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Sample records for human duodenal secretion

  1. Omeprazole promotes proximal duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz-Nielsen, Anette; Hillingsø, J; Bukhave, Klaus

    1996-01-01

    experiments. Also the combination of omeprazole and ranitidine increased (p=0.05) duodenal bicarbonate secretion, while ranitidine alone caused no change in either basal or stimulated secretion. In the stomach basal as well as vagally stimulated bicarbonate secretion was independent of the means of acid......The proton pump inhibitor, omeprazole, surprisingly resulted in higher rates of proximal duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion than previously reported using an H-2 receptor antagonist for gastric acid inhibition. Gastroduodenal perfusions were performed in healthy volunteers to evaluate whether...... this incidental finding is explained by more potent gastric acid inhibition by omeprazole or might be caused by the different mode of drug action. Basal and stimulated gastric and duodenal bicarbonate secretion rates were measured in the same subjects in control experiments (n=17) and after pretreatment with high...

  2. Omeprazole promotes proximal duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz-Nielsen, A; Hillingsø, Jens; Bukhave, K

    1996-01-01

    The proton pump inhibitor, omeprazole, surprisingly resulted in higher rates of proximal duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion than previously reported using an H2 receptor antagonist for gastric acid inhibition. Gastroduodenal perfusions were performed in healthy volunteers to evaluate whether...... this incidental finding is explained by more potent gastric acid inhibition by omeprazole or might be caused by the different mode of drug action. Basal and stimulated gastric and duodenal bicarbonate secretion rates were measured in the same subjects in control experiments (n = 17) and after pretreatment...... with high dose omeprazole (n = 17) and ranitidine (n = 9), respectively, by use of a technique permitting simultaneous measurements. Concentrations of bicarbonate were measured in the respective effluents by the method of back titration. Both omeprazole and ranitidine completely inhibited gastric acid...

  3. Functional characterization of serotonin receptor subtypes in human duodenal secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelmann, Bodil Elisabeth; Bindslev, Niels; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    2006-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) stimulates ion secretion in the gastrointestinal tract and the sensitivity for 5-HT might be altered in dyspeptic patients infected with Helicobacter pylori. The purpose of the present study was to characterize the 5-HT-induced electrogenic ion transport in the duodenum of dyspep......Serotonin (5-HT) stimulates ion secretion in the gastrointestinal tract and the sensitivity for 5-HT might be altered in dyspeptic patients infected with Helicobacter pylori. The purpose of the present study was to characterize the 5-HT-induced electrogenic ion transport in the duodenum...

  4. Lubiprostone Stimulates Duodenal Bicarbonate Secretion in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Mizumori, Misa; Akiba, Yasutada; Kaunitz, Jonathan D

    2009-01-01

    Background Lubiprostone, a bicyclic fatty acid, is used for the treatment of chronic constipation. No published study has addressed the effect of lubiprostone on intestinal ion secretion in vivo. Aim The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that lubiprostone augments duodenal HCO3 ? secretion (DBS). Methods Rat proximal duodenal loops were perfused with pH 7.0 Krebs, control vehicle (medium-chain triglycerides), or lubiprostone (0.1?10??M). We measured DBS with flow-through pH and CO2...

  5. Lubiprostone stimulates duodenal bicarbonate secretion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizumori, Misa; Akiba, Yasutada; Kaunitz, Jonathan D

    2009-10-01

    Lubiprostone, a bicyclic fatty acid, is used for the treatment of chronic constipation. No published study has addressed the effect of lubiprostone on intestinal ion secretion in vivo. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that lubiprostone augments duodenal HCO(3) (-) secretion (DBS). Rat proximal duodenal loops were perfused with pH 7.0 Krebs, control vehicle (medium-chain triglycerides), or lubiprostone (0.1-10 microM). We measured DBS with flow-through pH and CO(2) electrodes, perfusate [Cl(-)] with a Cl(-) electrode, and water flux using a non-absorbable ferrocyanide marker. Some rats were pretreated with a potent, selective CFTR antagonist, CFTR(inh)-172 (1 mg/kg, ip), 1 h before experiments. Perfusion of lubiprostone concentration dependently increased DBS, whereas net Cl(-) output and net water output were only increased at 0.1 microM, compared with vehicle. CFTR(inh)-172 reduced lubiprostone (10 microM)-induced DBS increase, whereas net Cl(-) output was also unchanged. Nevertheless, CFTR(inh)-172 reduced basal net water output, which was reversed by lubiprostone. Furthermore, lubiprostone-induced DBS was inhibited by EP4 receptor antagonist, not by an EP1/2 receptor antagonist or by indomethacin pretreatment. In this first study of the effect of lubiprostone on intestinal ion secretion in vivo, lubiprostone stimulated CFTR-dependent DBS without changing net Cl(-) secretion. This effect supports the hypothesis that Cl(-) secreted by CFTR is recycled across the apical membrane by anion exchangers. Recovery of water output during CFTR inhibition suggests that lubiprostone may improve the intestinal phenotype in CF patients. Furthermore, increased DBS suggests that lubiprostone may protect the duodenum from acid-induced injury via EP4 receptor activation.

  6. Effects of physiological hyperglycemia on duodenal motility and flow events, glucose absorption, and incretin secretion in healthy humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuo, Paul; Wishart, Judith M.; Bellon, Max; Smout, André J.; Holloway, Richard H.; Fraser, Robert J. L.; Horowitz, Michael; Jones, Karen L.; Rayner, Christopher K.

    2010-01-01

    CONTEXT: Acute hyperglycemia slows gastric emptying, but its effects on small intestinal motor activity and glucose absorption are unknown. In type 2 diabetes, the postprandial secretion of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is preserved, but that of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)

  7. Changes in gastric secretion with time after vagotomy and the relationship to recurrent duodenal ulcer.

    OpenAIRE

    Butterfield, D J; Whitfield, P F; Hobsley, M

    1982-01-01

    We studied 29 patients who had gastric secretion tests after a vagotomy for duodenal ulcer. There were 14 patients who developed a recurrent duodenal ulcer during the follow-up period and 15 patients who remained free from recurrence. Insulin-stimulated gastric secretion increased with time in the recurrent ulcer group, but not in the group with a satisfactory outcome. On the basis of our results, post-vagotomy patients could be divided into three groups. The first group had a high secretion ...

  8. Effects of Helicobacter pylori Infection on the Expressions and Functional Activities of Human Duodenal Mucosal Bicarbonate Transport Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Guorong; Jin, Hai; Deng, Shili; Xu, Jingyu; Liu, Xuemei; Xie, Rui; Tuo, Biguang

    2016-12-01

    The mechanisms for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-induced duodenal ulcerogenesis are not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the effects of H. pylori infection on the expressions and functional activities of human duodenal mucosal bicarbonate transport proteins and hope to further clarify the pathogenesis of H. pylori-associated duodenal ulcer. The experiments were performed in the patients with H. pylori-associated duodenal ulcers, H. pylori-associated chronic gastritis, and H. pylori-negative healthy subjects. Duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion was measured by Ussing Chamber technology. The expressions of duodenal mucosal bicarbonate transport proteins, CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) and SLC26A6 (solute-linked carrier 26 gene A6), in the patients with H. pylori-associated duodenal ulcers were markedly lower than those in healthy controls. Basal and both forskolin- and prostaglandin E2 -stimulated duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretions in the patients with H. pylori-associated duodenal ulcers were also lower than those in healthy controls. After anti-H. pylori treatment for H. pylori-associated duodenal ulcers, duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion and CFTR and SLC26A6 expressions in H. pylori-eradicated patients recovered to levels comparable to healthy controls, but those were found to be not significantly altered in non-H. pylori-eradicated patients. The further results showed that decreases in the H. pylori-induced CFTR and SLC26A6 expression were related to the severity and virulent factors of H. pylori infection. H. pylori infection impairs the expressions and functional activities of duodenal mucosal bicarbonate transport proteins, CFTR and SLC26A6, which contributes to the development of duodenal ulcer. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Umami Receptor Activation Increases Duodenal Bicarbonate Secretion via Glucagon-Like Peptide-2 Release in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Joon-Ho; Inoue, Takuya; Higashiyama, Masaaki; Guth, Paul H.; Engel, Eli; Kaunitz, Jonathan D; Akiba, Yasutada

    2011-01-01

    Luminal nutrient chemosensing during meal ingestion is mediated by intestinal endocrine cells, which regulate secretion and motility via the release of gut hormones. We have reported that luminal coperfusion of l-Glu and IMP, common condiments providing the umami or proteinaceous taste, synergistically increases duodenal bicarbonate secretion (DBS) possibly via taste receptor heterodimers, taste receptor type 1, member 1 (T1R1)/R3. We hypothesized that glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide...

  10. Oral administration of synthetic human urogastrone promotes healing of chronic duodenal ulcers in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier; Nexø, Ebba

    1986-01-01

    The effect of oral administration of synthetic human epidermal growth factor/urogastrone (EGF/URO) on healing of chronic duodenal ulcers induced by cysteamine in rats was investigated and compared with that of cimetidine, a H2-receptor antagonist. After 25 and 50 days of treatment, synthetic human...... EGF/URO significantly increased healing of chronic duodenal ulcers to the same extent as cimetidine. Combined treatment with synthetic human EGF/URO and cimetidine for 25 days was more effective than synthetic human EGF/URO given alone, whereas combined treatment for 50 days was significantly more...... effective than cimetidine alone. These results show that a combination of an agent inhibiting gastric acid secretion and the cytoprotective and growth-stimulating peptide EGF/URO seems to be more effective with regard to duodenal ulcer healing than individual administration of the two substances. Synthetic...

  11. Cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcer and acid secretion in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1980-01-01

    Duodenal ulcers can be produced in rats within 24 h by a single subcutaneous administration of cysteamine. To determine the role of gastric acid secretion in the pathogenesis of these ulcers, secretory and pathoanatomic studies were performed in chronic fistula rats ater an ulcerogenic dose...... of cysteamine. A prolonged increase of acid secretion was seen after cysteamine, reaching fourfold the basal level after 5 h. The acid response lasted for 10 to 11 h. After vagotomy cysteamine-induced acid secretion was markedly reduced. Ulcer formation was prevented by vagotomy and by drainage of the gastric...... for ulcer formation, the hypersecretion of acid induced by cysteamine is not the only factor responsible for the development of duodenal ulcer....

  12. Duodenal juice total protein and pancreatic enzyme synthesis, turnover, and secretion in patients after acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, J M; O'Keefe, S J; Louw, J A; Adams, G; Marks, I N

    1993-09-01

    It is controversial whether acute pancreatitis has longterm effects on pancreatic function. Pancreatic enzyme synthesis, turnover, and secretion were measured in 10 patients in clinical remission who had had one or more (one to six) attacks of acute alcoholic pancreatitis. The studies were done between two and 29 months after the most recent attack. A control group included five patients with no evidence of pancreatic disease. A four hour primed/continuous intravenous infusion of [14C]L-leucine tracer was given with secretin (2 U/kg/h) and cholecystokinin (0.5 U/kg/h) and secreted duodenal juice aspirated. Amylase and trypsin were extracted from duodenal juice by affinity chromatography, permitting measurement of the rate of isotope incorporation into total protein, amylase, and trypsin. The results showed non-parallel changes in enzyme synthesis and turnover with decreases in total enzyme protein and amylase synthesis and turnover but preservation of trypsin synthesis and turnover. The low turnover rates may be ascribed to continuing pancreatic cell malfunction after recovery from acute alcoholic pancreatitis and suggest that the decreased amylase secretion rates are partly a consequence of impaired amylase synthesis and not simply because of loss of pancreatic tissue.

  13. Umami receptor activation increases duodenal bicarbonate secretion via glucagon-like peptide-2 release in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Joon-Ho; Inoue, Takuya; Higashiyama, Masaaki; Guth, Paul H; Engel, Eli; Kaunitz, Jonathan D; Akiba, Yasutada

    2011-11-01

    Luminal nutrient chemosensing during meal ingestion is mediated by intestinal endocrine cells, which regulate secretion and motility via the release of gut hormones. We have reported that luminal coperfusion of L-Glu and IMP, common condiments providing the umami or proteinaceous taste, synergistically increases duodenal bicarbonate secretion (DBS) possibly via taste receptor heterodimers, taste receptor type 1, member 1 (T1R1)/R3. We hypothesized that glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) or glucagon-like peptide (GLP) is released by duodenal perfusion with L-Glu/IMP. We measured DBS with pH and CO(2) electrodes through a perfused rat duodenal loop in vivo. GIP, exendin (Ex)-4 (GLP-1 receptor agonist), or GLP-2 was intravenously infused (0.01-1 nmol/kg/h). l-Glu (10 mM) and IMP (0.1 mM) were luminally perfused with or without bolus intravenous injection (3 or 30 nmol/kg) of the receptor antagonists Pro(3)GIP, Ex-3(9-39), or GLP-2(3-33). GIP or GLP-2 infusion dose-dependently increased DBS, whereas Ex-4 infusion gradually decreased DBS. Luminal perfusion of l-Glu/IMP increased DBS, with no effect of Pro(3)GIP or Ex-3(9-39), whereas GLP-2(3-33) inhibited L-Glu/IMP-induced DBS. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)(6-28) intravenously or N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester coperfusion inhibited the effect of L-Glu/IMP. Perfusion of L-Glu/IMP increased portal venous concentrations of GLP-2, followed by a delayed increase of GLP-1, with no effect on GIP release. GLP-1/2 and T1R1/R3 were expressed in duodenal endocrine-like cells. These results suggest that luminal L-Glu/IMP-induced DBS is mediated via GLP-2 release and receptor activation followed by VIP and nitric oxide release. Because GLP-1 is insulinotropic and GLP-2 is intestinotrophic, umami receptor activation may have additional benefits in glucose metabolism and duodenal mucosal protection and regeneration.

  14. Duodenal application of Li+ in a submaximal therapeutic dose inhibits exocrine pancreatic secretion and modulates gastro-duodenal myoelectrical activity in a conscious pig model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naughton, Violetta; Hedemann, Mette Skou; Naughton, Patrick Joseph

    2013-01-01

    for electromyography of smooth muscles, and with a pancreatic duct catheter and a duodenal T-cannula for collection and re-entrant flow of pancreatic juice. After the recovery period, on alternative days, each animal was tested once with an intraduodenal infusion of Li+ (100 mmol·L–1 C3H5LiO3, 10 mL·kg−1·h−1) for 1 h......This study tested whether duodenal application of lithium inhibits gastroduodenal motility, and whether it suppresses secretion from the exocrine pancreas. Five suckling pigs, 16–18 days old, were surgically fitted with 3 serosal electrodes on the wall of the gastric antrum and the duodenum...

  15. Medullary thyroid carcinoma and duodenal calcitonin-secreting neuroendocrine tumour: more than coincidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huguet, I; Lamas, C; Vera, R; Lomas, A; Quilez, R P; Grossman, A; Botella, F

    2013-01-01

    Summary Neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms whose management can be problematic. In many cases, multiple tumours may occur in the same patient or his or her family, and some of these have now been defined genetically, although in other cases the underlying gene or genes involved remain unclear. We describe a patient, a 63-year-old female, who was diagnosed with a medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), which was confirmed pathologically after thyroidectomy, but whose circulating calcitonin levels remained elevated after thyroidectomy with no evidence of metastatic disease. Subsequently, an entirely separate and discrete duodenal NET was identified; this was 2.8 cm in diameter and was removed at partial duodenectomy. The tumour stained immunohistochemically for calcitonin, and its removal led to persistent normalisation of the circulating calcitonin levels. There was no germline mutation of the RET oncogene. This is the first identification of a duodenal NET secreting calcitonin and also the first demonstration of a second tumour secreting calcitonin in a patient with MTC. We suggest that where calcitonin levels remain high after removal of a MTC a search for other NETs should be conducted. Learning points NETs are a complex and heterogeneous group of related neoplasms, and multiple tumours may occur in the same patient.Calcitonin can be produced ectopically by several tumours outside the thyroid.Persistently elevated calcitonin levels after removal of a MTC may not necessarily indicate persisting or metastatic disease from the tumour.The real prevalence of calcitonin-producing NETs may be underestimated, as serum determination is only recommended in the diagnosis of pancreatic NETs. PMID:24616764

  16. Gastric bicarbonate secretion and release of prostaglandin E2 are increased in duodenal ulcer patients, but not in Helicobacter pylori positive healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A, Mertz-Nielsen; Hillingsø, Jens; Frøkiær, Hanne

    1996-01-01

    Background: Duodenal ulcer (DU) patients have impaired proximal duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion at rest and in response to luminal acid with higher acid-stimulated mucosal release of prostaglandin (PG) E(2) than healthy subjects. Our purpose was to determine whether this abnormality...... was present also in the stomach of DU patients. Methods: Simultaneous determinations of gastric and duodenal bicarbonate secretion and luminal release of PGE(2) were performed in 16 healthy volunteers (5 Helicobacter pylori-positive) and 8 inactive DU patients (all H. pylori-positivr). Results: In healthy...

  17. Gastric bicarbonate secretion and release of prostaglandin E2 are increased in duodenal ulcer patients but not in Helicobacter pylori-positive healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz-Nielsen, A; Hillingsø, Jens; Frøkiaer, H

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Duodenal ulcer (DU) patients have impaired proximal duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion at rest and in response to luminal acid with higher acid-stimulated mucosal release of prostaglandin (PG) E2 than healthy subjects. Our purpose was to determine whether this abnormality...... was present also in the stomach of DU patients. METHODS: Simultaneous determinations of gastric and duodenal bicarbonate secretion and luminal release of PGE2 were performed in 16 healthy volunteers (5 Helicobacter pylori-positive) and 8 inactive DU patients (all H. pylori-positive). RESULTS: In healthy...

  18. Gastric bicarbonate secretion and release of prostaglandin E2 are increased in duodenal ulcer patients but not in Helicobacter pylori-positive healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz-Nielsen, A; Hillingsø, Jens; Frøkiaer, H

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Duodenal ulcer (DU) patients have impaired proximal duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion at rest and in response to luminal acid with higher acid-stimulated mucosal release of prostaglandin (PG) E2 than healthy subjects. Our purpose was to determine whether this abnormality was pres...... for the abnormally high gastric secretion of bicarbonate in inactive DU patients. The defective duodenal secretion of bicarbonate observed in these patients may be a consequence of previous ulceration rather than the mere presence of H. pylori infection.......BACKGROUND: Duodenal ulcer (DU) patients have impaired proximal duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion at rest and in response to luminal acid with higher acid-stimulated mucosal release of prostaglandin (PG) E2 than healthy subjects. Our purpose was to determine whether this abnormality...... was present also in the stomach of DU patients. METHODS: Simultaneous determinations of gastric and duodenal bicarbonate secretion and luminal release of PGE2 were performed in 16 healthy volunteers (5 Helicobacter pylori-positive) and 8 inactive DU patients (all H. pylori-positive). RESULTS: In healthy...

  19. Duodenal fatty acid sensor and transporter expression following acute fat exposure in healthy lean humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvijanovic, Nada; Isaacs, Nicole J; Rayner, Christopher K; Feinle-Bisset, Christine; Young, Richard L; Little, Tanya J

    2017-04-01

    Free fatty acids (FFAs) and their derivatives are detected by G-protein coupled receptors (GPRs) on enteroendocrine cells, with specific transporters on enterocytes. It is unknown whether acute fat exposure affects FFA sensors/transporters, and whether this relates to hormone secretion and habitual fat intake. We studied 20 healthy participants (10M, 10F; BMI: 22 ± 1 kg/m 2 ; age: 28 ± 2 years), after an overnight fast, on 2 separate days. On the first day, duodenal biopsies were collected endoscopically before, and after, a 30-min intraduodenal (ID) infusion of 10% Intralipid ® , and relative transcript expression of FFA receptor 1 (FFAR1), FFA receptor 4 (FFAR4), GPR119 and the FFA transporter, cluster of differentiation-36 (CD36) was quantified from biopsies. On the second day, ID Intralipid ® was infused for 120-min, and plasma concentrations of cholecystokinin (CCK) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) evaluated. Habitual dietary intake was assessed using food frequency questionnaires (FFQs). ID Intralipid ® increased expression of GPR119, but not FFAR1, FFAR4 and CD36, and stimulated CCK and GLP-1 secretion. Habitual polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) consumption was negatively associated with basal GPR119 expression. GPR119 is an early transcriptional responder to duodenal lipid in lean humans, although this response appeared reduced in individuals with high PUFA intake. These observations may have implications for downstream regulation of gut hormone secretion and appetite. This study was registered as a clinical trial with the Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry (Trial number: ACTRN12612000376842). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  20. Reappraisal of bicarbonate secretion by the human oesophagus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz-Nielsen, A; Hillingsø, J; Bukhave, Klaus

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Administration of omeprazole to healthy volunteers was recently reported to increase proximal duodenal mucosalbicarbonate secretion. As human oesophagus also secretes bicarbonate, the hypothesis was tested that omeprazole may stimulate oesophagealbicarbonate secretion and thus....../day omeprazole for three days and 80 mg intravenous omeprazole before perfusionor 600 mg/day ranitidine for three days and 50 mg/h intravenously during the perfusion. Saliva and samples of aspirate from the perfusedoesophagus and stomach were collected and bicarbonate concentrations were measured. RESULTS......: The median rates (95% confidence intervals)of intrinsic oesophageal bicarbonate secretion, corrected for contaminating salivary and gastric bicarbonate, were 89 (33-150) and 121 (63-203)mumol/h/10 cm (p > 0.5) in omeprazole and ranitidine treated subjects respectively. Salivary and gastric bicarbonate...

  1. Reappraisal of bicarbonate secretion by the human oesophagus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz-Nielsen, A; Hillingsø, Jens; Bukhave, K

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Administration of omeprazole to healthy volunteers was recently reported to increase proximal duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion. As human oesophagus also secretes bicarbonate, the hypothesis was tested that omeprazole may stimulate oesophageal bicarbonate secretion...... with either 60 mg/day omeprazole for three days and 80 mg intravenous omeprazole before perfusion or 600 mg/day ranitidine for three days and 50 mg/h intravenously during the perfusion. Saliva and samples of aspirate from the perfused oesophagus and stomach were collected and bicarbonate concentrations were...... measured. RESULTS: The median rates (95% confidence intervals) of intrinsic oesophageal bicarbonate secretion, corrected for contaminating salivary and gastric bicarbonate, were 89 (33-150) and 121 (63-203) mumol/h/10 cm (p > 0.5) in omeprazole and ranitidine treated subjects respectively. Salivary...

  2. Gastric acid secretion in relation to personality, affect and coping ability in duodenal ulcer patients. A multivariate analysis. Hvidovre Ulcer Project Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jess, P

    1994-01-01

    The role of personality, mood state (affect) and coping ability (ego strength) on basal and stimulated gastric acid secretion were assessed in 56 duodenal ulcer patients using the Minnesota, Multiphasic Personality Inventory. The patients had high scores on most MMPI scales, but basal acid output...... disorders found in peptic ulcer patients may evidently be consequences of the disease rather than causal factors....

  3. The ethanol-induced stimulation of rat duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion in vivo is critically dependent on luminal Cl-.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sommansson

    Full Text Available Alcohol may induce metabolic and functional changes in gastrointestinal epithelial cells, contributing to impaired mucosal barrier function. Duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion (DBS is a primary epithelial defense against gastric acid and also has an important function in maintaining the homeostasis of the juxtamucosal microenvironment. The aim in this study was to investigate the effects of the luminal perfusion of moderate concentrations of ethanol in vivo on epithelial DBS, fluid secretion and paracellular permeability. Under thiobarbiturate anesthesia, a ∼30-mm segment of the proximal duodenum with an intact blood supply was perfused in situ in rats. The effects on DBS, duodenal transepithelial net fluid flux and the blood-to-lumen clearance of 51Cr-EDTA were investigated. Perfusing the duodenum with isotonic solutions of 10% or 15% ethanol-by-volume for 30 min increased DBS in a concentration-dependent manner, while the net fluid flux did not change. Pre-treatment with the CFTR inhibitor CFTRinh172 (i.p. or i.v. did not change the secretory response to ethanol, while removing Cl- from the luminal perfusate abolished the ethanol-induced increase in DBS. The administration of hexamethonium (i.v. but not capsazepine significantly reduced the basal net fluid flux and the ethanol-induced increase in DBS. Perfusing the duodenum with a combination of 1.0 mM HCl and 15% ethanol induced significantly greater increases in DBS than 15% ethanol or 1.0 mM HCl alone but did not influence fluid flux. Our data demonstrate that ethanol induces increases in DBS through a mechanism that is critically dependent on luminal Cl- and partly dependent on enteric neural pathways involving nicotinic receptors. Ethanol and HCl appears to stimulate DBS via the activation of different bicarbonate transporting mechanisms.

  4. Duodenal ulcer disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tytgat, G. N.

    1996-01-01

    An overview is given of the pathogenic mechanisms involved in Helicobacter pylori-associated duodenal and gastric ulceration. Special attention is given to the role of microbial virulence factors, the effects on gastric acid secretion and the development of 'gastric type' metaplasia in the duodenal

  5. [Influence of an acute hypercalcemia on the gastric secretion in duodenal ulcer, peptic ulcer of the jejunum and Zollinger-Ellison syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendt, R

    1975-05-15

    In 36 patients with ulcer without Zollinger-Ellison-syndrome (25 patients with recurrent duodenal ulcer, 11 with an ulcus pepticum jejuni after B II-resection of the stomach) and 2 patients suffering from ulcus pepticum jejuni with an ascertained gastrinoma the secretion of acid was compared after stimulation of pentagstrin (6 mug/kg) and calcium (4 mg Ca++/kg/h). The secretion of hydrochloric acid was statistically significantly stimulated in all patients suffering from ulcer by the hypercalcaemia (increase of the serum calcium concentration from 5.0 +/- 0.3 mval/1 to 6.2 +/- 0.8 mval/1). But in patients suffering from ulcer with gastrinoma the stimulatory effect was larger than in such patients without autonomous source of gastrin: the calcium-stimulated secretion of hydrochloric acid was on the average in cases of duodenal ulcer 40% (2 to 68%), in the ulcera peptica jejuni 47% (17 to 75%), in the 4 comparative examinations of the two patients with Zollinger-Ellison-syndrome, however, always more than 100% (106 to 177%) of the pentagastrin-stimulated peak secretion. The comparative test of the pentagastrin and calcium-stimulated secretion of hydrochloric acid could be a help for the proof of autonomous places of the formation of gastrin.

  6. Indomethacin decreases gastroduodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz-Nielsen, A; Hillingsø, Jens; Bukhave, K

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cyclooxygenase inhibitors reduce mucosal bicarbonate secretion in the duodenum, but the evidence for their effect on bicarbonate secretion in the stomach remains controversial. We have, therefore, studied how indomethacin influences gastroduodenal bicarbonate secretion and luminal...... release of prostaglandin (PG) E2 by means of a method that enables simultaneous measurements in the stomach and the duodenum. METHODS: Gastric and duodenal perfusions were performed twice in random order during control conditions or after pretreatment with indomethacin (100 mg intravenously) in eight...... basal and stimulated bicarbonate secretion, both in the stomach and in the duodenum....

  7. The effects of duodenal peptides on glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion from the ileum. A duodeno--ileal loop?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lene; Holst, Jens Juul

    2002-01-01

    is regulated by local somatostatin secretion. In search for an endocrine pathway, we studied the effect of a range of concentrations of cholecystokinin octapeptide (26-33) (CCK 8), gastric inhibitory peptide 1-42 (GIP), secretin, motilin, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), and the modified amino acid, 5...... agents from the duodenum regulate GLP-1 secretion in pigs....

  8. Evaluation of repair in duodenal perforation with human amniotic membrane: An animal model (dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Ghahramani

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: It seems that repairing duodenal wall defect with HAM would result in better histological outcomes compared with what is seen in simple duodenoraphy in animal models. However, there is no significant difference regarding surgical findings.

  9. Acetylcholine regulates ghrelin secretion in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Broglio (Fabio); E. Ghigo (Ezio); C. Gottero; F. Prodam (Flavia); S. Destefanis; A. Benso; C. Gauna (Carlotta); L.J. Hofland (Leo); E. Arvat; A-J. van der Lely (Aart-Jan); P.M. van Koetsveld (Peter)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractGhrelin secretion has been reportedly increased by fasting and energy restriction but decreased by food intake, glucose, insulin, and somatostatin. However, its regulation is still far from clarified. The cholinergic system mediates some ghrelin actions, e.g.

  10. Autoradiographic localization of a gluten peptide during organ culture of human duodenal mucosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fluge, G.; Aksnes, L.

    1983-01-01

    An 125I-labeled subfraction of Frazer's fraction III (molecular weight, 8,000) was added to the culture medium during organ culture of duodenal biopsies from two patients with celiac disease in exacerbation. The isotope-labeled gluten peptide was localized by autoradiography after 6, 12, and 24 h of culture. At 6 h, labeling was located mainly in the basal layers of the biopsies. The tissue was well preserved. After 12 h in culture, the labeling had spread to the lamina propria and the crypts. A few grains were located over enterocytes and desquamated cells. Moderate histological signs of toxicity were observed. After 24 h, there was marked toxic deterioration, comparable to that seen after culture with alpha-gliadin. Labeling had spread throughout the entire section. There seemed to be no specificity of the binding, for the entire section was affected. Culture with the identical gluten fraction, in the radionegative state, produced histological deterioration comparable to that seen after exposure to the isotope-labeled peptide. Gluten peptides are presented to the target cells in a unique way during organ culture, different from in vivo conditions. This may influence the results when the organ culture method is used to investigate the pathogenesis of celiac disease.

  11. Epidermal growth factor inhibits cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1983-01-01

    mg/kg, s.c.). Furthermore, measurements on tissue extracts of the pouches revealed that 5 h after cysteamine treatment, Brunner's glands were depleted of epidermal growth factor. The effect on ulcer development of intraduodenally applied exogenous epidermal growth factor (1 micrograms/kg . h) also...... was studied. Luminal epidermal growth factor significantly inhibited the formation of cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcer, compared with controls receiving saline. The effect was not due to inhibition of gastric acid secretion or stimulation of duodenal bicarbonate secretion since the dose of epidermal growth...... of synthesis and secretion of endogenous epidermal growth factor may be a pathogenetic factor in cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcer....

  12. Management of duodenal trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Guo-qing

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Duodenal trauma is uncommon but nowadays seen more and more frequently due to the increased automobile accidents and violent events. The management of duodenal trauma can be complicated, especially when massive injury to the pancreatic-duodenal-biliary complex occurs simultaneously. Even the patients receive surgeries in time, multiple postoperative complications and high mortality are common. To know and manage duodenal trauma better, we searched the recent related literature in PubMed by the keywords of duodenal trauma, therapy, diagnosis and abdomen. It shows that because the diagnosis and management are complicated and the mortality is high, duodenal trauma should be treated in time and tactfully. And application of new technology can help improve the management. In this review, we discussed the incidence, diagnosis, management, and complications as well as mortality of duodenal trauma. Key words: Duodenum; Wounds and injuries; Diagnosis; Therapeutics

  13. Validation of celiac disease diagnoses recorded in the Danish National Patient Register using duodenal biopsies, celiac disease-specific antibodies, and human leukocyte-antigen genotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Stine Dydensborg; Stordal, Ketil; Hansen, Tine Plato

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to validate the celiac disease diagnoses recorded in the Danish National Patient Register. To validate the diagnoses, we used information on duodenal biopsies from a national register of pathology reports (the Patobank) and information on celiac disease......-specific antibodies and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genotypes obtained from patient medical records. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We included all the children who were born from 1995 to 2012 and who were registered as having celiac disease in the Danish National Patient Register. We reviewed all the pathology reports...... on duodenal biopsies in the Patobank and the information in the medical records on celiac disease-specific antibodies (ie, anti-tissue transglutaminase 2 IgA and IgG, endomysial antibodies IgA, and anti-deamidated gliadin peptide IgG) and HLA genotypes. RESULTS: We identified 2,247 children who were...

  14. Duodenal Diverticulum Co-Existing with a Bleeding Duodenal Ulcer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Duodenal diverticula are characterized by the presence of sac-like mucosal herniations through weak points in the duodenal wall. Duodenal diverticula co-existing with a bleeding duodenal ulcer is rare. Objective: The objective of this case report is to illustrate an uncommon case of two duodenal diverticula ...

  15. Calcitonin secretion in normal human subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parthemore, J.G.; Deftos, L.J.

    1978-07-01

    A sensitive RIA for human calcitonin has been developed which can detect 1 to 2 pg hormone. This procedure permits the measurement of the low concentrations of calcitonin in the unextracted plasma of normal human subjects. In 55 normal adults, mean plasma calcitonin was 24 pg/ml with an SD of +-18 pg/ml, an SE of +-2 pg/ml, and a range of less than 10 to 75 pg/ml. There were no discernible age or sex differences in basal hormone concentration. Infusions of calcium, pentagastrin, and glucagon stimulated plasma calcitonin, whereas food and oral calcium did not. The stimulatory effect of pentagastrin was greater in males than in females. These data demonstrate that the low concentration of calcitonin in humans can be stimulated by several secretagogues and suggest that females may have decreased calcitonin reserve.

  16. Human placenta secretes apolipoprotein B-100-containing lipoproteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk-Madsen, Eva; Lindegaard, Marie Louise Skakkebæk; Andersen, Claus B

    2004-01-01

    genes were expressed in placenta and microsomal extracts from human placenta contained triglyceride transfer activity, indicating expression of bioactive MTP. To detect lipoprotein secretion, biopsies from term placentas were placed in medium with [(35)S]methionine and [(35)S]cysteine for 3-24 h. Upon...

  17. Secreted Isoform of Human Lynx1 (SLURP-2)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyukmanova, E N; Shulepko, M A; Shenkarev, Z O

    2016-01-01

    Human-secreted Ly-6/uPAR-related protein-2 (SLURP-2) regulates the growth and differentiation of epithelial cells. Previously, the auto/paracrine activity of SLURP-2 was considered to be mediated via its interaction with the α3β2 subtype of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Here, we...

  18. Human placenta secretes apolipoprotein B-100-containing lipoproteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk-Madsen, Eva; Lindegaard, Marie Louise Skakkebæk; Andersen, Claus B

    2004-01-01

    early during pregnancy in the placenta. To examine whether the human placenta produces lipoproteins, we examined apoB and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) mRNA expression in placental biopsies. ApoB and MTP are mandatory for assembly and secretion of apoB-containing lipoproteins. Both...

  19. The effects of the human MDR1 genotype on the expression of duodenal P-glycoprotein and disposition of the probe drug talinolol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegmund, Werner; Ludwig, Karen; Giessmann, Thomas; Dazert, Peter; Schroeder, Eike; Sperker, Bernhard; Warzok, Rolf; Kroemer, Heyo K; Cascorbi, Ingolf

    2002-11-01

    A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the human multidrug-resistance gene in wobble position of exon 26 reportedly predicts expression and function of P-glycoprotein in human enterocytes and lymphocytes. Several other allelic variants of MDR1 have been identified, some of which lead to amino acid exchange with as yet unknown functional relevance. In healthy white volunteers, we investigated the influence of the hereditary variants C3435T in exon 26 and G2677T/A (Ala893Ser/Thr) in exon 21 and the influence of 7 frequent or putative functional SNPs on duodenal MDR1 messenger ribonucleic acid (n = 32) and immunoreactive P-glycoprotein (n = 37) expression. Moreover, the disposition of the probe drug talinolol was evaluated in 55 subjects after oral administration (100 mg) and in 23 subjects after intravenous administration(30 mg). Duodenal MDR1 messenger ribonucleic acid and P-glycoprotein, as assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (TaqMan) and immunostaining, were not influenced by any MDR1 polymorphism studied. Talinolol disposition was not affected by the exon 26 mutation C3435T. In carriers of the TT/TA variants of G2677T/A, the area under the serum concentration-time curve values of oral talinolol were slightly but significantly elevated compared with those in carriers of at least 1 wild-type allele (P disposition. We did not identify any influence of MDR1 genotypes on duodenal expression of P-glycoprotein and disposition of talinolol in humans.

  20. Macrophage-secreted factors inhibit ZAG expression and secretion by human adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, D; Trayhurn, P; Bing, C

    2010-08-30

    Zinc-alpha2-glycoprotein (ZAG), a novel adipokine, is downregulated in adipose tissue in obesity, a state characterized by increased adipose tissue macrophage infiltration and chronic low-grade inflammation. This study investigated whether macrophage-secreted factors and TNF-alpha, a major product of macrophages, modulate ZAG expression and secretion by human adipocytes. ZAG was produced primarily by adipocytes, and not by preadipocytes and macrophages. Incubation of preadipocytes with macrophage-conditioned medium for up to 12 days decreased ZAG mRNA and protein release, and the expression of adipogenic markers (PPARgamma and C/EBPalpha). Adipocytes treated with macrophage-conditioned medium for 24h displayed significant reductions in ZAG mRNA and release. Chronic TNF-alpha treatment let to significant decreases in ZAG expression and secretion, but marked upregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines (IL-6, leptin, IL-8, MCP-1 and RANTES) in adipocytes. These findings suggest that macrophage-associated inflammation may play a significant role in the downregulation of ZAG in adipose tissue in obesity. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Analysis of the proteome of human airway epithelial secretions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Yongsung

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Airway surface liquid, often referred to as mucus, is a thin layer of fluid covering the luminal surface that plays an important defensive role against foreign particles and chemicals entering the lungs. Airway mucus contains various macromolecules, the most abundant being mucin glycoproteins, which contribute to its defensive function. Airway epithelial cells cultured in vitro secrete mucins and nonmucin proteins from their apical surface that mimics mucus production in vivo. The current study was undertaken to identify the polypeptide constituents of human airway epithelial cell secretions to gain a better understanding of the protein composition of respiratory mucus. Results Fifty-five proteins were identified in the high molecular weight fraction of apical secretions collected from in vitro cultures of well-differentiated primary human airway epithelial cells and isolated under physiological conditions. Among these were MUC1, MUC4, MUC5B, and MUC16 mucins. By proteomic analysis, the nonmucin proteins could be classified as inflammatory, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and/or anti-microbial. Conclusions Because the majority of the nonmucin proteins possess molecular weights less than that selected for analysis, it is theoretically possible that they may associate with the high molecular weight and negatively charged mucins to form a highly ordered structural organization that is likely to be important for maintaining the proper defensive function of airway mucus.

  2. EVALUATION OF HUMAN LEUKOCYTE ANTIGEN CLASS I AND II ANTIGENS IN HELICOBACTER PYLORI-POSITIVE PEDIATRIC PATIENTS WITH ACTIVE GASTRITIS AND DUODENAL ULCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevim GÖNEN

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: As being the first bacteria determined to be carcinogenic, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori is a pathogen localized in the stomach in more than half of the world population. Some earlier studies have found a relation between tissue histocompatibility antigens and gastric cancers depending on the regions. OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to determine the distribution of human leukocyte antigen (HLA class I and class II antigens in H. pylori-positive pediatric patients with active gastritis and duodenal ulcer, excluding cancer cases, in our center. METHODS: The study included 40 patients diagnosed with H. pylori-positive active gastritis and duodenal ulcer and 100 controls consisting of healthy donor candidates. The HLA class I and class II antigens were studied in the isolated DNA samples using the polymerase chain reaction sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes. RESULTS: The frequency of HLA-B*51 antigen was significantly higher in the patient group than in the control group (40% vs 17%; P=0.003. There was no difference between the two groups in terms of the frequencies of HLA-A, HLA-C, HLA-DR, and HLA-DQ antigens. CONCLUSION: It was determined that HLA-B*51 plays a critical role in H. pylori infection.

  3. Activated macrophages control human adipocyte mitochondrial bioenergetics via secreted factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keuper, Michaela; Sachs, Stephan; Walheim, Ellen; Berti, Lucia; Raedle, Bernhard; Tews, Daniel; Fischer-Posovszky, Pamela; Wabitsch, Martin; Hrabě de Angelis, Martin; Kastenmüller, Gabi; Tschöp, Matthias H; Jastroch, Martin; Staiger, Harald; Hofmann, Susanna M

    2017-10-01

    Obesity-associated WAT inflammation is characterized by the accumulation and local activation of macrophages (MΦs), and recent data from mouse studies suggest that macrophages are modifiers of adipocyte energy metabolism and mitochondrial function. As mitochondrial dysfunction has been associated with obesity and the metabolic syndrome in humans, herein we aimed to delineate how human macrophages may affect energy metabolism of white adipocytes. Human adipose tissue gene expression analysis for markers of macrophage activation and tissue inflammation (CD11c, CD40, CD163, CD206, CD80, MCP1, TNFα) in relationship to mitochondrial complex I (NDUFB8) and complex III (UQCRC2) was performed on subcutaneous WAT of 24 women (BMI 20-61 kg/m 2 ). Guided by these results, the impact of secreted factors of LPS/IFNγ- and IL10/TGFβ-activated human macrophages (THP1, primary blood-derived) on mitochondrial function in human subcutaneous white adipocytes (SGBS, primary) was determined by extracellular flux analysis (Seahorse technology) and gene/protein expression. Stepwise regression analysis of human WAT gene expression data revealed that a linear combination of CD40 and CD163 was the strongest predictor for mitochondrial complex I (NDUFB8) and complex III (UQCRC2) levels, independent of BMI. IL10/TGFβ-activated MΦs displayed high CD163 and low CD40 expression and secreted factors that decreased UQCRC2 gene/protein expression and ATP-linked respiration in human white adipocytes. In contrast, LPS/IFNγ-activated MΦs showed high CD40 and low CD163 expression and secreted factors that enhanced adipocyte mitochondrial activity resulting in a total difference of 37% in ATP-linked respiration of white adipocytes (p = 0.0024) when comparing the effect of LPS/IFNγ- vs IL10/TGFβ-activated MΦs. Our data demonstrate that macrophages modulate human adipocyte energy metabolism via an activation-dependent paracrine mechanism. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier

  4. Duodenal stump leak following a duodenal switch: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Nelson

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Duodenal stump leaks must be diagnosed as early as possible, and treated appropriately with operative intervention. Regardless of the operative technique the key to appropriate treatment is stabilize the patient, repair the duodenal stump, and adequate drainage.

  5. Relationships between body mass index and short-circuit current in human duodenal and colonic mucosal biopsies. Osbak PS, Bindslev N, Hansen MB. Acta Physiol (Oxf). 2011 Jan;201(1):47-53

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osbak, Philip Samuel; Bindslev, Niels; Berner-Hansen, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Retrospectively, to investigate the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and basal electrogenic transport as measured by short-circuit current (SCC) in human duodenal and colonic mucosal biopsies. Methods: The study included biopsies from mucosa of normal appearance in the sigmoid colon...

  6. IL-6 and its circadian secretion in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vgontzas, A N; Bixler, E O; Lin, H-M; Prolo, P; Trakada, G; Chrousos, G P

    2005-01-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a pleiotropic cytokine produced by numerous types of immune and nonimmune cells and is involved in many pathophysiologic mechanisms in humans. Many studies suggest that IL-6 is a putative 'sleep factor' and its circadian secretion correlates with sleep/sleepiness. IL-6 is elevated in disorders of excessive daytime sleepiness such as narcolepsy and obstructive sleep apnea. It correlates positively with body mass index and may be a mediator of sleepiness in obesity. Also the secretion of this cytokine is stimulated by total acute or partial short-term sleep loss reflecting the increased sleepiness experienced by sleep-deprived individuals. Studies that evaluated the 24-hour secretory pattern of IL-6 in healthy young adults suggest that IL-6 is secreted in a biphasic circadian pattern with two nadirs at about 08.00 and 21.00, and two zeniths at about 19.00 and 05.00 h. In contrast, following sleep deprivation or in disorders of sleep disturbance, e.g., insomnia, IL-6 peaks during the day and, based on the level of stress system activity, i.e., cortisol secretion, contributes to either sleepiness and deep sleep (low cortisol) or feelings of tiredness and fatigue and poor sleep (high cortisol). In order to address concerns about the potential impact of differences of IL-6 levels between the beginning and the end of the 24-hour blood-drawing experiment, we proceeded with a cosinor analysis of 'detrended' data in young and old healthy individuals. This new analysis did not affect the biphasic circadian pattern of IL-6 secretion in young adults, while it augmented the flattened circadian pattern in old individuals in whom the difference was greater. Finally, IL-6 appears to be somnogenic in rats and exhibits a diurnal rhythm that follows the sleep/wake cycle in these animals. We conclude that IL-6 is a mediator of sleepiness and its circadian pattern reflects the homeostatic drive for sleep. Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Failure of somatostatin to affect human chorionic somatomammotropin and human chorionic gonadotropin secretion in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaron, C; Kyncl, M; Rutsky, L; Halpern, B; Brewer, J

    1978-11-01

    The effect of somatostatin (SRIF) on human chorionic somatomammotropin (hCS) secretion was studied in human placental explants cultured in vitro. In the experimental flasks, SRIF was added in a concentration of 10, 100, and 1000 ng/ml media; hCS levels measured by RIA were not different from those found in the control flasks. In separate experiments, we investigated the action of SRIF on hCG secretion by a human malignant choriocarcinoma cell line maintained in tissue culture. SRIF (1000 ng/ml) did not inhibit basal or dibutyryl cAMP-induced stimulation of hCG secretion. These results suggest that somatostatin does not suppress hCS or hCG release in vitro from normal or malignant trophoblast, respectively.

  8. CD154 Induces Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Secretion in Human Podocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigothier, Claire; Daculsi, Richard; Lepreux, Sébastien; Auguste, Patrick; Villeneuve, Julien; Dewitte, Antoine; Doudnikoff, Evelyne; Saleem, Moin; Bourget, Chantal; Combe, Christian; Ripoche, Jean

    2016-12-01

    Matrix remodeling is a key feature of glomerulosclerosis secondary to diabetes or hypertension. Podocytes contribute to glomerular basement membrane (GBM) turnover by producing matrix components and matrix remodelling enzymes, including matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). The CD40/CD154 signaling pathway modulates matrix remodeling through the synthesis of MMPs and tissue inhibitors of MMPs. Platelets are a primary blood reservoir of CD154. Here we studied, the impact of the CD154/CD40 pathway on MMP-9 expression by cultured human podocytes. The role of CD40/CD154 was evaluated upon exposure of podocytes to recombinant human CD154 (rhCD154) or activated platelet supernatants from healthy human subjects. We first showed by protein and mRNA expression that CD40 was synthesized by podocytes and detectable on kidney tissue sections. CD40 expression was acquired during podocyte differentiation and enhanced upon exposure to rhCD154. In podocytes, rhCD154 induced an increase of MMP-9 production as shown by RT-PCR, Western blot and and gelatin zymography. Activated platelet supernatants induced MMP-9 mRNA synthesis in podocytes, an effect reduced by anti-CD40 antibody. Our results underscore a potential role for platelets through the CD40/CD154 signaling pathway in the control of GBM synthesis and degradation, via its regulatory role on MMP-9 production. CD154 secretion by activated platelets may contribute to GBM alterations in proteinuric nephropathies. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2737-2747, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Secretion of functional human interleukin-3 from Bacillus subtilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westers, Lidia; Swaving Dijkstra, Dolf; Westers, Helga; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Quax, Wim

    2006-01-01

    The Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis is well-known for its huge capacity to produce secreted bacterial enzymes. Nevertheless. the secretion of pharmaceutically interesting recombinant proteins by this organism is frequently inefficient. This paper documents for the first time on the

  10. Multiple Adenomatous Duodenal Polyposis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdena Zádorová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple duodenal polyps are a relatively rare finding, usually co-occurrent with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP.We report a patient with multiple duodenal adenomas and a negative examination for FAP: multiple flat polyps were detected endoscopically in a 37-year-old male patient, extending from the apex of the bulb to the end of the descending part of the duodenum. In terms of histology, they were tubular adenomas with moderate dysplasia. Colonoscopy and enteroclysis were normal. Both push and capsule enteroscopy only showed multiple polyps in the area of the descending duodenum. DNA analysis of the APC gene was as follows: DGGE, exon 1–15, deletion at codons 1309 and 1061 by means of PCR for attenuated APC were negative. Afterwards we screened the patient for germline MYH mutations using the denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC in combination with sequencing. No novel pathogenic mutation has been identified. Large polyps were removed by means of endoscopic polypectomy and mucosectomy, while small polyps were removed by means of argon plasma coagulation.We conduct yearly checkups, removing only sporadic polyps. The rare finding of duodenal polyposis not co-occurrent with FAP proves that multiple adenomas in the digestive tube need not necessarily co-occur with FAP.

  11. Bioavailability of iron multi-amino acid chelate preparation in mice and human duodenal HuTu 80 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajarabille, Naroa; Brown, Catriona; Cucliciu, Anamaria; Thapaliya, Gita; Latunde-Dada, Gladys O

    2017-03-01

    Strategies for preventing Fe deficiency include Fe supplementation and Fe fortification of foods. The absorption, metabolism and chemical characteristics of Fe multi-amino acid chelate (IMAAC) are not known. Absorption of IMAAC was compared with FeSO4 in Fe-depleted mice and in vitro chemical studies of the Fe supplement was performed in HuTu 80 cells. Hb repletion study was carried out in Fe-deficient CD1 mice that were fed for 10 d a diet supplemented with ferrous IMAAC or FeSO4. A control group of Fe-replete mice was fed a diet with adequate Fe concentrations throughout the study. Tissues were collected from the mice, and the expression of Fe-related genes was determined by quantitative PCR. Ferric reductase and Fe uptake were evaluated in HuTu 80 cells. Supplementation of the diet with FeSO4 or IMAAC significantly increased Hb levels (P<0·001) in Fe-deficient mice from initial 93·9 (SD 10·8) or 116·2 (SD 9·1) to 191 (SD 0·7) or 200 (SD 0·5) g/l, respectively. Initial and final Hb for the Fe-deficient control group were 87·4 (SD 6·7) and 111 (SD 11·7) g/l, respectively. Furthermore, the liver non-haem Fe of both supplement groups increased significantly (P<0·001). IMAAC was more effective at restoring Fe in the spleen compared with FeSO4 (P<0·005). Gene expression showed the IMAAC supplement absorption is regulated by the body's Fe status as it significantly up-regulated hepcidin (P<0·001) and down-regulated duodenal cytochrome b mRNA (P<0·005), similar to the effects seen with FeSO4. A significant proportion of Fe in IMAAC is reduced by ascorbic acid. Fe absorption in mice and cells was similar for both IMAAC and FeSO4 and both compounds induce and regulate Fe metabolism genes similarly in the maintenance of homeostasis in mice.

  12. Histological Value of Duodenal Biopsies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limci Gupta

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to see the value of histopathological diagnosis in management of patients with duodenal biopsies; to look for correlation of histology and serology in suspected cases of coeliac disease; the reasons for taking duodenal biopsies and whether proper adequate histories are provided on the forms sent with request for histopathological view on duodenal biopsies. Here are the observations of the study followed by the discussion.

  13. Human Beta Cells Produce and Release Serotonin to Inhibit Glucagon Secretion from Alpha Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almaça, Joana; Molina, Judith; Menegaz, Danusa; Pronin, Alexey N; Tamayo, Alejandro; Slepak, Vladlen; Berggren, Per-Olof; Caicedo, Alejandro

    2016-12-20

    In the pancreatic islet, serotonin is an autocrine signal increasing beta cell mass during metabolic challenges such as those associated with pregnancy or high-fat diet. It is still unclear whether serotonin is relevant for regular islet physiology and hormone secretion. Here, we show that human beta cells produce and secrete serotonin when stimulated with increases in glucose concentration. Serotonin secretion from beta cells decreases cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels in neighboring alpha cells via 5-HT1F receptors and inhibits glucagon secretion. Without serotonergic input, alpha cells lose their ability to regulate glucagon secretion in response to changes in glucose concentration, suggesting that diminished serotonergic control of alpha cells can cause glucose blindness and the uncontrolled glucagon secretion associated with diabetes. Supporting this model, pharmacological activation of 5-HT1F receptors reduces glucagon secretion and has hypoglycemic effects in diabetic mice. Thus, modulation of serotonin signaling in the islet represents a drug intervention opportunity. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Cellular bicarbonate protects rat duodenal mucosa from acid-induced injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiba, Yasutada; Furukawa, Osamu; Guth, Paul H.; Engel, Eli; Nastaskin, Igor; Sassani, Pejvak; Dukkipatis, Ramanath; Pushkin, Alexander; Kurtz, Ira; Kaunitz, Jonathan D.

    2001-01-01

    Secretion of bicarbonate from epithelial cells is considered to be the primary mechanism by which the duodenal mucosa is protected from acid-related injury. Against this view is the finding that patients with cystic fibrosis, who have impaired duodenal bicarbonate secretion, are paradoxically protected from developing duodenal ulcers. Therefore, we hypothesized that epithelial cell intracellular pH regulation, rather than secreted extracellular bicarbonate, was the principal means by which duodenal epithelial cells are protected from acidification and injury. Using a novel in vivo microscopic method, we have measured bicarbonate secretion and epithelial cell intracellular pH (pHi), and we have followed cell injury in the presence of the anion transport inhibitor DIDS and the Cl– channel inhibitor, 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino) benzoic acid (NPPB). DIDS and NPPB abolished the increase of duodenal bicarbonate secretion following luminal acid perfusion. DIDS decreased basal pHi, whereas NPPB increased pHi; DIDS further decreased pHi during acid challenge and abolished the pHi overshoot over baseline observed after acid challenge, whereas NPPB attenuated the fall of pHi and exaggerated the overshoot. Finally, acid-induced epithelial injury was enhanced by DIDS and decreased by NPPB. The results support the role of intracellular bicarbonate in the protection of duodenal epithelial cells from luminal gastric acid. PMID:11748264

  15. Biliary Secretion of Quasi-Enveloped Human Hepatitis A Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asuka Hirai-Yuki

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis A virus (HAV is an unusual picornavirus that is released from cells cloaked in host-derived membranes. These quasi-enveloped virions (eHAV are the only particle type circulating in blood during infection, whereas only nonenveloped virions are shed in feces. The reason for this is uncertain. Hepatocytes, the only cell type known to support HAV replication in vivo, are highly polarized epithelial cells with basolateral membranes facing onto hepatic (blood sinusoids and apical membranes abutting biliary canaliculi from which bile is secreted to the gut. To assess whether eHAV and nonenveloped virus egress from cells via vectorially distinct pathways, we studied infected polarized cultures of Caco-2 and HepG2-N6 cells. Most (>99% progeny virions were released apically from Caco-2 cells, whereas basolateral (64% versus apical (36% release was more balanced with HepG2-N6 cells. Both apically and basolaterally released virions were predominantly enveloped, with no suggestion of differential vectorial release of eHAV versus naked virions. Basolateral to apical transcytosis of either particle type was minimal (<0.02%/h in HepG2-N6 cells, arguing against this as a mechanism for differences in membrane envelopment of serum versus fecal virus. High concentrations of human bile acids converted eHAV to nonenveloped virions, whereas virus present in bile from HAV-infected Ifnar1−/−Ifngr1−/− and Mavs−/− mice banded over a range of densities extending from that of eHAV to that of nonenveloped virions. We conclude that nonenveloped virions shed in feces are derived from eHAV released across the canalicular membrane and stripped of membranes by the detergent action of bile acids within the proximal biliary canaliculus.

  16. Human mesenchymal stem cells secrete hyaluronan-coated extracellular vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arasu, Uma Thanigai; Kärnä, Riikka; Härkönen, Kai; Oikari, Sanna; Koistinen, Arto; Kröger, Heikki; Qu, Chengjuan; Lammi, Mikko J; Rilla, Kirsi

    2017-12-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) secreted by stem cells are potential factors mediating tissue regeneration. They travel from bone marrow stem cells into damaged tissues, suggesting that they can repair tissue injuries without directly replacing parenchymal cells. We have discovered that hyaluronan (HA) synthesis is associated with the shedding of HA-coated EVs. The aim of this study was to test whether bone marrow-derived hMSCs secrete HA-coated EVs. The EVs secreted by MSCs were isolated by differential centrifugation and characterized by nanoparticle tracking analysis. Their morphology and budding mechanisms were inspected by confocal microscopy and correlative light and electron microscopy. Hyaluronan synthesis of hMSCs was induced by lipopolysaccharide and inhibited by RNA interference and 4-methylumbelliferone. It was found that the MSCs have extremely long apical and lateral HA-coated filopodia, typical for cells with an active HA secretion. Additionally, they secreted HA-coated EVs carrying mRNAs for CD44 and all HAS isoforms. The results show that stem cells have a strong intrinsic potential for HA synthesis and EV secretion, and the amount of HA carried on EVs reflects the HA content of the original cells. These results show that the secretion of HA-coated EVs by hMSCs is a general process, that may contribute to many of the mechanisms of HA-mediated tissue regeneration. Additionally, an HA coat on EVs may regulate their interactions with target cells and participate in extracellular matrix remodeling. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells transfected with human insulin genes can secrete insulin stably.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yuhua; Wang, Zhiwei; Zhu, Mingyan

    2006-01-01

    Beta-cell replacement therapy by pancreatic islet transplantation has become a promising treatment for type 1 diabetes. However, the limited supply of human islet tissue prevents this therapy from being widely used to treat patients with type 1 diabetes. In order to obtain insulin-secreting cells, retrovirus vector pLNCX was used to transfer the human insulin gene into human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). The hMSCs were isolated from bone marrow of healthy volunteers and were expanded in vitro. The reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to amplify the insulin DNA fragment from a healthy pancreas sample. The recombinant vector pLNCX-Ins was constructed by cloning the insulin DNA fragment into retrovirus vector pLNCX. After being packaged by BD RetroPack PT67 packaging cells, the virus that contained the insulin gene was used to infect hMSCs. Transcription and expression of the insulin gene in transfected hMSCs were examined by RT-PCR and immunofluorescence. The transfected hMSCs stably secreted insulin into culture media for >3 weeks. Thus, insulin gene-transfected hMSCs can secrete insulin and provide a new way to cope with the shortage of beta cells for therapy of type 1 diabetes.

  18. In vitro effect of dopamine and pimozide on human chorionic gonadotropin secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaron, C; Kyncl, M; Famuyiwa, O; Halpern, B; Brewer, J

    1979-10-15

    In human placental explants cultured in vitro, dopamine inhibited human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) secretion into the culture media. In the control flasks, the level of hCG secretion was 751 +/- 215 mIU/gm of tissue. When 1 mM of dopamine was added, hCG levels decreased to 321 +/- 57.6 mIU/gm of tissue (n = 6, P less than 0.1)--5 and 10 mM of dopamine significantly inhibited hCG secretion. In contrast, 1 mM of pimozide enhanced hCG secretion by 1.8-fold compared to control levels (1,707 +/- 343 versus 3,117 +/- 0.005). This in vitro effect on hCG is similar to the effect of dopamine and pimozide on hCS secretion by placental explants.

  19. Effects of antimycin A and 2-deoxyglucose on secretion in human platelets. Differential inhibition of the secretion of acid hydrolases and adenine nucleotides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmsen, H; Robkin, L; Day, H J

    1979-08-15

    1. Shape change, aggregation and secretion of dense-granule constituents in platelets differ in their dependence on cellular energy metabolism. The possibility that such a difference also exists between secretion of dense-granule constituents and acid hydrolases was investigated. 2. Human platelets were incubated with [(14)C]adenine in plasma, and then washed and resuspended in salt solutions. The effects of incubating the cells with antimycin A and 2-deoxyglucose on the concentrations of [(14)C]ATP, ADP, AMP, IMP and inosine plus hypoxanthine and on thrombin-induced secretion of ATP plus ADP and acid hydrolases were studied. The metabolic inhibitors only affected (14)C-labelled nucleotides, whereas thrombin only liberated unlabelled ATP and ADP. 3. The extent of secretion decreased progressively with time during incubation with the metabolic inhibitors. At any time the secretion of acid hydrolases, beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase, beta-glucuronidase and beta-galactosidase was inhibited to a greater extent than secretion of ATP plus ADP (dense-granule secretion). 4. Incubation with the metabolic inhibitors shifted the log (dose)-response relationship to higher thrombin concentrations, and with a greater shift for acid hydrolase secretion than for dense-granule secretion. 5. Antimycin, when present alone, caused a marked decrease in the rate of acid hydrolase secretion, but had no effect on dense-granule secretion. 6. These results further support the view that acid hydrolase secretion and dense-granule secretion are separate processes with different requirements for ATP energy. Acid hydrolase secretion, but not dense-granule secretion, appears to depend on a simultaneous rapid generation of ATP, which can be accomplished by oxidative, but not by glycolytic, ATP production.

  20. Interleukin 10 secretion in relation to human IL-10 locus haplotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Eskdale, Joyce; Gallagher, Grant; Verweij, Cor L.; Keijsers, Vivian; Westendorp, Rudi G. J.; Huizinga, Tom W. J.

    1998-01-01

    Stimulation of human blood cultures with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) shows large inter-individual variation in interleukin 10 (IL-10) secretion, which has been shown to have a genetic component of over 70%. Alleles at two microsatellite loci in the 4 kb immediately upstream of the human IL-10 transcription initiation site in 132 individuals from 56 Dutch families were defined and assigned as haplotypes. LPS-induced IL-10 secretion was measured by ELISA and related to the IL-10 promoter...

  1. Pharmacological inhibition of dynamin II reduces constitutive protein secretion from primary human macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maaike Kockx

    Full Text Available Dynamins are fission proteins that mediate endocytic and exocytic membrane events and are pharmacological therapeutic targets. These studies investigate whether dynamin II regulates constitutive protein secretion and show for the first time that pharmacological inhibition of dynamin decreases secretion of apolipoprotein E (apoE and several other proteins constitutively secreted from primary human macrophages. Inhibitors that target recruitment of dynamin to membranes (MiTMABs or directly target the GTPase domain (Dyngo or Dynole series, dose- and time- dependently reduced the secretion of apoE. SiRNA oligo's targeting all isoforms of dynamin II confirmed the involvement of dynamin II in apoE secretion. Inhibition of secretion was not mediated via effects on mRNA or protein synthesis. 2D-gel electrophoresis showed that inhibition occurred after apoE was processed and glycosylated in the Golgi and live cell imaging showed that inhibited secretion was associated with reduced post-Golgi movement of apoE-GFP-containing vesicles. The effect was not restricted to macrophages, and was not mediated by the effects of the inhibitors on microtubules. Inhibition of dynamin also altered the constitutive secretion of other proteins, decreasing the secretion of fibronectin, matrix metalloproteinase 9, Chitinase-3-like protein 1 and lysozyme but unexpectedly increasing the secretion of the inflammatory mediator cyclophilin A. We conclude that pharmacological inhibitors of dynamin II modulate the constitutive secretion of macrophage apoE as a class effect, and that their capacity to modulate protein secretion may affect a range of biological processes.

  2. Action of N-acylated ambroxol derivatives on secretion of chloride ions in human airway epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Takahiro; Takemura, Yoshizumi; Niisato, Naomi; Mitsuyama, Etsuko; Iwasaki, Yoshinobu; Marunaka, Yoshinori

    2009-03-13

    We report the effects of new N-acylated ambroxol derivatives (TEI-588a, TEI-588b, TEI-589a, TEI-589b, TEI-602a and TEI-602b: a, aromatic amine-acylated derivative; b, aliphatic amine-acylated derivative) induced from ambroxol (a mucolytic agent to treat human lung diseases) on Cl(-) secretion in human submucosal serous Calu-3 cells under a Na(+)/K(+)/2Cl(-) cotransporter-1 (NKCC1)-mediated hyper-secreting condition. TEI-589a, TEI-589b and TEI-602a diminished hyper-secretion of Cl(-) by diminishing the activity of NKCC1 without blockade of apical Cl(-) channel (TEI-589a>TEI-602a>TEI-589b), while any other tested compounds including ambroxol had no effects on Cl(-) secretion. These indicate that the inhibitory action of an aromatic amine-acylated derivative on Cl(-) secretion is stronger that that of an aliphatic amine-acylated derivative, and that 3-(2,5-dimethyl)furoyl group has a strong action in inhibition of Cl(-) secretion than cyclopropanoyl group. We here indicate that TEI-589a, TEI-589b and TEI-602a reduce hyper-secretion to an appropriate level in the airway, providing a possibility that the compound can be an effective drug in airway obstructive diseases including COPD by reducing the airway resistance under a hyper-secreting condition.

  3. A novel human breast milk-fed piglet model to examine persistent effects of neonatal diet on duodenal microbiota composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sow milk (SM) feeding has been studied in piglets as a model of human breast milk (HBM) feeding in infants; however, the composition of HBM differs from SM and may impart differing effects on colonization of the gut microbiota. The objective of this study was to determine if HBM feeding from birth t...

  4. Human mammospheres secrete hormone-regulated active extracellular vesicles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esperanza Gonzalez

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer-associated death worldwide. One of the most important prognostic factors for survival is the early detection of the disease. Recent studies indicate that extracellular vesicles may provide diagnostic information for cancer management. We demonstrate the secretion of extracellular vesicles by primary breast epithelial cells enriched for stem/progenitor cells cultured as mammospheres, in non-adherent conditions. Using a proteomic approach we identified proteins contained in these vesicles whose expression is affected by hormonal changes in the cellular environment. In addition, we showed that these vesicles are capable of promoting changes in expression levels of genes involved in epithelial-mesenchymal transition and stem cell markers. Our findings suggest that secreted extracellular vesicles could represent potential diagnostic and/or prognostic markers for breast cancer and support a role for extracellular vesicles in cancer progression.

  5. Ghrelin secretion in humans - a role for the vagus nerve?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veedfald, S; Plamboeck, A; Hartmann, B

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ghrelin, an orexigenic peptide, is secreted from endocrine cells in the gastric mucosa. Circulating levels rise in the preprandial phase, suggesting an anticipatory or cephalic phase of release, and decline in the postprandial phase, suggesting either the loss of a stimulatory factor...... or inhibition by factors released when nutrients enter the intestine. We hypothesized that vagal signals are not required for the (i) preprandial increase or (ii) postprandial suppression of ghrelin levels. Further, we wanted to investigate the hypothesis that (iii) glucagon-like peptide-1 might be implicated...... in the postprandial decline in ghrelin levels. METHODS: We measured ghrelin levels in plasma from sham-feeding and meal studies carried out in vagotomized individuals and controls, and from a GLP-1 infusion study carried out in fasting healthy young individuals. KEY RESULTS: We find that (i) ghrelin secretion...

  6. Comparing brain-derived neurotrophic factor and ciliary neurotrophic factor secretion of induced neurotrophic factor secreting cells from human adipose and bone marrow-derived stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Shahnaz; Razavi, Mohamad Reza; Zarkesh Esfahani, Hamid; Kazemi, Mohammad; Mostafavi, Fatemeh Sadat

    2013-08-01

    Adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs) and bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) may be equally beneficial in treating neurodegenerative diseases. However, ADSCs have practical advantages. In this study, we aimed to induce neurotrophic factors secreting cells in human ADSCs. Then, we compared the level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) secretion in neurotrophic factors secreting cells from human adipose and bone marrow-derived stem cells. Isolated human ADSCs and BMSCs were induced to neurotrophic factor (NTF)-secreting cells. The levels of expression and secretion of BDNF and CTNF of induced cells were assessed using immunocytochemical, Real-Time polymerase chain reaction, and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The level of BDNF significantly increased in both the induced mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) relative to ADSCs and the BMSCs (P < 0.01). Moreover, ELISA analysis showed that the release of BDNF in the induced BMSCs was almost twofold more than the induced ADSCs. Overall, NTF-secreting factor cells derived BMSCs and ADSCs could secret a range of different growth factors. Therefore, the variation in neurotrophic factors of different induced MSC populations suggest the possible beneficial effect of each specific kind of neurotrophic factor secreting cells for the treatment of a particular neurodegenerative disease. © 2013 The Authors Development, Growth & Differentiation © 2013 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  7. High-level secretion of native recombinant human calreticulin in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Čiplys, Evaldas; Žitkus, Eimantas; Gold, Leslie I.

    2015-01-01

    , Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia pastoris. RESULTS: Expression of a full-length human CRT precursor including its native signal sequence resulted in high-level secretion of mature recombinant protein into the culture medium by both S. cerevisiae and P. pastoris. To ensure the structural and functional...... recombinant CRT protein with yields reaching 75 % of total secreted protein and with production levels of 60 and 200 mg/l from S. cerevisiae and P. pastoris, respectively. Finally, cultivation of P. pastoris in a bioreactor yielded CRT secretion titer to exceed 1.5 g/l of culture medium. CONCLUSIONS: Yeasts...

  8. Lubiprostone stimulates secretion from tracheal submucosal glands of sheep, pigs, and humans

    OpenAIRE

    Joo, N. S.; Wine, J. J.; Cuthbert, A. W.

    2009-01-01

    Lubiprostone, a putative ClC-2 chloride channel opener, has been investigated for its effects on airway epithelia (tracheas). Lubiprostone is shown to increase submucosal gland secretion in pigs, sheep, and humans and to increase short-circuit current (SCC) in the surface epithelium of pigs and sheep. Use of appropriate blocking agents and ion-substitution experiments shows anion secretion is the driving force for fluid formation in both glands and surface epithelium. From SCC concentration-r...

  9. Glucagon-like peptide 2 inhibits ghrelin secretion in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banasch, Matthias; Bulut, Kerem; Hagemann, Dirk

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The growth hormone secretagogue receptor ligand ghrelin is known to play a pivotal role in the central nervous control of energy homeostasis. Circulating ghrelin levels are high under fasting conditions and decline after meal ingestion, but the mechanisms underlying the postprandial...... drop in ghrelin levels are poorly understood. In the present study we addressed, whether (1) exogenous GLP-2 administration decreases ghrelin levels and (2) what other endogenous factors are related to ghrelin secretion under fasting conditions. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifteen healthy male volunteers...... were studied with the intravenous infusion of GLP-2 (2 pmol l(-1) min(-1)) or placebo over 120 min in the fasting state. Plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, intact GLP-2 and ghrelin were determined. RESULTS: During the infusion of GLP-2, plasma concentrations of intact GLP-2...

  10. The F309S mutation increases factor VIII secretion in human cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daianne Maciely Carvalho Fantacini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVES: The capacity of a human cell line to secrete recombinant factor VIII with a F309S point mutation was investigated, as was the effect of the addition of chemical chaperones (betaine and sodium-4-phenylbutyrate on the secretion of factor VIII. METHODS: This work used a vector with a F309S mutation in the A1 domain to investigate FVIII production in the HEK 293 human cell line. Factor VIII activity was measured by chromogenic assay. Furthermore, the effects of chemical drugs on the culture were evaluated. RESULTS: The addition of the F309S mutation to a previously described FVIII variant increased FVIII secretion by 4.5 fold. Moreover, the addition of betaine or sodium-4-phenylbutyrate increased the secretion rate of FVIIIΔB proteins in HEK 293 cells, but the same effect was not seen for FVIIIΔB-F309S indicating that all the recombinant protein produced had been efficiently secreted. CONCLUSION: Bioengineering factor VIII expressed in human cells may lead to an efficient production of recombinant factor VIII and contribute toward low-cost coagulation factor replacement therapy for hemophilia A. FVIII-F309S produced in human cells can be effective in vivo.

  11. Camel-related pancreatico-duodenal injuries: A report of three ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Human pancreatico-duodenal injuries caused by camels are extremely rare. Objective: We report three patients who sustained camel-related pancreatico-duodenal injuries and review the literature on this topic. Results: A 32-year camel caregiver was kicked by a camel which then stepped on his abdomen ...

  12. In vitro effect of dopamine and pimozide on human chorionic somatomammotropin (hCS) secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaron, C; Famuyiwa, O; Singh, S P

    1978-07-01

    In human placental explants cultured in vitro, dopamine inhibited human chorionic somatomammotropin (hCS) secretion into the culture media. In the control flasks, the level of hCS secretion was 130.5 +/- 7.8 micrograms/g tissue (n = 6). When 1 mM dopamine was added, hCS levels decreased to 80.2 +/- 11.5 micrograms/g tissue (P less than 0.01). Dopamine (5 and 10 mM) further lowered hCS levels. In contrast, 1 mM pimozide enhanced hCS secretion by 2-fold as compared to control levels (248.2 +/- 44.8 vs. 130.5 +/- 7.8, P less than 0.02). The simultaneous addition of dopamine did not alter the stimulatory effect of pimozide on hCS secretion. In separate experiments, arginine (1 and 5 mM) and somatostatin (1 microgram/ml culture media) did not alter hCS secretion from placental explants. These results suggest that hCS secretion is modulated by dopaminergic receptors.

  13. GPR54 peptide agonists stimulate insulin secretion from murine, porcine and human islets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowe, James E; Foot, Victoria L; Amiel, Stephanie A; Huang, Gao Cai; Lamb, Morgan W; Lakey, Jonathan; Jones, Peter M; Persaud, Shanta J

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the effects of 10 and 13 amino acid forms of kisspeptin on dynamic insulin secretion from mammalian islets since it is not clear from published data whether the shorter peptide is stimulatory while the longer peptide inhibits insulin release. Insulin secretion was measured by radioimmunoassay following perifusion of human, pig, rat and mouse isolated islets with kisspeptin-10 or kisspeptin-13 in the presence of 20 mM glucose. Both peptides stimulated rapid, reversible potentiation of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from islets of all species tested. These data indicate that both kisspeptin-10 and kisspeptin-13, which is an extension of kisspeptin-10 by three amino acids, act directly at islet β-cells of various species to potentiate insulin secretion, and suggest that inhibitory effects reported in earlier studies may reflect differences in experimental protocols.

  14. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) suppresses ghrelin levels in humans via increased insulin secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagemann, Dirk; Holst, Jens Juul; Gethmann, Arnica

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Ghrelin is an orexigenic peptide predominantly secreted by the stomach. Ghrelin plasma levels rise before meal ingestion and sharply decline afterwards, but the mechanisms controlling ghrelin secretion are largely unknown. Since meal ingestion also elicits the secretion...... of the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), we examined whether exogenous GLP-1 administration reduces ghrelin secretion in humans. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 14 healthy male volunteers were given intravenous infusions of GLP-1(1.2 pmol x kg(-1) min(-1)) or placebo over 390 min. After 30 min, a solid test...... meal was served. Venous blood was drawn frequently for the determination of glucose, insulin, C-peptide, GLP-1 and ghrelin. RESULTS: During the infusion of exogenous GLP-1 and placebo, GLP-1 plasma concentrations reached steady-state levels of 139+/-15 pmol/l and 12+/-2 pmol/l, respectively (p

  15. Lubiprostone stimulates secretion from tracheal submucosal glands of sheep, pigs, and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, N S; Wine, J J; Cuthbert, A W

    2009-05-01

    Lubiprostone, a putative ClC-2 chloride channel opener, has been investigated for its effects on airway epithelia (tracheas). Lubiprostone is shown to increase submucosal gland secretion in pigs, sheep, and humans and to increase short-circuit current (SCC) in the surface epithelium of pigs and sheep. Use of appropriate blocking agents and ion-substitution experiments shows anion secretion is the driving force for fluid formation in both glands and surface epithelium. From SCC concentration-response relations, it is shown that for apical lubiprostone K(d) = 10.5 nM with a Hill slope of 1.08, suggesting a single type of binding site and, from the speed of the response, close to the apical surface, confirmed the rapid blockade by Cd ions. Responses to lubiprostone were reversible and repeatable, responses being significantly larger with ventral compared with dorsal epithelium. Submucosal gland secretion rates following basolateral lubiprostone were, respectively, 0.2, 0.5, and 0.8 nl gl(-1) min(-1) in humans, sheep, and pigs. These rates dwarf any contribution surface secretion adds to the accumulation of surface liquid under the influence of lubiprostone. Lubiprostone stimulated gland secretion in two out of four human cystic fibrosis (CF) tissues and in two of three disease controls, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (COPD/IPF), but in neither type of tissue was the increase significant. Lubiprostone was able to increase gland secretion rates in normal human tissue in the continuing presence of a high forskolin concentration. Lubiprostone had no spasmogenic activity on trachealis muscle, making it a potential agent for increasing airway secretion that may have therapeutic utility.

  16. Duodenal Mucinous Carcinoma: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jee, Keum Nahn [Dept. of Radiology, Dankook University Hospital, Dankook University College of Medicine, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-15

    Duodenal mucinous carcinoma is exceedingly rare and a case report about duodenal mucinous carcinoma in a 61-year-old man mimicking pancreatic cystic neoplasm by radiological evaluation, endoscopy, and even surgical findings is presented.

  17. Incretin secretion in humans is under the influence of cannabinoid receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Chee W; Carlson, Olga D; Liu, David D; González-Mariscal, Isabel; Santa-Cruz Calvo, Sara; Egan, Josephine M

    2017-09-01

    The mechanisms regulating incretin secretion are not fully known. Human obesity is associated with altered incretin secretion and elevated endocannabinoid levels. Since cannabinoid receptors (CBRs) are expressed on incretin-secreting cells in rodents, we hypothesized that endocannabinoids are involved in the regulation of incretin secretion. We compared plasma glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) responses during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in 20 lean and 20 obese participants from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA). Next, we recruited 20 healthy men to evaluate GIP and GLP-1 responses during OGTT after administering placebo or nabilone (CBR agonist) in a randomized, double-blind, crossover fashion. Compared with the BLSA lean group, the BLSA obese group had significantly higher fasting and post-OGTT GIP levels, but similar fasting GLP-1 and significantly lower post-OGTT GLP-1 levels. In the nabilone vs. placebo study, when compared with placebo, nabilone resulted in significantly elevated post-dose fasting GIP levels and post-OGTT GIP levels, but no change in post-dose fasting GLP-1 levels together with significantly lower post-OGTT GLP-1 levels. Glucose levels were not different with both interventions. We conclude that elevated GIP levels in obesity are likely a consequence of increased endocannabinoid levels. CBRs exert tonic control over GIP secretion, which may have a homeostatic effect in suppressing GLP-1 secretion. This raises the possibility that gut hormones are influenced by endocannabinoids.

  18. Theobromine does not affect postprandial lipid metabolism and duodenal gene expression, but has unfavorable effects on postprandial glucose and insulin responses in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolders, Lotte; Mensink, Ronald P; Boekschoten, Mark V; de Ridder, Rogier J J; Plat, Jogchum

    2017-06-10

    Chocolate consumption is associated with a decreased risk for CVD. Theobromine, a compound in cocoa, may explain these effects as it favorably affected fasting serum lipids. However, long-term effects of theobromine on postprandial metabolism as well as underlying mechanisms have never been studied. The objective was to evaluate the effects of 4-week theobromine consumption (500 mg/day) on fasting and postprandial lipid, lipoprotein and glucose metabolism, and duodenal gene expression. In a randomized, double-blind crossover study, 44 healthy men and women, with low baseline HDL-C concentrations consumed 500 mg theobromine or placebo daily. After 4-weeks, fasting blood was sampled and subjects participated in a 4-h postprandial test. Blood was sampled frequently for analysis of lipid and glucose metabolism. In a subgroup of 10 men, 5 h after meal consumption duodenal biopsies were taken for microarray analysis. 4-weeks theobromine consumption lowered fasting LDL-C (-0.21 mmol/L; P = 0.006), and apoB100 (-0.04 g/L; P = 0.022), tended to increase HDL-C (0.03 mmol/L; P = 0.088) and increased hsCRP (1.2 mg/L; P = 0.017) concentrations. Fasting apoA-I, TAG, FFA, glucose and insulin concentrations were unchanged. In the postprandial phase, theobromine consumption increased glucose (P = 0.026), insulin (P = 0.011) and FFA (P = 0.003) concentrations, while lipids and (apo)lipoproteins were unchanged. In duodenal biopsies, microarray analysis showed no consistent changes in expression of genes, pathways or gene sets related to lipid, cholesterol or glucose metabolism. It is not likely that the potential beneficial effects of cocoa on CVD can be ascribed to theobromine. Although theobromine lowers serum LDL-C concentrations, it did not change fasting HDL-C, apoA-I, or postprandial lipid concentrations and duodenal gene expression, and unfavorably affected postprandial glucose and insulin responses. This trial was registered on clinicaltrials.gov under

  19. Subcellular localization and mechanism of secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høier, Birgitte; Prats Gavalda, Clara; Qvortrup, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    The subcellular distribution and secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was examined in skeletal muscle of healthy humans. Skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained from m.v. lateralis before and after a 2 h bout of cycling exercise. VEGF localization was conducted on preparations...

  20. Human luteinized granulosa cells secrete apoB100-containing lipoproteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gautier, Thomas; Becker, Steffi; Drouineaud, Veronique; Menetrier, Franck; Sagot, Paul; Nofer, Jerzy-Roch; von Otte, Soeren; Lagrost, Laurent; Masson, David; Tietge, Uwe J. F.

    Thus far, liver, intestine, heart, and placenta have been shown to secrete apolipoprotein (apo) B-containing lipoproteins. In the present study, we first investigated lipoproteins in human follicular fluid (FF), surrounding developing oocytes within the ovary, as well as in corresponding plasma

  1. Fructose stimulates GLP-1 but not GIP secretion in mice, rats, and humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhre, Rune Ehrenreich; Gribble, Fiona M; Hartmann, Bolette

    2014-01-01

    Nutrients often stimulate gut hormone secretion, but the effects of fructose are incompletely understood. We studied the effects of fructose on a number of gut hormones with particular focus on glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP). In healthy humans...... be useful targets for type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity drug development....

  2. Systematic and intestinal antibody-secreting cell responses and correlates of protective immunity to human rotavirus in a gnotobiotic pig model of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, L; Ward, L A; Rosen, B I; To, T L; Saif, L J

    1996-05-01

    Neonatal gnotobiotic pigs orally inoculated with virulent (intestinal-suspension) Wa strain human rotavirus (which mimics human natural infection) developed diarrhea, and most pigs which recovered (87% protection rate) were immune to disease upon homologous virulent virus challenge at postinoculation day (PID) 21. Pigs inoculated with cell culture-attenuated Wa rotavirus (which mimics live oral vaccines) developed subclinical infections and seroconverted but were only partially protected against challenge (33% protection rate). Isotype-specific antibody-secreting cells (ASC were enumerated at selected PID in intestinal (duodenal and ileal lamina propria and mesenteric lymph node [MLN]) and systemic (spleen and blood) lymphoid tissues by using enzyme-linked immunospot assays. At challenge (PID 21), the numbers of virus-specific immunoglobulin A (IgA) ASC, but not IgG ASC, in intestines and blood were significantly greater in virulent-Wa rotavirus-inoculated pigs than in attenuated-Wa rotavirus-inoculated pigs and were correlated (correlation coefficients: for duodenum and ileum, 0.9; for MLN, 0.8; for blood, 0.6) with the degree of protection induced. After challenge, the numbers of IgA and IgG virus-specific ASC and serum-neutralizing antibodies increased significantly in the attenuated-Wa rotavirus-inoculated pigs but not in the virulent-Wa rotavirus-inoculated pigs (except in the spleen and except for IgA ASC in the duodenum). The transient appearance of IgA ASC in the blood mirrored the IgA ASC responses in the gut, albeit at a lower level, suggesting that IgA ASC in the blood of humans could serve as an indicator for IgA ASC responses in the intestine after rotavirus infection. To our knowledge, this is the first report to study and identify intestinal IgA ASC as a correlate of protective active immunity in an animal model of human-rotavirus-induced disease.

  3. Growth hormone secretion is diminished and tightly controlled in humans enriched for familial longevity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Spoel, Evie; Jansen, Steffy W; Akintola, Abimbola A

    2016-01-01

    Reduced growth hormone (GH) signaling has been consistently associated with increased health and lifespan in various mouse models. Here, we assessed GH secretion and its control in relation with human familial longevity. We frequently sampled blood over 24 h in 19 middle-aged offspring of long...... and more tight control. These data imply that the highly conserved GH signaling pathway, which has been linked to longevity in animal models, is also associated with human longevity....

  4. Paracoccidioidomicose duodenal com sangramento digestivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Martinez

    1984-06-01

    Full Text Available Apresenta-se um caso de hematêmese fatal por úlcera duodenal paracoccidioidomicótica. Tanto esta localização da paracoccidioidomicose, como sua manifestação clínica são incomuns, resultando provavelmente do grande comprometimento da cavidade abdominal.

  5. CLINICAL STUDY OF DUODENAL PERFORATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sambasiva Rao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The duodenal injury can pose a formidable challenge to the surgeon and failure to manage it properly may have devastating results. Over the centuries, there was little to offer the patient of acute abdomen beyond cupping, purgation and enemas, all of which did more harm than good. It was not until 1884 that Mikulicz made an attempt to repair a perforation. Recent statistics indicate roughly 10% of population develop gastric or duodenal ulcer in life time. Roughly 1-3% of population above the age of 20 years have some degree of peptic ulcer activity during any annual period. A detailed history with regards to the signs and symptoms of the patient, a meticulous examination, radiological and biochemical investigations help to arrive at a correct preoperative diagnosis. In this study, a sincere effort has been put to understand the demographic patterns, to understand the underlying aetiology and to understand the effectiveness of the standard methods of investigation and treatment in use today. METHODS This is a 24 months prospective study i.e., from September 2011 to September 2013 carried out at Dr. Pinnamaneni Siddhartha Institute of Medical Sciences & Research Foundation. The study included the patients presenting to Dr. Pinnamaneni Siddhartha Institute of Medical Sciences & Research Foundation to emergency ward with signs and symptoms of hollow viscus perforation. The sample size included 30 cases of duodenal perforation. RESULTS Duodenal ulcer perforation commonly occurs in the age group of 30-60 years, but it can occur in any age group. Majority of the patients were male. Smoking and alcohol consumption were risk factors in most cases (53.3% for the causation of duodenal ulcer perforation. Sudden onset of abdominal pain, situated at epigastrium and right hypochondrium was a constant symptom (100%. Vomiting, constipation and fever were not so common. CONCLUSION The emergency surgical management for perforated duodenal ulcer is by

  6. A role for SPARC in the moderation of human insulin secretion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorna W Harries

    Full Text Available AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We have previously shown the implication of the multifunctional protein SPARC (Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine/osteonectin in insulin resistance but potential effects on beta-cell function have not been assessed. We therefore aimed to characterise the effect of SPARC on beta-cell function and features of diabetes. METHODS: We measured SPARC expression by qRT-PCR in human primary pancreatic islets, adipose tissue, liver and muscle. We then examined the relation of SPARC with glucose stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS in primary human islets and the effect of SPARC overexpression on GSIS in beta cell lines. RESULTS: SPARC was expressed at measurable levels in human islets, adipose tissue, liver and skeletal muscle, and demonstrated reduced expression in primary islets from subjects with diabetes compared with controls (p< = 0.05. SPARC levels were positively correlated with GSIS in islets from control donors (p< = 0.01. Overexpression of SPARC in cultured beta-cells resulted in a 2.4-fold increase in insulin secretion in high glucose conditions (p< = 0.01. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that levels of SPARC are reduced in islets from donors with diabetes and that it has a role in insulin secretion, an effect which appears independent of SPARC's modulation of obesity-induced insulin resistance in adipose tissue.

  7. Parallel Measurement of Circadian Clock Gene Expression and Hormone Secretion in Human Primary Cell Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrenko, Volodymyr; Saini, Camille; Perrin, Laurent; Dibner, Charna

    2016-11-11

    Circadian clocks are functional in all light-sensitive organisms, allowing for an adaptation to the external world by anticipating daily environmental changes. Considerable progress in our understanding of the tight connection between the circadian clock and most aspects of physiology has been made in the field over the last decade. However, unraveling the molecular basis that underlies the function of the circadian oscillator in humans stays of highest technical challenge. Here, we provide a detailed description of an experimental approach for long-term (2-5 days) bioluminescence recording and outflow medium collection in cultured human primary cells. For this purpose, we have transduced primary cells with a lentiviral luciferase reporter that is under control of a core clock gene promoter, which allows for the parallel assessment of hormone secretion and circadian bioluminescence. Furthermore, we describe the conditions for disrupting the circadian clock in primary human cells by transfecting siRNA targeting CLOCK. Our results on the circadian regulation of insulin secretion by human pancreatic islets, and myokine secretion by human skeletal muscle cells, are presented here to illustrate the application of this methodology. These settings can be used to study the molecular makeup of human peripheral clocks and to analyze their functional impact on primary cells under physiological or pathophysiological conditions.

  8. Validation of methods for measurement of insulin secretion in humans in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjems, L L; Christiansen, E; Vølund, A

    2000-01-01

    To detect and understand the changes in beta-cell function in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes, an accurate and precise estimation of prehepatic insulin secretion rate (ISR) is essential. There are two common methods to assess ISR, the deconvolution method (by Eaton and Polonsky...... of these mathematical techniques for quantification of insulin secretion have been tested in dogs, but not in humans. In the present studies, we examined the validity of both methods to recover the known infusion rates of insulin and C-peptide mimicking ISR during an oral glucose tolerance test. ISR from both...... infusion of somatostatin results in nearly identical secretion rates for insulin during an oral glucose tolerance test....

  9. Purification and Cultivation of Human Pituitary Growth Hormones Secreting Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymer, W. C.; Todd, P.; Grindeland, R.; Lanham, W.; Morrison, D.

    1985-01-01

    The rat and human pituitary gland contains a mixture of hormone producing cell types. The separation of cells which make growth hormone (GH) is attempted for the purpose of understanding how the hormone molecule is made within the pituitary cell; what form(s) it takes within the cell; and what form(s) GH assumes as it leaves the cell. Since GH has a number of biological targets (e.g., muscle, liver, bone), the assessment of the activities of the intracellular/extracellular GH by new and sensitive bioassays. GH cells contained in the mixture was separated by free flow electrophoresis. These experiments show that GH cells have different electrophoretic mobilities. This is relevant to NASA since a lack of GH could be a prime causative factor in muscle atrophy. Further, GH has recently been implicated in the etiology of motion sickness in space. Continous flow electrophoresis experiment on STS-8 showed that GH cells could be partially separated in microgravity. However, definitive cell culture studies could not be done due to insufficient cell recoveries.

  10. Viability, Apoptosis, Proliferation, Activation, and Cytokine Secretion of Human Keratoconus Keratocytes after Cross-Linking

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    Xuefei Song

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of cross-linking (CXL on viability, apoptosis, proliferation, activation, and cytokine secretion of human keratoconus (KC keratocytes, in vitro. Methods. Primary KC keratocytes were cultured in DMEM/Ham’s F12 medium supplemented with 10% FCS and underwent UVA illumination (370 nm, 2 J/cm2 during exposure to 0.1% riboflavin and 20% Dextran in PBS. Twenty-four hours after CXL, viability was assessed using Alamar blue assay; apoptosis using APO-DIRECT Kit; proliferation using ELISA-BrdU kit; and CD34 and alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA expression using flow cytometry. Five and 24 hours after CXL, FGFb, HGF, TGFβ1, VEGF, KGF, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 secretion was measured using enzyme-linked-immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA. Results. Following CXL, cell viability and proliferation decreased (P0.06. Five hours after CXL, FGFb secretion increased significantly (P=0.037; however no other cytokine secretion differed significantly from controls after 5 or 24 hours (P>0.12. Conclusions. Cross-linking decreases viability, triggers apoptosis, and inhibits proliferation, without an impact on multipotent hematopoietic stem cell transformation and myofibroblastic transformation of KC keratocytes. CXL triggers FGFb secretion of KC keratocytes transiently (5 hours, normalizing after 24 hours.

  11. Viability, apoptosis, proliferation, activation, and cytokine secretion of human keratoconus keratocytes after cross-linking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xuefei; Stachon, Tanja; Wang, Jiong; Langenbucher, Achim; Seitz, Berthold; Szentmáry, Nóra

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of cross-linking (CXL) on viability, apoptosis, proliferation, activation, and cytokine secretion of human keratoconus (KC) keratocytes, in vitro. Primary KC keratocytes were cultured in DMEM/Ham's F12 medium supplemented with 10% FCS and underwent UVA illumination (370 nm, 2 J/cm(2)) during exposure to 0.1% riboflavin and 20% Dextran in PBS. Twenty-four hours after CXL, viability was assessed using Alamar blue assay; apoptosis using APO-DIRECT Kit; proliferation using ELISA-BrdU kit; and CD34 and alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) expression using flow cytometry. Five and 24 hours after CXL, FGFb, HGF, TGFβ1, VEGF, KGF, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 secretion was measured using enzyme-linked-immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA). Following CXL, cell viability and proliferation decreased (P 0.06). Five hours after CXL, FGFb secretion increased significantly (P = 0.037); however no other cytokine secretion differed significantly from controls after 5 or 24 hours (P > 0.12). Cross-linking decreases viability, triggers apoptosis, and inhibits proliferation, without an impact on multipotent hematopoietic stem cell transformation and myofibroblastic transformation of KC keratocytes. CXL triggers FGFb secretion of KC keratocytes transiently (5 hours), normalizing after 24 hours.

  12. Secretion of Human Protein C in Mouse Milk

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    Chae-Won Park

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available To determine the production of recombinant human protein C (rec-hPC in milk, we created two homozygous mice lines for the goat β-casein/hPC transgene. Females and males of both lines (#10 and #11 displayed normal growth, fertility, and lactated normally. The copy number of the transgene was about fivefold higher in #10 line as compared to #11 line. mRNA expression of the transgene was only detected in the mammary glands of both lines. Furthermore, mRNA expression was fourfold higher on day 7 than on day 1 during lactation. Northern blot analysis of mRNA expression in the #10 line of transgenic (Tg mice indicated a strong expression of the transgene in the mammary glands after seven days of lactation. Comparison of rec-hPC protein level with that of mRNA in the mammary glands showed a very similar pattern. A 52-kDa band corresponding to the hPC protein was strongly detected in mammary glands of the #10 line during lactation. We also detected two bands of heavy chain and one weak band of light chain in the milk of the #10 and #11 lines. One single band at 52 kDa was detected from CHO cells transfected with hPC cDNA. hPC was mainly localized in the alveolar epithelial cell of the mammary glands. The protein is strongly expressed in the cytoplasm of the cultured mammary gland tissue. hPC protein produced in milk ranged from 2 to 28 ng/mL. These experiments indicated that rec-hPC can be produced at high levels in mice mammary glands.

  13. Secretion of human protein C in mouse milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chae-Won; Kang, Myung-Hwa; Min, Kwan-Sik

    2015-03-04

    To determine the production of recombinant human protein C (rec-hPC) in milk, we created two homozygous mice lines for the goat β-casein/hPC transgene. Females and males of both lines (#10 and #11) displayed normal growth, fertility, and lactated normally. The copy number of the transgene was about fivefold higher in #10 line as compared to #11 line. mRNA expression of the transgene was only detected in the mammary glands of both lines. Furthermore, mRNA expression was fourfold higher on day 7 than on day 1 during lactation. Northern blot analysis of mRNA expression in the #10 line of transgenic (Tg) mice indicated a strong expression of the transgene in the mammary glands after seven days of lactation. Comparison of rec-hPC protein level with that of mRNA in the mammary glands showed a very similar pattern. A 52-kDa band corresponding to the hPC protein was strongly detected in mammary glands of the #10 line during lactation. We also detected two bands of heavy chain and one weak band of light chain in the milk of the #10 and #11 lines. One single band at 52 kDa was detected from CHO cells transfected with hPC cDNA. hPC was mainly localized in the alveolar epithelial cell of the mammary glands. The protein is strongly expressed in the cytoplasm of the cultured mammary gland tissue. hPC protein produced in milk ranged from 2 to 28 ng/mL. These experiments indicated that rec-hPC can be produced at high levels in mice mammary glands.

  14. FGF-2b and h-PL Transform Duct and Non-Endocrine Human Pancreatic Cells into Endocrine Insulin Secreting Cells by Modulating Differentiating Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Donadel

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM is a multifactorial disease orphan of a cure. Regenerative medicine has been proposed as novel strategy for DM therapy. Human fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2b controls β-cell clusters via autocrine action, and human placental lactogen (hPL-A increases functional β-cells. We hypothesized whether FGF-2b/hPL-A treatment induces β-cell differentiation from ductal/non-endocrine precursor(s by modulating specific genes expression. Methods: Human pancreatic ductal-cells (PANC-1 and non-endocrine pancreatic cells were treated with FGF-2b plus hPL-A at 500 ng/mL. Cytofluorimetry and Immunofluorescence have been performed to detect expression of endocrine, ductal and acinar markers. Bromodeoxyuridine incorporation and annexin-V quantified cells proliferation and apoptosis. Insulin secretion was assessed by RIA kit, and electron microscopy analyzed islet-like clusters. Results: Increase in PANC-1 duct cells de-differentiation into islet-like aggregates was observed after FGF-2b/hPL-A treatment showing ultrastructure typical of islets-aggregates. These clusters, after stimulation with FGF-2b/hPL-A, had significant (p < 0.05 increase in insulin, C-peptide, pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1 (PDX-1, Nkx2.2, Nkx6.1, somatostatin, glucagon, and glucose transporter 2 (Glut-2, compared with control cells. Markers of PANC-1 (Cytokeratin-19, MUC-1, CA19-9 were decreased (p < 0.05. These aggregates after treatment with FGF-2b/hPL-A significantly reduced levels of apoptosis. Conclusions: FGF-2b and hPL-A are promising candidates for regenerative therapy in DM by inducing de-differentiation of stem cells modulating pivotal endocrine genes.

  15. Dynamic Profiling of Insulin Secretion and ATP Generation in Isolated Human and Mouse Islets Reveals Differential Glucose Sensitivity

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    Attilio Pingitore

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Rodent islets are often used for basic science research but they do not always recapitulate signalling events in human islets. This study evaluated the glucose-dependent responses of human and mouse islets in terms of dynamic insulin secretion, metabolic coupling and the role of glucose transporters. Methods: Glucose-induced insulin secretion from isolated mouse and human islets was profiled by perifusion and islet ATP levels were measured by chemoluminescence assay. Glucose transporter expression was determined by qPCR and western blotting. Results: Human islets show a left-shifted glucose concentration-insulin secretion profile compared to mouse islets. These data are consistent with glucose transporter expression, with human islets expressing mainly GLUT1 and GLUT3, and GLUT2 being the predominant transporter in mouse islets. Using the GLUT1 inhibitor STF-31 we unveiled an important role for GLUT1 for differences in glucose-induced insulin secretion profiles observed between the two species. Conclusion: The high affinity of GLUT1/3 for glucose reflects the left-shifted glucose-induced insulin secretory response of human islets and the impairment of insulin secretion from human islets after STF-31 treatment indicates an important role for GLUT1 in human islet stimulus-secretion coupling. Our data provide further insight into key differences between insulin secretion regulation in mouse and human islets.

  16. Pharmacogenetics of human ABC transporter ABCC11:new insights into apocrine gland growth and metabolite secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshihisa eIshikawa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell secretion is an important physiological process that ensures smooth metabolic activities and tissue repair as well as growth and immunological functions in the body. Apocrine secretion occurs when the secretory process is accomplished with a partial loss of cell cytoplasm. The secretory materials are contained within secretory vesicles and are released during secretion as cytoplasmic fragments into the glandular lumen or interstitial space. The recent finding that the nonsynonymous SNP 538G>A (rs17822931; Gly180Arg in the ABCC11 gene determines the type of earwax in humans has shed light on the novel function of this ABC transporter in apocrine glands. The wild type (Gly180 of ABCC11 is associated with wet-type earwax, axillary osmidrosis, and colostrum secretion from the mammary gland as well as the potential risk of mastopathy. Furthermore, the SNP (538G>A in the ABCC11 gene is suggested to be a clinical biomarker for the prediction of chemotherapeutic efficacy. The aim of this review article is to provide an overview on the discovery and characterization of genetic polymorphisms in the human ABCC11 gene and to explain the impact of ABCC11 538G>A on the apocrine phenotype as well as the anthropological aspect of this SNP in the ABCC11 gene and patients’ response to nucleoside-based chemotherapy.

  17. Active secretion and protective effect of salivary nitrate against stress in human volunteers and rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Luyuan; Qin, Lizheng; Xia, Dengsheng; Liu, Xibao; Fan, Zhipeng; Zhang, Chunmei; Gu, Liankun; He, Junqi; Ambudkar, Indu S.; Deng, Dajun; Wang, Songlin

    2014-01-01

    Up to 25% of the circulating nitrate in blood is actively taken up, concentrated, and secreted into saliva by the salivary glands. Salivary nitrate can be reduced to nitrite by the commensal bacteria in the oral cavity or stomach and then further converted to nitric oxide (NO) in vivo, which may play a role in gastric protection. However, whether salivary nitrate is actively secreted in human beings has not yet been determined. This study was designed to determine whether salivary nitrate is actively secreted in human beings as an acute stress response and what role salivary nitrate plays in stress-induced gastric injury. To observe salivary nitrate function under stress conditions, alteration of salivary nitrate and nitrite was analyzed among 22 healthy volunteers before and after a strong stress activity, jumping down from a platform at the height of 68m. A series of stress indexes was analyzed to monitor the stress situation. We found that both the concentration and the total amount of nitrate in mixed saliva were significantly increased in the human volunteers immediately after the jump, with an additional increase 1 h later (p salivary nitrate and nitrite in stress protection, we further carried out a water-immersion-restraint stress (WIRS) assay in male adult rats with bilateral parotid and submandibular duct ligature (BPSDL). Intragastric nitrate, nitrite, and NO; gastric mucosal blood flow; and gastric ulcer index (UI) were monitored and nitrate was administrated in drinking water to compensate for nitrate secretion in BPSDL animals. Significantly decreased levels of intragastric nitrate, nitrite, and NO and gastricmucosal blood flow were measured in BPSDL rats during the WIRS assay compared to sham control rats (p salivary nitrate secretion and nitrite formation, which may play important roles in gastric protection against stress-induced injury via the nitrate-dependent NO pathway. PMID:23277147

  18. Stimulated human mast cells secrete mitochondrial components that have autocrine and paracrine inflammatory actions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodi Zhang

    Full Text Available Mast cells are hematopoietically-derived tissue immune cells that participate in acquired and innate immunity, as well as in inflammation through release of many chemokines and cytokines, especially in response to the pro-inflammatory peptide substance P (SP. Inflammation is critical in the pathogenesis of many diseases, but the trigger(s is often unknown. We investigated if mast cell stimulation leads to secretion of mitochondrial components and whether these could elicit autocrine and/or paracrine inflammatory effects. Here we show that human LAD2 mast cells stimulated by IgE/anti-IgE or by the SP led to secretion of mitochondrial particles, mitochondrial (mt mtDNA and ATP without cell death. Mitochondria purified from LAD2 cells and, when mitochondria added to mast cells trigger degranulation and release of histamine, PGD(2, IL-8, TNF, and IL-1β. This stimulatory effect is partially inhibited by an ATP receptor antagonist and by DNAse. These results suggest that the mitochondrial protein fraction may also contribute. Purified mitochondria also stimulate IL-8 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF release from cultured human keratinocytes, and VEGF release from primary human microvascular endothelial cells. In order to investigate if mitochondrial components could be secreted in vivo, we injected rats intraperiotoneally (ip with compound 48/80, which mimicks the action of SP. Peritoneal mast cells degranulated and mitochondrial particles were documented by transimission electron microscopy outside the cells. We also wished to investigate if mitochondrial components secreted locally could reach the systemic circulation. Administration ip of mtDNA isolated from LAD2 cells in rats was detected in their serum within 4 hr, indicating that extravascular mtDNA could enter the systemic circulation. Secretion of mitochondrial components from stimulated live mast cells may act as "autopathogens" contributing to the pathogenesis of inflammatory

  19. A note on the duodenum of the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus), with emphasis on the duodenal glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, J E; Krause, W J

    1982-01-01

    The anatomy of the duodenum of the West Indian manatee has both macroscopic and microscopic features that are unusual when compared to other mammalian forms. Macroscopically, the voluminous duodenal ampulla and the paired duodenal diverticula are distinctive. The general microscopic structure of the manatee duodenum is not unusual, but the duodenal glands secrete an acid mucin (sialomucin). The cells of these glands appear to be intermediate between classical serous and mucous cell types. These cells also contain granules with regions of high peripheral electron density. The overall structure of the manatee duodenum most strongly resembles that of the dugong, another member of the order Sirenia.

  20. Nucleotides Regulate Secretion of the Inflammatory Chemokine CCL2 from Human Macrophages and Monocytes

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    K. R. Higgins

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available CCL2 is an important inflammatory chemokine involved in monocyte recruitment to inflamed tissues. The extracellular nucleotide signalling molecules UTP and ATP acting via the P2Y2 receptor are known to induce CCL2 secretion in macrophages. We confirmed this in the human THP-1 monocytic cell line showing that UTP is as efficient as LPS at inducing CCL2 at early time points (2–6 hours. Expression and calcium mobilisation experiments confirmed the presence of functional P2Y2 receptors on THP-1 cells. UTP stimulation of human peripheral CD14+ monocytes showed low responses to LPS (4-hour stimulation but a significant increase above background following 6 hours of treatment. The response to UTP in human monocytes was variable and required stimulation >6 hours. With such variability in response we looked for single nucleotide polymorphisms in P2RY2 that could affect the functional response. Sequencing of P2RY2 from THP-1 cells revealed the presence of a single nucleotide polymorphism altering amino acid 312 from arginine to serine (rs3741156. This polymorphism is relatively common at a frequency of 0.276 (n=404 subjects. Finally, we investigated CCL2 secretion in response to LPS or UTP in human macrophages expressing 312Arg-P2Y2 or 312Ser-P2Y2 where only the latter exhibited significant UTP-induced CCL2 secretion (n=5 donors per group.

  1. Human Blastocyst Secreted microRNA Regulate Endometrial Epithelial Cell Adhesion

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    Carly Cuman

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Successful embryo implantation requires synchronous development and communication between the blastocyst and the endometrium, however the mechanisms of communication in humans are virtually unknown. Recent studies have revealed that microRNAs (miRs are present in bodily fluids and secreted by cells in culture. We have identified that human blastocysts differentially secrete miRs in a pattern associated with their implantation outcome. miR-661 was the most highly expressed miR in blastocyst culture media (BCM from blastocysts that failed to implant (non-implanted compared to blastocysts that implanted (implanted. Our results indicate a possible role for Argonaute 1 in the transport of miR-661 in non-implanted BCM and taken up by primary human endometrial epithelial cells (HEECs. miR-661 uptake by HEEC reduced trophoblast cell line spheroid attachment to HEEC via PVRL1. Our results suggest that human blastocysts alter the endometrial epithelial adhesion, the initiating event of implantation, via the secretion of miR, abnormalities in which result in implantation failure.

  2. Human Blastocyst Secreted microRNA Regulate Endometrial Epithelial Cell Adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuman, Carly; Van Sinderen, Michelle; Gantier, Michael P; Rainczuk, Kate; Sorby, Kelli; Rombauts, Luk; Osianlis, Tiki; Dimitriadis, Evdokia

    2015-10-01

    Successful embryo implantation requires synchronous development and communication between the blastocyst and the endometrium, however the mechanisms of communication in humans are virtually unknown. Recent studies have revealed that microRNAs (miRs) are present in bodily fluids and secreted by cells in culture. We have identified that human blastocysts differentially secrete miRs in a pattern associated with their implantation outcome. miR-661 was the most highly expressed miR in blastocyst culture media (BCM) from blastocysts that failed to implant (non-implanted) compared to blastocysts that implanted (implanted). Our results indicate a possible role for Argonaute 1 in the transport of miR-661 in non-implanted BCM and taken up by primary human endometrial epithelial cells (HEECs). miR-661 uptake by HEEC reduced trophoblast cell line spheroid attachment to HEEC via PVRL1. Our results suggest that human blastocysts alter the endometrial epithelial adhesion, the initiating event of implantation, via the secretion of miR, abnormalities in which result in implantation failure.

  3. Effect of alcohol on insulin secretion and viability of human pancreatic islets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Dragan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/Objective. There are controversial data in the literature on the topic of effects of alcohol on insulin secretion, apoptosis, and necrosis of the endocrine and exocrine pancreas. The goal of this research was to determine how alcohol affects the insulin secretion and viability of human adult pancreatic islets in vitro during a seven-day incubation. Methods. Human pancreatic tissue was digested with Collagenase XI, using a non-automated method. Cultures were incubated in Roswell Park Memorial Institute (RPMI medium containing alcohol (10 μl of alcohol in 100 ml of medium. Insulin stimulation index (SI and viability of the islets were determined on the first, third, and seventh day of cultivation. Results. Analysis of the viability of the islets showed that there wasn’t significant difference between the control and the test group. In the test group, viability of the cultures declined with the time of incubation. SI of the test group was higher compared to the control group, by 50% and 25% on the first and third day of cultivation, respectively. On the seventh day, insulin secretion was reduced by 25%. The difference was not statistically significant (p > 0.05. In the test group, significant decline in insulin secretion was found on the third and seventh day of incubation (p ≤ 0.05. Conclusion. Alcohol can increase or decrease insulin secretion of islets cultures, which may result in an inadequate response of pancreatic β-cells to blood glucose, leading to insulin resistance, and increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 41002

  4. Human rhinovirus 16 causes Golgi apparatus fragmentation without blocking protein secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousnier, Aurelie; Swieboda, Dawid; Pinto, Anaïs; Guedán, Anabel; Rogers, Andrew V; Walton, Ross; Johnston, Sebastian L; Solari, Roberto

    2014-10-01

    The replication of picornaviruses has been described to cause fragmentation of the Golgi apparatus that blocks the secretory pathway. The inhibition of major histocompatibility complex class I upregulation and cytokine, chemokine and interferon secretion may have important implications for host defense. Previous studies have shown that disruption of the secretory pathway can be replicated by expression of individual nonstructural proteins; however the situation with different serotypes of human rhinovirus (HRV) is unclear. The expression of 3A protein from HRV14 or HRV2 did not cause Golgi apparatus disruption or a block in secretion, whereas other studies showed that infection of cells with HRV1A did cause Golgi apparatus disruption which was replicated by the expression of 3A. HRV16 is the serotype most widely used in clinical HRV challenge studies; consequently, to address the issue of Golgi apparatus disruption for HRV16, we have systematically and quantitatively examined the effect of HRV16 on both Golgi apparatus fragmentation and protein secretion in HeLa cells. First, we expressed each individual nonstructural protein and examined their cellular localization and their disruption of endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus architecture. We quantified their effects on the secretory pathway by measuring secretion of the reporter protein Gaussia luciferase. Finally, we examined the same outcomes following infection of cells with live virus. We demonstrate that expression of HRV16 3A and 3AB and, to a lesser extent, 2B caused dispersal of the Golgi structure, and these three nonstructural proteins also inhibited protein secretion. The infection of cells with HRV16 also caused significant Golgi apparatus dispersal; however, this did not result in the inhibition of protein secretion. Importance: The ability of replicating picornaviruses to influence the function of the secretory pathway has important implications for host defense. However, there appear to be

  5. TREK-1 Regulates Cytokine Secretion from Cultured Human Alveolar Epithelial Cells Independently of Cytoskeletal Rearrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwingshackl, Andreas; Roan, Esra; Teng, Bin; Waters, Christopher M

    2015-01-01

    TREK-1 deficient alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) secrete less IL-6, more MCP-1, and contain less F-actin. Whether these alterations in cytokine secretion and F-actin content are related remains unknown. We now hypothesized that cytokine secretion from TREK-1-deficient AECs was regulated by cytoskeletal rearrangements. We determined F-actin and α-tubulin contents of control, TREK-1-deficient and TREK-1-overexpressing human A549 cells by confocal microscopy and western blotting, and measured IL-6 and MCP-1 levels using real-time PCR and ELISA. Cytochalasin D decreased the F-actin content of control cells. Jasplakinolide increased the F-actin content of TREK-1 deficient cells, similar to the effect of TREK-1 overexpression in control cells. Treatment of control and TREK-1 deficient cells with TNF-α, a strong stimulus for IL-6 and MCP-1 secretion, had no effect on F-actin structures. The combination of TNF-α+cytochalasin D or TNF-α+jasplakinolide had no additional effect on the F-actin content or architecture when compared to cytochalasin D or jasplakinolide alone. Although TREK-1 deficient AECs contained less F-actin at baseline, quantified biochemically, they contained more α-tubulin. Exposure to nocodazole disrupted α-tubulin filaments in control and TREK-1 deficient cells, but left the overall amount of α-tubulin unchanged. Although TNF-α had no effect on the F-actin or α-tubulin contents, it increased IL-6 and MCP-1 production and secretion from control and TREK-1 deficient cells. IL-6 and MCP-1 secretions from control and TREK-1 deficient cells after TNF-α+jasplakinolide or TNF-α+nocodazole treatment was similar to the effect of TNF-α alone. Interestingly, cytochalasin D decreased TNF-α-induced IL-6 but not MCP-1 secretion from control but not TREK-1 deficient cells. Although cytochalasin D, jasplakinolide and nocodazole altered the F-actin and α-tubulin structures of control and TREK-1 deficient AEC, the changes in cytokine secretion from TREK-1

  6. The Proteomes of Human Parotid and Submandibular/Sublingual Gland Salivas Collected as the Ductal Secretions

    OpenAIRE

    Denny, Paul; Hagen, Fred K.; Hardt, Markus; Liao, Lujian; Yan, Weihong; Arellanno, Martha; Bassilian, Sara; Bedi, Gurrinder S.; Boontheung, Pinmannee; Cociorva, Daniel; Delahunty, Claire M.; Denny, Trish; Dunsmore, Jason; Faull, Kym F.; Gilligan, Joyce

    2008-01-01

    Saliva is a body fluid with important functions in oral and general health. A consortium of three research groups catalogued the proteins in human saliva collected as the ductal secretions: 1166 identifications—914 in parotid and 917 in submandibular/sublingual saliva—were made. The results showed that a high proportion of proteins that are found in plasma and/or tears are also present in saliva along with unique components. The proteins identified are involved in numerous molecular processes...

  7. [Traumatic duodenal hematoma (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, P; Tovar, J A; Díez-Pardo, J A; Corbatón, J; Monereo, J

    1976-01-01

    Two cases of duodenal hematoma secondary to abdominal trauma in children are reported. The latent periods between trauma and the onset of symptoms were two and fifteen days. X-ray studies were conclusive for diagnosis. Pancreatic signs were mild in one case. Both cases were treated surgically, draining the fluid collection extramucosally. The authors advise surgical treatment whenever associated lesions need to be ruled out and when obstruction persists after the first days.

  8. Ultrastructural Evidence of Exosome Secretion by Progenitor Cells in Adult Mouse Myocardium and Adult Human Cardiospheres

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    Lucio Barile

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The demonstration of beneficial effects of cell therapy despite the persistence of only few transplanted cells in vivo suggests secreted factors may be the active component of this treatment. This so-called paracrine hypothesis is supported by observations that culture media conditioned by progenitor cells contain growth factors that mediate proangiogenic and cytoprotective effects. Cardiac progenitor cells in semi-suspension culture form spherical clusters (cardiospheres that deliver paracrine signals to neighboring cells. A key component of paracrine secretion is exosomes, membrane vesicles that are stored intracellularly in endosomal compartments and are secreted when these structures fuse with the cell plasma membrane. Exosomes have been identified as the active component of proangiogenic effects of bone marrow CD34+ stem cells in mice and the regenerative effects of embryonic mesenchymal stem cells in infarcted hearts in pigs and mice. Here, we provide electron microscopic evidence of exosome secretion by progenitor cells in mouse myocardium and human cardiospheres. Exosomes are emerging as an attractive vector of paracrine signals delivered by progenitor cells. They can be stored as an “off-the-shelf” product. As such, exosomes have the potential for circumventing many of the limitations of viable cells for therapeutic applications in regenerative medicine.

  9. DPP4 gene variation affects GLP-1 secretion, insulin secretion, and glucose tolerance in humans with high body adiposity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Böhm, Anja; Wagner, Robert; Machicao, Fausto

    2017-01-01

    , inter-individual variance in the responsiveness to DPP-4 inhibitors was reported. Thus, we asked whether genetic variation in the DPP4 gene affects incretin levels, insulin secretion, and glucose tolerance in participants of the TÜbingen Family study for type-2 diabetes (TÜF). RESEARCH DESIGN......-BMI interaction effects were detected (p = 0.8). After stratification for body fat content, the SNP negatively affected glucose-stimulated GLP-1 levels (p = 0.0229), insulin secretion (p = 0.0061), and glucose tolerance (p = 0.0208) in subjects with high body fat content only. CONCLUSIONS: A common variant, i.......e., SNP rs6741949, in the DPP4 gene interacts with body adiposity and negatively affects glucose-stimulated GLP-1 levels, insulin secretion, and glucose tolerance. Whether this SNP underlies the reported inter-individual variance in responsiveness to DPP-4 inhibitors, at least in subjects with high body...

  10. Omeprazole suppressed plasma magnesium level and duodenal magnesium absorption in male Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongon, Narongrit; Penguy, Jirawat; Kulwong, Sasikan; Khongmueang, Kanyanat; Thongma, Matthana

    2016-11-01

    Hypomagnesemia is the most concerned side effect of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) in chronic users. However, the mechanism of PPIs-induced systemic Mg2+ deficit is currently unclear. The present study aimed to elucidate the direct effect of short-term and long-term PPIs administrations on whole body Mg2+ homeostasis and duodenal Mg2+ absorption in rats. Mg2+ homeostasis was studied by determining the serum Mg2+ level, urine and fecal Mg2+ excretions, and bone and muscle Mg2+ contents. Duodenal Mg2+ absorption as well as paracellular charge selectivity were studied. Our result showed that gastric and duodenal pH markedly increased in omeprazole-treated rats. Omeprazole significantly suppressed plasma Mg2+ level, urinary Mg2+ excretion, and bone and muscle Mg2+ content. Thus, omeprazole induced systemic Mg2+ deficiency. By using Ussing chamber techniques, it was shown that omeprazole markedly suppressed duodenal Mg2+ channel-driven and Mg2+ channel-independent Mg2+ absorptions and cation selectivity. Inhibitors of mucosal HCO3- secretion significantly increased duodenal Mg2+ absorption in omeprazole-treated rats. We therefore hypothesized that secreted HCO3- in duodenum decreased luminal proton, this impeded duodenal Mg2+ absorption. Higher plasma total 25-OH vitamin D, diuresis, and urine PO43- were also demonstrated in hypomagnesemic rats. As a compensatory mechanism for systemic Mg2+ deficiency, the expressions of duodenal transient receptor potential melastatin 6 (TRPM6), cyclin M4 (CNNM4), claudin (Cldn)-2, Cldn-7, Cldn-12, and Cldn-15 proteins were enhanced in omeprazole-treated rats. Our findings support the potential role of duodenum on the regulation of Mg2+ homeostasis.

  11. Duodenoscopic appraisal of duodenal ulcer in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Kavitha

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the usefulness of duodenoscopy in the diagnosis of duodenal ulcers in dogs. Materials and Methods: Sick dogs with chronic gastrointestinal problems were physically examined and samples were collected for haematology, biochemistry and faecal examination. Duodenal biopsies, duodenal contents and brush cytology were obtained via duodenoscopy. Results: Seven duodenal ulcers cases were recorded, higher incidences was recorded in Labrador retriever, 2-4 years of aged male dogs. Significantly decreased Hb (9.10 ± 0.25 g/dl, RBCs (4.39 ± 0.19 mill/cu.mm and albumin (2.343b ± 0.13 g/dl level were noticed. Hyperaemia with ulceration of duodenal mucosa was observed. Conclusion: Duodenoscopy is very much useful for detection of duodenal ulceration and provided a sensitive technique for early diagnosis of mucosal lesions and ulceration. [Vet. World 2012; 5(7.000: 420-423

  12. Rupatadine inhibits proinflammatory mediator secretion from human mast cells triggered by different stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiadi, Magdalini; Kalogeromitros, Dimitris; Kempuraj, Duraisamy; Clemons, Anthony; Zhang, Bodi; Chliva, Caterina; Makris, Michael; Wolfberg, Adam; House, Michael; Theoharides, Theoharis C

    2010-01-01

    Mast cells are involved in allergy and inflammation by secreting multiple mediators including histamine, cytokines and platelet-activating factor. Certain histamine 1 receptor antagonists have been reported to inhibit histamine secretion, but the effect on cytokine release from human mast cells triggered by allergic and other stimuli is not well known. We investigated the ability of rupatadine, a potent histamine 1 receptor antagonist that also blocks platelet-activating factor actions, to also inhibit mast cell mediator release. Rupatadine (1-50 microM) was used before stimulation by: (1) interleukin (IL)-1 to induce IL-6 from human leukemic mast cells (HMC-1 cells), (2) substance P for histamine, IL-8 and vascular endothelial growth factor release from LAD2 cells, and (3) IgE/anti-IgE for cytokine release from human cord blood-derived cultured mast cells. Mediators were measured in the supernatant fluid by ELISA or by Milliplex microbead arrays. Rupatadine (10-50 microM) inhibited IL-6 release (80% at 50 microM) from HMC-1 cells, whether added 10 min or 24 h prior to stimulation. Rupatadine (10-50 microM for 10 min) inhibited IL-8 (80%), vascular endothelial growth factor (73%) and histamine (88%) release from LAD2 cells, as well as IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-13 and tumor necrosis factor release from human cord blood-derived cultured mast cells. Rupatadine can inhibit histamine and cytokine secretion from human mast cells in response to allergic, immune and neuropeptide triggers. These actions endow rupatadine with unique properties in treating allergic inflammation, especially perennial rhinitis and idiopathic urticaria.

  13. Cytokine secretion and NK cell activity in human ADAM17 deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavkin, Maor; Schmiedel, Dominik; Wong, Eitan; Werner, Marion; Yaacov, Barak; Averbuch, Diana; Molho-Pessach, Vered; Stepensky, Polina; Kaynan, Noa; Bar-On, Yotam; Seidel, Einat; Yamin, Rachel; Sagi, Irit; Elpeleg, Orly; Mandelboim, Ofer

    2015-01-01

    Genetic deficiencies provide insights into gene function in humans. Here we describe a patient with a very rare genetic deficiency of ADAM17. We show that the patient's PBMCs had impaired cytokine secretion in response to LPS stimulation, correlating with the clinical picture of severe bacteremia from which the patient suffered. ADAM17 was shown to cleave CD16, a major NK killer receptor. Functional analysis of patient's NK cells demonstrated that his NK cells express normal levels of activating receptors and maintain high surface levels of CD16 following mAb stimulation. Activation of individual NK cell receptors showed that the patient's NK cells are more potent when activated directly by CD16, albeit no difference was observed in Antibody Depedent Cytotoxicity (ADCC) assays. Our data suggest that ADAM17 inhibitors currently considered for clinical use to boost CD16 activity should be cautiously applied, as they might have severe side effects resulting from impaired cytokine secretion. PMID:26683521

  14. Induction of Chemokine Secretion and Monocyte Migration by Human Choroidal Melanocytes in Response to Proinflammatory Cytokines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jehs, Tina; Faber, Carsten; Udsen, Maja S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To determine to which extent inflammatory cytokines affect chemokine secretion by primary human choroidal melanocytes (HCMs), their capacity to attract monocytes, and whether HCMs are able to influence the proliferation of activated T cells. Methods: Primary cultures of HCMs were...... and secretion of CXCL8, CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL11, CCL2, CCL5 and intercellular adhesion molecule 1. Vascular endothelial growth factor and monocyte migration inhibitory factor were constitutively expressed without changes in response to proinflammatory cytokines. Supernatants derived from unstimulated cultures...... of 10 HCM donors induced a high initial level of monocyte migration, which decreased upon stimulation with either TCM or IFN-γ and TNF-α. The supernatants from three HCM donors initially showed a low level of monocyte attraction, which increased after exposure to proinflammatory cytokines. Direct...

  15. DNA Delivery and Genomic Integration into Mammalian Target Cells through Type IV A and B Secretion Systems of Human Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán-Herrador, Dolores L; Steiner, Samuel; Alperi, Anabel; González-Prieto, Coral; Roy, Craig R; Llosa, Matxalen

    2017-01-01

    We explore the potential of bacterial secretion systems as tools for genomic modification of human cells. We previously showed that foreign DNA can be introduced into human cells through the Type IV A secretion system of the human pathogen Bartonella henselae. Moreover, the DNA is delivered covalently attached to the conjugative relaxase TrwC, which promotes its integration into the recipient genome. In this work, we report that this tool can be adapted to other target cells by using different relaxases and secretion systems. The promiscuous relaxase MobA from plasmid RSF1010 can be used to deliver DNA into human cells with higher efficiency than TrwC. MobA also promotes DNA integration, albeit at lower rates than TrwC. Notably, we report that DNA transfer to human cells can also take place through the Type IV secretion system of two intracellular human pathogens, Legionella pneumophila and Coxiella burnetii, which code for a distantly related Dot/Icm Type IV B secretion system. This suggests that DNA transfer could be an intrinsic ability of this family of secretion systems, expanding the range of target human cells. Further analysis of the DNA transfer process showed that recruitment of MobA by Dot/Icm was dependent on the IcmSW chaperone, which may explain the higher DNA transfer rates obtained. Finally, we observed that the presence of MobA negatively affected the intracellular replication of C. burnetii, suggesting an interference with Dot/Icm translocation of virulence factors.

  16. A novel, secreted form of human ADAM 12 (meltrin alpha) provokes myogenesis in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilpin, B J; Loechel, F; Mattei, M G

    1998-01-01

    , membrane-bound form designated ADAM 12-L (L for long form). These two forms arise by alternative splicing of a single gene located on chromosome 10q26. Northern blotting demonstrated that mRNAs of both forms are abundant in human term placenta and are also present in some tumor cell lines. The ADAM 12-L......The ADAM (A Disintegrin And Metalloprotease) family of cell-surface proteins may have an important role in cellular interactions and in modulating cellular responses. In this report we describe a novel, secreted form of human ADAM 12 (meltrin alpha), designated ADAM 12-S (S for short), and a larger...... transcript can also be detected in normal human adult skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle. Human A204 embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma cells that do not differentiate into muscle cells and do not express any form of ADAM 12 were stably transfected with an ADAM 12-S minigene encoding the disintegrin domain...

  17. Development of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone-Secreting Neurons from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

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    Carina Lund

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH neurons regulate human puberty and reproduction. Modeling their development and function in vitro would be of interest for both basic research and clinical translation. Here, we report a three-step protocol to differentiate human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs into GnRH-secreting neurons. Firstly, hPSCs were differentiated to FOXG1, EMX2, and PAX6 expressing anterior neural progenitor cells (NPCs by dual SMAD inhibition. Secondly, NPCs were treated for 10 days with FGF8, which is a key ligand implicated in GnRH neuron ontogeny, and finally, the cells were matured with Notch inhibitor to bipolar TUJ1-positive neurons that robustly expressed GNRH1 and secreted GnRH decapeptide into the culture medium. The protocol was reproducible both in human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells, and thus provides a translational tool for investigating the mechanisms of human puberty and its disorders.

  18. Subfractions of enamel matrix derivative differentially influence cytokine secretion from human oral fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Oscar; Brookes, Steven J; Thiede, Bernd; Heijl, Lars; Lyngstadaas, Staale P; Reseland, Janne E

    2015-01-01

    Enamel matrix derivative is used to promote periodontal regeneration during the corrective phase of the treatment of periodontal defects. Our main goal was to analyze the bioactivity of different molecular weight fractions of enamel matrix derivative. Enamel matrix derivative, a complex mixture of proteins, was separated into 13 fractions using size-exclusion chromatography and characterized by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. Human periodontal ligament fibroblasts were treated with either enamel matrix derivative or the different fractions. Proliferation and cytokine secretion to the cell culture medium were measured and compared to untreated cells. The liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry analyses revealed that the most abundant peptides were amelogenin and leucine-rich amelogenin peptide related. The fractions containing proteins above 20 kDa induced an increase in vascular endothelial growth factor and interleukin-6 secretion, whereas lower molecular weight fractions enhanced proliferation and secretion of interleukin-8 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and reduced interleukin-4 release. The various molecular components in the enamel matrix derivative formulation might contribute to reported effects on tissue regeneration through their influence on vascularization, the immune response, and chemotaxis.

  19. Duodenal diverticular bleeding: an endoscopic challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Valdivielso-Cortázar

    Full Text Available Duodenal diverticula are an uncommon cause of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Until recently, it was primarily managed with surgery, but advances in the field of endoscopy have made management increasingly less invasive. We report a case of duodenal diverticular bleeding that was endoscopically managed, and review the literature about the various endoscopic therapies thus far described.

  20. Duodenal epithelial transport in functional dyspepsia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witte, Anne-Barbara; D'Amato, Mauro; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    2013-01-01

    To investigate functional duodenal abnormalities in functional dyspepsia (FD) and the role of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) in mucosal ion transport and signalling.......To investigate functional duodenal abnormalities in functional dyspepsia (FD) and the role of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) in mucosal ion transport and signalling....

  1. Effects of aging on the human ovary: the secretion of immunoreactive alpha-inhibin and progesterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellicer, A; Marí, M; de los Santos, M J; Simón, C; Remohí, J; Tarín, J J

    1994-04-01

    To investigate the changes induced by age in the function and secretory pattern of the human ovary. Immunoreactive alpha-inhibin, E2, and P secretion in vivo and in vitro have been compared in two different populations. Prospective study. Women undergoing IVF-ET were divided into two groups according to age: group 1 (32.0 +/- 0.7 years; mean +/- SEM) and group 2 (40.3 +/- 0.3 years). In vitro fertilization program at the Instituto Valenciano de Infertilidad. A total of 33 infertile women with regular menses, undergoing IVF-ET. Follicle aspiration performed by transvaginal ultrasound. Four follicles per patient were aspirated in individual plastic tubes. Granulosa-luteal cells isolated with Percoll columns and cultured in vitro up to 4 days in the presence of hCG. In vitro fertilization parameters, serum levels of E2, immunoreactive alpha-inhibin, and P, as well as the secretion of immunoreactive alpha-inhibin and P by the cultured granulosa-luteal cells. Serum immunoreactive alpha-inhibin levels the day of ovum pick-up were significantly lower in group 2 compared with group 1. Incubation of cells for 96 hours showed a significantly higher ability to accumulate immunoreactive alpha-inhibin in group 1 than 2. Human chorionic gonadotropin stimulated immunoreactive alpha-inhibin production after 96 hours. Cells from younger women displayed a significantly higher ability to secrete P than cells from older women. Human chorionic gonadotropin was able to significantly stimulate P production in group 1. These results confirm previous observations showing a reduced production of immunoreactive alpha-inhibin and steroids of ovaries from older women and suggest that a reduced cellular function, rather than a decrease in the follicular population, is the main mechanism by which these changes are produced.

  2. Molecular interactions between terpenoid mosquito repellents and human-secreted attractants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Shengliang; Song, Jie; Wang, Zongde; Chen, Jinzhu; Fan, Guorong; Song, Zhanqian; Shang, Shibin; Chen, Shangxing; Wang, Peng

    2014-02-01

    Molecular interactions between terpenoid mosquito repellents and three typical human-secreted attractants, ammonia, 1-octen-3-ol, and formic acid were studied. Relative energies, bond distances, and bond angles of the molecular interactions were obtained at HF level to evaluate the interaction intensity and types. The effects of molecular interactions on repellency were investigated by the subsequent quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) study. The results of this study suggest that attractant-repellent interaction should not be ignored and could be helpful for future research on the repelling mechanism of mosquito repellents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Augmentation of Antitumor Immunity by Human and Mouse CAR T Cells Secreting IL-18

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    Biliang Hu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of transgenically encoded human and mouse IL-18 on T cell proliferation and its application in boosting chimeric antigen receptor (CAR T cells are presented. Robust enhancement of proliferation of IL-18-secreting human T cells occurred in a xenograft model, and this was dependent on TCR and IL-18R signaling. IL-18 augmented IFN-γ secretion and proliferation of T cells activated by the endogenous TCR. TCR-deficient, human IL-18-expressing CD19 CAR T cells exhibited enhanced proliferation and antitumor activity in the xenograft model. Antigen-propelled activation of cytokine helper ensemble (APACHE CAR T cells displayed inducible expression of IL-18 and enhanced antitumor immunity. In an intact mouse tumor model, CD19-IL-18 CAR T cells induced deeper B cell aplasia, significantly enhanced CAR T cell proliferation, and effectively augmented antitumor effects in mice with B16F10 melanoma. These findings point to a strategy to develop universal CAR T cells for patients with solid tumors.

  4. High-level secretion of native recombinant human calreticulin in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Čiplys, Evaldas; Žitkus, Eimantas; Gold, Leslie I.

    2015-01-01

    processes with presence both inside and outside of the ER, including the cell surface and extracellular space. These recent findings suggest the possible use of this ER chaperone in development of new therapeutic pharmaceuticals. Our study was focused on human CRT production in two yeast species...... quality of the yeast-derived CRTs, we compared yeast-secreted human recombinant CRT with native CRT isolated from human placenta. In ESI-MS (electrospray ionization mass spectrometry), both native and recombinant full-length CRT showed an identical molecular weight (mass) of 46,466 Da and were monomeric...... by non-denaturing PAGE. Moreover, limited trypsin digestion yielded identical fragment patterns of calcium-binding recombinant and native CRT suggesting that the yeast-derived CRT was correctly folded. Furthermore, both native and recombinant CRT induced cellular proliferation (MTS assay) and migration...

  5. DPP4 gene variation affects GLP-1 secretion, insulin secretion, and glucose tolerance in humans with high body adiposity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Böhm

    Full Text Available Dipeptidyl-peptidase 4 (DPP-4 cleaves and inactivates the insulinotropic hormones glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1 and gastric inhibitory polypeptide, collectively termed incretins. DPP-4 inhibitors entered clinical practice as approved therapeutics for type-2 diabetes in 2006. However, inter-individual variance in the responsiveness to DPP-4 inhibitors was reported. Thus, we asked whether genetic variation in the DPP4 gene affects incretin levels, insulin secretion, and glucose tolerance in participants of the TÜbingen Family study for type-2 diabetes (TÜF.Fourteen common (minor allele frequencies ≥0.05 DPP4 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were genotyped in 1,976 non-diabetic TÜF participants characterized by oral glucose tolerance tests and bioimpedance measurements. In a subgroup of 168 subjects, plasma incretin levels were determined.We identified a variant, i.e., SNP rs6741949, in intron 2 of the DPP4 gene that, after correction for multiple comparisons and appropriate adjustment, revealed a significant genotype-body fat interaction effect on glucose-stimulated plasma GLP-1 levels (p = 0.0021. Notably, no genotype-BMI interaction effects were detected (p = 0.8. After stratification for body fat content, the SNP negatively affected glucose-stimulated GLP-1 levels (p = 0.0229, insulin secretion (p = 0.0061, and glucose tolerance (p = 0.0208 in subjects with high body fat content only.A common variant, i.e., SNP rs6741949, in the DPP4 gene interacts with body adiposity and negatively affects glucose-stimulated GLP-1 levels, insulin secretion, and glucose tolerance. Whether this SNP underlies the reported inter-individual variance in responsiveness to DPP-4 inhibitors, at least in subjects with high body fat content, remains to be shown.

  6. TNF-α potentiates uric acid-induced interleukin-1β (IL-1β) secretion in human neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokose, Kohei; Sato, Shuzo; Asano, Tomoyuki; Yashiro, Makiko; Kobayashi, Hiroko; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Eiji; Sato, Chikako; Kozuru, Hideko; Yatsuhashi, Hiroshi; Migita, Kiyoshi

    2017-09-14

    Monosodium urate (MSU) has been shown to promote interleukin-1β (IL-1β) secretion in human monocytes, but the priming signals for NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome pathway remains elusive. In this study, we investigated the role of Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) on MSU-mediated IL-1β induction in human neutrophils. Human neutrophils were stimulated with MSU, in the presence or absence of TNF-α priming. The cellular supernatants were analyzed for IL-1β, IL-18, and caspase-1 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods. Pro-IL-1β mRNA expressions in human neutrophils were analyzed by real-time PCR method. TNF-α stimulation induced pro-IL-1β mRNA expression; however, MSU stimulation did not induce pro-IL-1β mRNA expression in human neutrophils. TNF-α alone or MSU stimulation did not result in efficient IL-1β secretion in human neutrophils, whereas in TNF-α-primed neutrophils, MSU stimulation resulted in a marked IL-1β and IL-18 secretion. TNF-α-primed neutrophils secreted cleaved caspase-1 (p20), in response to MSU stimulation. Our data demonstrate that priming of human neutrophils with TNF-α promotes uric acid-mediated IL-1β secretion in the absence of microbial stimulation. These findings provide insights into the neutrophils-mediated inflammatory processes in gouty arthritis.

  7. Dot/Icm Type IVB Secretion System Requirements for Coxiella burnetii Growth in Human Macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beare, Paul A.; Gilk, Stacey D.; Larson, Charles L.; Hill, Joshua; Stead, Christopher M.; Omsland, Anders; Cockrell, Diane C.; Howe, Dale; Voth, Daniel E.; Heinzen, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Central to Q fever pathogenesis is replication of the causative agent, Coxiella burnetii, within a phagolysosome-like parasitophorous vacuole (PV) in mononuclear phagocytes. C. burnetii modulates PV biogenesis and other host cell functions, such as apoptotic signaling, presumably via the activity of proteins delivered to the host cytosol by a Dot/Icm type IVB secretion system (T4BSS). In this study, we utilized a C. burnetii strain carrying IcmD inactivated by the Himar1 transposon to investigate the requirements for Dot/Icm function in C. burnetii parasitism of human THP-1 macrophage-like cells. The icmD::Tn mutant failed to secrete characterized T4BSS substrates, a defect that correlated with deficient replication, PV development, and apoptosis protection. Restoration of type IVB secretion and intracellular growth of the icmD::Tn mutant required complementation with icmD, -J, and -B, indicating a polar effect of the transposon insertion on downstream dot/icm genes. Induction of icmDJB expression at 1 day postinfection resulted in C. burnetii replication and PV generation. Collectively, these data prove that T4BSS function is required for productive infection of human macrophages by C. burnetii. However, illustrating the metabolic flexibility of C. burnetti, the icmD::Tn mutant could replicate intracellularly when sequestered in a PV generated by wild-type bacteria, where Dot/Icm function is provided in trans, and within a phenotypically similar PV generated by the protozoan parasite Leishmania amazonensis, where host cells are devoid of Dot/Icm T4BSS effector proteins. PMID:21862628

  8. Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis rapidly up-regulate galectin-3 secretion by human gingival epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamai, Riyoko; Kiyoura, Yusuke

    2014-02-01

    Galectin-3 is a β-galactoside-binding C-type lectin that plays an important role in innate immunity. The purpose of this study was to determine whether Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis up-regulate galectin-3 secretion by human gingival epithelial cells and gingival fibroblasts. Ca9-22, a human gingival epithelial cell line, and human gingival fibroblasts were incubated in the presence or absence of C. albicans or C. parapsilosis without serum. Levels of secreted human galectin-3 in culture supernatants were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We also pretreated Ca9-22 cells with cytochalasin D (an actin polymerization inhibitor), ALLN (a calpain inhibitor) and LY294002 [a phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) inhibitor] to determine whether the up-regulation of galectin-3 secretion was mediated by cytoskeletal changes, protease activity, or PI3K signaling. Galectin-3 secretion was significantly and rapidly up-regulated by live C. albicans and C. parapsilosis, as well as heat-killed C. albicans. In addition, cytochalasin D, LY294002 and ALLN did not inhibit the up-regulation in galectin-3 secretion. These results suggest that both live and heat-killed C. albicans and C. parapsilosis may increase the activity of the innate immune system and invasion by other microorganisms via up-regulation of galectin-3 secretion.

  9. Distinct action of the α-glucosidase inhibitor miglitol on SGLT3, enteroendocrine cells, and GLP1 secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Young; Kaneko, Shuji; Jutabha, Promsuk; Zhang, Xilin; Seino, Susumu; Jomori, Takahito; Anzai, Naohiko; Miki, Takashi

    2015-03-01

    Oral ingestion of carbohydrate triggers glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1) secretion, but the molecular mechanism remains elusive. By measuring GLP1 concentrations in murine portal vein, we found that the ATP-sensitive K(+) (KATP) channel is not essential for glucose-induced GLP1 secretion from enteroendocrine L cells, while the sodium-glucose co-transporter 1 (SGLT1) is required, at least in the early phase (5 min) of secretion. By contrast, co-administration of the α-glucosidase inhibitor (α-GI) miglitol plus maltose evoked late-phase secretion in a glucose transporter 2-dependent manner. We found that GLP1 secretion induced by miglitol plus maltose was significantly higher than that by another α-GI, acarbose, plus maltose, despite the fact that acarbose inhibits maltase more potently than miglitol. As miglitol activates SGLT3, we compared the effects of miglitol on GLP1 secretion with those of acarbose, which failed to depolarize the Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing human SGLT3. Oral administration of miglitol activated duodenal enterochromaffin (EC) cells as assessed by immunostaining of phosphorylated calcium-calmodulin kinase 2 (phospho-CaMK2). In contrast, acarbose activated much fewer enteroendocrine cells, having only modest phospho-CaMK2 immunoreactivity. Single administration of miglitol triggered no GLP1 secretion, and GLP1 secretion by miglitol plus maltose was significantly attenuated by atropine pretreatment, suggesting regulation via vagal nerve. Thus, while α-GIs generally delay carbohydrate absorption and potentiate GLP1 secretion, miglitol also activates duodenal EC cells, possibly via SGLT3, and potentiates GLP1 secretion through the parasympathetic nervous system. © 2015 Society for Endocrinology.

  10. Human iPSC-Derived Immature Astroglia Promote Oligodendrogenesis by Increasing TIMP-1 Secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Jiang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Astrocytes, once considered passive support cells, are increasingly appreciated as dynamic regulators of neuronal development and function, in part via secreted factors. The extent to which they similarly regulate oligodendrocytes or proliferation and differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs is less understood. Here, we generated astrocytes from human pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC-Astros and demonstrated that immature astrocytes, as opposed to mature ones, promote oligodendrogenesis in vitro. In the PVL mouse model of neonatal hypoxic/ischemic encephalopathy, associated with cerebral palsy in humans, transplanted immature hiPSC-Astros promoted myelinogenesis and behavioral outcome. We further identified TIMP-1 as a selectively upregulated component secreted from immature hiPSC-Astros. Accordingly, in the rat PVL model, intranasal administration of conditioned medium from immature hiPSC-Astros promoted oligodendrocyte maturation in a TIMP-1-dependent manner. Our findings suggest stage-specific developmental interactions between astroglia and oligodendroglia and have important therapeutic implications for promoting myelinogenesis.

  11. Characterization of two cysteine proteases secreted by Blastocystis ST7, a human intestinal parasite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wawrzyniak, Ivan; Texier, Catherine; Poirier, Philippe; Viscogliosi, Eric; Tan, Kevin S W; Delbac, Frédéric; El Alaoui, Hicham

    2012-09-01

    Blastocystis spp. are unicellular anaerobic intestinal parasites of both humans and animals and the most prevalent ones found in human stool samples. Their association with various gastrointestinal disorders raises the questions of its pathogenicity and of the molecular mechanisms involved. Since secreted proteases are well-known to be implicated in intestinal parasite virulence, we intended to determine whether Blastocystis spp. possess such pathogenic factors. In silico analysis of the Blastocystis subtype 7 (ST7) genome sequence highlighted 22 genes coding proteases which were predicted to be secreted. We characterized the proteolytic activities in the secretory products of Blastocystis ST7 using specific protease inhibitors. Two cysteine proteases, a cathepsin B and a legumain, were identified in the parasite culture supernatant by gelatin zymographic SDS-PAGE gel and MS/MS analysis. These proteases might act on intestinal cells and disturb gut function. This work provides serious molecular candidates to link Blastocystis spp. and intestinal disorders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Cultured human astrocytes secrete large cholesteryl ester- andtriglyceride-rich lipoproteins along with endothelial lipase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Lin; Liu, Yanzhu; Forte, Trudy M.; Chisholm, Jeffrey W.; Parks, John S.; Shachter, Neil S.

    2003-12-01

    We cultured normal human astrocytes and characterized their secreted lipoproteins. Human astrocytes secreted lipoproteins in the size range of plasma VLDL (Peak 1), LDL (Peak 2), HDL (Peak 3) and a smaller peak (Peak 4), as determined by gel filtration chromatography, nondenaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and transmission electron microscopy. Cholesterol enrichment of astrocytes led to a particular increase in Peak 1. Almost all Peak 2, 3 and 4 cholesterol and most Peak 1 cholesterol was esterified (unlike mouse astrocyte lipoproteins, which exhibited similar peaks but where cholesterol was predominantly non-esterified). Triglycerides were present at about 2/3 the level of cholesterol. LCAT was detected along with two of its activators, apolipoprotein (apo) A-IV and apoC-I. ApoA-I and apoA-II mRNA and protein were absent. ApoJ was present equally in all peaks but apoE was present predominantly in peaks 3 and 4. ApoB was not detected. The electron microscopic appearance of Peak 1 lipoproteins suggested partial lipolysis leading to the detection of a heparin-releasable triglyceride lipase consistent with endothelial lipase. The increased neuronal delivery of lipids from large lipoprotein particles, for which apoE4 has greater affinity than does apoE3, may be a mechanism whereby the apoE {var_epsilon}4 allele contributes to neurodegenerative risk.

  13. Pseudomonas aeruginosa lipopolysaccharide induces CF-like alteration of protein secretion by human tracheal gland cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammouni, W; Figarella, C; Baeza, N; Marchand, S; Merten, M D

    1997-12-18

    Human tracheal gland (HTG) serous cells are now believed to play a major role in the physiopathology of cystic fibrosis. Because of the persistent inflammation and the specific infection by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the lung, we looked for the action of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of this bacteria on human tracheal gland cells in culture by studying the secretion of the secretory leukocyte proteinase inhibitor (SLPI) which is a specific serous secretory marker of these cells. Treatment with Pseudomonas aeruginosa LPS resulted in a significant dose-dependent increase in the basal production of SLPI (+ 250 +/- 25%) whilst the SLPI transcript mRNA levels remained unchanged. This LPS-induced increase in secretion was inhibited by glucocorticoides. Furthermore, LPS treatment of HTG cells induces a loss of responsiveness to carbachol and isoproterenol but not to adenosine triphosphate. These findings indicate that HTG cells treated by Pseudomonas aeruginosa LPS have the same behavior as those previously observed with CF-HTG cells. Exploration by using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction amplification showed that LPS downregulated cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) mRNA expression in HTG cells indicative of a link between CFTR function and consequent CF-like alteration in protein secretory process.

  14. The spectrophotometric sulfo-phospho-vanillin assessment of total lipids in human meibomian gland secretions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Anne; Lu, Hua; Butovich, Igor A

    2013-05-01

    Human meibomian gland secretions (meibum) are the major lipid component of the human preocular tear film. The predominant lipid classes found in meibum include waxes (WE), cholesteryl esters (CE), and varying amounts of cholesterol (Chl). The classical sulfo-phospho-vanillin assay (SPVA), adapted for a microplate reader, was used to quantitate lipids in meibum. To account for varying reactivities of different lipids in SPVA, a model meibomian lipid mixture (MMx) that approximated the WE/CE/Chl composition of meibum was developed and used to quantitate meibomian lipids. The overall SPV responses of MMx and meibum were found to be close, with similar intermediate and final reaction products for both. Saturated WE that had not been expected to be reactive were found to be SPV-positive. A reaction mechanism for these compounds in SPVA which involves the formation of alkenyl ethers is proposed and discussed. Tested proteins were non-reactive in SPVA. Thus, by comparing the results of gravimetric analyses of meibum samples with the results of a properly calibrated SPVA, it was estimated that the SPV-reactive lipid content of dry meibum in tested samples was about 78 % (w/w). The SPV method can also be adopted for analyzing other types of complex lipids secretions, such as sebum, as well as whole lipid extracts from other lipid-enriched organs and tissues, if proper standards are chosen.

  15. Dopamine enhances duodenal epithelial permeability via the dopamine D5 receptor in rodent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, X-Y; Zhang, D-N; Wang, Y-A; Fan, R-F; Hong, F; Zhang, Y; Li, Y; Zhu, J-X

    2017-05-01

    The intestinal barrier is made up of epithelial cells and intercellular junctional complexes to regulate epithelial ion transport and permeability. Dopamine (DA) is able to promote duodenal epithelial ion transport through D1-like receptors, which includes subtypes of D1 (D1 R) and D5 (D5 R), but whether D1-like receptors influence the duodenal permeability is unclear. FITC-dextran permeability, short-circuit current (ISC ), Western blot, immunohistochemistry and ELISA were used in human D5 R transgenic mice and hyperendogenous enteric DA (HEnD) rats in this study. Dopamine induced a downward deflection in ISC and an increase in FITC-dextran permeability of control rat duodenum, which were inhibited by the D1-like receptor antagonist, SCH-23390. However, DA decreased duodenal transepithelial resistance (TER), an effect also reversed by SCH-23390. A strong immunofluorescence signal for D5 R, but not D1 R, was observed in the duodenum of control rat. In human D5 R knock-in transgenic mice, duodenal mucosa displayed an increased basal ISC with high FITC-dextran permeability and decreased TER with a lowered expression of tight junction proteins, suggesting attenuated duodenal barrier function in these transgenic mice. D5 R knock-down transgenic mice manifested a decreased basal ISC with lowered FITC-dextran permeability. Moreover, an increased FITC-dextran permeability combined with decreased TER and tight junction protein expression in duodenal mucosa were also observed in HEnD rats. This study demonstrates, for the first time, that DA enhances duodenal permeability of control rat via D5 R, which provides new experimental and theoretical evidence for the influence of DA on duodenal epithelial barrier function. © 2016 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Characterization of SNARE proteins in human pituitary adenomas: targeted secretion inhibitors as a new strategy for the treatment of acromegaly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Edwin A; Trivellin, Giampaolo; Aflorei, Elena D; Powell, Michael; Grieve, Joana; Alusi, Ghassan; Pobereskin, Luis; Shariati, Babak; Cudlip, Simon; Roncaroli, Federico; Mendoza, Nigel; Grossman, Ashley B; Harper, Elaine A; Korbonits, Márta

    2013-12-01

    Targeted secretion inhibitors (TSIs), a new class of recombinant biotherapeutic proteins engineered from botulinum toxin, represent a novel approach for treating diseases with excess secretion. They inhibit hormone secretion from targeted cell types through cleavage of SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor-activating protein receptor) proteins. qGHRH-LH(N)/D is a TSI targeting pituitary somatotroph through binding to the GHRH-receptor and cleavage of the vesicle-associated membrane protein (VAMP) family of SNARE proteins. Our objective was to study SNARE protein expression in pituitary adenomas and to inhibit GH secretion from somatotropinomas using qGHRH-LH(N)/D. We analyzed human pituitary adenoma analysis for SNARE expression and response to qGHRH-LH(N)/D treatment. The study was conducted in University Hospitals. We used pituitary adenoma samples from 25 acromegaly and 47 nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma patients. Vesicle-SNARE (VAMP1-3), target-SNARE (syntaxin1, SNAP-23, and SNAP-25), and GHRH-receptor detection with RT-qPCR, immunocytochemistry, and immunoblotting. Assessment of TSI catalytic activity on VAMPs and release of GH from adenoma cells. SNARE proteins were variably expressed in pituitary samples. In vitro evidence using recombinant GFP-VAMP2&3 or pituitary adenoma lysates suggested sufficient catalytic activity of qGHRH-LH(N)/D to degrade VAMPs, but was unable to inhibit GH secretion in somatotropinoma cell cultures. SNARE proteins are present in human pituitary somatotroph adenomas that can be targeted by TSIs to inhibit GH secretion. qGHRH-LH(N)/D was unable to inhibit GH secretion from human somatotroph adenoma cells. Further studies are required to understand how the SNARE proteins drive GH secretion in human somatotrophs to allow the development of novel TSIs with a potential therapeutic benefit.

  17. Duodenal stenosis in a child | Kshirsagar | African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We present a case of incomplete duodenal obstruction having a delayed presentation, making diagnosis and early intervention more challenging. Failure of recanalization of the duodenal lumen during the eighth to tenth week of gestation, results in duodenal atresia. Incomplete recanalization can lead to duodenal stenosis ...

  18. Calcineurin inhibitors acutely improve insulin sensitivity without affecting insulin secretion in healthy human volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øzbay, Aygen; Møller, Niels; Juhl, Claus

    2012-01-01

    of ciclosporin and tacrolimus. We document that both drugs acutely increase insulin sensitivity, while first phase and pulsatile insulin secretion remain unaffected. This study demonstrates that ciclosporin and tacrolimus have similar acute effects on glucose metabolism in healthy humans. AIM The introduction...... and tacrolimus has been attributed to both beta cell dysfunction and impaired insulin sensitivity. WHAT THIS STUDY ADDS: This is the first trial to investigate beta cell function and insulin sensitivity using gold standard methodology in healthy human volunteers treated with clinically relevant doses...... of calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) ciclosporin (CsA) and tacrolimus (Tac) has improved the outcome of organ transplants, but complications such as new onset diabetes mellitus after transplantation (NODAT) cause impairment of survival rates. The relative contribution of each CNI to the pathogenesis and development...

  19. Secreted Human Adipose Leptin Decreases Mitochondrial Respiration in HCT116 Colon Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yehuda-Shnaidman, Einav; Nimri, Lili; Tarnovscki, Tanya; Kirshtein, Boris; Rudich, Assaf; Schwartz, Betty

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a key risk factor for the development of colon cancer; however, the endocrine/paracrine/metabolic networks mediating this connection are poorly understood. Here we hypothesize that obesity results in secreted products from adipose tissue that induce malignancy-related metabolic alterations in colon cancer cells. Human HCT116 colon cancer cells, were exposed to conditioned media from cultured human adipose tissue fragments of obese vs. non-obese subjects. Oxygen consumption rate (OCR, mostly mitochondrial respiration) and extracellular acidification rate (ECAR, mostly lactate production via glycolysis) were examined vis-à-vis cell viability and expression of related genes and proteins. Our results show that conditioned media from obese (vs. non-obese) subjects decreased basal (40%, prespiration and function in HCT116 colon cancer cells, an effect that is at least partly mediated by leptin. These results highlight a putative novel mechanism for obesity-associated risk of gastrointestinal malignancies, and suggest potential new therapeutic avenues. PMID:24073224

  20. Human B cells fail to secrete type I interferons upon cytoplasmic DNA exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gram, Anna M; Sun, Chenglong; Landman, Sanne L; Oosenbrug, Timo; Koppejan, Hester J; Kwakkenbos, Mark J; Hoeben, Rob C; Paludan, Søren R; Ressing, Maaike E

    2017-11-01

    Most cells are believed to be capable of producing type I interferons (IFN I) as part of an innate immune response against, for instance, viral infections. In macrophages, IFN I is potently induced upon cytoplasmic exposure to foreign nucleic acids. Infection of these cells with herpesviruses leads to triggering of the DNA sensors interferon-inducible protein 16 (IFI16) and cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) synthase (cGAS). Thereby, the stimulator of interferon genes (STING) and the downstream molecules TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) and interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) are sequentially activated culminating in IFN I secretion. Human gamma-herpesviruses, such as Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), exploit B cells as a reservoir for persistent infection. In this study, we investigated whether human B cells, similar to macrophages, engage the cytoplasmic DNA sensing pathway to induce an innate immune response. We found that the B cells fail to secrete IFN I upon cytoplasmic DNA exposure, although they express the DNA sensors cGAS and IFI16 and the signaling components TBK1 and IRF3. In primary human B lymphocytes and EBV-negative B cell lines, this deficiency is explained by a lack of detectable levels of the central adaptor protein STING. In contrast, EBV-transformed B cell lines did express STING, yet both these lines as well as STING-reconstituted EBV-negative B cells did not produce IFN I upon dsDNA or cGAMP stimulation. Our combined data show that the cytoplasmic DNA sensing pathway is dysfunctional in human B cells. This exemplifies that certain cell types cannot induce IFN I in response to cytoplasmic DNA exposure providing a potential niche for viral persistence. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Acute Necrotizing Esophagitis Followed by Duodenal Necrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Hierro, Piedad Magdalena

    2011-01-01

    Acute Necrotizing Esophagitis is an uncommon pathology, characterized by endoscopic finding of diffuse black coloration in esophageal mucosa and histological presence of necrosis in patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding. The first case of acute necrotizing esophagitis followed by duodenal necrosis, in 81 years old woman with a positive history of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Hypertension, and usual intake of Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory drugs, is reported. Although its etiology remains unknown, the duodenal necrosis suggests that ischemia could be the main cause given that the branches off the celiac axis provide common blood supply to the distal esophageal and duodenal tissue. The massive gastroesophagic reflux and NSAID intake could be involved. PMID:27957030

  2. Evaluation of anticancer peptide VEGF111b secretion in HEK293 human cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Sadeghi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: VEGF111b is a new isoform of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF recently considered as a new anticancer drug. The aim of this study was to evaluate the VEGF111b secretion from HEK293 cell wall in order to commercial production of this recombinant factor. Materials and Methods: After the design of VEGF111b sequence using OLIGO software and NCBI gene bank data, it was cloned into the pBUD.cE4.1 vector. The pBUD.VEGF111b recombinant vector was transfected into HEK293 cells using lipofectamine kit. Forty-eight hours after the transfection the production of VEGF111b was estimated by Western blotting and Human anti VEGF antibody. The VEGF111b secretion into cell culture and cell lysate extract was measured using ELISA. Results: The correct cloning of VEGF111b into pBUD.cE4.1vector was confirmed using enzymatic digestion and gel electrophoresis. The observed production of recombinant peptide in HEK293 was confirmed with 12KDa band in cell lysate extract of Western blotting. The ELISA results at 450 nanometer absorbance for cell culture media and cell lysate extract were 19.20±2.81 pg/ml and 32.87±7.42 pg/ml, respectively. However, no VEGF111b expression was observed in negative controls. Conclusion: The findings of this study indicate the powerful ability of transformation and secretion of VEGF111b from HEK293 cell wall to cell culture media with no breaking and proteolytic digestion. It seems that the commercial production and purification of this therapeutic peptide from HEK293 cell culture would be possible with high efficiency.

  3. Nicotine promotes vascular endothelial growth factor secretion by human trophoblast cells under hypoxic conditions and improves the proliferation and tube formation capacity of human umbilical endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongbo; Wu, Lanxiang; Wang, Yahui; Zhou, Jiayi; Li, Ruixia; Zhou, Jiabing; Wang, Zehua; Xu, Congjian

    2017-04-01

    Pre-eclampsia, characterized as defective uteroplacental vascularization, remains the major cause of maternal and fetal mortality and morbidity. Previous epidemiological studies demonstrated that cigarette smoking reduced the risk of pre-eclampsia. However, the molecular mechanism remains elusive. In the present study, it is demonstrated that a low dose of nicotine decreased soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (sFlt1) secretion in human trophoblast cells under hypoxic conditions. Nicotine was then observed to promote vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion by reducing sFlt1 secretion and increasing VEGF mRNA transcription. Further data showed that nicotine enhanced hypoxia-mediated hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) expression and HIF-1α small interfering RNA abrogated nicotine-induced VEGF secretion, indicating that HIF-1α may be responsible for nicotine-mediated VEGF transcription under hypoxic conditions. Moreover, conditioned medium from human trophoblast cells treated with nicotine under hypoxic conditions promoted the proliferation and tube formation capacity of human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVEC) by promoting VEGF secretion. These findings indicate that nicotine may promote VEGF secretion in human trophoblast cells under hypoxic conditions by reducing sFlt1 secretion and up-regulating VEGF transcription and improve the proliferation and tube formation of HUVEC cells, which may contribute to elucidate the protective effect of cigarette smoking against pre-eclampsia. Copyright © 2017 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. CNTF mediates neurotrophic factor secretion and fluid absorption in human retinal pigment epithelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Li

    Full Text Available Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF protects photoreceptors and regulates their phototransduction machinery, but little is known about CNTF's effects on retinal pigment epithelial (RPE physiology. Therefore, we determined the expression and localization of CNTF receptors and the physiological consequence of their activation in primary cultures of human fetal RPE (hfRPE. Cultured hfRPE express CNTF, CT1, and OsM and their receptors, including CNTFRα, LIFRβ, gp130, and OsMRβ, all localized mainly at the apical membrane. Exogenous CNTF, CT1, or OsM induces STAT3 phosphorylation, and OsM also induces the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 (p44/42 MAP kinase. CNTF increases RPE survivability, but not rates of phagocytosis. CNTF increases secretion of NT3 to the apical bath and decreases that of VEGF, IL8, and TGFβ2. It also significantly increases fluid absorption (J(V across intact monolayers of hfRPE by activating CFTR chloride channels at the basolateral membrane. CNTF induces profound changes in RPE cell biology, biochemistry, and physiology, including the increase in cell survival, polarized secretion of cytokines/neurotrophic factors, and the increase in steady-state fluid absorption mediated by JAK/STAT3 signaling. In vivo, these changes, taken together, could serve to regulate the microenvironment around the distal retinal/RPE/Bruch's membrane complex and provide protection against neurodegenerative disease.

  5. CNTF mediates neurotrophic factor secretion and fluid absorption in human retinal pigment epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rong; Wen, Rong; Banzon, Tina; Maminishkis, Arvydas; Miller, Sheldon S

    2011-01-01

    Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) protects photoreceptors and regulates their phototransduction machinery, but little is known about CNTF's effects on retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) physiology. Therefore, we determined the expression and localization of CNTF receptors and the physiological consequence of their activation in primary cultures of human fetal RPE (hfRPE). Cultured hfRPE express CNTF, CT1, and OsM and their receptors, including CNTFRα, LIFRβ, gp130, and OsMRβ, all localized mainly at the apical membrane. Exogenous CNTF, CT1, or OsM induces STAT3 phosphorylation, and OsM also induces the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 (p44/42 MAP kinase). CNTF increases RPE survivability, but not rates of phagocytosis. CNTF increases secretion of NT3 to the apical bath and decreases that of VEGF, IL8, and TGFβ2. It also significantly increases fluid absorption (J(V)) across intact monolayers of hfRPE by activating CFTR chloride channels at the basolateral membrane. CNTF induces profound changes in RPE cell biology, biochemistry, and physiology, including the increase in cell survival, polarized secretion of cytokines/neurotrophic factors, and the increase in steady-state fluid absorption mediated by JAK/STAT3 signaling. In vivo, these changes, taken together, could serve to regulate the microenvironment around the distal retinal/RPE/Bruch's membrane complex and provide protection against neurodegenerative disease.

  6. Lubiprostone reverses the inhibitory action of morphine on mucosal secretion in human small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaohong; Wang, Xiyu; Wang, Guo-Du; Xia, Yun; Liu, Sumei; Qu, Meihua; Needleman, Bradley J; Mikami, Dean J; Melvin, W Scott; Bohn, Laura M; Ueno, Ryuji; Wood, Jackie D

    2011-02-01

    Treatments with morphine or opioid agonists cause constipation. Lubiprostone is approved for treatment of adult idiopathic constipation and constipation-predominant IBS in adult women. We tested whether lubiprostone can reverse morphine-suppression of mucosal secretion in human intestine and explored the mechanism of action. Fresh segments of jejunum discarded during Roux-En-Y gastric bypass surgeries were used. Changes in short-circuit current (ΔIsc) were recorded in Ussing flux chambers as a marker for electrogenic chloride secretion during pharmacological interactions between morphine, prostaglandin receptor antagonists, chloride channel blockers and lubiprostone. Morphine suppressed basal Isc. Lubiprostone reversed morphine suppression of basal Isc. Lubiprostone, applied to the mucosa in concentrations ranging from 3 nM to 30 μM, evoked increases in Isc in concentration-dependent manner when applied to the mucosal side of muscle-stripped preparations. Blockade of enteric nerves did not change stimulation of Isc by lubiprostone. Removal of chloride or application of bumetanide or NPPB suppressed or abolished responses to lubiprostone. Antagonists acting at CFTR channels and prostaglandin EP(4) receptors, but not at E(1), EP(1-3) receptors, partially suppressed stimulation of Isc by lubiprostone. Antisecretory action of morphine results from suppression of excitability of secretomotor neurons in the enteric nervous system. Lubiprostone, which does not affect enteric neurons directly, bypasses the action of morphine by directly opening mucosal chloride channels.

  7. Secreted gingipains from Porphyromonas gingivalis colonies exert potent immunomodulatory effects on human gingival fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson, Torbjörn; Khalaf, Atika; Khalaf, Hazem

    2015-09-01

    Periodontal pathogens, including Porphyromonas gingivalis, can form biofilms in dental pockets and cause inflammation, which is one of the underlying mechanisms involved in the development of periodontal disease, ultimately leading to tooth loss. Although P. gingivalis is protected in the biofilm, it can still cause damage and modulate inflammatory responses from the host, through secretion of microvesicles containing proteinases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of cysteine proteinases in P. gingivalis colony growth and development, and subsequent immunomodulatory effects on human gingival fibroblast. By comparing the wild type W50 with its gingipain deficient strains we show that cysteine proteinases are required by P. gingivalis to form morphologically normal colonies. The lysine-specific proteinase (Kgp), but not arginine-specific proteinases (Rgps), was associated with immunomodulation. P. gingivalis with Kgp affected the viability of gingival fibroblasts and modulated host inflammatory responses, including induction of TGF-β1 and suppression of CXCL8 and IL-6 accumulation. These results suggest that secreted products from P. gingivalis, including proteinases, are able to cause damage and significantly modulate the levels of inflammatory mediators, independent of a physical host-bacterial interaction. This study provides new insight of the pathogenesis of P. gingivalis and suggests gingipains as targets for diagnosis and treatment of periodontitis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Activated human T cells secrete exosomes that participate in IL-2 mediated immune response signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Wahlgren

    Full Text Available It has previously been shown that nano-meter sized vesicles (30-100 nm, exosomes, secreted by antigen presenting cells can induce T cell responses thus showing the potential of exosomes to be used as immunological tools. Additionally, activated CD3⁺ T cells can secrete exosomes that have the ability to modulate different immunological responses. Here, we investigated what effects exosomes originating from activated CD3⁺ T cells have on resting CD3⁺ T cells by studying T cell proliferation, cytokine production and by performing T cell and exosome phenotype characterization. Human exosomes were generated in vitro following CD3⁺ T cell stimulation with anti-CD28, anti-CD3 and IL-2. Our results show that exosomes purified from stimulated CD3⁺ T cells together with IL-2 were able to generate proliferation in autologous resting CD3⁺ T cells. The CD3⁺ T cells stimulated with exosomes together with IL-2 had a higher proportion of CD8⁺ T cells and had a different cytokine profile compared to controls. These results indicate that activated CD3⁺ T cells communicate with resting autologous T cells via exosomes.

  9. DNA Delivery and Genomic Integration into Mammalian Target Cells through Type IV A and B Secretion Systems of Human Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores L. Guzmán-Herrador

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We explore the potential of bacterial secretion systems as tools for genomic modification of human cells. We previously showed that foreign DNA can be introduced into human cells through the Type IV A secretion system of the human pathogen Bartonella henselae. Moreover, the DNA is delivered covalently attached to the conjugative relaxase TrwC, which promotes its integration into the recipient genome. In this work, we report that this tool can be adapted to other target cells by using different relaxases and secretion systems. The promiscuous relaxase MobA from plasmid RSF1010 can be used to deliver DNA into human cells with higher efficiency than TrwC. MobA also promotes DNA integration, albeit at lower rates than TrwC. Notably, we report that DNA transfer to human cells can also take place through the Type IV secretion system of two intracellular human pathogens, Legionella pneumophila and Coxiella burnetii, which code for a distantly related Dot/Icm Type IV B secretion system. This suggests that DNA transfer could be an intrinsic ability of this family of secretion systems, expanding the range of target human cells. Further analysis of the DNA transfer process showed that recruitment of MobA by Dot/Icm was dependent on the IcmSW chaperone, which may explain the higher DNA transfer rates obtained. Finally, we observed that the presence of MobA negatively affected the intracellular replication of C. burnetii, suggesting an interference with Dot/Icm translocation of virulence factors.

  10. Duodenal diverticulitis. computed tomography findings; Diverticulities duodenal. Hallazgos en la TC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, E.; Martin, S.; Garcia, J.; Dominguez, A. [Hospital Ramon y Cajal. Madrid (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    Duodenal diverticular occur very frequently among the general public. However, duodenal diverticulitis is a very uncommon clinical entity, the diagnosis of which requires radiological studies since the clinical signs cam mimic a great number of disease processes with different treatments. We present a case of duodenal diverticulitis in which the diagnosis according to ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) studies was confirmed intraoperatively. We also review the few cases of this entity reported in the literature. The CT findings are highly suggestive of duodenal diverticulitis given their similarity to those associated with diverticulitis at other sites. (Author) 5 refs,.

  11. Celiac Disease and Other Causes of Duodenitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Daniel R; Owen, David A

    2018-01-01

    - Patients who receive an upper gastrointestinal endoscopic examination frequently have biopsies taken from the duodenum. Accurate interpretation of duodenal biopsies is essential for patient care. Celiac disease is a common clinical concern, but pathologists need to be aware of other conditions of the duodenum that mimic celiac disease. - To review the normal histologic features of duodenal mucosa and describe the clinical and histologic findings in celiac disease and its mimics, listing the differentiating features of biopsies with villous atrophy and epithelial lymphocytosis. - The study comprises a literature review of pertinent publications as of November 30, 2016. - Celiac disease is a common cause of abnormal duodenal histology. However, many of the histologic features found in the duodenal biopsy of patients with celiac disease are also present in other conditions that affect the small bowel. Diagnostic precision may be enhanced by obtaining a careful patient history and by ancillary laboratory testing, particularly for the presence of antitissue transglutaminase antibodies.

  12. Cephalic phase secretion of insulin and other enteropancreatic hormones in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veedfald, Simon; Plamboeck, Astrid; Deacon, Carolyn F

    2016-01-01

    Enteropancreatic hormone secretion is thought to include a cephalic phase, but the evidence in humans is ambiguous. We studied vagally induced gut hormone responses with and without muscarinic blockade in 10 glucose-clamped healthy men (age: 24.5 ± 0.6 yr, means ± SE; body mass index: 24.0 ± 0.5 kg...... and abolished the MSF response. Neither insulin, C-peptide, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), nor glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) levels changed in response to MSF or atropine. Glucagon and ghrelin levels were markedly attenuated by atropine prior to and during the clamp: at t = 105 min...... and 3.7 ± 21 pg/ml (means ± SE), P insulin, glucagon, GLP-1, GIP, and ghrelin....

  13. Intake of Lactobacillus reuteri Improves Incretin and Insulin Secretion in Glucose-Tolerant Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simon, Marie-Christine; Strassburger, Klaus; Nowotny, Bettina

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Ingestion of probiotics can modify gut microbiota and alter insulin resistance and diabetes development in rodents. We hypothesized that daily intake of Lactobacillus reuteri increases insulin sensitivity by changing cytokine release and insulin secretion via modulation of the release...... of glucagon-like peptides (GLP)-1 and -2. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A prospective, double-blind, randomized trial was performed in 21 glucose-tolerant humans (11 lean: age 49 ± 7 years, BMI 23.6 ± 1.7 kg/m(2); 10 obese: age 51 ± 7 years, BMI 35.5 ± 4.9 kg/m(2)). Participants ingested 10(10) b.i.d. L...

  14. Pleiotropic effects of cancer cells' secreted factors on human stromal (mesenchymal) stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-toub, Mashael; Almusa, Abdulaziz; Almajed, Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    cells' secreted factors as represented by a panel of human cancer cell lines (breast (MCF7 and MDA-MB-231); prostate (PC-3); lung (NCI-H522); colon (HT-29) and head & neck (FaDu)) on the biological characteristics of MSCs. METHODS: Morphological changes were assessed using fluorescence microscopy......, but not from MCF7 and HT-29, developed an elongated, spindle-shaped morphology with bipolar processes. In association with phenotypic changes, genome-wide gene expression and bioinformatics analysis revealed an enhanced pro-inflammatory response of those MSCs. Pharmacological inhibitions of FAK and MAPKK......INTRODUCTION: Studying cancer tumors' microenvironment may reveal a novel role in driving cancer progression and metastasis. The biological interaction between stromal (mesenchymal) stem cells (MSCs) and cancer cells remains incompletely understood. Herein, we investigated the effects of tumor...

  15. Isolated Duodenal Injuries After Blunt Abdominal Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Raheel; Shafique, Muhammad Salman; Ul Haq, Najibul; Akram, Zohra; Qureshi, Usman; Khan, Jahangir Sarwar

    2016-01-01

    Isolated duodenal injury after blunt abdominal trauma is a very rare entity. In contrast to penetrating injuries, duodenal injuries after blunt trauma are difficult to diagnose. Early diagnosis and management is required to prevent high morbidity and mortality associated with these injuries. We present three young patients of blunt abdominal trauma with an isolated injury to duodenum in which primary repair of perforations were done with good outcomes.

  16. Duodenal lymphangitis carcinomatosa: A rare case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilanchezhian Subramanian, MBBS, MD

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Duodenal lymphangitis carcinomatosa has been sporadically described, and little attention has been paid so far. To our knowledge, no data on radiological findings for this rare entity has been published. We report a case of duodenal lymphangitis carcinomatosa secondary to gallbladder mass in a 44-year-old Indian man to focus on the radiological diagnosis, which was further confirmed by endoscopic-guided biopsy and immunohistochemical analysis.

  17. Robotic Surgery for Benign Duodenal Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs-Canner, Stephanie; Van der Vliet, Wald J.; Thoolen, Stijn J. J.; Boone, Brian A.; Zureikat, Amer H.; Hogg, Melissa E.; Bartlett, David L.; Callery, Mark P.; Kent, Tara S.; Zeh, Herbert J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Benign duodenal and periampullary tumors are uncommon lesions requiring careful attention to their complex anatomic relationships with the major and minor papillae as well as the gastric outlet during surgical intervention. While endoscopy is less morbid than open resection, many lesions are not amenable to endoscopic removal. Robotic surgery offers technical advantages above traditional laparoscopy, and we demonstrate the safety and feasibility of this approach for a variety of duodenal lesions. Methods We performed a retrospective review of all robotic duodenal resections between April 2010 and December 2013 from two institutions. Demographic, clinicopathologic, and operative details were recorded with special attention to the post-operative course. Results Twenty-six patients underwent robotic duodenal resection for a variety of diagnoses. The majority (88 %) were symptomatic at presentation. Nine patients underwent transduodenal ampullectomy, seven patients underwent duodenal resection, six patients underwent transduodenal resection of a mass, and four patients underwent segmental duodenal resection. Median operative time was 4 h with a median estimated blood loss of 50 cm3 and no conversions to an open operation. The rate of major Clavien-Dindo grades 3–4 complications was 15 % at post-operative days 30 and 90 without mortality. Final pathology demonstrated a median tumor size of 2.9 cm with a final histologic diagnoses of adenoma (n=13), neuroendocrine tumor (n=6), gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) (n=2), lipoma (n=2), Brunner’s gland hamartoma (n=1), leiomyoma (n=1), and gangliocytic paraganglioma (n=1). Conclusion Robotic duodenal resection is safe and feasible for benign and premalignant duodenal tumors not amenable to endoscopic resection. PMID:25348238

  18. Nocturnal ghrelin, ACTH, GH and cortisol secretion after sleep deprivation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüssler, P; Uhr, M; Ising, M; Weikel, J C; Schmid, D A; Held, K; Mathias, S; Steiger, A

    2006-09-01

    Ghrelin is an endogenous ligand of the growth hormone (GH) secretagogue (GHS) receptor. It is hypothesised to play a key role in energy balance stimulating food intake and body weight. Besides GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) and somatostatin, it is thought to be a regulating factor of GH release. Ghrelin also appears to be involved in sleep regulation. We showed recently that ghrelin promotes slow-wave sleep and the nocturnal release of GH, cortisol and prolactin in humans. Similarly, promotion of non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM) sleep was reported in mice after systemic ghrelin. If ghrelin is a factor that induces and/or maintains sleep, it should be enhanced after a period of sleep deprivation (SD). To clarify this issue, nocturnal ghrelin, GH, ACTH and cortisol plasma concentrations were determined and simultaneously sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded (2300-0700 h) during sleep before and after 1 night of total SD in 8 healthy subjects. Compared to baseline, ghrelin levels increased earlier by a non-significant trend, already before the beginning of recovery sleep. Further a non-significant trend occurred, suggesting higher ghrelin secretion in the first half of the night. The ghrelin maximum was found significantly earlier after SD than at baseline. GH secretion during the first half of the night and total night after SD were elevated. ACTH and cortisol were also elevated, which was most pronounced during the second half of the night. No effects of SD on the time of the maximum were found for GH, ACTH and cortisol. The increase in ACTH after SD is a novel finding. Whereas the effects of SD on ghrelin levels were relatively weak, our findings are in line with the hypothesis that ghrelin is a sleep-promoting factor in humans. Ghrelin may be involved in sleep promotion after SD.

  19. Multiple early gastric cancer with duodenal invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okino Tetsuya

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early gastric cancers with duodenal invasion are rare, and no previous case of multiple early gastric cancer, one invading the duodenal bulb, has been reported. Case presentation A 79-year-old woman was investigated for upper abdominal discomfort. Endoscopic examination revealed an irregular nodulated lesion in the antrum area, and a reddish aggregated-type semi-circumferential nodulated lesion extending from the prepyloric area to the duodenal bulb through the normal mucosa with the antrum lesion. Biopsy revealed a tubular adenoma for the antrum lesion and a well-differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma for the prepyloric lesion. Distal gastrectomy with sufficient duodenal resection was performed. Microscopically, the antrum lesion appeared as a papillary adenocarcinoma, and the prepyloric lesion as a mainly papillary adenocarcinoma which partially invaded the submucosa without any sequential elongation for endoscopic findings. The lesion extended into the duodenal bulb, and was 12 mm in length from the oral end of Brunner's gland's area and limited within the duodenal mucosa. Conclusion Here, we present an unusual case of multiple early gastric cancer, one of which invaded the duodenum with relative wide mucosal spreading. This case illustrates that even early stage cancers located in the gastric antrum, particularly in the prepyloric area can invade the duodenum directly.

  20. RFX6 Regulates Insulin Secretion by Modulating Ca2+ Homeostasis in Human β Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikash Chandra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Development and function of pancreatic β cells involve the regulated activity of specific transcription factors. RFX6 is a transcription factor essential for mouse β cell differentiation that is mutated in monogenic forms of neonatal diabetes. However, the expression and functional roles of RFX6 in human β cells, especially in pathophysiological conditions, are poorly explored. We demonstrate the presence of RFX6 in adult human pancreatic endocrine cells. Using the recently developed human β cell line EndoC-βH2, we show that RFX6 regulates insulin gene transcription, insulin content, and secretion. Knockdown of RFX6 causes downregulation of Ca2+-channel genes resulting in the reduction in L-type Ca2+-channel activity that leads to suppression of depolarization-evoked insulin exocytosis. We also describe a previously unreported homozygous missense RFX6 mutation (p.V506G that is associated with neonatal diabetes, which lacks the capacity to activate the insulin promoter and to increase Ca2+-channel expression. Our data therefore provide insights for understanding certain forms of neonatal diabetes.

  1. IL-3 and IL-33 induces IL-9 secretion from human basophils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Britta C.; Jensen, Bettina Margrethe; Blom, Lars

    Background IL-9 has been suggested to play an important role in chronic inflammation due to its effect on remodeling and cell recruitment. Since basophils can be found in inflamed tissue, we wanted to test if human basophils are capable of secreting IL-9 under the influence of growth or tissue...... factors like IL-3 or IL-33, respectively. Methods Basophils, purified from buffy coat blood by negative selection (purity > 95%), were cultured for 24 hours in RPMI culture medium (1x106 cells/ml) supplemented with 5% human serum, and IL-3 (10 ng/ml) and/or IL-33 (50 ng/ml). The cells were then analysed...... by FACS for ST2 expression where basophils were gated as FcεRIα+CD3-CD14-CD19-CD56-. The supernatant was tested for IL-9 using a multiplex magnetic bead assay. Results Human basophils have recently been described to express the IL-33 receptor ST2. In agreement with previous findings, our results showed...

  2. Cellular mechanisms underlying the inhibitory effect of flufenamic acid on chloride secretion in human intestinal epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawin Pongkorpsakol

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal Cl− secretion is involved in the pathogenesis of secretory diarrheas including cholera. We recently demonstrated that flufenamic acid (FFA suppressed Vibrio cholerae El Tor variant-induced intestinal fluid secretion via mechanisms involving AMPK activation and NF-κB-suppression. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of FFA on transepithelial Cl− secretion in human intestinal epithelial (T84 cells. FFA inhibited cAMP-dependent Cl− secretion in T84 cell monolayers with IC50 of ∼8 μM. Other fenamate drugs including tolfenamic acid, meclofenamic acid and mefenamic acid exhibited the same effect albeit with lower potency. FFA also inhibited activities of CFTR, a cAMP-activated apical Cl− channel, and KCNQ1/KCNE3, a cAMP-activated basolateral K+ channel. Mechanisms of CFTR inhibition by FFA did not involve activation of its negative regulators. Interestingly, FFA inhibited Ca2+-dependent Cl− secretion with IC50 of ∼10 μM. FFA inhibited activities of Ca2+-activated Cl− channels and KCa3.1, a Ca2+-activated basolateral K+ channels, but had no effect on activities of Na+–K+–Cl− cotransporters and Na+–K+ ATPases. These results indicate that FFA inhibits both cAMP and Ca2+-dependent Cl− secretion by suppressing activities of both apical Cl− channels and basolateral K+ channels. FFA and other fenamate drugs may be useful in the treatment of secretory diarrheas.

  3. Characterization of stimulus-secretion coupling in the human pancreatic EndoC-βH1 beta cell line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotta E Andersson

    Full Text Available Studies on beta cell metabolism are often conducted in rodent beta cell lines due to the lack of stable human beta cell lines. Recently, a human cell line, EndoC-βH1, was generated. Here we investigate stimulus-secretion coupling in this cell line, and compare it with that in the rat beta cell line, INS-1 832/13, and human islets.Cells were exposed to glucose and pyruvate. Insulin secretion and content (radioimmunoassay, gene expression (Gene Chip array, metabolite levels (GC/MS, respiration (Seahorse XF24 Extracellular Flux Analyzer, glucose utilization (radiometric, lactate release (enzymatic colorimetric, ATP levels (enzymatic bioluminescence and plasma membrane potential and cytoplasmic Ca2+ responses (microfluorometry were measured. Metabolite levels, respiration and insulin secretion were examined in human islets.Glucose increased insulin release, glucose utilization, raised ATP production and respiratory rates in both lines, and pyruvate increased insulin secretion and respiration. EndoC-βH1 cells exhibited higher insulin secretion, while plasma membrane depolarization was attenuated, and neither glucose nor pyruvate induced oscillations in intracellular calcium concentration or plasma membrane potential. Metabolite profiling revealed that glycolytic and TCA-cycle intermediate levels increased in response to glucose in both cell lines, but responses were weaker in EndoC-βH1 cells, similar to those observed in human islets. Respiration in EndoC-βH1 cells was more similar to that in human islets than in INS-1 832/13 cells.Functions associated with early stimulus-secretion coupling, with the exception of plasma membrane potential and Ca2+ oscillations, were similar in the two cell lines; insulin secretion, respiration and metabolite responses were similar in EndoC-βH1 cells and human islets. While both cell lines are suitable in vitro models, with the caveat of replicating key findings in isolated islets, EndoC-βH1 cells have the

  4. Yeast modulation of human dendritic cell cytokine secretion: an in vitro study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida M Smith

    Full Text Available Probiotics are live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host. The concept of individual microorganisms influencing the makeup of T cell subsets via interactions with intestinal dendritic cells (DCs appears to constitute the foundation for immunoregulatory effects of probiotics, and several studies have reported probiotic strains resulting in reduction of intestinal inflammation through modulation of DC function. Consequent to a focus on Saccharomyces boulardii as the fundamental probiotic yeast, very little is known about hundreds of non-Saccharomyces yeasts in terms of their interaction with the human gastrointestinal immune system. The aim of the present study was to evaluate 170 yeast strains representing 75 diverse species for modulation of inflammatory cytokine secretion by human DCs in vitro, as compared to cytokine responses induced by a S. boulardii reference strain with probiotic properties documented in clinical trials. Furthermore, we investigated whether cytokine inducing interactions between yeasts and human DCs are dependent upon yeast viability or rather a product of membrane interactions regardless of yeast metabolic function. We demonstrate high diversity in yeast induced cytokine profiles and employ multivariate data analysis to reveal distinct clustering of yeasts inducing similar cytokine profiles in DCs, highlighting clear species distinction within specific yeast genera. The observed differences in induced DC cytokine profiles add to the currently very limited knowledge of the cross-talk between yeasts and human immune cells and provide a foundation for selecting yeast strains for further characterization and development toward potentially novel yeast probiotics. Additionally, we present data to support a hypothesis that the interaction between yeasts and human DCs does not solely depend on yeast viability, a concept which may suggest a need for further classifications

  5. Recurrence of Acute Duodenal Ulcer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RJ Bailey

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Nizatidine, 300 mg once nightly, was compared with cimetidine, 800 mg once nightly, for treatment of 212 adult out-patients with acute duodenal ulcers in an eight-week randomized, double-blind, multicentre trial. Patients were endoscoped at weeks 2, 4 and 8, regardless of ulcer healing status. No significant differences in ulcer healing rates between treatment groups were seen at weeks 2 and 4, but at week 8, nizatidine had a significantly higher ulcer healing rate (P=0.036 than cimetidine (86% versus 74%, respectively. Patients with healed ulcers at either week 2 or week 4 had a final endoscopy performed at week 8. The rate of ulcer recurrence was significantly greater (P=0.021 in the cimetidine group at week 8 compared with the nizatidine group: 21% versus 7.3%, respectively. Increasing tolerance to H2 receptor antagonist therapy with prolonged use may explain the higher recurrence rate of cimetidine. Both drugs provided equally rapid and effective symptomatic relief from epigastric pain after two weeks of therapy. Both were equally safe and free from treatment-related adverse effects.

  6. Modulation of pathogen-induced CCL20 secretion from HT-29 human intestinal epithelial cells by commensal bacteria.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sibartie, Shomik

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) secrete the chemokine CCL20 in response to infection by various enteropathogenic bacteria or exposure to bacterial flagellin. CCL20 recruits immature dendritic cells and lymphocytes to target sites. Here we investigated IEC responses to various pathogenic and commensal bacteria as well as the modulatory effects of commensal bacteria on pathogen-induced CCL20 secretion. HT-29 human IECs were incubated with commensal bacteria (Bifidobacterium infantis or Lactobacillus salivarius), or with Salmonella typhimurium, its flagellin, Clostridium difficile, Mycobacterium paratuberculosis, or Mycobacterium smegmatis for varying times. In some studies, HT-29 cells were pre-treated with a commensal strain for 2 hr prior to infection or flagellin stimulation. CCL20 and interleukin (IL)-8 secretion and nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB activation were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. RESULTS: Compared to untreated cells, S. typhimurium, C. difficile, M. paratuberculosis, and flagellin activated NF-kappaB and stimulated significant secretion of CCL20 and IL-8 by HT-29 cells. Conversely, B. infantis, L. salivarius or M. smegmatis did not activate NF-kappaB or augment CCL20 or IL-8 production. Treatment with B. infantis, but not L. salivarius, dose-dependently inhibited the baseline secretion of CCL20. In cells pre-treated with B. infantis, C. difficile-, S. typhimurium-, and flagellin-induced CCL20 were significantly attenuated. B. infantis did not limit M. Paratuberculosis-induced CCL20 secretion. CONCLUSION: This study is the first to demonstrate that a commensal strain can attenuate CCL20 secretion in HT-29 IECs. Collectively, the data indicate that M. paratuberculosis may mediate mucosal damage and that B. infantis can exert immunomodulatory effects on IECs that mediate host responses to flagellin and flagellated enteric pathogens.

  7. Microbial Antigens Stimulate Metalloprotease-7 Secretion in Human B-Lymphocytes Using mTOR-Dependent and Independent Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohamed F; Dasari, Harika; Van Keulen, Virginia P; Cornec, Divi; Vasmatzis, George; Peikert, Tobias; Carmona, Eva M

    2017-06-20

    Metalloproteinases (MMPs) contribute to tissue remodeling and acute inflammation not only by degrading extracellular matrix proteins but also by controlling the influx of chemokines through the regulation and shedding of syndecans. B-lymphocytes, in addition to their well-known function as antibody producing cells, participate in the innate immune response by secreting inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. However, there is little information about the role of B-lymphocytes in the regulation of MMPs; consequently, herein we investigated whether activated human circulating B-lymphocytes contributed to the secretion of MMPs. We demonstrate that B-lymphocytes activated by un-methylated CpG motifs, found in bacterial DNA, and β-glucans, found in the cell wall of fungi, both induced MMP-7. Interestingly, while CpG-stimulated cells activated the mTOR pathway via TLR9 receptor to induced MMP-7, β-glucan-stimulated cells were mTOR-independent and used Dectin-1 receptor. B-lymphocytes did not seem to have a major role in the secretion of tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs). However, secreted MMP-7 participated in the shedding of Syndecan-4 from the surface of B-lymphocytes. In conclusion, circulating human B-lymphocytes contribute to the regulation of the innate immune system by participating in the secretion of MMP-7 which in turn is important for the shedding of Syndecan-4 in response to infectious stimuli.

  8. Glucagon-like peptide 2 stimulates glucagon secretion, enhances lipid absorption, and inhibits gastric acid secretion in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Juris J; Nauck, Michael A; Pott, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    or placebo during the ingestion of a solid test meal. Gastric emptying was determined using a 13C-sodium-octanote breath test. Plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, GLP-2, free fatty acids, free glycerol, and triglycerides were determined. RESULTS: GLP-2 administration led......BACKGROUND & AIMS: The gut-derived peptide glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) has been suggested as a potential drug candidate for the treatment of various intestinal diseases. However, the acute effects of GLP-2 on gastric functions as well as on glucose and lipid homeostasis in humans are less well...... to a marked increase in glucagon concentrations both in the fasting state and during the meal study (P plasma concentrations of triglycerides and free fatty acids were significantly higher during GLP-2 infusion compared with placebo (P

  9. Role of pancreatic polypeptide in the regulation of pancreatic exocrine secretion in dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiratori, Keiko; Lee, K.Y.; Chang, Tamin; Jo, Y.H.; Coy, D.H.; Chey, W.Y. (Genesee Hospital, Rochester, NY (USA) Tulane Univ. School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA (USA))

    1988-11-01

    The effect of intravenous infusion of synthetic human pancreatic polypeptide (HPP) or a rabbit anti-PP serum on pancreatic exocrine secretion was studied in 10 dogs with gastric and Thomas duodenal cannulas. The infusion of HPP, achieved a plasma PP concentration that mimicked the peak plasma concentration of PP in both interdigestive and postprandial states. This dose of HPP significantly inhibited pancreatic secretion in the interdigestive state. By contrast, immunoneutralization of circulating PP by a rabbit anti-PP serum resulted in significant increases in both interdigestive and postprandial pancreatic secretion, including water, bicarbonate, and protein. The increase in the pancreatic secretion paralleled a decrease in circulating PP level, which lasted for as long as 5 days. Furthermore, the anti-PP serum blocked the inhibitory action of exogenous HPP on pancreatic exocrine secretion. The present study indicates that endogenous PP plays a significant role in the regulation of the pancreatic exocrine secretion in both interdigestive and digestive states. Thus the authors conclude that PP is another hormone regulating pancreatic exocrine secretion in dogs.

  10. Duodenal injuries in the very young: child abuse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowrey, Lauren; Lawson, Karla A; Garcia-Filion, Pamela; Notrica, David; Tuggle, David; Eubanks, James W; Maxson, Robert Todd; Recicar, John; Megison, Stephen M; Garcia, Nilda M

    2013-01-01

    Duodenal injuries in children are uncommon but have been specifically linked with child abuse in case reports. Owing to the rarity of the diagnosis, few studies to date have looked at the association between duodenal injuries and mechanism in younger child. We hypothesize that duodenal injuries in the very young are significantly associated with child abuse. This investigation is a retrospective cohort study of patients admitted with duodenal injuries at one of six Level I pediatric trauma centers. All institutions had institutional review board approval. The trauma registries were used to identify children aged 0 year to 5 years from 1991 to 2011. Multiple variables were collected and included age, mechanism of injury, type of duodenal injury, additional injuries, mortality, and results of abuse investigation if available. Relationships were analyzed using Fischer's exact test. We identified 32 patients with duodenal injuries with a mean age of 3 years. Duodenal injuries included duodenal hematomas (44%) and perforations/transections (56%). Of all duodenal injuries, 53% resulted in operation, 53% had additional injuries, and 12.5% resulted in death. Of the 32 children presenting with duodenal injuries, 20 were child abuse patients (62.5%). All duodenal injuries in children younger than 2 years were caused by child abuse (6 of 6, p = 0.06) and more than half of the duodenal injuries in children older than 2 years were caused by child abuse (14 of 26). Child abuse-related duodenal injuries were associated with delayed presentation (p = 0.004). There was a significant increase in child abuse-related duodenal injuries during the time frame of the study (p = 0.002). Duodenal injuries are extremely rare in the pediatric population. This multi-institutional investigation found that child abuse consistently associated with duodenal injuries in children younger than 2 years. The evidence supports a child abuse investigation on children younger than 2 years with duodenal

  11. The effect of intravenous omeprazole on the gastric and duodenal potential difference and pH in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubinstein, E; Højgaard, L

    1993-01-01

    The effect of intravenous omeprazole (40 and 80 mg) on the gastric and duodenal potential difference (PD) and pH was investigated in 9 healthy volunteers. Gastric PD and pH increased significantly (p omeprazole, and the increases were equal following the two doses. No changes were...... found in duodenal PD or pH. It has been claimed that gastric PD changes following acid secretion inhibition with cimetidine and glucagon might be due to changes in the parietal cell surface area. Omeprazole causes no changes in the parietal cell structure, and the changes in gastric PD following...... omeprazole might therefore be ascribed to changes in mucosal electrophysiologic transport or resistance....

  12. Antibody-Secreting Cell Responses and Protective Immunity Assessed in Gnotobiotic Pigs Inoculated Orally or Intramuscularly with Inactivated Human Rotavirus†

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Lijuan; Kang, S.-Y.; Ward, Lucy A.; To, Thanh L.; Saif, Linda J.

    1998-01-01

    Newborn gnotobiotic pigs were inoculated twice perorally (p.o.) (group 1) or intramuscularly (i.m.) (group 2) or three times i.m. (group 3) with inactivated Wa strain human rotavirus and challenged with virulent Wa human rotavirus 20 to 24 days later. To assess correlates of protection, antibody-secreting cells (ASC) were enumerated in intestinal and systemic lymphoid tissues from pigs in each group at selected postinoculation days (PID) or postchallenge days. Few virus-specific ASC were dete...

  13. An engineered diatom acting like a plasma cell secreting human IgG antibodies with high efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hempel Franziska

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although there are many different expression systems for recombinant production of pharmaceutical proteins, many of these suffer from drawbacks such as yield, cost, complexity of purification, and possible contamination with human pathogens. Microalgae have enormous potential for diverse biotechnological applications and currently attract much attention in the biofuel sector. Still underestimated, though, is the idea of using microalgae as solar-fueled expression system for the production of recombinant proteins. Results In this study, we show for the first time that completely assembled and functional human IgG antibodies can not only be expressed to high levels in algal systems, but also secreted very efficiently into the culture medium. We engineered the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum to synthesize and secrete a human IgG antibody against the Hepatitis B Virus surface protein. As the diatom P. tricornutum is not known to naturally secrete many endogenous proteins, the secreted antibodies are already very pure making extensive purification steps redundant and production extremely cost efficient. Conclusions Microalgae combine rapid growth rates with all the advantages of eukaryotic expression systems, and offer great potential for solar-powered, low cost production of pharmaceutical proteins.

  14. Early to Late Endosome Trafficking Controls Secretion and Zymogen Activation in Rodent and Human Pancreatic Acinar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messenger, Scott W; Thomas, Diana Dh; Cooley, Michelle M; Jones, Elaina K; Falkowski, Michelle A; August, Benjamin K; Fernandez, Luis A; Gorelick, Fred S; Groblewski, Guy E

    2015-11-01

    Pancreatic acinar cells have an expanded apical endosomal system, the physiological and pathophysiological significance of which is still emerging. Phosphatidylinositol-3,5-bisphosphate (PI(3,5)P 2 ) is an essential phospholipid generated by PIKfyve, which phosphorylates phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate (PI(3)P). PI(3,5)P 2 is necessary for maturation of early endosomes (EE) to late endosomes (LE). Inhibition of EE to LE trafficking enhances anterograde endosomal trafficking and secretion at the plasma membrane by default through a recycling endosome (RE) intermediate. We assessed the effects of modulating PIKfyve activity on apical trafficking and pancreatitis responses in pancreatic acinar cells. Inhibition of EE to LE trafficking was achieved using pharmacological inhibitors of PIKfyve, expression of dominant negative PIKfyve K1877E, or constitutively active Rab5-GTP Q79L. Anterograde endosomal trafficking was manipulated by expression of constitutively active and dominant negative Rab11a mutants. The effects of these agents on secretion, endolysosomal exocytosis of lysosome associated membrane protein (LAMP1), and trypsinogen activation in response to high-dose CCK-8, bile acids and cigarette toxin was determined. PIKfyve inhibition increased basal and stimulated secretion. Adenoviral overexpression of PIKfyve decreased secretion leading to cellular death. Expression of Rab5-GTP Q79L or Rab11a-GTP Q70L enhanced secretion. Conversely, dominant-negative Rab11a-GDP S25N reduced secretion. High-dose CCK inhibited endolysosomal exocytosis that was reversed by PIKfyve inhibition. PIKfyve inhibition blocked intracellular trypsin accumulation and cellular damage responses to high CCK-8, tobacco toxin, and bile salts in both rodent and human acini. These data demonstrate that EE-LE trafficking acutely controls acinar secretion and the intracellular activation of zymogens leading to the pathogenicity of acute pancreatitis.

  15. Innate immunity in the vagina (Part II): Anti-HIV activity and antiviral content of human vaginal secretions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mickey V; Ghosh, Mimi; Fahey, John V; Ochsenbauer, Christina; Rossoll, Richard M; Wira, Charles R

    2014-07-01

    Whether the concentrations of antiviral proteins, and anti-HIV activity, within human vaginal secretions change across the menstrual cycle is unknown. Using a menstrual cup, vaginal secretions from pre-menopausal women were recovered at the proliferative (d6-8), mid-cycle (d13-15), and secretory (d21-23) stages of the menstrual cycle. Antiviral protein concentration was determined by ELISA, and anti-HIV activity assessed using the TZM-bl reporter cell line. CCL20, RANTES, elafin, HBD2, SDF-1α, and IL-8 levels were detectable in the secretions. Vaginal secretions had anti-HIV activity against specific clade B strains of HIV, with significant inhibition of IIIB and increased infectivity of transmitted/founder CH077.t. No significant differences in either antiviral protein concentration or anti-HIV activity with respect to menstrual cycle stage were measured, but marked differences were observed in both parameters over the course of the cycle between different women and in consecutive cycles from the same woman. The vagina contains a complement of antiviral proteins. The variation in anti-HIV activity demonstrates that immune protection in the vagina is not constant. Intra- and interindividual variations suggest that factors in addition to sex hormones influence antiviral protection. Lastly, the menstrual cup is a new model for recovering undiluted vaginal secretions from women throughout their reproductive life. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Immunity in the Vagina (Part II): Anti-HIV Activity and Antiviral Content of Human Vaginal Secretions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mickey V.; Ghosh, Mimi; Fahey, John V.; Ochsenbauer, Christina; Rossoll, Richard M.; Wira, Charles R.

    2015-01-01

    Problem Whether the concentrations of antiviral proteins, and anti-HIV activity, within human vaginal secretions changes across the menstrual cycle is unknown. Method of Study Using a menstrual cup, vaginal secretions from premenopausal women were recovered at the proliferative (d6–8), mid-cycle (d13–15) and secretory (d21–23) stages of the menstrual cycle. Antiviral protein concentration was determined by ELISA, and anti-HIV activity assessed using the TZM-bl reporter cell line. Results CCL20, RANTES, elafin, HBD2, SDF-1α and IL-8 levels were detectable in the secretions. Vaginal secretions had anti-HIV activity against specific clade B strains of HIV, with significant inhibition of IIIB and increased infectivity of transmitted/founder CH077.t. No significant differences in either antiviral protein concentration or anti-HIV activity with respect to menstrual cycle stage were measured, but marked differences were observed in both parameters over the course of the cycle between different women, and in consecutive cycles from the same woman. Conclusion The vagina contains a complement of antiviral proteins. The variation in anti-HIV activity demonstrates that immune protection in the vagina is not constant. Intra- and inter-individual variations suggest that factors in addition to sex hormones influence antiviral protection. Lastly, the menstrual cup is a new model for recovering undiluted vaginal secretions from women throughout their reproductive life. PMID:24806967

  17. [Effects of serum of patients with MODS on TF and PAI-1 secretion of human vascular endothelial cells during CRRT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-wen; Peng, You-ming; Liu, Fu-you; Zhang, Hao

    2009-06-01

    To elucidate the effects of serum of patients with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) on tissue factor (TF) and Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) secretion of human vascular endothelial cells(HUVEC)during continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). Sixteen patients who diagnosed MODS involved were divided into two groups randomly, eight patients treated with CRRT without heparin and the others with heparin for 8 hours. The blood was collected from patients at 0 min, 15 min, 60 min, 120 min and 480 min during CRRT. Serum TNF-alpha, IL-1beta were measured by ELISA.TF and PAI-1 secretion of HUVEC stimulated with serum of patients with MODS undergoing CRRT were detected. TF and PAI-1 expression level were assayed by RT-PCR. TF and PAI-1 secretion were significantly increased in HUVEC stimulated with serum of patients with MODS, but the levels were decreased after CRRT. There are significant positive correlation between TF or PAI-1 secretion of HUVEC and corresponding serum TNFalpha level in the group without heparin, the coefficient correlation is 0.902 and 0.939(P0.05)in the group with heparin. Serum of patients with MODS promote the secretion of TF and PAI-1 in HUVEC.The dysfunction of HUVEC induced by serum of patients with MODS may be related to mediators of inflammation. CRRT can clean up the component which injure HEVEC and improve endothelial cell functions.

  18. Oxidized LDL-Exposed Human Macrophages Display Increased MMP-9 Expression and Secretion Mediated by Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanda, Gabriela M; Deleanu, Mariana; Toma, Laura; Stancu, Camelia S; Simionescu, Maya; Sima, Anca V

    2017-04-01

    Oxidatively modified low-density lipoproteins (oxLDL) alter the proper function of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), inducing ER stress (ERS), which consequently activates inflammatory pathways in macrophages. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is the main protease acting on the degradation of the extracellular matrix and the ensuing destabilization of the atherosclerotic plaque. We aimed to investigate whether ERS induced by oxLDL or tunicamycin (TM) in human macrophages is associated with the stimulation of MMP-9 expression and secretion. The results showed that oxLDL induced in THP-1 macrophages: (i) increase of MMP-9 gene expression and its pro-form secretion, (ii) intracellular accumulation of 7-ketocholesterol, (iii) ERS activation (increased eIF2α phosphorylation, XBP1 and CHOP mRNA levels, and Grp78 protein expression), and (iv) oxidative stress (increased levels of reactive oxygen species and NADPH oxidase activity). Incubation of macrophages with ERS inducer, TM determined the secretion of both pro- and active-form of MMP-9 and oxidative stress. Treatment of oxLDL or TM-incubated cells with ERS inhibitor, sodium phenylbutyrate decreased MMP-9 gene expression, secretion, and activity. The inhibitor of NADPH oxidase, apocynin, decreased XBP-1 and CHOP mRNA levels, and MMP-9 gene expression and secretion in oxLDL-exposed cells. In conclusion, oxLDL stimulate MMP-9 expression and secretion in human macrophages by mechanisms involving ERS. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 661-669, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Trichophytobezoar duodenal obstruction in New World camelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Eileen K; Callan, Robert J; Holt, Timothy N; Van Metre, David C

    2005-01-01

    To describe clinical findings, surgical treatment, and outcome associated with trichophytobezoar duodenal obstruction in New World camelids. Retrospective study. Alpacas (7) and 1 llama. Historical and clinical data were obtained from the medical records of New World camelids with a diagnosis of trichophytobezoar duodenal obstruction confirmed by surgical exploration or necropsy. Seven camelids were camelids with abdominal distension and hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis. Right paracostal celiotomy can be used for access to the descending duodenum and third gastric compartment for surgical relief of obstruction. Duodenal obstruction from bezoars should be considered in New World camelids <1year of age with abdominal distension and hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis. Surgical relief of the obstruction by right paracostal celiotomy has a good prognosis.

  20. Characteristics and changes of gastric mucosal blood flow in patients with duodenal ulcer following highly selective vagotomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doebroente, Z.; Kahan, Z.; Baltas, B.; Lang, J.; Varro, V. (Orvostudomanyi Egyetem, Szeged (Hungary). 1. Belklinika; Orvostudomanyi Egyetem, Szeged (Hungary). Koezponti Izotopdiagnosztikai Lab.)

    1985-02-01

    In patients with duodenal ulcer, mucosal blood flow of pentagastrin-stimulated stomach was studied using sup(99m)Tc-methylaminophenazone clearance technique published previously by the authors. Comparative investigations were carried out in active and inactive phases of the disease and in operated patients before and after highly selective vagotomy. The relation between gastric mucosal blood flow and acid secretion proved to be different from that of the normacid controls: in duodenal ulcer patients the secretory capacity in relation to the blood supply proved to be increased. Both the mucosal blood flow and acid secretion values were elevated in the active stage as compared to the inactive phase, while the proportion between them remained unchanged. The relation of secretion to mucosal blood flow after highly selective vagotomy became similar to that of the normal controls. It is suggested that the sup(99m)Tc-methylaminophenazone clearance method is a suitable tool to evaluate the effectiveness of vagotomy.

  1. Impact of Mycotoxins Secreted by Aspergillus Molds on the Inflammatory Response of Human Corneal Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yélian Marc Bossou

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to molds and mycotoxins not only contributes to the onset of respiratory disease, it also affects the ocular surface. Very few published studies concern the evaluation of the effect of mycotoxin exposure on ocular cells. The present study investigates the effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 and gliotoxin, two mycotoxins secreted by Aspergillus molds, on the biological activity of the human corneal epithelial (HCE cells. After 24, 48, and 72 h of exposure, cellular viability and inflammatory response were assessed. Both endpoint cell viability colorimetric assays and continuous cell impedance measurements, providing noninvasive real-time assessment of the effect on cells, were performed. Cytokine gene expression and interleukin-8 release were quantified. Gliotoxin appeared more cytotoxic than AFB1 but, at the same time, led to a lower increase of the inflammatory response reflecting its immunosuppressive properties. Real-time cell impedance measurement showed a distinct profile of cytotoxicity for both mycotoxins. HCE cells appeared to be a well-suited in vitro model to study ocular surface reactivity following biological contaminant exposure. Low, but persistent inflammation, caused by environmental factors, such as fungal toxins, leads to irritation and sensitization, and could be responsible for allergic manifestations which, in turn, could lead to mucosal hyper-reactivity.

  2. The Proteomes of Human Parotid and Submandibular/Sublingual Gland Salivas Collected as the Ductal Secretions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Paul; Hagen, Fred K.; Hardt, Markus; Liao, Lujian; Yan, Weihong; Arellanno, Martha; Bassilian, Sara; Bedi, Gurrinder S.; Boontheung, Pinmannee; Cociorva, Daniel; Delahunty, Claire M.; Denny, Trish; Dunsmore, Jason; Faull, Kym F.; Gilligan, Joyce; Gonzalez-Begne, Mireya; Halgand, Frédéric; Hall, Steven C.; Han, Xuemei; Henson, Bradley; Hewel, Johannes; Hu, Shen; Jeffrey, Sherry; Jiang, Jiang; Loo, Joseph A.; Ogorzalek Loo, Rachel R.; Malamud, Daniel; Melvin, James E.; Miroshnychenko, Olga; Navazesh, Mahvash; Niles, Richard; Park, Sung Kyu; Prakobphol, Akraporn; Ramachandran, Prasanna; Richert, Megan; Robinson, Sarah; Sondej, Melissa; Souda, Puneet; Sullivan, Mark A.; Takashima, Jona; Than, Shawn; Wang, Jianghua; Whitelegge, Julian P.; Witkowska, H. Ewa; Wolinsky, Lawrence; Xie, Yongming; Xu, Tao; Yu, Weixia; Ytterberg, Jimmy; Wong, David T.; Yates, John R.; Fisher, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    Saliva is a body fluid with important functions in oral and general health. A consortium of three research groups catalogued the proteins in human saliva collected as the ductal secretions: 1166 identifications—914 in parotid and 917 in submandibular/sublingual saliva—were made. The results showed that a high proportion of proteins that are found in plasma and/or tears are also present in saliva along with unique components. The proteins identified are involved in numerous molecular processes ranging from structural functions to enzymatic/catalytic activities. As expected, the majority mapped to the extracellular and secretory compartments. An immunoblot approach was used to validate the presence in saliva of a subset of the proteins identified by mass spectrometric approaches. These experiments focused on novel constituents and proteins for which the peptide evidence was relatively weak. Ultimately, information derived from the work reported here and related published studies can be used to translate blood-based clinical laboratory tests into a format that utilizes saliva. Additionally, a catalogue of the salivary proteome of healthy individuals allows future analyses of salivary samples from individuals with oral and systemic diseases, with the goal of identifying biomarkers with diagnostic and/or prognostic value for these conditions; another possibility is the discovery of therapeutic targets. PMID:18361515

  3. Brief demethylation step allows the conversion of adult human skin fibroblasts into insulin-secreting cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennarossa, Georgia; Maffei, Sara; Campagnol, Marino; Tarantini, Letizia; Gandolfi, Fulvio; Brevini, Tiziana A L

    2013-05-28

    The differentiated state of mature cells of adult organisms is achieved and maintained through the epigenetic regulation of gene expression, which consists of several mechanisms including DNA methylation. The advent of induced pluripotent stem cell technology enabled the conversion of adult cells into any other cell type passing through a stable pluripotency state. However, indefinite pluripotency is unphysiological, inherently labile, and makes cells prone to culture-induced alterations. The direct conversion of one cell type to another without an intermediate pluripotent stage is also possible but, at present, requires the viral transfection of appropriate transcription factors, limiting its therapeutic potential. The aim of this study was to investigate whether it is possible to achieve the direct conversion of an adult cell by exposing it to a demethylating agent immediately followed by differentiating culture conditions. Adult human skin fibroblasts were exposed for 18 h to the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-azacytidine, followed by a three-step protocol for the induction of endocrine pancreatic differentiation that lasted 36 d. At the end of this treatment, 35 ± 8.9% fibroblasts became pancreatic converted cells that acquired an epithelial morphology, produced insulin, and then released the hormone in response to a physiological glucose challenge in vitro. Furthermore, pancreatic converted cells were able to protect recipient mice against streptozotocin-induced diabetes, restoring a physiological response to glucose tolerance tests. This work shows that it is possible to convert adult fibroblasts into insulin-secreting cells, avoiding both a stable pluripotent stage and any transgenic modification.

  4. Galectin-9 enhances cytokine secretion, but suppresses survival and degranulation, in human mast cell line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiji Kojima

    Full Text Available Galectin-9 (Gal-9, a lectin having a β-galactoside-binding domain, can induce apoptosis of Th1 cells by binding to TIM-3. In addition, Gal-9 inhibits IgE/Ag-mediated degranulation of mast cell/basophilic cell lines by binding to IgE, thus blocking IgE/Ag complex formation. However, the role of Gal-9 in mast cell function in the absence of IgE is not fully understood. Here, we found that recombinant Gal-9 directly induced phosphorylation of Erk1/2 but not p38 MAPK in a human mast cell line, HMC-1, which does not express FcεRI. Gal-9 induced apoptosis and inhibited PMA/ionomycin-mediated degranulation of HMC-1 cells. On the other hand, Gal-9 induced cytokine and/or chemokine production by HMC-1 cells, dependent on activation of ERK1/2 but not p38 MAPK. In addition, the lectin activity of Gal-9 was required for Gal-9-mediated cytokine secretion by HMC-1 cells. These observations suggest that Gal-9 has dual properties as both a regulator and an activator of mast cells.

  5. Sildenafil Effect on Nitric Oxide Secretion by Normal Human Endometrial Epithelial Cells Cultured In vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Chobsaz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sildenafil is a selective inhibitor of cyclic-guanosine monphosphat-specificphosphodiesterase type 5. It increases intracellular nitric oxide (NO production in some cells.There are reports on its positive effect on uterine circulation, endometrial thickness, and infertilityimprovement. Endometrial epithelial cells (EEC play an important role in embryo attachment andimplantation. The present work investigates the effect of sildenafil on human EEC and their NOsecretion in vitro.Materials and Methods: In this experimental in vitro study, endometrial biopsies (n=10 werewashed in a phosphate buffered solution (PBS and digested with collagenase I (2 mg/ml in DMEM/F12 medium at 37°C for 90 minutes. Epithelial glands were collected by sequential filtrationthrough nylon meshes (70 and 40 μm pores, respectively. Epithelial glands were then treated withtrypsin to obtain individual cells. The cells were counted and divided into four groups: control and1, 10, and 20 μM sildenafil concentrations. Cells were cultured for 15 days at 37ºC and 5% CO2; themedia were changed every 3 days, and their supernatants were collected for the NO assay. NO wasmeasured by standard Greiss methods. Data were analyzed by one way ANOVA.Results: There was no significant difference between groups in cell count and NO secretion, but thelevel of NO increased slightly in the experimental groups. The 10 μM dose showed the highest cellcount. EEC morphology changed into long spindle cells in the case groups.Conclusion: Sildenafil (1, 10, and 20 μM showed a mild proliferative effect on human EECnumbers, but no significant change was seen in NO production.

  6. Human embryos secrete microRNAs into culture media--a potential biomarker for implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbluth, Evan M; Shelton, Dawne N; Wells, Lindsay M; Sparks, Amy E T; Van Voorhis, Bradley J

    2014-05-01

    To determine whether human blastocysts secrete microRNA (miRNAs) into culture media and whether these reflect embryonic ploidy status and can predict in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes. Experimental study of human embryos and IVF culture media. Academic IVF program. 91 donated, cryopreserved embryos that developed into 28 tested blastocysts, from 13 couples who had previously completed IVF cycles. None. Relative miRNA expression in IVF culture media. Blastocysts were assessed by chromosomal comparative genomic hybridization analysis, and the culture media from 55 single-embryo transfer cycles was tested for miRNA expression using an array-based quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. The expression of the identified miRNA was correlated with pregnancy outcomes. Ten miRNA were identified in the culture media; two were specific to spent media (miR-191 and miR-372), and one was only present in media before the embryos had been cultured (miR-645). MicroRNA-191 was more highly concentrated in media from aneuploid embryos, and miR-191, miR-372, and miR-645 were more highly concentrated in media from failed IVF/non-intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles. Additionally, miRNA were found to be more highly concentrated in ICSI and day-5 media samples when compared with regularly inseminated and day-4 samples, respectively. MicroRNA can be detected in IVF culture media. Some of these miRNA are differentially expressed according to the fertilization method, chromosomal status, and pregnancy outcome, which makes them potential biomarkers for predicting IVF success. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A rare association between dextrogastria, duodenal web, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the radiologic investigation for bilious vomiting and feeding intolerance, revealing congenital duodenal stenosis and dextrogastria. During surgery, the association of the dextrogastria with the duodenal web situated in the second part of the duodenum was established. Keywords: dextrogastria, duodenal web, malrotation ...

  8. Sulfated Cholecystokinin-8 Promotes CD36—Mediated Fatty Acid Uptake into Primary Mouse Duodenal Enterocytes

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    Claire Demenis

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cholecystokinin (CCK is an archetypal incretin hormone secreted by intestinal enteroendocrine cells (EEC in response to ingested nutrients. The aim of this study was to determine whether CCK modulates enterocyte fatty acid uptake by primary mouse duodenal cells. Exposure of primary mouse duodenal cells to 10 pM sulfated CCK-8 caused a two fold increase in dodecanoic acid fatty acid (FA uptake. The selective CCK A receptor antagonist loxiglumide (100 μM completely abolished the CCK-8 induced FA uptake. The CD36 fatty acid translocase-specific inhibitor sulfo-N-succinimidyl oleate (1 μM also completely inhibited CCK-8 induced FA uptake, as did treatment with 200 μM phloretin. Together these data show CCK induces FA uptake into duodenal enterocytes; this action involves the CCK-RA receptor and is carrier mediated by CD36.

  9. Secretion of goblet cell serine proteinase, ingobsin, is stimulated by vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and acetylcholine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier; Nexø, Ebba

    1987-01-01

    Ingobsin is localized to the intestinal goblet cells in the rat and in man. In the present study, we investigated the effect of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and acetylcholine on the secretion of ingobsin from the proximal duodenum. Intravenous infusion of VIP or acetylcholine increased...... the concentration of ingobsin in duodenal secretion, while the concentration in the duodenum was unchanged. Simultaneous infusion of VIP and acetylcholine increased the concentration of ingobsin in duodenal secretion and decreased the concentration of ingobsin in the duodenum. This study demonstrates that secretion...... of ingobsin from the proximal duodenum is exocrine and can be stimulated by VIP and acetylcholine....

  10. Role of incretin hormones in the regulation of insulin secretion in diabetic and nondiabetic humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jens Juul; Gromada, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    1 (GLP-1). In patients with type 2 diabetes, however, the incretin effect is lost or greatly impaired. It is hypothesized that this loss explains an important part of the impaired insulin secretion in patients. Further analysis of the incretin effects in patients has revealed that the secretion...... of GIP is near normal, whereas the secretion of GLP-1 is decreased. On the other hand, the insulintropic effect of GLP-1 is preserved, whereas the effect of GIP is greatly reduced, mainly because of a complete loss of the normal GIP-induced potentiation of second-phase insulin secretion. These two......The available evidence suggests that about two-thirds of the insulin response to an oral glucose load is due to the potentiating effect of gut-derived incretin hormones. The strongest candidates for the incretin effect are glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide...

  11. Ezrin/Exocyst complex regulates mucin 5AC secretion induced by neutrophil elastase in human airway epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Li, Na; Liu, Chun-Yi; Xu, Rui; Kolosov, Victor P; Perelman, Juliy M; Zhou, Xiang-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Increased mucin secretion is a characteristic feature of many chronic airway diseases, particularly during periods of exacerbation; however, the exact mechanism of mucin secretion remains unclear. Ezrin, which is a specific marker of apical membranes, is predominantly concentrated in exocyst-rich cell surface structures, crosslinking the actin cytoskeleton with the plasma membrane. In the present study, we examined whether Ezrin is involved in mucin 5AC (MUC5AC) secretion after neutrophil elastase (NE) attack, and we investigated the role of the exocyst complex docking protein Sec3 in this process. NE was used as a stimulator in a 16HBE14o- cell culture model. The expression and location of Ezrin and Sec3 were investigated, and the interaction between Ezrin and Sec3 in 16HBE14o-cells was assayed after treatment with NE, Ezrin siRNA, Sec3 siRNA, neomycin or PIP2-Ab. We found that Ezrin was highly expressed in the bronchi of humans with chronic airway diseases. NE induced robust MUC5AC protein secretion. The Ezrin siRNA, Sec3 siRNA, and neomycin treatments led to impaired MUC5AC secretion in cells. Both Ezrin and Sec3 were recruited primarily to the cytoplasmic membrane after NE stimulation, and the neomycin and PIP2-Ab treatments abrogated this effect. Immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that Ezrin and Sec3 combined to form complexes; however, these complexes could not be detected in Ezrin∆1-333 mutant-transfected cells, even when PIP2 was added. These results demonstrate that Ezrin/Sec3 complexes are essential for MUC5AC secretion in NE-stimulated airway epithelial cells and that PIP2 is of critical importance in the formation of these complexes. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Ezrin/Exocyst Complex Regulates Mucin 5AC Secretion Induced by Neutrophil Elastase in Human Airway Epithelial Cells

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    Qi Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: Increased mucin secretion is a characteristic feature of many chronic airway diseases, particularly during periods of exacerbation; however, the exact mechanism of mucin secretion remains unclear. Ezrin, which is a specific marker of apical membranes, is predominantly concentrated in exocyst-rich cell surface structures, crosslinking the actin cytoskeleton with the plasma membrane. In the present study, we examined whether Ezrin is involved in mucin 5AC (MUC5AC secretion after neutrophil elastase (NE attack, and we investigated the role of the exocyst complex docking protein Sec3 in this process. Methods: NE was used as a stimulator in a 16HBE14o- cell culture model. The expression and location of Ezrin and Sec3 were investigated, and the interaction between Ezrin and Sec3 in 16HBE14o-cells was assayed after treatment with NE, Ezrin siRNA, Sec3 siRNA, neomycin or PIP2-Ab. Results: We found that Ezrin was highly expressed in the bronchi of humans with chronic airway diseases. NE induced robust MUC5AC protein secretion. The Ezrin siRNA, Sec3 siRNA, and neomycin treatments led to impaired MUC5AC secretion in cells. Both Ezrin and Sec3 were recruited primarily to the cytoplasmic membrane after NE stimulation, and the neomycin and PIP2-Ab treatments abrogated this effect. Immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that Ezrin and Sec3 combined to form complexes; however, these complexes could not be detected in Ezrin∆1-333 mutant-transfected cells, even when PIP2 was added. Conclusions: These results demonstrate that Ezrin/Sec3 complexes are essential for MUC5AC secretion in NE-stimulated airway epithelial cells and that PIP2 is of critical importance in the formation of these complexes.

  13. Leptin positively regulates MUC5AC production and secretion induced by interleukin-13 in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Wanming; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Yunying; Sun, Lixin; Han, Wei

    2017-11-18

    Mucus hypersecretion and plugging of lower respiratory tract airways due to mucus plugs have long been recognized as the leading cause of the morbidity and mortality in asthma. MUC5AC protein is a major component of airway mucus. Here, we showed that interleukin (IL)-13 induced MUC5AC production and secretion, and leptin expression in the human bronchial epithelial cell line-16 (HBE16) cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Leptin knockdown suppressed MUC5AC production and secretion induced by IL-13. We further investigated the molecular mechanism by which leptin functioned, and found that leptin regulated IL-13-induced MUC5AC production and secretion via the JAK2-STAT3 pathway. Subsequently, Munc18b, a limiting component of the exocytic machinery of airway epithelial and mast cells, was found that when knockdown, MUC5AC secretion was significantly inhibited. SABiosciences ChIP search tool identified three STAT3 binding sites with Munc18b promoter. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis further confirmed that Stat3 upregulated Munc18b expression by directly binding to its promoter. These data suggested that leptin promotes MUC5AC secretion via JAK2-STAT3-MUNC18b regulatory network. Taken together, our data highlight a positive feedback role and molecular mechanism for leptin in the control of MUC5AC production and secretion from airway epithelial cells stimulated by IL-13, which encourage further exploration of the therapeutic potentials of manipulating leptin in the treatment of mucus hypersecretion in chronic inflammation lung diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Dosed myofascial release in three-dimensional bioengineered tendons: effects on human fibroblast hyperplasia, hypertrophy, and cytokine secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Thanh V; Hicks, Michael R; Campbell, David; Standley, Paul R

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate potential differences of magnitudes and durations associated with dosed myofascial release (MFR) on human fibroblast proliferation, hypertrophy, and cytokine secretions. Bioengineered tendons (BETs) attached to nylon mesh anchors were strained uniaxially using a vacuum pressure designed to model MFR varying in magnitudes (0%, 3%, 6%, 9%, and 12% elongation) and durations (0.5 and 1-5 minutes). Conditioned media were analyzed for cytokine secretion via protein microarray (n = 2). Bioengineered tendons were weighted and fibroblasts extracted from the BET were assessed for total cell protein and proliferation via double-stranded DNA quantification (n = 5). All data were compared by a 1-way analysis of variance with post hoc Dunnett test and Student t test. Changing MFR magnitude and duration did not have an effect on total fibroblast cellular protein or DNA accumulation. However, we observed a stepwise increase in BET weight with higher-magnitude MFR treatments. Longer durations of MFR resulted in progressive increase in the secretions of angiogenin, interleukin (IL)-3, IL-8, growth colony-stimulating factor, and thymus activation-regulated chemokine. Alternatively, increasing strain magnitude induced secretions of IL-1β, monocyte chemoattractant cytokine, and regulated and normal T cell expressed and secreted chemotactic cytokine. Cellular proliferation and hypertrophy were not significantly changed by any treatment. However, the change in total BET dry weight suggests that production of extracellular matrix protein may be up-regulated. Different MFR parameters induce secretions of a unique subset of cytokines and growth factors that can be further enhanced by increasing the magnitude and duration of treatment. If clinically translatable, these results suggest that variations to manual therapy biomechanical parameters may differentially affect physiological responses in vivo. © 2013. Published by National University of

  15. Beta2-adrenoceptor stimulation suppresses TLR9-dependent IFNA1 secretion in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Hilbert

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: IFNA1 (interferon alpha is a key cytokine regulating the activity of numerous immune cells. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs as natural interferon-producing cells play critical roles as sensors of pathogens and link innate to adaptive immunity. CpG motifs within DNA sequences activating toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9 are the main stimuli eliciting IFNA1 secretion from pDCs. Adrenergic substances are capable of differentially modulating the response from various immune cells. Hence, the aim of this study was to examine how adrenoceptor stimulation influences TLR9-induced IFNA1 secretion from human pDCs. METHODS: PBMCs generated from human whole blood and pDCs enriched from buffy coats were stimulated with LPS and CpG-ODN 2336 in the presence or absence of epinephrine and different adrenoceptor antagonists. Secretion of TNF and IFNA1 was measured by ELISA. Flow cytometry was used to determine efficacy of pDC enrichment and adrenoceptor expression of PBMC subsets. The influence of modified IFNA1 secretion on NK cell activity was evaluated using a colorimetric tumor cell lysis assay. RESULTS: TLR9-induced IFNA1 secretion as well as TLR4-induced TNF secretion from PBMCs was dose-dependently attenuated by coincubation with epinephrine. Combination with different specific adrenoceptor antagonists revealed that this effect was mediated by the adrenoceptor β2 (ADRB2. Since flow cytometric analysis could exclude the presence of ADRB2 on pDCs, highly enriched pDCs lacked any visible impact of adrenoceptor stimulation on TLR9-induced IFNA1 release. Combination of pDCs with PBMCs restored the effect, even when they were separated by a permeable membrane. Suppression of TLR9-mediated IFNA1 secretion from PBMCs by adrenoceptor stimulation reduced the lytic activity of NK cells on K562 tumor cells. CONCLUSION: We provide insights into the underlying mechanisms of the interrelation between immune responses and pharmacological agents widely used in

  16. Beta2-adrenoceptor stimulation suppresses TLR9-dependent IFNA1 secretion in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, Tobias; Bongartz, Josef; Weisheit, Christina; Knüfermann, Pascal; Baumgarten, Georg; Hoeft, Andreas; Poth, Jens M

    2013-01-01

    IFNA1 (interferon alpha) is a key cytokine regulating the activity of numerous immune cells. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) as natural interferon-producing cells play critical roles as sensors of pathogens and link innate to adaptive immunity. CpG motifs within DNA sequences activating toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) are the main stimuli eliciting IFNA1 secretion from pDCs. Adrenergic substances are capable of differentially modulating the response from various immune cells. Hence, the aim of this study was to examine how adrenoceptor stimulation influences TLR9-induced IFNA1 secretion from human pDCs. PBMCs generated from human whole blood and pDCs enriched from buffy coats were stimulated with LPS and CpG-ODN 2336 in the presence or absence of epinephrine and different adrenoceptor antagonists. Secretion of TNF and IFNA1 was measured by ELISA. Flow cytometry was used to determine efficacy of pDC enrichment and adrenoceptor expression of PBMC subsets. The influence of modified IFNA1 secretion on NK cell activity was evaluated using a colorimetric tumor cell lysis assay. TLR9-induced IFNA1 secretion as well as TLR4-induced TNF secretion from PBMCs was dose-dependently attenuated by coincubation with epinephrine. Combination with different specific adrenoceptor antagonists revealed that this effect was mediated by the adrenoceptor β2 (ADRB2). Since flow cytometric analysis could exclude the presence of ADRB2 on pDCs, highly enriched pDCs lacked any visible impact of adrenoceptor stimulation on TLR9-induced IFNA1 release. Combination of pDCs with PBMCs restored the effect, even when they were separated by a permeable membrane. Suppression of TLR9-mediated IFNA1 secretion from PBMCs by adrenoceptor stimulation reduced the lytic activity of NK cells on K562 tumor cells. We provide insights into the underlying mechanisms of the interrelation between immune responses and pharmacological agents widely used in clinical practice. Our results have implications for the

  17. Lanreotide inhibits human jejunal secretion induced by prostaglandin E1 in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobhani, I; René, E; Ramdani, A; Bayod, F; Sabbagh, L C; Thomas, F; Mignon, M

    1996-02-01

    1. Somatostatin inhibits hormonal secretions in the gastrointestinal tract. Somatostatin analogues are used in the treatment of VIPome-related watery diarrhoea. In addition, more than 10% of patients with AIDS suffer from diarrhoea likely due to the increased intestinal secretion of water and ions. However, the direct effect of somatostatin on the flux of water and ions in the intestine has not been, so far, analyzed in vivo. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of lanreotide, a somatostatin analogue, on the movements of water and ions in the jejunum in man. 2. Accordingly, 10 healthy volunteers (age 18-35 years, mean 27) and two patients with AIDS (26 and 33 years) suffering from water diarrhoea (> 800 ml day-1) underwent intestinal perfusion using a four lumen tube with proximal occluding balloon. The segment tested was 25 cm long. The jejunum was infused by an isotonic control saline solution containing polyethylene glycol (PEG) as nonabsorbable marker. Basal jejunal secretions were measured in all subjects. Prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) was administered intraluminally to stimulate jejunal secretion in healthy volunteers. The effect of intravenous lanreotide on the jejunal PGE1-induced secretions of water and electrolytes was analysed in healthy subjects and on the basal secretions in AIDS patients. Each period was analyzed on the basis of three (10 min) successive intestinal juice collections after 20-30 min equilibration time. The antisecretory effect of lanreotide was evaluated in each subject as the difference between fluxes compared to the control period. 3. In healthy volunteers, PGE1 induced secretion of H2O, Na+, K+ and Cl- in the jejunum and lanreotide reduced significantly PGE1-induced response. In both AIDS patients basal fluxes of water and ions were reduced by lanreotide in a dose-dependent manner. 4. Somatostatin can reduce stimulated-jejunal secretion of ions and water in normal subjects and may improve water diarrhoea in AIDS

  18. Dental Calculus Stimulates Interleukin-1β Secretion by Activating NLRP3 Inflammasome in Human and Mouse Phagocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenegro Raudales, Jorge Luis; Yoshimura, Atsutoshi; Sm, Ziauddin; Kaneko, Takashi; Ozaki, Yukio; Ukai, Takashi; Miyazaki, Toshihiro; Latz, Eicke; Hara, Yoshitaka

    2016-01-01

    Dental calculus is a mineralized deposit associated with periodontitis. The bacterial components contained in dental calculus can be recognized by host immune sensors, such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs), and induce transcription of proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1β. Studies have shown that cellular uptake of crystalline particles may trigger NLRP3 inflammasome activation, leading to the cleavage of the IL-1β precursor to its mature form. Phagocytosis of dental calculus in the periodontal pocket may therefore lead to the secretion of IL-1β, promoting inflammatory responses in periodontal tissues. However, the capacity of dental calculus to induce IL-1β secretion in human phagocytes has not been explored. To study this, we stimulated human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with dental calculus collected from periodontitis patients, and measured IL-1β secretion by ELISA. We found that calculus induced IL-1β secretion in both human PMNs and PBMCs. Calculus also induced IL-1β in macrophages from wild-type mice, but not in macrophages from NLRP3- and ASC-deficient mice, indicating the involvement of NLRP3 and ASC. IL-1β induction was inhibited by polymyxin B, suggesting that LPS is one of the components of calculus that induces pro-IL-1β transcription. To analyze the effect of the inorganic structure, we baked calculus at 250°C for 1 h. This baked calculus failed to induce pro-IL-1β transcription. However, it did induce IL-1β secretion in lipid A-primed cells, indicating that the crystalline structure of calculus induces inflammasome activation. Furthermore, hydroxyapatite crystals, a component of dental calculus, induced IL-1β in mouse macrophages, and baked calculus induced IL-1β in lipid A-primed human PMNs and PBMCs. These results indicate that dental calculus stimulates IL-1β secretion via NLRP3 inflammasome in human and mouse phagocytes, and that the crystalline structure has a partial role in

  19. Dental Calculus Stimulates Interleukin-1β Secretion by Activating NLRP3 Inflammasome in Human and Mouse Phagocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luis Montenegro Raudales

    Full Text Available Dental calculus is a mineralized deposit associated with periodontitis. The bacterial components contained in dental calculus can be recognized by host immune sensors, such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs, and induce transcription of proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1β. Studies have shown that cellular uptake of crystalline particles may trigger NLRP3 inflammasome activation, leading to the cleavage of the IL-1β precursor to its mature form. Phagocytosis of dental calculus in the periodontal pocket may therefore lead to the secretion of IL-1β, promoting inflammatory responses in periodontal tissues. However, the capacity of dental calculus to induce IL-1β secretion in human phagocytes has not been explored. To study this, we stimulated human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs with dental calculus collected from periodontitis patients, and measured IL-1β secretion by ELISA. We found that calculus induced IL-1β secretion in both human PMNs and PBMCs. Calculus also induced IL-1β in macrophages from wild-type mice, but not in macrophages from NLRP3- and ASC-deficient mice, indicating the involvement of NLRP3 and ASC. IL-1β induction was inhibited by polymyxin B, suggesting that LPS is one of the components of calculus that induces pro-IL-1β transcription. To analyze the effect of the inorganic structure, we baked calculus at 250°C for 1 h. This baked calculus failed to induce pro-IL-1β transcription. However, it did induce IL-1β secretion in lipid A-primed cells, indicating that the crystalline structure of calculus induces inflammasome activation. Furthermore, hydroxyapatite crystals, a component of dental calculus, induced IL-1β in mouse macrophages, and baked calculus induced IL-1β in lipid A-primed human PMNs and PBMCs. These results indicate that dental calculus stimulates IL-1β secretion via NLRP3 inflammasome in human and mouse phagocytes, and that the crystalline structure has a

  20. Cytomegalovirus duodenitis associated with life-threatening duodenal hemorrhage in an immunocompetent patient: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Shen

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Presented is a rare case of life-threatening GI hemorrhage caused by CMV duodenitis in an immunocompetent patient. The patient failed endoscopic and interventional-radiology treatment options, and ultimately stabilized after surgical intervention.

  1. Ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone syndrome in a case of duodenal neuroendocrine tumor presenting with liver metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Khare

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH syndrome is an uncommon disorder and comprises about 15% of all patients with Cushing's syndrome (CS. Duodenal carcinoids are rare, indolent tumors usually associated with a benign progression. We hereby report a rare case of CS resulting from ectopic ACTH secretion from a duodenal neuroendocrine tumor (NET presenting with liver metastasis. A 37-year-old female presented with abdominal discomfort and dyspepsia of 1-month duration. Ultrasound abdomen suggested a well-defined hypoechoic lesion in the left lobe of the liver, suggestive of neoplasia. On clinical examination, she had Cushingoid features and persistent hypokalemia. Midnight ACTH and cortisol levels were grossly elevated at 1027 pg/ml (n < 46 pg/ml and 87.56 μg/dl (n < 7.5 μg/ml, respectively. Both overnight and high-dose dexamethasone suppression test confirmed nonsuppressed cortisol levels - 86.04 and 84.42 μg/dl (n < 1.8 μg/ml, respectively. Magnetic resonance imaging brain showed a structurally normal pituitary gland. Computed tomography scan of the abdomen revealed hepatic lesion with bilateral adrenal enlargement. A diagnosis of ectopic ACTH-dependent CS was made. Intraoperatively, a duodenal lesion of 0.5 cm × 0.5 cm was identified alongside an 8 cm × 6 cm exophytic lesion in segment IV of the liver. Frozen section of the duodenal lesion was positive for NET. She underwent a Whipple's surgery, cholecystectomy, and left hepatic lobectomy. Postoperatively, she showed clinical and biochemical remission. Herewith, we report the third case of duodenal carcinoid tumor presenting as ectopic ACTH syndrome and the first with liver metastasis.

  2. The complicated duodenal diverticulum: retrospective analysis of 11 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Perrot, Thomas; Poletti, Pierre-Alexandre; Becker, Christoph D; Platon, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    A series of rare complicated duodenal diverticula were reported with emphasis on causes for misdiagnosis. Patients with a discharge diagnosis of complicated duodenal diverticulum were retrospectively obtained. Computed tomographic (CT) reports and findings were reviewed. Complications consisted of diverticulitis (n=2), perforation (n=7), or obstructive cholangitis (n=2). CT imaging demonstrated a duodenal diverticular structure with findings due to the kind of complications. At the time of CT interpretation, a complicated duodenal diverticulum was suspected in 5 out of 11 patients. Awareness of the duodenal diverticulum and complications may improve the diagnostic value of CT in this setting. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Duodenal perforation during percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A. Bansal

    2016-06-03

    Jun 3, 2016 ... www.ees.elsevier.com/afju · www.sciencedirect.com. Case report. Duodenal perforation during percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) in a pediatric patient: A case report. A. Bansal. ∗. , V. Singh, R. Sinha. King George Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh 226003, India. Received 13 September ...

  4. Duodenal Amyloidosis Masquerading as Iron Deficiency Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurairah, Abu

    2016-01-01

    The present study is a unique illustration of duodenal amyloidosis initially manifesting with iron deficiency anemia. It underscores the importance of clinical suspicion of amyloidosis while performing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with a biopsy to establish the definite diagnosis in patients with unexplained iron deficiency anemia. PMID:27625911

  5. Duodenal Amyloidosis Masquerading as Iron Deficiency Anemia

    OpenAIRE

    Inayat, Faisal; Hurairah, Abu

    2016-01-01

    The present study is a unique illustration of duodenal amyloidosis initially manifesting with iron deficiency anemia. It underscores the importance of clinical suspicion of amyloidosis while performing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with a biopsy to establish the definite diagnosis in patients with unexplained iron deficiency anemia.

  6. Perforated Duodenal Ulcer Presenting As Acute Appendicitis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Acute appendicitis has a lot of differential diagnoses. However, when there is perforated duodenal ulcer with the contents tracking into the right iliac fossa, it is often extremely difficult to distinguish this condition from acute appendicitis. Aims of study: To evaluate the diagnostic dilemma encountered in ...

  7. Duodenal Transection without Pancreatic Injury following Blunt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With the inventions of faster cars and even more faster motorbikes there is a worldwide increase in road traffic accidents, which has increased the incidence of blunt abdominal trauma but still duodenal injury following a blunt abdominal trauma is uncommon and can pose a formidable challenge to the surgeon and failure to ...

  8. Gastrojejunostomy without partial gastrectomy to manage duodenal stenosis in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nel, Johannes J; du Plessis, Cornelius J; Coetzee, Gert L

    2015-12-09

    A nine-year-old female Rottweiler with a history of repeated gastrointestinal ulcerations and three previous surgical interventions related to gastrointestinal ulceration presented with symptoms of anorexia and intermittent vomiting. Benign gastric outflow obstruction was diagnosed in the proximal duodenal area. The initial surgical plan was to perform a pylorectomy with gastroduodenostomy (Billroth I procedure), but owing to substantial scar tissue and adhesions in the area a palliative gastrojejunostomy was performed. This procedure provided a bypass for the gastric contents into the proximal jejunum via the new stoma, yet still allowed bile and pancreatic secretions to flow normally via the patent duodenum. The gastrojejunostomy technique was successful in the surgical management of this case, which involved proximal duodenal stricture in the absence of neoplasia. Regular telephonic followup over the next 12 months confirmed that the patient was doing well.

  9. Opsonization of malaria-infected erythrocytes activates the inflammasome and enhances inflammatory cytokine secretion by human macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Jingling

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antibody opsonization of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes (IE plays a crucial role in anti-malarial immunity by promoting clearance of blood-stage infection by monocytes and macrophages. The effects of phagocytosis of opsonized IE on macrophage pro-inflammatory cytokine responses are poorly understood. Methods Phagocytic clearance, cytokine response and intracellular signalling were measured using IFN-γ-primed human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM incubated with opsonized and unopsonized trophozoite-stage CS2 IE, a chondroitin sulphate-binding malaria strain. Cytokine secretion was measured by bead array or ELISA, mRNA using quantitative PCR, and activation of NF-κB by Western blot and electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Data were analysed using the Mann–Whitney U test or the Wilcoxon signed rank test as appropriate. Results Unopsonized CS2 IE were not phagocytosed whereas IE opsonized with pooled patient immune serum (PPS were (Phagocytic index (PI=18.4, [SE 0.38] n=3. Unopsonized and opsonized IE induced expression of TNF, IL-1β and IL-6 mRNA by MDM and activated NF-κB to a similar extent. Unopsonized IE induced secretion of IL-6 (median= 622 pg/ml [IQR=1,250-240], n=9 but no IL-1β or TNF, whereas PPS-opsonized IE induced secretion of IL-1β (18.6 pg/mL [34.2-14.4] and TNF (113 pg/ml [421–17.0] and increased IL-6 secretion (2,195 pg/ml [4,658-1,095]. Opsonized, but not unopsonized, CS2 IE activated caspase-1 cleavage and enzymatic activity in MDM showing that Fc receptor-mediated phagocytosis activates the inflammasome. MDM attached to IgG-coated surfaces however secreted IL-1β in response to unopsonized IE, suggesting that internalization of IE is not absolutely required to activate the inflammasome and stimulate IL-1β secretion. Conclusions It is concluded that IL-6 secretion from MDM in response to CS2 IE does not require phagocytosis, whereas secretion of TNF and IL-1β is dependent on Fc

  10. Development of genetically engineered human intestinal cells for regulated insulin secretion using rAAV-mediated gene transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shiue-Cheng; Sambanis, Athanassios

    2003-04-04

    Cell-based therapies for treating insulin-dependent diabetes (IDD) can provide a more physiologic regulation of blood glucose levels in a less invasive fashion than daily insulin injections. Promising cells include intestinal enteroendocrine cells genetically engineered to secrete insulin in response to physiologic stimuli; responsiveness occurs at the exocytosis level to regulate the acute release of recombinant insulin. In this work, we established a human cellular model to demonstrate that meat hydrolysate can simultaneously stimulate glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1, an enteroendocrine cell-derived incretin hormone) and recombinant insulin secretion from the engineered human NCI-H716 intestinal cell line. Cells were genetically modified using the recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV)-mediated insulin gene transfer. Recombinant cells were then differentiated to display endocrine features, in particular the formation of granule-like compartments. A fusion protein of insulin and enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) was designed to reveal the compartments of localization of the fusion protein and assess its co-localization with endogenous GLP-1. Our work provides a unique human cellular model for regulated insulin release through genetic engineering of GLP-1-secreting intestinal cells, which is expected to be useful for cell-based therapies of IDD.

  11. Escherichia coli "TatExpress" strains super-secrete human growth hormone into the bacterial periplasm by the Tat pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, Douglas F; Richards, Kirsty L; Peswani, Amber R; Roobol, Jo; Busby, Stephen J W; Robinson, Colin

    2017-12-01

    Numerous high-value proteins are secreted into the Escherichia coli periplasm by the General Secretory (Sec) pathway, but Sec-based production chassis cannot handle many potential target proteins. The Tat pathway offers a promising alternative because it transports fully folded proteins; however, yields have been too low for commercial use. To facilitate Tat export, we have engineered the TatExpress series of super-secreting strains by introducing the strong inducible bacterial promoter, ptac, upstream of the chromosomal tatABCD operon, to drive its expression in E. coli strains commonly used by industry (e.g., W3110 and BL21). This modification significantly improves the Tat-dependent secretion of human growth hormone (hGH) into the bacterial periplasm, to the extent that secreted hGH is the dominant periplasmic protein after only 1 hr induction. TatExpress strains accumulate in excess of 30 mg L-1 periplasmic recombinant hGH, even in shake flask cultures. A second target protein, an scFv, is also shown to be exported at much higher rates in TatExpress strains. © 2017 The Authors. Biotechnology and Bioengineering Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Pattern secretion of matrix Metalloproteinases and their biological tissue inhibitors by human glomerular mesangial cells in culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Hosseini R

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available The glomerular mesangial cells (GMC play a central role in the synthesis and turnover of the glomerular mesangial matrix. The breakdown of the matrix likely depends on the balance between of a variety of proteinases including matrix metalloproteinases and their biological inhibitors secreted by the GMC, and any disturbance in the balance may result in appearance of various pathological states such as glomerulosclerosis. We therefore studied pattern secretion of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs, MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-9 and their biological tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMPs, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 by cultured human GMC. We also measured MMP-1/TIMP-1 complex level in the cell culture supernatants. For this purpose, the GMC were incubated under serum-free conditions with medium (RPMI-1640 alone or in combination with TNF-α (30 ng/ml or phorbol myristate acetate (PMA (50 ng/ml for exactly 24, 48 and 72 hours. The above parameters were assayed by established ELISA techniques. Our results showed that the lowest and largest secretions were related to MMP-9 and MMP-2, respectively. The results indicated that the MMPs and TIMPs secretion were increased by TNF-α (MMP-1, MMP-2, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 and PMA (MMP-2, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2, significantly (P<0.05. These results suggest that the GMC can synthesis and release various MMPs and their inhibitors (TIMPs that, in part, control turnover of extracellular matrix proteins.

  13. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and peptide histidine methionine. Presence in human follicular fluid and effects on DNA synthesis and steroid secretion in cultured human granulosa/lutein cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gräs, S; Ovesen, P; Andersen, A N

    1994-01-01

    fluid and cells were obtained from patients undergoing in-vitro fertilization for tubal infertility. The concentrations of VIP and PHM in pre-ovulatory human follicular fluid were measured radioimmunochemically. Granulosa/lutein cells isolated from follicular fluid were cultured under serum....../l, respectively. VIP at a concentration of 10 nmol/l caused a significant increase in [3H]thymidine incorporation, and at 1000 nmol/l a significant increase in oestradiol secretion was observed. VIP had no effect on progesterone secretion. PHM at the concentrations tested did not influence any of the activities...

  14. Hyperpolarization of the Membrane Potential Caused by Somatostatin in Dissociated Human Pituitary Adenoma Cells that Secrete Growth Hormone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Naohide; Shibuya, Naohiko; Ogata, Etsuro

    1986-08-01

    Membrane electrical properties and the response to somatostatin were examined in dissociated human pituitary adenoma cells that secrete growth hormone (GH). Under current clamp condition with a patch electrode, the resting potential was -52.4 ± 8.0 mV, and spontaneous action potentials were observed in 58% of the cells. Under voltage clamp condition an outward K+ current, a tetrodotoxin-sensitive Na+ current, and a Ca2+ current were observed. Cobalt ions suppressed the Ca2+ current. The threshold of Ca2+ current activation was about -60 mV. Somatostatin elicited a membrane hyperpolarization associated with increased membrane permeability in these cells. The reversal potential of somatostatin-induced hyperpolarization was -78.4 ± 4.3 mV in 6 mM K+ medium and -97.2 ± 6.4 mV in 3 mM K+ medium. These reversal potential values and a shift with the external K+ concentration indicated that membrane hyperpolarization was caused by increased permeability to K+. The hyperpolarized membrane potential induced by somatostatin was -63.6 ± 5.9 mV in the standard medium. This level was subthreshold for Ca2+ and Na+ currents and was sufficient to inhibit spontaneous action potentials. Hormone secretion was significantly suppressed by somatostatin and cobalt ions. Therefore, we suggest that Ca2+ entering the cell through voltage-dependent channels are playing an important role for GH secretion and that somatostatin suppresses GH secretion by blocking Ca2+ currents. Finally, we discuss other possibilities for the inhibitory effect of somatostatin on GH secretion.

  15. Brucella invasion of human intestinal epithelial cells elicits a weak proinflammatory response but a significant CCL20 secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, Mariana C; Fossati, Carlos A; Rumbo, Martín; Baldi, Pablo C

    2012-10-01

    In spite of the frequent acquisition of Brucella infection by the oral route in humans, the interaction of the bacterium with cells of the intestinal mucosa has been poorly studied. Here, we show that different Brucella species can invade human colonic epithelial cell lines (Caco-2 and HT-29), in which only smooth species can replicate efficiently. Infection with smooth strains did not produce a significant cytotoxicity, while the rough strain RB51 was more cytotoxic. Infection of Caco-2 cells or HT-29 cells with either smooth or rough strains of Brucella did not result in an increased secretion of TNF-α, IL-1β, MCP-1, IL-10 or TGF-β as compared with uninfected controls, whereas all the infections induced the secretion of IL-8 and CCL20 by both cell types. The MCP-1 response to flagellin from Salmonella typhimurium was similar in Brucella-infected or uninfected cells, ruling out a bacterial inhibitory mechanism as a reason for the weak proinflammatory response. Infection did not modify ICAM-1 expression levels in Caco-2 cells, but increased them in HT-29 cells. These results suggest that Brucella induces only a weak proinflammatory response in gut epithelial cells, but produces a significant CCL20 secretion. The latter may be important for bacterial dissemination given the known ability of Brucella to survive in dendritic cells. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Aldosterone induced galectin-3 secretion in vitro and in vivo: from cells to humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Hung Lin

    Full Text Available Patients with primary aldosteronism are associated with increased myocardial fibrosis. Galectin-3 is one of the most important mediators between macrophage activation and myocardial fibrosis.To investigate whether aldosterone induces galectin-3 secretion in vitro and in vivo.We investigated the possible molecular mechanism of aldosterone-induced galectin-3 secretion in macrophage cell lines (THP-1 and RAW 264.7 cells. Aldosterone induced galectin-3 secretion through mineralocorticoid receptors via the PI3K/Akt and NF-κB transcription signaling pathways. In addition, aldosterone-induced galectin-3 expression enhanced fibrosis-related factor expression in fibroblasts. We observed that galectin-3 mRNA from peripheral blood mononuclear cells and serum galectin-3 levels were both significantly increased in mice implanted with aldosterone pellets on days 7 and 14. We then conducted a prospective preliminary clinical study to investigate the association between aldosterone and galectin-3. Patients with aldosterone-producing adenoma had a significantly higher plasma galectin-3 level than patients with essential hypertension. One year after adrenalectomy, the plasma galectin-3 level had decreased significantly in the patients with aldosterone-producing adenoma.This study demonstrated that aldosterone could induce galectin-3 secretion in vitro and in vivo.

  17. Maggot secretions suppress pro-inflammatory responses of human monocytes through elevation of cyclic AMP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plas, M.P.E.; Baldry, M.; Dissel, van J.T.; Jukema, G.N.; Nibbering, P.H.

    2009-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Maggots of the blowfly Lucilia sericata are used for the treatment of chronic wounds. As monocytes may contribute to the excessive inflammatory responses in such wounds, this study focussed on the effects of maggot secretions on the pro-inflammatory activities of these cells.

  18. Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) dose-dependently stimulates glucagon secretion in healthy human subjects at euglycaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, J J; Gallwitz, B; Siepmann, N

    2003-01-01

    secretion under normoglycaemic conditions. METHODS: Ten healthy subjects (9 men, 1 woman; age 33+/-11; BMI 26.8+/-2.2 kg/m(2)) received three different doses of intravenous GIP (7, 20, and 60 pmol/kg body weight) and placebo. Venous blood samples were drawn over 30 min for glucagon and GIP concentrations...

  19. Aldosterone Induced Galectin-3 Secretion In Vitro and In Vivo: From Cells to Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yen-Hung; Chou, Chia-Hung; Wu, Xue-Ming; Chang, Yi-Yao; Hung, Chi-Sheng; Chen, Ying-Hsien; Tzeng, Yu-Lin; Wu, Vin-Cent; Ho, Yi-Lwun; Hsieh, Fon-Jou; Wu, Kwan-Dun

    2014-01-01

    Context Patients with primary aldosteronism are associated with increased myocardial fibrosis. Galectin-3 is one of the most important mediators between macrophage activation and myocardial fibrosis. Objective To investigate whether aldosterone induces galectin-3 secretion in vitro and in vivo. Methods and Results We investigated the possible molecular mechanism of aldosterone-induced galectin-3 secretion in macrophage cell lines (THP-1 and RAW 264.7 cells). Aldosterone induced galectin-3 secretion through mineralocorticoid receptors via the PI3K/Akt and NF-κB transcription signaling pathways. In addition, aldosterone-induced galectin-3 expression enhanced fibrosis-related factor expression in fibroblasts. We observed that galectin-3 mRNA from peripheral blood mononuclear cells and serum galectin-3 levels were both significantly increased in mice implanted with aldosterone pellets on days 7 and 14. We then conducted a prospective preliminary clinical study to investigate the association between aldosterone and galectin-3. Patients with aldosterone-producing adenoma had a significantly higher plasma galectin-3 level than patients with essential hypertension. One year after adrenalectomy, the plasma galectin-3 level had decreased significantly in the patients with aldosterone-producing adenoma. Conclusion This study demonstrated that aldosterone could induce galectin-3 secretion in vitro and in vivo. PMID:25180794

  20. A novel role of protein tyrosine kinase2 in mediating chloride secretion in human airway epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihua Liang

    Full Text Available Ca(2+ activated Cl(- channels (CaCC are up-regulated in cystic fibrosis (CF airway surface epithelia. The presence and functional properties of CaCC make it a possible therapeutic target to compensate for the deficiency of Cl(- secretion in CF epithelia. CaCC is activated by an increase in cytosolic Ca(2+, which not only activates epithelial CaCCs, but also inhibits epithelial Na(+ hyperabsorption, which may also be beneficial in CF. Our previous study has shown that spiperone, a known antipsychotic drug, activates CaCCs and stimulates Cl(- secretion in polarized human non-CF and CF airway epithelial cell monolayers in vitro, and in Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR knockout mice in vivo. Spiperone activates CaCC not by acting in its well-known role as an antagonist of either 5-HT2 or D2 receptors, but through a protein tyrosine kinase-coupled phospholipase C-dependent pathway. Moreover, spiperone independently activates CFTR through a novel mechanism. Herein, we performed a mass spectrometry analysis and identified the signaling molecule that mediates the spiperone effect in activating chloride secretion through CaCC and CFTR. Proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (PYK2 is a non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase, which belongs to the focal adhesion kinase family. The inhibition of PYK2 notably reduced the ability of spiperone to increase intracellular Ca(2+ and Cl(- secretion. In conclusion, we have identified the tyrosine kinase, PYK2, as the modulator, which plays a crucial role in the activation of CaCC and CFTR by spiperone. The identification of this novel role of PYK2 reveals a new signaling pathway in human airway epithelial cells.

  1. Cortisol stimulates secretion of dehydroepiandrosterone in human adrenocortical cells through inhibition of 3betaHSD2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topor, Lisa Swartz; Asai, Masato; Dunn, James; Majzoub, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    Initiating factors leading to production of adrenal androgens are poorly defined. Cortisol is present in high concentrations within the adrenal gland, and its production rises with growth during childhood. Our aim was to characterize the effect of cortisol and other glucocorticoids on androgen secretion from a human adrenocortical cell line and from nonadrenal cells transfected with CYP17A1 or HSD3B2. This study was performed in cultured cells, at an academic medical center. The effects of cortisol upon steroid production in human adrenal NCI-H295R cells were measured by immunoassay, tandem mass spectrometry, and thin-layer chromatography. The effects of cortisol upon the activities of 17, 20 lyase and 3βHSD2 were measured in NCI-H295R cells and in transfected COS-7 cells. Cortisol markedly and rapidly stimulated dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in a dose-dependent manner at cortisol concentrations ≥50 μM. Cortisone and 11-deoxycortisol were also potent stimulators of DHEA secretion, whereas prednisolone and dexamethasone were not. Treatment with cortisol did not affect expression of CYP17A1 or HSD3B2 mRNAs. Stimulation of DHEA secretion by cortisol was associated with competitive inhibition of 3βHSD2 activity. Cortisol inhibits 3βHSD2 activity in adrenal cells and in COS-7 cells transfected with HSD3B2. Thus, it is possible that intraadrenal cortisol may participate in the regulation of adrenal DHEA secretion through inhibition of 3βHSD2. We hypothesize that a rise in intraadrenal cortisol during childhood growth may lead to inhibition of 3βHSD2 activity and contribute to the initiation of adrenarche.

  2. Cortisol Stimulates Secretion of Dehydroepiandrosterone in Human Adrenocortical Cells Through Inhibition of 3βHSD2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topor, Lisa Swartz; Asai, Masato; Dunn, James; Majzoub, Joseph A.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Initiating factors leading to production of adrenal androgens are poorly defined. Cortisol is present in high concentrations within the adrenal gland, and its production rises with growth during childhood. Objective: Our aim was to characterize the effect of cortisol and other glucocorticoids on androgen secretion from a human adrenocortical cell line and from nonadrenal cells transfected with CYP17A1 or HSD3B2. Design/Setting: This study was performed in cultured cells, at an academic medical center. Methods: The effects of cortisol upon steroid production in human adrenal NCI-H295R cells were measured by immunoassay, tandem mass spectrometry, and thin-layer chromatography. The effects of cortisol upon the activities of 17, 20 lyase and 3βHSD2 were measured in NCI-H295R cells and in transfected COS-7 cells. Results: Cortisol markedly and rapidly stimulated dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in a dose-dependent manner at cortisol concentrations ≥50 μm. Cortisone and 11-deoxycortisol were also potent stimulators of DHEA secretion, whereas prednisolone and dexamethasone were not. Treatment with cortisol did not affect expression of CYP17A1 or HSD3B2 mRNAs. Stimulation of DHEA secretion by cortisol was associated with competitive inhibition of 3βHSD2 activity. Conclusions: Cortisol inhibits 3βHSD2 activity in adrenal cells and in COS-7 cells transfected with HSD3B2. Thus, it is possible that intraadrenal cortisol may participate in the regulation of adrenal DHEA secretion through inhibition of 3βHSD2. We hypothesize that a rise in intraadrenal cortisol during childhood growth may lead to inhibition of 3βHSD2 activity and contribute to the initiation of adrenarche. PMID:20943790

  3. Cyclic AMP-independent secretion of mucin by SW1116 human colon carcinoma cells. Differential control by Ca2+ ionophore A23187 and arachidonic acid

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yedgar, S; Eidelman, O; Malden, E; Roberts, D; Etcheberrigaray, R; Goping, G; Fox, C; Pollard, H B

    1992-01-01

    The regulation of mucin secretion by SW1116 human colon carcinoma cells has been studied using monoclonal antibody 19-9, which has previously been used to detect mucin in the serum of cancer and cystic fibrosis patients...

  4. Cell Surface and Secreted Protein Profiles of Human Thyroid Cancer Cell Lines Reveal Distinct Glycoprotein Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcinas, Arthur; Yen, Ten-Yang; Kebebew, Electron; Macher, Bruce A.

    2009-01-01

    Cell surface proteins have been shown to be effective therapeutic targets. In addition, shed forms of these proteins and secreted proteins can serve as biomarkers for diseases, including cancer. Thus, identification of cell surface and secreted proteins has been a prime area of interest in the proteomics field. Most cell surface and secreted proteins are known to be glycosylated and therefore, a proteomics strategy targeting these proteins was applied to obtain proteomic profiles from various thyroid cancer cell lines that represent the range of thyroid cancers of follicular cell origin. In this study, we oxidized the carbohydrates of secreted proteins and those on the cell surface with periodate and isolated them via covalent coupling to hydrazide resin. The glycoproteins obtained were identified from tryptic peptides and N-linked glycopeptides released from the hydrazide resin using 2-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in combination with the gas phase fractionation. Thyroid cancer cell lines derived from papillary thyroid cancer (TPC-1), follicular thyroid cancer (FTC-133), Hürthle cell carcinoma (XTC-1), and anaplastic thyroid cancer (ARO and DRO-1) were evaluated. An average of 150 glycoproteins were identified per cell line, of which more than 57 percent are known cell surface or secreted glycoproteins. The usefulness of the approach for identifying thyroid cancer associated biomarkers was validated by the identification of glycoproteins (e.g. CD44, galectin 3 and metalloproteinase inhibitor 1) that have been found to be useful markers for thyroid cancer. In addition to glycoproteins that are commonly expressed by all of the cell lines, we identified others that are only expressed in the more well-differentiated thyroid cancer cell lines (follicular, Hürthle cell and papillary), or by cell lines derived from undifferentiated tumors that are uniformly fatal forms of thyroid cancer (i.e. anaplastic). Based on the results obtained, a

  5. Pancreatic-induced Intramural Duodenal Haematoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius K. Ma

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous intramural duodenal haematoma (IDH is an uncommon pathology and it is usually related to anticoagulant therapy. Other causes include various pancreatic diseases, connective tissue disease, peptic ulcer disease and pancreaticoduodenal aneurysm. IDH of pancreatic origin has been infrequently reported. The disease course can be life-threatening and serious complications may occur, including gastric outlet obstruction, duodenal perforation and septicaemia. A case of pancreatic-induced IDH is presented, for which pancreaticoduodenectomy was performed as definitive treatment. In general, medical treatment with continuous nasogastric aspiration and total parenteral nutrition is recommended as initial management strategy. Surgical interventions (evacuation of blood clot or surgical resection are reserved for patients in whom medical treatment fails or complications occur.

  6. Attenuation of skeletal muscle wasting with recombinant human growth hormone secreted from a tissue-engineered bioartificial muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenburgh, H.; Del Tatto, M.; Shansky, J.; Goldstein, L.; Russell, K.; Genes, N.; Chromiak, J.; Yamada, S.

    1998-01-01

    Skeletal muscle wasting is a significant problem in elderly and debilitated patients. Growth hormone (GH) is an anabolic growth factor for skeletal muscle but is difficult to deliver in a therapeutic manner by injection owing to its in vivo instability. A novel method is presented for the sustained secretion of recombinant human GH (rhGH) from genetically modified skeletal muscle implants, which reduces host muscle wasting. Proliferating murine C2C12 skeletal myoblasts stably transduced with the rhGH gene were tissue engineered in vitro into bioartificial muscles (C2-BAMs) containing organized postmitotic myofibers secreting 3-5 microg of rhGH/day in vitro. When implanted subcutaneously into syngeneic mice, C2-BAMs delivered a sustained physiologic dose of 2.5 to 11.3 ng of rhGH per milliliter of serum. rhGH synthesized and secreted by the myofibers was in the 22-kDa monomeric form and was biologically active, based on downregulation of a GH-sensitive protein synthesized in the liver. Skeletal muscle disuse atrophy was induced in mice by hindlimb unloading, causing the fast plantaris and slow soleus muscles to atrophy by 21 to 35% ( muscle-wasting disorders.

  7. Bufadienolides from parotoid gland secretions of Cuban toad Peltophryne fustiger (Bufonidae): Inhibition of human kidney Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera Córdova, Wilmer H; Leitão, Suzana Guimarães; Cunha-Filho, Geraldino; Bosch, Roberto Alonso; Alonso, Isel Pascual; Pereda-Miranda, Rogelio; Gervou, Rodrigo; Touza, Natália Araújo; Quintas, Luis Eduardo M; Noël, François

    2016-02-01

    Parotoid gland secretions of toad species are a vast reservoir of bioactive molecules with a wide range of biological properties. Herein, for the first time, it is described the isolation by preparative reversed-phase HPLC and the structure elucidation by NMR spectroscopy and/or mass spectrometry of nine major bufadienolides from parotoid gland secretions of the Cuban endemic toad Peltophryne fustiger: ψ-bufarenogin, gamabufotalin, bufarenogin, arenobufagin, 3-(N-suberoylargininyl) marinobufagin, bufotalinin, telocinobufagin, marinobufagin and bufalin. In addition, the secretion was analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS which also allowed the identification of azelayl arginine. The effect of arenobufagin, bufalin and ψ-bufarenogin on Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity in a human kidney preparation was evaluated. These bufadienolides fully inhibited the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase in a concentration-dependent manner, although arenobufagin (IC50 = 28.3 nM) and bufalin (IC50 = 28.7 nM) were 100 times more potent than ψ-bufarenogin (IC50 = 3020 nM). These results provided evidence about the importance of the hydroxylation at position C-14 in the bufadienolide skeleton for the inhibitory activity on the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Effects of cyclic adenosine-monophosphate on growth and PSA secretion of human prostate cancer cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macchia, V; Di Carlo, A; De Luca, C; Mariano, A

    2001-05-01

    Prolonged increase of cyclic adenosine-monophosphate (cAMP) level in the culture medium of a well differentiated human prostatic cancer cell (LNCaP) inhibits cellular growth and stimulates PSA secretion. The differentiation of the cells tested was documented by their responsiveness to androgens and the ability to synthesize cellular markers of differentiation (PSA). The raise in cAMP level was produced by dibutyryl cyclic AMP (DBcAMP) or by agents acting at distinct levels in the pathway of cAMP generation (forskolin) or degradation (IBMX). Each of these three agents in a range of concentrations between 10-4-10-6 M had an inhibitory effect on the growth which is dose and time-dependent. The inhibition was reversible as demonstrated by complete restoration of cell growth soon after the withdrawal of the substances from the culture medium. When cAMP levels in culture medium was raised, an increase in PSA content was observed. However, the effects of cAMP on PSA content was not due to increase in PSA synthesis, since simultaneous measurement of secreted and cellular PSA indicated that the principal effect of the cyclic nucleotide was to enhance the secretion of stored PSA. Furthermore the inhibition of cellular growth by cAMP suggests new approaches in prostatic carcinoma therapy.

  9. Human calumenin localizes to the secretory pathway and is secreted to the medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorum, H; Hager, H; Christensen, Birgitte Mønster

    1999-01-01

    Calumenin belongs to a family of multiple EF-hand proteins that include reticulocalbin, ERC-55, and Cab45. Reticulocalbin and ERC-55 localize to the ER due to a C-terminal HDEL retrieval signal. Cab45 contains a HEEF C-terminal sequence and is localized to the Golgi apparatus. The murine homologu......, suggesting that the glycosylated protein has been further modified in the Golgi apparatus and secreted to the medium. Udgivelsesdato: 1999-May-1...

  10. [Hypothalamic stimulation effects on duodenal motility of rat. IV) Vias hypothalamo-duodenal (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vergueiro Forjaz, S

    1975-01-01

    Changes in duodenal motility, induced by electrical stimulation of hypothalamus, have been studied in rats, and registered by the baloon method. Localization of stimulated points was made by stereotaxic method, or by hostological control. Four animals were previously adrenalectomized. In 13 rats, the experiment has been repeated after bilateral cervical vagotomy. In 5 animals after total spinal cord transection, in the first dorsal segment. In 7 rats the experiment was reproduced after venous injections of atropine solution. In 5 rats after venous injections of dibenamine solution, and in other 5, after venous injection of hexamethonium solution. 1) Impulses that produced excitatory duodenal effects were mediated by the vagi nerves. 2) Impulses that produied inhibitory duodenal effects were not transmitted by the vagi nerves, but by sympathetic pathways.

  11. Glibenclamide inhibits NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated IL-1β secretion in human trophoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Kazuhiro; Ishikawa, Gen; Yoshie, Mikihiro; Ohneda, Wakana; Nakai, Akihito; Takeshita, Toshiyuki; Tachikawa, Eiichi

    2017-10-01

    Infection-associated pregnancy complications cause premature delivery. Caspase-1 is involved in the maturation of interleukin (IL)-1β, which is activated by the NLRP3 inflammasome. To characterize the significance of the NLRP3 inflammasome pathway in the placenta, the effects of activators and inhibitors on NLRP3-related molecules were examined using isolated primary trophoblasts. Caspase-1 and IL-1β mRNA expression was markedly increased in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a toll-like receptor (TLR)4 ligand. Treatment with the potassium ionophore nigericin significantly increased the level of activated caspase-1. Treatment with either LPS or nigericin stimulated IL-1β secretion, whereas pretreatment with the ATP-sensitive K + channel inhibitor glibenclamide, the Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase inhibitor Y-27632, or a caspase-1 inhibitor significantly decreased nigericin-induced IL-1β secretion. In addition, dibutyryl-cAMP, which induces trophoblast differentiation, decreased expression of NLRP3, caspase-1, and IL-1β. These findings suggest that trophoblasts can secrete IL-1β through the NLRP3/caspase-1 pathway, which is suppressed by glibenclamide, and that the TLR4-mediated NLRP3 inflammasome pathway is more likely to be stimulated in undifferentiated than differentiated trophoblasts. Our data support the hypothesis that inhibition of the NLRP3 inflammasome can suppress placental inflammation-associated disorders. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Dapsone inhibits IL-8 secretion from human bronchial epithelial cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide and resolves airway inflammation in the ferret.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanoh, Soichiro; Tanabe, Tsuyoshi; Rubin, Bruce K

    2011-10-01

    IL-8 is an important activator and chemoattractant for neutrophils that is produced by normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells through mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 pathways. Dapsone, a synthetic sulfone, is widely used to treat chronic neutrophil dermatoses. We investigated the effects of dapsone on polarized IL-8 secretion from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated NHBE cells and further evaluated its ability to decrease LPS-induced inflammation in the ferret airway. NHBE cells were grown at air-liquid interface (ALI) to ciliated differentiation. Baseline and endotoxin (LPS)-stimulated IL-8 secretion was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay at air and basal sides with and without dapsone. Western blotting was used to determine signaling pathways. In vivo, ferrets were exposed to intratracheal LPS over a period of 5 days. Once inflammation was established, oral or nebulized dapsone was administered for 5 days. Intraepithelial neutrophil accumulation was analyzed histologically, and mucociliary transport was measured on the excised trachea. Dapsone, 1 μg/mL, did not influence unstimulated (basal) IL-8 secretion. Apical LPS stimulation induced both apical and basolateral IL-8, but basolateral LPS increased only basolateral IL-8. Dapsone inhibited polarized IL-8 secretion from ALI-conditioned cells. Dapsone also decreased LPS-induced IL-8 mRNA level. LPS led to phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, but not p38 MAPK or c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase. LPS also induced NF-κB p65 phosphorylation, an effect that was inhibited by dapsone. Both oral and aerosol dapsone decreased LPS-induced intraepithelial neutrophil accumulation, but only treatment with aerosol dapsone restored mucociliary transport to normal. Dapsone, given either systemically or as an aerosol, may be useful in treating neutrophilic airway inflammation.

  13. Perforated duodenal diverticulum caused by Bezoar: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Jung; Moon, Sung Kyoung; Park, Seong Jin; Lim, Joo Won; Lee, Dong Ho; Ko, Young Tae [Dept. of Radiology, College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    Duodenal diverticulum is common, but its perforation is a rare complication. Duodenal diverticulum perforation requires prompt treatments because of its high mortality rate. However, an accurate diagnosis is difficult to make due to nonspecific symptoms and signs. It can be misdiagnosed as pancreatitis, cholecystitis, or peptic ulcer. Herein, we report a case of perforated duodenal diverticulum caused by bezoar in a 33-year-old woman whom was diagnosed by abdomen computed tomography and ultrasonography.

  14. A control system formulation of the mechanism that controls the secretions of serum group hormone in humans during sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, J. C.; Young, D. R.

    1975-01-01

    Plasma growth hormone concentrations during sleep were determined experimentally. An elevated level of plasma growth hormone was observed during the initial phase of sleep and remained elevated for approximately 3 hr before returning to the steady-state level. Moreover, subsequent to a prolonged interruption of sleep, of the order of 2-3 hr, an elevated level of plasma growth hormone was again observed during the initial phase of resumed sleep. A control system formulation of the mechanism that controls the secretions of serum growth hormone in humans was used to account for the growth hormone responses observed.

  15. Effects of preventing O-glycosylation on the secretion of human chorionic gonadotropin in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Matzuk, M M; Krieger, M; Corless, C L; Boime, I

    1987-01-01

    Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a member of a family of heterodimeric glycoprotein hormones that have a common alpha subunit but differ in their hormone-specific beta subunits. The beta subunit of hCG (hCG beta) is unique among the beta subunits in that it contains four mucin-like O-linked oligosaccharides attached to a carboxyl-terminal extension. To study the effects of O-glycosylation on the secretion and assembly of hCG, expression vectors containing either the hCG beta gene alone o...

  16. The adenosine A2B receptor is involved in anion secretion in human pancreatic duct Capan-1 epithelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayashi, M.; Inagaki, A.; Novak, Ivana

    2016-01-01

    − channels important for anion secretion, we herein performed experiments on Capan-1, a human pancreatic duct cell line, using open-circuit Ussing chamber and gramicidin-perforated patch-clamp techniques. The luminal addition of adenosine increased the negative transepithelial potential difference (Vte...... antagonist, PSB 603, inhibited the response of Isc to adenosine. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that the A2A and A2B receptors colocalized with Ezrin in the luminal membranes of Capan-1 monolayers and in rat pancreatic ducts. Adenosine elicited the whole-cell Cl− currents in guinea pig duct cells...

  17. Towards next generation maggot debridement therapy: transgenic Lucilia sericata larvae that produce and secrete a human growth factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linger, Rebecca J; Belikoff, Esther J; Yan, Ying; Li, Fang; Wantuch, Holly A; Fitzsimons, Helen L; Scott, Maxwell J

    2016-03-22

    Diabetes and its concurrent complications impact a significant proportion of the population of the US and create a large financial burden on the American health care system. FDA-approved maggot debridement therapy (MDT), the application of sterile laboratory-reared Lucilia sericata (green bottle fly) larvae to wounds, is a cost-effective and successful treatment for diabetic foot ulcers and other medical conditions. Human platelet derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) is a secreted dimeric peptide growth factor that binds the PDGF receptor. PDGF-BB stimulates cell proliferation and survival, promotes wound healing, and has been investigated as a possible topical treatment for non-healing wounds. Genetic engineering has allowed for expression and secretion of human growth factors and other proteins in transgenic insects. Here, we present a novel concept in MDT technology that combines the established benefits of MDT with the power of genetic engineering to promote healing. The focus of this study is to create and characterize strains of transgenic L. sericata that express and secrete PDGF-BB at detectable levels in adult hemolymph, whole larval lysate, and maggot excretions/ secretions (ES), with potential for clinical utility in wound healing. We have engineered and confirmed transgene insertion in several strains of L. sericata that express human PDGF-BB. Using a heat-inducible promoter to control the pdgf-b gene, pdgf-b mRNA was detected via semi-quantitative PCR upon heat shock. PDGF-BB protein was also detectable in larval lysates and adult hemolymph but not larval ES. An alternative, tetracycline-repressible pdgf-b system mediated expression of pdgf-b mRNA when maggots were raised on diet that lacked tetracycline. Further, PDGF-BB protein was readily detected in whole larval lysate as well as larval ES. Here we show robust, inducible expression and production of human PDGF-BB protein from two conditional expression systems in transgenic L. sericata larvae. The

  18. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and peptide histidine methionine. Presence in human follicular fluid and effects on DNA synthesis and steroid secretion in cultured human granulosa/lutein cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gräs, S; Ovesen, P; Andersen, A N

    1994-01-01

    Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and peptide histidine methionine (PHM) originate from the same precursor molecule, prepro VIP. In the present study we examined the concentrations of VIP and PHM in human follicular fluid and their effects on cultured human granulosa/lutein cells. Follicular...... fluid and cells were obtained from patients undergoing in-vitro fertilization for tubal infertility. The concentrations of VIP and PHM in pre-ovulatory human follicular fluid were measured radioimmunochemically. Granulosa/lutein cells isolated from follicular fluid were cultured under serum....... We conclude that VIP and PHM are present in human preovulatory follicular fluid and that VIP stimulates DNA synthesis and oestradiol secretion in cultured human granulosa/lutein cells. This indicates that VIP and perhaps PHM participate in the local nervous regulation of human ovarian function....

  19. Duodenal surveillance improves the prognosis after duodenal cancer in familial adenomatous polyposis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, Steffen; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Højen, Helle

    2012-01-01

    of cancer development. Method: Follow-up of patients in a previous study with gastroduodenoscopy in 1990-2010. Statistical analysis included chi(2) test, actuarial method and Kaplan-Meier analysis. Results: Among 304 patients, 261 (86%) had more than one endoscopy. The median follow-up was 14 years......Background and aim: Duodenal adenomatosis in FAP results in a cancer risk that increases with age. Endoscopic surveillance has been recommended, but the effect has not yet been documented. The aim of this study is to present results of long-term duodenal surveillance and to evaluate the risk...

  20. Duodenal surveillance improves the prognosis after duodenal cancer in familial adenomatous polyposis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, Steffen; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Højen, Helle

    2012-01-01

    of cancer development. Method:  Follow-up of patients in a previous study with gastroduodenoscopy in 1990-2010. Statistical analysis included chi(2) test, actuarial method and Kaplan-Meier analysis. Results:  Among 304 patients, 261 (86%) had more than one endoscopy. The median follow-up was 14 years......Background and aim:  Duodenal adenomatosis in FAP results in a cancer risk that increases with age. Endoscopic surveillance has been recommended, but the effect has not yet been documented. The aim of this study is to present results of long-term duodenal surveillance and to evaluate the risk...

  1. The diet-derived short chain fatty acid propionate improves beta-cell function in humans and stimulates insulin secretion from human islets in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingitore, Attilio; Chambers, Edward S; Hill, Thomas; Maldonado, Inmaculada Ruz; Liu, Bo; Bewick, Gavin; Morrison, Douglas J; Preston, Tom; Wallis, Gareth A; Tedford, Catriona; Castañera González, Ramón; Huang, Guo C; Choudhary, Pratik; Frost, Gary; Persaud, Shanta J

    2017-02-01

    Diet-derived short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) improve glucose homeostasis in vivo, but the role of individual SCFAs and their mechanisms of action have not been defined. This study evaluated the effects of increasing colonic delivery of the SCFA propionate on β-cell function in humans and the direct effects of propionate on isolated human islets in vitro. For 24 weeks human subjects ingested an inulin-propionate ester that delivers propionate to the colon. Acute insulin, GLP-1 and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) levels were quantified pre- and post-supplementation in response to a mixed meal test. Expression of the SCFA receptor FFAR2 in human islets was determined by western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Dynamic insulin secretion from perifused human islets was quantified by radioimmunoassay and islet apoptosis was determined by quantification of caspase 3/7 activities. Colonic propionate delivery in vivo was associated with improved β-cell function with increased insulin secretion that was independent of changes in GLP-1 levels. Human islet β-cells expressed FFAR2 and propionate potentiated dynamic glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in vitro, an effect that was dependent on signalling via protein kinase C. Propionate also protected human islets from apoptosis induced by the NEFA sodium palmitate and inflammatory cytokines. Our results indicate that propionate has beneficial effects on β-cell function in vivo, and in vitro analyses demonstrated that it has direct effects to potentiate glucose-stimulated insulin release and maintain β-cell mass through inhibition of apoptosis. These observations support ingestion of propiogenic dietary fibres to maintain healthy glucose homeostasis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. A Metagenomic Investigation of the Duodenal Microbiota Reveals Links with Obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanouil Angelakis

    Full Text Available Few studies have tested the small intestine microbiota in humans, where most nutrient digestion and absorption occur. Here, our objective was to examine the duodenal microbiota between obese and normal volunteers using metagenomic techniques.We tested duodenal samples from five obese and five normal volunteers using 16S rDNA V6 pyrosequencing and Illumina MiSeq deep sequencing. The predominant phyla of the duodenal microbiota were Firmicutes and Actinobacteria, whereas Bacteroidetes were absent. Obese individuals had a significant increase in anaerobic genera (p < 0.001 and a higher abundance of genes encoding Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (p = 0.0018 compared to the control group. Obese individuals also had a reduced abundance of genes encoding sucrose phosphorylase (p = 0.015 and 1,4-alpha-glucan branching enzyme (p = 0.05. Normal weight people had significantly increased FabK (p = 0.027, and the glycerophospholipid metabolism pathway revealed the presence of phospholipase A1 only in the control group (p = 0.05.The duodenal microbiota of obese individuals exhibit alterations in the fatty acid and sucrose breakdown pathways, probably induced by diet imbalance.

  3. Pediatric duodenal biopsies: mucosal morphology and glycohydrolase expression do not change along the duodenum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beers, E. H.; Einerhand, A. W.; Taminiau, J. A.; Heymans, H. S.; Dekker, J.; Büller, H. A.

    1998-01-01

    Duodenal mucosal biopsies are routinely taken for diagnosis in children with complaints of the upper gastrointestinal tract. Surprisingly, little is known about the usefulness of proximal duodenal versus distal duodenal biopsies for routine diagnostic purposes. This study evaluated the comparability

  4. Human longevity is characterised by high thyroid stimulating hormone secretion without altered energy metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, S W; Akintola, A A; Roelfsema, F

    2015-01-01

    hormone (TH) in an inverse relationship. Greater longevity has been associated with higher TSH and lower TH levels, but mechanisms underlying TSH/TH differences and longevity remain unknown. The HPT axis plays a pivotal role in growth, development and energy metabolism. We report that offspring...... of nonagenarians with at least one nonagenarian sibling have increased TSH secretion but similar bioactivity of TSH and similar TH levels compared to controls. Healthy offspring and spousal controls had similar resting metabolic rate and core body temperature. We propose that pleiotropic effects of the HPT axis...... may favour longevity without altering energy metabolism....

  5. Secreted galectin-3 as a possible biomarker for the immunomodulatory potential of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guang-Yang; Xu, Yi; Li, Yan; Wang, Li-Hua; Liu, Yong-Jun; Zhu, Delin

    2013-10-01

    Human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (UC-MSCs) possess broad and potent immunomodulatory activities and have shown great potential in anti-inflammatory therapies. However, a biomarker that can be used to assess quickly and efficiently the immunomodulatory function of UC-MSCs has not been identified. Several studies have revealed that galectin-3 (Gal-3), a member of the human galectin family, is involved in the immunosuppressive function of MSCs. Gal-3 gene expression in UC-MSCs was analyzed using quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. Blocking of Gal-3 expression in UC-MSCs with small interfering RNA was employed to analyze whether the immunosuppressive function of UC-MSCs was affected. We found that UC-MSCs expressed Gal-3 both on the cell surface and in secreted form, and the expression levels of Gal-3 did not show significant variation after cell passaging. We further showed that Gal-3 expression correlated with the immunosuppressive function of UC-MSCs because knock-down of Gal-3 expression with small interfering RNA significantly abrogated the inhibitory effects of UC-MSCs on mitogen-stimulated and alloantigen-stimulated proliferation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells; meanwhile, the inhibitory effect of UC-MSCs was reversed by adding back recombinant Gal-3 to the co-culture systems. The inhibitory activities of human UC-MSCs were not reduced even when they were separated from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in a transwell co-culture system, indicating that the soluble form of Gal-3 was the major effector. The Gal-3 protein secreted by UC-MSCs shows good correlation with immunosuppressive potential and may serve as a possible biomarker for the potency test of UC-MSCs. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate attenuates the AIM2-induced secretion of IL-1β in human epidermal keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Mihee; Seo, Gimoon; Lee, Ji-Young; Chae, Gue Tae; Lee, Seong-Beom

    2015-11-27

    The pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β) plays a central role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. Keratinocytes are a major source of IL-1β and express absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2). AIM2 recognizes a double-stranded DNA and initiates the IL-1β-processing of inflammasome. The AIM2 inflammasome is a cytosolic multiprotein complex composed of AIM2, an apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC), and pro-caspase-1. Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate (EGCG), a major polyphenolic component of green tea, has anti-inflammatory properties. In the current study, we investigated the issue of whether or how EGCG suppresses AIM2 inflammasome in human epidermal keratinocytes, neonatal (HEKn). Treatment with EGCG, before or after IFN-γ priming, attenuated poly(dA:dT)-induced IL-1β secretion in HEKn cells. Pre-treatment with EGCG reduced the level of IFN-γ-induced priming signal via the down-regulation of pro-IL-1β and pro-capspase-1 in HEKn cells. Furthermore, treatment with EGCG attenuated poly(dA:dT)-induced ASC oligomerization and caspase-1 activation in IFN-γ-primed HEKn cells. These results suggest that EGCG attenuates AIM2-induced IL-1β secretion by suppressing both IFN-γ-mediated priming and poly(dA:dT)-induced ASC oligomerization of inflammasomes in human epidermal keratinocytes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Oxygen-Loaded Nanodroplets Effectively Abrogate Hypoxia Dysregulating Effects on Secretion of MMP-9 and TIMP-1 by Human Monocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Rossana Gulino

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Monocytes play a key role in the inflammatory stage of the healing process. To allow monocyte migration to injured tissues, the balances between secreted matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs and their inhibitors (TIMPs must be finely modulated. However, a reduction of blood supply and local oxygen tension can modify the phenotype of immune cells. Intriguingly, hypoxia might be targeted by new effective oxygenating devices such as 2H,3H-decafluoropentane- (DFP- based oxygen-loaded nanodroplets (OLNs. Here, hypoxia effects on gelatinase/TIMP release from human peripheral monocytes were investigated, and the therapeutic potential of dextran-shelled OLNs was evaluated. Normoxic monocytes constitutively released ~500 ng/mL MMP-9, ~1.3 ng/mL TIMP-1, and ~0.6 ng/mL TIMP-2 proteins. MMP-2 was not detected. After 24 hours, hypoxia significantly altered MMP-9/TIMP-1 balance by reducing MMP-9 and increasing TIMP-1, without affecting TIMP-2 secretion. Interestingly OLNs, not displaying toxicity to human monocytes after cell internalization, effectively counteracted hypoxia, restoring a normoxia-like MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio. The action of OLNs was specifically dependent on time-sustained oxygen diffusion up to 24 h from their DFP-based core. Therefore, OLNs appear as innovative, nonconventional, cost-effective, and nontoxic therapeutic tools, to be potentially employed to restore the physiological invasive phenotype of immune cells in hypoxia-associated inflammation.

  8. Recombinant LPG3 Stimulates IFN-Γ and TNF-Α Secretion by Human NK Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaz RASOLZADEH

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Natural killer (NK cells play an important role in early stages of innate immune responses against viral and tumoral attacks. Activation of NK cells by leishmaniasis results in secretion of cytokines such as interferon (IFN-γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, which enhances the phagocytosis and clear­ance of parasite. Lipophosphoglycan 3 (LPG3, the Leishmania homologous with GRP94 (glucose regulated protein 94, a member of HSP90 family, contributes to LPG assembly as the most abundant macromolecule on the surface of Leishmania promastigotes.Methods: We purified NK cells from healthy individuals (n=10 using magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS technology. Purified NK cells were co-incubated with different concentrations of recombinant LPG3 (rLPG3, and its N-terminal (NT and C-terminal (CT fragments. Finally, the production of IFN-γ and TNF-α by NK cells were measured by ELISA.Results: Recombinant LPG3 but not its fragments (CT and NT, can signifi­cantly enhance the production of TNF-α by NK cells (P<0.05. Moreover, rLPG3, CT, and NT fragments were markedly stimulated the secretion of IFN-γ by NK cells (P<0.001.Conclusion: The Leishmania LPG3 antigen can effectively activate NK cells, in vitro. Leishmania LPG3 participates in the innate immunity against leishmaniasis and thereby improves the effective parasite destruction. However, its efficiency should be tested in vivo.

  9. Blood-based biomarkers of age-associated epigenetic changes in human islets associate with insulin secretion and diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacos, Karl; Gillberg, Linn; Volkov, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Aging associates with impaired pancreatic islet function and increased type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk. Here we examine whether age-related epigenetic changes affect human islet function and if blood-based epigenetic biomarkers reflect these changes and associate with future T2D. We analyse DNA...... methylation genome-wide in islets from 87 non-diabetic donors, aged 26-74 years. Aging associates with increased DNA methylation of 241 sites. These sites cover loci previously associated with T2D, for example, KLF14. Blood-based epigenetic biomarkers reflect age-related methylation changes in 83 genes...... demonstrate that blood-based epigenetic biomarkers reflect age-related DNA methylation changes in human islets, and associate with insulin secretion in vivo and T2D....

  10. Cystatins - Extra- and intracellular cysteine protease inhibitors: High-level secretion and uptake of cystatin C in human neuroblastoma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallin, Hanna; Bjarnadottir, Maria; Vogel, Lotte

    2010-01-01

    Cystatins are present in mammals, birds, fish, insects, plants, fungi and protozoa and constitute a large protein family, with most members sharing a cysteine protease inhibitory function. In humans 12 functional cystatins exist, forming three groups based on molecular organisation and distribution...... signal peptides) for cellular export following translation. Results indicating existence of systems for significant internalisation of type 2 cystatins from the extracellular to intracellular compartments are reviewed. Data showing that human neuroblastoma cell lines generally secrete high levels......, but also contain high amounts of cystatin C are presented. Culturing of these cells in medium containing cystatin C at concentrations found in body fluids resulted in increased intracellular cystatin C, as a result of an uptake process. At immunofluorescence cytochemistry a pronounced vesicular cystatin C...

  11. Duodenal Metastasis of Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang-Chi Chen

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic malignant mesothelioma of the pleura is uncommon at the time of initial diagnosis. The gastrointestinal lumen is rarely found at autopsy in patients with widespread disease. Here, we describe an extremely rare case of isolated duodenal metastasis of sarcomatoid mesothelioma of the pleura in a 73-year-old man, without memory of any direct exposure to asbestos. The possibility of gastrointestinal tract metastasis should be considered in the presence of anemia or positive occult blood test in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma.

  12. Effects of Recombinant Human Leptin (Metreleptin) on Nocturnal Luteinizing Hormone Secretion in Lipodystrophy Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Brent S; Muniyappa, Ranganath; Stratton, Pamela; Skarulis, Monica C; Gorden, Phillip; Brown, Rebecca J

    2016-01-01

    Leptin replacement in patients with leptin gene mutations improves hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. The effects of leptin replacement on luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion in patients with lipodystrophy are unknown. We examined nocturnal LH secretory dynamics on and off exogenous leptin therapy using a 2-period, nonrandomized study that included leptin-naïve and leptin-treated subjects with lipodystrophy. In period 1 (5 days) the leptin-treated group (n = 4) continued leptin; leptin was then withdrawn for the next 14 days (period 2). Leptin-naïve subjects (n = 8) were studied without leptin in period 1 and with leptin replacement in period 2. LH secretory dynamics were assessed (23:00-07:00 h, sampling every 10 min, analyzed by multiparameter deconvolution algorithm) at the end of each period. Mean (on vs. off: 5.0 ± 3.1 vs. 3.2 ± 1.3 IU/l, p = 0.04) and integrated LH concentrations (2,403 ± 1,495 vs. 1,534 ± 642 IU × l-1 × min-1, p = 0.04) were higher on leptin therapy. Leptin treatment increased burst mass (9.7± 15.4 vs. 7.0 ± 11.2 IU/l, p = 0.03) and tended to nonsignificantly increase LH burst frequency (0.77 ± 0.26 vs. 0.67 ± 0.24 h-1, p = 0.08). Consequently, leptin therapy increased the pulsatile production rate (64 ± 101 vs. 57 ± 73 IU × l-1 × 8 h-1, p = 0.01). On leptin, testosterone (507 ± 286 vs. 360 ± 174 ng/dl, p = 0.09) and estradiol levels (74 ± 36 vs. 29 ± 24 pg/ml, p = 0.01) were higher in males and females, respectively. Leptin increases spontaneous nocturnal LH secretion in patients with lipodystrophy. This is consistent with rodent and in vitro studies showing a direct stimulatory effect (hypothalamic, pituitary or both) of leptin on LH secretion. These novel findings may explicate some of the salutary effects of leptin therapy on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in lipodystrophy. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Regulation of Monocyte Chemotactic Protein-1 secretion by the Two-Pore-Domain Potassium (K2P) channel TREK-1 in human alveolar epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwingshackl, Andreas; Teng, Bin; Ghosh, Manik; Waters, Christopher M

    2013-01-01

    We recently proposed a role for the 2-pore-domain K(+) (K2P) channel TREK-1 in the regulation of cytokine release from alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) by demonstrating decreased IL-6 secretion from TREK-1 deficient cells, but the effects of altered TREK-1 expression on other inflammatory mediators remain poorly understood. We now examined the role of TREK-1 in TNF-α-induced MCP-1 release from human A549 cells. We hypothesized that TREK-1 regulates TNF-α-induced MCP-1 secretion via c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK)- and protein kinase-C (PKC)-dependent pathways. In contrast to IL-6 secretion, we found that TREK-1 deficiency resulted in increased MCP-1 production and secretion, although baseline MCP-1 gene expression was unchanged in TREK-1 deficient cells. In contrast to TREK-1 deficient AECs, overexpression of MCP-1 had no effect on MCP-1 secretion. Phosphorylation of JNK1/2/3 was increased in TREK-1 deficient cells upon TNF-α stimulation, but pharmacological inhibition of JNK1/2/3 decreased MCP-1 release from both control and TREK-1 deficient cells. Similarly, pharmacological inhibition of PKC decreased MCP-1 secretion from control and TREK-1 deficient cells, suggesting that alterations in JNK and PKC signaling pathways were unlikely the cause for the increased MCP-1 secretion from TREK-1 deficient cells. Furthermore, MCP-1 secretion from control and TREK-1 deficient cells was independent of extracellular Ca(2+) but sensitive to inhibition of intracellular Ca(2+) reuptake mechanisms. In summary, we report for the first time that TREK-1 deficiency in human AECs resulted in increased MCP-1 production and secretion, and this effect appeared unrelated to alterations in JNK-, PKC- or Ca(2+)-mediated signaling pathways in TREK-1 deficient cells.

  14. Primary duodenal tuberculosis presenting as gastric-outlet obstruction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Gastrointestinal tuberculosis often involves the ileocecal region. Duodenal and gastric tuberculosis found in only 1% of patients suffering from pulmonary tuberculosis with associated HIV infection in non-endemic areas. Duodenal obstruction due to tuberculosis is very rare and needs high index of suspicions ...

  15. Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) manifestations of the normal duodenal papilla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Can-Hui, E-mail: canhuisun@sina.com [Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Li, Xuehua, E-mail: lixuehua803@163.com [Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Chan, Tao, E-mail: taochan@hku.hk [Medical Imaging Department, Union Hospital (Hong Kong); Peng, Zhenpeng, E-mail: ppzhen@21cn.com [Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Dong, Zhi, E-mail: asrachel@126.com [Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Luo, Yanji, E-mail: 583149136@qq.com [Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Li, Zi-Ping, E-mail: liziping163@tom.com [Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Feng, Shi-Ting, E-mail: fst1977@163.com [Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China)

    2013-06-15

    Objective: This study aimed to investigate Multidetector Computed Tomography (MDCT) manifestations of the normal duodenal papilla, thereby improving the knowledge on the CT manifestations of the normal anatomy of the duodenal papilla. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted by reviewing the CT results of 70 normal duodenal papilla cases examined by 64-MDCT. The analysis particularly focused on the position, size, morphology, and enhancement pattern of the duodenal papilla, as well as the ampulla of Vater. Results: In axial images, the average base diameter of the duodenal papilla was (7.3 ± 1.4) mm, whereas the average height was (6.5 ± 1.8) mm. Majority of the duodenal papilla (52.9%, 37/70) showed a round shape. In most cases (97.1%, 68/70), the duodenal papilla were located at the middle and lower third of the descending duodenum. In 84.3% of the cases (59/70), the arterial phase enhanced CT scan images were optimal for the visualization of the papilla. The “target sign” could be clearly identified from arterial phase images in 71.4% (50/70) of the cases. In 72.9% (51/70) of the cases, the ampulla of Vater had a common channel (Y type). Conclusion: 64-MDCT can clearly visualize the normal anatomy of the duodenal papilla and surrounding structures, thereby providing valuable information for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases in this region.

  16. Pyloro-duodenal hernia with formation of enterocutaneous fistula in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A body wall hernia entrapping abomasum and concurrent duodenal fistula in a buffalo calf aged about 8 months, secondary to a dog bite was successfully treated by closure of fistulous orifice and ventro lateral herniorrhaphy. Keywords: Abomaso-epiplocele, Buffalo calf, Duodenal fistula, Herniorrhaphy.

  17. Duodenal adenocarcinoma in a 10-year-old boy | Mohamed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gastrointestinal malignancies are extremely rare in the paediatric population and duodenal cancers represent an even more unusual entity. It represents 0.3-1% of all gastrointestinal tumours. A case report of a 10-year-old boy with duodenal adenocarcinoma is reported and the diffi culties of diagnosing and treating this ...

  18. Situs inversus in association with duodenal atresia | Talabi | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Situs inversus in association with duodenal atresia is very rare. A high index of suspicion coupled with appropriate evaluation is necessary for diagnosis and operative planning. We report a case of a 5-day-old who presented with duodenal atresia associated with polysplenia and situs inversus with a review of the medical ...

  19. Case Series: Cost effective management of duodenal ulcers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: These patients were initially treated in upcountry clinics for acute gastritis from either alcohol consumption or suspected food poisoning. There was no duodenal ulcer history. As a result, they came to specialist surgical clinic more than 72 hours after perforation. Diagnosis of perforated duodenal ulcer was made and ...

  20. Placebo effect in the treatment of duodenal ulcer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Craen, A. J.; Moerman, D. E.; Heisterkamp, S. H.; Tytgat, G. N.; Tijssen, J. G.; Kleijnen, J.

    1999-01-01

    AIMS: To assess whether frequency of placebo administration is associated with duodenal ulcer healing. METHODS: A systematic literature review of randomized clinical trials was undertaken. 79 of 80 trials that met the inclusion criteria. The pooled 4 week placebo healing rate of all duodenal ulcer

  1. Factors associated with gastro-duodenal disease in patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: There is a high prevalence of gastro-duodenal disease in sub Saharan Africa. Peptic ulcer disease in dyspeptic patients, 24.5%, was comparable to prevalence of gastro-duodenal disease among symptomatic individuals in developed countries (12 – 25%). Limited data exists regarding its associated risk ...

  2. RNA/DNA co-analysis from human menstrual blood and vaginal secretion stains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haas, Claus; Hanson, E; Anjos, M J

    2014-01-01

    The European DNA Profiling Group (EDNAP) organized a fourth and fifth collaborative exercise on RNA/DNA co-analysis for body fluid identification and STR profiling. The task was to identify dried menstrual blood and vaginal secretion stains using specific RNA biomarkers, and additionally test 3...... laboratories, using RNA extraction or RNA/DNA co-extraction methods. Two novel menstrual blood mRNA multiplexes were used: MMP triplex (MMP7, MMP10, MMP11) and MB triplex (MSX1, LEFTY2, SFRP4) in conjunction with a housekeeping gene triplex (B2M, UBC, UCE). Two novel mRNA multiplexes and a HBD1 singleplex were....... The simultaneous extraction of RNA and DNA allowed for positive identification of the tissue/fluid source of origin by mRNA profiling as well as a simultaneous identification of the body fluid donor by STR profiling, also from old and compromised casework samples. The results of this and the previous collaborative...

  3. Broad-spectrum sunscreens prevent the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines in human keratinocytes exposed to ultraviolet A and phototoxic lomefloxacin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinhardt, P.; Cybulski, M. [Lasers and Electro-Optics Div., Consumer and Clinical Radiation Protection Bureau, Product Safety Program, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)], E-mail: pascale_reinhardt@hc-sc.gc.ca; Miller, S.M.; Ferrarotto, C.; Wilkins, R. [Radiobiology Div., Consumer and Clinical Radiation Protection Bureau, Product Safety Program, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Deslauriers, Y. [Lasers and Electro-Optics Div., Consumer and Clinical Radiation Protection Bureau, Product Safety Program, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2006-02-15

    The combination of phototoxic drugs and ultraviolet (UV) radiation can trigger the release of proinflammatory cytokines. The present study measured the ability of sunscreens to prevent cytokine secretion in human keratinocytes following cotreatment of these cells with a known photoreactive drug and UVA. Keratinocytes were treated for 1 h with increasing concentrations of lomefloxacin (LOM) or norfloxacin (NOR), exposed to 15 J/cm{sup 2} UVA, and incubated for 24 h. NOR, owing to the absence of a fluorine atom in position 8, was non-phototoxic and used as a negative control. Cell viability and the release of 3 cytokines were assessed, namely interleukin-1{alpha} (IL-1{alpha}), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumour necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}). The measurement of these cytokines may be a useful tool for detecting photoreactive compounds. To measure their ability to prevent cytokine secretion, various sunscreens were inserted between the UVA source and the cells. Treatment with NOR, NOR plus UVA, or LOM had no effect on the cells. LOM plus UVA, however, had an effect on cell viability and on cytokine secretion. IL-1{alpha} levels increased with LOM concentration. The release of TNF-{alpha} and IL-6 followed the same pattern at lower concentrations of LOM but peaked at 15 {mu}mol/L and decreased at higher concentrations. Sunscreens protected the cells from the effects of LOM plus UVA, as cell viability and levels of cytokines remained the same as in the control cells. In conclusion, the application of broad-spectrum sunscreen by individuals exposed to UVA radiation may prevent phototoxic reactions initiated by drugs such as LOM. (author)

  4. Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells enhance insulin secretion from human islets via N-cadherin interaction and prolong function of transplanted encapsulated islets in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Montanari, Elisa; Meier, Raphael P. H.; Mahou, Redouan; Seebach, Jörg D.; Wandrey, Christine; Gerber-Lemaire, Sandrine; Buhler, Leo H.; Gonelle-Gispert, Carmen

    2017-01-01

    Background Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) enhance viability and function of islets of Langerhans. We aimed to examine the interactions between human MSC and human islets of Langerhans that influence the function of islets. Methods Human MSC and human islets (or pseudoislets, obtained after digestion and reaggregation of islet cells) were cocultured with or without cellular contact and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion assays were performed to assess cell function. The expressi...

  5. Presentation and Surgical Management of Duodenal Duplication in Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline C. Jadlowiec

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Duodenal duplications in adults are exceedingly rare and their diagnosis remains difficult as symptoms are largely nonspecific. Clinical presentations include pancreatitis, biliary obstruction, gastrointestinal bleeding from ectopic gastric mucosa, and malignancy. A case of duodenal duplication in a 59-year-old female is presented, and her treatment course is reviewed with description of combined surgical and endoscopic approach to repair, along with a review of historic and current recommendations for management. Traditionally, gastrointestinal duplications have been treated with surgical resection; however, for duodenal duplications, the anatomic proximity to the biliopancreatic ampulla makes surgical management challenging. Recently, advances in endoscopy have improved the clinical success of cystic intraluminal duodenal duplications. Despite these advances, surgical resection is still recommended for extraluminal tubular duplications although combined techniques may be necessary for long tubular duplications. For duodenal duplications, a combined approach of partial excision combined with mucosal stripping may offer advantage.

  6. Human-derived gut microbiota modulates colonic secretion in mice by regulating 5-HT3receptor expression via acetate production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Yogesh; Schmidt, Bradley A; Linden, David R; Larson, Eric D; Grover, Madhusudan; Beyder, Arthur; Farrugia, Gianrico; Kashyap, Purna C

    2017-07-01

    Serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)], an important neurotransmitter and a paracrine messenger in the gastrointestinal tract, regulates intestinal secretion by its action primarily on 5-HT 3 and 5-HT 4 receptors. Recent studies highlight the role of gut microbiota in 5-HT biosynthesis. In this study, we determine whether human-derived gut microbiota affects host secretory response to 5-HT and 5-HT receptor expression. We used proximal colonic mucosa-submucosa preparation from age-matched Swiss Webster germ-free (GF) and humanized (HM; ex-GF colonized with human gut microbiota) mice. 5-HT evoked a significantly greater increase in short-circuit current (Δ I sc ) in GF compared with HM mice. Additionally, 5-HT 3 receptor mRNA and protein expression was significantly higher in GF compared with HM mice. Ondansetron, a 5-HT 3 receptor antagonist, inhibited 5-HT-evoked Δ I sc in GF mice but not in HM mice. Furthermore, a 5-HT 3 receptor-selective agonist, 2-methyl-5-hydroxytryptamine hydrochloride, evoked a significantly higher Δ I sc in GF compared with HM mice. Immunohistochemistry in 5-HT 3A -green fluorescent protein mice localized 5-HT 3 receptor expression to enterochromaffin cells in addition to nerve fibers. The significant difference in 5-HT-evoked Δ I sc between GF and HM mice persisted in the presence of tetrodotoxin (TTX) but was lost after ondansetron application in the presence of TTX. Application of acetate (10 mM) significantly lowered 5-HT 3 receptor mRNA in GF mouse colonoids. We conclude that host secretory response to 5-HT may be modulated by gut microbiota regulation of 5-HT 3 receptor expression via acetate production. Epithelial 5-HT 3 receptor may function as a mediator of gut microbiota-driven change in intestinal secretion. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We found that gut microbiota alters serotonin (5-HT)-evoked intestinal secretion in a 5-HT 3 receptor-dependent mechanism and gut microbiota metabolite acetate alters 5-HT 3 receptor expression in

  7. Characterization of RNA in exosomes secreted by human breast cancer cell lines using next-generation sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenjaroenpun, Piroon; Kremenska, Yuliya; Nair, Vrundha M; Kremenskoy, Maksym; Joseph, Baby; Kurochkin, Igor V

    2013-01-01

    Exosomes are nanosized (30-100 nm) membrane vesicles secreted by most cell types. Exosomes have been found to contain various RNA species including miRNA, mRNA and long non-protein coding RNAs. A number of cancer cells produce elevated levels of exosomes. Because exosomes have been isolated from most body fluids they may provide a source for non-invasive cancer diagnostics. Transcriptome profiling that uses deep-sequencing technologies (RNA-Seq) offers enormous amount of data that can be used for biomarkers discovery, however, in case of exosomes this approach was applied only for the analysis of small RNAs. In this study, we utilized RNA-Seq technology to analyze RNAs present in microvesicles secreted by human breast cancer cell lines. Exosomes were isolated from the media conditioned by two human breast cancer cell lines, MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-436. Exosomal RNA was profiled using the Ion Torrent semiconductor chip-based technology. Exosomes were found to contain various classes of RNA with the major class represented by fragmented ribosomal RNA (rRNA), in particular 28S and 18S rRNA subunits. Analysis of exosomal RNA content revealed that it reflects RNA content of the donor cells. Although exosomes produced by the two cancer cell lines shared most of the RNA species, there was a number of non-coding transcripts unique to MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-436 cells. This suggests that RNA analysis might distinguish exosomes produced by low metastatic breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB-436) from that produced by highly metastatic breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB-231). The analysis of gene ontologies (GOs) associated with the most abundant transcripts present in exosomes revealed significant enrichment in genes encoding proteins involved in translation and rRNA and ncRNA processing. These GO terms indicate most expressed genes for both, cellular and exosomal RNA. For the first time, using RNA-seq, we examined the transcriptomes of exosomes secreted by human breast cancer cells. We

  8. Metabolic Fingerprints from the Human Oral Microbiome Reveal a Vast Knowledge Gap of Secreted Small Peptidic Molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlund, Anna; Garg, Neha; Mohimani, Hosein; Gurevich, Alexey; He, Xuesong; Shi, Wenyuan; Dorrestein, Pieter C; McLean, Jeffrey S

    2017-01-01

    Recent research indicates that the human microbiota play key roles in maintaining health by providing essential nutrients, providing immune education, and preventing pathogen expansion. Processes underlying the transition from a healthy human microbiome to a disease-associated microbiome are poorly understood, partially because of the potential influences from a wide diversity of bacterium-derived compounds that are illy defined. Here, we present the analysis of peptidic small molecules (SMs) secreted from bacteria and viewed from a temporal perspective. Through comparative analysis of mass spectral profiles from a collection of cultured oral isolates and an established in vitro multispecies oral community, we found that the production of SMs both delineates a temporal expression pattern and allows discrimination between bacterial isolates at the species level. Importantly, the majority of the identified molecules were of unknown identity, and only ~2.2% could be annotated and classified. The catalogue of bacterially produced SMs we obtained in this study reveals an undiscovered molecular world for which compound isolation and ecosystem testing will facilitate a better understanding of their roles in human health and disease. IMPORTANCE Metabolomics is the ultimate tool for studies of microbial functions under any specific set of environmental conditions (D. S. Wishart, Nat Rev Drug Discov 45:473-484, 2016, https://doi.org/10.1038/nrd.2016.32). This is a great advance over studying genes alone, which only inform about metabolic potential. Approximately 25,000 compounds have been chemically characterized thus far; however, the richness of metabolites such as SMs has been estimated to be as high as 1 × 10(30) in the biosphere (K. Garber, Nat Biotechnol 33:228-231, 2015, https://doi.org/10.1038/nbt.3161). Our classical, one-at-a-time activity-guided approach to compound identification continues to find the same known compounds and is also incredibly tedious, which

  9. Characterization of RNA in exosomes secreted by human breast cancer cell lines using next-generation sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piroon Jenjaroenpun

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Exosomes are nanosized (30–100 nm membrane vesicles secreted by most cell types. Exosomes have been found to contain various RNA species including miRNA, mRNA and long non-protein coding RNAs. A number of cancer cells produce elevated levels of exosomes. Because exosomes have been isolated from most body fluids they may provide a source for non-invasive cancer diagnostics. Transcriptome profiling that uses deep-sequencing technologies (RNA-Seq offers enormous amount of data that can be used for biomarkers discovery, however, in case of exosomes this approach was applied only for the analysis of small RNAs. In this study, we utilized RNA-Seq technology to analyze RNAs present in microvesicles secreted by human breast cancer cell lines.Exosomes were isolated from the media conditioned by two human breast cancer cell lines, MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-436. Exosomal RNA was profiled using the Ion Torrent semiconductor chip-based technology. Exosomes were found to contain various classes of RNA with the major class represented by fragmented ribosomal RNA (rRNA, in particular 28S and 18S rRNA subunits. Analysis of exosomal RNA content revealed that it reflects RNA content of the donor cells. Although exosomes produced by the two cancer cell lines shared most of the RNA species, there was a number of non-coding transcripts unique to MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-436 cells. This suggests that RNA analysis might distinguish exosomes produced by low metastatic breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB-436 from that produced by highly metastatic breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB-231. The analysis of gene ontologies (GOs associated with the most abundant transcripts present in exosomes revealed significant enrichment in genes encoding proteins involved in translation and rRNA and ncRNA processing. These GO terms indicate most expressed genes for both, cellular and exosomal RNA.For the first time, using RNA-seq, we examined the transcriptomes of exosomes secreted by human breast

  10. Secretion of the extracellular domain of the human insulin receptor from insect cells by use of a baculovirus vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sissom, J; Ellis, L

    1989-07-01

    To explore the utility of the baculovirus/insect-cell system for the expression of a soluble secreted human insulin-receptor (hIR) extracellular ligand-binding domain, we have engineered a recombinant virus encoding an hIR deletion mutant which is truncated eight residues from the beginning of the predicted transmembrane domain (i.e. 921 residues). Within 24 h after infection of Sf9 cells with virus, insulin-binding activity begins to accumulate in the culture medium, and reaches a maximum between 48 and 72 h. The intracellular transit and processing of this secreted receptor, designated 'AchIR01', is quite slow. After 24 h in pulse-chase experiments approximately 50% of the metabolically labelled protein is still inside the cell. This protein accumulates as a non-cleaved hIR precursor which is glycosylated, but the carbohydrate is entirely endoglycosidase H (endoH)-sensitive (i.e. high mannose). Approximately one-half of the receptor in the culture medium (i.e. approximately 25% of the total) is in the form of non-cleaved precursor, and about one half of its carbohydrate chains are now endoH-resistant. The remainder of the protein is proteolytically processed hIR (alpha-plus truncated beta-subunits). None of these hIR species exhibit O-linked carbohydrate. Only the processed form of the receptor in the medium binds insulin. This insulin-binding protein is secreted as a dimer (alpha beta)2, and binds insulin with an affinity which is comparable with that of both the wild-type hIR as well as the secreted form of the hIR expressed in mammalian cells. Despite the rather inefficient processing and altered glycosylation of the AchIR01 protein in insect cells, this high-affinity insulin-binding protein accumulates in the medium at levels (mg/litre) of about 100 times that achieved in a mammalian-cell system.

  11. Pancreatic pseudocyst located at the level of the duodenal wall: radiological finds. Pseudoquiste pancreatico de localizacion duodenal: Hallazgos radiologicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreu, J.; Casas, L.; Coll, S.; Miranda, M.D.; Olmedilla, M.P. (Hospital General Vall d' Hebron de Barcelona (Spain). Servicio de Radiodiagnostico)

    1992-01-01

    The radiological findings in a case of hemorrhagic pancreatic pseudocyst, located at the level of the duodenal wall, are presented. In computerized tomography, it appears as a dense mass at the level of the duodenal area. The barium studies reveal the intramural localization of the lesion. (author)

  12. Native signal peptide of human ERp57 disulfide isomerase mediates secretion of active native recombinant ERp57 protein in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čiplys, Evaldas; Žitkus, Eimantas; Slibinskas, Rimantas

    2013-06-01

    Human ERp57 protein is disulfide isomerase, facilitating proper folding of glycoprotein precursors in the concert with ER lectin chaperones calreticulin and calnexin. Growing amount of data also associates ERp57 with many different functions in subcellular locations outside the ER. Analysis of protein functions requires substantial amounts of correctly folded, biologically active protein, and in this study we introduce yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a perfect host for production of human ERp57. Our data suggest that native signal peptide of human ERp57 protein is recognized and correctly processed in the yeast cells, which leads to protein secretion. Secreted recombinant ERp57 protein possesses native amino acid sequence and is biologically active. Moreover, secretion allows simple one-step purification of recombinant ERp57 protein with the yields reaching up to 10mg/L. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Secretion of interleukin-8 by human-derived cell lines infected with Mycobacterium bovis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Méndez-Samperio

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The variable efficacy of bacillus Calmette-Guérin (Mycobacterium bovis BCG in protecting humans against tuberculosis has prompted a search for the mechanisms through which BCG induces chemokines. In this study, our experiments were designed to determine the role of the transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB and intracellular calcium in the production of interleukin (IL-8, a main chemotactic factor, by human-derived monocytic cell line U937 and by a human epithelial HEp-2 cell line infected with M. bovis BCG.

  14. Polarized Secretion of PEDF from Human Embryonic Stem Cell–Derived RPE Promotes Retinal Progenitor Cell Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Danhong; Deng, Xuemei; Spee, Christine; Sonoda, Shozo; Hsieh, Chih-Lin; Barron, Ernesto; Pera, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. Human embryonic stem cell–derived RPE (hES-RPE) transplantation is a promising therapy for atrophic age-related macular degeneration (AMD); however, future therapeutic approaches may consider co-transplantation of hES-RPE with retinal progenitor cells (RPCs) as a replacement source for lost photoreceptors. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of polarization of hES-RPE monolayers on their ability to promote survival of RPCs. Methods. The hES-3 cell line was used for derivation of RPE. Polarization of hES-RPE was achieved by prolonged growth on permeable inserts. RPCs were isolated from 16- to 18-week-gestation human fetal eyes. ELISA was performed to measure pigment epithelium–derived factor (PEDF) levels from conditioned media. Results. Pigmented RPE-like cells appeared as early as 4 weeks in culture and were subcultured at 8 weeks. Differentiated hES-RPE had a normal chromosomal karyotype. Phenotypically polarized hES-RPE cells showed expression of RPE-specific genes. Polarized hES-RPE showed prominent expression of PEDF in apical cytoplasm and a marked increase in secretion of PEDF into the medium compared with nonpolarized culture. RPCs grown in the presence of supernatants from polarized hES-RPE showed enhanced survival, which was ablated by the presence of anti-PEDF antibody. Conclusions. hES-3 cells can be differentiated into functionally polarized hES-RPE cells that exhibit characteristics similar to those of native RPE. On polarization, hES-RPE cells secrete high levels of PEDF that can support RPC survival. These experiments suggest that polarization of hES-RPE would be an important feature for promotion of RPC survival in future cell therapy for atrophic AMD. PMID:21087957

  15. Muscarinic M1 receptor inhibition reduces gastroduodenal bicarbonate secretion and promotes gastric prostaglandin E2 synthesis in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz-Nielsen, A; Hillingsø, Jens; Eskerod, O

    1995-01-01

    and luminal output of PGE2 into the stomach and the duodenum of nine healthy volunteers using a new technique permitting simultaneous measurements. In the stomach modified sham feeding increased bicarbonate secretion from 382 (62) mumol/h (mean (SEM)) to 959 (224) mumol/h (p ... sham feeding and acid exposure (HCl 0.1 M; 20 ml; 5 min) of the duodenal bulb increased mucosal bicarbonate secretion from 191 (14) mumol/cm x h to 266 (27) mumol/cm x h (p ... stimulated gastric and basal duodenal bicarbonate secretion by about 50% (p stomach, but not the duodenum, basal and vagally stimulated PGE2 output increased significantly (p

  16. Impact of Metabolic Hormones Secreted in Human Breast Milk on Nutritional Programming in Childhood Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badillo-Suárez, Pilar Amellali; Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela; Nieves-Morales, Xóchitl

    2017-09-01

    Obesity is the most common metabolic disease whose prevalence is increasing worldwide. This condition is considered a serious public health problem due to associated comorbidities such as diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Perinatal morbidity related to obesity does not end with birth; this continues affecting the mother/infant binomial and could negatively impact on metabolism during early infant nutrition. Nutrition in early stages of growth may be essential in the development of obesity in adulthood, supporting the concept of "nutritional programming". For this reason, breastfeeding may play an important role in this programming. Breast milk is the most recommended feeding for the newborn due to the provided benefits such as protection against obesity and diabetes. Health benefits are based on milk components such as bioactive molecules, specifically hormones involved in the regulation of food intake. Identification of these molecules has increased in recent years but its action has not been fully clarified. Hormones such as leptin, insulin, ghrelin, adiponectin, resistin, obestatin and insulin-like growth factor-1 copeptin, apelin, and nesfatin, among others, have been identified in the milk of normal-weight women and may influence the energy balance because they can activate orexigenic or anorexigenic pathways depending on energy requirements and body stores. It is important to emphasize that, although the number of biomolecules identified in milk involved in regulating food intake has increased considerably, there is a lack of studies aimed at elucidating the effect these hormones may have on metabolism and development of the newborn. Therefore, we present a state-of-the-art review regarding bioactive compounds such as hormones secreted in breast milk and their possible impact on nutritional programming in the infant, analyzing their functions in appetite regulation.

  17. Expressed prostate secretions in the study of human papillomavirus epidemiology in the male.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly Smelov

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Exploring different sampling sites and methods is of interest for studies of the epidemiology of HPV infections in the male. Expressed prostate secretions (EPS are obtained during digital rectal examination (DRE, a daily routine urological diagnostic procedure, following massage of the prostate. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Urethral swabs and EPS samples were obtained from a consecutive sample of 752 men (mean age 32.4 years; median life-time sex partners 34 visiting urology outpatient clinics in St. Petersburg, Russia and tested for HPV DNA by general primer PCR, followed by genotyping using Luminex. RESULTS: Overall, 47.9% (360/752 of men were HPV-positive, with 42.0% (316/752 being positive for high-risk (HR- HPV and 12.6% (95/752 for multiple HPV types. HPV-positivity in the EPS samples was 32.6% (27.7% HR-HPV and in the urethral samples 25.9% (24.5% HR-HPV. 10.6% were HPV positive in both EPS and urethral samples. 6.4% had the same HPV-type in both EPS and urethral samples. 10.6% were HPV positive in both EPS and urethral samples. 6.4% had the same HPV-type in both EPS and urethral samples. The concordance between the urethral samples and EPS was 62.5% (470/752, with 80 cases double positive and 390 cases double negative in both sites. The sensitivity of urethral samples for overall HPV detection was 54.2% (195/360. Compared to analysis of urethral samples only, the analysis of EPS increased the HPV prevalence in this population with 26.2%. CONCLUSION: EPS represent informative sampling material for the study of HPV epidemiology in the male.

  18. Cytomegalovirus Associated Duodenal Ulcer and Duodenitis in a Malnourished Pediatric Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Bernard

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytomegalovirus (CMV duodenitis is a rare occurrence, especially in pediatric patients. A thirteen-month-old female presented to the Emergency Department for a febrile seizure. She was incidentally admitted for severe malnutrition with an initial workup remarkable for only a slight elevation in her ALT at 48. The patient was found to have an oral aversion requiring nasogastric tube feeds for adequate caloric intake. She continued to fail to gain weight and underwent an EGD that demonstrated a duodenal ulcer. She was consequently started on sucralfate and omeprazole. Post-EGD lab work demonstrated a pronounced increase in AST and ALT. Pathology from the EGD biopsies later demonstrated viral inclusion bodies consistent with CMV duodenitis. Apart from malnutrition, other causes of immune deficiency were eliminated from the differential diagnosis due to negative HIV PCR and normal immunoglobulins. While on antiviral treatment, her viral load of 1080 IU/mL trended to resolution and her liver enzymes normalized. The patient was ultimately discharged home demonstrating adequate weight gain via gastrostomy tube feeds. This case advocates for pediatricians to include immunodeficiency and infectious etiologies in their differential for malnourished patients in order to lead to earlier diagnosis and management of this treatable condition.

  19. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha induces Cl- and K+ secretion in human distal colon driven by prostaglandin E2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, H; Fromm, M; Bode, H; Scholz, P; Riecken, E O; Schulzke, J D

    1996-10-01

    Increased levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) have been found in, for example, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. To investigate a possible contribution of TNF-alpha to the pathogenesis of diarrhea in these diseases, ion transport of human distal colon was studied in the Ussing chamber in vitro. Serosal addition of TNF-alpha increased short-circuit current (Isc) of partially stripped tissues in a dose-dependent manner. Maximum Isc increase of 1.8 +/- 0.2 mumol.h-1.cm-2 was reached after 60 +/- 9 min at 200 ng/ml TNF-alpha. Bidirectional tracer flux measurements revealed that TNF-alpha induced an increase in 36 Cl serosal-to-mucosal flux, a decrease in 36Cl- mucosal-to-serosal flux, and a slight increase in K+ secretion indicated by an increased secretory 86Rb net flux. In the highly differentiated colonic epithelial cell line HT-29/B6, TNF-alpha had no effect on Isc, suggesting a mediation step located in the subepithelium. This supposition was supported by measurements on totally stripped human tissues, since removal of subepithelial layers by total stripping reduced the TNF-alpha effect by 40%. Experiments with tetrodotoxin (10(-6)M) indicated that the TNF-alpha effect was not mediated by the enteric nervous system. The specific 5-lipoxygenase blocker ICI-230487 (5 x 10(-8)M) also had no effect on TNF-alpha action. In contrast, inhibition of cyclooxygenase by indomethacin (10(-6)M inhibited the effect of TNF-alpha. Radioimmunoassay of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in the serosal bathing solution revealed an increase in PGE2 production/release after addition of TNF-alpha, which paralleled the Isc response. We conclude that TNF-alpha changed Cl- and K+ transport toward secretion in human colon. This effect was mediated by PGE2 produced by subepithelial cells. Thus TNF-alpha could be a mediator of diarrhea during intestinal inflammation, e.g., in IBD and HIV infection.

  20. Human memory FOXP3+ Tregs secrete IL-17 ex vivo and constitutively express the T(H)17 lineage-specific transcription factor RORgamma t.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyoub, Maha; Deknuydt, Florence; Raimbaud, Isabelle; Dousset, Christelle; Leveque, Lucie; Bioley, Gilles; Valmori, Danila

    2009-05-26

    Recent studies have suggested a close relationship between CD4(+)FOXP3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) and proinflammatory IL-17-producing T helper cells (T(H)17) expressing the lineage-specific transcription factor RORgamma t. We report here the unexpected finding that human memory Tregs secrete IL-17 ex vivo and constitutively express RORgamma t. IL-17-secreting Tregs share some phenotypic and functional features with conventional T(H)17 cells, expressing high levels of CCR4 and CCR6 and low levels of CXCR3. However, unlike conventional T(H)17 cells, they express low levels of CD161 and mostly fail to cosecrete IL-22 and TNF-alpha ex vivo. Ex vivo secretion of IL-17 and constitutive expression of RORgamma t by human memory Tregs suggest that, in addition to their well-known suppressive functions, these cells likely play additional, as yet undescribed, proinflammatory functions.

  1. Human memory FOXP3+ Tregs secrete IL-17 ex vivo and constitutively express the TH17 lineage-specific transcription factor RORγt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyoub, Maha; Deknuydt, Florence; Raimbaud, Isabelle; Dousset, Christelle; Leveque, Lucie; Bioley, Gilles; Valmori, Danila

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested a close relationship between CD4+FOXP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) and proinflammatory IL-17-producing T helper cells (TH17) expressing the lineage-specific transcription factor RORγt. We report here the unexpected finding that human memory Tregs secrete IL-17 ex vivo and constitutively express RORγt. IL-17-secreting Tregs share some phenotypic and functional features with conventional TH17 cells, expressing high levels of CCR4 and CCR6 and low levels of CXCR3. However, unlike conventional TH17 cells, they express low levels of CD161 and mostly fail to cosecrete IL-22 and TNF-α ex vivo. Ex vivo secretion of IL-17 and constitutive expression of RORγt by human memory Tregs suggest that, in addition to their well-known suppressive functions, these cells likely play additional, as yet undescribed, proinflammatory functions. PMID:19439651

  2. Duodenal Bleeding from Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma

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    Tarun Rustagi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Massive upper gastrointestinal bleeding due to malignancy is relatively uncommon and the duodenum is the least frequently involved site. Duodenal metastasis is rare in renal cell carcinoma (RCC and early detection, especially in case of a solitary mass, helps in planning further therapy. We report a case of intractable upper gastrointestinal bleeding from metastatic RCC to the duodenum. The patient presented with melena and anemia, 13 years after nephrectomy for RCC. On esophagogastroduodenoscopy, a submucosal mass was noted in the duodenum, biopsies of which revealed metastatic RCC. In conclusion, metastasis from RCC should be considered in nephrectomized patients presenting with gastrointestinal symptoms and a complete evaluation, especially endoscopic examination followed by biopsy, is suggested.

  3. Unusual involvement in mycosis fungoides: duodenal papilla

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    Álvaro Andrés Gómez-Venegas

    Full Text Available Background: Mycosis fungoides (MF is a type of T-cell lymphoma with cutaneous involvement. It is a rare disease, of low incidence and usually affects middle-aged men. In most cases only the skin is involved although in advanced stages may present with extra cutaneous involvement including the gastrointestinal tract. Case report: We report the first case of MF with compromise of duodenal papilla, emphasizing the diagnostic approach and a brief review of the subject. Discussion: This case report proves the value of the endoscopic studies in patients with lymphoproliferative disorders, because of the impact in the diagnosis and prognosis. Also, this case report is relevant because there is no scientific evidence, as far as we know, of similar cases reported.

  4. Secrets Law

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    Luz Helena Guamanzara Torres

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a review of the book The Law of Secrets, of the author Juan Carlos Martínez-Villalba Riofrío studying the secrets and how law does protect. To this end, the author has analyzed the general theory of secrecy, secrets and methodology, its overall rating, essential elements and their different legal dimensions, the secret as a subjective right. It also establishes that professional secrecy is protected by constitutional principles such as the right to privacy.

  5. Modified Low Density Lipoprotein Stimulates Complement C3 Expression and Secretion via Liver X Receptor and Toll-like Receptor 4 Activation in Human Macrophages*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogilenko, Denis A.; Kudriavtsev, Igor V.; Trulioff, Andrey S.; Shavva, Vladimir S.; Dizhe, Ella B.; Missyul, Boris V.; Zhakhov, Alexander V.; Ischenko, Alexander M.; Perevozchikov, Andrej P.; Orlov, Sergey V.

    2012-01-01

    Complement C3 is a pivotal component of three cascades of complement activation. C3 is expressed in human atherosclerotic lesions and is involved in atherogenesis. However, the mechanism of C3 accumulation in atherosclerotic lesions is not well elucidated. We show that acetylated low density lipoprotein and oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL) increase C3 gene expression and protein secretion by human macrophages. Modified LDL (mLDL)-mediated activation of C3 expression mainly depends on liver X receptor (LXR) and partly on Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), whereas C3 secretion is increased due to TLR4 activation by mLDL. LXR agonist TO901317 stimulates C3 gene expression in human monocyte-macrophage cells but not in human hepatoma (HepG2) cells. We find LXR-responsive element inside of the promoter region of the human C3 gene, which binds to LXRβ in macrophages but not in HepG2 cells. We show that C3 expression and secretion is decreased in IL-4-treated (M2) and increased in IFNγ/LPS-stimulated (M1) human macrophages as compared with resting macrophages. LXR agonist TO901317 potentiates LPS-induced C3 gene expression and protein secretion in macrophages, whereas oxLDL differently modulates LPS-mediated regulation of C3 in M1 or M2 macrophages. Treatment of human macrophages with anaphylatoxin C3a results in stimulation of C3 transcription and secretion as well as increased oxLDL accumulation and augmented oxLDL-mediated up-regulation of the C3 gene. These data provide a novel mechanism of C3 gene regulation in macrophages and suggest new aspects of cross-talk between mLDL, C3, C3a, and TLR4 during development of atherosclerotic lesions. PMID:22194611

  6. Secreted Protein Acidic and Rich in Cysteine (SPARC) in Human Skeletal Muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Louise H; Petersson, Stine J; Sellathurai, Jeeva

    2009-01-01

    indicated a function of SPARC in skeletal muscle. We therefore found it of interest to study SPARC expression in human skeletal muscle during development and in biopsies from Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy and congenital muscular dystrophy, congenital myopathy, inclusion body myositis...

  7. Human decidual stromal cells secrete soluble pro-apoptotic factors during decidualization in a cAMP-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leno-Durán, E; Ruiz-Magaña, M J; Muñoz-Fernández, R; Requena, F; Olivares, E G; Ruiz-Ruiz, C

    2014-10-10

    Is there a relationship between decidualization and apoptosis of decidual stromal cells (DSC)? Decidualization triggers the secretion of soluble factors that induce apoptosis in DSC. The differentiation and apoptosis of DSC during decidualization of the receptive decidua are crucial processes for the controlled invasion of trophoblasts in normal pregnancy. Most DSC regress in a time-dependent manner, and their removal is important to provide space for the embryo to grow. However, the mechanism that controls DSC death is poorly understood. The apoptotic response of DSC was analyzed after exposure to different exogenous agents and during decidualization. The apoptotic potential of decidualized DSC supernatants and prolactin (PRL) was also evaluated. DSC lines were established from samples of decidua from first trimester pregnancies. Apoptosis was assayed by flow cytometry. PRL production, as a marker of decidualization, was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. DSCs were resistant to a variety of apoptosis-inducing substances. Nevertheless, DSC underwent apoptosis during decidualization in culture, with cAMP being essential for both apoptosis and differentiation. In addition, culture supernatants from decidualized DSC induced apoptosis in undifferentiated DSC, although paradoxically these supernatants decreased the spontaneous apoptosis of decidual lymphocytes. Exogenously added PRL did not induce apoptosis in DSC and an antibody that neutralized the PRL receptor did not decrease the apoptosis induced by supernatants. Further studies are needed to examine the involvement of other soluble factors secreted by decidualized DSC in the induction of apoptosis. The present results indicate that apoptosis of DSC occurs in parallel to differentiation, in response to decidualization signals, with soluble factors secreted by decidualized DSC being responsible for triggering cell death. These studies are relevant in the understanding of how the regression of decidua

  8. [Urinary bladder substitution using combined membrane based on secretions of human mesenchymal stem cells and type I collagen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirpatovckii, V I; Kamalov, D M; Efimenko, A Yu; Makarevich, P I; Sagaradze, G D; Makarevich, O A; Nimiritskii, P P; Osidak, E O; Domogatskii, S P; Karpov, V K; Akopyan, Z H A; Tkachuk, V A; Kamalov, A A

    2016-12-01

    Despite the widespread use of intestinal cystoplasty, urinary bladder substitution remains a challenging problem due to the complexity of operations and the potentially high risk of complications. A promising alternative may be bio-engineered collagen-based matrices containing stem cells or their secretions. To evaluate the effectiveness of this bladder substitution modality, an experiment was conducted on 14 male rabbits. The animals underwent resection of urinary bladder, and the formed defect was substituted with a membrane of type I collagen (series 1, 5 rabbits) or a membrane of the same composition containing a conditioned medium with secretion of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells derived from human adipose tissue (series 2, 5 rabbits). In the comparison group (4 rabbits) resection of the bladder and the closure of the defect was carried out without bladder substitution (series 3). At 1 month after surgery, there was a complete epithelization of the inner surface of the implant, and body tissues replaced the collagen matrix. In series 1, the collagen implant was replaced mainly by connective tissue ingrown with occasional solitary smooth muscle cells. In series 2, the newly formed bladder wall contained numerous smooth muscle cells, growing into the collagen matrix and forming the muscular coat. In series 3, the muscular layer regeneration at the scar site was also noted, but it was less intense, which was confirmed by morphometry. In series 2, more active vascularization of the collagen implant occurred due to neo-angiogenesis, which was more intense than that in series 3, and especially in series 1. Functional studies revealed a reduced bladder functional capacity in series 1 and 3, while in series 2 it was close to normal. During filling cystometry, changes in intra-vesical pressure profile in series 2 were close to normal, while in series 1 and 3 infusion of a small volume of saline resulted in a marked increase in intra-vesical pressure, showing a reduced

  9. GLP-1 secretion is stimulated by 1,10-phenanthroline via colocalized T2R5 signal transduction in human enteroendocrine L cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jiyoung; Kim, Ki-Suk; Kim, Kang-Hoon; Lee, In-Seung; Jeong, Hyeon-soo; Kim, Yumi; Jang, Hyeung-Jin, E-mail: hjjang@khu.ac.kr

    2015-12-04

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) hormone is known to regulate blood glucose by an insulinotropic effect and increases proliferation as and also prevents apoptosis of pancreatic β cells. We know that GLP-1 is secreted by nutrients such as fatty acids and sweet compounds but also bitter compounds via stimulation of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) in the gut. Among these, bitter compounds are multiply-contained in phytochemicals or artificial materials and perceived as ligands of various bitter taste receptors. We hypothesized that GLP-1 hormone is secreted through stimulation of a single bitter taste receptor by 1,10-phenanthroline which is known agonist of taste receptor type 2 member 5 (T2R5). To prove this hypothesis, we used the representatively well-known 1,10-phenanthroline as ligand of single receptor and evaluated the existence of T2R5 by double-labeling immunofluorescence and then 1,10-phenanthroline is able to secrete GLP-1 hormone through stimulation of T2R5 in human enteroendocrine cells. Consequently, we verify that GLP-1 hormone is colocalized with T2R5 in the human duodenum and ileum tissue and is secreted by 1,10-phenanthroline via T2R5 signal transduction in differentiated human enteroendocrine L cells. - Highlights: • Taste receptor type 2 member 5 (T2R5) is colocalized with GLP-1 hormone in human enteroendocrine cells. • GLP-1 secretion is stimulated by 1,10-phenanthroline via stimulation of T2R5. • Inhibition of the bitter taste pathway reduce GLP-1 secretion.

  10. Effect of apoA-I on cholesterol release and apoE secretion in human mature adipocytes

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    Roche Régis

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The risk of cardiovascular disease is inversely correlated to level of plasma HDL-c. Moreover, reverse cholesterol transport (RCT from peripheral tissues to the liver is the most widely accepted mechanism linked to the anti-atherosclerotic activity of HDL. The apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I and the ABC transporters play a key role in this process. Adipose tissue constitutes the body's largest pool of free cholesterol. The adipose cell could therefore be regarded as a key factor in cholesterol homeostasis. The present study investigates the capacity of primary cultures of mature human adipocytes to release cholesterol and explores the relationships between apoA-I, ABCA1, and apoE as well as the signaling pathways that could be potentially involved. Results We demonstrate that apoA-I induces a strong increase in cholesterol release and apoE secretion from adipocytes, whereas it has no transcriptional effect on ABCA1 or apoE genes. Furthermore, brefeldin A (BFA, an intracellular trafficking inhibitor, reduces basal cholesterol and apoE secretion, but does not modify induction by apoA-I. The use of statins also demonstrates that apoA-I stimulated cholesterol release is independent of HMG-CoA reductase activation. Conclusion Our work highlights the fact that adipose tissue, and particularly adipocytes, may largely contribute to RCT via a mechanism specifically regulated within these cells. This further supports the argument that adipose tissue must be regarded as a major factor in the development of cardiovascular diseases, in particular atherosclerosis.

  11. Tolvaptan inhibits ERK-dependent cell proliferation, Cl− secretion, and in vitro cyst growth of human ADPKD cells stimulated by vasopressin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reif, Gail A.; Yamaguchi, Tamio; Nivens, Emily; Fujiki, Hiroyuki; Pinto, Cibele S.

    2011-01-01

    In autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), arginine vasopressin (AVP) accelerates cyst growth by stimulating cAMP-dependent ERK activity and epithelial cell proliferation and by promoting Cl−-dependent fluid secretion. Tolvaptan, a V2 receptor antagonist, inhibits the renal effects of AVP and slows cyst growth in PKD animals. Here, we determined the effect of graded concentrations of tolvaptan on intracellular cAMP, ERK activity, cell proliferation, and transcellular Cl− secretion using human ADPKD cyst epithelial cells. Incubation of ADPKD cells with 10−9 M AVP increased intracellular cAMP and stimulated ERK and cell proliferation. Tolvaptan caused a concentration-dependent inhibition of AVP-induced cAMP production with an apparent IC50 of ∼10−10 M. Correspondingly, tolvaptan inhibited AVP-induced ERK signaling and cell proliferation. Basolateral application of AVP to ADPKD cell monolayers grown on permeable supports caused a sustained increase in short-circuit current that was completely blocked by the Cl− channel blocker CFTRinh-172, consistent with AVP-induced transepithelial Cl− secretion. Tolvaptan inhibited AVP-induced Cl− secretion and decreased in vitro cyst growth of ADPKD cells cultured within a three-dimensional collagen matrix. These data demonstrate that relatively low concentrations of tolvaptan inhibit AVP-stimulated cell proliferation and Cl−-dependent fluid secretion by human ADPKD cystic cells. PMID:21816754

  12. Chemokine Secretion of Human Cells in Response to Toxoplasma gondii Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Denney, Carolyn F.; Eckmann, Lars; Reed, Sharon L.

    1999-01-01

    The ubiquitous protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in neonates and immunocompromised hosts. Both acute invasion and reactivation of latent infection result in an inflammatory reaction with lymphocytes, macrophages, and neutrophils. The mechanisms responsible for triggering the local host response to toxoplasmosis are not fully understood. Infection of monolayers of human HeLa epithelial cells and fibroblasts with T. gondii resulted in a marked incr...

  13. Molecular detection identified a type six secretion system in Campylobacter jejuni from various sources but not from human cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, F; Champion, O; Akram, M; Studholme, D; Eqani, S A M A S; Wren, B W; Titball, R; Bokhari, H

    2015-05-01

    To determine the presence of the T6SS in Campylobacter jejuni from diverse sources. The recently identified type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a bacterial injection machinery that plays a role in virulence, symbiosis, bacterial interactions and environmental stress responses. This system has been recently discovered in the major enteric pathogen Camp. jejuni. In this study, we used multiplex PCR (mPCR), based on conserved genetic markers of the T6SS, to screen 366 Pakistani Camp. jejuni isolates from humans, poultry, cattle, wildlife or waste-water sources. We identified the T6SS in isolates from all of these sources except humans. The overall prevalence of the T6SS among the isolates was 17/366 (4·6%) and the T6SS positive isolates clustered into four different groups. Transcription of the T6SS genes, determined using RT-PCR, was observed in bacteria cultured at 37 or 42°C but not in 37°C cultures adjusted to pH3. Campylobacter jejuni isolates harbouring T6SS markers genes were identified in livestock and non-livestock sources but in this study we did not identify human diarrhoeal isolates which possessed the T6SS. We demonstrated down-regulation of T6SS in an acidic environment. This study questions the role of the T6SS in human diarrhoeal disease. Moreover this study did not identify a clear association of Camp. jejuni isolates harbouring T6SS with any of the niches tested. Our study highlights the need to establish the role of the T6SS in environmental survival or virulence. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. A new splice variant of the major subunit of human asialoglycoprotein receptor encodes a secreted form in hepatocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The human asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR is composed of two polypeptides, designated H1 and H2. While variants of H2 have been known for decades, the existence of H1 variants has never been reported. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We identified two splice variants of ASGPR H1 transcripts, designated H1a and H1b, in human liver tissues and hepatoma cells. Molecular cloning of ASGPR H1 variants revealed that they differ by a 117 nucleotide segment corresponding to exon 2 in the ASGPR genomic sequence. Thus, ASGPR variant H1b transcript encodes a protein lacking the transmembrane domain. Using an H1b-specific antibody, H1b protein and a functional soluble ASGPR (sASGPR composed of H1b and H2 in human sera and in hepatoma cell culture supernatant were identified. The expression of ASGPR H1a and H1b in Hela cells demonstrated the different cellular loctions of H1a and H1b proteins at cellular membranes and in intracellular compartments, respectively. In vitro binding assays using fluorescence-labeled sASGPR or the substract ASOR revealed that the presence of sASGPR reduced the binding of ASOR to cells. However, ASOR itself was able to enhance the binding of sASGPR to cells expressing membrane-bound ASGPR. Further, H1b expression is reduced in liver tissues from patients with viral hepatitis. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that two naturally occurring ASGPR H1 splice variants are produced in human hepatocytes. A hetero-oligomeric complex sASGPR consists of the secreted form of H1 and H2 and may bind to free substrates in circulation and carry them to liver tissue for uptake by ASGPR-expressing hepatocytes.

  15. Prolactin expression and secretion by human breast glandular and adipose tissue explants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinger, Michael; McFarland, Molly; Ben-Jonathan, Nira

    2003-02-01

    Prolactin (PRL) is a 23-kDa hormone produced by the pituitary and extrapituitary sites. The main target of PRL is the breast, where it affects cellular growth, differentiation, and milk production. Recent evidence suggests that locally produced PRL plays a role in breast tumorigenesis. Our objective was to examine PRL synthesis/release in different tissues of the human breast and determine the effect of ovarian steroids. Breast tissue, obtained from women undergoing mastectomy or breast reduction, was separated into glandular (nonmalignant) and adipose explants and incubated for 10 d. Conditioned media were analyzed for PRL by a bioassay. PRL release from glandular explants decreased by 60% from d 1-3, followed by a 4-fold increase on d 10. PRL release from adipose explants was unchanged from d 1-3 and increased more than 10-fold by d 10. PRL gene expression, determined by RT-PCR, was low on d 0 and markedly increased on d 10 in both types of explants. De novo synthesis of PRL was confirmed by metabolic labeling. Progesterone suppressed PRL release from glandular explants without affecting adipose explants. Estradiol did not alter PRL release from either tissue. In conclusion, the human breast produces and releases bioactive PRL, with a higher release rate by adipose than glandular tissue. The time-dependent rise in PRL release suggests removal from inhibitory control. Progesterone may be one of the factors that suppresses PRL production in the glandular compartment, whereas the factor(s) that regulate adipose PRL are unknown. These data suggest an autocrine/paracrine role for PRL in human glandular and adipose breast tissue.

  16. Neurotransmitters act as paracrine signals to regulate insulin secretion from the human pancreatic islet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Diaz, Rayner; Menegaz, Danusa; Caicedo, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    In this symposium review we discuss the role of neurotransmitters as paracrine signals that regulate pancreatic islet function. A large number of neurotransmitters and their receptors has been identified in the islet, but relatively little is known about their involvement in islet biology. Interestingly, neurotransmitters initially thought to be present in autonomic axons innervating the islet are also present in endocrine cells of the human islet. These neurotransmitters can thus be released as paracrine signals to help control hormone release. Here we propose that the role of neurotransmitters may extend beyond controlling endocrine cell function to work as signals modulating vascular flow and immune responses within the islet. PMID:24591573

  17. Duodenal injuries due to trauma: Review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Santos, Esther; Soto Sánchez, Ana; Verde, Juan M; Marini, Corrado P; Asensio, Juan A; Petrone, Patrizio

    2015-02-01

    Duodenal injuries constitute a challenge to the Trauma Surgeon, mainly due to their retroperitoneal location. When identified, they present associated with other abdominal injuries. Consequently, they have an increased morbidity and mortality. At best estimates, duodenal lesions occur in 4.3% of all patients with abdominal injuries, ranging from 3.7% to 5%, and because of their anatomical proximity to other organs, they are rarely an isolated injury. The aim of this paper is to present a concise description of the anatomy, diagnosis, surgical management and treatment of complications of duodenal trauma, and an analysis of complications and mortality rates of duodenal injuries based on a 46-year review of the literature. Copyright © 2014 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Duodenal metastasis from lung adenocarcinoma: A rare cause of melena

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    Eyad Fawzi AlSaeed

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Although rare, duodenal metastasis from lung adenocarcinoma should also be included in the differential diagnosis of melena. Smaller lesions (≤1 cm can safely be managed with endoscopic resection.

  19. Duodenal Bulb Adenocarcinoma Benefitted from Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Geng-Yuan; Mao, Jie; Zhao, Bin; Long, Bo; Zhan, Hao; Zhang, Jun-Qiang; Zhou, Hui-Nian; Guo, Ling-Yun; Jiao, Zuo-Yi

    2017-01-01

    Duodenal bulb adenocarcinoma is an extremely rare malignancy in the alimentary tract which has a low incidence rate and nonspecific symptoms. It is difficult to diagnose early, and the misdiagnosis rate is high. CT, MRI, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, and other advanced imaging modalities should be combined to make a comprehensive evaluation. The diagnostic confirmation of this tumor type mainly depends on the pathological examination. The combination of surgery with other treatment modalities is effective. A review of reports on duodenal bulb adenocarcinoma with chemotherapy revealed 6 cases since 1990. However, there are few reports on neoadjuvant chemotherapy for the disease. In this report, preoperative S-1 in combination with oxaliplatin neoadjuvant chemotherapy achieved a complete pathological response in the treatment of duodenal bulb adenocarcinoma. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy shows a better clinical efficacy in the treatment of duodenal bulb adenocarcinoma, but its value needs to be further verified. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Duodenal gangliocytic paraganglioma: A case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler J. Loftus

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Localized duodenal gangliocytic paragangliomas are best managed by resection with negative margins. In cases in which the tumor is resected with negative margins, it appears to be safe to embark on a course of surveillance and forego adjuvant therapy.

  1. Modulation of single-cell IgG secretion frequency and rates in human memory B cells by CpG DNA, CD40L, IL-21, and cell division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henn, Alicia D; Rebhahn, Jonathan; Brown, Miguel A; Murphy, Alison J; Coca, Mircea N; Hyrien, Ollivier; Pellegrin, Tina; Mosmann, Tim; Zand, Martin S

    2009-09-01

    During the recall response by CD27(+) IgG class-switched human memory B cells, total IgG secreted is a function of the following: 1) the number of IgG-secreting cells (IgG-SC), and 2) the secretion rate of each cell. In this study, we report the quantitative ELISPOT method for simultaneous estimation of single-cell IgG secretion rates and secreting cell frequencies in human B cell populations. We found that CD27(+) IgM(-) memory B cells activated with CpG and cytokines had considerable heterogeneity in the IgG secretion rates, with two major secretion rate subpopulations. BCR cross-linking reduced the frequency of cells with high per-cell IgG secretion rates, with a parallel decrease in CD27(high) B cell blasts. Increased cell death may account for the BCR-stimulated reduction in high-rate IgG-SC CD27(high) B cell blasts. In contrast, the addition of IL-21 to CD40L plus IL-4-activated human memory B cells induced a high-rate IgG-SC population in B cells with otherwise low per-cell IgG secretion rates. The profiles of human B cell IgG secretion rates followed the same biphasic distribution and range irrespective of division class. This, along with the presence of non-IgG-producing, dividing B cells in CpG plus cytokine-activated B memory B cell populations, is suggestive of an on/off switch regulating IgG secretion. Finally, these data support a mixture model of IgG secretion in which IgG secreted over time is modulated by the frequency of IgG-SC and the distribution of their IgG secretion rates.

  2. Deleterious effect of dithizone-DMSO staining on insulin secretion in rat and human pancreatic islets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conget, J I; Sarri, Y; González-Clemente, J M; Casamitjana, R; Vives, M; Gomis, R

    1994-03-01

    Dithizone (DTZ) is a selective stain for pancreatic islets which facilitates their identification, being of special interest in human islet isolation assessment. Nevertheless, there are few studies concerning its potential toxic effects on islet function. In our study, we have evaluated the effects of DTZ (dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide [DMSO] 1% w/v) at three different concentrations (2, 10, and 100 micrograms/ml) on insulin response to glucose in human and rat islets. Likewise, we studied the effect of incubation time, in the presence of DTZ at the above-mentioned concentrations, on insulin release. Only when DTZ was employed at low concentrations and for a short period of incubation (10 min) was there no impairment of pancreatic islet function. Moreover, even at this low concentration, DTZ became deleterious for islet function when the incubation period with the dye was prolonged for 30 min. Culture (24 h) of previously stained islets produced a partial recovery of insulin response. In conclusion, our findings indicate (a) DTZ should not be employed to collect islets for functional studies because of its deleterious effect on beta-cell function, (b) DTZ's deleterious effects on beta-cell function should be considered if this dye is used to purify islets by fluorescence-activated cell sorting for transplantation.

  3. Reduced expression of Toll-like receptor 4 inhibits human breast cancer cells proliferation and inflammatory cytokines secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Xiaofang

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tumor cell expression of Toll-like receptors (TLRs can promote inflammation and cell survival in the tumor microenvironment. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 signaling in tumor cells can mediate tumor cell immune escape and tumor progression, and it is regarded as one of the mechanisms for chronic inflammation in tumorigenesis and progression. The expression of TLR4 in human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 and its biological function in the development and progression of breast cancer have not been investigated. We sought to characterize the expression of TLR1-TLR10 in the established human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231, and to investigate the biological roles of TLR4 in breast cancer cells growth, survival, and its potential as a target for breast cancer therapy. Methods TLRs mRNA and protein expressions were detected in human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 by RT-PCR, real-time PCR and flow cytometry (FCM. RNA interference was used to knockdown the expression of TLR4 in MDA-MB-231. MDA-MB-231 transfected with the vector pGenesil-1 and the vector containing a scrambled siRNA were as controls. Recombinant plasmids named TLR4AsiRNA, TLR4BsiRNA and TLR4CsiRNA specific to TLR4 were transfected into human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 with Lipfectamine™2000 reagent. TLR4 mRNA and protein expressions were investigated by RT-PCR, real-time PCR, FCM and immunofluorescence after silence. MTT analysis was performed to detect cell proliferation and FCM was used to detect the secretion of inflammatory cytokines in supernatant of transfected cells. Results The human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 was found to express TLR1-TLR10 at both the mRNA and protein levels. TLR4 was found to be the highest expressed TLR in MDA-MB-231. TLR4AsiRNA, TLR4BsiRNA and TLR4CsiRNA were found to significantly inhibit TLR4 expression in MDA-MB-231 at both mRNA and protein levels as compared to vector control(vector transfected cells. TLR4Asi

  4. Neurotransmitters act as paracrine signals to regulate insulin secretion from the human pancreatic islet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Diaz, Rayner; Menegaz, Danusa; Caicedo, Alejandro

    2014-08-15

    In this symposium review we discuss the role of neurotransmitters as paracrine signals that regulate pancreatic islet function. A large number of neurotransmitters and their receptors has been identified in the islet, but relatively little is known about their involvement in islet biology. Interestingly, neurotransmitters initially thought to be present in autonomic axons innervating the islet are also present in endocrine cells of the human islet. These neurotransmitters can thus be released as paracrine signals to help control hormone release. Here we propose that the role of neurotransmitters may extend beyond controlling endocrine cell function to work as signals modulating vascular flow and immune responses within the islet. © 2014 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2014 The Physiological Society.

  5. [Right to privacy, reservation or secret. Changes in perspective of research on human genome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa Yañez, G

    1999-01-01

    1. Three kinds of privacy can be identified: territorial, bodily and, thirdly, psychological or spiritual. Cases and examples of each. 2. Two aspects are involved in breaches of the right to privacy--in any of its three forms-: the actual invasion of someone's privacy and the subsequent publication of the product thereof. 3. The right to privacy can enter into conflict with other constitutionally protected right such as the right to information, freedom of expression and freedom of scientific enquiry. 4. Research on the human genome has opened up a new area in privacy, given that it is unlawful to intrude into the genetic structure of a person without said person's lawful consent. Nothing is more private than a person's own individual genetic code. There may be exceptions to the right to genetic privacy: cases of lawful intrusion. 5. Unwarranted intrusion: discrimination in school admissions, employment contracts and insurance policies.

  6. The Vibrio cholerae cytolysin promotes chloride secretion from intact human intestinal mucosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucantonio Debellis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The pathogenicity of the Vibrio cholerae strains belonging to serogroup O1 and O139 is due to the production of virulence factors such as cholera toxin (CT and the toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP. The remaining serogroups, which mostly lack CT and TCP, are more frequently isolated from aquatic environmental sources than from clinical samples; nevertheless, these strains have been reported to cause human disease, such as sporadic outbreaks of watery diarrhoea and inflammatory enterocolitis. This evidence suggested the possibility that other virulence factor(s than cholera toxin might be crucial in the pathogenesis of Vibrio cholerae-induced diarrhoea, but their nature remains unknown. VCC, the hemolysin produced by virtually all Vibrio cholerae strains, has been proposed as a possible candidate, though a clear-cut demonstration attesting VCC as crucial in the pathogenesis of Vibrio cholerae-induced diarrhoea is still lacking. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Electrophysiological parameters and paracellular permeability of stripped human healthy colon tissues, obtained at subtotal colectomy, mounted in Ussing chamber were studied in the presence or absence of VCC purified from culture supernatants of V. cholerae O1 El Tor strain. Short circuit current (I(SC and transepithelial resistance (R(T were measured by a computerized voltage clamp system. The exposure of sigmoid colon specimens to 1 nM VCC resulted in an increase of I(SC by 20.7%, with respect to the basal values, while R(T was reduced by 12.3%. Moreover, increase in I(SC was abolished by bilateral Cl(- reduction. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate that VCC, by forming anion channels on the apical membrane of enterocytes, triggers an outward transcellular flux of chloride. Such an ion movement, associated with the outward movement of Na(+ and water, might be responsible for the diarrhoea caused by the non-toxigenic strains of Vibrio cholerae.

  7. Duodenal White Spots Mimicking Intestinal Candidiasis: Report of Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgur Turk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Duodenal white spots are mentioned in these nonspecific lesions until recently. Although there is not enough studies about duedonal white spots yet; these lesions described in a separate syndrome. Here now we reported a case that we diagnosed multiple Duodenal white spots mimicking intestinal candidiasis. Clinical manifestation and endoscopic appearance of lesions gave rise to thought intestinal candidiasis histopathological examination revealed us several duodenitis. There was no evidence of fungal infection in PAS staining. Early after endoscopy patient took treatment of Lansoprozole at the 30 mg dose and bismuth salicylate. Patients compliant declined and control endoscopy exposed white duodenal spots cleared away three months later. Duodenal white spots are becoming to be designated as a separate disease even a syndrome. Etiology of duodenal white spots must be determined carefully during endoscopy. Sometimes it is difficult to make the correct diagnosis by appearance of lesion; in such cases histopathological examination can be useful both differential diagnosis of disease and determination of etiological factor. [J Contemp Med 2015; 5(4.000: 249-252

  8. In Vitro Anti-Plasmodium falciparum Properties of the Full Set of Human Secreted Phospholipases A2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaume, Carole; Payré, Christine; Jemel, Ikram; Jeammet, Louise; Bezzine, Sofiane; Naika, Gajendra S.; Bollinger, James; Grellier, Philippe; Gelb, Michael H.; Schrével, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    We have previously shown that secreted phospholipases A2 (sPLA2s) from animal venoms inhibit the in vitro development of Plasmodium falciparum, the agent of malaria. In addition, the inflammatory-type human group IIA (hGIIA) sPLA2 circulates at high levels in the serum of malaria patients. However, the role of the different human sPLA2s in host defense against P. falciparum has not been investigated. We show here that 4 out of 10 human sPLA2s, namely, hGX, hGIIF, hGIII, and hGV, exhibit potent in vitro anti-Plasmodium properties with half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) of 2.9 ± 2.4, 10.7 ± 2.1, 16.5 ± 9.7, and 94.2 ± 41.9 nM, respectively. Other human sPLA2s, including hGIIA, are inactive. The inhibition is dependent on sPLA2 catalytic activity and primarily due to hydrolysis of plasma lipoproteins from the parasite culture. Accordingly, purified lipoproteins that have been prehydrolyzed by hGX, hGIIF, hGIII, and hGV are more toxic to P. falciparum than native lipoproteins. However, the total enzymatic activities of human sPLA2s on purified lipoproteins or plasma did not reflect their inhibitory activities on P. falciparum. For instance, hGIIF is 9-fold more toxic than hGV but releases a lower quantity of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs). Lipidomic analyses of released NEFAs from lipoproteins demonstrate that sPLA2s with anti-Plasmodium properties are those that release polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), with hGIIF being the most selective enzyme. NEFAs purified from lipoproteins hydrolyzed by hGIIF were more potent at inhibiting P. falciparum than those from hGV, and PUFA-enriched liposomes hydrolyzed by sPLA2s were highly toxic, demonstrating the critical role of PUFAs. The selectivity of sPLA2s toward low- and high-density (LDL and HDL, respectively) lipoproteins and their ability to directly attack parasitized erythrocytes further explain their anti-Plasmodium activity. Together, our findings indicate that 4 human sPLA2s are active against P

  9. Dimethylfumarate protects against TNF-α-induced secretion of inflammatory cytokines in human endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardt, Simon; König, Veronika; Doll, Monika; Hailemariam-Jahn, Tsige; Hrgovic, Igor; Zöller, Nadja; Kaufmann, Roland; Kippenberger, Stefan; Meissner, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation, angiogenesis and oxidative stress have been implicated in the pathogenesis of various vascular diseases. Recent evidence suggests that dimethylfumarate (DMF), an antiposriatic and anti-multiple sclerosis agent, possesses anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative and anti-angiogenic properties. Here, we analyze the influence of DMF on TNF-α-induced expression of the important pro-inflammatory and pro-atherogenic chemokine MCP-1 and investigate the underlying mechanisms of this expression. We analyzed constitutive and TNF-α-induced expression of MCP-1 in human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVEC) +/- DMF treatment via enzyme-linkes immunosorbent assay (ELISA). DMF significantly inhibited the protein expression levels in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, MCP-1 mRNA expression was also reduced in response to DMF, as demonstrated by RT-PCR. Thus, the regulation occurs at the transcriptional level. Interestingly, DMF prolonged the TNF-α-induced p38 and JNK phosphorylation in HUVEC, as demonstrated by Western blot analysis; however, the p38 and JNK inhibitor SB203580 did not affect the DMF-conveyed suppression of TNF-α-induced MCP-1 expression. DMF suppressed the TNF-α-induced nuclear translocation and phosphorylation (Serine 536) of p65 in these cells. These results were additionally approved by p65 luciferase promoter assays. Furthermore, we found that DMF slightly inhibited the early degradation of IκBα. In addition, we verified our results using other important inflammatory cytokines such as CCL-5, PDGF-BB, GM-CSF and IL-6. DMF suppresses various TNF-α-induced pro-inflammatory and pro-atherogenic cytokines/chemokines in human endothelial cells. This action is regulated by reduced p65 activity and nuclear translocation, which can be explained in part by the reduced early degradation of IκBα and more important the reduced phosphorylation of p65 at Serine 536. These effects were independent of the p38, PI3K and p42

  10. Retinoid Uptake, Processing, and Secretion in Human iPS-RPE Support the Visual Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñiz, Alberto; Greene, Whitney A.; Plamper, Mark L.; Choi, Jae Hyek; Johnson, Anthony J.; Tsin, Andrew T.; Wang, Heuy-Ching

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Retinal pigmented epithelium derived from human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells (iPS-RPE) may be a source of cells for transplantation. For this reason, it is essential to determine the functional competence of iPS-RPE. One key role of the RPE is uptake and processing of retinoids via the visual cycle. The purpose of this study is to investigate the expression of visual cycle proteins and the functional ability of the visual cycle in iPS-RPE. Methods. iPS-RPE was derived from human iPS cells. Immunocytochemistry, RT-PCR, and Western blot analysis were used to detect expression of RPE genes lecithin-retinol acyl transferase (LRAT), RPE65, cellular retinaldehyde-binding protein (CRALBP), and pigment epithelium–derived factor (PEDF). All-trans retinol was delivered to cultured cells or whole cell homogenate to assess the ability of the iPS-RPE to process retinoids. Results. Cultured iPS-RPE expresses visual cycle genes LRAT, CRALBP, and RPE65. After incubation with all-trans retinol, iPS-RPE synthesized up to 2942 ± 551 pmol/mg protein all-trans retinyl esters. Inhibition of LRAT with N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) prevented retinyl ester synthesis. Significantly, after incubation with all-trans retinol, iPS-RPE released 188 ± 88 pmol/mg protein 11-cis retinaldehyde into the culture media. Conclusions. iPS-RPE develops classic RPE characteristics and maintains expression of visual cycle proteins. The results of this study confirm that iPS-RPE possesses the machinery to process retinoids for support of visual pigment regeneration. Inhibition of all-trans retinyl ester accumulation by NEM confirms LRAT is active in iPS-RPE. Finally, the detection of 11-cis retinaldehyde in the culture medium demonstrates the cells' ability to process retinoids through the visual cycle. This study demonstrates expression of key visual cycle machinery and complete visual cycle activity in iPS-RPE. PMID:24255038

  11. Retinoid uptake, processing, and secretion in human iPS-RPE support the visual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñiz, Alberto; Greene, Whitney A; Plamper, Mark L; Choi, Jae Hyek; Johnson, Anthony J; Tsin, Andrew T; Wang, Heuy-Ching

    2014-01-09

    Retinal pigmented epithelium derived from human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells (iPS-RPE) may be a source of cells for transplantation. For this reason, it is essential to determine the functional competence of iPS-RPE. One key role of the RPE is uptake and processing of retinoids via the visual cycle. The purpose of this study is to investigate the expression of visual cycle proteins and the functional ability of the visual cycle in iPS-RPE. iPS-RPE was derived from human iPS cells. Immunocytochemistry, RT-PCR, and Western blot analysis were used to detect expression of RPE genes lecithin-retinol acyl transferase (LRAT), RPE65, cellular retinaldehyde-binding protein (CRALBP), and pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF). All-trans retinol was delivered to cultured cells or whole cell homogenate to assess the ability of the iPS-RPE to process retinoids. Cultured iPS-RPE expresses visual cycle genes LRAT, CRALBP, and RPE65. After incubation with all-trans retinol, iPS-RPE synthesized up to 2942 ± 551 pmol/mg protein all-trans retinyl esters. Inhibition of LRAT with N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) prevented retinyl ester synthesis. Significantly, after incubation with all-trans retinol, iPS-RPE released 188 ± 88 pmol/mg protein 11-cis retinaldehyde into the culture media. iPS-RPE develops classic RPE characteristics and maintains expression of visual cycle proteins. The results of this study confirm that iPS-RPE possesses the machinery to process retinoids for support of visual pigment regeneration. Inhibition of all-trans retinyl ester accumulation by NEM confirms LRAT is active in iPS-RPE. Finally, the detection of 11-cis retinaldehyde in the culture medium demonstrates the cells' ability to process retinoids through the visual cycle. This study demonstrates expression of key visual cycle machinery and complete visual cycle activity in iPS-RPE.

  12. A protein isolated from human oviductal tissue in vitro secretion, identified as human lactoferrin, interacts with spermatozoa and oocytes and modulates gamete interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumoffen, C M; Gil, R; Caille, A M; Morente, C; Munuce, M J; Ghersevich, S A

    2013-05-01

    Is lactoferrin (LF) (detected in oviductal secretion) able to bind to oocytes and sperm and modulate gamete interaction? LF binds to zona pellucida (ZP) and spermatozoa (depending upon the capacitation stage and acrosome status) and inhibits gamete interaction in vitro. Proteins from human oviductal tissue secretion modulate gamete interaction and parameters of sperm function in vitro and some of them bind to sperm, but they remain to be isolated and identified. Proteins were isolated from human oviductal tissue secretion using their sperm membrane binding ability. One of the isolated proteins was identified as human LF and immunolocalized in tubal tissues. LF expression was analyzed in native oviductal fluid and oviduct epithelial cells (at different phases of the menstrual cycle: proliferative, periovulatory and secretory). In addition, the LF binding sites on spermatozoa (at different capacitation and acrosome reaction stages) and on ZP and the dose-dependent effect of LF on gamete interaction were investigated. All experiments were performed at least three times. Tubal tissues obtained from premenopausal patients (scheduled for hysterectomy, n = 23) were cultured in DMEM/Ham's F12 medium and conditioned media (CM) were collected. Motile spermatozoa were obtained by swim-up from normozoospermic semen samples from healthy donors (n = 4). An affinity chromatography with sperm membrane extracts was used to isolate proteins from CM. Isolated proteins were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophresis and further identified by nano liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry peptide sequencing. The presence of LF in oviductal tissue was investigated by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence and was detected in native oviductal fluid and oviduct epithelial cells homogenates by western blot. LF binding sites on gametes were investigated by incubating gametes with the protein coupled to fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC). The acrosome

  13. Inhibition by secretin of the gastric acid responses to meals and to pentagastrin in duodenal ulcer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konturek, S J; Biernat, J; Grzelec, T

    1973-11-01

    The inhibitory effects of intravenous secretion on the gastric acid responses to a meal and to pentagastrin were studied in seven duodenal ulcer patients.A test meal of 10% peptone adjusted to pH 5.0 was introduced into the stomach and the Fordtran and Walsh method was used to measure the gastric acid output by monitoring the rate at which a solution of 0.3 M sodium bicarbonate had to be added to keep the pH of the gastric content constant at the value of 5.0. A constant dose of secretin (1 U/kg-hr) significantly depressed the serum gastrin response to a meal and produced an inhibition of acid secretion by about 70% of the control level. Secretin inhibited the acid response induced by pentagastrin by about 60% and simultaneously provoked a pancreatic bicarbonate output sufficient to neutralize about 60% of the gastric acid output to pentagastrin. We conclude that secretin is a strong inhibitor of gastric secretion in duodenal ulcer patients induced by a meal and by pentagastrin.

  14. Unusual side effect of cannabis use: acute abdomen due to duodenal perforation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyukbese Sarsu, Sevgi

    2016-12-01

    The chronic use of synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) which has become an increasingly prevalent problem can rarely cause gastric and duodenal ulcer because of their effects on gastric secretion and emptying. Since peptic ulcer disease (PUD) is a rarely seen entity in patients who consult to the emergency service with complaints of abdominal pain, most of the physicians do not suspect of this clinical diagnosis. Perforation is a mortal complication of PUD, and early diagnosis and emergency surgery are life-saving procedures. A 16-year-old male patient was referred to our emergency service from another center with abdominal distension, complaints of abdominal pain, and bilious vomiting. His medical history revealed that he had been regularly using bonsai for the past 3 years. Plain abdominal radiograms of standing position revealed subdiaphragmatic free air, then we performed laparotomy which disclosed perforation of the first part of the duodenum. Surgical intervention with omental patch and primary closure (Graham patch) was successful. The patient who underwent nasogastric decompression and received antibiotherapy had not experienced any complication during the postoperative follow-up period. Herein, as an unusual manifestation, a patient who developed duodenal perforation following chronic SC use has been reported. In adolescent patients admitted with PUD or its complications to the emergency services, it is important to inquire for the use of addictive substances which are increasingly prevalent in order to determine the etiology.

  15. Exposures to the environmental toxicants pentachlorophenol (PCP) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) modify secretion of interleukin 1-beta (IL-1β) from human immune cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Tamara J; Whalen, Margaret M

    2017-04-01

    Pentachlorophenol (PCP) and Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) are environmental contaminants found in human blood. Previous studies have shown that PCP and DDT inhibit the lytic function of highly purified human natural killer (NK) lymphocytes and decrease the expression of several surface proteins on NK cells. Interleukin-1 βeta (IL-1β) is a cytokine produced by lymphocytes and monocytes, and anything that elevates its levels inappropriately can lead to chronic inflammation, which among other consequences can increase tumor development and invasiveness. Here, PCP and DDT were examined for their ability to alter secretion of IL-1β from immune cell preparations of various complexity: NK cells; monocyte-depleted (MD) peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCS); and PBMCs. Cells were exposed to concentrations of PCP ranging from 5 to 0.05 µM and DDT concentrations of 2.5-0.025 μM for 24, 48 h, and 6 days. Results showed that both PCP and DDT increased IL-1β secretion from all of the immune cell preparations. The specific concentrations of PCP and DDT that increased IL-1β secretion varied by donor. Immune cells from all donors showed compound-induced increases in IL-1β secretion at one or more concentration at one or more length of exposure. The mechanism of PCP stimulation of IL1-β secretion was also addressed, and it appears that the MAPKs, ERK1/2 and p38, may be utilized by PCP to stimulate secretion of IL-1β.

  16. CFTR and Anoctamin 1 (ANO1) contribute to cAMP amplified exocytosis and insulin secretion in human and murine pancreatic beta-cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene lead to the disease cystic fibrosis (CF). Although patients with CF often have disturbances in glucose metabolism including impaired insulin release, no previous studies have tested the hypothesis that CFTR has a biological function in pancreatic beta-cells. Methods Experiments were performed on islets and single beta-cells from human donors and NMRI-mice. Detection of CFTR was investigated using PCR and confocal microscopy. Effects on insulin secretion were measured with radioimmunoassay (RIA). The patch-clamp technique was used to measure ion channel currents and calcium-dependent exocytosis (as changes in membrane capacitance) on single cells with high temporal resolution. Analysis of ultrastructure was done on transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images. Results We detected the presence of CFTR and measured a small CFTR conductance in both human and mouse beta-cells. The augmentation of insulin secretion at 16.7 mM glucose by activation of CFTR by cAMP (forskolin (FSK) or GLP-1) was significantly inhibited when CFTR antagonists (GlyH-101 and/or CFTRinh-172) were added. Likewise, capacitance measurements demonstrated reduced cAMP-dependent exocytosis upon CFTR-inhibition, concomitant with a decreased number of docked insulin granules. Finally, our studies demonstrate that CFTR act upstream of the chloride channel Anoctamin 1 (ANO1; TMEM16A) in the regulation of cAMP- and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Conclusion Our work demonstrates a novel function for CFTR as a regulator of pancreatic beta-cell insulin secretion and exocytosis, and put forward a role for CFTR as regulator of ANO1 and downstream priming of insulin granules prior to fusion and release of insulin. The pronounced regulatory effect of CFTR on insulin secretion is consistent with impaired insulin secretion in patients with CF. PMID:24885604

  17. Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1-infected cells secrete exosomes that contain Tax protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworski, Elizabeth; Narayanan, Aarthi; Van Duyne, Rachel; Shabbeer-Meyering, Shabana; Iordanskiy, Sergey; Saifuddin, Mohammed; Das, Ravi; Afonso, Philippe V; Sampey, Gavin C; Chung, Myung; Popratiloff, Anastas; Shrestha, Bindesh; Sehgal, Mohit; Jain, Pooja; Vertes, Akos; Mahieux, Renaud; Kashanchi, Fatah

    2014-08-08

    Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the causative agent of adult T-cell leukemia and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis. The HTLV-1 transactivator protein Tax controls many critical cellular pathways, including host cell DNA damage response mechanisms, cell cycle progression, and apoptosis. Extracellular vesicles called exosomes play critical roles during pathogenic viral infections as delivery vehicles for host and viral components, including proteins, mRNA, and microRNA. We hypothesized that exosomes derived from HTLV-1-infected cells contain unique host and viral proteins that may contribute to HTLV-1-induced pathogenesis. We found exosomes derived from infected cells to contain Tax protein and proinflammatory mediators as well as viral mRNA transcripts, including Tax, HBZ, and Env. Furthermore, we observed that exosomes released from HTLV-1-infected Tax-expressing cells contributed to enhanced survival of exosome-recipient cells when treated with Fas antibody. This survival was cFLIP-dependent, with Tax showing induction of NF-κB in exosome-recipient cells. Finally, IL-2-dependent CTLL-2 cells that received Tax-containing exosomes were protected from apoptosis through activation of AKT. Similar experiments with primary cultures showed protection and survival of peripheral blood mononuclear cells even in the absence of phytohemagglutinin/IL-2. Surviving cells contained more phosphorylated Rb, consistent with the role of Tax in regulation of the cell cycle. Collectively, these results suggest that exosomes may play an important role in extracellular delivery of functional HTLV-1 proteins and mRNA to recipient cells. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. Human T-lymphotropic Virus Type 1-infected Cells Secrete Exosomes That Contain Tax Protein*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworski, Elizabeth; Narayanan, Aarthi; Van Duyne, Rachel; Shabbeer-Meyering, Shabana; Iordanskiy, Sergey; Saifuddin, Mohammed; Das, Ravi; Afonso, Philippe V.; Sampey, Gavin C.; Chung, Myung; Popratiloff, Anastas; Shrestha, Bindesh; Sehgal, Mohit; Jain, Pooja; Vertes, Akos; Mahieux, Renaud; Kashanchi, Fatah

    2014-01-01

    Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the causative agent of adult T-cell leukemia and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis. The HTLV-1 transactivator protein Tax controls many critical cellular pathways, including host cell DNA damage response mechanisms, cell cycle progression, and apoptosis. Extracellular vesicles called exosomes play critical roles during pathogenic viral infections as delivery vehicles for host and viral components, including proteins, mRNA, and microRNA. We hypothesized that exosomes derived from HTLV-1-infected cells contain unique host and viral proteins that may contribute to HTLV-1-induced pathogenesis. We found exosomes derived from infected cells to contain Tax protein and proinflammatory mediators as well as viral mRNA transcripts, including Tax, HBZ, and Env. Furthermore, we observed that exosomes released from HTLV-1-infected Tax-expressing cells contributed to enhanced survival of exosome-recipient cells when treated with Fas antibody. This survival was cFLIP-dependent, with Tax showing induction of NF-κB in exosome-recipient cells. Finally, IL-2-dependent CTLL-2 cells that received Tax-containing exosomes were protected from apoptosis through activation of AKT. Similar experiments with primary cultures showed protection and survival of peripheral blood mononuclear cells even in the absence of phytohemagglutinin/IL-2. Surviving cells contained more phosphorylated Rb, consistent with the role of Tax in regulation of the cell cycle. Collectively, these results suggest that exosomes may play an important role in extracellular delivery of functional HTLV-1 proteins and mRNA to recipient cells. PMID:24939845

  19. Structural basis for functional selectivity and ligand recognition revealed by crystal structures of human secreted phospholipase A2 group IIE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Shulin; Xu, Tingting; Xu, Jinxin; Qu, Linbing; Xu, Yong; Chen, Ling; Liu, Jinsong

    2017-09-07

    Secreted phospholipases A2s (sPLA2s) are involved in various pathological conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis and cardiovascular disease. Many inhibitors were developed and studied in clinical trials, but none have reached the market yet. This failure may be attributed to the lack of subtype selectivity for these inhibitors. Therefore, more structural information for subtype sPLA2 is needed to guide the selective inhibitor development. In this study, the crystal structure of human sPLA2 Group IIE (hGIIE), coupled with mutagenesis experiments, proved that the flexible second calcium binding site and residue Asn21 in hGIIE are essential to its enzymatic activity. Five inhibitor bound hGIIE complex structures revealed the key residues (Asn21 and Gly6) of hGIIE that are responsible for interacting with inhibitors, and illustrated the difference in the inhibitor binding pocket with other sPLA2s. This will facilitate the structure-based design of sPLA2's selective inhibitors.

  20. Lycopene attenuates Aβ1-42 secretion and its toxicity in human cell and Caenorhabditis elegans models of Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Mao, Liuqun; Xing, Huanhuan; Xu, Lei; Fu, Xiang; Huang, Liyingzi; Huang, Dongling; Pu, Zhijun; Li, Qinghua

    2015-11-03

    Growing evidence suggests concentration of lycopene was reduced in plasma of patients with Alzheimer disease (AD). Lycopene, a member of the carotenoid family, has been identified as an antioxidant to attenuate oxidative damage and has neuroprotective role in several AD models. However, whether lycopene is involved in the pathogenesis of AD and molecular underpinnings are elusive. In this study, we found that lycopene can significantly delay paralysis in the Aβ1-42-transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans strain GMC101. Lycopene treatment reduced Aβ1-42 secretion in SH-SY5Y cells overexpressing the Swedish mutant form of human β-amyloid precursor protein (APPsw). Next, we found lycopene can down-regulate expression level of β-amyloid precursor protein(APP) in APPsw cells. Moreover, lycopene treatment can not change endogenous reactive oxygen species level and apoptosis in APPsw cells. However, lycopene treatment protected against H2O2-induced oxidative stress and copper-induced damage in APPsw cells. Collectively, our data support that elevated lycopene contributes to the lower pathogenesis of AD. Our findings suggest that increasing lycopene in neurons may be a novel approach to attenuate onset and development of AD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Cyclic AMP-dependent secretion of Ca 19-9 by LS174T human colon carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macchia, Vincenzo; Gargiulo, Maria; Terracciano, Daniela; Di Carlo, Angelina; Mariano, Angela

    2002-01-01

    Prolonged increase of cyclic adenosine-monophosphate (cAMP) level in culture medium of a human colon cancer cell (LS174T) inhibits cellular growth and stimulates Ca 19-9 expression. The raise in cAMP level was produced by dibutyryl cyclic AMP (DBcAMP) or by forskolin an agent acting at the level of cAMP generation. Both these agents in a range of concentration between 10(-3)-10(-5) M have an inhibitory effect on the growth which is dose and time dependent. The inhibition was reversible as demonstrated by complete restoration of cell growth soon after the withdrawal of the substances from the culture medium. When cAMP levels in culture medium was raised, an increase in Ca 19-9 expression was observed and it appears that cyclic nucleotides have at least two effects: the first to cause rapid release of already synthesized Ca 19-9 and second to stimulate new antigen synthesis. The findings of the present study demonstrated that LS174T cells are unable to proliferate upon sustained accumulation of intracellular cyclic AMP suggesting the use of strategies able to increase cAMP levels for therapy of colon cancer. Furthermore, the finding that cAMP may also be a regulator of Ca 19-9 synthesis and release indicates the utility of cell line LS174T as a model for studies on the mechanism of synthesis and secretion of specific tumoral markers in colon cancer.

  2. Distinct TLR-mediated cytokine production and immunoglobulin secretion in human newborn naïve B cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettengill, Matthew A; van Haren, Simon D; Li, Ning; Dowling, David J; Bergelson, Ilana; Jans, Jop; Ferwerda, Gerben; Levy, Ofer

    2016-08-01

    Neonatal innate immunity is distinct from that of adults, which may contribute to increased susceptibility to infection and limit vaccine responses. B cells play critical roles in protection from infection and detect PAMPs via TLRs, that, when co-activated with CD40, can drive B-cell proliferation and Ab production. We characterized the expression of TLRs in circulating B cells from newborns and adults, and evaluated TLR- and CD40-mediated naïve B-cell class-switch recombination (CSR) and cytokine production. Gene expression levels of most TLRs was similar between newborn and adult B cells, except that newborn naïve B cells expressed more TLR9 than adult naïve B cells. Neonatal naïve B cells demonstrated impaired TLR2- and TLR7- but enhanced TLR9-mediated cytokine production. Significantly fewer newborn naïve B cells underwent CSR to produce IgG, an impairment also noted with IL-21 stimulation. Additionally, co-stimulation via CD40 and TLRs induced greater cytokine production in adult B cells. Thus, while newborn naïve B cells demonstrate adult-level expression of TLRs and CD40, the responses to stimulation of these receptors are distinct. Relatively high expression of TLR9 and impaired CD40-mediated Ig secretion contributes to distinct innate and adaptive immunity of human newborns and may inform novel approaches to early-life immunization. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Effect of antisecretory agents and vagotomy on healing of "chronic" cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcers in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1986-01-01

    Penetrated cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcers in rats have a very prolonged course of healing. In this study, it was investigated how much the healing of these ulcers is accelerated by some treatments. The treatments included omeprazole, cimetidine, and truncal vagotomy. In addition, the effect...... of omeprazole and cimetidine on gastric acid secretion was investigated in chronic gastric fistula rats. After 25 days of treatment, significantly more rats in the treated groups had healed ulcers than in the control group. There was little further improvement up to 100 days of treatment, and the difference...

  4. Plasma concentrations of pituitary and peripheral hormones during ranitidine treatment for two years in men with duodenal ulcer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knigge, U; Thuesen, B; Dejgaard, A

    1989-01-01

    The effects of treatment for 2 years with the histamine H2-receptor antagonist ranitidine (100 or 200 mg b.d. for 6 weeks followed by 100 or 200 mg daily) on plasma concentrations of pituitary and peripheral hormones in ten men with duodenal ulcer have been investigated. Stimulation tests with TRH...... 200 micrograms i.v. and LHRH 100 micrograms i.v. were performed before, during (6 and 24 months), and at least 6 months after treatment. Basal and TRH-stimulated prolactin (PRL) secretion was marginally reduced after treatment for 6 months, but not for 24 months. The LH response to LHRH was slightly...

  5. Granzyme B secretion by human memory CD4 T cells is less strictly regulated compared to memory CD8 T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lin; Couturier, Jacob; Yu, Xiaoying; Medina, Miguel A; Kozinetz, Claudia A; Lewis, Dorothy E

    2014-09-24

    Granzyme B (GrzB) is a serine proteinase expressed by memory T cells and NK cells. Methods to measure GrzB protein usually involve intracellular (flow cytometry) and extracellular (ELISA and ELISpot) assays. CD8 T cells are the main source of GrzB during immunological reactions, but activated CD4 T cells deploy GrzB as well. Because GrzB is an important mediator of cell death, tissue pathology and disease, clarification of differences of GrzB expression and secretion between CD4 and CD8 T cells is important for understanding effector functions of these cells. Memory CD4 and memory CD8 T cells were purified from human peripheral blood of healthy donors, and production of GrzB was directly compared between memory CD4 and memory CD8 T cells from the same donors using parallel measurements of flow cytometry (intracellular GrzB), ELISpot (single cell secretion of GrzB), and ELISA (bulk extracellular GrzB). Memory CD8 T cells constitutively stored significantly more GrzB protein (~25%) compared to memory CD4 T cells as determined by flow cytometry (~3%), and this difference remained stable after 24 hrs of activation. However, measurement of extracellular GrzB by ELISA revealed that activated memory CD4 T cells secrete similar amounts of GrzB (~1,000 pg/ml by 1x10(5) cells/200 μl medium) compared to memory CD8 T cells (~600 pg/ml). Measurement of individual GrzB-secreting cells by ELISpot also indicated that similar numbers of activated memory CD4 (~170/1x10(5)) and memory CD8 (~200/1x10(5)) T cells secreted GrzB. Expression of CD107a further indicated that Grzb is secreted similarly by activated CD4 and CD8 T cells, consistent with the ELISA and ELISpot results. However, memory CD8 T cells expressed and secreted more perforin compared to memory CD4 T cells, suggesting that perforin may be less associated with GrzB function for memory CD4 T cells. Although measurement of intracellular GrzB by flow cytometry suggests that a larger proportion of CD8 T cells have higher

  6. Fibronectin, laminin, and collagen IV interact with ACTH and angiotensin II to dictate specific cell behavior and secretion in human fetal adrenal cells in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamoux, E; Narcy, A; Lehoux, J G; Gallo-Payet, N

    2002-11-01

    Whereas collagen IV is expressed throughout the fetal adrenal gland during the second trimester of human development, fibronectin, and laminin demonstrate a rather mirror-image distribution, with higher expression of fibronectin in the central portion and laminin at the periphery of the gland. In the present study, extracellular matrices were able to modulate the profile of steroid secretion in primary cultures: collagen IV favored cortisol secretion following adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) or angiotensin II (Ang II) stimulation while specific stimulation of the AT2 receptor of Ang II elicited dehydroepiandrostenedione (DHEA) production. These effects were correlated by changes in mRNA levels of 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3beta-HSD) and cytochrome P450C17. In contrast, fibronectin and laminin decreased cell responsiveness to ACTH in terms of cortisol secretion, but enhanced ACTH-stimulated androgen secretion. Finally, extracellular matrices were able to orchestrate cell behavior: collagen IV and laminin enhanced cell proliferation whereas fibronectin incited cell death. These results indicate that the nature of extracellular matrix coordinates specific steroidogenic pathways and cell turnover in the developing human fetal adrenal gland.

  7. Antibody-secreting cell responses and protective immunity assessed in gnotobiotic pigs inoculated orally or intramuscularly with inactivated human rotavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, L; Kang, S Y; Ward, L A; To, T L; Saif, L J

    1998-01-01

    Newborn gnotobiotic pigs were inoculated twice perorally (p.o.) (group 1) or intramuscularly (i.m.) (group 2) or three times i.m. (group 3) with inactivated Wa strain human rotavirus and challenged with virulent Wa human rotavirus 20 to 24 days later. To assess correlates of protection, antibody-secreting cells (ASC) were enumerated in intestinal and systemic lymphoid tissues from pigs in each group at selected postinoculation days (PID) or postchallenge days. Few virus-specific ASC were detected in any tissues of group 1 pigs prior to challenge. By comparison, groups 2 and 3 had significantly greater numbers of virus-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) ASC in intestinal and splenic tissues at PID 8 and significantly greater numbers of virus-specific IgG ASC and IgG memory B cells in spleen and blood at challenge. However, as for group 1, few virus-specific IgA ASC or IgA memory B cells were detected in any tissues of group 2 and 3 pigs. Neither p.o. nor i.m. inoculation conferred significant protection against virulent Wa rotavirus challenge (0 to 6% protection rate), and all groups showed significant anamnestic virus-specific IgG and IgA ASC responses. Hence, high numbers of IgG ASC or memory IgG ASC in the systemic lymphoid tissues at the time of challenge did not correlate with protection. Further, our findings suggest that inactivated Wa human rotavirus administered either p.o. or parenterally is significantly less effective in inducing intestinal IgA ASC responses and conferring protective immunity than live Wa human rotavirus inoculated orally, as reported earlier (L. Yuan, L. A. Ward, B. I. Rosen, T. L. To, and L. J. Saif, J. Virol. 70:3075-3083, 1996). Thus, more efficient mucosal delivery systems and rotavirus vaccination strategies are needed to induce intestinal IgA ASC responses, identified previously as a correlate of protective immunity to rotavirus.

  8. A novel TMEM16A splice variant lacking the dimerization domain contributes to calcium-activated chloride secretion in human sweat gland epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertongur-Fauth, Torsten; Hochheimer, Andreas; Buescher, Joerg Martin; Rapprich, Stefan; Krohn, Michael

    2014-11-01

    Sweating is an important physiological process to regulate body temperature in humans, and various disorders are associated with dysregulated sweat formation. Primary sweat secretion in human eccrine sweat glands involves Ca(2+) -activated Cl(-) channels (CaCC). Recently, members of the TMEM16 family were identified as CaCCs in various secretory epithelia; however, their molecular identity in sweat glands remained elusive. Here, we investigated the function of TMEM16A in sweat glands. Gene expression analysis revealed that TMEM16A is expressed in human NCL-SG3 sweat gland cells as well as in isolated human eccrine sweat gland biopsy samples. Sweat gland cells express several previously described TMEM16A splice variants, as well as one novel splice variant, TMEM16A(acΔe3) lacking the TMEM16A-dimerization domain. Chloride flux assays using halide-sensitive YFP revealed that TMEM16A is functionally involved in Ca(2+) -dependent Cl(-) secretion in NCL-SG3 cells. Recombinant expression in NCL-SG3 cells showed that TMEM16A(acΔe3) is forming a functional CaCC, with basal and Ca(2+) -activated Cl(-) permeability distinct from canonical TMEM16A(ac). Our results suggest that various TMEM16A isoforms contribute to sweat gland-specific Cl(-) secretion providing opportunities to develop sweat gland-specific therapeutics for treatment of sweating disorders. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor α Activates Human Multidrug Resistance Transporter 3/ATP-Binding Cassette Protein Subfamily B4 Transcription and Increases Rat Biliary Phosphatidylcholine Secretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghonem, Nisanne S.; Ananthanarayanan, Meenakshisundaram; Soroka, Carol J.; Boyer, James L.

    2014-01-01

    Multidrug resistance transporter 3/ATP-binding cassette protein subfamily B4 (MDR3/ABCB4) is a critical determinant of biliary phosphatidylcholine (PC) secretion. Clinically, mutations and partial deficiencies in MDR3 result in cholestatic liver injury. Thus, MDR3 is a potential therapeutic target for cholestatic liver disease. Fenofibrate is a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α ligand that has antiinflammatory actions and regulates bile acid detoxification. Here we examined the mechanism by which fenofibrate regulates MDR3 gene expression. Fenofibrate significantly up-regulated MDR3 messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression in primary cultured human hepatocytes, and stimulated MDR3 promoter activity in HepG2 cells. In silico analysis of 5′-upstream region of human MDR3 gene revealed a number of PPARα response elements (PPRE). Electrophoretic mobility shift (EMSA) and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays demonstrated specific binding of PPARα to the human MDR3 promoter. Targeted mutagenesis of three novel PPREs reduced inducibility of the MDR3 promoter by fenofibrate. In collagen sandwich cultured rat hepatocytes, treatment with fenofibrate increased secretion of fluorescent PC into bile canaliculi. Conclusion Fenofibrate transactivates MDR3 gene transcription by way of the binding of PPARα to three novel and functionally critical PPREs in the MDR3 promoter. Fenofibrate treatment further stimulates biliary phosphatidylcholine secretion in rat hepatocytes, thereby providing a functional correlate. We have established a molecular mechanism that may contribute to the beneficial use of fenofibrate therapy in human cholestatic liver disease. PMID:24122873

  10. Distribution of kappa and lambda light chain isotypes among human blood immunoglobulin-secreting cells after vaccination with pneumococcal polysaccharides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heilmann, C; Barington, T

    1989-01-01

    pokeweed mitogen (PWM) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), IgM-, IgG- and IgA-secreting cells expressed the kappa light chain isotype in approximately 65% of the cells. IgM- and IgG-secreting cells induced by vaccination with pneumococcal polysaccharides had a similar percentage of kappa light chain......-containing cells. In contrast, IgA-secreting cells induced by vaccination with pneumococcal polysaccharides showed a different (bimodal) distribution as regards expression of kappa light chain. The majority (56%) of the investigated individuals expressed kappa light chain in approximately 50% of the cells...... chain pattern of IgA-secreting cells from individuals vaccinated with pneumococcal polysaccharides and from unvaccinated individuals probably indicates that these cells are being derived from B-cell clones with a limited idiotypic heterogeneity, which have been selected and clonally expanded...

  11. Expedited Biliopancreatic Juice Flow to the Distal Gut Benefits the Diabetes Control After Duodenal-Jejunal Bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Haifeng; Wang, Lei; Du, Hao; Jiang, Jianjun; Hu, Chunxiao; Zhang, Guangyong; Liu, Shaozhuang; Zhang, Xiang; Liu, Teng; Hu, Sanyuan

    2015-10-01

    Serum bile acids (BAs) are elevated after metabolic surgeries including Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), ileal transposition (IT), and duodenal-jejunal bypass (DJB). Recently, BAs have emerged as a kind of signaling molecules, which can not only promote glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion but can also regulate multiple enzymes involved in glucose metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate whether expedited biliopancreatic juice flow to the distal gut contributes to the increased serum GLP-1 and BAs and benefits the diabetes control after DJB. DJB, long alimentary limb DJB (LDJB), duodenal-jejunal anastomosis (DJA), and sham operation were performed in diabetic rats induced by high-fat diet (HFD) and low dose of streptozotocin (STZ). Body weight, food intake, oral glucose tolerance, insulin tolerance, glucose-stimulated insulin and GLP-1 secretion, fasting serum total bile acids (TBAs), and lipid profiles were measured at indicated time points. Compared with sham operation, DJA, DJB, and LDJB all achieved rapid and dramatic improvements in glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity independently of food restriction and weight loss. DJB and LDJB-operated rats exhibited even better glucose tolerance, higher fasting serum TBAs, and higher glucose-stimulated GLP-1 secretion than the DJA group postoperatively. No difference was detected in insulin sensitivity and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion between DJA, DJB, and LDJB groups. Expedited biliopancreatic juice flow to the distal gut was associated with augmented GLP-1 secretion and increased fasting serum TBA concentration, which may partly explain the metabolic benefits of DJB.

  12. Percutaneous Management of Postoperative Duodenal Stump Leakage with Foley Catheter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Jung Suk, E-mail: oj-cumc@daum.net; Lee, Hae Giu, E-mail: hgleehfh@catholic.ac.kr; Chun, Ho Jong; Choi, Byung Gil [Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Radiology (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Hoon; Hahn, Seong Tai [Yeouido St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Radiology (Korea, Republic of); Ohm, Joon Young [Bucheon St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Radiology (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: This study was designed to evaluate retrospectively the safety and efficacy of the percutaneous management of duodenal stump leakage with a Foley catheter after subtotal gastrectomy. Methods: Ten consecutive patients (M:F = 9:1, median age: 64 years) were included in this retrospective study. The duodenal stump leakages were diagnosed in all the patients within a median of 10 days (range, 6-20). At first, the patients underwent percutaneous drainage on the day of or the day after confirmation of the presence of duodenal stump leakage, and then the Foley catheters were replaced at a median of 9 days (range, 6-38) after the percutaneous drainage. Results: Foley catheters were placed successfully in the duodenal lumen of all the patients under a fluoroscopic guide. No complication was observed during and after the procedures in all the patients. All of the patients started a regular diet 1 day after the Foley catheter placement. The patients were discharged at a median of 7 days (range, 5-14) after the Foley catheter placement. The catheters were removed in an outpatient clinic 10-58 days (median, 28) after the Foley catheter placement. Conclusions: Fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous Foley catheter placement may be a safe and effective treatment option for postoperative duodenal stump leakage and may allow for shorter hospital stays, earlier oral intake, and more effective control of leakage sites.

  13. Effect of Recombinant Human Deoxyribonuclease on Oropharyngeal Secretions in Patients With Head-and-Neck Cancers Treated With Radiochemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mittal, Bharat B., E-mail: bmittal@nmh.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Northwestern University, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Wang, Edward [Department of Surgery, Northwestern University, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Sejpal, Samir [Department of Radiation Oncology, Northwestern University, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Agulnik, Mark [Section of Medical Oncology, Northwestern University, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Mittal, Amit [Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Harris, Kirk [Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Purpose: The current study examined the effect of recombinant human deoxyribonuclease (rhDNase) on quality of life (QOL) measures, clinical improvement, and DNA content of thick oropharyngeal secretions (OPS) in patients with head-and-neck (H and N) cancers. Methods and Materials: Thirty-six patients with local-regional advanced H and N cancer receiving chemoradiationtherapy (CRT) were randomized to receive either placebo or rhDNase. Endpoints included MD Anderson Symptom Inventory-Head and Neck (MDASI-HN) and Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy–Head and Neck (FACT-NH) scores, along with clinical assessment and DNA concentration of OPS. Results: There were no statistically significant differences in patients' QOL outcomes over the study period. Both groups showed an increase in symptom and interference scores, although patients in the rhDNase group showed a greater decline in both scores during the 3 months posttreatment. Similarly, both groups showed a decline in physical and functional well being but recovered in the 3 months posttreatment follow-up, with the rhDNase group exhibiting speedier recovery. Patients in the rhDNase group exhibited significant clinical improvement in OPS, blindly assessed by a physician, compared with the placebo group (67% vs 27%, respectively; P=.046). The rhDNase group showed no change in OPS-DNA concentration, although the placebo group showed a significant increase in DNA concentration during the drug trial (P=.045). There was no differences in acute toxicities between the 2 groups. Conclusions: Our preliminary data suggest that rhDNase did not significantly improve study primary endpoints of QOL measures compared with the placebo group. However, there was a significant improvement in secondary endpoints of clinically assessed OPS and DNA concentration compared with placebo in H and N cancer patients treated with CRT. Further investigation in larger numbers of patients is warranted.

  14. Expression of cholecystokinin2-receptor in rat and human L cells and the stimulation of glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion by gastrin treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yang; Cao, Xun; Liu, Xiao-Min

    2015-03-01

    Gastrin is a gastrointestinal hormone secreted by G cells. Hypergastrinemia can improve blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin levels. These positive effects are primarily due to the trophic effects of gastrin on β-cells. In recent years, many receptors that regulate secretion of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) have been identified in enteroendocrine L cell lines. This led us to hypothesize that, in addition to the trophic effects of gastrin on β-cells, L cells also express cholecystokinin2-receptor (CCK2R), which may regulate GLP-1 secretion and have synergistic effects on glucose homeostasis. Our research provides a preliminary analysis of CCK2R expression and the stimulating effect of gastrin treatment on GLP-1 secretion in a human endocrine L cell line, using RT-PCR, Western blot, immunocytochemistry, and ELISA analyses. The expression of proglucagon and prohormone convertase 3, which regulate GLP-1 biosynthesis, were also analyzed by real-time PCR. Double immunofluorescence labeling was utilized to assess the intracellular localization of CCK2R and GLP-1 in L cells harvested from rat colon tissue. Our results showed that CCK2R was expressed in both the human L cell line and the rat L cells. We also showed that treatment with gastrin, a CCK2R agonist, stimulated the secretion of GLP-1, and that this effect was likely due to increased expression of proglucagon and PCSK1 (also known as prohormone convertase 3 (PC3 gene)). These results not only provide a basis for the role gastrin may play in intestinal L cells, and may also provide the basis for the development of a method of gastrin-mediated glycemic regulation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Does Ramadan Fasting Increase duodenal ulcer perforation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoulhossein Davoodabadi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In Ramadan, healthy adult Muslims are obliged to fast. Prolonged fasting increase gastric acid and pepsin levels, which promote the risk of duodenal ulcer perforation (DUP. Effects of Ramadan fasting on DUP have not been thoroughly studied yet, and the limited number of studies investigating the impact of Ramadan fasting on DUP yielded discrepant results. This study aimed to evaluate DUP frequency during Ramadan 2011-2015 and compare it with other months. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed in 82 patients undergoing surgery due to DUP during July 2011-September 2015. The demographics, history of addiction, use of nonsteroidal and antiinflammatory drugs, previous history of acid peptic disease, as well as complications and outcomes of treatment were recorded and analyzed, and the obtained results were compared between Ramadan and other lunar months. Results: The majority of patients were male (86.6%, 71 patients, with a mean age of 43.9±16.5 years (age range: 20-75 years. Male to female ratio was 6:1. Cases with less than 30 years of age were less frequent (22%, 18 patients. DUP was more frequent during Rajab with nine cases (11%, while during Ramadan, six cases were reported, the difference between Ramadan and other months regarding the incidence of DUP was not significant (P=0.7. Risk factors such as smoking (60% and addiction (44%; especially to crystal and crack were noted. Consumption of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs in 20 (24% patients, and use of antacids in 17 (25% patients. Distribution of DUP in different blood types was as follows: O+=41%, A+=28%, B+=23%, AB=5%, and O-=3%; moreover, post-operative Helicobacter pylori antibody was present in 67% of the patients. Conclusion: Ramadan fasting did not escalate DUP incidence, and those with DUP risk factors can fast with the use of antacids.

  16. Human endometrial milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor 8 (MFGE8) is up regulated by estradiol at the transcriptional level, and its secretion via microvesicles is stimulated by human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)

    KAUST Repository

    Sarhan, Abbaa

    2013-10-17

    Objective: We have recently showed that MFGE8, a novel epithelial cell protein in the human endometrium, upregulated during the window of implantation. We hypothesized that MFGE8 may act as a key modulator of endometrial remodeling and trophoblast invasion. The aims of this study were (i) to investigate the in vitro regulation of human endometrial epithelial cells MFGE8 transcription, translation, and secretion by sex steroids and hCG; and (ii) to examine the possibility of MFGE8 secretion via microvesicles. Design: Experimental in vitro study using Ishikawa cells. Setting: University center. Interventions: Treatment with estradiol (E2), progesterone (P4), and human chorionic gonatropin (hCG). Main outcome measures: MFGE8 mRNA and protein expression, and identification of secreted microvesicles by mass spectrometry (MS) and immunoblotting. Results: E2, but not P4 or hCG, significantly upregulated MFGE8 mRNA expression. hCG significantly increased MFGE8 secretion. Microvesicels obtained after ultracentrifugation were visualized with atomic force microscopy ranging from ~100 to 200 nm. In addition to the expected 46 kD protein, the microvesicles contained a second form of secreted MFGE8 measuring ~30 kD which was confirmed by MS. Conclusions: We demonstrated (i) dual effects of E2 and hCG on the regulation of MFGE8, and (ii) MFGE8 protein secretion in association with microvesicles. MFGE8 has the potential to modulate endometrial function and implantation via exocrine and/ or paracrine-autocrine effects. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of microvesicular secretion of any regulatory protein by endometrial epithelial cells, providing initial evidence suggestive of microvesicular participation in cellular trafficking information in the non-pregnant and pregnant endometrium.

  17. Human surfactant protein A2 gene mutations impair dimmer/trimer assembly leading to deficiency in protein sialylation and secretion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Song

    Full Text Available Surfactant protein A2 (SP-A2 plays an essential role in surfactant metabolism and lung host defense. SP-A2 mutations in the carbohydrate recognition domain have been related to familial pulmonary fibrosis and can lead to a recombinant protein secretion deficiency in vitro. In this study, we explored the molecular mechanism of protein secretion deficiency and the subsequent biological effects in CHO-K1 cells expressing both wild-type and several different mutant forms of SP-A2. We demonstrate that the SP-A2 G231V and F198S mutants impair the formation of dimmer/trimer SP-A2 which contributes to the protein secretion defect. A deficiency in sialylation, but not N-linked glycosylation, is critical to the observed dimmer/trimer impairment-induced secretion defect. Furthermore, both mutant forms accumulate in the ER and form NP-40-insoluble aggregates. In addition, the soluble mutant SP-A2 could be partially degraded through the proteasome pathway but not the lysosome or autophagy pathway. Intriguingly, 4-phenylbutyrate acid (4-PBA, a chemical chaperone, alleviates aggregate formation and partially rescued the protein secretion of SP-A2 mutants. In conclusion, SP-A2 G231V and F198S mutants impair the dimmer/trimer assembly, which contributes to the protein sialylation and secretion deficiency. The intracellular protein mutants could be partially degraded through the proteasome pathway and also formed aggregates. The treatment of the cells with 4-PBA resulted in reduced aggregation and rescued the secretion of mutant SP-A2.

  18. Salivary Secretory Immunoglobulin a secretion increases after 4-weeks ingestion of chlorella-derived multicomponent supplement in humans: a randomized cross over study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Chlorella, a unicellular green alga that grows in fresh water, contains high levels of proteins, vitamins, minerals, and dietary fibers. Some studies have reported favorable immune function-related effects on biological secretions such as blood and breast milk in humans who have ingested a chlorella-derived multicomponent supplement. However, the effects of chlorella-derived supplement on mucosal immune functions remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether chlorella ingestion increases the salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) secretion in humans using a blind, randomized, crossover study design. Methods Fifteen men took 30 placebo and 30 chlorella tablets per day for 4 weeks separated by a 12-week washout period. Before and after each trial, saliva samples were collected from a sterile cotton ball that was chewed after overnight fasting. Salivary SIgA concentrations were measured using ELISA. Results Compliance rates for placebo and chlorella ingestions were 97.0 ± 1.0% and 95.3 ± 1.6%, respectively. No difference was observed in salivary SIgA concentrations before and after placebo ingestion (P = 0.38). However, salivary SIgA concentrations were significantly elevated after chlorella ingestion compared to baseline (P chlorella ingestion than before intake (P chlorella-derived multicomponent supplement increases salivary SIgA secretion and possibly improves mucosal immune function in humans. PMID:21906314

  19. The role of Ca2+ and Mg2+ in the cytotoxic T lymphocyte reaction and in the secretion of N alpha-benzyloxycarbonyl-L-lysine thiobenzyl ester-serine esterase by human T cell clones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanchard, D.; Aubry, J. P.; de Vries, J. E.; Spits, H.

    1989-01-01

    Human T cell clones contain enzymes that can cleave the substrate N-alpha-benzyloxycarbonyl-L-lysine thiobenzyl ester (BLT). All CTL clones tested in this study secreted BLT-serine esterase activity, whereas only one of three tested non-cytolytic T cell clones secreted this enzymatic activity upon

  20. Subclass of individual IgA-secreting human lymphocytes. Investigation of in vivo pneumococcal polysaccharide-induced and in vitro mitogen-induced blood B cells by monolayer plaque-forming cell assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heilmann, C; Barington, T; Sigsgaard, T

    1988-01-01

    The subclass of individual human IgA B cells was investigated by means of monolayer plaque-forming cell assays permitting analysis of all IgA-secreting cells as well as of cells secreting IgA anti-pneumococcal polysaccharide antibody. Center cells were examined by indirect immunofluorescence...

  1. [Treatment of chronic aphthous stomatitis combined with duodenal ulcer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudchenko, M A; Skrypnikova, T P; Dudchenko, M A

    2014-01-01

    It is currently proved ulcerous stomatitis and duodenal ulcer to have common pathogenetic infectious link (the most studied agent being Helicobacter pylori) by concominant decrease of local and general immunity with hyperoxidation events. Eighty patients (44 female and 36 male aged 15-60) with chronic aphthous stomatitis (AS) combined with duodenal ulcer were included in the study and divided in two equal groups according to treatment received (control group of 40 patients was treated according to conventional scheme, while in 40 patients a new formulation Vipromak was added to treatment protocol). The symptoms of AS tend to resolve faster in vipromak group thus proving its efficiency in treatment of AS and duodenal ulcer.

  2. [Duodenal metastatic leiomyosarcoma of the uterus. A case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    M'sakni, I; Bouraoui, S; Ben slama, S; Lahmar-boufaroua, A; Goutallier ben fadhel, C; Ben sassi, L; Arfa, N; Khalfallah, M T; Mzabi-regaya, S

    2005-10-01

    The digestive metastases of uterine leiomyosarcoma are rare. We report a case of a duodenal tumor detected in a 50 year-old woman, 3 years after she underwent a total hysterectomy for uterine leiomyosarcoma. The stenosing duodenal mass was thought to be a mesenchymal tumor. A pancreaticoduodenectomy was performed. The resected lesion was morphologically similar to the uterine leiomyosarcoma. In fact, the histopathological study confirmed a submucosal tumor with typical features of the uterine leiomyosarcoma. Immunohistochemistry was performed and it showed negative CD117 and CD 34. Markers displayed positivity for actin smooth muscle and desmin. Considering the patient history and the immunohistochemical observations, we diagnosed a duodenal metastasis of uterine leiomysarcoma. Through this exceptional observation we want to emphasize the epidemiological and the pathological features of the metastatic uterine leiomyosarcoma. We will also point out the progress of tumoral cells and the histopathological distinctive criteria with a primitive digestive mesenchymal tumor.

  3. A Rare Cause of Acute Pancreatitis: Intramural Duodenal Hematoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant Goyal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe an interesting case of intramural duodenal hematoma in an otherwise healthy male who presented to emergency room with gradually progressive abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. This condition was missed on initial evaluation and patient was discharged from emergency room with diagnosis of acute gastritis. After 3 days, patient came back to emergency room and abdominal imaging studies were conducted which showed that patient had intramural duodenal hematoma associated with gastric outlet obstruction and pancreatitis. Hematoma was the cause of acute pancreatitis as pancreatic enzymes levels were normal at the time of first presentation, but later as the hematoma grew in size, it caused compression of pancreas and subsequent elevation of pancreatic enzymes. We experienced a case of pancreatitis which was caused by intramural duodenal hematoma. This case was missed on initial evaluation. We suggest that physicians should be more vigilant about this condition.

  4. Acyclovir in the prevention of duodenal ulcer recurrence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rune, S J; Linde, J; Bonnevie, O

    1990-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that reactivation of a latent herpes simplex virus infection may be a cause of recurrent duodenal ulceration. Patients with recently healed duodenal ulcer were entered into a double blind, randomised study of maintenance treatment with the antiviral drug acyclovir...... (400 mg bid) versus placebo, to determine if suppression of herpes virus infection would influence the natural history of the ulcer disease. One hundred and fifteen patients entered the trial and 76 patients completed it according to the protocol. Endoscopy was performed when ulcer symptoms recurred...... and at the end of the 25 week trial period. In the acyclovir group the cumulated relapse rate was 63% compared with 56% in the placebo group (NS). This result suggests that reactivation of herpes simplex virus is not a cause of recurrent duodenal ulcer....

  5. Essential role of the electroneutral Na+–HCO3− cotransporter NBCn1 in murine duodenal acid–base balance and colonic mucus layer build-up in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anurag Kumar; Xia, Weiliang; Riederer, Brigitte; Juric, Marina; Li, Junhua; Zheng, Wen; Cinar, Ayhan; Xiao, Fang; Bachmann, Oliver; Song, Penghong; Praetorius, Jeppe; Aalkjaer, Christian; Seidler, Ursula

    2013-01-01

    Duodenal epithelial cells need efficient defence strategies during gastric acidification of the lumen, while colonic mucosa counteracts damage by pathogens by building up a bacteria-free adherent mucus layer. Transport of HCO3− is considered crucial for duodenal defence against acid as well as for mucus release and expansion, but the transport pathways involved are incompletely understood. This study investigated the significance of the electroneutral Na+–HCO3− cotransporter NBCn1 for duodenal defence against acid and colonic mucus release. NBCn1 was localized to the basolateral membrane of duodenal villous enterocytes and of colonic crypt cells, with predominant expression in goblet cells. Duodenal villous enterocyte intracellular pH was studied before and during a luminal acid load by two-photon microscopy in exteriorized, vascularly perfused, indicator (SNARF-1 AM)-loaded duodenum of isoflurane-anaesthetized, systemic acid–base-controlled mice. Acid-induced HCO3− secretion was measured in vivo by single-pass perfusion and pH-stat titration. After a luminal acid load, NBCn1-deficient duodenocytes were unable to recover rapidly from intracellular acidification and could not respond adequately with protective HCO3− secretion. In the colon, build-up of the mucus layer was delayed, and a decreased thickness of the adherent mucus layer was observed, suggesting that basolateral HCO3− uptake is essential for optimal release of mucus. The electroneutral Na+–HCO3− cotransporter NBCn1 displays a differential cellular distribution in the murine intestine and is essential for HCO3−-dependent mucosal protective functions, such as recovery of intracellular pH and HCO3− secretion in the duodenum and secretion of mucus in the colon. PMID:23401617

  6. Neurogenic mucosal bicarbonate secretion in guinea pig duodenum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, G; Fang, X; Wang, G D; Liu, S; Wang, X Y; Xia, Y; Wood, J D

    2013-02-01

    To test a hypothesis that: (i) duodenal pH and osmolarity are individually controlled at constant set points by negative feedback control centred in the enteric nervous system (ENS); (ii) the purinergic P2Y(1) receptor subtype is expressed by non-cholinergic secretomotor/vasodilator neurons, which represent the final common excitatory pathway from the ENS to the bicarbonate secretory glands. Ussing chamber and pH-stat methods investigated involvement of the P2Y(1) receptor in neurogenic stimulation of mucosal bicarbonate (HCO(3)(-)) secretion in guinea pig duodenum. ATP increased HCO(3)(-) secretion with an EC(50) of 160 nM. MRS2179, a selective P2Y(1) purinergic receptor antagonist, suppressed ATP-evoked HCO(3)(-) secretion by 47% and Cl(-) secretion by 63%. Enteric neuronal blockade by tetrodotoxin or exposure to a selective vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP, VPAC(1)) receptor antagonist suppressed ATP-evoked HCO(3)(-) secretion by 61 and 41%, respectively, and Cl- by 97 and 70% respectively. Pretreatment with the muscarinic antagonist, scopolamine did not alter ATP-evoked HCO3(-) or Cl(-) secretion. Whereas acid directly stimulates the mucosa to release ATP and stimulate HCO(3)(-) secretion in a cytoprotective manner, neurogenically evoked HCO(3)(-) secretion accounts for feedback control of optimal luminal pH for digestion. ATP stimulates duodenal HCO(3)(-) secretion through an excitatory action at purinergic P2Y(1) receptors on neurons in the submucosal division of the ENS. Stimulation of the VIPergic non-cholinergic secretomotor/vasodilator neurons, which are one of three classes of secretomotor neurons, accounts for most, if not all, of the neurogenic secretory response evoked by ATP. © 2012 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.

  7. Inhibition of the DHT-induced PSA secretion by Verbascum xanthophoeniceum and Serenoa repens extracts in human LNCaP prostate epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcoccia, D; Georgiev, M I; Alipieva, K I; Lorenzetti, S

    2014-08-08

    Verbascum xanthophoeniceum is a mullein plant, typical of Balkan region and some parts of Turkey, traditionally used as phytotherapeutic agent due to its anti-inflammatory properties. It is rich in phenylethanoid and iridoid metabolites whose anti-inflammatory properties are under characterization. The role of Verbascum xanthophoeniceum crude methanolic extract and its isolated phenylethanoid glycoside verbascoside have been evaluated, in comparison to a saw palmetto extract, on a human in vitro model of androgen-regulated prostate epithelium, the LNCaP cell line. Cytotoxicity and DHT-induced free and total PSA secretion have been thoroughly studied. We have found that similar to saw palmetto, Verbascum xanthophoeniceum extract and its isolated phenylethanoid glycoside verbascoside have no cytotoxicity in human LNCaP prostate epithelial cells, whereas an inhibitory effect on the DHT-induced free and total PSA secretion, a recognized anti-androgen like activity, has been shown in case of both Verbascum xanthophoeniceum extract and pure verbascoside. Furthermore, in the absence of the endogenous androgen DHT, an androgen-like activity in Verbascum xanthophoeniceum is detectable as it is for saw palmetto, suggesting that a mixed androgen-antiandrogen activity is present. For the first time, Serenoa repens and Verbascum xanthophoeniceum extracts have shown an absence of cytotoxicity and an inhibitory effect on DHT-induced PSA secretion in an in vitro model of human prostate epithelium, whereas the phenylethanoid glycoside verbascoside appeared to explain only part of the Verbascum xanthophoeniceum inhibitory activity on PSA secretion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [Acrylamid- and immunelectrophoretic separations of human parotid secretions from individuals with parotid tumors, chronic parotitis and sialadenosis (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichner, H

    1976-11-01

    After previous examinations in normal parotid glands in this paper secretion of proteins in parotid glands with pleomorphic adenomas, Whartin tumors, parotid carcinomas, chronic parotitis and sialadenosis should be studied. Different discelectrophoretic and immunelectrophoretic runs were done. Thereby we got the following changes in electrophoreses: Pleomorphic adenomas generally show a more palid pattern in band-structure, caused by the diminished proteinconcentration in the secretions. Most remarkable are thereby the c1 and d1-4-bands. Immunelectrophoretic separations are normal. Whartin tumors show a different bandpattern in the anodal near gel region, which is enpowered by immunelectrophoretic runs. Secretions from parotid carcinomas show a characteristic change in bandstructure. There are found added bands which result from serumproteins as immunelectrophoretic examinations proof. The same is found in glands with parotitis in contrary to glands with sialadenosis.

  9. MRI findings of intrinsic and extrinsic duodenal abnormalities and variations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atman, Ebru Dusunceli; Erden, Ayse; Ustuner, Evren; Uzun, Caglar; Bektas, Mehmet [Ankara University School of Medicine, Ankara (Turkmenistan)

    2015-12-15

    This pictorial review aims to illustrate the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and presentation patterns of anatomical variations and various benign and malignant pathologies of the duodenum, including sphincter contraction, major papilla variation, prominent papilla, diverticulum, annular pancreas, duplication cysts, choledochocele, duodenal wall thickening secondary to acute pancreatitis, postbulbar stenosis, celiac disease, fistula, choledochoduodenostomy, external compression, polyps, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, ampullary carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. MRI is a useful imaging tool for demonstrating duodenal pathology and its anatomic relationships with adjacent organs, which is critical for establishing correct diagnosis and planning appropriate treatment, especially for surgery.

  10. A Lethal Complication of Endoscopic Therapy: Duodenal Intramural Hematoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turan Calhan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Duodenal intramural hematoma (DIH usually occurs in childhood and young adults following blunt abdominal trauma. It may also develop in the presence of coagulation disorders and may rarely be an iatrogenic outcome of endoscopic procedures. Management of DIH is usually a conservative approach. A case of intramural duodenal hematoma that developed following endoscopic epinephrine sclerotherapy and/or argon plasma coagulation and that was nonresponsive to conservative therapy in a patient with chronic renal failure who died from sepsis is being discussed in this report. Clinicians should be aware of such possible complications after endoscopic hemostasis in patients with coagulation disorders.

  11. Isolated perforation of a duodenal diverticulum following blunt abdominal trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metcalfe Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Only 10% of duodenal diverticula are symptomatic. We present the case of a man who fell from a height of 6 ft, landing on his abdomen and presenting 4 h later with severe back pain and a rigid abdomen. At laparotomy, a perforated retroperitoneal duodenal diverticulum was found and repaired with an omental patch. No other injury was noted. Not only is this perforation unusual, but the absence of other injuries sustained during this minor blunt trauma makes this case unique. This case highlights the need for a high index of suspicion when managing patients with back or abdominal pain following minor trauma.

  12. Denatonium induces secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 through activation of bitter taste receptor pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Suk; Egan, Josephine M.

    2016-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis This study was designed to ascertain whether human enteroendocrine cells express bitter taste receptors, and whether activation of these receptors with bitter-tasting ligands induces secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and peptide YY (PYY). Methods We used human enteroendocrine NCI-H716 cells, isolated duodenal segments from mice, and whole mice as our experimental systems for investigating stimuli and mechanisms underlying GLP-1- and PYY-stimulated release. We measured hormone levels by ELISA and determined bitter taste receptor expression by real-time quantitative PCR. We adopted a pharmacological approach using inhibitors and enhancers of downstream signalling pathways known to be involved in bitter taste transduction in taste bud cells to investigate these pathways in NCI-H716 cells. Results Using a pharmacological approach, we identified signalling pathways triggered by the denatonium benzoate (DB)-activated bitter receptors. This involved activation of α-gustducin (Gαgust)—the specific G-protein subunit that is also present in taste bud cells—reduction of intracellular cAMP levels and enhancement of phospholipase C (PLC) activity, which ultimately led to increased intracellular calcium concentrations and hormone release. Gavage of DB, followed by gavage of glucose, to db/db mice stimulated GLP-1 and subsequent insulin secretion, leading to lower blood glucose levels. Conclusions/interpretation Our study demonstrates that activation of gut-expressed bitter taste receptors stimulates GLP-1 secretion in a PLC-dependent manner. In diabetic mice, DB (a ligand of bitter taste receptor cells), when given via gavage, lowers blood glucose levels in diabetic mice after oral glucose administration, through increased secretion of GLP-1. PMID:25016595

  13. AhR-dependent secretion of PDGF-BB by human classically activated macrophages exposed to DEP extracts stimulates lung fibroblast proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaguin, Marie [UMR INSERM U1085, Institut de Recherche sur la Santé, l' Environnement et le Travail (IRSET), Université de Rennes 1, 2 Avenue du Pr Léon Bernard, 35043 Rennes Cedex (France); Fardel, Olivier [UMR INSERM U1085, Institut de Recherche sur la Santé, l' Environnement et le Travail (IRSET), Université de Rennes 1, 2 Avenue du Pr Léon Bernard, 35043 Rennes Cedex (France); Pôle Biologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire (CHU) Rennes, 2 rue Henri Le Guilloux, 35033 Rennes Cedex (France); Lecureur, Valérie, E-mail: valerie.lecureur@univ-rennes1.fr [UMR INSERM U1085, Institut de Recherche sur la Santé, l' Environnement et le Travail (IRSET), Université de Rennes 1, 2 Avenue du Pr Léon Bernard, 35043 Rennes Cedex (France)

    2015-06-15

    Lung diseases are aggravated by exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) found in air pollution. Macrophages are thought to play a crucial role in lung immune response to these pollutants, even if the mechanisms involved remain incompletely characterized. In the present study, we demonstrated that classically and alternative human macrophages (MΦ) exhibited increased secretion of PDGF-B in response to DEP extract (DEPe). This occurred via aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-activation because DEPe-induced PDGF-B overexpression was abrogated after AhR expression knock-down by RNA interference, in both M1 and M2 polarizing MΦ. In addition, TCDD and benzo(a)pyrene, two potent AhR ligands, also significantly increased mRNA expression of PDGF-B in M1 MΦ, whereas some weak ligands of AhR did not. We next evaluated the impact of conditioned media (CM) from MΦ culture exposed to DEPe or of recombinant PDGF-B onto lung fibroblast proliferation. The tyrosine kinase inhibitor, AG-1295, prevents phosphorylations of PDGF-Rβ, AKT and ERK1/2 and the proliferation of MRC-5 fibroblasts induced by recombinant PDGF-B and by CM from M1 polarizing MΦ, strongly suggesting that the PDGF-BB secreted by DEPe-exposed MΦ is sufficient to activate the PDGF-Rβ pathway of human lung fibroblasts. In conclusion, we demonstrated that human MΦ, whatever their polarization status, secrete PDGF-B in response to DEPe and that PDGF-B is a target gene of AhR. Therefore, induction of PDGF-B by DEP may participate in the deleterious effects towards human health triggered by such environmental urban contaminants. - Highlights: • PDGF-B expression and secretion are increased by DEPe exposure in human M1 and M2 MΦ. • DEPe-induced PDGF-B expression is aryl-hydrocarbon-dependent. • DEPe-exposed M1 MΦ secrete sufficient PDGF-B to increase lung fibroblast proliferation.

  14. Duodenal intussusception secondary to web presenting as recurrent pancreatitis in a 7-year-old girl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tu, Long H. [University of Connecticut School of Medicine, Farmington, CT (United States); Kaweah Delta Healthcare District, Graduate Medical Education, Visalia, CA (United States); Villalona, Gustavo A. [Yale School of Medicine, Department of Surgery, Section of Pediatric Surgery, New Haven, CT (United States); SSM Health Cardinal Glennon Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatric Surgery, St. Louis, MO (United States); Cowles, Robert A. [Yale School of Medicine, Department of Surgery, Section of Pediatric Surgery, New Haven, CT (United States); Silva, Cicero T. [Yale School of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Section of Pediatric Radiology, 333 Cedar St., P.O. Box 208042, New Haven, CT (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Duodenal intussusception is a rare entity in children, with 32 cases reported in the English literature to our knowledge. Most reported cases are associated with endoluminal tubes or polyps, and the presenting symptoms are chronic and nonspecific. We report a case of duodenal intussusception in a 7-year-old girl secondary to a duodenal web and review the imaging findings. (orig.)

  15. A review of the management of perforated duodenal ulcers at a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    Abstract. Background: Gastro-duodenal perforations are common and may complicate peptic ulcer disease. Management is often by surgical closure. Objective: To determine the patterns of presentation and mode of management of duodenal ulcer perforations. Methods: Retrospective review of patients with duodenal ulcer ...

  16. Ovarian cancer-derived lysophosphatidic acid stimulates secretion of VEGF and stromal cell-derived factor-1 alpha from human mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Eun Su; Heo, Soon Chul; Lee, Il Hwan; Choi, Yoon Ji; Park, Ji Hye; Choi, Kyung Un; Park, Do Youn; Suh, Dong Soo; Yoon, Man Soo; Kim, Jae Ho

    2010-04-30

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) stimulates growth and invasion of ovarian cancer cells and tumor angiogenesis. Cancer-derived LPA induces differentiation of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hASCs) to alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA)-positive cancer-associated fibroblasts. Presently, we explored whether cancer-derived LPA regulates secretion of pro-angiogenic factors from hASCs. Conditioned medium (CM) from the OVCAR-3 and SKOV3 ovarian cancer cell lines stimulated secretion angiogenic factors such as stromal-derived factor-1 alpha (SDF-1 alpha) and VEGF from hASCs. Pretreatment with the LPA receptor inhibitor Ki16425 or short hairpin RNA lentiviral silencing of the LPA((1)) receptor abrogated the cancer CM-stimulated expression of alpha-SMA, SDF-1, and VEGF from hASCs. LPA induced expression of myocardin and myocardin-related transcription factor-A, transcription factors involved in smooth muscle differentiation, in hASCs. siRNA-mediated depletion of endogenous myocardin and MRTF-A abrogated the expression of alpha-SMA, but not SDF-1 and VEGF. LPA activated RhoA in hASCs and pretreatment with the Rho kinase inhibitor Y27632 completely abrogated the LPA-induced expression of alpha-SMA, SDF-1, and VEGF in hASCs. Moreover, LPA-induced alpha-SMA expression was abrogated by treatment with the ERK inhibitor U0126 or the phosphoinositide-3-kinase inhibitor LY294002, but not the PLC inhibitor U73122. LPA-induced VEGF secretion was inhibited by LY294002, whereas LPA-induced SDF-1 secretion was markedly attenuated by U0126, U73122, and LY294002. These results suggest that cancer-secreted LPA induces differentiation of hASCs to cancer-associated fibroblasts through multiple signaling pathways involving Rho kinase, ERK, PLC, and phosphoinositide-3-kinase.

  17. Control of human endometrial stromal cell motility by PDGF-BB, HB-EGF and trophoblast-secreted factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maren Schwenke

    Full Text Available Human implantation involves extensive tissue remodeling at the fetal-maternal interface. It is becoming increasingly evident that not only trophoblast, but also decidualizing endometrial stromal cells are inherently motile and invasive, and likely contribute to the highly dynamic processes at the implantation site. The present study was undertaken to further characterize the mechanisms involved in the regulation of endometrial stromal cell motility and to identify trophoblast-derived factors that modulate migration. Among local growth factors known to be present at the time of implantation, heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF triggered chemotaxis (directed locomotion, whereas platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-BB elicited both chemotaxis and chemokinesis (non-directed locomotion of endometrial stromal cells. Supernatants of the trophoblast cell line AC-1M88 and of first trimester villous explant cultures stimulated chemotaxis but not chemokinesis. Proteome profiling for cytokines and angiogenesis factors revealed neither PDGF-BB nor HB-EGF in conditioned media from trophoblast cells or villous explants, while placental growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor and PDGF-AA were identified as prominent secretory products. Among these, only PDGF-AA triggered endometrial stromal cell chemotaxis. Neutralization of PDGF-AA in trophoblast conditioned media, however, did not diminish chemoattractant activity, suggesting the presence of additional trophoblast-derived chemotactic factors. Pathway inhibitor studies revealed ERK1/2, PI3 kinase/Akt and p38 signaling as relevant for chemotactic motility, whereas chemokinesis depended primarily on PI3 kinase/Akt activation. Both chemotaxis and chemokinesis were stimulated upon inhibition of Rho-associated, coiled-coil containing protein kinase. The chemotactic response to trophoblast secretions was not blunted by inhibition of isolated signaling cascades, indicating

  18. The effect of cysteamine on the Brunner gland secretion in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1981-01-01

    Cysteamine in a single subcutaneous administration induces release of gastrin, acid hypersecretion, and duodenal ulcer in rats. Pentagastrin-induced acid hypersecretion has no ulcerogenic effect. The Brunner glands in the proximal duodenum have previously been shown to be an important factor...... in the natural defence of the duodenal mucosa, and this study has been performed to determine the effect of cysteamine and pentagastrin on the Brunner glands in the rat. The proximal duodenum was isolated in situ and drained by a polyethylene tube. The secretion was studied for two 5-h periods after...

  19. Modulation of Single-Cell IgG Secretion Frequency and Rates in Human Memory B Cells by CpG DNA, CD40L, IL-21 and Cell Division∥

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henn, Alicia D.; Rebhahn, Jonathan; Brown, Miguel A.; Murphy, Alison J.; Coca, Mircea N.; Hyrien, Ollivier; Pellegrin, Tina; Mosmann, Tim; Zand, Martin S.

    2009-01-01

    During the recall response by CD27+ IgG class switched human memory B cells, total IgG secreted is a function of (1) the number of IgG secreting cells (IgG-SC) and (2) the secretion rate of each cell. Here we report the quantitative ELISPOT method (qELISPOT) for simultaneous estimation of single cell IgG secretion rates and secreting cell frequencies in human B cell populations. We found that CD27+ IgMneg memory B cells activated with CpG and cytokines had considerable heterogeneity in the IgG secretion rates, with two major secretion rate subpopulations. B cell receptor cross-linking reduced the frequency of cells with high per-cell IgG secretion rates, with a parallel decrease in CD27hi B cell blasts. Increased cell death may account for the BCR-stimulated reduction in high-rate IgG-SC CD27hi B cell blasts. In contrast, the addition of IL-21 to CD40L +IL-4 activated human memory B cells induced a high-rate IgG-SC population in B cells with otherwise low per-cell IgG secretion rates. The profiles of human B cell IgG secretion rates followed the same biphasic distribution and range irrespective of division class. This, along with the presence of non-IgG-producing, dividing B cells in CpG+ck-activated B memory B cell populations, is suggestive of an “On/Off switch” regulating IgG secretion. Finally, these data support a mixture model of IgG secretion in which IgG secreted over time is modulated by the frequency of IgG secreting cells and the distribution of their IgG secretion rates. This is an author-produced version of a manuscript accepted for publication in The Journal of Immunology (The JI). The American Association of Immunologists, Inc. (AAI), publisher of The JI, holds the copyright to this manuscript. This version of the manuscript has not yet been copyedited or subjected to editorial proofreading by The JI; hence, it may differ from the final version published in The JI (online and in print). AAI (The JI) is not liable for errors or omissions in this

  20. Puerarin protects against Staphylococcus aureus-induced injury of human alveolar epithelial A549 cells via downregulating alpha-hemolysin secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Feng; Li, Wen-Hua; Zhou, Xuan; Liu, Yong-Hua; Li, Zhe; Tang, Yu-Shun; Kou, Xu; Wang, Shu-De; Bao, Min; Qu, Lian-Da; Li, Min; Li, Bing

    2014-08-01

    Alpha-hemolysin, a secreted pore-forming toxin, plays an indispensable role in the pathogenicity of Staphylococcus aureus. In this study, the antimicrobial activity of puerarin against S. aureus was investigated; as a result, puerarin showed no influence on the growth of this organism. However, hemolysis and western blotting assays showed that puerarin concentration dependently inhibited the secretion of alpha-hemolysin at low concentrations. Real-time RT-PCR assay was further employed to evaluate the transcriptional level of hla, the gene encoding alpha-hemolysin, and RNAIII, an effector molecule of the agr system. The results indicated that the RNAIII expression and subsequent hla transcription were also inhibited by puerarin in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, puerarin significantly prevented human alveolar epithelial A549 cells from S. aureus-induced injury. Thereby, puerarin may be considered as a potential candidate for the development of antivirulence drugs in the treatment of S. aureus-mediated infections.

  1. Effect of long term glucocorticoid treatment on human growth hormone secretion in children and adolescents and the safety and effectiveness of recombinant human growth hormone treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Li; Dian-Chi, Zhang; Qi-Yong, Wu; Hui-Juan, Zhu; Feng-Yang, Gong; Hui, Pan; Zi-meng, Jin; Jie-ying, Deng; Yi-fan, Shi

    2011-02-01

    Long term glucocorticoid (prednisolone) treatment on human growth hormone (hGH) secretion in children and adolescents and to investigate the effectiveness and safety of the recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) treatment. Twelve patients (age: 10.4∓1.2 years) who were treated in Peking Union Medical College Hospital from September 1999 to November 2009 were enrolled in this study. All of them had taken prednisolone with a dose of 0.5∓2.0 mg/(kg.d) for 6~18 months. Two different hGH stimulating tests was done and their growth and development was evaluated at regular intervals. Seven patients were given rhGH with a dose of 0.1 U/(kg.d) for 6~12 months to improve their growth and development after half a year of prednisolone withdrawal when their disease conditions were improved. The growth speed of these 12 children decreased significantly during prednisolone treatment compared with before prednisolone treatment (1.2∓0.3cm/year vs.3.7∓1.2 cm/year,P12 months than those with a 6~12 months course (P0.05). The growth speed of seven children who received rhGH therapy for half a year were increased from 2.2∓0.1cm/year to 7.8∓0.5cm/year (Pgrowth and development in these children after their primary diseases are improved and glucocorticoids are withdrawn.

  2. Epstein-Barr virus interferes with the amplification of IFNalpha secretion by activating suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 in primary human monocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Michaud

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus is recognized to cause lymphoproliferative disorders and is also associated with cancer. Evidence suggests that monocytes are likely to be involved in EBV pathogenesis, especially due to a number of cellular functions altered in EBV-infected monocytes, a process that may affect efficient host defense. Because type I interferons (IFNs are crucial mediators of host defense against viruses, we investigated the effect of EBV infection on the IFNalpha pathway in primary human monocytes.Infection of monocytes with EBV induced IFNalpha secretion but inhibited the positive feedback loop for the amplification of IFNalpha. We showed that EBV infection induced the expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3 and, to a lesser extent, SOCS1, two proteins known to interfere with the amplification of IFNalpha secretion mediated by the JAK/STAT signal transduction pathway. EBV infection correlated with a blockage in the activation of JAK/STAT pathway members and affected the level of phosphorylated IFN regulatory factor 7 (IRF7. Depletion of SOCS3, but not SOCS1, by small interfering RNA (siRNA abrogated the inhibitory effect of EBV on JAK/STAT pathway activation and significantly restored IFNalpha secretion. Finally, transfection of monocytes with the viral protein Zta caused the upregulation of SOCS3, an event that could not be recapitulated with mutated Zta.We propose that EBV protein Zta activates SOCS3 protein as an immune escape mechanism that both suppresses optimal IFNalpha secretion by human monocytes and favors a state of type I IFN irresponsiveness in these cells. This immunomodulatory effect is important to better understand the aspects of the immune response to EBV.

  3. The impact of reduced gastric acid secretion on dissolution of salts of weak bases in the fasted upper gastrointestinal lumen: Data in biorelevant media and in human aspirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litou, Chara; Vertzoni, Maria; Xu, Wei; Kesisoglou, Filippos; Reppas, Christos

    2017-06-01

    To propose media for simulating the intragastric environment under reduced gastric acid secretion in the fasted state at three levels of simulation of the gastric environment and evaluate their usefulness in evaluating the intragastric dissolution of salts of weak bases. To evaluate the importance of bicarbonate buffer in biorelevant in vitro dissolution testing when using Level II biorelevant media simulating the environment in the fasted upper small intestine, regardless of gastric acid secretions. Media for simulating the hypochlorhydric and achlorhydric conditions in stomach were proposed using phosphates, maleates and bicarbonates buffers. The impact of bicarbonates in Level II biorelevant media simulating the environment in upper small intestine was evaluated so that pH and bulk buffer capacity were maintained. Dissolution data were collected using two model compounds, pioglitazone hydrochloride and semifumarate cocrystal of Compound B, and the mini-paddle dissolution apparatus in biorelevant media and in human aspirates. Simulated gastric fluids proposed in this study were in line with pH, buffer capacity, pepsin content, total bile salt/lecithin content and osmolality of the fasted stomach under partial and under complete inhibition of gastric acid secretion. Fluids simulating the conditions under partial inhibition of acid secretion were useful in simulating concentrations of both model compounds in gastric aspirates. Bicarbonates in Level III biorelevant gastric media and in Level II biorelevant media simulating the composition in the upper intestinal lumen did not improve simulation of concentrations in human aspirates. Level III biorelevant media for simulating the intragastric environment under hypochlorhydric conditions were proposed and their usefulness in the evaluation of concentrations of two model salts of weak bases in gastric aspirates was shown. Level II biorelevant media for simulating the environment in upper intestinal lumen led to

  4. Gastric Outlet Obstruction from Duodenal Lipoma in an Adult

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hizawa K, Kawasaki M, Kouzuki T, Aoyagi K, Fujishima M. Unroofing technique for the endoscopic resection of a large duodenal lipoma. Gastrointest Endosc 1999;49:391‑2. New features on the journal's website. Optimized content for mobile and hand-held devices. HTML pages have been optimized of mobile and other ...

  5. Balancing the duodenal amino acid supply in ruminants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DAAS: Duodenal Amino Acid Supply. Table 3 Least-cost feed formulations to balance the DAAS (for milk production) to protein ol milk dry mat- ter at the 15 % level. Unfermented ingredients (g/100 e). Fermented ingredients. G/rc0 e). Blood. Carcass PBPM. Imported. Brewers. Fish frsh. Groundnut srain. Gluten. Protein.

  6. Laparobotic Duodenal Diverticulectomy: A Case Series and Operative Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuchit Lerstsirithong

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Duodenal diverticulum is not uncommon but most are asymptomatic. Surgery is recommended only for the patients with symptoms. Although laparoscopic diverticulectomy can be done, it is often with significant difficulties due to inherent limitations of the laparoscopic technique and posterior location of the lesion. The advent of the robotic surgical technology with superior imaging and instrumentation may provide an alternative minimally invasive approach for this situation. We herein report our case series utilizing the daVinci Surgical System (dVSS for duodenal diverticulectomy. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed our robotic database for all duodenal procedures performed at a single institution (the Valley Hospital: VH. Only patients who underwent laparobotic duodenal diverticulectomy (LRDD were included and their recorded videos reviewed. Data analyzed were patients’ demographic, perioperative outcomes, and technical details. We used the daVinci Si (Intuitive Surgical Inc. Sunny Vale, Calif. for all cases. Results: 4 female patients underwent LRDD. All presented with abdominal pain. Diagnosis was made by CT scans or MRI with or without EGD. 3 patients had diverticula located in the second part of the duodenum (75%. Concomitant procedures (choledochoduodenostomy and CBD exploration were performed in two patients. Mean operative time was 142.5 min. There was one complication but no mortality. Average length of stay was 4 days. Conclusion: LRDD is feasible, efficient, and safe. The dVSS provides the surgeon improved visualization and enhanced dexterity to perform complex procedure.

  7. Gastric Outlet Obstruction from Duodenal Lipoma in an Adult ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PN Wichendu, A Dodiyi-Manuel ... remains the most common benign cause of gastric outlet obstruction (GOO), duodenal lipomas remain a rare, but possible cause of GOO and could pose a diagnostic challenge, especially in countries where access to endoscopy and modern imaging techniques poses a challenge.

  8. Perforated Duodenal Ulcer; Management in a Resource Poor, Semi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Perforated duodenal ulcer (PDU) is still seen frequently in the study center inspite of the free use of effective medical curative therapy. We then set out to ascertain the pattern of presentation, peculiar risk factors in the study environment, re.evaluate our method of management, and to see if it is adequate for ...

  9. Abnormalities of intestinal rotation and congenital intrinsic duodenal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background Congenital duodenal obstruction (CDO) is a unique anomaly with variable presentation depending on the site, type of obstruction, as well as the presence of associated anomalies. This is a review of our experience with 51 infants and children with CDO, stressing on the importance of associated rotational ...

  10. Duodeno-duodenal intussusception secondary to a brunner's gland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Duodenal intussusception is a rare complication of a Brunner's gland adenoma with only 12 cases, including this report, reported to date. Symptoms are usually vague, diagnosis is often difficult and intussusception, due to its rarity, may mimic sinister tumours. Management usually involves a duodenotomy and ...

  11. Emergency Operations for Bleeding Duodenal Ulcer:A simple option ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report a 46 years-old man who had severe bleeding from a posterior duodenal ulcer (DU) that was diagnosed but could not be treated endoscopically in another health facility. He went into shock as he was being admitted to the casualty at Khartoum North Teaching Hospital (KNTH). His haemoglobin (Hb) dropped to ...

  12. Gastric Outlet Obstruction from Duodenal Lipoma in an Adult

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lipomas of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) are rare (1:600 necropsies).[1] Owing to recent advances in endoscopy and modern imaging techniques such as computed tomography (CT) scan and magnetic resonance imaging, more cases are being diagnosed and treated. However, duodenal lipomas are very rare with lesser ...

  13. A rare association between dextrogastria, duodenal web, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A rare association between dextrogastria, duodenal web, and intestinal malrotation in newborns. Omar Abdulwahed, Diaa Al-Bardiny and Abdallah Salam. Dextrogastria alone is an exceptional anomaly of situs inversus. Only few cases have been published in the literature, the majority of which concern adults diagnosed.

  14. An unusual case of hematemesis: Spontaneous reno-duodenal fistula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo De Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Different diseases may cause gastrointestinal bleeding. A fistula infrequently manifest with severe intestinal bleeding, when excluding those directly involving vascular structures. We described a case of upper digestive bleeding by a spontaneous renal-duodenal fistula in the patient with kidney cancer. Bleeding was successfully stopped by transarterial embolization.

  15. A case of duodenal duplication in an adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzironi, Giuseppe; De Cristofaro, Flaminia; Angelini, Patrizia; De Vargas Macciucca, Marina; Ricci, Francesca; Campagnano, Sarah

    2003-01-01

    We report a rare case of duodenal duplication, manifested in an adult with aspecific symptoms, whose diagnosis was possible with ultrasound at the beginning and then with gastrointestinal barium study, endoscopic ultrasonography and contrast enhanced CT scan; it was confirmed surgically.

  16. Duodenal infusion of donor feces for recurrent Clostridium difficile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nood, Els; Vrieze, Anne; Nieuwdorp, Max; Fuentes, Susana; Zoetendal, Erwin G.; de Vos, Willem M.; Visser, Caroline E.; Kuijper, Ed J.; Bartelsman, Joep F. W. M.; Tijssen, Jan G. P.; Speelman, Peter; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G. W.; Keller, Josbert J.

    2013-01-01

    Recurrent Clostridium difficile infection is difficult to treat, and failure rates for antibiotic therapy are high. We studied the effect of duodenal infusion of donor feces in patients with recurrent C. difficile infection. We randomly assigned patients to receive one of three therapies: an initial

  17. Duodenal Infusion of Donor Feces for Recurrent Clostridium difficile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nood, van E.; Vrieze, A.; Nieuwdorp, M.; Fuentes Enriquez de Salamanca, S.; Zoetendal, E.G.; Vos, de W.M.; Visser, C.E.; Kuijper, E.J.; Bartelsman, J.F.; Tijssen, J.G.; Speelman, P.; Dijkgraaf, M.G.; Keller, J.J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Recurrent Clostridium difficile infection is difficult to treat, and failure rates for antibiotic therapy are high. We studied the effect of duodenal infusion of donor feces in patients with recurrent C. difficile infection. Methods We randomly assigned patients to receive one of three

  18. Factors associated with gastro-duodenal disease in patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Limited data exists regarding its associated risk factors despite accumulating evidence indicating that gastro- duodenal disease is ... ing and alcohol consumption, despite accumulating evi- ... University of Ghana Medical School, College of Health. Sciences ..... exerts its ulcerogenic effect primarily as a consequence of.

  19. Coexistent duodenal ulcer among patients with gastric carcinoma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To examine the prevalence of coexistent duodenal ulcers among patients with gastric carcinoma in an otherwise intact stomach, we surveyed 604 endoscopically and pathologically diagnosed gastric carcinoma patients and thoroughly inspected their duodenums. Twenty-two (3,6%) of them had either active ulcers or scars ...

  20. Experience with Acute Perforated Duodenal Ulcer in a West African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The advent of proton pump inhibitors and helicobacter pylori eradication in the management of chronic peptic ulcer disease has reduced the operative treatment of this condition to its complications. Perforated duodenal ulcer remains a major life threatening complication of chronic peptic ulcer disease.

  1. Cure of duodenal ulcer associated with eradication of Helicobacter pylori

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rauws, E. A.; Tytgat, G. N.

    1990-01-01

    50 patients with intractable duodenal ulcer were randomly assigned to 4 weeks of treatment with colloidal bismuth subcitrate (CBS) alone (26 patients) or with amoxicillin and metronidazole (24 patients). 5 patients (all on triple therapy) withdrew because of side-effects. In 17 of the 45 patients

  2. Acute Perforated Duodenal Ulcer in Maiduguri: Experience with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Effective medical management of peptic ulcer disease (PUD) has reduced the incidence of gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) as a complication, but perforation especially in the elderly remains unchanged and is in fact on the increase. There is a changing trend in emergency surgery for perforated duodenal ...

  3. Balancing the duodenal amino acid supply in ruminants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    x lm. " DAAS: Duodenal Amino Acid Supply. Table 3 Least-cost feed formulations to balance the DAAS (for milk production) to protein ol milk dry mat- ter at the 15 % level. Unfermented ingredients (g/100 e). Fermented ingredients. G/rc0 e). Blood. Carcass PBPM. Imported. Brewers. Fish frsh. Groundnut srain. Gluten. Protein.

  4. Duodenal Obstruction: Etiology, Morbidity and Mortality among Edo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Duodenal obstruction in children is associated with poor outcome which has improved in developed but remained poor in developing countries. The objective of this study was to ascertain the etiology, morbidity, mortality and factors that contributed to poor outcome in a developing country. Retrospective analysis of pediatric ...

  5. Duodenal atresia in association with situs inversus abdominus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghu Shankar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a rare association of duodenal atresia with situs inversus abdominus in a newborn. The infantogram revealed "reverse double-bubble sign" without dextrocardia. The sonography and echocardiography confirmed the diagnosis of situs inversus abdominus with multiple cardiac anomalies. Laparotomy and a duodenoduodenostomy were carried out.

  6. Diversity of Duodenal and Rectal Microbiota in Biopsy Tissues and Luminal Contents in Healthy Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gangping; Yang, Min; Zhou, Kan; Zhang, Lei; Tian, Lugao; Lv, Shangze; Jin, Yu; Qian, Wei; Xiong, Hanhua; Lin, Rong; Fu, Yu; Hou, Xiaohua

    2015-07-01

    The diverse microbial communities that colonize distinct segments of the gastrointestinal tract are intimately related to aspects of physiology and the pathology of human health. However, most recent studies have focused on the rectal or fecal microbiota, and the microbial signature of the duodenum is poorly studied. In this study, we compared the microbiota in duodenal and rectal samples to illustrate the characteristic microbial signatures of the duodenum in healthy adults. Nine healthy volunteers donated biopsies and luminal contents from the duodenum and rectum. To determine the composition and diversity of the microbiota, 454- pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA was performed and multiple bioinformatics analyses were applied. The α-diversity and phylogenetic diversity of the microbiota in the duodenal samples were higher than those of the rectal samples. There was higher biodiversity among the microbiota isolated from rectal biopsies than feces. Proteobacteria were more highly represented in the duodenum than in the rectum, both in the biopsies and in the luminal contents from the healthy volunteers (38.7% versus 12.5%, 33.2% versus 5.0%, respectively). Acinetobacter and Prevotella were dominant in the duodenum, whereas Bacteroides and Prevotella were dominant in the rectum. Additionally, the percentage of OTUs shared in biopsy groups was far higher than in the luminal group (43.0% versus 26.8%) and a greater number of genera was shared among the biopsies than the luminal contents. Duodenal samples demonstrated greater biological diversity and possessed a unique microbial signature compared with the rectum. The mucosa-associated microbiota was more relatively conserved than luminal samples.

  7. The use of amniotic membrane in the repair of duodenal wounds in Wistar rats Uso da membrana amniótica no reparo de feridas duodenais em ratos Wistar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Rodrigues Schimidt

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In the search of a new material to repair duodenal wounds, a trial was conducted to assess the behavior of human amniotic membrane in the repair of the duodenal wall in rats. METHODS: Fifty Wistar rats weighing between 250 and 350g, male, were submitted to duodenotomy and randomly distributed into two groups. Group A (n=8 had no treatment and was used as the control group. In Group B (n=42 the duodenal wound was treated with a patch of human amniotic membrane. RESULTS: All animals in Group A died. In Group B no changes were observed with regards to death or the formation of duodenal fistula. All animals presented peritoneal adherences in the region on the duodenal wall repair and intestinal obstruction was observed in two animals. Healing of the duodenal wall in the region of the patch took place progressively as the post-operatory period increased, with regeneration of the mucosa and of the smooth muscle layer. CONCLUSION: From the clinical standpoint, the amniotic membrane proved to be a biological tissue which served as a temporary seal and allowed the wound to heal by second-intention, with re-establishment of the duodenal wall structure.OBJETIVO: Na busca de um novo material para o reparo dos ferimentos duodenais, foi efetuado um estudo para avaliar o comportamento da membrana amniótica humana no reparo da parede duodenal em ratos. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 50 ratos Wistar, com peso entre 250 e 350g, machos, distribuídos, aleatoriamente, em dois grupos. Grupo A (n=8, submetido à duodenotomia sem tratamento, utilizados como controle. Grupo B (n=42, submetido a um remendo de membrana amniótica humana para tratamento de ferimento duodenal provocado. RESULTADOS: Todos os animais do grupo A foram a óbito. No grupo B não foram observadas alterações quanto a óbito ou formação de fístula duodenal. Observaram-se em todos os animais aderências peritoneais à região do reparo da parede do duodeno e obstrução intestinal em

  8. Abnormal duodenal loop demonstrated by X-ray. Correlation to symptoms and prognosis of dyspepsia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thommesen, P.; Funch-Jensen, P.

    1986-01-01

    The occurrence of dyspeptic symptoms has previously been correlated with the shape of the duodenal loop in patients with X-ray-negative dyspepsia. An abnormal duodenal loop was associated with a significantly higher incidence of symtoms provoked by meals, vomiting, regurgitations, heartburn, and the irritable bowel syndrome. 89% of these patients (26 patients with a normal duodenal loop and 39 patients with abnormal duodenal loop) were available for a 5-year follow-up study of symptomatic outcome. The incidence of symptoms provoked by meals was still significantly higher in patients with an abnormal duodenal loop, and there was also a significant difference concerning symptomatic outcome. Approximately 75% of the patients with a normal duodenal loop had improved, and 25% had unchanged clinical conditions. Approximately 50% of the patients with an abnormal duodenal loop had improved, and 50% had an unchanged or even deteriorated clinical condition.

  9. HD-03/ES: A Herbal Medicine Inhibits Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Secretion in Transfected Human Hepatocarcinoma PLC/PRF/5 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep R. Varma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available HD-03/ES is a herbal formulation used for the treatment of hepatitis B. However, the molecular mechanism involved in the antihepatitis B (HBV activity of this drug has not been studied using in vitro models. The effect of HD-03/ES on hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg secretion and its gene expression was studied in transfected human hepatocarcinoma PLC/PRF/5 cells. The anti-HBV activity was tested based on the inhibition of HBsAg secretion into the culture media, as detected by HBsAg-specific antibody-mediated enzyme assay (ELISA at concentrations ranging from 125 to 1000 μg/mL. The effect of HD-03/ES on HBsAg gene expression was analyzed using semiquantitative multiplex RT-PCR by employing specific primers. The results showed that HD-03/ES suppressed HBsAg production with an IC50 of 380 μg/mL in PLC/PRF/5 cells for a period of 24 h. HD-03/ES downregulated HBsAg gene expression in PLC/PRF/5 cells. In conclusion, HD-03/ES exhibits strong anti-HBV properties by inhibiting the secretion of hepatitis B surface antigen in PLC/PRF/5 cells, and this action is targeted at the transcription level. Thus, HD-03/ES could be beneficial in the treatment of acute and chronic hepatitis B infections.

  10. Secretion of bioactive interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha proteins from primary cultured human fetal membrane chorion cells infected with influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchide, N; Suzuki, A; Ohyama, K; Bessho, T; Toyoda, H

    2006-01-01

    Influenza virus infection during pregnancy is implicated in one of the causes of premature delivery, abortion and stillbirth. Pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha produced by fetal membranes, are postulated to facilitate premature delivery. We investigated the secretion of IL-6 and TNF-alpha from primary cultured human fetal membrane chorion and amnion cells infected with influenza virus at protein and bioactivity levels in order to understand the pathology of premature delivery during influenza virus infection. Concentrations of IL-6 and TNF-alpha proteins were significantly increased in culture supernatants of chorion cells by influenza virus infection. Culture supernatants of the virus-infected chorion cells stimulated the proliferation of IL-6-sensitive 7-TD-1 cells and induced the cytolysis of TNF-alpha-sensitive L929 cells, both activities of which were inhibited by the addition of respective antibody, whereas no such phenomena were observed in amnion cells. The results demonstrated that only chorion cells secreted significant amounts of bioactive IL-6 and TNF-alpha proteins responding to influenza virus infection. The present study suggests a possibility that the secretion of bioactive IL-6 and TNF-alpha proteins from fetal membrane chorion cells is implicated in the pathogenesis of premature delivery during influenza virus infection.

  11. HD-03/ES: A Herbal Medicine Inhibits Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Secretion in Transfected Human Hepatocarcinoma PLC/PRF/5 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, Sandeep R; Sundaram, R; Gopumadhavan, S; Vidyashankar, Satyakumar; Patki, Pralhad S

    2013-01-01

    HD-03/ES is a herbal formulation used for the treatment of hepatitis B. However, the molecular mechanism involved in the antihepatitis B (HBV) activity of this drug has not been studied using in vitro models. The effect of HD-03/ES on hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) secretion and its gene expression was studied in transfected human hepatocarcinoma PLC/PRF/5 cells. The anti-HBV activity was tested based on the inhibition of HBsAg secretion into the culture media, as detected by HBsAg-specific antibody-mediated enzyme assay (ELISA) at concentrations ranging from 125 to 1000  μ g/mL. The effect of HD-03/ES on HBsAg gene expression was analyzed using semiquantitative multiplex RT-PCR by employing specific primers. The results showed that HD-03/ES suppressed HBsAg production with an IC50 of 380  μ g/mL in PLC/PRF/5 cells for a period of 24 h. HD-03/ES downregulated HBsAg gene expression in PLC/PRF/5 cells. In conclusion, HD-03/ES exhibits strong anti-HBV properties by inhibiting the secretion of hepatitis B surface antigen in PLC/PRF/5 cells, and this action is targeted at the transcription level. Thus, HD-03/ES could be beneficial in the treatment of acute and chronic hepatitis B infections.

  12. Secretion of novel SEL1L endogenous variants is promoted by ER stress/UPR via endosomes and shed vesicles in human cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Cattaneo

    Full Text Available We describe here two novel endogenous variants of the human endoplasmic reticulum (ER cargo receptor SEL1LA, designated p38 and p28. Biochemical and RNA interference studies in tumorigenic and non-tumorigenic cells indicate that p38 and p28 are N-terminal, ER-anchorless and more stable relative to the canonical transmembrane SEL1LA. P38 is expressed and constitutively secreted, with increase after ER stress, in the KMS11 myeloma line and in the breast cancer lines MCF7 and SKBr3, but not in the non-tumorigenic breast epithelial MCF10A line. P28 is detected only in the poorly differentiated SKBr3 cell line, where it is secreted after ER stress. Consistently with the presence of p38 and p28 in culture media, morphological studies of SKBr3 and KMS11 cells detect N-terminal SEL1L immunolabeling in secretory/degradative compartments and extracellularly-released membrane vesicles. Our findings suggest that the two new SEL1L variants are engaged in endosomal trafficking and secretion via vesicles, which could contribute to relieve ER stress in tumorigenic cells. P38 and p28 could therefore be relevant as diagnostic markers and/or therapeutic targets in cancer.

  13. Triiodothyronine regulates angiogenic growth factor and cytokine secretion by isolated human decidual cells in a cell-type specific and gestational age-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilopoulou, E; Loubière, L S; Lash, G E; Ohizua, O; McCabe, C J; Franklyn, J A; Kilby, M D; Chan, S Y

    2014-06-01

    Does triiodothyronine (T3) regulate the secretion of angiogenic growth factors and cytokines by human decidual cells isolated from early pregnancy? T3 modulates the secretion of specific angiogenic growth factors and cytokines, with different regulatory patterns observed amongst various isolated subpopulations of human decidual cells and with a distinct change between the first and second trimesters of pregnancy. Maternal thyroid dysfunction during early pregnancy is associated with complications of malplacentation including miscarriage and pre-eclampsia. T3 regulates the proliferation and apoptosis of fetal-derived trophoblasts, as well as promotes the invasive capability of extravillous trophoblasts (EVT). We hypothesize that T3 may also have a direct impact on human maternal-derived decidual cells, which are known to exert paracrine regulation upon trophoblast behaviour and vascular development at the uteroplacental interface. This laboratory-based study used human decidua from first (8-11 weeks; n = 18) and second (12-16 weeks; n = 12) trimester surgical terminations of apparently uncomplicated pregnancies. Primary cultures of total decidual cells, and immunomagnetic bead-isolated populations of stromal-enriched (CD10+) and stromal-depleted (CD10-) cells, uterine natural killer cells (uNK cells; CD56+) and macrophages (CD14+) were assessed for thyroid hormone receptors and transporters by immunocytochemistry. Each cell population was treated with T3 (0, 1, 10, 100 nM) and assessments were made of cell viability (MTT assay) and angiogenic growth factor and cytokine secretion (immunomediated assay). The effect of decidual cell-conditioned media on EVT invasion through Matrigel(®) was evaluated. Immunocytochemistry showed the expression of thyroid hormone transporters (MCT8, MCT10) and receptors (TRα1, TRβ1) required for thyroid hormone-responsiveness in uNK cells and macrophages from the first trimester. The viability of total decidual cells and the different

  14. Mumps Virus Decreases Testosterone Production and Gamma Interferon-Induced Protein 10 Secretion by Human Leydig Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Le Goffic, Ronan; Mouchel, Thomas; Ruffault, Annick; Patard, Jean-Jacques; Jégou, Bernard; Samson, Michel

    2003-01-01

    Mumps virus is responsible for sterility. Here, we show that the mumps virus infects Leydig cells in vitro and totally inhibits testosterone secretion and that ribavirin in mumps virus-infected Leydig cell cultures completely restores testosterone production. Moreover, we show that gamma interferon-induced protein 10 (IP-10) is highly expressed by mumps virus-infected Leydig cells and that ribavirin does not block IP-10 production.

  15. In Vivo Readout of CFTR Function: Ratiometric Measurement of CFTR-Dependent Secretion by Individual, Identifiable Human Sweat Glands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wine, Jeffrey J.; Char, Jessica E.; Chen, Jonathan; Cho, Hyung-ju; Dunn, Colleen; Frisbee, Eric; Joo, Nam Soo; Milla, Carlos; Modlin, Sara E.; Park, Il-Ho; Thomas, Ewart A. C.; Tran, Kim V.; Verma, Rohan; Wolfe, Marlene H.

    2013-01-01

    To assess CFTR function in vivo, we developed a bioassay that monitors and compares CFTR-dependent and CFTR-independent sweat secretion in parallel for multiple (∼50) individual, identified glands in each subject. Sweating was stimulated by intradermally injected agonists and quantified by optically measuring spherical sweat bubbles in an oil-layer that contained dispersed, water soluble dye particles that partitioned into the sweat bubbles, making them highly visible. CFTR-independent secretion (M-sweat) was stimulated with methacholine, which binds to muscarinic receptors and elevates cytosolic calcium. CFTR-dependent secretion (C-sweat) was stimulated with a β-adrenergic cocktail that elevates cytosolic cAMP while blocking muscarinic receptors. A C-sweat/M-sweat ratio was determined on a gland-by-gland basis to compensate for differences unrelated to CFTR function, such as gland size. The average ratio provides an approximately linear readout of CFTR function: the heterozygote ratio is ∼0.5 the control ratio and for CF subjects the ratio is zero. During assay development, we measured C/M ratios in 6 healthy controls, 4 CF heterozygotes, 18 CF subjects and 4 subjects with ‘CFTR-related’ conditions. The assay discriminated all groups clearly. It also revealed consistent differences in the C/M ratio among subjects within groups. We hypothesize that these differences reflect, at least in part, levels of CFTR expression, which are known to vary widely. When C-sweat rates become very low the C/M ratio also tended to decrease; we hypothesize that this nonlinearity reflects ductal fluid absorption. We also discovered that M-sweating potentiates the subsequent C-sweat response. We then used potentiation as a surrogate for drugs that can increase CFTR-dependent secretion. This bioassay provides an additional method for assessing CFTR function in vivo, and is well suited for within-subject tests of systemic, CFTR-directed therapeutics. PMID:24204751

  16. Intracellular Chloride Concentration Changes Modulate IL-1β Expression and Secretion in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cultured Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauzure, Mariángeles; Valdivieso, Ángel G; Massip-Copiz, María M; Mori, Consuelo; Dugour, Andrea V; Figueroa, Juan M; Santa-Coloma, Tomás A

    2017-08-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the CFTR gene, which encodes a cAMP-regulated chloride channel. Several cellular functions are altered in CF cells. However, it is not clear how the CFTR failure induces those alterations. We have found previously several genes differentially expressed in CF cells, including c-Src, MUC1, MTND4, and CISD1 (CFTR-dependent genes). Recently, we also reported the existence of several chloride-dependent genes, among them GLRX5 and RPS27. Here, varying the intracellular chloride concentration [Cl(-) ]i of IB3-1 CF bronchial epithelial cells, we show that IL-1β mRNA expression and secretion are also under Cl(-) modulation. The response to Cl(-) is biphasic, with maximal effects at 75 mM Cl(-) . The regulation of the IL-1β mRNA expression involves an IL-1β autocrine effect, since in the presence of the IL-1β receptor antagonist IL1RN or anti-IL-1β blocking antibody, the mRNA response to Cl(-) disappeared. Similar effects were obtained with the JNK inhibitor SP600125, the c-Src inhibitor PP2 and the IKK inhibitor III (BMS-345541). On the other hand, the IL-1β secretion is still modulated by Cl(-) in the presence of IL-1RN, IL-1β blocking antibody, or cycloheximide, suggesting that Cl(-) is affecting the IL-1β maturation/secretion, which in turn starts an autocrine positive feedback loop. In conclusion, the Cl(-) anion acts as a second messenger for CFTR, modulating the IL-1β maturation/secretion. The results also imply that, depending on its intracellular concentration, Cl(-) could be a pro-inflammatory mediator. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 2131-2140, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Surface-bound galectin-4 regulates gene transcription and secretion of chemokines in human colorectal cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, U Subrahmanyeswara; Rao, Prema S

    2017-03-01

    One long-term complication of chronic intestinal inflammation is the development of colorectal cancer. However, the mechanisms linking inflammation to the colorectal tumorigenesis are poorly defined. Previously, we have demonstrated that galectin-4 is predominantly expressed in the luminal epithelia of the gastrointestinal tract, and its loss of expression plays a key role in the colorectal tumorigenesis. However, the mechanism by which galectin-4 regulates inflammation-induced tumorigenesis is unclear. Here, we show that galectin-4 secreted by the colorectal cancer cell lines was bound to the cell surface. Neutralization of surface-bound galectin-4 with anti-galectin-4 antibody resulted in increased cell proliferation with concomitant secretion of several chemokines into the extracellular medium. Neutralization of the surface-bound galectin-4 also resulted in the up-regulation of transcription of 29 genes, several of which are components of multiple inflammation signaling pathways. In an alternate experiment, binding of recombinant galectin-4 protein to cell surface of the galectin-4-negative colorectal cancer cells resulted in increased p27, and decreased cyclin D1 and c-Myc levels, leading to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Together, these data demonstrated that surface-bound galectin-4 is a dual function protein-down-regulating cell proliferation and chemokine secretion in galectin-4-expressing colorectal cancer cells on one hand and inducing apoptosis in galectin-4-negative colorectal cancer cells on the other hand.

  18. Berberine Reduces cAMP-Induced Chloride Secretion in T84 Human Colonic Carcinoma Cells through Inhibition of Basolateral KCNQ1 Channels.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Alzamora, Rodrigo

    2012-02-01

    Berberine is a plant alkaloid with multiple pharmacological actions, including antidiarrhoeal activity and has been shown to inhibit Cl(-) secretion in distal colon. The aims of this study were to determine the molecular signaling mechanisms of action of berberine on Cl(-) secretion and the ion transporter targets. Monolayers of T84 human colonic carcinoma cells grown in permeable supports were placed in Ussing chambers and short-circuit current measured in response to secretagogues and berberine. Whole-cell current recordings were performed in T84 cells using the patch-clamp technique. Berberine decreased forskolin-induced short-circuit current in a concentration-dependent manner (IC(50) 80 +\\/- 8 muM). In apically permeabilized monolayers and whole-cell current recordings, berberine inhibited a cAMP-dependent and chromanol 293B-sensitive basolateral membrane K(+) current by 88%, suggesting inhibition of KCNQ1 K(+) channels. Berberine did not affect either apical Cl(-) conductance or basolateral Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity. Berberine stimulated p38 MAPK, PKCalpha and PKA, but had no effect on p42\\/p44 MAPK and PKCdelta. However, berberine pre-treatment prevented stimulation of p42\\/p44 MAPK by epidermal growth factor. The inhibitory effect of berberine on Cl(-) secretion was partially blocked by HBDDE ( approximately 65%), an inhibitor of PKCalpha and to a smaller extent by inhibition of p38 MAPK with SB202190 ( approximately 15%). Berberine treatment induced an increase in association between PKCalpha and PKA with KCNQ1 and produced phosphorylation of the channel. We conclude that berberine exerts its inhibitory effect on colonic Cl(-) secretion through inhibition of basolateral KCNQ1 channels responsible for K(+) recycling via a PKCalpha-dependent pathway.

  19. Berberine Reduces cAMP-Induced Chloride Secretion in T84 Human Colonic Carcinoma Cells through Inhibition of Basolateral KCNQ1 Channels.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Alzamora, Rodrigo

    2011-01-01

    Berberine is a plant alkaloid with multiple pharmacological actions, including antidiarrhoeal activity and has been shown to inhibit Cl(-) secretion in distal colon. The aims of this study were to determine the molecular signaling mechanisms of action of berberine on Cl(-) secretion and the ion transporter targets. Monolayers of T84 human colonic carcinoma cells grown in permeable supports were placed in Ussing chambers and short-circuit current measured in response to secretagogues and berberine. Whole-cell current recordings were performed in T84 cells using the patch-clamp technique. Berberine decreased forskolin-induced short-circuit current in a concentration-dependent manner (IC(50) 80 ± 8 μM). In apically permeabilized monolayers and whole-cell current recordings, berberine inhibited a cAMP-dependent and chromanol 293B-sensitive basolateral membrane K(+) current by 88%, suggesting inhibition of KCNQ1 K(+) channels. Berberine did not affect either apical Cl(-) conductance or basolateral Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity. Berberine stimulated p38 MAPK, PKCα and PKA, but had no effect on p42\\/p44 MAPK and PKCδ. However, berberine pre-treatment prevented stimulation of p42\\/p44 MAPK by epidermal growth factor. The inhibitory effect of berberine on Cl(-) secretion was partially blocked by HBDDE (∼65%), an inhibitor of PKCα and to a smaller extent by inhibition of p38 MAPK with SB202190 (∼15%). Berberine treatment induced an increase in association between PKCα and PKA with KCNQ1 and produced phosphorylation of the channel. We conclude that berberine exerts its inhibitory effect on colonic Cl(-) secretion through inhibition of basolateral KCNQ1 channels responsible for K(+) recycling via a PKCα-dependent pathway.

  20. Berberine reduces cAMP-induced chloride secretion in T84 human colonic carcinoma cells through inhibition of basolateral KCNQ1 channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo eAlzamora

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Berberine is a plant alkaloid with multiple pharmacological actions, including antidiarrhoeal activity and has been shown to inhibit Cl- secretion in distal colon. The aims of this study were to determine the molecular signalling mechanisms of action of berberine on Cl- secretion and the ion transporter targets. Monolayers of T84 human colonic carcinoma cells grown in permeable supports were placed in Ussing chambers and short-circuit current measured in response to secretagogues and berberine. Whole-cell current recordings were performed in T84 cells using the patch-clamp technique. Berberine decreased forskolin-induced short-circuit current in a concentration-dependent manner (IC50 80  8 M. In apically permeabilized monolayers and whole-cell current recordings, berberine inhibited a cAMP-dependent and chromanol 293B-sensitive basolateral membrane K+ current by 88%, suggesting inhibition of KCNQ1 K+ channels. Berberine did not affect either apical Cl- conductance or basolateral Na+-K+-ATPase activity. Berberine stimulated p38 MAPK, PKC and PKA, but had no effect on p42/p44 MAPK and PKC. However, berberine pre-treatment prevented stimulation of p42/p44 MAPK by epidermal growth factor. The inhibitory effect of berberine on Cl- secretion was partially blocked by HBDDE (65 %, an inhibitor of PKC and to a smaller extent by inhibition of p38 MAPK with SB202190 (15 %. Berberine treatment induced an increase in association between PKC and PKA with KCNQ1 and produced phosphorylation of the channel. We conclude that berberine exerts its inhibitory effect on colonic Cl- secretion through inhibition of basolateral KCNQ1 channels responsible for K+ recycling via a PKC-dependent pathway.

  1. Google Secrets

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, Yvette

    2011-01-01

    Become a Google guru with these effective tips, tricks, and techniques Sure, you use Google. But do you really use Google-and everything it has to offer-in the most effective way possible? Wish you could just sit down with a Google expert who would show you how to take your Google savviness to the next level? With Google Secrets, you can! Tech expert Jerri Ledford reveals the ins, outs, and little-known facts about Google to show you how to sharpen your skills so you can get more done, more efficiently. You may already be familiar with Google's most popular applications, but this indispensable

  2. Release of biologically active kinin peptides, Met-Lys-bradykinin and Leu-Met-Lys-bradykinin from human kininogens by two major secreted aspartic proteases of Candida parapsilosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bras, Grazyna; Bochenska, Oliwia; Rapala-Kozik, Maria; Guevara-Lora, Ibeth; Faussner, Alexander; Kamysz, Wojciech; Kozik, Andrzej

    2013-10-01

    In terms of infection incidence, the yeast Candida parapsilosis is the second after Candida albicans as causative agent of candidiases in humans. The major virulence factors of C. parapsilosis are secreted aspartic proteases (SAPPs) which help the pathogen to disseminate, acquire nutrients and dysregulate the mechanisms of innate immunity of the host. In the current work we characterized the action of two major extracellular proteases of C. parapsilosis, SAPP1 and SAPP2, on human kininogens, proteinaceous precursors of vasoactive and proinflammatory bradykinin-related peptides, collectively called the kinins. The kininogens, preferably the form with lower molecular mass, were effectively cleaved by SAPPs, with the release of two uncommon kinins, Met-Lys-bradykinin and Leu-Met-Lys-bradykinin. While optimal at acidic pH (4-5), the kinin release yield was only 2-3-fold lower at neutral pH. These peptides were able to interact with cellular kinin receptors of B2 subtype and to stimulate the human endothelial cells HMEC-1 to increased secretion of proinflammatory interleukins (ILs), IL-1β and IL-6. The analysis of the stability of SAPP-generated kinins in plasma suggested that they are biologically equivalent to bradykinin, the best agonist of B2 receptor subtype and can be quickly converted to des-Arg(9)-bradykinin, the agonist of inflammation-inducible B1 receptors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effectiveness of CO2-insufflated endoscopic submucosal dissection with the duodenal balloon occlusion method for early esophageal or gastric cancer: a randomized case control prospective study

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    Mori Hirohito

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD has typically been performed using air insufflation. Recently, however, insufflation of CO2 has been increasingly used to avoid complications. This prospective study was designed to compare the CO2 concentration, intestinal volume, and acid–base balance using the duodenal balloon procedure. Methods From June 2010 to February 2011, we enrolled 44 patients with esophageal or gastric cancer and randomly allocated them into two groups. We compared 22 patients undergoing CO2-insufflated ESD with a balloon placed into the duodenal bulb (duodenal balloon group and 22 patients undergoing regular CO2-insufflated ESD (regular group. Three-dimensional computed tomography was performed before and after the procedure to measure intestinal volume. CO2 concentrations were measured every 10 minutes. The visual analogue system (VAS scores for postoperative symptoms were recorded, and pH was measured immediately after the procedure. This was a prospective case control study randomized by the sealed envelope method. Results Intestinal CO2 gas volume before and after ESD was lower in the duodenal balloon group than in the regular group (P = 0.00027. The end-tidal CO2 level was significantly lower in the duodenal balloon group than in the regular group (P = 0.0001. No significant differences in blood ΔpH were found between the two groups. The VAS score for the occurrence of nausea due to abdominal distension after ESD indicated a significant difference (P = 0.031. Conclusions ESD using the duodenal balloon occlusion method is effective for reduction of post-ESD intestinal CO2 gas volume, resulting in a lower total amount of CO2 insufflation during ESD and reducing harmful influences on the human body to some extent.

  4. Keyhole approach for repair of congenital duodenal obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, Y; Novogilov, V; Yurkov, P; Podkamenev, A; Weber, I; Sirkin, N

    2011-03-01

    We report on our experience of repair of congenital duodenal obstruction using a circumumbilical incision. The aim of this report is to describe how a Bianchi approach provides a safe and invisible alternative to transverse abdominal incision for the repair of duodenal atresia. Between January 2005 and December 2009, we treated 13 cases with congenital duodenal obstruction using a circumumbilical incision (Group I) and 14 cases with this condition repaired using a standard transverse right upper abdominal incision (Group II). Surgical procedures included a diamond-shaped duodenoduodenostomy as originally described by Kimura and standard duodenal web excision. The circumumbilical incision utilized at our institution is a classic Bianchi procedure. The 2 groups were compared with regard to patient demographics, operative reports and postoperative outcomes. There were no differences in preoperative parameters such as gestational age, age at surgery, or body weight at operation between the 2 groups. The circumumbilical cohort and transverse incision cohort had similar rates of congenital anomalies (61.54% vs. 64.29%), Kimura diamond-shaped anastomosis (61.54% vs. 64.29%) with only a slight female predominance in Group I. The mean operating time in Group I was 65.0 min while mean duration of the operation in Group II was 64.64 min. The difference between groups was statistically not significant (p>0.05). The mean time to full enteral feeding for patients with an umbilical incision was significantly shorter (p<0.0001) compared to patients with a standard incision (6.92 days vs. 11.86 days). Mean postoperative hospital stay was longer for patients in Group II (19.71 days vs. 12.38 days; p<0.0001). The postoperative course was uneventful for all patients. There were no intra- or postoperative complications. We report on a first series comparing umbilical and transverse right upper abdominal incision for the treatment of congenital duodenal obstruction. Our results suggest

  5. [Pancreatic polypeptide secreting endocrine pancreas tumor associated with multiple stomach and duodenal ulcers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehring, U M; Jäger, H J; Klöppel, G; Hasse, F M

    1997-01-01

    A 58-year-old woman presented with multiple gastroduodenal ulcera caused by a pancreatic polypeptidoma (PPoma) without hypergastrinemia or gastrin-producing tumor cells. After curative resection of the neoplasm, the clinical symptoms disappeared and the patient has now been disease-free for 6 years. We conclude that patients with non-gastrin-producing endocrine pancreatic tumors may demonstrate the clinical features of Zollinger-Ellison syndrome and should be included in the differential diagnosis of this syndrome.

  6. Medullary thyroid carcinoma and duodenal calcitonin-secreting neuroendocrine tumour: more than coincidence?

    OpenAIRE

    Huguet, I; Lamas, C; Vera, R; Lomas, A; Quilez, R P; Grossman, A.; Botella, F.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms whose management can be problematic. In many cases, multiple tumours may occur in the same patient or his or her family, and some of these have now been defined genetically, although in other cases the underlying gene or genes involved remain unclear. We describe a patient, a 63-year-old female, who was diagnosed with a medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), which was confirmed pathologically after thyroidectomy, but who...

  7. The effects of TAK-875, a selective G protein-coupled receptor 40/free fatty acid 1 agonist, on insulin and glucagon secretion in isolated rat and human islets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashiro, Hiroaki; Tsujihata, Yoshiyuki; Takeuchi, Koji; Hazama, Masatoshi; Johnson, Paul R V; Rorsman, Patrik

    2012-02-01

    G protein-coupled receptor 40 (GPR40)/free fatty acid 1 (FFA1) is a G protein-coupled receptor involved in free fatty acid-induced insulin secretion. To analyze the effect of our novel GPR40/FFA1-selective agonist, [(3S)-6-({2',6'-dimethyl-4'-[3-(methylsulfonyl)propoxy]biphenyl-3-yl}methoxy)-2,3-dihydro-1-benzofuran-3-yl]acetic acid hemi-hydrate (TAK-875), on insulin and glucagon secretion, we performed hormone secretion assays and measured intracellular Ca²⁺ concentration ([Ca²⁺](i)) in both human and rat islets. Insulin and glucagon secretion were measured in static and dynamic conditions by using groups of isolated rat and human pancreatic islets. [Ca²⁺](i) was recorded by using confocal microscopy. GPR40/FFA1 expression was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. In both human and rat islets, TAK-875 enhanced glucose-induced insulin secretion in a glucose-dependent manner. The stimulatory effect of TAK-875 was similar to that produced by glucagon-like peptide-1 and correlated with the elevation of β-cell [Ca²⁺](i). TAK-875 was without effect on glucagon secretion at both 1 and 16 mM glucose in human islets. These data indicate that GPR40/FFA1 influences mainly insulin secretion in a glucose-dependent manner. The β-cell-specific action of TAK-875 in human islets may represent a therapeutically useful feature that allows plasma glucose control without compromising counter-regulation of glucagon secretion, thus minimizing the risk of hypoglycemia.

  8. Source and Purity of Dengue-Viral Preparations Impact Requirement for Enhancing Antibody to Induce Elevated IL-1β Secretion: A Primary Human Monocyte Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaway, Justin B; Smith, Scott A; Widman, Douglas G; McKinnon, Karen P; Scholle, Frank; Sempowski, Gregory D; Dittmer, Dirk P; Crowe, James E; de Silva, Aravinda M; Ting, Jenny P-Y

    2015-01-01

    Dengue virus is a major global health threat and can lead to life-threatening hemorrhagic complications due to immune activation and cytokine production. Cross-reactive antibodies to an earlier dengue virus infection are a recognized risk factor for severe disease. These antibodies bind heterologous dengue serotypes and enhance infection into Fc-receptor-bearing cells, a process known as antibody-dependent enhancement of infection. One crucial cytokine seen elevated in severe dengue patients is IL-1β, a potent inflammatory cytokine matured by the inflammasome. We used a highly-physiologic system by studying antibody-dependent enhancement of IL-1β in primary human monocytes with anti-dengue human monoclonal antibodies isolated from patients. Antibody-enhancement increased viral replication in primary human monocytes inoculated with supernatant harvested from Vero cells infected with dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV-2) 16681. Surprisingly, IL-1β secretion induced by infectious supernatant harvested from two independent Vero cell lines was not enhanced by antibody. Secretion of multiple other inflammatory cytokines was also independent of antibody signaling. However, IL-1β secretion did require NLRP3 and caspase-1 activity. Immunodepletion of dengue virions from the infectious supernatant confirmed that virus was not the main IL-1β-inducing agent, suggesting that a supernatant component(s) not associated with the virion induced IL-1β production. We excluded RNA, DNA, contaminating LPS, viral NS1 protein, complement, and cytokines. In contrast, purified Vero-derived DENV-2 16681 exhibited antibody-enhancement of both infection and IL-1β induction. Furthermore, C6/36 mosquito cells did not produce such an inflammatory component, as crude supernatant harvested from insect cells infected with DENV-2 16681 induced antibody-dependent IL-1β secretion. This study indicates that Vero cells infected with DENV-2 16681 may produce inflammatory components during dengue virus

  9. Source and Purity of Dengue-Viral Preparations Impact Requirement for Enhancing Antibody to Induce Elevated IL-1β Secretion: A Primary Human Monocyte Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin B Callaway

    Full Text Available Dengue virus is a major global health threat and can lead to life-threatening hemorrhagic complications due to immune activation and cytokine production. Cross-reactive antibodies to an earlier dengue virus infection are a recognized risk factor for severe disease. These antibodies bind heterologous dengue serotypes and enhance infection into Fc-receptor-bearing cells, a process known as antibody-dependent enhancement of infection. One crucial cytokine seen elevated in severe dengue patients is IL-1β, a potent inflammatory cytokine matured by the inflammasome. We used a highly-physiologic system by studying antibody-dependent enhancement of IL-1β in primary human monocytes with anti-dengue human monoclonal antibodies isolated from patients. Antibody-enhancement increased viral replication in primary human monocytes inoculated with supernatant harvested from Vero cells infected with dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV-2 16681. Surprisingly, IL-1β secretion induced by infectious supernatant harvested from two independent Vero cell lines was not enhanced by antibody. Secretion of multiple other inflammatory cytokines was also independent of antibody signaling. However, IL-1β secretion did require NLRP3 and caspase-1 activity. Immunodepletion of dengue virions from the infectious supernatant confirmed that virus was not the main IL-1β-inducing agent, suggesting that a supernatant component(s not associated with the virion induced IL-1β production. We excluded RNA, DNA, contaminating LPS, viral NS1 protein, complement, and cytokines. In contrast, purified Vero-derived DENV-2 16681 exhibited antibody-enhancement of both infection and IL-1β induction. Furthermore, C6/36 mosquito cells did not produce such an inflammatory component, as crude supernatant harvested from insect cells infected with DENV-2 16681 induced antibody-dependent IL-1β secretion. This study indicates that Vero cells infected with DENV-2 16681 may produce inflammatory components

  10. Anti-Diabetic Agent Sodium Tungstate Induces the Secretion of Pro- and Anti-Inflammatory Cytokines by Human Kidney Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertinat, Romina; Westermeier, Francisco; Silva, Pamela; Shi, Jie; Nualart, Francisco; Li, Xuhang; Yáñez, Alejandro J

    2017-02-01

    Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is the major cause of end stage renal disease. Sodium tungstate (NaW) exerts anti-diabetic and immunomodulatory activities in diabetic animal models. Here, we used primary cultures of renal proximal tubule epithelial cells derived from type-2-diabetic (D-RPTEC) and non-diabetic (N-RPTEC) subjects as in vitro models to study the effects of NaW on cytokine secretion, as these factors participate in intercellular regulation of inflammation, cell growth and death, differentiation, angiogenesis, development, and repair, all processes that are dysregulated during DKD. In basal conditions, D-RPTEC cells secreted higher levels of prototypical pro-inflammatory IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1 than N-RPTEC cells, in agreement with their diabetic phenotype. Unexpectedly, NaW further induced IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1 secretion in both N- and D-RPTEC, together with lower levels of IL-1 RA, IL-4, IL-10, and GM-CSF, suggesting that it may contribute to the extent of renal damage/repair during DKD. Besides, NaW induced the accumulation of IκBα, the main inhibitor protein of one major pathway involved in cytokine production, suggesting further anti-inflammatory effect in the long-term. A better understanding of the mechanisms involved in the interplay between the anti-diabetic and immunomodulatory properties of NaW will facilitate future studies about its clinical relevance. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 355-362, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter A1 Deficiency in Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Hepatocytes Abrogates HDL Biogenesis and Enhances Triglyceride Secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Bi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the recognized role of the ATP-binding Cassette Transporter A1 (ABCA1 in high-density lipoprotein (HDL metabolism, our understanding of ABCA1 deficiency in human hepatocytes is limited. To define the functional effects of human hepatocyte ABCA1 deficiency, we generated induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC-derived hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs from Tangier disease (TD and matched control subjects. Control HLCs exhibited robust cholesterol efflux to apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I and formed nascent HDL particles. ABCA1-deficient HLCs failed to mediate lipid efflux or nascent HDL formation, but had elevated triglyceride (TG secretion. Global transcriptome analysis revealed significantly increased ANGPTL3 expression in ABCA1-deficient HLCs. Angiopoietin-related protein 3 (ANGPTL3 was enriched in plasma of TD relative to control subjects. These results highlight the required role of ABCA1 in cholesterol efflux and nascent HDL formation by hepatocytes. Furthermore, our results suggest that hepatic ABCA1 deficiency results in increased hepatic TG and ANGPTL3 secretion, potentially underlying the elevated plasma TG levels in TD patients.

  12. Mycobacterium massiliense Type II genotype leads to higher level of colony forming units and TNF-α secretion from human monocytes than Type I genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byoung-Jun; Shim, Tae Sun; Yi, Su-Yeon; Kim, Ho-Cheol; Kim, Bo-Ram; Lee, So-Young; Kook, Yoon-Hoh; Kim, Bum-Joon

    2015-10-01

    Recently, we introduced a novel Mycobacterium massiliense Type II genotype from Korean patients, in which all isolates showed only a rough (R) colony morphotype. In this study, we sought to compare clinical factors and virulence potentials of two genotypes of M. massiliense, Type I and Type II. Patients infected with Type II tend to be younger at infection than those infected with Type I (56.7 vs 62.3, p = 0.051). Type II was more significantly related to R colony type than Type I (34.1% vs 94.1%, p < 0.001). The Type II strain showed significantly more colony forming units (CFUs) and higher levels of TNF-α secretion in infection of human monocytes than the Type I strain. The challenge of extracted glycopeptidolipid (GPL) into human monocytes indicated that the loss of GPL from the cell wall of the Type II genotype led to a higher level of TNF-α secretion in a toll-like receptor 2(TLR2)-dependent manner. Taken together, our data suggest that the M. massiliense Type II genotype shows higher virulence than Type I, which may be due to the induction of TNF-α via the loss of GPL from the Type II cell wall. © 2015 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Two-dimensional gel proteome reference map of human small intestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canzonieri Vincenzo

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The small intestine is an important human organ that plays a central role in many physiological functions including digestion, absorption, secretion and defense. Duodenal pathologies include, for instance, the ulcer associated to Helicobacter Pylori infection, adenoma and, in genetically predisposed individuals, celiac disease. Alterations in the bowel reduce its capability to absorb nutrients, minerals and fat-soluble vitamins. Anemia and osteopenia or osteoporosis may develop as a consequence of vitamins malabsorption. Adenoma is a benign tumor that has the potential to become cancerous. Adult celiac disease patients present an overall risk of cancer that is almost twice than that found in the general population. These disease processes are not completely known. To date, a two dimensional (2D reference map of proteins expressed in human duodenal tissue is not yet available: the aim of our study was to characterize the 2D protein map, and to identify proteins of duodenal mucosa of adult individuals without duodenal illness, to create a protein database. This approach, may be useful for comparing similar protein samples in different laboratories and for the molecular characterization of intestinal pathologies without recurring to the use of surgical material. Results The enrolled population comprised five selected samples (3 males and 2 females, aged 19 to 42, taken from 20 adult subjects, on their first visit at the gastroenterology unit for a suspected celiac disease, who did not turn to be affected by any duodenal pathology after gastrointestinal and histological evaluations. Proteins extracted from the five duodenal mucosal specimens were singly separated by 2D gel electrophoresis. After image analysis of each 2D gel, 179 protein spots, representing 145 unique proteins, from 218 spots tested, were successfully identified by MALDI-TOF ms analysis. Normalized volumes, for each protein, have been reported for every gel

  14. Secretion of saliva by human lip mucous glands and parotid glands in response to gustatory stimuli and chewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speirs, R L

    1984-01-01

    To test the suggestion that minor salivary glands, such as the lower lip mucous glands, respond to stimulation in a similar manner to major glands such as the parotid, an appliance was constructed for each subject using an organopolysiloxane dental impression material which held a strip of filter paper against the inner aspect of the lower lip. The volume of labial secretion produced was determined by weight difference. Saliva from the right parotid duct was collected into pre-weighed tubes using a Lashley cannula. Test stimuli, applied for 4-min periods in triplicate, were ascorbic acid (0.08 and 0.16 M), sodium chloride (0.4 and 0.8 M) and the chewing of pieces of polyurethane foam and chicle. In 7 of 13 subjects, the response patterns of labial and parotid glands were qualitatively similar. With acid stimulation, the percentage increase in flow from the parotid was much greater than from labial glands. A significant difference was noted between the mean volumes of unstimulated secretion from the lip glands in a group of 8 subjects with restorations in lower anterior teeth and in 12 controls.

  15. Effect of steroids on transcription and secretion of Gal-1 by the human trophoblast cell line in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćujić Danica

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Galectin-1 (Gal-1 is a lectin with recently documented pro-invasive function in trophoblasts in vitro, whose regulation is currently insufficiently known. The potential involvement of steroid hormones, synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone (DEX, the sex steroid progesterone (PRG and mifepristone (RU486 in the regulation of Gal-1 in the trophoblast-derived cell line HTR-8/SVneo was investigated. Gal-1 mRNA levels were assessed by real-time PCR. The effect on secretion of Gal-1 into the culture media was followed using the SELDI-TOF protein chip array. We present evidence that DEX and RU486 significantly reduced Gal-1 in the HTR-8/SVneo cell line at the mRNA level. In addition, trophoblast-derived HTR-8/SVneo cells were shown to secrete detectable Gal-1 protein, which was only slightly increased by PRG. The potential clinical relevance of these findings remains to be determined. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173004

  16. Genome-Wide DNA Methylation Analysis of Human Pancreatic Islets from Type 2 Diabetic and Non-Diabetic Donors Identifies Candidate Genes That Influence Insulin Secretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayeh, Tasnim; Volkov, Petr; Salö, Sofia; Hall, Elin; Nilsson, Emma; Olsson, Anders H.; Kirkpatrick, Clare L.; Wollheim, Claes B.; Eliasson, Lena; Rönn, Tina; Bacos, Karl; Ling, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Impaired insulin secretion is a hallmark of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Epigenetics may affect disease susceptibility. To describe the human methylome in pancreatic islets and determine the epigenetic basis of T2D, we analyzed DNA methylation of 479,927 CpG sites and the transcriptome in pancreatic islets from T2D and non-diabetic donors. We provide a detailed map of the global DNA methylation pattern in human islets, β- and α-cells. Genomic regions close to the transcription start site showed low degrees of methylation and regions further away from the transcription start site such as the gene body, 3′UTR and intergenic regions showed a higher degree of methylation. While CpG islands were hypomethylated, the surrounding 2 kb shores showed an intermediate degree of methylation, whereas regions further away (shelves and open sea) were hypermethylated in human islets, β- and α-cells. We identified 1,649 CpG sites and 853 genes, including TCF7L2, FTO and KCNQ1, with differential DNA methylation in T2D islets after correction for multiple testing. The majority of the differentially methylated CpG sites had an intermediate degree of methylation and were underrepresented in CpG islands (∼7%) and overrepresented in the open sea (∼60%). 102 of the differentially methylated genes, including CDKN1A, PDE7B, SEPT9 and EXOC3L2, were differentially expressed in T2D islets. Methylation of CDKN1A and PDE7B promoters in vitro suppressed their transcriptional activity. Functional analyses demonstrated that identified candidate genes affect pancreatic β- and α-cells as Exoc3l silencing reduced exocytosis and overexpression of Cdkn1a, Pde7b and Sept9 perturbed insulin and glucagon secretion in clonal β- and α-cells, respectively. Together, our data can serve as a reference methylome in human islets. We provide new target genes with altered DNA methylation and expression in human T2D islets that contribute to perturbed insulin and glucagon secretion. These results highlight

  17. Genome-wide DNA methylation analysis of human pancreatic islets from type 2 diabetic and non-diabetic donors identifies candidate genes that influence insulin secretion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasnim Dayeh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Impaired insulin secretion is a hallmark of type 2 diabetes (T2D. Epigenetics may affect disease susceptibility. To describe the human methylome in pancreatic islets and determine the epigenetic basis of T2D, we analyzed DNA methylation of 479,927 CpG sites and the transcriptome in pancreatic islets from T2D and non-diabetic donors. We provide a detailed map of the global DNA methylation pattern in human islets, β- and α-cells. Genomic regions close to the transcription start site showed low degrees of methylation and regions further away from the transcription start site such as the gene body, 3'UTR and intergenic regions showed a higher degree of methylation. While CpG islands were hypomethylated, the surrounding 2 kb shores showed an intermediate degree of methylation, whereas regions further away (shelves and open sea were hypermethylated in human islets, β- and α-cells. We identified 1,649 CpG sites and 853 genes, including TCF7L2, FTO and KCNQ1, with differential DNA methylation in T2D islets after correction for multiple testing. The majority of the differentially methylated CpG sites had an intermediate degree of methylation and were underrepresented in CpG islands (∼ 7% and overrepresented in the open sea (∼ 60%. 102 of the differentially methylated genes, including CDKN1A, PDE7B, SEPT9 and EXOC3L2, were differentially expressed in T2D islets. Methylation of CDKN1A and PDE7B promoters in vitro suppressed their transcriptional activity. Functional analyses demonstrated that identified candidate genes affect pancreatic β- and α-cells as Exoc3l silencing reduced exocytosis and overexpression of Cdkn1a, Pde7b and Sept9 perturbed insulin and glucagon secretion in clonal β- and α-cells, respectively. Together, our data can serve as a reference methylome in human islets. We provide new target genes with altered DNA methylation and expression in human T2D islets that contribute to perturbed insulin and glucagon secretion. These

  18. Symptomatic duodenal perforation by inferior vena cava filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista Sincos, Anna Pw; Sincos, Igor R; Labropoulos, Nicos; Donegá, Bruno C; Klepacz, Andrea; Aun, Ricardo

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Duodenal perforation by an inferior vena cava filter is rare and life threatening. Our objective is to find out number of occurrences and compare diagnosis and treatments. Method The reference list of Malgor's review in 2012 was considered as well as all new articles with eligible features. Search was conducted on specific databases: MEDLINE, Web of Sciences, and Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde. Results Most of the patients presented with upper abdominal pain and the use of radiologic studies was crucial for diagnosis. The most common treatment was laparotomy with filter or strut removal plus duodenum repair. However, clinical conditions of patients must be considered and the endovascular technique with endograft deployment into inferior vena cava may be an alternative. Conclusion Duodenal perforation by an inferior vena cava filter is uncommon and in high-risk surgical patients endovascular repair must be considered.

  19. Lipase assay in duodenal juice using a conductimetric method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballot, C; Favre-Bonvin, G; Wallach, J M

    1984-11-15

    Lipase activity in duodenal juice is known to undergo important variations in pathologic states, especially in cases of chronic pancreatitis. Almost all of the current assay methods are based on the measurement of hydrolysis of olive oil or triolein, mainly by potentiometry. As we have developed a conductimetric method for enzyme activity measurements, we have applied it to lipase assay. A higher experimental conductimetric sensitivity is obtained when liberated acids have a short chain (higher limiting equivalent conductivity). We have therefore used triacetin as a substrate and compared out method with potentiometry (pH-stat) and spectrophotometry. The correlation coefficients of both methods with conductimetry were 0.94 and 0.97, respectively, indicating that the conductimetric method may be used for lipase assay in duodenal juice, using triacetin as a substrate.

  20. Endoscopic resection of advanced and laterally spreading duodenal papillary tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Amir; Tutticci, Nicholas; Bourke, Michael J

    2016-03-01

    Historically, neoplasia of the duodenal papilla has been managed surgically, which may be associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. In the absence of invasive cancer, even lesions with extensive lateral duodenal wall involvement, or limited intraductal extension may be cured endoscopically with a superior safety profile. Endoscopic papillectomy is associated with greater risks of adverse events such as bleeding than resection elsewhere in the gastrointestinal tract. Additionally site-specific complications such as pancreatitis exist. A structured approach to lesion assessment, adherence to technical aspects of resection, endoscopic management of complications and post-resection surveillance is required. Advances have been made in all facets of endoscopic papillary resection since its introduction in the 1980s; extending the boundaries of endoscopic cure, optimizing outcomes and enhancing patient safety. These will be the focus of the present review. © 2015 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.

  1. Paracrine Secretion of Transforming Growth Factor β by Ductal Cells Promotes Acinar-to-Ductal Metaplasia in Cultured Human Exocrine Pancreas Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akanuma, Naoki; Liu, Jun; Liou, Geou-Yarh; Yin, Xue; Bejar, Kaitlyn R; Liu, Chengyang; Sun, Lu-Zhe; Storz, Peter; Wang, Pei

    2017-10-01

    We aimed to evaluate the contribution of acinar-to-ductal metaplasia (ADM) to the accumulation of cells with a ductal phenotype in cultured human exocrine pancreatic tissues and reveal the underlying mechanism. We sorted and cultured viable cell populations in human exocrine pancreatic tissues with a flow cytometry-based lineage tracing method to evaluate possible mechanisms of ADM. Cell surface markers, gene expression pattern, and sphere formation assay were used to examine ADM. A large proportion of acinar cells gained CD133 expression during the 2-dimensional culture and showed down-regulation of acinar markers and up-regulation of ductal markers, assuming an ADM phenotype. In a serum-free culture condition, ADM induction was mainly dependent on transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) secreted from cultured ductal cells. Human acinar cells when cultured alone for a week in a serum-free condition do not undergo ADM. However, serum may contain other factors besides TGF-β to induce ADM in human acinar cells. In addition, we found that TGF-β cannot induce ADM of murine acinar cells. Ductal cells are the major source of TGF-β that induces ADM in cultured human exocrine pancreatic tissues. This culture system might be a useful model to investigate the mechanism of ADM in human cells.

  2. Accumulation of Vesicle-Associated Human Tau in Distal Dendrites Drives Degeneration and Tau Secretion in an In Situ Cellular Tauopathy Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangmook Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We used a nontransgenic cellular tauopathy model in which individual giant neurons in the lamprey CNS (ABCs overexpress human tau isoforms cell autonomously to characterize the still poorly understood consequences of disease-associated tau processing in situ. In this model, tau colocalizes with endogenous microtubules and is nontoxic when expressed at low levels, but is misprocessed by a toxicity-associated alternative pathway when expressed above levels that saturate dendritic microtubules, causing abnormally phosphorylated, vesicle-associated tau to accumulate in ABC distal dendrites. This causes localized microtubule loss and eventually dendritic degeneration, which is preceded by tau secretion to the extracellular space. This sequence is reiterated at successively more proximal dendritic locations over time, suggesting that tau-induced dendritic degeneration is driven by distal dendritic accumulation of hyperphosphorylated, vesicle-associated tau perpetuated by localized microtubule loss. The implications for the diagnosis and treatment of human disease are discussed.

  3. Malignant duodenal obstructions: palliative treatment with covered expandable nitinol stent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Chul; Jung, Gyoo Sik; Lee, Sang Hee; Kim, Sung Min; Oh, Kyung Seung; Huh, Jin Do; Cho, Young Duk [College of Medicine, Kosin Univ, Pusan (Korea, Republic of); Song, Ho Young [College of Medicine, Ulsan Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-04-01

    To evaluate the feasibility and clinical effectiveness of using a polyurethane-covered expandable nitinol stent in the palliative treatment of malignant duodenal obstruction. Under fluoroscopic guidance, a polyurethane-covered expandable nitinol stent was placed in 12 consecutive patients with malignant duodenal obstructions. All presented with severe nausea and recurrent vomiting. The underlying causes of obstruction were duodenal carcinoma (n=4), pancreatic carcinoma (n=4), gall bladder carcinoma (n=2), distal CBD carcinoma (n=1), and uterine cervical carcinoma (n=1). The sites of obstruction were part I (n=1), part II (n=8), and III (n=3). Due to pre-existing jaundice, eight patients with part II obstructions underwent biliary decompression prior to stent placement. An introducer sheath with a 6-mm outer diameter and stents 16 mm in diameter were employed, and to place the stent, and after-loading technique was used. Stent placement was technically successful in ten patients, and no procedural complications occuured. In one of two patients in whom there was technical failure, and in whom the obstructions were located in part III, the stent was placed transgastrically. Stent migration occurred in one patient four days after the procedure, and treatment involved the palcement of a second, uncovered, nitinol stent. After stent placement, symptoms improved in all patients. During follow-up, obstructive symptoms due to stent stenosis (n=1), colonic obstruction (n=1), and multiple small bowel obstruction (n=1) recurred in three patients. Two of these were treated by placing additional stents in the duodenum and colon, respectively. One of the eight patients in whom a stent was placed in the second portion of the duodenum developed jaundice. The patients died a mean 14 (median, 9) weeks after stent placement. The placement of a polyurethane-covered expandable nitinol stent seems to be technically feasible, safe and effective for the palliative treatment of malignant

  4. Mechanism of action of Trolox on duodenal contractility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagundes, D S; Grasa, L; Gonzalo, S; Martinez de Salinas, F; Arruebo, M P; Plaza, M A; Murillo, M D

    2013-12-01

    Trolox is a hydrophilic analogue of vitamin E. The aim of this work was to study the mechanism of action of Trolox on rabbit duodenal spontaneous motility and contractility. The duodenal contractility studies in vitro were carried out in an organ bath. Trolox (12 mM) reduced the amplitude and frequency of spontaneous contractions and the acetylcholine-induced contractions in the longitudinal and circular smooth muscle of rabbit duodenum. Quinine reverted the Trolox-induced (12 mM) reduction on the amplitude and frequency of spontaneous contractions in the longitudinal and circular muscle. Charibdotoxin and glibenclamide reverted only the amplitude of spontaneous contractions in circular muscle of the duodenum. The decrease of ACh-induced contractions evoked by Trolox 12 mM in the longitudinal and circular smooth muscle of the duodenum was antagonized by quinine in longitudinal and circular muscle and by Bay K8644, 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo [4, 3-α]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ) and nimesulide in circular muscle. We conclude that in the decrease of duodenal contractility induced by Trolox participate K(+) and Ca(2+) channels, adenylyl cyclase, guanylyl cyclase and cyclooxygenase-2.

  5. Splenosis mimicking an extramural duodenal mass: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yilei; Jin, Yanwen; Li, Fuyu; Zhou, Yong

    2014-12-01

    Splenosis is a common disease, patients with splenosis are generally asymptomatic and therapy is not indicated. Splenosis is frequently observed in the abdomen and pelvic cavity and may mimic malignancy on imaging, often leading to unnecessary surgical intervention. The current study presents the case of a 55-year-old female patient, with a rare case of duodenal splenosis, who underwent unnecessary laparotomy due to a misdiagnosis of a malignant duodenal stromal tumor. Although splenosis was confirmed by intraoperative tissue biopsy, this mass was resected due to the lack of information with regard to this condition, an increased suspicion of progressive growth of the mass and chronic duodenal compression. The aim of this report is to raise the awareness of this entity in patients post-splenectomy, to avoid unnecessary surgery, particularly with an increased prevalence of patients with previous splenic trauma due to road traffic accidents. Therefore, the possibility of abdominal splenosis must be included in the differential diagnosis of patients with abdominal mass as the main clinical manifestation, where there is a history of splenic trauma or splenectomy and no other systemic symptoms. In the future noninvasive nuclear scintigraphy may serve as a suitable diagnostic approach for splenosis, thereby avoiding unnecessary laparotomies.

  6. Childhood chronic gastritis and duodenitis: Role of altered sensory neuromediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islek, Ali; Yilmaz, Aygen; Elpek, Gulsum Ozlem; Erin, Nuray

    2016-10-07

    To investigate the roles of the neuropeptides vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), substance P (SP), and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in chronic gastritis and duodenitis in children. Biopsy samples from the gastric and duodenal mucosa of 52 patients and 30 control subjects were obtained. Samples were taken for pathological examination, immunohistochemical staining, enzyme activity measurements and quantitative measurements of tissue peptide levels. We observed differential effects of the disease on peptide levels, which were somewhat different from previously reported changes in chronic gastritis in adults. Specifically, SP was increased and CGRP and VIP were decreased in patients with gastritis. The changes were more prominent at sites where gastritis was severe, but significant changes were also observed in neighboring areas where gastritis was less severe. Furthermore, the degree of changes was correlated with the pathological grade of the disease. The expression of CD10, the enzyme primarily involved in SP hydrolysis, was also decreased in patients with duodenitis. Based on these findings, we propose that decreased levels of VIP and CGRP and increased levels of SP contribute to pathological changes in gastric mucosa. Hence, new treatments targeting these molecules may have therapeutic and preventive effects.

  7. Duodenal endoluminal barrier sleeve alters gut microbiota of ZDF rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, T; Holleman, C L; Ptacek, T; Morrow, C D; Habegger, K M

    2017-03-01

    The combination of energy dense diets and reduced energy expenditure in modern society has escalated the prevalence of obesity and obesity-related comorbidities. Among these disease states, type-2 diabetics (T2D) are disproportionately associated with obesity, suggesting a shared etiology. In conjunction with defects in hormonal and inflammatory states, obesity and T2D are also characterized by dysbiosis. We have recently described the beneficial effects of duodenal nutrient exclusion, as induced by the duodenal endoluminal sleeve (DES); including body weight loss, prevented fat mass accumulation, and improved glucose tolerance in the ZDF rat, a rodent model of obesity and type-2 diabetes (T2D). To assess the relative role of DES on hindgut microbiota in the context of these metabolic changes, we analyzed cecal samples from rats implanted with a duodenal endoluminal sleeve (DES), or a sham control of this procedure. A group of pair-fed (pf) sham controls was also included to account for changes induced by reduced body weight and food intake. Analysis of hindgut microbiota following DES in the ZDF rat elucidated discrete changes in several microbial populations including a reduction in Paraprevotella family members of the Clostridiales order along with an increase in Akkermansia muciniphila and species of the Allobaculum and Bifidobacterium genera. Altogether, these observations suggest that like Roux-en Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and Metformin, regulation of gut microbiota may be a contributing factor to the therapeutic effects of DES.

  8. Perforated duodenal ulcer: a rare complication of deferasirox in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Sunil Kumar; Gupta, Vipul; El Kohly, Ashraf; Al Fadhli, Wasmi

    2013-01-01

    Duodenal ulcer perforation in pediatric age group is an uncommon entity; hence, it is not usually considered in the differential diagnosis of acute abdomen in these patients. It is important for the emergency physician to consider perforated peptic ulcer in the differential diagnosis of children presenting with acute abdominal pain, gastrointestinal bleeding, or shock. We report a 6½-year-old male child with thalassemia major who presented to emergency room with an acute abdomen and shock, who was subsequently found to have a perforated duodenal ulcer, probably related to use of oral chelating agent, deferasirox. Although, gastrointestinal symptoms like nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain has been mentioned as infrequent adverse event in the scientific product information of deferasirox, in our current knowledge this is the first case report of perforated duodenal ulcer after oral deferasirox. The severity of this event justifies the reporting of this case. This patient had an atypical presentation in that there were no signs or symptoms of peptic ulcer disease before perforation and shock he was successfully managed with open surgery after initial resuscitation and stabilization of his general condition.

  9. Situs inversus totalis with perforated duodenal ulcer: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Faiz

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Situs inversus is an uncommon anomaly. Situs inversus viscerum can be either total or partial. Total situs inversus, also termed as mirror image dextrocardia, is characterized by a heart on the right side of the midline while the liver and the gall bladder are on the left side. Patients are usually asymptomatic and have a normal lifespan. The exact etiology is unknown but an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance has been speculated. The first case of perforated duodenal ulcer with situs inversus was reported in 1986; here, we report the second case of this nature in the medical literature. Case presentation A 22-year-old Pakistani man presented with severe epigastric and left hypochondrial pain. Examination and investigations (chest X-ray and ultrasonography confirm peritonitis in a case of situs inversus totalis. On exploratory laparotomy, a diagnosis of situs inversus totalis with perforated duodenal ulcer was confirmed. Graham's patch closure of the duodenal ulcer was performed with absorbable sutures, and a thorough peritoneal lavage was also performed; an incidental appendectomy was also performed to avoid further diagnostic problems. Our patient had an uneventful recovery. Conclusions A diagnostic dilemma arises whenever abdominal pathology occurs in patients with situs inversus. Although an uncommon anomaly, to choose a proper surgical incision site for abdominal exploration pre-operative recognition of the condition is important.

  10. A model of human sleep-related growth hormone secretion in dogs: effects of 3, 6, and 12 hours of forced wakefulness on plasma growth hormone, cortisol, and sleep stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Y; Ebihara, S; Nakamura, Y; Takahashi, K

    1981-07-01

    Twenty-four canine GH (cGH) and cortisol secretion patterns associated with sleep stages were studied in 10 male adult dogs. Plasma samples were obtained at 30- or 15-min intervals via an indwelling catheter. Under baseline conditions, all dogs showed irregular polyphasic sleep, and the episodic cGH secretion had no apparent relationship with sleep or the light-dark cycle. Five dogs were subjected to regular sleep-wake cycles; 3, 6, and 12 h of forced wakefulness (FW) were repeated at 3-, 6-, and 12-h intervals (recovery sleep periods), respectively. Peak cGH secretion (mean +/- SD, 6.4 ng/ml +/- 2.4) occurred soon after recovery sleep onset in 25 of 40 total recovery periods. The incidence of sleep-onset cGH peaks and cGH secretion during the first hour of recovery sleep significantly increased with the length of the preceding FW, but were not affected by the time of day. Delta wave sleep increased during this hour, suggesting a possible correlation with the sleep-onset cGH peak. During the first 3 h of recovery after 6 and 12 h of FW, cGH secretion was significantly enhanced, but cortisol was not. Considering the characteristics of human sleep-related GH secretion, we suggest that this peak cGH secretion represents a model of human GH secretion. Possibly, a close association of cGH secretion with sleep is concealed under the baseline condition and uncovered by inducing longer sleep-wake cycles in dogs. No circadian cortisol variation was detected under the baseline or the experimental conditions.

  11. Immunoenzymatic determination of immunoglobulins secreted by human peripheral blood lymphocytes in pokeweed mitogen and lipo-polysaccharide stimulated cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintiliani, L; Iudicone, P; Guglielmetti, M; Buzzonetti, A

    1984-07-31

    Immunoglobulins (Ig) production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 27 healthy subjects at the 6th and 12th day of in vitro stimulation by pokeweed mitogen (PWM) or bacterial lipo-polysaccharide (LPS) was investigated. Total IgG, IgA, IgM in the culture supernatants were measured by an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The average values of Ig production (in ng per ml of culture supernatants) under PWM and LPS stimulation after 12 days of culture are respectively: 3397 and 2557 for IgG, 512 and 374 for IgA, 3172 and 1439 for IgM. The use of PWM and LPS mitogens for stimulating Ig secreting cells may provide insights into the nature of the interacting cells on immune responses and into the pathogenesis of different diseases.

  12. Proteomic profiling of the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea and its mucous reveals similarities with human secretions and those predicted for parasitic flatworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocchinfuso, Donald G; Taylor, Paul; Ross, Eric; Ignatchenko, Alex; Ignatchenko, Vladimir; Kislinger, Thomas; Pearson, Bret J; Moran, Michael F

    2012-09-01

    The freshwater planarian Schmidtea mediterranea has been used in research for over 100 years, and is an emerging stem cell model because of its capability of regenerating large portions of missing body parts. Exteriorly, planarians are covered in mucous secretions of unknown composition, implicated in locomotion, predation, innate immunity, and substrate adhesion. Although the planarian genome has been sequenced, it remains mostly unannotated, challenging both genomic and proteomic analyses. The goal of the current study was to annotate the proteome of the whole planarian and its mucous fraction. The S. mediterranea proteome was analyzed via mass spectrometry by using multidimensional protein identification technology with whole-worm tryptic digests. By using a proteogenomics approach, MS data were searched against an in silico translated planarian transcript database, and by using the Swiss-Prot BLAST algorithm to identify proteins similar to planarian queries. A total of 1604 proteins were identified. The mucous subproteome was defined through analysis of a mucous trail fraction and an extract obtained by treating whole worms with the mucolytic agent N-acetylcysteine. Gene Ontology analysis confirmed that the mucous fractions were enriched with secreted proteins. The S. mediterranea proteome is highly similar to that predicted for the trematode Schistosoma mansoni associated with intestinal schistosomiasis, with the mucous subproteome particularly highly conserved. Remarkably, orthologs of 119 planarian mucous proteins are present in human mucosal secretions and tear fluid. We suggest planarians have potential to be a model system for the characterization of mucous protein function and relevant to parasitic flatworm infections and diseases underlined by mucous aberrancies, such as cystic fibrosis, asthma, and other lung diseases.

  13. Endoscopic treatment of sporadic small duodenal and ampullary neuroendocrine tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gincul, Rodica; Ponchon, Thierry; Napoleon, Bertrand; Scoazec, Jean-Yves; Guillaud, Olivier; Saurin, Jean-Christophe; Ciocirlan, Mihai; Lepilliez, Vincent; Pioche, Mathieu; Lefort, Christine; Adham, Mustapha; Pialat, Jean; Chayvialle, Jean-Alain; Walter, Thomas

    2016-11-01

    Background and study aim: As duodenal neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are rare, their optimal management has not been clearly established. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and outcome of endoscopic treatment of duodenal NETs. Patients and methods: We reviewed the files of all patients who underwent endoscopic resection of a sporadic duodenal or ampullary NET between 1996 and 2014 at two centers. Results: A total of 29 patients with 32 uT1N0M0 NETs < 20 mm were included. Treatment consisted of endoscopic mucosal resection in 19 cases, and cap aspiration in 13 cases. Prior submucosal saline injection was used in 15 cases. Mortality was 3 % (one severe bleeding). Morbidity was 38 % (11/29). At post-resection analysis, mean tumor size was 8.9 mm (range 3 - 17 mm), 29 lesions were stage pT1, one was pT2, and 2 were pTx because of piecemeal resection. All NETs were well differentiated. A total of 27 lesions were classified as grade 1 and 5 were grade 2. The resection was R0, R1, and Rx for 16, 14, and 2 lesions, respectively. Three R1 patients underwent additional surgical treatment, with no residual tumor on the surgical specimen but with positive metastatic lymph nodes in two cases. One patient was lost to follow-up. Finally, 24 patients were included in the follow-up analysis. The median follow-up period was 56 months (range 6 - 175 months). Two patients presented a tumor recurrence during the follow-up period. Conclusions: Endoscopic treatment of small duodenal NETs was associated with significant morbidity, a difficulty in obtaining an R0 specimen, and the risk of lymph node metastasis. Nevertheless, it represents an interesting alternative in small grade 1 duodenal lesions and in patients at high surgical risk. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Gastrointestinal transit in nonobese diabetic mouse: an animal model of human diabetes type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Salhy, M

    2001-01-01

    Gastrointestinal transit (GI) in the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse, an animal model of human diabetes type 1, was examined in animals with short- (duration 1-5 days) and long-term (duration 28-35 days) diabetes. Blood glucose level, serum insulin concentration, and gut neuroendocrine peptide content were also measured. GI was significantly rapid in NOD mice with long-term diabetes (LTD), but was not correlated with blood glucose level, serum insulin concentration, or pancreatic insulin content. GI was correlated with duodenal secretin content, but not with the content of other neuroendocrine peptides in the different segments investigated. Whereas antral vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) content in NOD mice with LTD was significantly higher, colonic VIP was lower in NOD mice with short-term diabetes (STD). In the duodenum, whereas the concentration of secretin in NOD mice with both STD and LTD was lower, the gastrin content was higher. Duodenal somatostatin content in NOD mice with LTD was lower. In colon, the content of galanin in NOD mice with LTD was higher than in controls. The decreased content of secretin may be among the factors that cause rapid GI in NOD mice with LTD. Changes in the antral content of VIP, duodenal somatostatin, and colonic galanin in NOD mice with LTD may cause low intestinal secretion and, together with rapid GI, give rise to diarrhoea, which is a common symptom in diabetes.

  15. Alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone modulates activation of NF-kappa B and AP-1 and secretion of interleukin-8 in human dermal fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, M; Schulte, U; Kalden, H; Luger, T A

    1999-10-20

    Alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) has evolved as a mediator of diverse biological activities in an ever-growing number of non-melanocytic cell types. One mechanism by which alpha-MSH exerts its effects is modulation of AP-1 and NF-kappa B. These two transcription factors also play an important role in fibroblasts, in extracellular matrix composition, and in cytokine expression. By use of electric mobility shift assays, we demonstrate that alpha-MSH (10(-6) to 10(-14) M) activates AP-1 in human dermal fibroblasts, whereas coincubation with interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) results in suppression of its activation. alpha-MSH also induces activation of NF-kappa B but does not modulate DNA binding on costimulation with IL-1 beta. Since AP-1 and NF-kappa B are key elements in controlling interleukin-8 (IL-8) transcription, human fibroblasts were treated with alpha-MSH and IL-1 beta for 24 hours, and cytokine levels in the supernatants were measured by ELISA. alpha-MSH alone had little effect, whereas coincubation with IL-1 beta led to marked downregulation of IL-8 secretion (at most 288 +/- 152 ng/mL) when compared to treatment with IL-1 beta alone (919 +/- 157 ng/mL). Our results indicate that alpha-MSH exerts modulatory effects on the activation of NF-kappa B and AP-1, and that it can regulate chemokine secretion in human dermal fibroblasts. These effects of alpha-MSH may have important regulatory functions in extracellular matrix composition, wound healing, or angiogenesis.

  16. Profiles of cytokines secreted by isolated human endometrial cells under the influence of chorionic gonadotropin during the window of embryo implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Several studies have indicated that human pre-implantation embryo-derived chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) may influence the implantation process by its action on human endometrial epithelial and stromal cells. Despite reports indicating that hCG acts on these cells to affect the production of several cytokines and growth factors (e.g., MIF, IGF-I, VEGF, LIF, IL-11, GMCSF, CXL10 and FGF2), our understanding of the integral influence of hCG on paracrine interactions between endometrial stromal and epithelial cells during implantation is very limited. Methods In the present study, we examined the profile of 48 cytokines in the conditioned media of primary cell cultures of human implantation stage endometrium. Endometrial epithelial cells (group 1; n = 20), stromal cells (group 2; n = 20), and epithelial plus stromal cells (group 3; n = 20) obtained from mid-secretory stage endometrial samples (n = 60) were grown on collagen and exposed to different doses (0, 1, 10 and 100 IU/ml) of rhCG for 24 h in vitro. Immunochemical and qRT-PCR methods were used to determine cytokine profiles. Enrichment and process networks analyses were implemented using a list of cytokines showing differential secretion in response to hCG. Results Under basal conditions, endometrial epithelial and stromal cells exhibited cell type-specific profiles of secreted cytokines. Administration of hCG (100 IU) resulted in significantly (P endometrial epithelial and stromal cells. CG may also affect complex paracrine processes in the different endometrial cell types. PMID:24345207

  17. Combined lipidomic and proteomic analysis of isolated human islets exposed to palmitate reveals time-dependent changes in insulin secretion and lipid metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Roomp

    Full Text Available Studies on the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM have linked the accumulation of lipid metabolites to the development of beta-cell dysfunction and impaired insulin secretion. In most in vitro models of T2DM, rodent islets or beta-cell lines are used and typically focus is on specific cellular pathways or organs. Our aim was to, firstly, develop a combined lipidomics and proteomics approach for lipotoxicity in isolated human islets and, secondly, investigate if the approach could delineate novel and/ or confirm reported mechanisms of lipotoxicity. To this end isolated human pancreatic islets, exposed to chronically elevated palmitate concentrations for 0, 2 and 7 days, were functionally characterized and their levels of multiple targeted lipid and untargeted protein species determined. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from the islets increased on day 2 and decreased on day 7. At day 7 islet insulin content decreased and the proinsulin to insulin content ratio doubled. Amounts of cholesterol, stearic acid, C16 dihydroceramide and C24:1 sphingomyelin, obtained from the lipidomic screen, increased time-dependently in the palmitate-exposed islets. The proteomic screen identified matching changes in proteins involved in lipid biosynthesis indicating up-regulated cholesterol and lipid biosynthesis in the islets. Furthermore, proteins associated with immature secretory granules were decreased when palmitate exposure time was increased despite their high affinity for cholesterol. Proteins associated with mature secretory granules remained unchanged. Pathway analysis based on the protein and lipid expression profiles implicated autocrine effects of insulin in lipotoxicity. Taken together the study demonstrates that combining different omics approaches has potential in mapping of multiple simultaneous cellular events. However, it also shows that challenges exist for effectively combining lipidomics and proteomics in primary cells. Our

  18. Use of vaccinia virus vectors to study protein processing in human disease. Normal nerve growth factor processing and secretion in cultured fibroblasts from patients with familial dysautonomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, R H; Rutter, W J

    1988-07-01

    Familial dysautonomia is a hereditary disorder that affects autonomic and sensory neurons. Nerve growth factor (NGF) is required for the normal development of sympathetic and sensory neurons and it has been postulated that an abnormality involving NGF may be responsible for familial dysautonomia. Previous studies have shown that the beta-NGF gene is not linked to the disease. However, NGF appears to be abnormal by immunochemical assays; the putative altered form of NGF could result from a disturbance in the processing pathway. To study the processing of the 35-kD glycosylated NGF precursor and the secretion of NGF in familial dysautonomia, we have employed a recombinant vaccinia virus vector to express high levels of NGF mRNA in primary fibroblast cultures from patients with the disorder; the processing pathway was then studied directly. Cells from several unrelated patients all produce the same 35-kD NGF precursor, process this normally to NGF within the cell, and release NGF into the medium. There are no differences in the ability of cells from patients and from unaffected relatives to process and secrete NGF. The use of similar recombinant vaccinia virus vectors to express proteins at high level in primary cell lines should facilitate the detection of posttranslational processing defects in a variety of human disorders.

  19. ATP Induces IL-1β Secretion in Neisseria gonorrhoeae-Infected Human Macrophages by a Mechanism Not Related to the NLRP3/ASC/Caspase-1 Axis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Killen García

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Ngo has developed multiple immune evasion mechanisms involving the innate and adaptive immune responses. Recent findings have reported that Ngo reduces the IL-1β secretion of infected human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM. Here, we investigate the role of adenosine triphosphate (ATP in production and release of IL-1β in Ngo-infected MDM. We found that the exposure of Ngo-infected MDM to ATP increases IL-1β levels about ten times compared with unexposed Ngo-infected MDM (P0.05 and caspase-1 (CASP1, P>0.05. In addition, ATP was not able to modify caspase-1 activity in Ngo-infected MDM but was able to increase pyroptosis (P>0.01. Notably ATP treatment defined an increase of positive staining for IL-1β with a distinctive intracellular pattern of distribution. Collectively, these data demonstrate that ATP induces IL-1β secretion by a mechanism not related to the NLRP3/ASC/caspase-1 axis and likely is acting at the level of vesicle trafficking or pore formation.

  20. Gastric emptying, gastric secretion and enterogastrone response after administration of milk proteins or their peptide hydrolysates in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calbet, Jose A L; Holst, Jens Juul

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The influence of protein fractionation on gastric emptying and rate of appearance of their constituent amino acids in peripheral blood remains unknown. AIM OF THE STUDY: To examine the influence of the degree of protein fractionation on gastric emptying, gastric secretion, amino acid...... peptide hydrolysate (WHY) or casein hydrolysate (CAHY). All solutions were matched for volume (600 mL), nitrogen content (9.3 g/L), energy density (1069-1092 kJ/L), osmolality (288-306 mosmol/kg), pH (6.9-7.0) and temperature (37 degrees C). RESULTS: Solutions were emptied at similar rates, with mean half......-times of (mean +/- SEM) 21.4 +/- 1.3, 19.3 +/- 2.2, 18.0 +/- 2.5 and 19.4 +/- 2.8 min, for the WHY, CAHY, C and W, respectively. The rates of intestinal absorption of water and amino acids were similar with the exception of the casein protein solution, for which the speed of intestinal amino acid absorption...

  1. Innate immunity in the vagina (part I): estradiol inhibits HBD2 and elafin secretion by human vaginal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mickey V; Fahey, John V; Rossoll, Richard M; Wira, Charles R

    2013-05-01

    Vaginal epithelial cells (VEC) are the first line of defense against incoming pathogens in the female reproductive tract. Their ability to produce the anti-HIV molecules elafin and HBD2 under hormonal stimulation is unknown. Vaginal epithelial cells were recovered using a menstrual cup and cultured overnight prior to treatment with estradiol (E₂), progesterone (P₄) or a panel of selective estrogen response modulators (SERMs). Conditioned media were recovered and analyzed for protein concentration and anti-HIV activity. E₂ significantly decreased the secretion of HBD2 and elafin by VEC over 48 hrs, while P4 and the SERMs (tamoxifen, PHTTP, ICI or Y134) had no effect. VEC conditioned media from E₂ -treated cells had no anti-HIV activity, while that from E₂ /P₄ -treated cells significantly inhibited HIV-BaL infection. The menstrual cup allows for effective recovery of primary VEC. Their production of HBD2 and elafin is sensitive to E₂, suggesting that innate immune protection varies in the vagina across the menstrual cycle. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  2. Mechanical Compression Effects on the Secretion of vWF and IL-8 by Cultured Human Vein Endothelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Dar; Avraham, Sharon; Guttlieb, Ruth; Gasner, Lee; Lotman, Alina; Rotman, Oren M; Einav, Shmuel

    2017-01-01

    Short peripheral catheters are ubiquitous in today's healthcare environment enabling effective delivery of fluids and medications directly into a patient's vasculature. However, complications related to their use, such as short peripheral catheter thrombophlebitis (SPCT), affect up to 80% of hospitalized patients. While indwelling within the vein, the catheters exert prolonged constant pressure upon the endothelium which can trigger inflammation processes. We have developed and studied an in-vitro model of cultured endothelial cells subjected to mechanical compression of modular self-designed weights, and explored their inflammatory response by quantification of two key biomarkers- vWF and IL-8. Evaluation was performed by ELISA immunoassay and processing of vWF-labeled immunofluorescence images. We found that application of weights correspond to 272 Pa yielded increased release of vWF and IL-8 up to 150% and 250% respectively, comparing to the exertion of 136 Pa. Analyses of the immunofluorescence images revealed significantly longer and more extracellular vWF-strings as well as higher intensity stained-pixels in cells exposed to elevated pressures. The release of both factors found to be significantly dependent on the extent of the exerted pressure. The research shed a light on the relationship between induced mechanical compression and the pathogenesis of SPCT. Minimizing, let alone eliminating the contact between the catheter and the vein wall will mitigate the pressure acting on the endothelium, thereby reducing the secretion of inflammatory factors and lessen the incidence of SPCT.

  3. Secreted phosphoprotein 24 kD (Spp24) inhibits growth of human pancreatic cancer cells caused by BMP-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Chen-Shuang [Department of Orthodontics, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, Beijing (China); Tian, Haijun, E-mail: haijuntianmd@gmail.com [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Changzheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Department of Surgery, Bethune School of Medics, Shijiazhuang (China); Zou, Min [Department of Orthodontics, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); Zhao, Ke-Wei [Research Service, VA Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System, North Hills, CA (United States); Li, Yawei; Lao, Lifeng [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Brochmann, Elsa J. [Research Service, VA Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System, North Hills, CA (United States); Geriatric Research, Education and Clinical Center, VA Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System, North Hills, CA (United States); Department of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Duarte, M. Eugenia L. [National Institute of Traumatology and Orthopaedics, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Daubs, Michael D. [Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Nevada School of Medicine, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Zhou, Yan-Heng, E-mail: yanhengzhou@vip.163.com [Department of Orthodontics, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, Beijing (China); Murray, Samuel S. [Research Service, VA Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System, North Hills, CA (United States); Geriatric Research, Education and Clinical Center, VA Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System, North Hills, CA (United States); Department of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Wang, Jeffrey C. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2015-10-16

    The emerging role of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) in the initiation and progression of multiple cancers has drawn great attention in cancer research. In this study, we report that BMP-2 can promote the proliferation of the pancreatic tumor cell line, PANC-1. Secreted phosphoprotein 24 kD (Spp24), a BMP binding protein, did not affect the proliferation of the cells but promoted the apoptosis of the cells in vitro. In a xeneograft tumor model using PANC-1 cells, BMP-2 dramatically promoted tumor growth, while Spp24 not only abolished the effect of BMP-2, but also dramatically induced tumor shrinking when used alone. Activation of Smad1/5/8 participated in this process as demonstrated by immunohistochemical staining of phosphorylated Smad 1/5/8. We conclude that Spp24 can be developed into a therapeutic agent that could be employed in clinical situations where the inhibition of BMPs and related proteins is advantageous. - Highlights: • Spp24 effectively inhibited the in vivo tumor growth of PANC-1. • BMP-2 dramatically promoted tumor growth by promoting PANC-1 proliferation. • Spp24 abolished the tumor growth effect of BMP-2 by promoting PANC-1 apoptosis. • Spp24 may be a candidate as a therapeutic agent of pancreatic cancer.

  4. Innate Immunity in the Vagina (Part I): Estradiol Inhibits HBD2 and Elafin Secretion by Human Vaginal Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mickey V.; Fahey, John V.; Rossoll, Richard M.; Wira, Charles R.

    2013-01-01

    Problem Vaginal epithelial cells (VEC) are the first line of defense against incoming pathogens in the female reproductive tract. Their ability to produce the anti-HIV molecules elafin and HBD2 under hormonal stimulation is unknown. Method of study Vaginal epithelial cells were recovered using a menstrual cup and cultured overnight prior to treatment with estradiol (E2), progesterone (P4) or a panel of selective estrogen response modulators (SERMs). Conditioned media were recovered and analyzed for protein concentration and anti-HIV activity. Results E2 significantly decreased the secretion of HBD2 and elafin by VEC over 48 hrs, while P4 and the SERMs (tamoxifen, PHTTP, ICI or Y134) had no effect. VEC conditioned media from E2-treated cells had no anti-HIV activity, while that from E2/P4-treated cells significantly inhibited HIV-BaL infection. Conclusion The menstrual cup allows for effective recovery of primary VEC. Their production of HBD2 and elafin is sensitive to E2, suggesting that innate immune protection varies in the vagina across the menstrual cycle. PMID:23398087

  5. IL-9 induces VEGF secretion from human mast cells and IL-9/IL-9 receptor genes are overexpressed in atopic dermatitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Sismanopoulos

    Full Text Available Interleukin 9 (IL-9 has been implicated in mast cell-related inflammatory diseases, such as asthma, where vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF is involved. Here we report that IL-9 (10-20 ng/ml induces gene expression and secretion of VEGF from human LAD2. IL-9 does not induce mast cell degranulation or the release of other mediators (IL-1, IL-8, or TNF. VEGF production in response to IL-9 involves STAT-3 activation. The effect is inhibited (about 80% by the STAT-3 inhibitor, Stattic. Gene-expression of IL-9 and IL-9 receptor is significantly increased in lesional skin areas of atopic dermatitis (AD patients as compared to normal control skin, while serum IL-9 is not different from controls. These results imply that functional interactions between IL-9 and mast cells leading to VEGF release contribute to the initiation/propagation of the pathogenesis of AD, a skin inflammatory disease.

  6. Neonatal human retinal pigment epithelial cells secrete limited trophic factors in vitro and in vivo following striatal implantation in parkinsonian rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Russ, Kaspar; Flores, Joseph; Brudek, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    -hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats. The results demonstrate short-lived BDNF and FGF2 concentrations in vitro from hRPE cells grown alone or attached to gelatin microcarriers (GM)s as well as limited trophic factor concentration differences in vivo following striatal implantation of hRPE-GM in 6-hydroxydopamine......Human retinal pigment epithelial (hRPE) cell implants into the striatum have been investigated as a potential cell-based treatment for Parkinson's disease in a Phase II clinical trial that recently failed. We hypothesize that the trophic factor potential of the hRPE cells could potentially...... influence the function and/or survival of the implants and may be involved in an alternative mechanism of action. However, it is unclear if hRPE cells secreted trophic factors when handled in the manner used in the clinical Phase II trial. To address these questions, we investigated two neonatal hRPE cell...

  7. Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected human monocytes down-regulate microglial MMP-2 secretion in CNS tuberculosis via TNFα, NFκB, p38 and caspase 8 dependent pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elkington Paul T

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Tuberculosis (TB of the central nervous system (CNS is a deadly disease characterized by extensive tissue destruction, driven by molecules such as Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 which targets CNS-specific substrates. In a simplified cellular model of CNS TB, we demonstrated that conditioned medium from Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected primary human monocytes (CoMTb, but not direct infection, unexpectedly down-regulates constitutive microglial MMP-2 gene expression and secretion by 72.8% at 24 hours, sustained up to 96 hours (P M.tb-infected monocyte-dependent networks paradoxically involves the pro-inflammatory mediators TNF-α, p38 MAP kinase and NFκB in addition to a novel caspase 8-dependent pathway.

  8. PID15, a novel 6 kDa secreted peptide, mediates Naja naja venom phospholipase A₂ induced apoptosis in isolated human peripheral lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chethankumar, Mukunda; Srinivas, Leela

    2014-07-17

    Snake venoms are a complex mixture of active principles mainly peptides and proteins also including amino acids, nucleotides, free lipids, carbohydrates and metallic elements bound to proteins that interfere in several biological systems. In this study, we aimed to understand the mode of action of the apoptosis inducing ability of Naja naja venom phospholipase A2 (NV-PLA2) using isolated human peripheral lymphocytes. Human peripheral lymphocytes when incubated with Naja naja venom phospholipase A2 (NV-PLA2) induced up to 68% DNA fragmentation. The dialysed conditioned media obtained by incubating lymphocytes with NV-PLA2 at 15th min induced 44% DNA fragmentation, referred to as cmlp-active. Cmlp-active showed 20.5% increased protein concentration than the corresponding control condition media cmlp-c-15. Test for creatine kinase activity in cmlp-active proved negative and negligible amount of lactate dehydrogenase did not show significant DNA fragmentation. Fractionation of cmlp-active on Sephadex G-25 showed two peaks, major peak induced 38% DNA fragmentation, which was further rechromatographed on Sephadex G-25. The single peak obtained was named PID15 (Phospholipase A2Induced DNA fragmentation factor secreted at 15th min). Q-Tof MS/MS analysis of PID-15 showed it is a 6 kDa peptide. PID15 sequence analysis gave 40 amino acids in the following order, msilpcknvs iwvikdtaas dkevvlgsdr aikflylatg. The homology search for the sequence revealed it to be an Apoptosis Inducing Factor (AIF). Results indicate that the secretion of PID15 is dependent on concentration of NV-PLA2 treatment, incubation time and also on temperature and the probable membrane origin of PID15 and not of cytosolic origin with apoptosis inducing ability.

  9. PID15, a novel 6 kDa secreted peptide, mediates Naja naja venom phospholipase A2 induced apoptosis in isolated human peripheral lymphocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Snake venoms are a complex mixture of active principles mainly peptides and proteins also including amino acids, nucleotides, free lipids, carbohydrates and metallic elements bound to proteins that interfere in several biological systems. In this study, we aimed to understand the mode of action of the apoptosis inducing ability of Naja naja venom phospholipase A2 (NV-PLA2) using isolated human peripheral lymphocytes. Results Human peripheral lymphocytes when incubated with Naja naja venom phospholipase A2 (NV-PLA2) induced up to 68% DNA fragmentation. The dialysed conditioned media obtained by incubating lymphocytes with NV-PLA2 at 15th min induced 44% DNA fragmentation, referred to as cmlp-active. Cmlp-active showed 20.5% increased protein concentration than the corresponding control condition media cmlp-c-15. Test for creatine kinase activity in cmlp-active proved negative and negligible amount of lactate dehydrogenase did not show significant DNA fragmentation. Fractionation of cmlp-active on Sephadex G-25 showed two peaks, major peak induced 38% DNA fragmentation, which was further rechromatographed on Sephadex G-25. The single peak obtained was named PID15 (Phospholipase A 2 Induced DNA fragmentation factor secreted at 15 th min). Q-Tof MS/MS analysis of PID-15 showed it is a 6 kDa peptide. PID15 sequence analysis gave 40 amino acids in the following order, msilpcknvs iwvikdtaas dkevvlgsdr aikflylatg. The homology search for the sequence revealed it to be an Apoptosis Inducing Factor (AIF). Conclusion Results indicate that the secretion of PID15 is dependent on concentration of NV-PLA2 treatment, incubation time and also on temperature and the probable membrane origin of PID15 and not of cytosolic origin with apoptosis inducing ability. PMID:25030355

  10. Comparative proteomics of exosomes secreted by tumoral Jurkat T cells and normal human T cell blasts unravels a potential tumorigenic role for valosin-containing protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanclemente, Manuel; Iturralde, María; Naval, Javier; Alava, María Angeles; Martínez-Lostao, Luis; Thierse, Hermann-Josef; Anel, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    We have previously characterized that FasL and Apo2L/TRAIL are stored in their bioactive form inside human T cell blasts in intraluminal vesicles present in multivesicular bodies. These vesicles are rapidly released to the supernatant in the form of exosomes upon re-activation of T cells. In this study we have compared for the first time proteomics of exosomes produced by normal human T cell blasts with those produced by tumoral Jurkat cells, with the objective of identify proteins associated with tumoral exosomes that could have a previously unrecognized role in malignancy. We have identified 359 and 418 proteins in exosomes from T cell blasts and Jurkat cells, respectively. Interestingly, only 145 (around a 40%) are common. The major proteins in both cases are actin and tubulin isoforms and the common interaction nodes correspond to these cytoskeleton and related proteins, as well as to ribosomal and mRNA granule proteins. We detected 14 membrane proteins that were especially enriched in exosomes from Jurkat cells as compared with T cell blasts. The most abundant of these proteins was valosin-containing protein (VCP), a membrane ATPase involved in ER homeostasis and ubiquitination. In this work, we also show that leukemic cells are more sensitive to cell death induced by the VCP inhibitor DBeQ than normal T cells. Furthermore, VCP inhibition prevents functional exosome secretion only in Jurkat cells, but not in T cell blasts. These results suggest VCP targeting as a new selective pathway to exploit in cancer treatment to prevent tumoral exosome secretion. PMID:27086912

  11. Truncation of the ectodomain of the human insulin receptor results in secretion of a soluble insulin binding protein from transfected CHO cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, L; Sissom, J; Levitan, A

    1988-02-01

    The insulin receptor is an integral transmembrane glycoprotein comprised of two alpha-(approximately 135 kDa) and two beta-(approximately 95 kDa) subunits, which is synthesized as a single polypeptide chain precursor (alpha beta). The primary sequence of the human insulin receptor (hIR) protein, deduced from the nucleotide sequence of cloned human placental mRNAs, predicts two large domains (929 and 403 residues) on either side of a single membrane spanning domain (23 residues); each of these major domains has a distinct function (insulin binding and protein/tyrosine kinase activity, respectively). To experimentally test this deduced topology, and to explore the potential for independent domain function by the hIR extracellular domain, we have constructed an expression plasmid encoding an hIR deletion mutant which is truncated 8 residues from the beginning of the predicted transmembrane domain (i.e., 921 residues). This domain of the hIR is in fact processed into alpha- and truncated beta-subunits and secreted with high efficiency from transfected CHO cell lines which express this mutant hIR, and the protein accumulates as an (alpha beta)2 dimer in the medium. This molecule is recognized by a battery of 13 monoclonal antibodies to epitopes on the IR extracellular domain, four of which block insulin binding and two of which require the native conformation of the IR for recognition. Further, this domain binds insulin with an apparent dissociation constant comparable to that of the wild-type hIR. However, the secreted dimer displays a linear Scatchard plot, while that of the wild-type membrane-associated hIR is curvilinear.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Potent suppression of Kv1.3 potassium channel and IL-2 secretion by diphenyl phosphine oxide-1 in human T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Zhao

    Full Text Available Diphenyl phosphine oxide-1 (DPO-1 is a potent Kv1.5 channel inhibitor that has therapeutic potential for the treatment of atrial fibrillation. Many other Kv1.5 channel blockers also potently inhibit the Kv1.3 channel, but whether DPO-1 blocks Kv1.3 channels has not been investigated. The Kv1.3 channel is highly expressed in activated T cells, which is considered a favorable target for immunomodulation. Accordingly, we hypothesized that DPO-1 may exert immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting Kv1.3 channel activity. In this study, DPO-1 blocked Kv1.3 current in a voltage-dependent and concentration-dependent manner, with IC₅₀ values of 2.58 µM in Jurkat cells and 3.11 µM in human peripheral blood T cells. DPO-1 also accelerated the inactivation rate and negatively shifted steady-state inactivation. Moreover, DPO-1 at 3 µM had no apparent effect on the Ca²⁺ activated potassium channel (K(Ca current in both Jurkat cells and human peripheral blood T cells. In Jurkat cells, pre-treatment with DPO-1 for 24 h decreased Kv1.3 current density, and protein expression by 48±6% and 60±9%, at 3 and 10 µM, respectively (both p<0.05. In addition, Ca²⁺ influx to Ca²⁺-depleted cells was blunted and IL-2 production was also reduced in activated Jurkat cells. IL-2 secretion was also inhibited by the Kv1.3 inhibitors margatoxin and charybdotoxin. Our results demonstrate for the first time that that DPO-1, at clinically relevant concentrations, blocks Kv1.3 channels, decreases Kv1.3 channel expression and suppresses IL-2 secretion. Therefore, DPO-1 may be a useful treatment strategy for immunologic disorders.

  13. Human Wharton's jelly-derived mesenchymal stromal cells engineered to secrete Epstein-Barr virus interleukin-10 show enhanced immunosuppressive properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaranta, Paola; Focosi, Daniele; Di Iesu, Marilena; Cursi, Chiara; Zucca, Alessandra; Curcio, Michele; Lapi, Simone; Boldrini, Linda; Stampacchia, Giulia; Paolicchi, Aldo; Scatena, Fabrizio; Freer, Giulia; Pistello, Mauro

    2016-02-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) modulate the immune response and represent a potential treatment for inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. We hypothesized that this feature could be potentiated by co-administering anti-inflammatory cytokines. In this article, we asked whether engineering of Wharton Jelly-derived human MSCs (WJ-hMSCs) to express an anti-inflammatory cytokine increases cell immunomodulatory properties without altering their native features. We used Epstein-Barr virus-derived interleukin-10 (vIL-10), which shares some immunosuppressive properties with human IL-10 but lacks immunostimulatory activity. Engineering was accomplished by transducing WJ-hMSCs with a self-inactivating feline immunodeficiency virus-derived vector co-expressing vIL-10 and herpes simplex virus type-1 thymidine kinase (TK). TK was added to allow future tracking of WJ-hMSC in vivo by positron electron tomography (PET). The results show that (i) expression of TK and/or vIL-10 does not change WJ-hMSC phenotypic and functional properties; (ii) vIL-10 is secreted, biologically active and enhances the immunosuppressing functions of WJ-hMSCs; (iii) v-IL10 and TK can be produced simultaneously by the same cells and do not interfere with each other. WJ-hMSCs engineered to secrete vIL-10 could be a powerful tool for adoptive cell therapy of immune-mediated diseases, and therefore, additional studies are warranted to confirm their efficacy in suitable animal disease models. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. In vitro differentiation into insulin-producing β-cells of stem cells isolated from human amniotic fluid and dental pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevale, Gianluca; Riccio, Massimo; Pisciotta, Alessandra; Beretti, Francesca; Maraldi, Tullia; Zavatti, Manuela; Cavallini, Gian Maria; La Sala, Giovanni Battista; Ferrari, Adriano; De Pol, Anto

    2013-08-01

    To investigate the ability of human amniotic fluid stem cells and human dental pulp stem cells to differentiate into insulin-producing cells. Human amniotic fluid stem cells and human dental pulp stem cells were induced to differentiate into pancreatic β-cells by a multistep protocol. Islet-like structures were assessed in differentiated human amniotic fluid stem cells and human dental pulp stem cells after 21 days of culture by dithizone staining. Pancreatic and duodenal homebox-1, insulin and Glut-2 expression were detected by immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy. Insulin secreted from differentiated cells was tested with SELDI-TOF MS and by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Human amniotic fluid stem cells and human dental pulp stem cells, after 7 days of differentiation started to form islet-like structures that became evident after 14 days of induction. SELDI-TOF MS analysis, revealed the presence of insulin in the media of differentiated cells at day 14, further confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay after 7, 14 and 21 days. Both stem cell types expressed, after differentiation, pancreatic and duodenal homebox-1, insulin and Glut-2 and were positively stained by dithizone. Either the cytosol to nucleus translocation of pancreatic and duodenal homebox-1, either the expression of insulin, are regulated by glucose concentration changes. Day 21 islet-like structures derived from both human amniotic fluid stem cells and human dental pulp stem cell release insulin in a glucose-dependent manner. The present study demonstrates the ability of human amniotic fluid stem cells and human dental pulp stem cell to differentiate into insulin-producing cells, offering a non-pancreatic, low-invasive source of cells for islet regeneration. Copyright © 2013 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Alcoholic beverages produced by alcoholic fermentation but not by distillation are powerful stimulants of gastric acid secretion in humans.

    OpenAIRE

    Teyssen, S; Lenzing, T; González-Calero, G; Korn, A.; Riepl, R. L.; Singer, M V

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The effect of commonly ingested alcoholic beverages on gastric acid output and release of gastrin in humans is unknown. AIM AND METHODS: In 16 healthy humans the effect of some commonly ingested alcoholic beverages produced by fermentation plus distillation (for example, whisky, cognac, calvados, armagnac, and rum) or by alcoholic fermentation (beer, wine, champagne, martini, and sherry) on gastric acid output and release of gastrin was studied. Gastric acid output was determined ...

  16. Orai and TRPC channel characterization in FcεRI-mediated calcium signaling and mediator secretion in human mast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajdner, Hannah E; Farrington, Jasmine; Barnard, Claire; Peachell, Peter T; Schnackenberg, Christine G; Marino, Joseph P; Xu, Xiaoping; Affleck, Karen; Begg, Malcolm; Seward, Elizabeth P

    2017-03-01

    Inappropriate activation of mast cells via the FcεRI receptor leads to the release of inflammatory mediators and symptoms of allergic disease. Calcium influx is a critical regulator of mast cell signaling and is required for exocytosis of preformed mediators and for synthesis of eicosanoids, cytokines and chemokines. Studies in rodent and human mast cells have identified Orai calcium channels as key contributors to FcεRI-initiated mediator release. However, until now the role of TRPC calcium channels in FcεRI-mediated human mast cell signaling has not been published. Here, we show evidence for the expression of Orai 1,2, and 3 and TRPC1 and 6 in primary human lung mast cells and the LAD2 human mast cell line but, we only find evidence of functional contribution of Orai and not TRPC channels to FcεRI-mediated calcium entry. Calcium imaging experiments, utilizing an Orai selective antagonist (Synta66) showed the contribution of Orai to FcεRI-mediated signaling in human mast cells. Although, the use of a TRPC3/6 selective antagonist and agonist (GSK-3503A and GSK-2934A, respectively) did not reveal evidence for TRPC6 contribution to FcεRI-mediated calcium signaling in human mast cells. Similarly, inactivation of STIM1-regulated TRPC1 in human mast cells (as tested by transfecting cells with STIM1-KK684-685EE - TRPC1 gating mutant) failed to alter FcεRI-mediated calcium signaling in LAD2 human mast cells. Mediator release assays confirm that FcεRI-mediated calcium influx through Orai is necessary for histamine and TNFα release but is differentially involved in the generation of cytokines and eicosanoids. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  17. The activation of CD14, TLR4, and TLR2 by mmLDL induces IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10 secretion in human monocytes and macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanco-Favela Francisco

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Atherosclerosis is considered a chronic inflammatory disease in which monocytes and macrophages are critical. These cells express CD14, toll-like receptor (TLR 2, and TLR4 on their surfaces, are activated by minimally modified low-density lipoprotein (mmLDL and are capable of secreting pro-inflammatory cytokines. The aim of this research was thus to demonstrate that the activation of CD14, TLR2, and TLR4 by mmLDL induces the secretion of cytokines. Methods Human monocytes and macrophages were incubated with monoclonal antibodies specific for CD14, TLR4, and TLR2 prior to stimulation with mmLDL. Cytokine secretion was then compared to that observed upon mmLDL stimulation in untreated cells. Results Stimulation with mmLDL induced the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Blocking CD14 in monocytes inhibited secretion of interleukin (IL-1β (72%, IL-6 (58% and IL-10 (63%, and blocking TLR4 inhibited secretion of IL-1β by 67%, IL-6 by 63% and IL-10 by 60%. Blocking both receptors inhibited secretion of IL-1β by 73%, IL-6 by 69% and IL-10 by 63%. Furthermore, blocking TLR2 inhibited secretion of IL-1β by 65%, IL-6 by 62% and IL-10 by 75%. In macrophages, we found similar results: blocking CD14 inhibited secretion of IL-1β by 59%, IL-6 by 52% and IL-10 by 65%; blocking TLR4 inhibited secretion of IL-1β by 53%, IL-6 by 63% and IL-10 by 61%; and blocking both receptors inhibited secretion of IL-1β by 69%, IL-6 by 67% and IL-10 by 65%. Blocking TLR2 in macrophages inhibited secretion of IL-1β by 57%, IL-6 by 40% and IL-10 by 72%. Conclusion Our study demonstrates that CD14, TLR4, and TLR2 participate in the immune response against mmLDL by inducing the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in both monocytes and macrophages. These findings suggest that the activation of these receptors by mmLDL contributes to the inflammatory process of atherosclerosis.

  18. Wnt antagonist secreted frizzled-related protein 4 upregulates adipogenic differentiation in human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malini Visweswaran

    Full Text Available With more than 1.4 billion overweight or obese adults worldwide, obesity and progression of the metabolic syndrome are major health and economic challenges. To address mechanisms of obesity, adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs are being studied to detail the molecular mechanisms involved in adipogenic differentiation. Activation of the Wnt signalling pathway has inhibited adipogenesis from precursor cells. In our study, we examined this anti-adipogenic effect in further detail stimulating Wnt with lithium chloride (LiCl and 6-bromo indirubin 3'oxime (BIO. We also examined the effect of Wnt inhibition using secreted frizzled-related protein 4 (sFRP4, which we have previously shown to be pro-apoptotic, anti-angiogenic, and anti-tumorigenic. Wnt stimulation in LiCl and BIO-treated ADSCs resulted in a significant reduction (2.7-fold and 12-fold respectively in lipid accumulation as measured by Oil red O staining while Wnt inhibition with sFRP4 induced a 1.5-fold increase in lipid accumulation. Furthermore, there was significant 1.2-fold increase in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha (C/EBPα, and 1.3-fold increase in acetyl CoA carboxylase protein levels. In contrast, the expression of adipogenic proteins (PPARγ, C/EBPα, and acetyl CoA carboxylase were decreased significantly with LiCl (by 1.6, 2.6, and 1.9-fold respectively and BIO (by 7, 17, and 5.6-fold respectively treatments. These investigations demonstrate interplay between Wnt antagonism and Wnt activation during adipogenesis and indicate pathways for therapeutic intervention to control this process.

  19. [Gastric and duodenal ulcers as occupational psychosomatic diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumai, M; Iwao, S; Kodama, Y; Nagae, S

    1986-05-01

    Various stresses are considered to be involved in the development of gastric and duodenal ulcers. We interviewed patients of either gastric ulcer group (GU) or duodenal ulcer group (DU) with regular occupation who were admitted to our Psychosomatic Illness Department in order to examine the differences in the characteristics of their stress and developmental factors of their diseases between the two groups. Developmental factors were scored for comparison. The following results were obtained. Though group DU was generally younger than group GU, it tended to have a greater number of episodes. No significant difference was found between the two groups in living habits, life history, or familial, social and physical environments. However, group DU had greater stress than group GU in the working environment. A significantly greater number of patients in group DU smoked and had problems in personal relations as compared with GU. There was a significant correlation between smoking habit and stressfulness of the working environment in both groups. In group DU, there was a significant correlation between the father-child relationship and personal relations. In group DU, a significant number of those who had problems in the relation with their superiors at work had problems in the father-child relation. These findings show that patients with duodenal ulcer had more problems in the working environment, particularly in personal relations, than those with gastric ulcer, and smoking habit appears to accelerate the development of the diseases. Also, a possible association was suggested between problems of personal relations at work and the history of growth.

  20. Duodenal atresia with 'apple-peel configuration' of the ileum and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    According to the current understanding, duodenal atresia is considered to be a primary malformation resulting from the errors in recanalisation in early gestation. We report a rare case of duodenal atresia with apple-peel configuration of remaining small bowel with absent superior mesenteric artery in a preterm child, which ...

  1. A newborn with duodenal atresia and a gastric perforation | Akçora ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Congenital duodenal atresia complicated by gastric perforation (GP) is a very rare and a very mortal condition. Only three newborns could be cured in the reported 13 cases. We report a successfully treated newborn with this complicated disease. A 2-day-old male was hospitalized with prediagnosis of duodenal obstruction.

  2. A paediatric case of AAST grade IV duodenal injury with application ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isolated severe blunt duodenal injuries are rare. We present an American Association for the Surgery of Trauma grade IV duodenal injury in a paediatric patient. The strategic use of damage control surgical principles, involving an initial abbreviated laparotomy followed by a delayed reconstruction, resulted in a successful ...

  3. Membranous duodenal stenosis: initial experience with balloon dilatation in four children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijn, R. R.; van Lienden, K. P.; Fortuna, T. L.; D'Alessandro, L. C. A.; Connolly, B.; Chait, P. G.

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: We present a novel approach to the treatment of membranous duodenal stenosis (MDS). To our knowledge this is the first paper to describe balloon dilatation for this entity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Four children, 2 boys and 2 girls, aged between 8 and 28 days, underwent duodenal balloon

  4. Vastatins have a distinct effect on sterol synthesis and progesterone secretion in human granulosa cells in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, A.K. van; Thiel, G.C.F. van; Naaktgeboren, N.; Cohen, L.H.

    1996-01-01

    Lovastatin and simvastatin are strong inhibitors of cholesterol synthesis in cultured human granulosa cells, as measured within 6 days after isolation, with IC50-values of respectively 27.0 and 18.2 nM obtained after 3.5 hours of incubation with the drugs. Pravastatin is a much weaker inhibitor of

  5. Regulation of Cytokine Secretion in Human CD127(+) LTi-like Innate Lymphoid Cells by Toll-like Receptor 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crellin, Natasha K.; Trifari, Sara; Kaplan, Charles D.; Satoh-Takayama, Naoko; Di Santo, James P.; Spits, Hergen

    2010-01-01

    Lymphoid tissue inducer cells are members of an emerging family of innate lymphoid cells (ILC). Although these cells were originally reported to produce cytokines such as interleukin-17 (IL-17) and IL-22, we demonstrate here that human CD127(+)RORC(+) and CD56(+)CD127(+) LTi-like ILC also express

  6. A single oral dose of thalidomide enhances the capacity of lymphocytes to secrete gamma interferon in healthy humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbon, A.; Juffermans, N. P.; Speelman, P.; van Deventer, S. J.; ten Berge, I. J.; Guchelaar, H. J.; van der Poll, T.

    2000-01-01

    Thalidomide is increasingly being used as adjuvant therapy for patients with mycobacterial and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections. The T-helper (Th)1 cytokine-Th2 cytokine balance critically determines the outcomes of these diseases. To obtain insight into the effect of thalidomide on the

  7. Secretion of a precursor form of lysosomal alpha-glucosidase from the brush border of human kidney proximal tubule cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klumperman, J.; Oude Elferink, R.P.; Fransen, J.A.; Ginsel, L.A.; Tager, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    We have shown previously (R.P.J. Oude Elferink, E.M. Brouwer-Kelder, I. Surya, A. Strijland, M. Kroos, A.J.J. Reuser, J.M. Tager, Eur. J. Biochem. 139, 489-495 (1984)) that human urine contains considerable amounts of a precursor form of lysosomal alpha-glucosidase (about 50% of the total

  8. P2X7 receptor mediates NLRP3-dependent IL-1β secretion and parasite proliferation in Toxoplasma gondii-infected human small intestinal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Juan-Hua; Huang, Rui; Wang, Zhuang; Huang, Shuai; Choi, In-Wook; Zhou, Yu; Lee, Young-Ha; Chu, Jia-Qi

    2018-01-02

    Toxoplasma gondii can invade and replicate in all nucleated cells in a wide range of host species, and infection induces IL-1β production. IL-1β plays central roles in the stimulation of the innate immune system and inflammation. However, little is known of the innate immune responses in human fetal small intestinal epithelial cells (FHs 74 Int cells) after T. gondii infection. FHs 74 Int cells were infected with the T. gondii GFP-RH strain. Then, IL-1β production and its mechanisms of action were evaluated using ELISA, MTT cell viability assays, Western blotting, immunofluorescence, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), and gene-specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection. Infection of FHs 74 Int cells by T. gondii triggered significant time- and dose-dependent IL-1β production. Although T. gondii activated NLRP1, NLRP3, NLRC4 and AIM2 inflammasomes in FHs 74 Int cells, NLRP3 levels were consistently and significantly time-dependently increased, while the other inflammasomes were not. Transfection with siRNA targeting NLRP3, cleaved caspase-1 (Casp-1) or ASC significantly reduced T. gondii-induced IL-1β production, whereas T. gondii proliferation was markedly increased. Toxoplasma gondii infection activated P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) levels in FHs 74 Int cells in a time-dependent manner; however, transfection with siRNA targeting P2X7R significantly reduced T. gondii-induced IL-1β secretion and substantially increased T. gondii proliferation, which is mediated by decreased protein expression levels of NLRP3, cleaved Casp-1 and ASC. Collectively, NLRP3-dependent IL-1β secretion is mediated by P2X7R in small intestinal epithelial cells in response to T. gondii infection, thereby controlling parasite proliferation. This study revealed that the P2X7R/NLRP3 pathway plays important roles in IL-1β secretion and inhibition of T. gondii proliferation in small intestinal epithelial cells. These results not only contribute to our

  9. Duodenal Loop Obstruction as an Unusual Cause of Acute Pancreatitis: A Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyeonmin; Choi, Yonghyeok; Jeong, Hyewon; Lim, Jae Kyu; Jung, Taeyoung; Han, Joung Ho; Park, Seon Mee

    2016-12-25

    Duodenal loop obstruction is an unusual cause of acute pancreatitis. Increased intraluminal pressure hinders pancreatic flow, causing dilatation of the pancreatic duct and inducing acute pancreatitis. We experienced three cases of acute pancreatitis that resulted from duodenal loop obstruction after (1) an esophagectomy with gastric pull-up procedure for esophageal cancer, (2) a gastrectomy with Billroth I reconstruction for gastric cancer, and (3) a gastrojejunostomy for abdominal trauma. An abdominal CT scan revealed a distended duodenal loop, dilated pancreatic duct, and inflamed pancreas with fluid collection. Acute pancreatitis with duodenal loop obstruction was diagnosed by abdominal pain, elevated serum amylase/lipase, and abdominal CT findings. Immediate decompression with a nasogastric tube was performed, and all patients showed improvement within one week after admission. Each patient was followed up for more than two years without recurrence. Our findings suggest the usefulness of nasogastric tube decompression as the first line of treatment for acute pancreatitis related to duodenal loop obstruction.

  10. CD45-mediated signaling pathway is involved in Rhizoctonia bataticola lectin (RBL)-induced proliferation and Th1/Th2 cytokine secretion in human PBMC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pujari, Radha [National Centre for Cell Science, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007 (India); Eligar, Sachin M. [Department of Biochemistry, Karnatak University, Dharwad, 580003 Karnataka (India); Kumar, Natesh [National Centre for Cell Science, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007 (India); Nagre, Nagaraja N.; Inamdar, Shashikala R.; Swamy, Bale M. [Department of Biochemistry, Karnatak University, Dharwad, 580003 Karnataka (India); Shastry, Padma, E-mail: padma@nccs.res.in [National Centre for Cell Science, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007 (India)

    2012-03-23

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RBL, a potent mitogenic and complex N-glycan specific lectin binds to CD45 on PBMC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RBL triggers CD45-mediated signaling involved in activation of p38MAPK and STAT-5. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of CD45 PTPase signaling blocks RBL-induced ZAP70 phosphorylation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RBL-CD45 mediated signaling is crucial for RBL-induced immunodulatory activities. -- Abstract: We earlier reported the mitogenic and immunostimulatory activities of Rhizoctonia bataticola lectin (RBL), purified from phytopathogenic fungus R. bataticola in human PBMC. The lectin demonstrates specificity towards glycoproteins containing complex N-glycans. Since CD45-protein tyrosine phosphatase that abundantly expresses N-glycans is important in T-cell signaling, the study aimed to investigate the involvement of CD45 in the immunomodulatory activities of RBL. Flowcytometry and confocal microscopy studies revealed that RBL exhibited binding to PBMC and colocalized with CD45. The binding was comparable in cells expressing different CD45 isoforms-RA, -RB and -RO. CD45 blocking antibody reduced the binding and proliferation of PBMC induced by RBL. CD45-PTPase inhibitor dephostatin inhibited RBL-induced proliferation, expression of CD25 and pZAP-70. RBL-induced secretion of Th1/Th2 cytokines were significantly inhibited in presence of dephostatin. Also, dephostatin blocked phosphorylation of p38MAPK and STAT-5 that was crucial for the biological functions of RBL. The study demonstrates the involvement of CD45-mediated signaling in RBL-induced PBMC proliferation and Th1/Th2 cytokine secretion through activation of p38MAPK and STAT-5.

  11. Receptor-dependent inhibition by vasoactive intestinal peptide of phorbol ester-enhanced IgM secretion by a human B cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, P.P.J.; Sreedharan, S.P.; Robichon, A.; Gronroos, E.; Goetzl, E.J. (Univ. of California, San Francisco (United States))

    1991-03-15

    Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is a 28 amino acid neuromediator, which is released into tissues during inflammatory reactions. To examine the mechanisms of VIP effects on lymphocyte functions, replicate 5 ml suspensions of 2{times}10{sup 6} cultured SKW 6.4 human B lymphocytes per ml of RPMI 1640 medium with 10% FCS were incubated with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) at 37C. After 2 hr of exposure of SKW 6.4 cells to 100 ng/ml of PMA, the specific high-affinity binding of ({sup 125}I)VIP was decreased by 43{plus minus}7.8% and remained suppressed for up to 8 hr. Continued incubation of SKW 6.4 cells with PMA for 7 days increased the specific high-affinity binding of ({sup 125}I)VIP by 55{plus minus}16%. The secretion of IgM by SKW 6.4 cells, as quantified in an ELISA assay, was enhanced a mean of 3.6 fold by 100 ng/ml of PMA after 7 days. The concurrent addition of 10{sup {minus}12}M-10{sup {minus}6}M VIP to the SKW 6.4 cells inhibited the PMA-enhanced secretion of IgM in an concentration-dependent manner with maximal mean inhibition ({plus minus}S.D.) of 40{plus minus}2% by 10{sup {minus}10}M VIP at 7 days, without an effect on unstimulated levels of IgM. The potent inhibition of immunoglobulin production by VIP has apparent specificity for stimulated B cells with an increased number of VIP receptors.

  12. The ACAT inhibitor VULM1457 significantly reduced production and secretion of adrenomedullin (AM) and down-regulated AM receptors on human hepatoblastic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drímal, J; Fáberová, V; Schmidtová, L; Bednáriková, M; Drímal, J; Drímal, D

    2005-12-01

    Acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) is an important enzyme in the pathways of cholesterol esterification. It has been shown that new ACAT inhibitor 1-(2,6-diisopropyl-phenyl)-3-[4-(4'-nitrophenylthio)phenyl] urea (VULM1457) significantly reduced atherogenic activity in animal experimental atherosclerosis. Proliferative hormone adrenomedullin (AM) has been shown to be released in response to hypoxia, however, its role in cellular protection has remained elusive. The effect of increased local production of AM in cells and resultant down-regulation of AM receptors has not been investigated yet. We hypothesized that increased expression of AM in hypoxic cells was the result of excessive AM production with resultant AM receptor down-regulation, surface-membrane protein degradation and that the new specific ACAT inhibitor would reduce AM induction in hypoxia and thus proliferation of cells. In order to investigate specific cellular AM signaling and protection induced by VULM1457, we characterized specific surface-membrane [125I]AM receptors expressed on cells, evaluated AM secretion (RIA assays), AM mRNA expression in cultured cells (RT-PCR analysis) and proliferation (incorporation of [3H]thymidine) in control, hypoxic and metabolically stressed human hepatoblastoma cell lines exposed to gradually increasing concentrations of VULM1457. The new ACAT inhibitor VULM1457 in concentration 0.03 and 0.1 micromol/l significantly down-regulated specific AM receptors on HepG2 cells, reduced AM secretion of HepG2 cells exposed to hypoxia. These results suggest that VULM1457, as new member of ACAT family of inhibitors could negatively regulate cell proliferation induced by AM, which may correlate with down-regulation of membrane-bound AM receptors on HepG2 cells, and moreover, with the induction and expression of AM in hypoxia.

  13. Binding of Excreted and/or Secreted Products of Adult Hookworms to Human NK Cells in Necator americanus-Infected Individuals from Brazil▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; Fujiwara, Ricardo T.; Stemmy, Erik J.; Olive, Denise; Damsker, Jesse M.; Loukas, Alex; Corrêa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Constant, Stephanie L.; Bethony, Jeffrey M.

    2008-01-01

    The impact of the interaction between excreted and/or secreted (ES) Necator americanus products and NK cells from Necator-infected individuals was analyzed. We investigated the binding of ES products to NK cells, the expression of NK cell receptors (CD56, CD159a/NKG2A, CD314/NKG2D, CD335/NKp46, and KLRF1/NKp80), the frequency of gamma interferon (IFN-γ)-producing NK cells after whole-blood in vitro stimulation, and the capacity of N. americanus ES products to induce NK cell chemotaxis. In contrast to those from noninfected individuals, NK cells from Necator-infected individuals demonstrated no binding with N. americanus ES products. This phenomenon was not due to alterations in NK cell receptor expression in infected subjects and could not be reproduced with NK cells from uninfected individuals by incubation with immunoregulatory cytokines (interleukin-10/transforming growth factor β). Further, we found that a significantly greater percentage of NK cells from infected subjects than NK cells from uninfected individuals spontaneously produced IFN-γ upon ex vivo culture. Our findings support a model whereby NK cells from Necator-infected individuals may interact with ES products, making these cells refractory to binding with exogenous ES products. During N. americanus infection, human NK cells are attracted to the site of infection by chemotactic ES products produced by adult Necator worms in the gut mucosa. Binding of ES products causes the NK cells to become activated and secrete IFN-γ locally, thereby contributing to the adult hookworm's ability to evade host immune responses. PMID:18838519

  14. Open secrets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzman, Malcolm; Beglarian, Eve; Bahn, Curtis

    2004-05-01

    In 1998, the Schools of Architecture and Humanities at the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute initiated a collaborative project between students of both schools to develop a musical performance piece that would be presented in an environment to be designed and built in the Art Gallery of the School of Architecture. Students from both Schools were to work together on developing the content and conceptualizing the built environment. Architects Malcolm Holzman and Nestor Bottino of the firm of HHPA were brought in as advisors to the project, as was Composer Eve Beglarian of Twisted Tutu. Curtis Bahn, Director of the iEAR Studio at RPI, was Academic Coordinator for the project, together with Beth Weinstein, Professor, School of Architecture, and Grethe Holby, who directed the performance. This paper will review the academic raison d'etre for organizing such a program, discuss the history of the project as it developed, and present a video tape of portions of the finished performance.

  15. Autocrine secretion of 15d-PGJ2 mediates simvastatin-induced apoptotic burst in human metastatic melanoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasinger, Christine; Künzl, Martin; Minichsdorfer, Christoph; Höller, Christoph; Zellner, Maria; Hohenegger, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Despite new therapeutic approaches, metastatic melanomas still have a poor prognosis. Statins reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and exert anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative actions. We have recently shown that simvastatin triggers an apoptotic burst in human metastatic melanoma cells by the synthesis of an autocrine factor. Experimental Approach The current in vitro study was performed in human metastatic melanoma cell lines (A375, 518a2) and primary human melanocytes and melanoma cells. The secretome of simvastatin-stressed cells was analysed with two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis and MS. The signalling pathways involved were analysed at the protein and mRNA level using pharmacological approaches and siRNA technology. Key Results Simvastatin was shown to activate a stress cascade, leading to the synthesis of 15-deoxy-12,14-PGJ2 (15d-PGJ2), in a p38- and COX-2-dependent manner. Significant concentrations of 15d-PGJ2 were reached in the medium of melanoma cells, which were sufficient to activate caspase 8 and the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. Inhibition of lipocalin-type PGD synthase, a key enzyme for 15d-PGJ2 synthesis, abolished the apoptotic effect of simvastatin. Moreover, 15d-PGJ2 was shown to bind to the fatty acid-binding protein 5 (FABP5), which was up-regulated and predominantly detected in the secretome of simvastatin-stressed cells. Knockdown of FABP5 abolished simvastatin-induced activation of PPAR-γ and amplified the apoptotic response. Conclusions and Implications We characterized simvastatin-induced activation of the 15d-PGJ2/FABP5 signalling cascades, which triggered an apoptotic burst in melanoma cells but did not affect primary human melanocytes. These data support the rationale for the pharmacological targeting of 15d-PGJ2 in metastatic melanoma. PMID:25091578

  16. Duodenal pseudomelanosis (pseudomelanosis duodeni: a rare endoscopic finding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aloísio Felipe-Silva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Duodenal pseudomelanosis (or pseudomelanosis duodeni is a rare benigncondition characterized by black-brown speckled pigmentation of the duodenalmucosa. Collections of pigment−laden macrophages are found in the tips ofduodenal villi. The pigment is thought to be mostly composed of ferrous sulfide.Histochemichal stains for iron (Perl’s prussian blue or melanin (Masson-Fontana may be positive, but are usually negative or unpredictable. Duodenalpseudomelanosis occurs predominantly in middle-aged to old adults andmore commonly in females. It is associated with chronic renal failure, arterialhypertension, diabetes mellitus and gastrointestinal bleeding. Medications suchas ferrous sulfate, hydralazine, propranolol, hydrochlorothiazide and furosemideare thought to play a role as well. We report a case of a 86-year-old femalewho presented with a history of watery diarrhea and melena. The patient had ahistory of high blood pressure and ischemic stroke episodes. She was on multiplemedication including hidralazine, captopril, hydrochlorthiazide and aspirin. She wasdehydrated, her blood pressure was 96 × 60 mmHg and neurologic examinationshowed complete left hemiplegia with central VII nerve palsy. Laboratory testsshowed normal serum electrolytes and renal function. Hemoglobin level was10.7 g%. An upper endoscopy showed multiple diminutive black spots throughoutthe distal duodenal bulb and second portion. Histology showed multiple foci ofa brown-black granular pigment inside macrophages within the tips of the villi(pseudomelanosis. Stains for iron and melanin were negative. She was treatedwith omeprazol, parenteral fluid replacement with saline and partial fasting. Aftercomplete recovery she was discharged for ambulatory follow up.

  17. Endoscopic Management of a Primary Duodenal Carcinoid Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albin Abraham

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoids are rare, slow-growing tumors originating from a variety of different neuroendocrine cell types. They are identified histologically by their affinity for silver salts and by positive reactions to neuroendocrine markers such as neuron-specific enolase, synaptophysin and chromogranin. They can present with various clinical symptoms and are difficult to diagnose. We present the case of a 43-year-old woman who was referred for evaluation of anemia. Upper endoscopy showed a duodenal bulb mass around 1 cm in size. Histopathological and immunohistochemistry staining were consistent with the diagnosis of a carcinoid tumor. Further imaging and endoscopic studies showed no other synchronous carcinoid lesions. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS revealed a 1 cm lesion confined to the mucosa and no local lymphadenopathy. Successful endoscopic mucosal resection of the mass was performed. Follow-up surveillance 6 months later with EUS and Octreoscan revealed no new lesions suggestive of recurrence. No consensus guidelines exist for the endoscopic management of duodenal carcinoid tumors. However, endoscopic resection is safe and preferred for tumors measuring 1 cm or less with no evidence of invasion of the muscularis layer.

  18. Obesity and the Endometrium: Adipocyte-Secreted Proinflammatory TNFα Cytokine Enhances the Proliferation of Human Endometrial Glandular Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeeta Nair

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity, a state of chronic inflammation, is associated with poor fertility and low implantation rates and is a well-documented risk factor for endometrial cancer. Adipokines, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha, play an important role in initiation of endometrial cancer. The aim of this study is to evaluate in vitro effects of human adipocyte cells (SW872 on growth of endometrial glandular epithelial cells (EGE. Methods. We measured cell proliferation and expression of cell-growth proteins—proliferating cell nuclear antigen, cyclin D1, cyclin-dependent kinase-1, and apoptotic markers (BCL-2 and BAK in human EGE cells cocultured with SW872 cells. EGE cells were also evaluated in SW872-conditioned media neutralized with anti-TNFα antibody. Results. A significant increase in EGE cell proliferation was observed in both SW872-conditioned media and in coculture (P<0.05. We observed an upregulation of proliferation markers PCNA, cyclin D1, CDK-1, and BCL-2 and decrease in BAK (P<0.05. Neutralization of SW872-conditioned media using anti-TNFα antibodies reversed EGE cell proliferation as indicated by BCL-2 expression. Conclusions. Adipocytes have potent proliferative paracrine effect on EGE cells which may be, in part, mediated via TNFα. Further understanding of the role of obesity in endometrial carcinogenesis should lead to better preventative and therapeutic strategies.

  19. Alcoholic beverages produced by alcoholic fermentation but not by distillation are powerful stimulants of gastric acid secretion in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teyssen, S; Lenzing, T; González-Calero, G; Korn, A; Riepl, R L; Singer, M V

    1997-01-01

    The effect of commonly ingested alcoholic beverages on gastric acid output and release of gastrin in humans is unknown. In 16 healthy humans the effect of some commonly ingested alcoholic beverages produced by fermentation plus distillation (for example, whisky, cognac, calvados, armagnac, and rum) or by alcoholic fermentation (beer, wine, champagne, martini, and sherry) on gastric acid output and release of gastrin was studied. Gastric acid output was determined by the method of intragastric titration. Plasma gastrin was measured using a specific radioimmunoassay. None of the alcoholic beverages produced by fermentation plus distillation had any significant effect on gastric acid output and release of gastrin compared with control (isotonic glucose and distilled water). Alcoholic beverages produced only by fermentation significantly (p wine, and sherry were distilled, only their remaining parts increased gastric acid output by 53% to 76% of MAO and increased release of gastrin up to 4.3-fold compared with control. (1) Alcoholic beverages produced by fermentation but not by distillation are powerful stimulants of gastric acid output and release of gastrin; (2) the alcoholic beverage constituents that stimulate gastric acid output and release of gastrin are most probably produced during the process of fermentation and removed during the following process of distillation.

  20. The gut-brain peptide cyclo(His-Pro) is secreted in a pulsatile fashion in fasting humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herminghuysen, D; Cook, C; Thompson, H; Bostick, D; Lee, F; Stokes, L; Hilton, C; Prasad, C

    1994-04-01

    Histidyl-proline diketopiperazine (CHP) is a cyclic dipeptide that is found in many animal tissues, most notably brain and gut. It has been found to have a variety of biologic actions and has been postulated to play a role in appetitive behavior and energy metabolism. This study was conducted in order to characterize the secretory pattern of CHP during a 24 h fast. Four subjects (2 obese and 2 lean) were studied during the latter 24 h of a 36 h fast. Blood was sampled every 10-15 min and assayed for CHP concentration using a specific radioimmunoassay. Analysis revealed that circulating CHP oscillates in humans and that diurnal variation occurred but only in the obese subjects.

  1. Primary endocrine-secreting pancreatic tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaron, C

    1980-04-01

    Insulinoma, glucagonoma, gastrinoma (Zollinger-Ellison syndrome), vipoma, somatostatinoma and a tumor that secretes human pancreatic polypeptide are the primary endocrine-secreting tumors of the pancreas. hormones are produced by specific tumor cell types and cause a variety of dramatic clinical pictures. Diagnosis often requires hormone assays. Computerized tomography may be helpful. Definitive surgical treatment is possible, but metastases may be present.

  2. Ruminal protozoal contribution to the duodenal flow of fatty acids following feeding of steers on forages differing in chloroplast content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huws, S A; Lee, M R F; Kingston-Smith, A H; Kim, E J; Scott, M B; Tweed, J K S; Scollan, N D

    2012-12-28

    Ruminant products are criticised for their SFA content relative to PUFA, although n-6:n-3 PUFA is desirable for human health ( < 4). Rumen protozoa are rich in unsaturated fatty acids due to engulfment of PUFA-rich chloroplasts. Increasing the chloroplast content of rumen protozoa offers a potentially novel approach to enhance PUFA flow to the duodenum and subsequent incorporation into meat and milk. We evaluated protozoal contribution to duodenal n-3 PUFA flow due to intracellular chloroplast content. A total of six Holstein × Friesian steers were fed, in a two-period changeover design, either straw:concentrate (S:C, 60:40; DM basis; S:C, low chloroplast) or fresh perennial ryegrass (PRG; high chloroplast). Following 12 d adaptation to diet, ruminal protozoal and whole duodenal samples were obtained. N and fatty acid content of whole duodenum and rumen protozoal samples were assessed and protozoal 18S rDNA quantitative PCR performed, enabling calculation of protozoal N flow. The ratio of individual fatty acids:N in rumen protozoal samples was calculated to obtain protozoal fatty acid flows. Based on total fatty acid flow, contribution (%) of protozoa to individual fatty acid flows was calculated. Protozoal fatty acid data and microscopical observations revealed that protozoa were enriched with 18 : 3n-3 following PRG feeding, compared with the S:C diet, due to increased intracellular chloroplast content. However, duodenal protozoal 18S rDNA concentration post PRG feeding was low, indicating rumen retention of the protozoa. Nutrition influences the 18 : 3n-3 content of protozoa; the challenge is to increase protozoal flow to the small intestine, while maintaining sustainable rumen densities.

  3. Melatonin and Trolox ameliorate duodenal LPS-induced disturbances and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagundes, D S; Gonzalo, S; Arruebo, M P; Plaza, M A; Murillo, M D

    2010-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide evokes gastrointestinal motility disturbances and oxidative stress. The aims of the present study were to investigate the effect of melatonin and Trolox in the actions of lipopolysaccharide on duodenal contractility and on lipid peroxidation in rabbit duodenum. The in vitro duodenal contractility studies were carried out in organ bath and the levels of malondialdehyde were assayed by spectrophotometry. Duodenal segments were incubated with lipopolysaccharide (0.3 microg mL(-1)). Lipopolysaccharide decreased acetylcholine-induced contractions and increased malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxyalkenals concentrations in homogenates of duodenum. Melatonin reduced the amplitude of spontaneous contractions in duodenal muscle. Acetylcholine-induced contractions were not altered by melatonin in longitudinal and circular muscles. Trolox decreased the amplitude of spontaneous contractions of duodenal muscle. Trolox (1.2 or 4 mM) did not alter acetylcholine-induced contractions in duodenal muscle, but the concentration of 12 mM diminished the frequency of contractions and acetylcholine-induced contractions. Melatonin (0.3 mM) or Trolox (4 mM) diminished malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxyalkenals levels induced by lipopolysaccharide in the duodenum. Melatonin and Trolox reduce oxidative stress induced by lipopolysaccharide and ameliorate the effect of lipopolysaccharide on duodenal contractility. Copyright (c) 2009 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Measurement of pancreatic enzyme synthesis in humans. Problems in patients with calcific pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, S J; Ogden, J M; Young, G O; Dicker, J; Girdwood, A H; Marks, I N

    1989-02-01

    Earlier studies have suggested that the rate of incorporation of labeled amino acids into duodenal juice proteins during pancreatic stimulation may be used to calculate pancreatic enzyme synthesis and function. In the present study, a pulse/4 h continuous intravenous infusion of 14C labeled leucine was used to compare synthesis rates in 6 patients with chronic calcific pancreatis(CP) to 4 controls. Analysis of duodenal juice protein demonstrated a delay of approximately 1 h in the appearance of labeled proteins, followed by a linear increase in specific activity, allowing calculation of synthesis that varied between 2.6-2.8 h in controls and 6-48 h in CP. The protein in controls was representative of enzyme protein, but that of CP was not, since it was heavily contaminated with albumin (up to 50%). The results indicate that enzyme secreted during the first hour of stimulation is derived from pancreatic stores and that the synthesis rate of enzymes secreted thereafter is approximately 2.7 h in normal humans. The method was, however, unable to determine rates in patients with CP owing to heavy contamination of enzymes with exudative proteins.

  5. Genome-wide linkage analysis of chromogranin B expression in the CEPH pedigrees: implications for exocytotic sympathochromaffin secretion in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Tiffany A; Cadman, Peter E; Stridsberg, Mats; Nguyen, Susan; Taupenot, Laurent; Schork, Nicholas J; O'Connor, Daniel T

    2004-06-17

    Chromogranin B (CgB), a major member of the chromogranin/secretogranin family of catecholamine storage vesicle secretory proteins, plays both intracellular (vesiculogenic) and extracellular (prohormone) roles in the neuroendocrine system, and its biosynthesis and release are under the control of efferent sympathetic nerve traffic ("stimulus-transcription coupling"). To explore the role of heredity in control of CgB, we conducted a genome-wide linkage analysis of CgB release in 12 extended CEPH (Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humain) pedigrees. Region-specific radioimmunoassays were used to measure five CgB fragments in plasma: CgB1-16, CgB312-331, CgB439-451, CgB568-577, and CgB647-657. Substantial heritability, as measured by h2r, was observed for three of the fragment concentrations, CgB312-331, CgB439-451, and CgB568-577, which yielded h2r estimates ranging from 0.378 (P = 0.002) to 0.910 (P < 0.0000001). Variance-component genome-wide linkage analysis with 654 microsatellite markers at 5 cM spacing identified a major quantitative trait locus for CgB312-331 on chromosome 11q24-q25 with a maximum multipoint LOD score of 5.84. Significant allelic associations between markers in the region and CgB levels were also observed. Although the 2-LOD confidence interval for linkage did not include the CgB locus itself, known trans-activators of the CgB gene promoter, or prohormone cleaving proteases, examination of positional candidate loci within this region yielded novel and plausible physiological candidates for further exploration. Allelic variation in this region may thus influence effects of sympathetic outflow on target organs in humans.

  6. HtrA1 in human urothelial bladder cancer: a secreted protein and a potential novel biomarker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzi, Teresa; Lorenzi, Maria; Altobelli, Emma; Marzioni, Daniela; Mensà, Emanuela; Quaranta, Alexia; Paolinelli, Francesca; Morroni, Manrico; Mazzucchelli, Roberta; De Luca, Antonio; Procopio, Antonio Domenico; Baldi, Alfonso; Muzzonigro, Giovanni; Montironi, Rodolfo; Castellucci, Mario

    2013-12-01

    Our aim was to analyze the expression of the serine protease HtrA1 in human bladder tissue and urine in order to point out its possible association with the presence of urothelial bladder cancer. Bladder tissue and urine specimens from cancer patients with different tumor grades and stages (n = 68) and from individuals with cystitis (n = 16) were collected along with biopsy specimens and urine from healthy individuals (n = 68). For the first time, we demonstrated by immunohistochemistry that HtrA1 protein is produced by bladder urothelium in both physiological and inflammatory conditions, whereas it is not detectable in urothelial cancer cells regardless of tumor grade and stage. A different HtrA1 expression between normal-looking and neoplastic bladder tissue, despite similar HtrA1 mRNA levels, was also found by western blotting, which disclosed the presence of two forms of HtrA1, a native form of ∼50 kDa and an autocatalytic form of ∼38 kDa. Our investigations documented the presence of the two forms of HtrA1 also in urine. The ∼38 kDa form was significantly down-regulated in neoplastic tissue, whereas significantly higher amounts of both HtrA1 forms were found in urine from cancer patients compared with both healthy subjects and patients with cystitis. Our findings suggest that HtrA1 is a downexpressed molecule since an early stage of bladder urothelial carcinoma development and that urinary HtrA1 protein may be considered, if successfully validated, as an early and highly sensitive and specific biomarker for this neoplasia (the sensitivity and specificity of HtrA1 are 92.65% and 95.59%, respectively). Copyright © 2013 UICC.

  7. Clinical Studies of Human Pancreatic Enzyme Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, Stephen J.D.

    1997-01-01

    Very little is known of the effects of diet and disease on panceratic enzyme syntheis in humans as conventional tests measure the secretory response to secreagogues, such as CCK, and secretion may be unrelated to synthesis because of the masking effect of a large intracellular pool of stored enzymes (zymogens). In order to obtain information on enzyme synthesis, as well as secretion, we have measured the incorporation characteristics of isotopically labelled amino acids (e.g., 14C or 13C leucine tracer) into amylase and trypsin protein, extracted by affinity chromatography from duodenal secretions during pancreatic stimulation with CCK-8 The results of our studies in healthy volunteers and patients have suggested that (a) it takes between 75 and 101 min for the participation of newly synthesized pancreatic enzymes in the digestive process, and that zymogen stores are replaced at a rate of between 12 percent and 47 percent per hour in normal healthy subjects, (b) the synthesis and production rates of trypsin and amylase are parallel in healthy subjects, but can diverge under stressful conditions such as hypersecretory states, post-acute pancreatitis and protein malnutrition, (c) hyperphagia stimulates the synthesis of enzymes whilst malnutrition diminishes the synthesis of trypsin to a greater extent than amylase, (d) intravenous glucose and amino acids exert negative feedback control on the synthesis and release of amylase and trypsin, and (e) the decreased secretion of pancreatic enzymes in Type 1 insulin-dependent diabetics is more a consequence of defective enzyme release from zymogen stores than defective synthesis. In conclusion, our results indicate that changes in pancreatic enzyme secretion noted in patients do not always reflect changes in enzyme synthesis, and that the production of individual enzymes may diverge under certain circumstances. Based on the methodology described, it should be possible to develop more sensitive clinical tests of pancreatic

  8. Evaluation of two types of sponges used to collect cervical secretions and assessment of antibody extraction protocols for recovery of neutralizing anti-human papillomavirus type 16 antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Troy J; Hildesheim, Allan; Falk, Roni T; Schiller, John T; Lowy, Douglas R; Rodriguez, Ana Cecilia; Pinto, Ligia A

    2008-01-01

    Immunogenicity evaluations in human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine trials have relied on serological samples, yet cervical antibodies are likely to be most relevant for protection against infection. In order to assess functional antibody levels at the cervix, the secreted-alkaline-phosphatase neutralization assay (SEAPNA) was used to measure HPV-neutralizing activity. We assessed the variability of the SEAPNA with serum samples after vaccination with an HPV type 16 (HPV16) L1 virus-like particle vaccine and whether the SEAPNA can be used to monitor neutralizing activity at the cervix. The SEAPNA has an overall coefficient of variation of 29.3%. Recovery from ophthalmic sponges was assessed by spiking V5 (mouse anti-HPV16) antibody onto and extracting it from sterile Merocel and Ultracell sponges and sponges used to collect specimens from participants. V5 recovery from sterile Merocel sponges was complete, yet that from Ultracell sponges was null. The mean V5 recoveries from participant Ultracell and Merocel sponges were 61.2% and 93.5%, respectively, suggesting that Merocel sponges are more appropriate for specimen collection. The SEAPNA can be applied to determine the surrogates of protection and to examine the durability of protection at the cervix.

  9. Choline Phospholipid Metabolites of Human Vascular Endothelial Cells Altered by Cyclooxygenase Inhibition, Growth Factor Depletion, and Paracrine Factors Secreted by Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriko Mori

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance studies have previously shown that solid tumors and cancer cells in culture typically exhibit high phosphocholine and total choline. Treatment of cancer cells with the anti-inflammatory agent, indomethacin (INDO, reverted the phenotype of choline phospholipid metabolites in cancer cells towards a less malignant phenotype. Since endothelial cells form a key component of tumor vasculature, in this study, we used MR spectroscopy to characterize the phenotype of choline phospholipid metabolites in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs. We determined the effect of growth factors, the anti-inflammatory agent INDO, and conditioned media obtained from a malignant cell line, on choline phospholipid metabolites. Growth factor depletion or treatment with INDO induced similar changes in the choline phospholipid metabolites of HUVECs. Treatment with conditioned medium obtained from MDA-MB-231 cancer cells induced changes similar to the presence of growth factor supplements. These results suggest that cancer cells secrete growth factors and/or other molecules that influence the choline phospholipid metabolism of HUVECs. The ability of INDO to alter choline phospholipid metabolism in the presence of growth factor supplements suggests that the inflammatory response pathways of HUVECs may play a role in cancer cell-HUVEC interaction and in the response of HUVECs to growth factors.

  10. Human iPS-derived retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells exhibit ion transport, membrane potential, polarized VEGF secretion and gene expression pattern similar to native RPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkinaki, Maria; Sahibzada, Niaz; Golestaneh, Nady

    2012-01-01

    Aged-related macular degeneration (AMD) is one of the major causes of blindness in aging population and progresses with death of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and photoreceptor degeneration inducing impairment of central vision. Discovery of human induced pluripotent stem (hiPS) cells has opened new avenues for the treatment of degenerative diseases using patient specific stem cells to generate tissues and cells for autologous cell-based therapy. Recently, RPE cells were generated from hiPS cells. However, there is no evidence that those hiPS-derived RPE possess specific RPE functions that fully distinguish them from other type of cells. Here we show for the first time that RPE generated from hiPS under defined conditions exhibit ion transport, membrane potential, polarized VEGF secretion and gene expression profile similar to those of native RPE. The hiPS-RPE could therefore be a very good candidate for RPE replacement therapy in AMD. However, these cells show rapid telomere shortening, DNA chromosomal damage and increased p21 expression that cause cell growth arrest. This rapid senescence might affect the survival of the transplanted cells in vivo and therefore, only the very early passages should be used for regeneration therapies. Future research needs to focus on the generation of “safe” as well as viable hiPS-derived somatic cells. PMID:21480547

  11. [Mannheim peritonitis index as a surgical criterion for perforative duodenal ulcer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krylov, N N; Babkin, O V; Babkin, D O

    to define the correlation between Mannheim peritonitis index scores and outcomes of different radical and palliative interventions for perforative duodenal ulcer. Treatment of 386 patients with perforative duodenal ulcer is presented. Different surgical techniques were analyzed including stomach resection, various methods of vagotomy with/without drainage, ulcer suturing and ulcerative edges excision with suturing in patients with Mannheim index scores Mannheim peritonitis index is sensitive method allowing prognosis the outcomes in patients with perforative duodenal ulcer. Radical interventions are advisable in Mannheim index scores Mannheim index scores <21) volume and type of surgery do not significantly influence on mortality rate.

  12. Congenital duodenal obstruction with situs inversus totalis: Report of a rare association and discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Satendra

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This report is to present and discuss an extremely rare association of situs inversus with duodenal atresia in an 11-day-old male neonate born full term and weighing 1.9 kg. The baby presented with recurrent bilious vomiting. Babygram revealed situs inversus and duodenal obstruction. Echocardiography showed dextrocardia with a small ASD. Exploration confirmed a duodenal diaphragm with a central perforation between the third and fourth part of the duodenum and situs inversus. The literature search revealed 20 cases reported so far.

  13. Endoscopic interventional management of bleeding duodenal and gastric ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawa, C; Joseph, A L

    1992-04-01

    Bleeding duodenal and gastric ulcers continue to be a common and serious problem. Definition of the precise appearance and location of the ulcer by endoscopy gives important information about the source of bleeding and additional information about the risk of rebleeding and the indications for surgery. Several endoscopic hemostatic methods are available. The nonerosive contact probes (heater and BICAP) are preferred. Injection therapy with vasoconstrictors or sclerosing agents can also be recommended as a safe, efficacious, and economical means of treatment. Several hemostatic modalities should be available for use depending on the anatomic location and type of bleeding ulcers. The collaboration of skilled interventional endoscopists with their traditional surgical colleagues offers the patient with bleeding peptic ulcer disease the optimum probability of a successful outcome, with minimum treatment-associated morbidity.

  14. Duodenal perforation as result of blunt abdominal trauma in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartholt, Klaas Albert; Dekker, Jan Willem T

    2015-12-23

    Blunt abdominal trauma may cause severe intra-abdominal injuries, while clinical findings could be mild or absent directly after the trauma. The absence of clinical findings could mislead physicians into underestimating the severity of the injury at the primary survey, and inevitably leads to a delay in the diagnosis. The Blunt Abdominal Trauma in Children (BATiC) score may help to identify children who are at a high risk for intra-abdominal injuries in an early stage and requires additional tests directly. A case of a 10-year-old girl with a duodenal perforation after a blunt abdominal trauma is presented. A delay in diagnosis may lead to an increased morbidity and mortality rate. A low admission threshold for children with abdominal pain after a blunt trauma is recommended. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  15. Functional Dyspepsia and Duodenal Eosinophilia: A New Disease Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Kening; Talley, Nicholas J

    2017-10-30

    Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a highly prevalent disorder that affects more than 10% of the population. In the past decade, the conceptual underpinning of FD has begun to change, and new data are unraveling the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of this disorder with a focus on the duodenum. The Rome IV criteria were published in 2016, and notably suggests that gastroesophageal reflux disease and irritable bowel syndrome may all be part of the same disease spectrum as FD. Helicobacter pylori explains a minority of FD cases and in Rome IV is considered a separate entity. Duodenal inflammation is likely to be an important with evidence that eosinophils (and m