutritional geometry, and demonstrate how it can help to implement ecological and evolutionary theory in human nutrition to provide new direction and to better understand and manage OACD.

  3. REVIEW OF INTERNATIONAL PROJECTS IN А FIELD OF HUMAN MICROBIAL ECOLOGY AND CONSTRUCTION OF PROBIOTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Starovoitova

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Modern huge and world-wide known projects concerning studying of human microbial ecology and construction of probiotics, particularly: Society for Microbial Ecology and Disease, Probiotics & Health Targeted Initiative of International Science and Technology Center (TI PROBIO ISTC, Human Microbiome Project of National Institutes of Health, MetaHIT Project (Metagenomics of the Human Intestinal Tract of European Commission, Human Metabolome Project of Canadian University of Alberta and some more else were characterized in the article. Brief historical information and reference to official sites of every discussed project were given. Main goals and tasks of every project were described. Short characteristic of discussed projects and also modern accessible results of researches were given. Importance of every examined project for widening scientific knowledge in the field of human microbial ecology and also for improvement and/or for construction of modern effective probiotics on basis of human normal intestinal microflora were paid attention. Close interaction of scientific data received by realization of every discussed project was shown.

  4. A Review of Human Health and Ecological Risks due to CO2 Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepple, R. P.; Benson, S. M.

    2001-05-01

    This paper presents an overview of the human health and ecological consequences of exposure to elevated levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the context of geologic carbon sequestration. The purpose of this effort is to provide a baseline of information to guide future efforts in risk assessment for CO2 sequestration. Scenarios for hazardous CO2 exposure include surface facility leaks, leaks from abandoned or aging wells, and leakage from geologic CO2 storage structures. Amounts of carbon in various reservoirs, systems, and applications were summarized, and the levels of CO2 encountered in nature and everyday life were compared along with physiologically relevant concentrations. Literature pertaining to CO2 occupational exposure limits, regulations, monitoring, and ecological consequences was reviewed. The OSHA, NIOSH, and ACGIH occupational exposure standards are 0.5% CO2 averaged over a 40 hour week, 3% average for a short-term (15 minute) exposure, and 4% as the maximum instantaneous limit considered immediately dangerous to life and health. All three conditions must be satisfied at all times. Any detrimental effects of low-level CO2 exposure are reversible, including the long-term metabolic compensation required by chronic exposure to 3% CO2. Breathing rate doubles at 3% CO2 and is four times the normal rate at 5% CO2. According to occupational exposure and controlled atmosphere research into CO2 toxicology, CO2 is hazardous via direct toxicity at levels above 5%, concentrations not encountered in nature outside of volcanic settings and water-logged soils. Small leaks do not present any danger to people unless the CO2 does not disperse quickly enough through atmospheric mixing but accumulates instead in depressions and confined spaces. These dangers are the result of CO2 being more dense than air. Carbon dioxide is regulated for diverse purposes but never as a toxic substance. Catastrophic incidents involving large amounts and/or rapid release of CO2 such as Lake

  5. Some problems of human ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davitashvili, M.

    2009-01-01

    The problems of the ecology of human are considered. The notion of ''the ecology of human'' is discussed from the viewpoint of human rights and responsibilities in reference to the environment. The ecological factors affecting the men and the ecosystems as a whole are considered. It is emphasized that the ecological problems should be solved not only globally, but also for concrete ecosystems with consideration for their specific features. (author)

  6. Ecological approaches to human nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeClerck, Fabrice A J; Fanzo, Jessica; Palm, Cheryl; Remans, Roseline

    2011-03-01

    Malnutrition affects a large number of people throughout the developing world. Approaches to reducing malnutrition rarely focus on ecology and agriculture to simultaneously improve human nutrition and environmental sustainability. However, evidence suggests that interdisciplinary approaches that combine the knowledge bases of these disciplines can serve as a central strategy in alleviating hidden hunger for the world's poorest. To describe the role that ecological knowledge plays in alleviating hidden hunger, considering human nutrition as an overlooked ecosystem service. We review existing literature and propose a framework that expands on earlier work on econutrition. We provide novel evidence from case studies conducted by the authors in western Kenya and propose a framework for interdisciplinary collaboration to alleviate hidden hunger, increase agricultural productivity, and improve environmental sustainability. Our review supports the concept that an integrated approach will impact human nutrition. We provide evidence that increased functional agrobiodiversity can alleviate anemia, and interventions that contribute to environmental sustainability can have both direct and indirect effects on human health and nutritional well-being. Integrated and interdisciplinary approaches are critical to reaching development goals. Ecologists must begin to consider not only how their field can contribute to biodiversity conservation, but also, the relationship between biodiversity and provisioning of nontraditional ecosystem services such as human health. Likewise, nutritionists and agronomists must recognize that many of the solutions to increasing human wellbeing and health can best be achieved by focusing on a healthy environment and the conservation of ecosystem services.

  7. Dietary ecology of human

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minagawa, Masao

    1990-01-01

    The dietary life of humans varies with the environment where they live and has been changing with time. It has become possible to examine such changes by using stable carbon and nitrogen isotope composition as a chemical tool. The present report outlines recent developments in the application of this tool and compares the dietary ecologies of various human groups from the viewpoint of isotope geochemistry. The history of the application of this tool to dietary analysis is summarized first, and features of the carbon and nitrogen isotope composition in animals and their relations with the food chain are outlined. The dietary ecology of the current people is then discussed in relation to the isotope composition in food, the isotope composition in hair of the current people, and determination of food habit of specific groups of people from such isotope compositions. For prediction of dietary composition, the report presents a flow chart for an algorism which is based on the Monte Carlo method. It also outlines processes for analyzing food habits of people in the prehistoric age, focusing on distribution of isotope composition in humans over the world. (N.K.)

  8. Azaspiracid Shellfish Poisoning: A Review on the Chemistry, Ecology, and Toxicology with an Emphasis on Human Health Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory J. Doucette

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Azaspiracids (AZA are polyether marine toxins that accumulate in various shellfish species and have been associated with severe gastrointestinal human intoxications since 1995. This toxin class has since been reported from several countries, including Morocco and much of western Europe. A regulatory limit of 160 μg AZA/kg whole shellfish flesh was established by the EU in order to protect human health; however, in some cases, AZA concentrations far exceed the action level. Herein we discuss recent advances on the chemistry of various AZA analogs, review the ecology of AZAs, including the putative progenitor algal species, collectively interpret the in vitro and in vivo data on the toxicology of AZAs relating to human health issues, and outline the European legislature associated with AZAs.

  9. 78 FR 17201 - Pesticide Chemicals; Registration Review; Draft Human Health and Ecological Risk Assessments...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    ... local registrations on fruiting vegetables, okra, snap beans, and strawberries. For lactofen, the Agency... conifer seedlings, snap beans, soybeans, and strawberries. The Agency has also conducted an ecological...

  10. Ecological restoration [book review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric J. Gustafson

    2010-01-01

    Ecological restoration has increased in prominence in recent years as environmental policies have slowed the rate of environmental degradation in many parts of the world and practitioners have looked for active ways to reverse the damage. Because of the vast number of types and contexts of degraded ecological systems, the field of ecological restoration is still very...

  11. Ecology and Human Destiny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haught, John F.

    1999-01-01

    Examines eschatology as the heart of Christian faith, suggesting that an appreciation of an eschatological interpretation of the cosmos enables acceptance of nature's transience and a grounding for an ecological ethic. Maintains that recent scientific developments present a promising, rather than pessimistic, picture of the universe. Holds that…

  12. 78 FR 59685 - Registration Review; Draft Human Health and Ecological Risk Assessment; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-27

    ... issues, the Agency seeks information on any groups or segments of the population who, as a result of... document, compared to the general population. II. Authority EPA is conducting its registration review of... on specific areas that will reduce the uncertainties associated with the characterization of risk to...

  13. The Ecology of Human Mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meekan, Mark G; Duarte, Carlos M; Fernández-Gracia, Juan; Thums, Michele; Sequeira, Ana M M; Harcourt, Rob; Eguíluz, Víctor M

    2017-03-01

    Mobile phones and other geolocated devices have produced unprecedented volumes of data on human movement. Analysis of pooled individual human trajectories using big data approaches has revealed a wealth of emergent features that have ecological parallels in animals across a diverse array of phenomena including commuting, epidemics, the spread of innovations and culture, and collective behaviour. Movement ecology, which explores how animals cope with and optimize variability in resources, has the potential to provide a theoretical framework to aid an understanding of human mobility and its impacts on ecosystems. In turn, big data on human movement can be explored in the context of animal movement ecology to provide solutions for urgent conservation problems and management challenges. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Ecology of Human Mobility

    KAUST Repository

    Meekan, Mark G.

    2017-02-03

    Mobile phones and other geolocated devices have produced unprecedented volumes of data on human movement. Analysis of pooled individual human trajectories using big data approaches has revealed a wealth of emergent features that have ecological parallels in animals across a diverse array of phenomena including commuting, epidemics, the spread of innovations and culture, and collective behaviour. Movement ecology, which explores how animals cope with and optimize variability in resources, has the potential to provide a theoretical framework to aid an understanding of human mobility and its impacts on ecosystems. In turn, big data on human movement can be explored in the context of animal movement ecology to provide solutions for urgent conservation problems and management challenges.

  15. [Towards understanding human ecology in nursing practice: a concept analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Truc; Alderson, Marie

    2010-06-01

    Human ecology is an umbrella concept encompassing several social, physical, and cultural elements existing in the individual's external environment. The pragmatic utility method was used to analyze the "human ecology" concept in order to ascertain the conceptual fit with nursing epistemology and to promote its use by nurses in clinical practice. Relevant articles for the review were retrieved from the MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and CSA databases using the terms "human ecology," "environment," "nursing," and "ecology." Data analysis revealed that human ecology is perceived as a theoretical perspective designating a complex, multilayered, and multidimensional system, one that comprises individuals and their reciprocal interactions with their global environments and the subsequent impact of these interactions upon their health. Human ecology preconditions include the individuals, their environments, and their transactions. Attributes of this concept encompass the characteristics of an open system (e.g., interdependence, reciprocal).

  16. Ecological Environment in Terms of Human Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xiaogang; Zhou, Dehu; Lin, Hui

    2013-01-01

    In terms of human behavior, company and government policy, it is proposed that the ecological behavior of human being is the basis of influence on the ecological environment construction in Poyang Lake and measures to ensure the sustainable development of ecological environment in Poyang Lake.

  17. [Ecological memory and its potential applications in ecology: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhong-yu; Ren, Hai

    2011-03-01

    Ecological memory (EM) is defined as the capability of the past states or experiences of a community to influence the present or future ecological responses of the community. As a relatively new concept, EM has received considerable attention in the study of ecosystem structure and function, such as community succession, ecological restoration, biological invasion, and natural resource management. This review summarized the definition, components, and categories of EM, and discussed the possible mechanisms and affecting factors of EM. Also, the potential applications of EM were proposed, in order to further understand the mechanisms of community succession and to guide ecological restoration.

  18. The ecological law and ecological human rights: to the question on necessity of formation

    OpenAIRE

    Khvorostov A. J.

    2012-01-01

    Necessity of the ecological law is determined by presence of ecological crisis and formed at formation of ecological function of the state. Ecological human rights and the citizen are natural human rights, however should be legally fixed and guaranteed by the state. The further functioning of a society is impossible without observance of norms of the ecological law and ecological human rights.

  19. Human Ecology: Acid Rain and Public Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bybee, Rodger W.

    1983-01-01

    A connection between science and society can be seen in the human and ecological dimensions of one contemporary problem: acid rain. Introduces a human ecological theme and relationships between acid rain and public policy, considering scientific understanding and public awareness, scientific research and public policy, and national politics and…

  20. The Ecology of Human Mobility

    KAUST Repository

    Meekan, Mark G.; Duarte, Carlos M.; Ferná ndez-Gracia, Juan; Thums, Michele; Sequeira, Ana M.M.; Harcourt, Rob; Eguí luz, Ví ctor M.

    2017-01-01

    parallels in animals across a diverse array of phenomena including commuting, epidemics, the spread of innovations and culture, and collective behaviour. Movement ecology, which explores how animals cope with and optimize variability in resources, has

  1. [Urban ecological risk assessment: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mei-E; Chen, Wei-Ping; Peng, Chi

    2014-03-01

    With the development of urbanization and the degradation of urban living environment, urban ecological risks caused by urbanization have attracted more and more attentions. Based on urban ecology principles and ecological risk assessment frameworks, contents of urban ecological risk assessment were reviewed in terms of driven forces, risk resources, risk receptors, endpoints and integrated approaches for risk assessment. It was suggested that types and degrees of urban economical and social activities were the driven forces for urban ecological risks. Ecological functional components at different levels in urban ecosystems as well as the urban system as a whole were the risk receptors. Assessment endpoints involved in changes of urban ecological structures, processes, functional components and the integrity of characteristic and function. Social-ecological models should be the major approaches for urban ecological risk assessment. Trends for urban ecological risk assessment study should focus on setting a definite protection target and criteria corresponding to assessment endpoints, establishing a multiple-parameter assessment system and integrative assessment approaches.

  2. Ecological Factors in Human Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, William E

    2017-05-01

    Urie Bronfenbrenner (1992) helped developmental psychologists comprehend and define "context" as a rich, thick multidimensional construct. His ecological systems theory consists of five layers, and within each layer are developmental processes unique to each layer. The four articles in this section limit the exploration of context to the three innermost systems: the individual plus micro- and macrolayers. Rather than examine both the physical features and processes, the articles tend to focus solely on processes associated with a niche. Processes explored include social identity development, social network dynamics, peer influences, and school-based friendship patterns. The works tend to extend the generalization of extant theory to the developmental experience of various minority group experiences. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  3. Optimization of Human Microbial Ecology

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — With the new tools of high-throughput sequencing providing unprecedented information about the diversity of microbes living in and on the human organism...

  4. Interior Design Education within a Human Ecological Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaup, Migette L.; Anderson, Barbara G.; Honey, Peggy

    2007-01-01

    An education based in human ecology can greatly benefit interior designers as they work to understand and improve the human condition. Design programs housed in colleges focusing on human ecology can improve the interior design profession by taking advantage of their home base and emphasizing the human ecological framework in the design curricula.…

  5. The ecology of seamounts: structure, function, and human impacts.

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, MR; Rowden, AA; Schlacher, T; Williams, A; Consalvey, M; Stocks, KI; Rogers, AD; O'Hara, TD; White, M; Shank, TM; Hall-Spencer, JM

    2010-01-01

    In this review of seamount ecology, we address a number of key scientific issues concerning the structure and function of benthic communities, human impacts, and seamount management and conservation. We consider whether community composition and diversity differ between seamounts and continental slopes, how important dispersal capabilities are in seamount connectivity, what environmental factors drive species composition and diversity, whether seamounts are centers of enhanced biological prod...

  6. Empowering Learning through Natural, Human, and Building Ecologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobet, Robert J.

    This article asserts that it is critical to understand the connections between human ecology and building ecology to create humane environments that show inspiration and creativity and that also serve diverse needs. It calls for efforts to: (1) construct an environmental education approach that fuses the three ecologies (natural, human, and…

  7. Spatially explicit modeling in ecology: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeAngelis, Donald L.; Yurek, Simeon

    2017-01-01

    The use of spatially explicit models (SEMs) in ecology has grown enormously in the past two decades. One major advancement has been that fine-scale details of landscapes, and of spatially dependent biological processes, such as dispersal and invasion, can now be simulated with great precision, due to improvements in computer technology. Many areas of modeling have shifted toward a focus on capturing these fine-scale details, to improve mechanistic understanding of ecosystems. However, spatially implicit models (SIMs) have played a dominant role in ecology, and arguments have been made that SIMs, which account for the effects of space without specifying spatial positions, have an advantage of being simpler and more broadly applicable, perhaps contributing more to understanding. We address this debate by comparing SEMs and SIMs in examples from the past few decades of modeling research. We argue that, although SIMs have been the dominant approach in the incorporation of space in theoretical ecology, SEMs have unique advantages for addressing pragmatic questions concerning species populations or communities in specific places, because local conditions, such as spatial heterogeneities, organism behaviors, and other contingencies, produce dynamics and patterns that usually cannot be incorporated into simpler SIMs. SEMs are also able to describe mechanisms at the local scale that can create amplifying positive feedbacks at that scale, creating emergent patterns at larger scales, and therefore are important to basic ecological theory. We review the use of SEMs at the level of populations, interacting populations, food webs, and ecosystems and argue that SEMs are not only essential in pragmatic issues, but must play a role in the understanding of causal relationships on landscapes.

  8. Humanities Review Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Humanities Review Journal is published in June and December by Humanities Research Forum. The Journal publishes original, well-researched papers, review essays, interviews, resume, and commentaries, which offer new insights into the various disciplines in the Humanities. The focus is on issues about Africa.

  9. Behavior Analysis and Ecological Psychology: Past, Present, and Future. A Review of Harry Heft's Ecological Psychology in Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Edward K

    2009-01-01

    Relations between behavior analysis and ecological psychology have been strained for years, notwithstanding the occasional comment on their affinities. Harry Heft's (2001) Ecological Psychology in Context provides an occasion for reviewing anew those relations and affinities. It describes the genesis of ecological psychology in James's radical empiricism; addresses Holt's neorealism and Gestalt psychology; and synthesizes Gibson's ecological psychology and Barker's ecobehavioral science as a means for understanding everyday human behavior. Although behavior analysis is excluded from this account, Heft's book warrants a review nonetheless: It describes ecological psychology in ways that are congruent and complementary with behavior analysis (e.g., nonmediational theorizing; the provinces of natural history and natural science). After introducing modern ecological psychology, I comment on (a) Heft's admirable, albeit selective, historiography; (b) his ecological psychology—past and present—as it relates to Skinner's science and system (e.g., affordances, molar behavior); (c) his misunderstandings of Skinner's behaviorism (e.g., reductionistic, mechanistic, molecular); and (d) the theoretical status of Heft's cognitive terms and talk (i.e., in ontology, epistemology, syntax). I conclude by considering the alliance and integration of ecological psychology and behavior analysis, and their implications for unifying and transforming psychology as a life science, albeit more for the future than at present. PMID:20354604

  10. [Ecological security of wastewater treatment processes: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sai; Hua, Tao

    2013-05-01

    Though the regular indicators of wastewater after treatment can meet the discharge requirements and reuse standards, it doesn't mean the effluent is harmless. From the sustainable point of view, to ensure the ecological and human security, comprehensive toxicity should be considered when discharge standards are set up. In order to improve the ecological security of wastewater treatment processes, toxicity reduction should be considered when selecting and optimizing the treatment processes. This paper reviewed the researches on the ecological security of wastewater treatment processes, with the focus on the purposes of various treatment processes, including the processes for special wastewater treatment, wastewater reuse, and for the safety of receiving waters. Conventional biological treatment combined with advanced oxidation technologies can enhance the toxicity reduction on the base of pollutants removal, which is worthy of further study. For the process aimed at wastewater reuse, the integration of different process units can complement the advantages of both conventional pollutants removal and toxicity reduction. For the process aimed at ecological security of receiving waters, the emphasis should be put on the toxicity reduction optimization of process parameters and process unit selection. Some suggestions for the problems in the current research and future research directions were put forward.

  11. The Ecology of Seamounts: Structure, Function, and Human Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Malcolm R.; Rowden, Ashley A.; Schlacher, Thomas; Williams, Alan; Consalvey, Mireille; Stocks, Karen I.; Rogers, Alex D.; O'Hara, Timothy D.; White, Martin; Shank, Timothy M.; Hall-Spencer, Jason M.

    2010-01-01

    In this review of seamount ecology, we address a number of key scientific issues concerning the structure and function of benthic communities, human impacts, and seamount management and conservation. We consider whether community composition and diversity differ between seamounts and continental slopes, how important dispersal capabilities are in seamount connectivity, what environmental factors drive species composition and diversity, whether seamounts are centers of enhanced biological productivity, and whether they have unique trophic architecture. We discuss how vulnerable seamount communities are to fishing and mining, and how we can balance exploitation of resources and conservation of habitat. Despite considerable advances in recent years, there remain many questions about seamount ecosystems that need closer integration of molecular, oceanographic, and ecological research.

  12. Human cognitive ecology: an instructive framework for comparative primatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Janet Dixon

    2004-03-01

    In this review, research on human cognitive ecology is compared with studies of the cognitive ecologies of apes-especially the common chimpanzee. The objective was to assess the feasibility of extending an activity-theory framework developed in studies of humans to an integrated approach for studying the cognitive accomplishments and skills of other primates living in the wild. Six generalizations were abstracted from studies of humans: 1) Social and material environments are arranged to facilitate production. 2) Human activity is shaped by conceptual and cultural principles that provide underlying logic for working knowledge and practice. 3) Schemata (multimodal, mental representations of procedures, strategies, and techniques) govern performance in a domain. 4) Working knowledge, skills, and social identities are co-constructed in communities of practice. 5) Rehearsal improves skilled performances, from which reputations as well as material products are derived. 6) Planning and emergence are in productive tension in human practices. These generalizations are applied to findings in the literature regarding the behavior of chimpanzees and other apes in the wild to assess the potential utility of a situated-activity approach for comparative studies of primate cognition. It is argued in the Discussion that schemata constitute a common core of higher primate intelligence. Planning, emergence, and alterations of the environment to facilitate production further characterize human and chimpanzee or gorilla behaviors to varying degrees. Less apparent in the nonhuman-primate literature is evidence of governing principles, rehearsal, and skill-based reputations or identities entailing theories of mind. Nonetheless, recent observations in the wild suggest that further research is warranted to explore the rudiments of each of these components to enhance our understanding of the ecology of primate cognition and its evolutionary history. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Human skin volatiles: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dormont, Laurent; Bessière, Jean-Marie; Cohuet, Anna

    2013-05-01

    Odors emitted by human skin are of great interest to biologists in many fields; applications range from forensic studies to diagnostic tools, the design of perfumes and deodorants, and the ecology of blood-sucking insect vectors of human disease. Numerous studies have investigated the chemical composition of skin odors, and various sampling methods have been used for this purpose. The literature shows that the chemical profile of skin volatiles varies greatly among studies, and the use of different sampling procedures is probably responsible for some of these variations. To our knowledge, this is the first review focused on human skin volatile compounds. We detail the different sampling techniques, each with its own set of advantages and disadvantages, which have been used for the collection of skin odors from different parts of the human body. We present the main skin volatile compounds found in these studies, with particular emphasis on the most frequently studied body regions, axillae, hands, and feet. We propose future directions for promising experimental studies on odors from human skin, particularly in relation to the chemical ecology of blood-sucking insects.

  14. Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ternjej, Ivancica; Mihaljevic, Zlatko

    2017-10-01

    Ecology is a science that studies the mutual interactions between organisms and their environment. The fundamental subject of interest in ecology is the individual. Topics of interest to ecologists include the diversity, distribution and number of particular organisms, as well as cooperation and competition between organisms, both within and among ecosystems. Today, ecology is a multidisciplinary science. This is particularly true when the subject of interest is the ecosystem or biosphere, which requires the knowledge and input of biologists, chemists, physicists, geologists, geographists, climatologists, hydrologists and many other experts. Ecology is applied in a science of restoration, repairing disturbed sites through human intervention, in natural resource management, and in environmental impact assessments.

  15. Explicating Practicum Program Theory: A Case Example in Human Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Kathryn M. M.; Williamson, Deanna L.

    2013-01-01

    This study explicated the theory underpinning the Human Ecology Practicum Program offered in the Department of Human Ecology at the University of Alberta. The program has operated for 40 years but never been formally evaluated. Using a document analysis, focus group and individual interviews, and a stakeholder working group, we explored…

  16. Human Factors Review Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paramore, B.; Peterson, L.R.

    1985-12-01

    ''Human Factors'' is concerned with the incorporation of human user considerations into a system in order to maximize human reliability and reduce errors. This Review Plan is intended to assist in the assessment of human factors conditions in existing DOE facilities. In addition to specifying assessment methodologies, the plan describes techniques for improving conditions which are found to not adequately support reliable human performance. The following topics are addressed: (1) selection of areas for review describes techniques for needs assessment to assist in selecting and prioritizing areas for review; (2) human factors engineering review is concerned with optimizing the interfaces between people and equipment and people and their work environment; (3) procedures review evaluates completeness and accuracy of procedures, as well as their usability and management; (4) organizational interface review is concerned with communication and coordination between all levels of an organization; and (5) training review evaluates training program criteria such as those involving: trainee selection, qualification of training staff, content and conduct of training, requalification training, and program management

  17. Human Factors Review Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paramore, B.; Peterson, L.R. (eds.)

    1985-12-01

    ''Human Factors'' is concerned with the incorporation of human user considerations into a system in order to maximize human reliability and reduce errors. This Review Plan is intended to assist in the assessment of human factors conditions in existing DOE facilities. In addition to specifying assessment methodologies, the plan describes techniques for improving conditions which are found to not adequately support reliable human performance. The following topics are addressed: (1) selection of areas for review describes techniques for needs assessment to assist in selecting and prioritizing areas for review; (2) human factors engineering review is concerned with optimizing the interfaces between people and equipment and people and their work environment; (3) procedures review evaluates completeness and accuracy of procedures, as well as their usability and management; (4) organizational interface review is concerned with communication and coordination between all levels of an organization; and (5) training review evaluates training program criteria such as those involving: trainee selection, qualification of training staff, content and conduct of training, requalification training, and program management.

  18. Rivers are social–ecological systems: Time to integrate human dimensions into riverscape ecology and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Jason B.; Angermeier, Paul L.; Crausbay, Shelley D.; Cravens, Amanda; Gosnell, Hannah; McEvoy, Jamie; Moritz, Max A.; Raheem, Nejem; Sanford, Todd

    2018-01-01

    Incorporation of concepts from landscape ecology into understanding and managing riverine ecosystems has become widely known as riverscape ecology. Riverscape ecology emphasizes interactions among processes at different scales and their consequences for valued ecosystem components, such as riverine fishes. Past studies have focused strongly on understanding the ecological processes in riverscapes and how human actions modify those processes. It is increasingly clear, however, that an understanding of the drivers behind actions that lead to human modification also merit consideration, especially regarding how those drivers influence management efficacy. These indirect drivers of riverscape outcomes can be understood in the context of a diverse array of social processes, which we collectively refer to as human dimensions. Like ecological phenomena, social processes also exhibit complex interactions across spatiotemporal scales. Greater emphasis on feedbacks between social and ecological processes will lead scientists and managers to more completely understand riverscapes as complex, dynamic, interacting social–ecological systems. Emerging applications in riverscapes, as well as studies of other ecosystems, provide examples that can lead to stronger integration of social and ecological science. We argue that conservation successes within riverscapes may not come from better ecological science, improved ecosystem service analyses, or even economic incentives if the fundamental drivers of human behaviors are not understood and addressed in conservation planning and implementation.

  19. Acoustic environments matter: Synergistic benefits to humans and ecological communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Clinton D; Newman, Peter; Taff, B Derrick; White, Crow; Monz, Christopher A; Levenhagen, Mitchell; Petrelli, Alissa R; Abbott, Lauren C; Newton, Jennifer; Burson, Shan; Cooper, Caren B; Fristrup, Kurt M; McClure, Christopher J W; Mennitt, Daniel; Giamellaro, Michael; Barber, Jesse R

    2017-12-01

    Protected areas are critical locations worldwide for biodiversity preservation and offer important opportunities for increasingly urbanized humans to experience nature. However, biodiversity preservation and visitor access are often at odds and creative solutions are needed to safeguard protected area natural resources in the face of high visitor use. Managing human impacts to natural soundscapes could serve as a powerful tool for resolving these conflicting objectives. Here, we review emerging research that demonstrates that the acoustic environment is critical to wildlife and that sounds shape the quality of nature-based experiences for humans. Human-made noise is known to affect animal behavior, distributions and reproductive success, and the organization of ecological communities. Additionally, new research suggests that interactions with nature, including natural sounds, confer benefits to human welfare termed psychological ecosystem services. In areas influenced by noise, elevated human-made noise not only limits the variety and abundance of organisms accessible to outdoor recreationists, but also impairs their capacity to perceive the wildlife that remains. Thus soundscape changes can degrade, and potentially limit the benefits derived from experiences with nature via indirect and direct mechanisms. We discuss the effects of noise on wildlife and visitors through the concept of listening area and demonstrate how the perceptual worlds of both birds and humans are reduced by noise. Finally, we discuss how management of soundscapes in protected areas may be an innovative solution to safeguarding both and recommend several key questions and research directions to stimulate new research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Book review: Bayesian analysis for population ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, William A.

    2011-01-01

    Brian Dennis described the field of ecology as “fertile, uncolonized ground for Bayesian ideas.” He continued: “The Bayesian propagule has arrived at the shore. Ecologists need to think long and hard about the consequences of a Bayesian ecology. The Bayesian outlook is a successful competitor, but is it a weed? I think so.” (Dennis 2004)

  1. Disturbance ecology and forest management: A review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul Rogers

    1996-01-01

    This review of the disturbance ecology literature, and how it pertains to forest management, is a resource for forest managers and researchers interested in disturbance theory, specific disturbance agents, their interactions, and appropriate methods of inquiry for specific geographic regions. Implications for the future of disturbance ecology-based management are...

  2. Book Reviews Concepts of Ecosystem Ecology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and emergent properties), and scientific method in ecology. ... this science: particularly the interface of habitat dynamics ... characteristic trophic structure and material cycles, six separate .... tion in using parts of it for extra readings in my senior.

  3. The Ecology of Human Development in Retrospect and Prospect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronfenbrenner, Urie

    In attempting to define the "ecology" of human development, the term's history and connotations are discussed. The ecological approach requires that the person, the environment, and the relations between them be conceptualized in terms of systems, and subsystems within systems. The experimental situation is not limited to being…

  4. Human cryptosporidiosis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayuo, P O

    2009-02-01

    To provide an overview of risk factors, presentation and management of human cryptosporidium infection. Literature review was obtained through PubMed search. Published articles on the taxonomy of Cryptosporidium and the epidemiology, clinical presentation and management of cryptosporidiosis were reviewed. Abstracts and complete articles relevant to the objective were selected, read and analysed to extract information for this article. Human cryptosporidiosis is a severe diarrhoeal disease in malnourished children and immuno-compromised adults in whom it confers poor prognosis. Management is mainly supportive as drug therapy remains elusive. Fortunately the prevalence in AIDS patients is declining due to the widespread use of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART).

  5. Book review: Aquatic insect ecology: 1. Biology and habitat

    OpenAIRE

    Arnett, Ross H.

    2010-01-01

    Book Review: A comprehensive treatment of the ecology of aquatic insects in one place is needed for both students and researchers. Professor Ward is doing this in two volumes. The first volume covers the biology and habitats, as indicated in the subtitle, of the 13 insect orders that are either entirely aquatic at some stage, or those with some members aquatic at some stage. The second volume will be devoted entirely to the feeding ecology of these aquatic species.

  6. Incorporating the gut microbiota into models of human and non-human primate ecology and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Katherine R

    2016-01-01

    The mammalian gut is home to a diverse community of microbes. Advances in technology over the past two decades have allowed us to examine this community, the gut microbiota, in more detail, revealing a wide range of influences on host nutrition, health, and behavior. These host-gut microbe interactions appear to shape host plasticity and fitness in a variety of contexts, and therefore represent a key factor missing from existing models of human and non-human primate ecology and evolution. However, current studies of the gut microbiota tend to include limited contextual data or are clinical, making it difficult to directly test broad anthropological hypotheses. Here, I review what is known about the animal gut microbiota and provide examples of how gut microbiota research can be integrated into the study of human and non-human primate ecology and evolution with targeted data collection. Specifically, I examine how the gut microbiota may impact primate diet, energetics, disease resistance, and cognition. While gut microbiota research is proliferating rapidly, especially in the context of humans, there remain important gaps in our understanding of host-gut microbe interactions that will require an anthropological perspective to fill. Likewise, gut microbiota research will be an important tool for filling remaining gaps in anthropological research. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Early Human Evolution in the Western Palaearctic: Ecological Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrión, José S.; Rose, James; Stringer, Chris

    2011-06-01

    This review presents the themes of a special issue dealing with environmental scenarios of human evolution during the Early Pleistocene (2.6-0.78 Ma; MIS 103-MIS 19) and early Middle Pleistocene (0.78-0.47 Ma; MIS 19-base of MIS 12) within the western Palaearctic. This period is one of dramatic changes in the climates and the distribution of Palaearctic biota. These changes have played their role in generating adaptive and phyletic patterns within the human ancestry, involving several species such as Homo habilis, "Homo georgicus", Homo erectus, Homo antecessor and Homo heidelbergensis. In the archaeological record, these species include the Oldowan (Mode 1) and Acheulian (Mode 2) lithic technologies. Taphonomic considerations of palaeoecological research in hominin-bearing sites are provided and evaluated. Syntheses are provided for north Africa, western Asia, the Mediterranean Basin, Britain, and continental Europe. Palaeoenvironmental reconstructions based on multidisciplinary data are given for Ain Boucherit, Ain Hanech and El-Kherba in Algeria, Dmanisi in Georgia, Atapuerca, Cueva Negra, and the Orce Basin in Spain, Monte Poggiolo and Pirro Nord in Italy, Pont-de-Lavaud in France, and Mauer in Germany. The state of the art with the Out of Africa 1 dispersal model is reviewed. A source-sink dynamics model for Palaeolithic Europe is described to explain the morphological disparity of H. heidelbergensis (we will sometimes use the informal name "Heidelbergs") and early Neanderthals. Other aspects debated here are the selective value of habitat mosaics including reconstructions based on mammal and avian databases, and the role of geological instability combined with topographic complexity. This review is completed by addressing the question of whether the appearance of evolutionary trends within hominins is concentrated in regions of highest worldwide biological diversity (biodiversity hotspots). It is concluded that the keys for the activation of evolutionary

  8. Considerations in representing human individuals in social ecological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredo, Michael J.; Teel, Tara L.; Gavin, Michael C.; Fulton, David C.

    2017-01-01

    In this chapter we focus on how to integrate the human individual into social-ecological systems analysis, and how to improve research on individual thought and action regarding the environment by locating it within the broader social-ecological context. We discuss three key questions as considerations for future research: (1) is human thought conceptualized as a dynamic and adaptive process, (2) is the individual placed in a multi-level context (including within-person levels, person-group interactions, and institutional and structural factors), and (3) is human thought seen as mutually constructed with the social and natural environment. Increased emphasis on the individual will be essential if we are to understand agency, innovation, and adaptation in social-ecological systems.

  9. Global ecology and the human hair composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuk, L.I.; Kist, A.A.

    1993-01-01

    As an example of the mapping of human hair composition, the territory of Uzbekistan was chosen. The data and the maps obtained were compared with the environmental situation and medical statistics. World maps were drawn on the basis of various authors' data. The possibility of using human hair for radioactivity studies is discussed on the basis of data obtained in the Chernobyl area. The proposed scheme of human hair analysis may be used for world mapping for chemical elements, radionuclides, pesticides, dioxides, PCBs, etc., either to picture the global situation or as a health status on the level of populations. (author) 27 refs. 8 figs; 1 tab

  10. Ecological problems of thermonuclear energetics. Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivintsev, Yu V

    1980-01-01

    A review of preliminary quantitative estimates of radiation hazard of thermonuclear reactors is presented. Main attention is given to three aspects: nonradiation effect on environment, radionuclide blow-ups at normal operation and emergency situations with their consequences. The given data testify to great radiological advantages of thermonuclear energetics as compared with the modern nuclear energetics with thermal and prospective fast reactors.

  11. Human Dimensions of Coral Reef Social-Ecological Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John N. Kittinger

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Coral reefs are among the most diverse ecosystems on the planet but are declining because of human activities. Despite general recognition of the human role in the plight of coral reefs, the vast majority of research focuses on the ecological rather than the human dimensions of reef ecosystems, limiting our understanding of social relationships with these environments as well as potential solutions for reef recovery. General frameworks for social-ecological systems (SESs have been advanced, but system-specific approaches are needed to develop a more nuanced view of human-environmental interactions for specific contexts and resource systems, and at specific scales. We synthesize existing concepts related to SESs and present a human dimensions framework that explores the linkages between social system structural traits, human activities, ecosystem services, and human well-being in coral reef SESs. Key features of the framework include social-ecological reciprocity, proximate and underlying dimensions, and the directionality of key relationships and feedback loops. Such frameworks are needed if human dimensions research is to be more fully integrated into studies of ecosystem change and the sustainability of linked SESs.

  12. Ecological determinants of health: food and environment on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Alice M L

    2017-04-01

    Human health and diseases are determined by many complex factors. Health threats from the human-animal-ecosystems interface (HAEI) and zoonotic diseases (zoonoses) impose an increasing risk continuously to public health, from those emerging pathogens transmitted through contact with animals, food, water and contaminated environments. Immense challenges forced on the ecological perspectives on food and the eco-environments, including aquaculture, agriculture and the entire food systems. Impacts of food and eco-environments on human health will be examined amongst the importance of human interventions for intended purposes in lowering the adverse effects on the biodiversity. The complexity of relevant conditions defined as factors contributing to the ecological determinants of health will be illuminated from different perspectives based on concepts, citations, examples and models, in conjunction with harmful consequential effects of human-induced disturbances to our environments and food systems, together with the burdens from ecosystem disruption, environmental hazards and loss of ecosystem functions. The eco-health literacy should be further promoting under the "One Health" vision, with "One World" concept under Ecological Public Health Model for sustaining our environments and the planet earth for all beings, which is coincidentally echoing Confucian's theory for the environmental ethics of ecological harmony.

  13. Ecology of the aging human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnen, Joshua A; Santa Cruz, Karen; Hemmy, Laura S; Woltjer, Randall; Leverenz, James B; Montine, Kathleen S; Jack, Clifford R; Kaye, Jeffrey; Lim, Kelvin; Larson, Eric B; White, Lon; Montine, Thomas J

    2011-08-01

    Alzheimer disease, cerebral vascular brain injury, and isocortical Lewy body disease (LBD) are the major contributors to dementia in community- and population-based studies. To estimate the prevalence of clinically silent forms of these diseases in cognitively normal (CN) adults. Autopsy study. Community- and population based. A total of 1672 brain autopsies from the Adult Changes in Thought study, Honolulu-Asia Aging Study, Nun Study, and Oregon Brain Aging Study, of which 424 met the criteria for CN. Of these, 336 cases had a comprehensive neuropathologic examination of neuritic plaque density, Braak stage for neurofibrillary tangles, LB distribution, and number of cerebral microinfarcts. Forty-seven percent of CN cases had moderate or frequent neuritic plaque density; of these, 6% also had Braak stage V or VI for neurofibrillary tangles. Fifteen percent of CN cases had medullary LBD; 8% also had nigral and 4% isocortical LBD. The presence of any cerebral microinfarcts was identified in 33% and of high-level cerebral microinfarcts in 10% of CN individuals. Overall, the burden of lesions in each individual and their comorbidity varied widely within each study but were similar across studies. These data show an individually varying complex convergence of subclinical diseases in the brain of older CN adults. Appreciating this ecology should help guide future biomarker and neuroimaging studies and clinical trials that focus on community- and population-based cohorts.

  14. A review of the ecology and management of temporarily open ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research in South African temporarily open/closed estuaries that includes studies on the hydrodynamics, sediment dynamics, macronutrients, microalgae, macrophytes, zoobenthos, hyperbenthos, zooplankton, ichthyoplankton, fishes and birds is used as a basis to review the ecology and management of this estuary type ...

  15. HOW ECOLOGICAL COMMUNITIES ARE STRUCTURED: A REVIEW ON ECOLOGICAL ASSEMBLY RULES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Jaime Colorado Zuluaga

    Full Text Available Whether biological communities are deterministic or stochastic assemblages of species has long been a central topic of ecology. The widely demonstrated presence of structural patterns in nature may imply the existence of rules that regulate the organization of ecological communities. In this review, I present a compilation of major assembly rules that fundament, in a great proportion, the community assembly theory. Initially, I present a general overview of key concepts associated to the assembly of communities, in particular the origin of assembly rules, definition, the problem of scale and underlying mechanisms in the structure of ecological communities. Subsequently, two major approaches or paradigms (i.e. species-based and trait-based for the assembly of communities are discussed. Finally, major tested assembly rules are explored and discussed under the light of available published literature.

  16. Bacteriology of humans : an ecological perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilson, Michael, 1947

    2008-01-01

    ..., Staphylococcus aureus, etc. What is now a-changing is that interest is shifting towards the vast majority of our microbial partners that do not cause disease and, indeed, are essential to our well being. The indigenous microbiota of healthy humans is now the subject of intense scrutiny, and its enormous diversity and the crucial roles that it pl...

  17. INDUSTRIAL ECOLOGY A NEW PATH TO SUSTAINABILITY: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felichesmi Selestine Lyakurwa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A precise understanding of the link between industrial ecology and sustainability is vitally important for sustainable environmental performances. In this study an intensive review of industrial ecology principles, its application areas and the extent to which industrial ecology has been applied was documented. It was observed that effective application of industrial ecology is critical for sustainability, since the industry is the main polluter of the environment. It was further infered that, there is inadequate application of industrial ecology by developing countries. Thus, I hypothesis that, there is great opportunity for new investment in this field, considering the absence of modern means for the liquid and solid waste management. For example improper incineration of wastes such as hospital wastes and electrical and electronic equipment was perceived to bring health problems in the near future. Thus, it is time for governments, both in developed and developing countries to increase the applicability of industrial ecology, for sustainable social, political, economic and environmental sustainability.

  18. Environmental Escherichia coli: Ecology and public health implications - A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jeonghwan; Hur, Hor-Gil; Sadowsky, Michael J.; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara; Yan, Tao; Ishii, Satoshi

    2017-01-01

    Escherichia coli is classified as a rod-shaped, Gram-negative bacterium in the family Enterobacteriaceae. The bacterium mainly inhabits the lower intestinal tract of warm-blooded animals, including humans, and is often discharged into the environment through feces or wastewater effluent. The presence of E. coli in environmental waters has long been considered as an indicator of recent fecal pollution. However, numerous recent studies have reported that some specific strains of E. coli can survive for long periods of time, and potentially reproduce, in extra-intestinal environments. This indicates that E. coli can be integrated into indigenous microbial communities in the environment. This naturalization phenomenon calls into question the reliability of E. coli as a fecal indicator bacterium (FIB). Recently, many studies reported that E. coli populations in the environment are affected by ambient environmental conditions affecting their long-term survival. Large-scale studies of population genetics provide the diversity and complexity of E. coli strains in various environments, affected by multiple environmental factors. This review examines the current knowledge on the ecology of E. coli strains in various environments in regards to its role as a FIB and as a naturalized member of indigenous microbial communities. Special emphasis is given on the growth of pathogenic E. coli in the environment, and the population genetics of environmental members of the genus Escherichia. The impact of environmental E. coli on water quality and public health is also discussed.

  19. Tourism Management and Industrial Ecology: A Theoretical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Claudia Lucchetti

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Industrial Ecology (IE is based on the relation between the natural ecosystem and economic ecosystem. The concept refers to the metaphorical relation between the natural and industrial ecosystems as a model for transforming unsustainable industrial systems. Several tools and strategies are particularly significant for the IE development. In other words, the primary purpose of industrial ecology is to assess and reduce the impact economic activities on the environment. Tourism, as an economic activity, resulting in a full range of environmental impacts, should be treated like any other industry. This paper propose uses a theoretical review focused on IE for to investigate what is the best way to implement industrial ecology in the tourism activities. It seemed interesting to search within the IE concept for a model for the tourism sector, one of the fields with the greatest environmental interaction and economic implications.

  20. Improving the reviewing process in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grossman, G. D.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available I discuss current issues in reviewing and editorial practices in ecology and evolutionary biology and suggest possible solutions for current problems. The reviewing crisis is unlikely to change unless steps are taken by journals to provide greater inclusiveness and incentives to reviewers. In addition, both journals and institutions should reduce their emphasis on publication numbers (least publishable units and impact factors and focus instead on article synthesis and quality which will require longer publications. Academic and research institutions should consider reviewing manuscripts and editorial positions an important part of a researcher’s professional activities and reward them accordingly. Rewarding reviewers either monetarily or via other incentives such as free journal subscriptions may encourage participation in the reviewing process for both profit and non–profit journals. Reviewer performance will likely be improved by measures that increase inclusiveness, such as sending reviews and decision letters to reviewers. Journals may be able to evaluate the efficacy of their reviewing process by comparing citations of rejected but subsequently published papers with those published within the journal at similar times. Finally, constructive reviews: 1 identify important shortcomings and suggest solutions when possible, 2 distinguish trivial from non–trivial problems, and 3 include editor’s evaluations of the reviews including identification of trivial versus substantive comments (i.e., those that must be addressed.

  1. Zoonoses As Ecological Entities: A Case Review of Plague.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeppelini, Caio Graco; de Almeida, Alzira Maria Paiva; Cordeiro-Estrela, Pedro

    2016-10-01

    As a zoonosis, Plague is also an ecological entity, a complex system of ecological interactions between the pathogen, the hosts, and the spatiotemporal variations of its ecosystems. Five reservoir system models have been proposed: (i) assemblages of small mammals with different levels of susceptibility and roles in the maintenance and amplification of the cycle; (ii) species-specific chronic infection models; (ii) flea vectors as the true reservoirs; (iii) Telluric Plague, and (iv) a metapopulation arrangement for species with a discrete spatial organization, following a source-sink dynamic of extinction and recolonization with naïve potential hosts. The diversity of the community that harbors the reservoir system affects the transmission cycle by predation, competition, and dilution effect. Plague has notable environmental constraints, depending on altitude (500+ meters), warm and dry climates, and conditions for high productivity events for expansion of the transmission cycle. Human impacts are altering Plague dynamics by altering landscape and the faunal composition of the foci and adjacent areas, usually increasing the presence and number of human cases and outbreaks. Climatic change is also affecting the range of its occurrence. In the current transitional state of zoonosis as a whole, Plague is at risk of becoming a public health problem in poor countries where ecosystem erosion, anthropic invasion of new areas, and climate change increase the contact of the population with reservoir systems, giving new urgency for ecologic research that further details its maintenance in the wild, the spillover events, and how it links to human cases.

  2. Zoonoses As Ecological Entities: A Case Review of Plague.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio Graco Zeppelini

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available As a zoonosis, Plague is also an ecological entity, a complex system of ecological interactions between the pathogen, the hosts, and the spatiotemporal variations of its ecosystems. Five reservoir system models have been proposed: (i assemblages of small mammals with different levels of susceptibility and roles in the maintenance and amplification of the cycle; (ii species-specific chronic infection models; (ii flea vectors as the true reservoirs; (iii Telluric Plague, and (iv a metapopulation arrangement for species with a discrete spatial organization, following a source-sink dynamic of extinction and recolonization with naïve potential hosts. The diversity of the community that harbors the reservoir system affects the transmission cycle by predation, competition, and dilution effect. Plague has notable environmental constraints, depending on altitude (500+ meters, warm and dry climates, and conditions for high productivity events for expansion of the transmission cycle. Human impacts are altering Plague dynamics by altering landscape and the faunal composition of the foci and adjacent areas, usually increasing the presence and number of human cases and outbreaks. Climatic change is also affecting the range of its occurrence. In the current transitional state of zoonosis as a whole, Plague is at risk of becoming a public health problem in poor countries where ecosystem erosion, anthropic invasion of new areas, and climate change increase the contact of the population with reservoir systems, giving new urgency for ecologic research that further details its maintenance in the wild, the spillover events, and how it links to human cases.

  3. Architecture and functional ecology of the human gastrocnemius muscle-tendon unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Erin E; Dominy, Nathaniel J

    2016-04-01

    The gastrocnemius muscle-tendon unit (MTU) is central to human locomotion. Structural variation in the human gastrocnemius MTU is predicted to affect the efficiency of locomotion, a concept most often explored in the context of performance activities. For example, stiffness of the Achilles tendon varies among individuals with different histories of competitive running. Such a finding highlights the functional variation of individuals and raises the possibility of similar variation between populations, perhaps in response to specific ecological or environmental demands. Researchers often assume minimal variation in human populations, or that industrialized populations represent the human species as well as any other. Yet rainforest hunter-gatherers, which often express the human pygmy phenotype, contradict such assumptions. Indeed, the human pygmy phenotype is a potential model system for exploring the range of ecomorphological variation in the architecture of human hindlimb muscles, a concept we review here. © 2015 Anatomical Society.

  4. The biology of human sexuality: evolution, ecology and physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PW Bateman

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Many evolutionary biologists argue that human sexual behaviour can be studied in exactly the same way as that of other species. Many sociologists argue that social influences effectively obscure, and are more important than, a reductionist biological approach to human sexual behaviour. Here,we authors attempt to provide a broad introduction to human sexual behaviour from a biological standpoint and to indicate where the ambiguous areas are. We outline the evolutionary selective pressures that are likely to have influenced human behaviour and mate choice in the past and in the present; ecological features that influence such things as degree of parental care and polygamy; and the associated physiology of human sexuality. Then they end with a discussion of �abnormal� sexuality.

  5. [Ecological risks of reclaimed water irrigation: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Ping; Zhang, Wei-Ling; Pan, Neng; Jiao, Wen-Tao

    2012-12-01

    Wastewater reclamation and reuse have become an important approach to alleviate the water crisis in China because of its social, economic and ecological benefits. The irrigation on urban green space and farmland is the primary utilization of reclaimed water, which has been practiced world widely. To understand the risk of reclaimed water irrigation, we summarized and reviewed the publications associated with typical pollutants in reclaimed water including salts, nitrogen, heavy metals, emerging pollutants and pathogens, systematically analyzed the ecological risk posed by reclaimed water irrigation regarding plant growth, groundwater quality and public health. Studies showed that salt and salt ions were the major risk sources of reclaimed water irrigation, spreading disease was another potential risk of using reclaimed water, and emerging pollutants was the hot topic in researches of ecological risk. Based on overseas experiences, risk control measures on reclaimed water irrigation in urban green space and farmland were proposed. Five recommendations were given to promote the safe use of reclaimed water irrigation including (1) strengthen long-term in situ monitoring, (2) promote the modeling studies, (3) build up the connections of reclaimed water quality, irrigation management and ecological risk, (4) evaluate the soil bearing capacity of reclaimed water irrigation, (5) and establish risk management system of reclaimed water reuse.

  6. Ecological review of hydroelectric reservoirs in Puerto Rico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jobin, W.R.; Ferguson, F.F.; Brown, R.

    1976-10-01

    A review of published literature and available data on the ecology of hydroelectric reservoirs and other lakes in Puerto Rico yielded various studies on unrelated elements in the aquatic ecology, but very few comprehensive investigations. The majority of the island-wide studies pertained to surveys on snails related to the parasitic disease bilharzia. A survey of 28 major lakes in 1976 showed that Biomphalaria glabrata had gradually been displaced from most of the lakes by Marisa cornuarietis and Tarebia granifera, two foreign snails which do not transmit bilharzia. Of the 17 lakes containing B. glabrata in 1956, only 8 remained infested in 1966 and only 5 in 1976, twenty years after the introduction of Marisa cornuarietis. Although the trend indicates that the lakes may be safe from transmission a monitoring system is necessary before the lakes could be used for recreation.

  7. Human drivers of ecological and evolutionary dynamics in emerging and disappearing infectious disease systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogalski, Mary A; Gowler, Camden D; Shaw, Clara L; Hufbauer, Ruth A; Duffy, Meghan A

    2017-01-19

    Humans have contributed to the increased frequency and severity of emerging infectious diseases, which pose a significant threat to wild and domestic species, as well as human health. This review examines major pathways by which humans influence parasitism by altering (co)evolutionary interactions between hosts and parasites on ecological timescales. There is still much to learn about these interactions, but a few well-studied cases show that humans influence disease emergence every step of the way. Human actions significantly increase dispersal of host, parasite and vector species, enabling greater frequency of infection in naive host populations and host switches. Very dense host populations resulting from urbanization and agriculture can drive the evolution of more virulent parasites and, in some cases, more resistant host populations. Human activities that reduce host genetic diversity or impose abiotic stress can impair the ability of hosts to adapt to disease threats. Further, evolutionary responses of hosts and parasites can thwart disease management and biocontrol efforts. Finally, in rare cases, humans influence evolution by eradicating an infectious disease. If we hope to fully understand the factors driving disease emergence and potentially control these epidemics we must consider the widespread influence of humans on host and parasite evolutionary trajectories.This article is part of the themed issue 'Human influences on evolution, and the ecological and societal consequences'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  8. Human influences on evolution, and the ecological and societal consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, Andrew P; Gotanda, Kiyoko M; Svensson, Erik I

    2017-01-19

    Humans have dramatic, diverse and far-reaching influences on the evolution of other organisms. Numerous examples of this human-induced contemporary evolution have been reported in a number of 'contexts', including hunting, harvesting, fishing, agriculture, medicine, climate change, pollution, eutrophication, urbanization, habitat fragmentation, biological invasions and emerging/disappearing diseases. Although numerous papers, journal special issues and books have addressed each of these contexts individually, the time has come to consider them together and thereby seek important similarities and differences. The goal of this special issue, and this introductory paper, is to promote and expand this nascent integration. We first develop predictions as to which human contexts might cause the strongest and most consistent directional selection, the greatest changes in evolutionary potential, the greatest genetic (as opposed to plastic) changes and the greatest effects on evolutionary diversification We then develop predictions as to the contexts where human-induced evolutionary changes might have the strongest effects on the population dynamics of the focal evolving species, the structure of their communities, the functions of their ecosystems and the benefits and costs for human societies. These qualitative predictions are intended as a rallying point for broader and more detailed future discussions of how human influences shape evolution, and how that evolution then influences species traits, biodiversity, ecosystems and humans.This article is part of the themed issue 'Human influences on evolution, and the ecological and societal consequences'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  9. Ecological validity of cost-effectiveness models of universal HPV vaccination: A systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favato, Giampiero; Easton, Tania; Vecchiato, Riccardo; Noikokyris, Emmanouil

    2017-05-09

    The protective (herd) effect of the selective vaccination of pubertal girls against human papillomavirus (HPV) implies a high probability that one of the two partners involved in intercourse is immunised, hence preventing the other from this sexually transmitted infection. The dynamic transmission models used to inform immunisation policy should include consideration of sexual behaviours and population mixing in order to demonstrate an ecological validity, whereby the scenarios modelled remain faithful to the real-life social and cultural context. The primary aim of this review is to test the ecological validity of the universal HPV vaccination cost-effectiveness modelling available in the published literature. The research protocol related to this systematic review has been registered in the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO: CRD42016034145). Eight published economic evaluations were reviewed. None of the studies showed due consideration of the complexities of human sexual behaviour and the impact this may have on the transmission of HPV. Our findings indicate that all the included models might be affected by a different degree of ecological bias, which implies an inability to reflect the natural demographic and behavioural trends in their outcomes and, consequently, to accurately inform public healthcare policy. In particular, ecological bias have the effect to over-estimate the preference-based outcomes of selective immunisation. A relatively small (15-20%) over-estimation of quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained with selective immunisation programmes could induce a significant error in the estimate of cost-effectiveness of universal immunisation, by inflating its incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER) beyond the acceptability threshold. The results modelled here demonstrate the limitations of the cost-effectiveness studies for HPV vaccination, and highlight the concern that public healthcare policy might have been

  10. Belted kingfishers as ecological monitors of contamination: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landrum, C.L.

    1993-03-01

    Aquatic systems serve as transport pathways and reservoirs for most of the contaminants known to be present on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Organisms that live in aquatic systems accumulate some of these contaminants from their food and directly from the water or sediment. A wide array of terrestrial organisms feeds on aquatic organisms and may accumulate contaminants from aquatic prey. The belted kingfisher (Ceryle alcyon) is a piscivorous and territorial avian species that may be a suitable monitor of contaminant accumulation at specific sites on the ORR. A kingfisher collected on White Oak Lake in 1991 had a 137 Cs concentration of 568 pCi/g in muscle tissue, which exceeds levels found in any other waterfowl collected from the lake. An investigation into the efficacy of using the kingfisher as an ecological indicator of aquatic contaminants on the ORR was initiated in late August 1992. The primary objective of this study was to acquire information concerning the ecology of the kingfisher to determine how the species could be used within the framework of the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). A second important objective of the study was to examine the possible somatic and reproductive effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), Hg, and various radioactive contaminants on piscivorous birds by reviewing pollution ecology studies conducted on those species

  11. Belted kingfishers as ecological monitors of contamination: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landrum, C.L. [North Texas Univ., Denton, TX (United States). Dept. of Biology; Ashwood, T.L.; Cox, D.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1993-03-01

    Aquatic systems serve as transport pathways and reservoirs for most of the contaminants known to be present on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Organisms that live in aquatic systems accumulate some of these contaminants from their food and directly from the water or sediment. A wide array of terrestrial organisms feeds on aquatic organisms and may accumulate contaminants from aquatic prey. The belted kingfisher (Ceryle alcyon) is a piscivorous and territorial avian species that may be a suitable monitor of contaminant accumulation at specific sites on the ORR. A kingfisher collected on White Oak Lake in 1991 had a {sup 137}Cs concentration of 568 pCi/g in muscle tissue, which exceeds levels found in any other waterfowl collected from the lake. An investigation into the efficacy of using the kingfisher as an ecological indicator of aquatic contaminants on the ORR was initiated in late August 1992. The primary objective of this study was to acquire information concerning the ecology of the kingfisher to determine how the species could be used within the framework of the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). A second important objective of the study was to examine the possible somatic and reproductive effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), Hg, and various radioactive contaminants on piscivorous birds by reviewing pollution ecology studies conducted on those species.

  12. Putting humans in ecology: consistency in science and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Larry; Fowler, Charles W

    2008-03-01

    Normal and abnormal levels of human participation in ecosystems can be revealed through the use of macro-ecological patterns. Such patterns also provide consistent and objective guidance that will lead to achieving and maintaining ecosystem health and sustainability. This paper focuses on the consistency of this type of guidance and management. Such management, in sharp contrast to current management practices, ensures that our actions as individuals, institutions, political groups, societies, and as a species are applied consistently across all temporal, spatial, and organizational scales. This approach supplants management of today, where inconsistency results from debate, politics, and legal and religious polarity. Consistency is achieved when human endeavors are guided by natural patterns. Pattern-based management meets long-standing demands for enlightened management that requires humans to participate in complex systems in consistent and sustainable ways.

  13. [Human ecology. Which is the main challenge to Russia?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velichkovskiĭ, B T

    2002-01-01

    The main direction in the study of human ecology in Russia today is to provide evidence for how to maintain environmental balance in the biosphere of the Earth, though the above factor also exerts a constantly growing negative impact on the health and life quality of the population. During the years of the reforms in the country, all the principal medical and demographic indices have undergone negative changes. To overcome the medicodemographic crisis should be now a priority problem to be solved in human ecology in Russia. The crisis was mainly caused by the "shock" strategy of the reforms. To eliminate the negative medicodemographic consequences, a strong working motivation should be firstly created for the population, that is to create such conditions that allow people to earn well-deserved living by honest work. All this requires the development of small business, democratization of private property forms of private property, and changes in the Government's policy concerning work payment. Medical scientists should clarify how biological mechanisms, that is negative social, economic and psychological factors, cause a drastic increase in mortality, particularly in the able-bodied population. This process is likely to involve three regulation levels; the central nervous system (dynamic stereotype break, as called by I. P. Pavlov), the neuroendocrine system (great stress, as described by G. Selye), molecular-cellular free radical processes (phenoptosis, as outlined by V. P. Skulachev). Five factors that most negatively affect human health and demographic processes were identified.

  14. Human Systems Roadmap Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-09

    Impact of Human Systems Community of Interest D O T M L P F $450M COI Budget Has Broad Impact in Several DOTMLPF Areas Decision Making Selection...and fit to a military career. • 26 personality dimensions such as optimism, excitement seeking, and non- delinquency • Applicant chooses from...Adaptive Collaborative Control Technologies ( IMPACT ) architecture designed • IMPACT “DoD Virtual Lab” established (Year 1) • 1 operator x 6 vehicles

  15. Managing ecological thresholds in coupled environmental–human systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horan, Richard D.; Fenichel, Eli P.; Drury, Kevin L. S.; Lodge, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Many ecosystems appear subject to regime shifts—abrupt changes from one state to another after crossing a threshold or tipping point. Thresholds and their associated stability landscapes are determined within a coupled socioeconomic–ecological system (SES) where human choices, including those of managers, are feedback responses. Prior work has made one of two assumptions about managers: that they face no institutional constraints, in which case the SES may be managed to be fairly robust to shocks and tipping points are of little importance, or that managers are rigidly constrained with no flexibility to adapt, in which case the inferred thresholds may poorly reflect actual managerial flexibility. We model a multidimensional SES to investigate how alternative institutions affect SES stability landscapes and alter tipping points. With institutionally dependent human feedbacks, the stability landscape depends on institutional arrangements. Strong institutions that account for feedback responses create the possibility for desirable states of the world and can cause undesirable states to cease to exist. Intermediate institutions interact with ecological relationships to determine the existence and nature of tipping points. Finally, weak institutions can eliminate tipping points so that only undesirable states of the world remain. PMID:21502517

  16. Shades of green: Measuring the ecology of urban green space in the context of human health and well-being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna Jorgensen; Paul H. Gobster

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we review and analyze the recent research literature on urban green space and human health and well-being, with an emphasis on studies that attempt to measure biodiversity and other green space concepts relevant to urban ecological restoration. We first conduct a broad scale assessment of the literature to identify typologies of urban green space and...

  17. Human Impacts on Seals, Sea Lions, and Sea Otters: Integrating Archaeology and Ecology of the Northeast Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray Pierotti

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Review of Human Impacts on Seals, Sea Lions, and Sea Otters: Integrating Archaeology and Ecology of the Northeast Pacific. Todd J. Braje and Torben C. Rick, editors. 2011. University of California Press, Berkeley. Pp. 328. $65.00 (hardcover. ISBN 9780520267268.

  18. Human Gut Microbiota: Toward an Ecology of Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susannah Selber-Hnatiw

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Composed of trillions of individual microbes, the human gut microbiota has adapted to the uniquely diverse environments found in the human intestine. Quickly responding to the variances in the ingested food, the microbiota interacts with the host via reciprocal biochemical signaling to coordinate the exchange of nutrients and proper immune function. Host and microbiota function as a unit which guards its balance against invasion by potential pathogens and which undergoes natural selection. Disturbance of the microbiota composition, or dysbiosis, is often associated with human disease, indicating that, while there seems to be no unique optimal composition of the gut microbiota, a balanced community is crucial for human health. Emerging knowledge of the ecology of the microbiota-host synergy will have an impact on how we implement antibiotic treatment in therapeutics and prophylaxis and how we will consider alternative strategies of global remodeling of the microbiota such as fecal transplants. Here we examine the microbiota-human host relationship from the perspective of the microbial community dynamics.

  19. Human Gut Microbiota: Toward an Ecology of Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selber-Hnatiw, Susannah; Rukundo, Belise; Ahmadi, Masoumeh; Akoubi, Hayfa; Al-Bizri, Hend; Aliu, Adelekan F.; Ambeaghen, Tanyi U.; Avetisyan, Lilit; Bahar, Irmak; Baird, Alexandra; Begum, Fatema; Ben Soussan, Hélène; Blondeau-Éthier, Virginie; Bordaries, Roxane; Bramwell, Helene; Briggs, Alicia; Bui, Richard; Carnevale, Matthew; Chancharoen, Marisa; Chevassus, Talia; Choi, Jin H.; Coulombe, Karyne; Couvrette, Florence; D'Abreau, Samantha; Davies, Meghan; Desbiens, Marie-Pier; Di Maulo, Tamara; Di Paolo, Sean-Anthony; Do Ponte, Sabrina; dos Santos Ribeiro, Priscyla; Dubuc-Kanary, Laure-Anne; Duncan, Paola K.; Dupuis, Frédérique; El-Nounou, Sara; Eyangos, Christina N.; Ferguson, Natasha K.; Flores-Chinchilla, Nancy R.; Fotakis, Tanya; Gado Oumarou H D, Mariam; Georgiev, Metodi; Ghiassy, Seyedehnazanin; Glibetic, Natalija; Grégoire Bouchard, Julien; Hassan, Tazkia; Huseen, Iman; Ibuna Quilatan, Marlon-Francis; Iozzo, Tania; Islam, Safina; Jaunky, Dilan B.; Jeyasegaram, Aniththa; Johnston, Marc-André; Kahler, Matthew R.; Kaler, Kiranpreet; Kamani, Cedric; Karimian Rad, Hessam; Konidis, Elisavet; Konieczny, Filip; Kurianowicz, Sandra; Lamothe, Philippe; Legros, Karina; Leroux, Sebastien; Li, Jun; Lozano Rodriguez, Monica E.; Luponio-Yoffe, Sean; Maalouf, Yara; Mantha, Jessica; McCormick, Melissa; Mondragon, Pamela; Narayana, Thivaedee; Neretin, Elizaveta; Nguyen, Thi T. T.; Niu, Ian; Nkemazem, Romeo B.; O'Donovan, Martin; Oueis, Matthew; Paquette, Stevens; Patel, Nehal; Pecsi, Emily; Peters, Jackie; Pettorelli, Annie; Poirier, Cassandra; Pompa, Victoria R.; Rajen, Harshvardhan; Ralph, Reginald-Olivier; Rosales-Vasquez, Josué; Rubinshtein, Daria; Sakr, Surya; Sebai, Mohammad S.; Serravalle, Lisa; Sidibe, Fily; Sinnathurai, Ahnjana; Soho, Dominique; Sundarakrishnan, Adithi; Svistkova, Veronika; Ugbeye, Tsolaye E.; Vasconcelos, Megan S.; Vincelli, Michael; Voitovich, Olga; Vrabel, Pamela; Wang, Lu; Wasfi, Maryse; Zha, Cong Y.; Gamberi, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    Composed of trillions of individual microbes, the human gut microbiota has adapted to the uniquely diverse environments found in the human intestine. Quickly responding to the variances in the ingested food, the microbiota interacts with the host via reciprocal biochemical signaling to coordinate the exchange of nutrients and proper immune function. Host and microbiota function as a unit which guards its balance against invasion by potential pathogens and which undergoes natural selection. Disturbance of the microbiota composition, or dysbiosis, is often associated with human disease, indicating that, while there seems to be no unique optimal composition of the gut microbiota, a balanced community is crucial for human health. Emerging knowledge of the ecology of the microbiota-host synergy will have an impact on how we implement antibiotic treatment in therapeutics and prophylaxis and how we will consider alternative strategies of global remodeling of the microbiota such as fecal transplants. Here we examine the microbiota-human host relationship from the perspective of the microbial community dynamics. PMID:28769880

  20. The ecology of insect-yeast relationships and its relevance to human industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Anne A; Epps, Mary Jane; Fukami, Tadashi; Irwin, Rebecca E; Sheppard, John; Sorger, D Magdalena; Dunn, Robert R

    2018-03-28

    Many species of yeast are integral to human society. They produce many of our foods, beverages and industrial chemicals, challenge us as pathogens, and provide models for the study of our own biology. However, few species are regularly studied and much of their ecology remains unclear, hindering the development of knowledge that is needed to improve the relationships between humans and yeasts. There is increasing evidence that insects are an essential component of ascomycetous yeast ecology. We propose a 'dispersal-encounter hypothesis' whereby yeasts are dispersed by insects between ephemeral, spatially disparate sugar resources, and insects, in turn, obtain the benefits of an honest signal from yeasts for the sugar resources. We review the relationship between yeasts and insects through three main examples: social wasps, social bees and beetles, with some additional examples from fruit flies. Ultimately, we suggest that over the next decades, consideration of these ecological and evolutionary relationships between insects and yeasts will allow prediction of where new yeast diversity is most likely to be discovered, particularly yeasts with traits of interest to human industry. © 2018 The Author(s).

  1. Accounting for imperfect detection in ecology: a quantitative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellner, Kenneth F; Swihart, Robert K

    2014-01-01

    Detection in studies of species abundance and distribution is often imperfect. Assuming perfect detection introduces bias into estimation that can weaken inference upon which understanding and policy are based. Despite availability of numerous methods designed to address this assumption, many refereed papers in ecology fail to account for non-detection error. We conducted a quantitative literature review of 537 ecological articles to measure the degree to which studies of different taxa, at various scales, and over time have accounted for imperfect detection. Overall, just 23% of articles accounted for imperfect detection. The probability that an article incorporated imperfect detection increased with time and varied among taxa studied; studies of vertebrates were more likely to incorporate imperfect detection. Among articles that reported detection probability, 70% contained per-survey estimates of detection that were less than 0.5. For articles in which constancy of detection was tested, 86% reported significant variation. We hope that our findings prompt more ecologists to consider carefully the detection process when designing studies and analyzing results, especially for sub-disciplines where incorporation of imperfect detection in study design and analysis so far has been lacking.

  2. From biofilm ecology to reactors: a focused review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boltz, Joshua P.; Smets, Barth F.; Rittmann, Bruce E.

    2017-01-01

    the following three topics: (1) biofilm ecology, (2) biofilm reactor technology and design, and (3) biofilm modeling. In so doing, it addresses the processes occurring in the biofilm, and how these affect and are affected by the broader biofilm system. The symphonic application of a suite of biological methods...... on the performance of various systems, but they can also be used beneficially for the treatment of water (defined herein as potable water, municipal and industrial wastewater, fresh/brackish/salt water bodies, groundwater) as well as in water stream-based biological resource recovery systems. This review addresses...... polymeric substance matrix are somewhat known, but their exact composition and role in the microbial conversion kinetics and biochemical transformations are still to be resolved. Biofilm grown microorganisms may contribute to increased metabolism of micro-pollutants. Several types of biofilm reactors have...

  3. Extreme weather and climate events with ecological relevance: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ummenhofer, Caroline C; Meehl, Gerald A

    2017-06-19

    Robust evidence exists that certain extreme weather and climate events, especially daily temperature and precipitation extremes, have changed in regard to intensity and frequency over recent decades. These changes have been linked to human-induced climate change, while the degree to which climate change impacts an individual extreme climate event (ECE) is more difficult to quantify. Rapid progress in event attribution has recently been made through improved understanding of observed and simulated climate variability, methods for event attribution and advances in numerical modelling. Attribution for extreme temperature events is stronger compared with other event types, notably those related to the hydrological cycle. Recent advances in the understanding of ECEs, both in observations and their representation in state-of-the-art climate models, open new opportunities for assessing their effect on human and natural systems. Improved spatial resolution in global climate models and advances in statistical and dynamical downscaling now provide climatic information at appropriate spatial and temporal scales. Together with the continued development of Earth System Models that simulate biogeochemical cycles and interactions with the biosphere at increasing complexity, these make it possible to develop a mechanistic understanding of how ECEs affect biological processes, ecosystem functioning and adaptation capabilities. Limitations in the observational network, both for physical climate system parameters and even more so for long-term ecological monitoring, have hampered progress in understanding bio-physical interactions across a range of scales. New opportunities for assessing how ECEs modulate ecosystem structure and functioning arise from better scientific understanding of ECEs coupled with technological advances in observing systems and instrumentation.This article is part of the themed issue 'Behavioural, ecological and evolutionary responses to extreme climatic events

  4. Electricity sector human resources review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Facette, J. [Canadian Association of Technicians and Technologists (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    The electricity industry is expanding, with new supply and infrastructure development equivalent to 35 per cent of existing capacity over the next 20 years. This paper examines the preliminary results of a human resources sector review providing industry specific labor force data. The key objectives of the review were to develop detailed industry profiles, identify root causes of human resources issues, identify industry best practices and develop a human resources strategy for the Canadian electricity sector. Estimates of current employment were provided, with age of employees, retirement projections, regional projections and estimated supply/demand gaps. Current shortages were identified, including wind energy technicians. The paper also identified a declining Canadian born labor force and a concurrent dependence on immigrants. A project research methodology was provided with a list of participating major employers. tabs., figs.

  5. Aspects of elephant behavior, ecology, and interactions with humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Caitlin Elizabeth

    This dissertation is comprised of two chapters relating to the acoustic behavior of elephants, their surrounding ecology and interactions with humans. The first chapter investigates the seismic aspects of Asian elephant (Elephus maximus) acoustic communication. The second chapter is comprised of a synthesis of two separate studies conducted on the African elephant (Loxodonta africana) in Namibia, both in Etosha National Park and the Caprivi region. The two studies were combined and published in Biological Conservation as one large study on aspects of the economic and social impacts of elephant/human conflict and experiments conducted to reduce conflict. In chapter one, seismic and acoustic data were recorded simultaneously from Asian elephants during periods of vocalizations and locomotion. Acoustic and seismic signals from rumbles were highly correlated at near and far distances and were in phase near the elephant and were out of phase at an increased distance from the elephant. Data analyses indicated that elephant generated signals associated with rumbles and "foot stomps" propagated at different velocities in the two media, the acoustic signals traveling at 309 m/s and the seismic signals at 248--264 m/s. Both types of signals had predominant frequencies in the range of 20 Hz. Seismic signal amplitudes considerably above background noise were recorded at 40 m from the generating elephants for both the rumble and the stomp. Seismic propagation models suggest that seismic waveforms from vocalizations are potentially detectable by instruments at distances of up to 16 km, and up to 32 km for locomotion generated signals. Thus, if detectable by elephants, these seismic signals could be useful for long distance communication. In chapter two, the economic impact of elephants, Loxodonta africana , and predators, particularly lions, Panthera leo, on rural agriculturists in the Kwando region of the East Caprivi, Namibia was assessed from the years 1991 to 1995. Elephants

  6. Is it becoming harder to secure reviewers for peer review? A test with data from five ecology journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Arianne Y K; Gow, Jennifer L; Cobra, Alison; Vines, Timothy H

    2016-01-01

    There is concern in the academic publishing community that it is becoming more difficult to secure reviews for peer-reviewed manuscripts, but much of this concern stems from anecdotal and rhetorical evidence. We examined the proportion of review requests that led to a completed review over a 6-year period (2009-2015) in a mid-tier biology journal ( Molecular Ecology ). We also re-analyzed previously published data from four other mid-tier ecology journals ( Functional Ecology , Journal of Ecology , Journal of Animal Ecology , and Journal of Applied Ecology ), looking at the same proportion over the period 2003 to 2010. The data from Molecular Ecology showed no significant decrease through time in the proportion of requests that led to a review (proportion in 2009 = 0.47 (95 % CI = 0.43 to 0.52), proportion in 2015 = 0.44 (95 % CI = 0.40 to 0.48)). This proportion did decrease for three of the other ecology journals (changes in proportions from 2003 to 2010 = -0.10, -0.18, and -0.09), while the proportion for the fourth ( Functional Ecology ) stayed roughly constant (change in proportion = -0.04). Overall, our data suggest that reviewer agreement rates have probably declined slightly but not to the extent suggested by the anecdotal and rhetorical evidence.

  7. The human dimensions of climate change: A micro-level assessment of views from the ecological modernization, political economy and human ecology perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adua, Lazarus; York, Richard; Schuelke-Leech, Beth-Anne

    2016-03-01

    Understanding the manifold human and physical dimensions of climate change has become an area of great interest to researchers in recent decades. Using a U.S. nationally-representative data set and drawing on the ecological modernization, political economy, and human ecology perspectives, this study examines the impacts of energy efficiency technologies, affluence, household demographics, and biophysical characteristics on residential CO2 emissions. Overall, the study provides mixed support for the ecological modernization perspective. While several findings are consistent with the theory's expectation that modern societies can harness technology to mitigate human impacts on the environment, others directly contradict it. Also, the theory's prediction of an inverted U-shaped relationship between affluence and environmental impacts is contradicted. The evidence is somewhat more supportive of the political economy and human ecology perspectives, with affluence, some indicators of technology, household demographics, and biophysical characteristics emerging as important drivers of residential CO2 emissions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Innovative human health and ecological risk assessment techniques at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, S.; Jones, K.; Goller, E.

    1993-01-01

    The open-quotes Hanford Site Baseline Risk Assessment Methodologyclose quotes (HSBRAM) was developed to enhance the preparation of risk assessments supporting the Hanford site cleanup mission. This methodology satisfies a Hanford federal facility agreement and consent order (tri-party agreement) milestone and is used to evaluate the risk to human health and the environment under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The methodology was prepared by the Hanford Risk Assessment Committee (RAC) consisting of tri-party representatives: the U.S. Department of Energy, the State of Washington Department of Ecology, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), with associated contractors. The risk assessment guidance provided by EPA is sufficiently general to permit tailoring of specific parameters to meet the risk assessment needs of individual sites. The RAC utilized EPA's Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund, (RAGS) as the cornerstone of the HSBRAM. The RAC added necessary Hanford-specific elements to construct a complete risk assessment guidance for utilization as an independent document. The HSBRAM is a living document because the RAC charter emphasizes the importance of continued methodology reevaluation. The HSBRAM also provides guidelines for the application of EPA's open-quotes Framework for Ecological Risk Assessmentclose quotes to Hanford-specific environmental baseline risk assessments by including endangered and threatened species in addition to sensitive habitats potentially associated with the Hanford site and guidance for selection of ecotoxicological data. Separate negotiations for the selection of risk parameters for each operable unit were avoided by defining parameters in the HSBRAM. There are 78 past-practice operable units at Hanford requiring risk assessments

  9. From Bathymetry to Bioshields: A Review of Post-Tsunami Ecological Research in India and its Implications for Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Nibedita; Dahdouh-Guebas, Farid; Kapoor, Vena; Arthur, Rohan; Koedam, Nico; Sridhar, Aarthi; Shanker, Kartik

    2010-09-01

    More than half a decade has passed since the December 26th 2004 tsunami hit the Indian coast leaving a trail of ecological, economic and human destruction in its wake. We reviewed the coastal ecological research carried out in India in the light of the tsunami. In addition, we also briefly reviewed the ecological research in other tsunami affected countries in Asia namely Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Thailand and Maldives in order to provide a broader perspective of ecological research after tsunami. A basic search in ISI Web of Knowledge using keywords “tsunami” and “India” resulted in 127 peer reviewed journal articles, of which 39 articles were pertaining to ecological sciences. In comparison, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Thailand and Maldives had, respectively, eight, four, 21 and two articles pertaining to ecology. In India, bioshields received the major share of scientific interest (14 out of 39) while only one study (each) was dedicated to corals, seagrasses, seaweeds and meiofauna, pointing to the paucity of research attention dedicated to these critical ecosystems. We noted that very few interdisciplinary studies looked at linkages between pure/applied sciences and the social sciences in India. In addition, there appears to be little correlation between the limited research that was done and its influence on policy in India. This review points to gap areas in ecological research in India and highlights the lessons learnt from research in other tsunami-affected countries. It also provides guidance on the links between science and policy that are required for effective coastal zone management.

  10. Ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalusche, D.

    1978-01-01

    The book turns to the freshment, the teacher, for preparation of ecological topics for lessons, but also to pupils of the secondary stage II, and the main course ecology. The book was knowingly held simple with the restriction to: the ecosystem and its abiotic basic functions, simple articles on population biology, bioceonotic balance ith the questions of niche formation and the life form types coherent with it, of the substance and energy household, the production biology and space-wise and time-wise differentations within an ecological system form the main points. A central role in the volume is given to the illustrations. Their variety is to show and deepen the coherences shown. (orig./HP) [de

  11. Review of Pasteuria penetrans: Biology, Ecology, and Biological Control Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Z X; Dickson, D W

    1998-09-01

    Pasteuria penetrans is a mycelial, endospore-forming, bacterial parasite that has shown great potential as a biological control agent of root-knot nematodes. Considerable progress has been made during the last 10 years in understanding its biology and importance as an agent capable of effectively suppressing root-knot nematodes in field soil. The objective of this review is to summarize the current knowledge of the biology, ecology, and biological control potential of P. penetrans and other Pasteuria members. Pasteuria spp. are distributed worldwide and have been reported from 323 nematode species belonging to 116 genera of free-living, predatory, plant-parasitic, and entomopathogenic nematodes. Artificial cultivation of P. penetrans has met with limited success; large-scale production of endospores depends on in vivo cultivation. Temperature affects endospore attachment, germination, pathogenesis, and completion of the life cycle in the nematode pseudocoelom. The biological control potential of Pasteuria spp. have been demonstrated on 20 crops; host nematodes include Belonolaimus longicaudatus, Heterodera spp., Meloidogyne spp., and Xiphinema diversicaudatum. Pasteuria penetrans plays an important role in some suppressive soils. The efficacy of the bacterium as a biological control agent has been examined. Approximately 100,000 endospores/g of soil provided immediate control of the peanut root-knot nematode, whereas 1,000 and 5,000 endospores/g of soil each amplified in the host nematode and became suppressive after 3 years.

  12. Book Review: Wildlife ecology and conservation | Bekele | Ethiopian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Book Title: Wildlife ecology and conservation. Book Author: Mundanthra Balakrishnan. Published by Scientific Publishers, Jodhpur/New Delhi (Published in May 2016) ISBN: 978-81-7233-974-6 ...

  13. Integrating Ethno-Ecological and Scientific Knowledge of Termites for Sustainable Termite Management and Human Welfare in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudeta W. Sileshi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite their well-known role as pests, termites also provide essential ecosystem services. In this paper, we undertook a comprehensive review of studies on human-termite interactions and farmers' indigenous knowledge across Sub-Saharan Africa in an effort to build coherent principles for termite management. The review revealed that local communities have comprehensive indigenous knowledge of termite ecology and taxonomy, and apply various indigenous control practices. Many communities also have elaborate knowledge of the nutritional and medicinal value of termites and mushrooms associated with termite nests. Children and women also widely consume termite mound soil for nutritional or other benefits encouraged by indigenous belief systems. In addition, subsistence farmers use termites as indicators of soil fertility, and use termite mound soil in low-risk farming strategies for crop production. In the past, chemical control of termites has been initiated without empirical data on the termite species, their damage threshold, and the social, ecological, or economic risks and trade-offs of the control. This review has provided new insights into the intimate nature of human-termite interactions in Africa and the risks of chemical control of termites to human welfare and the environment. We recommend that management of termites in future should be built on farmers' indigenous knowledge and adequate understanding of the ecology of the local termite species.

  14. Human ecology. Foundations of preventive environmental policy. Humanoekologie. Grundlagen praeventiver Umweltpolitik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glaeser, B [ed.

    1989-01-01

    Can human ecology contribute towards originating a preventive environmental policy. Following a discussion of the demands of preventive environmental policy between theory and practice, the book presents the scientific approach 'human ecology' from a social-scientific angle. Then the question of the foundation in environmentally-related ethics is dealt with. The application and realizability of human-ecological considerations are tested with reference to different sectors of politics, and positive and negative indications of the chances of realization of a preventive environmental policy are discussed. (orig.).

  15. Confluence of arts, humanities, and science at sites of long-term ecological inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick J. Swanson

    2015-01-01

    Over the past century, ecology, the arts, and humanities diverged, but are now converging again, especially at sites of long-term, place-based ecological inquiry. This convergence has been inspired in part by the works of creative, boundary-spanning individuals and the long-standing examples of artshumanities programs in intriguing landscapes, such as artist and writer...

  16. Radical Transformation in the Human - Nature Perception: Deep Ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan YAYLI

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available There have been numerous endeavors to date the green thought. As the environmental problems have begun to be apparent in the aftermath of the second world war, the year of 1952, a traumatic incident is noted where more than four thousand people have died d ue to air pollution in London, while in 1970, Rome Club have initiated within the Project of Predicament of Mankind in collaboration with Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT, in which zero growth thesis put forward in its famed report. Both the for mer and the latter ignited environmental awareness and regarded as the point of origins for the green thought. Regardless of where it begins from, ecological movements have mainly followed the paths of two movements of thought and tried to develop their p aradigms on the basis of these two main thoughts. The environmentalists that named as socialist or Marxist asserts that only through a radical transformation where capitalist way of production is abandoned, the prevention of environmental degradation cou ld be achieved. Whereas the environmentalists who follow the capitalist paradigm believed the protection of environment could be achieved by means of the sustainability in terms of natural resource pool and waste - disposal practices. If we look closely, both of these two movements of thought are anthropocentric. An alternative ecological movement of thought has proposed in 1973 by Norwegian philosopher, Arne Naess, in his work named, “The Shallow and the Deep, Long - Range Ecology Moveme nt: A Summary”. This Deep Ecology approach moves through the commitment to the inner value of the nature aside from mankind and by this way, differs from anthropocentric approaches. Within forty two years, Deep Ecology has led various discussions. The the mes as “ecosophy” which has proposed to define itself and the “bio - regions” conception which put forward to actualize its philosophy could be counted among the reference points of the

  17. Presentation: Human and Ecological Health Impacts Associated with Water Reuse and Conservation Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation was given by Dr. James Johnson at the STAR Human and Ecological Health Impacts Associated with Water Reuse and Conservation Practices Kick-off Meeting and Webinar held on Oct. 26-27, 2016.

  18. Human parvovirus B19: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogo, L D; Mokhtari-Azad, T; Kabir, M H; Rezaei, F

    2014-01-01

    Parvovirus B19 (B19V) is a small non-enveloped single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) virus of the family Parvoviridae, the subfamily Parvovirinae, the genus Erythrovirus and Human parvovirus B19 type species. It is a common community-acquired respiratory pathogen without ethnic, socioeconomic, gender, age or geographic boundaries. Moreover, the epidemiological and ecological relationships between human parvovirus B19, man and environment have aroused increasing interest in this virus. B19V infection is associated with a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, some of which were well established and some are still controversial, however, it is also underestimated from a clinical perspective. B19V targets the erythroid progenitors in the bone marrow by binding to the glycosphingolipid globoside (Gb4), leading to large receptor-induced structural changes triggering cell death either by lysis or by apoptosis mediated by the nonstructural (NS)1 protein. The pattern of genetic evolution, its peculiar properties and functional profile, the characteristics of its narrow tropism and restricted replication, its complex relationship with the host and its ample pathogenetic potential are all topics that are far from a comprehensive understanding. The lack of efficient adaptation to in vitro cellular cultures and the absence of animal models have limited classical virological studies and made studies on B19V dependent on molecular biology. The present review looks at the nature of this virus with the view to provide more information about its biology, which may be useful to the present and future researchers. human parvovirus B19; respiratory pathogen; biology; genome; fifth disease; transient aplastic crisis; anemia.

  19. Diversity, metabolism and microbial ecology of butyrate-producing bacteria from the human large intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Petra; Flint, Harry J

    2009-05-01

    Butyrate-producing bacteria play a key role in colonic health in humans. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge of the diversity, metabolism and microbial ecology of this functionally important group of bacteria. Human colonic butyrate producers are Gram-positive firmicutes, but are phylogenetically diverse, with the two most abundant groups related to Eubacterium rectale/Roseburia spp. and to Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. Five different arrangements have been identified for the genes of the central pathway involved in butyrate synthesis, while in most cases butyryl-CoA : acetate CoA-transferase, rather than butyrate kinase, appears to perform the final step in butyrate synthesis. Mechanisms have been proposed recently in non-gut Clostridium spp. whereby butyrate synthesis can result in energy generation via both substrate-level phosphorylation and proton gradients. Here we suggest that these mechanisms also apply to the majority of butyrate producers from the human colon. The roles of these bacteria in the gut community and their influence on health are now being uncovered, taking advantage of the availability of cultured isolates and molecular methodologies. Populations of F. prausnitzii are reported to be decreased in Crohn's disease, for example, while populations of Roseburia relatives appear to be particularly sensitive to the diet composition in human volunteer studies.

  20. How to save the earth planet. Ecology and human spirit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Gore.

    1993-01-01

    The author has undertaken for 25 years in all the struggles for the environment protection. His ecology competences are worldwide recognized. With ''HOW TO SAVE THE EARTH PLANET'' AL GORE calls for help facing a great importance economic crisis, the consequences of which are dramatic. Beyond the exhaustive report, very well documented on the scientific topics, he proposes a true ecologic ''Marshall PLAN'' at the planet level, and a global reflection followed by precise and concrete measures. In the beginning of the XXIst century the challenge taken up by AL GORE is also a true defence plea for the future. We are all concerned and our children too. 27 refs

  1. A review of hydrological and chemical stressors in the Adige catchment and its ecological status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiogna, Gabriele; Majone, Bruno; Cano Paoli, Karina; Diamantini, Elena; Stella, Elisa; Mallucci, Stefano; Lencioni, Valeria; Zandonai, Fabiana; Bellin, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Quantifying the effects of multiple stressors on Alpine freshwater ecosystems is challenging, due to the lack of tailored field campaigns for the contemporaneous measurement of hydrological, chemical and ecological parameters. Conducting exhaustive field campaigns is costly and hence most of the activities so far have been performed addressing specific environmental issues. An accurate analysis of existing information is therefore useful and necessary, to identify stressors that may act in synergy and to design new field campaigns. We present an extended review of available studies and datasets concerning the hydrological, chemical and ecological status of the Adige, which is the second longest river and the third largest river basin in Italy. The most relevant stressors are discussed in the light of the information extracted from a large number of studies. The detailed analysis of these studies identified that hydrological alterations caused by hydropower production are the main source of stress for the freshwater ecosystems in the Adige catchment. However, concurrent effects with other stressors, such as the release of pollutants from waste water treatment plants or from agricultural and industrial activities, have not been explored at depth, so far. A wealth of available studies address a single stressor separately without exploring their concurrent effect. It is concluded that a combination of extended experimental field campaigns, focusing on the coupled effects of multiple stressors, and modeling activities is highly needed in order to quantify the impact of the multifaceted human pressures on freshwater ecosystems in the Adige river. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Book Review: Evolutionary Ecology of Birds: Life Histories, Mating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Book Title: Evolutionary Ecology of Birds: Life Histories, Mating Systems and Extinction. Book Authors: P.M. Bennett & I.P.F. Owens. Oxford University. Press. 2002. Pp. 272. Price £24.95 (paperback). ISBN 0 19 851089 6.

  3. Baboquivari Mountain plants: Identification, ecology, and ethnobotany [Book Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosemary L. Pendleton

    2011-01-01

    The Sky Islands of southern Arizona and northwestern Mexico make up a region that is rich, both biologically and culturally. These isolated mountain ranges, separated by desert "seas," contain a unique and diverse flora and have long been home to indigenous peoples of the southwestern US. This book, Baboquivari Mountain Plants: Identification, Ecology, and...

  4. Ecological and population genetics of locally rare plants: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon A. Lei

    2001-01-01

    Plant species with limited dispersal ability, narrow geographical and physiological tolerance ranges, as well as with specific habitat and ecological requirements are likely to be rare. Small and isolated populations and species contain low levels of within-population genetic variation in many plant species. The gene pool of plants is a product of phenotype-environment...

  5. Board-invited review: Rumen microbiology: leading the way in microbial ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, D O; Nagaraja, T G; Wright, A D G; Callaway, T R

    2013-01-01

    Robert Hungate, considered the father of rumen microbiology, was the first to initiate a systematic exploration of the microbial ecosystem of the rumen, but he was not alone. The techniques he developed to isolate and identify cellulose-digesting bacteria from the rumen have had a major impact not only in delineating the complex ecosystem of the rumen but also in clinical microbiology and in the exploration of a number of other anaerobic ecosystems, including the human hindgut. Rumen microbiology has pioneered our understanding of much of microbial ecology and has broadened our knowledge of ecology in general, as well as improved the ability to feed ruminants more efficiently. The discovery of anaerobic fungi as a component of the ruminal flora disproved the central dogma in microbiology that all fungi are aerobic organisms. Further novel interactions between bacterial species such as nutrient cross feeding and interspecies H2 transfer were first described in ruminal microorganisms. The complexity and diversity present in the rumen make it an ideal testing ground for microbial theories (e.g., the effects of nutrient limitation and excess) and techniques (such as 16S rRNA), which have rewarded the investigators that have used this easily accessed ecosystem to understand larger truths. Our understanding of characteristics of the ruminal microbial population has opened new avenues of microbial ecology, such as the existence of hyperammonia-producing bacteria and how they can be used to improve N efficiency in ruminants. In this review, we examine some of the contributions to science that were first made in the rumen, which have not been recognized in a broader sense.

  6. Patterns of Early-Life Gut Microbial Colonization during Human Immune Development: An Ecological Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Laforest-Lapointe

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Alterations in gut microbial colonization during early life have been reported in infants that later developed asthma, allergies, type 1 diabetes, as well as in inflammatory bowel disease patients, previous to disease flares. Mechanistic studies in animal models have established that microbial alterations influence disease pathogenesis via changes in immune system maturation. Strong evidence points to the presence of a window of opportunity in early life, during which changes in gut microbial colonization can result in immune dysregulation that predisposes susceptible hosts to disease. Although the ecological patterns of microbial succession in the first year of life have been partly defined in specific human cohorts, the taxonomic and functional features, and diversity thresholds that characterize these microbial alterations are, for the most part, unknown. In this review, we summarize the most important links between the temporal mosaics of gut microbial colonization and the age-dependent immune functions that rely on them. We also highlight the importance of applying ecology theory to design studies that explore the interactions between this complex ecosystem and the host immune system. Focusing research efforts on understanding the importance of temporally structured patterns of diversity, keystone groups, and inter-kingdom microbial interactions for ecosystem functions has great potential to enable the development of biologically sound interventions aimed at maintaining and/or improving immune system development and preventing disease.

  7. Ecological genetics of freshwater fish: a short review of the genotype–phenotype connection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidal, O.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Molecular ecology or ecological genetics is an expanding application of population genetics which has flourished in the last two decades but it is dominated by systematic and phylogeographic studies, with relatively little emphasis on the study of the genetic basis of the process of adaptation to different ecological conditions. The relationship between genotype and adaptive phenotypes is weak because populations are often difficult to quantify and experiments are logistically challenging or unfeasible. Interestingly, in freshwater fish, studies to characterize the genetic architecture of adaptive traits are not as rare as in other vertebrate groups. In this review, we summarize the few cases where the relationship between the ecology and genetics of freshwater fish is more developed, namely the relationship between genetic markers and ecological phenotypes.

  8. Is a community still a community? Reviewing definitions of key terms in community ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroud, James T; Bush, Michael R; Ladd, Mark C; Nowicki, Robert J; Shantz, Andrew A; Sweatman, Jennifer

    2015-11-01

    Community ecology is an inherently complicated field, confounded by the conflicting use of fundamental terms. Nearly two decades ago, Fauth et al. (1996) demonstrated that imprecise language led to the virtual synonymy of important terms and so attempted to clearly define four keywords in community ecology; "community," "assemblage," "guild," and "ensemble". We revisit Fauth et al.'s conclusion and discuss how the use of these terms has changed over time since their review. An updated analysis of term definition from a selection of popular ecological textbooks suggests that definitions have drifted away from those encountered pre-1996, and slightly disagreed with results from a survey of 100 ecology professionals (comprising of academic professors, nonacademic PhDs, graduate and undergraduate biology students). Results suggest that confusion about these terms is still widespread in ecology. We conclude with clear suggestions for definitions of each term to be adopted hereafter to provide greater cohesion among research groups.

  9. Revising ecological assumptions about Human papillomavirus interactions and type replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murall, Carmen Lía; McCann, Kevin S; Bauch, Chris T

    2014-06-07

    The controversy over whether vaccine-targeted HPV types will be replaced by other oncogenic, non-vaccine-targeted types remains unresolved. This is in part because little is known about the ecology of HPV types. Patient data has been interpreted to suggest independence or facilitative interactions between types and therefore replacement is believed to be unlikely. With a novel mathematical model, we investigated which HPV type interactions and their immune responses gave qualitatively similar patterns frequently observed in patients. To assess the possibility of type replacement, vaccination was added to see if non-vaccine-targeted types increased their 'niche'. Our model predicts that independence and facilitation are not necessary for the coexistence of types inside hosts, especially given the patchy nature of HPV infection. In fact, independence and facilitation inadequately represented co-infected patients. We found that some form of competition is likely in natural co-infections. Hence, non-vaccine-targeted types that are not cross-reactive with the vaccine could spread to more patches and can increase their viral load in vaccinated hosts. The degree to which this happens will depend on replication and patch colonization rates. Our results suggest that independence between types could be a fallacy, and so without conclusively untangling HPV within-host ecology, type replacement remains theoretically viable. More ecological thinking is needed in future studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Is a community still a community? Reviewing definitions of key terms in community ecology

    OpenAIRE

    Stroud, James T.; Bush, Michael R.; Ladd, Mark C.; Nowicki, Robert J.; Shantz, Andrew A.; Sweatman, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Community ecology is an inherently complicated field, confounded by the conflicting use of fundamental terms. Nearly two decades ago, Fauth et?al. (1996) demonstrated that imprecise language led to the virtual synonymy of important terms and so attempted to clearly define four keywords in community ecology; ?community,? ?assemblage,? ?guild,? and ?ensemble?. We revisit Fauth et?al.'s conclusion and discuss how the use of these terms has changed over time since their review. An update...

  11. Chemical ecology of interactions between human skin microbiota and mosquitoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhulst, N.O.; Takken, W.; Dicke, M.; Schraa, G.; Smallegange, R.C.

    2010-01-01

    Microbiota on the human skin plays a major role in body odour production. The human microbial and chemical signature displays a qualitative and quantitative correlation. Genes may influence the chemical signature by shaping the composition of the microbiota. Recent studies on human skin microbiota,

  12. Book review: The ecology and behavior of amphibians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, Susan C.

    2008-01-01

    This state‐of‐the‐art book has made its timely emergence amid a crisis of global magnitude: that of population declines, range reductions, and extinctions of numerous species of amphibians. A clear understanding of the fundamental concepts in amphibian biology is crucial to the success of any conservation effort. This volume compiles the information necessary to acquire that basic understanding. It is a comprehensive synthesis of both traditional and contemporary facets of amphibian biology, spanning a breadth of topics ranging from phylogeny, physiology, behavior, population and community ecology, and conservation. As such, it undoubtedly takes its place among contemporary volumes as the single, authoritative source for basic topics relevant to amphibian life.

  13. Science and Ecological Economics: Integrating of the Study of Humans and the Rest of Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanza, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Ecological economics is a transdisciplinary field that seeks to integrate the study of humans and the rest of nature as the basis for the creation of a sustainable and desirable future. It seeks to dissolve the barriers between the traditional disciplines and achieve a true "consilience" of all the sciences and humanities. This consilient,…

  14. COMPARING THE UTILITY OF MULTIMEDIA MODELS FOR HUMAN AND ECOLOGICAL EXPOSURE ANALYSIS: TWO CASES

    Science.gov (United States)

    A number of models are available for exposure assessment; however, few are used as tools for both human and ecosystem risks. This discussion will consider two modeling frameworks that have recently been used to support human and ecological decision making. The study will compare ...

  15. The Socio-ecological Fit of Human Responses to Environmental Degradation: An Integrated Assessment Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briassoulis, Helen

    2015-12-01

    The scientific and policy interest in the human responses to environmental degradation usually focuses on responses sensu stricto and 'best practices' that potentially abate degradation in affected areas. The transfer of individual, discrete instruments and 'best practices' to different contexts is challenging, however, because socio-ecological systems are complex and environmental degradation is contextual and contingent. To sensibly assess the effectiveness of formal and informal interventions to combat environmental degradation, the paper proposes an integrative, non-reductionist analytic, the 'response assemblage', for the study of 'responses-in-context,' i.e., products of human decisions to utilize environmental resources to satisfy human needs in socio-ecological systems. Response assemblages are defined as geographically and historically unique, provisional, open, territorial wholes, complex compositions emerging from processes of assembling biophysical and human components, including responses sensu stricto, from affected focal and other socio-ecological systems, to serve human goals, one of which may be combatting environmental degradation. The degree of match among the components, called the socio-ecological fit of the response assemblage, indicates how effectively their contextual and contingent interactions maintain the socio-ecological resilience, promote sustainable development, and secure the continuous provision of ecosystem services in a focal socio-ecological system. The paper presents a conceptual approach to the analysis of the socio-ecological fit of response assemblages and details an integrated assessment methodology synthesizing the resilience, assemblage, and 'problem of fit' literature. Lastly, it summarizes the novelty, value, and policy relevance of conceptualizing human responses as response assemblages and of the integrated assessment methodology, reconsiders 'best practices' and suggests selected future research directions.

  16. The Socio-ecological Fit of Human Responses to Environmental Degradation: An Integrated Assessment Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briassoulis, Helen

    2015-12-01

    The scientific and policy interest in the human responses to environmental degradation usually focuses on responses sensu stricto and `best practices' that potentially abate degradation in affected areas. The transfer of individual, discrete instruments and `best practices' to different contexts is challenging, however, because socio-ecological systems are complex and environmental degradation is contextual and contingent. To sensibly assess the effectiveness of formal and informal interventions to combat environmental degradation, the paper proposes an integrative, non-reductionist analytic, the `response assemblage', for the study of `responses-in-context,' i.e., products of human decisions to utilize environmental resources to satisfy human needs in socio-ecological systems. Response assemblages are defined as geographically and historically unique, provisional, open, territorial wholes, complex compositions emerging from processes of assembling biophysical and human components, including responses sensu stricto, from affected focal and other socio-ecological systems, to serve human goals, one of which may be combatting environmental degradation. The degree of match among the components, called the socio- ecological fit of the response assemblage, indicates how effectively their contextual and contingent interactions maintain the socio-ecological resilience, promote sustainable development, and secure the continuous provision of ecosystem services in a focal socio-ecological system. The paper presents a conceptual approach to the analysis of the socio-ecological fit of response assemblages and details an integrated assessment methodology synthesizing the resilience, assemblage, and `problem of fit' literature. Lastly, it summarizes the novelty, value, and policy relevance of conceptualizing human responses as response assemblages and of the integrated assessment methodology, reconsiders `best practices' and suggests selected future research directions.

  17. Citizen Science and the Urban Ecology of Birds and Butterflies - A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang Wei, James; Lee, Benjamin P Y-H; Bing Wen, Low

    2016-01-01

    Citizen science has gained widespread currency as a tool for ecological research over the past decade. However, in the discipline of urban ecology, the existing contributions and future potential of citizen science engagement, specifically in terms of knowledge gain, have not yet been comprehensively explored. Here, we present a systematic review of published work on the urban ecology of birds and butterflies in relation to their use of citizen science data between 2005 and 2014. We compared the number of studies that used citizen science data to the number of studies that could potentially have employed data derived from citizen science. The take-up rates of citizen science data were 21% and 26% for birds and butterflies respectively. Most studies that employed citizen science used volunteer-derived data as primary data, and adopted Collegial, Collaborative and Contributional engagement modes to the exclusion of Contractual and Co-created arrangements. There was no evidence that citizen science studies investigated a different organismal scale (community vs. species) compared to the urban ecology literature. For both taxa, citizen science contributions were lower than expected compared to their representation in the urban ecology literature for studies on species-environment relationships at landscape and micro-environment scales, as well as behavioural ecology in general. Other research topics that could benefit from further citizen science involvement include breeding studies and guild analyses for birds, and multi-taxa studies for butterflies. Promising models of citizen science engagement for urban ecology are highlighted in relation to their thematic foci and methodological detail, and a number of research questions that could be productively addressed using citizen science are identified. The dynamics of contemporary engagement between citizen science and urban ecology described by this review could inform the design and refinement of urban ecology

  18. A review on the availability of ecological data aiming new researches in Peri Lagoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Mello Petrucio

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The increase in population as well as the water resource demand has been intensifying the human influence in Peri Lagoon basin. A review on the availability of data concerning the ecology of Peri Lagoon was made, aiming at the development of new researches to understand the functioning of this ecosystem. This information can contribute to the elaboration of a conservation proposal and sustainable use of the Lagoon in the future. High cyanobacteria density (Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii was detected in the Lagoon waters, which happens to be a risky situation for the ecosystem’s health and consequently for the population. The review highlights a lack of available information about the dynamics, functioning and structure of aquatic communities, as well as their relationships with the surrounding area and the infl uence of abiotic factors. Series of continuum data with respect to time are also considered to be lacking. Educational, political and social practices in environmental conservation are necessary, aiming at the management and sustainable use of Peri Lagoon basin. These practices will guarantee water resource quality and availability for the current and future generations.

  19. Sudbury soils study : human health and ecological risk assessment : a case study in science, process and perception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wren, C.

    2009-01-01

    This presentation discussed the public relations and public opinion strategies used as part of a soils study conducted to assess the risk of mining activities in the Sudbury region to human health and the environment. The human health risk assessment (HHRA) study was conducted and administered by a multi-stakeholder technical committee attended by the public. The study was comprised of extensive soil collection and analysis; a review of historical soils data; and extensive human health and ecological risk assessments. Extensive sampling was also conducted on air, dust, and locally-produced foods. A public advisory committee was formed to disseminate scientific information to the community. Scientific data obtained in the study were reviewed by experts in various fields. Results of the study were also peer-reviewed by an independent expert review panel comprised of leading specialists in human health, toxicology, speciation, and risk assessment. The study showed that the identified risks were over-estimated in the interest of protecting human health. It was concluded that the HHRA's findings were generally accepted by the public. tabs., figs

  20. Development of human factors design review guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Oh, In Suk; Suh, Sang Moon; Lee, Hyun Chul [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1997-10-01

    The objective of this study is to develop human factors engineering program review guidelines and alarm system review guidelines in order to resolve the two major technical issues: 25. Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model and 26. Review Criteria for Human Factors Aspects of Advanced Controls and Instrumentation, which are related to the development of human factors safety regulation guides being performed by KINS. For the development of human factors program review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG-0711 and added our comments by considering Korean regulatory situation and reviewing the reference documents of NUREG-0711. We also computerized the Korean version of NUREG-0711, additional comments, and selected portion of the reference documents for the developer of safety regulation guides in KINS to see the contents comparatively at a glance and use them easily. For the development of alarm system review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG/CR-6105, which was published by NRC in 1994 as a guideline document for the human factors review of alarm systems. Then we will update the guidelines by reviewing the literature related to alarm design published after 1994. (author). 12 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Development of human factors design review guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Oh, In Suk; Suh, Sang Moon; Lee, Hyun Chul

    1997-10-01

    The Objective of this study is to develop human factors engineering program review guidelines and alarm system review guidelines in order to resolve the two major technical issues: '25, Human factors engineering program review model' and '26, Review criteria for human actors aspects of advanced controls and instrumentation', which are related to the development of human factors safety regulation guides be ing performed by KINS. For the development of human factors program review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG-0711 and added our comments by considering Korean regulatory situation and reviewing the reference documents of NUREG-0711. We also computerized the Korean version of NUREG-0711, additional comments, and selected portion of the reference documents for the developer of safety regulation guides in KINS to see the contents comparatively at a glance and use them easily. For the development of alarm system review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG/CR-6105, which was published by NRC in 1994 as a guideline document for the human factors review of alarm systems. Then we well update the guidelines by reviewing the literature related to alarm design published after 1994

  2. [Book review] Waterfowl ecology and management: Selected readings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krapu, Gary L.

    1983-01-01

    This book is a compilation of papers from the extensive and varied published literature on the ecology and management of waterfowl. The 125 technical papers reprinted in this book are arranged in eight major sections and are from 21 journals, government reports, several books, and proceedings of symposia and annual conferences. The most frequent sources of papers are The Journal of Wildlife Management, The Auk, Transactions North American Wildlife and Natural Resources Conference, and Wildfowl. These readings span the period from 1937 through 1981. A majority of the technical papers was published during the sixties and seventies, reflecting the expansion of waterfowl research during that period. The front cover and the introductory page of each section are illustrated with black-and-white drawings of North American waterfowl by D. R. Barrick.

  3. The ecology and evolutionary endocrinology of reproduction in the human female.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitzthum, Virginia J

    2009-01-01

    Human reproductive ecology (HRE) is the study of the mechanisms that link variation in reproductive traits with variation in local habitats. Empirical and theoretical contributions from biological anthropology, physiology, and demography have established the foundation necessary for developing a comprehensive understanding, grounded in life history theory (LHT), of temporal, individual, and populational variation in women's reproductive functioning. LHT posits that natural selection leads to the evolution of mechanisms that tend to allocate resources to the competing demands of growth, reproduction, and survival such that fitness is locally maximized. (That is, among alternative allocation patterns exhibited in a population, those having the highest inclusive fitness will become more common over generational time.) Hence, strategic modulation of reproductive effort is potentially adaptive because investment in a new conception may risk one's own survival, future reproductive opportunities, and/or current offspring survival. The hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian (HPO) axis is the principal neuroendocrine pathway by which the human female modulates reproductive functioning according to the changing conditions in her habitat. Adjustments of reproductive investment in a potential conception are manifested in temporal and individual variation in ovarian cycle length, ovulation, hormone levels, and the probability of conception. Understanding the extent and causes of adaptive and non-adaptive variation in ovarian functioning is fundamental to ascertaining the proximate and remote determinants of human reproductive patterns. In this review I consider what is known and what still needs to be learned of the ecology of women's reproductive biology, beginning with a discussion of the principal explanatory frameworks in HRE and the biometry of ovarian functioning. Turning next to empirical studies, it is evident that marked variation between cycles, women, and populations is the

  4. A scientometric review of emerging trends and new developments in agricultural ecological compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ke; Zhang, Junbiao; Wang, Xueting; Zeng, Yangmei; Zhang, Lu

    2018-05-08

    Agricultural ecological compensation has drawn an increasingly broad range of interest since early 1990s. In recent years, the volume of the literature grows rapidly. As a result, a systematic review of the diverse research field and its current trends becomes essential. This paper surveys the literature of agricultural ecological compensation between 1990 and 2016. Specifically, by employing CiteSpace information visualization software, we firstly identified the research hotspots and evolution path and then illustrated the frontier and developing trend of the domain in core and broader perspectives. It is found that the focus of the academic community has always been researches on the theoretical policy and application of the payment for agro-ecosystem services, agricultural ecological compensation based on contingent valuation method, and ecological compensation of farmland landscape and organic food production as well as willingness to accept/pay for land use and ecological protection. Meanwhile, we also found that, in recent years, qualitative research has received more and more attention in the field of agricultural ecological compensation, since global warming, agricultural carbon emissions, and other emerging environmental issues have aroused widespread concern of the people around the world. Moreover, we believed that more and more scholars will employ case study methodology to analyze agricultural ecological compensation in specific systems, regions, or circumstances in the future.

  5. Human ecology and environmentalism: Two different approaches to the relationships ecosystem/culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon Sicard, Tomas

    2001-01-01

    A comparative analysis of the human ecology focus versus the environmental dimension analysis, emphasizing that the first one does not have theoretical instruments to adequately consider the human action inside the ecosystems, while the second one considers the concept of culture as an explanation of the human niche and then of the environmental problem. It ends with thoughts about the environmental or ecologist conception that is discussed in the Colombian peace negotiations

  6. Citizen Science and the Urban Ecology of Birds and Butterflies — A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang Wei, James; Lee, Benjamin P. Y-H.; Bing Wen, Low

    2016-01-01

    Citizen science has gained widespread currency as a tool for ecological research over the past decade. However, in the discipline of urban ecology, the existing contributions and future potential of citizen science engagement, specifically in terms of knowledge gain, have not yet been comprehensively explored. Here, we present a systematic review of published work on the urban ecology of birds and butterflies in relation to their use of citizen science data between 2005 and 2014. We compared the number of studies that used citizen science data to the number of studies that could potentially have employed data derived from citizen science. The take-up rates of citizen science data were 21% and 26% for birds and butterflies respectively. Most studies that employed citizen science used volunteer-derived data as primary data, and adopted Collegial, Collaborative and Contributional engagement modes to the exclusion of Contractual and Co-created arrangements. There was no evidence that citizen science studies investigated a different organismal scale (community vs. species) compared to the urban ecology literature. For both taxa, citizen science contributions were lower than expected compared to their representation in the urban ecology literature for studies on species-environment relationships at landscape and micro-environment scales, as well as behavioural ecology in general. Other research topics that could benefit from further citizen science involvement include breeding studies and guild analyses for birds, and multi-taxa studies for butterflies. Promising models of citizen science engagement for urban ecology are highlighted in relation to their thematic foci and methodological detail, and a number of research questions that could be productively addressed using citizen science are identified. The dynamics of contemporary engagement between citizen science and urban ecology described by this review could inform the design and refinement of urban ecology

  7. Nutritional ecology of entomophagy in humans and other primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raubenheimer, David; Rothman, Jessica M

    2013-01-01

    Entomophagy is widespread among nonhuman primates and is common among many human communities. However, the extent and patterns of entomophagy vary substantially both in humans and nonhuman primates. Here we synthesize the literature to examine why humans and other primates eat insects and what accounts for the variation in the extent to which they do so. Variation in the availability of insects is clearly important, but less understood is the role of nutrients in entomophagy. We apply a multidimensional analytical approach, the right-angled mixture triangle, to published data on the macronutrient compositions of insects to address this. Results showed that insects eaten by humans spanned a wide range of protein-to-fat ratios but were generally nutrient dense, whereas insects with high protein-to-fat ratios were eaten by nonhuman primates. Although suggestive, our survey exposes a need for additional, standardized, data.

  8. The role of ecology in speciation by sexual selection: a systematic empirical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scordato, Elizabeth S C; Symes, Laurel B; Mendelson, Tamra C; Safran, Rebecca J

    2014-01-01

    Theoretical and empirical research indicates that sexual selection interacts with the ecological context in which mate choice occurs, suggesting that sexual and natural selection act together during the evolution of premating reproductive isolation. However, the relative importance of natural and sexual selection to speciation remains poorly understood. Here, we applied a recent conceptual framework for examining interactions between mate choice divergence and ecological context to a review of the empirical literature on speciation by sexual selection. This framework defines two types of interactions between mate choice and ecology: internal interactions, wherein natural and sexual selection jointly influence divergence in sexual signal traits and preferences, and external interactions, wherein sexual selection alone acts on traits and preferences but ecological context shapes the transmission efficacy of sexual signals. The objectives of this synthesis were 3-fold: to summarize the traits, ecological factors, taxa, and geographic contexts involved in studies of mate choice divergence; to analyze patterns of association between these variables; and to identify the most common types of interactions between mate choice and ecological factors. Our analysis revealed that certain traits are consistently associated with certain ecological factors. Moreover, among studies that examined a divergent sexually selected trait and an ecological factor, internal interactions were more common than external interactions. Trait-preference associations may thus frequently be subject to both sexual and natural selection in cases of divergent mate choice. Our results highlight the importance of interactions between sexual selection and ecology in mate choice divergence and suggest areas for future research. © The American Genetic Association. 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Review of Ecologically-Based Pest Management in California Vineyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Houston; Daane, Kent M

    2017-10-11

    Grape growers in California utilize a variety of biological, cultural, and chemical approaches for the management of insect and mite pests in vineyards. This combination of strategies falls within the integrated pest management (IPM) framework, which is considered to be the dominant pest management paradigm in vineyards. While the adoption of IPM has led to notable and significant reductions in the environmental impacts of grape production, some growers are becoming interested in the use of an explicitly non-pesticide approach to pest management that is broadly referred to as ecologically-based pest management (EBPM). Essentially a subset of IPM strategies, EBPM places strong emphasis on practices such as habitat management, natural enemy augmentation and conservation, and animal integration. Here, we summarize the range and known efficacy of EBPM practices utilized in California vineyards, followed by a discussion of research needs and future policy directions. EBPM should in no way be seen in opposition, or as an alternative to the IPM framework. Rather, the further development of more reliable EBPM practices could contribute to the robustness of IPM strategies available to grape growers.

  10. Comparison of models used for ecological risk assessment and human health risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryti, R.T.; Gallegos, A.F.

    1994-01-01

    Models are used to derive action levels for site screening, or to estimate potential ecological or human health risks posed by potentially hazardous sites. At the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), which is RCRA-regulated, the human-health screening action levels are based on hazardous constituents described in RCRA Subpart S and RESRAD-derived soil guidelines (based on 10 mRem/year) for radiological constituents. Also, an ecological risk screening model was developed for a former firing site, where the primary constituents include depleted uranium, beryllium and lead. Sites that fail the screening models are evaluated with site-specific human risk assessment (using RESRAD and other approaches) and a detailed ecological effect model (ECOTRAN). ECOTRAN is based on pharmacokinetics transport modeling within a multitrophic-level biological-growth dynamics model. ECOTRAN provides detailed temporal records of contaminant concentrations in biota, and annual averages of these body burdens are compared to equivalent site-specific runs of the RESRAD model. The results show that thoughtful interpretation of the results of these models must be applied before they can be used for evaluation of current risk posed by sites and the benefits of various remedial options. This presentation compares the concentrations of biological media in the RESRAD screening runs to the concentrations in ecological endpoints predicted by the ecological screening model. The assumptions and limitations of these screening models and the decision process where these are screening models are applied are discussed

  11. Integrating human and natural systems in community psychology: an ecological model of stewardship behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskell, Christine; Allred, Shorna Broussard

    2013-03-01

    Community psychology (CP) research on the natural environment lacks a theoretical framework for analyzing the complex relationship between human systems and the natural world. We introduce other academic fields concerned with the interactions between humans and the natural environment, including environmental sociology and coupled human and natural systems. To demonstrate how the natural environment can be included within CP's ecological framework, we propose an ecological model of urban forest stewardship action. Although ecological models of behavior in CP have previously modeled health behaviors, we argue that these frameworks are also applicable to actions that positively influence the natural environment. We chose the environmental action of urban forest stewardship because cities across the United States are planting millions of trees and increased citizen participation in urban tree planting and stewardship will be needed to sustain the benefits provided by urban trees. We used the framework of an ecological model of behavior to illustrate multiple levels of factors that may promote or hinder involvement in urban forest stewardship actions. The implications of our model for the development of multi-level ecological interventions to foster stewardship actions are discussed, as well as directions for future research to further test and refine the model.

  12. Earth in the balance - ecology and the human spirit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gore, A.

    1992-01-01

    This book by Senator Albert Gore presents a global prospective on the environmental crisis facing the Earth. The chapters are framed in the twin ideas of the threat posed by human civilization to the global environment and the threat to human civilization posed by changes in the global environment. Gore first looks at evidence of risk in the environment: historical aspects of climate and civilization; ozone layer; water; land use; food supply; waste disposal. In Part II different aspects of our current approaches to the environment are described: politics; economics; technology; social problems; environmentalism of the human spirit. Finally in Part III, Gore presents his approach to the global environmental crisis, first presenting a section about a global sense of responsibility and purpose and then describing his ideas for A Global Marshal Plan. 169 refs., 4 figs

  13. Review Human Oesophagostomiasis: A Serious Public Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Review Human Oesophagostomiasis: A Serious Public Health Problem in Tropical ... Historical events were described from its first record in Ethiopia in 1905. ... information on patterns of distribution and relation of transmission to seasons and ...

  14. Technical Review of the Laboratory Biosphere Closed Ecological System Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempster, W.; van Thillo, M.; Alling, A.; Allen, J.; Silverstone, S.; Nelson, M.

    The "Laboratory Biosphere", a new closed ecological system facility in Santa Fe, New Mexico (USA) has been constructed and became operational in May 2002. Built and operated by the Global Ecotechnics consortium (Biosphere Technologies and Biosphere Foundation with Biospheric Design Inc., and the Institute of Ecotechnics), the research apparatus for intensive crop growth, biogeochemical cycle dynamics and recycling of inedible crop biomass comprises a sealed cylindrical steel chamber and attached variable volume chamber (lung) to prevent pressures caused by the expansion and contraction of the contained air. The cylindrical growing chamber is 3.7m (12 feet) long and 3.7m (12 foot) diameter, giving an internal volume of 34 m3 (1200 ft 3 ). The two crop growth beds cover 5.5 m2, with a soil depth of 0.3m (12 inches), with 12 x 1000 watt high-pressure sodium lights capable of variable lighting of 40-70 mol per m2 per day. A small soil bed reactor in the chamber can be activated to help with metabolism of chamber trace gases. The volume of the attached variable volume chamber (lung) can range between 0-11 m3 (0-400 ft 3 ). Evapotranspired and soil leachate water are collected, combined and recycled to water the planting beds. Sampling ports enable testing of water quality of leachate, condensate and irrigation water. Visual inspection windows provide views of the entire interior and growing beds. The chamber is also outfitted with an airlock to minimize air exchange when people enter and work in the chamber. Continuous sensors include atmospheric CO2 and oxygen, temperature, humidity, soil moisture, light level and water levels in reservoirs. Both "sniffer" (air ports) and "sipper" (water ports) will enable collection of water or air samples for detailed analysis. This paper reports on the development of this new soil-based bioregenerative life support closed system apparatus and its technical challenges and capabilities.

  15. Ecological Interactions of Bacteria in the Human Gut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falony, Gwen; de Vuyst, Luc

    The colon or large intestine is one of the most important organs of the human body (Macfarlane and Cummings, 1991). Moreover, its inhabitants, the colon microbiota, are the key elements of the human digestive ecosystem. The vast complexity of the human large-intestinal microbiota has inspired researchers to consider it as an organ itself, located inside the colon and acquired postnatally (Bäckhed et al., 2005; Zocco et al., 2007). From a physiologist's point of view, this image of the colon microbiota is relevant: like an organ, it is composed of different cell lineages that communicate with both one another and the host; it consumes, stores, and redistributes energy; it mediates physiologically important chemical transformations; and it is able to maintain and repair itself through self-replication (Bäckhed et al., 2005). As a microbial organ, the human colon community does not only broaden the digestive abilities of the host (Gill et al., 2006), but also influences body processes far beyond digestion (Roberfroid, 2005b; Turnbaugh et al., 2007).

  16. The ecologic products and the importance of their consumption for the human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Constanța Sîrbu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study intends to analyze the perception of young people regarding the ecologic products, their consumption and implicitly the awareness of their effect on the human health. The geographic area where we realized the study wasTimisoaraby distributing a questionnaire in different places: universities, super-markets, mall. After analyzing the results, we noticed that 80% of the young people consider that the food is very important for a healthy life. The majority of the young people questioned, even knowing the characteristics of the bio products, consumed fruits and vegetables bought from stores specialized in ecologic products. From our study, we can say that the young people are interested in the ecologic products sold inTimisoaraand they are aware about their impact on the human health.

  17. A systematic review of the recent ecological literature on cushion plants: champions of plant facilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Reid

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Cushion-forming plant species are found in alpine and polar environments around the world. They modify the microclimate, thereby facilitating other plant species. Similar to the effectiveness of shrubs as a means to study facilitation in arid and semi-arid environments, we explore the potential for cushion plant species to expand the generality of research on this contemporary ecological interaction. A systematic review was conducted to determine the number of publications and citation frequency on relevant ecological topics whilst using shrub literature as a baseline to assess relative importance of cushions as a focal point for future ecological research. Although there are forty times more shrub articles, mean citations per paper is comparable between cushion and shrub literature. Furthermore, the scope of ecological research topics studied using cushions is broad including facilitation, competition, environmental gradients, life history, genetics, reproduction, community, ecosystem and evolution. The preliminary ecological evidence to date also strongly suggests that cushion plants can be keystone species in their ecosystems. Hence, ecological research on net interactions including facilitation and patterns of diversity can be successfully examined using cushion plants, and this is particularly timely given expectations associated with a changing climate in these regions.

  18. [Ecological demonstration activity and eco-civilization construction mode: review and prospects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Hui-ping; He, Xuan; He, Jia; Niu, Dong-jie; Bao, Cun-kuan

    2013-04-01

    Ecological civilization is to normalize human development behaviors to harmonize the relationships between social and ecological development and eco-environment protection. In this paper, a comparative analysis was made on the ecological demonstration activities of ecological demonstration areas led by the Ministry of Environmental Protection, exemplar cities of national environmental protection, and ecological provinces, cities, and counties. It was considered that all the ecological demonstration activities had the problems of lacking pertinence of construction goals, disordered construction subjects, inefficient construction processes, and lacking continuous incentive mechanisms of assessment. In the meantime, through the analysis of the connotations of eco-civilization, the relationships between eco-civilization and eco-demonstration constructions were approached, and the eco-civilization construction mode was put forward in terms of construction goal, construction subject, and construction processes and assessment. The construction mode included the construction goal based on regional characteristics; the synergistic cooperation of construction subjects, the expanding ways of public participation, and the establishment of evaluation system for comprehensively measuring the 'actions and results'.

  19. Uterine transplantation: Review in human research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favre-Inhofer, A; Rafii, A; Carbonnel, M; Revaux, A; Ayoubi, J M

    2018-06-01

    Uterine transplantation is the solution to treat absolute uterine fertility. In this review, we present the historical, medical, technical, psychological and ethical perspectives in human uterine transplantation research. We reviewed the PubMed database following PRISMA guidelines and added data presented by several research teams during the first international congress on uterine transplantation. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  20. [Progress and prospects on evaluation of ecological restoration: a review of the 5th World Conference on Ecological Restoration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jing-Yi; Zhao, Wen-Wu

    2014-09-01

    The 5th World Conference on Ecological Restoration was held in Madison, Wisconsin, USA on October 6-11, 2013. About 1200 delegates from more than 50 countries attended the conference, and discussed the latest developments in different thematic areas of ecological restoration. Discussions on evaluation of ecological restoration were mainly from three aspects: The construction for evaluation indicator system of ecological restoration; the evaluation methods of ecological restoration; monitoring and dynamic evaluation of ecological restoration. The meeting stressed the importance of evaluation in the process of ecological restoration and concerned the challenges in evaluation of ecological restoration. The conference had the following enlightenments for China' s research on evaluation of ecological restoration: 1) Strengthening the construction of comprehensive evaluation indicators system and focusing on the multi-participation in the evaluation process. 2) Paying more attentions on scale effect and scale transformation in the evaluation process of ecological restoration. 3) Expanding the application of 3S technology in assessing the success of ecological restoration and promoting the dynamic monitoring of ecological restoration. 4) Carrying out international exchanges and cooperation actively, and promoting China's international influence in ecological restoration research.

  1. Ecological and human exposure assessment to PBDEs in Adige River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giulivo, Monica; Suciu, Nicoleta Alina; Eljarrat, Ethel; Gatti, Marina; Capri, Ettore; Barcelo, Damia

    2018-07-01

    The interest for environmental issues and the concern resulting from the potential exposure to contaminants were the starting point to develop methodologies in order to evaluate the consequences that those might have over both the environment and human health. Considering the feature of POPs, including PBDEs, such as bioaccumulation, biomagnification, long-range transport and adverse effects even long time after exposure, risk assessment of POPs requires specific approaches and tools. In this particular context, the MERLIN-Expo tool was used to assess the aquatic environmental exposure of Adige River to PBDEs and the accumulation of PBDEs in humans through the consumption of possible contaminated local aquatic food. The aquatic food web models provided as output of the deterministic simulation the time trend of concentrations for twenty years of BDE-47 and total PBDEs, expressed using the physico-chemical properties of BDE-47, in aquatic organisms of the food web of Adige River. For BDE-47, the highest accumulated concentrations were detected for two benthic species: Thymallus thymallus and Squalius cephalus whereas the lowest concentrations were obtained for the pelagic specie Salmo trutta marmoratus. The trend obtained for the total PBDEs, calculated using the physico-chemical properties of BDE-47, follows the one of BDE-47. For human exposure, different BDE-47 and total PBDEs concentration trends between children, adolescent, adults and elderly were observed, probably correlated with the human intake of fish products in the daily diet and the ability to metabolize these contaminants. In detail, for the adolescents, adults and elderly a continuous accumulation of the target contaminants during the simulation's years was observed, whereas for children a plateau at the end of the simulation period was perceived. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A research agenda for helminth diseases of humans: social ecology, environmental determinants, and health systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Gazzinelli

    Full Text Available In this paper, the Disease Reference Group on Helminth Infections (DRG4, established in 2009 by the Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR, with the mandate to review helminthiases research and identify research priorities and gaps, focuses on the environmental, social, behavioural, and political determinants of human helminth infections and outlines a research and development agenda for the socioeconomic and health systems research required for the development of sustainable control programmes. Using Stockols' social-ecological approach, we describe the role of various social (poverty, policy, stigma, culture, and migration and environmental determinants (the home environment, water resources development, and climate change in the perpetuation of helminthic diseases, as well as their impact as contextual factors on health promotion interventions through both the regular and community-based health systems. We examine these interactions in regard to community participation, intersectoral collaboration, gender, and possibilities for upscaling helminthic disease control and elimination programmes within the context of integrated and interdisciplinary approaches. The research agenda summarises major gaps that need to be addressed.

  3. Hazard identification for human and ecological effects of sodium chloride road salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    The New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services (DES) requested an evaluation of : the human and ecological risks associated with the application of sodium chloride (NaCl) road : salt to roadways. NaCl is the major de-icing agent used in NH to...

  4. The Human Ecology of the American Educational Research Association. Report No. 261.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, James M., Jr.

    The concepts and methods of human ecology are applied to the geographic distribution of members of the American Educational Research Association. State characteristics are measured by five factors: (1) large-scale agriculture; (2) population size; (3) affluence-urbanization; (4) white predominance; (5) emphasis on specialized agriculture. City…

  5. A Feminist Posthumanist Political Ecology of Education for Theorizing Human-Animal Relations/Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloro-Bidart, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    This paper contributes to a nascent conversation in environmental education (EE) research by using ethnographic data and extant theory to develop a feminist posthumanist political ecology of education for theorizing human-animal relations/relationships. Specifically, I (1) engage feminist methodologies and theories; (2) give epistemological and…

  6. Studying the neurobiology of human social interaction : Making the case for ecological validity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogenelst, Koen; Schoevers, Robert A.; Rot, Marije Aan Het

    2015-01-01

    With this commentary we make the case for an increased focus on the ecological validity of the measures used to assess aspects of human social functioning. Impairments in social functioning are seen in many types of psychopathology, negatively affecting the lives of psychiatric patients and those

  7. Change: Threat or opportunity for human progress? V. 5. Ecological change: Environment, development and poverty linkages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirdar, U.

    1992-01-01

    This volume consists of 18 articles that examine the changing ecological balance of the world and its effect on human prosperity. The problems caused by global warning, climate change and environmental degradation will have serious effects in both the short and the long term. Two of the 18 articles fall within INIS scope: these have been indexed separately. Tabs

  8. Human health and ecological risks from environmental restoration and waste management activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pehlman, P.A.; Wollert, D.A.; Phillippi, R.H.

    1994-01-01

    This paper summarizes the methodologies for estimating human health and ecological risks resulting from Environmental Restoration and Waste Management activities across the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. DOE is currently assessing these activities as part of the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (EM-PEIS)

  9. Chapter 6. Modeling human impacts to the Borderlands environment from a fire ecology perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzanne K. Fish

    2006-01-01

    Theoretical and topical orientations in current archaeology address the interaction between past human populations and their environment. These themes reflect ecological frameworks that were incorporated into the social sciences by the 1950s, as exemplified by the influential publication, Man?s Role in Changing the Face of the Earth (Thomas 1956). Cultural practices...

  10. Spinoza, Deep Ecology and Education Informed by a (Post)Human Sensibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Grange, Lesley

    2018-01-01

    This article explores the influence of Spinozism on the deep ecology movement (DEM) and on new materialism. It questions the stance of supporters of the DEM because their ecosophies unwittingly anthropomorphise the more-than-human-world. It suggests that instead of humanising the 'natural' world, morality should be naturalised, that is, that the…

  11. Change: Threat or opportunity for human progress V. 5. Ecological change: Environment, development and poverty linkages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirdar, U [ed.

    1992-01-01

    This volume consists of 18 articles that examine the changing ecological balance of the world and its effect on human prosperity. The problems caused by global warning, climate change and environmental degradation will have serious effects in both the short and the long term. Two of the 18 articles fall within INIS scope: these have been indexed separately. Tabs.

  12. Examining Lives in Context: Perspectives on the Ecology of Human Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, Phyllis, Ed.; And Others

    Extending the work of behavioral scientist Urie Bronfenbrenner on the social and contextual factors influencing human development, this collection of essays, from scholars in a range of disciplines, shows how Bronfenbrenner's ecological theory and research have transformed the way many social and behavioral scientists approach, think about, and…

  13. Human factors engineering program review model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    The staff of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission is performing nuclear power plant design certification reviews based on a design process plan that describes the human factors engineering (HFE) program elements that are necessary and sufficient to develop an acceptable detailed design specification and an acceptable implemented design. There are two principal reasons for this approach. First, the initial design certification applications submitted for staff review did not include detailed design information. Second, since human performance literature and industry experiences have shown that many significant human factors issues arise early in the design process, review of the design process activities and results is important to the evaluation of an overall design. However, current regulations and guidance documents do not address the criteria for design process review. Therefore, the HFE Program Review Model (HFE PRM) was developed as a basis for performing design certification reviews that include design process evaluations as well as review of the final design. A central tenet of the HFE PRM is that the HFE aspects of the plant should be developed, designed, and evaluated on the basis of a structured top-down system analysis using accepted HFE principles. The HFE PRM consists of ten component elements. Each element in divided into four sections: Background, Objective, Applicant Submittals, and Review Criteria. This report describes the development of the HFE PRM and gives a detailed description of each HFE review element

  14. Genetic Engineering and Human Mental Ecology: Interlocking Effects and Educational Considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Affifi, Ramsey

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes some likely semiotic consequences of genetic engineering on what Gregory Bateson has called ?the mental ecology? (1979) of future humans, consequences that are less often raised in discussions surrounding the safety of GMOs (genetically modified organisms). The effects are as follows: an increased 1) habituation to the presence of GMOs in the environment, 2) normalization of empirically false assumptions grounding genetic reductionism, 3) acceptance that humans are capabl...

  15. Rats, cities, people, and pathogens: a systematic review and narrative synthesis of literature regarding the ecology of rat-associated zoonoses in urban centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himsworth, Chelsea G; Parsons, Kirbee L; Jardine, Claire; Patrick, David M

    2013-06-01

    Urban Norway and black rats (Rattus norvegicus and Rattus rattus) are the source of a number of pathogens responsible for significant human morbidity and mortality in cities around the world. These pathogens include zoonotic bacteria (Leptospira interrogans, Yersina pestis, Rickettsia typhi, Bartonella spp., Streptobacillus moniliformis), viruses (Seoul hantavirus), and parasites (Angiostrongylus cantonensis). A more complete understanding of the ecology of these pathogens in people and rats is critical for determining the public health risks associated with urban rats and for developing strategies to monitor and mitigate those risks. Although the ecology of rat-associated zoonoses is complex, due to the multiple ways in which rats, people, pathogens, vectors, and the environment may interact, common determinants of human disease can still be identified. This review summarizes the ecology of zoonoses associated with urban rats with a view to identifying similarities, critical differences, and avenues for further study.

  16. Human gender classification: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, F.; Wu, Y.; Zhuang, Y.; Long, X.; Xu, W.

    2016-01-01

    The gender recognition is essential and critical for many applications in the commercial domains such as applications of human-computer interaction and computer-aided physiological or psychological analysis, since it contains a wide range of information regarding the characteristics difference

  17. Nutritional ecology of obesity: from humans to companion animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raubenheimer, David; Machovsky-Capuska, Gabriel E; Gosby, Alison K; Simpson, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    We apply nutritional geometry, a framework for modelling the interactive effects of nutrients on animals, to help understand the role of modern environments in the obesity pandemic. Evidence suggests that humans regulate the intake of protein energy (PE) more strongly than non-protein energy (nPE), and consequently will over- and under-ingest nPE on diets with low or high PE, respectively. This pattern of macronutrient regulation has led to the protein leverage hypothesis, which proposes that the rise in obesity has been caused partly by a shift towards diets with reduced PE:nPE ratios relative to the set point for protein regulation. We discuss potential causes of this mismatch, including environmentally induced reductions in the protein density of the human diet and factors that might increase the regulatory set point for protein and hence exacerbate protein leverage. Economics--the high price of protein compared with fats and carbohydrates--is one factor that might contribute to the reduction of dietary protein concentrations. The possibility that rising atmospheric CO₂ levels could also play a role through reducing the PE:nPE ratios in plants and animals in the human food chain is discussed. Factors that reduce protein efficiency, for example by increasing the use of ingested amino acids in energy metabolism (hepatic gluconeogenesis), are highlighted as potential drivers of increased set points for protein regulation. We recommend that a similar approach is taken to understand the rise of obesity in other species, and identify some key gaps in the understanding of nutrient regulation in companion animals.

  18. Non-equilibrium physics and evolution—adaptation, extinction, and ecology: a Key Issues review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kussell, E; Vucelja, M

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary dynamics in nature constitute an immensely complex non-equilibrium process. We review the application of physical models of evolution, by focusing on adaptation, extinction, and ecology. In each case, we examine key concepts by working through examples. Adaptation is discussed in the context of bacterial evolution, with a view toward the relationship between growth rates, mutation rates, selection strength, and environmental changes. Extinction dynamics for an isolated population are reviewed, with emphasis on the relation between timescales of extinction, population size, and temporally correlated noise. Ecological models are discussed by focusing on the effect of spatial interspecies interactions on diversity. Connections between physical processes—such as diffusion, turbulence, and localization—and evolutionary phenomena are highlighted. (key issues reviews)

  19. The Rise of the Anthroposphere since 50,000 Years: An Ecological Replacement of Megaherbivores by Humans in Terrestrial Ecosystems?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hervé Bocherens

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Megaherbivores fulfilled a number of important ecological functions in terrestrial ecosystems and behaved as ecological engineers since 300 million years until around 12,000 years ago. These essential ecological functions include opening vegetation cover, selective seed dispersal and nutrient recycling and spreading. Thanks to these effects, megaherbivores change the vegetation structure where they live, with cascading effects on smaller herbivores and also on climate. The late Pleistocene extinction strongly impacted the megaherbivores almost all over the world and led to the loss of these important ecological functions in terrestrial ecosystems. These functions were partially restored by agriculturist humans through an ecological replacement that occurred through an ecological shift within the species Homo sapiens. A better understanding of the differences and similarities between the ecological impacts of megaherbivores and those of agricultural humans should help to predict the future of terrestrial ecosystems.

  20. Oil spill studies: A review of ecological effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teal, John M.; Howarth, Robert W.

    1984-01-01

    We reviewed seven particularly well known and/or studied oil spills that have occurred since the National Academy of Sciences 1975 report, “Petroleum in the Marine Environment” or that occurred prior to that report but about which significant new information has since been acquired. The spills studied were from the barge Florida, and tankers Arrow, Argo Merchant, Amoco Cadiz, and Tsesis and blowouts from the Bravo and Ixtoc I platforms. These “best” studies yield only limited insight into effects because they lack controls and have a high degree of natural variability. The Tsesis, Florida, and Amoco Cadiz cases are exceptional since they occurred in areas of ongoing research programs and had nearby areas suitable for controls. Oil spills have produced measurable effects on ecosystems that have not been readily predictable from laboratory studies on isolated organisms. However, ecosystemlevel interactions are poorly understood even without the complications resulting from effects of pollution. These generalizations emerge: oil regularly reaches sediments after a spill; oil in anoxic sediments is persistent; oil regularly contaminates Zooplankton and benthic invertebrates; fish are also contaminated, but to a lesser extent; oil contamination decreases the abundance and diversity of benthic communities.

  1. [Ecology and ecologies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valera, Luca

    2011-01-01

    Ecology (from the Greek words οιχοσ, "house" and λογια "study of") is the science of the "house", since it studies the environments where we live. There are three main ways of thinking about Ecology: Ecology as the study of interactions (between humans and the environment, between humans and living beings, between all living beings, etc.), Ecology as the statistical study of interactions, Ecology as a faith, or rather as a science that requires a metaphysical view. The history of Ecology shows us how this view was released by the label of "folk sense" to gain the epistemological status of science, a science that strives to be interdisciplinary. So, the aim of Ecology is to study, through a scientific methodology, the whole natural world, answering to very different questions, that arise from several fields (Economics, Biology, Sociology, Philosophy, etc.). The plurality of issues that Ecology has to face led, during the Twentieth-century, to branch off in several different "ecologies". As a result, each one of these new approaches chose as its own field a more limited and specific portion of reality.

  2. Integrated ecological-economic fisheries models - evaluation, review and challenges for implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J. Rasmus; Thunberg, Eric; Holland, Daniel S.

    2018-01-01

    and comparative evaluation of 35 IESFM´s applied to marine fisheries and marine ecosystem resources to identify the characteristics that determine their usefulness, effectiveness and implementation. The focus is on fully integrated models that allow for feedbacks between ecological and human processes though......Marine ecosystems evolve under many interconnected and area-specific pressures. In order to fulfill society's intensifying and diversifying needs whilst ensuring ecologically sustainable development, more effective marine spatial planning and broader-scope management of marine resources...... is necessary. Integrated ecological–socioeconomic fisheries models (IESFM) of marine systems are nee¬ded to evaluate impacts and sustainability of potential management actions and understand, and anti¬ci¬pate ecological, economic, and social dynamics at a range of scales from local to national and regional...

  3. Taxonomic and ecological review of California Delphinium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warnock, Michael J.

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available Included within the boundaries of California are all or parts of the ranges of many of the Delphinium native to North America.Currently, 28 species of Delphinium are recognized as occurring in California. In addition to nominal subspecies in these species. another 17 subspecies are recognized. A key to, and descriptions of, the taxa of Delphinium found in California are presented. 1ncludedwith descriptions are comments on distribution, habitat preferences, propensity for hybridization and abundance of each taxon. Certain hybrids which may be found (often as a result of human disturbance are separated in the key.

    [ca] A l'interior dels límits de Califòrnia es troben la totalitat o parts de les àrees de bona part dels Delphinium nadius de Nordamèrica. Es reconeixen 28 espècies de Delphinium a Califòrnia; ultra llurs respectives subspècies nominals, es reconeixen 17 altres subspècies. Es presenten un a clau i les descripcions corresponents als tàxons presents a Califòrnia. Juntament amb les descripcions, s'hi inclouen comentaris sobre la distribució, preferències d'hàbitat, propensió per a ta hibridació i abundància de cada tàxon. Alguns híbrids que es poden trobar (sovint com a resultat de pertorbacions causades per l'home són separats a les claus.

  4. [Effects of biochar on microbial ecology in agriculture soil: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yan-Li; Liu, Jie; Wang, Ying-Ying

    2013-11-01

    Biochar, as a new type of soil amendment, has been obtained considerable attention in the research field of environmental sciences worldwide. The studies on the effects of biochar in improving soil physical and chemical properties started quite earlier, and already covered the field of soil microbial ecology. However, most of the studies considered the soil physical and chemical properties and the microbial ecology separately, with less consideration of their interactions. This paper summarized and analyzed the interrelationships between the changes of soil physical and chemical properties and of soil microbial community after the addition of biochar. Biochar can not only improve soil pH value, strengthen soil water-holding capacity, increase soil organic matter content, but also affect soil microbial community structure, and alter the abundance of soil bacteria and fungi. After the addition of biochar, the soil environment and soil microorganisms are interacted each other, and promote the improvement of soil microbial ecological system together. This review was to provide a novel perspective for the in-depth studies of the effects of biochar on soil microbial ecology, and to promote the researches on the beneficial effects of biochar to the environment from ecological aspect. The methods to improve the effectiveness of biochar application were discussed, and the potential applications of biochar in soil bioremediation were further analyzed.

  5. Distinguishing technology from biology: a critical review of the use of GPS telemetry data in ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebblewhite, Mark; Haydon, Daniel T

    2010-07-27

    In the past decade, ecologists have witnessed vast improvements in our ability to collect animal movement data through animal-borne technology, such as through GPS or ARGOS systems. However, more data does not necessarily yield greater knowledge in understanding animal ecology and conservation. In this paper, we provide a review of the major benefits, problems and potential misuses of GPS/Argos technology to animal ecology and conservation. Benefits are obvious, and include the ability to collect fine-scale spatio-temporal location data on many previously impossible to study animals, such as ocean-going fish, migratory songbirds and long-distance migratory mammals. These benefits come with significant problems, however, imposed by frequent collar failures and high cost, which often results in weaker study design, reduced sample sizes and poorer statistical inference. In addition, we see the divorcing of biologists from a field-based understanding of animal ecology to be a growing problem. Despite these difficulties, GPS devices have provided significant benefits, particularly in the conservation and ecology of wide-ranging species. We conclude by offering suggestions for ecologists on which kinds of ecological questions would currently benefit the most from GPS/Argos technology, and where the technology has been potentially misused. Significant conceptual challenges remain, however, including the links between movement and behaviour, and movement and population dynamics.

  6. A review of gastrointestinal microbiology with special emphasis on molecular microbial ecology approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackie, R.I.; Cann, I.K.O.

    2005-01-01

    All animals, including humans, are adapted to life in a microbial world. Large populations of micro-organisms inhabit the gastrointestinal tract of all animals and form a closely integrated ecological unit with the host. This complex, mixed, microbial culture can be considered the most metabolically adaptable and rapidly renewable organ of the body, which plays a vital role in the normal nutritional, physiological, immunological and protective functions of the host animal. Bacteria have traditionally been classified mainly on the basis of phenotypic properties. Despite the vast amount of knowledge generated for ruminal and other intestinal ecosystems using traditional techniques, the basic requisites for ecological studies, namely, enumeration and identification of all community members, have limitations. The two major problems faced by microbial ecologists are bias introduced by culture-based enumeration and characterization techniques, and the lack of a phylogenetically-based classification scheme. Modem molecular ecology techniques based on sequence comparisons of nucleic acids (DNA or RNA) can be used to provide molecular characterization while at the same time providing a classification scheme that predicts natural evolutionary relationships. These molecular methods provide results that are independent of growth conditions and media used. Also, using these techniques, bacteria can be classified and identified before they can be grown in pure culture. These nucleic acid-based techniques will enable gut microbiologists to answer the most difficult question in microbial ecology: namely, describing the exact role or function a specific bacterium plays in its natural environment and its quantitative contribution to the whole. However, rather than replacing the classical culture-based system, the new molecular-based techniques can be used in combination with the classical approach to improve cultivation, speciation and evaluation of diversity. The study of microbial

  7. The missing link between human ecology and public health: the case of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modonesi, Carlo; Oddone, Enrico; Panizza, Celestino; Imbriani, Marcello

    2017-11-01

    The primary role played by the 'ecological context' in clarifying the causes and dynamics of human health and disease is the topic of this article. It emphasizes that the challenging incidence of cancer and other diseases can be charged primarily to the effects of the worldwide dominant economic model. Human culture may act as a powerful force affecting the environment, biology and health of humans and other species. Human culture can be viewed as a special and extreme case of 'niche construction', where human-specific traits, technologies and beliefs act together. The feedback between human activities and the environment can promote different trends in public health. This should provide the opportunity to rethink the consequences that our economic model produces both on the environment and on physical, mental and social health of our species. Copyright© by Aracne Editrice, Roma, Italy.

  8. Studying the neurobiology of human social interaction: Making the case for ecological validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogenelst, Koen; Schoevers, Robert A; aan het Rot, Marije

    2015-01-01

    With this commentary we make the case for an increased focus on the ecological validity of the measures used to assess aspects of human social functioning. Impairments in social functioning are seen in many types of psychopathology, negatively affecting the lives of psychiatric patients and those around them. Yet the neurobiology underlying abnormal social interaction remains unclear. As an example of human social neuroscience research with relevance to biological psychiatry and clinical psychopharmacology, this commentary discusses published experimental studies involving manipulation of the human brain serotonin system that included assessments of social behavior. To date, these studies have mostly been laboratory-based and included computer tasks, observations by others, or single-administration self-report measures. Most laboratory measures used so far inform about the role of serotonin in aspects of social interaction, but the relevance for real-life interaction is often unclear. Few studies have used naturalistic assessments in real life. We suggest several laboratory methods with high ecological validity as well as ecological momentary assessment, which involves intensive repeated measures in naturalistic settings. In sum, this commentary intends to stimulate experimental research on the neurobiology of human social interaction as it occurs in real life.

  9. The painted turtle, Chrysemys picta: a model system for vertebrate evolution, ecology, and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Nicole

    2009-07-01

    Painted turtles (Chrysemys picta) are representatives of a vertebrate clade whose biology and phylogenetic position hold a key to our understanding of fundamental aspects of vertebrate evolution. These features make them an ideal emerging model system. Extensive ecological and physiological research provide the context in which to place new research advances in evolutionary genetics, genomics, evolutionary developmental biology, and ecological developmental biology which are enabled by current resources, such as a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library of C. picta, and the imminent development of additional ones such as genome sequences and cDNA and expressed sequence tag (EST) libraries. This integrative approach will allow the research community to continue making advances to provide functional and evolutionary explanations for the lability of biological traits found not only among reptiles but vertebrates in general. Moreover, because humans and reptiles share a common ancestor, and given the ease of using nonplacental vertebrates in experimental biology compared with mammalian embryos, painted turtles are also an emerging model system for biomedical research. For example, painted turtles have been studied to understand many biological responses to overwintering and anoxia, as potential sentinels for environmental xenobiotics, and as a model to decipher the ecology and evolution of sexual development and reproduction. Thus, painted turtles are an excellent reptilian model system for studies with human health, environmental, ecological, and evolutionary significance.

  10. Human tracking over camera networks: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Li; Wan, Wanggen; Hwang, Jenq-Neng; Muhammad, Rizwan; Yang, Mingyang; Han, Kang

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, automated human tracking over camera networks is getting essential for video surveillance. The tasks of tracking human over camera networks are not only inherently challenging due to changing human appearance, but also have enormous potentials for a wide range of practical applications, ranging from security surveillance to retail and health care. This review paper surveys the most widely used techniques and recent advances for human tracking over camera networks. Two important functional modules for the human tracking over camera networks are addressed, including human tracking within a camera and human tracking across non-overlapping cameras. The core techniques of human tracking within a camera are discussed based on two aspects, i.e., generative trackers and discriminative trackers. The core techniques of human tracking across non-overlapping cameras are then discussed based on the aspects of human re-identification, camera-link model-based tracking and graph model-based tracking. Our survey aims to address existing problems, challenges, and future research directions based on the analyses of the current progress made toward human tracking techniques over camera networks.

  11. Caries dental y ecología bucal, aspectos importantes a considerar Dental caries and oral ecology, important aspects to be considered: Bibliographic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johany Duque de Estrada Riverón

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available La caries dental constituye actualmente la enfermedad más frecuente en el ser humano. Existen algunos elementos de la ecología bucal que pueden favorecer su desarrollo. Se realiza una revisión bibliográfica con el objetivo fundamental de profundizar en los conocimientos teóricos sobre las características del tejido adamantino, aspectos específicos del Streptococcus mutans, papel de la saliva en el medio bucal e influencia de la ingesta de carbohidratos que pueden predisponer a la aparición de caries dental. Se concluye que se debe aumentar la resistencia del esmalte e impedir la adhesión inicial del Streptococcus mutans para prevenir esta enfermedad; la saliva debe ser considerada como un sistema y debemos fomentar la educación nutricional e higiénica de la familia.Dental caries are nowadays the most frequent disease among human beigns. There are some elements of oral ecology that may favor their development. A bibliographic review is made aimed at going deep into the theoretical knowledge of the characteristics of the adamantine tissue, the specific aspects of Streptococcus mutans, the role of saliva in the oral environment, and the influence of the ingestion of carbohydrates that may predispose the appareance of dental caries. It is concluded that the enamel resistance should be increased and that the initial adhesion of Streptococcus mutans should be impeded to prevent this disease. Saliva should be considered as a system and we should promote the family nutritional and hygiene education.

  12. The Biology and Ecology of Cat Fleas and Advancements in Their Pest Management: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael K. Rust

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The cat flea Ctenocephalides felis felis (Bouché is the most important ectoparasite of domestic cats and dogs worldwide. It has been two decades since the last comprehensive review concerning the biology and ecology of C. f. felis and its management. Since then there have been major advances in our understanding of the diseases associated with C. f. felis and their implications for humans and their pets. Two rickettsial diseases, flea-borne spotted fever and murine typhus, have been identified in domestic animal populations and cat fleas. Cat fleas are the primary vector of Bartonella henselae (cat scratch fever with the spread of the bacteria when flea feces are scratched in to bites or wounds. Flea allergic dermatitis (FAD common in dogs and cats has been successfully treated and tapeworm infestations prevented with a number of new products being used to control fleas. There has been a continuous development of new products with novel chemistries that have focused on increased convenience and the control of fleas and other arthropod ectoparasites. The possibility of feral animals serving as potential reservoirs for flea infestations has taken on additional importance because of the lack of effective environmental controls in recent years. Physiological insecticide resistance in C. f. felis continues to be of concern, especially because pyrethroid resistance now appears to be more widespread. In spite of their broad use since 1994, there is little evidence that resistance has developed to many of the on-animal or oral treatments such as fipronil, imidacloprid or lufenuron. Reports of the perceived lack of performance of some of the new on-animal therapies have been attributed to compliance issues and their misuse. Consequentially, there is a continuing need for consumer awareness of products registered for cats and dogs and their safety.

  13. The Biology and Ecology of Cat Fleas and Advancements in Their Pest Management: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The cat flea Ctenocephalides felis felis (Bouché) is the most important ectoparasite of domestic cats and dogs worldwide. It has been two decades since the last comprehensive review concerning the biology and ecology of C. f. felis and its management. Since then there have been major advances in our understanding of the diseases associated with C. f. felis and their implications for humans and their pets. Two rickettsial diseases, flea-borne spotted fever and murine typhus, have been identified in domestic animal populations and cat fleas. Cat fleas are the primary vector of Bartonella henselae (cat scratch fever) with the spread of the bacteria when flea feces are scratched in to bites or wounds. Flea allergic dermatitis (FAD) common in dogs and cats has been successfully treated and tapeworm infestations prevented with a number of new products being used to control fleas. There has been a continuous development of new products with novel chemistries that have focused on increased convenience and the control of fleas and other arthropod ectoparasites. The possibility of feral animals serving as potential reservoirs for flea infestations has taken on additional importance because of the lack of effective environmental controls in recent years. Physiological insecticide resistance in C. f. felis continues to be of concern, especially because pyrethroid resistance now appears to be more widespread. In spite of their broad use since 1994, there is little evidence that resistance has developed to many of the on-animal or oral treatments such as fipronil, imidacloprid or lufenuron. Reports of the perceived lack of performance of some of the new on-animal therapies have been attributed to compliance issues and their misuse. Consequentially, there is a continuing need for consumer awareness of products registered for cats and dogs and their safety. PMID:29077073

  14. Environmental Escherichia coli: ecology and public health implications-a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, J; Hur, H-G; Sadowsky, M J; Byappanahalli, M N; Yan, T; Ishii, S

    2017-09-01

    Escherichia coli is classified as a rod-shaped, Gram-negative bacterium in the family Enterobacteriaceae. The bacterium mainly inhabits the lower intestinal tract of warm-blooded animals, including humans, and is often discharged into the environment through faeces or wastewater effluent. The presence of E. coli in environmental waters has long been considered as an indicator of recent faecal pollution. However, numerous recent studies have reported that some specific strains of E. coli can survive for long periods of time, and potentially reproduce, in extraintestinal environments. This indicates that E. coli can be integrated into indigenous microbial communities in the environment. This naturalization phenomenon calls into question the reliability of E. coli as a faecal indicator bacterium (FIB). Recently, many studies reported that E. coli populations in the environment are affected by ambient environmental conditions affecting their long-term survival. Large-scale studies of population genetics revealed the diversity and complexity of E. coli strains in various environments, which are affected by multiple environmental factors. This review examines the current knowledge on the ecology of E. coli strains in various environments with regard to its role as a FIB and as a naturalized member of indigenous microbial communities. Special emphasis is given on the growth of pathogenic E. coli in the environment, and the population genetics of environmental members of the genus Escherichia. The impact of environmental E. coli on water quality and public health is also discussed. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. Ecological and human health risks associated with abandoned gold mine tailings contaminated soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngole-Jeme, Veronica Mpode; Fantke, Peter

    2017-01-01

    of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn) in soil samples from the area varied with the highest contamination factors (expressed as ratio of metal or metalloid concentration in the tailings contaminated soil......Gold mining is a major source of metal and metalloid emissions into the environment. Studies were carried out in Krugersdorp, South Africa, to evaluate the ecological and human health risks associated with exposure to metals and metalloids in mine tailings contaminated soils. Concentrations......×10−2 for As and Ni respectively among children, and 5×10−3 and 4×10−3 for As and Ni respectively among adults. There is significant potential ecological and human health risk associated with metal and metalloid exposure from contaminated soils around gold mine tailings dumps. This could be a potential contributing...

  16. A Review of Human Activity Recognition Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalis eVrigkas

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Recognizing human activities from video sequences or still images is a challenging task due to problems such as background clutter, partial occlusion, changes in scale, viewpoint, lighting, and appearance. Many applications, including video surveillance systems, human-computer interaction, and robotics for human behavior characterization, require a multiple activity recognition system. In this work, we provide a detailed review of recent and state-of-the-art research advances in the field of human activity classification. We propose a categorization of human activity methodologies and discuss their advantages and limitations. In particular, we divide human activity classification methods into two large categories according to whether they use data from different modalities or not. Then, each of these categories is further analyzed into sub-categories, which reflect how they model human activities and what type of activities they are interested in. Moreover, we provide a comprehensive analysis of the existing, publicly available human activity classification datasets and examine the requirements for an ideal human activity recognition dataset. Finally, we report the characteristics of future research directions and present some open issues on human activity recognition.

  17. Public humanization policies: integrative literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Márcia Adriana Dias Meirelles; Lustosa, Abdon Moreira; Dutra, Fernando; Barros, Eveline de Oliveira; Batista, Jaqueline Brito Vidal; Duarte, Marcella Costa Souto

    2015-10-01

    The study aimed to investigate the scientific literature on Public Humanization Policies, available in online periodicals, from 2009 to 2012, in the health field. This is an integrative literature review conducted in the Virtual Health Library databases: Latin-America and Caribbean Health Sciences (Lilacs) and the Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO) and Portal Capes. Data were collected in July 2013. To this end, the following Health Sciences Descriptors (DeCS) were used: "Humanization of Care," "Public Policies," "National Humanization Policy". The sample consisted of 27 articles about the investigated theme. From the publications selected for the research, three categories emerged according to their respective approaches: National Human-ization Policy: history and processes involved in its implementation; National Humanization Policy: health professionals contribution; Humanization and in the care process. The study showed that the National Humanization Policy is an important benchmark in the development of health practices. For this reason, there is a pressing multiplication of related reflections on ways to promote human-ization in health services.

  18. Human factors reliability benchmark exercise: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphreys, P.

    1990-01-01

    The Human Factors Reliability Benchmark Exercise has addressed the issues of identification, analysis, representation and quantification of Human Error in order to identify the strengths and weaknesses of available techniques. Using a German PWR nuclear powerplant as the basis for the studies, fifteen teams undertook evaluations of a routine functional Test and Maintenance procedure plus an analysis of human actions during an operational transient. The techniques employed by the teams are discussed and reviewed on a comparative basis. The qualitative assessments performed by each team compare well, but at the quantification stage there is much less agreement. (author)

  19. An intelligent human-machine system based on an ecological interface design concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naito, N.

    1995-01-01

    It seems both necessary and promising to develop an intelligent human-machine system, considering the objective of the human-machine system and the recent advance in cognitive engineering and artificial intelligence together with the ever-increasing importance of human factor issues in nuclear power plant operation and maintenance. It should support human operators in their knowledge-based behaviour and allow them to cope with unanticipated abnormal events, including recovery from erroneous human actions. A top-down design approach has been adopted based on cognitive work analysis, and (1) an ecological interface, (2) a cognitive model-based advisor and (3) a robust automatic sequence controller have been established. These functions have been integrated into an experimental control room. A validation test was carried out by the participation of experienced operators and engineers. The results showed the usefulness of this system in supporting the operator's supervisory plant control tasks. ((orig.))

  20. Social-Ecological Correlates in Adult Autism Outcome Studies: A Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kristy A; Roux, Anne M; Kuo, Alice; Shattuck, Paul T

    2018-04-01

    The transition into adulthood is a critical period in the life course that shapes later outcomes. Many adults on the autism spectrum fare poorly across a wide range of quality of life indicators. Understanding the multilevel factors that influence transition outcomes is necessary to develop strategies that promote better outcomes. In this scoping review, we characterize the use of social-ecological factors in adult autism outcome studies, identify understudied areas of research, and provide recommendations for future research. We conducted a literature search for studies in which the relationship between social-ecological factors and transition outcomes among transition-age youth with autism was assessed. We organized variables used in studies across 5 levels of influence: family-, interpersonal-, institutional-, community-, and policy-level factors. Our findings reveal that both breadth and depth of social-ecological factors usage in autism outcomes studies is limited because of the narrow inclusion of variables across social-ecological levels, the overreliance on a limited number of national data sets, and the overall lack of variation in research design. We propose 9 recommendations to inform the development of multilevel studies. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  1. Conserving social-ecological systems in Indonesia: human-nonhuman primate interconnections in Bali and Sulawesi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Erin P; Fuentes, Agustín

    2011-01-01

    An important question asked by primatologists and conservationists alike is: what is the relevance of primates and primate conservation for ecosystem conservation? The goal of this article is to contribute to this dialogue by advocating the use of a research perspective that focuses on the dynamics of human-nonhuman primate sympatry and interaction (i.e., ethnoprimatology) in order to better understand complex social-ecological systems and to inform their conservation management. This perspective/approach is based largely on the recognition that human primates are important components of all ecological systems and that niche construction is a fundamental feature of their adaptive success. To demonstrate the relevance of the human-nonhuman primate interface for ecosystem conservation, we provide examples from our research from two islands in the Indonesian archipelago: Bali and Sulawesi. In Bali, humans and long-tail macaques coexist in a system that creates favorable environments for the macaques. This anthropogenic landscape and the economic and ecological relationships between humans and monkeys on Bali provide insight into sustainable systems of human/nonhuman primate coexistence. In Lore Lindu National Park in Central Sulawesi, villagers and Tonkean macaques overlap in their use of both forest and cultivated resources. The finding that the Arenga pinnata palm is extremely important for both villagers and macaques points to a conservation management recommendation that may help protect the overall ecosystem; the cultivation and propagation of mutually important tree species at forest-agricultural ecotone as a means to curb crop raiding and to alleviate farmer's perceived need to clear additional forest.

  2. A Conceptual Model for Teaching the Relationship of Daily Life and Human Environmental Impact to Ecological Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyner, Yael

    2013-01-01

    In the general activity of daily life, it is easy to miss our dependency on the Earth's ecology. At the same time that people are living apparently separate from the environment, our impact on the Earth is increasing. This study seeks to understand how teachers can bridge this persistent disconnect of daily life from ecology and human impact.…

  3. Human-to-human transmission of Brucella - a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuon, Felipe F; Gondolfo, Regina B; Cerchiari, Natacha

    2017-05-01

    The most common form of transmitting human brucellosis is through contaminated food or direct contact with infected animals. Human-to-human transmission (HHT) has been described as isolated case reports. The aim of this systematic review was to describe all cases of HHT of human brucellosis reported in the medical literature. A literature search was conducted using PubMed, Scopus and Scielo databases using specific search terms published until March 2016. Two investigators independently determined study eligibility. All clinical data were evaluated to construct a table comprising the most important clinical aspects, age, gender, confirmed infection and detection method, transmission method and HHT confirmation and potential source of infection for human transmission. No statistical method was employed in this study. The initial search resulted in 615 publications, but only 35 were included. 45 brucellosis HHT cases were identified. 61% of patients who acquired brucellosis from another human were <1 year old (newborn and breastfeeding). Other cases include sexual transmission, blood transfusion, bone marrow transplantation and aerosol from an infected patient. Most patients (40/45) presented symptoms upon diagnosis. Diagnostic tests included culture, molecular methods and serum testing. Human brucellosis is a disease liable to transmission between humans by placental barrier, lactation, sexual and tissues such as blood and bone marrow. The indication for screening in tissue banks, transplants, blood and pregnancy is not yet established. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Seagrass meadows globally as a coupled social-ecological system: implications for human wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen-Unsworth, Leanne C; Nordlund, Lina Mtwana; Paddock, Jessica; Baker, Susan; McKenzie, Len J; Unsworth, Richard K F

    2014-06-30

    Seagrass ecosystems are diminishing worldwide and repeated studies confirm a lack of appreciation for the value of these systems. In order to highlight their value we provide the first discussion of seagrass meadows as a coupled social-ecological system on a global scale. We consider the impact of a declining resource on people, including those for whom seagrass meadows are utilised for income generation and a source of food security through fisheries support. Case studies from across the globe are used to demonstrate the intricate relationship between seagrass meadows and people that highlight the multi-functional role of seagrasses in human wellbeing. While each case underscores unique issues, these examples simultaneously reveal social-ecological coupling that transcends cultural and geographical boundaries. We conclude that understanding seagrass meadows as a coupled social-ecological system is crucial in carving pathways for social and ecological resilience in light of current patterns of local to global environmental change. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Human and ecological determinants of the spatial structure of local breed diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colino-Rabanal, Victor J; Rodríguez-Díaz, Roberto; Blanco-Villegas, María José; Peris, Salvador J; Lizana, Miguel

    2018-04-24

    Since domestication, a large number of livestock breeds adapted to local conditions have been created by natural and artificial selection, representing one of the most powerful ways in which human groups have constructed niches to meet their need. Although many authors have described local breeds as the result of culturally and environmentally mediated processes, this study, located in mainland Spain, is the first aimed at identifying and quantifying the environmental and human contributions to the spatial structure of local breed diversity, which we refer to as livestock niche. We found that the more similar two provinces were in terms of human population, ecological characteristics, historical ties, and geographic distance, the more similar the composition of local breeds in their territories. Isolation by human population distance showed the strongest effect, followed by isolation by the environment, thus supporting the view of livestock niche as a socio-cultural product adapted to the local environment, in whose construction humans make good use of their ecological and cultural inheritances. These findings provide a useful framework to understand and to envisage the effects of climate change and globalization on local breeds and their livestock niches.

  6. The ecological imperative and its application to ethical issues in human genetic technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Malcolm Byrnes

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available As a species, we are on the cusp of being able to alter that which makes us uniquely human, our genome. Two new genetic technologies, embryo selection and germline engineering, are either in use today or may be developed in the future. Embryo selection acts to alter the human gene pool, reducing genetic diversity, while germline engineering will have the ability to alter directly the genomes of engineered individuals. Our genome has come to be what it is through an evolutionary process extending over millions of years, a process that has involved exceedingly complex and unpredictable interactions between ourselves or our ancestors and myriad other life forms within Earth's biosphere. In this paper, the ecological imperativ e, which states that we must not alter the human genome or the collective human genetic inheritance, will be introduced. It will be argued based on ecological principles that embryo selection and germline engineering are unethical and unwise because they will diminish our survivability as a species, will disrupt our relationship with the natural world, and will destroy the very basis of that which makes us human.

  7. The microbial diversity, distribution, and ecology of permafrost in China: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Weigang; Zhang, Qi; Tian, Tian; Cheng, Guodong; An, Lizhe; Feng, Huyuan

    2015-07-01

    Permafrost in China mainly located in high-altitude areas. It represents a unique and suitable ecological niche that can be colonized by abundant microbes. Permafrost microbial community varies across geographically separated locations in China, and some lineages are novel and possible endemic. Besides, Chinese permafrost is a reservoir of functional microbial groups involved in key biogeochemical cycling processes. In future, more work is necessary to determine if these phylogenetic groups detected by DNA-based methods are part of the viable microbial community, and their functional roles and how they potentially respond to climate change. This review summaries recent studies describing microbial biodiversity found in permafrost and associated environments in China, and provides a framework for better understanding the microbial ecology of permafrost.

  8. Literature Review on the Effects of Prescription Fire on theEcology of Site 300

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preston, R

    2011-03-14

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has historically conducted prescription burns across approximately 2,000 acres of Site 300 on an annual basis to safeguard test facilities and operations from the risk of wildfire encroachment. Prescription burns began in 1960, and although fire frequency varies among the designated burn areas, all have been burned at least once. A patchwork of native perennial grassland communities and associated special-status plant and animal populations occur onsite in many areas that have been receiving these treatments. Because the size and locations of prescription burns may shift in coming years, an evaluation is warranted to determine how these shifts may affect listed biota, including rare plants, and the distinct ecological conditions present on the site. This report presents the results of a literature review conducted by ICF International (ICF) to collect basic information on native perennial grasslands in California, the influence of fire on these grasslands, and management tools for restoring and maintaining them. The objective of this study was to review the scientific literature on California native grasslands and summarize the current state of knowledge pertaining to the possible effects -- both beneficial and detrimental -- of prescribed fire on the ecology of Site 300. The results of this review are intended to inform future management practices that may be carried out at Site 300 to maintain the plant and wildlife communities and to ensure that the ecological conditions benefit the special-status species that inhabit the Site. This review is also intended to identify a study approach to investigate changes over the next 10 years in the burned areas and in areas where burning will be discontinued.

  9. Human factors review of power plant maintainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seminara, J.L.; Parsons, S.O.; Schmidt, W.J.; Gonzalez, W.R.; Dove, L.E.

    1980-10-01

    Human factors engineering is an interdisciplinary science and technology concerned with shaping the design of machines, facilities, and operational environments to promote safe, efficient, and reliable performance on the part of operators and maintainers of equipment systems. The human factors aspects of five nuclear power plants and four fossil fuel plants were evaluated using such methods as a checklist guided observation system, structured interviews with maintenance personnel, direct observations of maintenance tasks, reviews of procedures, and analyses of maintenance errors or accidents by means of the critical incident technique. The study revealed a wide variety of human factors problem areas, most of which are extensively photodocumented. The study recommends that a more systematic and formal approach be adopted to ensure that future power plants are human engineered to the needs of maintenance personnel

  10. Animal Models of Human Placentation - A Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Anthony Michael

    2007-01-01

    This review examines the strengths and weaknesses of animal models of human placentation and pays particular attention to the mouse and non-human primates. Analogies can be drawn between mouse and human in placental cell types and genes controlling placental development. There are, however...... and delivers poorly developed young. Guinea pig is a good alternative rodent model and among the few species known to develop pregnancy toxaemia. The sheep is well established as a model in fetal physiology but is of limited value for placental research. The ovine placenta is epitheliochorial...... and endometrium is similar in macaques and baboons, as is the subsequent lacunar stage. The absence of interstitial trophoblast cells in the monkey is an important difference from human placentation. However, there is a strong resemblance in the way spiral arteries are invaded and transformed in the macaque...

  11. A systematic review of ecological attributes that confer resilience to climate change in environmental restoration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britta L Timpane-Padgham

    Full Text Available Ecological restoration is widely practiced as a means of rehabilitating ecosystems and habitats that have been degraded or impaired through human use or other causes. Restoration practices now are confronted by climate change, which has the potential to influence long-term restoration outcomes. Concepts and attributes from the resilience literature can help improve restoration and monitoring efforts under changing climate conditions. We systematically examined the published literature on ecological resilience to identify biological, chemical, and physical attributes that confer resilience to climate change. We identified 45 attributes explicitly related to climate change and classified them as individual- (9, population- (6, community- (7, ecosystem- (7, or process-level attributes (16. Individual studies defined resilience as resistance to change or recovery from disturbance, and only a few studies explicitly included both concepts in their definition of resilience. We found that individual and population attributes generally are suited to species- or habitat-specific restoration actions and applicable at the population scale. Community attributes are better suited to habitat-specific restoration at the site scale, or system-wide restoration at the ecosystem scale. Ecosystem and process attributes vary considerably in their type and applicability. We summarize these relationships in a decision support table and provide three example applications to illustrate how these classifications can be used to prioritize climate change resilience attributes for specific restoration actions. We suggest that (1 including resilience as an explicit planning objective could increase the success of restoration projects, (2 considering the ecological context and focal scale of a restoration action is essential in choosing appropriate resilience attributes, and (3 certain ecological attributes, such as diversity and connectivity, are more commonly considered to

  12. A systematic review of ecological attributes that confer resilience to climate change in environmental restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timpane-Padgham, Britta L; Beechie, Tim; Klinger, Terrie

    2017-01-01

    Ecological restoration is widely practiced as a means of rehabilitating ecosystems and habitats that have been degraded or impaired through human use or other causes. Restoration practices now are confronted by climate change, which has the potential to influence long-term restoration outcomes. Concepts and attributes from the resilience literature can help improve restoration and monitoring efforts under changing climate conditions. We systematically examined the published literature on ecological resilience to identify biological, chemical, and physical attributes that confer resilience to climate change. We identified 45 attributes explicitly related to climate change and classified them as individual- (9), population- (6), community- (7), ecosystem- (7), or process-level attributes (16). Individual studies defined resilience as resistance to change or recovery from disturbance, and only a few studies explicitly included both concepts in their definition of resilience. We found that individual and population attributes generally are suited to species- or habitat-specific restoration actions and applicable at the population scale. Community attributes are better suited to habitat-specific restoration at the site scale, or system-wide restoration at the ecosystem scale. Ecosystem and process attributes vary considerably in their type and applicability. We summarize these relationships in a decision support table and provide three example applications to illustrate how these classifications can be used to prioritize climate change resilience attributes for specific restoration actions. We suggest that (1) including resilience as an explicit planning objective could increase the success of restoration projects, (2) considering the ecological context and focal scale of a restoration action is essential in choosing appropriate resilience attributes, and (3) certain ecological attributes, such as diversity and connectivity, are more commonly considered to confer

  13. The debt of nations and the distribution of ecological impacts from human activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, U Thara; Carey, Susan P; Hallstein, Eric; Higgins, Paul A T; Kerr, Amber C; Koteen, Laura E; Smith, Adam B; Watson, Reg; Harte, John; Norgaard, Richard B

    2008-02-05

    As human impacts to the environment accelerate, disparities in the distribution of damages between rich and poor nations mount. Globally, environmental change is dramatically affecting the flow of ecosystem services, but the distribution of ecological damages and their driving forces has not been estimated. Here, we conservatively estimate the environmental costs of human activities over 1961-2000 in six major categories (climate change, stratospheric ozone depletion, agricultural intensification and expansion, deforestation, overfishing, and mangrove conversion), quantitatively connecting costs borne by poor, middle-income, and rich nations to specific activities by each of these groups. Adjusting impact valuations for different standards of living across the groups as commonly practiced, we find striking imbalances. Climate change and ozone depletion impacts predicted for low-income nations have been overwhelmingly driven by emissions from the other two groups, a pattern also observed for overfishing damages indirectly driven by the consumption of fishery products. Indeed, through disproportionate emissions of greenhouse gases alone, the rich group may have imposed climate damages on the poor group greater than the latter's current foreign debt. Our analysis provides prima facie evidence for an uneven distribution pattern of damages across income groups. Moreover, our estimates of each group's share in various damaging activities are independent from controversies in environmental valuation methods. In a world increasingly connected ecologically and economically, our analysis is thus an early step toward reframing issues of environmental responsibility, development, and globalization in accordance with ecological costs.

  14. The Human Behavioral Ecology of Contemporary World Issues : Applications to Public Policy and International Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Bram; Rende Taylor, Lisa

    2007-09-01

    Human behavioral ecology (HBE) began as an attempt to explain human economic, reproductive, and social behavior using neodarwinian theory in concert with theory from ecology and economics, and ethnographic methods. HBE has addressed subsistence decision-making, cooperation, life history trade-offs, parental investment, mate choice, and marriage strategies among hunter-gatherers, herders, peasants, and wage earners in rural and urban settings throughout the world. Despite our rich insights into human behavior, HBE has very rarely been used as a tool to help the people with whom we work. This article introduces a special issue of Human Nature which explores the application of HBE to significant world issues through the design and critique of public policy and international development projects. The articles by Tucker, Shenk, Leonetti et al., and Neil were presented at the 104th annual meeting of the American Anthropological Association (AAA) in Washington, D.C., in December 2005, in the first organized session of the nascent Evolutionary Anthropology Section (EAS). We conclude this introduction by summarizing some theoretical challenges to applying HBE, and ways in which evolutionary anthropologists can contribute to solving tough world issues.

  15. The Law Review Approach: What the Humanities Can Learn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendenhall, Allen

    2013-01-01

    Readers of this journal probably know how the peer review process works in the humanities disciplines and at various journals. Therefore the author explains how the law review process generally works and then what the humanities can learn and borrow from the law review process. He ends by advocating for a hybrid law review/peer review approach to…

  16. Military service member and veteran reintegration: A critical review and adapted ecological model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnitsky, Christine A; Blevins, Cara L; Fisher, Michael P; Magruder, Kathryn

    2017-01-01

    Returning military service members and veterans (MSMVs) experience a wide range of stress-related disorders in addition to social and occupational difficulties when reintegrating to the community. Facilitating reintegration of MSMVs following deployment is a societal priority. With an objective of identifying challenges and facilitators for reintegration of MSMVs of the current war era, we critically review and identify gaps in the literature. We searched 8 electronic databases and identified 1,764 articles. Screening of abstracts and full-text review based on our inclusion/exclusion criteria, yielded 186 articles for review. Two investigators evaluating relevant articles independently found a lack of clear definition or comprehensive theorizing about MSMV reintegration. To address these gaps, we linked the findings from the literature to provide a unified definition of reintegration and adapted the social ecological systems theory to guide research and practice aimed at MSMV reintegration. Furthermore, we identified individual, interpersonal, community, and societal challenges related to reintegration. The 186 studies published from 2001 (the start of the current war era) to 2015 included 6 experimental studies or clinical trials. Most studies do not adequately account for context or more than a narrow set of potential influences on MSMV reintegration. Little evidence was found that evaluated interventions for health conditions, rehabilitation, and employment, or effective models of integrated delivery systems. We recommend an ecological model of MSMV reintegration to advance research and practice processes and outcomes at 4 levels (individual, interpersonal, organizational, and societal). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. [Human ecology and interdisciplinary cooperation for primary prevention of environmental risk factors for public health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrowolski, Jan W

    2007-01-01

    Human ecology makes a scientific base for more effective prevention against contamination of the air, water and food, and other environmental factors making common risk factors for human health. It integrates interdisciplinary cooperation of experts from natural, technological, socio-economical and other sciences. Complex study is necessary for better estimation of real risk factors for an individual person. This risk is connected with the exposure of people to pollutants in working places, housing environment, areas for recreation and by food (including synergistic effects). Such study implicates real tasks for representatives of different sciences (technological and agricultural in particular) as well as for teachers and journalists. Especially dangerous are environmental risk factors when principles of human ecology are not taking into consideration at the intensification of food production, processing and conservation, as well as at designing of housing environment (where the exposure to harmful physical, chemical and biological factors is the longest) and also while selecting of the main directions of development of technical infrastructure for motorization (e.g. designing of cars, roads and their surrounding). EU recognize study of the human ecology as basis for sustainable development (sponsoring e.g. diploma and doctoral studies in this field at the Free University of Brussels). Author's experiences connected with the participation as a visiting professor taking part in related training activity at this University as well as during study visits in several countries were useful for the introduction of human ecology in linkage with ecotoxicology and environmental biotechnology as the subject of study at environmental engineering at the Faculty of Mining Surveying and Environmental Engineering at AGH-UST. Methodological experience of 40 years of interdisciplinary case studies and problem-oriented education in this field may be useful for modernization of

  18. Ecosystem-based fishery management: a critical review of concepts and ecological economic models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Thanh Viet

      An ecosystem approach means different things to different people. As a result the concept of ecosystem-based fishery management is evolving and it has no universal definition or consistent application. As regards ecosystem modeling, most economic models of fishery ignore the linkages to lower...... trophic levels. In particular, environmental data and other bottom-up information is widely disregarded. The objective of this paper is to provide a critical review of concepts and ecological economic models relating to ecosystem-based fishery management....

  19. Review of evaluation on ecological carrying capacity: The progress and trend of methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S. F.; Xu, Y.; Liu, T. J.; Ye, J. M.; Pan, B. L.; Chu, C.; Peng, Z. L.

    2018-02-01

    The ecological carrying capacity (ECC) has been regarded as an important reference to indicate the level of regional sustainable development since the very beginning of twenty-first century. By a brief review of the main progress in ECC evaluation methodologies in recent five years, this paper systematically discusses the features and differences of these methods and expounds the current states and future development trend of ECC methodology. The result shows that further exploration in terms of the dynamic, comprehensive and intelligent assessment technologies needs to be provided in order to form a unified and scientific ECC methodology system and to produce a reliable basis for environmental-economic decision-makings.

  20. Time-specific ecological niche modeling predicts spatial dynamics of vector insects and human dengue cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, A Townsend; Martínez-Campos, Carmen; Nakazawa, Yoshinori; Martínez-Meyer, Enrique

    2005-09-01

    Numerous human diseases-malaria, dengue, yellow fever and leishmaniasis, to name a few-are transmitted by insect vectors with brief life cycles and biting activity that varies in both space and time. Although the general geographic distributions of these epidemiologically important species are known, the spatiotemporal variation in their emergence and activity remains poorly understood. We used ecological niche modeling via a genetic algorithm to produce time-specific predictive models of monthly distributions of Aedes aegypti in Mexico in 1995. Significant predictions of monthly mosquito activity and distributions indicate that predicting spatiotemporal dynamics of disease vector species is feasible; significant coincidence with human cases of dengue indicate that these dynamics probably translate directly into transmission of dengue virus to humans. This approach provides new potential for optimizing use of resources for disease prevention and remediation via automated forecasting of disease transmission risk.

  1. Review of human factors guidelines and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhodes, W.; Szlapetis, I.; Hay, T.; Weihrer, S.

    1995-04-01

    The review examines the use of human factors guidelines and methods in high technology applications, with emphasis on application to the nuclear industry. An extensive literature review was carried out identifying over 250 applicable documents, with 30 more documents identified during interviews with experts in human factors. Surveys were sent to 15 experts, of which 11 responded. The survey results indicated guidelines used and why these were favoured. Thirty-three of the most applicable guideline documents were described in detailed annotated bibliographies. A bibliographic list containing over 280 references was prepared. Thirty guideline documents were rated for their completeness, validity, applicability and practicality. The experts survey indicated the use of specific techniques. Ten human factors methods of analysis were described in general summaries, including procedures, applications, and specific techniques. Detailed descriptions of the techniques were prepared and each technique rated for applicability and practicality. Recommendations for further study of areas of importance to human factors in the nuclear field in Canada are given. (author). 8 tabs., 2 figs

  2. Review of human factors guidelines and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhodes, W; Szlapetis, I; Hay, T; Weihrer, S [Rhodes and Associates Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada)

    1995-04-01

    The review examines the use of human factors guidelines and methods in high technology applications, with emphasis on application to the nuclear industry. An extensive literature review was carried out identifying over 250 applicable documents, with 30 more documents identified during interviews with experts in human factors. Surveys were sent to 15 experts, of which 11 responded. The survey results indicated guidelines used and why these were favoured. Thirty-three of the most applicable guideline documents were described in detailed annotated bibliographies. A bibliographic list containing over 280 references was prepared. Thirty guideline documents were rated for their completeness, validity, applicability and practicality. The experts survey indicated the use of specific techniques. Ten human factors methods of analysis were described in general summaries, including procedures, applications, and specific techniques. Detailed descriptions of the techniques were prepared and each technique rated for applicability and practicality. Recommendations for further study of areas of importance to human factors in the nuclear field in Canada are given. (author). 8 tabs., 2 figs.

  3. KAJIAN FILOSOFIS TERHADAP PEMIKIRAN HUMAN- EKOLOGI DALAM PEMANFAATAN SUMBERDAYA ALAM (Philosophical Studies of Human Ecology Thinking on Natual Resource Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armaidy Armawi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Penelitian inibertujuan untuk memberikan alternatif solusi terhadap upaya mengurangi dampak kerusakan lingkungan akibat ekploitasi sumberdaya alam yang dilakukan manusia melalui proses pembangunan dengan pendekatan filosofi apakah hakikat dan esensi dari manusiadan bagaimana kedudukannya di alam semesta ini? Apa yang harus dilakukan manusia untuk menjaga dan mengembangkan kehidupan diri dan lingkungannya?Penelitian merupakan penelitian kepustakaan yang bersifat kualitatif. Metoda yang digunakan adalah  verstehen,interpretasi,  hermeneutika dan heuristik. Hasil  penelitian menunjukkan bahwaproses pembangunan dan upaya manusia dalam melakukan eksploitasi sumberdaya alam yang tidak rasional dan hanya mementingkan “syahwat” keserakahan dan kenikmatan (hedonisme telah memberi andil yang cukup penting dalam membentuk selera konsumtifisme. Eksploitasi sumberdaya alam berdasarkan pandangan yang individualistik-materialistik, telah menyebabkan timbulnya konflik-konflik yang berakibat pada korban manusia dan kerusakan lingkungan serta menciptakan jurang pemisah antara kesejahteraan dan kemiskinan. Oleh karena itu, dalam pembangunan diperlukan kerangka pemikiran yang bersifat antro-ekologis-filsafati (human ecology. Karena dengan kerangka pemikiran atau paradigma tersebut berbagai dimensi dapat terangkum di dalameksistensi manusia dan eksistensi lain menurut ukuran kemanusiandi dalam dirinya. Dengan demikian,apa yang dikatakan pembangunan yang berwajah insani dan lestari lingkungannya dalam pertimbangan dimensi waktu, manusia, alam serta dimensi religius dapat terbawa. Analisa dampak lingkungan dalam perencanaan pembangunan tidak cukup hanya dengan mempertimbangkan aspek teknis seperti analisa kerusakan, pencemaran dan kelestarian lingkungan, akan tetapi aspek non-teknis, yakni nilai etis yang didasarkan pada kearifan manusia dan kearifan lokal juga penting diperhatikan,agar tidak terjadi penolakan-penolakan dan konflik antarunsur ekologi

  4. Ecological Niche Modeling of Risk Factors for H7N9 Human Infection in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Xu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available China was attacked by a serious influenza A (H7N9 virus in 2013. The first human infection case was confirmed in Shanghai City and soon spread across most of eastern China. Using the methods of Geographic Information Systems (GIS and ecological niche modeling (ENM, this research quantitatively analyzed the relationships between the H7N9 occurrence and the main environmental factors, including meteorological variables, human population density, bird migratory routes, wetland distribution, and live poultry farms, markets, and processing factories. Based on these relationships the probability of the presence of H7N9 was predicted. Results indicated that the distribution of live poultry processing factories, farms, and human population density were the top three most important determinants of the H7N9 human infection. The relative contributions to the model of live poultry processing factories, farms and human population density were 39.9%, 17.7% and 17.7%, respectively, while the maximum temperature of the warmest month and mean relative humidity had nearly no contribution to the model. The paper has developed an ecological niche model (ENM that predicts the spatial distribution of H7N9 cases in China using environmental variables. The area under the curve (AUC values of the model were greater than 0.9 (0.992 for the training samples and 0.961 for the test data. The findings indicated that most of the high risk areas were distributed in the Yangtze River Delta. These findings have important significance for the Chinese government to enhance the environmental surveillance at multiple human poultry interfaces in the high risk area.

  5. Ecological impacts of winter water level drawdowns on lake littoral zones: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Allison

    2017-01-01

    Freshwater littoral zones harbor diverse ecological communities and serve numerous ecosystem functions that are controlled, in part, by natural water level fluctuations. However, human alteration of lake hydrologic regimes beyond natural fluctuations threaten littoral zone ecological integrity. One type of hydrologic alteration in lakes is winter water level drawdowns, which are frequently employed for hydropower, flood control, and macrophyte control, among other purposes. Here, we synthesize the abiotic and biotic responses to annual and novel winter water level drawdowns in littoral zones of lakes and reservoirs. The dewatering, freezing, and increased erosion of exposed lakebeds drive changes in the littoral zone. Shoreline-specific physicochemical conditions such as littoral slope and shoreline exposure further induce modifications. Loss of fine sediment decreases nutrient availability over time, but desiccation may promote a temporary nutrient pulse upon re-inundation. Annual winter drawdowns can decrease taxonomic richness of macrophytes and benthic invertebrates and shift assemblage composition to favor taxa with r-selected life history strategies and with functional traits resistant to direct and indirect drawdown effects. Fish assemblages, though less directly affected by winter drawdowns (except where there is critically low dissolved oxygen), experience negative effects via indirect pathways like decreased food resources and spawning habitat. We identify eight general research gaps to guide future research that could improve our understanding about the complex effects of winter drawdowns on littoral zone ecology.

  6. Northern Rivers Basins ecological and human health studies : summary, relevance and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-04-01

    Residents in northern Alberta expressed concerns that the original Northern River Basins Study (NRBS) only examined the impacts of contaminants on ecological health and did not include impacts on human health. In response to these concerns, Alberta Health established the Northern River Basins Human Health Monitoring Program in 1994 to investigate the possible relationships between various environmental risk factors and the health of northern residents in the province. This document links the ecological information collected by the original NRBS program with the information provided by the health program. Issues regarding health impacts from pulp mills and oil sand mining were also discussed. The findings of the health program were summarized and recommendations were made for future studies. The contaminants of potential concern (COPC) arising from the original NRBS were described in terms of their sources and any known connections between exposure and human health. The COPCs included arsenic, dioxins, chlorinated furans, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) mercury, chlorinated phenolics, toxaphene, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, ozone, sulphur dioxide, acid sulphates and particulate matter. Examples of Canadian regulatory criteria for these contaminants were also presented. 41 refs., 1 tab

  7. Ecological and human health sediment risk assessment for a hydrocarbon-impacted site in Lake Athabasca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mcdonald, B.; Wagenaar, A.; LaPorte, J.; Misfeldt, G.; Chatwell, I.

    2009-01-01

    The operation of a public port facility near Uranium City, Saskatchewan has resulted in elevated levels of hydrocarbons in soil, groundwater and sediment. Remedial action in the uplands portion of the site was successful and a risk management approach was initiated for the aquatic portion of the site in order to resolve human health and ecological issues. Ecological risks were assessed using a sediment weight-of-evidence approach involving chemistry, toxicity, bioaccumulation and benthic community structure. Human health risks were assessed via fish consumption, water ingestion and direct contact according to Health Canada guidance. This presentation included an overview of the general risk assessment approach as well as site-specific data and findings. The primary focus was on the challenges confronted during the risk assessment process, such as the need to include alkylated PAHs as a COPC in the human health risk assessment and to evaluate ongoing propeller wash and sediment resuspension for sediment risk management, even though the facility is no longer operational.

  8. Nevada Applied Ecology Information Center: a review of technical information support provided to the Nevada Applied Ecology Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fore, C.S.; Pfuderer, H.A.

    1983-01-01

    The Nevada Applied Ecology Information Center (NAEIC) was established in January 1972 to serve the needs of the Nevada Applied Ecology Group (NAEG) by identifying, collecting, analyzing, and disseminating technical information relevant to NAEG programs. Since its inception, the NAEIC has been active in providing specialized information support to NAEG staff in the following research areas: (1) environmental aspects of the transuranics; (2) historic literature (pre-1962) on plutonium and uranium; (3) cleanup and treatment of radioactively contaminated land; (4) bioenvironmental aspects of europium and rhodium; (5) NAEG contractor reports; and (6) uptake of radioactivity by food crops

  9. ECOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF THE HUMAN -TRANSFORMED SYSTEMS OF THE IRPIN RIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitlana Madzhd

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to learn the interaction of natural and anthropogenic factors and their consequences in the system “Natural environment (Irpin river – human-transformed environment (Nyvka river”. Methods: To assess the structural and functional changes of hydroecosystems, transformed under technogenic impact, hydrochemical, toxicological and biological techniques, as well as the methods of mathematical statistics for experimental data processing and summarization of obtained results, were applied. Results: it is proposed to determine the dynamics of the biotic self-regulation mechanism change under impact of the modifying (anthropogenic factors, by the example of the two-component system – “Natural environment (Irpin River – environment, transformed under technogenic impact (Nyvka River, the right-hand tributary of the Irpin River”. It is proposed to extend additionally the opportunities of the ecological assessment due to application of the integrating index – the index of ecological conformity. Discussion: obtained results stipulate necessity of the further investigation of structural and functional patterns of the Irpin River ecosystem in space and time. Assessment of anthropogenic factors impact on hydroecosystem condition will make it possible to correct the nature guard activity concerning the improvement of the fishery object ecological condition and recreation essence of the Irpin River. Integration of the Nyvka and Irpin Rivers into a single system “Natural environment – environment, transformed under technogenic impact” will make it possible to obtain the objective assessment of technogenic changes in hydroecosystems. Implementation of the index of ecological conformity will make it possible to estimate completely the inner processes in the rivers.

  10. A review of human leptospirosis in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Jalii, I M; Bahaman, A R

    2004-12-01

    This paper reviews the literature on human leptospirosis in Malaysia from its first description in 1925 until the present day. Fletcher diagnosed the first case of human leptospirosis in Malaysia in 1925. Following Fletcher, many investigations on human leptospirosis in Malaysia disclosed a high prevalence of infection. These investigations indicated that the disease was endemic in the country. Examination of 1993 suspected human cases of leptospirosis by Tan indicated 28 % of the cases were positive. In a recent survey, 2190 serum samples from patients with different clinical manifestations in the country disclosed 12.6% were positive for antibodies to leptospires. The risk to leptospiral infection with respect to occupation, location, sex, race and age groups was demonstrated. Both civilians and military personnel were affected. Thirty-seven serovars from thirteen serogroups have been identified in the country. Recent studies on animal leptospirosis showed that the disease was highly endemic in the animal population. It is considered that the majority of leptospirosis cases in humans were due to association of man with animals and disease-infected environment.

  11. Remote Sensing of Ecology, Biodiversity and Conservation: A Review from the Perspective of Remote Sensing Specialists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Cattet

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing, the science of obtaining information via noncontact recording, has swept the fields of ecology, biodiversity and conservation (EBC. Several quality review papers have contributed to this field. However, these papers often discuss the issues from the standpoint of an ecologist or a biodiversity specialist. This review focuses on the spaceborne remote sensing of EBC from the perspective of remote sensing specialists, i.e., it is organized in the context of state-of-the-art remote sensing technology, including instruments and techniques. Herein, the instruments to be discussed consist of high spatial resolution, hyperspectral, thermal infrared, small-satellite constellation, and LIDAR sensors; and the techniques refer to image classification, vegetation index (VI, inversion algorithm, data fusion, and the integration of remote sensing (RS and geographic information system (GIS.

  12. Remote sensing of ecology, biodiversity and conservation: a review from the perspective of remote sensing specialists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Franklin, Steven E; Guo, Xulin; Cattet, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Remote sensing, the science of obtaining information via noncontact recording, has swept the fields of ecology, biodiversity and conservation (EBC). Several quality review papers have contributed to this field. However, these papers often discuss the issues from the standpoint of an ecologist or a biodiversity specialist. This review focuses on the spaceborne remote sensing of EBC from the perspective of remote sensing specialists, i.e., it is organized in the context of state-of-the-art remote sensing technology, including instruments and techniques. Herein, the instruments to be discussed consist of high spatial resolution, hyperspectral, thermal infrared, small-satellite constellation, and LIDAR sensors; and the techniques refer to image classification, vegetation index (VI), inversion algorithm, data fusion, and the integration of remote sensing (RS) and geographic information system (GIS).

  13. Review: The impact of changing human environment and climate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The impact of human-induced climate change through industrialization with the consequent depletion of the ozone layer of the environment is now observed to compromise the sustainability of human development as it threatens the ecological support system on which life depends in addition to encouraging the emergence ...

  14. A review of metabolic potential of human gut microbiome in human nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Monika; Verma, Manoj Kumar; Chauhan, Nar Singh

    2018-03-01

    The human gut contains a plethora of microbes, providing a platform for metabolic interaction between the host and microbiota. Metabolites produced by the gut microbiota act as a link between gut microbiota and its host. These metabolites act as messengers having the capacity to alter the gut microbiota. Recent advances in the characterization of the gut microbiota and its symbiotic relationship with the host have provided a platform to decode metabolic interactions. The human gut microbiota, a crucial component for dietary metabolism, is shaped by the genetic, epigenetic and dietary factors. The metabolic potential of gut microbiota explains its significance in host health and diseases. The knowledge of interactions between microbiota and host metabolism, as well as modification of microbial ecology, is really beneficial to have effective therapeutic treatments for many diet-related diseases in near future. This review cumulates the information to map the role of human gut microbiota in dietary component metabolism, the role of gut microbes derived metabolites in human health and host-microbe metabolic interactions in health and diseases.

  15. Imbalance in individual researcher's peer review activities quantified for four British Ecological Society journals, 2003-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petchey, Owen L; Fox, Jeremy W; Haddon, Lindsay

    2014-01-01

    Researchers contribute to the scientific peer review system by providing reviews, and "withdraw" from it by submitting manuscripts that are subsequently reviewed. So far as we are aware, there has been no quantification of the balance of individual's contributions and withdrawals. We compared the number of reviews provided by individual researchers (i.e., their contribution) to the number required by their submissions (i.e. their withdrawals) in a large and anonymised database provided by the British Ecological Society. The database covered the Journal of Ecology, Journal of Animal Ecology, Journal of Applied Ecology, and Functional Ecology from 2003-2010. The majority of researchers (64%) did not have balanced contributions and withdrawals. Depending on assumptions, 12% to 44% contributed more than twice as much as required; 20% to 52% contributed less than half as much as required. Balance, or lack thereof, varied little in relation to the number of years a researcher had been active (reviewing or submitting). Researchers who contributed less than required did not lack the opportunity to review. Researchers who submitted more were more likely to accept invitations to review. These finding suggest overall that peer review of the four analysed journals is not in crisis, but only due to the favourable balance of over- and under-contributing researchers. These findings are limited to the four journals analysed, and therefore cannot include researcher's other peer review activities, which if included might change the proportions reported. Relatively low effort was required to assemble, check, and analyse the data. Broader analyses of individual researcher's peer review activities would contribute to greater quality, efficiency, and fairness in the peer review system.

  16. Relating plastic in the ocean to ecological harm, a review of recent progress in risk analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuyler, Q. A.; Hardesty, B. D.; Wilcox, C.; van Sebille, E.; Mallos, N. J.; Leonard, G. H.

    2016-02-01

    Plastic pollution in the ocean is emerging as a global environmental concern. Estimates suggest that we dump on the order of 8.4 million tons of plastic in the ocean each year. This plastic reaches substantial concentrations, with at sea sampling measuring densities over 580,000 items per square kilometer. However, it is difficult to relate this exposure to resulting ecological impacts. Animals dying due to plastic ingestion or entanglement may not was ahsore, and sampling at sea is expensive and infrequent. Thus demonstrating a direct relationship between plastic in the envioronment and harm to marine wildlife is challenging. Here we review current progress on risk assessment for impacts to marine wildlife from plastic pollution. The analyses we review range from expert elicitation to integrated statistical and physical models. They range widely in scope, from estimates at the individual level to who taxa analysis. Some of the analyses reach only to exposure to the pressure, whie others carry through to estimate demographic impacts and even mortality due to ingestion of or entanglement in plastic debris in the ocean. We summarize the results of these studies, and provide a roadmap for future contributions toward estimating the actual ecological impact of plastic pollution.

  17. Systematic Review of the Human Milk Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzstevens, John L; Smith, Kelsey C; Hagadorn, James I; Caimano, Melissa J; Matson, Adam P; Brownell, Elizabeth A

    2017-06-01

    Human milk-associated microbes are among the first to colonize the infant gut and may help to shape both short- and long-term infant health outcomes. We performed a systematic review to characterize the microbiota of human milk. Relevant primary studies were identified through a comprehensive search of PubMed (January 1, 1964, to June 31, 2015). Included studies were conducted among healthy mothers, were written in English, identified bacteria in human milk, used culture-independent methods, and reported primary results at the genus level. Twelve studies satisfied inclusion criteria. All varied in geographic location and human milk collection/storage/analytic methods. Streptococcus was identified in human milk samples in 11 studies (91.6%) and Staphylococcus in 10 (83.3%); both were predominant genera in 6 (50%). Eight of the 12 studies used conventional ribosomal RNA (rRNA) polymerase chain reaction (PCR), of which 7 (87.5%) identified Streptococcus and 6 (80%) identified Staphylococcus as present. Of these 8 studies, 2 (25%) identified Streptococcus and Staphylococcus as predominant genera. Four of the 12 studies used next-generation sequencing (NGS), all of which identified Streptococcus and Staphylococcus as present and predominant genera. Relative to conventional rRNA PCR, NGS is a more sensitive method to identify/quantify bacterial genera in human milk, suggesting the predominance of Streptococcus and Staphylococcus may be underestimated in studies using older methods. These genera, Streptococcus and Staphylococcus, may be universally predominant in human milk, regardless of differences in geographic location or analytic methods. Primary studies designed to evaluate the effect of these 2 genera on short- and long-term infant outcomes are warranted.

  18. Ecological and human health risks associated with abandoned gold mine tailings contaminated soil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Mpode Ngole-Jeme

    Full Text Available Gold mining is a major source of metal and metalloid emissions into the environment. Studies were carried out in Krugersdorp, South Africa, to evaluate the ecological and human health risks associated with exposure to metals and metalloids in mine tailings contaminated soils. Concentrations of arsenic (As, cadmium (Cd, chromium (Cr, cobalt (Co, copper (Cu, lead (Pb, manganese (Mn, nickel (Ni, and zinc (Zn in soil samples from the area varied with the highest contamination factors (expressed as ratio of metal or metalloid concentration in the tailings contaminated soil to that of the control site observed for As (3.5x102, Co (2.8x102 and Ni (1.1x102. Potential ecological risk index values for metals and metalloids determined from soil metal and metalloid concentrations and their respective risk factors were correspondingly highest for As (3.5x103 and Co (1.4x103, whereas Mn (0.6 presented the lowest ecological risk. Human health risk was assessed using Hazard Quotient (HQ, Chronic Hazard Index (CHI and carcinogenic risk levels, where values of HQ > 1, CHI > 1 and carcinogenic risk values > 1×10-4 represent elevated risks. Values for HQ indicated high exposure-related risk for As (53.7, Cr (14.8, Ni (2.2, Zn (2.64 and Mn (1.67. Children were more at risk from heavy metal and metalloid exposure than adults. Cancer-related risks associated with metal and metalloid exposure among children were also higher than in adults with cancer risk values of 3×10-2 and 4×10-2 for As and Ni respectively among children, and 5×10-3 and 4×10-3 for As and Ni respectively among adults. There is significant potential ecological and human health risk associated with metal and metalloid exposure from contaminated soils around gold mine tailings dumps. This could be a potential contributing factor to a setback in the health of residents in informal settlements dominating this mining area as the immune systems of some of these residents are already compromised by high

  19. Optimization of experimental human leukemia models (review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. D. Pankov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Actual problem of assessing immunotherapy prospects including antigenpecific cell therapy using animal models was covered in this review.Describe the various groups of currently existing animal models and methods of their creating – from different immunodeficient mice to severalvariants of tumor cells engraftment in them. The review addresses the possibility of tumor stem cells studying using mouse models for the leukemia treatment with adoptive cell therapy including WT1. Also issues of human leukemia cells migration and proliferation in a mice withdifferent immunodeficiency degree are discussed. To assess the potential immunotherapy efficacy comparison of immunodeficient mouse model with clinical situation in oncology patients after chemotherapy is proposed.

  20. Gambling, games of skill and human ecology: a pilot study by a multidimensional analysis approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Valera

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present pilot study aims at analyzing the human activity of playing in the light of an indicator of human ecology (HE. We highlighted the four essential anthropological dimensions (FEAD, starting from the analysis of questionnaires administered to actual gamers. The coherence between theoretical construct and observational data is a remarkable proof-of-concept of the possibility of establishing an experimentally motivated link between a philosophical construct (coming from Huizinga's Homo ludens definition and actual gamers' motivation pattern. The starting hypothesis is that the activity of playing becomes ecological (and thus not harmful when it achieves the harmony between the FEAD, thus realizing HE; conversely, it becomes at risk of creating some form of addiction, when destroying FEAD balance. We analyzed the data by means of variable clustering (oblique principal components so to experimentally verify the existence of the hypothesized dimensions. The subsequent projection of statistical units (gamers on the orthogonal space spanned by principal components allowed us to generate a meaningful, albeit preliminary, clusterization of gamer profiles.

  1. Coping with human errors through system design: Implications for ecological interface design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens; Vicente, Kim J.

    1989-01-01

    Research during recent years has revealed that human errors are not stochastic events which can be removed through improved training programs or optimal interface design. Rather, errors tend to reflect either systematic interference between various models, rules, and schemata, or the effects...... of the adaptive mechanisms involved in learning. In terms of design implications, these findings suggest that reliable human-system interaction will be achieved by designing interfaces which tend to minimize the potential for control interference and support recovery from errors. In other words, the focus should...... be on control of the effects of errors rather than on the elimination of errors per se. In this paper, we propose a theoretical framework for interface design that attempts to satisfy these objectives. The goal of our framework, called ecological interface design, is to develop a meaningful representation...

  2. Ecological Interactions between Humans, Wildlife Viral Reservoirs, and Key Environmental Drivers of Hantaan Virus Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Tong

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence and transmission of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS are closely related to environmental variability, so it is essential to clarify the complex relationships among the environment, hantavirus transmission, and the population dynamics of its wildlife hosts. Tian et al. analyzed a large, long-term dataset describing the circulation of hantavirus in rodents and its spillover into humans. Their article incorporates several mathematical models and argues that the interaction between environmental and human behavioral factors drives the observed seasonality and interannual variations in important zoonotic diseases. The ecological cascade effect of a drought in 2002 is highlighted, and the role of seasonality in agricultural activity is emphasized in that study.

  3. Human breast milk immunology: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramasivam, K; Michie, C; Opara, E; Jewell, A P

    2006-01-01

    Breast feeding has been shown to enhance the development of the immune system of the newborn as well as provide protection against enteric and respiratory infections. It has been suggested that implementation of breast feeding programs has the potential to save hundreds of thousands of lives worldwide. Human milk is a bodily fluid which, apart from being an excellent nutritional source for the growing infant, also contains a variety of immune components such as antibodies, growth factors, cytokines, antimicrobial compounds, and specific immune cells. These help to support the immature immune system of the newborn baby, and protect it against infectious risks during the postnatal period while its own immune system matures. This article reviews some of the factors in human breast milk that give it these important properties.

  4. A Western diet ecological module identified from the 'humanized' mouse microbiota predicts diet in adults and formula feeding in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddharth, Jay; Holway, Nicholas; Parkinson, Scott J

    2013-01-01

    The interplay between diet and the microbiota has been implicated in the growing frequency of chronic diseases associated with the Western lifestyle. However, the complexity and variability of microbial ecology in humans and preclinical models has hampered identification of the molecular mechanisms underlying the association of the microbiota in this context. We sought to address two key questions. Can the microbial ecology of preclinical models predict human populations? And can we identify underlying principles that surpass the plasticity of microbial ecology in humans? To do this, we focused our study on diet; perhaps the most influential factor determining the composition of the gut microbiota. Beginning with a study in 'humanized' mice we identified an interactive module of 9 genera allied with Western diet intake. This module was applied to a controlled dietary study in humans. The abundance of the Western ecological module correctly predicted the dietary intake of 19/21 top and 21/21 of the bottom quartile samples inclusive of all 5 Western and 'low-fat' diet subjects, respectively. In 98 volunteers the abundance of the Western module correlated appropriately with dietary intake of saturated fatty acids, fat-soluble vitamins and fiber. Furthermore, it correlated with the geographical location and dietary habits of healthy adults from the Western, developing and third world. The module was also coupled to dietary intake in children (and piglets) correlating with formula (vs breast) feeding and associated with a precipitous development of the ecological module in young children. Our study provides a conceptual platform to translate microbial ecology from preclinical models to humans and identifies an ecological network module underlying the association of the gut microbiota with Western dietary habits.

  5. A Western diet ecological module identified from the 'humanized' mouse microbiota predicts diet in adults and formula feeding in children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Siddharth

    Full Text Available The interplay between diet and the microbiota has been implicated in the growing frequency of chronic diseases associated with the Western lifestyle. However, the complexity and variability of microbial ecology in humans and preclinical models has hampered identification of the molecular mechanisms underlying the association of the microbiota in this context. We sought to address two key questions. Can the microbial ecology of preclinical models predict human populations? And can we identify underlying principles that surpass the plasticity of microbial ecology in humans? To do this, we focused our study on diet; perhaps the most influential factor determining the composition of the gut microbiota. Beginning with a study in 'humanized' mice we identified an interactive module of 9 genera allied with Western diet intake. This module was applied to a controlled dietary study in humans. The abundance of the Western ecological module correctly predicted the dietary intake of 19/21 top and 21/21 of the bottom quartile samples inclusive of all 5 Western and 'low-fat' diet subjects, respectively. In 98 volunteers the abundance of the Western module correlated appropriately with dietary intake of saturated fatty acids, fat-soluble vitamins and fiber. Furthermore, it correlated with the geographical location and dietary habits of healthy adults from the Western, developing and third world. The module was also coupled to dietary intake in children (and piglets correlating with formula (vs breast feeding and associated with a precipitous development of the ecological module in young children. Our study provides a conceptual platform to translate microbial ecology from preclinical models to humans and identifies an ecological network module underlying the association of the gut microbiota with Western dietary habits.

  6. Human flesh search: a supplemental review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Chian-Hsueng; Tao, Yu-Hui

    2012-07-01

    Human flesh search (HFS), a phenomenon that has recently emerged over the Internet, represents the interaction between the virtual and real worlds. The term "HFS" is equivalent to "cyber manhunt" in the West, although there were more large-scale HFS events reported in the East recently. While the majority of academic articles on HFS have focused on the Chinese context, the phenomenon has also been reported in many countries and involves diverse issues such as the controversy between privacy violation and public opinion. Based on 16 HFS references, a review paper by Chen and Sharma summarizes core issues on growth, incidents, distinctive attributes, key benefits and drawbacks, findings, and research gaps and opportunities. Echoing their call for a global HFS context, the current article provides a Taiwanese HFS context based on 32 reported incidents in Taiwan. To conduct an incremental HFS review, this study expands the reference base to 33 carefully selected academic articles from China and Taiwan. The review findings range from 6 derived HFS perspectives supplementing each article, 12 frequently mentioned HFS concepts, and 4 additional research directions. The resulting comprehensive knowledge of HFS, along with that contributed by Chen and Sharma, can be considered a useful reference framework for future HFS studies and policy making.

  7. The Ecology of Human Fear: Survival Optimization and the Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean eMobbs

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We propose a Survival Optimization System (SOS to account for the strategies that humans and other animals use to defend against recurring and novel threats. The SOS attempts to merge ecological models that define a repertoire of contextually relevant threat induced survival behaviors with contemporary approaches to human affective science. We first propose that the goal of the nervous system is to reduce surprise and optimize actions by (i predicting the sensory landscape, through simulation of possible encounters with threat, selecting appropriate action by pre-encounter avoidance and (ii prevention strategies in which the organism manufactures safe environments. When a potential threat is encountered the (iii threat orienting system is engaged to determine whether the organism ignores the stimulus or switches into a process of (iv assessment, where the organism monitors the stimulus, weighs the threat value, predicts the actions of the threat, searches for safety, and guides behavioral actions crucial to directed escape. When under imminent attack, (v defensive systems evoke fast reflexive indirect escape behaviors (i.e. fight or flight. This cascade of responses to threat of increasing magnitude are underwritten by an interconnected neural architecture that extends from cortical and hippocampal circuits, to attention, action and threat systems including the amygdala, striatum, and hard-wired defensive systems in the midbrain. The SOS also includes a modulatory feature consisting of cognitive appraisal systems that flexibly guide perception, risk and action. Moreover, personal and vicarious threat encounters fine-tune avoidance behaviors via model-based learning, with higher organisms bridging data to reduce face-to-face encounters with predators. Our theory unifies the divergent field of human affective science, proposing the highly integrated, interconnected nervous systems are optimized to avoid ecological dangers.

  8. Ecological modulation of reproductive behaviour in the peacock blenny: a mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, J L; Gonçalves, D; Oliveira, R F

    2013-02-01

    The inter-populational variation in the reproductive behaviour of the peacock blenny Salaria pavo (Risso 1810), particularly the influence of the ecologic environment, was reviewed in the present work. Two populations of this species inhabiting contrasting environments were studied: the Ria Formosa population, a coastal lagoon with sandy/muddy substrate located in the south of Portugal, and the Gulf of Trieste, an area presenting rocky substrate located in the northern Adriatic sea. The remarkable differences in the mating system and reproductive behaviour between the two populations (namely sex-role reversal and high frequency of alternative reproductive tactics (ARTs) at the Ria Formosa vs typical sex roles and low frequency of ARTs at the Gulf of Trieste) are interpreted as a plastic behavioural and physiological response to contrasting ecological conditions. Androgens, namely 11-ketotestosterone, seem to act as mediators of this response. The expression and activity of the enzyme aromatase in the brain also seems to play a key role in fine-tuning the behavioural output in all male morphs as well as females.

  9. A review of ecological effects and environmental fate of illicit drugs in aquatic ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosi-Marshall, E J; Snow, D; Bartelt-Hunt, S L; Paspalof, A; Tank, J L

    2015-01-23

    Although illicit drugs are detected in surface waters throughout the world, their environmental fate and ecological effects are not well understood. Many illicit drugs and their breakdown products have been detected in surface waters and temporal and spatial variability in use translates into "hot spots and hot moments" of occurrence. Illicit drug occurrence in regions of production and use and areas with insufficient wastewater treatment are not well studied and should be targeted for further study. Evidence suggests that illicit drugs may not be persistent, as their half-lives are relatively short, but may exhibit "pseudo-persistence" wherein continual use results in persistent occurrence. We reviewed the literature on the ecological effects of these compounds on aquatic organisms and although research is limited, a wide array of aquatic organisms, including bacteria, algae, invertebrates, and fishes, have receptors that make them potentially sensitive to these compounds. In summary, illicit drugs occur in surface waters and aquatic organisms may be affected by these compounds; research is needed that focuses on concentrations of illicit drugs in areas of production and high use, environmental fate of these compounds, and effects of these compounds on aquatic ecosystems at the concentrations that typically occur in the environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A review and synthesis of recreation ecology research supporting carrying capacity and visitor use management decisionmaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    Resource and experiential impacts associated with visitation to wilderness and other similar backcountry settings have long been addressed by land managers under the context of “carrying capacity” decisionmaking. Determining a maximum level of allowable use, below which high-quality resource and experiential conditions would be sustained, was an early focus in the 1960s and 1970s. However, decades of recreation ecology research have shown that the severity and areal extent of visitor impact problems are influenced by an interrelated array of use-related, environmental, and managerial factors. This complexity, with similar findings from social science research, prompted scientists and managers to develop more comprehensive carrying capacity frameworks, including a new Visitor Use Management framework. These frameworks rely on a diverse array of management strategies and actions, often termed a “management toolbox,” for resolving visitor impact problems. This article reviews the most recent and relevant recreation ecology studies that have been applied in wildland settings to avoid or minimize resource impacts. The key findings and their management implications are highlighted to support the professional management of common trail, recreation site, and wildlife impact problems. These studies illustrate the need to select from a more diverse array of impact management strategies and actions based on an evaluation of problems to identify the most influential factors that can be manipulated.

  11. How Big Data Fast Tracked Human Mobility Research and the Lessons for Animal Movement Ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Thums

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The rise of the internet coupled with technological innovations such as smartphones have generated massive volumes of geo-referenced data (big data on human mobility. This has allowed the number of studies of human mobility to rapidly overtake those of animal movement. Today, telemetry studies of animals are also approaching big data status. Here, we review recent advances in studies of human mobility and identify the opportunities they present for advancing our understanding of animal movement. We describe key analytical techniques, potential bottlenecks and a roadmap for progress toward a synthesis of movement patterns of wild animals.

  12. How Big Data Fast Tracked Human Mobility Research and the Lessons for Animal Movement Ecology

    KAUST Repository

    Thums, Michele; Ferná ndez-Gracia, Juan; Sequeira, Ana M. M.; Eguí luz, Ví ctor M.; Duarte, Carlos M.; Meekan, Mark G.

    2018-01-01

    The rise of the internet coupled with technological innovations such as smartphones have generated massive volumes of geo-referenced data (big data) on human mobility. This has allowed the number of studies of human mobility to rapidly overtake those of animal movement. Today, telemetry studies of animals are also approaching big data status. Here, we review recent advances in studies of human mobility and identify the opportunities they present for advancing our understanding of animal movement. We describe key analytical techniques, potential bottlenecks and a roadmap for progress toward a synthesis of movement patterns of wild animals.

  13. How Big Data Fast Tracked Human Mobility Research and the Lessons for Animal Movement Ecology

    KAUST Repository

    Thums, Michele

    2018-02-13

    The rise of the internet coupled with technological innovations such as smartphones have generated massive volumes of geo-referenced data (big data) on human mobility. This has allowed the number of studies of human mobility to rapidly overtake those of animal movement. Today, telemetry studies of animals are also approaching big data status. Here, we review recent advances in studies of human mobility and identify the opportunities they present for advancing our understanding of animal movement. We describe key analytical techniques, potential bottlenecks and a roadmap for progress toward a synthesis of movement patterns of wild animals.

  14. The Use of P isotope in the ecology and source environment research: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu Qun; Feng Gu

    2012-01-01

    The use of tracers are widely to plant-soil-manue duction-environment systems which study activity of phosphorus, forms changes, utilization and changes. It induces the development of ecology and source environment. This review shows the approaches of tracer in plant-soil-manue duction-environment systems which include direct labeling technique, indirect labeling technique or exposed directly. The use of stable isotopes of oxygen in phosphate made it possible to quantify the phosphrous cycling under field conditions and water system. But it is limited in plant and soil systems. NMR techniques was widely used to study the changes of phosphorus forms. It supplies a new tools to quality and quantity of different forms of paraphos. (authors)

  15. Biology, ecology, use, conservation and cultivation of round-leaved sundew (Drosera rotundifolia L.: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Baranyai

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Drosera rotundifolia is a perennial insectivorous herb which occupies open, wet, oligotrophic habitats such as acidic bogs and poor fens, and specifically grows in Sphagnum-dominated communities. Since mediaeval times the species has been collected from natural habitats and used as a remedy for coughs and pulmonary diseases. Due to the substantial decline of Drosera habitat, the plant has been protected in most European countries since the 1980s, which means that wild D. rotundifolia has become unavailable to the pharmaceutical industry. The persistent demand has stimulated research into the cultivation of Drosera in several European countries. These studies have shown that Drosera cultivation is time-consuming and not (yet cost-effective, and there is a need for the development of cultivation methods. This article reviews the morphology, distribution, ecology and reproduction of Drosera rotundifolia; outlines its commercial use and nature conservation requirements; and describes previous research on its propagation and cultivation.

  16. The use of P isotope in the ecology and source environment research: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu Qun; Feng Gu

    2011-01-01

    The use of tracers are widely to plant-soi-manue duction-environment systems which study activity of phosphorus, forms changes, utilization and changes. It induces the development of ecology and sorce environment. This review shows the approache of tracer in plant-soi-manue duction-environment systems which include direct labeling technique, indirect labeling technique or exposed directly. The use of stable isotopes of oxygen in phosphate made it possible to quantify the phosphrus cycling under field canditions and aer system. But it is limited in plant and soil systems. NMR techniques was widely used to study the changes of phosphorus forms. It supplies a new tools to qanlity and quantity of diffrenct forms of phophrus. (authors)

  17. A Review of the Ecological Footprint Indicator—Perceptions and Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Wiedmann

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a comprehensive review of perceptions and methods around the Ecological Footprint (EF, based on a survey of more than 50 international EF stakeholders and a review of more than 150 original papers on EF methods and applications over the last decade. The key points identified in the survey are that the EF (a is seen as a strong communication tool, (b has a limited role within a policy context, (c is limited in scope, (d should be closer aligned to the UN System of Environmental and Economic Accounting and (e is most useful as part of a basket of indicators. Key issues from the review of methods are: (a none of the major methods identified can address all relevant issues and questions at once, (b basing bioproductivity calculations on Net Primary Production (NPP is a promising approach, (c advances in linking bioproductivity with ecosystem services and biodiversity have been made by the Dynamic EF concept and the HANPP indicator, (d environmentally extended input-output analysis (IOA provides a number of advantages for improving EF calculations and (e further variations such as the emergy-based concept or the inclusion of further pollutants are not regarded as providing a fundamental shift to the usefulness of EF for policy making. We also discuss the implications of our findings for the use of the EF as a headline indicator for sustainability decision-making.

  18. Socio-Ecological Changes and Human Mobility in Landslide Zones of Chamoli District of Uttarakhand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Desh Deepak

    2017-04-01

    Disaster displacement represents one of the biggest humanitarian challenges of the 21st century. Between 2008 and 2014, 184.6 million people were forced from their homes due to different natural disasters, with 19.3 million newly displaced in 2014, according to the latest available data from the Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre (IDMC). In Uttarakhand state in India, hill slopes are known for their instability as they are ecologically fragile, tectonically and seismically active, and geologically sensitive that makes it prone to landslide hazards. Coupled to this, the rapid expansion of human societies often forces people to occupy highly dynamic and unstable environments. Repeated instances of landslide in highly populated areas have now forced many people to out migrate from vulnerable and high risk areas of Uttarakhand. The present study overlays the maps of geology, vegetation, route network, and settlement of Chamoli district of Uttarakhand to find out through overlay analysis, the landslide risk zonation map of Chamoli. Further, through primary survey in the high risk zones, the migration pattern and migration intensity has been analysed and a model for determining long term trend of migration in ecologically changing location has been developed. Keywords: Landslides, Uttarakhand, Migration, Risk Zonation Mapping

  19. Feasibility of biochar application on a landfill final cover-a review on balancing ecology and shallow slope stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xun-Wen; Wong, James Tsz-Fung; Ng, Charles Wang-Wai; Wong, Ming-Hung

    2016-04-01

    Due to the increasing concerns on global warming, scarce land for agriculture, and contamination impacts on human health, biochar application is being considered as one of the possible measures for carbon sequestration, promoting higher crop yield and contamination remediation. Significant amount of researches focusing on these three aspects have been conducted during recent years. Biochar as a soil amendment is effective in promoting plant performance and sustainability, by enhancing nutrient bioavailability, contaminants immobilization, and microbial activities. The features of biochar in changing soil physical and biochemical properties are essential in affecting the sustainability of an ecosystem. Most studies showed positive results and considered biochar application as an effective and promising measure for above-mentioned interests. Bio-engineered man-made filled slope and landfill slope increasingly draw the attention of geologists and geotechnical engineers. With increasing number of filled slopes, sustainability, low maintenance, and stability are the major concerns. Biochar as a soil amendment changes the key factors and parameters in ecology (plant development, soil microbial community, nutrient/contaminant cycling, etc.) and slope engineering (soil weight, internal friction angle and cohesion, etc.). This paper reviews the studies on the production, physical and biochemical properties of biochar and suggests the potential areas requiring study in balancing ecology and man-made filled slope and landfill cover engineering. Biochar-amended soil should be considered as a new type of soil in terms of soil mechanics. Biochar performance depends on soil and biochar type which imposes challenges to generalize the research outcomes. Aging process and ecotoxicity studies of biochar are strongly required.

  20. Special issue Oceans and Humans Health: the ecology of marine opportunists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burge, Colleen A; Kim, Catherine J S; Lyles, Jillian M; Harvell, C Drew

    2013-05-01

    Opportunistic marine pathogens, like opportunistic terrestrial pathogens, are ubiquitous in the environment (waters, sediments, and organisms) and only cause disease in immune-compromised or stressed hosts. In this review, we discuss four host-pathogen interactions within the marine environment that are typically considered opportunistic: sea fan coral-fungus, eelgrass-Labyrinthula zosterae, sea fan-Labyrinthulomycetes, and hard clam-Quahog Parasite Unknown with particular focus on disease ecology, parasite pathology, host response, and known associated environmental conditions. Disease is a natural part of all ecosystems; however, in some cases, a shift in the balance between the host, pathogen, and the environment may lead to epizootics in natural or cultured populations. In marine systems, host-microbe interactions are less understood than their terrestrial counterparts. The biological and physical changes to the world's oceans, coupled with other anthropogenic influences, will likely lead to more opportunistic diseases in the marine environment.

  1. Foraging behaviour and feeding ecology of the otter Lutra lutra: a selective review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Carss

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper reviews literature on food, foraging behaviour and feeding ecology of Lutra lutra and on the behaviour of their prey species. Otters have a diverse diet, forage in a wide variety of different habitats and have a relatively complex social system. Similarly, their strategies for obtaining food are complex and varied. Three aspects of foraging behaviour (i, ii, iii and two of feeding ecology (iv, v are discussed: i adaptations and ontogeny, ii energetics and food-limitation, iii human disturbance, and periods of prey vulnerability, iv assessing diet, and v changes in prey vulnerability and selection. The review has three main aims: (a to summarize some recent advances in research, (b to highlight gaps in current knowledge, and (c to suggest some areas of future research. The need for such a review arises from a necessity to direct further research effort towards carnivore predator-prey relationships in general, and those of otters in particular, and also to meet demands for conservation management. Riassunto Foraggiamento ed ecologia alimentare della lontra Lutra lutra: un'analisi selettiva della letteratura disponibile - Questo lavoro prende in esame la letteratura riguardante dieta, foraggiamento ed ecologia alimentare della lontra Lutra lutra e il comportamento delle sue prede. La lontra ha una dieta varia, ricerca il cibo in un'ampia gamma di ambienti e ha un'organizzazione sociale relativamentc complessa. Similarmente, le sue strategie di ricerca del cibo sono complesse e varie. Tre aspetti del foraggiamento (i, ii, iii e due di ecologia alimentare (iv, v sono qui discussi: i adattamenti e ontogenesi, ii richiesta energetica e fattori limitanti la disponibilità di cibo, iii disturbo antropico e periodi di vulnerabilità delle prede, iv analisi della dieta, e v cambiamenti nella vulnerabilità delle prede e selezione. Il presente lavoro ha tre

  2. Early life history and habitat ecology of estuarine fishes: responses to natural and human induced change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Able

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Our understanding of the early life history of fishes and their habitats has proceeded from basic natural history to ecology, but we often need to return to natural history to address deficiencies in conceptual and quantitative models of ecosystems. This understanding is further limited by the complex life history of fishes and the lack of appreciation of shifting baselines in estuaries. These inadequacies are especially evident when we try to address the effects of human influences, e.g. fishing, urbanization, and climate change. Often our baselines are inadequate or inaccurate. Our work has detected these along the coasts of the U.S. in extensive time series of larval fish ingress into estuaries, studies of the effects of urbanization, and responses to catastrophes such as the BP oil spill. Long-term monitoring, especially, continues to provide critical insights

  3. The Ecology of Human-Machine Systems II: Mediating 'Direct Perception' in Complex Work Domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vicente, Kim J.; Rasmussen, Jens

    1990-01-01

    Recently, a new class of artifacts has appeared in our environment: complex, high-technology work domains. An important characteristic of such systems is that their goal-relevant properties cannot be directly observed by the unaided eye. As a result, interface design is a ubiquitous problem in th...... in the design of these work environments. Nevertheless, the problem is one that has yet to be addressed in an adequate manner. An analogy to human perceptual mechanisms suggests that a smart instrument approach to interface design is needed to supplant the rote instrument (single......-sensor-single-indicator) approach that has dominated to this point. Ecological interface design (ED) is a theoretical framework in the smart instrument vein that postulates a set of general, prescriptive principles for design. The goal of E D is twofold: first, to reveal the affordances of the work domain through the interface...

  4. Assessment of human and ecological risks from uranium and gold mining activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, D.; McKee, P.; Garisto, N.

    1995-01-01

    Forecasting of ecological and human health risk has been widely used in the uranium mining industry to support decisions regarding acceptability of proposed mine developments and mine closure plans. Probabilistic assessment has been less frequently used in other mining sectors where radiological issues are less prominent, but is now beginning to be more broadly applied. Case studies are presented to illustrate probabilistic approaches in opening and closing assessments of uranium and gold mines. Risks to man and biota from operational emissions (radionuclides, arsenic, cyanide) and risk reductions following mine closure are forecast using probabilistic models of chemical fate, transport and exposure. These forecasts permit selection of operational and closure alternatives which produce acceptably low risks

  5. Human Health and Ecological Risk Assessment Work Plan Mud Pit Release Sites, Amchitka Island, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE/NV

    2001-03-12

    This Work Plan describes the approach that will be used to conduct human health and ecological risk assessments for Amchitka Island, Alaska, which was utilized as an underground nuclear test site between 1965 and 1971. During this period, the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (now the U.S. Department of Energy) conducted two nuclear tests (known as Long Shot and Milrow) and assisted the U.S. Department of Defense with a third test (known as Cannikin). Amchitka Island is approximately 42 miles long and located 1,340 miles west-southwest of Anchorage, Alaska, in the western end of the Aleutian Island archipelago in a group of islands known as the Rat Islands. Historically including deep drilling operations required large volumes of drilling mud, a considerable amount of which was left on the island in exposed mud pits after testing was completed. Therefore, there is a need for drilling mud pit remediation and risk assessment of historical mud pit releases. The scope of this work plan is to document the environmental objectives and the proposed technical site investigation strategies that will be utilized for the site characterization of the constituents in soil, surface water, and sediment at these former testing sites. Its goal is the collection of data in sufficient quantity and quality to determine current site conditions, support a risk assessment for the site surfaces, and evaluate what further remedial action is required to achieve permanent closure of these three sites that will protect both human health and the environment. Suspected compounds of potential ecological concern for investigative analysis at these sites include diesel-range organics, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, volatile organic compounds, and chromium. The results of these characterizations and risk assessments will be used to evaluate corrective action alternatives to include no further action, the implementation of institutional controls, capping on site, or off-sit e

  6. Ecological consequences of human niche construction: Examining long-term anthropogenic shaping of global species distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boivin, Nicole L; Zeder, Melinda A; Fuller, Dorian Q; Crowther, Alison; Larson, Greger; Erlandson, Jon M; Denham, Tim; Petraglia, Michael D

    2016-06-07

    The exhibition of increasingly intensive and complex niche construction behaviors through time is a key feature of human evolution, culminating in the advanced capacity for ecosystem engineering exhibited by Homo sapiens A crucial outcome of such behaviors has been the dramatic reshaping of the global biosphere, a transformation whose early origins are increasingly apparent from cumulative archaeological and paleoecological datasets. Such data suggest that, by the Late Pleistocene, humans had begun to engage in activities that have led to alterations in the distributions of a vast array of species across most, if not all, taxonomic groups. Changes to biodiversity have included extinctions, extirpations, and shifts in species composition, diversity, and community structure. We outline key examples of these changes, highlighting findings from the study of new datasets, like ancient DNA (aDNA), stable isotopes, and microfossils, as well as the application of new statistical and computational methods to datasets that have accumulated significantly in recent decades. We focus on four major phases that witnessed broad anthropogenic alterations to biodiversity-the Late Pleistocene global human expansion, the Neolithic spread of agriculture, the era of island colonization, and the emergence of early urbanized societies and commercial networks. Archaeological evidence documents millennia of anthropogenic transformations that have created novel ecosystems around the world. This record has implications for ecological and evolutionary research, conservation strategies, and the maintenance of ecosystem services, pointing to a significant need for broader cross-disciplinary engagement between archaeology and the biological and environmental sciences.

  7. Ecology and Evolution of the Human Microbiota: Fire, Farming and Antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R. Gillings

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Human activities significantly affect all ecosystems on the planet, including the assemblages that comprise our own microbiota. Over the last five million years, various evolutionary and ecological drivers have altered the composition of the human microbiota, including the use of fire, the invention of agriculture, and the increasing availability of processed foods after the Industrial Revolution. However, no factor has had a faster or more direct effect than antimicrobial agents. Biocides, disinfectants and antibiotics select for individual cells that carry resistance genes, immediately reducing both overall microbial diversity and within-species genetic diversity. Treated individuals may never recover their original diversity, and repeated treatments lead to a series of genetic bottlenecks. The sequential introduction of diverse antimicrobial agents has selected for increasingly complex DNA elements that carry multiple resistance genes, and has fostered their spread through the human microbiota. Practices that interfere with microbial colonization, such as sanitation, Caesarian births and bottle-feeding, exacerbate the effects of antimicrobials, generating species-poor and less resilient microbial assemblages in the developed world. More and more evidence is accumulating that these perturbations to our internal ecosystems lie at the heart of many diseases whose frequency has shown a dramatic increase over the last half century.

  8. Microbial ecology of terrestrial Antarctica: Are microbial systems at risk from human activities?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, G.J.

    1996-08-01

    Many of the ecological systems found in continental Antarctica are comprised entirely of microbial species. Concerns have arisen that these microbial systems might be at risk either directly through the actions of humans or indirectly through increased competition from introduced species. Although protection of native biota is covered by the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty, strict measures for preventing the introduction on non-native species or for protecting microbial habitats may be impractical. This report summarizes the research conducted to date on microbial ecosystems in continental Antarctica and discusses the need for protecting these ecosystems. The focus is on communities inhabiting soil and rock surfaces in non-coastal areas of continental Antarctica. Although current polices regarding waste management and other operations in Antarctic research stations serve to reduce the introduction on non- native microbial species, importation cannot be eliminated entirely. Increased awareness of microbial habitats by field personnel and protection of certain unique habitats from physical destruction by humans may be necessary. At present, small-scale impacts from human activities are occurring in certain areas both in terms of introduced species and destruction of habitat. On a large scale, however, it is questionable whether the introduction of non-native microbial species to terrestrial Antarctica merits concern.

  9. Exploring the Human Ecology of the Younger Dryas Extraterrestrial Impact Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennett, D. J.; Erlandson, J. M.; Braje, T. J.; Culleton, B. J.

    2007-05-01

    Several lines of evidence now exist for a major extraterrestrial impact event in North America at 12.9 ka (the YDB). This impact partially destabilized the Laurentide and Cordilleran ice sheets, triggered abrupt Younger Dryas cooling and extensive wildfires, and contributed to megafaunal extinction. This event also occurred soon after the well established colonization of the Americas by anatomically modern humans. Confirmation of this event would represent the first near-time extraterrestrial impact with significant effects on human populations. These likely included widespread, abrupt human mortality, population displacement, migration into less effected or newly established habitats, loss of cultural traditions, and resource diversification in the face of the massive megafaunal extinction and population reductions in surviving animal populations. Ultimately, these transformations established the context for the special character of plant and animal domestication and the emergence of agricultural economies in North America. We explore the Late Pleistocene archaeological record in North America within the context of documented major biotic changes associated with the YDB in North America and of the massive ecological affects hypothesized for this event.

  10. Is the phototransformation of pharmaceuticals a natural purification process that decreases ecological and human health risks?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xiao-Huan; Lin, Angela Yu-Chen

    2014-01-01

    Sunlight photodegradation has long been considered a significant process in lowering the concentrations of pharmaceuticals in surface waters and thus decreasing the ecological risk. For the first time, this study identified the significance of investigating the environmental photodegradation of a pharmaceutical residue mixture (rather than a single compound) and the associated toxicity of transformation byproducts in environmental waters, including rivers, hospital wastewaters, and effluents from wastewater treatment plants and pharmaceutical production facilities. Pharmaceuticals undergo phototransformation rather than mineralization (11–23% in 34 h). Pharmaceutical mixtures could possibly act as dissolved organic matter for each individual compound and subsequently affect the photolysis rates. The increased toxicity of irradiated pharmaceutical mixtures challenges the validity of the current understanding of sunlight photolysis. The implications of this work suggest that current knowledge concerning the occurrence, natural attenuation, ecotoxicity, and human health risks of pharmaceuticals is far from complete; photolysis is not necessarily a purification process. -- Highlights: • Pharmaceutical mixtures could possibly act as DOMs for each other. • Pharmaceuticals underwent merely phototransformation rather than mineralization. • Increased toxicity from photo byproducts associated with the pharmaceutical mixture. • Phototransformation does not necessary mitigate the risk to human and the ecosystem. -- Transformation byproducts associated with a pharmaceutical mixture could be more toxic, and phototransformation does not necessary mitigate the risk to humans and the ecosystem

  11. Ecology and Evolution of the Human Microbiota: Fire, Farming and Antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillings, Michael R; Paulsen, Ian T; Tetu, Sasha G

    2015-09-08

    Human activities significantly affect all ecosystems on the planet, including the assemblages that comprise our own microbiota. Over the last five million years, various evolutionary and ecological drivers have altered the composition of the human microbiota, including the use of fire, the invention of agriculture, and the increasing availability of processed foods after the Industrial Revolution. However, no factor has had a faster or more direct effect than antimicrobial agents. Biocides, disinfectants and antibiotics select for individual cells that carry resistance genes, immediately reducing both overall microbial diversity and within-species genetic diversity. Treated individuals may never recover their original diversity, and repeated treatments lead to a series of genetic bottlenecks. The sequential introduction of diverse antimicrobial agents has selected for increasingly complex DNA elements that carry multiple resistance genes, and has fostered their spread through the human microbiota. Practices that interfere with microbial colonization, such as sanitation, Caesarian births and bottle-feeding, exacerbate the effects of antimicrobials, generating species-poor and less resilient microbial assemblages in the developed world. More and more evidence is accumulating that these perturbations to our internal ecosystems lie at the heart of many diseases whose frequency has shown a dramatic increase over the last half century.

  12. Floods and human health: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderman, Katarzyna; Turner, Lyle R; Tong, Shilu

    2012-10-15

    Floods are the most common type of disaster globally, responsible for almost 53,000 deaths in the last decade alone (23:1 low- versus high-income countries). This review assessed recent epidemiological evidence on the impacts of floods on human health. Published articles (2004-2011) on the quantitative relationship between floods and health were systematically reviewed. 35 relevant epidemiological studies were identified. Health outcomes were categorized into short- and long-term and were found to depend on the flood characteristics and people's vulnerability. It was found that long-term health effects are currently not well understood. Mortality rates were found to increase by up to 50% in the first year post-flood. After floods, it was found there is an increased risk of disease outbreaks such as hepatitis E, gastrointestinal disease and leptospirosis, particularly in areas with poor hygiene and displaced populations. Psychological distress in survivors (prevalence 8.6% to 53% two years post-flood) can also exacerbate their physical illness. There is a need for effective policies to reduce and prevent flood-related morbidity and mortality. Such steps are contingent upon the improved understanding of potential health impacts of floods. Global trends in urbanization, burden of disease, malnutrition and maternal and child health must be better reflected in flood preparedness and mitigation programs. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Primates, Provisioning and Plants: Impacts of Human Cultural Behaviours on Primate Ecological Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Asmita; McConkey, Kim R; Radhakrishna, Sindhu

    2015-01-01

    Human provisioning of wildlife with food is a widespread global practice that occurs in multiple socio-cultural circumstances. Provisioning may indirectly alter ecosystem functioning through changes in the eco-ethology of animals, but few studies have quantified this aspect. Provisioning of primates by humans is known to impact their activity budgets, diets and ranging patterns. Primates are also keystone species in tropical forests through their role as seed dispersers; yet there is no information on how provisioning might affect primate ecological functions. The rhesus macaque is a major human-commensal species but is also an important seed disperser in the wild. In this study, we investigated the potential impacts of provisioning on the role of rhesus macaques as seed dispersers in the Buxa Tiger Reserve, India. We studied a troop of macaques which were provisioned for a part of the year and were dependent on natural resources for the rest. We observed feeding behaviour, seed handling techniques and ranging patterns of the macaques and monitored availability of wild fruits. Irrespective of fruit availability, frugivory and seed dispersal activities decreased when the macaques were provisioned. Provisioned macaques also had shortened daily ranges implying shorter dispersal distances. Finally, during provisioning periods, seeds were deposited on tarmac roads that were unconducive for germination. Provisioning promotes human-primate conflict, as commensal primates are often involved in aggressive encounters with humans over resources, leading to negative consequences for both parties involved. Preventing or curbing provisioning is not an easy task as feeding wild animals is a socio-cultural tradition across much of South and South-East Asia, including India. We recommend the initiation of literacy programmes that educate lay citizens about the ill-effects of provisioning and strongly caution them against the practice.

  14. Primates, Provisioning and Plants: Impacts of Human Cultural Behaviours on Primate Ecological Functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmita Sengupta

    Full Text Available Human provisioning of wildlife with food is a widespread global practice that occurs in multiple socio-cultural circumstances. Provisioning may indirectly alter ecosystem functioning through changes in the eco-ethology of animals, but few studies have quantified this aspect. Provisioning of primates by humans is known to impact their activity budgets, diets and ranging patterns. Primates are also keystone species in tropical forests through their role as seed dispersers; yet there is no information on how provisioning might affect primate ecological functions. The rhesus macaque is a major human-commensal species but is also an important seed disperser in the wild. In this study, we investigated the potential impacts of provisioning on the role of rhesus macaques as seed dispersers in the Buxa Tiger Reserve, India. We studied a troop of macaques which were provisioned for a part of the year and were dependent on natural resources for the rest. We observed feeding behaviour, seed handling techniques and ranging patterns of the macaques and monitored availability of wild fruits. Irrespective of fruit availability, frugivory and seed dispersal activities decreased when the macaques were provisioned. Provisioned macaques also had shortened daily ranges implying shorter dispersal distances. Finally, during provisioning periods, seeds were deposited on tarmac roads that were unconducive for germination. Provisioning promotes human-primate conflict, as commensal primates are often involved in aggressive encounters with humans over resources, leading to negative consequences for both parties involved. Preventing or curbing provisioning is not an easy task as feeding wild animals is a socio-cultural tradition across much of South and South-East Asia, including India. We recommend the initiation of literacy programmes that educate lay citizens about the ill-effects of provisioning and strongly caution them against the practice.

  15. Arsenic and human health effects: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul, Khaja Shameem Mohammed; Jayasinghe, Sudheera Sammanthi; Chandana, Ediriweera P S; Jayasumana, Channa; De Silva, P Mangala C S

    2015-11-01

    Arsenic (As) is ubiquitous in nature and humans being exposed to arsenic via atmospheric air, ground water and food sources are certain. Major sources of arsenic contamination could be either through geological or via anthropogenic activities. In physiological individuals, organ system is described as group of organs that transact collectively and associate with other systems for conventional body functions. Arsenic has been associated with persuading a variety of complications in body organ systems: integumentary, nervous, respiratory, cardiovascular, hematopoietic, immune, endocrine, hepatic, renal, reproductive system and development. In this review, we outline the effects of arsenic on the human body with a main focus on assorted organ systems with respective disease conditions. Additionally, underlying mechanisms of disease development in each organ system due to arsenic have also been explored. Strikingly, arsenic has been able to induce epigenetic changes (in utero) and genetic mutations (a leading cause of cancer) in the body. Occurrence of various arsenic induced health effects involving emerging areas such as epigenetics and cancer along with their respective mechanisms are also briefly discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Fluctuating Asymmetry of Human Populations: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John H. Graham

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Fluctuating asymmetry, the random deviation from perfect symmetry, is a widely used population-level index of developmental instability, developmental noise, and robustness. It reflects a population’s state of adaptation and genomic coadaptation. Here, we review the literature on fluctuating asymmetry of human populations. The most widely used bilateral traits include skeletal, dental, and facial dimensions; dermatoglyphic patterns and ridge counts; and facial shape. Each trait has its advantages and disadvantages, but results are most robust when multiple traits are combined into a composite index of fluctuating asymmetry (CFA. Both environmental (diet, climate, toxins and genetic (aneuploidy, heterozygosity, inbreeding stressors have been linked to population-level variation in fluctuating asymmetry. In general, these stressors increase average fluctuating asymmetry. Nevertheless, there have been many conflicting results, in part because (1 fluctuating asymmetry is a weak signal in a sea of noise; and (2 studies of human fluctuating asymmetry have not always followed best practices. The most serious concerns are insensitive asymmetry indices (correlation coefficient and coefficient of indetermination, inappropriate size scaling, unrecognized mixture distributions, inappropriate corrections for directional asymmetry, failure to use composite indices, and inattention to measurement error. Consequently, it is often difficult (or impossible to compare results across traits, and across studies.

  17. Ecological drought: Accounting for the non-human impacts of water shortage in the Upper Missouri Headwaters Basin, Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvoy, Jamie; Bathke, Deborah J.; Burkardt, Nina; Cravens, Amanda; Haigh, Tonya; Hall, Kimberly R.; Hayes, Michael J.; Jedd, Theresa; Podebradska, Marketa; Wickham, Elliot

    2018-01-01

    Water laws and drought plans are used to prioritize and allocate scarce water resources. Both have historically been human-centric, failing to account for non-human water needs. In this paper, we examine the development of instream flow legislation and the evolution of drought planning to highlight the growing concern for the non-human impacts of water scarcity. Utilizing a new framework for ecological drought, we analyzed five watershed-scale drought plans in southwestern Montana, USA to understand if, and how, the ecological impacts of drought are currently being assessed. We found that while these plans do account for some ecological impacts, it is primarily through the narrow lens of impacts to fish as measured by water temperature and streamflow. The latter is typically based on the same ecological principles used to determine instream flow requirements. We also found that other resource plans in the same watersheds (e.g., Watershed Restoration Plans, Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Watershed Assessments or United States Forest Service (USFS) Forest Plans) identify a broader range of ecological drought risks. Given limited resources and the potential for mutual benefits and synergies, we suggest greater integration between various planning processes could result in a more holistic consideration of water needs and uses across the landscape.

  18. Bacteriophage therapy for safeguarding animal and human health: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Ruchi; Dhama, Kuldeep; Kumar, Amit; Rahal, Anu; Kapoor, Sanjay

    2014-02-01

    Since the discovery of bacteriophages at the beginning of the 19th century their contribution to bacterial evolution and ecology and use in a variety of applications in biotechnology and medicine has been recognized and understood. Bacteriophages are natural bacterial killers, proven as best biocontrol agents due to their ability to lyse host bacterial cells specifically thereby helping in disease prevention and control. The requirement of such therapeutic approach is straight away required in view of the global emergence of Multidrug Resistant (MDR) strains of bacteria and rapidly developing resistance to antibiotics in both animals and humans along with increasing food safety concerns including of residual antibiotic toxicities. Phage typing is a popular tool to differentiate bacterial isolates and to identify and characterize outbreak-associated strains of Salmonella, Campylobacter, Escherichia and Listeria. Numerous methods viz. plaque morphology, ultracentrifugation in the density gradient of CsCl2, and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) have been found to be effective in detection of various phages. Bacteriophages have been isolated and recovered from samples of animal waste products of different livestock farms. High titer cocktails of broad spectrum lytic bacteriophages are usually used for clinical trial for assessing their therapeutic efficacy against antibiotic unresponsive infections in different animals. Bacteriophage therapy also helps to fight various bacterial infections of poultry viz. colibacillosis, salmonellosis and listeriosis. Moreover, the utility of phages concerning biosafety has raised the importance to explore and popularize the therapeutic dimension of this promising novel therapy which forms the topic of discussion of the present review.

  19. Hydro-ecological degradation due to human impacts in the Twin Streams Watershed, Auckland, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrecillas Nunez, C.; Miguel-rodriguez, A.

    2012-12-01

    As a collaborative project between the Faculties of Engineering of the University of Sinaloa, Mexico and the University of Auckland, an inter-disciplinary team researched historical information, monitoring results and modelling completed over the last ten years to establish the cause-effect relationship of development and human impacts in the watershed and recommend strategies to offset them .The research program analyzed the performance of the Twin Streams watershed over time with modelling of floods, hydrological disturbance indicators, analysis of water quality and ecological information, cost / benefit, harbor modelling and contaminant loads. The watershed is located in the west of Auckland and comprises 10,356 hectare: 8.19% ecologically protected area, 29.70% buffer zone, 6.67% peri-urban, 30.98% urban, 16.04% parks, and 8.42% other; average impermeability is 19.1%. Current population is 129,475 (2011) forecast to grow to 212,798 by 2051. The watershed includes 317.5 km of streams that drain to the Waitemata Harbor. The human impact can be traced back to the 1850s when the colonial settlers logged the native forests, dammed streams and altered the channel hydro-ecology resulting in significant erosion, sediment and changes to flows. In the early 1900s native vegetation started to regenerate in the headwaters, while agriculture and horticulture become established in rest of the watershed leading to the use of quite often very harmful pesticides and insecticides, such as DDT which is still detected in current environmental monitoring programs, and more erosion and channel alterations. As land become unproductive in the 1950s it stared to be urbanized, followed by more intensive urban development in the 1990s. Curiously there was no regulatory regime to control land use in the early stages and consequently over 400 houses were built in the floodplains, as well there were no legislation to control environmental impacts until 1991. Consequently today there is a

  20. DOE responses to Ecology review comments for ''Sampling and analysis plans for the 100-D Ponds voluntary remediation project''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The Sampling and Analysis Plan describes the sampling and analytical activities which will be performed to support closure of the 100-D Ponds at the Hanford Reservation. This report contains responses by the US Department of Energy to Ecology review for ''Sampling and Analysis Plan for the 100-D Ponds Voluntary Remediation Project.''

  1. Long-term ecological research in a human-dominated world

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. Philip Robertson; Scott L. Collins; David R. Foster; Nicholas Brokaw; Hugh W. Ducklow; Ted L. Gragson; Corinna Gries; Stephen K. Hamilton; A. David McGuire; John C. Moore; Emily H. Stanley; Robert B. Waide; Mark W. Williams

    2012-01-01

    The US Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) Network enters its fourth decade with a distinguished record of achievement in ecological science. The value of long-term observations and experiments has never been more important for testing ecological theory and for addressing today’s most difficult environmental challenges. The network’s potential for tackling emergent...

  2. Behavioural syndromes in fishes: a review with implications for ecology and fisheries management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, J L; Weinersmith, K L; Brodin, T; Saltz, J B; Sih, A

    2011-02-01

    This review examines the contribution of research on fishes to the growing field of behavioural syndromes. Current knowledge of behavioural syndromes in fishes is reviewed with respect to five main axes of animal personality: (1) shyness-boldness, (2) exploration-avoidance, (3) activity, (4) aggressiveness and (5) sociability. Compared with other taxa, research on fishes has played a leading role in describing the shy-bold personality axis and has made innovative contributions to the study of the sociability dimension by incorporating social network theory. Fishes are virtually the only major taxon in which behavioural correlations have been compared between populations. This research has guided the field in examining how variation in selection regime may shape personality. Recent research on fishes has also made important strides in understanding genetic and neuroendocrine bases for behavioural syndromes using approaches involving artificial selection, genetic mapping, candidate gene and functional genomics. This work has illustrated consistent individual variation in highly complex neuroendocrine and gene expression pathways. In contrast, relatively little work on fishes has examined the ontogenetic stability of behavioural syndromes or their fitness consequences. Finally, adopting a behavioural syndrome framework in fisheries management issues including artificial propagation, habitat restoration and invasive species, may promote restoration success. Few studies, however, have examined the ecological relevance of behavioural syndromes in the field. Knowledge of how behavioural syndromes play out in the wild will be crucial to incorporating such a framework into management practices. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2011 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  3. Comparative cryptogam ecology: a review of bryophyte and lichen traits that drive biogeochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelissen, Johannes H C; Lang, Simone I; Soudzilovskaia, Nadejda A; During, Heinjo J

    2007-05-01

    Recent decades have seen a major surge in the study of interspecific variation in functional traits in comparative plant ecology, as a tool to understanding and predicting ecosystem functions and their responses to environmental change. However, this research has been biased almost exclusively towards vascular plants. Very little is known about the role and applicability of functional traits of non-vascular cryptogams, particularly bryophytes and lichens, with respect to biogeochemical cycling. Yet these organisms are paramount determinants of biogeochemistry in several biomes, particularly cold biomes and tropical rainforests, where they: (1) contribute substantially to above-ground biomass (lichens, bryophytes); (2) host nitrogen-fixing bacteria, providing major soil N input (lichens, bryophytes); (3) control soil chemistry and nutrition through the accumulation of recalcitrant polyphenols (bryophytes) and through their control over soil and vegetation hydrology and temperatures; (4) both promote erosion (rock weathering by lichens) and prevent it (biological crusts in deserts); (5) provide a staple food to mammals such as reindeer (lichens) and arthropodes, with important feedbacks to soils and biota; and (6) both facilitate and compete with vascular plants. Here we review current knowledge about interspecific variation in cryptogam traits with respect to biogeochemical cycling and discuss to what extent traits and measuring protocols needed for bryophytes and lichens correspond with those applied to vascular plants. We also propose and discuss several new or recently introduced traits that may help us understand and predict the control of cryptogams over several aspects of the biogeochemistry of ecosystems. Whilst many methodological challenges lie ahead, comparative cryptogam ecology has the potential to meet some of the important challenges of understanding and predicting the biogeochemical and climate consequences of large-scale environmental changes driving

  4. The Importance of Human Ecology at the Threshold of the Next Millennium: How Can Population Growth Be Stopped?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nentwig, W.

    Ecology is defined as the set of complex interactions between the biotic and abiotic environments. Human ecology concerns principally the population ecology "only" of Homo sapiens, but it also includes all aspects of global ecology because humans are the most important species. Human demography is characterized by a recent decline in mortality and fertility rates. These demographic transitions have largely been completed in industrialized countries, but not in the 140 developing countries. Approximately 100 countries are following the same demographic pattern as industrialized countries, however with a time delay of several generations. China has effectively reduced its population increase by means that would be unacceptable in Western democracies. Some 44 developing countries still show increasing population growth and no detectable demographic transition in birth rate. Thus one part of the world shows limited (and, in the long run, shrinking) population growth, and another continues with a strong increase. All populations are limited in their development by their sustainability by their environment, for example, food and energy resources, and the extent of pollution which the use of these resources produces. It is argued that in the case of human population the limits of sustainability have already been reached with the 6 billion humans alive today, since at least 20% of these suffer from hunger, natural resources are overexploited, and biodiversity is threatened. In the coming 200years it is more likely that the total population will substantially oscillate rather than approach the predicted 12 billion. The most important goal of human ecology should therefore be to slow population growth as far as possible.

  5. Research review and development trends of human reliability analysis techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Pengcheng; Chen Guohua; Zhang Li; Dai Licao

    2011-01-01

    Human reliability analysis (HRA) methods are reviewed. The theoretical basis of human reliability analysis, human error mechanism, the key elements of HRA methods as well as the existing HRA methods are respectively introduced and assessed. Their shortcomings,the current research hotspot and difficult problems are identified. Finally, it takes a close look at the trends of human reliability analysis methods. (authors)

  6. [50 years anniversary of Research Institute for Occupational Medicine and Human Ecology with Siberian Division of RAMSc].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukavishnikov, V S; Shaiakhmetov, S F; Gus'kova, T M

    2010-01-01

    The article covers main steps of establishment and development of Research Institute for Occupational medicine and Human ecology with Siberian Division of RAMSc over 50 years of activities, major results of research, contribution of the Institute personnel into development of hygienic science and practical medicine in Siberia.

  7. Reducing discretionary food and beverage intake in early childhood: a systematic review within an ecological framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Brittany J; Hendrie, Gilly A; Golley, Rebecca K

    2016-06-01

    To systematically review the literature and map published studies on 4-8-year-olds' intake of discretionary choices against an ecological framework (ANalysis Grid for Environments Linked to Obesity; ANGELO). Articles were identified through database searches (PubMed, PyscINFO®, Web of Science) in February and March 2014 and hand-searching reference lists. Studies were assessed for methodological quality and mapped against the ANGELO framework by environment size (macro and micro setting) and type (physical, economic, policy and socio-cultural influences). Studies were conducted in the USA (n 18), Australia (n 6), the UK (n 3), the Netherlands (n 3), Belgium (n 1), Germany (n 1) and Turkey (n 1). Children aged 4-8 years, or parents/other caregivers. Thirty-three studies met the review criteria (observational n 23, interventions n 10). Home was the most frequently studied setting (67 % of exposures/strategies), with the majority of these studies targeting family policy-type influences (e.g. child feeding practices, television regulation). Few studies were undertaken in government (5·5 %) or community (11 %) settings, or examined economic-type influences (0 %). Of the intervention studies only four were categorised as effective. The present review is novel in its focus on mapping observational and intervention studies across a range of settings. It highlights the urgent need for high-quality research to inform interventions that directly tackle the factors influencing children's excess intake of discretionary choices. Interventions that assist in optimising a range of environmental influences will enhance the impact of future public health interventions to improve child diet quality.

  8. Improvements to Rapfish: a rapid evaluation technique for fisheries integrating ecological and human dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitcher, T J; Lam, M E; Ainsworth, C; Martindale, A; Nakamura, K; Perry, R I; Ward, T

    2013-10-01

    This paper reports recent developments in Rapfish, a normative, scalable and flexible rapid appraisal technique that integrates both ecological and human dimensions to evaluate the status of fisheries in reference to a norm or goal. Appraisal status targets may be sustainability, compliance with a standard (such as the UN code of conduct for responsible fisheries) or the degree of progress in meeting some other goal or target. The method combines semi-quantitative (e.g. ecological) and qualitative (e.g. social) data via multiple evaluation fields, each of which is assessed through scores assigned to six to 12 attributes or indicators: the scoring method allows user flexibility to adopt a wide range of utility relationships. For assessing sustainability, six evaluation fields have been developed: ecological, technological, economic, social, ethical and institutional. Each field can be assessed directly with a set of scored attributes, or several of the fields can be dealt with in greater detail using nested subfields that themselves comprise multidimensional Rapfish assessments (e.g. the hierarchical institutional field encompasses both governance and management, including a detailed analysis of legality). The user has the choice of including all or only some of the available sustainability fields. For the attributes themselves, there will rarely be quantitative data, but scoring allows these items to be estimated. Indeed, within a normative framework, one important advantage with Rapfish is transparency of the rigour, quality and replicability of the scores. The Rapfish technique employs a constrained multidimensional ordination that is scaled to situate data points within evaluation space. Within each evaluation field, results may be presented as a two-dimensional plot or in a one-dimensional rank order. Uncertainty is expressed through the probability distribution of Monte-Carlo simulations that use the C.L. on each original observation. Overall results of the

  9. Implementation of a Socio-Ecological System Navigation Approach to Human Development in Sub-Saharan African Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilioli, Gianni; Caroli, Anna Maria; Tikubet, Getachew; Herren, Hans R.; Baumgärtner, Johann

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a framework for the development of socio-ecological systems towards enhanced sustainability. Emphasis is given to the dynamic properties of complex, adaptive social-ecological systems, their structure and to the fundamental role of agriculture. The tangible components that meet the needs of specific projects executed in Kenya and Ethiopia encompass project objectives, innovation, facilitation, continuous recording and analyses of monitoring data, that allow adaptive management and system navigation. Two case studies deal with system navigation through the mitigation of key constraints; they aim to improve human health thanks to anopheline malaria vectors control in Nyabondo (Kenya), and to improve cattle health through tsetse control and antitrypanosomal drug administration to cattle in Luke (Ethiopia). The second case deals with a socio-ecological navigation system to enhance sustainability, establishing a periurban diversified enterprise in Addis Ababa (Ethiopia) and developing a rural sustainable social-ecological system in Luke (Ethiopia). The project procedures are briefly described here and their outcomes are analysed in relation to the stated objectives. The methodology for human and cattle disease vector control were easier to implement than the navigation of social-ecological systems towards sustainability enhancement. The achievements considerably differed between key constraints removal and sustainability enhancement projects. Some recommendations are made to rationalise human and cattle health improvement efforts and to smoothen the road towards enhanced sustainability: i) technology system implementation should be carried out through an innovation system; ii) transparent monitoring information should be continuously acquired and evaluated for assessing the state of the system in relation to stated objectives for (a) improving the insight into the systems behaviour and (b) rationalizing decision support; iii) the different views of

  10. Implementation of a socio-ecological system navigation approach to human development in sub-saharan african communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilioli, Gianni; Caroli, Anna Maria; Tikubet, Getachew; Herren, Hans R; Baumgärtner, Johann

    2014-03-26

    This paper presents a framework for the development of socio-ecological systems towards enhanced sustainability. Emphasis is given to the dynamic properties of complex, adaptive social-ecological systems, their structure and to the fundamental role of agriculture. The tangible components that meet the needs of specific projects executed in Kenya and Ethiopia encompass project objectives, innovation, facilitation, continuous recording and analyses of monitoring data, that allow adaptive management and system navigation. Two case studies deal with system navigation through the mitigation of key constraints; they aim to improve human health thanks to anopheline malaria vectors control in Nyabondo (Kenya), and to improve cattle health through tsetse control and antitrypanosomal drug administration to cattle in Luke (Ethiopia). The second case deals with a socio-ecological navigation system to enhance sustainability, establishing a periurban diversified enterprise in Addis Ababa (Ethiopia) and developing a rural sustainable social-ecological system in Luke (Ethiopia). The project procedures are briefly described here and their outcomes are analysed in relation to the stated objectives. The methodology for human and cattle disease vector control were easier to implement than the navigation of social-ecological systems towards sustainability enhancement. The achievements considerably differed between key constraints removal and sustainability enhancement projects. Some recommendations are made to rationalise human and cattle health improvement efforts and to smoothen the road towards enhanced sustainability: i) technology system implementation should be carried out through an innovation system; ii) transparent monitoring information should be continuously acquired and evaluated for assessing the state of the system in relation to stated objectives for (a) improving the insight into the systems behaviour and (b) rationalizing decision support; iii) the different views of

  11. Evolutionary and ecological forces that shape the bacterial communities of the human gut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messer, Jeannette S.; Liechty, Emma R; Vogel, Olivia A.; Chang, Eugene B.

    2017-01-01

    Since microbes were first described in the mid-1600's, we have come to appreciate that they live all around and within us with both beneficial and detrimental effects on nearly every aspect of our lives. The human gastrointestinal tract is inhabited by a dynamic community of trillions of bacteria that constantly interact with each other and their human host. The acquisition of these bacteria is not stochastic, but determined by circumstance (environment), host rules (genetics, immune state, mucus, etc), and dynamic self-selection among microbes to form stable, resilient communities that are in balance with the host. In this review, we will discuss how these factors lead to formation of the gut bacterial community and influence its interactions with the host. We will also address how gut bacteria contribute to disease and how they could potentially be targeted to prevent and treat a variety of human ailments. PMID:28145439

  12. The Impact of a Novel Curriculum on Secondary Biology Teachers' Dispositions toward Using Authentic Data and Media in Their Human Impact and Ecology Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyner, Yael

    2013-01-01

    This study examines how the implementation of a novel curriculum, that emphasizes the use of published scientific data and media to learn about human impact and ecological function, influenced ninth-grade biology teacher (N - 36) dispositions toward using data and media in their ecology and human impact lesson plans. It explores how integration of…

  13. Safety of human papillomavirus vaccines: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillo, Michela; Carrillo Santisteve, Paloma; Lopalco, Pier Luigi

    2015-05-01

    Between 2006 and 2009, two different human papillomavirus virus (HPV) vaccines were licensed for use: a quadrivalent (qHPVv) and a bivalent (bHPVv) vaccine. Since 2008, HPV vaccination programmes have been implemented in the majority of the industrialized countries. Since 2013, HPV vaccination has been part of the national programs of 66 countries including almost all countries in North America and Western Europe. Despite all the efforts made by individual countries, coverage rates are lower than expected. Vaccine safety represents one of the main concerns associated with the lack of acceptance of HPV vaccination both in the European Union/European Economic Area and elsewhere. Safety data published on bivalent and quadrivalent HPV vaccines, both in pre-licensure and post-licensure phase, are reviewed. Based on the latest scientific evidence, both HPV vaccines seem to be safe. Nevertheless, public concern and rumors about adverse events (AE) represent an important barrier to overcome in order to increase vaccine coverage. Passive surveillance of AEs is an important tool for detecting safety signals, but it should be complemented by activities aimed at assessing the real cause of all suspect AEs. Improved vaccine safety surveillance is the first step for effective communication based on scientific evidence.

  14. Demographic and ecological risk factors for human influenza A virus infections in rural Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root, Elisabeth Dowling; Agustian, Dwi; Kartasasmita, Cissy; Uyeki, Timothy M; Simões, Eric A F

    2017-09-01

    Indonesia has the world's highest reported mortality for human infections with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H5N1) virus. Indonesia is an agriculturally driven country where human-animal mixing is common and provides a unique environment for zoonotic influenza A virus transmission. To identify potential demographic and ecological risk factors for human infection with seasonal influenza A viruses in rural Indonesia, a population-based study was conducted in Cileunyi and Soreang subdistricts near Bandung in western Java from 2008 to 2011. Passive influenza surveillance with RT-PCR confirmation of influenza A viral RNA in respiratory specimens was utilized for case ascertainment. A population census and mapping were utilized for population data collection. The presence of influenza A(H3N2) and A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infections in a household was modeled using Generalized Estimating Equations. Each additional child aged <5 years in a household increased the odds of H3N2 approximately 5 times (OR=4.59, 95%CI: 3.30-6.24) and H1N1pdm09 by 3.5 times (OR=3.53, 95%CI: 2.51-4.96). In addition, the presence of 16-30 birds in the house was associated with an increased odds of H3N2 (OR=5.08, 95%CI: 2.00-12.92) and H1N1pdm09 (OR=12.51 95%CI: 6.23-25.13). Our findings suggest an increase in influenza A virus infections in rural Indonesian households with young children and poultry. © 2017 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Historical ecology: past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Péter

    2015-11-01

    The term 'historical ecology' has been used with various meanings since the first half of the 20th century. Studies labelled as historical ecology have been produced in at least four academic disciplines: history, ecology, geography and anthropology. Although all those involved seem to agree that historical ecology concerns the historical interconnectedness of nature and human culture, this field of study has no unified methodology, specialized institutional background and common publication forums. Knowledge of the development of historical ecology is also limited. As a result, the current multitude of definitions of historical ecology is accompanied by divergent opinions as to where the origins of the field are to be sought. In this review, I follow the development of historical ecology from the 18th century to the present. In the first part, I briefly describe some early examples of historical ecological investigations, followed by a description of the various scientific strands in the 20th century that contributed to the formation of historical ecology. In the second part, I discuss the past five decades of historical ecological investigations in more detail, focusing mostly (but not exclusively) on works that their respective authors identified as historical ecology. I also examine the appearance and interconnectedness of the two main trends (ecological and anthropological) in historical ecological research. In the last part, I attempt to outline the future of historical ecology based on common features in existing research. It appears that at present historical ecology is at a crossroads. With rapidly growing interest in historical ecological research, it may move towards institutionalization or remain an umbrella term. © 2014 The Authors. Biological Reviews © 2014 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  16. Ecological implications of behavioural syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sih, Andrew; Cote, Julien; Evans, Mara; Fogarty, Sean; Pruitt, Jonathan

    2012-03-01

    Interspecific trait variation has long served as a conceptual foundation for our understanding of ecological patterns and dynamics. In particular, ecologists recognise the important role that animal behaviour plays in shaping ecological processes. An emerging area of interest in animal behaviour, the study of behavioural syndromes (animal personalities) considers how limited behavioural plasticity, as well as behavioural correlations affects an individual's fitness in diverse ecological contexts. In this article we explore how insights from the concept and study of behavioural syndromes provide fresh understanding of major issues in population ecology. We identify several general mechanisms for how population ecology phenomena can be influenced by a species or population's average behavioural type, by within-species variation in behavioural type, or by behavioural correlations across time or across ecological contexts. We note, in particular, the importance of behavioural type-dependent dispersal in spatial ecology. We then review recent literature and provide new syntheses for how these general mechanisms produce novel insights on five major issues in population ecology: (1) limits to species' distribution and abundance; (2) species interactions; (3) population dynamics; (4) relative responses to human-induced rapid environmental change; and (5) ecological invasions. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  17. Implications of Current Ecological Thinking for Biodiversity Conservation: a Review of the Salient Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabatha J. Wallington

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Given escalating concern worldwide about the loss of biodiversity, and given biodiversity's centrality to quality of life, it is imperative that current ecological knowledge fully informs societal decision making. Over the past two decades, ecological science has undergone many significant shifts in emphasis and perspective, which have important implications for how we manage ecosystems and species. In particular, a shift has occurred from the equilibrium paradigm to one that recognizes the dynamic, non-equilibrium nature of ecosystems. Revised thinking about the spatial and temporal dynamics of ecological systems has important implications for management. Thus, it is of growing concern to ecologists and others that these recent developments have not been translated into information useful to managers and policy makers. Many conservation policies and plans are still based on equilibrium assumptions. A fundamental difficulty with integrating current ecological thinking into biodiversity policy and management planning is that field observations have yet to provide compelling evidence for many of the relationships suggested by non-equilibrium ecology. Yet despite this scientific uncertainty, management and policy decisions must still be made. This paper was motivated by the need for considered scientific debate on the significance of current ideas in theoretical ecology for biodiversity conservation. This paper aims to provide a platform for such discussion by presenting a critical synthesis of recent ecological literature that (1 identifies core issues in ecological theory, and (2 explores the implications of current ecological thinking for biodiversity conservation.

  18. Experience sampling and ecological momentary assessment studies in psychopharmacology: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Fionneke M; Schoevers, Robert A; aan het Rot, Marije

    2015-11-01

    Experience sampling methods (ESM) and ecological momentary assessment (EMA) offer insight into daily life experiences, including symptoms of mental disorders. The application of ESM/EMA in psychopharmacology can be a valuable addition to more traditional measures such as retrospective self-report questionnaires because they may help reveal the impact of psychotropic medication on patients' actual experiences. In this paper we systematically review the existing literature on the use of ESM/EMA in psychopharmacology research. To this end, we searched the PsycInfo and Medline databases for all available ESM/EMA studies on the use of psychotropic medication in patients with DSM-III-R and DSM-IV disorders. Dissertations were excluded. We included 18 studies that applied ESM/EMA to study the effects of medication on patients with major depressive disorder, substance use disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, psychotic disorder, and anxiety disorder. We found that ESM/EMA may allow researchers and clinicians to track patients during different phases of treatment: before treatment to predict outcome, during treatment to examine the effects of treatment on symptoms and different aspects of daily life experience, and after treatment to detect vulnerability for relapse. Moreover, ESM/EMA can potentially help determine how long and in what contexts medications are effective. Thus, ESM/EMA may benefit both researchers and clinicians and might prove to be an effective tool for improving the treatment of psychiatric patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  19. Understanding Children and Adolescents' Victimizations at Multiple Levels: An Ecological Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabri, Bushra; Hong, Jun Sung; Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Cho, Hyunkag

    2013-05-01

    This article examines children and adolescent exposure to violence in various contexts. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to identify the definitions and types of violence reported in studies on victimization using the ecological systems framework. Sources included research studies and/or reports from scholarly journals ( n = 140), books ( n = 9), conference/workshops ( n = 5), and web sources, such as Uniform Crime Reports ( n = 23). The findings indicated that research differed in terminologies, conceptual and operational definitions, sample sizes and age group classification for children and adolescents. Further, studies lacked focus on the co-occurrence and inter-relatedness of victimization, and how these factors might affect the outcomes. Many studies employed a cross-sectional design, which limits strong conclusions about the temporal order of victimization experiences and outcomes. Future research efforts need more consistency among researchers in conceptual and operational definitions and the use of more rigorous designs. Increased holistic assessments are critical for effective prevention and intervention strategies for at-risk children and adolescents.

  20. Understanding Children and Adolescents’ Victimizations at Multiple Levels: An Ecological Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabri, Bushra; Hong, Jun Sung; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.; Cho, Hyunkag

    2013-01-01

    This article examines children and adolescent exposure to violence in various contexts. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to identify the definitions and types of violence reported in studies on victimization using the ecological systems framework. Sources included research studies and/or reports from scholarly journals (n = 140), books (n = 9), conference/workshops (n = 5), and web sources, such as Uniform Crime Reports (n = 23). The findings indicated that research differed in terminologies, conceptual and operational definitions, sample sizes and age group classification for children and adolescents. Further, studies lacked focus on the co-occurrence and inter-relatedness of victimization, and how these factors might affect the outcomes. Many studies employed a cross-sectional design, which limits strong conclusions about the temporal order of victimization experiences and outcomes. Future research efforts need more consistency among researchers in conceptual and operational definitions and the use of more rigorous designs. Increased holistic assessments are critical for effective prevention and intervention strategies for at-risk children and adolescents PMID:24065867

  1. A review of ecological interactions between crayfish and fish, indigenous and introduced

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reynolds J.D.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Crayfish (decapods and fish are both long-lived large members of freshwater communities, often functioning as keystone species. This paper reviews interactions between these, with emphasis on the European context. Native crayfish and fish are in ecological balance, which may involve mutual predation, competition and sometimes habitat disturbance. This balance is disrupted by range extensions and translocations of native fish or crayfish into exotic situations. Some fish and crayfish have been translocated globally, chiefly from North America to other continents. Non-indigenous crayfish species (NICS may impact on native fish, just as introduced fish impact on indigenous crayfish species (ICS. Competition between ICS and NICS may result in making the former susceptible to various mechanisms of interaction with fish, indigenous or introduced. In Europe, long-established NICS – signals, spiny-cheek and red swamp crayfish – may occur in greater densities than ICS; they are more tolerant and aggressive and show more interactions with fish. More recent introductions, still restricted in distribution, have not yet received enough study for their impacts to be assessed. Interactions between fish and crayfish in North and South America, Madagascar and Australasia are also explored. Mechanisms of interaction between fish and crayfish include mutual predation, competition for food and spatial resources, food-web alteration and habitat modification. Resultant changes in communities and ecosystems may be physical or biotal, and affect both ecosystem services and exploitation potential.

  2. Defining tipping points for social-ecological systems scholarship—an interdisciplinary literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milkoreit, Manjana; Hodbod, Jennifer; Baggio, Jacopo; Benessaiah, Karina; Calderón-Contreras, Rafael; Donges, Jonathan F.; Mathias, Jean-Denis; Rocha, Juan Carlos; Schoon, Michael; Werners, Saskia E.

    2018-03-01

    The term tipping point has experienced explosive popularity across multiple disciplines over the last decade. Research on social-ecological systems (SES) has contributed to the growth and diversity of the term’s use. The diverse uses of the term obscure potential differences between tipping behavior in natural and social systems, and issues of causality across natural and social system components in SES. This paper aims to create the foundation for a discussion within the SES research community about the appropriate use of the term tipping point, especially the relatively novel term ‘social tipping point.’ We review existing literature on tipping points and similar concepts (e.g. regime shifts, critical transitions) across all spheres of science published between 1960 and 2016 with a special focus on a recent and still small body of work on social tipping points. We combine quantitative and qualitative analyses in a bibliometric approach, rooted in an expert elicitation process. We find that the term tipping point became popular after the year 2000—long after the terms regime shift and critical transition—across all spheres of science. We identify 23 distinct features of tipping point definitions and their prevalence across disciplines, but find no clear taxonomy of discipline-specific definitions. Building on the most frequently used features, we propose definitions for tipping points in general and social tipping points in SES in particular.

  3. Looking for attitudes related to amphibian species decline: how are peer-reviewed publications of education activities compared to ecological research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mormul, Roger P; Mormul, Tayla D S; Santos, Gustavo M B; Santana, Ana R A

    2017-05-01

    Biodiversity decline has been the focus of discussions in the last decade, especially on the amphibian species decline. After a scientometric analysis using international databases, we found that the number of peer-reviewed articles considering education practices related to the theme increased along with the number of ecological researches. However, the increase in ecological researches is much higher than the increase in publications of education practices. Studies suggest that conservation attitudes are important and that education practices are an important tool for improving human perceptions on this subject. In this sense, increase the publication of projects and programs results related to local education practices in international journals could help the dissemination of efficient methods for conservation, as well as facilitating access to information internationally, since species decline, especially for amphibians, is a global concern. Then, we suggest that educational practices, at least when related to conservation, should follow a more standardized protocol, and be published in international journals, as the efficiency of such practices should be evaluated and methods once published could help other nations to improve their ecological literacy.

  4. Looking for attitudes related to amphibian species decline: how are peer-reviewed publications of education activities compared to ecological research?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROGER P. MORMUL

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Biodiversity decline has been the focus of discussions in the last decade, especially on the amphibian species decline. After a scientometric analysis using international databases, we found that the number of peer-reviewed articles considering education practices related to the theme increased along with the number of ecological researches. However, the increase in ecological researches is much higher than the increase in publications of education practices. Studies suggest that conservation attitudes are important and that education practices are an important tool for improving human perceptions on this subject. In this sense, increase the publication of projects and programs results related to local education practices in international journals could help the dissemination of efficient methods for conservation, as well as facilitating access to information internationally, since species decline, especially for amphibians, is a global concern. Then, we suggest that educational practices, at least when related to conservation, should follow a more standardized protocol, and be published in international journals, as the efficiency of such practices should be evaluated and methods once published could help other nations to improve their ecological literacy.

  5. Development of human factors design review guidelines(III)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Oh, In Suk; Suh, Sang Moon; Lee, Hyun Chul [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-02-15

    The objective of this study is to develop human factors engineering program review guidelines and alarm system review guidelines in order to resolve the two major technical issues: '25, human factors engineering program review model' and '26, review criteria for human factors aspects of advanced controls and instrumentation', which are related to the development of human factors safety regulation guides being performed by KINS. For the development of human factors program review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG-0711 and added our comments by considering Korean regulatory situation and reviewing the reference documents NUREG--0711, additional comments, and selected portion of the reference documents for the developer of safety regulation guides in KINS to see the contents comparatively at a glance and use them easily. For the development of alarm system review guides in KINS to see the contents comparatively at a glance and use them easily. For the development of alarm system review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG/CR-6105, which was published by NRC in 1994 as a guideline document for the human factors review of alarm system. Then we will update the guidelines by reviewing the literature related to alarm design published after 1994.

  6. Development of human factors design review guidelines(III)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Oh, In Suk; Suh, Sang Moon; Lee, Hyun Chul

    1999-02-01

    The objective of this study is to develop human factors engineering program review guidelines and alarm system review guidelines in order to resolve the two major technical issues: '25, human factors engineering program review model' and '26, review criteria for human factors aspects of advanced controls and instrumentation', which are related to the development of human factors safety regulation guides being performed by KINS. For the development of human factors program review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG-0711 and added our comments by considering Korean regulatory situation and reviewing the reference documents NUREG--0711, additional comments, and selected portion of the reference documents for the developer of safety regulation guides in KINS to see the contents comparatively at a glance and use them easily. For the development of alarm system review guides in KINS to see the contents comparatively at a glance and use them easily. For the development of alarm system review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG/CR-6105, which was published by NRC in 1994 as a guideline document for the human factors review of alarm system. Then we will update the guidelines by reviewing the literature related to alarm design published after 1994

  7. Development of human factors design review guidelines(II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Oh, In Suk; Suh, Sang Moon; Lee, Hyun Chul

    1998-06-01

    The objective of this study is to develop human factors engineering program review guidelines and alarm system review guidelines in order to resolve the two major technical issues: '25, human factors engineering program review model' and '26, review criteria for human factors aspects of advanced controls and instrumentation', which are related to the development of human factors safety regulation guides being performed by KINS. For the development of human factors program review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG-0711 and added our comments by considering Korean regulatory situation and reviewing the reference documents NUREG--0711, additional comments, and selected portion of the reference documents for the developer of safety regulation guides in KINS to see the contents comparatively at a glance and use them easily. For the development of alarm system review guides in KINS to see the contents comparatively at a glance and use them easily. For the development of alarm system review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG/CR-6105, which was published by NRC in 1994 as a guideline document for the human factors review of alarm system. Then we will update the guidelines by reviewing the literature related to alarm design published after 1994

  8. Development of human factors design review guidelines(III)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Oh, In Suk; Suh, Sang Moon; Lee, Hyun Chul [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-02-15

    The objective of this study is to develop human factors engineering program review guidelines and alarm system review guidelines in order to resolve the two major technical issues: '25, human factors engineering program review model' and '26, review criteria for human factors aspects of advanced controls and instrumentation', which are related to the development of human factors safety regulation guides being performed by KINS. For the development of human factors program review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG-0711 and added our comments by considering Korean regulatory situation and reviewing the reference documents NUREG--0711, additional comments, and selected portion of the reference documents for the developer of safety regulation guides in KINS to see the contents comparatively at a glance and use them easily. For the development of alarm system review guides in KINS to see the contents comparatively at a glance and use them easily. For the development of alarm system review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG/CR-6105, which was published by NRC in 1994 as a guideline document for the human factors review of alarm system. Then we will update the guidelines by reviewing the literature related to alarm design published after 1994.

  9. The Correlation of Human Development Index on Fertility and Mortality Rate: a Global Ecological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Almasi-Hashiani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundSeveral studies have examined the relationship between Human Development Index (HDI and various health outcomes. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between HDI, and infant mortality rate, mortality rate of children under one year and under 5 years, maternal mortality rate, and total fertility rate.Materials and MethodsIn this ecologic study, data on HDI, total fertility rate (TFR, maternal mortality rate (MMR, neonatal mortality rate (NMR, infant mortality rate (IMR and mortality rate in children under 5 years of age (< 5MR, were extracted from 188 countries in 2014 in the world. The data required in this study was obtained from the World Bank. Data analysis was performed using Pearson correlation in Stata version 12.0 software. ResultsIn this study, a negative significant correlation was observed between HDI and IMR (r = -0.878, P = 0.001, NMR (r = -0.870, 95% CI: -0.902, -0.828, P = 0.001, ConclusionIMR, children under one year old and under 5 years, and MMR mostly occur in developing countries. There was a correlation between HDI and its components, and the neonatal, infants, children under 5 years, maternal mortality rate and total fertility. The average annual percentage change of HDI also had a correlation with neonatal, infants, children under 5- year mortality rate, total fertility and maternal deaths.

  10. Global Incidence and Mortality Rates of Stomach Cancer and the Human Development Index: an Ecological Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaei, Salman; Rezaeian, Shahab; Soheylizad, Mokhtar; Khazaei, Somayeh; Biderafsh, Azam

    2016-01-01

    Stomach cancer (SC) is the second leading cause of cancer death with the rate of 10.4% in the world. The correlation between the incidence and mortality rates of SC and human development index (HDI) has not been globally determined. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the association between the incidence and mortality rates of SC and HDI in various regions. In this global ecological study, we used the data about the incidence and mortality rate of SC and HDI from the global cancer project and the United Nations Development Programme database, respectively. In 2012, SCs were estimated to have affected a total of 951,594 individuals (crude rate: 13.5 per 100,000 individuals) with a male/female ratio of 1.97, and caused 723,073 deaths worldwide (crude rate: 10.2 per 100,000 individuals). There was a positive correlation between the HDI and both incidence (r=0.28, countries with high and very high HDI is remarkable which should be the top priority of interventions for global health policymakers. In addition, health programs should be provided to reduce the burden of this disease in the regions with high incidence and mortality rates of SC.

  11. Human and ecological remediation goals for soil mercury at East Fork Poplar Creek, Oak Ridge, TN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zafran, F.A.; Cornaby, B.W.; Hadden, C.T.

    1995-01-01

    Mercury, used in the past production of enriched lithium by the Department of Energy, is the principal chemical of concern in the 14-mile floodplain of East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). SAIC has developed risk-based remediation goal options (RGOS) for mercury in EFPC soils to protect the most sensitive human receptors. The existing chronic oral RfD for mercury is based on exposure of laboratory species to mercuric chloride. However, speciation and leaching/availability studies (conducted by EPA EMSL and Oak Ridge National Laboratory) indicated less soluble and less toxic mercury species, principally mercuric sulfide, with measurable quantities of metallic mercury also present, predominate in EFPC floodplain soils. SAIC derived human health RGOs using deterministic and probabilistic methods and incorporated the probability density function for bioavailability of mercury species from leaching/availability data generated by ORNL. Monte Carlo simulation was used in uncertainty analysis and supported the derivation of a protective, but realistic risk-based remediation goal of 400 mg mercury/kg soil. For ecological risk assessment, RGOs were based on risks through food chains from contaminants in soil. The authors describe a terrestrial food-chain model of contaminant transfer to primary producers, first-order consumers, mid-level predators, and top-level predators. The model uses published toxicity data, site-specific contaminant concentrations, and bioaccumulation factors calculated from measured body burdens of floodplain organisms to compute RGOs for various combinations of exposure parameters. Model calculations show that under reasonably conservative conditions, mid-level predators have the highest exposures relative to dietary limits and, therefore, require the lowest soil-mercury RGOs. Mercury concentrations of ∼500 mg/kg are protective of the receptor populations exposed through food chains at this site

  12. Linking human health, climate change, and food security through ecological-based sanitation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryals, R.; Kramer, S.; Porder, S.; Andersen, G. L.

    2015-12-01

    Ensuring access to clean, safe sanitation for the world's population remains a challenging, yet critical, global sustainability goal. Ecological-based sanitation (EcoSan) technology is a promising strategy for improving sanitation, particularly in areas where financial resources and infrastructure are limiting. The composting of human waste and its use as an agricultural soil amendment can tackle three important challenges in developing countries - providing improved sanitation for vulnerable communities, reducing the spread of intestinal-born pathogens, and returning nutrients and organic matter to degraded agricultural soils. The extent of these benefits and potential tradeoffs are not well known, but have important implications for the widespread adoption of this strategy to promote healthy communities and enhance food security. We quantified the effects of EcoSan on the climate and human health in partnership with Sustainable Organic Integrated Livelihoods (SOIL) in Haiti. We measured greenhouse gas emissions (nitrous oxide, methane, and carbon dioxide) from compost piles that ranged in age from 0 to 14 months (i.e. finished) from two compost facilities managed with or without cement lining. We also measured emissions from a government-operated waste treatment pond and a grass field where waste has been illegally dumped. The highest methane emissions were observed from the anaerobic waste pond, whereas the dump site and compost piles had higher nitrous oxide emissions. Net greenhouse gases (CO2-equivalents) from unlined compost piles were 8x lower than lined compost piles and 20 and 30x lower than the dump and waste pond, respectively. We screened finished compost for fecal pathogens using bacterial 16S sequencing. Bacterial pathogens were eliminated regardless of the type of composting process. Pilot trials indicate that the application of compost to crops has a large potential for increasing food production. This research suggests that EcoSan systems are

  13. A book review of Spatial data analysis in ecology and agriculture using R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spatial Data Analysis in Ecology and Agriculture Using R is a valuable resource to assist agricultural and ecological researchers with spatial data analyses using the R statistical software(www.r-project.org). Special emphasis is on spatial data sets; how-ever, the text also provides ample guidance ...

  14. The Mediterranean: A Corrupting Sea? A Review-Essay on Ecology and History, Anthropology and Synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Peter Fibiger

    2004-01-01

    Historie, Mediterranean pre-industrial history, The Mediterranean, Ecological History, Economic History, Pre-industrial History, Finley, Ancient trade, Mediterranean unity......Historie, Mediterranean pre-industrial history, The Mediterranean, Ecological History, Economic History, Pre-industrial History, Finley, Ancient trade, Mediterranean unity...

  15. Book review: Behavioral ecology of the eastern red-backed salamander: 50 years of research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, Susan; Mitchell, Joseph C.

    2017-01-01

    In commemoration of the 100th anniversary of the British Ecological Society, Sutherland et al. (2013) identified 100 questions of fundamental significance in “pure” (i.e., not applied) ecology. A somewhat unexpected outcome of these authors’ exercise was the realization that, after 100 years of comprehensive, intensive scientific research, there remained “profound knowledge

  16. Review of Capitalism in the Web of Life. Ecology and Accumulation of Capital (Moore, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Palacio

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Jason Moore. 2015. Capitalism in the Web of Life. Ecology and Accumulation of Capital [Capitalismo en la red de la vida. Ecología y acumulación de capital]. London – New York: Verso Books. 336 pp. ISBN 978-1781689028.

  17. Trends in ecological research during the last three decades--a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmel, Yohay; Kent, Rafi; Bar-Massada, Avi; Blank, Lior; Liberzon, Jonathan; Nezer, Oded; Sapir, Gill; Federman, Roy

    2013-01-01

    It is thought that the science of ecology has experienced conceptual shifts in recent decades, chiefly from viewing nature as static and balanced to a conception of constantly changing, unpredictable, complex ecosystems. Here, we ask if these changes are reflected in actual ecological research over the last 30 years. We surveyed 750 articles from the entire pool of ecological literature and 750 articles from eight leading journals. Each article was characterized according to its type, ecological domain, and applicability, and major topics. We found that, in contrast to its common image, ecology is still mostly a study of single species (70% of the studies); while ecosystem and community studies together comprise only a quarter of ecological research. Ecological science is somewhat conservative in its topics of research (about a third of all topics changed significantly through time), as well as in its basic methodologies and approaches. However, the growing proportion of problem-solving studies (from 9% in the 1980s to 20% in the 2000 s) may represent a major transition in ecological science in the long run.

  18. Sequence-based Methods in Human Microbial Ecology: A The 2nd HumanGenome Comes of Age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weng, Li; Rubin, Edward M.; Bristow, James

    2005-06-01

    Ecologists studying microbial life in the environment have recognized the enormous complexity of microbial diversity for more than a decade (Whitman et al. 1998). The development of a variety of culture-independent methods, many of them coupled with high-throughput DNA sequencing, has allowed this diversity to be explored in ever greater detail (Handelsman 2004; Harris et al. 2004; Hugenholtz et al. 1998; Moreira and Lopez-Garcia 2002; Rappe and Giovannoni 2003). Despite the widespread application of these new techniques to the characterization of uncultivated microbes and microbial communities in the environment, their application to human health and disease has lagged behind. Because these techniques now allow not only cataloging of microbial diversity, but also insight into microbial functions, it is time for clinical microbiologists to apply these tools to the microbial communities that abound on and within us, in what has been aptly called ''the second Human Genome Project'' (Relman and Falkow 2001). In this review we will discuss the sequence-based methods for microbial analysis that are currently available and their application to identify novel human pathogens, improve diagnosis and treatment of known infectious diseases, and finally to advance understanding of our relationship with microbial communities that normally reside in and on the human body.

  19. Development of human factors design review guidelines(II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Oh, In Suk; Suh, Sang Moon; Lee, Hyun Chul [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-06-01

    The objective of this study is to develop human factors engineering program review guidelines and alarm system review guidelines in order to resolve the two major technical issues: 25. Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model and 26. Review Criteria for Human Factors Aspects of Advanced Controls and Instrumentation, which are related to the development of human factors safety regulation guides being performed by KINS. For the development of human factors program review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG-0711 and added our comments by considering Korean regulatory situation and reviewing the reference documents of NUREG-0711. We also computerized the Korean version of NUREG-0711, additional comments, and selected portion of the reference documents for the developer of safety regulation guides in KINS to see the contents comparatively at a glance and use them easily. For the development of alarm system review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG/CR-6105, which was published by NRC in 1994 as a guideline document for the human factors review of alarm systems. Then we will update the guidelines by reviewing the literature related to alarm design published after 1994. (author). 11 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Biodiversity, Extinction, and Humanity’s Future: The Ecological and Evolutionary Consequences of Human Population and Resource Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick L. Hindmarsh

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Human actions have altered global environments and reduced biodiversity by causing extinctions and reducing the population sizes of surviving species. Increasing human population size and per capita resource use will continue to have direct and indirect ecological and evolutionary consequences. As a result, future generations will inhabit a planet with significantly less wildlife, reduced evolutionary potential, diminished ecosystem services, and an increased likelihood of contracting infectious disease. The magnitude of these effects will depend on the rate at which global human population and/or per capita resource use decline to sustainable levels and the degree to which population reductions result from increased death rates rather than decreased birth rates.

  1. Application of Sequence-based Methods in Human MicrobialEcology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weng, Li; Rubin, Edward M.; Bristow, James

    2005-08-29

    Ecologists studying microbial life in the environment have recognized the enormous complexity of microbial diversity for many years, and the development of a variety of culture-independent methods, many of them coupled with high-throughput DNA sequencing, has allowed this diversity to be explored in ever greater detail. Despite the widespread application of these new techniques to the characterization of uncultivated microbes and microbial communities in the environment, their application to human health and disease has lagged behind. Because DNA based-techniques for defining uncultured microbes allow not only cataloging of microbial diversity, but also insight into microbial functions, investigators are beginning to apply these tools to the microbial communities that abound on and within us, in what has aptly been called the second Human Genome Project. In this review we discuss the sequence-based methods for microbial analysis that are currently available and their application to identify novel human pathogens, improve diagnosis of known infectious diseases, and to advance understanding of our relationship with microbial communities that normally reside in and on the human body.

  2. Implementation of a socio-ecological system navigation approach to human development in Sub-Saharan African communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianni Gilioli

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a framework for the development of socio-eco- logical systems towards enhanced sustainability. Emphasis is given to the dynamic properties of complex, adaptive social-ecological systems, their structure and to the fundamental role of agriculture. The tangible components that meet the needs of specific projects executed in Kenya and Ethiopia encompass project objectives, innovation, facilitation, continuous recording and analyses of monitoring data, that allow adaptive management and system navigation. Two case studies deal with system navigation through the mitigation of key constraints; they aim to improve human health thanks to anopheline malaria vectors control in Nyabondo (Kenya, and to improve cattle health through tsetse control and antitrypanosomal drug administration to cattle in Luke (Ethiopia. The second case deals with a socio-ecological navigation system to enhance sustainability, establishing a periurban diversified enterprise in Addis Ababa (Ethiopia and developing a rural sustainable social-ecological system in Luke (Ethiopia. The project procedures are briefly described here and their outcomes are analysed in relation to the stated objectives. The methodology for human and cattle disease vector control were easier to implement than the navigation of social-ecological systems towards sustainability enhancement. The achievements considerably differed between key constraints removal and sustainability enhancement projects. Some recommendations are made to rationalise human and cattle health improvement efforts and to smoothen the road towards enhanced sustainability: i technology system implementation should be carried out through an innovation system; ii transparent monitoring information should be continuously acquired and evaluated for assessing the state of the system in relation to stated objectives for (a improving the insight into the systems behaviour and (b rationalizing decision support; iii the

  3. Ecological and human health risks arising from exposure to metals in urban soils under different land use in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwegbue, Chukwujindu M A; Martincigh, Bice S

    2018-05-01

    The concentrations of eight metals (Cd, Pb, Cr, Ni, Cu, Mn, Zn and Fe) were measured in soils under different land use in an urban environment of the Niger Delta in Nigeria. The aim was to provide information on the potential ecological and human health risks associated with human exposure to metals in these soils. The potential ecological risk due to metals in soils of these land use types falls in the range of low to moderate ecological risk with a significant contribution from Cd. The severity of the individual metals to ecological risk in these land use types followed the order Cd > Pb > Zn > Cu > Ni > Cr > Mn. The non-carcinogenic risk, expressed in terms of the hazard index (HI), arising through exposure to metals through oral, dermal and inhalation pathways, was greater than 1 for children in the majority of the land use types and less than 1 for adults for all land use types. This indicated that there are considerable non-cancer risks arising from childhood exposure to metals in soils of these land use types. The cancer risk values were within acceptable threshold values indicating a negligible cancer risk for both children and adults exposed to metals in these urban soils.

  4. Health consequences of Chernobyl disaster in Europe in general and in Norway in particular. Literature review and ecological study.

    OpenAIRE

    Fedorov, Roman

    2012-01-01

    Health costs of Chernobyl disaster are still not clear.Main goal of this paper therefore is to investigate health consequences of Chernobyl disaster in Europe (outside the former Soviet Union) as a whole and in Norway in particular as one of the second high contaminated areas after those in the immediate vicinity of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. To do that literature review and ecological study with the Incidence rate ratios analysis are conducted. As a result hypothesis about increased...

  5. Human factors engineering plan for reviewing nuclear plant modernization programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hara, John; Higgins, James

    2004-12-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate reviews the human factors engineering (HFE) aspects of nuclear power plants (NPPs) involved in the modernization of the plant systems and control rooms. The purpose of a HFE review is to help ensure personnel and public safety by verifying that accepted HFE practices and guidelines are incorporated into the program and nuclear power plant design. Such a review helps to ensure the HFE aspects of an NPP are developed, designed, and evaluated on the basis of a structured top-down system analysis using accepted HFE principles. The review addresses eleven HFE elements: HFE Program Management, Operating Experience Review, Functional Requirements Analysis and Allocation, Task Analysis, Staffing, Human Reliability Analysis, Human-System Interface Design, Procedure Development, Training Program Development, Human Factors Verification and Validation, and Design Implementation

  6. Human factors engineering plan for reviewing nuclear plant modernization programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Hara, John; Higgins, James [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)

    2004-12-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate reviews the human factors engineering (HFE) aspects of nuclear power plants (NPPs) involved in the modernization of the plant systems and control rooms. The purpose of a HFE review is to help ensure personnel and public safety by verifying that accepted HFE practices and guidelines are incorporated into the program and nuclear power plant design. Such a review helps to ensure the HFE aspects of an NPP are developed, designed, and evaluated on the basis of a structured top-down system analysis using accepted HFE principles. The review addresses eleven HFE elements: HFE Program Management, Operating Experience Review, Functional Requirements Analysis and Allocation, Task Analysis, Staffing, Human Reliability Analysis, Human-System Interface Design, Procedure Development, Training Program Development, Human Factors Verification and Validation, and Design Implementation.

  7. Ecological Momentary Assessment Methodology in Chronic Pain Research: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Marcella; Junghaenel, Doerte U; Ono, Masakatsu; Stone, Arthur A; Schneider, Stefan

    2018-01-31

    Self-reported pain intensity assessments are central to chronic pain research. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) methodologies are uniquely positioned to collect these data, and are indeed being used in the field. However, EMA protocols are complex, and many decisions are necessary in the design of EMA research studies. A systematic literature review identified 105 articles drawing from 62 quantitative EMA research projects examining pain intensity in adult chronic pain patients. Study characteristics were tabulated to summarize and describe the use of EMA, with an emphasis placed on various dimensions of decision-making involved in executing EMA methodologies. Most identified studies considered within-person relationships between pain and other variables, and a few examined interventions on chronic pain. There was a trend toward the use of smartphones as EMA data collection devices more recently, and completion rates were not reported in nearly one third of studies. Pain intensity items varied widely with respect to number of scale points, anchor labels, and length of reporting period; most used numeric rating scales. Recommendations are provided for reporting to improve reproducibility, comparability, and interpretation of results, and for opportunities to clarify the importance of design decisions. Studies that use EMA methodologies to assess pain intensity are heterogeneous. Aspects of protocol design, including data input modality and pain item construction, have the potential to influence the data collected. Thorough reporting on design features and completion rates therefore facilitates reproducibility, comparability, and interpretation of study results. Copyright © 2018 The American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The biology and ecology of the jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas (Cephalopoda in Chilean waters: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian M Ibáñez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. The jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas is the most abundant cephalopod species in the southeastern Pacific Ocean, which supports the biggest cephalopod fishery in the world. Due to its growing economic importance, the population growth and distributional expansion of this squid is being increasingly studied. Nevertheless, some basic features of the biology of D. gigas are still unknown or have been poorly investigated. In this review we summarize the known information regarding the biology and ecology of this species in the southeastern Pacific Ocean; we focus on the Chilean region in order to propose hypotheses and research lines for a better understanding the life history of this organism. Available data on the size structure, reproduction and genetics of D. gigas allows us to propose hypotheses related to the squid's life history traits. Based on the current literature and publications of colleagues, we propose two hypotheses regarding the effect of spatial variation on the life history of D. gigas. Hypothesis 1: Squids mature at large sizes and spawn in oceanic waters with warm temperatures where paralarvae and juveniles develop. Immature squids migrate near shore to feed, grow and mature, and then return to the offshore sites to spawn. Hypothesis 2: Alternatively, juvenile D. gigas in the oceanic zone do not migrate to coastal waters and mature at small sizes compared to individuals living near the coast that mature at larger size and migrate to oceanic waters to spawn. We provide background information about the feeding behavior and parasitism of this species, suggesting that D. gigas is an important trophic link in the southeastern Pacific marine ecosystem. However, more studies on the feeding habits, reproduction and parasite load are needed not only to test hypotheses proposed in this study, but also to advance the overall knowledge of this species.

  9. Effectiveness of mobile technologies delivering Ecological Momentary Interventions for stress and anxiety: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loo Gee, Brendan; Griffiths, Kathleen M; Gulliver, Amelia

    2016-01-01

    Mobile technologies may be suitable for delivering Ecological Momentary Interventions (EMI) to treat anxiety in real-time. This review aims to synthesize evidence on the effectiveness of EMI for treating anxiety conditions. Four databases and the reference lists of previous studies were searched. A total of 1949 abstracts were double screened for inclusion. Sufficient studies were available to undertake a quantitative meta-analysis on EMIs on generalized anxiety symptoms. The 15 randomized trials and randomized controlled trials examined anxiety (n = 7), stress (n = 3), anxiety and stress (n = 2), panic disorder (n = 2), and social phobia (n = 1). Eight EMIs comprised self-monitoring integrated with therapy modules, seven comprised multimedia content, and three comprised self-monitoring only. The quality of studies presented high risk of biases. Meta-analysis (n = 7) demonstrated that EMIs reduced generalized anxiety compared to control and/or comparison groups (Effect Size (ES) = 0.32, 95% CI, 0.12-0.53). Most EMIs targeting stress were reported effective relative to control as were the two EMIs targeting panic disorders. The EMI targeting social phobia was not effective. EMIs have potential in treating both anxiety and stress. However, few high-quality trials have been conducted for specific anxiety disorders. Further trials are needed to assess the value of EMI technologies for anxiety in enhancing existing treatments. This study found a small significant effect of EMI studies on reducing generalized anxiety. Studies on stress demonstrated EMI was effective compared to control, with the small number of studies on panic and social phobia demonstrating mixed results. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Beyond classic ecological assessment: The use of functional indices to indicate fish assemblages sensitivity to human disturbance in estuaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichert, Nils; Lepage, Mario; Lobry, Jérémy

    2018-05-22

    Assessing ecological health of aquatic ecosystems is crucial in the current context of biodiversity loss to guide and prioritize management actions. Although several fish-based indices were developed to assess the ecological status of estuarine ecosystems, they do not provide guidance on the causal responses of communities to disturbances. The functional trait-based approach provides an understanding of how human disturbance affects the composition of biological and ecological traits in assemblages, as well as their consequences for ecosystem functioning. Here, we evaluate the responses of fish assemblages to human disturbance in 30 French estuaries using several taxonomic and functional indices (e.g. diversity, evenness or redundancy). We tested whether these indices can provide additional information on the human impacts and health of assemblages that are not reflected by the ecological indicator (fish-based index ELFI). Results indicated that high values of local human disturbances were associated to a decrease in fish abundance, decrease in species richness and reduced functional redundancy, whereas taxonomic and functional evenness increased. In contrast, the functional richness remained stable suggesting that the functional traits of species removed by stressors were maintained by more tolerant species. Indeed, we found that the local disturbances mainly resulted in a decrease in the proportions of small benthic species feeding on macro-invertebrates, which were dominant in the studied estuaries. Some functional alterations were detected by the fish-based index, but the decline of functional redundancy was not reflected, highlighting a serious concern for management. Indeed, the abrupt collapse of functional redundancy in response to local disturbances can decrease the ability of assemblages to maintain certain species traits in the face of future environmental disturbance, including climate change. From a management perspective, the application of such

  11. A review of the ecology, ecophysiology and biodiversity of microalgae in Arctic soil crusts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pushkareva, E.; Johansen, J. R.; Elster, Josef

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 12 (2016), s. 2227-2240 ISSN 0722-4060 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Soil crust * Arctic * Cyanobacteria and eukaryotic microalgae Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.949, year: 2016

  12. Integrated ecological-economic fisheries models-Evaluation, review and challenges for implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielsen, J.R.; Thunberg, Eric; Holland, Daniel S.; Schmidt, Jorn O.; Fulton, Elizabeth A.; Bastardie, Francois; Punt, Andre E.; Allen, Icarus; Bartelings, Heleen; Bertignac, Michel; Groeneveld, Rolf A.; Hamon, Katell G.; Dijk, van Diana

    2018-01-01

    Marine ecosystems evolve under many interconnected and area-specific pressures. To fulfil society's intensifying and diversifying needs while ensuring ecologically sustainable development, more effective marine spatial planning and broader-scope management of marine resources is necessary.

  13. Standardization and integration of ecological and human risk assessments at Department of Energy national laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breckenridge, R.P.; Berry, D.

    1995-01-01

    In 1990, the directors of twelve national laboratories operated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) chartered a steering group to address DOE's concerns about the effectiveness of any regulations driving the cost of environmental restoration and waste management. The goal of this presentation is to inform and to seek collaboration on the challenge of standardizing ecological and human health risk assessment approaches and development of an approach to address the differences between environmental remediation and restoration activities at DOE's waste management sites across the country. Recent changes in risk related regulations and budget cuts have prompted significant changes in DOE's approach to conducting and standardizing risk-based approaches for waste management. The steering group was established in 1990 to organize a broad, long-term educational outreach and research program focused on better science and public understanding of the risks associated with hazardous agents (chemical, biological, radiological, and physical) in the environment and the workplace. This presentation discusses the group's goal to (1) act as one resource for providing the technical basis for health and environmental standards; (2) catalyze a national effort to improve public understanding of risk and the importance of cost benefit analysis in evaluating mitigation of risk; (3) catalyze improvements in understanding of health and environmental effects of hazardous agents; and (4) analyze with regulatory agencies, industry, and the public the potential for evolution of risk-based consensus standard into federal and state environmental and occupational/public health regulations. Major accomplishments will be presented along with the group's agenda for standardizing risk, environmental, and occupational/public health standards

  14. The ecological importance of mixed-severity fires: Nature's phoenix [Book Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolyn H. Sieg

    2016-01-01

    The stated goal of a recent book, The Ecological Importance of Mixed-Severity Fires: Nature’s Phoenix, edited by Dominick A. DellaSala and Chad T. Hansen, is to provide a global reference on the benefits of mixed- and high-severity fires. Note that the goal is not to provide an objective reference on the ecological aspects of mixed- and high-severity fires. Rather, the...

  15. A critical review of environmental impact statements in Sri Lanka with particular reference to ecological impact assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samarakoon, Miriya; Rowan, John S

    2008-03-01

    This article critically reviews environmental assessment (EA) practices in Sri Lanka, with a particular focus on ecology. An overview is provided of the domestic and international influences which have shaped the administrative process which is currently a two-tiered scheme. An Initial Environmental Examination (IEE) provides a preliminary screening tool, prior to the requirement for a full Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). A comprehensive survey of Sri Lankan national archives showed that 463 EAs were completed in the period 1981-2005, with the bulk of these in the more populated Western and North Western Provinces. Two-thirds were IEE surveys, while the remaining third advanced to full EIA. A representative sample of 130 EAs (both IEEs and full EIAs) spanning a broad range of project types, scales, and environmental settings was selected to evaluate the quality of the ecological investigations within the published environmental impact statements (EISs). These were assigned into five classes of "explanatory power", on the basis of their scientific content in relation to survey, analysis, and reporting of ecological interests. Within most EISs, the ecological impact assessment (EcIA) was restricted to the lowest two categories of ecological assessment, i.e., tokenistic presentation of reconnaissance-level species lists without further analysis of the development implications for individual organisms or communities. None of the assessments reviewed provided statistically rigorous analysis, which would be required if ecological impact studies are to include quantitative and testable predictions of impact, which could then be followed up by appropriate post-impact monitoring programs. Attention to key local issues such as biodiversity or ecosystem services, which also have strong social dimensions in the developing world, was also notably underrepresented. It was thus concluded that despite the existence of a sound legislative framework in Sri Lanka, the analysis

  16. Biodiversity, the Human Microbiome and Mental Health: Moving toward a New Clinical Ecology for the 21st Century?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan L. Prescott

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Advances in research concerning the brain-related influences of the microbiome have been paradigm shifting, although at an early stage, clinical research involving beneficial microbes lends credence to the notion that the microbiome may be an important target in supporting mental health (defined here along the continuum between quality of life and the criteria for specific disorders. Through metagenomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and systems biology, a new emphasis to personalized medicine is on the horizon. Humans can now be viewed as multispecies organisms operating within an ecological theatre; it is important that clinicians increasingly see their patients in this context. Historically marginalized ecological aspects of health are destined to become an important consideration in the new frontiers of practicing medicine with the microbiome in mind. Emerging evidence indicates that macrobiodiversity in the external environment can influence mental well-being. Local biodiversity may also drive differences in human-associated microbiota; microbial diversity as a product of external biodiversity may have far-reaching effects on immune function and mood. With a focus on the microbiome as it pertains to mental health, we define environmental “grey space” and emphasize a new frontier involving bio-eco-psychological medicine. Within this concept the ecological terrain can link dysbiotic lifestyles and biodiversity on the grand scale to the local human-associated microbial ecosystems that might otherwise seem far removed from one another.

  17. A review of fire effects on vegetation and soils in the Great Basin region: response and ecological site characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Richard F.; Chambers, Jeanne C.; Pyke, David A.; Pierson, Fred B.; Williams, C. Jason

    2013-01-01

    This review synthesizes the state of knowledge on fire effects on vegetation and soils in semi-arid ecosystems in the Great Basin Region, including the central and northern Great Basin and Range, Columbia River Basin, and the Snake River Plain. We summarize available literature related to: (1) the effects of environmental gradients, ecological site, and vegetation characteristics on resilience to disturbance and resistance to invasive species; (2) the effects of fire on individual plant species and communities, biological soil crusts, seed banks, soil nutrients, and hydrology; and (3) the role of fire severity, fire versus fire surrogate treatments, and post-fire grazing in determining ecosystem response. From this, we identify knowledge gaps and present a framework for predicting plant successional trajectories following wild and prescribed fires and fire surrogate treatments. Possibly the three most important ecological site characteristics that influence a site’s resilience (ability of the ecological site to recover from disturbance) and resistance to invasive species are soil temperature/moisture regimes and the composition and structure of vegetation on the ecological site just prior to the disturbance event.

  18. The Importance of Ecology-Based Nature Education Project in Terms of Nature Integration and Understanding the Human-Ecosystem Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meydan, Ali

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this project is to define the importance of 12-day ecology-based education training upon integration with nature and understanding the human-ecosystem relationship. In accordance with this purpose, there has been collected some survey data interviewing with the participants of "Lake Beysehir National Park and Ecology-based Nature…

  19. Human Factors Engineering Review Model for advanced nuclear power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hara, J.; Higgins, J.; Goodman, C.; Galletti, G.: Eckenrode, R.

    1993-01-01

    One of the major issues to emerge from the initial design reviews under the certification process was that detailed human-systems interface (HSI) design information was not available for staff review. To address the lack of design detail issue. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is performing the design certification reviews based on a design process plan which describes the human factors engineering (HFE) program elements that are necessary and sufficient to develop an acceptable detailed design specification. Since the review of a design process is unprecedented in the nuclear industry. The criteria for review are not addressed by current regulations or guidance documents and. therefore, had to be developed. Thus, an HFE Program Review Model was developed. This paper will describe the model's rationale, scope, objectives, development, general characteristics. and application

  20. Human and Animal Pentastomiasis in Malaysia : Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahaa Mohamed Abdul Latif

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Pentastomiasis is a zoonotic parasitic disease induced by the larval stages of pentasomes. The disease has been reported in Africa, the Middle East and Southeast Asia and caused by the nymphs of the two genera:  Linguatula  and Armillifer and the two species L. serrata and A. armillatus regard for more than 90% of human cases. The definitive hosts of Armillifer spp. are snakes, lizards and other reptiles. The parasites live in the upper respiratory tracts and lay eggs that are passed out through respiratory secretions, saliva or faeces. Intermediate hosts are  humans, rodents and other mammals. Humans incidentally acquire the infestation by the consumption of uncooked infested snake meat or by drinking water contaminated with ova of the pentastomes. In the intestinal tract, the larvae hatch from the ova, penetrate the intestinal wall and migrate to organs in which the liver is the most common site. Human pentastomiasis was reported among aborigines in West and East Malaysia. Armillifer moniliformis was identified  in wild animals and carnivores with infection rate 1.8% and 20.7% respectively. The adults of pentostomes (A. moniliformis were recovered from two out of six snakes Python reticulates. Recently a case of human pentastomiasis was reported in Sabah, East Malaysia, caused by nymph of Armillifer moniliformis.

  1. The Social Ecological Model and Physical Activity Interventions for Hispanic Women With Type 2 Diabetes: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderlund, Patricia Davern

    2017-05-01

    Hispanic women are less physically active and have higher rates of type 2 diabetes (DM2) when compared with other population groups. This review uses the social ecological model as a framework to identify the individual and social environmental factors associated with successful physical activity (PA) interventions for Hispanic women with DM2. Research questions include (a) Which social ecological levels have been applied to PA interventions? (b) Which individual and social environmental intervention strategies are associated with successful PA outcomes? Database searches using CINAHL, PubMed, and Scopus for the years 2000 to 2015 identified 10 studies; with 6 using quasi-experimental study designs and 4 using randomized controlled designs. Inclusion criteria were Hispanic/Latina women with DM2, ≥70% women, PA interventions, measures of PA, and quantitative designs. Future research should focus on a combination of intervention levels, and DM2 programs should place a greater emphasis on PA intervention strategies.

  2. Assessment of ecological and human health risks of metals in urban road dust based on geochemical fractionation and potential bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayarathne, Ayomi; Egodawatta, Prasanna; Ayoko, Godwin A; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2018-09-01

    Metals are one of the primary pollutants in the urban environment that pose adverse ecological and human health impacts. Therefore, the accurate quantification of the risk posed by metals is essential for developing effective risk management strategies to safeguard the urban environment. This study assessed the ecological and human health risks of six metals, commonly present in road dust by improving the original risk indices based on their potential bioavailability characteristics. The bioavailability of metals was determined by considering their distribution between the different geochemical phases of exchangeable, reducible, oxidisable and residual. The results of the modified risk analysis indicated that the road dust poses a low ecological risk in most of the study sites. According to the present situation, the non-cancer risk of individual metals for both, children and adults followed the decreasing trend of Pb > Cu > Cr > Zn > Ni > Cd. This study also found that depending on the particle size ranges, the potential of multiple metals being able to cause non-cancer health risk was low at most study sites. In terms of cancer health risk, Cr present at most of the study sites was found to be within the cancer threshold limit, even though the Cr content and the bioavailable fractions were relatively low. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Enhancing the Resilience of Human-Environment Systems: a Social Ecological Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Stokols

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Resilience studies build on the notion that phenomena in the real world should be understood as dynamic social-ecological systems. However, the scholarly community may not be fully aware that social ecology, as a conceptual framework, has a long intellectual history, nor fully cognizant of its foundational theory. In this article, we trace the intellectual roots and core principles of social ecology and demonstrate how these principles enable a broader conceptualization of resilience than may be found in much of the literature. We then illustrate how the resulting notion of resilience as transactional process and multi-capital formation affords new perspectives on diverse phenomena such as global financial crises and adaptation to environmental stresses to communities and ecosystems. A social-ecological analysis of resilience enables the study of people-environment transactions across varying dimensions, time periods, and scales. Furthermore, in its openness to experiential knowledge and action research, the social ecology framework coheres well with participative-collaborative modes of inquiry, which traverse institutional, epistemological, and scale-related boundaries.

  4. Research on the NPP human factors engineering operating experience review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Xiangchen; Miao Hongxing; Ning Zhonghe

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses the importance of the human factors engineering (HFE) for the design of nuclear power plant (NPP), especially for the design of human-machine interface in the NPP. It also summarizes the scope and content of the NPP HFE. The function, scope, content and process of the NPP human factors engineering operating experience review (OER) are mainly focused on, and significantly discussed. Finally, it briefly introduces the situation of the studies on the OER in China. (authors)

  5. Book Reviews

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Mancusi-Materi

    2002-01-01

    Book reviews: Helmore, K. and N. Singh, Sustainable Livelihoods – Building on the Wealth of the poor (reviewed by Elena Mancusi-Materi); Scoones, I (ed.), Dinamics and Diversity: Soil fertility and farming livelihoods in africa (reviewed by Elena Mancusi-Materi); Uphoff, N. (ed.), Agroecological Innovations – Increasing Food Production with Pariciatory Development (reviewed by Elena Mancusi-Materi); Marten, G.G., Human Ecology, Basic Concepts for Sustianable Development (reviewed by Siobhán K...

  6. Living systematic reviews: 2. Combining human and machine effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, James; Noel-Storr, Anna; Marshall, Iain; Wallace, Byron; McDonald, Steven; Mavergames, Chris; Glasziou, Paul; Shemilt, Ian; Synnot, Anneliese; Turner, Tari; Elliott, Julian

    2017-11-01

    New approaches to evidence synthesis, which use human effort and machine automation in mutually reinforcing ways, can enhance the feasibility and sustainability of living systematic reviews. Human effort is a scarce and valuable resource, required when automation is impossible or undesirable, and includes contributions from online communities ("crowds") as well as more conventional contributions from review authors and information specialists. Automation can assist with some systematic review tasks, including searching, eligibility assessment, identification and retrieval of full-text reports, extraction of data, and risk of bias assessment. Workflows can be developed in which human effort and machine automation can each enable the other to operate in more effective and efficient ways, offering substantial enhancement to the productivity of systematic reviews. This paper describes and discusses the potential-and limitations-of new ways of undertaking specific tasks in living systematic reviews, identifying areas where these human/machine "technologies" are already in use, and where further research and development is needed. While the context is living systematic reviews, many of these enabling technologies apply equally to standard approaches to systematic reviewing. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Targeting the ecology within: The role of the gut-brain axis and human microbiota in drug addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skosnik, Patrick D; Cortes-Briones, Jose A

    2016-08-01

    Despite major advances in our understanding of the brain using traditional neuroscience, reliable and efficacious treatments for drug addiction have remained elusive. Hence, the time has come to utilize novel approaches, particularly those drawing upon contemporary advances in fields outside of established neuroscience and psychiatry. Put another way, the time has come for a paradigm shift in the addiction sciences. Apropos, a revolution in the area of human health is underway, which is occurring at the nexus between enteric microbiology and neuroscience. It has become increasingly clear that the human microbiota (the vast ecology of bacteria residing within the human organism), plays an important role in health and disease. This is not surprising, as it has been estimated that bacteria living in the human body (approximately 1kg of mass, roughly equivalent to that of the human brain) outnumber human cells 10 to 1. While advances in the understanding of the role of microbiota in other areas of human health have yielded intriguing results (e.g., Clostridium difficile, irritable bowel syndrome, autism, etc.), to date, no systematic programs of research have examined the role of microbiota in drug addiction. The current hypothesis, therefore, is that gut dysbiosis plays a key role in addictive disorders. In the context of this hypothesis, this paper provides a rationale for future research to target the "gut-brain axis" in addiction. A brief background of the gut-brain axis is provided, along with a series of hypothesis-driven ideas outlining potential treatments for addiction via manipulations of the "ecology within." Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Safety of human papillomavirus vaccines: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Stillo, Michela; Carrillo Santisteve, Paloma; Lopalco, Pier Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Between 2006 and 2009, two different human papillomavirus virus (HPV) vaccines were licensed for use: a quadrivalent (qHPVv) and a bivalent (bHPVv) vaccine. Since 2008, HPV vaccination programmes have been implemented in the majority of the industrialized countries. Since 2013, HPV vaccination has been part of the national programs of 66 countries including almost all countries in North America and Western Europe. Despite all the efforts made by individual countries, coverage ra...

  9. Human-Robot Interaction Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    electrical and electronics engineering, telecommunications and other technical fields. (IEEE, 2007) NTIS – National Technical Information Service NTIS...of a task is automated. However, performance recovery is much lower if automation fails and the human is excluded from the implementation of the task...Vincenzi, D.A. (2009). Effects of Systems Automation Management STartegies and Milti-mission Operator-to-vehicle Ratio on Operator Performance in

  10. Jack Human Modelling Tool: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    design and evaluation [8] and evolved into the Computerised Biomechanical Man Model (Combiman), shown in Figure 2. Combiman was developed at the...unrealistic arrangement of tetrahedra (Figure 7) to a highly realistic human model based on current anthropometric, anatomical and biomechanical data...has long legs and a short torso may find it difficult to adjust the seat and rudder pedals to achieve the required over the nose vision, reach to

  11. 75 FR 51838 - Public Review of Draft Coastal and Marine Ecological Classification Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-23

    ... Web site. DATES: Comments on the draft Coastal and Marine Ecological Classification Standard must be... marine and coastal environments of the United States. It was developed to provide a common language that... existing classification standards. The CMECS domain extends from the coastal tidal splash zone to the deep...

  12. Comparative crytpgam ecology: A review of bryophyte and lichen traits that drive biogeochemistry.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, J.H.C.; Lang, S.I.; Soudzilovskaia, N.A.; During, H.J.

    2007-01-01

    • Background: Recent decades have seen a major surge in the study of interspecific variation in functional traits in comparative plant ecology, as a tool to understanding and predicting ecosystem functions and their responses to environmental change. However, this research has been biased almost

  13. a critical review of some textbooks used for the teaching of ecology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TEACHING OF ECOLOGY IN STANDARD 8 BIOLOGY. Razena Wagiet and ... training; the time used for teaching the content, and the resources ... In most cases textbooks do not only prescribe ... activities, content, style of writing. format ... short ones. In the ..... textbooks. Having stated this, it has to be remembered that the.

  14. Experience sampling and ecological momentary assessment studies in psychopharmacology : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Fionneke M.; Schoevers, Robert A.; Rot, Marije Aan Het

    2015-01-01

    Experience sampling methods (ESM) and ecological momentary assessment (EMA) offer insight into daily life experiences, including symptoms of mental disorders. The application of ESM/EMA in psychopharmacology can be a valuable addition to more traditional measures such as retrospective self-report

  15. Lindenmayer DB and Likens GE (eds): Effective ecological monitoring [book review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles T. Scott

    2011-01-01

    Long-term ecological monitoring is becoming increasingly important but more challenging to fund. Lindenmayer and Likens describe the common characteristics of successful monitoring programs and of those that fail. They draw upon their monitoring experiences together, independently, and from a variety of other long-term monitoring programs around the world. They then...

  16. Ecology of soil arthropod fauna in tropical forests: A review of studies from Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grizelle Gonzalez; María F. Barberena

    2017-01-01

    The majority of ecological studies in the tropics deal with organisms participating in grazing food webs, while few deal with the diversity of invertebrates in the soil, leaf litter or dead wood that participate in detrital food webs. For tropical forests, the status of information on soil animal diversity is limited, especially when compared to other ecosystems such...

  17. Living with fire: Fire ecology and policy for the twenty-first century [book review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carol Miller

    2010-01-01

    This is a well-written polemic about the failure of fire policy and management in the United States. The book contains enough ecology and history for nonspecialists to understand the complexities of the policy and management dilemmas that we face today. The authors provide a particularly good treatment of the diversity of roles that fire plays in different ecosystems,...

  18. Ecology of Anopheles darlingi Root with respect to vector importance: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiwat, H.; Bretas, G.

    2011-01-01

    Anopheles darlingi is one of the most important malaria vectors in the Americas. In this era of new tools and strategies for malaria and vector control it is essential to have knowledge on the ecology and behavior of vectors in order to evaluate appropriateness and impact of control measures. This

  19. Philosophy of ecology

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Bryson; Peacock, Kent A

    2011-01-01

    The most pressing problems facing humanity today - over-population, energy shortages, climate change, soil erosion, species extinctions, the risk of epidemic disease, the threat of warfare that could destroy all the hard-won gains of civilization, and even the recent fibrillations of the stock market - are all ecological or have a large ecological component. in this volume philosophers turn their attention to understanding the science of ecology and its huge implications for the human project. To get the application of ecology to policy or other practical concerns right, humanity needs a clear and disinterested philosophical understanding of ecology which can help identify the practical lessons of science. Conversely, the urgent practical demands humanity faces today cannot help but direct scientific and philosophical investigation toward the basis of those ecological challenges that threaten human survival. This book will help to fuel the timely renaissance of interest in philosophy of ecology that is now oc...

  20. Climate change and ecological public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Benny

    2015-02-17

    Climate change has been identified as a serious threat to human health, associated with the sustainability of current practices and lifestyles. Nurses should expand their health promotion role to address current and emerging threats to health from climate change and to address ecological public health. This article briefly outlines climate change and the concept of ecological public health, and discusses a 2012 review of the role of the nurse in health promotion.

  1. Human-system interface design review guideline -- Reviewer`s checklist: Final report. Revision 1, Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    NUREG-0700, Revision 1, provides human factors engineering (HFE) guidance to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff for its: (1) review of the human system interface (HSI) design submittals prepared by licensees or applications for a license or design certification of commercial nuclear power plants, and (2) performance of HSI reviews that could be undertaken as part of an inspection or other type of regulatory review involving HSI design or incidents involving human performance. The guidance consists of a review process and HFE guidelines. The document describes those aspects of the HSI design review process that are important to the identification and resolution of human engineering discrepancies that could adversely affect plant safety. Guidance is provided that could be used by the staff to review an applicant`s HSI design review process or to guide the development of an HSI design review plan, e.g., as part of an inspection activity. The document also provides detailed HFE guidelines for the assessment of HSI design implementations. NUREG-0700, Revision 1, consists of three stand-alone volumes. Volume 2 is a complete set of the guidelines contained in Volume 1, Part 2, but in a checklist format that can be used by reviewers to assemble sets of individual guidelines for use in specific design reviews. The checklist provides space for reviewers to enter guidelines evaluations and comments.

  2. Symbioses: a key driver of insect physiological processes, ecological interactions, evolutionary diversification, and impacts on humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.D. Klepzig; A.S. Adams; J. Handelsman; K.F. Raffa

    2009-01-01

    Symbiosis is receiving increased attention among all aspects of biology because of the unifying themes it helps construct across ecological,evolutionary, developmental, semiochemical, and pest management theory. Insects show a vast array of symbiotic relationships with a wide diversity of microorganisms. These relationships may confer a variety of benefits to the host...

  3. Evolution of a Human Ecology Curriculum from Home Economics: A Proposal for High Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunneborg, Patricia W.

    Proposed is the development of an ecology curriculum at the secondary school level by home economics instructors in conjunction with teachers in biology, health, social science, etc. To combat the decline in enrollment in home economics and the complaint of irrelevance of traditional cooking and sewing courses, home economics teachers are urged to…

  4. Review of the systematics, biology and ecology of lice from pinnipeds and river otters (Insecta: Phthiraptera: Anoplura: Echinophthiriidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soledad Leonardi, Maria; Palma, Ricardo Luis

    2013-01-01

    We present a literature review of the sucking louse family Echinophthiriidae, its five genera and twelve species parasitic on pinnipeds (fur seals, sea lions, walruses, true seals) and the North American river otter. We give detailed synonymies and published records for all taxonomic hierarchies, as well as hosts, type localities and repositories of type material; we highlight significant references and include comments on the current taxonomic status of the species. We provide a summary of present knowledge of the biology and ecology for eight species. Also, we give a host-louse list, and a bibliography to the family as complete as possible.

  5. Human rights, politics, and reviews of research ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyrer, Chris; Kass, Nancy E

    2002-07-20

    Although the human rights movement and the sphere of research ethics have overlapping principles and goals, there has been little attempt to incorporate external political and human rights contexts into research ethics codes or ethics reviews. Every element of a research ethics review--the balance of risks and benefits, the assurance of rights for individual participants, and the fair selection of research populations--can be affected by the political and human rights background in which a study is done. Research that at first seems to be low in risk may become high in risk if implemented in a country where the government might breach the confidentiality of study results or where results might be used to deport a refugee group. Researchers should determine whether research could or should be done by consulting human rights organisations and, when possible, a trusted colleague, to learn the background political context and human rights conditions of the settings in which they propose to do research.

  6. A Review on Video-Based Human Activity Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shian-Ru Ke

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This review article surveys extensively the current progresses made toward video-based human activity recognition. Three aspects for human activity recognition are addressed including core technology, human activity recognition systems, and applications from low-level to high-level representation. In the core technology, three critical processing stages are thoroughly discussed mainly: human object segmentation, feature extraction and representation, activity detection and classification algorithms. In the human activity recognition systems, three main types are mentioned, including single person activity recognition, multiple people interaction and crowd behavior, and abnormal activity recognition. Finally the domains of applications are discussed in detail, specifically, on surveillance environments, entertainment environments and healthcare systems. Our survey, which aims to provide a comprehensive state-of-the-art review of the field, also addresses several challenges associated with these systems and applications. Moreover, in this survey, various applications are discussed in great detail, specifically, a survey on the applications in healthcare monitoring systems.

  7. Does human perception of wetland aesthetics and healthiness relate to ecological functioning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottet, Marylise; Piégay, Hervé; Bornette, Gudrun

    2013-10-15

    Wetland management usually aims at preserving or restoring desirable ecological characteristics or functions. It is now well-recognized that some social criteria should also be included. Involving lay-people in wetland preservation or restoration projects may mean broadening project objectives to fit various and potentially competing requirements that relate to ecology, aesthetics, recreation, etc. In addition, perceived value depends both upon expertise and objectives, both of which vary from one stakeholder population to another. Perceived value and ecological functioning have to be reconciled in order to make a project successful. Understanding the perceptions of lay-people as well as their opinions about ecological value is a critical part of the development of sustainable management plans. Characterizing the environment in a way that adequately describes ecological function while also being consistent with lay perception may help reach such objectives. This goal has been addressed in a case study relating to wetlands of the Ain River (France). A photo-questionnaire presenting a sample of photographs of riverine wetlands distributed along the Ain River was submitted to 403 lay-people and self-identified experts. Two objectives were defined: (1) to identify the different parameters, whether visual or ecological, influencing the perception regarding the value of these ecosystems; (2) to compare the perceptions of self-identified experts and lay-people. Four criteria appear to strongly influence peoples' perceptions of ecological and aesthetical values: water transparency and colour, the presence and appearance of aquatic vegetation, the presence of sediments, and finally, trophic status. In our study, we observed only a few differences in perception. The differences primarily related to the value assigned to oligotrophic wetlands but even here, the differences between lay and expert populations were minimal. These results support the idea that it is possible to

  8. Ecological concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This volume contains three critical contributions on the application of modern technology from the ethical point of view. The peaceful use of nuclear power is rejected as a technical error, which is overwhelming humanity. Ethical bases of a preventive technological policy and ecological aims are developed for the 21st century, in economy, technology, politics, and consciousness. (HSCH) [de

  9. Review of EPRI Nuclear Human Factors Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanes, L.F.; O'Brien, J.F.

    1996-01-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Human Factors Program, which is part of the EPRI Nuclear Power Group, was established in 1975. Over the years, the Program has changed emphasis based on the shifting priorities and needs of the commercial nuclear power industry. The Program has produced many important products that provide significant safety and economic benefits for EPRI member utilities. This presentation will provide a brief history of the Program and products. Current projects and products that have been released recently will be mentioned

  10. Raisins in human health: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Restani Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, the scientific research in the field of non-alcoholic grape products has increased significantly. Raisins are often evaluated negatively from the nutritional point of view, mainly for their high sugar content. On the other hand, some in vitroand in vivostudies have suggested that raisins could have healthy effects due to their positive phytochemical profile. The aim of this work was the collection of scientific studies performed in humans to assess critically the health-promoting effects of raisins, as a part of the normal/Mediterranean diet. In most cases, the beneficial effects of raisins have been assessed in intervention studies focused on cardiovascular area, diabetes and oral health, where a decrease in postprandial glycemia and insulinemia both in diabetic and healthy subjects has been observed. The positive effects were generally evident after a short-term consumption of about 70 g/die of raisins in comparison to a similar quantity of snacks or glucose solution. Surprisingly, some positive findings were shown in oral health. On these bases several findings support the suitability of raisins as a source of healthy compounds for human diet, but limits in the data published till now clearly support the need of new specifically designed trials.

  11. [Applied ecology: retrospect and prospect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xingyuan; Zeng, Dehui

    2004-10-01

    Applied ecology is evolved into a principal part of modern ecology that rapidly develops. The major stimulus for the development of applied ecology roots in seeking the solutions for the problems of human populations, resources and environments. Through four decades, the science of applied ecology has been becoming a huge group of disciplines. The future for the applied ecology should concern more with human-influenced and managed ecosystems, and acknowledge humans as the components of ecosystems. Nowadays and in future, the top-priorities in applied ecology should include following fields: sustainable ecosystems and biosphere, ecosystem services and ecological design, ecological assessment of genetically modified organisms, ecology of biological invasions, epidemical ecology, ecological forecasting, ecological process and its control. The authors believe that the comprehensive and active research hotspots coupled some new traits would occur around these fields in foreseeable future.

  12. Recombinant human erythropoietin in sports: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Maia de Almeida Bento

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Erythropoietin is an endogenous hormone of glicoproteic nature secreted by the kidneys and is the main regulator of the erythropoiesis. An alteration in its production generates a disturbance in the plasmatic concentration giving rise to several types of pathologies related to the hematopoietic system. The recombinant forms of erythropoietin have indiscriminately been used by athletes, mainly in endurance sports, by increasing the erythrocytes concentration, generating a better delivery of oxygen to the muscle tissue. The administration of recombinant erythropoietin was prohibited by the International Olympic Committee and its use considered as doping. This review has the intention to describe the physical, biological and pharmacokinetic properties of the endogenous erythropoietin, as well as its recombinant form, describing also its use in sports and the process of searching methodologies for its detection in doping control.

  13. A Review on Human Respiratory Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafarian, Pardis; Jamaati, Hamidreza; Hashemian, Seyed Mohammadreza

    2016-01-01

    Input impedance of the respiratory system is measured by forced oscillation technique (FOT). Multiple prior studies have attempted to match the electromechanical models of the respiratory system to impedance data. Since the mechanical behavior of airways and the respiratory system as a whole are similar to an electrical circuit in a combination of series and parallel formats some theories were introduced according to this issue. It should be noted that, the number of elements used in these models might be less than those required due to the complexity of the pulmonary-chest wall anatomy. Various respiratory models have been proposed based on this idea in order to demonstrate and assess the different parts of respiratory system related to children and adults data. With regard to our knowledge, some of famous respiratory models in related to obstructive, restrictive diseases and also Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) are reviewed in this article.

  14. Ecological and human health risks from metal(loid)s in peri-urban soil in Nanjing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhuhong; Hu, Xin

    2014-06-01

    In order to investigate the ecological and human health risks of metal(loid)s (Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, Cd, Mn, Cr, and As) in peri-urban soils, 43 surface soil samples were collected from the peri-urban area around Nanjing, a megacity in China. The average contents were 1.19, 67.8, 37.6, 105, 167, 44.6, 722, and 50.8 mg kg(-1) for Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, Zn, Cu, Mn, and As, respectively. A significant positive correlation was found between Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Mn, and As (p urban soil samples. Potential ecological risk indices show that the metal(loid)s in the soil could result in higher ecological risks. Cd is the main contributor to the risk, followed by As. The levels of Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Mn, and As in stomach and intestinal phases show a positive linear correlation with their total contents. Mn, Zn, Ni, Cd, and Pb in stomach phase showed higher bioaccessibility, while in intestinal phase, Cu, Cr, and As had the higher bioaccessibility. The carcinogenic risk in children and adults posed by As, Pb, and Cr via ingestion was deemed acceptable. The non-carcinogenic risks posed by these metal(loid)s via ingestion to children are higher than to adults and mainly result from As.

  15. Interactions between global processes and local health problems. A human ecology approach to health among indigenous groups in the Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maj-Lis Follér

    Full Text Available This article deals with methodological issues and how to link global processes - social and ecological - with environmental changes and human health in local communities. The discussion concerns how interdisciplinary approaches can help us find tools to develop new knowledge. Scientific knowledge and local knowledge are not seen as opposite epistemological forms, but as socially and culturally constructed. Power and social legitimacy have to be included when analyzing how to deal with the interaction between global processes and local environmental change and the health/disease interface.

  16. Findings Brief External Review of the Ecosystem Approaches to ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    External Review of the Ecosystem Approaches to Human. Health Program ... Improved understanding of social, political, economic, and ecological interactions and .... global learning, communication among partners and others stakeholders.

  17. Ecological Momentary Assessment in Behavioral Research: Addressing Technological and Human Participant Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Lora E; Shiffman, Saul; Music, Edvin; Styn, Mindi A; Kriska, Andrea; Smailagic, Asim; Siewiorek, Daniel; Ewing, Linda J; Chasens, Eileen; French, Brian; Mancino, Juliet; Mendez, Dara; Strollo, Patrick; Rathbun, Stephen L

    2017-03-15

    Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) assesses individuals' current experiences, behaviors, and moods as they occur in real time and in their natural environment. EMA studies, particularly those of longer duration, are complex and require an infrastructure to support the data flow and monitoring of EMA completion. Our objective is to provide a practical guide to developing and implementing an EMA study, with a focus on the methods and logistics of conducting such a study. The EMPOWER study was a 12-month study that used EMA to examine the triggers of lapses and relapse following intentional weight loss. We report on several studies that informed the implementation of the EMPOWER study: (1) a series of pilot studies, (2) the EMPOWER study's infrastructure, (3) training of study participants in use of smartphones and the EMA protocol and, (4) strategies used to enhance adherence to completing EMA surveys. The study enrolled 151 adults and had 87.4% (132/151) retention rate at 12 months. Our learning experiences in the development of the infrastructure to support EMA assessments for the 12-month study spanned several topic areas. Included were the optimal frequency of EMA prompts to maximize data collection without overburdening participants; the timing and scheduling of EMA prompts; technological lessons to support a longitudinal study, such as proper communication between the Android smartphone, the Web server, and the database server; and use of a phone that provided access to the system's functionality for EMA data collection to avoid loss of data and minimize the impact of loss of network connectivity. These were especially important in a 1-year study with participants who might travel. It also protected the data collection from any server-side failure. Regular monitoring of participants' response to EMA prompts was critical, so we built in incentives to enhance completion of EMA surveys. During the first 6 months of the 12-month study interval, adherence to

  18. Development of guidelines to review advanced human-system interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hara, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Advanced control rooms (ACRs) will utilize advanced human-system interface (HSI) technologies that may have significant implications for plant safety in that they will affect the operator's overall role in the system, the method of information presentation, and the ways in which operators interact with the system. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews the HSI aspects of control rooms to ensure that they are designed to good human factors engineering principles and that operator performance and reliability are appropriately supported to protect public health and safety. The principal guidance available to the NRC, however, was developed more than 10 yr ago, considerably prior to these technological changes. Accordingly, the human factors guidance needs to be updated to serve as the basis for NRC review of these advanced designs. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the development, evaluation, and current status of the Advanced HSI Design Review Guideline

  19. Development of guidelines to review advanced human-system interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hara, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Advanced control rooms (ACRS) will utilize advanced human-system interface (HSI) technologies that may have significant implications for plant safety in that they will affect the operators overall role in the system, the method of information presentation, and the ways in which operators interact with the system. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews the HSI aspects of control rooms to ensure that they are designed to good human factors engineering principles and that operator performance and reliability are appropriately supported in order to protect public health and safety. The principal guidance available to the NRC, however, was developed more than ten years ago, well prior to these technological changes. Accordingly, the human factors guidance needs to be updated to serve as the basis for NRC review of these advanced designs. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the development, evaluation, and current status of the Advanced HSI Design Review Guideline, hereafter referred to as the ''Guideline.''

  20. Influence of technical maintenance measures on ecological status of agricultural lowland rivers - Systematic review and implications for river management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bączyk, Anna; Wagner, Maciej; Okruszko, Tomasz; Grygoruk, Mateusz

    2018-06-15

    Intensification of agriculture and ongoing urban sprawl exacerbate pressures on rivers. Small rivers in agricultural landscapes are especially exposed to excessive technical actions implemented in order to allow for harvesting river water for irrigation, draining agricultural water and receiving sewage. Regular dredging and macrophyte removal strongly interfere with the global need for preserving river biodiversity that allows agricultural lowland rivers to remain refuges for a variety of species, and-accordingly-to keep water bodies resilient for the benefit of society. In order to provide a comprehensive look at the influence of agricultural lowland river management on the ecological status of these water bodies, we conducted a literature review and a meta-analysis. For the structured literature review we selected 203 papers reflecting on the response of aquatic ecosystems to dredging and macrophyte management actions. The database of scientific contributions developed for our study consists of papers written by the authors from 33 countries (first authorship) addressing dredging, macrophyte removal, status of fish and macroinvertebrates as well as the general ecological status of lowland agricultural rivers. We revealed that 96% of the analyzed papers indicated unilateral, negative responses of aquatic ecosystems, particularly macroinvertebrates, ichthyofauna and macrophyte composition, to maintenance measures. We revealed that studies conducted in the European Union on the ecological status of rivers appeared to significantly increase in quantity after the implementation of the Water Framework Directive. Finally, we concluded that day-to-day management of lowland agricultural rivers requires revision in terms of compliance with environmental conservation requirements and the recurrent implementation of technical measures for river maintenance. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Terrestrial Soundscapes: Status of Ecological Research in Natural and Human-Dominated Landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pijanowski, Bryan Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Soundscape ecological research in terrestrial systems is relatively new. In this paper, I present a brief summary of the origins of this research area, describe research questions related to several research thrusts that are ongoing, summarize several soundscape projects that exist and how these relate to the research thrusts, and briefly describe the work of a global network of scientists, musicians, and engineers that are attempting to move this new field forward.

  2. Humans and Seagrasses in East Africa : A social-ecological systems approach

    OpenAIRE

    de la Torre-Castro, Maricela

    2006-01-01

    The present study is one of the first attempts to analyze the societal importance of seagrasses (marine flowering plants) from a Natural Resource Management perspective, using a social-ecological systems (SES) approach. The interdisciplinary study takes place in East Africa (Western Indian Ocean, WIO) and includes in-depth studies in Chwaka Bay, Zanzibar, Tanzania. Natural and social sciences methods were used. The results are presented in six articles, showing that seagrass ecosystems are ri...

  3. Towards More Effective Water Quality Governance: A Review of Social-Economic, Legal and Ecological Perspectives and Their Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Wuijts

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, social-economic, legal and ecological perspectives on effectiveness of water quality governance and their interactions have been studied. Worldwide, authorities are facing the challenge of restoring and preserving aquatic ecosystems in accordance with the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDG 6. Over the last few decades, governance approaches have often been used to realise these ambitions. To date, scholars have identified that it is difficult to relate governance approaches to water quality improvement and have offered several different explanations for this. Combined with a targeted conceptualisation of the perspectives and their interactions, the systematic literature review demonstrates the gap that exists in the current understanding of these interactions and what their effects are on water quality improvement, especially in regard to the identification of ecological issues and their boundary conditions for the legal framework and the development of measures and follow-up. The review also reveals that the scientific debate is focused on the planning rather than implementation phase. A step forward can be made by supplementing existing analytical frameworks by the interactions between the different perspectives, especially those related to problem definition and the development and realisation of measures.

  4. Natural products mediating ecological interactions in Antarctic benthic communities: a mini-review of the known molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez-Pons, L; Avila, C

    2015-07-01

    Out of the many bioactive compounds described from the oceans, only a small fraction have been studied for their ecological significance. Similarly, most chemically mediated interactions are not well understood, because the molecules involved remain unrevealed. In Antarctica, this gap in knowledge is even more acute in comparison to tropical or temperate regions, even though polar organisms are also prolific producers of chemical defenses, and pharmacologically relevant products are being reported from the Southern Ocean. The extreme and unique marine environments surrounding Antarctica along with the numerous unusual interactions taking place in benthic communities are expected to select for novel functional secondary metabolites. There is an urgent need to comprehend the evolutionary role of marine derived substances in general, and particularly at the Poles, since molecules of keystone significance are vital in species survival, and therefore, in structuring the communities. Here we provide a mini-review on the identified marine natural products proven to have an ecological function in Antarctic ecosystems. This report recapitulates some of the bibliography from original Antarctic reviews, and updates the new literature in the field from 2009 to the present.

  5. Ecological and human impact assessment in the legacy enhanced and naturally occurring radiation areas - human and ecological impact assessment in the legacy enhanced and naturally occurring radiation areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mrdakovic Popic, Jelena [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, P.O. Box 55, N-1332 Oesteraas (Norway); Salbu, Brit; Skipperud, Lindis [Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Centre for Environmental radioactivity CERAD, P.O. Box 5003, 1430 Aas (Norway)

    2014-07-01

    The Fen Complex in Norway is an area well-known with its specific magmatic bedrock rich in thorium (Th), iron (Fe), niobium (Nb) and rare earth elements (REE). During several past centuries, intensive mining was conducted at sites in the area, giving rise to enhanced radioactivity levels. Previous human health studies demonstrated exposure doses among the highest in Europe. In the current work, contamination status with respect to radionuclides ({sup 232}Th, uranium ({sup 238}U)) and trace elements (arsenic (As), chromium (Cr) and lead (Pb)) and possible impact on humans and biota were investigated at legacy NORM and undisturbed surrounding NOR rich sites in the Fen Complex area. Significantly heterogeneous radionuclides ({sup 232}Th, {sup 238}U, and daughters) distribution was found in soil at both legacy NORM and undisturbed NOR rich sites. Thorium activity concentration levels exceeded screening levels for radioactive waste material given by Norwegian Pollution Control Act. Based on sequential extraction results, mobility of {sup 232}Th and trace elements were low, although higher at legacy NORM than at undisturbed NOR rich sites. Uranium was present at considerable levels (up to 50 %) in pH and redox sensitive soil fraction, as well as bound to soil organic compounds. However, no further transport towards biggest water source Norsjoe Lake was observed, as concentration levels of all investigated elements in water samples were extremely low. Long-term surveys of outdoor terrestrial gamma dose rates, thoron ({sup 220}Rn) and radon ({sup 222}Rn) concentrations in the air demonstrated elevated values (up to 9.2 μGy/h, 5000 Bq/m{sup 3} and 200 Bq/m{sup 3}, respectively) with significant seasonal variation. Calculated annual exposure doses to humans due to outdoor exposure could exceed 10 mSv, i.e., be higher than 1 mSv dose constraint given by ICRP. Roughly summarized with previously published data on indoor doses for Fen village population, total annual exposure

  6. Mini review of mercury contamination in environment and human with an emphasis on Malaysia: status and needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveena, Sarva Mangala; de Burbure, Claire; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin; Hashim, Zailina

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an overview of research on mercury (Hg) contamination in Malaysia and its evolution from 1979 to 2012. The objective of this paper was to review and provide an understanding of Hg exposures in the environment, humans, and food in Malaysia. Hg concentration in the environment is high in areas of West Port, Malacca Straits, Prai, and Johor because these areas receive anthropogenic metal loads brought about by industrial activities. Hg concentration in humans is related to seafood intake (dietary), environmental conditions, and different geographical locations. Hg levels in food showed higher concentration in the West coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Hg concentration is also present in the country's tropical fruits, which is related to agrochemical and fertilizer usage. This review showed that there is an urgent need to identify Hg toxicology and bioaccumulation as well as the health effects of Hg exposure in different ecological compartments. This review aims to provide helpful recommendations for future Hg biomonitoring and research in Malaysia.

  7. Xenobiotic metabolism in human skin and 3D human skin reconstructs: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gibbs, S.; Sandt, J.J.M. van de; Merk, H.F.; Lockley, D.J.; Pendlington, R.U.; Pease, C.K.

    2007-01-01

    In this review, we discuss and compare studies of xenobiotic metabolism in both human skin and 3D human skin reconstructs. In comparison to the liver, the skin is a less studied organ in terms of characterising metabolic capability. While the skin forms the major protective barrier to environmental

  8. A Review of Mercury Bioavailability in Humans and Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A. Bradley

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available To estimate human exposure to methylmercury (MeHg, risk assessors often assume 95%–100% bioavailability in their models. However, recent research suggests that assuming all, or most, of the ingested mercury (Hg is absorbed into systemic circulation may be erroneous. The objective of this paper is to review and discuss the available state of knowledge concerning the assimilation or bioavailability of Hg in fish and humans. In fish, this meant reviewing studies on assimilation efficiency, that is the difference between ingested and excreted Hg over a given period of time. In humans, this meant reviewing studies that mostly investigated bioaccessibility (digestive processes rather than bioavailability (cumulative digestive + absorptive processes, although studies incorporating absorption for a fuller picture of bioavailability were also included where possible. The outcome of this review shows that in a variety of organisms and experimental models that Hg bioavailability and assimilation is less than 100%. Specifically, 25 studies on fish were reviewed, and assimilation efficiencies ranged from 10% to 100% for MeHg and from 2% to 51% for Hg(II. For humans, 20 studies were reviewed with bioaccessibility estimates ranging from 2% to 100% for MeHg and 0.2% to 94% for Hg(II. The overall absorption estimates ranged from 12% to 79% for MeHg and 49% to 69% for Hg(II, and were consistently less than 100%. For both fish and humans, a number of cases are discussed in which factors (e.g., Hg source, cooking methods, nutrients are shown to affect Hg bioavailability. The summaries presented here challenge a widely-held assumption in the Hg risk assessment field, and the paper discusses possible ways forward for the field.

  9. A Review of Mercury Bioavailability in Humans and Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Mark A; Barst, Benjamin D; Basu, Niladri

    2017-02-10

    To estimate human exposure to methylmercury (MeHg), risk assessors often assume 95%-100% bioavailability in their models. However, recent research suggests that assuming all, or most, of the ingested mercury (Hg) is absorbed into systemic circulation may be erroneous. The objective of this paper is to review and discuss the available state of knowledge concerning the assimilation or bioavailability of Hg in fish and humans. In fish, this meant reviewing studies on assimilation efficiency, that is the difference between ingested and excreted Hg over a given period of time. In humans, this meant reviewing studies that mostly investigated bioaccessibility (digestive processes) rather than bioavailability (cumulative digestive + absorptive processes), although studies incorporating absorption for a fuller picture of bioavailability were also included where possible. The outcome of this review shows that in a variety of organisms and experimental models that Hg bioavailability and assimilation is less than 100%. Specifically, 25 studies on fish were reviewed, and assimilation efficiencies ranged from 10% to 100% for MeHg and from 2% to 51% for Hg(II). For humans, 20 studies were reviewed with bioaccessibility estimates ranging from 2% to 100% for MeHg and 0.2% to 94% for Hg(II). The overall absorption estimates ranged from 12% to 79% for MeHg and 49% to 69% for Hg(II), and were consistently less than 100%. For both fish and humans, a number of cases are discussed in which factors (e.g., Hg source, cooking methods, nutrients) are shown to affect Hg bioavailability. The summaries presented here challenge a widely-held assumption in the Hg risk assessment field, and the paper discusses possible ways forward for the field.

  10. Dental caries and oral ecology, important aspects to be considered: Bibliographic review

    OpenAIRE

    Duque de Estrada Riverón, Johany; Pérez Quiñonez, José Alberto; Hidalgo-Gato Fuentes3, Iliana

    2006-01-01

    La caries dental constituye actualmente la enfermedad más frecuente en el ser humano. Existen algunos elementos de la ecología bucal que pueden favorecer su desarrollo. Se realiza una revisión bibliográfica con el objetivo fundamental de profundizar en los conocimientos teóricos sobre las características del tejido adamantino, aspectos específicos del Streptococcus mutans, papel de la saliva en el medio bucal e influencia de la ingesta de carbohidratos que pueden predisponer a la aparición de...

  11. A lion population under threat : understanding lion (Panthera leo Linnaeus, 1758) ecology and human-lion interactions related to livestock predation in Waza National Park, Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tumenta, Pricelia Nyaekon

    2012-01-01

    Lions in Waza National Park Cameroon were studied with focus on lion ecology and the human-lion conflicts due to livestock predation. The number of adult lions has declined from 40-60 in 2002 to 14-21 in 2008, which represents a reduction of about 65% in 6 years. The human-livestock pressure on the

  12. From "Forest Fires" and "Hunting" to Disturbing "Habitats" and "Food Chains": Do Young Children Come Up with Any Ecological Interpretations of Human Interventions within a Forest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergazaki, Marida; Andriotou, Eirini

    2010-01-01

    This study aims at highlighting young children's reasoning about human interventions within a forest ecosystem. Our focus is particularly set on whether preschoolers are able to come up with any basic ecological interpretations of human actions upon forest plants or animals and how. Conducting individual, semi-structured interviews with 70…

  13. D. McKenzie, C. Miller and D.A. Falk, eds. The Landscape Ecology of Fire [book review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric J. Gustafson

    2012-01-01

    In the Foreword of this volume is the statement that "landscape ecology is the 'glue' that holds ecosystem theory together and nowhere is that more evident than in the study of wildland fire ecology." The Landscape Ecology of Fire summarizes how landscape ecology has contributed to, and been formed by, the study...

  14. Protection of the human research participant: A structured review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    related or social-science research involves a human participant. This ... quantitative studies, as well as review articles, were included, to enhance ... In the study by Gremillion et al.,[7] comparison was made between .... research stakeholders, who took part in interviews and focus- .... Contact persons ... Face to face.

  15. Human Trafficking: A Review for Mental Health Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakushko, Oksana

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a review of current research on human trafficking for mental health practitioners and scholars. In addition to an overview of definitions, causes and processes of trafficking, the article highlights mental health consequences of trafficking along with suggestions for treatment of survivors. Directions for counseling services,…

  16. Human Cryptosporidiosis: A Review | Ayuo | East African Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To provide an overview of risk factors, presentation and management of human cryptosporidium infection. Data sources: Literature review was obtained through PubMed search. Data selection: Published articles on the taxonomy of Cryptosporidium and the epidemiology, clinical presentation and management of ...

  17. Sympathetic regulation of cerebral blood flow in humans : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Laan, M.; van Dijk, J. M. C.; Elting, J. W. J.; Staal, M. J.; Absalom, A. R.

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) is regulated by vasomotor, chemical, metabolic, and neurogenic mechanisms. Even though the innervation of cerebral arteries is quite extensively described and reviewed in the literature, its role in regulation of CBF in humans remains controversial. We believe that

  18. Viruses associated with human and animal influenza - a review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this review, the most important viruses associated with human and animal influenza are reported. These include Influenza A,B and C. Influenza viruses are members of the family Orthomyxoviridae. Influenza A virus being the most pathogenic and wide spread with many subtypes has constantly cause epidemics in several ...

  19. Human rights in childbirth, narratives and restorative justice: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokugamage, A U; Pathberiya, S D C

    2017-02-02

    This review describes the emerging global debate on the role of human rights childbirth. It is also tailored to a UK perspective in view of the Montgomery v. Lanarkshire [2015] legal ruling and it implications to practice. We can never underestimate the power of humane care on health. The compassion and evidence based medicine agenda in healthcare is interconnected with human rights in healthcare, feeding into the principles of decision making and patient centred care. When this has not happened and there is been healthcare conflict, the power of storytelling serves to connect disparate parties to their common humanity. Narratives are an important aspect of restorative justice processes and we suggest that this could be beneficial in the field of human rights in childbirth.

  20. Epidemiological review of human and animal fascioliasis in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Maha F M

    2008-06-01

    One of the neglected food-borne-diseases in the international public health arena is fascioliasis. It is a serious infectious parasitic disease infecting humans and animals worldwide and tops all the zoonotic helminthes. Human cases are being increasingly reported from Europe, the Americas, Oceania, Africa and Asia. Hence, human fascioliasis is considered now as a zoonosis of major global and regional importance. In Egypt, animal and human fascioliasis is an endemic clinical and epidemiological health problem. Doubtless, understanding the epidemiology of the parasitic diseases and factors affecting their incidence provides the foundation upon which effective prevention and control programs should be established. This article reviews the history, life cycles, transmission, incidence, geographical distribution, and environmental and human determinants that contribute to the epidemiological picture of fascioliasis with special reference to Egypt.

  1. Ecological review of some problems in the sphere of forest use within the Russian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolov, P.A.

    1997-01-01

    The forests of the Russian Federation play some very important roles even in global level: they are an important element of our environment and they are a valuable renewable resource. Forest ecosystems are very effective in preventing erosion, in protecting water ecosystems, and in maintaining their balance. They are also a very important element of biodiversity protection and they are a significant buffer of coal. The state of the forests has a great impact on the ecological environment within the Russian Federation as a whole, as well as in certain regions, especially in forest regions. Taking into consideration the multifunctional character of forests, the interests of different groups, different levels of authority, Ministries and Committees, forest policy and practice do not always coincide, and conflicting situations appear. Forest policy should take into account these interests, find the ways for solving problems, and the management system should take all necessary steps to successfully apply the forest policy. The state of the forests within the Russian Federation is proof of the Federation's forest policy and management practice having come to a crisis with their negative ecological impacts. (orig.)

  2. Terrestrial population models for ecological risk assessment: A state-of-the-art review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emlen, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Few attempts have been made to formulate models for predicting impacts of xenobiotic chemicals on wildlife populations. However, considerable effort has been invested in wildlife optimal exploitation models. Because death from intoxication has a similar effect on population dynamics as death by harvesting, these management models are applicable to ecological risk assessment. An underlying Leslie-matrix bookkeeping formulation is widely applicable to vertebrate wildlife populations. Unfortunately, however, the various submodels that track birth, death, and dispersal rates as functions of the physical, chemical, and biotic environment are by their nature almost inevitably highly species- and locale-specific. Short-term prediction of one-time chemical applications requires only information on mortality before and after contamination. In such cases a simple matrix formulation may be adequate for risk assessment. But generally, risk must be projected over periods of a generation or more. This precludes generic protocols for risk assessment and also the ready and inexpensive predictions of a chemical's influence on a given population. When designing and applying models for ecological risk assessment at the population level, the endpoints (output) of concern must be carefully and rigorously defined. The most easily accessible and appropriate endpoints are (1) pseudoextinction (the frequency or probability of a population falling below a prespecified density), and (2) temporal mean population density. Spatial and temporal extent of predicted changes must be clearly specified a priori to avoid apparent contradictions and confusion.

  3. ECOLOGICAL AND FAUNISTIC REVIEW OF COCCINELLIDAE (COLEOPTERA, COCCINELLIDAE IN THE REPUBLIC OF DAGESTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Mukhtarova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of the study is to conduct ecological and faunal studies of coccinellidae in Dagestan as well as to consider the chorologic, trophic and phenological aspects in connection with the peculiarities of the environment.Materials and methods. As the basis for the research we used the materials obtained by the authors from 1999 to 2016 in various parts of Dagestan. We also conducted expeditions, stationary and semi-stationary studies using traditional methods of entomological research.Results. Inventory of coccinellidae fauna in Dagestan allowed identifying 27 species from 18 genera. It also revealed multiple and rare species. We carried out an analysis on distribution of the species in the high altitude range; identified environmental groups by biotopic preferendum: xerophyllous, mesophyll meadow-steppe, mesophyll forest, and Hygrophila and polytopic species; according to trophic adaptation: Aphidophages, Coccidophages, Mycetophages, Entomophages and Phytophages; We held a zoogeographical analysis of coccinellidae of Dagestan and according to habitat type, 8 zoogeographic groups were identified; We conducted phenological observations of the study sites, stages and timing of winter and winter dormancy, the beginning of mating, egg-laying, the duration of certain stages, the number of generations and other features.Conclusion. This research represents the first comprehensive summary of ladybugs (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae of Dagestan and includes the findings of the composition study, ecological and zoogeographical aspects of coccinellidae fauna of the study area.

  4. Ecological review of some problems in the sphere of forest use within the Russian Federation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokolov, P.A. [State Environment Protection Committee of the Russian Federation (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    The forests of the Russian Federation play some very important roles even in global level: they are an important element of our environment and they are a valuable renewable resource. Forest ecosystems are very effective in preventing erosion, in protecting water ecosystems, and in maintaining their balance. They are also a very important element of biodiversity protection and they are a significant buffer of coal. The state of the forests has a great impact on the ecological environment within the Russian Federation as a whole, as well as in certain regions, especially in forest regions. Taking into consideration the multifunctional character of forests, the interests of different groups, different levels of authority, Ministries and Committees, forest policy and practice do not always coincide, and conflicting situations appear. Forest policy should take into account these interests, find the ways for solving problems, and the management system should take all necessary steps to successfully apply the forest policy. The state of the forests within the Russian Federation is proof of the Federation`s forest policy and management practice having come to a crisis with their negative ecological impacts. (orig.)

  5. Discontinuity of human presence at Atapuerca during the early Middle Pleistocene: a matter of ecological competition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Gómez, Guillermo; Mateos, Ana; Martín-González, Jesús Angel; Blasco, Ruth; Rosell, Jordi; Rodríguez, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that the European human settlement is older than 1.2 Ma. However, there is a fierce debate about the continuity or discontinuity of the early human settlement of Europe. In particular, evidence of human presence in the interval 0.7-0.5 Ma is scarce in comparison with evidence for the previous and later periods. Here, we present a case study in which the environmental conditions at Sierra de Atapuerca in the early Middle Pleistocene, a period without evidence of human presence, are compared with the conditions in the previous period, for which a relatively intense human occupation is documented. With this objective in mind, the available resources for a human population and the intensity of competition between secondary consumers during the two periods are compared using a mathematical model. The Gran Dolina site TD8 level, dated to 0.7-0.6 Ma, is taken as representative of the period during which Atapuerca was apparently not occupied by humans. Conditions at TD8 are compared with those of the previous period, represented by the TD6-2 level, which has yielded abundant evidence of intense human occupation. The results show that survival opportunities for a hypothetical human population were lower at TD8 than they were at TD6-2. Increased resource competition between secondary consumers arises as a possible explanation for the absence of human occupation at Atapuerca in the early Middle Pleistocene.

  6. Advanced human-system interface design review guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hara, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    Advanced, computer-based, human-system interface designs are emerging in nuclear power plant (NPP) control rooms. These developments may have significant implications for plant safety in that they will greatly affect the ways in which operators interact with systems. At present, however, the only guidance available to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for the review of control room-operator interfaces, NUREG-0700, was written prior to these technological changes and is thus not designed to address them. The objective of the project reported in this paper is to develop an Advanced Control Room Design Review Guideline for use in performing human factors reviews of advanced operator interfaces. This guideline will be implemented, in part, as a portable, computer-based, interactive document for field use. The paper describes the overall guideline development methodology, the present status of the document, and the plans for further guideline testing and development. 21 refs., 3 figs

  7. New methods for field collection of human skin volatiles and perspectives for their application in the chemical ecology of human-pathogen-vector interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dormont, Laurent; Bessière, Jean-Marie; McKey, Doyle; Cohuet, Anna

    2013-08-01

    Odours emitted by human skin are of great interest to biologists in many fields, with practical applications in forensics, health diagnostic tools and the ecology of blood-sucking insect vectors of human disease. Convenient methods are required for sampling human skin volatiles under field conditions. We experimentally compared four modern methods for sampling skin odours: solvent extraction, headspace solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME), and two new techniques not previously used for the study of mammal volatiles, contact SPME and dynamic headspace with a chromatoprobe design. These methods were tested and compared both on European subjects under laboratory conditions and on young African subjects under field conditions. All four methods permitted effective trapping of skin odours, including the major known human skin volatile compounds. In both laboratory and field experiments, contact SPME, in which the time of collection was restricted to 3 min, provided results very similar to those obtained with classical headspace SPME, a method that requires 45 min of collection. Chromatoprobe sampling also proved to be very sensitive, rapid and convenient for the collection of human-produced volatiles in natural settings. Both contact SPME and chromatoprobe design may considerably facilitate the study of human skin volatiles under field conditions, opening new possibilities for examining the olfactory cues mediating the host-seeking behaviour of mosquito vectors implicated in the transmission of major diseases.

  8. Advanced human-system interface design review guideline. Evaluation procedures and guidelines for human factors engineering reviews

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hara, J.M.; Brown, W.S.; Baker, C.C.; Welch, D.L.; Granda, T.M.; Vingelis, P.J.

    1994-07-01

    Advanced control rooms will use advanced human-system interface (HSI) technologies that may have significant implications for plant safety in that they will affect the operator's overall role in the system, the method of information presentation, and the ways in which operators interact with the system. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews the HSI aspects of control rooms to ensure that they are designed to good human factors engineering principles and that operator performance and reliability are appropriately supported to protect public health and safety. The principal guidance available to the NRC, however, was developed more than ten years ago, well before these technological changes. Accordingly, the human factors guidance needs to be updated to serve as the basis for NRC review of these advanced designs. The purpose of this project was to develop a general approach to advanced HSI review and the human factors guidelines to support. NRC safety reviews of advanced systems. This two-volume report provides the results of the project. Volume I describes the development of the Advanced HSI Design Review Guideline (DRG) including (1) its theoretical and technical foundation, (2) a general model for the review of advanced HSIs, (3) guideline development in both hard-copy and computer-based versions, and (4) the tests and evaluations performed to develop and validate the DRG. Volume I also includes a discussion of the gaps in available guidance and a methodology for addressing them. Volume 2 provides the guidelines to be used for advanced HSI review and the procedures for their use

  9. Advanced human-system interface design review guideline. Evaluation procedures and guidelines for human factors engineering reviews

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Hara, J.M.; Brown, W.S. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Baker, C.C.; Welch, D.L.; Granda, T.M.; Vingelis, P.J. [Carlow International Inc., Falls Church, VA (United States)

    1994-07-01

    Advanced control rooms will use advanced human-system interface (HSI) technologies that may have significant implications for plant safety in that they will affect the operator`s overall role in the system, the method of information presentation, and the ways in which operators interact with the system. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews the HSI aspects of control rooms to ensure that they are designed to good human factors engineering principles and that operator performance and reliability are appropriately supported to protect public health and safety. The principal guidance available to the NRC, however, was developed more than ten years ago, well before these technological changes. Accordingly, the human factors guidance needs to be updated to serve as the basis for NRC review of these advanced designs. The purpose of this project was to develop a general approach to advanced HSI review and the human factors guidelines to support. NRC safety reviews of advanced systems. This two-volume report provides the results of the project. Volume I describes the development of the Advanced HSI Design Review Guideline (DRG) including (1) its theoretical and technical foundation, (2) a general model for the review of advanced HSIs, (3) guideline development in both hard-copy and computer-based versions, and (4) the tests and evaluations performed to develop and validate the DRG. Volume I also includes a discussion of the gaps in available guidance and a methodology for addressing them. Volume 2 provides the guidelines to be used for advanced HSI review and the procedures for their use.

  10. Review of forensically important entomological specimens collected from human cadavers in Malaysia (2005-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, Rajagopal; Nazni, Wasi Ahmad; Tan, Tian Chye; Lee, Han Lim; Azirun, Mohd Sofian

    2013-07-01

    Forensic entomological specimens collected from human decedents during crime scene investigations in Malaysia in the past 6 years (2005-2010) are reviewed. A total of 80 cases were recorded and 93 specimens were collected. From these specimens, 10 species of cyclorrphagic flies were identified, consisting of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) -38 specimens (40.86%), Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) -36 specimens (38.70%), Chrysomya villeneuvi (Patton) -2 specimens (2.15%), Chrysomya nigripes (Aubertin) -2 specimens (2.15%), Chrysomya pinguis (Walker) -1 specimen (1.08%), Hermetia illucens (Linnaeus) -1 specimen (1.08%), Hemipyrellia liguriens (Wiedemann) -5 specimens (5.37%), Synthesiomyia nudiseta (Wulp) -1 specimen (1.08%), Megaselia scalaris (Loew)-1 specimen (1.08%) and Sarcophaga ruficornis (Fabricius) -4 specimens (4.30%). In two specimens (2.15%), the maggots were not identifiable. Ch. megacephala and Ch. rufifacies were the commonest species found in human decedents from three different ecological habitats. S. nudiseta is an uncommon species found only on human cadavers from indoors. A total of 75 cases (93.75%) had a single fly infestation and 5 cases (6.25%) had double fly infestation. In conclusion, although large numbers of fly species were found on human decedents, the predominant species are still those of Chrysomya. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  11. Economic impacts of marine ecological change: Review and recent contributions of the VECTORS project on European marine waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groeneveld, Rolf A.; Bartelings, Heleen; Börger, Tobias; Bosello, Francesco; Buisman, Erik; Delpiazzo, Elisa; Eboli, Fabio; Fernandes, Jose A.; Hamon, Katell G.; Hattam, Caroline; Loureiro, Maria; Nunes, Paulo A. L. D.; Piwowarczyk, Joanna; Schasfoort, Femke E.; Simons, Sarah L.; Walker, Adam N.

    2018-02-01

    Marine ecological change is likely to have serious potential economic consequences for coastal economies all over the world. This article reviews the current literature on the economic impacts of marine ecological change, as well as a number of recent contributions to this literature carried out under the VECTORS project. We focus on three main types of change, namely invasive alien species; outbreak-forming species, such as jellyfish and toxic algae; and gradual changes in species distribution and productivity. The case studies available in the literature demonstrate that the impacts of invasions and outbreaks on fisheries, aquaculture, and tourism can potentially amount to several tens of millions of dollars each year in some regions. Moreover, stated preference studies suggest a substantial impact on coastal tourism and non-use values that is likely not visible in case studies of specific outbreak events. Climate-driven gradual changes in distribution and productivity of commercial fish stocks will have an impact on fisheries, although these impacts are likely to be overshadowed by much larger changes in prices of seafood and fuel.

  12. A review of the ecological impacts of wind farms in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The number of wind farm developments in the UK has grown rapidly in recent years. While, on a global scale, the benefits of utilising renewable energy resources are generally accepted, wind energy developments may cause local impacts to the ecological environment. In some cases, these may be potentially of significance in nature conservation terms. This report considers the potential impacts of wind farms on hydrology, soils, vegetation and fauna other than birds. Habitats and species most likely to be sensitive to impacts are discussed, and the causes of the impacts are considered. Recurrent gaps in wind farm environmental assessments are identified and new subject matter is suggested for inclusion in future evaluations and monitoring programmes. (author)

  13. Wasteland ecologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoag, Colin Brewster; Bertoni, Filippo; Bubandt, Nils Ole

    2018-01-01

    landscapes, this article argues, are the result of unheralded multispecies collaboration that can be traced empirically by attending ethnographically to multispecies forms of “gain-making,” the ways in which humans and other species leverage difference to find economic and ecological opportunity....... in the 1970s, when prevailing perceptions were that the entire mining area was a polluted wasteland, the AFLD Fasterholt waste and recycling plant has since changed in response to new EU waste management regulations, as well as the unexpected proliferation of non-human life in the area. Based on field...... research at this site—an Anthropocene landscape in the heartland of an EU-configured welfare state — this article is a contribution to the multispecies ethnography and political ecology of wastelands. We argue that “waste” is a co-species, biopolitical happening — a complex symbolic, political, biological...

  14. Explicitly Linking Human Impact to Ecological Function in Secondary School Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyner, Yael; Becker, Johnathan; Torff, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Both the old National Science Education Standards (NSES) and the recent "Next Generation Science Standards" (NGSS) devote significant resources to learning about human environmental impact. Whereas the NSES advocate learning about human environmental impact in a section apart from the science- content learning strands, the NGSS embed…

  15. [Identification of ecological corridors for Tibetan antelope and assessment of their human disturbances in the alpine desert of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuge, Hai-jin; Lin, Dan-qi; Li, Xiao-wen

    2015-08-01

    The alpine desert of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) provides the largest habitats for those endangered ungulates (e.g., Tibetan antelope, Tibetan Kiang and wild yak) on the earth. However, human disturbance especially infrastructure constructions (e.g., railway & highway) has increasingly fragmented the habitats of those endangered ungulates by disturbing and interrupting their ecological corridors for their seasonal migration. Aiming at identifying the potential ecological corridors for Tibetan antelope, a GIS-based model-Linkage Mapper was used to model and detect the potential ecological corridors of Tibetan antelope based on the principle of least cost path. Three categories of ecological corridors, i. e., closed (inside reserves), linking (linking the reserves) and open (starting from reserve but ending outside) corridors were distinguished by their spatial interactions with existing major national nature reserves (i.e., Altun, Kekexili and Qiangtang NNRs) in the alpine desert of QTP, and their spatial patterns, conservation status associated with human disturbance were also examined. Although our research indicated a general ecological integration of both habitats and ecological corridors in the alpine desert ecosystem, increasing human disturbance should not be ignored, which particularly partially undermined the functioning of those ecological corridors linking the nature reserves. Considering disadvantages of prevailing separate administrative structure of nature reserve on the effective conservation of ecological corridors for those endangered ungulates, a coordinative conservation network among these major national nature reserves should be established to ensure the unified trans-boundary conservation efforts and to enhance its overall conservation efficacy by sharing information, knowledge and optimizing conservation resources.

  16. A REVIEW ON LOWER APPENDICULAR MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM OF HUMAN BODY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Akhtaruzzaman

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Rehabilitation engineering plays an important role in designing various autonomous robots to provide better therapeutic exercise to disabled patients. Hence it is necessary to study human musculoskeletal system and also needs to be presented in scientific manner in order to describe and analyze the biomechanics of human body motion. This review focuses on lower appendicular musculoskeletal structure of human body to represent joints and links architectures; to identify muscle attachments and functions; and to illustrate muscle groups which are responsible for a particular joint movement. Firstly, human lower skeletal structure, linking systems, joint mechanisms, and their functions are described with a conceptual representation of joint architecture of human skeleton. This section also represents joints and limbs by comparing with mechanical systems. Characteristics of ligaments and their functions to construct skeletal joints are also discussed briefly in this part. Secondly, the study focuses on muscular system of human lower limbs where muscle structure, functions, roles in moving endoskeleton structure, and supporting mechanisms are presented ellaborately. Thirdly, muscle groups are tabulated based on functions that provide mobility to different joints of lower limbs. Finally, for a particular movement action of lower extremity, muscles are also grouped and tabulated to have a better understanding on functions of individual muscle. Basically the study presents an overview of the structure of human lower limbs by characterizing and classifying skeletal and muscular systems.KEYWORDS:   Musculoskeletal system; Human lower limbs; Muscle groups; Joint motion; Biomechatronics; Rehabilitation.

  17. A Review of Infectious Agents in Polar Bears (Ursus maritimus) and Their Long-Term Ecological Relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagre, Anna C; Patyk, Kelly A; Nol, Pauline; Atwood, Todd; Hueffer, Karsten; Duncan, Colleen

    2015-09-01

    Disease was a listing criterion for the polar bear (Ursus maritimus) as threatened under the Endangered Species Act in 2008; it is therefore important to evaluate the current state of knowledge and identify any information gaps pertaining to diseases in polar bears. We conducted a systematic literature review focused on infectious agents and associated health impacts identified in polar bears. Overall, the majority of reports in free-ranging bears concerned serosurveys or fecal examinations with little to no information on associated health effects. In contrast, most reports documenting illness or pathology referenced captive animals and diseases caused by etiologic agents not representative of exposure opportunities in wild bears. As such, most of the available infectious disease literature has limited utility as a basis for development of future health assessment and management plans. Given that ecological change is a considerable risk facing polar bear populations, future work should focus on cumulative effects of multiple stressors that could impact polar bear population dynamics.

  18. AMBI indices and multivariate approach to assess the ecological health of Vellar-Coleroon estuarine system undergoing various human activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigamani, Sivaraj; Perumal, Murugesan; Arumugam, Silambarasan; Preetha Mini Jose, H M; Veeraiyan, Bharathidasan

    2015-11-15

    Estuaries receive a considerable amount of pollutants from various sources. Presently an attempt has been made to assess whether the aquaculture discharges and dredging activities alter the ecological conditions of Vellar-Coleroon estuarine complex. The European Water Framework Directive (WFD) established a framework for the protection of marine waters. In this commission, a variety of indices were used, among them, AMBI (AZTI Marine Biotic Index) indices along with multivariate statistical approach is unique, to assess the ecological status by using macrobenthic communities. Keeping this in view, stations VE-1 and VE-4 in Vellar; CE-6 and CE-7 in Coleroon estuaries showed moderately disturbed with the AMBI values ranging between 3.45 and 3.72. The above said stations were situated near the shrimp farm discharge point and sites of dredging activities. The present study proves that various statistical and biotic indices have great potential in assessing the nature of the ecosystem undergoing various human pressures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Potential human health risks from metals and As via Odontesthes bonariensis consumption and ecological risk assessments in a eutrophic lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monferran, Magdalena V; Garnero, Paola Lorena; Wunderlin, Daniel A; Bistoni, María de los Angeles

    2016-07-01

    The concentration of Al, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Hg, Sr, Mo, Ag, Cd, Pb and As was analyzed in water, sediment, and muscle of Odontesthes bonariensis from the eutrophic San Roque Lake (Córdoba-Argentina). The monitoring campaign was performed during the wet, dry and intermediate season. The concentration of Cr, Fe, Pb, Zn, Al and Cd in water exceeded the limits considered as hazardous for aquatic life. The highest metal concentrations were observed in sediment, intermediate concentrations, in fish muscle, and the lowest in water, with the exception of Cr, Zn, As and Hg, which were the highest in fish muscle. Potential ecological risk analysis of heavy metal concentrations in sediment indicated that the San Roque Lake posed a low ecological risk in all sampling periods. The target hazard quotients (THQs) and carcinogenic risk (CR) for individual metals showed that As in muscle was particularly hazardous, posing a potential risk for fishermen and the general population during all sampling periods. Hg poses a potential risk for fishermen only in the intermediate season. It is important to highlight that none of these two elements exceeded the limits considered as hazardous for aquatic life in water and sediment. This result proves the importance of performing measurements of contaminants, in both abiotic and biotic compartments, to assess the quality of food resources. These results suggest that the consumption of this fish species from this reservoir is not completely safe for human health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Incorporating anthropogenic effects into trophic ecology: predator–prey interactions in a human-dominated landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorresteijn, Ine; Schultner, Jannik; Nimmo, Dale G.; Fischer, Joern; Hanspach, Jan; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Kehoe, Laura; Ritchie, Euan G.

    2015-01-01

    Apex predators perform important functions that regulate ecosystems worldwide. However, little is known about how ecosystem regulation by predators is influenced by human activities. In particular, how important are top-down effects of predators relative to direct and indirect human-mediated bottom-up and top-down processes? Combining data on species' occurrence from camera traps and hunting records, we aimed to quantify the relative effects of top-down and bottom-up processes in shaping predator and prey distributions in a human-dominated landscape in Transylvania, Romania. By global standards this system is diverse, including apex predators (brown bear and wolf), mesopredators (red fox) and large herbivores (roe and red deer). Humans and free-ranging dogs represent additional predators in the system. Using structural equation modelling, we found that apex predators suppress lower trophic levels, especially herbivores. However, direct and indirect top-down effects of humans affected the ecosystem more strongly, influencing species at all trophic levels. Our study highlights the need to explicitly embed humans and their influences within trophic cascade theory. This will greatly expand our understanding of species interactions in human-modified landscapes, which compose the majority of the Earth's terrestrial surface. PMID:26336169

  1. Review of vegetable fermentations with particular emphasis on processing modifications, microbial ecology, and spoilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    The consumption of vegetables is widespread in the world and represents a major component of the human diet. Microorganisms (mainly lactic acid bacteria, yeasts, Enterobacteriaceae, Propionibacterium and Clostridium species) play a significant role in vegetable fermentations, affecting the quality a...

  2. Adaptive changes in human memory: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Laura Sabiniewicz

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains a review of the literature concerning memory abilities and human senses performance under different environmental circumstances. A number of studies indicated that environment has a significant impact on human senses functioning. It can affect it in a mechanical way, by a chronic exposure to potentially harmful substances or processes in different work environments. Also, some cognitive abilities that have evolved to perform evolutionary essential functions lost their importance because of the change of environment impact. Moreover, training can be a source of improvement of both human senses and cognitive abilities, as well. That might suggest that, while using, under different environmental circumstances different cognitive abilities develop. We take into a particular consideration human memory and its role, show current studies in this field and suggest new research directions.

  3. Human factors review of power plant maintainability. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seminara, J.L.; Parsons, S.O.

    1981-02-01

    Human factors engineering is an interdisciplinary science and technology concerned with shaping the design of machines, facilities, and operational environments to promote safe, efficient, and reliable performance on the part of operators and maintainers of equipment systems. The human factors aspects of five nuclear power plants and four fossil fuel plants were evaluated using such methods as a check list guided observation system, structured interviews with maintenance personnel, direct observation of maintenance tasks, reviews of procedures, and analyses of maintenance errors or accidents by means of the critical incident technique. The study revealed a wide variety of human factors problem areas, most of which are extensively photodocumented. The study recommends that a more systematic and formal approach to ensure that future power plants are human engineered to the needs of maintenance personnel

  4. The foot in forensic human identification - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, C M; Hackman, L; Black, S M

    2014-03-01

    The identification of human remains is a process which can be attempted irrespective of the stage of decomposition in which the remains are found or the anatomical regions recovered. In recent years, the discovery of fragmented human remains has garnered significant attention from the national and international media, particularly the recovery of multiple lower limbs and feet from coastlines in North America. While cases such as these stimulate public curiosity, they present unique challenges to forensic practitioners in relation to the identification of the individual from whom the body part originated. There is a paucity of literature pertaining to the foot in forensic human identification and in particular, in relation to the assessment of the parameters represented by the biological profile. This article presents a review of the literature relating to the role of the foot in forensic human identification and highlights the areas in which greater research is required. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Ecological Design of Cooperative Human-Machine Interfaces for Safety of Intelligent Transport Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orekhov Aleksandr

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes research results in the domain of cooperative intelligent transport systems. The requirements for human-machine interface considering safety issue of for intelligent transport systems (ITSare analyzed. Profiling of the requirements to cooperative human-machine interface (CHMI for such systems including requirements to usability and safety is based on a set of standards for ITSs. An approach and design technique of cooperative human-machine interface for ITSs are suggested. The architecture of cloud-based CHMI for intelligent transport systems has been developed. The prototype of software system CHMI4ITSis described.

  6. Comparative ecology of capsular Exophiala species causing disseminated infection in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, Y. (Yinggai); Laureijssen-van de Sande, W.W.J. (Wendy W.J.); Moreno, L.F. (Leandro F.); van den Ende, B.G. (Bert Gerrits); Li, R. (Ruoyu); S. de Hoog (Sybren)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractExophiala spinifera and Exophiala dermatitidis (Fungi: Chaetothyriales) are black yeast agents potentially causing disseminated infection in apparently healthy humans. They are the only Exophiala species producing extracellular polysaccharides around yeast cells. In order to gain

  7. The Human Threat to River Ecosystems at the Watershed Scale: An Ecological Security Assessment of the Songhua River Basin, Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Shen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Human disturbances impact river basins by reducing the quality of, and services provided by, aquatic ecosystems. Conducting quantitative assessments of ecological security at the watershed scale is important for enhancing the water quality of river basins and promoting environmental management. In this study, China’s Songhua River Basin was divided into 204 assessment units by combining watershed and administrative boundaries. Ten human threat factors were identified based on their significant influence on the river ecosystem. A modified ecological threat index was used to synthetically evaluate the ecological security, where frequency was weighted by flow length from the grids to the main rivers, while severity was weighted by the potential hazard of the factors on variables of river ecosystem integrity. The results showed that individual factors related to urbanization, agricultural development and facility construction presented different spatial distribution characteristics. At the center of the plain area, the provincial capital cities posed the highest level of threat, as did the municipal districts of prefecture-level cities. The spatial relationships between hot spot locations of the ecological threat index and water quality, as well as the distribution areas of critically endangered species, were analyzed. The sensitivity analysis illustrated that alteration of agricultural development largely changed the ecological security level of the basin. By offering a reference for assessing ecological security, this study can enhance water environmental planning and management.

  8. The ecological imperative and its application to ethical issues in human genetic technology

    OpenAIRE

    W. Malcolm Byrnes

    2003-01-01

    As a species, we are on the cusp of being able to alter that which makes us uniquely human, our genome. Two new genetic technologies, embryo selection and germline engineering, are either in use today or may be developed in the future. Embryo selection acts to alter the human gene pool, reducing genetic diversity, while germline engineering will have the ability to alter directly the genomes of engineered individuals. Our genome has come to be what it is through an evolutionary process extend...

  9. On The Evolution of Human Jaws and Teeth: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhat Yalcin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The jaws and teeth of Homo sapiens have evolved, from the last common ancestor of chimpanzee and men to their current form. Many factors such as the foods eaten and the processing of foods by fire and tools have effected this evolution course. The evolution of the masticatory complex is related to other anatomical features such as brain size and bipedal posture, and leads to important proceedings like the formation of speech and language. In this review, the evolution of human jaws and teeth and its impact on the general course of human evolution is discussed.

  10. Toxicity Bioassays for Ecological Risk Assessment in Arid and Semiarid Ecosystems. Reviews Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 168:43-98.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markwiese, J.T.; Ryti, R.T.; Hooten, M.M.; Michael, D.I.; Hlohowskyj, I.

    2001-02-01

    This paper discusses current limitations for performing ecological risk assessments in dry environments (i.e., ecosystems that are characteristic of many DOE Facilities) and presents novel approaches to addressing ecological risk in such systems.

  11. Toxicity Bioassays for Ecological Risk Assessment in Arid and Semiarid Ecosystems. Reviews Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 168:43-98

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markwiese, J.T.; Ryti, R.T.; Hooten, M.M.; Michael, D.I.; Hlohowskyj, I.

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses current limitations for performing ecological risk assessments in dry environments (i.e., ecosystems that are characteristic of many DOE Facilities) and presents novel approaches to addressing ecological risk in such systems

  12. Review of the ecological parameters of radionuclide turnover in vertebrate food chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitchings, T.; DiGregorio, D.; Van Voris, P.

    1975-01-01

    Ecological studies of radionuclides in the environment have a long tradition in developing the capability to identify and predict movement and concentration of nuclides in agronomic food chains leading to man. Food chain pathways and transfer coefficients for the non-agronomic portions of natural and managed ecosystems characteristic of affected habitats adjacent to nuclear facilities have not been adequately characterized to establish reliable dispersion models for radionuclide releases. This information is necessary in order to assess the impact that such installations will have on the biota of natural ecosystems. Since food chains are the major processes transferring elements from one trophic level to another in terrestrial ecosystems, information is needed on the food-chain transfer pathways, bioconcentration by each trophic component, and turnover rates by receptor organisms. These data are prerequisite inputs for food-chain transport models and can be correlated with species characteristics (e.g., body weight and feeding habitats), to provide indices for predictive dispersion calculations. Application of these models for radionuclide transfer can aid in the assessment of radioactive releases from nuclear reactor facilities to terrestrial non-agronomic food chains. (U.S.)

  13. Review of the ecological parameters of radionuclide turnover in vertebrate food chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitchings, T.; DiGregorio, D.; Van Voris, P.

    1976-01-01

    Ecological studies of radionuclides in the environment have a long tradition in developing the capability to identify and predict movement and concentration of nuclides in agricultural food chains leading to man. Food chain pathways and transfer coefficients for the nonagricultural portions of natural and managed ecosystems characteristic of affected habitats adjacent to nuclear facilities have not been adequately characterized to establish reliable models for radionuclide releases. This information is necessary in order to assess the impact that such installations will have on the biota of natural ecosystems. Since food chains are the major processes transferring elements from one trophic level to another in terrestrial ecosystems, information is needed on the (a) food-chain transfer pathways, (b) bioconcentration by each trophic component and (c) turnover rates by receptor organisms. These data are prerequisite inputs for food-chain transport models and can be correlated with species characteristics (e.g., body weight and feeding habits), to provide indices for predictive calculations. Application of these models for radionuclide transfer can aid in the assessment of radioactive releases from nuclear reactor facilities to terrestrial nonagricultural food chains

  14. Issues in benchmarking human reliability analysis methods: A literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boring, Ronald L.; Hendrickson, Stacey M.L.; Forester, John A.; Tran, Tuan Q.; Lois, Erasmia

    2010-01-01

    There is a diversity of human reliability analysis (HRA) methods available for use in assessing human performance within probabilistic risk assessments (PRA). Due to the significant differences in the methods, including the scope, approach, and underlying models, there is a need for an empirical comparison investigating the validity and reliability of the methods. To accomplish this empirical comparison, a benchmarking study comparing and evaluating HRA methods in assessing operator performance in simulator experiments is currently underway. In order to account for as many effects as possible in the construction of this benchmarking study, a literature review was conducted, reviewing past benchmarking studies in the areas of psychology and risk assessment. A number of lessons learned through these studies is presented in order to aid in the design of future HRA benchmarking endeavors.

  15. Issues in benchmarking human reliability analysis methods : a literature review.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lois, Erasmia (US Nuclear Regulatory Commission); Forester, John Alan; Tran, Tuan Q. (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID); Hendrickson, Stacey M. Langfitt; Boring, Ronald L. (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID)

    2008-04-01

    There is a diversity of human reliability analysis (HRA) methods available for use in assessing human performance within probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). Due to the significant differences in the methods, including the scope, approach, and underlying models, there is a need for an empirical comparison investigating the validity and reliability of the methods. To accomplish this empirical comparison, a benchmarking study is currently underway that compares HRA methods with each other and against operator performance in simulator studies. In order to account for as many effects as possible in the construction of this benchmarking study, a literature review was conducted, reviewing past benchmarking studies in the areas of psychology and risk assessment. A number of lessons learned through these studies are presented in order to aid in the design of future HRA benchmarking endeavors.

  16. Ecology of conflict: marine food supply affects human-wildlife interactions on land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artelle, Kyle A; Anderson, Sean C; Reynolds, John D; Cooper, Andrew B; Paquet, Paul C; Darimont, Chris T

    2016-05-17

    Human-wildlife conflicts impose considerable costs to people and wildlife worldwide. Most research focuses on proximate causes, offering limited generalizable understanding of ultimate drivers. We tested three competing hypotheses (problem individuals, regional population saturation, limited food supply) that relate to underlying processes of human-grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis) conflict, using data from British Columbia, Canada, between 1960-2014. We found most support for the limited food supply hypothesis: in bear populations that feed on spawning salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.), the annual number of bears/km(2) killed due to conflicts with humans increased by an average of 20% (6-32% [95% CI]) for each 50% decrease in annual salmon biomass. Furthermore, we found that across all bear populations (with or without access to salmon), 81% of attacks on humans and 82% of conflict kills occurred after the approximate onset of hyperphagia (July 1(st)), a period of intense caloric demand. Contrary to practices by many management agencies, conflict frequency was not reduced by hunting or removal of problem individuals. Our finding that a marine resource affects terrestrial conflict suggests that evidence-based policy for reducing harm to wildlife and humans requires not only insight into ultimate drivers of conflict, but also management that spans ecosystem and jurisdictional boundaries.

  17. Human ecology in Rafael Pinedo's trilogy: Plop, Frío y Subte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Léa Antoinette Mercier

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article considers Rafael Pinedo trilogy, Plop, Frío and Subte, as a dystopia of the evolution, based on the return of the man to a primitive state. The only “civilized” qualities that remain on place are the sacred and the sexual sphere. However, the novels posed a conflict between an individualistic sexuality and the sacred which purpose is the union of the community members in their fight for survival. Then, the greatest danger lies in the human being, which lead to the animalization of the protagonists. Yet, the trilogy offers, as a remedy to human extinction, the preservation of social the bond.

  18. [Updating the problems of human ecology and environmental health and the ways of solving them].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhmanin, Iu A

    2012-01-01

    Displaying a variety of scientific areas studying the influence of the environment on human health, the state and modern issues of assessment of environmental quality, hygienic standardization of chemical and biological contamination, methodical support of sanitarian and health monitoring and risk assessment of pollution, environmental health, the need for improvement and harmonization with the international instruments of the legal and methodological framework for the protection of the human environment, of the development of a modern management system of her quality based on epidemiological methods for simulation, risk analysis, assessment of economic damage to the environment and health of the population, forming a new branch of medicine--medicine of environment.

  19. Human-centred automation programme: review of experiment related studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimstad, Tone; Andresen, Gisle; Skjerve, Ann Britt Miberg

    2000-04-01

    Twenty-three empirical studies concerning automation and performance have been reviewed. The purposes of the review are to support experimental studies in the Human-Centred Automation (HCA) programme and to develop a general theory on HCA. Each study was reviewed with regard to twelve study characteristics: domain, type of study, purpose, definition of automation, variables, theoretical basis, models of operator performance, methods applied, experimental design, outcome, stated scope of results, strengths and limitations. Seven of the studies involved domain experts, the rest used students as participants. The majority of the articles originated from the aviation domain: only the study conducted in HAMMLAB considered process control in power plants. In the experimental studies, the independent variable was level of automation, or reliability of automation, while the most common dependent variables were workload, situation awareness, complacency, trust, and criteria of performance, e.g., number of correct responses or response time. Although the studies highlight important aspects of human-automation interaction, it is still unclear how system performance is affected. Nevertheless, the fact that many factors seem to be involved is taken as support for the system-oriented approach of the HCA programme. In conclusion, the review provides valuable input both to the design of experiments and to the development of a general theory. (Author). refs

  20. Media Ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Ašković

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Does the trend in which electronic media are gradually becoming extension of human body have to move towards full enslavement of a human and his personality, or the same human will unpredictably, with the aid of his personal media literacy, exit the whirls of media and technological censorships? Personality crisis is closely related to the crisis of language no matter how contradicted to global ideology of transnational transhumanism it may seem. Considering the fact that recent media presentations of the world are based on commercialization of environmentalism, philosophical and aesthetic thought appears as an important subject of ecology. As media mediates, the scenery of civilized living increasingly becomes more appealing even though it derives from commercial and political background. Consequently, the future of humanity depends by large on the philosophy of media. Media have to truly ecologise returning the humanum to its essence making it into the extension of the natural world.

  1. Article Review: Lessepsian migration of zooplankton through Suez Canal and its impact on ecological system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howaida Y. Zakaria

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The marine environment of the East Mediterranean has been considerably impacted in modern times by two man-made changes: the creation of a waterway between the Indo-Pacific and the Mediterranean basins and the control of the Nile fresh-water outflow. The opening of the Suez Canal caused a migration generally from the Red Sea to the Mediterranean, and rarely in the opposite direction as the Red Sea is generally saltier and more nutrient-poor than the Atlantic, so the Red Sea species have advantages over Atlantic species in the salty and nutrient-poor eastern Mediterranean. Accordingly Red Sea species invaded the Mediterranean ecosystem and not vice versa; this phenomenon is known as the Lessepsian migration or erythrean invasion. The composition of zooplankton in the eastern Mediterranean has been shown to include a large proportion of Indo-Pacific and other circumtropical species which have successfully settled and proliferated in this environment. During the present study, an overview is provided on zooplankton migration through Suez Canal and its impact on the ecological system based on published literature. It is also meant with the hydrographic and zooplankton characteristics of the adjacent seas. It is clear that, except jellyfish Rhopilema nomadica, the negative impact of zooplankton Lessepsian migratory species in the Egyptian Mediterranean waters is not evident. Finally, it would be concluded that, a continuous monitoring programme will be needed to record the recent erythrean zooplankton species and follow up the distribution and abundance of those previously recorded as aliens to assess their impacts on the native biodiversity of the Mediterranean.

  2. Ecology and management of Pericopsis elata (Harms Meeuwen (Fabaceae populations: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bourland, N.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pericopsis elata (Fabaceae is a valuable timber species occurring in moist semi-deciduous African forests. While it is at present substantially reduced, the tree's natural distribution previously covered several distinct areas from Côte d'Ivoire to the Democratic Republic of Congo. This species has been logged since the second half of the 20th century. Because it suffers from a lack of regeneration, P. elata is now included in CITES Appendix II and is recorded as "Endangered A1cd" on the IUCN Red List. As with other long-lived light-demanding species, the survival of P. elata may have been favored by important disturbances that occurred in the Congo Basin during the last millennia. While both international trade and industrial uses of the wood of P. elata are well documented, information about its ecology are very sparse or contradictory, and even absent in some cases (e.g., regarding its effective flowering diameter. Furthermore, data describing the management of P. elata are scarce, including potential solutions to compensate for the deficit of natural regeneration. Along the same lines, genetic studies still remain at an early stage and only vague hypotheses have been offered to explain the origins of the tree's populations. We emphasize the need for new research on those topics. Further studies would be useful in deciding whether P. elata populations can continue to be logged without the species being threatened with extinction. Finally, such research needs to target effective and inexpensive management procedures that could secure the future of the species in a logging context.

  3. Ecological, groundwater, and human health risk assessment in a mining region of Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picado, Francisco; Mendoza, Alfredo; Cuadra, Steven; Barmen, Gerhard; Jakobsson, Kristina; Bengtsson, Göran

    2010-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to integrate the relative risk from mercury exposure to stream biota, groundwater, and humans in the Río Artiguas (Sucio) river basin, Nicaragua, where local gold mining occurs. A hazard quotient was used as a common exchange rate in probabilistic estimations of exposure and effects by means of Monte Carlo simulations. The endpoint for stream organisms was the lethal no-observed-effect concentration (NOECs), for groundwater the WHO guideline and the inhibitory Hg concentrations in bacteria (IC), and for humans the tolerable daily intake (TDI) and the benchmark dose level with an uncertainty factor of 10 (BMDLs(0.1)). Macroinvertebrates and fish in the contaminated river are faced with a higher risk to suffer from exposure to Hg than humans eating contaminated fish and bacteria living in the groundwater. The river sediment is the most hazardous source for the macroinvertebrates, and macroinvertebrates make up the highest risk for fish. The distribution of body concentrations of Hg in fish in the mining areas of the basin may exceed the distribution of endpoint values with close to 100% probability. Similarly, the Hg concentration in cord blood of humans feeding on fish from the river was predicted to exceed the BMDLs(0.1) with about 10% probability. Most of the risk to the groundwater quality is confined to the vicinity of the gold refining plants and along the river, with a probability of about 20% to exceed the guideline value.

  4. Appropriate architecture for sustainable development: The creation of ecological footprint and human development index capability

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gibberd, Jeremy T

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available and human systems. The danger with a focus on carbon emissions is that limited resources and timeframes may be exhausted trying to achieve reductions and valuable opportunities to build long term sustainable solutions will be being lost. This paper argues...

  5. Human Populations and the World Conservation Strategy. Commission on Ecology Paper Number 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanks, J.

    This document serves as a supplement to the World Conservation Strategy (WCS) and outlines some of the critical aspects of the interaction between human populations, natural resources, and social and economic conditions. Particular emphasis is placed on the importance of planning with people, and on packaging conservation programs so they are more…

  6. Pervasion of what? : techno–human ecologies and their ubiquitous spirits.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coeckelbergh, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Are the robots coming? Is the singularity near? Will we be dominated by technology? The usual response to ethical issues raised by pervasive and ubiquitous technologies assumes a philosophical anthropology centered on existential autonomy and agency, a dualistic ontology separating humans from

  7. Human Ecology and the Health Dangers, Health Service Aide: 8007.03.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This unit of instruction deals primarily with environmental influence. The course includes instruction on communicable diseases, prevention of diseases, and the optimal environment (pure food, water, air, waste disposal methods, pesticides, radioactivity, and the effects the laws governing each one have on human life). No requisite for prior…

  8. Natural forest regeneration and ecological restoration in human-modified tropical landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martínez-Ramos, Miguel; Pingarroni, Aline; Rodríguez-Velázquez, Jorge; Toledo-Chelala, Lilibeth; Zermeño-Hernández, Isela; Bongers, Frans

    2016-01-01

    In human-modified tropical landscapes (HMLs) the conservation of biodiversity, functions and services of forest ecosystems depends on persistence of old growth forest remnants, forest regeneration in abandoned agricultural fields, and restoration of degraded lands. Understanding the impacts of

  9. The Ecology of Arts and Humanities Education: Bridging the Worlds of Universities and Museums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Porzio, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, colleges and universities have been talking seriously about civic learning, but other stakeholders, particularly public arts, culture, and humanities institutions, must be part of the conversation in order to create a context for learning that develops the skills of graduates in robust ways that reflect the full promise of liberal…

  10. Habitat and Recreational Fishing Opportunity in Tampa Bay: Linking Ecological and Ecosystem Services to Human Beneficiaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estimating value of estuarine habitat to human beneficiaries requires that we understand how habitat alteration impacts function through both production and delivery of ecosystem goods and services (EGS). Here we expand on the habitat valuation technique of Bell (1997) with an es...

  11. Bisphenol A and human health: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochester, Johanna R

    2013-12-01

    There is growing evidence that bisphenol A (BPA) may adversely affect humans. BPA is an endocrine disruptor that has been shown to be harmful in laboratory animal studies. Until recently, there were relatively few epidemiological studies examining the relationship between BPA and health effects in humans. However, in the last year, the number of these studies has more than doubled. A comprehensive literature search found 91 studies linking BPA to human health; 53 published within the last year. This review outlines this body of literature, showing associations between BPA exposure and adverse perinatal, childhood, and adult health outcomes, including reproductive and developmental effects, metabolic disease, and other health effects. These studies encompass both prenatal and postnatal exposures, and include several study designs and population types. While it is difficult to make causal links with epidemiological studies, the growing human literature correlating environmental BPA exposure to adverse effects in humans, along with laboratory studies in many species including primates, provides increasing support that environmental BPA exposure can be harmful to humans, especially in regards to behavioral and other effects in children. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Human and animal sarcocystosis in Malaysia: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baha Latif

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Sarcocystosis is a zoonotic disease caused by a coccidian intracellular protozoan parasite of the genus Sarcocystis. More than 200 Sarcocystis species have been recorded and the parasites are found in mammals, birds and reptiles. They require two hosts to complete their life cycle. In Malaysia, sarcocystosis was reported as a potential emerging food and water-borne disease after a series of large outbreak of human infections. There was not enough attention given before even though it was reported in both humans and animals. The first human case of invasive muscular sarcocystosis among local Malaysian was reported in 1975. Besides, a retrospective autopsy examination on 100 tongues revealed 21% positive cases. On top of that, a sero-epidemiological survey conducted in 243 subjects in West Malaysia showed that 19.7% had Sarcocystis antibodies. The clinical symptoms of muscular sarcocystosis were first described comprehensively in 1999. Meanwhile, many types of animals including livestock were found harbor the sarcocysts in their tissue. The first case of human intestinal sarcocystosis was reported in 2014. This review indicates that human sarcocystosis is currently endemic in Malaysia and parallel to that reported in animals. However, more studies and investigations need to be conducted since the source of human infection remains unknown.

  13. Factors mediating HIV risk among female sex workers in Europe: a systematic review and ecological analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Lucy; Jolley, Emma; Rhodes, Tim; Hope, Vivian; Latypov, Alisher; Reynolds, Lucy; Wilson, David

    2013-01-01

    Objectives We reviewed the epidemiology of HIV and selected sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among female sex workers (FSWs) in WHO-defined Europe. There were three objectives: (1) to assess the prevalence of HIV and STIs (chlamydia, syphilis and gonorrhoea); (2) to describe structural and individual-level risk factors associated with prevalence and (3) to examine the relationship between structural-level factors and national estimates of HIV prevalence among FSWs. Design A systematic search of published and unpublished literature measuring HIV/STIs and risk factors among FSWs, identified through electronic databases published since 2005. ‘Best’ estimates of HIV prevalence were calculated from the systematic review to provide national level estimates of HIV. Associations between HIV prevalence and selected structural-level indicators were assessed using linear regression models. Studies reviewed Of the 1993 papers identified in the search, 73 peer-reviewed and grey literature documents were identified as meeting our criteria of which 63 papers provided unique estimates of HIV and STI prevalence and nine reported multivariate risk factors for HIV/STI among FSWs. Results HIV in Europe remains low among FSWs who do not inject drugs (HIV, including lack of access to services and working on the street. Linear regression models showed HIV among FSWs to link with injecting drug use and imprisonment. Conclusions Findings show that HIV prevention interventions should be nested inside strategies that address the social welfare of sex workers, highlighting in turn the need to target the social determinants of health and inequality, including regarding access to services, experience of violence and migration. Future epidemiological and intervention studies of HIV among vulnerable populations need to better systematically delineate how microenvironmental and macroenvironmental factors combine to increase or reduce HIV/STI risk. PMID:23883879

  14. Human factors evaluation of teletherapy: Literature review. Volume 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriksen, K.; Kaye, R.D.; Jones, R. [Hughes Training, Inc., Falls Church, VA (United States); Morisseau, D.S.; Serig, D.L. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Div. of Systems Technology

    1995-07-01

    A series of human factors evaluations were undertaken to better understand the contributing factors to human error in the teletherapy environment. Teletherapy is a multidisciplinary methodology for treating cancerous tissue through selective exposure to an external beam of ionizing radiation. A team of human factors specialists, assisted by a panel of radiation oncologists, medical physicists, and radiation therapists, conducted site visits to radiation oncology departments at community hospitals, university centers, and free-standing clinics. A function and task analysis was performed initially to guide subsequent evaluations in the areas of workplace environment, system-user interfaces, procedures, training, and organizational practices. To further acquire an in-depth and up-to-date understanding of the practice of teletherapy in support of these evaluations, a systematic literature review was conducted. Factors that have a potential impact on the accuracy of treatment delivery were of primary concern. The present volume is the literature review. The volume starts with an overview of the multiphased nature of teletherapy, and then examines the requirement for precision, the increasing role of quality assurance, current conceptualizations of human error, and the role of system factors such as the workplace environment, user-system interfaces, procedures, training, and organizational practices.

  15. Human factors evaluation of teletherapy: Literature review. Volume 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriksen, K.; Kaye, R.D.; Jones, R.; Morisseau, D.S.; Serig, D.L.

    1995-07-01

    A series of human factors evaluations were undertaken to better understand the contributing factors to human error in the teletherapy environment. Teletherapy is a multidisciplinary methodology for treating cancerous tissue through selective exposure to an external beam of ionizing radiation. A team of human factors specialists, assisted by a panel of radiation oncologists, medical physicists, and radiation therapists, conducted site visits to radiation oncology departments at community hospitals, university centers, and free-standing clinics. A function and task analysis was performed initially to guide subsequent evaluations in the areas of workplace environment, system-user interfaces, procedures, training, and organizational practices. To further acquire an in-depth and up-to-date understanding of the practice of teletherapy in support of these evaluations, a systematic literature review was conducted. Factors that have a potential impact on the accuracy of treatment delivery were of primary concern. The present volume is the literature review. The volume starts with an overview of the multiphased nature of teletherapy, and then examines the requirement for precision, the increasing role of quality assurance, current conceptualizations of human error, and the role of system factors such as the workplace environment, user-system interfaces, procedures, training, and organizational practices

  16. 2015 Space Human Factors Engineering Standing Review Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Susan

    2015-01-01

    The 2015 Space Human Factors Engineering (SHFE) Standing Review Panel (from here on referred to as the SRP) met for a site visit in Houston, TX on December 2 - 3, 2015. The SRP reviewed the updated research plans for the Risk of Inadequate Design of Human and Automation/Robotic Integration (HARI Risk), the Risk of Inadequate Human-Computer Interaction (HCI Risk), and the Risk of Inadequate Mission, Process and Task Design (MPTask Risk). The SRP also received a status update on the Risk of Incompatible Vehicle/Habitat Design (Hab Risk) and the Risk of Performance Errors Due to Training Deficiencies (Train Risk). The SRP is pleased with the progress and responsiveness of the SHFE team. The presentations were much improved this year. The SRP is also pleased with the human-centered design approach. Below are some of the more extensive comments from the SRP. We have also made comments in each section concerning gaps/tasks in each. The comments below reflect more significant changes that impact more than just one particular section.

  17. Human factors engineering review for CRT screen design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, S. M.; Joo, C. Y.; Ra, J. C.

    1999-01-01

    The information interface between man and machine may be more important than hardware and workplace layout considerations. Transmitting and receiving data through this information interface can be characterized as a communication or interface problem. Management of man-machine interface is essential for the enhancement of the information processing and decision-making capability of computer users working in real time, demanding task. The design of human-computer interface is not a rigid and static procedure. The content and context of each interface varies according to the specific application. So, the purpose of this study is to review the human factor design process for interfaces, to make human factor guidelines for CRT screen and to apply these to CRT screen design. (author)

  18. Epidemiological review of toxoplasmosis in humans and animals in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Hotea, I; Olariu, T R; Jones, J L; Dărăbuş, G

    2014-03-01

    Infections by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii are widely prevalent in humans and other animals worldwide. However, information from eastern European countries is sketchy. In many eastern European countries, including Romania, it has been assumed that chronic T. gondii infection is a common cause of infertility and abortion. For this reason, many women in Romania with these problems were needlessly tested for T. gondii infection. Most papers on toxoplasmosis in Romania were published in Romanian in local journals and often not available to scientists in other countries. Currently, the rate of congenital infection in Romania is largely unknown. In addition, there is little information on genetic characteristics of T. gondii or prevalence in animals and humans in Romania. In the present paper we review prevalence, clinical spectrum and epidemiology of T. gondii in humans and animals in Romania. This knowledge should be useful to biologists, public health workers, veterinarians and physicians.

  19. Human-related factors regulate the spatial ecology of domestic cats in sensitive areas for conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim P Ferreira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Domestic cats ranging freely in natural areas are a conservation concern due to competition, predation, disease transmission or hybridization with wildcats. In order to improve our ability to design effective control policies, we investigate the factors affecting their numbers and space use in natural areas of continental Europe. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We describe the patterns of cat presence, abundance and space use and analyse the associated environmental and human constraints in a well-preserved Mediterranean natural area with small scattered local farms. We failed in detecting cats in areas away from human settlements (trapping effort above 4000 trap-nights, while we captured 30 individuals near inhabited farms. We identified 130 cats, all of them in farms still in use by people (30% of 128 farms. All cats were free-ranging and very wary of people. The main factor explaining the presence of cats was the presence of people, while the number of cats per farm was mostly affected by the occasional food provisioning with human refuse and the presence of people. The home ranges of eight radio tagged cats were centred at inhabited farms. Males went furthest away from the farms during the mating season (3.8 km on average, maximum 6.3 km, using inhabited farms as stepping-stones in their mating displacements (2.2 km of maximum inter-farm distance moved. In their daily movements, cats notably avoided entering in areas with high fox density. CONCLUSIONS: The presence, abundance and space use of cats were heavily dependent on human settlements. Any strategy aiming at reducing their impact in areas of conservation concern should aim at the presence of settlements and their spatial spread and avoid any access to human refuse. The movements of domestic cats would be limited in areas with large patches of natural vegetation providing good conditions for other carnivore mammals such as red foxes.

  20. Human factors review for Severe Accident Sequence Analysis (SASA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krois, P.A.; Haas, P.M.; Manning, J.J.; Bovell, C.R.

    1984-01-01

    The paper will discuss work being conducted during this human factors review including: (1) support of the Severe Accident Sequence Analysis (SASA) Program based on an assessment of operator actions, and (2) development of a descriptive model of operator severe accident management. Research by SASA analysts on the Browns Ferry Unit One (BF1) anticipated transient without scram (ATWS) was supported through a concurrent assessment of operator performance to demonstrate contributions to SASA analyses from human factors data and methods. A descriptive model was developed called the Function Oriented Accident Management (FOAM) model, which serves as a structure for bridging human factors, operations, and engineering expertise and which is useful for identifying needs/deficiencies in the area of accident management. The assessment of human factors issues related to ATWS required extensive coordination with SASA analysts. The analysis was consolidated primarily to six operator actions identified in the Emergency Procedure Guidelines (EPGs) as being the most critical to the accident sequence. These actions were assessed through simulator exercises, qualitative reviews, and quantitative human reliability analyses. The FOAM descriptive model assumes as a starting point that multiple operator/system failures exceed the scope of procedures and necessitates a knowledge-based emergency response by the operators. The FOAM model provides a functionally-oriented structure for assembling human factors, operations, and engineering data and expertise into operator guidance for unconventional emergency responses to mitigate severe accident progression and avoid/minimize core degradation. Operators must also respond to potential radiological release beyond plant protective barriers. Research needs in accident management and potential uses of the FOAM model are described. 11 references, 1 figure

  1. Review of climate, landscape, and viral genetics as drivers of the Japanese encephalitis virus ecology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Le Flohic

    Full Text Available The Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV, an arthropod-born Flavivirus, is the major cause of viral encephalitis, responsible for 10,000-15,000 deaths each year, yet is a neglected tropical disease. Since the JEV distribution area has been large and continuously extending toward new Asian and Australasian regions, it is considered an emerging and reemerging pathogen. Despite large effective immunization campaigns, Japanese encephalitis remains a disease of global health concern. JEV zoonotic transmission cycles may be either wild or domestic: the first involves wading birds as wild amplifying hosts; the second involves pigs as the main domestic amplifying hosts. Culex mosquito species, especially Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, are the main competent vectors. Although five JEV genotypes circulate, neither clear-cut genotype-phenotype relationship nor clear variations in genotype fitness to hosts or vectors have been identified. Instead, the molecular epidemiology appears highly dependent on vectors, hosts' biology, and on a set of environmental factors. At global scale, climate, land cover, and land use, otherwise strongly dependent on human activities, affect the abundance of JEV vectors, and of wild and domestic hosts. Chiefly, the increase of rice-cultivated surface, intensively used by wading birds, and of pig production in Asia has provided a high availability of resources to mosquito vectors, enhancing the JEV maintenance, amplification, and transmission. At fine scale, the characteristics (density, size, spatial arrangement of three landscape elements (paddy fields, pig farms, human habitations facilitate or impede movement of vectors, then determine how the JEV interacts with hosts and vectors and ultimately the infection risk to humans. If the JEV is introduced in a favorable landscape, either by live infected animals or by vectors, then the virus can emerge and become a major threat for human health. Multidisciplinary research is essential to shed

  2. Climate change and nesting behaviour in vertebrates: a review of the ecological threats and potential for adaptive responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainwaring, Mark C; Barber, Iain; Deeming, Denis C; Pike, David A; Roznik, Elizabeth A; Hartley, Ian R

    2017-11-01

    Nest building is a taxonomically widespread and diverse trait that allows animals to alter local environments to create optimal conditions for offspring development. However, there is growing evidence that climate change is adversely affecting nest-building in animals directly, for example via sea-level rises that flood nests, reduced availability of building materials, and suboptimal sex allocation in species exhibiting temperature-dependent sex determination. Climate change is also affecting nesting species indirectly, via range shifts into suboptimal nesting areas, reduced quality of nest-building environments, and changes in interactions with nest predators and parasites. The ability of animals to adapt to sustained and rapid environmental change is crucial for the long-term persistence of many species. Many animals are known to be capable of adjusting nesting behaviour adaptively across environmental gradients and in line with seasonal changes, and this existing plasticity potentially facilitates adaptation to anthropogenic climate change. However, whilst alterations in nesting phenology, site selection and design may facilitate short-term adaptations, the ability of nest-building animals to adapt over longer timescales is likely to be influenced by the heritable basis of such behaviour. We urgently need to understand how the behaviour and ecology of nest-building in animals is affected by climate change, and particularly how altered patterns of nesting behaviour affect individual fitness and population persistence. We begin our review by summarising how predictable variation in environmental conditions influences nest-building animals, before highlighting the ecological threats facing nest-building animals experiencing anthropogenic climate change and examining the potential for changes in nest location and/or design to provide adaptive short- and long-term responses to changing environmental conditions. We end by identifying areas that we believe warrant the

  3. From Ecology to Finance (and Back?): A Review on Entropy-Based Null Models for the Analysis of Bipartite Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straka, Mika J.; Caldarelli, Guido; Squartini, Tiziano; Saracco, Fabio

    2018-04-01

    Bipartite networks provide an insightful representation of many systems, ranging from mutualistic networks of species interactions to investment networks in finance. The analyses of their topological structures have revealed the ubiquitous presence of properties which seem to characterize many—apparently different—systems. Nestedness, for example, has been observed in biological plant-pollinator as well as in country-product exportation networks. Due to the interdisciplinary character of complex networks, tools developed in one field, for example ecology, can greatly enrich other areas of research, such as economy and finance, and vice versa. With this in mind, we briefly review several entropy-based bipartite null models that have been recently proposed and discuss their application to real-world systems. The focus on these models is motivated by the fact that they show three very desirable features: analytical character, general applicability, and versatility. In this respect, entropy-based methods have been proven to perform satisfactorily both in providing benchmarks for testing evidence-based null hypotheses and in reconstructing unknown network configurations from partial information. Furthermore, entropy-based models have been successfully employed to analyze ecological as well as economic systems. As an example, the application of entropy-based null models has detected early-warning signals, both in economic and financial systems, of the 2007-2008 world crisis. Moreover, they have revealed a statistically-significant export specialization phenomenon of country export baskets in international trade, a result that seems to reconcile Ricardo's hypothesis in classical economics with recent findings on the (empirical) diversification industrial production at the national level. Finally, these null models have shown that the information contained in the nestedness is already accounted for by the degree sequence of the corresponding graphs.

  4. Long-term fate of depleted uranium at Aberdeen and Yuma Proving Grounds: Human health and ecological risk assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebinger, M.H.; Beckman, R.J.; Myers, O.B.; Kennedy, P.L.; Clements, W.; Bestgen, H.T.

    1996-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immediate and long-term consequences of depleted uranium (DU) in the environment at Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) and Yuma Proving Ground (YPG) for the Test and Evaluation Command (TECOM) of the US Army. Specifically, we examined the potential for adverse radiological and toxicological effects to humans and ecosystems caused by exposure to DU at both installations. We developed contaminant transport models of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems at APG and terrestrial ecosystems at YPG to assess potential adverse effects from DU exposure. Sensitivity and uncertainty analyses of the initial models showed the portions of the models that most influenced predicted DU concentrations, and the results of the sensitivity analyses were fundamental tools in designing field sampling campaigns at both installations. Results of uranium (U) isotope analyses of field samples provided data to evaluate the source of U in the environment and the toxicological and radiological doses to different ecosystem components and to humans. Probabilistic doses were estimated from the field data, and DU was identified in several components of the food chain at APG and YPG. Dose estimates from APG data indicated that U or DU uptake was insufficient to cause adverse toxicological or radiological effects. Dose estimates from YPG data indicated that U or DU uptake is insufficient to cause radiological effects in ecosystem components or in humans, but toxicological effects in small mammals (e.g., kangaroo rats and pocket mice) may occur from U or DU ingestion. The results of this study were used to modify environmental radiation monitoring plans at APG and YPG to ensure collection of adequate data for ongoing ecological and human health risk assessments

  5. Long-term fate of depleted uranium at Aberdeen and Yuma Proving Grounds: Human health and ecological risk assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebinger, M.H.; Beckman, R.J.; Myers, O.B. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Kennedy, P.L.; Clements, W.; Bestgen, H.T. [Colorado State Univ., Ft. Collins, CO (United States). Dept. of Fishery and Wildlife Biology

    1996-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immediate and long-term consequences of depleted uranium (DU) in the environment at Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) and Yuma Proving Ground (YPG) for the Test and Evaluation Command (TECOM) of the US Army. Specifically, we examined the potential for adverse radiological and toxicological effects to humans and ecosystems caused by exposure to DU at both installations. We developed contaminant transport models of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems at APG and terrestrial ecosystems at YPG to assess potential adverse effects from DU exposure. Sensitivity and uncertainty analyses of the initial models showed the portions of the models that most influenced predicted DU concentrations, and the results of the sensitivity analyses were fundamental tools in designing field sampling campaigns at both installations. Results of uranium (U) isotope analyses of field samples provided data to evaluate the source of U in the environment and the toxicological and radiological doses to different ecosystem components and to humans. Probabilistic doses were estimated from the field data, and DU was identified in several components of the food chain at APG and YPG. Dose estimates from APG data indicated that U or DU uptake was insufficient to cause adverse toxicological or radiological effects. Dose estimates from YPG data indicated that U or DU uptake is insufficient to cause radiological effects in ecosystem components or in humans, but toxicological effects in small mammals (e.g., kangaroo rats and pocket mice) may occur from U or DU ingestion. The results of this study were used to modify environmental radiation monitoring plans at APG and YPG to ensure collection of adequate data for ongoing ecological and human health risk assessments.

  6. Simultaneous assessments of occurrence, ecological, human health, and organoleptic hazards for 77 VOCs in typical drinking water sources from 5 major river basins, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xichao; Luo, Qian; Wang, Donghong; Gao, Jijun; Wei, Zi; Wang, Zijian; Zhou, Huaidong; Mazumder, Asit

    2015-01-01

    Owing to the growing public awareness on the safety and aesthetics in water sources, more attention has been given to the adverse effects of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) on aquatic organisms and human beings. In this study, 77 target VOCs (including 54 common VOCs, 13 carbonyl compounds, and 10 taste and odor compounds) were detected in typical drinking water sources from 5 major river basins (the Yangtze, the Huaihe, the Yellow, the Haihe and the Liaohe River basins) and their occurrences were characterized. The ecological, human health, and olfactory assessments were performed to assess the major hazards in source water. The investigation showed that there existed potential ecological risks (1.30 × 10 ≤ RQ_t_o_t_a_ls ≤ 8.99 × 10) but little human health risks (6.84 × 10"−"7 ≤ RQ_t_o_t_a_ls ≤ 4.24 × 10"−"4) by VOCs, while that odor problems occurred extensively. The priority contaminants in drinking water sources of China were also listed based on the present assessment criteria. - Highlights: • VOCs with various polarities were screened in typical water sources of China. • Ecological, human health and olfactory assessments were simultaneously performed. • The risk assessments were used to identify the major hazards by VOCs. • The detected VOCs posed potential ecological risks but little human health risks. • Odor problems occurred extensively in source water of China. - Detected VOCs with various polarities caused odor problems and posed potential ecological risks but little human health risks in drinking water sources in China.

  7. Congenital candidiasis as a subject of research in medicine and human ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoczylas, Michał M; Walat, Anna; Kordek, Agnieszka; Loniewska, Beata; Rudnicki, Jacek; Maleszka, Romuald; Torbé, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Congenital candidiasis is a severe complication of candidal vulvovaginitis. It occurs in two forms,congenital mucocutaneous candidiasis and congenital systemic candidiasis. Also newborns are in age group the most vulnerable to invasive candidiasis. Congenital candidiasis should be considered as an interdisciplinary problem including maternal and fetal condition (including antibiotic therapy during pregnancy), birth age and rare genetic predispositions as severe combined immunodeficiency or neutrophil-specific granule deficiency. Environmental factors are no less important to investigate in diagnosing, treatment and prevention. External factors (e.g., food) and microenvironment of human organism (microflora of the mouth, intestine and genitalia) are important for solving clinical problems connected to congenital candidiasis. Physician knowledge about microorganisms in a specific compartments of the microenvironment of human organism and in the course of defined disorders of homeostasis makes it easier to predict the course of the disease and allows the development of procedures that can be extremely helpful in individualized diagnostic and therapeutic process.

  8. Silage review: Using molecular approaches to define the microbial ecology of silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, T A; Dunière, L; Drouin, P; Xu, S; Wang, Y; Munns, K; Zaheer, R

    2018-05-01

    can also lead to biases in the interpretation of sequence data. Bioinformatic analyses are reliant on the integrity and presence of sequence data within established databases and can be subject to low taxonomic resolution. Despite these limitations, advancements in molecular biology are poised to revolutionize our current understanding of the microbial ecology of silage. Published by FASS Inc. and Elsevier Inc. on behalf of the American Dairy Science Association®. All rights reserved.

  9. Favorable ecological circumstances promote life expectancy in chimpanzees similar to that of human hunter-gatherers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Brian M; Watts, David P; Mitani, John C; Langergraber, Kevin E

    2017-04-01

    Demographic data on wild chimpanzees are crucial for understanding the evolution of chimpanzee and hominin life histories, but most data come from populations affected by disease outbreaks and anthropogenic disturbance. We present survivorship data from a relatively undisturbed and exceptionally large community of eastern chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) at Ngogo, Kibale National Park, Uganda. We monitored births, deaths, immigrations, and emigrations in the community between 1995 and 2016. Using known and estimated ages, we calculated survivorship curves for the whole community, for males and females separately, and for individuals ≤2 years old when identified. We used a novel method to address age estimation error by calculating stochastic survivorship curves. We compared Ngogo life expectancy, survivorship, and mortality rates to those from other chimpanzee communities and human hunter-gatherers. Life expectancy at birth for both sexes combined was 32.8 years, far exceeding estimates of chimpanzee life expectancy in other communities, and falling within the range of human hunter-gatherers (i.e., 27-37 years). Overall, the pattern of survivorship at Ngogo was more similar to that of human hunter-gatherers than to other chimpanzee communities. Maximum lifespan for the Ngogo chimpanzees, however, was similar to that reported at other chimpanzee research sites and was less than that of human-hunter gatherers. The absence of predation by large carnivores may contribute to some of the higher survivorship at Ngogo, but this cannot explain the much higher survivorship at Ngogo than at Kanyawara, another chimpanzee community in the same forest, which also lacks large carnivores. Higher survivorship at Ngogo appears to be an adaptive response to a food supply that is more abundant and varies less than that of Kanyawara. Future analyses of hominin life history evolution should take these results into account. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  10. Ecological aspects of selenium and tellurium in human and animal health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frost, D V; Ingvoldstad, D

    1975-01-01

    Animal and human studies indicate that selenium inadequacy, in part, underlies various chronic diseases. Epidemiologic evidence suggests that cancer and heart disease are most common where ambient Se availability is low. Plant Se uptake and Se blood levels are inverse to human cancer mortality. As the active group in glutathione peroxidase, Se/sup -2/ inhibits aberrant oxidations which lead to chronic diseases. It binds heavy metals, and with tocopherol maintains tissue integrity. Sulfur dioxide fallout from the atmosphere, resulting from fossil fuel burning, may diminish the nutritional availability of selenium by diminishing plant uptake. Intensive ruminant grazing returns unavailable Se/sup 0/ to soils. Trimethyl selenium ion, as excreted by animals, also appears to be unavailable to plants. Modern fertilization practices and the effect of buildup of sulfates in the soil, due to acid rains, both appear to lessen the availability of Se to plants. SeO/sub 2/ added to the atmosphere from combustion and volcanic activity react with SO/sub 2/ to yield Se/sup 0/. This is presumed to fall out as particles from the air. How traces of Se are otherwise carried in air, explaining its enrichment in some areas, is unknown. The New Zealand experience with Se inadequacy in animals and man may be repeated in other parts of the world. Se inadequacy is far more of a human health problem than Se toxicity. There are no known adverse health effects from tellurium, other than tellurium breath. 164 references, 5 figures, 3 tables.

  11. Carvacrol importance in veterinary and human medicine as ecologic insecticide and acaricide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučinić Marijana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Carvacrol is an active ingredient of essential oils from different plants, mainly from oregano and thyme species. It poseses biocidal activity agains many artropodes of the importance for veterinary and human medicine. Carvacrol acts as repelent, larvicide, insecticide and acaricide. It acts against pest artropodes such as those that serve as mechanical or biological vectors for many causal agents of viral, bacterial and parasitic diseases for animals and humans. Therefore, it may be used not only in pest arthropodes control but in vector borne diseases control, too. In the paper carvacrol bioactivity against mosquitoes, house flies, cockroaches, ticks and mites are described. Potencial modes of carvacrol action on artropodes are given, too. Carvacrol reachs its biotoxicity against arthropodes alone or in combination with other active ingredients from the same plant of its origin, such as tymol, cymen or others. The paper explains reasons for frequently investigations on essential oils and other natural products of plant origin to their biotoxicity against food stored pest or pest of medicinal importance, as well as, needs for their use in agriculture, veterinary and human medicine.

  12. Ecological review of black-grass (Alopecurus myosuroides Huds. propagation abilities in relationship with herbicide resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maréchal, PY.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Alopecurus myosuroides Huds. (black-grass has always been a major concern for cereal growers, and the development of herbicide resistance does not improve the situation. This review article summarizes the different traits involved in the dispersal pattern of herbicide resistant black-grass individuals within a susceptible field population. Therefore, the whole life cycle of black-grass is depicted from the seed to the seed. From the early vegetative development to the seed falling, every stage is described, taking into account how herbicide resistance can influence or exert a different impact compared to susceptible plants.

  13. Assessment of ecological and human health risks of heavy metal contamination in agriculture soils disturbed by pipeline construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Peng; Xiao, Jun; Wang, Yafeng; Chen, Liding

    2014-02-28

    The construction of large-scale infrastructures such as nature gas/oil pipelines involves extensive disturbance to regional ecosystems. Few studies have documented the soil degradation and heavy metal contamination caused by pipeline construction. In this study, chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) levels were evaluated using Index of Geo-accumulation (Igeo) and Potential Ecological Risk Index (RI) values, and human health risk assessments were used to elucidate the level and spatial variation of heavy metal pollution risks. The results showed that the impact zone of pipeline installation on soil heavy metal contamination was restricted to pipeline right-of-way (RoW), which had higher Igeo of Cd, Cu, Ni and Pb than that of 20 m and 50 m. RI showed a declining tendency in different zones as follows: trench > working zone > piling area > 20 m > 50 m. Pipeline RoW resulted in higher human health risks than that of 20 m and 50 m, and children were more susceptible to non-carcinogenic hazard risk. Cluster analysis showed that Cu, Ni, Pb and Cd had similar sources, drawing attention to the anthropogenic activity. The findings in this study should help better understand the type, degree, scope and sources of heavy metal pollution from pipeline construction to reduce pollutant emissions, and are helpful in providing a scientific basis for future risk management.

  14. Assessment of Ecological and Human Health Risks of Heavy Metal Contamination in Agriculture Soils Disturbed by Pipeline Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Shi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The construction of large-scale infrastructures such as nature gas/oil pipelines involves extensive disturbance to regional ecosystems. Few studies have documented the soil degradation and heavy metal contamination caused by pipeline construction. In this study, chromium (Cr, cadmium (Cd, copper (Cu, nickel (Ni, lead (Pb and zinc (Zn levels were evaluated using Index of Geo-accumulation (Igeo and Potential Ecological Risk Index (RI values, and human health risk assessments were used to elucidate the level and spatial variation of heavy metal pollution risks. The results showed that the impact zone of pipeline installation on soil heavy metal contamination was restricted to pipeline right-of-way (RoW, which had higher Igeo of Cd, Cu, Ni and Pb than that of 20 m and 50 m. RI showed a declining tendency in different zones as follows: trench > working zone > piling area > 20 m > 50 m. Pipeline RoW resulted in higher human health risks than that of 20 m and 50 m, and children were more susceptible to non-carcinogenic hazard risk. Cluster analysis showed that Cu, Ni, Pb and Cd had similar sources, drawing attention to the anthropogenic activity. The findings in this study should help better understand the type, degree, scope and sources of heavy metal pollution from pipeline construction to reduce pollutant emissions, and are helpful in providing a scientific basis for future risk management.

  15. The chemical behaviour and ecological transfer in the human food chain of some radionuclides in aqueous ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furnica, Gh.

    1980-01-01

    The aqueous ecosystem of the Danube has been investigated in the period of 1976-1979. Data on the ecological transfer of radionuclides in the human food chain made an estimation available on the risk of the affected population. In the assessment of population exposure, the internal radiation dose for a period of one year and the continuous external irradiation determined by TLD have been considered. - The results revealed very low Sr-90 and Cs-137 contents in the Danube water and in the drinking water. The radioactivity contents are higher in the sediment and in some biota than in the water. The H-3 content in the Danube water varies in a wider range and higher concentration was found in fish than in the water. Both the Danube sediment and the irrigated sandy soil contain very low concentrations of fission products. During 1976-1979, the radioiodine content in air, milk and cow thyroid around the 679-Km is continuously decreasing. - Based on the data obtained, the corresponding collective dose equivalent value was calculated and the risk on the health of the population was found to be very low from contamination during 1975-1978. The radioactivity concentration values in critical human food chain, however, are not negligible. (author)

  16. Comparative Review of Antimicrobial Resistance in Humans and Nonhuman Primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeffrey; Coble, Dondrae J; Salyards, Gregory W; Habing, Gregory G

    2018-04-02

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) presents serious threats to human and animal health. Although AMR of pathogens is often evaluated independently between humans and animals, comparative analysis of AMR between humans and animals is necessary for zoonotic pathogens. Major surveillance systems monitor AMR of zoonotic pathogens in humans and food animals, but comprehensive AMR data in veterinary medicine is not diligently monitored for most animal species with which humans commonly contact, including NHP. The objective of this review is to provide a complete report of the prevalences of AMR among zoonotic bacteria that present the greatest threats to NHP, occupational, and public health. High prevalences of AMR exist among Shigella, Campylobacter, and Yersinia, including resistance to antimicrobials important to public health, such as macrolides. Despite improvements in regulations, standards, policies, practices, and zoonotic awareness, occupational exposures to and illnesses due to zoonotic pathogens continue to be reported and, given the documented prevalences of AMR, constitute an occupational and public health risk. However, published literature is sparse, thus indicating the need for veterinarians to proactively monitor AMR in dangerous zoonotic bacteria, to enable veterinarians to make more informed decisions to maximize antimicrobial therapy and minimize occupational risk.

  17. A review on human attitudes towards reptiles in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Rômulo Romeu Nóbrega; Vieira, Kleber Silva; Santana, Gindomar Gomes; Vieira, Washington Luiz Silva; Almeida, Waltécio Oliveira; Souto, Wedson Medeiros Silva; Montenegro, Paulo Fernando Guedes Pereira; Pezzuti, Juarez Carlos Brito

    2012-11-01

    For many millennia humans and reptiles have interacted, but the attitude of humans towards these animals has depended on culture, environment, and personal experience. At least 719 reptile species are known to occur in Brazil and about 11% of this fauna has been exploited for many different purposes, including bushmeat, leather, ornamental and magic/religious uses, and as folk medicines. Brazil can therefore serve as an interesting case study for better understanding reptile use by human societies, and the present paper catalogues some of the reptile species being used in Brazil and discusses implications for their conservation. A literature review indicated that 81 reptile species are culturally important in this country, with 47 (58%) species having multiple uses, 54 being used for medicinal purposes, 38 as food, 28 for ornamental or decorative purposes, 20 used in magic/religious practices, 18 as pets, and 40 are commonly killed when they come into contact with humans. Regarding their conservation status, 30 (37.5%) are included on State's Red List, Brazilian Red List or the IUCN Red List. There are many forms of interaction between reptiles and humans in Brazil-although most of them are quite negative in terms of wildlife conservation-which reinforces the importance of understanding such uses and interactions in the context of protecting reptiles in Brazil. A better understanding of the cultural, social, and traditional roles of these reptiles is fundamental to establishing management plans for their sustainable use.

  18. Human trafficking: review of educational resources for health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Roy; Alpert, Elaine J; Purcell, Genevieve; Konstantopoulos, Wendy Macias; McGahan, Anita; Cafferty, Elizabeth; Eckardt, Melody; Conn, Kathryn L; Cappetta, Kate; Burke, Thomas F

    2013-03-01

    Human trafficking is an increasingly well-recognized human rights violation that is estimated to involve more than 2 million victims worldwide each year. The health consequences of this issue bring victims into contact with health systems and healthcare providers, thus providing the potential for identification and intervention. A robust healthcare response, however, requires a healthcare workforce that is aware of the health impact of this issue; educated about how to identify and treat affected individuals in a compassionate, culturally aware, and trauma-informed manner; and trained about how to collaborate efficiently with law enforcement, case management, and advocacy partners. This article describes existing educational offerings about human trafficking designed for a healthcare audience and makes recommendations for further curriculum development. A keyword search and structured analysis of peer-reviewed and gray literature, conducted in 2011 and 2012, yielded 27 items that provide basic guidance to health professionals on human trafficking. The 27 resources differed substantially in format, length, scope, and intended audience. Topic areas covered by these resources included trafficking definitions and scope, health consequences, victim identification, appropriate treatment, referral to services, legal issues, and security. None of the educational resources has been rigorously evaluated. There is a clear need to develop, implement, and evaluate high-quality education and training programs that focus on human trafficking for healthcare providers. Copyright © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Ecology, Genetic Diversity, and Phylogeographic Structure of Andes Virus in Humans and Rodents in Chile▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Rafael A.; Torres-Perez, Fernando; Galeno, Hector; Navarrete, Maritza; Vial, Pablo A.; Palma, R. Eduardo; Ferres, Marcela; Cook, Joseph A.; Hjelle, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Andes virus (ANDV) is the predominant etiologic agent of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) in southern South America. In Chile, serologically confirmed human hantavirus infections have occurred throughout a wide latitudinal distribution extending from the regions of Valparaíso (32 to 33°S) to Aysén (46°S) in southern Patagonia. In this study, we found seropositive rodents further north in the Coquimbo region (30°S) in Chile. Rodent seroprevalence was 1.4%, with Oligoryzomys longicaudatus displaying the highest seroprevalence (5.9%), followed by Abrothrix longipilis (1.9%) and other species exhibiting ≤0.6% seropositivity. We sequenced partial ANDV small (S) segment RNA from 6 HCPS patients and 32 rodents of four different species collected throughout the known range of hantavirus infection in Chile. Phylogenetic analyses showed two major ANDV South (ANDV Sout) clades, congruent with two major Chilean ecoregions, Mediterranean (Chilean matorral [shrubland]) and Valdivian temperate forest. Human and rodent samples grouped according to geographic location. Phylogenetic comparative analyses of portions of S and medium segments (encoding glycoproteins Gn and Gc) from a subset of rodent specimens exhibited similar topologies, corroborating two major ANDV Sout clades in Chile and suggesting that yet unknown factors influence viral gene flow and persistence throughout the two Chilean ecoregions. Genetic algorithms for recombination detection identified recombination events within the S segment. Molecular demographic analyses showed that the virus is undergoing purifying selection and demonstrated a recent exponential growth in the effective number of ANDV Sout infections in Chile that correlates with the increased number of human cases reported. Although we determined virus sequences from four rodent species, our results confirmed O. longicaudatus as the primary ANDV Sout reservoir in Chile. While evidence of geographic differentiation exists, a single

  20. Ecology, genetic diversity, and phylogeographic structure of andes virus in humans and rodents in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Rafael A; Torres-Perez, Fernando; Galeno, Hector; Navarrete, Maritza; Vial, Pablo A; Palma, R Eduardo; Ferres, Marcela; Cook, Joseph A; Hjelle, Brian

    2009-03-01

    Andes virus (ANDV) is the predominant etiologic agent of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) in southern South America. In Chile, serologically confirmed human hantavirus infections have occurred throughout a wide latitudinal distribution extending from the regions of Valparaíso (32 to 33 degrees S) to Aysén (46 degrees S) in southern Patagonia. In this study, we found seropositive rodents further north in the Coquimbo region (30 degrees S) in Chile. Rodent seroprevalence was 1.4%, with Oligoryzomys longicaudatus displaying the highest seroprevalence (5.9%), followed by Abrothrix longipilis (1.9%) and other species exhibiting Chile. Phylogenetic analyses showed two major ANDV South (ANDV Sout) clades, congruent with two major Chilean ecoregions, Mediterranean (Chilean matorral [shrubland]) and Valdivian temperate forest. Human and rodent samples grouped according to geographic location. Phylogenetic comparative analyses of portions of S and medium segments (encoding glycoproteins Gn and Gc) from a subset of rodent specimens exhibited similar topologies, corroborating two major ANDV Sout clades in Chile and suggesting that yet unknown factors influence viral gene flow and persistence throughout the two Chilean ecoregions. Genetic algorithms for recombination detection identified recombination events within the S segment. Molecular demographic analyses showed that the virus is undergoing purifying selection and demonstrated a recent exponential growth in the effective number of ANDV Sout infections in Chile that correlates with the increased number of human cases reported. Although we determined virus sequences from four rodent species, our results confirmed O. longicaudatus as the primary ANDV Sout reservoir in Chile. While evidence of geographic differentiation exists, a single cosmopolitan lineage of ANDV Sout remains the sole etiologic agent for HCPS in Chile.

  1. Human Activity Recognition Supported on Indoor Localization: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerón, Jesús; López, Diego M

    2018-01-01

    The number of older adults is growing worldwide. This has a social and economic impact in all countries because of the increased number of older adults affected by chronic diseases, health emergencies, and disabilities, representing at the end high cost for the health system. To face this problem, the Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) domain has emerged. Its main objective is to extend the time that older adults can live independently in their homes. AAL is supported by different fields and technologies, being Human Activity Recognition (HAR), control of vital signs and location tracking the three of most interest during the last years. To perform a systematic review about Human Activity Recognition (HAR) approaches supported on Indoor Localization (IL) and vice versa, describing the methods they have used, the accuracy they have obtained and whether they have been directed towards the AAL domain or not. A systematic review of six databases was carried out (ACM, IEEE Xplore, PubMed, Science Direct and Springer). 27 papers were found. They were categorised into three groups according their approach: paper focus on 1. HAR, 2. IL, 3. HAR and IL. A detailed analysis of the following factors was performed: type of methods and technologies used for HAR, IL and data fusion, as well as the precision obtained for them. This systematic review shows that the relationship between HAR and IL has been very little studied, therefore providing insights of its potential mutual support to provide AAL solutions.

  2. Ecological niche of plant pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ecaterina Fodor

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Disease ecology is a new approach to the understanding of the spread and dynamics of pathogens in natural and man-made environments. Defining and describing the ecological niche of the pathogens is one of the major tasks for ecological theory, as well as for practitioners preoccupied with the control and forecasting of established and emerging diseases. Niche theory has been periodically revised, not including in an explicit way the pathogens. However, many progresses have been achieved in niche modeling of disease spread, but few attempts were made to construct a theoretical frame for the ecological niche of pathogens. The paper is a review of the knowledge accumulated during last decades in the niche theory of pathogens and proposes an ecological approach in research. It quest for new control methods in what concerns forest plant pathogens, with a special emphasis on fungi like organisms of the genus Phytophthora. Species of Phytophthora are the most successful plant pathogens of the moment, affecting forest and agricultural systems worldwide, many of them being invasive alien organisms in many ecosystems. The hyperspace of their ecological niche is defined by hosts, environment and human interference, as main axes. To select most important variables within the hyperspace, is important the understanding of the complex role of pathogens in the ecosystems as well as for control programs. Biotic relationships within ecosystem of host-pathogen couple are depicted by ecological network and specific metrics attached to this. The star shaped network is characterized by few high degree nodes, by short path lengths and relatively low connectivity, premises for a rapid disturbance spread. 

  3. Ecological niche of plant pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ecaterina Fodor

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Disease ecology is a new approach to the understanding of the spread and dynamics of pathogens in natural and man-made environments. Defining and describing the ecological niche of the pathogens is one of the major tasks for ecological theory, as well as for practitioners preoccupied with the control and forecasting of established and emerging diseases. Niche theory has been periodically revised, not including in an explicit way the pathogens. However, many progresses have been achieved in niche modeling of disease spread, but few attempts were made to construct a theoretical frame for the ecological niche of pathogens. The paper is a review of the knowledge accumulated during last decades in the niche theory of pathogens and proposes an ecological approach in research. It quest for new control methods in what concerns forest plant pathogens, with a special emphasis on fungi like organisms of the genus Phytophthora. Species of Phytophthora are the most successful plant pathogens of the moment, affecting forest and agricultural systems worldwide, many of them being invasive alien organisms in many ecosystems. The hyperspace of their ecological niche is defined by hosts, environment and human interference, as main axes. To select most important variables within the hyperspace, is important for the understanding of the complex role of pathogens in the ecosystems as well as for control programs. Biotic relationships within ecosystem of host-pathogen couple are depicted by ecological network and specific metrics attached to this. The star shaped network is characterized by few high degree nodes, by short path lengths and relatively low connectivity, premises for a rapid disturbance spread.

  4. Systematic review of the concentrations of oligosaccharides in human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurl, Stephan; Munzert, Manfred; Boehm, Günther; Matthews, Catherine; Stahl, Bernd

    2017-11-01

    Oligosaccharides are the third largest solid component in human milk. These diverse compounds are thought to have numerous beneficial functions in infants, including protection against infectious diseases. The structures of more than 100 oligosaccharides in human milk have been elucidated so far. The aim of this review was to identify the main factors that affect the concentrations of oligosaccharides in human milk and to determine whether it is possible to calculate representative and reliable mean concentrations. A comprehensive literature search on oligosaccharide concentrations in human milk was performed in 6 electronic databases: BIOSIS, Current Contents Search, Embase, Lancet Titles, MEDLINE and PubMed. The initial search resulted in 1363 hits. After the elimination of duplicates, the literature was screened. The application of strict inclusion criteria resulted in 21 articles selected. Oligosaccharide concentrations, both mean values and single values, reported in the literature were sorted by gestational age, secretor status of mothers, and defined lactation periods. Mean concentrations, including confidence limits, of 33 neutral and acidic oligosaccharides reported could be calculated. Concentrations of oligosaccharides in human milk show variations that are dependent on both the secretor type of the mother and the lactation period as examined by analyses of variance. In addition, large interlaboratory variations in the data were observed. Worldwide interlaboratory quantitative analyses of identical milk samples would be required to identify the most reliable methods of determining concentrations of oligosaccharides in human milk. The data presented here contribute to the current knowledge about the composition and quantities of oligosaccharides in human milk and may foster greater understanding of the biological functions of these compounds. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute.

  5. The role of ecological and genetic factors in the onset of asthma in children (literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chumachenko N.G.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a literature review of publications domestic and foreign authors on the risk factors of the onset of asthma in children. Health is 20–40% dependent on the environment and 35–70% dependent on genetic factors. The interaction of genetic and environmental factors lead to anti-oxidant stress and changes not only on the level of the entire organism, but also on the cellular and molecular level. To asses to prognosis for onset and development of bronchial asthma in children, that reside in environmentally neglected zones it is necessary to continue the research into the molecular-genetic gene polymorphism of the enzymes of the xenobiotic detoxication system, as well as metabolic disturbances in children in order to delineate risk group for the onset of the condition and to develop indications for anti-oxidant treatment, to correct the molecular disturbances, that appear long before the clinical manifestation of asthma.

  6. The Review of Ecological and Genetic Research of Ponto-Caspian Gobies (Pisces, Gobiidae in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakšić Goran

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Invasive Ponto-Caspian gobies (monkey goby Neogobius fluviatilis, round goby Neogobius melanostomus and bighead goby Ponticola kessleri have recently caused dramatic changes in fish assemblage structure throughout European river systems. This review provides summary of recent research on their dietary habits, age and growth, phylogenetic lineages and gene diversity. The principal food of all three species is invertebrates, and more rarely fish, which depends on the type of habitat, part of the year, as well as the morphological characteristics of species. According to the von Bertalanffy growth model, size at age is specific for the region, but due to its disadvantages it is necessary to test other growth models. Phylogenetic analysis of monkey goby and round goby indicates separation between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea haplotypes. The greatest genetic diversity is found among populations of the Black Sea, and the lowest among European invaders. The lack of molecular research on bighead goby requires further studies.

  7. Turbulence, larval fish ecology and fisheries recruitment : a review of field studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKenzie, Brian

    2000-01-01

    , and recruitment in entire populations. One of the main findings is that field studies show contrasting effects of turbulence on feeding, growth and mortality rates in nature and on recruitment. Coincident and multiple variations in ecosystem processes, lack of understanding of how some of these processes (e......Fish recruitment varies widely between years but much of this variability cannot be explained by most models of fish population dynamics. In this review, I examine the role of environmental variability on fish recruitment, and ill particular how turbulence affects feeding and growth of larval fish.......g. larval diet composition, feeding behaviour, growth rates, prey patchiness) respond to turbulence, and unavoidable sampling artifacts are mainly responsible for this result. Upwelling as well as frontal processes appear important for larval fish growth and survival, and turbulence levels vary both within...

  8. The Human Neonatal Gut Microbiome: A Brief Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily C. Gritz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The field of genomics has expanded into subspecialties such as metagenomics over the course of the last decade and a half. The development of massively parallel sequencing capabilities has allowed for increasingly detailed study of the genome of the human microbiome, the microbial super organ that resides symbiotically within the mucosal tissues and integumentary system of the human host. The gut microbiome, and particularly the study of its origins in neonates, have become subtopics of great interest within the field of genomics. This brief review seeks to summarize recent literature regarding the origins and establishment of the neonatal gut microbiome, beginning in utero, and how it is affected by neonatal nutritional status (breastfed versus formula fed and gestational age (term versus preterm. We also explore the role of dysbiosis, a perturbation within the fragile ecosystem of the microbiome, and its role in the origin of select pathologic states, specifically, obesity and necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants. We discuss the evidence supporting enteral pre- and probiotic supplementation of commensal organisms such as Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus in the neonatal period, and their role in the prevention and amelioration of necrotizing enterocolitis in premature infants. Finally, we review directions to consider for further research to promote human health within this field.

  9. Prominent Human Health Impacts from Several Marine Microbes: History, Ecology, and Public Health Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Bienfang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper overviews several examples of important public health impacts by marine microbes and directs readers to the extensive literature germane to these maladies. These examples include three types of dinoflagellates (Gambierdiscus spp., Karenia brevis, and Alexandrium fundyense, BMAA-producing cyanobacteria, and infectious microbes. The dinoflagellates are responsible for ciguatera fish poisoning, neurotoxic shellfish poisoning, and paralytic shellfish poisoning, respectively, that have plagued coastal populations over time. Research interest on the potential for marine cyanobacteria to contribute BMAA into human food supplies has been derived by BMAA's discovery in cycad seeds and subsequent implication as the putative cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/parkinsonism dementia complex among the Chamorro people of Guam. Recent UPLC/MS analyses indicate that recent reports that BMAA is prolifically distributed among marine cyanobacteria at high concentrations may be due to analyte misidentification in the analytical protocols being applied for BMAA. Common infectious microbes (including enterovirus, norovirus, Salmonella, Campylobacter, Shigella, Staphylococcus aureus, Cryptosporidium, and Giardia cause gastrointestinal and skin-related illness. These microbes can be introduced from external human and animal sources, or they can be indigenous to the marine environment.

  10. Urban microbiomes and urban ecology: how do microbes in the built environment affect human sustainability in cities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Gary M

    2014-09-01

    Humans increasingly occupy cities. Globally, about 50% of the total human population lives in urban environments, and in spite of some trends for deurbanization, the transition from rural to urban life is expected to accelerate in the future, especially in developing nations and regions. The Republic of Korea, for example, has witnessed a dramatic rise in its urban population, which now accounts for nearly 90% of all residents; the increase from about 29% in 1955 has been attributed to multiple factors, but has clearly been driven by extraordinary growth in the gross domestic product accompanying industrialization. While industrialization and urbanization have unarguably led to major improvements in quality of life indices in Korea and elsewhere, numerous serious problems have also been acknowledged, including concerns about resource availability, water quality, amplification of global warming and new threats to health. Questions about sustainability have therefore led Koreans and others to consider deurbanization as a management policy. Whether this offers any realistic prospects for a sustainable future remains to be seen. In the interim, it has become increasingly clear that built environments are no less complex than natural environments, and that they depend on a variety of internal and external connections involving microbes and the processes for which microbes are responsible. I provide here a definition of the urban microbiome, and through examples indicate its centrality to human function and wellbeing in urban systems. I also identify important knowledge gaps and unanswered questions about urban microbiomes that must be addressed to develop a robust, predictive and general understanding of urban biology and ecology that can be used to inform policy-making for sustainable systems.

  11. Impact of the Qualitative and Quantitative Aspects of Human Activity on the Ecosystem: Demonstration through the Use of Ecological Footprint Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makram GAALICHE

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to show that the impact of human activities on the ecosystem, measured by the Ecological Footprint, depends on the qualitative and quantitative aspects of the population. Indeed, we confirmed our hypothesis by an empirical analysis on Tunisia, where it was revealed that the increase in its Ecological Footprint, is attributed mainly to massive consumption of goods, bad land management by building horizontal, and to a lesser extent, to the presence of polluting employments. The results suggest the adoption of targeted policies, according to the specific characteristics of population.

  12. Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance; interactions between human, animal and environmental ecologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent ePOIREL

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Resistance to quinolones and fluoroquinolones is being increasingly reported among human but also veterinary isolates during the last two to three decades, very likely as a consequence of the large clinical usage of those antibiotics. Even if the principle mechanisms of resistance to quinolones are chromosome-encoded, due to modifications of molecular targets (DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV, decreased outer-membrane permeability (porin defect and overexpression of naturally-occurring efflux, the emergence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR has been reported since 1998. Although these PMQR determinants confer low-level resistance to quinolones and/or fluoroquinolones, they are a favorable background for selection of additional chromosome-encoded quinolone resistance mechanisms. Different transferable mechanisms have been identified, corresponding to the production of Qnr proteins, of the aminoglycoside acetyltransferase AAC(6’-Ib-cr, or of the QepA-type or OqxAB-type efflux pumps. Qnr proteins protect target enzymes (DNA gyrase and type IV topoisomerase from quinolone inhibition (mostly nalidixic acid. The AAC(6’-Ib-cr determinant acetylates several fluoroquinolones, such as norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin. Finally, the QepA and OqxAB efflux pumps extrude fluoroquinolones from the bacterial cell. A series of studies have identified the environment to be a reservoir of PMQR genes, with farm animals and aquatic habitats being significantly involved. In addition, the origin of the qnr genes has been identified, corresponding to the waterborne species Shewanella sp. Altogether, the recent observations suggest that the aquatic environment might constitute the original source of PMQR genes, that would secondly spread among animal or human isolates.

  13. A review on the applications of crowdsourcing in human pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshanak Alialy

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The advent of the digital pathology has introduced new avenues of diagnostic medicine. Among them, crowdsourcing has attracted researchers' attention in the recent years, allowing them to engage thousands of untrained individuals in research and diagnosis. While there exist several articles in this regard, prior works have not collectively documented them. We, therefore, aim to review the applications of crowdsourcing in human pathology in a semi-systematic manner. We first, introduce a novel method to do a systematic search of the literature. Utilizing this method, we, then, collect hundreds of articles and screen them against a predefined set of criteria. Furthermore, we crowdsource part of the screening process, to examine another potential application of crowdsourcing. Finally, we review the selected articles and characterize the prior uses of crowdsourcing in pathology.

  14. A Review on the Applications of Crowdsourcing in Human Pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alialy, Roshanak; Tavakkol, Sasan; Tavakkol, Elham; Ghorbani-Aghbologhi, Amir; Ghaffarieh, Alireza; Kim, Seon Ho; Shahabi, Cyrus

    2018-01-01

    The advent of the digital pathology has introduced new avenues of diagnostic medicine. Among them, crowdsourcing has attracted researchers’ attention in the recent years, allowing them to engage thousands of untrained individuals in research and diagnosis. While there exist several articles in this regard, prior works have not collectively documented them. We, therefore, aim to review the applications of crowdsourcing in human pathology in a semi-systematic manner. We first, introduce a novel method to do a systematic search of the literature. Utilizing this method, we, then, collect hundreds of articles and screen them against a predefined set of criteria. Furthermore, we crowdsource part of the screening process, to examine another potential application of crowdsourcing. Finally, we review the selected articles and characterize the prior uses of crowdsourcing in pathology. PMID:29531847

  15. Ecological and Physiological Studies of Gymnodinium catenatum in the Mexican Pacific: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine J. Band-Schmidt

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This review presents a detailed analysis of the state of knowledge of studies done in Mexico related to the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum, a paralytic toxin producer. This species was first reported in the Gulf of California in 1939; since then most studies in Mexico have focused on local blooms and seasonal variations. G. catenatum is most abundant during March and April, usually associated with water temperatures between 18 and 25 ºC and an increase in nutrients. In vitro studies of G. catenatum strains from different bays along the Pacific coast of Mexico show that this species can grow in wide ranges of salinities, temperatures, and N:P ratios. Latitudinal differences are observed in the toxicity and toxin profile, but the presence of dcSTX, dcGTX2-3, C1, and C2 are usual components. A common characteristic of the toxin profile found in shellfish, when G. catenatum is present in the coastal environment, is the detection of dcGTX2-3, dcSTX, C1, and C2. Few bioassay studies have reported effects in mollusks and lethal effects in mice, and shrimp; however no adverse effects have been observed in the copepod Acartia clausi. Interestingly, genetic sequencing of D1-D2 LSU rDNA revealed that it differs only in one base pair, compared with strains from other regions.

  16. Ecological and physiological studies of Gymnodinium catenatum in the Mexican Pacific: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Band-Schmidt, Christine J; Bustillos-Guzmán, José J; López-Cortés, David J; Gárate-Lizárraga, Ismael; Núñez-Vázquez, Erick J; Hernández-Sandoval, Francisco E

    2010-06-23

    This review presents a detailed analysis of the state of knowledge of studies done in Mexico related to the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum, a paralytic toxin producer. This species was first reported in the Gulf of California in 1939; since then most studies in Mexico have focused on local blooms and seasonal variations. G. catenatum is most abundant during March and April, usually associated with water temperatures between 18 and 25 °C and an increase in nutrients. In vitro studies of G. catenatum strains from different bays along the Pacific coast of Mexico show that this species can grow in wide ranges of salinities, temperatures, and N:P ratios. Latitudinal differences are observed in the toxicity and toxin profile, but the presence of dcSTX, dcGTX2-3, C1, and C2 are usual components. A common characteristic of the toxin profile found in shellfish, when G. catenatum is present in the coastal environment, is the detection of dcGTX2-3, dcSTX, C1, and C2. Few bioassay studies have reported effects in mollusks and lethal effects in mice, and shrimp; however no adverse effects have been observed in the copepod Acartia clausi. Interestingly, genetic sequencing of D1-D2 LSU rDNA revealed that it differs only in one base pair, compared with strains from other regions.

  17. Ecological economics of soil erosion: a review of the current state of knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Bhim; Nadella, Karthik

    2011-02-01

    The economics of land degradation has received relatively little attention until recent years. Although a number of studies have undertaken valuation of ecosystem services ranging from the global to the micro level, and quite a few studies have attempted to quantify the costs of soil erosion, studies that address the full costs of land degradation are still scarce. In this review, we attempt to analyze different land resource modeling and valuation techniques applied in earlier research and the type of data used in these analyses, and to assess their utility for different forms of land resource and management appraisal. We also report on the strengths and weaknesses of different valuation techniques used in studies on the economics of soil erosion, and the relevance of these valuation techniques. We make a case for the need for more appropriate models that can make the analysis more robust in estimating the economic costs of land degradation while recognizing the spatial heterogeneity in biophysical and economic conditions. © 2011 New York Academy of Sciences.

  18. Advanced human-system interface design review guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hara, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    Advanced, computer-based, human-system interface designs are emerging in nuclear power plant control rooms as a result of several factors. These include: (1) incorporation of new systems such as safety parameter display systems, (2) backfitting of current control rooms with new technologies when existing hardware is no longer supported by equipment vendors, and (3) development of advanced control room concepts. Control rooms of the future will be developed almost exclusively with advanced instrumentation and controls based upon digital technology. In addition, the control room operator will be interfacing with more intelligent systems which will be capable of providing information processing support to the operator. These developments may have significant implications for plant safety in that they will greatly affect the operator's role in the system as well as the ways in which he interacts with it. At present, however, the only guidance available to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for the review of control room-operator interfaces is NUREG-0700. It is a document which was written prior to these technological changes and is, therefore, tailored to the technologies used in traditional control rooms. Thus, the present guidance needs to be updated since it is inadequate to serve as the basis for NRC staff review of such advanced or hybrid control room designs. The objective of the project reported in this paper is to develop an Advanced Control Room Design Review Guideline suitable for use in performing human factors reviews of advanced operator interfaces. This guideline will take the form of a portable, interactive, computer-based document that may be conveniently used by an inspector in the field, as well as a text-based document

  19. Resveratrol: A review of preclinical studies for human cancer prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Athar, Mohammad; Back, Jung Ho; Tang Xiuwei; Kim, Kwang Ho; Kopelovich, Levy; Bickers, David R.; Kim, Arianna L.

    2007-01-01

    The search for novel and effective cancer chemopreventive agents has led to the identification of various naturally occurring compounds one of which is resveratrol (trans-3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene), a phytoalexin derived from the skin of grapes and other fruits. Resveratrol is known to have potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects and to inhibit platelet aggregation and the growth of a variety of cancer cells. Its potential chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic activities have been demonstrated in all three stages of carcinogenesis (initiation, promotion, and progression), in both chemically and UVB-induced skin carcinogenesis in mice, as well as in various murine models of human cancers. Evidence from numerous in vitro and in vivo studies has confirmed its ability to modulate various targets and signaling pathways. This review discusses the current preclinical and mechanistic data available and assesses resveratrol's anticancer effects to support its potential as an anticancer agent in human populations

  20. Vibrational Micro-Spectroscopy of Human Tissues Analysis: Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunaciu, Andrei A; Hoang, Vu Dang; Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y

    2017-05-04

    Vibrational spectroscopy (Infrared (IR) and Raman) and, in particular, micro-spectroscopy and micro-spectroscopic imaging have been used to characterize developmental changes in tissues, to monitor these changes in cell cultures and to detect disease and drug-induced modifications. The conventional methods for biochemical and histophatological tissue characterization necessitate complex and "time-consuming" sample manipulations and the results are rarely quantifiable. The spectroscopy of molecular vibrations using mid-IR or Raman techniques has been applied to samples of human tissue. This article reviews the application of these vibrational spectroscopic techniques for analysis of biological tissue published between 2005 and 2015.

  1. The multifactorial nature of human homosexual behavior: A brief review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barona, Daniel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Homosexual behavior has been analyzed as an evolutionary paradox in the biological context. In this review, we will try to compile the main genetic, epigenetic, hormonal, neurological and immune explanations of homosexuality, as well as the ultimate evolutionary causes of this complex behavior in the human being, incorporating information from studies in other animal species. All these factors determine the homosexual behavior, acting most of the times, simultaneously. Hereditary and non hereditary factors determine homosexual behavior, explaining its persistence despite its apparent disadvantages in relation to reproductive fitness.

  2. The fundamental role of ecological feedback mechanisms for the adaptive management of seagrass ecosystems - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Paul S; Eklöf, Johan S; van Katwijk, Marieke M; O'Brien, Katherine R; de la Torre-Castro, Maricela; Boström, Christoffer; Bouma, Tjeerd J; Krause-Jensen, Dorte; Unsworth, Richard K F; van Tussenbroek, Brigitta I; van der Heide, Tjisse

    2017-08-01

    Seagrass meadows are vital ecosystems in coastal zones worldwide, but are also under global threat. One of the major hurdles restricting the success of seagrass conservation and restoration is our limited understanding of ecological feedback mechanisms. In these ecosystems, multiple, self-reinforcing feedbacks can undermine conservation efforts by masking environmental impacts until the decline is precipitous, or alternatively they can inhibit seagrass recovery in spite of restoration efforts. However, no clear framework yet exists for identifying or dealing with feedbacks to improve the management of seagrass ecosystems. Here we review the causes and consequences of multiple feedbacks between seagrass and biotic and/or abiotic processes. We demonstrate how feedbacks have the potential to impose or reinforce regimes of either seagrass dominance or unvegetated substrate, and how the strength and importance of these feedbacks vary across environmental gradients. Although a myriad of feedbacks have now been identified, the co-occurrence and likely interaction among feedbacks has largely been overlooked to date due to difficulties in analysis and detection. Here we take a fundamental step forward by modelling the interactions among two distinct above- and belowground feedbacks to demonstrate that interacting feedbacks are likely to be important for ecosystem resilience. On this basis, we propose a five-step adaptive management plan to address feedback dynamics for effective conservation and restoration strategies. The management plan provides guidance to aid in the identification and prioritisation of likely feedbacks in different seagrass ecosystems. © 2016 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  3. Evolution of feline immunodeficiency virus in Felidae: implications for human health and wildlife ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecon-Slattery, Jill; Troyer, Jennifer L; Johnson, Warren E; O'Brien, Stephen J

    2008-05-15

    Genetic analyses of feline immunodeficiency viruses provide significant insights on the worldwide distribution and evolutionary history of this emerging pathogen. Large-scale screening of over 3000 samples from all species of Felidae indicates that at least some individuals from most species possess antibodies that cross react to FIV. Phylogenetic analyses of genetic variation in the pol-RT gene demonstrate that FIV lineages are species-specific and suggest that there has been a prolonged period of viral-host co-evolution. The clinical effects of FIV specific to species other than domestic cat are controversial. Comparative genomic analyses of all full-length FIV genomes confirmed that FIV is host specific. Recently sequenced lion subtype E is marginally more similar to Pallas cat FIV though env is more similar to that of domestic cat FIV, indicating a possible recombination between two divergent strains in the wild. Here we review global patterns of FIV seroprevalence and endemnicity, assess genetic differences within and between species-specific FIV strains, and interpret these with patterns of felid speciation to propose an ancestral origin of FIV in Africa followed by interspecies transmission and global dissemination to Eurasia and the Americas. Continued comparative genomic analyses of full-length FIV from all seropositive animals, along with whole genome sequence of host species, will greatly advance our understanding of the role of recombination, selection and adaptation in retroviral emergence.

  4. Ecological analyses and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brocksen, R.W.

    1977-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following: analysis of ecological impacts of construction and operation of nuclear power plants; fossil energy environmental project; ecological analysis of geothermal energy development; HUD modular integrated utility systems; expansion of uranium enrichment facilities at Portsmouth; environmental standard review plans; environmental assessment of cooling reservoirs; and analysis of fish impingement at power plants in the southeastern United States

  5. Soil-plant-relationships and ecological forecast of human internal doses from long-lived radionuclides. Dose 'cost' of the transformation of radionuclides bioavailability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kravets, A.P.; Grodzinsky, D.M.

    1999-01-01

    Soil pathway of radionuclides pollution of agricultural production becomes the main one at the recovery stage of postaccidental period. For this stage dynamics of the human foodstuffs cleaning and rate of internal dose due to consumption are results , of the interaction of three main factors, namely, the rate of the decrease of soil contamination, structure of soil use and transformations of bioavailability of radionuclides. Representation of these ideas in quantitative form, documentation and analysis of the main ecological causes that determine the intensity of the radionuclides mobility in the biological cycle is essential increase the accuracy of the long-term forecast of human dose formation and promote the development of adequate strategies for countermeasures. General formal model and practical method of the ecological forecast of human internal doses has been proposed and used for estimation. Refs. 5 (author)

  6. Palaeodemography of the Nasca valley: reconstruction of the human ecology in the southern Peruvian coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drusini, A G; Carrara, N; Orefici, G; Rippa Bonati, M

    2001-01-01

    This study is based on skeletons and mummies belonging to 582 individuals excavated at sites of Pueblo Viejo, Cahuachi, Estaqueria and Atarco in the Nasca valley, South Coast of Peru. Archaeological evidence distinguishes three cultural phases: Nasca (400 BC-550 AD), Wari (600-1100 AD) and Chincha (1100-1412 AD). Since the Chincha human remains were too exiguous (27 individuals), only Nasca and Wari were considered. For the Nasca population, sex ratio was 113 men to 100 women (53% of males); for the Wari population, sex ratio was 117 men to 100 women (54% of males). The palaeodemographic data show that the infant mortality rate was 33@1000 for Nasca and 105@1000 for Wari. Life expectancy was 38-43 years for Nasca and 31-36 years for Wari. Death percentages in all the age groups increased from Nasca to Wari phase. ANOVA and t-test for paired comparison were applied in order to examine if dental and bone ages were statistically different. Long bones and teeth showed an allometric development, and the age estimated from the tooth formation and eruption was generally higher than the age estimated from the maximum lengths of long bones. The anthropological study of the Nasca valley skeletal populations confirmed the archaeological hypothesis of worse conditions of the Wari population in comparison with the previous Nasca people.

  7. Effect of changes in human ecology and behavior on patterns of sexually transmitted diseases, including human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserheit, J N

    1994-01-01

    The last 20 years have witnessed six striking changes in patterns of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs): emergence of new STD organisms and etiologies, reemergence of old STDs, shifts in the populations in which STDs are concentrated, shifts in the etiological spectra of STD syndromes, alterations in the incidence of STD complications, and increases in antimicrobial resistance. For example, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) emerged to devastate the United States with a fatal pandemic involving at least 1 million people. The incidence of syphilis rose progressively after 1956 to reach a 40-year peak by 1990. In both cases, disease patterns shifted from homosexual men to include minority heterosexuals. Over the last decade, gonorrhea became increasingly concentrated among adolescents, and several new types of antimicrobial resistance appeared. Three interrelated types of environments affect STD patterns. The microbiologic, hormonal, and immunologic microenvironments most directly influence susceptibility, infectiousness, and development of sequelae. These microenvironments are shaped, in part, by the personal environments created by an individual's sexual, substance-use, and health-related behaviors. The personal environments are also important determinants of acquisition of infection and development of sequelae but, in addition, they mediate risk of exposure to infection. These are, therefore, the environments that most directly affect changing disease patterns. Finally, individuals' personal environments are, in turn, molded by powerful macroenvironmental forces, including socioeconomic, demographic, geographic, political, epidemiologic, and technological factors. Over the past 20 years, the profound changes that have occurred in many aspects of the personal environment and the macroenvironment have been reflected in new STD patterns. PMID:8146135

  8. The diet of introduced brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis; Mitchill, 1814 in an alpine area and a literature review on its feeding ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocco Tiberti

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduced fish are a major threat for high altitude aquatic habitats and Salvelinus fontinalis have been widely used throughout the Alps for stocking lakes and rivers. Understanding its feeding ecology is a basic, but essential tool for interpreting its impact. To assess which factors determine the diet of S. fontinalis we analyzed more than 500 stomachs from several introduced populations from the Gran Paradiso National Park (GPNP, Western Italian Alps and we measured the availability of several prey groups (zooplankton, aquatic invertebrates, terrestrial invertebrates. We complemented the study with a short, but exhaustive literature review on the S. fontinalis feeding ecology. In general the food composition reflected the availability of prey -confirming that S. fontinalis is an opportunistic predator- and was influenced by habitat type (stream vs lake, fish size, and seasonality. The obtained results were discussed in the light of the existing literature on the feeding ecology and ecological impact of S. fontinalis. Large benthonic insects account for a substantial part of  the diet of stream dwelling brook trout, while they are almost absent both in the diet and in the prey species pool of lake-dwelling brook trout, probably reflecting a stronger ecological impact in the lakes.

  9. The political ecology of human-wildlife conflict: Producing wilderness, insecurity, and displacement in the Limpopo National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Massé

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Like conservation-induced displacement, human-wildlife conflict (HWC has potentially negative implications for communities in and around protected areas. While the ways in which displacement emerges from the creation of 'wilderness' conservation landscapes are well documented, how the production of 'wilderness' articulates with intensifications in HWC remains under examined both empirically and conceptually. Using a political-ecological approach, I analyse increases of HWC in Mozambique's Limpopo National Park (LNP and the subsequent losses of fields and livestock, as well as forms of physical displacement suffered by resident communities. While intensifications of encounters between wildlife on the one hand and people and livestock on the other result in part from increases in wildlife populations, I argue that HWC and the ways in which it constitutes and contributes to various forms of displacement results more centrally from changing relations between wildlife and people and the power and authority to manage conflict between them. Both of these contributing factors, moreover, are the consequence of practices that aim to transform the LNP into a wilderness landscape of conservation and tourism. HWC and its negative impacts are thus not natural phenomena, but are the result of political decisions to create a particular type of conservation landscape.

  10. Effects of Human Development Index and Its Components on Colorectal Cancer Incidence and Mortality: a Global Ecological Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaei, Salman; Rezaeian, Shahab; Khazaei, Somayeh; Mansori, Kamyar; Sanjari Moghaddam, Ali; Ayubi, Erfan

    2016-01-01

    Geographic disparity for colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality according to the human development index (HDI) might be expected. This study aimed at quantifying the effect measure of association HDI and its components on the CRC incidence and mortality. In this ecological study, CRC incidence and mortality was obtained from GLOBOCAN, the global cancer project for 172 countries. Data were extracted about HDI 2013 for 169 countries from the World Bank report. Linear regression was constructed to measure effects of HDI and its components on CRC incidence and mortality. A positive trend between increasing HDI of countries and age-standardized rates per 100,000 of CRC incidence and mortality was observed. Among HDI components education was the strongest effect measure of association on CRC incidence and mortality, regression coefficients (95% confidence intervals) being 2.8 (2.4, 3.2) and 0.9 (0.8, 1), respectively. HDI and its components were positively related with CRC incidence and mortality and can be considered as targets for prevention and treatment intervention or tracking geographic disparities.

  11. Establishing the link between Ostreopsis cf.ovata blooms and human health impacts using ecology and epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Vila

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Blooms of the benthic dinoflagellate Ostreopsis have been related to sporadic acute respiratory symptoms and general malaise in people exposed to marine aerosols on some Mediterranean beaches. However, the direct link between recurrent Ostreopsis blooms and health problems has not been clearly established. In order to establish and elucidate the connection, we conducted a joint ecology and epidemiology study in an Ostreopsis hot spot. Throughout the bloom, which extended from the end of June until the end of October 2013, 81% of the human cohort that we studied experienced at least one Ostreopsis-related symptom. Paradoxically, the time when the effects were greatest was during a short time window in early August. This corresponded to the transition from the exponential growth to the stationary phase of the bloom. Negligible symptoms were reported from August to mid-October, during the stationary period of the proliferation, when O. cf. ovata maintained high concentrations of epiphytic cells. No clear patterns in the landward wind component were noted during the time when health effects were greatest. Our main hypothesis is that the irritants present in the aerosol are produced during a particular physiological phase of the Ostreopsis cells during the bloom.

  12. A review on otolith models in human perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi, Houshyar; Mohamed, Shady; Lim, Chee Peng; Nahavandi, Saeid

    2016-08-01

    The vestibular system, which consists of semicircular canals and otolith, are the main sensors mammals use to perceive rotational and linear motions. Identifying the most suitable and consistent mathematical model of the vestibular system is important for research related to driving perception. An appropriate vestibular model is essential for implementation of the Motion Cueing Algorithm (MCA) for motion simulation purposes, because the quality of the MCA is directly dependent on the vestibular model used. In this review, the history and development process of otolith models are presented and analyzed. The otolith organs can detect linear acceleration and transmit information about sensed applied specific forces on the human body. The main purpose of this review is to determine the appropriate otolith models that agree with theoretical analyses and experimental results as well as provide reliable estimation for the vestibular system functions. Formulating and selecting the most appropriate mathematical model of the vestibular system is important to ensure successful human perception modelling and simulation when implementing the model into the MCA for motion analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Review of Florida Red Tide and Human Health Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Lora E.; Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Backer, Lorraine C.; Walsh, Cathy J.; Nierenberg, Kate; Clark, John; Reich, Andrew; Hollenbeck, Julie; Benson, Janet; Cheng, Yung Sung; Naar, Jerome; Pierce, Richard; Bourdelais, Andrea J; Abraham, William M.; Kirkpatrick, Gary; Zaias, Julia; Wanner, Adam; Mendes, Eliana; Shalat, Stuart; Hoagland, Porter; Stephan, Wendy; Bean, Judy; Watkins, Sharon; Clarke, Tainya; Byrne, Margaret; Baden, Daniel G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature describing research performed over the past decade on the known and possible exposures and human health effects associated with Florida red tides. These harmful algal blooms are caused by the dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis, and similar organisms, all of which produce a suite of natural toxins known as brevetoxins. Florida red tide research has benefited from a consistently funded, long term research program, that has allowed an interdisciplinary team of researchers to focus their attention on this specific environmental issue—one that is critically important to Gulf of Mexico and other coastal communities. This long-term interdisciplinary approach has allowed the team to engage the local community, identify measures to protect public health, take emerging technologies into the field, forge advances in natural products chemistry, and develop a valuable pharmaceutical product. The Review includes a brief discussion of the Florida red tide organisms and their toxins, and then focuses on the effects of these toxins on animals and humans, including how these effects predict what we might expect to see in exposed people. PMID:21218152

  14. Human health and ecological toxicity potentials due to heavy metal content in waste electronic devices with flat panel displays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Seong-Rin; Schoenung, Julie M.

    2010-01-01

    Display devices such as cathode-ray tube (CRT) televisions and computer monitors are known to contain toxic substances and have consequently been banned from disposal in landfills in the State of California and elsewhere. New types of flat panel display (FPD) devices, millions of which are now purchased each year, also contain toxic substances, but have not previously been systematically studied and compared to assess the potential impact that could result from their ultimate disposal. In the current work, the focus is on the evaluation of end-of-life toxicity potential from the heavy metal content in select FPD devices with the intent to inform material selection and design-for-environment (DfE) decisions. Specifically, the metals antimony, arsenic, barium, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, silver, vanadium, and zinc in plasma TVs, LCD (liquid crystal display) TVs, LCD computer monitors and laptop computers are considered. The human health and ecotoxicity potentials are evaluated through a life cycle assessment perspective by combining data on the respective heavy metal contents, the characterization factors in the U.S. EPA Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and other environmental Impacts (TRACI), and a pathway and impact model. Principal contributors to the toxicity potentials are lead, arsenic, copper, and mercury. Although the heavy metal content in newer flat panel display devices creates less human health toxicity potential than that in CRTs, for ecological toxicity, the new devices are worse, especially because of the mercury in LCD TVs and the copper in plasma TVs.

  15. Chemical ecology of fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiteller, Peter

    2015-07-01

    Fungi are widespread in nature and have conquered nearly every ecological niche. Fungi occur not only in terrestrial but also in freshwater and marine environments. Moreover, fungi are known as a rich source of secondary metabolites. Despite these facts, the ecological role of many of these metabolites is still unknown and the chemical ecology of fungi has not been investigated systematically so far. This review intends to present examples of the various chemical interactions of fungi with other fungi, plants, bacteria and animals and to give an overview of the current knowledge of fungal chemical ecology.

  16. Thermodynamic analysis of human-environment systems : A review focused on industrial ecology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liao, Wenjie; Heijungs, Reinout; Huppes, Gjalt

    2012-01-01

    The term Anthropocene, which is used by many scientists to refer to the current era, reflects various environmental issues caused by anthropogenic activities. The energy flows and conversions in the anthroposphere and the anthropogenic impacts on the ecosphere, as two major aspects of the physical

  17. 78 FR 38315 - Registration Review; Draft Human Health and Ecological Risk Assessments; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-26

    ..., the Agency has not attempted to describe all the specific entities that may be affected by this action... include berries, field crops, ornamentals, pets (dogs), root crops, tree fruit, vegetables, and turf... ergosterol biosynthesis in fungi. It is registered for use on a variety of agricultural crops, ornamentals in...

  18. 75 FR 48683 - Human Studies Review Board (HSRB); Notification of a Public Teleconference To Review Draft Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-11

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [EPA-HQ-ORD-2010-0617; FRL-9188-3] Human Studies Review Board (HSRB); Notification of a Public Teleconference To Review Draft Final Report From the June 23, 2010 HSRB Meeting AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The EPA Human Studies...

  19. 75 FR 73078 - Human Studies Review Board (HSRB); Notification of a Public Teleconference To Review Draft Report...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-29

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [EPA-HQ-ORD-2010-0919; FRL-9232-5] Human Studies Review Board (HSRB); Notification of a Public Teleconference To Review Draft Report From the October 27-28, 2010 HSRB Meeting AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The EPA Human Studies...

  20. Human lacrimal gland regeneration: Perspectives and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Shubha; Ali, Mohammad Javed; Vemuganti, Geeta K

    2014-01-01

    The human lacrimal gland is an essential component of the lacrimal functional unit (LFU). Any perturbation of this unit can lead to the debilitating morbid condition called the dry eye syndrome (DES). The current line of therapy available for dry eye remains supportive and palliative with the patient being dependent on life long and frequent administration of lubricating eye drops. Even advanced therapies like punctual plugs, cyclosporine B administration, and salivary gland auto-transplantation have led to a limited success. Under these scenarios, the option of cell based therapy needs to be explored to provide better and long term relief to these patients. This review gives an overview of the efforts in lacrimal gland regeneration and examines the past and ongoing research in cell based therapies in animals as well as human lacrimal gland cultures. The authors discuss their first of its kind functionally viable human lacrimal gland in vitro culture system from fresh exenteration specimens. A brief overview of research in near future and the potential implications of lacrimal gland regenerative therapies have been discussed.