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Sample records for human donors vary

  1. The stem cell potential and multipotency of human adipose tissue-derived stem cells vary by cell donor and are different from those of other types of stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hyun Jin; Kim, Ki-Joo; Kim, Min Kyoung; Lee, Su Jin; Ryu, Yeon Hee; Seo, Bommie F; Oh, Deuk-Young; Ahn, Sang-Tae; Lee, Hee Young; Rhie, Jong Won

    2014-01-01

    Human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AT-MSCs) from various sites are applied in tissue engineering and cell therapy. The condition of AT-MSCs depends on the donor's age, body mass index (BMI), and gender. AT-MSCs from 66 human donors were analyzed, and the cells were sorted according to donor age (10-19 years: n = 1; 20-29 years: n = 5; 30-39 years: n = 12; 40-49 years: n = 22; 50-59 years: n = 12; 60-69 years: n = 9, and 70 years or older: n = 5), BMI (under 25, 25-30, and over 30), and gender (19 males and 48 females). Additionally, AT-MSCs were compared to bone marrow MSCs and chorionic tissue-derived MSCs. We measured the MSC yield, growth rate, colony-forming units, multipotency, and surface antigens. AT-MSC proliferation was greater in cells isolated from individuals aged less than 30 years compared to the proliferation of AT-MSCs from those over 50 years old. BMI was correlated with osteogenic differentiation potency; increased BMI enhanced osteogenesis. Adipogenic differentiation was more strongly induced in cells isolated from donors aged less than 30 years compared to those isolated from other age groups. Also, a BMI above 30 was associated with enhanced adipogenic differentiation compared to cells isolated from individuals with a BMI below 25. Bone marrow MSCs were strongly induced to differentiate along both osteogenic and adipogenic lineages, whereas AT-MSCs predominantly differentiated into the chondrogenic lineage. Therefore, the type of regeneration required and variations among potential donors must be carefully considered when selecting MSCs for use in applied tissue engineering or cell therapy.

  2. Donor human milk for preterm infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arslanoglu, Sertac; Corpeleijn, Willemijn; Moro, Guido

    2013-01-01

    The Committee on Nutrition of the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition aims to document the existing evidence of the benefits and common concerns deriving from the use of donor human milk (DHM) in preterm infants. The comment also outlines gaps in knowledge a...

  3. Guidelines for establishing a donor human milk depot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraghty, Sheela R; List, Betsy A; Morrow, Georgia B

    2010-02-01

    Human milk is the preferred choice for infant feeding. When a sick or premature infant's own mother's milk is unavailable, donor human milk is becoming more widely used. Many potential milk donors do not live within close proximity to the 10 North American not-for-profit milk banks. Transporting milk via commercial carriers can be inconvenient and costly for recipient banks. A network of donor human milk depots is one practical way to increase the quantity of available donor human milk. This article provides guidelines and practical suggestions for establishing a donor human milk depot.

  4. Effects on Photovoltaic Performance of Dialkyloxy-benzothiadiazole Copolymers by Varying the Thienoacene Donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kini, Gururaj P; Oh, Sora; Abbas, Zaheer; Rasool, Shafket; Jahandar, Muhammad; Song, Chang Eun; Lee, Sang Kyu; Shin, Won Suk; So, Won-Wook; Lee, Jong-Cheol

    2017-04-12

    A series of four donor-acceptor alternating copolymers based on dialkyloxy-benzothiadiazole (ROBT) as an acceptor and thienoacenes as donor units were synthesized and tested for polymer solar cells (PSCs). These new polymers had different donor units with varied electron-donating ability (thieno[3,2-b]thiophene (TT), dithieno[3,2-b:2',3'-d]thiophene (DTT), benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene (BDT), and naphtha[1,2-b:5,6-b']dithiophene (NDT)) in the polymer backbone. To understand the effect of these thienoacenes on the optoelectronic and photovoltaic properties of the copolymers, we systematically analyzed and compared the energy levels, crystallinity, morphology, charge recombination, and charge carrier mobility in the resulting polymers. In this series, optimized photovoltaic cells yielded power conversion efficiency (PCE) values of 6.25% (TT), 9.02% (DTT), 6.34% (BDT), and 2.29% (NDT) with different thienoacene donors. The introduction of DTT into the thienoacene-ROBT polymer enabled the generation of well-ordered molecular packings with a π-π stacking distance of 3.72 Å, high charge mobilities, and an interconnected nanofibrillar morphology in blend films. As a result, the PSC employing the polymer with DTT exhibited the highest PCE of 9.02%. Thus, our structure-property relationship studies of thienoacene-ROBT-based polymers emphasize that the molecular design of the polymers must be carefully optimized to develop high efficient PSCs. These findings will help us to understand the impact of the donor thienoacene on the optoelectronic and photovoltaic performance of polymers.

  5. 78 FR 66366 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Use of Donor Screening Tests To Test Donors of Human Cells, Tissues...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-05

    ... Test Donors of Human Cells, Tissues, and Cellular and Tissue-Based Products for Infection With... entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Use of Donor Screening Tests to Test Donors of Human Cells, Tissues, and... ``Guidance for Industry: Eligibility Determination for Donors of Human Cells, Tissues, and Cellular and...

  6. Donor human milk banking and the emergence of milk sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landers, Susan; Hartmann, Ben T

    2013-02-01

    Donor human milk has emerged as the preferred substrate to feed extremely preterm infants, when mother's own milk is unavailable. This article summarizes the clinical data demonstrating the safety, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness of feeding donor human milk to premature babies. It describes the current state of milk banking in North America, as well as other parts of the world, and the differing criteria for donor selection, current pasteurization techniques, and quality control measures. A risk assessment methodology is proposed, which would allow milk banks globally to assess the safety of their process and respond appropriately to differing risk environments.

  7. Transmission of infection with human allografts: essential considerations in donor screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Jay A; Greenwald, Melissa A; Grossi, Paolo A

    2012-09-01

    Transmission of infection via transplantation of allografts including solid organs, eyes, and tissues are uncommon but potentially life-threatening events. Donor-derived infections have been documented following organ, tissue, and ocular transplants. Each year, more than 70 000 organs, 100 000 corneas, and 2 million human tissue allografts are implanted worldwide. Single donors may provide allografts for >100 organ and tissue recipients; each allograft carries some, largely unquantifiable, risk of disease transmission. Protocols for screening of organ or tissue donors for infectious risk are nonuniform, varying with the type of allograft, national standards, and availability of screening assays. In the absence of routine, active surveillance, coupled with the common failure to recognize or report transmission events, few data are available on the incidence of allograft-associated disease transmission. Research is needed to define the optimal screening assays and the transmissibility of infection with allografts. Approaches are reviewed that may contribute to safety in allograft transplantation.

  8. Establishment, operation and development of a donor human milk bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biasini, Augusto; Stella, Marcello; Malaigia, Laura; China, Mariachiara; Azzalli, Milena; Laguardia, Maria Chiara; Rizzo, Vittoria

    2013-10-01

    Human milk is very valuable in premature infant nutrition. The collection, screening, processing and distribution of donor human milk are described in this report. These activities take place in the Donor Human Milk Bank (DHMB) of the Large Romagna Area (LRA) in Italy, the development of which is also described here. Over the years, the activities of this bank, which is located in Cesena Hospital, in the center of the LRA, have developed from an informal and domestic-level activity to become a multistep controlled process designed to prevent the possibility of disease transmission. This little food-supply industry, run by a multi-disciplinary team with strict rules and diverse responsibilities, complies with the Hazards Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) system.

  9. Impact of varying electron donors on the molecular microbial ecology and biokinetics of methylotrophic denitrifying bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baytshtok, Vladimir; Lu, Huijie; Park, Hongkeun; Kim, Sungpyo; Yu, Ran; Chandran, Kartik

    2009-04-15

    The goal of this study was to identify bacterial populations that assimilated methanol in a denitrifying sequencing batch reactor (SBR), using stable isotope probing (SIP) of (13)C labeled DNA and quantitatively track changes in these populations upon changing the electron donor from methanol to ethanol in the SBR feed. Based on SIP derived (13)C 16S rRNA gene clone libraries, dominant SBR methylotrophic bacteria were related to Methyloversatilis spp. and Hyphomicrobium spp. These methylotrophic populations were quantified via newly developed real-time PCR assays. Upon switching the electron donor from methanol to ethanol, Hyphomicrobium spp. concentrations decreased significantly in accordance with their obligately methylotrophic nutritional mode. In contrast, Methyloversatilis spp. concentrations were relatively unchanged, in accordance with their ability to assimilate both methanol and ethanol. Direct assimilation of ethanol by Methyloversatilis spp. but not Hyphomicrobium spp. was also confirmed via SIP. The reduction in methylotrophic bacterial concentration upon switching to ethanol was paralleled by a significant decrease in the methanol supported denitrification biokinetics of the SBR on nitrate. In sum, the results of this study demonstrate that the metabolic capabilities (methanol assimilation and metabolism) and substrate specificity (obligately or facultatively methylotrophic) of two distinct methylotrophic bacterial populations contributed to their survival or washout in denitrifying bioreactors. 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Global health policies that support the use of banked donor human milk: a human rights issue

    OpenAIRE

    Arnold Lois DW

    2006-01-01

    Abstract This review examines the role of donor human milk banking in international human rights documents and global health policies. For countries looking to improve child health, promotion, protection and support of donor human milk banks has an important role to play for the most vulnerable of infants and children. This review is based on qualitative triangulation research conducted for a doctoral dissertation. The three methods used in triangulation were 1) writing as a method of inquiry...

  11. Establishment of human embryonic stem cell line from gamete donors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Tao; ZHOU Can-quan; MAI Qing-yun; ZHUANG Guang-lun

    2005-01-01

    Background Human embryonic stem (HES) cell derived from human blastocyst can be propagated indefinitely in the primitive undifferentiated state while remaining pluripotent. It has exciting potential in human developmental biology, drug discovery, and transplantation medicine. But there are insufficient HES cell lines for further study. Methods Three oocyte donors were studied, and 3 in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles were carried out to get blastocysts for the establishment of HES cell line. Isolated from blastocysts immunosurgically, inner cell mass (ICM) was cultured and propagated on mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). Once established, morphology, cell surface markers, karyotype and differentiating ability of the cell line were thoroughly analyzed.Results Four ICMs from 7 blastocysts were cultured on MEFs. After culture, one cell line (cHES-1) was established and met the criteria for defining human pluripotent stem cells including a series of markers used to identify pluripotent stem cells, morphological similarity to primate embryonic stem cells and HES reported else where. Normal and stable karyotype maintained over 60 passages, and demonstrated ability to differentiate into a wide variety of cell types.Conclusions HES cell lines can be established from gamete donors at a relatively highly efficient rate. The establishment will exert a widespread impact on biomedical research.

  12. Human platelet antigen genotyping of platelet donors in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merzoni, J; Fagundes, I S; Lunardi, L W; Lindenau, J D-R; Gil, B C; Jobim, M; Dias, V G; Merzoni, L; Sekine, L; Onsten, T G H; Jobim, L F

    2015-10-01

    Human platelet antigens (HPA) are immunogenic structures that result from single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) leading to single amino acid substitutions. This study sought to determine the allele and genotype frequencies of HPA-1, HPA-2, HPA-3, HPA-4, HPA-5 and HPA-15 in platelet donors from the state of Rio Grande do Sul (RS), Brazil, and compare their allele frequencies to those observed in other populations. HPA genotyping was performed by PCR-SSP method. The study sample comprised 201 platelet donors (167 Caucasians and 34 non-Caucasians). Allele 'a' was that most commonly found for HPA-1 to 5 in both groups. The HPA-15ab genotype predominated over homozygous genotypes of this system. Fisher's exact test revealed statistically significant differences for the HPA-5 system, with a greater prevalence of the HPA-5b allele in non-Caucasians. The neighbour-joining method and principal components analysis revealed genetic proximity between our Caucasian group and European populations. We conclude that the allele frequencies of HPA-1 to 5 and HPA-15 found in our Caucasian sample are similar to those reported for European populations. These findings corroborate the ethnic makeup of the population of RS. The higher frequency of the HPA-5b allele found in the non-Caucasian group of our sample suggests the possibility of allosensitization in patients who receive platelet transfusions from genetically incompatible donors.

  13. Responses to recipient and donor B cells by genetically donor T cells from human haploidentical chimeras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiff, S.; Sampson, H.; Buckley, R.

    1986-03-01

    Following administration of haploidentical stem cells to infants with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), mature T cells of donor karyotype appear later in the recipient without causing graft-versus-host disease. To investigate the effect of the host environment on the responsiveness of these genetically donor T cells, blood B and T lymphocytes from 6 SCID recipients, their parental donors and unrelated controls were purified by double SRBC rosetting. T cells were stimulated by irradiated B cells at a 1:1 ratio in 6 day cultures. Engrafted T cells of donor karyotype gave much smaller responses to irradiated genetically recipient B cells than did fresh donor T cells. Moreover, engrafted T cells of donor karyotype from two of the three SCIDs who are longest post-transplantation responded more vigorously (14,685 and 31,623 cpm) than fresh donor T cells (5141 and 22,709 cpm) to donor B cells. These data indicate that T lymphocytes which have matured from donor stem cells in the recipient microenvironment behave differently from those that have matured in the donor.

  14. Time-Resolved Autofluorescence Imaging of Human Donor Retina Tissue from Donors with Significant Extramacular Drusen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweitzer, Dietrich; Gaillard, Elizabeth R.; Dillon, James; Mullins, Robert F.; Russell, Stephen; Hoffmann, Birgit; Peters, Sven; Hammer, Martin; Biskup, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. Time and spectrally resolved measurements of autofluorescence have the potential to monitor metabolism at the cellular level. Fluorophores that emit with the same fluorescence intensity can be discriminated from each other by decay time of fluorescence intensity after pulsed excitation. We performed time-resolved autofluorescence measurements on fundus samples from a donor with significant extramacular drusen. Methods. Tissue sections from two human donors were prepared and imaged with a laser scanning microscope. The sample was excited with a titanium-sapphire laser, which was tuned to 860 nm, and frequency doubled by a BBO crystal to 430 nm. The repetition rate was 76 MHz and the pulse width was 170 femtoseconds (fs). The time-resolved autofluorescence was recorded simultaneously in 16 spectral channels (445–605 nm) and bi-exponentially fitted. Results. RPE can be discriminated clearly from Bruch's membrane, drusen, and choroidal connective tissue by fluorescence lifetime. In RPE, bright fluorescence of lipofuscin could be detected with a maximum at 510 nm and extending beyond 600 nm. The lifetime was 385 ps. Different types of drusen were found. Most of them did not contain lipofuscin and exhibited a weak fluorescence, with a maximum at 470 nm. The lifetime was 1785 picoseconds (ps). Also, brightly emitting lesions, presumably representing basal laminar deposits, with fluorescence lifetimes longer than those recorded in RPE could be detected. Conclusions. The demonstrated differentiation of fluorescent structures by their fluorescence decay time is important for interpretation of in vivo measurements by the new fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) ophthalmoscopy on healthy subjects as well as on patients. PMID:22511622

  15. Knowledge, attitude, and beliefs of young, college student blood donors about Human immunodeficiency virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anju Dubey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Young people, who tend to be healthy, idealistic, and motivated, are an excellent pool of potential voluntary unpaid blood donors. Recruiting and retaining young blood donors improves the long term safety and sufficiency of a country′s blood supply. Knowledge, attitude, and beliefs about Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV should play an important role in prevention of disease transmission. Materials and Methods: This study was a questionnaire based survey, conducted to explore the levels of knowledge, attitude, and beliefs about HIV in young college student blood donors. Results: The results showed that the proportion of participants with comprehensive knowledge of HIV prevention and transmission was lesser than expected. Increase in education level and male gender was found to be significantly associated with high HIV-related knowledge. The responses on the different aspects of HIV-related attitude were also varied and there is still stigma associated with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS even in the educated groups. Discussion: There was a spectrum of myths and misperceptions emphasizing the need of education that recognizes the social context of attitude towards HIV. Results from this study may contribute to the development of appropriate educational and training material for this group of donors which in turn, may assist in achieving the elusive goal of safe blood supply in future.

  16. Ensuring Safety in Donor Human Milk Banking in Neonatal Intensive Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Ben T

    2017-03-01

    The provision of donor human milk avoids the risks associated with early infant formula feeding only when maternal milk is unavailable. Donor human milk-banking services (DHMBS) should provide an effective clinical service that causes no harm to donors or recipients. This article aims to begin the process of defining the minimum acceptable standard required for safe donor human milk banking in the neonatal unit. An assessment process is established to consider the potential risks and benefits of milk banking to both recipients and donors. These risks and benefits define the clinical responsibility of DHMBS and their social responsibility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Bioengineered Corneas Grafted as Alternatives to Human Donor Corneas in Three High‐Risk Patients

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Buznyk, Oleksiy; Pasyechnikova, Nataliya; Islam, M. Mirazul; Iakymenko, Stanislav; Fagerholm, Per; Griffith, May

    2015-01-01

    .... In this early observational study, we grafted bioengineered corneal implants made from recombinant human collagen and synthetic phosphorylcholine polymer into three patients for whom donor cornea...

  18. Global health policies that support the use of banked donor human milk: a human rights issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnold Lois DW

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This review examines the role of donor human milk banking in international human rights documents and global health policies. For countries looking to improve child health, promotion, protection and support of donor human milk banks has an important role to play for the most vulnerable of infants and children. This review is based on qualitative triangulation research conducted for a doctoral dissertation. The three methods used in triangulation were 1 writing as a method of inquiry, 2 an integrative research review, and 3 personal experience and knowledge of the topic. Discussion of the international human rights documents and global health policies shows that there is a wealth of documentation to support promotion, protection and support of donor milk banking as an integral part of child health and survival. By utilizing these policy documents, health ministries, professional associations, and donor milk banking associations can find rationales for establishing, increasing or continuing to provide milk banking services in any country, and thereby improve the health of children and future generations of adults.

  19. Best practice guidelines for the operation of a donor human milk bank in an Australian NICU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, B T; Pang, W W; Keil, A D; Hartmann, P E; Simmer, K

    2007-10-01

    Until the establishment of the PREM Bank (Perron Rotary Express Milk Bank) donor human milk banking had not occurred in Australia for the past 20 years. In re-establishing donor human milk banking in Australia, the focus of the PREM Bank has been to develop a formal and consistent approach to safety and quality in processing during the operation of the human milk bank. There is currently no existing legislation in Australia that specifically regulates the operation of donor human milk banks. For this reason the PREM Bank has utilised existing and internationally recognised management practices for managing hazards during food production. These tools (specifically HACCP) have been used to guide the development of Standard Operating Procedures and Good Manufacturing Practice for the screening of donors and processing of donor human milk. Donor screening procedures are consistent with those recommended by other human milk banks operating internationally, and also consistent with the requirements for blood and tissue donation in Australia. Controlled documentation and record keep requirements have also been developed that allow complete traceability from individual donation to individual feed dispensed to recipient and maintain a record of all processing and storage conditions. These operational requirements have been developed to reduce any risk associated with feeding pasteurised donor human milk to hospitalised preterm or ill infants to acceptable levels.

  20. Time-varying priority queuing models for human dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Hang-Hyun; Pan, Raj Kumar; Kaski, Kimmo

    2012-06-01

    Queuing models provide insight into the temporal inhomogeneity of human dynamics, characterized by the broad distribution of waiting times of individuals performing tasks. We theoretically study the queuing model of an agent trying to execute a task of interest, the priority of which may vary with time due to the agent's "state of mind." However, its execution is disrupted by other tasks of random priorities. By considering the priority of the task of interest either decreasing or increasing algebraically in time, we analytically obtain and numerically confirm the bimodal and unimodal waiting time distributions with power-law decaying tails, respectively. These results are also compared to the updating time distribution of papers in arXiv.org and the processing time distribution of papers in Physical Review journals. Our analysis helps to understand human task execution in a more realistic scenario.

  1. Time-Varying Priority Queuing Models for Human Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Jo, Hang-Hyun; Kaski, Kimmo

    2011-01-01

    Queuing models provide insight into the temporal inhomogeneity of human dynamics, characterized by the broad distribution of waiting times of individuals performing tasks. We study the queuing model of an agent trying to execute a task of interest, the priority of which may vary with time due to the agent's "state of mind." However, its execution can be disrupted by other tasks of random priorities. By considering the priority of the task of interest either decreasing or increasing algebraically in time, we analytically obtain and numerically confirm the bimodal and unimodal waiting time distributions with power-law decaying tails, respectively. These results are also compared to the updating time distribution of papers in the arXiv and the processing time distribution of papers in Physical Review journals. Our analysis helps to understand the human task execution behavior in a more realistic scenario.

  2. Postoperative endoscopic surveillance of human living-donor small bowel transplantations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Ding; Chang-Cun Guo; Cai-Ning Li; An-Hua Sun; Xue-Gang Guo; Ji-Yan Miao; Bo-Rong Pan

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To determine the significance of endoscopic surveillance in the diagnosis of acute rejection after human living-donor small bowel transplantations.METHODS: Endoscopic surveillance was performed through the ileostomy after human living-donor small bowel transplantations. The intestinal mucosa was observed and biopsies were performed for pathological observations.RESULTS: Acute rejection was diagnosed in time by endoscopic surveillance. The endoscopic and pathological manifestations of acute rejection were described. CONCLUSION: Endoscopic surveillance and biopsy are reliable methods to diagnose the acute rejection after human living-donor small bowel transplantations.

  3. Transport of ova transferred to rabbit oviducts at varying intervals after human chorionic gonadotropin injection.

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    Weinberg, L; Pauerstein, C J

    1980-01-01

    Ova obtained from donors were transfered to the oviducts of New Zealand White rabbits at various times after injection of human chorionic gonadotropin. The rabbits were killed at varying intervals after transfer. The genital tracts were removed, divided into segments (ampulla, isthmus, uterus, and vagina), and flushed to recover the ova. The experiments demonstrated the following: (1) A mechanism is present that retains some of the transferred ova above the ampullary-isthmic junction (AIJ). This mechanism is most efficient 60 hours after hCG injection. (2) Transferred ova that succeed in negotiating the AIJ are found in locations appropriate to the time elapsed from ovulation, rather than from transfer; i.e., they "catch up" to the endogenous ova.

  4. Isoindigo-Based Small Molecules with Varied Donor Components for Solution-Processable Organic Field Effect Transistor Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Hemlata; Chang, Jingjing; Gupta, Akhil; Bilic, Ante; Wu, Jishan; Sonar, Prashant; Bhosale, Sheshanath V

    2015-09-18

    Two solution-processable small organic molecules, (E)-6,6'-bis(4-(diphenylamino)phenyl)-1,1'-bis(2-ethylhexyl)-(3,3'-biindolinylidene)-2,2'-dione (coded as S10) and (E)-6,6'-di(9H-carbazol-9-yl)-1,1'-bis(2-ethylhexyl)-(3,3'-biindolinylidene)-2,2'-dione (coded as S11) were successfully designed, synthesized and fully characterized. S10 and S11 are based on a donor-acceptor-donor structural motif and contain a common electron accepting moiety, isoindigo, along with different electron donating functionalities, triphenylamine and carbazole, respectively. Ultraviolet-visible absorption spectra revealed that the use of triphenylamine donor functionality resulted in an enhanced intramolecular charge transfer transition and reduction of optical band gap, when compared with its carbazole analogue. Both of these materials were designed to be donor semiconducting components, exerted excellent solubility in common organic solvents, showed excellent thermal stability, and their promising optoelectronic properties encouraged us to scrutinize charge-carrier mobilities using solution-processable organic field effect transistors. Hole mobilities of the order of 2.2 × 10(-4) cm²/Vs and 7.8 × 10(-3) cm²/Vs were measured using S10 and S11 as active materials, respectively.

  5. Donor human milk bank data collection in north america: an assessment of current status and future needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownell, Elizabeth A; Lussier, Mary M; Herson, Victor C; Hagadorn, James I; Marinelli, Kathleen A

    2014-02-01

    The Human Milk Banking Association of North America (HMBANA) is a nonprofit association that standardizes and facilitates the establishment and operation of donor human milk (DHM) banks in North America. Each HMBANA milk bank in the network collects data on the DHM it receives and distributes, but a centralized data repository does not yet exist. In 2010, the Food and Drug Administration recognized the need to collect and disseminate systematic, standardized DHM bank data and suggested that HMBANA develop a DHM data repository. This study aimed to describe data currently collected by HMBANA DHM banks and evaluate feasibility and interest in participating in a centralized data repository. We conducted phone interviews with individuals in different HMBANA milk banks and summarized descriptive statistics. Eight of 13 (61.5%) sites consented to participate. All respondents collected donor demographics, and half (50%; n = 4) rescreened donors after 6 months of continued donation. The definition of preterm milk varied between DHM banks (≤ 32 to ≤ 40 weeks). The specific computer program used to house the data also differed. Half (50%; n = 4) indicated that they would consider participation in a centralized repository. Without standardized data across all HMBANA sites, the creation of a centralized data repository is not yet feasible. Lack of standardization and transparency may deter implementation of donor milk programs in the neonatal intensive care unit setting and hinder benchmarking, research, and quality improvement initiatives.

  6. Human artificial insemination by donor and the Australian community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawson, G

    1985-03-01

    Findings from a national sample of 989 persons and an 'Opinion Leader' survey of 279 executive and ordinary members of 40 organizations identified as having an interest in AID showed that Australians overall approved of the procedure for helping infertile married couples, only 17% of the national sample unequivocally disapproving. Key variables in determining opinions on AID included age, education, country of origin, family status, religion and exposure to infertility. However only 15% of national respondents accepted that AID should be made available to any unmarried women on request although opinions were more evenly spread on its provision to unmarried women in a long-term relationship with a man. Over one-third of 'Opinion Leaders' believed that children should never be told of their AID conception, 13% that they should be given identifying and one third non-identifying information on the donor. A majority believed that AID should be directly carried out or supervised by doctors in hospital clinics. There was strong opposition to business or voluntary organization involvement. Suggestions for changes in the law, while emphasizing protection of donors, recipients, children, persons who ran AID programs and control over futuristic research activities, often showed a misunderstanding of the legal process. The major reasons for exclusion of donors were genetic defects and medical problems although many behavioural characteristics were mentioned. Views on recipients' rights to choose the sex of the AID child were marginally against the proposition.

  7. Determination of an unrelated donor pool size for human leukocyte antigen-matched platelets in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Bonet Bub

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: Successful transfusion of platelet refractory patients is a challenge. Many potential donors are needed to sustain human leukocyte antigen matched-platelet transfusion programs because of the different types of antigens and the constant needs of these patients. For a highly mixed population such as the Brazilian population, the pool size required to provide adequate platelet support is unknown. Methods: A mathematical model was created to estimate the appropriate size of an unrelated donor pool to provide human leukocyte antigen-compatible platelet support for a Brazilian population. A group of 154 hematologic human leukocyte antigen-typed patients was used as the potential patient population and a database of 65,500 human leukocyte antigen-typed bone marrow registered donors was used as the donor population. Platelet compatibility was based on the grading system of Duquesnoy. Results: Using the mathematical model, a pool containing 31,940, 1710 and 321 donors would be necessary to match more than 80% of the patients with at least five completely compatible (no cross-reactive group, partial compatible (one cross-reactive group or less compatible (two cross-reactive group donors, respectively. Conclusion: The phenotypic diversity of the Brazilian population has probably made it more difficulty to find completely compatible donors. However, this heterogeneity seems to have facilitated finding donors when cross-reactive groups are accepted as proposed by the grading system of Duquesnoy. The results of this study may help to establish unrelated human leukocyte antigen-compatible platelet transfusions, a procedure not routinely performed in most Brazilian transfusion services.

  8. RNA and protein synthesis in cultured human fibroblasts derived from donors of various ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J J; Brot, N; Weissbach, H

    1980-07-01

    RNA synthesis in human fibroblasts from donors of various ages was studied in fibroblasts made permeable to nucleoside triphosphates with the nonionic detergent Nonidet P40. Cells from donors of 11 years and older showed a 30-40% decline in total RNA synthesis. The decrease in RNA synthesis was primarily due to a lowering of RNA polymerase II activity (alpha-amanitin sensitive). Studies on the incorporation of leucine into protein also showed a 30-40% decrease in cells from older donors.

  9. High prevalence of antibodies against polyomavirus WU, polyomavirus KI, and human bocavirus in German blood donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opitz Andreas

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA of the polyomaviruses WU (WUPyV and KI (KIPyV and of human bocavirus (HBoV has been detected with varying frequency in respiratory tract samples of children. However, only little is known about the humoral immune response against these viruses. Our aim was to establish virus-specific serological assays and to determine the prevalence of immunoglobulin G (IgG against these three viruses in the general population. Methods The capsid proteins VP1 of WUPyV and KIPyV and VP2 of HBoV were cloned into baculovirus vectors and expressed in Sf9 insect cells. IgG antibodies against WUPyV VP1, KIPyV VP1, and HBoV VP2 were determined by immunofluorescence assays in 100 plasma samples of blood donors. Results The median age of the blood donors was 31 years (range 20 - 66 yrs, 52% were male. 89% of the samples were positive for WUPyV IgG (median age 31 yrs, 49.4% male, 67% were positive for KIPyV IgG (median age 32 yrs, 46.3% male, and 76% were positive for HBoV IgG (median age 32 yrs, 51.3% male. For WUPyV and HBoV, there were no significant differences of the seropositivity rates with respect to age groups or gender. For KIPyV, the seropositivity rate increased significantly from 59% in the age group 20 - 29 years to 100% in the age group > 50 years. Conclusions High prevalences of antibodies against WUPyV, KIPyV, and HBoV were found in plasma samples of healthy adults. The results indicate that primary infection with these viruses occurs during childhood or youth. For KIPyV, the seropositivity appears to increase further during adulthood.

  10. Do Matrix Metalloproteases and Tissue Inhibitors of Metalloproteases in Tenocytes of the Rotator Cuff Differ with Varying Donor Characteristics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franka Klatte-Schulz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available An imbalance between matrix metalloproteases (MMPs and the tissue inhibitors of metalloproteases (TIMPs may have a negative impact on the healing of rotator cuff tears. The aim of the project was to assess a possible relationship between clinical and radiographic characteristics of patients such as the age, sex, as well as the degenerative status of the tendon and the MMPs and TIMPs in their tenocyte-like cells (TLCs. TLCs were isolated from ruptured supraspinatus tendons and quantitative Real-Time PCR and ELISA was performed to analyze the expression and secretion of MMPs and TIMPs. In the present study, MMPs, mostly gelatinases and collagenases such as MMP-2, -9 and -13 showed an increased expression and protein secretion in TLCs of donors with higher age or degenerative status of the tendon. Furthermore, the expression and secretion of TIMP-1, -2 and -3 was enhanced with age, muscle fatty infiltration and tear size. The interaction between MMPs and TIMPs is a complex process, since TIMPs are not only inhibitors, but also activators of MMPs. This study shows that MMPs and TIMPs might play an important role in degenerative tendon pathologies.

  11. Potassium currents in human myogenic cells from donors of different ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurowska, Ewa; Dworakowska, Beata; Kloch, Monika; Sobol, Maria; Dołowy, Krzysztof; Wernig, Anton; Ruzzier, Fabio

    2006-06-01

    Ageing in humans is accompanied by a reduction in the capacity of satellite cells to proliferate and the forming myoblasts to fuse. The processes of myoblast differentiation and fusion are associated with specific changes in the cells electrical properties. We wanted to elucidate the possible effects of ageing on these parameters and performed whole-cell patch-clamp recordings on human myoblasts obtained from biopsies of skeletal muscles from 2-, 48- and 76-year-old donors. First, we found that resting membrane potential on the 4th day of differentiation in vitro is less negative in the older than in the younger cells. Moreover, the oldest cells showed a smaller density of outward and inward potassium currents. More cells from the old and middle-age donors have a low (less than -40 mV) potential of activation for the outward potassium current. We conclude that in human myoblasts biophysical properties of potassium currents change with donor age.

  12. Seroprevalence of Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus-1/2 in Blood Donors in Northern Pakistan: Implications for Blood Donor Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niazi, Saifullah Khan; Bhatti, Farhat Abbas; Salamat, Nuzhat

    2015-12-01

    To determine the seroprevalence of Human T-cell Lymphotropic Virus-1/2 (HTLV-1/2) in blood donors in Northern Pakistan. Descriptive study. Armed Forces Institute of Transfusion, Rawalpindi, from July to August 2013. A total of 2100 blood donors were screened for anti-HTLV-1/2 antibodies during the study period, in a pool of six, on a highly sensitive, Chemiluminiscent Microparticle Immunoassay (CMIA) based system. The screening test-reactive donors were recalled, counseled and interviewed, and a fresh sample was obtained for confirmatory testing. Confirmation was performed using additional immunoassays including Line Immunoassay (LIA); with additional testing for HTLV-1 pvDNAPCR. Frequency and percentages were determined. Four donors (0.19%) were repeatedly screening test-reactive and were subsequently confirmed to be HTLV-1 infected by line immunoassay and HTLV-1 pvDNAPCR. All four donors were male with mean age of 27 ± 6.27 years. Two (50%) of the positive donors gave history of Multiple Sexual Partners (MSP). HTLV-1 seroprevalence in Northern Pakistan blood donors was determined to be 0.19%. Large scale studies, including the cost effectiveness of screening blood donations for anti-HTLV-1/2 in Pakistan, are recommended.

  13. [Profile of human milk bank donors and relationship with the length of the donation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra Colomina, G; García Lara, N; Escuder Vieco, D; Vázquez Román, S; Cabañes Alonso, E; Pallás Alonso, C R

    2014-04-01

    The promotion of Human Milk Banks is an important social service. The Human Milk Banks depend on donors, and knowing the profile of donors seems quite important. To study the demographics and lifestyles of the donors, the reasons or influences for donating, and to associate these variables with the length of the donation. This is a descriptive, cross-sectional study conducted on 168 mothers who answered the written questionnaire when they agreed to become donors. 98 (58%) responded to the telephone interview. The mean age was 33.1 ± 4.5 years. Of the total 27.9% lived outside Madrid and 21.4% were immigrants, with 23.7% working full time, 65.3% had a university education, and 96.2% had a stable partner. The main reasons for donating were too much milk (77%), and to help others (75%). The main obstacle was transportation to the Human Milk Bank for 20% of the donors, and for 61% the main reason for terminating donation was due to reaching the end of lactation. A longer donation is associated with: having a term newborn, with birth weight over 1500 g, starting donating early and reconciling the donation to the work situation. The most common donor profile was a young woman, with university education and a stable partner. Having a term new born, starting donating early, and the conciliation with work is associated with longer donations. Milk pick-up at home would make donation easier. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Use of Donor Human Milk and Maternal Breastfeeding Rates: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Thomas; Nair, Harish; Simpson, Judith; Embleton, Nicholas

    2016-05-01

    The number of human milk banks is growing worldwide. The introduction of donor human milk (DHM) to neonatal units has been advocated as a strategy to promote maternal breastfeeding. However, concern has been raised that the introduction of DHM may actually lead to a decrease in maternal breastfeeding. To address this question, we conducted a systematic literature review of studies that assessed maternal breastfeeding rates before and after the introduction of DHM. We searched 7 electronic databases, carried out citation tracking, and contacted experts in the field. Where data for breastfeeding rates before and after the introduction of DHM were directly comparable, a relative risk was calculated. Our search identified 286 studies, of which 10 met the inclusion criteria. Definitions of patient populations and study outcomes varied, limiting meaningful comparison. Where possible, relative risks (RR) were calculated on aggregated data. The introduction of DHM had a significant positive impact on any breastfeeding on discharge (RR, 1.19; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06-1.35;P= .005) but none on exclusive maternal breastfeeding on discharge (RR, 1.12; 95% CI, 0.91-1.40;P= .27) or on exclusive administration of own mother's milk (OMM) days 1 to 28 of life (RR, 1.08; 95% CI, 0.78-1.49; P= .65). A single-center study demonstrated a significant decrease in the percentage of feeds that were OMM after the introduction of DHM. In conclusion, the available data demonstrate some evidence of positive and negative effects on measures of maternal breastfeeding when DHM is introduced to a neonatal unit.

  15. Identification of multiple HPV types on spermatozoa from human sperm donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaspersen, Maja D; Larsen, Peter B; Ingerslev, Hans Jakob

    2011-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPV) may cause sexually transmitted disease. High-risk types of HPV are involved in the development of cervical cell dysplasia, whereas low-risk types may cause genital condyloma. Despite the association between HPV and cancer, donor sperm need not be tested for HPV...... contain HPV, most of them of high-risk types binding to the equatorial segment of the sperm cell. Most HPV-positive sperm showed decreased staining with DAPI, indicative of reduced content of DNA. Our data demonstrate that oncogenic HPV types are frequent in men....... according to European regulations. Consequently, the potential health risk of HPV transmission by donor bank sperm has not been elucidated, nor is it known how HPV is associated with sperm. The presence of 35 types of HPV was examined on DNA from semen samples of 188 Danish sperm donors using a sensitive...

  16. Donor's age and replicative senescence favour the in-vitro mineralization potential of human fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boraldi, Federica; Bartolomeo, Angelica; Di Bari, Caterina; Cocconi, Andrea; Quaglino, Daniela

    2015-12-01

    Aberrant mineralization of soft connective tissues (ectopic calcification) may occur as a frequent age-related complication. Still, it remains unclear the role of mesenchymal cell donor's age and of replicative senescence on ectopic calcification. Therefore, the ability of cells to deposit in-vitro hydroxyapatite crystals and the expression of progressive ankylosis protein homolog (ANKH), ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1 (ENPP1), tissue non specific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) and osteopontin (OPN) have been evaluated in human dermal fibroblasts derived from neonatal (nHDF) and adult (aHDF) donors (ex-vivo ageing model) or at low and high cumulative population doublings (CPD) up to replicative senescence (in-vitro ageing model). This study demonstrates that: 1) replicative senescence favours hydroxyapatite formation in cultured fibroblasts; 2) donor's age acts as a major modulator of the mineralizing potential of HDF, since nHDF are less prone than aHDF to induce calcification; 3) donor's age and replicative senescence play in concert synergistically increasing the calcification process; 4) the ANKH+ENPP1/TNAP ratio, being crucial for pyrophosphate/inorganic phosphate balance, is greatly influenced by donor's age, as well as by replicative senescence, and regulates mineral deposition; 5) OPN is only modulated by replicative senescence.

  17. Effects of pasteurization on adiponectin and insulin concentrations in donor human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ley, Sylvia H; Hanley, Anthony J; Stone, Debbie; O'Connor, Deborah L

    2011-09-01

    Although pasteurization is recommended before distributing donor human milk in North America, limited data are available on its impact on metabolic hormones in milk. We aimed to investigate the effects of pasteurization on adiponectin and insulin concentrations in donor human milk. The study investigates concentrations of components in donor human milk before and after Holder pasteurization. After the guidelines of the Human Milk Bank Association of North America, human milk samples were pooled to produce 17 distinct batches (4 individuals per batch) and pasteurized at 62.5°C for 30 min. Adiponectin, insulin, energy, fat, total protein, and glucose concentrations were measured pre- and postpasteurization. Pasteurization reduced milk adiponectin and insulin by 32.8 and 46.1%, respectively (both p milk composition (r = 0.36-0.47; all p milk hormone concentrations remained significant after adjusting for fat and energy (beta ± SEE: -4.11 ± 1.27, p = 0.003 for adiponectin; -70.0 ± 15.0, p human milk. In view of emerging knowledge on the importance of milk components, continued work to find the optimal pasteurization process that mitigates risks but promotes retention of bioactive components is needed.

  18. Human telomerase activity, telomerase and telomeric template expression in hepatic stem cells and in livers from fetal and postnatal donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmelzer, Eva; Reid, Lola M

    2009-10-01

    Although telomerase activity has been analyzed in various normal and malignant tissues, including liver, it is still unknown to what extent telomerase can be associated with specific maturational lineage stages. We assessed human telomerase activity, protein and gene expression for the telomerase reverse transcriptase, as well as expression of the telomeric template RNA hTER in hepatic stem cells and in various developmental stages of the liver from fetal to adult. In addition, the effect of growth factors on telomerase activity was analyzed in hepatic stem cells in vitro. Telomerase was found to be highly active in fetal liver cells and was significantly higher than in hepatic stem cells, correlating with gene and protein expression levels. Activity in postnatal livers from all donor ages varied considerably and did not correlate with age or gene expression levels. The hter expression could be detected throughout the development. A short stimulation by growth factors of cultured hepatic stem cells did not increase telomerase activity. Telomerase is considerably active in fetal liver and variably in postnatal livers. Although telomerase protein is present at varying levels in liver cells of all donor ages, gene expression is solely associated with fetal liver cells.

  19. Generation of human/rat xenograft animal model for the study of human donor stem cell behaviors in vivo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Sun; Dong Xiao; Xing-Hua Pan; Ruo-Shuang Zhang; Guang-Hui Cui; Xi-Gu Chen

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To accurately and realistically elucidate human stem cell behaviors In vivo and the fundamental mechanisms controlling human stem cell fates in vivo, which is urgently required in regenerative medicine and treatments for some human diseases, a surrogate human-rat chimera model was developed.METHODS: Human-rat chimeras were achieved by in utero transplanting low-density mononuclear cells from human umbilical cord blood into the fetal rats at 9-11 d of gestation, and subsequently, a variety of methods, including flow cytometry, PCR as well as immunohistochemical assay, were used to test the human donor contribution in the recipients.RESULTS: Of 29 live-born recipients, 19 had the presence of human CD45+ cells in peripheral blood (PB) detected by flow cytometry, while PCR analysis on genomic DNA from 11 different adult tissues showed that 14 selected from flow cytometry-positive 19 animals possessed of donor-derived human cell engraftment in multiple tissues (i.e. liver, spleen, thymus, heart, kidney, blood, lung, muscle, gut and skin) examined at the time of tissue collection, as confirmed by detecting human β2-microglobulin expression using immunohistochemistry.In this xenogeneic system, the engrafted donor-derived human cells persisted in multiple tissues for at least 6 mo after birth. Moreover, transplanted human donor cells underwent site-specific differentiation into CK18-positive human cells in chimeric liver and CD45-positive human cells in chimeric spleen and thymus of recipients.CONCLUSION: Taken together, these findings suggest that we successfully developed human-rat chimeras, in which xenogeneic human cells exist up to 6 mo later. This humanized small animal model, which offers an in vivo environment more closely resembling to the situations in human, provides an invaluable and effective approach for in vivo investigating human stem cell behaviors, and further in vivo examining fundamental mechanisms controlling human stem cell fates in the future

  20. Transcription of a donor enhances its use during double-strand break-induced gene conversion in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schildkraut, Ezra; Miller, Cheryl A; Nickoloff, Jac A

    2006-04-01

    Homologous recombination (HR) mediates accurate repair of double-strand breaks (DSBs) but carries the risk of large-scale genetic change, including loss of heterozygosity, deletions, inversions, and translocations. Nearly one-third of the human genome consists of repetitive sequences, and DSB repair by HR often requires choices among several homologous repair templates, including homologous chromosomes, sister chromatids, and linked or unlinked repeats. Donor preference during DSB-induced gene conversion was analyzed by using several HR substrates with three copies of neo targeted to a human chromosome. Repair of I-SceI nuclease-induced DSBs in one neo (the recipient) required a choice between two donor neo genes. When both donors were downstream, there was no significant bias for proximal or distal donors. When donors flanked the recipient, we observed a marked (85%) preference for the downstream donor. Reversing the HR substrate in the chromosome eliminated this preference, indicating that donor choice is influenced by factors extrinsic to the HR substrate. Prior indirect evidence suggested that transcription might increase donor use. We tested this question directly and found that increased transcription of a donor enhances its use during gene conversion. A preference for transcribed donors would minimize the use of nontranscribed (i.e., pseudogene) templates during repair and thus help maintain genome stability.

  1. The safety of donor skin preserved with glycerol - Evaluating the Euro Skin Bank preservation procedures of human donor skin against the prEN 12442 standard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geertsma RE; Wassenaar C; LGM

    2000-01-01

    The procedures for preservation of human donor skin with glycerol, as applied by the Euro Skin Bank (ESB), were evaluated against the prEN 12442 standard: animal tissues and their derivatives used in the manufacture of medical devices. The focus chosen for this review is on risks related to the tran

  2. Identification of multiple HPV types on spermatozoa from human sperm donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspersen, Maja D; Larsen, Peter B; Ingerslev, Hans Jakob; Fedder, Jens; Petersen, Gert Bruun; Bonde, Jesper; Höllsberg, Per

    2011-03-29

    Human papillomaviruses (HPV) may cause sexually transmitted disease. High-risk types of HPV are involved in the development of cervical cell dysplasia, whereas low-risk types may cause genital condyloma. Despite the association between HPV and cancer, donor sperm need not be tested for HPV according to European regulations. Consequently, the potential health risk of HPV transmission by donor bank sperm has not been elucidated, nor is it known how HPV is associated with sperm. The presence of 35 types of HPV was examined on DNA from semen samples of 188 Danish sperm donors using a sensitive HPV array. To examine whether HPV was associated with the sperm, in situ hybridization were performed with HPV-6, HPV-16 and -18, and HPV-31-specific probes. The prevalence of HPV-positive sperm donors was 16.0% and in 66.7% of these individuals high-risk types of HPV were detected. In 5.3% of sperm donors, two or more HPV types were detected. Among all identified HPV types, 61.9% were high-risk types. In situ hybridization experiments identified HPV genomes particularly protruding from the equatorial segment and the tail of the sperm. Semen samples from more than one in seven healthy Danish donors contain HPV, most of them of high-risk types binding to the equatorial segment of the sperm cell. Most HPV-positive sperm showed decreased staining with DAPI, indicative of reduced content of DNA. Our data demonstrate that oncogenic HPV types are frequent in men.

  3. Donor Human Milk for the High-Risk Infant: Preparation, Safety, and Usage Options in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The use of donor human milk is increasing for high-risk infants, primarily for infants born weighing milk may be considered in situations in which the supply of maternal milk is insufficient. The use of pasteurized donor milk is safe when appropriate measures are used to screen donors and collect, store, and pasteurize the milk and then distribute it through established human milk banks. The use of nonpasteurized donor milk and other forms of direct, Internet-based, or informal human milk sharing does not involve this level of safety and is not recommended. It is important that health care providers counsel families considering milk sharing about the risks of bacterial or viral contamination of nonpasteurized human milk and about the possibilities of exposure to medications, drugs, or herbs in human milk. Currently, the use of pasteurized donor milk is limited by its availability and affordability. The development of public policy to improve and expand access to pasteurized donor milk, including policies that support improved governmental and private financial support for donor milk banks and the use of donor milk, is important. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  4. Lactational Stage of Pasteurized Human Donor Milk Contributes to Nutrient Limitations for Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina J. Valentine

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Mother’s own milk is the first choice for feeding preterm infants, but when not available, pasteurized human donor milk (PDM is often used. Infants fed PDM have difficulties maintaining appropriate growth velocities. To assess the most basic elements of nutrition, we tested the hypotheses that fatty acid and amino acid composition of PDM is highly variable and standard pooling practices attenuate variability; however, total nutrients may be limiting without supplementation due to late lactational stage of the milk. Methods. A prospective cross-sectional sampling of milk was obtained from five donor milk banks located in Ohio, Michigan, Colorado, Texas-Ft Worth, and California. Milk samples were collected after Institutional Review Board (#07-0035 approval and informed consent. Fatty acid and amino acid contents were measured in milk from individual donors and donor pools (pooled per Human Milk Banking Association of North America guidelines. Statistical comparisons were performed using Kruskal–Wallis, Spearman’s, or Multivariate Regression analyses with center as the fixed factor and lactational stage as co-variate. Results. Ten of the fourteen fatty acids and seventeen of the nineteen amino acids analyzed differed across Banks in the individual milk samples. Pooling minimized these differences in amino acid and fatty acid contents. Concentrations of lysine and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA were not different across Banks, but concentrations were low compared to recommended levels. Conclusions. Individual donor milk fatty acid and amino acid contents are highly variable. Standardized pooling practice reduces this variability. Lysine and DHA concentrations were consistently low across geographic regions in North America due to lactational stage of the milk, and thus not adequately addressed by pooling. Targeted supplementation is needed to optimize PDM, especially for the preterm or volume restricted infant.

  5. Donor human milk versus mother's own milk in preterm VLBWIs: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, F; Prandi, G; Coscia, A; Cresi, F; Di Nicola, P; Raia, M; Sabatino, G; Occhi, L; Bertino, E

    2012-01-01

    As for term infants, over the past decades there has been increasing evidence of the benefits of human milk in the feeding of Very Low Birth Weight Infants (VLBWI), influencing not only short-term health outcomes but also long-term neurodevelopmental, metabolic outcomes, and growth. Mother's own milk is the first choice for all neonates including preterm infants, when it is unavailable or in short supply, pasteurized donor breast milk offers a safe alternative and is considered the next best choice. The main aim of this case-control retrospective analysis was to evaluate short term advantages of mother's own milk as a sole diet compared to donor milk as a sole diet, in terms of growth, antiinfectious properties, feeding tolerance, NEC and ROP prevention in a population of VLBWI born in a tertiary center. We did not find significant differences in clinical outcome from mother's own milk compared with pasteurized donor milk. Only a slight and statistically not significant difference in growth could be observed, in favour of maternal milk. We conclude that the maximum effort should always be put in supporting and promoting breastfeeding and donor milk used not only as an alternative to mother's milk but also as a breastfeeding promotion and support strategy.

  6. Donor smoking is associated with pulmonary edema, inflammation and epithelial dysfunction in ex vivo human donor lungs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, Lorraine B.; Lee, Jae W.; Wickersham, Nancy; Nguyen, John; Matthay, Michael A.; Calfee, Carolyn S.

    2014-01-01

    Although recipients of donor lungs from smokers have worse clinical outcomes, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. We tested the association between donor smoking and the degree of pulmonary edema (as estimated by lung weight), the rate of alveolar fluid clearance (measured by airspace instillation of 5% albumin) and biomarkers of lung epithelial injury and inflammation (bronchoalveolar lavage surfactant protein-D and IL-8) in ex vivo lungs recovered from 298 organ donors. The extent of pulmonary edema was higher in current smokers (n=127) compared to non-smokers (median 408g, IQR 364-500 vs. 385g, IQR 340 - 460, p=0.009). Oxygenation at study enrollment was worse in current smokers versus non-smokers (median PaO2/FiO2 214 mmHg, IQR 126-323 vs. 266 mmHg, IQR 154-370, p=0.02). Current smokers with the highest exposure (≥20 pack-years) had significantly lower rates of alveolar fluid clearance, suggesting that the effects of cigarette smoke on alveolar epithelial fluid transport function may be dose related. BAL IL-8 was significantly higher in smokers while surfactant protein-D was lower. These findings indicate that chronic exposure to cigarette smoke has important effects on inflammation, gas exchange, lung epithelial function and lung fluid balance in the organ donor that could influence lung function in the lung transplant recipient. PMID:25146497

  7. Criteria for viability assessment of discarded human donor livers during ex vivo normothermic machine perfusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E Sutton

    Full Text Available Although normothermic machine perfusion of donor livers may allow assessment of graft viability prior to transplantation, there are currently no data on what would be a good parameter of graft viability. To determine whether bile production is a suitable biomarker that can be used to discriminate viable from non-viable livers we have studied functional performance as well as biochemical and histological evidence of hepatobiliary injury during ex vivo normothermic machine perfusion of human donor livers. After a median duration of cold storage of 6.5 h, twelve extended criteria human donor livers that were declined for transplantation were ex vivo perfused for 6 h at 37 °C with an oxygenated solution based on red blood cells and plasma, using pressure controlled pulsatile perfusion of the hepatic artery and continuous portal perfusion. During perfusion, two patterns of bile flow were identified: (1 steadily increasing bile production, resulting in a cumulative output of ≥ 30 g after 6 h (high bile output group, and (2 a cumulative bile production <20 g in 6 h (low bile output group. Concentrations of transaminases and potassium in the perfusion fluid were significantly higher in the low bile output group, compared to the high bile output group. Biliary concentrations of bilirubin and bicarbonate were respectively 4 times and 2 times higher in the high bile output group. Livers in the low bile output group displayed more signs of hepatic necrosis and venous congestion, compared to the high bile output group. In conclusion, bile production could be an easily assessable biomarker of hepatic viability during ex vivo machine perfusion of human donor livers. It could potentially be used to identify extended criteria livers that are suitable for transplantation. These ex vivo findings need to be confirmed in a transplant experiment or a clinical trial.

  8. Seroprevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Hepatitis B Virus, Hepatitis C Virus, and Treponema pallidum Infections among Blood Donors on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-De Xie

    Full Text Available Regular screening of transfusion-transmissible infections (TTIs, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus (HBV and HCV, respectively, and Treponema pallidum, in blood donors is essential to guaranteeing clinical transfusion safety. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of four TTIs among blood donors on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea (EG.A retrospective survey of blood donors from January 2011 to April 2013 was conducted to assess the presence of HIV, HBV, HCV and T. pallidum. The medical records were analyzed to verify the seroprevalence of these TTIs among blood donations stratified by gender, age and geographical region.Of the total 2937 consecutive blood donors, 1098 (37.39% had a minimum of one TTI and 185 (6.29% harbored co-infections. The general seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV and T. pallidum were 7.83%, 10.01%, 3.71% and 21.51%, respectively. The most frequent TTI co-infections were HBV-T. pallidum 60 (2.04% and HIV-T. pallidum 46 (1.57%. The seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV and T. pallidum were highest among blood donors 38 to 47 years, 18 to 27 years and ≥ 48 years age, respectively (P<0.05. The seroprevalence of TTIs varied according to the population from which the blood was collected on Bioko Island.Our results firstly provide a comprehensive overview of TTIs among blood donors on Bioko Island. Strict screening of blood donors and improved hematological examinations using standard operating procedures are recommended.

  9. No donor age effect of human serum on collagen synthesis signaling and cell proliferation of human tendon fibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bayer, Monika L; Schjerling, Peter; Biskup, Edyta

    2012-01-01

    The aging process of tendon tissue is associated with decreased collagen content and increased risk for injuries. An essential factor in tendon physiology is transforming growth factor-ß1 (TGF-ß1), which is presumed to be reduced systemically with advanced age. The aim of this study was to invest......The aging process of tendon tissue is associated with decreased collagen content and increased risk for injuries. An essential factor in tendon physiology is transforming growth factor-ß1 (TGF-ß1), which is presumed to be reduced systemically with advanced age. The aim of this study...... was to investigate whether human serum from elderly donors would have an inhibiting effect on the expression of collagen and collagen-related genes as well as on cell proliferative capacity in tendon cells from young individuals. There was no difference in systemic TGF-ß1 levels in serum obtained from young...... and elderly donors, and we found no difference in collagen expression when cells were subjected to human serum from elderly versus young donors. In addition, tendon cell proliferation was similar when culture medium was supplemented with serum of different donor age. These findings suggest that factors...

  10. ASSESSMENT OF SEROPREVALANCE OF HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS INFECTION AMONG BLOOD DONORS IN AND AROUND BELLARY, KARNATAKA STATE, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huggi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to analyse the seroprevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection in the blood among healthy voluntary blood donors in and around Bellary. SAMPLE SIZE: 51,144 blood donors. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study. DURATION OF THE STUDY: Jan-2006 to Dec-2013. RESULTS: In the 8-year study period, 51,144 units of blood were collected. The Seroprevalence of HIV was found to be 0.38%. Also, the Seroprevalence of HIV in Voluntary Blood Donors and Replacement Blood Donors was found to be 0.35% and 0.81%. In males and female blood donors, the Seroprevalence was fond to be 0.38% and 0.39%. CONCLUSION: The 8 year study reveals that the Seroprevalence of HIV in replacement donors is nearly twice as that of voluntary donors and nearly equal in male and female donors. Screening the blood donors for IV infection has to be made mandatory and the tests should be of the highest quality. Education and awareness among people should be encouraged and imparted.

  11. Persistent donor cell gene expression among human induced pluripotent stem cells contributes to differences with human embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhumur Ghosh

    Full Text Available Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs generated by de-differentiation of adult somatic cells offer potential solutions for the ethical issues surrounding human embryonic stem cells (hESCs, as well as their immunologic rejection after cellular transplantation. However, although hiPSCs have been described as "embryonic stem cell-like", these cells have a distinct gene expression pattern compared to hESCs, making incomplete reprogramming a potential pitfall. It is unclear to what degree the difference in tissue of origin may contribute to these gene expression differences. To answer these important questions, a careful transcriptional profiling analysis is necessary to investigate the exact reprogramming state of hiPSCs, as well as analysis of the impression, if any, of the tissue of origin on the resulting hiPSCs. In this study, we compare the gene profiles of hiPSCs derived from fetal fibroblasts, neonatal fibroblasts, adipose stem cells, and keratinocytes to their corresponding donor cells and hESCs. Our analysis elucidates the overall degree of reprogramming within each hiPSC line, as well as the "distance" between each hiPSC line and its donor cell. We further identify genes that have a similar mode of regulation in hiPSCs and their corresponding donor cells compared to hESCs, allowing us to specify core sets of donor genes that continue to be expressed in each hiPSC line. We report that residual gene expression of the donor cell type contributes significantly to the differences among hiPSCs and hESCs, and adds to the incompleteness in reprogramming. Specifically, our analysis reveals that fetal fibroblast-derived hiPSCs are closer to hESCs, followed by adipose, neonatal fibroblast, and keratinocyte-derived hiPSCs.

  12. Nitric oxide donor augments antineoplastic effects of arginine deprivation in human melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayevska, Oksana; Chen, Oleh; Karatsai, Olena; Bobak, Yaroslav; Barska, Maryna; Lyniv, Liliana; Pavlyk, Iuliia; Rzhepetskyy, Yuriy; Igumentseva, Natalia; Redowicz, Maria Jolanta; Stasyk, Oleh

    2017-06-15

    Anticancer therapy based on recombinant arginine-degrading enzymes has been proposed for the treatment of several types of malignant cells deficient in arginine biosynthesis. One of the predicted side effects of such therapy is restricted bioavailability of nitric oxide as arginine catabolic product. Prolonged NO limitation may lead to unwanted disturbances in NO-dependent vasodilation, cardiovascular and immune systems. This problem can be overcome by co-supplementation with exogenous NO donor. However, NO may potentially counteract anticancer effects of therapy based on arginine deprivation. In this study, we evaluate for the first time the effects of an exogenous NO donor, sodium nitroprusside, on viability and metastatic properties of two human melanoma cell lines SK-MEL-28 and WM793 under arginine-deprived conditions. It was revealed that NO did not rescue melanoma cells from specific effects evoked by arginine deprivation, namely decreased viability and induction of apoptosis, dramatically reduced motility, invasiveness and clonogenic potential. Moreover, sodium nitroprusside co-treatment augmented several of these antineoplastic effects. We report that a combination of NO-donor and arginine deprivation strongly and specifically impaired metastatic behavior of melanoma cells. Thus, sodium nitroprusside can be considered as an adjuvant for the more efficient treatment of malignant melanoma and possibly other tumors with arginine-degrading enzymes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [Cloning goat producing human lactoferrin with genetically modified donor cells selected by single or dual markers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Liyou; Yuan, Yuguo; Yu, Baoli; Yang, Tingjia; Cheng, Yong

    2012-12-01

    We compared the efficiency of cloning goat using human lactoferrin (hLF) with genetically modified donor cells marked by single (Neo(r)) or double (Neo(r)/GFP) markers. Single marker expression vector (pBLC14) or dual markers expression vector (pAPLM) was delivered to goat fetal fibroblasts (GFF), and then the transgenic GFF was used as donor cells to produce transgenic goats. Respectively, 58.8% (20/34) and 86.7% (26/30) resistant cell lines confirmed the transgenic integration by PCR. Moreover, pAPLM cells lines were subcultured with several passages, only 20% (6/30) cell lines was observed fluorescence from each cell during the cell passage. Somatic cell nuclear transfer using the donor cells harbouring pBLC14 or pAPLM construct, resulting in a total of 806 reconstructed embryos, a pregnancy rate at 35 d (53.8%, 39.1%) and 60 d (26.9%, 21.7%), and an offspring birth rate (1.9%, 1.4%) with 5 and 7 newborn cloned goats, respectively. Transgene was confirmed by PCR and southern-blot in all cloned offspring. There were no significant differences at the reconstructed embryo fusion rates, pregnancy rates and the birth rate (P > 0.05) between single and double markers groups. The Neo(r)/GFP double markers could improve the reliability for accurately and efficiently selecting the genetically modified donor cells. No adverse effect was observed on the efficiency of transgenic goat production by SCNT using somatic cells transfected with double (Neo(r)/GFP) markers vector.

  14. Gastric Emptying and Curding of Pasteurized Donor Human Milk and Mother's Own Milk in Preterm Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrella, Sharon L; Hepworth, Anna R; Gridneva, Zoya; Simmer, Karen N; Hartmann, Peter E; Geddes, Donna T

    2015-07-01

    We evaluated the effects of fortification and composition on gastric emptying and curding in un/fortified pairs of mother's own milk (MOM, n = 17) and pasteurized donor human milk (PDHM, n = 15) in preterm infants. Retained meal proportions (%) and curding were determined from sonography. Immediate and subsequent postprandial % were higher for PDHM (23%, P = 0.026; 15%, P = 0.006) and fortified meals (31.5%; 8.8%, both P lactose concentrations were associated with lower immediate postprandial % (all P intolerance.

  15. [Effect of freezing on the "creamatocrit" measurement of the lipid content of human donor milk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Román, S; Alonso-Díaz, C; García-Lara, N R; Escuder-Vieco, D; Pallás-Alonso, C R

    2014-09-01

    To determine, by the creamatocrit measurement, the effect on the fat content of raw and pasteurized donor milk of freezing during 3 months at -20 °C. The evolution of the creamatocrit measurement (following Lucas technique) on frozen (-20 °C), raw and pasteurized human milk, was analyzed during 3 months. The fat content of raw milk (n=44) was 3.19 g/dl at the beginning and 2.86 g/dl after 3 months frozen (p=0.02). In pasteurized milk (n=36) fat content at the first determination was 2.59 g/dl and 2.20 g/dl after 1 month frozen (p=0.01). Afterwards there were no significant changes up to 3 months frozen. Variability was observed in the intermediate values. A reduction on the fat content measurement of raw and pasteurized donor human milk after freezing was observed. Freezing does not inactivate the milk lipase but does destroy the fat globule. Creamatocrit measurement may not be the best method to determine the fat content of processed human milk. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seropositivity and hepatitis B surface antigenemia (HBSAG) among blood donors in Benin city, Edo state, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umolu, Patience Idia; Okoror, Lawrence Ehis; Orhue, Philip

    2005-03-01

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis B virus are blood borne pathogens that can be transmitted through blood transfusion and could pose a huge problem in areas where mechanisms of ensuring blood safety are suspect. This study became necessary in a population where most of the blood for transfusion is from commercial blood donors. A total of 130 donors comprising 120 commercial donors and 10 voluntary donors were tested for antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis B surface antigen in Benin city using Immunocomb HIV - 1 and 2 Biospot kit and Quimica Clinica Aplicada direct latex agglutination method respectively. Thirteen (10%) samples were HIV seropositive and 7(5.8%) were HBsAg positive. The age bracket 18 - 25years had the highest numbers of donors and also had the highest number of HBsAg positive cases (7.8%) while the age group 29 - 38years had highest number of HIV seropositive cases. High prevalence of HIV antibodies and Hepatitis B surface antigen was found among commercial blood donors. Appropriate and compulsory screening of blood donors using sensitive methods, must be ensured to prevent post transfusion hepatitis and HIV.

  17. Multilineage potential and proteomic profiling of human dental stem cells derived from a single donor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, Rajreddy; Kumar, B. Mohana; Lee, Won-Jae; Jeon, Ryoung-Hoon; Jang, Si-Jung; Lee, Yeon-Mi [Department of Theriogenology and Biotechnology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Bong-Wook; Byun, June-Ho [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Medicine and Institute of Health Science, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-702 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Chun-Seob; Kim, Jae-Won [Department of Microbiology, Division of Life Sciences, Research Institute of Life Science, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of); Rho, Gyu-Jin, E-mail: jinrho@gnu.ac.kr [Department of Theriogenology and Biotechnology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute of Life Sciences, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-01

    Dental tissues provide an alternative autologous source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for regenerative medicine. In this study, we isolated human dental MSCs of follicle, pulp and papilla tissue from a single donor tooth after impacted third molar extraction by excluding the individual differences. We then compared the morphology, proliferation rate, expression of MSC-specific and pluripotency markers, and in vitro differentiation ability into osteoblasts, adipocytes, chondrocytes and functional hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs). Finally, we analyzed the protein expression profiles of undifferentiated dental MSCs using 2DE coupled with MALDI-TOF-MS. Three types of dental MSCs largely shared similar morphology, proliferation potential, expression of surface markers and pluripotent transcription factors, and differentiation ability into osteoblasts, adipocytes, and chondrocytes. Upon hepatogenic induction, all MSCs were transdifferentiated into functional HLCs, and acquired hepatocyte functions by showing their ability for glycogen storage and urea production. Based on the proteome profiling results, we identified nineteen proteins either found commonly or differentially expressed among the three types of dental MSCs. In conclusion, three kinds of dental MSCs from a single donor tooth possessed largely similar cellular properties and multilineage potential. Further, these dental MSCs had similar proteomic profiles, suggesting their interchangeable applications for basic research and call therapy. - Highlights: • Isolated and characterized three types of human dental MSCs from a single donor. • MSCs of dental follicle, pulp and papilla had largely similar biological properties. • All MSCs were capable of transdifferentiating into functional hepatocyte-like cells. • 2DE proteomics with MALDI-TOF/MS identified 19 proteins in three types of MSCs. • Similar proteomic profiles suggest interchangeable applications of dental MSCs.

  18. MicroRNA Levels as Prognostic Markers for the Differentiation Potential of Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgi, Nicole; Taipaleenmaki, Hanna; Raiss, Christian C; Groen, Nathalie; Portalska, Karolina Janaeczek; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; de Boer, Jan; Post, Janine N; van Wijnen, Andre J; Karperien, Marcel

    2015-08-15

    The ability of human mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (hMSCs) to differentiate into various mesenchymal cell lineages makes them a promising cell source for the use in tissue repair strategies. Since the differentiation potential of hMSCs differs between donors, it is necessary to establish biomarkers for the identification of donors with high differentiation potential. In this study, we show that microRNA (miRNA) expression levels are effective for distinguishing donors with high differentiation potential from low differentiation potential. Twenty hMSC donors were initially tested for marker expression and differentiation potential. In particular, the chondrogenic differentiation potential was evaluated on the basis of histological matrix formation, mRNA expression levels of chondrogenic marker genes, and quantitative glycosaminoglycan deposition. Three donors out of twenty were identified as donors with high chondrogenic potential, whereas nine showed moderate and eight showed low chondrogenic potential. Expression profiles of miRNAs involved in chondrogenesis and cartilage homeostasis were used for the distinction between high-performance hMSCs and low-performance hMSCs. Global mRNA expression profiles of the donors before the onset of chondrogenic differentiation revealed minor differences in gene expression between low and high chondrogenic performers. However, analysis of miRNA expression during a 7-day differentiation period identified miR-210 and miR-630 as positive regulators of chondrogenesis. In contrast, miR-181 and miR-34a, which are negative regulators of chondrogenesis, were upregulated during differentiation in low-performing donors. In conclusion, profiling of hMSC donors for a specific panel of miRNAs may have a prognostic value for selecting donors with high differentiation potential to improve hMSC-based strategies for tissue regeneration.

  19. Donor-dependent variations in hepatic differentiation from human-induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajiwara, Masatoshi; Aoi, Takashi; Okita, Keisuke; Takahashi, Ryosuke; Inoue, Haruhisa; Takayama, Naoya; Endo, Hiroshi; Eto, Koji; Toguchida, Junya; Uemoto, Shinji; Yamanaka, Shinya

    2012-07-31

    Hepatocytes generated from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are unprecedented resources for pharmaceuticals and cell therapy. However, the in vitro directed differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells into mature hepatocytes remains challenging. Little attention has so far been paid to variations among hiPSC lines in terms of their hepatic differentiation. In the current study, we developed an improved hepatic differentiation protocol and compared 28 hiPSC lines originated from various somatic cells and derived using retroviruses, Sendai viruses, or episomal plasmids. This comparison indicated that the origins, but not the derivation methods, may be a major determinant of variation in hepatic differentiation. The hiPSC clones derived from peripheral blood cells consistently showed good differentiation efficiency, whereas many hiPSC clones from adult dermal fibroblasts showed poor differentiation. However, when we compared hiPSCs from peripheral blood and dermal fibroblasts from the same individuals, we found that variations in hepatic differentiation were largely attributable to donor differences, rather than to the types of the original cells. These data underscore the importance of donor differences when comparing the differentiation propensities of hiPSC clones.

  20. Rapid Protein Depletion in Human Cells by Auxin-Inducible Degron Tagging with Short Homology Donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsume, Toyoaki; Kiyomitsu, Tomomi; Saga, Yumiko; Kanemaki, Masato T

    2016-04-01

    Studying the role of essential proteins is dependent upon a method for rapid inactivation, in order to study the immediate phenotypic consequences. Auxin-inducible degron (AID) technology allows rapid depletion of proteins in animal cells and fungi, but its application to human cells has been limited by the difficulties of tagging endogenous proteins. We have developed a simple and scalable CRISPR/Cas-based method to tag endogenous proteins in human HCT116 and mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells by using donor constructs that harbor synthetic short homology arms. Using a combination of AID tagging with CRISPR/Cas, we have generated conditional alleles of essential nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins in HCT116 cells, which can then be depleted very rapidly after the addition of auxin to the culture medium. This approach should greatly facilitate the functional analysis of essential proteins, particularly those of previously unknown function.

  1. Rapid Protein Depletion in Human Cells by Auxin-Inducible Degron Tagging with Short Homology Donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toyoaki Natsume

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Studying the role of essential proteins is dependent upon a method for rapid inactivation, in order to study the immediate phenotypic consequences. Auxin-inducible degron (AID technology allows rapid depletion of proteins in animal cells and fungi, but its application to human cells has been limited by the difficulties of tagging endogenous proteins. We have developed a simple and scalable CRISPR/Cas-based method to tag endogenous proteins in human HCT116 and mouse embryonic stem (ES cells by using donor constructs that harbor synthetic short homology arms. Using a combination of AID tagging with CRISPR/Cas, we have generated conditional alleles of essential nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins in HCT116 cells, which can then be depleted very rapidly after the addition of auxin to the culture medium. This approach should greatly facilitate the functional analysis of essential proteins, particularly those of previously unknown function.

  2. Cytotoxic and clastogenic activity of CdCl2 in human lymphocytes from different donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gateva, Svetla; Jovtchev, Gabriele; Stergios, Mila

    2013-07-01

    The sensitivity of human lymphocytes from different donors to CdCl2 using a complex of methods for determination of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity was studied. As endpoints for cytotoxicity the mitotic index (MI) and apoptosis were evaluated. To indicate genotoxicity chromosome aberrations test (CA) was used. The results indicate an individual sensitivity of lymphocytes to CdCl2-induced damage, which is directly depending on the concentration (10(-6), 10(-5), 5×10(-5), 10(-4)mol/l) applied. The assessment of the toxic and genotoxic effect using various endpoints allows more complete risk estimation for organisms exposed to heavy metals. The results have direct practical significance for threat evaluation in humans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Salivary agglutinin and lung scavenger receptor cysteine-rich glycoprotein 340 have broad anti-influenza activities and interactions with surfactant protein D that vary according to donor source and sialylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartshorn, Kevan L.; Ligtenberg, Antoon; White, Mitchell R.

    2006-01-01

    and salivary gp-340 are identical in protein sequence, salivary gp-340 from one donor had significantly greater antiviral activity against avian-like IAV strains which preferentially bind sialic acids in alpha(2,3) linkage. A greater density of alpha(2,3)-linked sialic acids was present on the salivary gp-340...... from this donor as compared with salivary gp-340 from another donor or several preparations of lung gp-340. Hence, the specificity of sialic acid linkages on gp-340 is an important determinant of anti-IAV activity. Gp-340 binds to SP-D (surfactant protein D), and we previously showed that lung gp-340......We previously found that scavenger receptor cysteine-rich gp-340 (glycoprotein-340), isolated from lung or saliva, directly inhibits human IAVs (influenza A viruses). We now show that salivary gp-340 has broad antiviral activity against human, equine and porcine IAV strains. Although lung...

  4. The human platelet alloantigen profile in blood donors from Amazonas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portela, C N; Schriefer, A; Albuquerque, S R L; Perdomo, R T; Parente, A F A; Weber, S S

    2016-12-01

    Human platelet antigens (HPAs) are alloantigens derived from polymorphisms in platelet-surface glycoproteins. The occurrence of alloantibodies against HPAs can lead to platelet destruction and subsequent thrombocytopenia. Brazilians have a high rate of racial admixture, and the knowledge of HPA polymorphisms in particular donors from north Brazil, who have a large Amerindian influence, is a relevant strategy to prevent alloimmunisation. Our aim was investigate the HPA allele's frequencies in the Amazonas blood donors. We performed HPA genotyping among 200 Amazonas blood donors by microarray for 11 HPA biallelic systems, including six of the most clinically significant systems (HPA-1 to -5 and -15) and five others (HPA-6 to -9 and -11) that have been also associated with alloimmunisation, amounting to 22 HPA alleles. The obtained allele frequencies were compared with data of 38 populations worldwide to determine the hierarchical relationship and estimated the probability of mismatch platelets. The allele frequencies were 0·862 for HPA-1a, 0·137 for HPA-1b, 0·852 for HPA-2a, 0·147 for HPA-2b, 0·665 for HPA-3a, 0·335 for HPA-3b, 0·995 for HPA-4a, 0·005 for HPA-4b, 0·892 for HPA-5a, 0·107 for HPA-5b, 0·997 for HPA-9a, 0·005 for HPA-9b, 0·502 for HPA-15a and 0·497 for HPA-15b. The incompatibility risks are higher for HPA-15 and HPA-3, followed by HPA-1, -2 and -5. We found differences among populations worldwide, and it is interesting to note the indigenous and European influences in this region, reinforcing the heterogeneity in the ancestry of Brazilians. The results will be helpful in providing information for platelet transfusion to avoid alloimmunisation. © 2016 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  5. Structural and Biochemical Analyses of Choroidal Thickness in Human Donor Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Elliott H.; Khanna, Aditi; Tucker, Budd A.; Abràmoff, Michael D.; Stone, Edwin M.; Mullins, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. The choroid plays a vital role in the health of the outer retina. While measurements of choroid using optical coherence tomography show altered thickness in aging and macular disease, detailed histopathologic and proteomic analyses are lacking. In this study we sought to evaluate biochemical differences in human donor eyes between very thin and thick choroids. Methods. One hundred forty-one eyes from 104 donors (mean age ± standard deviation, 81.5 ± 12.2) were studied. Macular sections were collected, and the distance between Bruch's membrane and the inner surface of the sclera was measured in control, early/dry age-related macular degeneration (AMD), neovascular AMD, and geographic atrophy eyes. Proteins from the RPE-choroid of eyes with thick and thin choroids were analyzed using two-dimensional electrophoresis and/or mass spectrometry. Two proteins with altered abundance were confirmed using Western blot analysis. Results. Donor eyes showed a normal distribution of thicknesses. Eyes with geographic atrophy had significantly thinner choroids than age-matched controls or early AMD eyes. Proteomic analysis showed higher levels of the serine protease SERPINA3 in thick choroids and increased levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-3 (TIMP3) in thin choroids. Conclusions. Consistent with clinical imaging observations, geographic atrophy was associated with choroidal thinning. Biochemical data suggest an alteration in the balance between proteases and protease inhibitors in eyes that lie at the extremes of choroidal thickness. An improved understanding of the basic mechanisms associated with choroidal thinning may guide the development of new therapies for AMD. PMID:24519422

  6. Profile of Heart Donors from the Human Valve Bank of the Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Curitiba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Renata Maria; Costa, Marise Teresinha Brenner Affonso da; Canciglieri Junior, Osiris; Sant'Anna, Ângelo Márcio Oliveira

    2016-04-01

    Human heart valves are used as replacement valves and have satisfactory functional results compared with conventional prostheses. Characterize the profile of effective heart donors from the human valve bank of the santa casa de misericórdia de curitiba and analyze the association between the profile variables. It consists of a retrospective and quantitative study of electronic medical records from heart donors for heart valves. every heart donation made to the bank between january 2004 and december 2014 was studied. 2,149 donations were analyzed, from donors aged 0 to 71 years old, with an average of 34.9 ± 15.03 years old. most donors were male 65.7% (n=1,411) and 34.3% (n=738) were female. among the most frequent causes of the donors' death are trauma at 53% (n=1,139) and cerebral vascular accident at 34.2% (n=735). there was significant statistical association between the analyzed variables. There has been an improvement in brazil's donation rate, being essential that the tissue banks work together with the state and federal district centers for notification, procurement and distribution of organs in order to increase the number of donors.

  7. Dispersal of human and plant pathogens biofilms via nitric oxide donors at 4 °C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvasi, Massimiliano; Durie, Ian A; Henríquez, Tania; Satkute, Aiste; Matuszewska, Marta; Prado, Raphael Carvalho

    2016-12-01

    Recent studies suggest that nitric oxide donors capable of manipulating nitric oxide-mediated signaling in bacteria could induce dispersal of biofilms. Encased in extracellular polymeric substances, human and plant pathogens within biofilms are significantly more resistant to sanitizers. This is particularly a problem in refrigerated environments where food is processed. In an exercise aimed to study the potential of nitric oxide donors as biofilm dispersal in refrigerated conditions, we compared the ability of different nitric oxide donors (SNAP, NO-aspirin and Noc-5) to dislodge biofilms formed by foodborne, human and plant pathogens treated at 4 °C. The donors SNAP and Noc-5 were efficient in dispersing biofilms formed by Salmonella enterica, pathogenic Escherichia coli and Listeria innocua. The biomasses were decreased up to 30 % when compared with the untreated controls. When the plant pathogens Pectobacterium sp. and Xanthomonas sp. were tested the dispersion was mainly limited to Pectobacterium carotovorum biofilms, decreasing up to 15 % after exposure to molsidomine. Finally, the association of selected nitric oxide donors with sanitizers (DiQuat, H2O2, peracetic acid and PhenoTek II) was effective in dispersing biofilms. The best dispersal was achieved by pre-treating P. carotovorum with molsidomine and then peracetic acid. The synergistic effect was estimated up to ~35 % in dispersal when compared with peracetic acid alone. The association of nitric oxide donors with sanitizers could provide a foundation for an improved sanitization procedure for cleaning refrigerate environments.

  8. THE TISSUE HYDRATION STATE IN UW-PRESERVED HUMAN DONOR LIVERS - A CLINICAL-STUDY OF THE RELATION BETWEEN PROTON MAGNETIC-RESONANCE RELAXATION-TIMES, DONOR CONDITION, PRESERVATION PROCEDURE, AND EARLY GRAFT FUNCTION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WOLF, RFE; DENBUTTER, G; KAMMAN, RL; DEKETH, HP; SLUTTER, WJ; SLOOFF, MJH

    1994-01-01

    To determine the relation between tissue hydration state-as indicated by tissue proton magnetic resonance relaxation times-in UW-preserved human donor livers and viability parameters of the donor and early graft function, ''ex vivo'' magnetic resonance relaxometry was performed with a clinical MR im

  9. THE TISSUE HYDRATION STATE IN UW-PRESERVED HUMAN DONOR LIVERS - A CLINICAL-STUDY OF THE RELATION BETWEEN PROTON MAGNETIC-RESONANCE RELAXATION-TIMES, DONOR CONDITION, PRESERVATION PROCEDURE, AND EARLY GRAFT FUNCTION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WOLF, RFE; DENBUTTER, G; KAMMAN, RL; DEKETH, HP; SLUTTER, WJ; SLOOFF, MJH

    1994-01-01

    To determine the relation between tissue hydration state-as indicated by tissue proton magnetic resonance relaxation times-in UW-preserved human donor livers and viability parameters of the donor and early graft function, ''ex vivo'' magnetic resonance relaxometry was performed with a clinical MR

  10. Mitochondrial structure and function are not different between nonfailing donor and end-stage failing human hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzem, Katherine M; Vinnakota, Kalyan C; Ravikumar, Vinod K; Madden, Eli J; Ewald, Gregory A; Dikranian, Krikor; Beard, Daniel A; Efimov, Igor R

    2016-08-01

    During human heart failure, the balance of cardiac energy use switches from predominantly fatty acids (FAs) to glucose. We hypothesized that this substrate shift was the result of mitochondrial degeneration; therefore, we examined mitochondrial oxidation and ultrastructure in the failing human heart by using respirometry, transmission electron microscopy, and gene expression studies of demographically matched donor and failing human heart left ventricular (LV) tissues. Surprisingly, respiratory capacities for failing LV isolated mitochondria (n = 9) were not significantly diminished compared with donor LV isolated mitochondria (n = 7) for glycolysis (pyruvate + malate)- or FA (palmitoylcarnitine)-derived substrates, and mitochondrial densities, assessed via citrate synthase activity, were consistent between groups. Transmission electron microscopy images also showed no ultrastructural remodeling for failing vs. donor mitochondria; however, the fraction of lipid droplets (LDs) in direct contact with a mitochondrion was reduced, and the average distance between an LD and its nearest neighboring mitochondrion was increased. Analysis of FA processing gene expression between donor and failing LVs revealed 0.64-fold reduced transcript levels for the mitochondrial-LD tether, perilipin 5, in the failing myocardium (P = 0.003). Thus, reduced FA use in heart failure may result from improper delivery, potentially via decreased perilipin 5 expression and mitochondrial-LD tethering, and not from intrinsic mitochondrial dysfunction.-Holzem, K. M., Vinnakota, K. C., Ravikumar, V. K., Madden, E. J., Ewald, G. A., Dikranian, K., Beard, D. A., Efimov, I. R. Mitochondrial structure and function are not different between nonfailing donor and end-stage failing human hearts.

  11. Novel genotype of Ehrlichia canis detected in samples of human blood bank donors in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouza-Mora, Laura; Dolz, Gaby; Solórzano-Morales, Antony; Romero-Zuñiga, Juan José; Salazar-Sánchez, Lizbeth; Labruna, Marcelo B; Aguiar, Daniel M

    2017-01-01

    This study focuses on the detection and identification of DNA and antibodies to Ehrlichia spp. in samples of blood bank donors in Costa Rica using molecular and serological techniques. Presence of Ehrlichia canis was determined in 10 (3.6%) out of 280 blood samples using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the ehrlichial dsb conserved gene. Analysis of the ehrlichial trp36 polymorphic gene in these 10 samples revealed substantial polymorphism among the E. canis genotypes, including divergent tandem repeat sequences. Nucleotide sequences of dsb and trp36 amplicons revealed a novel genotype of E. canis in blood bank donors from Costa Rica. Indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) detected antibodies in 35 (35%) of 100 serum samples evaluated. Thirty samples showed low endpoint titers (64-256) to E. canis, whereas five sera yielded high endpoint titers (1024-8192); these five samples were also E. canis-PCR positive. These findings represent the first report of the presence of E. canis in humans in Central America.

  12. Dual Extended Kalman Filter for the Identification of Time-Varying Human Manual Control Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovici, Alexandru; Zaal, Peter M. T.; Pool, Daan M.

    2017-01-01

    A Dual Extended Kalman Filter was implemented for the identification of time-varying human manual control behavior. Two filters that run concurrently were used, a state filter that estimates the equalization dynamics, and a parameter filter that estimates the neuromuscular parameters and time delay. Time-varying parameters were modeled as a random walk. The filter successfully estimated time-varying human control behavior in both simulated and experimental data. Simple guidelines are proposed for the tuning of the process and measurement covariance matrices and the initial parameter estimates. The tuning was performed on simulation data, and when applied on experimental data, only an increase in measurement process noise power was required in order for the filter to converge and estimate all parameters. A sensitivity analysis to initial parameter estimates showed that the filter is more sensitive to poor initial choices of neuromuscular parameters than equalization parameters, and bad choices for initial parameters can result in divergence, slow convergence, or parameter estimates that do not have a real physical interpretation. The promising results when applied to experimental data, together with its simple tuning and low dimension of the state-space, make the use of the Dual Extended Kalman Filter a viable option for identifying time-varying human control parameters in manual tracking tasks, which could be used in real-time human state monitoring and adaptive human-vehicle haptic interfaces.

  13. Serum Phosphorus Levels in Premature Infants Receiving a Donor Human Milk Derived Fortifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine E. Chetta

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available An elevated serum phosphorus (P has been anecdotally described in premature infants receiving human milk fortified with donor human milk-derived fortifier (HMDF. No studies have prospectively investigated serum P in premature infants receiving this fortification strategy. In this single center prospective observational cohort study, extremely premature infants ≤1250 grams (g birth weight (BW were fed an exclusive human milk-based diet receiving HMDF and serum P levels were obtained. We evaluated 93 infants with a mean gestational age of 27.5 ± 2.0 weeks (Mean ± SD and BW of 904 ± 178 g. Seventeen infants (18.3% had at least one high serum P level with a mean serum P of 9.2 ± 1.1 mg/dL occurring at 19 ± 11 days of life. For all infants, the highest serum P was inversely correlated to the day of life of the infant (p < 0.001, R2 = 0.175 and positively correlated with energy density of HMDF (p = 0.035. Serum P was not significantly related to gender, BW, gestational age, or days to full feeds. We conclude that the incidence of hyperphosphatemia was mild and transient in this population. The risk decreased with infant age and was unrelated to gender, BW, or ethnicity.

  14. Broad neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies against influenza virus from vaccinated healthy donors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubota-Koketsu, Ritsuko; Mizuta, Hiroyuki [Department of Virology, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Oshita, Masatoshi; Ideno, Shoji [Osaka Research Laboratory, Benesis Corporation, Yodogawa-ku, Osaka 532-6505 (Japan); Yunoki, Mikihiro [Osaka Research Laboratory, Benesis Corporation, Yodogawa-ku, Osaka 532-6505 (Japan); Department of Virology, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Kuhara, Motoki [Ina Laboratory, Medical and Biological Laboratories Corporation, Ltd., Ina, Nagano 396-0002 (Japan); Yamamoto, Naomasa [Department of Biochemistry, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ohu University, Koriyama, Fukushima 963-8611 (Japan); Okuno, Yoshinobu [Kanonji Institute, The Research Foundation for Microbial Diseases of Osaka University, Kanonji, Kagawa 768-0061 (Japan); Ikuta, Kazuyoshi, E-mail: ikuta@biken.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Virology, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2009-09-11

    Human monoclonal antibodies (HuMAbs) prepared from patients with viral infections could provide information on human epitopes important for the development of vaccines as well as potential therapeutic applications. Through the fusion of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from a total of five influenza-vaccinated volunteers, with newly developed murine-human chimera fusion partner cells, named SPYMEG, we obtained 10 hybridoma clones stably producing anti-influenza virus antibodies: one for influenza A H1N1, four for influenza A H3N2 and five for influenza B. Surprisingly, most of the HuMAbs showed broad reactivity within subtype and four (two for H3N2 and two for B) showed broad neutralizing ability. Importantly, epitope mapping revealed that the two broad neutralizing antibodies to H3N2 derived from different donors recognized the same epitope located underneath the receptor-binding site of the hemagglutinin globular region that is highly conserved among H3N2 strains.

  15. Effects of NCX 4050, a new NO donor, in rabbit and human corpus cavernosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippi, S; Crescioli, C; Vannelli, G B; Fazzini, A; Natali, A; Riffaud, J P; Maggi, M; Ledda, F

    2003-04-01

    The effects of NCX 4050, a drug belonging to a new class of NO donors, was investigated in isolated preparations of human and rabbit corpus cavernosum (CC) and in human foetal corpora cavernosa (hfCC) smooth muscle cells. In strips of rabbit CC, NCX 4050 (0.001-100 microM) induced a concentration-dependent relaxation which was influenced neither by Nw-nitro-l-arginine-methyl-ester (l-NAME; 100 microm) nor by endothelium deprivation. The NCX 4050-induced relaxation was significantly reduced by the guanylate cyclase inhibitor 1H-[1,2,4]-oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ; 1 microm) and enhanced by a specific phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor, sildenafil (300 nm). Moreover, NCX 4050 (0.01-1 microm), induced a concentration-dependent potentiation of the relaxant response induced by electrical field stimulation (EFS) in rabbit preparations pre-treated with guanethidine and indomethacin. The relaxant effect of NCX 4050 was similar to that obtained by increasing concentrations (0.001-100 microm) of sodium nitroprusside (SNP) in either rabbit or human preparations. To further investigate the activity of NCX 4050 on human corpora cavernosa, we exposed cultured hfCC smooth muscle cells to increasing concentrations of NCX 4050 and SNP. We found that both compounds dose-dependently reduced cell proliferation. The antiproliferative effect of all the concentration tested of NCX 4050 was completely blocked by ODQ (1 microm). These results suggest that in rabbit and human corpora cavernosa NCX 4050 acts by activating guanylate cyclase activity, induces smooth muscle relaxation and quiescence. Our results provide a rationale for a possible future use of NCX 4050 in the pharmacotherapy of erectile dysfunction linked to an impaired release of NO from the endothelium.

  16. A model to estimate the probability of human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C infection despite negative nucleic acid testing among increased-risk organ donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annambhotla, Pallavi D; Gurbaxani, Brian M; Kuehnert, Matthew J; Basavaraju, Sridhar V

    2017-04-01

    In 2013, guidelines were released for reducing the risk of viral bloodborne pathogen transmission through organ transplantation. Eleven criteria were described that result in a donor being designated at increased infectious risk. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission risk from an increased-risk donor (IRD), despite negative nucleic acid testing (NAT), likely varies based on behavior type and timing. We developed a Monte Carlo risk model to quantify probability of HIV among IRDs. The model included NAT performance, viral load dynamics, and per-act risk of acquiring HIV by each behavior. The model also quantifies the probability of HCV among IRDs by non-medical intravenous drug use (IVDU). Highest risk is among donors with history of unprotected, receptive anal male-to-male intercourse with partner of unknown HIV status (MSM), followed by sex with an HIV-infected partner, IVDU, and sex with a commercial sex worker. With NAT screening, the estimated risk of undetected HIV remains small even at 1 day following a risk behavior. The estimated risk for HCV transmission through IVDU is likewise small and decreases quicker with time owing to the faster viral growth dynamics of HCV compared with HIV. These findings may allow for improved organ allocation, utilization, and recipient informed consent. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. [Study of the effects of the implementation of a human milk donor bank in preterm newborns in Aragon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larena Fernández, Israel; Vara Callau, Marta; Royo Pérez, Delia; López Bernués, Ricardo; Cortés Sierra, Jesús; Samper Villagrasa, María Pilar

    2015-01-01

    Numerous obstacles may prevent a premature or sick neonate receiving their mother's milk. In these cases, pediatric scientific societies recommend feeding with donor human milk. In this article, it is explained what a milk bank is, how it works, the donors' selection method, and the benefits. We also describe the current situation in Aragon (Spain) is also described. A retrospective and descriptive study was conducted on the perinatal sample characteristics, as well as an analytical observational study, comparing two sample groups: pre- and post-human milk bank. Finally, differences in the post-bank stage between those patients fed with own-mother's or donor human milk were determined. The study included a total of 234 patients: 104 females and 130 males. Two groups: pre and post-bank, with 152 and 82 patients, respectively, which had similar characteristics at birth; length and head circumference were significantly higher in the post-bank group and a lower rate of necrotizing enterocolitis was also found. No statistically significant differences were found in other variables between subgroups fed with own-mother's milk and donor human milk. The establishment of the human milk donor bank has a beneficial effect, as it reduces neonatal morbidity in cases of necrotizing enterocolitis. Human milk feeding could be a protective factor against neonatal sepsis due to improve immunity. The incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis is lower after the establishment of the milk bank. Studies with more patients may demonstrate differences in other variables. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Results from a horizon scan on risks associated with transplantation of human organs, tissues and cells: from donor to patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herberts, C A; Park, M V D Z; Pot, J W G A; de Vries, C G J C A

    2015-03-01

    The successful transplantation of human materials such as organs, tissues and cells into patients does not only depend on the benefits, but also on the mitigation of risks. To gain insight into recent publications on risks associated with the process of transferring human materials from donor to recipient we performed a horizon scan by reviewing scientific literature and news websites of 2011 on this subject. We found there is ample information on how extended donor criteria, such as donor age, affect the survival rates of organs or patients. Interestingly, gender mismatch does not appear to be a major risk factor in organ rejection. Data on risks of donor tumor transmission was very scarce; however, risk categories for various tumor types have been suggested. In order to avoid rejection, a lot of research is directed towards engineering tissues from a patient's own tissues and cells. Some but not all of these developments have reached the clinic. Developments in the field of stem cell therapy are rapid. However, many hurdles are yet to be overcome before these cells can be applied on a large scale in the clinic. The processes leading to genetic abnormalities in cells differentiated from stem cells need to be identified in order to avoid transplantation of aberrant cells. New insights have been obtained on storage and preservation of human materials, a critical step for success of their clinical use. Likewise, quality management systems have been shown to improve the quality and safety of human materials used for transplantation.

  19. EX-VIVO MAGNETIC-RESONANCE-IMAGING OF PRETRANSPLANT HUMAN DONOR LIVER - CLINICAL-EXPERIENCE IN 66 CASES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WOLF, RFE; MOOYAART, EL; KAMMAN, RL; DEKETH, HP; THIJN, CJP; SLOOFF, MJH

    1994-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed on 66 cold-stored human donor livers. Spin echo images were obtained with a clinical whole body MRI system. Various parenchymal and vascular abnormalities were found. An unexpected finding was the abundant presence of intrahepatic air. Although the majo

  20. MicroRNA Levels as Prognostic Markers for the Differentiation Potential of Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Donors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Georgi, N.; Taipaleenmaeki, H.; Raiss, C.C.; Groen, Nathalie; Portalska, K.K.; Blitterswijk, van C.A.; Boer, de J.; Post, J.N.; Wijnen, van A.; Karperien, H.B.J.

    2015-01-01

    The ability of human mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (hMSCs) to differentiate into various mesenchymal cell lineages makes them a promising cell source for the use in tissue repair strategies. Because the differentiation potential of hMSCs differs between donors, it is necessary to establish biomarke

  1. Mass Spectrometry Based Metabolomics Comparison of Liver Grafts from Donors after Circulatory Death (DCD) and Donors after Brain Death (DBD) Used in Human Orthotopic Liver Transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Hrydziuszko, Olga; Perera, M. Thamara P. R; Laing, Richard; Kirwan, Jennifer; Silva, Michael A; Richards, Douglas A.; Murphy, Nick; Mirza, Darius F; Viant, Mark R.

    2016-01-01

    Use of marginal liver grafts, especially those from donors after circulatory death (DCD), has been considered as a solution to organ shortage. Inferior outcomes have been attributed to donor warm ischaemic damage in these DCD organs. Here we sought to profile the metabolic mechanisms underpinning donor warm ischaemia. Non-targeted Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometry metabolomics was applied to biopsies of liver grafts from donors after brain death (DBD; n = 27...

  2. Seroepidemiology of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type-I in blood donors of Northeastern Iran, Sabzevar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahtab Maghsudlu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type-I (HTLV-I infection is considered as a public health challenge in endemic areas. The virus is associated with severe diseases, such as adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma, and HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis. One of the major routes of the HTLV-I transmission includes blood transfusion. Sabzevar is located in the endemic region of HTLV-I infection. The aim of the present study was to determine the seroprevalence of HTLV-I infection in the blood donors in Sabzevar. Materials and Methods: A total of 35,067 blood donors in Sabzevar from March 2009 to April 2012 who were screened with HTLV-I on the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay screening test were included in this survey. Reactive samples that confirmed by western blot were considered to be seropositive cases. The required data were obtained from blood donors′ database of blood transfusion service. Results: The overall prevalence of HTLV-1 based on the positive result of western blot test was 0.14%. The seropositive donors aged 17-59 years with a mean age of 38.10 ± 11.82. The prevalence rates of HTLV-I infection in 3 years of study were 0.19%, 0.14%, and 0.09%, respectively. A significant relation between age, sex, educational level, and history of blood donation was observed with seropositivity of HTLV-I. Conclusion: The improvement of donor selection and laboratory screening caused a decline in the prevalence of infection in blood donors. Given the lower prevalence of infection in regular donors with lower age and higher educational level, more efforts should be done to attract blood donors from these populations.

  3. Non-detection of human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) DNA in HHV-8-seropositive blood donors from three Brazilian regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, José Eduardo; Nascimento, Maria Claudia; Sumita, Laura Masami; de Souza, Vanda Akico Ueda Fick; Freire, Wilton S; Mayaud, Philippe; Pannuti, Claudio S

    2011-01-01

    Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), also known as Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), is the etiologic agent of all forms of Kaposi's sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma and the plasmablastic cell variant of multicentric Castleman disease. In endemic areas of sub-Saharan Africa, blood transfusions have been associated with a substantial risk of HHV-8 transmission. By contrast, several studies among healthy blood donors from North America have failed to detect HHV-8 DNA in samples of seropositive individuals. In this study, using a real-time PCR assay, we investigated the presence of HHV-8 DNA in whole-blood samples of 803 HHV-8 blood donors from three Brazilian states (São Paulo, Amazon, Bahia) who tested positive for HHV-8 antibodies, in a previous multicenter study. HHV-8 DNA was not detected in any sample. Our findings do not support the introduction of routine HHV-8 screening among healthy blood donors in Brazil. (WC = 140).

  4. Information on genetic origins in donor-assisted conception: is knowing who you are a human rights issue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blyth, Eric

    2002-11-01

    It was not by my choice that my ancestral home is nothing more than a sample jar. (Whipp, 2000) There can be few more basic rights than a right to one's identity...a right not to be deceived about one's true origins. (Freeman, 1996) This article provides an overview of existing arrangements for the management of information on genetic origins in donor-assisted conception, that is, treatment involving sperm, eggs or embryo donation. The balance of this article reflects the fact that much of the debate on information on genetic origins in donor-assisted conception has been dominated by sperm donation. A detailed discussion of the rather different issues of egg and embryo donation would have added significantly to its complexity and length. The article considers what donor-conceived people wish to know about their genetic origins and how this might be seen as a human rights issue. The possibility of conflict between the interests and rights of donors and recipients of donated gametes or embryos is discussed, and possible policy and legislative options are outlined. The paper concludes that a donor-conceived person's own definition of their best interests should form the basis for the facilitation of access to information about their genetic origins.

  5. Building local human resources to implement SLMTA with limited donor funding: The Ghana experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkrumah, Bernard; van der Puije, Beatrice; Bekoe, Veronica; Adukpo, Rowland; Kotey, Nii A.; Yao, Katy; Fonjungo, Peter N.; Luman, Elizabeth T.; Duh, Samuel; Njukeng, Patrick A.; Addo, Nii A.; Khan, Fazle N.; Woodfill, Celia J.I.

    2016-01-01

    Background In 2009, Ghana adopted the Strengthening Laboratory Management Toward Accreditation (SLMTA) programme in order to improve laboratory quality. The programme was implemented successfully with limited donor funding and local human resources. Objectives To demonstrate how Ghana, which received very limited PEPFAR funding, was able to achieve marked quality improvement using local human resources. Method Local partners led the SLMTA implementation and local mentors were embedded in each laboratory. An in-country training-of-trainers workshop was conducted in order to increase the pool of local SLMTA implementers. Three laboratory cohorts were enrolled in SLMTA in 2011, 2012 and 2013. Participants from each cohort attended in a series of three workshops interspersed with improvement projects and mentorship. Supplemental training on internal audit was provided. Baseline, exit and follow-up audits were conducted using the Stepwise Laboratory Quality Improvement Process Towards Accreditation (SLIPTA) checklist. In November 2013, four laboratories underwent official SLIPTA audits by the African Society for Laboratory Medicine (ASLM). Results The local SLMTA team successfully implemented three cohorts of SLMTA in 15 laboratories. Seven out of the nine laboratories that underwent follow-up audits have reached at least one star. Three out of the four laboratories that underwent official ASLM audits were awarded four stars. Patient satisfaction increased from 25% to 70% and sample rejection rates decreased from 32% to 10%. On average, $40 000 was spent per laboratory to cover mentors' salaries, SLMTA training and improvement project support. Conclusion Building in-country capacity through local partners is a sustainable model for improving service quality in resource-constrained countries such as Ghana. Such models promote country ownership, capacity building and the use of local human resources for the expansion of SLMTA. PMID:26937417

  6. Building local human resources to implement SLMTA with limited donor funding: The Ghana experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Nkrumah

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: In 2009, Ghana adopted the Strengthening Laboratory Management Toward Accreditation (SLMTA programme in order to improve laboratory quality. The programme was implemented successfully with limited donor funding and local human resources.Objectives: To demonstrate how Ghana, which received very limited PEPFAR funding, was able to achieve marked quality improvement using local human resources.Method: Local partners led the SLMTA implementation and local mentors were embedded in each laboratory. An in-country training-of-trainers workshop was conducted in order to increase the pool of local SLMTA implementers. Three laboratory cohorts were enrolled in SLMTA in 2011, 2012 and 2013. Participants from each cohort attended in a series of three workshops interspersed with improvement projects and mentorship. Supplemental trainingon internal audit was provided. Baseline, exit and follow-up audits were conducted using the Stepwise Laboratory Quality Improvement Process Towards Accreditation (SLIPTA checklist. In November 2013, four laboratories underwent official SLIPTA audits by the African Society for Laboratory Medicine (ASLM.Results: The local SLMTA team successfully implemented three cohorts of SLMTA in 15 laboratories. Seven out of the nine laboratories that underwent follow-up audits have reached at least one star. Three out of the four laboratories that underwent official ASLM audits were awarded four stars. Patient satisfaction increased from 25% to 70% and sample rejection rates decreased from 32% to 10%. On average, $40 000 was spent per laboratory to cover mentors’salaries, SLMTA training and improvement project support.Conclusion: Building in-country capacity through local partners is a sustainable model for improving service quality in resource-constrained countries such as Ghana. Such modelspromote country ownership, capacity building and the use of local human resources for the expansion of SLMTA.

  7. Donor human milk for preterm infants: current evidence and research directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslanoglu, Sertac; Corpeleijn, Willemijn; Moro, Guido; Braegger, Christian; Campoy, Cristina; Colomb, Virginie; Decsi, Tamas; Domellöf, Magnus; Fewtrell, Mary; Hojsak, Iva; Mihatsch, Walter; Mølgaard, Christian; Shamir, Raanan; Turck, Dominique; van Goudoever, Johannes

    2013-10-01

    The Committee on Nutrition of the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition aims to document the existing evidence of the benefits and common concerns deriving from the use of donor human milk (DHM) in preterm infants. The comment also outlines gaps in knowledge and gives recommendations for practice and suggestions for future research directions. Protection against necrotizing enterocolitis is the major clinical benefit deriving from the use of DHM when compared with formula. Limited data also suggest unfortified DHM to be associated with improved feeding tolerance and with reduced cardiovascular risk factors during adolescence. Presence of a human milk bank (HMB) does not decrease breast-feeding rates at discharge, but decreases the use of formula during the first weeks of life. This commentary emphasizes that fresh own mother's milk (OMM) is the first choice in preterm infant feeding and strong efforts should be made to promote lactation. When OMM is not available, DHM is the recommended alternative. When neither OMM nor DHM is available, preterm formula should be used. DHM should be provided from an established HMB, which follows specific safety guidelines. Storage and processing of human milk reduces some biological components, which may diminish its health benefits. From a nutritional point of view, DHM, like HM, does not meet the requirements of preterm infants, necessitating a specific fortification regimen to optimize growth. Future research should focus on the improvement of milk processing in HMB, particularly of heat treatment; on the optimization of HM fortification; and on further evaluation of the potential clinical benefits of processed and fortified DHM.

  8. The nutritive and immunoprotective quality of human milk beyond 1 year postpartum: are lactation-duration-based donor exclusions justified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Maryanne Tigchelaar; Fogleman, April; Allen, Jonathan C

    2013-08-01

    Donor human milk is critical for the fragile preterm infant who does not have access to his or her mother's milk, improving survival rates and quality of survival and decreasing hospital stay. Despite the opening of donor milk banks around the world, shortages continue as demand for donor milk exceeds supply. One potential means of increasing supply is by reducing exclusion criteria that prohibit mothers from donating milk based on duration of lactation. Minimal research has been done on the composition of human milk during the second year of lactation, with most research focusing on the nutritive compounds and not the immunoprotective compounds. Several immunoprotective compounds, including lysozyme, lactoferrin, secretory immunoglobulin A, and oligosaccharides, are abundant in human milk compared to bovine-based infant formula and are partially or fully retained during Holder pasteurization, making them an important differentiating feature of donor milk. A PubMed search was conducted to review studies in human milk composition during the second year of lactation. Limitations of existing research include sample collection protocols, small study sizes, and use of populations that may have been at risk for nutritional deficiencies. Stable concentrations of several components were reported including protein, lactose, iron, copper, lactoferrin, and secretory immunoglobulin A. Lysozyme concentration increased during extended lactation, while zinc and calcium concentrations declined into the second year. Conflicting findings were reported on fat content, and no information was available regarding oligosaccharide content. More research is needed to create evidence-based guidelines regarding the nutritive and immunoprotective value of donor milk throughout the course of lactation.

  9. Post-prandial rise of microvesicles in peripheral blood of healthy human donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suštar, Vid; Bedina-Zavec, Apolonija; Stukelj, Roman; Frank, Mojca; Ogorevc, Eva; Janša, Rado; Mam, Keriya; Veranič, Peter; Kralj-Iglič, Veronika

    2011-03-21

    Microvesicles isolated from body fluids are membrane - enclosed fragments of cell interior which carry information on the status of the organism. It is yet unclear how metabolism affects the number and composition of microvesicles in isolates from the peripheral blood. To study the post - prandial effect on microvesicles in isolates from the peripheral blood of 21 healthy donors, in relation to blood cholesterol and blood glucose concentrations. The average number of microvesicles in the isolates increased 5 hours post - prandially by 52%; the increase was statistically significant (p = 0.01) with the power P = 0.68, while the average total blood cholesterol concentration, average low density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration (LDL-C) and average high density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration (HDL-C) all remained within 2% of their fasting values. We found an 11% increase in triglycerides (p = 0.12) and a 6% decrease in blood glucose (p microvesicles negatively correlated with the post - fasting total cholesterol concentration (r = - 0.46, p = 0.035) while the difference in the number of microvesicles in the isolates between post - prandial and post - fasting states negatively correlated with the respective difference in blood glucose concentration (r = - 0.39, p = 0.05). In a population of healthy human subjects the number of microvesicles in isolates from peripheral blood increased in the post - prandial state. The increase in the number of microvesicles was affected by the fasting concentration of cholesterol and correlated with the decrease in blood glucose.

  10. An investigation of donor and culture parameters which influence epithelial outgrowths from cultured human cadaveric limbal explants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baylis, Oliver; Rooney, Paul; Figueiredo, Francisco; Lako, Majlinda; Ahmad, Sajjad

    2013-05-01

    Limbal stem cell deficiency is a blinding disease which affects the cornea at the front of the eye. The definitive cure involves replacing the corneal epithelial (limbal) stem cells, for example by transplanting cultured limbal epithelial cells. One method of performing cultures is to grow a sheet of epithelial cells from a limbal explant on human amniotic membrane. The growth of limbal tissue can be variable. The aim of this study is to investigate how different donor and culture factors influence the ex vivo growth of cadaveric limbal explants. Limbal explant cultures were established from 10 different cadaveric organ cultured corneo-scleral discs. The growth rate and the time taken for growth to be established were determined. Statistical analysis was performed to assess correlation between these factors and donor variables including donor age, sex, time from donor death to enucleation, time from enucleation to organ culture storage and duration in organ culture. Growth curves consistently showed a lag phase followed by a steeper linear growth phase. Donor age, time between death and enucleation, and time between enucleation and organ culture were not correlated to the lag time or the growth rate. Time in organ culture had a significant correlation with the duration of lag time (P = 0.003), but no relationship with the linear growth rate. This study shows that an important factor correlating with growth variation is the duration of corneo-scleral tissue in organ culture. Interestingly, donor age was not correlated with limbal explant growth. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Living related donor renal transplant in human immunodeficiency virus infected patient: Case reports from tertiary care hospital in western India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonal Dalal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal transplantation (TX in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infected patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD is increasingly performed in developed countries in the era of antiretroviral therapy (ART. Management of HIV infected patients during and post-transplant is very complex and challenging due to drug interaction, infection risk and associated co-infections. We described our experience with living related donor renal TX in three HIV infected patients.

  12. Physiological and Molecular Genetic Effects of Time-Varying Electromagnetic Fields on Human Neuronal Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Thomas J.

    2003-01-01

    The present investigation details the development of model systems for growing two- and three-dimensional human neural progenitor cells within a culture medium facilitated by a time-varying electromagnetic field (TVEMF). The cells and culture medium are contained within a two- or three-dimensional culture vessel, and the electromagnetic field is emitted from an electrode or coil. These studies further provide methods to promote neural tissue regeneration by means of culturing the neural cells in either configuration. Grown in two dimensions, neuronal cells extended longitudinally, forming tissue strands extending axially along and within electrodes comprising electrically conductive channels or guides through which a time-varying electrical current was conducted. In the three-dimensional aspect, exposure to TVEMF resulted in the development of three-dimensional aggregates, which emulated organized neural tissues. In both experimental configurations, the proliferation rate of the TVEMF cells was 2.5 to 4.0 times the rate of the non-waveform cells. Each of the experimental embodiments resulted in similar molecular genetic changes regarding the growth potential of the tissues as measured by gene chip analyses, which measured more than 10,000 human genes simultaneously.

  13. Sero-prevalence of Human Cytomegalovirus among blood donors in Lahore, Pakistan

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    Chahat Batool Rizvi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Transfusion-transmitted cytomegalovirus (TT-CMV infection can cause severe illness and even death among immunocompromised patients; therefore, the spread of CMV through blood products should be prevented. To our knowledge, no study has been carried out in Pakistan to determine the seroprevalence of CMV in general population as well as among blood donors. The goal of this study was to determine CMV seropositivity among blood donors at the blood bank of INMOL Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan. Methods: A sero-epidemiological cross-sectional study was conducted. Sera from 91 blood donors were screened for CMV specific IgG antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA based kit. Results: The CMV-specific IgG antibodies were detected in 89 blood donors, which gave seroprevalence rate of 97.8%. The statistical analysis of results was done using pearson chi-square test and appeared non-significant with values 0.625 and 0.705 for different age groups and blood groups of donors. Conclusion: Because of high seroprevalence in this study area, an adequate supply of CMV seronegative blood is difficult to maintain. Therefore, we propose that the future strategies for the prevention of post-transfusion CMV infection in recipients should include the transfusion of leukoreduced blood products. Further a prospective study with much greater population can be done to identify major causative risk factors for such highest prevalence rate.

  14. Human perception of fear in dogs varies according to experience with dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Michele; Bolger, Niall; Champagne, Frances A

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the role of experience in humans' perception of emotion using canine visual signals, we asked adults with various levels of dog experience to interpret the emotions of dogs displayed in videos. The video stimuli had been pre-categorized by an expert panel of dog behavior professionals as showing examples of happy or fearful dog behavior. In a sample of 2,163 participants, the level of dog experience strongly predicted identification of fearful, but not of happy, emotional examples. The probability of selecting the "fearful" category to describe fearful examples increased with experience and ranged from.30 among those who had never lived with a dog to greater than.70 among dog professionals. In contrast, the probability of selecting the "happy" category to describe happy emotional examples varied little by experience, ranging from.90 to.93. In addition, the number of physical features of the dog that participants reported using for emotional interpretations increased with experience, and in particular, more-experienced respondents were more likely to attend to the ears. Lastly, more-experienced respondents provided lower difficulty and higher accuracy self-ratings than less-experienced respondents when interpreting both happy and fearful emotional examples. The human perception of emotion in other humans has previously been shown to be sensitive to individual differences in social experience, and the results of the current study extend the notion of experience-dependent processes from the intraspecific to the interspecific domain.

  15. Human perception of fear in dogs varies according to experience with dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Wan

    Full Text Available To investigate the role of experience in humans' perception of emotion using canine visual signals, we asked adults with various levels of dog experience to interpret the emotions of dogs displayed in videos. The video stimuli had been pre-categorized by an expert panel of dog behavior professionals as showing examples of happy or fearful dog behavior. In a sample of 2,163 participants, the level of dog experience strongly predicted identification of fearful, but not of happy, emotional examples. The probability of selecting the "fearful" category to describe fearful examples increased with experience and ranged from.30 among those who had never lived with a dog to greater than.70 among dog professionals. In contrast, the probability of selecting the "happy" category to describe happy emotional examples varied little by experience, ranging from.90 to.93. In addition, the number of physical features of the dog that participants reported using for emotional interpretations increased with experience, and in particular, more-experienced respondents were more likely to attend to the ears. Lastly, more-experienced respondents provided lower difficulty and higher accuracy self-ratings than less-experienced respondents when interpreting both happy and fearful emotional examples. The human perception of emotion in other humans has previously been shown to be sensitive to individual differences in social experience, and the results of the current study extend the notion of experience-dependent processes from the intraspecific to the interspecific domain.

  16. Brazilian propolis promotes immunomodulation on human cells from American Tegumentar Leishmaniasis patients and healthy donors infected with L. braziliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos Thomazelli, Ana Paula Fortes; Tomiotto-Pellissier, Fernanda; da Silva, Suelen Santos; Panis, Carolina; Orsini, Tatiane Marcusso; Cataneo, Allan Henrique Depieri; Miranda-Sapla, Milena Menegazzo; Custódio, Luiz Antonio; Tatakihara, Vera Lúcia Hideko; Bordignon, Juliano; Silveira, Guilherme Ferreira; Sforcin, José Maurício; Pavanelli, Wander Rogério; Conchon-Costa, Ivete

    2017-01-01

    American Tegumentar Leishmaniasis (ATL) is an infectious disease caused by Leishmania parasites with ineffective treatment. The properties of propolis have been studied in different experimental studies, however, few works have investigated the effects of propolis on human-derived peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in leishmaniasis models. Thus, we investigate the immunomodulatory effects of propolis treatment on PBMC from ATL patients and on PBMC from healthy donors infected with Leishmania braziliensis. Our data demonstrate that propolis pretreatment shows immunomodulatory effects on both healthy donors and ATL patients adherent cells, increasing IL-4 and IL-17 and decreasing IL-10, in either the presence or absence of the L. braziliensis infection, demonstrating that propolis contributes with the decrease of the inflammation and could also contribute with parasite control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Criteria for Viability Assessment of Discarded Human Donor Livers during Ex Vivo Normothermic Machine Perfusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sutton, Michael E.; op den Dries, Sanna; Karimian, Negin; Weeder, Pepijn D.; de Boer, Marieke T.; Wiersema-Buist, Janneke; Gouw, Annette S. H.; Leuvenink, Henri G. D.; Lisman, Ton; Porte, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Although normothermic machine perfusion of donor livers may allow assessment of graft viability prior to transplantation, there are currently no data on what would be a good parameter of graft viability. To determine whether bile production is a suitable biomarker that can be used to discriminate vi

  18. Integrated Model of DNA Sequence Numerical Representation and Artificial Neural Network for Human Donor and Acceptor Sites Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Abo-Zahhad

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Human Genome Project has led to a huge inflow of genomic data. After the completion of human genome sequencing, more and more effort is being put into identification of splicing sites of exons and introns (donor and acceptor sites. These invite bioinformatics to analysis the genome sequences and identify the location of exon and intron boundaries or in other words prediction of splicing sites. Prediction of splice sites in genic regions of DNA sequence is one of the most challenging aspects of gene structure recognition. Over the last two decades, artificial neural networks gradually became one of the essential tools in bioinformatics. In this paper artificial neural networks with different numerical mapping techniques have been employed for building integrated model for splice site prediction in genes. An artificial neural network is trained and then used to find splice sites in human genes. A comparison between different mapping methods using trained neural network in terms of their precision in prediction of donor and acceptor sites will be presented in this paper. Training and measuring performance of neural network are carried out using sequences of the human genome (GRch37/hg19- chr21. Simulation results indicate that using Electron-Ion Interaction Potential numerical mapping method with neural network yields to the best performance in prediction.

  19. Ectopic expression of telomerase enhances osteopontin and osteocalcin expression during osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells from elder donors

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    Machado CB

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Age related bone loss is one of the most prevalent diseases in the elder population. The osteoblasts are the effectors cells of bone formation and regeneration. With the aging the osteoblasts become senescent reducing their ability to produce bone. Cellular replicative senescence is triggered by telomers shortening. Telomerase elongate the telomers length and maintain the cell proliferative capacity. Here, we demonstrated that the expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase mediated by an adenovirus vector increases the levels of osteopontin and osteocalcin mRNA during the in vitro osteogenic differentiation of elderly human mesenchymal stem cells. Bone marrow human mesenchymal stem cells were obtained from old donors (>65 years and induced to differentiate into osteoblasts for 14 days. The levels of mRNA of human telomerase reverse transcriptase, osteopontin and osteocalcin during the differentiation were assessed by semi-quantitative PCR before and during the differentiation on days 7 and 14. Infected cells showed 1.5 fold increase in telomerase expression. Also telomerized cells exhibit 1.5 fold increase in osteopontin and 0.5 fold increase in osteocalcin expression compared to primary osteoblasts isolated from the same donors. The transformed cells were not able to form tumours in NUDE mice.

  20. DNA and RNA profiling of excavated human remains with varying postmortem intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berge, M; Wiskerke, D; Gerretsen, R R R; Tabak, J; Sijen, T

    2016-11-01

    When postmortem intervals (PMIs) increase such as with longer burial times, human remains suffer increasingly from the taphonomic effects of decomposition processes such as autolysis and putrefaction. In this study, various DNA analysis techniques and a messenger RNA (mRNA) profiling method were applied to examine for trends in nucleic acid degradation and the postmortem interval. The DNA analysis techniques include highly sensitive DNA quantitation (with and without degradation index), standard and low template STR profiling, insertion and null alleles (INNUL) of retrotransposable elements typing and mitochondrial DNA profiling. The used mRNA profiling system targets genes with tissue specific expression for seven human organs as reported by Lindenbergh et al. (Int J Legal Med 127:891-900, 27) and has been applied to forensic evidentiary traces but not to excavated tissues. The techniques were applied to a total of 81 brain, lung, liver, skeletal muscle, heart, kidney and skin samples obtained from 19 excavated graves with burial times ranging from 4 to 42 years. Results show that brain and heart are the organs in which both DNA and RNA remain remarkably stable, notwithstanding long PMIs. The other organ tissues either show poor overall profiling results or vary for DNA and RNA profiling success, with sometimes DNA and other times RNA profiling being more successful. No straightforward relations were observed between nucleic acid profiling results and the PMI. This study shows that not only DNA but also RNA molecules can be remarkably stable and used for profiling of long-buried human remains, which corroborate forensic applications. The insight that the brain and heart tissues tend to provide the best profiling results may change sampling policies in identification cases of degrading cadavers.

  1. Non-detection of human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8 DNA in HHV-8-seropositive blood donors from three Brazilian regions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eduardo Levi

    Full Text Available Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8, also known as Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV, is the etiologic agent of all forms of Kaposi's sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma and the plasmablastic cell variant of multicentric Castleman disease. In endemic areas of sub-Saharan Africa, blood transfusions have been associated with a substantial risk of HHV-8 transmission. By contrast, several studies among healthy blood donors from North America have failed to detect HHV-8 DNA in samples of seropositive individuals. In this study, using a real-time PCR assay, we investigated the presence of HHV-8 DNA in whole-blood samples of 803 HHV-8 blood donors from three Brazilian states (São Paulo, Amazon, Bahia who tested positive for HHV-8 antibodies, in a previous multicenter study. HHV-8 DNA was not detected in any sample. Our findings do not support the introduction of routine HHV-8 screening among healthy blood donors in Brazil. (WC = 140.

  2. Evaluation of Human Amniotic Membrane as a Wound Dressing for Split-Thickness Skin-Graft Donor Sites

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    Denys J. Loeffelbein

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Human amniotic membrane (HAM has been used as a biomaterial in various surgical procedures and exceeds some qualities of common materials. We evaluated HAM as wound dressing for split-thickness skin-graft (STSG donor sites in a swine model (Part A and a clinical trial (Part B. Part A: STSG donor sites in 4 piglets were treated with HAM or a clinically used conventional polyurethane (PU foil (n=8 each. Biopsies were taken on days 5, 7, 10, 20, 40, and 60 and investigated immunohistochemically for alpha-smooth muscle actin (αSMA: wound contraction marker, von Willebrand factor (vWF: angiogenesis, Ki-67 (cell proliferation, and laminin (basement membrane integrity. Part B: STSG donor sites in 45 adult patients (16 female/29 male were treated with HAM covered by PU foam, solely by PU foam, or PU foil/paraffin gauze (n=15 each. Part A revealed no difference in the rate of wound closure between groups. HAM showed improved esthetic results and inhibitory effects on cicatrization. Angioneogenesis was reduced, and basement membrane formation was accelerated in HAM group. Part B: no difference in re-epithelialization/infection rate was found. HAM caused less ichor exudation and less pruritus. HAM has no relevant advantage over conventional dressings but might be a cost-effective alternative.

  3. Downregulation of Type II Diabetes Mellitus and Maturity Onset Diabetes of Young Pathways in Human Pancreatic Islets from Hyperglycemic Donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Taneera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although several molecular pathways have been linked to type 2 diabetes (T2D pathogenesis, it is uncertain which pathway has the most implication on the disease. Changes in the expression of an entire pathway might be more important for disease pathogenesis than changes in the expression of individual genes. To identify the molecular alterations in T2D, DNA microarrays of human pancreatic islets from donors with hyperglycemia n=20 and normoglycemia n=58 were subjected to Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA. About 178 KEGG pathways were investigated for gene expression changes between hyperglycemic donors compared to normoglycemic. Pathway enrichment analysis showed that type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM and maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY pathways are downregulated in hyperglycemic donors, while proteasome and spliceosome pathways are upregulated. The mean centroid of gene expression of T2DM and MODY pathways was shown to be associated positively with insulin secretion and negatively with HbA1c level. To conclude, downregulation of T2DM and MODY pathways is involved in islet function and might be involved in T2D. Also, the study demonstrates that gene expression profiles from pancreatic islets can reveal some of the biological processes related to regulation of glucose hemostats and diabetes pathogenesis.

  4. Comparative analysis of ascorbic acid in human milk and infant formula using varied milk delivery systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dickton Darby

    2008-08-01

    human milk and infant formula using varied milk delivery systems may be of clinical importance. For infants who rely solely on bottle feeds there may be increased risk of deficiency. Bottle shape, size, and venting should be considered.

  5. Professionalism and human resource management of donor coordinators: results of an international comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uryuhara, Y

    2014-05-01

    Through our earlier international survey on professionalism with donor coordinators in 38 countries, we identified 5 factors that comprise professionalism and demonstrated that, of these 5 factors, "pursuit of excellence" significantly affects job performance and sense of fulfillment among donor coordinators. In the present study we conducted an international comparison concerning professionalism and organizational actions to foster coordinators' professionalism and identify implications for Japan. Japan scored significantly lower than other countries in the "pursuit of excellence" factor of professionalism, feedback on the outcome of organ transplantation, peer recognition, and opportunities to educate other staff, which correspond with intrinsic motivation of organizational actions. These results suggested that each hospital must take steps to enhance intrinsic motivation, thereby increasing professionalism that will lead to successful outcomes in the years ahead.

  6. Mass Spectrometry Based Metabolomics Comparison of Liver Grafts from Donors after Circulatory Death (DCD) and Donors after Brain Death (DBD) Used in Human Orthotopic Liver Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laing, Richard; Kirwan, Jennifer; Silva, Michael A.; Richards, Douglas A.; Murphy, Nick; Mirza, Darius F.; Viant, Mark R.

    2016-01-01

    Use of marginal liver grafts, especially those from donors after circulatory death (DCD), has been considered as a solution to organ shortage. Inferior outcomes have been attributed to donor warm ischaemic damage in these DCD organs. Here we sought to profile the metabolic mechanisms underpinning donor warm ischaemia. Non-targeted Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometry metabolomics was applied to biopsies of liver grafts from donors after brain death (DBD; n = 27) and DCD (n = 10), both during static cold storage (T1) as well as post-reperfusion (T2). Furthermore 6 biopsies from DBD donors prior to the organ donation (T0) were also profiled. Considering DBD and DCD together, significant metabolic differences were discovered between T1 and T2 (688 peaks) that were primarily related to amino acid metabolism, meanwhile T0 biopsies grouped together with T2, denoting the distinctively different metabolic activity of the perfused state. Major metabolic differences were discovered between DCD and DBD during cold-phase (T1) primarily related to glucose, tryptophan and kynurenine metabolism, and in the post-reperfusion phase (T2) related to amino acid and glutathione metabolism. We propose tryptophan/kynurenine and S-adenosylmethionine as possible biomarkers for the previously established higher graft failure of DCD livers, and conclude that the associated pathways should be targeted in more exhaustive and quantitative investigations. PMID:27835640

  7. Mass Spectrometry Based Metabolomics Comparison of Liver Grafts from Donors after Circulatory Death (DCD) and Donors after Brain Death (DBD) Used in Human Orthotopic Liver Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrydziuszko, Olga; Perera, M Thamara P R; Laing, Richard; Kirwan, Jennifer; Silva, Michael A; Richards, Douglas A; Murphy, Nick; Mirza, Darius F; Viant, Mark R

    2016-01-01

    Use of marginal liver grafts, especially those from donors after circulatory death (DCD), has been considered as a solution to organ shortage. Inferior outcomes have been attributed to donor warm ischaemic damage in these DCD organs. Here we sought to profile the metabolic mechanisms underpinning donor warm ischaemia. Non-targeted Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometry metabolomics was applied to biopsies of liver grafts from donors after brain death (DBD; n = 27) and DCD (n = 10), both during static cold storage (T1) as well as post-reperfusion (T2). Furthermore 6 biopsies from DBD donors prior to the organ donation (T0) were also profiled. Considering DBD and DCD together, significant metabolic differences were discovered between T1 and T2 (688 peaks) that were primarily related to amino acid metabolism, meanwhile T0 biopsies grouped together with T2, denoting the distinctively different metabolic activity of the perfused state. Major metabolic differences were discovered between DCD and DBD during cold-phase (T1) primarily related to glucose, tryptophan and kynurenine metabolism, and in the post-reperfusion phase (T2) related to amino acid and glutathione metabolism. We propose tryptophan/kynurenine and S-adenosylmethionine as possible biomarkers for the previously established higher graft failure of DCD livers, and conclude that the associated pathways should be targeted in more exhaustive and quantitative investigations.

  8. Reduced reactivation from dormancy but maintained lineage choice of human mesenchymal stem cells with donor age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Dexheimer

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC are promising for cell-based regeneration therapies but up to date it is still controversial whether their function is maintained throughout ageing. Aim of this study was to address whether frequency, activation in vitro, replicative function, and in vitro lineage choice of MSC is maintained throughout ageing to answer the question whether MSC-based regeneration strategies should be restricted to younger individuals. MSC from bone marrow aspirates of 28 donors (5-80 years were characterized regarding colony-forming unit-fibroblast (CFU-F numbers, single cell cloning efficiency (SSCE, osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic differentiation capacity in vitro. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity, mineralization, Oil Red O content, proteoglycan- and collagen type II deposition were quantified. While CFU-F frequency was maintained, SSCE and early proliferation rate decreased significantly with advanced donor age. MSC with higher proliferation rate before start of induction showed stronger osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic differentiation. MSC with high osteogenic capacity underwent better chondrogenesis and showed a trend to better adipogenesis. Lineage choice was, however, unaltered with age. CONCLUSION: Ageing influenced activation from dormancy and replicative function of MSC in a way that it may be more demanding to mobilize MSC to fast cell growth at advanced age. Since fast proliferation came along with high multilineage capacity, the proliferation status of expanded MSC rather than donor age may provide an argument to restrict MSC-based therapies to certain individuals.

  9. Pasteurization Procedures for Donor Human Milk Affect Body Growth, Intestinal Structure, and Resistance against Bacterial Infections in Preterm Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yanqi; Ninh Nguyen, Duc; de Waard, Marita

    2017-01-01

    ; ratio of males to females, 30:27) received decreasing volumes of parental nutrition (average 69 mL · kg−1 · d−1) and increasing volumes of the 3 DM diets (n = 19 each, average 89 mL · kg−1 · d−1) for 8–9 d. Body growth, gut structure and function, and systemic bacterial infection were evaluated. Results......Background: Holder pasteurization (HP) destroys multiple bioactive factors in donor human milk (DM), and UV-C irradiation (UVC) is potentially a gentler method for pasteurizing DM for preterm infants. Objective: We investigated whether UVC-treated DM improves gut maturation and resistance toward...

  10. The concept of milk kinship in Islam: issues raised when offering preterm infants of Muslim families donor human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Khuffash, Afif; Unger, Sharon

    2012-05-01

    Research has documented health benefits associated with donor human milk (DHM). Offering DHM to people of the Muslim faith raises important religious concerns for these families. Knowledge of these beliefs and an understanding of the rationale for these beliefs enable the health care team to establish rapport and build a foundation of trust with patients and their families, thereby paving the way to developing a treatment plan that is in the best interest of the patients without compromising care. This article describes the issues and a rationale for them and provides physicians caring for preterm infants of Muslim families with information to facilitate advocating DHM to those families.

  11. PERT: a method for expression deconvolution of human blood samples from varied microenvironmental and developmental conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenlian Qiao

    Full Text Available The cellular composition of heterogeneous samples can be predicted using an expression deconvolution algorithm to decompose their gene expression profiles based on pre-defined, reference gene expression profiles of the constituent populations in these samples. However, the expression profiles of the actual constituent populations are often perturbed from those of the reference profiles due to gene expression changes in cells associated with microenvironmental or developmental effects. Existing deconvolution algorithms do not account for these changes and give incorrect results when benchmarked against those measured by well-established flow cytometry, even after batch correction was applied. We introduce PERT, a new probabilistic expression deconvolution method that detects and accounts for a shared, multiplicative perturbation in the reference profiles when performing expression deconvolution. We applied PERT and three other state-of-the-art expression deconvolution methods to predict cell frequencies within heterogeneous human blood samples that were collected under several conditions (uncultured mono-nucleated and lineage-depleted cells, and culture-derived lineage-depleted cells. Only PERT's predicted proportions of the constituent populations matched those assigned by flow cytometry. Genes associated with cell cycle processes were highly enriched among those with the largest predicted expression changes between the cultured and uncultured conditions. We anticipate that PERT will be widely applicable to expression deconvolution strategies that use profiles from reference populations that vary from the corresponding constituent populations in cellular state but not cellular phenotypic identity.

  12. PERT: a method for expression deconvolution of human blood samples from varied microenvironmental and developmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Wenlian; Quon, Gerald; Csaszar, Elizabeth; Yu, Mei; Morris, Quaid; Zandstra, Peter W

    2012-01-01

    The cellular composition of heterogeneous samples can be predicted using an expression deconvolution algorithm to decompose their gene expression profiles based on pre-defined, reference gene expression profiles of the constituent populations in these samples. However, the expression profiles of the actual constituent populations are often perturbed from those of the reference profiles due to gene expression changes in cells associated with microenvironmental or developmental effects. Existing deconvolution algorithms do not account for these changes and give incorrect results when benchmarked against those measured by well-established flow cytometry, even after batch correction was applied. We introduce PERT, a new probabilistic expression deconvolution method that detects and accounts for a shared, multiplicative perturbation in the reference profiles when performing expression deconvolution. We applied PERT and three other state-of-the-art expression deconvolution methods to predict cell frequencies within heterogeneous human blood samples that were collected under several conditions (uncultured mono-nucleated and lineage-depleted cells, and culture-derived lineage-depleted cells). Only PERT's predicted proportions of the constituent populations matched those assigned by flow cytometry. Genes associated with cell cycle processes were highly enriched among those with the largest predicted expression changes between the cultured and uncultured conditions. We anticipate that PERT will be widely applicable to expression deconvolution strategies that use profiles from reference populations that vary from the corresponding constituent populations in cellular state but not cellular phenotypic identity.

  13. Outcomes of peripheral blood stem cell transplantation in patients from human leukocyte antigen matched or mismatched unrelated donors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cao Tingting; Li Yanfen; Wang Quanshun; Li Honghua; Bo Jian; Zhao Yu; Jing Yu

    2014-01-01

    Background Allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation from unrelated donors (UR-PBSCT) is an alternative treatment for many hematologic diseases due to lack of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-identical sibling donors.This study aimed to evaluate the impact of the degree of the HLA match on the clinical efficacy of UR-PBSCT.Methods Patients who underwent UR-PBSCT from September 2003 to September 2012 were retrospectively investigated.They were divided into three groups according to high-resolution molecular typing.SPSS version 17.0 was used to analysis and compare the statistics of engraftment,incidence of GVHD,other complications and survival among the groups.Results One hundred and eleven patients received UR-PBSCT,60 of them with an HLA matched donor (10/10),36 of them with a one locus mismatched donor (9/10),and 15 of them with a two loci mismatched donor (8/10).Similar basic characteristics were found in the three groups.No differences were found in engraftment of myeloid cells or platelets in the three groups (P>0.05).Two-year cumulative incidence of relapse,overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) among those three groups were similar (P>0.05).The cumulative incidence of 100-day Ⅲ-Ⅳ aGVHD in the HLA matched group and the one HLA locus mismatched group were significantly lower than that in the two HLA loci mismatched group (3.3%,8.6%,and 26.7%,P=0.009).The occurrence rate of new pulmonary infections in the HLA matched group was lower than in the two HLA mismatched groups (26.67%,52.78%,and 41.18%,P=0.035).The cumulative incidence of 100-day and 2-year transplantation related mortality (TRM) in two HLA loci mismatched group was higher than in the HLA matched group and in the one HLA locus mismatched group,(8.4%,11.8% and 33.3%,P=0.016) and (12.3%,18.7% and 47.5%,P=0.002).Conclusions HLA mismatch will not significantly impact the engraftment or 2-year survival after UR-PBSCT,but two mismatched HLA loci may

  14. Molecular evolution of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 upon transmission between human leukocyte antigen disparate donor-recipient pairs.

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    Marjon Navis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To address evolution of HIV-1 after transmission, we studied sequence dynamics in and outside predicted epitopes of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL in subtype B HIV-1 variants that were isolated from 5 therapy-naive horizontal HLA-disparate donor-recipient pairs from the Amsterdam Cohort Studies on HIV-1 infection and AIDS. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the first weeks after transmission, the majority of donor-derived mutations in and outside donor-HLA-restricted epitopes in Gag, Env, and Nef, were preserved in the recipient. Reversion to the HIV-1 subtype B consensus sequence of mutations in- and outside donor-HLA-restricted CTL epitopes, and new mutations away from the consensus B sequence mostly within recipient-HLA-restricted epitopes, contributed equally to the early sequence changes. In the subsequent period (1-2 years after transmission, still only a low number of both reverting and forward mutations had occurred. During subsequent long-term follow-up, sequence dynamics were dominated by forward mutations, mostly (50-85% in recipient-HLA-restricted CTL epitopes. At the end of long-term follow-up, on average 43% of the transmitted CTL escape mutations in donor-HLA-restricted epitopes had reverted to the subtype B consensus sequence. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The relatively high proportion of long-term preserved mutations after transmission points to a lack of back selection even in the absence of CTL pressure, which may lead to an accumulating loss of critical CTL epitopes. Our data are supportive for a continuous adaptation of HIV-1 to host immune pressures which may have implications for vaccine design.

  15. Variability of the Phenotype and Proliferation and Migration Characteristics of Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Derived from the Deciduous Teeth Pulp of Different Donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakhrushev, I V; Vdovin, A S; Strukova, L A; Yarygin, K N

    2016-02-01

    We performed a comparative study of cell phenotype and proliferation and migration activities in vitro of mesenchymal stromal cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED cells) from three donors. In the primary cultures, the cells of different donors had the same morphology and cytophenotype, but differed by proliferative and migration capacities. The results indicate that individual mesenchymal stromal cells cultures can differ considerably by important cell properties, and this should be considered when evaluating their potential therapeutic efficacy and in experimental studies.

  16. Human Milk Processing: A Systematic Review of Innovative Techniques to Ensure the Safety and Quality of Donor Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peila, Chiara; Emmerik, Nikki E; Giribaldi, Marzia; Stahl, Bernd; Ruitenberg, Joost E; van Elburg, Ruurd M; Moro, Guido E; Bertino, Enrico; Coscia, Alessandra; Cavallarin, Laura

    2017-03-01

    Pasteurization, performed at 62.5°C for 30 minutes (holder pasteurization), is currently recommended in all international human milk banks guidelines, but it affects some human milk bioactive and nutritive components. The present systematic review is aimed at critically reviewing evidence on the suitability of human milk processing techniques other than holder pasteurization, both thermal and nonthermal, to ensure microbiological safety, and on the effects of these techniques on biologically active donor milk components. A systematic review of English and non-English articles using Medline, PubMed, Embase, SCOPUS, and CAB Abstracts, with no restriction in publication date was performed. Search terms included: human, breast, donor, or banked milk, breastmilk, breast fed, breastfed, breastfeed; HTST, Flash, High Pressure, UV, ultrasonic or nonthermal; process, pasteuris, pasteuriz. Only primary research articles published in peer-reviewed journals were included, providing or not a comparison with holder pasteurized human milk, provided that the pasteurization technique was clearly described, and not intended for domestic use. Additional studies were identified by searching bibliographies of relevant articles. Twenty-six studies were identified as being relevant. Two examined both High Pressure Processing and High-Temperature-Short-Time pasteurization; 10 only examined High Pressure Processing; 10 only examined High-Temperature-Short-Time; 2 articles examined ultraviolet irradiation; 2 articles examined (thermo-)ultrasonic processing. The results indicate that data about safety for microbiological control are still scarce for most of the novel technologies, and that consensus on processing conditions is necessary for nonthermal technologies, before any conclusions on the qualitative and nutritional advantages of these techniques can be drawn.

  17. The Myocyte Expression of Adiponectin Receptors and PPARδ Is Highly Coordinated and Reflects Lipid Metabolism of the Human Donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Maria Ordelheide

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Muscle lipid oxidation is stimulated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR δ or adiponectin receptor signalling. We studied human myocyte expression of the PPARδ and adiponectin receptor genes and their relationship to lipid parameters of the donors. The mRNA levels of the three adiponectin receptors, AdipoR1, AdipoR2, and T-cadherin, were highly interrelated (r≥0.91. However, they were not associated with GPBAR1, an unrelated membrane receptor. In addition, the adiponectin receptors were positively associated with PPARδ expression (r≥0.75. However, they were not associated with PPARα. Using stepwise multiple linear regression analysis, PPARδ was a significant determinant of T-cadherin (P=.0002. However, pharmacological PPARδ activation did not increase T-cadherin expression. The myocyte expression levels of AdipoR1 and T-cadherin were inversely associated with the donors' fasting plasma triglycerides (P<.03. In conclusion, myocyte expression of PPARδ and the adiponectin receptors are highly coordinated, and this might be of relevance for human lipid metabolism in vivo.

  18. "Seroprevalence of Cytomegalovirus, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Antibodies among Volunteer Blood Donors "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Moniri

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The transfusion transmitted infections are potentially dangerous complications of transfusion therapy in immunocompromised patients. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of transmissible infections in blood donor population in Kashan, Iran. A total of 600 consecutive sera were tested for CMV-IgM antibody, HBsAg, hepatitis B core (HBc antibody, hepatitis C (HCV antibody, and HIV antibody with standard methods. Of the sera tested, 14 specimens (2.3% were CMV-IgM positive. The frequency of seropositive revealed no significant differences between male and female donors. The frequency rates of CMV-IgM seropositive tests tend to decline with increasing the age. There was no relation between the frequency rates of CMV-IgM seropositive with the educational level, socioeconomic status, marital status, urban dweller and rural resident patients. The prevalence of HBV, HCV, and HIV antibody was 0.5%, 0.5%, and 0%, respectively. These findings implied important clinical applications because detection of CMV positive sera may reduce the risk for transmission of CMV in blood transfusion and thereby decrease the risk on CMV-induced complications.

  19. Novel UDP-GalNAc Derivative Structures Provide Insight into the Donor Specificity of Human Blood Group Glycosyltransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Gerd K; Pesnot, Thomas; Palcic, Monica M; Jørgensen, Rene

    2015-12-25

    Two closely related glycosyltransferases are responsible for the final step of the biosynthesis of ABO(H) human blood group A and B antigens. The two enzymes differ by only four amino acid residues, which determine whether the enzymes transfer GalNAc from UDP-GalNAc or Gal from UDP-Gal to the H-antigen acceptor. The enzymes belong to the class of GT-A folded enzymes, grouped as GT6 in the CAZy database, and are characterized by a single domain with a metal dependent retaining reaction mechanism. However, the exact role of the four amino acid residues in the specificity of the enzymes is still unresolved. In this study, we report the first structural information of a dual specificity cis-AB blood group glycosyltransferase in complex with a synthetic UDP-GalNAc derivative. Interestingly, the GalNAc moiety adopts an unusual yet catalytically productive conformation in the binding pocket, which is different from the "tucked under" conformation previously observed for the UDP-Gal donor. In addition, we show that this UDP-GalNAc derivative in complex with the H-antigen acceptor provokes the same unusual binding pocket closure as seen for the corresponding UDP-Gal derivative. Despite this, the two derivatives show vastly different kinetic properties. Our results provide a important structural insight into the donor substrate specificity and utilization in blood group biosynthesis, which can very likely be exploited for the development of new glycosyltransferase inhibitors and probes.

  20. Amendment to 2010 Italian guidelines for the establishment and operation of a donor human milk bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslanoglu, S; Bertino, E; Tonetto, P; De Nisi, G; Ambruzzi, A M; Biasini, A; Profeti, C; Spreghini, M R; Moro, G E

    2012-01-01

    The present paper is an amendment to the recent Italian Guidelines of human milk banking published in 2010. Working Group on Guidelines (Panel) of the Italian Association of Human Milk Banks (AIBLUD) states, in accordance with the European Union Comission's Amending Directive of January 2011, that the hard plastic feeding bottles used in the collection, storage and pasteurization of the human milk should be Bisphenol A (BPA) free. Until new evidence are available polycarbonate feeding bottles should not be used for collection, storage and pasteurization of human milk. The paper summarizes the former and current European Commission Directives and shows the related amending changes to the 2010 Italian Human Milk Banking Guidelines.

  1. Surgical extraction of human dorsal root ganglia from organ donors and preparation of primary sensory neuron cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valtcheva, Manouela V; Copits, Bryan A; Davidson, Steve; Sheahan, Tayler D; Pullen, Melanie Y; McCall, Jordan G; Dikranian, Krikor; Gereau, Robert W

    2016-10-01

    Primary cultures of rodent sensory neurons are widely used to investigate the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in pain, itch, nerve injury and regeneration. However, translation of these preclinical findings may be greatly improved by direct validation in human tissues. We have developed an approach to extract and culture human sensory neurons in collaboration with a local organ procurement organization (OPO). Here we describe the surgical procedure for extraction of human dorsal root ganglia (hDRG) and the necessary modifications to existing culture techniques to prepare viable adult human sensory neurons for functional studies. Dissociated sensory neurons can be maintained in culture for >10 d, and they are amenable to electrophysiological recording, calcium imaging and viral gene transfer. The entire process of extraction and culturing can be completed in <7 h, and it can be performed by trained graduate students. This approach can be applied at any institution with access to organ donors consenting to tissue donation for research, and is an invaluable resource for improving translational research.

  2. Human-induced pluripotent stem cells from blood cells of healthy donors and patients with acquired blood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zhaohui; Zhan, Huichun; Mali, Prashant; Dowey, Sarah; Williams, Donna M; Jang, Yoon-Young; Dang, Chi V; Spivak, Jerry L; Moliterno, Alison R; Cheng, Linzhao

    2009-12-24

    Human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells derived from somatic cells hold promise to develop novel patient-specific cell therapies and research models for inherited and acquired diseases. We and others previously reprogrammed human adherent cells, such as postnatal fibroblasts to iPS cells, which resemble adherent embryonic stem cells. Here we report derivation of iPS cells from postnatal human blood cells and the potential of these pluripotent cells for disease modeling. Multiple human iPS cell lines were generated from previously frozen cord blood or adult CD34(+) cells of healthy donors, and could be redirected to hematopoietic differentiation. Multiple iPS cell lines were also generated from peripheral blood CD34(+) cells of 2 patients with myeloproliferative disorders (MPDs) who acquired the JAK2-V617F somatic mutation in their blood cells. The MPD-derived iPS cells containing the mutation appeared normal in phenotypes, karyotype, and pluripotency. After directed hematopoietic differentiation, the MPD-iPS cell-derived hematopoietic progenitor (CD34(+)CD45(+)) cells showed the increased erythropoiesis and gene expression of specific genes, recapitulating features of the primary CD34(+) cells of the corresponding patient from whom the iPS cells were derived. These iPS cells provide a renewable cell source and a prospective hematopoiesis model for investigating MPD pathogenesis.

  3. Generation of a human induced pluripotent stem cell line from urinary cells of a healthy donor using an integration free vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossbach, Bella; Hildebrand, Laura; El-Ahmad, Linda; Stachelscheid, Harald; Reinke, Petra; Kurtz, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    We have generated a human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) line derived from urinary cells of a 30 year old healthy female donor. The cells were reprogrammed using a non-integrating viral vector and have shown full differentiation potential. Together with the iPSC-line, the donor provided blood cells for the study of immunological effects of the iPSC line and its derivatives in autologous and allogeneic settings. The line is available and registered in the human pluripotent stem cell registry as BCRTi004-A.

  4. Generation of a human induced pluripotent stem cell line from urinary cells of a healthy donor using integration free Sendai technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossbach, Bella; Hildebrand, Laura; El-Ahmad, Linda; Stachelscheid, Harald; Reinke, Petra; Kurtz, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    We have generated a human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) line derived from urinary cells of 1 28-30 year old healthy female donor. The cells were reprogrammed using a non-integrating viral vector and shown to have full differentiation potential. Together with the iPSC-lines, the donors provided blood cells for the study of immunological effects of the iPSC line and its derivatives in autologous and allogeneic settings. The line is available and registered in the human pluripotent stem cell registry as BCRTi004-A.

  5. Generation of a human induced pluripotent stem cell line from urinary cells of a healthy donor using an integration free vector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bella Rossbach

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We have generated a human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC line derived from urinary cells of a 30 year old healthy female donor. The cells were reprogrammed using a non-integrating viral vector and have shown full differentiation potential. Together with the iPSC-line, the donor provided blood cells for the study of immunological effects of the iPSC line and its derivatives in autologous and allogeneic settings. The line is available and registered in the human pluripotent stem cell registry as BCRTi004-A.

  6. Effects of donor proliferation in development aid for health on health program performance: A conceptual framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallas, Sarah Wood; Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2017-02-01

    Development aid for health increased dramatically during the past two decades, raising concerns about inefficiency and lack of coherence among the growing number of global health donors. However, we lack a framework for how donor proliferation affects health program performance to inform theory-based evaluation of aid effectiveness policies. A review of academic and gray literature was conducted. Data were extracted from the literature sample on study design and evidence for hypothesized effects of donor proliferation on health program performance, which were iteratively grouped into categories and mapped into a new conceptual framework. In the framework, increases in the number of donors are hypothesized to increase inter-donor competition, transaction costs, donor poaching of recipient staff, recipient control over aid, and donor fragmentation, and to decrease donors' sense of accountability for overall development outcomes. There is mixed evidence on whether donor proliferation increases or decreases aid volume. These primary effects in turn affect donor innovation, information hoarding, and aid disbursement volatility, as well as recipient country health budget levels, human resource capacity, and corruption, and the determinants of health program performance. The net effect of donor proliferation on health will vary depending on the magnitude of the framework's competing effects in specific country settings. The conceptual framework provides a foundation for improving design of aid effectiveness practices to mitigate negative effects from donor proliferation while preserving its potential benefits.

  7. Prevalence of HIV and VDRL seropositivity in blood donors of Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bharat; Verma, Monika; Kotru, Mrinalini; Verma, Karttikaye; Batra, Madhu

    2005-09-01

    Blood transfusion has been the transmission mechanism in 15 per cent of total patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). A few reports are available regarding the trend of HIV seropositivity in northern India. Prevalence of VDRL (venereal disease research laboratory) reactivity varies from 0.8-15 per cent in blood donors. We present data on the prevalence and trends of infection with HIV 1 and 2 and VDRL reactivity in blood donors in Delhi. Between 2000-2002, a total of 76089 (voluntary and replacement) donors were screened. Majority (82.4%) were replacement donors. Seropositivity for HIV and VDRL was seen in 0.54 and 2.6 per cent of donors respectively. The percentage of seropositivity for HIV and VDRL was significantly higher in replacement donors (P<0.001). It is suggested that extensive donor selection and a voluntary donor service would reduce the number of infectious donors significantly. Non-renumerated repeat voluntary donor services are urgently required to lower the prevalence of transmissible infections. While the need to change to a voluntary donor service and devising effective donor screening cannot be over emphasized, there is also a need to mandate HIV antigen detection in India.

  8. Prevalence of human T-cell lymphotropic virus types 1 and 2 in blood donors of the Caruaru Blood Center (Hemope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleska Mayara Gomes de Lima

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is difficulty in gathering data on the prevalence of human T-cell lymphotropic virus in blood donors as confirmatory testing is not mandatory in Brazil. This suggests there may be an underreporting of the prevalence. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of human T-cell lymphotropic virus types 1 and 2 in donors of a blood bank in Caruaru, Brazil. METHODS: This was an observational, epidemiological, descriptive, longitudinal and retrospective study with information about the serology of donors of the Caruaru Blood Center, Fundação de Hematologia e Hemoterapia de Pernambuco (Hemope from May 2006 to December 2010. The data were analyzed using the Excel 2010 computer program (Microsoft Office(r. RESULTS: Of 61,881 donors, 60 (0.096% individuals were identified as potential carriers of human T-cell lymphotropic virus types 1 and 2. Of these, 28 (0.045% were positive and 32 (0.051% had inconclusive results in the serological screening. Forty-five (0.072% were retested; 17 were positive (0.027% and 3 inconclusive (0.005%. After confirmatory tests, 8 were positive (0.013%. Six (75% of the confirmed cases were women. CONCLUSION: Epidemiological surveys like this are very important in order to create campaigns to attract donors and reduce the costs of laboratory tests.

  9. Prevalence of human T-cell lymphotropic virus types 1 and 2 in blood donors of the Caruaru Blood Center (Hemope).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Waleska Mayara Gomes; Esteves, Fabrício Andrade Martins; Torres, Maria do Carmo Morais Rodrigues; Pires, Edna Suely Feitosa

    2013-01-01

    There is difficulty in gathering data on the prevalence of human T-cell lymphotropic virus in blood donors as confirmatory testing is not mandatory in Brazil. This suggests there may be an underreporting of the prevalence. To estimate the prevalence of human T-cell lymphotropic virus types 1 and 2 in donors of a blood bank in Caruaru, Brazil. This was an observational, epidemiological, descriptive, longitudinal and retrospective study with information about the serology of donors of the Caruaru Blood Center, Fundação de Hematologia e Hemoterapia de Pernambuco (Hemope) from May 2006 to December 2010. The data were analyzed using the Excel 2010 computer program (Microsoft Office(®)). Of 61,881 donors, 60 (0.096%) individuals were identified as potential carriers of human T-cell lymphotropic virus types 1 and 2. Of these, 28 (0.045%) were positive and 32 (0.051%) had inconclusive results in the serological screening. Forty-five (0.072%) were retested; 17 were positive (0.027%) and 3 inconclusive (0.005%). After confirmatory tests, 8 were positive (0.013%). Six (75%) of the confirmed cases were women. Epidemiological surveys like this are very important in order to create campaigns to attract donors and reduce the costs of laboratory tests.

  10. Generation of human induced pluripotent stem cells from a Bombay individual: moving towards "universal-donor" red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifinejad, Ali; Taei, Adeleh; Totonchi, Mehdi; Vazirinasab, Hamed; Hassani, Seideh Nafiseh; Aghdami, Nasser; Shahbazi, Ebrahim; Yazdi, Reza Salman; Salekdeh, Ghasem Hosseini; Baharvand, Hossein

    2010-01-01

    Bombay phenotype is one of the rare phenotypes in the ABO blood group system that fails to express ABH antigens on red blood cells. Nonsense or missense mutations in fucosyltransfrase1 (FUT1) and fucosyltransfrase2 (FUT2) genes are known to create this phenotype. This blood group is compatible with all other blood groups as a donor, as it does not express the H antigen on the red blood cells. In this study, we describe the establishment of human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from the dermal fibroblasts of a Bombay blood-type individual by the ectopic expression of established transcription factors Klf4, Oct4, Sox2, and c-Myc. Sequence analyses of fibroblasts and iPSCs revealed a nonsense mutation 826C to T (276 Gln to Ter) in the FUT1 gene and a missense mutation 739G to A (247 Gly to Ser) in the FUT2 gene in the Bombay phenotype under study. The established iPSCs resemble human embryonic stem cells in morphology, passaging, surface and pluripotency markers, normal karyotype, gene expression, DNA methylation of critical pluripotency genes, and in-vitro differentiation. The directed differentiation of the iPSCs into hematopoietic lineage cells displayed increased expression of the hematopoietic lineage markers such as CD34, CD133, RUNX1, KDR, alpha-globulin, and gamma-globulin. Such specific stem cells provide an unprecedented opportunity to produce a universal blood group donor, in-vitro, thus enabling cellular replacement therapies, once the safety issue is resolved. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Personalization of the Microbiota of Donor Human Milk with Mother’s Own Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole T. Cacho

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that extremely preterm infants receive mother’s own milk (MOM when available or pasteurized donor breast milk (DBM when MOM is unavailable. The goal of this study was to determine whether DBM could be inoculated with MOM from mothers of preterm infants to restore the live microbiota (RM. Culture dependent and culture independent methods were used to analyze the fluctuations in the overall population and microbiome, respectively, of DBM, MOM, and RM samples over time. Using MOM at time = 0 (T0 as the target for the restoration process, this level was reached in the 10% (RM-10 and 30% (RM-30 mixtures after 4 h of incubation at 37°C, whereas, the larger dilutions of 1% (RM-1 and 5% (RM-5 after 8 h. The diversity indexes were similar between MOM and DBM samples, however, different genera were prevalent in each group. Interestingly, 40% of the bacterial families were able to expand in DBM after 4 h of incubation indicating that a large percentage of the bacterial load present in MOM can grow when transferred to DBM, however, no core microbiome was identified. In summary, the microbiome analyses indicated that each mother has a unique microbiota and that live microbial reestablishment of DBM may provide these microbes to individual mothers’ infants. The agreement between the results obtained from the viable bacterial counts and the microbiome analyses indicate that DBM incubated with 10–30% v/v of the MOM for 4 h is a reasonable restoration strategy.

  12. Snag density varies with intensity of timber harvest and human access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael J. Wisdom; Lisa J. Bate

    2008-01-01

    Many species of vertebrates depend on snags (standing dead trees) for persistence, and limited research suggests that snag density is lower in areas of intensive timber harvest and increased human access. While intensive timber harvest is one source of potential snag loss, ease of human access to forest stands may also facilitate loss via firewood cutting of snags....

  13. The spatially varying influence of humans on fire probability in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisien, Marc-André; Miller, Carol; Parks, Sean A.; DeLancey, Evan R.; Robinne, François-Nicolas; Flannigan, Mike D.

    2016-07-01

    Humans affect fire regimes by providing ignition sources in some cases, suppressing wildfires in others, and altering natural vegetation in ways that may either promote or limit fire. In North America, several studies have evaluated the effects of society on fire activity; however, most studies have been regional or subcontinental in scope and used different data and methods, thereby making continent-wide comparisons difficult. We circumvent these challenges by investigating the broad-scale impact of humans on fire activity using parallel statistical models of fire probability from 1984 to 2014 as a function of climate, enduring features (topography and percent nonfuel), lightning, and three indices of human activity (population density, an integrated metric of human activity [Human Footprint Index], and a measure of remoteness [roadless volume]) across equally spaced regions of the United States and Canada. Through a statistical control approach, whereby we account for the effect of other explanatory variables, we found evidence of non-negligible human-wildfire association across the entire continent, even in the most sparsely populated areas. A surprisingly coherent negative relationship between fire activity and humans was observed across the United States and Canada: fire probability generally diminishes with increasing human influence. Intriguing exceptions to this relationship are the continent’s least disturbed areas, where fewer humans equate to less fire. These remote areas, however, also often have lower lightning densities, leading us to believe that they may be ignition limited at the spatiotemporal scale of the study. Our results suggest that there are few purely natural fire regimes in North America today. Consequently, projections of future fire activity should consider human impacts on fire regimes to ensure sound adaptation and mitigation measures in fire-prone areas.

  14. Seroprevalence of human T-cell lymphoma/leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-1 antibodies among blood donors at Enugu, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okoye AE

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Augustine Ejike Okoye,1 Obike Godswill Ibegbulam,2 Robinson Chukwudi Onoh,3 Ngozi Immaculata Ugwu,1 Chukwudi Simon Anigbo,2 Charles Emeka Nonyelu2 1Department of Haematology and Immunology, Federal Teaching Hospital Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria; 2Department of Haematology and Immunology, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH Ituku-Ozalla, Enugu State, Nigeria; 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Federal Teaching Hospital Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria Background: Human T-cell lymphotrophic/leukemia virus (HTLV-1 is a retrovirus implicated in transfusion-transmitted infection. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of HTLV-1 antibodies among blood donors at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Eastern Nigeria. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out on consented participants over 4 months. A total of 300 blood donors were recruited consecutively from the blood bank. The serum of the collected 5 mL of blood obtained from each participant was stored at -20°C until required for analysis. The serum samples were then analyzed for antibodies to HTLV-1 using a one-step incubation double-antigen sandwich ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Participants' demographic characteristics and degree of exposure to the risk factors associated with HTLV-1 infection were captured using a questionnaire. Statistical analysis of results was done using SPSS version 17. Results: Of the 300 blood donors, 288 (96% were male, while 12 (4% were female. The average age of the blood donors was 26.85±8.52 years. The age group with the highest representation among the blood donors were those aged between 21 and 25 years. Only 22.3% of the blood donors were above 30 years. None of the 300 screened blood donors tested positive to HTLV-1 antibodies. Hence, the seroprevalence of HTLV-1 infection among blood donors was 0%. Of the blood donors, 5% had history of previous sexually transmitted

  15. Modelling and simulation of blood collection systems: improvement of human resources allocation for better cost-effectiveness and reduction of candidate donor abandonment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso, E; Xie, X; Augusto, V; Garraud, O

    2013-04-01

    This study addresses the modelling and simulation of blood collection for fixed blood collection sites in a medium-sized large French city, as well as mobile blood collection in urban and rural environments. Formal Petri net models were used to describe all relevant donor flows of the various blood collection systems; the Petri net models were converted onto discrete-event simulation models, allowing the evaluation of a large number of scenarios and configurations of blood collection systems. Quantitative models were proposed that encompassed all components of the blood collection systems, such as the donor arrival process, resource capacities and performance indicators. Appropriate experimental designs and cost-effectiveness analyses were used to determine the best configurations of human resources and donor appointment strategies. The donor service level depended on both adequate human resources capacity and appropriate appointment strategies. These decisions depend on the distribution during the day of walk-in donors. Models permit to improve management of blood collection; they have now partially entered the real situation, awaiting further implementation. © 2012 The Author(s). Vox Sanguinis © 2012 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  16. Human Platelet Antigen Alleles in 998 Taiwanese Blood Donors Determined by Sequence-Specific Primer Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun-Chung Pai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymorphism of human platelet antigens (HPAs leads to alloimmunizations and immune-mediated platelet disorders including fetal-neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT, posttransfusion purpura (PTP, and platelet transfusion refractoriness (PTR. HPA typing and knowledge of antigen frequency in a population are important in particular for the provision of HPA-matched blood components for patients with PTR. We have performed allele genotyping for HPA-1 through -6 and -15 among 998 platelet donors from 6 blood centers in Taiwan using sequence-specific primer polymerase chain reaction. The HPA allele frequency was 99.55, and 0.45% for HPA-1a and -1b; 96.49, and 3.51% for HPA-2a and -2b; 55.81, and 44.19% for HPA-3a and -3b; 99.75, and 0.25% for HPA-4a and -4b; 98.50, and 1.50% for HPA-5a and -5b; 97.75 and 2.25% for HPA-6a and -6b; 53.71 and 46.29% for HPA-15a and -15b. HPA-15b and HPA-3a, may be considered the most important, followed by HPA-2, -6, -1, -5, and -4 systems, as a cause of FNAIT, PTP, and PTR based on allele frequency. HPA-4b and HPA-5b role cannot be excluded based on their immunogenicity. A larger-scale study will now be conducted to confirm these hypotheses and to establish an apheresis donor database for the procurement of HPA-matched apheresis platelets for patients with PTR.

  17. Chondrogenic differentiation of human subchondral progenitor cells is affected by synovial fluid from donors with osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krüger Jan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microfracture is a first-line treatment option for cartilage repair. In microfracture, subchondral mesenchymal cortico-spongious progenitor cells (CSP enter the defect and form cartilage repair tissue. The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of joint disease conditions on the in vitro chondrogenesis of human CSP. Methods CSP were harvested from the subchondral bone marrow. CSP characterization was performed by analysis of cell surface antigen pattern and by assessing the chondrogenic, osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation potential, histologically. To assess the effect of synovial fluid (SF on chondrogenesis of CSP, micro-masses were stimulated with SF from healthy (ND, osteoarthritis (OA and rheumatoid arthritis donors (RA without transforming growth factor beta 3. Results CSP showed the typical cell surface antigen pattern known from mesenchymal stem cells and were capable of osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic differentiation. In micro-masses stimulated with SF, histological staining as well as gene expression analysis of typical chondrogenic marker genes showed that SF from ND and OA induced the chondrogenic marker genes aggrecan, types II and IX collagen, cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP and link protein, compared to controls not treated with SF. In contrast, the supplementation with SF from RA donors decreased the expression of aggrecan, type II collagen, COMP and link protein, compared to CSP treated with SF from ND or OA. Conclusion These results suggest that in RA, SF may impair cartilage repair by subchondral mesenchymal progenitor cells in microfracture, while in OA, SF may has no negative, but a delaying effect on the cartilage matrix formation.

  18. Bisphenol S Induces Adipogenesis in Primary Human Preadipocytes From Female Donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Jonathan G; Ahmed, Shaimaa; Atlas, Ella

    2016-04-01

    Human exposure to bisphenol A has been associated with negative health outcomes in humans and its use is now regulated in a number of countries. Bisphenol S (BPS) is increasingly used as a replacement for bisphenol A; however, its effects on cellular metabolism and potential role as an endocrine disruptor have not been fully characterized. In the current study, we evaluated the effect of BPS on adipogenesis in primary human preadipocytes. The effect of BPS on the differentiation of human preadipocytes was determined after treatment with BPS at concentrations ranging from 0.1 nM to 25 μM by quantifying lipid accumulation and mRNA and protein levels of key adipogenic markers. Treatment of preadipocytes with 25 μM BPS induced lipid accumulation and increased the mRNA and protein levels of several adipogenic markers including lipoprotein lipase and adipocyte protein 2 (aP2). Cotreatment of cells with the estrogen receptor antagonist ICI-182,780 significantly inhibited BPS-induced lipid accumulation and affected aP2 but not lipoprotein lipase protein levels. Cotreatment of cells with the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist RU486 had no effect on BPS-induced lipid accumulation or protein levels. Furthermore, reporter gene assays using a synthetic promoter containing peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARG)-response elements and a PPARG-responsive human aP2 promoter region showed that BPS was able to activate PPARG. To our knowledge, this study is the first to show that BPS induces lipid accumulation and differentiation of primary human preadipocytes, and this effect may be mediated through a PPARG pathway.

  19. Religion, human rights and democratisation : A mapping of faith-based organisations and donor initiatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartelink, Brenda; Petersen, Marie; Christiansen, Catrine

    2015-01-01

    This research report was commissioned by the Swedish Agency for International Development and carried out by the Danish Institute for Human Rights, the Nordic Consulting Group and the Knowledge Centre Religion and Development. The internal report was informed by literature analysis, document

  20. The Human Figure Drawing with Donor and Nondonor Siblings of Pediatric Bone Marrow Transplant Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packman, Wendy L.; Beck, Vanessa L.; VanZutphen, Kelly H.; Long, Janet K.; Spengler, Gisele

    2003-01-01

    There is little research on the psychological impact of bone marrow transplantation (BMT) on family members. This study uses the Human Figure Drawing (HFD) to measure siblings' emotional distress toward BMT. Among the siblings, feelings of isolation, anger, depression, anxiety, and low self-esteem emerged as major themes. Findings indicate the…

  1. Religion, human rights and democratisation : A mapping of faith-based organisations and donor initiatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartelink, Brenda; Petersen, Marie; Christiansen, Catrine

    2015-01-01

    This research report was commissioned by the Swedish Agency for International Development and carried out by the Danish Institute for Human Rights, the Nordic Consulting Group and the Knowledge Centre Religion and Development. The internal report was informed by literature analysis, document analysi

  2. The period length of fibroblast circadian gene expression varies widely among human individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven A Brown

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Mammalian circadian behavior is governed by a central clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the brain hypothalamus, and its intrinsic period length is believed to affect the phase of daily activities. Measurement of this period length, normally accomplished by prolonged subject observation, is difficult and costly in humans. Because a circadian clock similar to that of the suprachiasmatic nucleus is present in most cell types, we were able to engineer a lentiviral circadian reporter that permits characterization of circadian rhythms in single skin biopsies. Using it, we have determined the period lengths of 19 human individuals. The average value from all subjects, 24.5 h, closely matches average values for human circadian physiology obtained in studies in which circadian period was assessed in the absence of the confounding effects of light input and sleep-wake cycle feedback. Nevertheless, the distribution of period lengths measured from biopsies from different individuals was wider than those reported for circadian physiology. A similar trend was observed when comparing wheel-running behavior with fibroblast period length in mouse strains containing circadian gene disruptions. In mice, inter-individual differences in fibroblast period length correlated with the period of running-wheel activity; in humans, fibroblasts from different individuals showed widely variant circadian periods. Given its robustness, the presented procedure should permit quantitative trait mapping of human period length.

  3. Biological character of human adipose-derived adult stem cells and influence of donor age on cell replication in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Lei; Liao, WeiMing; Sheng, PuYi; Fu, Ming; He, AiShan; Huang, Gang

    2007-06-01

    To investigate the biological character of human adipose-derived adult stem cells (hADAS cells) when cultured in vitro and the relationship between hADAS cell's replication activity and the donor's age factor, and to assess the stem cells as a new source for tissue engineering. hADAS cells are isolated from human adipose tissue of different age groups (from adolescents to olds: 61 years old groups). The protein markers (CD29, CD34, CD44, CD45, CD49d, HLA-DR, CD106) of hADAS cells were detected by flow cytometry (FCM) to identify the stem cell, and the cell cycle was examined for P20 hADAS cells to evaluate the safety of the subculture in vitro. The generative activity of hADAS cells in different age groups was also examined by MTT method. The formula "TD = t x log2/logNt - logN0" was used to get the time doubling (TD) of the cells. The results showed that the cells kept heredity stabilization by chromosome analysis for at least 20 passages. The TD of these cells increased progressively by ageing, and the TD of the 61 years old group (statistical analysis of variance (ANOVA), P=0.002, PhADAS cells replication activity was found in the younger donators, and they represent novel and valuable seed cells for studies of tissue engineering.

  4. Detecting memory and structure in human navigation patterns using Markov chain models of varying order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Philipp; Helic, Denis; Taraghi, Behnam; Strohmaier, Markus

    2014-01-01

    One of the most frequently used models for understanding human navigation on the Web is the Markov chain model, where Web pages are represented as states and hyperlinks as probabilities of navigating from one page to another. Predominantly, human navigation on the Web has been thought to satisfy the memoryless Markov property stating that the next page a user visits only depends on her current page and not on previously visited ones. This idea has found its way in numerous applications such as Google's PageRank algorithm and others. Recently, new studies suggested that human navigation may better be modeled using higher order Markov chain models, i.e., the next page depends on a longer history of past clicks. Yet, this finding is preliminary and does not account for the higher complexity of higher order Markov chain models which is why the memoryless model is still widely used. In this work we thoroughly present a diverse array of advanced inference methods for determining the appropriate Markov chain order. We highlight strengths and weaknesses of each method and apply them for investigating memory and structure of human navigation on the Web. Our experiments reveal that the complexity of higher order models grows faster than their utility, and thus we confirm that the memoryless model represents a quite practical model for human navigation on a page level. However, when we expand our analysis to a topical level, where we abstract away from specific page transitions to transitions between topics, we find that the memoryless assumption is violated and specific regularities can be observed. We report results from experiments with two types of navigational datasets (goal-oriented vs. free form) and observe interesting structural differences that make a strong argument for more contextual studies of human navigation in future work.

  5. The impact of outsourcing on investments in firm-specific human capital under varying contract regimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bråd Nielsen, Lars

    knowledge and skills, thus requiring continuous updating of employee competences. This paper develops a two-period agency model to show how the threat of layoff (outsourcing of job tasks to a third party supplier) can help a company trigger or ease employee investments in .firm-speci.c human capital...... by creating explicit career concerns for the individual employee. Results are provided under long-term as well as short-term contracting regimes. In particular, the paper has relevance for companies operating under short-term contracting where investments in fi.rm-speci.c human capital might be profi.table...

  6. Human Instruments: Accessible Musical Instruments for People with Varied Physical Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matossian, Vahakn; Gehlhaar, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    There are few ways in which persons, who do not have the use of their hands or arms, are able make music or control complex computer systems. Music as an expressive output is key to the full development of the human mind. Human Instruments is dedicated to the development and production of accessible musical instruments playable at a professional level, as well as computer control interfaces. We are currently user-testing three new, uniquely accessible devices, for their effectiveness in expressive music creation. Preliminary results are compelling.

  7. Research-Focused Isolation of Human Islets From Donors With and Without Diabetes at the Alberta Diabetes Institute IsletCore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, James; Manning Fox, Jocelyn E; Spigelman, Aliya F; Kim, Ryekjang; Smith, Nancy; O'Gorman, Doug; Kin, Tatsuya; Shapiro, A M James; Rajotte, Raymond V; MacDonald, Patrick E

    2016-02-01

    Recent years have seen an increased focus on human islet biology, and exciting findings in the stem cell and genomic arenas highlight the need to define the key features of mature human islets and β-cells. Donor and organ procurement parameters impact human islet yield, although for research purposes islet yield may be secondary in importance to islet function. We examined the feasibility of a research-only human islet isolation, distribution, and biobanking program and whether key criteria such as cold ischemia time (CIT) and metabolic status may be relaxed and still allow successful research-focused isolations, including from donors with type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. Through 142 isolations over approximately 5 years, we confirm that CIT and glycated hemoglobin each have a weak negative impacts on isolation purity and yield, and extending CIT beyond the typical clinical isolation cutoff of 12 hours (to ≥ 18 h) had only a modest impact on islet function. Age and glycated hemoglobin/type 2 diabetes status negatively impacted secretory function; however, these and other biological (sex, body mass index) and procurement/isolation variables (CIT, time in culture) appear to make only a small contribution to the heterogeneity of human islet function. This work demonstrates the feasibility of extending acceptable CIT for research-focused human islet isolation and highlights the biological variation in function of human islets from donors with and without diabetes.

  8. Erythroid differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells is independent of donor cell type of origin

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetic memory in induced pluripotent stem cells, which is related to the somatic cell type of origin of the stem cells, might lead to variations in the differentiation capacities of the pluripotent stem cells. In this context, induced pluripotent stem cells from human CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells might be more suitable for hematopoietic differentiation than the commonly used fibroblast-derived induced pluripotent stem cells. To investigate the influence of an epigenetic memory on the ex...

  9. Erythroid differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells is independent of donor cell type of origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorn, Isabel; Klich, Katharina; Arauzo-Bravo, Marcos J; Radstaak, Martina; Santourlidis, Simeon; Ghanjati, Foued; Radke, Teja F; Psathaki, Olympia E; Hargus, Gunnar; Kramer, Jan; Einhaus, Martin; Kim, Jeong Beom; Kögler, Gesine; Wernet, Peter; Schöler, Hans R; Schlenke, Peter; Zaehres, Holm

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetic memory in induced pluripotent stem cells, which is related to the somatic cell type of origin of the stem cells, might lead to variations in the differentiation capacities of the pluripotent stem cells. In this context, induced pluripotent stem cells from human CD34(+) hematopoietic stem cells might be more suitable for hematopoietic differentiation than the commonly used fibroblast-derived induced pluripotent stem cells. To investigate the influence of an epigenetic memory on the ex vivo expansion of induced pluripotent stem cells into erythroid cells, we compared induced pluripotent stem cells from human neural stem cells and human cord blood-derived CD34(+) hematopoietic stem cells and evaluated their potential for differentiation into hematopoietic progenitor and mature red blood cells. Although genome-wide DNA methylation profiling at all promoter regions demonstrates that the epigenetic memory of induced pluripotent stem cells is influenced by the somatic cell type of origin of the stem cells, we found a similar hematopoietic induction potential and erythroid differentiation pattern of induced pluripotent stem cells of different somatic cell origin. All human induced pluripotent stem cell lines showed terminal maturation into normoblasts and enucleated reticulocytes, producing predominantly fetal hemoglobin. Differences were only observed in the growth rate of erythroid cells, which was slightly higher in the induced pluripotent stem cells derived from CD34(+) hematopoietic stem cells. More detailed methylation analysis of the hematopoietic and erythroid promoters identified similar CpG methylation levels in the induced pluripotent stem cell lines derived from CD34(+) cells and those derived from neural stem cells, which confirms their comparable erythroid differentiation potential.

  10. Representations of women milk donors on donations for the human milk bank

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda,Wanessa Debôrtoli de; Passos,Maria Cristina; Freitas,Maria Imaculada de Fátima; Bonolo,Palmira de Fátima

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Human milk banks (HMBs) have difficulty maintaining and increasing their stocks, and the number of women enrolling as members remains low. The present qualitative study, based on social representation theory, aimed to understand women’s representations of the milk donation experience. The data were collected through semi-structured interviews conducted in 2013. In total, 12 women aged 18 to 39 years old participated in the study. Most were primiparous, married or living with a ...

  11. Use of Ex Vivo Normothermic Perfusion for Quality Assessment of Discarded Human Donor Pancreases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, A D; Hamed, M O; Mallon, D H; Brais, R J; Gribble, F M; Scott, M A; Howat, W J; Bradley, J A; Bolton, E M; Pettigrew, G J; Hosgood, S A; Nicholson, M L; Saeb-Parsy, K

    2015-09-01

    A significant number of pancreases procured for transplantation are deemed unsuitable due to concerns about graft quality and the associated risk of complications. However, this decision is subjective and some declined grafts may be suitable for transplantation. Ex vivo normothermic perfusion (EVNP) prior to transplantation may allow a more objective assessment of graft quality and reduce discard rates. We report ex vivo normothermic perfusion of human pancreases procured but declined for transplantation, with ABO-compatible warm oxygenated packed red blood cells for 1-2 h. Five declined human pancreases were assessed using this technique after a median cold ischemia time of 13 h 19 min. One pancreas, with cold ischemia over 30 h, did not appear viable and was excluded. In the remaining pancreases, blood flow and pH were maintained throughout perfusion. Insulin secretion was observed in all four pancreases, but was lowest in an older donation after cardiac death pancreas. Amylase levels were highest in a gland with significant fat infiltration. This is the first study to assess the perfusion, injury, as measured by amylase, and exocrine function of human pancreases using EVNP and demonstrates the feasibility of the approach, although further refinements are required.

  12. Human T-Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 and 2 Seroprevalence among first-time blood donors in Chile, 2011-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Martín, Héctor; Balanda, Monserrat; Vergara, Nicolás; Valenzuela, María Antonieta; Cartier, Luis; Ayala, Salvador; Ramírez, Eugenio

    2016-06-01

    Infection with human T-lymphotropic virus type 1/2 (HTLV-1/2) is a major health problem. HTLV-1/2 infection is endemic in Chile but representative donor prevalence data are lacking. Data on all blood donors in a large network of Chilean blood centers were examined during 2011-2013. Screening of HTLV-1/2 antibodies were measured by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) at all blood banks. Blood samples with anticoagulants from initially reactive blood donors were analyzed by serological confirmation tests (immunofluorescence or recombinant immunoblot) at the HTLV National Reference Laboratory of the Public Health Institute of Chile. Additionally, detection of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 provirus in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was performed in all blood donors as confirmatory test. Prevalence rates were calculated. Among 694,016 donors, 706 were seropositive for HTLV-1 (prevalence, 1.02 cases per 1,000; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.94-1.09), and 97 were seropositive for HTLV-2 (prevalence, 0.14 cases per 1,000; 95%CI, 0.11-0.17). Prevalence of HTLV-1 differed considerably by region, from 0.51 to 1.69 per 1,000. Prevalence of HTLV-2 was similar across the country (0.12-0.16). HTLV-1 prevalence was associated with female sex, older age, and residence in the north of Chile. HTVL-2 prevalence was associated with older age. The HTLV-1 prevalence among Chilean blood donors was relatively high and could be reduced by improving donor recruitment and selection in high prevalence areas. Blood center data may contribute to surveillance for HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 infections.

  13. Parameterization using Fourier series expansion of the diffuse reflectance of human skin to vary the concentration of the melanocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narea, J. Freddy; Muñoz, Aarón A.; Castro, Jorge; Muñoz, Rafael A.; Villalba, Caroleny E.; Martinez, María. F.; Bravo, Kelly D.

    2013-11-01

    Human skin has been studied in numerous investigations, given the interest in knowing information about physiology, morphology and chemical composition. These parameters can be determined using non invasively optical techniques in vivo, such as the diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The human skin color is determined by many factors, but primarily by the amount and distribution of the pigment melanin. The melanin is produced by the melanocytes in the basal layer of the epidermis. This research characterize the spectral response of the human skin using the coefficients of Fourier series expansion. Simulating the radiative transfer equation for the Monte Carlo method to vary the concentration of the melanocytes (fme) in a simplified model of human skin. It fits relating the Fourier series coefficient a0 with fme. Therefore it is possible to recover the skin biophysical parameter.

  14. Elevated Toll-Like Receptor-Induced CXCL8 Secretion in Human Blood Basophils from Allergic Donors Is Independent of Toll-Like Receptor Expression Levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Steiner

    Full Text Available Human blood basophils have recently gained interest in addition to their function as allergic effector cells. Previous work suggests the involvement of innate immune mechanisms in the development and exacerbation of allergic responses, which might be mediated by basophils. We assayed the expression levels of Toll-like receptor (TLR 1, 2, 4 and 6 on purified basophils from birch pollen-, house dust mite-, and non-allergic individuals. Additionally, we compared cytokine and chemokine secretion upon TLR stimulation in these basophil donor groups. Expression of TLR4 on the basophils of the allergic donor groups was decreased and CXCL8 secretion was elevated upon stimulation of TLR1/2 and TLR2/6 compared to the non-allergic donors. Decreased TLR expression and elevated CXCL8 secretion may represent possible mechanisms for aggravation of allergic symptoms in case of parasitic infection.

  15. Characterization of human primary chondrocytes of osteoarthritic cartilage at varying severity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Jing; YANG Zheng; CAO Yong-ping; GE Zi-gang

    2011-01-01

    Background There is a difficulty in evaluating the in vivo functionality of individual chondrocytes,and there is much heterogeneity among cartilage affected by osteoarthritis (OA).In this study,in vitro cultured chondrocytes harvested from varying stages of degeneration were studied as a projective model to further understand the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis.Methods Cartilage of varying degeneration of end-stage OA was harvested,while cell yield and matrix glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content were measured.Cell morphology,proliferation,and gene expression of collagen type Ⅰ,Ⅱ,and Ⅹ,aggrecan,matrix metalloproteinase 13 (MMP-13),and ADAMTS5 of the acquired chondrocytes were measured during subsequent in vitro culture.Results Both the number of cells and the GAG content increased with increasing severity of OA.Cell spreading area increased and gradually showed spindle-like morphology during in vitro culture.Gene expression of collagen type Ⅱ,collagen type X as well as GAG decreased with severity of cartilage degeneration,while expression of collagen type Ⅰ increased.Expression of MMP-13 increased with severity of cartilage degeneration,while expression of ADAMTS-5 remained stable.Expression of collagen type Ⅱ,X,GAG,and MMP-13 substantially decreased with in vitro culture.Expression of collagen type Ⅰ increased with in vitro cultures,while expression of ADAMTS 5 remained stable.Conclusions Expression of functional genes such as collagen type Ⅱ and GAG decreased during severe degeneration of OA cartilage and in vitro dedifferentiation.Gene expression of collagen Ⅰ and MMP-13 increased with severity of cartilage degeneration.

  16. Desperately seeking donors: the 'saviour sibling' decision in Quintavalle v Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (UK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, Barbara Ann; Guy, Scott

    2005-08-01

    The recent House of Lords decision in Quintavalle v Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority has raised difficult and complex issues regarding the extent to which embryo selection and reproductive technology can be used as a means of rectifying genetic disorders and treating critically ill children. This comment outlines the facts of Quintavalle and explores how the House of Lords approached the legal, ethical and policy issues that arose out of the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority's (UK) decision to allow reproductive and embryo technology to be used to produce a 'saviour sibling' whose tissue could be used to save the life of a critically ill child. Particular attention will be given to the implications of the decision in Quintavalle for Australian family and medical law and policy. As part of this focus, the comment explores the current Australian legislative and policy framework regarding the use of genetic and reproductive technology as a mechanism through which to assist critically ill siblings. It is argued that the present Australian framework would appear to impose significant limits on the medical uses of genetic technology and, in this context, would seem to reflect many of the principles that were articulated by the House of Lords in Quintavalle.

  17. Efficient modification of CCR5 in primary human hematopoietic cells using a megaTAL nuclease and AAV donor template.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sather, Blythe D; Romano Ibarra, Guillermo S; Sommer, Karen; Curinga, Gabrielle; Hale, Malika; Khan, Iram F; Singh, Swati; Song, Yumei; Gwiazda, Kamila; Sahni, Jaya; Jarjour, Jordan; Astrakhan, Alexander; Wagner, Thor A; Scharenberg, Andrew M; Rawlings, David J

    2015-09-30

    Genetic mutations or engineered nucleases that disrupt the HIV co-receptor CCR5 block HIV infection of CD4(+) T cells. These findings have motivated the engineering of CCR5-specific nucleases for application as HIV therapies. The efficacy of this approach relies on efficient biallelic disruption of CCR5, and the ability to efficiently target sequences that confer HIV resistance to the CCR5 locus has the potential to further improve clinical outcomes. We used RNA-based nuclease expression paired with adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated delivery of a CCR5-targeting donor template to achieve highly efficient targeted recombination in primary human T cells. This method consistently achieved 8 to 60% rates of homology-directed recombination into the CCR5 locus in T cells, with over 80% of cells modified with an MND-GFP expression cassette exhibiting biallelic modification. MND-GFP-modified T cells maintained a diverse repertoire and engrafted in immune-deficient mice as efficiently as unmodified cells. Using this method, we integrated sequences coding chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) into the CCR5 locus, and the resulting targeted CAR T cells exhibited antitumor or anti-HIV activity. Alternatively, we introduced the C46 HIV fusion inhibitor, generating T cell populations with high rates of biallelic CCR5 disruption paired with potential protection from HIV with CXCR4 co-receptor tropism. Finally, this protocol was applied to adult human mobilized CD34(+) cells, resulting in 15 to 20% homologous gene targeting. Our results demonstrate that high-efficiency targeted integration is feasible in primary human hematopoietic cells and highlight the potential of gene editing to engineer T cell products with myriad functional properties.

  18. The strength of intron donor splice sites in human genes displays a bell-shaped pattern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Kai; Wernersson, Rasmus; Brunak, Søren

    2011-01-01

    MOTIVATION: The gene concept has recently changed from the classical one protein notion into a much more diverse picture, where overlapping or fused transcripts, alternative transcription initiation, and genes within genes, add to the complexity generated by alternative splicing. Increased...... understanding of the mechanisms controlling pre-mRNA splicing is thus important for a wide range of aspects relating to gene expression. RESULTS: We have discovered a convex gene delineating pattern in the strength of 5' intron splice sites. When comparing the strengths of >18 000 intron containing Human genes......, we found that when analysing them separately according to the number of introns they contain, initial splice sites were always stronger on average than subsequent ones, and that a similar reversed trend exist towards the terminal gene part. The convex pattern is strongest for genes with up to 10...

  19. Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas fluorescens Species Group Recovery from Human Homes Varies Seasonally and by Environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna K Remold

    Full Text Available By shedding light on variation in time as well as in space, long-term biogeographic studies can help us define organisms' distribution patterns and understand their underlying drivers. Here we examine distributions of Pseudomonas in and around 15 human homes, focusing on the P. putida and P. fluorescens species groups. We describe recovery from 10,941 samples collected during up to 8 visits per home, occurring on average 2.6 times per year. We collected a mean of 141 samples per visit, from sites in most rooms of the house, from the surrounding yards, and from human and pet occupants. We recovered Pseudomonas in 9.7% of samples, with the majority of isolates being from the P. putida and P. fluorescens species groups (approximately 62% and 23% of Pseudomonas samples recovered respectively. Although representatives of both groups were recovered from every season, every house, and every type of environment sampled, recovery was highly variable across houses and samplings. Whereas recovery of P. putida group was higher in summer and fall than in winter and spring, P. fluorescens group isolates were most often recovered in spring. P. putida group recovery from soils was substantially higher than its recovery from all other environment types, while higher P. fluorescens group recovery from soils than from other sites was much less pronounced. Both species groups were recovered from skin and upper respiratory tract samples from healthy humans and pets, although this occurred infrequently. This study indicates that even species that are able to survive under a broad range of conditions can be rare and variable in their distributions in space and in time. For such groups, determining patterns and causes of stochastic and seasonal variability may be more important for understanding the processes driving their biogeography than the identity of the types of environments in which they can be found.

  20. Donor Tag Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Donor Community > Games > Donor Tag Game Donor Tag Game This feature requires version 6 or later of ... of Needles LGBTQ+ Donors Blood Donor Community SleevesUp Games Facebook Avatars and Badges Banners eCards Make a ...

  1. Tactile spatial acuity varies with site and axis in the human upper limb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cody, Frederick W J; Garside, Rebecca A D; Lloyd, Donna; Poliakoff, Ellen

    2008-03-12

    Historically, beginning with Weber's [E.H. Weber, On the sensitivity of the tactile senses, in: H.E. Ross, D.J. Murray (Eds. and Trans.), E.H. Weber on the Tactile Senses, Erlbaum (UK) Taylor & Francis, Hove, 1996 (Original work published in 1834), pp. 21-136] classical studies, regional variations in the accuracy of localisation of tactile stimuli applied to a limb have been recognised. However, important questions remain concerning both the map of localisation resolution and its neuroscientific basis since methodological confounds have militated against an unambiguous, unified interpretation of the diverse findings. To test the hypotheses that localisation precision on the upper limb varies with site (hand, wrist, forearm) and limb axis (transverse, longitudinal), regional differences in locognosic acuity were quantified in psychophysical experiments. Participants identified the perceived direction (e.g. medial or lateral) relative to a central reference locus of brief tactile test stimuli applied to a cruciform array of loci. Acuity was greater in the transverse than longitudinal axis. This effect probably arises from the asymmetry of receptive fields of upper limb first-order sensory units and their higher-order projection neurons. Additionally, acuity was greater on the dorsal surface at the wrist than either the hand or forearm sites, in the longitudinal axis, supporting an enhancement of resolution at joints (anchor points). This effect may contribute to improved proprioceptive guidance of active wrist movements.

  2. Assessment of metal contamination in the biota of four rivers experiencing varying degrees of human impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielmyer-Fraser, Gretchen K; Waters, Matthew Neal; Duckworth, Christina G; Patel, Pratik P; Webster, Benjamin Cole; Blocker, Amber; Crummey, Cliff Hunter; Duncan, Aundrea Nicole; Nwokike, Somuayiro Nadia; Picariello, Codie Richard; Ragan, James T; Schumacher, Erika L; Tucker, Rebecca Lea; Tuttle, Elizabeth Ann; Wiggins, Charlie Rufus

    2017-01-01

    Urbanization, agriculture, and other land transformations can affect water quality, decrease species biodiversity, and increase metal and nutrient concentrations in aquatic systems. Metal pollution, in particular, is a reported consequence of elevated anthropogenic inputs, especially from urbanized areas. The objectives of this study were to quantify metal (Cu, Al, Cd, Ni, and Pb) concentrations in the waters and biota of four streams in South Georgia, USA, and relate metal concentrations to land use and abiotic and biotic stream processes. Additionally, macrophytes, invertebrates, and fish were identified to assess biodiversity at each site. Metal concentrations in the three trophic levels differed among sites and species, correlating to differences in land use surrounding the rivers. The highest metal concentrations (except Al) were found in the streams most impacted by urbanization and development. Al concentrations were highest in streams surrounded by land dominated by forested areas. Metal content in macrophytes reflected metal concentrations in the water and was at least three orders of magnitude higher than any other trophic level. Despite metal concentration differences, all four streams contained similar water quality and were healthy based on macroinvertebrate community structure. This study provides insight into the impact of urbanization and the fate and effects of metals in river ecosystems with varying degrees of anthropogenic impact.

  3. Remote sensing captures varying temporal patterns of vegetation between human-altered and natural landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Misha; Roderick, George K

    2015-01-01

    Global change has led to shifts in phenology, potentially disrupting species interactions such as plant-pollinator relationships. Advances in remote sensing techniques allow one to detect vegetation phenological diversity between different land use types, but it is not clear how this translates to other communities in the ecosystem. Here, we investigated the phenological diversity of the vegetation across a human-altered landscape including urban, agricultural, and natural land use types. We found that the patterns of change in the vegetation indices (EVI and NDVI) of human-altered landscapes are out of synchronization with the phenology in neighboring natural California grassland habitat. Comparing these findings to a spatio-temporal pollinator distribution dataset, EVI and NDVI were significant predictors of total bee abundance, a relationship that improved with time lags. This evidence supports the importance of differences in temporal dynamics between land use types. These findings also highlight the potential to utilize remote sensing data to make predictions for components of biodiversity that have tight vegetation associations, such as pollinators.

  4. Andes virus infections in the rodent reservoir and in humans vary across contrasting landscapes in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Pérez, Fernando; Palma, R. Eduardo; Hjelle, Brian; Ferres, Marcela; Cook, Joseph A.

    2009-01-01

    Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) is an emerging infectious disease first reported in Chile in 1995. Andes hantavirus (ANDV) is responsible for the more than 500 cases of HCPS reported in Chile. Previous work showed that ANDV is genetically differentiated in Chile across contrasting landscapes. To determine whether the reservoir rodent (Oligoryzomys longicaudatus) populations are also geographically segregated, we conducted range-wide spatial genetic analyses of O. longicaudatus in Chile using the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b gene. Given that landscape structure influences the incidence of hantavirus infections, we also tested 772 O. longicaudatus specimens for antibodies to ANDV captured during the period 2000 − 2006. Population genetic analyses of O. longicaudatus are largely congruent with those reported for ANDV, with the host primarily differentiated according to three defined ecoregions, Mediterranean, Valdivian rain forest and North Patagonian rain forest. Significant differences in the relative prevalence of anti-ANDV antibodies in rodent samples also were found across the three ecoregions. We relate these results to the number of reported human HCPS cases in Chile, and discuss the importance of landscape differences in light of ANDV transmission to humans and among rodent populations. PMID:19632357

  5. Remote sensing captures varying temporal patterns of vegetation between human-altered and natural landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misha Leong

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Global change has led to shifts in phenology, potentially disrupting species interactions such as plant–pollinator relationships. Advances in remote sensing techniques allow one to detect vegetation phenological diversity between different land use types, but it is not clear how this translates to other communities in the ecosystem. Here, we investigated the phenological diversity of the vegetation across a human-altered landscape including urban, agricultural, and natural land use types. We found that the patterns of change in the vegetation indices (EVI and NDVI of human-altered landscapes are out of synchronization with the phenology in neighboring natural California grassland habitat. Comparing these findings to a spatio-temporal pollinator distribution dataset, EVI and NDVI were significant predictors of total bee abundance, a relationship that improved with time lags. This evidence supports the importance of differences in temporal dynamics between land use types. These findings also highlight the potential to utilize remote sensing data to make predictions for components of biodiversity that have tight vegetation associations, such as pollinators.

  6. A robot safety experiment varying robot speed and contrast with human decision cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etherton, J; Sneckenberger, J E

    1990-09-01

    An industrial robot safety experiment was performed to find out how quickly subjects responded to an unexpected robot motion at different speeds of the robot arm, and how frequently they failed to detect a motion that should have been detected. Robotics technicians risk being fatally injured if a robot should trap them against a fixed object. The value of the experimentation lies in its ability to show that this risk can be reduced by a design change. If the robot is moving at a slow speed, during programming and troubleshooting tasks, then the worker has sufficient time to actuate an emergency stop device before the robot can reach the person. The dependent variable in the experiment was the overrun distance (beyond an expected stopping point) that a robot arm travelled before a person actuated a stop pushbutton. Results of this experiment demonstrated that the speed of the robot arm and the implied decision cost for hitting an emergency stop button had a significant effect on human reaction time. At a fairly high level of ambient lighting (560 lux), fixed-level changes in the luminance contrast between the robot arm and its background did not significantly affect human reaction time.

  7. Possible benefits of tomato juice consumption: a pilot study on irradiated human lymphocytes from healthy donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Ayumi; Itaki, Chieko; Saito, Ayako; Yonezawa, Toko; Aizawa, Koichi; Hirai, Ayumi; Suganuma, Hiroyuki; Miura, Tomisato; Mariya, Yasushi; Haghdoost, Siamak

    2017-05-12

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediate much of the DNA damage caused by ionizing radiation. Among carotenoids, lycopene and β-carotene, present in tomato juice, are known to be strong radical scavengers. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of tomato juice intake on the levels of DNA damage and oxidative stress in human whole blood induced by in vitro exposure to X-rays. Ten healthy adults were asked to drink 190 g of tomato juice, containing 17 mg lycopene and 0.25 mg β-carotene, per day for 3 weeks and then refrain from drinking it for 3 weeks. Peripheral whole blood samples were collected before and after the intake period of tomato juice and after the washout period. The blood samples were exposed in vitro to X-ray doses of 0, 0.1, 0.5, and 2 Gy. Cytogenetic damage was measured using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay and the dicentrics (DIC) assay. The level of oxidative stress was determined using serum 8-oxo-7, 8-dihydro-2-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG) and plasma reactive oxygen metabolite-derived compounds (d-ROMs). The concentration of carotenoids in plasma was measured at the three time points. The levels of 8-oxo-dG tended to decrease during the intake period and increase during the washout period. A non-significant inverse correlation was noted between the plasma concentration of lycopene plus β-carotene and the level of 8-oxo-dG (P = 0.064). The radiation-induced MN and DIC frequencies increased in a dose-dependent manner, and when compared at the same dose, the MN and DIC frequencies decreased during the intake period compared with those at baseline and then increased during the washout period. The results suggest that continuous tomato juice consumption non-significantly decreases extracellular 8-oxo-dG, d-ROMs, and MN. Tomato juice intake had minimal or no effect on radiation-induced 8-oxo-dG and d-ROMs. For most radiation doses, continuously tomato juice intake lowered the levels of MN and DIC. Tomato juice

  8. Efficient CRISPR/Cas9-Mediated Versatile, Predictable, and Donor-Free Gene Knockout in Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongliang Liu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Loss-of-function studies in human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs require efficient methodologies for lesion of genes of interest. Here, we introduce a donor-free paired gRNA-guided CRISPR/Cas9 knockout strategy (paired-KO for efficient and rapid gene ablation in hPSCs. Through paired-KO, we succeeded in targeting all genes of interest with high biallelic targeting efficiencies. More importantly, during paired-KO, the cleaved DNA was repaired mostly through direct end joining without insertions/deletions (precise ligation, and thus makes the lesion product predictable. The paired-KO remained highly efficient for one-step targeting of multiple genes and was also efficient for targeting of microRNA, while for long non-coding RNA over 8 kb, cleavage of a short fragment of the core promoter region was sufficient to eradicate downstream gene transcription. This work suggests that the paired-KO strategy is a simple and robust system for loss-of-function studies for both coding and non-coding genes in hPSCs.

  9. Differential reduction of reactive oxygen species by human tissuespecific mesenchymal stem cells from different donors under oxidative stress

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SWATI PALIWAL; ANUPAMA KAKKAR; RINKEY SHARMA; BALRAM AIRAN; SUJATA MOHANTY

    2017-09-01

    Clinical trials using human Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) have shown promising results in the treatment of variousdiseases. Different tissue sources, such as bone marrow, adipose tissue, dental pulp and umbilical cord, are being routinelyused in regenerative medicine. MSCs are known to reduce increased oxidative stress levels in pathophysiological conditions.Differences in the ability of MSCs from different donors and tissues to ameliorate oxidative damage have not beenreported yet. In this study, for the first time, we investigated the differences in the reactive oxygen species (ROS) reductionabilities of tissue-specific MSCs to mitigate cellular damage in oxidative stress. Hepatic Stellate cells (LX-2) and cardiomyocyteswere treated with Antimycin A (AMA) to induce oxidative stress and tissue specific MSCs were co-cultured tostudy the reduction in ROS levels. We found that both donor’s age and source of tissue affected the ability of MSCs toreduce increased ROS levels in damaged cells. In addition, the abilities of same MSCs differed in LX-2 and cardiomyocytesin terms of magnitude of reduction of ROS, suggesting that the type of recipient cells should be kept in consideration whenusing MSCs in regenerative medicine for treatment purposes.

  10. The Effect of Holder Pasteurization on Nutrients and Biologically-Active Components in Donor Human Milk: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peila, Chiara; Moro, Guido E; Bertino, Enrico; Cavallarin, Laura; Giribaldi, Marzia; Giuliani, Francesca; Cresi, Francesco; Coscia, Alessandra

    2016-08-02

    When a mother's milk is unavailable, the best alternative is donor milk (DM). Milk delivered to Human Milk Banks should be pasteurized in order to inactivate the microbial agents that may be present. Currently, pasteurization, performed at 62.5 °C for 30 min (Holder Pasteurization, HoP), is recommended for this purpose in international guidelines. Several studies have been performed to investigate the effects of HoP on the properties of DM. The present paper has the aim of reviewing the published papers on this topic, and to provide a comparison of the reported variations of biologically-active DM components before and after HoP. This review was performed by searching the MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINHAL and Cochrane Library databases. Studies that clearly identified the HoP parameters and compared the same DM samples, before and after pasteurization, were focused on. A total of 44 articles satisfied the above criteria, and were therefore selected. The findings from the literature report variable results. A possible explanation for this may be the heterogeneity of the test protocols that were applied. Moreover, the present review spans more than five decades, and modern pasteurizers may be able to modify the degradation kinetics for heat-sensitive substances, compared to older ones. Overall, the data indicate that HoP affects several milk components, although it is difficult to quantify the degradation degree. However, clinical practices demonstrate that many beneficial properties of DM still persist after HoP.

  11. Culture of skeletal myoblasts from human donors aged over 40 years: dynamics of cell growth and expression of differentiation markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherubino Paolo

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Local myogenesis, neoangiogenesis and homing of progenitor cells from the bone marrow appear to contribute to repair of the infarcted myocardium. Implantation into heart tissues of autologous skeletal myoblasts has been associated with improved contractile function in animal models and in humans with acute myocardial ischemia. Since heart infarction is most prevalent in individuals of over 40 years of age, we tested whether culture methods available in our laboratory were adequate to obtain sufficient numbers of differentiated skeletal myoblasts from muscle biopsy specimens obtained from patients aged 41 to 91. Methods and results No matter of donor age, differentiated skeletal muscle cells could be produced in vitro in amounts adequate for cellular therapy (≥300 millions. Using desmin as a cytoplasmic marker, about 50% cultured cells were differentiated along myogenic lineages and expressed proteins proper of skeletal muscle (myosin type I and II, actin, actinin, spectrin and dystrophin. Cytogenetic alterations were not detected in cultured muscle cells that had undergone at least 10 population doublings. Molecular methods employed for the screening of persistent viral infections evidenced that HCV failed to replicate in muscle cells cultured from one patient with chronic HCV infection. Conclusion The proposed culture methods appear to hold promise for aged patients not only in the field of cardiovascular medicine, but also in the urologic and orthopedic fields.

  12. Production of intravenous human dengue immunoglobulin from Brazilian-blood donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Leite Gouveia

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Dengue represents an important health problem in Brazil and therefore there is a great need to develop a vaccine or treatment. The neutralization of the dengue virus by a specific antibody can potentially be applied to therapy. The present paper describes, for the first time, the preparation of Immunoglobulin specific for the dengue virus (anti-DENV IgG, collected from screened Brazilian blood-donations. Production was performed using the classic Cohn-Oncley process with minor modifications. The anti-DENV IgG was biochemically and biophysically characterized and fulfilled the requirements defined by the European Pharmacopoeia. The finished product was able to neutralize different virus serotypes (DENV-1, DENV-2, and DENV-3, while a commercial IgG collected from American blood donations was found to have low anti-dengue antibody titers. Overall, this anti-DENV IgG represents an important step in the study of the therapeutic potential and safety of a specific antibody that neutralizes the dengue virus in humans.

  13. Human Choice Strategy Varies with Anatomical Projections from Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex to Medial Striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piray, Payam; Toni, Ivan; Cools, Roshan

    2016-03-09

    Two distinct systems, goal-directed and habitual, support decision making. It has recently been hypothesized that this distinction may arise from two computational mechanisms, model-based and model-free reinforcement learning, neuronally implemented in frontostriatal circuits involved in learning and behavioral control. Here, we test whether the relative strength of anatomical connectivity within frontostriatal circuits accounts for variation in human individuals' reliance on model-based and model-free control. This hypothesis was tested by combining diffusion tensor imaging with a multistep decision task known to distinguish model-based and model-free control in humans. We found large interindividual differences in the degree of model-based control, and those differences are predicted by the structural integrity of white-matter tracts from the ventromedial prefrontal cortex to the medial striatum. Furthermore, an analysis based on masking out of bottom-up tracts suggests that this effect is driven by top-down influences from ventromedial prefrontal cortex to medial striatum. Our findings indicate that individuals with stronger afferences from the ventromedial prefrontal cortex to the medial striatum are more likely to rely on a model-based strategy to control their instrumental actions. These findings suggest a mechanism for instrumental action control through which medial striatum determines, at least partly, the relative contribution of model-based and model-free systems during decision-making according to top-down model-based information from the ventromedial prefrontal cortex. These findings have important implications for understanding the neural circuitry that might be susceptible to pathological computational processes in impulsive/compulsive psychiatric disorders.

  14. Pasteurization Procedures for Donor Human Milk Affect Body Growth, Intestinal Structure, and Resistance against Bacterial Infections in Preterm Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanqi; Nguyen, Duc Ninh; de Waard, Marita; Christensen, Lars; Zhou, Ping; Jiang, Pingping; Sun, Jing; Bojesen, Anders Miki; Lauridsen, Charlotte; Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Dalsgaard, Trine Kastrup; Bering, Stine Brandt; Sangild, Per Torp

    2017-06-01

    Background: Holder pasteurization (HP) destroys multiple bioactive factors in donor human milk (DM), and UV-C irradiation (UVC) is potentially a gentler method for pasteurizing DM for preterm infants.Objective: We investigated whether UVC-treated DM improves gut maturation and resistance toward bacterial infections relative to HP-treated DM.Methods: Bacteria, selected bioactive components, and markers of antioxidant capacity were measured in unpasteurized donor milk (UP), HP-treated milk, and UVC-treated milk (all from the same DM pool). Fifty-seven cesarean-delivered preterm pigs (91% gestation; ratio of males to females, 30:27) received decreasing volumes of parental nutrition (average 69 mL · kg(-1) · d(-1)) and increasing volumes of the 3 DM diets (n = 19 each, average 89 mL · kg(-1) · d(-1)) for 8-9 d. Body growth, gut structure and function, and systemic bacterial infection were evaluated.Results: A high bacterial load in the UP (6×10(5) colony forming units/mL) was eliminated similarly by HP and UVC treatments. Relative to HP-treated milk, both UVC-treated milk and UP showed greater activities of lipase and alkaline phosphatase and concentrations of lactoferrin, secretory immunoglobulin A, xanthine dehydrogenase, and some antioxidant markers (all P milk and pigs fed UP showed higher relative weight gain than pigs fed HP-treated milk (5.4% and 3.5%), and fewer pigs fed UVC-treated milk had positive bacterial cultures in the bone marrow (28%) than pigs fed HP-treated milk (68%) (P milk compared with those fed HP-treated milk as indicated by a higher plasma citrulline concentration (36%) and villus height (38%) (P milk than in pigs fed UP and those fed HP-treated milk in both cecum contents (20% and 10%) and distal intestinal mucosa (24% and 20%) (all P milk may induce better weight gain, intestinal health, and resistance against bacterial infections as shown in preterm pigs as a model for DM-fed preterm infants. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. Biological character of human adipose-derived adult stem cells and influence of donor age on cell replication in culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEI Lei; LIAO WeiMing; SHENG PuYi; FU Ming; HE AiShan; HUANG Gang

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the biological character of human adipose-derived adult stem cells (hADAS cells) when cultured in vitro and the relationship between hADAS cell's replication activity and the donor's age factor, and to assess the stem cells as a new source for tissue engineering, hADAS cells are isolated from human adipose tissue of different age groups (from adolescents to olds: <20 years old, 21-40years old, 41-60 years old and >61 years old groups). The protein markers (CD29, CD34, CD44, CD45,CD49d, HLA-DR, CD106) of hADAS cells were detected by flow cytometry (FCM) to identify the stem cell,and the cell cycle was examined for P20 hADAS cells to evaluate the safety of the subculture in vitro.The generative activity of hADAS cells in different age groups was also examined by MTT method. The formula "TD = t log2/logNt - logN0 "was used to get the time doubling (TD) of the cells. The results showed that the cells kept heredity stabilization by chromosome analysis for at least 20 passages. The TD of these cells increased progressively by ageing, and the TD of the <20 years old group was lower than that of the >61 years old group (statistical analysis of variance (ANOVA), P=-0.002, P<0.05). These findings suggested that a higher level of hADAS cells replication activity was found in the younger donators, and they represent novel and valuable seed cells for studies of tissue engineering.

  16. Modular use of human body models of varying levels of complexity: Validation of head kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, William; Koya, Bharath; Davis, Matthew L; Gayzik, F Scott

    2017-05-29

    The significant computational resources required to execute detailed human body finite-element models has motivated the development of faster running, simplified models (e.g., GHBMC M50-OS). Previous studies have demonstrated the ability to modularly incorporate the validated GHBMC M50-O brain model into the simplified model (GHBMC M50-OS+B), which allows for localized analysis of the brain in a fraction of the computation time required for the detailed model. The objective of this study is to validate the head and neck kinematics of the GHBMC M50-O and M50-OS (detailed and simplified versions of the same model) against human volunteer test data in frontal and lateral loading. Furthermore, the effect of modular insertion of the detailed brain model into the M50-OS is quantified. Data from the Navy Biodynamics Laboratory (NBDL) human volunteer studies, including a 15g frontal, 8g frontal, and 7g lateral impact, were reconstructed and simulated using LS-DYNA. A five-point restraint system was used for all simulations, and initial positions of the models were matched with volunteer data using settling and positioning techniques. Both the frontal and lateral simulations were run with the M50-O, M50-OS, and M50-OS+B with active musculature for a total of nine runs. Normalized run times for the various models used in this study were 8.4 min/ms for the M50-O, 0.26 min/ms for the M50-OS, and 0.97 min/ms for the M50-OS+B, a 32- and 9-fold reduction in run time, respectively. Corridors were reanalyzed for head and T1 kinematics from the NBDL studies. Qualitative evaluation of head rotational accelerations and linear resultant acceleration, as well as linear resultant T1 acceleration, showed reasonable results between all models and the experimental data. Objective evaluation of the results for head center of gravity (CG) accelerations was completed via ISO TS 18571, and indicated scores of 0.673 (M50-O), 0.638 (M50-OS), and 0.656 (M50-OS+B) for the 15g frontal impact

  17. Salivary agglutinin and lung scavenger receptor cysteine-rich glycoprotein 340 have broad anti-influenza activities and interactions with surfactant protein D that vary according to donor source and sialylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartshorn, Kevan L.; Ligtenberg, Antoon; White, Mitchell R.;

    2006-01-01

    from this donor as compared with salivary gp-340 from another donor or several preparations of lung gp-340. Hence, the specificity of sialic acid linkages on gp-340 is an important determinant of anti-IAV activity. Gp-340 binds to SP-D (surfactant protein D), and we previously showed that lung gp-340...... has co-operative interactions with SP-D in viral neutralization and aggregation assays. We now report that salivary gp-340 can, in some cases, strongly antagonize certain antiviral activities of SP-D. This effect was associated with greater binding of salivary gp-340 to the carbohydrate recognition...

  18. Recovery Rates of Human Fetal Skeletal Remains Using Varying Mesh Sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokines, James T; De La Paz, Jade S

    2016-01-01

    Human fetal skeletal elements of different gestational ages were screened with multiple mesh sizes (6.4 mm [1/4 inch], 3.2 mm [1/8 inch], 2.0 mm, and 1.0 mm) to determine their recovery rates. All remains were previously macerated, and no significantly damaged elements were used. The 6.4 mm mesh allowed a large loss of elements (63.2% overall), including diagnostic elements, while no diagnostic elements were lost when the 1 mm mesh (0.2%) was used. When using the 3.2 mm mesh, 16.2% of the bones were lost, including some diagnostic elements (primarily tooth crowns), while 7.5% were lost using the 2.0 mm mesh. The authors recommend that the potential loss of information incurred when utilizing larger mesh sizes be taken into consideration when planning recovery methods where fetal remains may be encountered and that a minimum of 1.0 mm mesh be utilized in recovery contexts known to include fetal remains. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  19. Effect of varied ionic calcium on human adipose-derived stem cell mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullen, Seth D; Zhan, Jackie; Onorato, Maureen L; Bernacki, Susan H; Loboa, Elizabeth G

    2010-06-01

    Human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) are a relatively abundant and accessible stem cell source with multilineage differentiation capability and have great potential for bone tissue engineering applications. The success of bone tissue engineering is intimately linked with the production of a mineralized matrix that mimics the natural mineral present within native bone. In this study, we examined the effects of ionic calcium levels of 1.8 (normal concentration in cell culture medium), 8, and 16 mM on hASCs seeded in both two-dimensional monolayer and three-dimensional electrospun scaffolds and cultured in either complete growth medium (CGM) or osteogenic differentiation medium (ODM). The impact of calcium supplementation on hASC viability, proliferation, and mineral deposition was determined. hASCs remained viable for all experimental treatments. hASC proliferation increased with the addition of 8 mM Ca(2+) CGM, but decreased for the 16 mM Ca(2+) CGM treatment. Materials deposited by hASCs were analyzed using four techniques: (1) histological staining with Alizarin Red S, (2) calcium quantification, (3) Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and (4) wide-angle X-ray diffraction. Mineral deposition was significantly enhanced under both growth and osteogenic medium conditions by increasing extracellular Ca(2+). The greatest mineral deposition occurred in the ODM 8 mM Ca(2+) treatment group. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis indicated that elevated calcium concentrations of 8 mM Ca(2+) significantly increased both PO(4) amount and PO(4) to protein ratio for ODM. X-ray diffraction indicated that mineral produced with elevated Ca(2+) in both CGM and ODM had a crystalline structure characteristic of hydroxyapatite. Ionic calcium should be considered a potent regulator in hASC mineralization and could serve as a potential treatment for inducing prompt ossification of hASC-seeded scaffolds for bone tissue engineering prior to implantation.

  20. Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus Types 1 and 2 Seropositivity among Blood Donors at Mbarara Regional Blood Bank, South Western Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchenna Tweteise, Patience; Natukunda, Bernard; Bazira, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Background. The human T-cell lymphotropic virus types 1 and 2 (HTLV 1/2) are retroviruses associated with different pathologies. HTLV-1 causes adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP); HTLV-2 is not clearly associated with a known clinical disease. Both viruses may be transmitted by whole blood transfusion, from mother to child predominantly through breastfeeding, and by sexual contact. Presently, none of the regional blood banks in Uganda perform routine pretransfusion screening for HTLV. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of anti-human T-cell lymphotropic virus types 1/2 (HTLV-1/2) antibodies among blood donors at Mbarara Regional Blood Bank in South Western Uganda. A cross-sectional study was conducted between June 2014 and September 2014. Methodology. Consecutive blood samples of 368 blood donors were screened for anti-HTLV-1/2 antibodies using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Samples reactive on a first HTLV-1/2 ELISA were further retested in duplicate using the same ELISA. Of the three hundred and sixty-eight blood donors (229 (62.2%) males and 139 (37.8%) females), only two male donors aged 20 and 21 years were HTLV-1/2 seropositive, representing a prevalence of 0.54%. Conclusion. HTLV-1/2 prevalence is low among blood donors at Mbarara Regional Blood Bank. Studies among other categories of people at risk for HTLV 1/2 infection should be carried out.

  1. Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus Types 1 and 2 Seropositivity among Blood Donors at Mbarara Regional Blood Bank, South Western Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patience Uchenna Tweteise

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The human T-cell lymphotropic virus types 1 and 2 (HTLV 1/2 are retroviruses associated with different pathologies. HTLV-1 causes adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP; HTLV-2 is not clearly associated with a known clinical disease. Both viruses may be transmitted by whole blood transfusion, from mother to child predominantly through breastfeeding, and by sexual contact. Presently, none of the regional blood banks in Uganda perform routine pretransfusion screening for HTLV. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of anti-human T-cell lymphotropic virus types 1/2 (HTLV-1/2 antibodies among blood donors at Mbarara Regional Blood Bank in South Western Uganda. A cross-sectional study was conducted between June 2014 and September 2014. Methodology. Consecutive blood samples of 368 blood donors were screened for anti-HTLV-1/2 antibodies using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Samples reactive on a first HTLV-1/2 ELISA were further retested in duplicate using the same ELISA. Of the three hundred and sixty-eight blood donors (229 (62.2% males and 139 (37.8% females, only two male donors aged 20 and 21 years were HTLV-1/2 seropositive, representing a prevalence of 0.54%. Conclusion. HTLV-1/2 prevalence is low among blood donors at Mbarara Regional Blood Bank. Studies among other categories of people at risk for HTLV 1/2 infection should be carried out.

  2. Normal Thymic Size and Low Rate of Infections in Human Donor Milk Fed HIV-Exposed Uninfected Infants from Birth to 18 Months of Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Dorthe Lisbeth; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Hoppe, Tine Ursula

    2013-01-01

    (P age had significantly fewer infections at 8 months when compared to age-matched formula-fed infants (P = 0.001). Conclusion. HIV-EU infants fed human donor milk have normal growth of thymus and contract......Objective. To evaluate the immune function in HIV-exposed uninfected (HIV-EU) infants fed human donor milk. Methods. Ultrasound-obtained thymic index (Ti), T-lymphocyte subsets, and the number of infections were examined from birth to 18 months of age in 18 HIV-EU infants. The infants were compared...... to a cohort of 47 term, HIV-unexposed breastfed or formula-fed infants. Results. The thymic size at 12 months of age was not significantly different between the HIV-EU group and the control infants (P = 0.56). At 4 months of age, the HIV-EU infants had significantly fewer infections than the control infants...

  3. Human Herpesvirus-6A/B Binds to Spermatozoa Acrosome and Is the Most Prevalent Herpesvirus in Semen from Sperm Donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaspersen, Maja Døvling; Larsen, Peter; Kofod-Olsen, Emil;

    2012-01-01

    ejaculate that was positive for one or more human herpesvirus. Of these 27.3% (n = 15) had a double herpesvirus infection. If corrected for the presence of multiple ejaculates from some donors, the adjusted frequency of herpesviruses in semen was 27.2% with HSV-1 in 0.4%; HSV-2 in 0.1%; EBV in 6.3%; HCMV...

  4. Effective use of frozen donor peripheral blood mononuclear cells for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolation from vertically infected pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, M O; Tetali, S; Pahwa, S

    1994-05-01

    In this study, we examined variables related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) isolation utilizing samples from 51 HIV-infected (153 plasma and 122 peripheral blood mononuclear cell [PBMC] samples) and 57 uninfected (182 plasma and 163 PBMC samples) infants. Our chief observation was that cryopreservation of donor PBMCs does not significantly alter their sensitivity or specificity for isolation of HIV from patient PBMCs or plasma.

  5. Two Cases of Human T-Lymphotropic Virus Type I-Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis Caused by Living-Donor Renal Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasutaka Tajima

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In rare instances, recipients of organ transplants from human T-lymphotropic virus type I- (HTLV-I- positive donors reportedly developed neurologic symptoms due to HTLV-I-associated myelopathy (HAM. We present herein two cases of HAM associated with renal transplantation from HTLV-I seropositive living-donors. The first patient was a 42-year-old woman with chronic renal failure for twelve years and seronegative for HTLV-I. She underwent renal transplantation with her HTLV-I seropositive mother as the donor, and she developed HAM three years after the transplantation. The second patient was a 65-year-old man who had been suffering from diabetic nephropathy. He was seronegative for HTLV-I and underwent renal transplantation one year previously, with his HTLV-I seropositive wife as the donor. He developed HAM eight months after renal transplantation. Both cases showed neurological improvements after the immunomodulating therapies. We tried to shed some light on the understanding of immunological mechanisms of transplantation-associated HAM, focusing on therapeutic strategies based on the immunopathogenesis of the condition.

  6. Identification of time-varying dynamics of the human triceps surae stretch reflex. I. Rapid isometric contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, R F; Kearney, R E; MacNeil, J B

    1993-01-01

    We have examined the time variations of stretch reflex dynamics throughout rapid voluntary changes in the isometric contraction level of the human triceps surae muscles. This was achieved by superimposing a small stochastic displacement upon many such changing contractions and then identifying the time-varying relationship between the perturbation and the evoked electromyograms (EMGs). An "ensemble" time-varying system identification technique was used to estimate these input-output dynamics as a set of impulse response functions, one for each time before, during, and after the change in contraction level, with a temporal resolution equal to the data acquisition rate. Three main findings resulted. First, stretch reflex gain (relating joint velocity to EMG) was significantly modulated during changes in voluntary contraction level, increasing as the subject contracted the muscles and decreasing as the subject relaxed. Second, stretch reflex dynamics did not change with contraction level, even when its gain varied substantially. Third, the time course of the gain changes closely followed the level of the EMG, even though the subjects used rather different activation and deactivation patterns. These results suggest that, for the behavior studied (i.e., rapid changes in isometric contraction level), stretch reflex gain and motoneuron pool activation level were controlled by a common descending command rather than being independently specified.

  7. In vitro evaluation of hepatotoxic drugs in human hepatocytes from multiple donors: Identification of P450 activity as a potential risk factor for drug-induced liver injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utkarsh, Doshi; Loretz, Carol; Li, Albert P

    2016-08-01

    A possible risk factor for drug-induced hepatotoxicity is drug metabolizing enzyme activity, which is known to vary among individuals due to genetic (genetic polymorphism) and environmental factors (environmental pollutants, foods, and medications that are inhibitors or inducers of drug metabolizing enzymes). We hypothesize that hepatic cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenase (CYP) activity is one of the key risk factors for drug induced liver injuries (DILI) in the human population, especially for drugs that are metabolically activated to cytotoxic/reactive metabolites. Human hepatocytes from 19 donors were evaluated for the activities of 8 major P450 isoforms: CYP1A2, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP2E1 and CYP3A4. Extensive individual variations were observed, consistent with what is known to be in the human population. As CYP3A4 is known to be one of the most important P450 isoforms for drug metabolism, studies were performed to evaluate the relationship between the in vitro cytotoxicity of hepatotoxic drugs and CYP3A4 activity. In a proof of concept study, hepatocytes from six donors (lots) representing the observed range of CYP3A4 activities were chosen for the evaluation of in vitro hepatotoxicity of four drugs known to be associated with acute liver failure: acetaminophen, cyclophosphamide, ketoconazole, and tamoxifen. The hepatocytes were cultured in collagen-coated plates and treated with the hepatotoxicants for approximately 24 h, followed by viability determination based on cellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) contents. HH1023, the lot of hepatocytes with the highest CYP3A4 activity, was found to be the most sensitive to the cytotoxicity of all 4 hepatotoxic drugs, thereby suggesting that high CYP3A4 activity may be a risk factor. To further validate the relationship, a second study was performed with hepatocytes from 16 donors. In this study, the hepatocytes were quantified for CYP3A4 activity at the time of treatment. Results of the

  8. One window-period donation in two years of individual donor-nucleic acid test screening for hepatitis B, hepatitis C and human immunodeficiency virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Eduardo Levi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe general data on nucleic acid/serology testing and report the first hepatitis B-nucleic acid testing yield case of an immunized donor in Brazil. Methods: A total of 24,441 donations collected in 2010 and 2011 were submitted to individual nucleic acid testing for hepatitis B, hepatitis C and human immunodeficiency virus using the TaqMan® MPX kit (Roche on the Cobas s201 platform, in addition to routine screening for serological markers. Nucleic acid testing-reactive donations were further evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction using Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus and human immunodeficiency virus tests. Results: Thirty-two donations were reactive by nucleic acid testing, 31 were also serologically reactive and one first-time donor was identified as having hepatitis B in the window period. Follow-up samples showed increasing titers of anti-HBs rising from 19 UI/mL in the index donation to 109 IU/mL seven months later attributable to his vaccination history. Curiously, this donor was never reactive for HbsAg nor for anti-HBc. In the yield donation, he was concomitantly reactive for syphilis (enzyme immunoassay and fluorescent treponemal antibody-absorption; venereal disease research laboratory non-reactive. Overall, six donors (0.02% were characterized as occult hepatitis B. A total of 35% of the confirmed (recombinant immunoblot assay positive hepatitis C donations were nucleic acid testing non-reactive and no human immunodeficiency virus "elite controller" was identified. Conclusion: The yield rate (1:24,441; 95% confidence interval: 1:9,537 - 1:89,717 contrasts to the North American rate (1:410,540 donations and strongly advocates the adoption of nucleic acid testing for hepatitis B in Brazil despite the increasing rate of anti-HBs reactive subjects due to the successful immunization program.

  9. Persistent oscillations and backward bifurcation in a malaria model with varying human and mosquito populations: implications for control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngonghala, Calistus N; Teboh-Ewungkem, Miranda I; Ngwa, Gideon A

    2015-06-01

    We derive and study a deterministic compartmental model for malaria transmission with varying human and mosquito populations. Our model considers disease-related deaths, asymptomatic immune humans who are also infectious, as well as mosquito demography, reproduction and feeding habits. Analysis of the model reveals the existence of a backward bifurcation and persistent limit cycles whose period and size is determined by two threshold parameters: the vectorial basic reproduction number Rm, and the disease basic reproduction number R0, whose size can be reduced by reducing Rm. We conclude that malaria dynamics are indeed oscillatory when the methodology of explicitly incorporating the mosquito's demography, feeding and reproductive patterns is considered in modeling the mosquito population dynamics. A sensitivity analysis reveals important control parameters that can affect the magnitudes of Rm and R0, threshold quantities to be taken into consideration when designing control strategies. Both Rm and the intrinsic period of oscillation are shown to be highly sensitive to the mosquito's birth constant λm and the mosquito's feeding success probability pw. Control of λm can be achieved by spraying, eliminating breeding sites or moving them away from human habitats, while pw can be controlled via the use of mosquito repellant and insecticide-treated bed-nets. The disease threshold parameter R0 is shown to be highly sensitive to pw, and the intrinsic period of oscillation is also sensitive to the rate at which reproducing mosquitoes return to breeding sites. A global sensitivity and uncertainty analysis reveals that the ability of the mosquito to reproduce and uncertainties in the estimations of the rates at which exposed humans become infectious and infectious humans recover from malaria are critical in generating uncertainties in the disease classes.

  10. Particle Deposition in Human Lungs due to Varying Cross-Sectional Ellipticity of Left and Right Main Bronchi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Steven; Oakes, Jessica; Shadden, Shawn

    2015-11-01

    Particle deposition in the human lungs can occur with every breathe. Airbourne particles can range from toxic constituents (e.g. tobacco smoke and air pollution) to aerosolized particles designed for drug treatment (e.g. insulin to treat diabetes). The effect of various realistic airway geometries on complex flow structures, and thus particle deposition sites, has yet to be extensively investigated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). In this work, we created an image-based geometric airway model of the human lung and performed CFD simulations by employing multi-domain methods. Following the flow simulations, Lagrangian particle tracking was used to study the effect of cross-sectional shape on deposition sites in the conducting airways. From a single human lung model, the cross-sectional ellipticity (the ratio of major and minor diameters) of the left and right main bronchi was varied systematically from 2:1 to 1:1. The influence of the airway ellipticity on the surrounding flow field and particle deposition was determined.

  11. 21 CFR 630.6 - Donor notification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Donor notification. 630.6 Section 630.6 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR BLOOD, BLOOD COMPONENTS, AND BLOOD DERIVATIVES § 630.6 Donor notification. (a) Notification of donors. You, an...

  12. Co-culture of dedifferentiated and primary human chondrocytes obtained from cadaveric donor enhance the histological quality of repair tissue: an in-vivo animal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivos-Meza, Anell; Velasquillo Martínez, Cristina; Olivos Díaz, Brenda; Landa-Solís, Carlos; Brittberg, Mats; Pichardo Bahena, Raul; Ortega Sanchez, Carmina; Martínez, Valentin; Alvarez Lara, Enrique; Ibarra-Ponce de León, José Clemente

    2017-06-05

    To compare the quality of the repair tissue in three-dimensional co-culture of human chondrocytes implanted in an in vivo model. Six cadaveric and five live human donors were included. Osteochondral biopsies from the donor knees were harvested for chondrocyte isolation. Fifty percent of cadaveric chondrocytes were expanded until passage-2 (P2) while the remaining cells were cryopreserved in passage-0 (P0). Fresh primary chondrocytes (P0f) obtained from live human donors were co-cultured. Three-dimensional constructs were prepared with a monolayer of passage-2 chondrocytes, collagen membrane (Geistlich Bio-Gide(®)), and pellet of non-co-cultured (P2) or co-cultured chondrocytes (P2 + P0c, P2 + P0f). Constructs were implanted in the subcutaneous tissue of athymic mice and left for 3 months growth. Safranin-O and Alcian blue staining were used to glycosaminoglycan content assessment. Aggrecan and type-II collagen were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. New-formed tissue quality was evaluated with an adaptation of the modified O'Driscoll score. Histological quality of non-co-cultured group was 4.37 (SD ±4.71), while co-cultured groups had a mean score of 8.71 (SD ±3.98) for the fresh primary chondrocytes and 9.57 (SD ±1.27) in the cryopreserved chondrocytes. In immunohistochemistry, Co-culture groups were strongly stained for type-II and aggrecan not seen in the non-co-cultured group. It is possible to isolate viable chondrocytes from cadaveric human donors in samples processed in the first 48-h of dead. There is non-significant difference between the numbers of chondrocytes isolated from live or cadaveric donors. Cryopreservation of cadaveric primary chondrocytes does not alter the capability to form cartilage like tissue. Co-culture of primary and passaged chondrocytes enhances the histological quality of new-formed tissue compared to non-co-cultured cells.

  13. Adaptive Fourier series modeling of time-varying evoked potentials: study of human somatosensory evoked response to etomidate anesthetic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakor, N V; Vaz, C A; McPherson, R W; Hanley, D F

    1991-01-01

    Evoked potentials (EPs) have traditionally been analyzed in time domain, with amplitude and latency of various signal components used in clinical interpretation. A new approach, called adaptive Fourier series modeling (FSM), is presented here. Dynamic changes in magnitudes of Fourier coefficients are analyzed for diagnostic purposes. In order to estimate the time-varying changes in the Fourier coefficients of noisy signals, a least mean-square filtering algorithm is applied. Results of computer simulations as well as experimental data are presented. Time-varying trends are presented in a new compressed evoked spectrum format. These techniques are applied to the study of alterations in human somatosensory EPs caused by the intravenous administration of etomidate during neurosurgical procedures. Amplitude increases of the order of 200-500% occurring within a time span of about 100 sec were captured. Due to its superior convergence properties, the adaptive FSM technique estimates more rapid changes in amplitude and latency than exponentially weighted averaging or moving window averaging schemes.

  14. Production and characterization of human anti-V3 monoclonal antibodies from the cells of HIV-1 infected Indian donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrabi Raiees

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Analysis of human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs developed from HIV-1 infected donors have enormously contributed to the identification of neutralization sensitive epitopes on the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein. The third variable region (V3 is a crucial target on gp120, primarily due to its involvement in co-receptor (CXCR4 or CCR5 binding and presence of epitopes recognized by broadly neutralizing antibodies. Methods Thirty-three HIV-1 seropositive drug naive patients (18 males and 15 females within the age range of 20–57 years (median = 33 years were recruited in this study for mAb production. The mAbs were selected from EBV transformed cultures with conformationally constrained Cholera-toxin-B containing V3C (V3C-CTB fusion protein. We tested the mAbs for their binding with HIV-1 derived proteins and peptides by ELISA and for neutralization against HIV-1 viruses by TZM-bl assays. Results We isolated three anti-V3 mAbs, 277, 903 and 904 from the cells of different individuals. The ELISA binding revealed a subtype-C and subtype-A specific binding of antibody 277 and 903 while mAb 904 exhibited cross reactivity also with subtype-B V3. Epitope mapping of mAbs with overlapping V3 peptides showed exclusive binding to V3 crown. The antibodies displayed high and low neutralizing activity against 2/5 tier 1 and 1/6 tier 2 viruses respectively. Overall, we observed a resistance of the tier 2 viruses to neutralization by the anti-V3 mAbs, despite the exposure of the epitopes recognized by these antibodies on two representative native viruses (Du156.12 and JRFL, suggesting that the affinity of mAb might equally be crucial for neutralization, as the epitope recognition. Conclusions Our study suggests that the anti-V3 antibodies derived from subtype-C infected Indian patients display neutralization potential against tier 1 viruses while such activity may be limited against more resistant tier 2 viruses. Defining the fine epitope

  15. Long-term human immune system reconstitution in non-obese diabetic (NOD)-Rag (-)-γ chain (-) (NRG) mice is similar but not identical to the original stem cell donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, D T; Badowski, M; Balamurugan, A; Yang, O O

    2013-12-01

    The murine immune system is not necessarily identical to it human counterpart, which has led to the construction of humanized mice. The current study analysed whether or not a human immune system contained within the non-obese diabetic (NOD)-Rag1(null) -γ chain(null) (NRG) mouse model was an accurate representation of the original stem cell donor and if multiple mice constructed from the same donor were similar to one another. To that end, lightly irradiated NRG mice were injected intrahepatically on day 1 of life with purified cord blood-derived CD34(+) stem and progenitor cells. Multiple mice were constructed from each cord blood donor. Mice were analysed quarterly for changes in the immune system, and followed for periods up to 12 months post-transplant. Mice from the same donor were compared directly with each other as well as with the original donor. Analyses were performed for immune reconstitution, including flow cytometry, T cell receptor (TCR) and B cell receptor (BCR) spectratyping. It was observed that NRG mice could be 'humanized' long-term using cord blood stem cells, and that animals constructed from the same cord blood donor were nearly identical to one another, but quite different from the original stem cell donor immune system.

  16. Rapid milk group classification by 1H NMR analysis of Le and H epitopes in human milk oligosaccharide donor samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Sander S; Schoemaker, Ruud J W; Gerwig, Gerrit J; van Leusen-van Kan, Ellen J M; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert; Kamerling, Johannis P

    2014-08-01

    Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are a major constituent of human breast milk and play an important role in reducing the risk of infections in infants. The structures of these HMOs show similarities with blood group antigens in protein glycosylation, in particular in relation to fucosylation in Lewis blood group-type epitopes, matching the maternal pattern. Previously, based on the Secretor and Lewis blood group system, four milk groups have been defined, i.e. Lewis-positive Secretors, Lewis-positive non-Secretors, Lewis-negative Secretors and Lewis-negative non-Secretors. Here, a rapid one-dimensional (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis method is presented that identifies the presence/absence of (α1-2)-, (α1-3)- and (α1-4)-linked fucose residues in HMO samples, affording the essential information to attribute different HMO samples to a specific milk group. The developed method is based on the NMR structural-reporter-group concept earlier established for glycoprotein glycans. Further evaluation of the data obtained from the analysis of 36 HMO samples shows that within each of the four milk groups the relative levels of the different fucosylation epitopes can greatly vary. The data also allow a separation of the Lewis-positive Secretor milk group into two sub-groups.

  17. Genetic diversity through human leukocyte antigen typing in end-stage renal disease patients and prospective donors of North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohit Chowdhry

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As the incidence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD is rapidly increasing, the demand for dialysis and transplantation has dramatically increased, which has led to concerns about the availability and equitable allocation of kidneys for transplantation. The distribution of HLA-A, B and DR alleles in 148 renal transplant recipients and 191 live related prospective donors from 2009 to 2010 were analyzed. Allele frequencies and haplotype frequencies were calculated in recipients and donors. The prospective donors were further analyzed on the basis of their relationship to the patients and according to the sex ratio. A significant female preponderance was noted in the prospective donor population, most of whom were either siblings or parents of the recipients. On the contrary, the recipient population predominantly comprised of males. The most frequent HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-DRB1 alleles in renal transplant patients were HLA-AFNx0111, AFNx0102, AFNx0101, AFNx0124; HLA-BFNx0135, BFNx0140, BFNx0144, BFNx0115, BFNx0152, and HLA-DRB1FNx0115, DRB1FNx0107, DRB1FNx0113, DRB1FNx0111 respectively. The most frequent HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-DRB1 alleles in prospective donors were HLA-AFNx0102, AFNx0111, AFNx0133, AFNx0124; HLA-BFNx0135, BFNx0144, BFNx0140, BFNx0115 and HLA-DRB1FNx0115, DRB1FNx0107, DRB1FNx0111, DRB1FNx0113 respectively. AFNx0111-BFNx0135, AFNx0102-DRB1FNx0115, BFNx0140-DRB1FNx0115 were the most common HLA A-B , HLA A-DR, HLA B-DR haplotypes respectively in renal transplant patients, whereas, AFNx0111-BFNx0135, AFNx0111-DRB1FNx0115, BFNx0144-DRB1FNx0107 were the most common haplotypes in renal donors. In three locus haplotype, HLA-AFNx0102-BFNx0140-DRB1FNx0115 was the most frequent haplotype in patients, whereas, in prospective renal donors HLA-AFNx0133-BFNx0144-DRB1FNx0107 was the most frequent haplotype.

  18. The effects of an invasive seaweed on native communities vary along a gradient of land-based human impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Bulleri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The difficulty in teasing apart the effects of biological invasions from those of other anthropogenic perturbations has hampered our understanding of the mechanisms underpinning the global biodiversity crisis. The recent elaboration of global-scale maps of cumulative human impacts provides a unique opportunity to assess how the impact of invaders varies among areas exposed to different anthropogenic activities. A recent meta-analysis has shown that the effects of invasive seaweeds on native biota tend to be more negative in relatively pristine than in human-impacted environments. Here, we tested this hypothesis through the experimental removal of the invasive green seaweed, Caulerpa cylindracea, from rocky reefs across the Mediterranean Sea. More specifically, we assessed which out of land-based and sea-based cumulative impact scores was a better predictor of the direction and magnitude of the effects of this seaweed on extant and recovering native assemblages. Approximately 15 months after the start of the experiment, the removal of C. cylindracea from extant assemblages enhanced the cover of canopy-forming macroalgae at relatively pristine sites. This did not, however, result in major changes in total cover or species richness of native assemblages. Preventing C. cylindracea re-invasion of cleared plots at pristine sites promoted the recovery of canopy-forming and encrusting macroalgae and hampered that of algal turfs, ultimately resulting in increased species richness. These effects weakened progressively with increasing levels of land-based human impacts and, indeed, shifted in sign at the upper end of the gradient investigated. Thus, at sites exposed to intense disturbance from land-based human activities, the removal of C. cylindracea fostered the cover of algal turfs and decreased that of encrusting algae, with no net effect on species richness. Our results suggests that competition from C. cylindracea is an important determinant of

  19. The effects of an invasive seaweed on native communities vary along a gradient of land-based human impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulleri, Fabio; Badalamenti, Fabio; Iveša, Ljiljana; Mikac, Barbara; Musco, Luigi; Jaklin, Andrej; Rattray, Alex; Vega Fernández, Tomás; Benedetti-Cecchi, Lisandro

    2016-01-01

    The difficulty in teasing apart the effects of biological invasions from those of other anthropogenic perturbations has hampered our understanding of the mechanisms underpinning the global biodiversity crisis. The recent elaboration of global-scale maps of cumulative human impacts provides a unique opportunity to assess how the impact of invaders varies among areas exposed to different anthropogenic activities. A recent meta-analysis has shown that the effects of invasive seaweeds on native biota tend to be more negative in relatively pristine than in human-impacted environments. Here, we tested this hypothesis through the experimental removal of the invasive green seaweed, Caulerpa cylindracea, from rocky reefs across the Mediterranean Sea. More specifically, we assessed which out of land-based and sea-based cumulative impact scores was a better predictor of the direction and magnitude of the effects of this seaweed on extant and recovering native assemblages. Approximately 15 months after the start of the experiment, the removal of C. cylindracea from extant assemblages enhanced the cover of canopy-forming macroalgae at relatively pristine sites. This did not, however, result in major changes in total cover or species richness of native assemblages. Preventing C. cylindracea re-invasion of cleared plots at pristine sites promoted the recovery of canopy-forming and encrusting macroalgae and hampered that of algal turfs, ultimately resulting in increased species richness. These effects weakened progressively with increasing levels of land-based human impacts and, indeed, shifted in sign at the upper end of the gradient investigated. Thus, at sites exposed to intense disturbance from land-based human activities, the removal of C. cylindracea fostered the cover of algal turfs and decreased that of encrusting algae, with no net effect on species richness. Our results suggests that competition from C. cylindracea is an important determinant of benthic assemblage

  20. The egg-sharing model for human therapeutic cloning research: managing donor selection criteria, the proportion of shared oocytes allocated to research, and amount of financial subsidy given to the donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Boon Chin; Tong, Guo Qing; Stojkovic, Miodrag

    2006-01-01

    Recent advances in human therapeutic cloning made by Hwang and colleagues have opened up new avenues of therapy for various human diseases. However, the major bottleneck of this new technology is the severe shortage of human donor oocytes. Egg-sharing in return for subsidized fertility treatment has been suggested as an ethically justifiable and practical solution to overcome the shortage of donor oocytes for therapeutic cloning. Because the utilization of shared oocytes in therapeutic cloning research does not result in any therapeutic benefit to a second party, this would necessitate a different management strategy compared to their use for the assisted conception of infertile women who are unable to produce any oocytes of their own. It is proposed that the pool of prospective egg-sharers in therapeutic cloning research be limited only to younger women (below 30 years of age) with indications for either male partner sub-fertility or tubal blockage. With regards to the proportion of the shared gametes being allocated to research, a threshold number of retrieved oocytes should be set that if not exceeded, would result in the patient being automatically removed from the egg-sharing scheme. Any excess supernumerary oocyte above this threshold number can be contributed to science, and allocation should be done in a randomized manner. Perhaps, a total of 10 retrieved oocytes from the patient may be considered a suitable threshold, since the chances of conception are unlikely to be impaired. With regards to the amount of subsidy being given to the patient, it is suggested that the proportion of financial subsidy should be equal to the proportion of the patient's oocytes being allocated to research. No doubt, the promise of future therapeutic benefit may be offered to the patient instead of financial subsidy. However, this is ethically controversial because therapeutic cloning has not yet been demonstrated to be a viable model of clinical therapy and any promises made to

  1. A Melanoma Brain Metastasis with a Donor-Patient Hybrid Genome following Bone Marrow Transplantation: First Evidence for Fusion in Human Cancer.

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    Rossitza Lazova

    Full Text Available Tumor cell fusion with motile bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs has long been posited as a mechanism for cancer metastasis. While there is much support for this from cell culture and animal studies, it has yet to be confirmed in human cancer, as tumor and marrow-derived cells from the same patient cannot be easily distinguished genetically.We carried out genotyping of a metastatic melanoma to the brain that arose following allogeneic bone-marrow transplantation (BMT, using forensic short tandem repeat (STR length-polymorphisms to distinguish donor and patient genomes. Tumor cells were isolated free of leucocytes by laser microdissection, and tumor and pre-transplant blood lymphocyte DNAs were analyzed for donor and patient alleles at 14 autosomal STR loci and the sex chromosomes.All alleles in the donor and patient pre-BMT lymphocytes were found in tumor cells. The alleles showed disproportionate relative abundances in similar patterns throughout the tumor, indicating the tumor was initiated by a clonal fusion event.Our results strongly support fusion between a BMDC and a tumor cell playing a role in the origin of this metastasis. Depending on the frequency of such events, the findings could have important implications for understanding the generation of metastases, including the origins of tumor initiating cells and the cancer epigenome.

  2. Strong Components of Epigenetic Memory in Cultured Human Fibroblasts Related to Site of Origin and Donor Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Nikolay A; Tao, Ran; Chenoweth, Joshua G; Brandtjen, Anna; Mighdoll, Michelle I; Genova, John D; McKay, Ronald D; Jia, Yankai; Weinberger, Daniel R; Kleinman, Joel E; Hyde, Thomas M; Jaffe, Andrew E

    2016-02-01

    Differentiating pluripotent cells from fibroblast progenitors is a potentially transformative tool in personalized medicine. We previously identified relatively greater success culturing dura-derived fibroblasts than scalp-derived fibroblasts from postmortem tissue. We hypothesized that these differences in culture success were related to epigenetic differences between the cultured fibroblasts by sampling location, and therefore generated genome-wide DNA methylation and transcriptome data on 11 intrinsically matched pairs of dural and scalp fibroblasts from donors across the lifespan (infant to 85 years). While these cultured fibroblasts were several generations removed from the primary tissue and morphologically indistinguishable, we found widespread epigenetic differences by sampling location at the single CpG (N = 101,989), region (N = 697), "block" (N = 243), and global spatial scales suggesting a strong epigenetic memory of original fibroblast location. Furthermore, many of these epigenetic differences manifested in the transcriptome, particularly at the region-level. We further identified 7,265 CpGs and 11 regions showing significant epigenetic memory related to the age of the donor, as well as an overall increased epigenetic variability, preferentially in scalp-derived fibroblasts-83% of loci were more variable in scalp, hypothesized to result from cumulative exposure to environmental stimuli in the primary tissue. By integrating publicly available DNA methylation datasets on individual cell populations in blood and brain, we identified significantly increased inter-individual variability in our scalp- and other skin-derived fibroblasts on a similar scale as epigenetic differences between different lineages of blood cells. Lastly, these epigenetic differences did not appear to be driven by somatic mutation--while we identified 64 probable de-novo variants across the 11 subjects, there was no association between mutation burden and age of the donor (p = 0

  3. Bovine colostrum improves neonatal growth, digestive function, and gut immunity relative to donor human milk and infant formula in preterm pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Stine Ostenfeldt; Martin, Lena; Østergaard, Mette Viberg

    2016-01-01

    permeability, relative to DM and IF pigs (P Relative to IF pigs, BC pigs also had lower density of mucosa-associated bacteria and of some putative pathogens in colon, together with higher intestinal villi, mucosal mass, brush-border enzyme activities, colonic short chain fatty acid levels......Mother's own milk is the optimal first diet for preterm infants, but donor human milk (DM) or infant formula (IF) is used when supply is limited. We hypothesized that a gradual introduction of bovine colostrum (BC) or DM improves gut maturation, relative to IF during the first 11 days after preterm...

  4. Utilization of mixed ligands to construct diverse Ni(II)-coordination polymers based on terphenyl-2,2‧,4,4‧-tetracarboxylic acid and varied N-donor co-ligands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Zhao, Jun; Xia, Liang; Wu, Xue-Qian; Wang, Jian-Fang; Dong, Wen-Wen; Wu, Ya-Pan

    2016-06-01

    Three new coordination polymers, namely, {[Ni(H2L)(bix)(H2O)2]·2h2O}n (1), {[Ni(HL)(Hdpa)(H2O)2]·H2O}n (2), {[Ni(L)0.5(bpp)(H2O)]·H2O}n (3) (H4L=terphenyl-2,2‧,4,4‧-tetracarboxylic acid; bix=1,4-bis(imidazol-1-ylmethyl)benzene; dpa =4,4‧-dipyridylamine; bpp=1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane), based on rigid H4L ligand and different N-donor co-ligands, have been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions. Compound 1 features a 3D 4-connected 66-dia-type framework with H4L ligand adopts a μ2-bridging mode with two symmetry-related carboxylate groups in μ1-η1:η0 monodentate mode. Compound 2 displays a 1D [Ni(HL)(Hdpa)]n ribbon chains motif, in which the H4L ligand adopts a μ2-bridging mode with two carboxylate groups in μ1-η1:η1 and μ1-η1:η0 monodentate modes, while 3 possesses a (4,4)-connected 3D frameworks with bbf topology, with H4L ligand displays a μ4-bridging coordination mode. The H4L ligand displays not only different deprotonated forms but also diverse coordination modes and conformations. The structural diversities among 1-3 have been carefully discussed, and the roles of N-donor co-ligands in the self-assembly of coordination polymers have been well documented.

  5. The characteristics of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-negative hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in Chinese blood donors: a follow-up study of donors tested negative for HBsAg and reactive for simultaneous nucleic acid testing of HBV, hepatitis C virus, and human immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhaofu; Fu, Ping; Yin, Yijin; Wang, Funeng; Yin, Yiqing; Wang, Jingxing; Liu, Yu

    2017-03-01

    The real infection status of hepatitis B virus (HBV) of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-negative yet nucleic acid test (NAT)-positive blood donors is difficult to clarify. Detailed follow-up study is needed for analyzing the infectivity of these blood donors. Blood donors who screened negative for HBsAg and reactive for simultaneous NAT of HBV, hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were included in a follow-up epidemiologic questionnaire survey and contributed follow-up samples for further testing. The follow-up samples were tested repeatedly for the serologic markers and HBV DNA. The genotypes and sequence mutations of HBV infected by 11 HBV DNA-positive donors were analyzed through the amplification and sequencing of HBV S region. Of the 46 donors included in this study, 89.1% were infected with HBV (41/46), including one (2.2%) window period infection, three (6.5%) recovered infections, and 37 (80.4%) occult HBV infections (OBIs). The S region of HBV was successfully amplified and sequenced for seven donors, five infected with Genotype B (71.4%), one with Genotype C (14.3%), and one with Genotype D (14.3%). Mutations in the S region were detected in four donors (57.1%) CONCLUSIONS: This is the first detailed study with multiple follow-up testing of the HBV infection status among blood donors who were tested negative for HBsAg and reactive for simultaneous NAT of HBV, HCV, and HIV. Most of these donors were infected with HBV with very low viral load. Our findings indicate that it is important to improve the sensitivity of NAT so as to decrease the residual risk of transfusion-transmitted HBV infection. © 2017 AABB.

  6. The Effect of Varying Jaw-elevator Muscle Forces on a Finite Element Model of a Human Cranium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro-Ibacache, Viviana; O'Higgins, Paul

    2016-07-01

    Finite element analyses simulating masticatory system loading are increasingly undertaken in primates, hominin fossils and modern humans. Simplifications of models and loadcases are often required given the limits of data and technology. One such area of uncertainty concerns the forces applied to cranial models and their sensitivity to variations in these forces. We assessed the effect of varying force magnitudes among jaw-elevator muscles applied to a finite element model of a human cranium. The model was loaded to simulate incisor and molar bites using different combinations of muscle forces. Symmetric, asymmetric, homogeneous, and heterogeneous muscle activations were simulated by scaling maximal forces. The effects were compared with respect to strain distribution (i.e., modes of deformation) and magnitudes; bite forces and temporomandibular joint (TMJ) reaction forces. Predicted modes of deformation, strain magnitudes and bite forces were directly proportional to total applied muscle force and relatively insensitive to the degree of heterogeneity of muscle activation. However, TMJ reaction forces and mandibular fossa strains decrease and increase on the balancing and working sides according to the degree of asymmetry of loading. These results indicate that when modes, rather than magnitudes, of facial deformation are of interest, errors in applied muscle forces have limited effects. However the degree of asymmetric loading does impact on TMJ reaction forces and mandibular fossa strains. These findings are of particular interest in relation to studies of skeletal and fossil material, where muscle data are not available and estimation of muscle forces from skeletal proxies is prone to error. Anat Rec, 299:828-839, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Interaction of the human N-Ras protein with lipid raft model membranes of varying degrees of complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Alexander; Nikolaus, Jörg; Weise, Katrin; Triola, Gemma; Waldmann, Herbert; Winter, Roland; Herrmann, Andreas; Huster, Daniel

    2014-07-01

    Ternary lipid mixtures composed of cholesterol, saturated (frequently with sphingosine backbone), and unsaturated phospholipids show stable phase separation and are often used as model systems of lipid rafts. Yet, their ability to reproduce raft properties and function is still debated. We investigated the properties and functional aspects of three lipid raft model systems of varying degrees of biological relevance--PSM/POPC/Chol, DPPC/POPC/Chol, and DPPC/DOPC/Chol--using 2H solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, fluorescence microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. While some minor differences were observed, the general behavior and properties of all three model mixtures were similar to previously investigated influenza envelope lipid membranes, which closely mimic the lipid composition of biological membranes. For the investigation of the functional aspects, we employed the human N-Ras protein, which is posttranslationally modified by two lipid modifications that anchor the protein to the membrane. It was previously shown that N-Ras preferentially resides in liquid-disordered domains and exhibits a time-dependent accumulation in the domain boundaries of influenza envelope lipid membranes. For all three model mixtures, we observed the same membrane partitioning behavior for N-Ras. Therefore, we conclude that even relatively simple models of raft membranes are able to reproduce many of their specific properties and functions.

  8. Obtaining and preservation of the donor hands in human hand allotransplantation%异体手移植供手的获取和保存

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王钢; 朱立军; 杨运平; 裴国献; 顾立强

    2001-01-01

    Objective To discuss the methods of obtaining and preservation of the donor hands in human allotransplantation. Methods After brain death of the donor was confirmed, the whole donor arm was sterilized with 3 % iodine tincture and 75 % ethyl alcohol and strapped with sterile towels. A circular incision 5 cm above the elbow was made, and the brachial artery was dissected and catheterized for perfusion of UW solution at 4℃. The arm was amputated with the brachial artery still in continuity and catheterized. When the fluid refluxed from the veins was clear, the artery was divided. The marked donor arm was wrapped in aseptic dressing and sealed in a plastic bag. The bag was immersed in ice water and transported rapidly. Carotid artery blood of the donor was taken for examination. Results The time from brain death to amputation of the donor arm was 5 minutes and 6 minutes respectively. The time from amputation to reperfusion of the hand allotransplant was 6 hours and 6 hours and 19 minutes respectively. Postoperatively, the vital signs were normal and blood circulation of the transplants was excellent. Immunological and histological examination indicated no occurrence of rejection. Ten months after the operation, motor function of the fingers in both cases was graded good by total active motion evaluation. In case 1, the function of the median and ulnar nerve recovered to excellent and good respectively, while in case 2 both recovered to fair. Conclusions The obtaining and preservation of the donor arm was successful in the present 2 cases of human hand allotransplantation according to the satisfactory postoperative outcome.%目的通过2例异体手移植探讨获取和保存供手的方法。方法在供者被宣布脑死亡后,将拟取肢体用3 %碘酒、75 %酒精常规消毒,从肘关节以上5 cm平面作环形皮肤切口,游离肱动脉后插管,用4℃ UW液灌注(保留插管)后行前臂离断(肱动脉相连),再灌洗至回流

  9. Genus beta human papillomavirus E6 proteins vary in their effects on the transactivation of p53 target genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Elizabeth A; Walther, Johanna; Javanbakht, Hassan; Howley, Peter M

    2014-08-01

    The genus beta human papillomaviruses (beta HPVs) cause cutaneous lesions and are thought to be involved in the initiation of some nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSCs), particularly in patients with the genetic disorder epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV). We have previously reported that at least two of the genus beta HPV E6 proteins bind to and/or increase the steady-state levels of p53 in squamous epithelial cells. This is in contrast to a well-characterized ability of the E6 proteins of cancer-associated HPVs of genus alpha HPV, which inactivate p53 by targeting its ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis. In this study, we have investigated the ability of genus beta E6 proteins from eight different HPV types to block the transactivation of p53 target genes following DNA damage. We find that the E6 proteins from diverse beta HPV species and types vary in their capacity to block the induction of MDM2, p21, and proapoptotic genes after genotoxic stress. We conclude that some genus beta HPV E6 proteins inhibit at least some p53 target genes, although perhaps not by the same mechanism or to the same degree as the high-risk genus alpha HPV E6 proteins. This study addresses the ability of various human papillomavirus E6 proteins to block the activation of p53-responsive cellular genes following DNA damage in human keratinocytes, the normal host cell for HPVs. The E6 proteins encoded by the high-risk, cancer-associated HPV types of genus alpha HPV have a well-established activity to target p53 degradation and thereby inhibit the response to DNA damage. In this study, we have investigated the ability of genus beta HPV E6 proteins from eight different HPV types to block the ability of p53 to transactivate downstream genes following DNA damage. We find that some, but not all, genus beta HPV E6 proteins can block the transactivation of some p53 target genes. This differential response to DNA damage furthers the understanding of cutaneous HPV biology and may help to explain the

  10. The donor substrate specificity of the human beta 1,3-glucuronosyltransferase I toward UDP-glucuronic acid is determined by two crucial histidine and arginine residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouzzine, Mohamed; Gulberti, Sandrine; Levoin, Nicolas; Netter, Patrick; Magdalou, Jacques; Fournel-Gigleux, Sylvie

    2002-07-12

    The human beta1,3-glucuronosyltransferase I (GlcAT-I) plays a key role in proteoglycan biosynthesis by catalyzing the transfer of glucuronic acid onto the trisaccharide-protein linkage structure Galbeta1,3Galbeta1,4Xylbeta-O-Ser, a prerequisite step for polymerization of glycosaminoglycan chains. In this study, we identified His(308) and Arg(277) residues as essential determinants for the donor substrate (UDP-glucuronic acid) selectivity of the human GlcAT-I. Analysis of the UDP-glucuronic acid-binding site by computational modeling in conjunction with site-directed mutagenesis indicated that both residues interact with glucuronic acid. Substitution of His(308) by arginine induced major changes in the donor substrate specificity of GlcAT-I. Interestingly, the H308R mutant was able to efficiently utilize nucleotide sugars UDP-glucose, UDP-mannose, and UDP-N-acetylglucosamine, which are not naturally accepted by the wild-type enzyme, as co-substrate in the transfer reaction. To gain insight into the role of Arg(277), site-directed mutagenesis in combination with chemical modification was carried out. Substitution of Arg(277) with alanine abrogated the activity of GlcAT-I. Furthermore, the arginine-directed reagent 2,3-butanedione irreversibly inhibited GlcAT-I, which was effectively protected against inactivation by UDP-glucuronic acid but not by UDP-glucose. It is noteworthy that the activity of the H308R mutant toward UDP-glucose was unaffected by the arginine-directed reagent. Our results are consistent with crucial interactions between the His(308) and Arg(277) residues and the glucuronic acid moiety that governs the specificity of GlcAT-I toward the nucleotide sugar donor substrate.

  11. Bone marrow transplantation from unrelated donors: the impact of mismatches with substitutions at position 116 of the human leukocyte antigen class I heavy chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, G B; Bacigalupo, A; Lamparelli, T; Lanino, E; Delfino, L; Morabito, A; Parodi, A M; Pera, C; Pozzi, S; Sormani, M P; Bruzzi, P; Bordo, D; Bolognesi, M; Bandini, G; Bontadini, A; Barbanti, M; Frumento, G

    2001-11-15

    The hypothesis was tested that amino acid substitutions in specific positions within human leukocyte antigen class I heavy chain would have different impacts on transplant-related mortality (TRM) in patients receiving transplanted bone marrow from unrelated donors. One hundred patients and their unrelated donors were typed by sequence-based typing for the human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A, -B, and -C loci. All pairs were matched for DRB1, DRB3, DRB4, DRB5, DQA1, and DQB1 loci. Forty pairs were also matched at class I, and 60 pairs had one or more mismatches at class I loci. It was found that substitutions at positions 116 and 114 of class I heavy chain significantly increased the risk for TRM in univariate and bivariate Cox analyses. Conversely, no association between number of multiple mismatches or number of amino acid substitutions and TRM was seen when positions 116 and 114 were adjusted for. Variables predictive of TRM in multivariate Cox analysis were number of cells infused, diagnosis (chronic myeloid leukemia [CML] or non-CML), and amino acid substitution at position 116 or 152. The only variable predictive of severe acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in multivariate Cox analysis was substitution at position 116. Actuarial risk for acute GVHD grade III-IV, TRM, and relapse in pairs with substitutions at position 116 (n = 37) compared to other pairs (n = 63) was, respectively, 36% versus 14% (P =.01), 59% versus 28% (P =.001), and 25% versus 31% (P =.4). In conclusion these data suggest that substitutions at position 116 of class I heavy chain increase the risk for acute GVHD and TRM in patients who receive transplanted bone marrow from unrelated donors.

  12. Testing UK blood donors for exposure to human parvovirus 4 using a time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay to screen sera and Western blot to confirm reactive samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maple, Peter A C; Beard, Stuart; Parry, Ruth P; Brown, Kevin E

    2013-10-01

    Human parvovirus 4 (ParV4), a newly described member of the family Parvoviridae, like B19V, has been found in pooled plasma preparations. The extent, and significance, of ParV4 exposure in UK blood donors remain to be determined and reliable detection of ParV4 immunoglobulin (Ig)G, using validated methods, is needed. With ParV4 virus-like particles a ParV4 IgG time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay (TRFIA) was developed. There is no gold standard or reference assay for measuring ParV4 IgG and the utility of the TRFIA was first examined using a panel of sera from people who inject drugs (PWIDS)--a high-prevalence population for ParV4 infection. Western blotting was used to confirm the specificity of TRFIA-reactive sera. Two cohorts of UK blood donor sera comprising 452 sera collected in 1999 and 156 sera collected in 2009 were tested for ParV4 IgG. Additional testing for B19V IgG, hepatitis C virus antibodies (anti-HCV), and ParV4 DNA was also undertaken. The rate of ParV4 IgG seroprevalence in PWIDS was 20.7% and ParV4 IgG was positively associated with the presence of anti-HCV with 68.4% ParV4 IgG-positive sera testing anti-HCV-positive versus 17.1% ParV4 IgG-negative sera. Overall seropositivity for ParV4 IgG, in 608 UK blood donors was 4.76%. The ParV4 IgG seropositivity for sera collected in 1999 was 5.08%, compared to 3.84% for sera collected in 2009. No ParV4 IgG-positive blood donor sera had detectable ParV4 DNA. ParV4 IgG has been found in UK blood donors and this finding needs further investigation. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.

  13. Cytotoxic activity against human neuroblastoma and melanoma cells mediated by IgM antibodies derived from peripheral blood of healthy donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devarapu, Satish Kumar; Mamidi, Srinivas; Plöger, Frank; Dill, Othmar; Blixt, Ola; Kirschfink, Michael; Schwartz-Albiez, Reinhard

    2016-06-15

    A small percentage of healthy donors identified in the Western population carry antibodies in their peripheral blood which convey cytotoxic activity against certain human melanoma and neuroblastoma cell lines. We measured the cytotoxic activity of sera and plasmas from healthy donors on the human neuroblastoma cell line Kelly and various melanoma cell lines. Antibodies of IgM isotype, presumably belonging to the class of naturally occurring antibodies, exerted cytotoxic activity in a complement-dependent fashion. Apart from complement-dependent tumor cell lysis, we observed C3 opsonization in all tumor cell lines upon treatment with cytotoxic plasmas. Cell lines tested primarily expressed membrane complement regulatory proteins (mCRP) CD46, CD55 and CD59 to various extents. Blocking of mCRPs by monoclonal antibodies enhanced cell lysis and opsonization, though some melanoma cells remained resistant to complement attack. Epitopes recognized by cytotoxic antibodies were represented by gangliosides such as GD2 and GD3, as evidenced by cellular sialidase pretreatment and enhanced expression of distinct gangliosides. It remains to be clarified why only a small fraction of healthy persons carry these antitumor cytotoxic antibodies.

  14. HCMV infection of humanized mice after transplantation of G-CSF-mobilized peripheral blood stem cells from HCMV-seropositive donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakki, Morgan; Goldman, Devorah C; Streblow, Daniel N; Hamlin, Kimberly L; Krekylwich, Craig N; Fleming, William H; Nelson, Jay A

    2014-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection, including primary infection resulting from transmission from a seropositive donor to a seronegative recipient (D(+)/R(-)), remains a significant problem in the setting of peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT). The lack of a suitable animal model for studying HCMV transmission after PBSCT is a major barrier to understanding this process and, consequently, developing novel interventions to prevent HCMV infection. Our previous work demonstrated that human CD34(+) progenitor cell-engrafted NOD-scid IL2Rγc(null) (NSG) mice support latent HCMV infection after direct inoculation and reactivation after treatment with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. To more accurately recapitulate HCMV infection in the D(+)/R(-) PBSCT setting, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-mobilized peripheral blood stem cells from seropositive donors were used to engraft NSG mice. All recipient mice demonstrated evidence of HCMV infection in liver, spleen, and bone marrow. These findings validate the NSG mouse model for studying HCMV transmission during PBSCT.

  15. In vitro toxicity of naphthalene, 1-naphthol, 2-naphthol and 1,4-naphthoquinone on human CFU-GM from female and male cord blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croera, C; Ferrario, D; Gribaldo, L

    2008-09-01

    In animal models, naphthalene toxicity has been studied in different target organs and has been shown to be gender-dependent and metabolism related. In humans, it is readily absorbed and is metabolised by several cytochrome P450's. Naphthalene and its metabolites can cross the placental barrier and consequently may affect foetal tissues. The aim of this study was to compare the in vitro toxicity of naphthalene and its metabolites, 1-naphthol, 2-naphthol and 1,4-naphthoquinone, on human haematopoietic foetal progenitors (CFU-GM) derived from newborn male and female donors. The mRNA expression of Cyp1A2 and Cyp3A4 was also evaluated. Naphthalene did not affect CFU-GM proliferation, while 1-naphthol, 2-naphthol and particularly 1,4-naphthoquinone strongly inhibited the clonogenicity of progenitors, from both male and female donors. mRNA of Cyp1A2 and Cyp3A4 was not expressed neither at the basal level, nor after naphthalene treatment, while treatment with 1,4-naphthoquinone induced expression of both enzymes in both genders, with Cyp1A2 being expressed four times more than Cyp3A4. Female CFU-GM was significantly more sensitive to 1,4-naphthoquinone than male and after treatment both enzymes were expressed twice as much as in the male precursors. These results suggest that a gender-specific 1,4-naphthoquinone metabolic pathway may exist, which gives rise to unknown toxic metabolites.

  16. The biological function of some human transcription factor binding motifs varies with position relative to the transcription start site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharakaraman, Kannan; Bodenreider, Olivier; Landsman, David; Spouge, John L; Mariño-Ramírez, Leonardo

    2008-05-01

    A number of previous studies have predicted transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) by exploiting the position of genomic landmarks like the transcriptional start site (TSS). The studies' methods are generally too computationally intensive for genome-scale investigation, so the full potential of 'positional regulomics' to discover TFBSs and determine their function remains unknown. Because databases often annotate the genomic landmarks in DNA sequences, the methodical exploitation of positional regulomics has become increasingly urgent. Accordingly, we examined a set of 7914 human putative promoter regions (PPRs) with a known TSS. Our methods identified 1226 eight-letter DNA words with significant positional preferences with respect to the TSS, of which only 608 of the 1226 words matched known TFBSs. Many groups of genes whose PPRs contained a common word displayed similar expression profiles and related biological functions, however. Most interestingly, our results included 78 words, each of which clustered significantly in two or three different positions relative to the TSS. Often, the gene groups corresponding to different positional clusters of the same word corresponded to diverse functions, e.g. activation or repression in different tissues. Thus, different clusters of the same word likely reflect the phenomenon of 'positional regulation', i.e. a word's regulatory function can vary with its position relative to a genomic landmark, a conclusion inaccessible to methods based purely on sequence. Further integrative analysis of words co-occurring in PPRs also yielded 24 different groups of genes, likely identifying cis-regulatory modules de novo. Whereas comparative genomics requires precise sequence alignments, positional regulomics exploits genomic landmarks to provide a 'poor man's alignment'. By exploiting the phenomenon of positional regulation, it uses position to differentiate the biological functions of subsets of TFBSs sharing a common sequence motif.

  17. Proliferative effect of whey from cows' milk varying in phyto-oestrogens in human breast and prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Tina S; Höjer, Annika; Gustavsson, Anne-Maj; Hansen-Møller, Jens; Purup, Stig

    2012-05-01

    Intake of dietary phyto-oestrogens has received a great deal of attention owing to their potential influence on hormone-sensitive cancers such as breast and prostate cancer. Cows' milk contains phyto-oestrogens and the content varies according to the composition of the feed and the type and amount of legumes used. In this study we evaluated the proliferative effect of milk (whey) with different phyto-oestrogen content in human breast (MCF-7) and prostate cancer cells (PC-3). Milk was obtained from cows fed either a birdsfoot trefoil-timothy silage based ration (B1) or two different red clover silage based diets (R1 and R2) resulting in total phyto-oestrogen contents of 403, 1659 and 1434 ng/ml for the B1, R1 and R2 diets, respectively. Whey was produced from the milk and added to cell culture medium in concentrations up to 10% for MCF-7 cells and 5% for PC-3 cells. Cell proliferation was measured fluorometrically after 7 d for MCF-7 cells and 5 d for PC-3 cells. There was no significant difference in the proliferative effect of whey from the different dietary treatments at any of the whey concentrations tested. An anti-proliferative effect (Pwhey was seen when tested in the presence of 10 pM oestradiol in the medium. This effect was independent of dietary treatment of cows. Whey induced a significant (Pmilk decreased PC-3 cell proliferation, and therefore the stimulatory effect of whey in PC-3 cells is believed to be mediated by other bioactives than equol. In conclusion, our results suggest that using whey in these proliferation assays, it was not possible to discriminate between milk with high or low levels of phyto-oestrogens.

  18. Individual donor-nucleic acid testing for human immunodeficiency virus-1, hepatitis C virus and hepatitis B virus and its role in blood safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Transfusion-transmitted infections (TTIs are one of the biggest threats to blood transfusion safety. Nucleic acid testing (NAT in blood donor screening has been implemented in many countries to reduce the risk of TTIs. NAT shortens this window period, thereby offering blood centers a much higher sensitivity for detecting viral infections. Aims: The objective was to assess the role of individual donor-NAT (ID-NAT for human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1, hepatitis C virus (HCV and hepatitis B virus (HBV and its role in blood safety. Materials and Methods: A total of 32978 donations were tested for all three viruses using enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay (Vironostika ® HIV Ag-Ab, Hepanostika ® HCV ultra and hepatitis B surface antigen ultra by Biomerieux and ID-NAT using Procleix Ultrio plus ® Assay (Novartis Diagnostic, USA. All initial NAT reactive samples and serology nonreactive were retested in triplicate and NAT discriminatory assay for HIV-1, HCV and HBV were performed. Results: Of the 32978 samples, 43 (0.13% were found to be ID-NAT reactive but seronegative. Out of 43, one for HIV-1, 13 for HCV and 27 for HBV were reactive by discriminatory assays. There were two samples that were reactive for both HCV-HBV and counted as HCV-HBV co-infection NAT yield. The prevalence of these viruses in our sample, tested by ID-NAT is 0.06%, 0.71%, and 0.63% for HIV-1, HCV and HBV respectively. The combined NAT yield among blood donors was 1 in 753. Conclusion: ID-NAT testing for HIV-1, HCV and HBV can tremendously improve the efficacy of screening for protecting blood recipient from TTIs. It enables detection of these viruses that were undetected by serological test and thus helped in providing safe blood to the patients.

  19. Guidelines for the establishment and operation of a donor human milk banking in 2013%2013年北美母乳库的建立和运行管理指南

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩树萍; 余章斌; 陈小慧

    2014-01-01

    The Human Milk Banking Association of North America(HMBANA) is a professional association for supporters of non-profit donor human milk banking.HMBANA develops guidelines for donor human milk banking practices.The construction of China's human milk bank has just begun in few areas in 2013.To further promote the development and implementation of donor human milk banking in our country,this review introduce the guideline for establishment and operation of a donor human milk bank which drafted by HMBANA in 2013.The guideline can provide the basis for the development of human milk bank in our country.%北美母乳库协会(The Human Milk Banking Association of North America,HMBANA)是一个推进母乳库的建立和运行的非盈利性组织,致力于制定管理母乳库的标准和规范.我国母乳库的建设于2013年在极少地区刚刚开始,为进一步推广母乳库在我国的开展和实施,将2013年北美母乳库的建立和运行管理指南介绍如下,为建立符合我国国情的母乳库提供参考.

  20. Prediction of fraction metabolized via CYP3A in humans utilizing cryopreserved human hepatocytes from a set of 12 single donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desbans, C; Hilgendorf, C; Lutz, M; Bachellier, P; Zacharias, T; Weber, J C; Dolgos, H; Richert, L; Ungell, A-L

    2014-01-01

    1.  It has previously been demonstrated that metabolism of drugs via a single enzymatic pathway, particularly CYP3A4, is associated with increased risk for drug-drug interactions (DDI). Quantitative experimental systems as well as integrated prediction models to assess such risk during the preclinical phase are highly warranted. 2.  The present study was designed to systematically investigate the performance of human cryopreserved hepatocytes in suspension to predict fraction metabolized via CYP3A (fmCYP3A) by assessing the ketoconazole sensitive intrinsic clearance (CLint) for five prototypical CYP3A substrates with varying degree of CYP3A dependent CLint in twelve individual hepatocyte batches. 3.  We demonstrate that in contrast to well predicted mean hepatic metabolic clearance (CLH) and mean fmCYP3A data, the variability in CYP3A contribution for compounds having multiple metabolic pathways cannot be predicted from inhibition experiments using ketoconazole as inhibitor. Instead, data in the present paper indicate that the variability is larger after inhibition of CYP3A for compounds having multiple metabolic pathways. 4.  It is therefore recommended to estimate the average CLint and fmCYP3A for a given test compound in a series (n = 10) of individual human hepatocyte batches.

  1. Willingness to pursue live-donor kidney transplantation among waitlisted patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV): a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigue, James R; Paek, Matthew J; Egbuna, Ogo; Waterman, Amy D; Pavlakis, Martha; Mandelbrot, Didier A

    2013-03-27

    We show that HIV-infected waitlisted patients (n=33) had significantly lower knowledge (P<0.001), more concerns (P=0.01), and lower willingness to pursue live-donor kidney transplantation (LDKT; P=0.02) than matched noninfected patients. The majority (78%) of patients felt that their HIV status reduced their chance of LDKT. Although limited to a single center and a small sample, our data suggest that HIV-infected patients who are waitlisted for kidney transplantation may need more education about the potential benefits of LDKT and may benefit from patient-centered decision support to facilitate a risk-benefit assessment consistent with their preferences and values.

  2. Human-induced pluripotent stem cells from blood cells of healthy donors and patients with acquired blood disorders

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells derived from somatic cells hold promise to develop novel patient-specific cell therapies and research models for inherited and acquired diseases. We and others previously reprogrammed human adherent cells, such as postnatal fibroblasts to iPS cells, which resemble adherent embryonic stem cells. Here we report derivation of iPS cells from postnatal human blood cells and the potential of these pluripotent cells for disease modeling. Multiple human iPS ...

  3. Human acetyl-CoA:glucosamine-6-phosphate N-acetyltransferase 1 has a relaxed donor specificity and transfers acyl groups up to four carbons in length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockhausen, Inka; Nair, Dileep G; Chen, Min; Yang, Xiaojing; Allingham, John S; Szarek, Walter A; Anastassiades, Tassos

    2016-04-01

    Glucosamine-6-phosphate N-acetyltransferase1 (GNA1) catalyses the transfer of an acetyl group from acetyl coenzyme A (AcCoA) to glucosamine-6-phosphate (GlcN6P) to form N-acetylglucosamine-6-phosphate (GlcNAc6P), which is an essential intermediate in UDP-GlcNAc biosynthesis. An analog of GlcNAc, N-butyrylglucosamine (GlcNBu) has shown healing properties for bone and articular cartilage in animal models of arthritis. The goal of this work was to examine whether GNA1 has the ability to transfer a butyryl group from butyryl-CoA to GlcN6P to form GlcNBu6P, which can then be converted to GlcNBu. We developed fluorescent and radioactive assays and examined the donor specificity of human GNA1. Acetyl, propionyl, n-butyryl, and isobutyryl groups were all transferred to GlcN6P, but isovaleryl-CoA and decanoyl-CoA did not serve as donor substrates. Site-specific mutants were produced to examine the role of amino acids potentially affecting the size and properties of the AcCoA binding pocket. All of the wild type and mutant enzymes showed activities of both acetyl and butyryl transfer and can therefore be used for the enzymatic synthesis of GlcNBu for biomedical applications.

  4. Structural chromosome abnormalities, increased DNA strand breaks and DNA strand break repair deficiency in dermal fibroblasts from old female human donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalfalah, Faiza; Seggewiß, Sabine; Walter, Regina; Tigges, Julia; Moreno-Villanueva, María; Bürkle, Alexander; Ohse, Sebastian; Busch, Hauke; Boerries, Melanie; Hildebrandt, Barbara; Royer-Pokora, Brigitte; Boege, Fritz

    2015-02-01

    Dermal fibroblasts provide a paradigmatic model of cellular adaptation to long-term exogenous stress and ageing processes driven thereby. Here we addressed whether fibroblast ageing analysedex vivo entails genome instability. Dermal fibroblasts from human female donors aged 20-67 years were studied in primary culture at low population doubling. Under these conditions, the incidence of replicative senescence and rates of age-correlated telomere shortening were insignificant. Genome-wide gene expression analysis revealed age-related impairment of mitosis, telomere and chromosome maintenance and induction of genes associated with DNA repair and non-homologous end-joining, most notably XRCC4 and ligase 4. We observed an age-correlated drop in proliferative capacity and age-correlated increases in heterochromatin marks, structural chromosome abnormalities (deletions, translocations and chromatid breaks), DNA strand breaks and histone H2AX-phosphorylation. In a third of the cells from old and middle-aged donors repair of X-ray induced DNA strand breaks was impaired despite up-regulation of DNA repair genes. The distinct phenotype of genome instability, increased heterochromatinisation and (in 30% of the cases futile) up-regulation of DNA repair genes was stably maintained over several cell passages indicating that it represents a feature of geroconversion that is distinct from cellular senescence, as it does not encompass a block of proliferation.

  5. Inalienably Yours? The new case for an inalienable property right in human biological material: Empowerment of sample donors or a recipe for a tragic Anti-Commons?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasper A. Bovenberg

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern biomedical research into the genetic component of common diseases calls for broad access to existing and novel collections of samples of human biological material, aka Biobanks. Groups of donors of these samples, however, increasingly claim a property right in their samples. They perceive the recognition of a personal property right in their biological material as the best means to serve two goals: to secure ongoing control over their samples after donation and to underpin their claim for a share in the proceeds that the research on their samples may yield. Given the objective of ensuring ongoing control, this property right is claimed to be inalienable. Recognition of a personal property right in one’s biological material is problematic, especially where the requirement of inalienability seems at odds with the claim for a share of the profits. Yet, property rights in human biological material may be justified in a certain context, e.g. to enable subsets of patients to negotiate the terms and conditions of the research into their specific disorders. Biobanks, however, contain so many samples, which can be used for so many research purposes, that the unrestricted exercise of personal property rights by the sample donors will lead to a proliferation of rights. This proliferation is likely to deter or slow down both the creation of de novo Biobanks and the use of existing sample collections. Thus, recognising inalienable property rights in human biological material may lead to suboptimal use of these resources and create a classic ‘anticommons property’ scenario. It would also undermine the current trend to simplify existing informed consent requirements which aims to facilitate broad and previously unanticipated research on de novo and existing Biobanks. In addition, the tradition of altruistic participation in research and the notion that large-scale collections of human biological material are global public goods are arguments against

  6. Coinfection by Strongyloides stercoralis in blood donors infected with human T-cell leukemia/lymphoma virus type 1 in São Paulo city, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro P Chieffi

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available The frequency of coinfection with Strongyloides stercoralis and human T-cell leukemia/lymphoma virus type 1 (HTML-1 was determined in 91 blood donors examined at the blood bank of a large hospital in São Paulo city, Brazil. As control group 61 individuals, not infected by HTLV-1, were submitted to the same techniques for the diagnosis of S. stercoralis infection. In HTLV-1 infected patients the frequency of S. stercoralis infection was 12.1%; on the other hand, the control group showed a frequency significantly lower of S. stercoralis infection (1.6%, suggesting that HTLV-1 patients shoud be considered as a high risk group for strongyloidiasis in São Paulo city.

  7. Varying Constants

    CERN Document Server

    Damour, Thibault Marie Alban Guillaume

    2003-01-01

    We review some string-inspired theoretical models which incorporate a correlated spacetime variation of coupling constants while remaining naturally compatible both with phenomenological constraints coming from geochemical data (Oklo; Rhenium decay) and with present equivalence principle tests. Barring unnatural fine-tunings of parameters, a variation of the fine-structure constant as large as that recently ``observed'' by Webb et al. in quasar absorption spectra appears to be incompatible with these phenomenological constraints. Independently of any model, it is emphasized that the best experimental probe of varying constants are high-precision tests of the universality of free fall, such as MICROSCOPE and STEP. Recent claims by Bekenstein that fine-structure-constant variability does not imply detectable violations of the equivalence principle are shown to be untenable.

  8. Generation of human induced pluripotent stem cells from a Bombay individual: Moving towards 'universal-donor' red blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seifinejad, Ali; Taei, Adeleh [Department of Stem Cells and Developmental Biology, Royan Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Technology, P.O. Box 19395-4644, ACECR, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Totonchi, Mehdi; Vazirinasab, Hamed [Department of Genetics, Royan Institute for Reproductive Biomedicine, ACECR, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hassani, Seideh Nafiseh [Department of Stem Cells and Developmental Biology, Royan Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Technology, P.O. Box 19395-4644, ACECR, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Aghdami, Nasser [Department of Stem Cells and Developmental Biology, Royan Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Technology, P.O. Box 19395-4644, ACECR, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Regenerative Biomedicine, Royan Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Technology, ACECR, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahbazi, Ebrahim [Department of Stem Cells and Developmental Biology, Royan Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Technology, P.O. Box 19395-4644, ACECR, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Yazdi, Reza Salman [Department of Genetics, Royan Institute for Reproductive Biomedicine, ACECR, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Salekdeh, Ghasem Hosseini, E-mail: Salekdeh@royaninstitute.org [Department of Molecular Systems Biology, Royan Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Technology, ACECR, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Systems Biology, Agricultural Biotechnology Research Institute of Iran, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Baharvand, Hossein, E-mail: Baharvand@royaninstitute.org [Department of Stem Cells and Developmental Biology, Royan Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Technology, P.O. Box 19395-4644, ACECR, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Regenerative Biomedicine, Royan Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Technology, ACECR, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Developmental Biology, University of Science and Culture, ACECR, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-01-01

    Bombay phenotype is one of the rare phenotypes in the ABO blood group system that fails to express ABH antigens on red blood cells. Nonsense or missense mutations in fucosyltransfrase1 (FUT1) and fucosyltransfrase2 (FUT2) genes are known to create this phenotype. This blood group is compatible with all other blood groups as a donor, as it does not express the H antigen on the red blood cells. In this study, we describe the establishment of human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from the dermal fibroblasts of a Bombay blood-type individual by the ectopic expression of established transcription factors Klf4, Oct4, Sox2, and c-Myc. Sequence analyses of fibroblasts and iPSCs revealed a nonsense mutation 826C to T (276 Gln to Ter) in the FUT1 gene and a missense mutation 739G to A (247 Gly to Ser) in the FUT2 gene in the Bombay phenotype under study. The established iPSCs resemble human embryonic stem cells in morphology, passaging, surface and pluripotency markers, normal karyotype, gene expression, DNA methylation of critical pluripotency genes, and in-vitro differentiation. The directed differentiation of the iPSCs into hematopoietic lineage cells displayed increased expression of the hematopoietic lineage markers such as CD34, CD133, RUNX1, KDR, {alpha}-globulin, and {gamma}-globulin. Such specific stem cells provide an unprecedented opportunity to produce a universal blood group donor, in-vitro, thus enabling cellular replacement therapies, once the safety issue is resolved.

  9. Comparison of Markers and Functional Attributes of Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells and Dedifferentiated Adipocyte Cells from Subcutaneous Fat of an Obese Diabetic Donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, James E; Patel, Niketa A; Carter, Gay; Moor, Andrea; Patel, Rekha; Ghansah, Tomar; Mathur, Abhishek; Murr, Michel M; Bickford, Paula; Gould, Lisa J; Cooper, Denise R

    2014-03-01

    Objective: Adipose tissue is a robust source of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) that may be able to provide secreted factors that promote the ability of wounded tissue to heal. However, adipocytes also have the potential to dedifferentiate in culture to cells with stem cell-like properties that may improve their behavior and functionality for certain applications. Approach: ADSCs are adult mesenchymal stem cells that are cultured from the stromal vascular fraction of adipose tissue. However, adipocytes are capable of dedifferentiating into cells with stem cell properties. In this case study, we compare ADSC and dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells from the same patient and fat depot for mesenchymal cell markers, embryonic stem cell markers, ability to differentiate to adipocytes and osteoblasts, senescence and telomerase levels, and ability of conditioned media (CM) to stimulate migration of human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs). Innovation and Conclusions: ADSCs and DFAT cells displayed identical levels of CD90, CD44, CD105, and were CD34- and CD45-negative. They also expressed similar levels of Oct4, BMI1, KLF4, and SALL4. DFAT cells, however, showed higher efficiency in adipogenic and osteogenic capacity. Telomerase levels of DFAT cells were double those of ADSCs, and senescence declined in DFAT cells. CM from both cell types altered the migration of fibroblasts. Despite reports of ADSCs from a number of human depots, there have been no comparisons of the ability of dedifferentiated DFAT cells from the same donor and depot to differentiate or modulate migration of HDFs. Since ADSCs were from an obese diabetic donor, reprogramming of DFAT cells may help improve a patient's cells for regenerative medicine applications.

  10. Rapid milk group classification by 1H NMR analysis of Le and H epitopes in human milk oligosaccharide donor samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Sander S; Schoemaker, Ruud J W; Gerwig, Gerrit J; van Leusen-van Kan, Ellen J M; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert; Kamerling, Johannis P

    2014-01-01

    Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are a major constituent of human breast milk and play an important role in reducing the risk of infections in infants. The structures of these HMOs show similarities with blood group antigens in protein glycosylation, in particular in relation to fucosylation in Le

  11. High seroprevalence of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 in blood donors in Guyana and molecular and phylogenetic analysis of new strains in the Guyana shelf (Guyana, Suriname, and French Guiana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouliquen, Jean-François; Hardy, Lynette; Lavergne, Anne; Kafiludine, Eric; Kazanji, Mirdad

    2004-05-01

    The prevalence of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and HTLV-2 in blood donors in Guyana has never been estimated. We evaluated the prevalence of these viruses in blood donors by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blotting and showed a prevalence of HTLV-1 of 1.3%; no HTLV-2 was detected. Female donors had a much higher HTLV-1 seroprevalence (3.6%) than male donors (0.7%). HTLV-1-seropositive donors tended to be slightly older than the average age for the total pool of donors. We also investigated the phylogenetic and molecular characteristics of HTLV-1 strains in Guyana and compared them with those identified in Suriname and French Guiana. Analysis of portions of the env and long terminal repeat nucleotide sequences showed that all the strains in Guyana and Suriname, like those in French Guiana, belonged to the transcontinental group of cosmopolitan subtype A. The similarities were greater between strains from Suriname and Guyana than between strains from Suriname and Guyana and those from French Guiana. Nevertheless, our results confirm that the HTLV-1 strains in all three countries have a common African origin.

  12. Human T-Lymphotropic Virus Type I (HTLV-1) Infection among Iranian Blood Donors: First Case-Control Study on the Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedayati-Moghaddam, Mohammad Reza; Tehranian, Farahnaz; Bayati, Maryam

    2015-11-04

    Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection is an endemic condition in Northeast Iran and, as such, identification of risk factors associated with the infection in this region seems to be a necessity. All the possible risk factors for HTLV-1 seropositivity among first-time blood donors were evaluated in Mashhad, Iran, during the period of 2011-2012. Blood donation volunteers were interviewed for demographic data, medical history, and behavioral characteristics and the frequencies of risk factors were compared between HTLV-1 positive (case) and HTLV-1 negative (control) donors. The data was analyzed using Chi square and t-tests. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify independent risk factors for the infection. Assessments were carried out on 246 cases aged 17-60 and 776 controls aged 17-59, who were matched based on their ages, gender, and date and center of donation. Logistic analysis showed low income (OR = 1.53, p = 0.035), low educational level (OR = 1.64, p = 0.049), being born in the cities of either Mashhad (OR = 2.47, p = 0.001) or Neyshabour (OR = 4.30, p risk factors for HTLV-1 infection, such as prolonged breastfeeding and sexual promiscuity. Pre-donation screening of possible risk factors for transfusion-transmissible infections should also be considered as an important issue, however, a revision of the screening criteria such as a history of transfusion for more than one year prior to donation is strongly recommended.

  13. Parallel enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay screening for human immunodeficiency virus among blood donors in five Chinese blood centres: a retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, P; Liu, J; Wang, J; Dong, X; Li, J; Bi, X; Ma, H; Wen, X; He, M; Liu, Y; Ness, P; Shan, H

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the strategy of parallel screening with different enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) among Chinese blood donors. Parallel screening with ELISA has been the main strategy to detect human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in blood donations in China for more than a decade. The performance of the strategy should be analysed. A total of 821,927 donations collected from five Chinese blood centres in 2008-2010 were tested using two third-generation ELISAs by different manufacturers licenced and confirmed by the Western blot (WB) in this study. The confirmatory positive predictive values (PPV), false positive rates (FPR), false negative rates (FNR) and potential risks for transfusion resulting from single or sequential ELISA screening were evaluated. A total of 5318 (0·647%) of donations screened HIV reactive and were discarded. WB confirmatory results on 1668 available samples suggested that PPVs for dual ELISA, one round ELISA reactive and grey zone samples were 75·1, 0·7 and 0·5%, respectively. Eight out of 1124 one round ELISA reactive and 1 out of 195 grey zone samples were WB confirmed positive. All but one ELISA assay displayed comparable PPVs but variable FPRs and FNRs that differed by blood centre. In the absence of nucleic acid testing (NAT), parallel ELISA screening prevented a substantial number of HIV infected donations from entering the Chinese blood supply. However, the loss of false positive donors should be re-evaluated especially given the frequently reported blood supply shortage in China. © 2015 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  14. Headache induced by a nitric oxide donor (nitroglycerin) responds to sumatriptan. A human model for development of migraine drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Helle Klingenberg; Olesen, J

    1996-01-01

    Experimental "vascular" headache in humans may be used in characterizing new migraine drugs. The effects of sumatriptan on nitroglycerin-(NTG)-induced headache and arterial responses were therefore studied. Following a double-blind randomized crossover design, 10 healthy volunteers received...

  15. Seroprevalence of hepatitis B, hepatitis C, human immunodeficiency virus, Treponema pallidum, and co-infections among blood donors in Kyrgyzstan: a retrospective analysis (2013-2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabaev, Bakyt B; Beisheeva, Nurgul J; Satybaldieva, Aiganysh B; Ismailova, Aikul D; Pessler, Frank; Akmatov, Manas K

    2017-02-21

    Post-Soviet Kyrgyzstan has experienced a major surge in blood-borne infections, but data from adequately powered, up-to-date studies are lacking. We thus examined a) the seroprevalences of hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg), HIV-1 p24 antigen and antibodies against hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV), human immunodeficiency viruses (anti-HIV-1/2, HIV-1 group O), and Treponema pallidum among blood donors in Kyrgyzstan and assess their distribution according to sex, age, and provinces of residence; b) trends in the respective seroprevalences; and c) co-infection rates among the pathogens studied. Serological screening was performed on 37 165 blood donors at the Republican Blood Centre in Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, between January 2013 and December 2015. We applied poststratification weights to control for sampling bias and used logistic regression analyses to examine the association of seropositivity and co-infections with sex, age, provinces of residence, and year of blood donation. Twenty nine thousand and one hundred forty-five (78%) donors were males and 8 020 (22%) were females. The median age was 27 years (range: 18 - 64). The prevalences of HBsAg, anti-HCV, HIV (p24 Ag and anti-HIV), and anti-T. pallidum were 3.6% (95%CI: 3.4 - 3.8%), 3.1% (3.0 - 3.3%), 0.78% (0.69 - 0.87%), and 3.3% (3.1 - 3.5%), respectively. Males were more likely to be seropositive for HBsAg than females (OR: 1.63; 95%CI: 1.40 - 1.90), but less likely to be seropositive for anti-HCV (0.85; 0.74 - 0.98) and HIV (0.65; 0.49 - 0.85). Prevalences were lower in the capital than in the other provinces. There was a decreasing trend in the seroprevalences of HBsAg, anti-HCV, and anti-T. pallidum from 2012 to 2015 (P-value for trend, P = 0.01, P < 0.0001, P < 0.0001, respectively), while the seroprevalence of HIV increased (P = 0.049). One hundred eighty donors (0.48%) were seropositive for multiple infections. The highest co-infection rate was observed between anti-T. pallidum and HBs

  16. Assembled microneedle arrays enhance the transport of compounds varying over a large range of molecular weight across human dermatomed skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbaan, F.J.; Bal, S.M.; Berg, van den D.J.; Groenink, W.H.H.; Verpoorten, H.; Luttge, R.; Bouwstra, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrate the feasibility to use microneedle arrays manufactured from commercially available 30G hypodermal needles to enhance the transport of compounds up to a molecular weight of 72 kDa. Piercing of human dermatomed skin with microneedle arrays was studied by Trypan Blue stai

  17. Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium occurrence in Australian sea lions (Neophoca cinerea exposed to varied levels of human interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany C. Delport

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Giardia and Cryptosporidium are amongst the most common protozoan parasites identified as causing enteric disease in pinnipeds. A number of Giardia assemblages and Cryptosporidium species and genotypes are common in humans and terrestrial mammals and have also been identified in marine mammals. To investigate the occurrence of these parasites in an endangered marine mammal, the Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea, genomic DNA was extracted from faecal samples collected from wild populations (n = 271 in Southern and Western Australia and three Australian captive populations (n = 19. These were screened using PCR targeting the 18S rRNA of Giardia and Cryptosporidium. Giardia duodenalis was detected in 28 wild sea lions and in seven captive individuals. Successful sequencing of the 18S rRNA gene assigned 27 Giardia isolates to assemblage B and one to assemblage A, both assemblages commonly found in humans. Subsequent screening at the gdh and β-giardin loci resulted in amplification of only one of the 35 18S rRNA positive samples at the β-giardin locus. Sequencing at the β-giardin locus assigned the assemblage B 18S rRNA confirmed isolate to assemblage AI. The geographic distribution of sea lion populations sampled in relation to human settlements indicated that Giardia presence in sea lions was highest in populations less than 25 km from humans. Cryptosporidium was not detected by PCR screening in either wild colonies or captive sea lion populations. These data suggest that the presence of G. duodenalis in the endangered Australian sea lion is likely the result of dispersal from human sources. Multilocus molecular analyses are essential for the determination of G. duodenalis assemblages and subsequent inferences on transmission routes to endangered marine mammal populations.

  18. Immunologic testing of xeno-derived osteochondral grafts using peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy human donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Targoni Oleg S

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One means of treating osteoarthritis is with autologous or allogeneic osteochondral grafts. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the innate immunological response in humans toward xeno-derived osteochondral grafts that have been partially or entirely treated by the photooxidation process. Methods The antigens tested included bovine, porcine, ovine and equine osteochondral samples that have been treated in successive steps of photooxidation. ELISPOT assays were used to evaluate the production of IL-1, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12 and TNF-α by human monocytes in response to the antigens. Results Results indicated vigorous production of IL-1, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α in response to untreated bovine, porcine and equine specimens. This indicates that these samples are perceived as foreign, or stimulatory, by the human monocytes. There was no induction of IL-4 or IL-12, which is required for Th2 and Th1 immunity, respectively. In contrast, the processed bovine, porcine and equine samples did not induce significant activation of cells of the innate immune system. This occurred after the first step in processing (after cleaning in increasing strengths of ethanol. This suggests that the processing steps dramatically, if not completely, negated the immunostimulatory properties of the test sample. The results for the ovine samples indicate a reverse response. Conclusion The findings of the study suggest that photooxidized bovine, porcine or equine samples have the potential to be used as an osteochondral graft. Although the first step in processing reduced the immunological response, photooxidation is still necessary to retain the structure and mechanical integrity of the cartilage, which would allow for immediate joint resurfacing.

  19. Interactions of donor sources and media influence the histo-morphological quality of full-thickness skin models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Julia; Weil, Frederik; Riegler, Christoph; Groeber, Florian; Rebhan, Silke; Kurdyn, Szymon; Alb, Miriam; Kneitz, Hermann; Gelbrich, Götz; Walles, Heike; Mielke, Stephan

    2016-10-01

    Human artificial skin models are increasingly employed as non-animal test platforms for research and medical purposes. However, the overall histopathological quality of such models may vary significantly. Therefore, the effects of manufacturing protocols and donor sources on the quality of skin models built-up from fibroblasts and keratinocytes derived from juvenile foreskins is studied. Histo-morphological parameters such as epidermal thickness, number of epidermal cell layers, dermal thickness, dermo-epidermal adhesion and absence of cellular nuclei in the corneal layer are obtained and scored accordingly. In total, 144 full-thickness skin models derived from 16 different donors, built-up in triplicates using three different culture conditions were successfully generated. In univariate analysis both media and donor age affected the quality of skin models significantly. Both parameters remained statistically significant in multivariate analyses. Performing general linear model analyses we could show that individual medium-donor-interactions influence the quality. These observations suggest that the optimal choice of media may differ from donor to donor and coincides with findings where significant inter-individual variations of growth rates in keratinocytes and fibroblasts have been described. Thus, the consideration of individual medium-donor-interactions may improve the overall quality of human organ models thereby forming a reproducible test platform for sophisticated clinical research.

  20. Several Human Liver Cell Expressed Apolipoproteins Complement HCV Virus Production with Varying Efficacy Conferring Differential Specific Infectivity to Released Viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Hueging

    Full Text Available Apolipoprotein E (ApoE, an exchangeable apolipoprotein, is necessary for production of infectious Hepatitis C virus (HCV particles. However, ApoE is not the only liver-expressed apolipoprotein and the role of other apolipoproteins for production of infectious HCV progeny is incompletely defined. Therefore, we quantified mRNA expression of human apolipoproteins in primary human hepatocytes. Subsequently, cDNAs encoding apolipoproteins were expressed in 293T/miR-122 cells to explore if they complement HCV virus production in cells that are non-permissive due to limiting endogenous levels of human apolipoproteins. Primary human hepatocytes expressed high mRNA levels of ApoA1, A2, C1, C3, E, and H. ApoA4, A5, B, D, F, J, L1, L2, L3, L4, L6, M, and O were expressed at intermediate levels, and C2, C4, and L5 were not detected. All members of the ApoA and ApoC family of lipoproteins complemented HCV virus production in HCV transfected 293T/miR-122 cells, albeit with significantly lower efficacy compared with ApoE. In contrast, ApoD expression did not support production of infectious HCV. Specific infectivity of released particles complemented with ApoA family members was significantly lower compared with ApoE. Moreover, the ratio of extracellular to intracellular infectious virus was significantly higher for ApoE compared to ApoA2 and ApoC3. Since apolipoproteins complementing HCV virus production share amphipathic alpha helices as common structural features we altered the two alpha helices of ApoC1. Helix breaking mutations in both ApoC1 helices impaired virus assembly highlighting a critical role of alpha helices in apolipoproteins supporting HCV assembly. In summary, various liver expressed apolipoproteins with amphipathic alpha helices complement HCV virus production in human non liver cells. Differences in the efficiency of virus assembly, the specific infectivity of released particles, and the ratio between extracellular and intracellular

  1. The analysis of VH and VL genes repertoires of Fab library built from peripheral B cells of human rabies virus vaccinated donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houimel, Mehdi

    2014-08-01

    A human combinatorial Fab antibody library was generated from immune repertoire based on peripheral B cells of ten rabies virus vaccinated donors. The analysis of random Fab fragments from the unselected library presented some bias of V gene usage towards IGHV-genes and IGLV-gen families. The screening of the Fab library on rabies virus allowed specific human Fab antibody fragments characterized for their gene encoding sequences, binding and specificities to RV. Genetic analysis of selected Fabs indicated that the IGHV and IGLV differ from the germ-line sequence. At the level of nucleotide sequences, the IGHV and IGLV domains were found to share 74-92% and 90-96% homology with sequences encoded by the corresponding human germ-line genes respectively. IGHV domains are characterized most frequently by IGHV3 genes, and large proportions of the anti-RV heavy chain IGHV domains are obtained following a VDJ recombination process that uses IGHD3, IGHD2, IGHD1 and IGHD6 genes. IGHJ3 and IGHJ4 genes are predominantly used in RV-Fab. The IGLV domains are dominated by IGKV1, IGLV1 and IGLV3 genes. Numerous somatic hypermutations in the RV-specific IGHV are detected, but only limited amino acid replacement in most of the RV-specific IGLV particularly in those encoded by J proximal IGLV or IGKV genes are found. Furthermore, IGHV3-IGKV1, IGHV3-IGVL1, and IGHV3-IGLV3 germ-line family pairings are preferentially enriched after the screening on rabies virus.

  2. Skeletal Muscle Differentiation on a Chip Shows Human Donor Mesoangioblasts' Efficiency in Restoring Dystrophin in a Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serena, Elena; Zatti, Susi; Zoso, Alice; Lo Verso, Francesca; Tedesco, F Saverio; Cossu, Giulio; Elvassore, Nicola

    2016-12-01

    : Restoration of the protein dystrophin on muscle membrane is the goal of many research lines aimed at curing Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Results of ongoing preclinical and clinical trials suggest that partial restoration of dystrophin might be sufficient to significantly reduce muscle damage. Different myogenic progenitors are candidates for cell therapy of muscular dystrophies, but only satellite cells and pericytes have already entered clinical experimentation. This study aimed to provide in vitro quantitative evidence of the ability of mesoangioblasts to restore dystrophin, in terms of protein accumulation and distribution, within myotubes derived from DMD patients, using a microengineered model. We designed an ad hoc experimental strategy to miniaturize on a chip the standard process of muscle regeneration independent of variables such as inflammation and fibrosis. It is based on the coculture, at different ratios, of human dystrophin-positive myogenic progenitors and dystrophin-negative myoblasts in a substrate with muscle-like physiological stiffness and cell micropatterns. Results showed that both healthy myoblasts and mesoangioblasts restored dystrophin expression in DMD myotubes. However, mesoangioblasts showed unexpected efficiency with respect to myoblasts in dystrophin production in terms of the amount of protein produced (40% vs. 15%) and length of the dystrophin membrane domain (210-240 µm vs. 40-70 µm). These results show that our microscaled in vitro model of human DMD skeletal muscle validated previous in vivo preclinical work and may be used to predict efficacy of new methods aimed at enhancing dystrophin accumulation and distribution before they are tested in vivo, reducing time, costs, and variability of clinical experimentation. This study aimed to provide in vitro quantitative evidence of the ability of human mesoangioblasts to restore dystrophin, in terms of protein accumulation and distribution, within myotubes derived from

  3. Quantification of viral genome in cord blood donors by real time PCR to investigate human herpesvirus type 8 active infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golchin, Neda; Kheirandish, Maryam; Sharifi, Zohreh; Samiee, Shahram; Kokhaei, Parviz; Pourpak, Zahra

    2015-12-01

    Umbilical cord blood (UCB) is one of the most important sources of hematopoietic stem cells which can be used for transplantation. The transplanted CB stem cells might cause infections in recipients. The aim of this study is to evaluate Human Herpes Virus8 (HHV8) as a Rhadinovirus among CB samples in order to assess safety of cord blood stem cells transplantation. To assess this aim, we surveyed 800 cord blood specimens by Real Time PCR.The overall HHV8 incidence in cord blood mononuclear cells was 1.38% and none of them was in lytic phase of HHV8. The authors suggest further HHV8 study on CB samples for transplantation.

  4. Biological character of human adipose-derived adult stem cells and influence of donor age on cell replication in culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the biological character of human adipose-derived adult stem cells (hADAS cells) when cultured in vitro and the relationship between hADAS cell’s replication activity and the donor’s age factor, and to assess the stem cells as a new source for tissue engineering. hADAS cells are isolated from human adipose tissue of different age groups (from adolescents to olds: <20 years old, 21―40 years old, 41―60 years old and >61 years old groups). The protein markers (CD29, CD34, CD44, CD45, CD49d, HLA-DR, CD106) of hADAS cells were detected by flow cytometry (FCM) to identify the stem cell, and the cell cycle was examined for P20 hADAS cells to evaluate the safety of the subculture in vitro. The generative activity of hADAS cells in different age groups was also examined by MTT method. The formula “ log2T D = t logN t ? logN 0” was used to get the time doubling (TD) of the cells. The results showed that the cells kept heredity stabilization by chromosome analysis for at least 20 passages. The TD of these cells increased progressively by ageing, and the TD of the <20 years old group was lower than that of the >61 years old group (statistical analysis of variance (ANOVA), P=0.002, P<0.05). These find- ings suggested that a higher level of hADAS cells replication activity was found in the younger dona- tors, and they represent novel and valuable seed cells for studies of tissue engineering.

  5. Chemically Modified Oligonucleotides Modulate an Epigenetically Varied and Transient Form of Transcription Silencing of HIV-1 in Human Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Knowling

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Small noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs have been shown to guide epigenetic silencing complexes to target loci in human cells. When targeted to gene promoters, these small RNAs can lead to long-term stable epigenetic silencing of gene transcription. To date, small RNAs have been shown to modulate transcriptional gene silencing (TGS of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 as well as several other disease-related genes, but it has remained unknown as to what extent particular chemistries can be used to generate single-stranded backbone-modified oligonucleotides that are amenable to this form of gene targeting and regulation. Here, we present data indicating that specific combinations of backbone modifications can be used to generate single-stranded antisense oligonucleotides that can functionally direct TGS of HIV-1 in a manner that is however, independent of epigenetic changes at the target loci. Furthermore, this functionality appears contingent on the absence of a 5′ phosphate in the oligonucleotide. These data suggest that chemically modified oligonucleotide based approaches could be implemented as a means to regulate gene transcription in an epigenetically independent manner.

  6. Differences in greeting behaviour towards humans with varying levels of familiarity in hand-reared wolves (Canis lupus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurys, Anita; Kubinyi, Enikő; Gácsi, Márta; Virányi, Zsófia

    2017-01-01

    Socialized wolves' relationship with humans is a much debated, but important question in light of dog domestication. Earlier findings reported no attachment to the caretaker at four months of age in a Strange Situation Test, while recently attachment to the caretaker was reported at a few weeks of age in a similar paradigm. To explore wolf–human relationship, we analysed behaviours of hand reared, extensively socialized wolves towards four visitor types: foster-parents, close acquaintances, persons met once before, and complete strangers during a greeting episode. As hypothesized, in the greeting context subjects showed more intense and friendly behaviour towards foster-parents, than other visitor types, which may reflect familiarity and affinity. However, differences were more pronounced in the group situation (at six months of age) than in the individual situation (at 12 and 24 months), suggesting that unique status of foster parents may become less distinct as wolves get older, while exploration of novel social agents is expressed more with older age. Fear related behaviour patterns were only found in the individual situation, mainly displayed towards strangers. We showed that, in case of extensively socialized wolves, distinctive affiliation and affinity towards the foster parent prevails into adulthood. PMID:28680658

  7. [The effect of sensory stimuli of varying modality on the human body functioning and indices of tense muscular activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaĭdalin, V S; Kamchatnikov, A G; Sentiabrev, N N; Katuntsev, V P

    2007-01-01

    The work had a purpose to study benefits of aromatic blends of tonic and relaxing essences and functional music on some of the psychophysiological properties of the human functional state and motor activeity. Participants were 30 sprinters (18-22 y.o. males) having the first-class and master ranks. The psychophysiological indices of the athletes' functional state were evaluated with the use of the "CAH" and Spilberger situational anxiety tests, calculated Cardeu vegetative index, time for simple motor reaction and reaction to a moving object. Motor activity was evaluated by top running speed determined with a photo-electronic time-keeper and by duration of pedaling on bicycle ergometer at maximal power. The running step parameters were recorded with electropodography. It was shown that the positive effect of the aromatic essence blends and functional music on motor activity developed fairly rapidly but did not last long. The article discusses features and possible ways the aromatic blends and music effect human organism.

  8. Nickel(II) complexes of N2S2 donor set ligand and halide/pseudohalides: Synthesis, crystal structure, DNA and bovine/human serum albumin interaction

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Animesh Patra; Biplab Mondal; Buddhadeb Sen; Ennio Zangrando; Pabitra Chattopadhyay

    2015-11-01

    A series of neutral hexacoordinated nickel(II) complexes of formula [NiII (L)X2] (where L = 3,4-bis(2-pyridylmethylthio)toluene with tetradentate N2S2 donor set and X = chloride (1), azide (2), cyanate (3) and isothiocyanate anion (4)) have been synthesized and isolated in pure form. The complexes were characterized by physicochemical and spectroscopic methods along with detailed structural characterization of 1,2 and 3 by single crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. The structural study showed that the nickel(II) ion has a distorted octahedral geometry being chelated by the tetradentate N2S2 ligand and bound to cis- located choride or pseudohalide anions. In dimethylformamide solution the complexes showed quasi-reversible NiII/NiIII redox couples in cyclic voltammograms with E1/2 values of +0.723, +0.749, +0.768 and +0.868 V for 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. The study of interaction of the complexes with calf thymus DNA, bovine serum albumin (BSA) and human serum albumin (HSA) using spectroscopic and physicochemical tools clearly indicates that the complexes interact with DNA via groove binding mode.

  9. Micro- and nano-topography to enhance proliferation and sustain functional markers of donor-derived primary human corneal endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Rizwan; Peh, Gary S L; Adnan, Khadijah; Law, Jaslyn B K; Mehta, Jodhbir S; Yim, Evelyn K F

    2015-06-01

    One of the most common indications for corneal transplantation is corneal endothelium dysfunction, which can lead to corneal blindness. Due to a worldwide donor cornea shortage, alternative treatments are needed, but the development of new treatment strategies relies on the successful in vitro culture of primary human corneal endothelial cells (HCECs) because transformed cell lines and animal-derived corneal endothelial cells are not desirable for therapeutic applications. Primary HCECs are non-proliferative in vivo and challenging to expand in vitro while maintaining their characteristic cell morphology and critical markers. Biochemical cues such as growth factors and small molecules have been investigated to enhance the expansion of HCECs with a limited increase in proliferation. In this study, patterned tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS) was shown to significantly enhance the expansion of HCECs. The proliferation of HCECs increased up to 2.9-fold, and the expression amount and localization of cell-cell tight junction protein Zona Occludens-1 (ZO-1) was significantly enhanced when grown on 1 μm TCPS pillars. 250 nm pillars induced an optimal hexagonal morphology of HCEC cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the topographical effect on tight-junction expression and cell morphology could be maintained throughout each passage, and was effectively 'remembered' by the cells. Higher amount of tight-junction protein expression was maintained at cell junctions when topographic cues were removed in the successive seeding. This topographic memory suggested topography-exposed/induced cells would maintain the enhanced functional markers, which would be useful in cell-therapy based approaches to enable the in situ endothelial cell monolayer formation upon delivery. The development of patterned TCPS culture platforms could significantly benefit those researching human corneal endothelial cell cultivation for cell therapy, and tissue engineering applications.

  10. Systemic delivery of triplex-forming PNA and donor DNA by nanoparticles mediates site-specific genome editing of human hematopoietic cells in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeer, N A; Schleifman, E B; Cuthbert, A; Brehm, M; Jackson, A; Cheng, C; Anandalingam, K; Kumar, P; Shultz, L D; Greiner, D L; Mark Saltzman, W; Glazer, P M

    2013-06-01

    In vivo delivery is a major barrier to the use of molecular tools for gene modification. Here we demonstrate site-specific gene editing of human cells in vivo in hematopoietic stem cell-engrafted NOD.Cg-Prkdc(scid)IL2rγ(tm1Wjl) (abbreviated NOD-scid IL2rγ(null)) mice, using biodegradable nanoparticles loaded with triplex-forming peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) and single-stranded donor DNA molecules. In vitro screening showed greater efficacy of nanoparticles containing PNAs/DNAs together over PNA-alone or DNA-alone. Intravenous injection of particles containing PNAs/DNAs produced modification of the human CCR5 gene in hematolymphoid cells in the mice, with modification confirmed at the genomic DNA, mRNA and functional levels. Deep sequencing revealed in vivo modification of the CCR5 gene at frequencies of 0.43% in hematopoietic cells in the spleen and 0.05% in the bone marrow: off-target modification in the partially homologous CCR2 gene was two orders of magnitude lower. We also induced specific modification in the β-globin gene using nanoparticles carrying β-globin-targeted PNAs/DNAs, demonstrating this method's versatility. In vivo testing in an enhanced green fluorescent protein-β-globin reporter mouse showed greater activity of nanoparticles containing PNAs/DNAs together over DNA only. Direct in vivo gene modification, such as we demonstrate here, would allow for gene therapy in systemic diseases or in cells that cannot be manipulated ex vivo.

  11. Varied behavioral responses induced by morphine in the tree shrew: a possible model for human opiate addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Fang; Duan, Ying; Jin, Shubo; Sui, Nan

    2014-01-01

    Tree shrews represent a suitable animal model to study the pathogenesis of human diseases as they are phylogenetically close to primates and have a well-developed central nervous system that possesses many homologies with primates. Therefore, in our study, we investigated whether tree shrews can be used to explore the addictive behaviors induced by morphine. Firstly, to investigate the psychoactive effect of morphine on tree shrews' behavior, the number of jumping and shuttling, which represent the vertical and horizontal locomotor activity respectively, was examined following the injection of different dosage of morphine. Our results showed intramuscular (IM) injection of morphine (5 or 10 mg/kg) significantly increased the locomotor activity of tree shrews 30-60 min post-injection. Then, using the conditioned place preference/aversion (CPP/CPA) paradigm, we found morphine-conditioned tree shrews exhibited place preference in the morphine-paired chamber on the test day. In addition, naloxone-precipitated withdrawal induced place aversion in the chronic morphine-dependent tree shrews. We evaluated the craving for morphine drinking by assessing the break point that reflects the maximum effort animals will expend to get the drug. Our data showed the break point was significantly increased when compared to the baseline on the 1st, 7th and 14th day after the abstinence. Moreover, in the intravenous morphine self-administration experiment, tree shrews conditioned with morphine responded on the active lever significantly more frequently than on the inactive lever after training. These results suggest that tree shrew may be a potential candidate for study the addictive behaviors and the underling neurological mechanisms.

  12. Varied behavioral responses induced by morphine in the tree shrew: a possible model for human opiate addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang eShen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Tree shrews represent a suitable animal model to study the pathogenesis of human diseases as they are phylogenetically close to primates and have a well-developed central nervous system that possesses many homologies with primates. Therefore, in our study, we investigated whether tree shrews can be used to explore the addictive behaviors induced by morphine. Firstly, to investigate the psychoactive effect of morphine on tree shrews’ behavior, the number of jumping and shuttling, which represent the vertical and horizontal locomotor activity respectively, was examined following the injection of different dosage of morphine. Our results showed intramuscular (IM injection of morphine (5 or 10 mg/kg significantly increased the locomotor activity of tree shrews 30-60 min post-injection. Then, using the conditioned place preference/aversion (CPP/CPA paradigm, we found morphine-conditioned tree shrews exhibited place preference in the morphine-paired chamber on the test day. In addition, naloxone-precipitated withdrawal induced place aversion in the chronic morphine-dependent tree shrews. We evaluated the craving for morphine drinking by assessing the break point that reflects the maximum effort animals will expend to get the drug. Our data showed the break point was significantly increased when compared to the baseline on the 1st, 7th and 14th day after the abstinence. Moreover, in the intravenous morphine self-administration experiment, tree shrews conditioned with morphine responded on the active lever significantly more frequently than on the inactive lever after training. These results suggest that tree shrew may be a potential candidate for study the addictive behaviors and the underling neurological mechanisms.

  13. Vitamin Concentrations in Human Milk Vary with Time within Feed, Circadian Rhythm, and Single-Dose Supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampel, Daniela; Shahab-Ferdows, Setareh; Islam, M Munirul; Peerson, Janet M; Allen, Lindsay H

    2017-04-01

    Background: Human milk is the subject of many studies, but procedures for representative sample collection have not been established. Our improved methods for milk micronutrient analysis now enable systematic study of factors that affect its concentrations.Objective: We evaluated the effects of sample collection protocols, variations in circadian rhythms, subject variability, and acute maternal micronutrient supplementation on milk vitamin concentrations.Methods: In the BMQ (Breast-Milk-Quality) study, we recruited 18 healthy women (aged 18-26 y) in Dhaka, Bangladesh, at 2-4 mo of lactation for a 3-d supplementation study. On day 1, no supplements were given; on days 2 and 3, participants consumed ∼1 time and 2 times, respectively, the US-Canadian Recommended Dietary Allowances for vitamins at breakfast (0800-0859). Milk was collected during every feeding from the same breast over 24 h. Milk expressed in the first 2 min (aliquot I) was collected separately from the remainder (aliquot II); a third aliquot (aliquot III) was saved by combining aliquots I and II. Thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, and vitamins B-6, B-12, A, and E and fat were measured in each sample.Results: Significant but small differences (14-18%) between aliquots were found for all vitamins except for vitamins B-6 and B-12. Circadian variance was significant except for fat-adjusted vitamins A and E, with a higher contribution to total variance with supplementation. Between-subject variability accounted for most of the total variance. Afternoon and evening samples best reflected daily vitamin concentrations for all study days. Acute supplementation effects were found for thiamin, riboflavin, and vitamins B-6 and A at 2-4 h postdosing, with 0.1-6.17% passing into milk. Supplementation was reflected in fasting, 24-h postdose samples for riboflavin and vitamin B-6. Maximum amounts of dose-responding vitamins in 1 feeding ranged from 4.7% to 21.8% (day 2) and 8.2% to 35.0% (day 3) of Adequate Intake

  14. Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Nitin

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Of the various options for patients with end stage renal disease, kidney transplantation is the treatment of choice for a suitable patient. The kidney for transplantation is retrieved from either a cadaver or a live donor. Living donor nephrectomy has been developed as a method to address the shortfall in cadaveric kidneys available for transplantation. Laparoscopic living donor nephrectomy (LLDN, by reducing postoperative pain, shortening convalescence, and improving the cosmetic outcome of the donor nephrectomy, has shown the potential to increase the number of living kidney donations further by removing some of the disincentives inherent to donation itself. The technique of LLDN has undergone evolution at different transplant centers and many modifications have been done to improve donor safety and recipient outcome. Virtually all donors eligible for an open surgical procedure may also undergo the laparoscopic operation. Various earlier contraindications to LDN, such as right donor kidney, multiple vessels, anomalous vasculature and obesity have been overcome with increasing experience. Laparoscopic live donor nephrectomy can be done transperitoneally or retroperitoneally on either side. The approach is most commonly transperitoneal, which allows adequate working space and easy dissection. A review of literature and our experience with regards to standard approach and the modifications is presented including a cost saving model for the developing countries. An assessment has been made, of the impact of LDN on the outcome of donor and the recipient.

  15. In vitro characterization of human AML-reactive CTL clones generated from the naive subset of healthy donors and adoptive transfer into leukemia-engrafted NSG mice

    OpenAIRE

    Albrecht, Jana

    2012-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a very aggressive cancer of the hematopoietic system. Chemotherapy and immunotherapeutical approaches including hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) are the only curative options available. The beneficial graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effect of cellular immunotherapy is mostly mediated by donor-derived CD8+ T lymphocytes that recognize minor histocompatibility antigens (mHags) and leukemia-associated antigens (LAAs) p...

  16. Payment for donor kidneys: pros and cons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, E A; Friedman, A L

    2006-03-01

    Continuous growth of the end stage renal disease population treated by dialysis, outpaces deceased donor kidneys available, lengthens the waiting time for a deceased donor transplant. As estimated by the United States Department of Health & Human Services: '17 people die each day waiting for transplants that can't take place because of the shortage of donated organs.' Strategies to expand the donor pool--public relations campaigns and Drivers' license designation--have been mainly unsuccessful. Although illegal in most nations, and viewed as unethical by professional medical organizations, the voluntary sale of purchased donor kidneys now accounts for thousands of black market transplants. The case for legalizing kidney purchase hinges on the key premise that individuals are entitled to control of their body parts even to the point of inducing risk of life. One approach to expanding the pool of kidney donors is to legalize payment of a fair market price of about 40,000 dollars to donors. Establishing a federal agency to manage marketing and purchase of donor kidneys in collaboration with the United Network for Organ Sharing might be financially self-sustaining as reduction in costs of dialysis balances the expense of payment to donors.

  17. Donor milk: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliani F

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Francesca Giuliani,1 Ilaria Rovelli,1 Chiara Peila,1 Stefania Alfonsina Liguori,2 Enrico Bertino,1 Alessandra Coscia1 1SCDU Neonatologia, Dipartimento di Scienze Pediatriche e dell'Adolescenza, Università degli Studi di Torino, Torino, Italy; 2SC Neonatologia, Ospedale Maria Vittoria, Torino, Italy Abstract: Mother's own milk is widely recognized as the optimal feeding for term infants, but increasing evidence exists of its benefits also for sick and preterm infants in neonatal intensive care units. However, the nutritional needs for appropriate growth and neurodevelopmental outcomes of such a particular population of infants should be attentively evaluated, considering also the indication to an appropriate fortification of human milk. The target is to achieve growth potential for preterm newborns while ensuring good metabolic outcomes and normal neurological development. When mother's milk is unavailable or in short supply, donor human milk (DHM represents the second best choice and, although somewhat modified by the Holder pasteurization process, it preserves many benefits when compared to formula, as documented by more and more reports, randomized controlled trials, and meta-analyses published in the past few years. Evidence exists of the protection exerted by DHM from necrotizing enterocolitis, while further studies are required to look at possible beneficial effects regarding infections, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, long-term cardiovascular risk factors, feeding tolerance, neurological outcome, and allergy. Finally, the concern that the use of DHM might decrease preterm infant breastfeeding is being raised. Conversely, publications exist showing that the use of DHM in the neonatal unit increases breastfeeding rates at discharge for infants of very low birth weight. Keywords: human milk, preterm infant feeding, milk bank, breast milk, mother's own milk, pasteurized human milk, fortification

  18. [Donors' personal profile in Tuscany's network of milk banks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strambi, M; Anselmi, A; Coppi, S

    2012-10-01

    An investigation on human milk donors among the milk banks of Tuscany's network was carried out. Milk banks select, collect, check, process, store and deliver human milk, whose donors should have certain physical and psychological well-being features. The aim of the study was to describe a personal and social profile of milk donors. The study included a sample of 100 milk donors and a sample of 100 non-milk donor mothers; a questionnaire that collected data about mothers' general information, clinical history, pregnancy and delivery, weight variations, state of health, lifestyle, breastfeeding and knowledge about milk banks was administered to all of them. Then information about food history of mothers has also been collected. First the samples of donors were analysed for all variables considered. Subsequently the samples of donors were compared with the samples of non-donors: statistical analysis was carried out with χ2 test and documented significant differences between donors and non-donors for the majority of variables considered in the questionnaire and for food history. Milk donors have a good state of health, and the integration in milk donation initiative headed towards a healthier lifestyle. It is necessary to promote an advertising campaign to integrate social and sanitary politics, fitting to local socio-economical contest. Furthermore, the improvement of milk banks of public hospitals is necessary, as hospitals are places of major stream both of potential donors and newborns.

  19. Living Donor Liver Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be a husband or wife. What are Some Benefits of a Living-donor Liver Transplant? In the ... Not have a selfish motive for donating. Paid donation is illegal in the ... leave for being organ donors. Other employers have similar programs, so check ...

  20. National Marrow Donor Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    Collection and Apheresis Centers Closed 7 IIC. Immunogenetic Studies 8 IIC.1 Objective 1 – Influence of HLA Mismatches 8 Task 1 – Donor Recipient... Apheresis Centers – This task is closed. National Marrow Donor Program® N000014-11-1-0339 QUARTER PROGRESS REPORT Development of Medical Technology

  1. Donor Telomere Length SAA

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new NCI study has found that, among patients with severe aplastic anemia who received a hematopoietic cell transplant from an unrelated donor, those whose donor white blood cells had longer telomeres had higher survival rates five-years after transplant

  2. Four crystal structures of human LLT1, a ligand of human NKR-P1, in varied glycosylation and oligomerization states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skálová, Tereza, E-mail: t.skalova@gmail.com [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i., Vídeňská 1083, 142 20 Praha 4 (Czech Republic); Bláha, Jan [Charles University Prague, Hlavova 8, 128 40 Praha (Czech Republic); Harlos, Karl [University of Oxford, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX3 7BN (United Kingdom); Dušková, Jarmila [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i., Vídeňská 1083, 142 20 Praha 4 (Czech Republic); Koval’, Tomáš [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i., Heyrovského nám. 2, 162 06 Praha 6 (Czech Republic); Stránský, Jan; Hašek, Jindřich [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i., Vídeňská 1083, 142 20 Praha 4 (Czech Republic); Vaněk, Ondřej [Charles University Prague, Hlavova 8, 128 40 Praha (Czech Republic); Dohnálek, Jan, E-mail: t.skalova@gmail.com [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i., Vídeňská 1083, 142 20 Praha 4 (Czech Republic); Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i., Heyrovského nám. 2, 162 06 Praha 6 (Czech Republic)

    2015-03-01

    Four crystal structures of human LLT1, a ligand of human NKR-P1, are reported. Human LLT1 is a C-type lectin-like ligand of NKR-P1 (CD161, gene KLRB1), a C-type lectin-like receptor of natural killer cells. Using X-ray diffraction, the first experimental structures of human LLT1 were determined. Four structures of LLT1 under various conditions were determined: monomeric, dimeric deglycosylated after the first N-acetylglucosamine unit in two forms and hexameric with homogeneous GlcNAc{sub 2}Man{sub 5} glycosylation. The dimeric form follows the classical dimerization mode of human CD69. The monomeric form keeps the same fold with the exception of the position of an outer part of the long loop region. The hexamer of glycosylated LLT1 consists of three classical dimers. The hexameric packing may indicate a possible mode of interaction of C-type lectin-like proteins in the glycosylated form.

  3. 21 CFR 1271.80 - What are the general requirements for donor testing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION HUMAN CELLS, TISSUES, AND CELLULAR AND TISSUE-BASED PRODUCTS Donor Eligibility § 1271.80 What are... mother instead of a specimen from the donor. (b) Timing of specimen collection. You must collect the donor specimen for testing at the time of recovery of cells or tissue from the donor; or up to 7 days...

  4. Development of a serum-free human cornea construct for in vitro drug absorption studies: the influence of varying cultivation parameters on barrier characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahne, Matthias; Reichl, Stephan

    2011-09-15

    The increased use of ophthalmic products in recent years has led to an increased demand for in vitro and in vivo transcorneal drug absorption studies. Cell-culture models of the human cornea can avoid several of the disadvantages of widely used animal experimental models, including ethical concerns and poor standardisation. This study describes the development of a serum-free cultivated, three-dimensional human cornea model (Hemicornea, HC) for drug absorption experiments. The impact of varying cultivation conditions on the corneal barrier function was analysed and compared with excised rabbit and porcine corneas. The HC was cultivated on permeable polycarbonate filters using immortalised human keratocytes and a corneal epithelial cell line. The equivalence to native tissue was investigated through absorption studies using model substances with a wide range of molecular characteristics, including hydrophilic sodium fluorescein, lipophilic rhodamine B and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labelled macromolecule dextran. To study the intra-laboratory repeatability and construct cultivation, the permeation studies were performed independently by different researchers. The HC exhibited a permeation barrier in the same range as excised animal corneas, high reproducibility and a lower standard deviation. Therefore, the HC could be a promising in vitro alternative to ex vivo corneal tissues in preclinical permeation studies.

  5. Living donor liver hilar variations:surgical approaches and implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Onur Yaprak; Tolga Demirbas; Cihan Duran; Murat Dayangac; Murat Akyildiz; Yaman Tokat; Yildiray Yuzer

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Varied vascular and biliary anatomies are common in the liver. Living donor hepatectomy requires precise recognition of the hilar anatomy. This study was undertaken to study donor vascular and biliary tract variations, surgical approaches and implications in living liver transplant patients. METHODS: Two hundred living donor liver transplantations were performed at our institution between 2004 and 2009. All donors were evaluated by volumetric computerized tomography (CT), CT angiography and magnetic resonance cholangiography in the preoperative period. Intraoperative ultrasonography and cholangiography were carried out. Arterial, portal and biliary anatomies were classified according to the Michels, Cheng and Huang criteria. RESULTS: Classical hepatic arterial anatomy was observed in 129 (64.5%) of the 200 donors. Fifteen percent of the donors had variation in the portal vein. Normal biliary anatomy was found in 126 (63%) donors, and biliary tract variation in 70% of donors with portal vein variations. In recipients with single duct biliary anastomosis, 16 (14.4%) developed biliary leak, and 9 (8.1%) developed biliary stricture; however more than one biliary anastomosis increased recipient biliary complications. Donor vascular variations did not increase recipient vascular complications. Variant anatomy was not associated with an increase in donor morbidity. CONCLUSIONS: Living donor liver transplantation provides information about variant hilar anatomy. The success of the procedure depends on a careful approach to anatomical variations. When the deceased donor supply is inadequate, living donor transplantation is a life-saving alternative and is safe for the donor and recipient, even if the donor has variant hilar anatomy.

  6. Cytotoxicity of Gold Nanoparticles with Varying Concentration and Under Low Dose Environmental Radiation on Human Embryonic Kidney 293 Cells (HEK-293)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crudup, Shalana; Braender, Bruce; Iftode, Cristina; Dobbins, Tabbetha

    2013-03-01

    Nanomaterials are increasingly being used in medicine. Most research surrounding the health and safety effects of nanomaterials examine the cytotoxicity of nanoparticles alone. Few studies, as this one does, examines the combined effects of nanoparticle concentration and radiation exposure on cytotoxicity to human embryonic kidney 293 cells (HEK-293). Nanoparticles injected in the body are supposed to undergo biodegradation once they are done their specified task, however, some do not and accumulate in the cells (particularly at the liver and kidney) and this causes intracellular changes. Examples of intracellular changes are the disruption of organelle integrity or gene alterations. This will cause the cells to die because the cells are very sensitive to changes in their pH. The experiments reported here focus on the cytotoxicity of gold nanoparticles as a function of varying particle concentrations and also with and without exposure to UV radiation.

  7. Adequacy of the ELISA test for screening corneal transplant donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goode, S M; Hertzmark, E; Steinert, R F

    1988-10-15

    Using a simple mathematical model, we calculated the risk for a patient undergoing penetrating keratoplasty to receive a cornea from a human immunodeficiency virus-infected donor despite negative results on serologic testing of donor serum. This error in serologic testing occurred when false-negative results were obtained from the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay used to screen donor corneas for human immunodeficiency virus exposure. The average risk of transplanting an infected cornea was low, 0.03%, but increased by a factor of ten when donor tissue from donors at high risk for AIDS was used. Current screening procedures are probably adequate to prevent transmission of human immunodeficiency virus, but increased vigilance for high-risk donor populations may be appropriate.

  8. Viremic blood donor found by a rapid screening method in a season of high human parvovirus B19 activity in Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Setúbal

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Erythrovirus B19 infection is usually benign but may have serious consequences in patients with hemolytic anemia (transient aplastic crisis, immunodeficiency (in whom persistent infection can lead to chronic bone marrow failure with anemia, or who are in the first or second trimester of gestation (spontaneous abortion, hydrops fetalis, and fetal death. Being non-enveloped, B19 resists most inactivation methods and can be transmitted by transfusion. B19 is difficult to cultivate and native virus is usually obtained from viremic blood. As specific antibodies may be absent, and there is no reliable immunological method for antigen detection, hybridization or polymerase chain reaction are needed for detecting viremia. A rapid method, gel hemagglutination (Diamed ID-Parvovirus B19 Antigen Test, can disclose highly viremic donations, whose elimination lessens the viral burden in pooled blood products and may even render them non-infectious. In order to obtain native antigen and to determine the frequency of viremic donors, we applied this test to blood donors in a period of high viral activity in our community. Positive or indeterminate results were re-tested by dot-blot hybridization. We tested 472 donors in 1998 and 831 ones in 1999. One viremic donor was found in 1999. We suggest that in periods of high community viral activity the gel hemagglutination test may be useful in avoiding highly viremic blood being added to plasma pools or directly transfused to patients under risk.

  9. National Marrow Donor Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-05

    Disease Marker screen and Cord Information (Detailed and Summary) and Cord Lab Summary Reports o The Chagas EIA test text was changed to Chagas (screening...ID field. • Per FDA regulations, CORD Link was modified to include CMS laboratory certification status on the (Infectious Disease Marker) IDM...Communications Period 2 Activity: SEARCH Link™ application upgrades • Donor Information Infectious Disease Markers (IDMs) screen and Donor

  10. Neutralizing activities of human immunoglobulin derived from donors in Japan against mosquito-borne flaviviruses, Japanese encephalitis virus, West Nile virus, and dengue virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunoki M

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Mikihiro Yunoki,1-3 Takeshi Kurosu,2 Ritsuko Kubota Koketsu,2,4 Kazuo Takahashi,5 Yoshinobu Okuno,4 Kazuyoshi Ikuta2,4 1Research and Development Division, Japan Blood Products Organization, Tokyo, 2Department of Virology, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Osaka, 3Pathogenic Risk Evaluation, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Rakuno Gakuen University, Hokkaido, 4Research and Development Division, The Research Foundation for Microbial Diseases of Osaka University, Kagawa, 5Osaka Prefectural Institute of Public Health, Osaka, Japan Abstract: Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV, West Nile virus (WNV, and dengue virus (DenV are causal agents of Japanese encephalitis, West Nile fever, and dengue fever, respectively. JEV is considered to be indigenized and widespread in Japan, whereas WNV and DenV are not indigenized in Japan. Globulin products seem to reflect the status of the donor population according to antivirus neutralization activity. However, the anti-JEV, -WNV, and -DenV neutralization activities of globulin products derived from donors in Japan have not been clarified. Furthermore, potential candidates for the development of an effective immunotherapeutic drug for encephalitis caused by JEV, WNV, or DenV have also not been identified. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the overall status of the donor population in Japan based on globulin products by evaluating anti-JEV, -WNV, and -DenV neutralizing activities of intravenous immunoglobulin. Overall, intravenous immunoglobulin products showed stable neutralizing activity against JEV but showed no or only weak activity against WNV or DenV. These results suggest that the epidemiological level against WNV and DenV in the donor population of Japan is still low, suggesting that these viruses are not yet indigenized. In addition, JEV vaccinations and/or infections in the donor population do not induce a cross-reactive antibody against WNV. Keywords

  11. Cadaveric donor selection and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studer, Sean M; Orens, Jonathan B

    2006-10-01

    While there is little doubt that proper donor selection is extremely important to achieve good outcomes from transplantation, there are only limited data regarding the current criteria utilized to select the "ideal donor". Importantly, there are not enough donor lungs available for all of those in need. Until an adequate supply of donor organs exists, lives will be lost on the transplant waiting list. While efforts have been made to increase donor awareness, additional transplants can be realized by improving donor utilization. This can be achieved by active participation of transplant teams in donor management and by utilizing "extended criteria" organs. Further studies are needed to assess the impact of using "extended criteria" donors, as this practice could result in increased posttransplant morbidity and mortality. This article summarizes the approach to identification of potential lung donors, optimal donor management, and the clinical importance of various donor factors upon recipient outcomes.

  12. Ring-Tailed Lemur (Lemur catta) Health Parameters across Two Habitats with Varied Levels of Human Disturbance at the Bezà Mahafaly Special Reserve, Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Cora L; Norris, Aimee M; Sauther, Michelle L; Cuozzo, Frank P; Youssouf Jacky, Ibrahim Antho

    2015-01-01

    The health of 36 wild, free-ranging ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) at the Bezà Mahafaly Special Reserve was assessed across 2 habitats of varied human impact: a reserve riverine gallery forest, and a degraded mixed dry deciduous and Alluaudia-dominated spiny forest. While there were no statistically significant differences in leukocyte count or differential between habitats, female lemurs in the reserve gallery forest had significantly higher percentages of monocytes and eosinophils than male lemurs in the gallery forest. Lemurs from the degraded spiny habitat had significantly higher mean packed cell volume, hematocrit, hemoglobin, total protein, blood urea nitrogen, chloride, ionized calcium and urine specific gravity than lemurs from the reserve gallery forest. These findings may reflect lower hydration levels in lemurs living in degraded habitat, providing evidence that environmental degradation has identifiable impacts on the physiology and health of wild, free-ranging ring-tailed lemurs living in nearby habitats. Given the greater evidence of human impact in the mixed dry deciduous/spiny forest habitat, a pattern seen throughout southern Madagascar, biomedical markers suggestive of decreased hydration can provide empirical data to inform new conservation policies facilitating the long-term survival of this lemur community. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Used Safely, Donor Breast Milk Can Help Preemie Babies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spatz said. Hospitals get donor milk from various human milk "banks." Right now, there are 20 nonprofit banks across the United States that are part of the Human Milk Banking Association of North America. Others are in ...

  14. 不同年龄段前列腺外周带基质细胞超微结构差异%Ultrastructural Difference of Stromal Cells from Normal Human Prostate Peripheral Zone of Varying Ages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永传; 韩邦旻; 朱平; 杨洁; 夏术阶

    2011-01-01

    目的:研究不同年龄段前列腺外周带基质细胞超微结构并探讨其意义.方法:透射电镜观察3例年轻组(23-、26-、32-岁)和3例老年组(56-、64-、71-岁)正常前列腺外周带和3例前列腺癌组织的超微结构.Masson'sTrichrome染色法观察前列腺外周带基质胶原的分布情况.结果:年轻组、老年组前列腺外周带间质均以平滑肌细胞分布为主,间杂成纤维细胞,但老年组平滑肌细胞和成纤维细胞体积较大、形态不规则.与正常年轻组相比,老年组前列腺外周带成纤维细胞存在明显老化和肌化改变,部分细胞内与蛋白合成相关的细胞器粗面内质网发达,呈现肌成纤维细胞特征.与年轻组和老年组外周带相比,前列腺癌基质中功能更加活跃的肌成纤维细胞和胶原蛋白数量增加明显.Masson's Trichrome 染色支持超微观察到的基质胶原分布差异:年轻组<老年组<前列腺癌组.结论:不同年龄段前列腺外周带基质细胞超微结构间存在差异,老年组前列腺外周带和前列腺癌基质组织中具有活性的肌成纤维细胞的增加可能是造成老年前列腺癌高发和恶性进展的重要病理基础之一.%Objective: To characterize the phenotype of stromal cells from the human prostate peripheral zone (PZ) of varying ages.Methods: The ultrastrictural features ofstromal cells from normal prostate PZ of 3 young donors (23, 26 and 32 years old), 3 old donors (56, 64 and 71 years old) and 3 cases of prostate cancer tissue specimen were compared by transmission electron microscopy, also the distribution of collagen were determined by Masson's Trichrome staining.Results: Smooth muscle cells in the stroma of PZ-old and PCa groups were larger in size and number than those in the PZ-young group.Fibroblasts in the stroma of PZ-old and PCa groups showed phenotype of myodifferentiation and more active cellular function, characterized by prominent protein synthesis associated

  15. Risks for donors in uterus transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisu, Iori; Mihara, Makoto; Banno, Kouji; Umene, Kiyoko; Araki, Jun; Hara, Hisako; Suganuma, Nobuhiko; Aoki, Daisuke

    2013-12-01

    Uterus transplantation (UTx) is an alternative to gestational surrogacy and adoption for patients with absolute uterine infertility. Studies have been conducted in animals, and UTx is now within the reach of clinical application in humans. Procedures in humans have been published, but many medical, ethical, and social problems and risks of UTx require discussion prior to widespread clinical application, from the perspectives of donors, recipients, families, and newborns. In this article, we summarize the burdens and risks of UTx, with a focus on donors who provide the uterus.

  16. Evaluation of surrogate markers for human immunodeficiency virus infection among blood donors at the blood bank of "Hospital Universitário Regional Norte do Paraná", Londrina, PR, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiche Edna Maria Vissoci

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the usefulness of the anti-HBc, hepatitis C virus antibodies (anti-HCV, human T cell lymphotropic virus I and II antibodies (anti-HTLV I/II, serologic tests for syphilis, and surface antigen of hepatitis B virus (HBsAg as surrogate markers for the risk for HIV infection in 80,284 serum samples from blood donors from the Blood Bank of "Hospital Universitário Regional Norte do Paraná", Londrina, Paraná State, Brazil, analyzed from July 1994 to April 2001. Among 39 blood donors with positive serology for HIV, 12 (30.8% were anti-HBc positive, 10 (25.6% for anti-HCV, 1 (2.6% for anti-HTLV I/I, 1 (2.6% was positive for syphilis, and 1 (2.6% for HBsAg. Among the donors with negative serology for HIV, these markers were detected in 8,407 (10.5%, 441 (0.5%, 189 (0.2%, 464 (0.6%, and 473 (0.6% samples, respectively. The difference was statistically significant (p < 0.001 for anti-HBc and anti-HCV. Although the predictive positive value for these surrogate markers were low for HIV infection, the results confirmed the anti-HBc and anti-HCV as useful surrogate markers for HIV infection thus reinforcing the maintenance of them in the screening for blood donors contributing to the prevention of the small number of cases in which HIV is still transmitted by transfusion.

  17. Lipid domains in intact fiber-cell plasma membranes isolated from cortical and nuclear regions of human eye lenses of donors from different age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raguz, Marija; Mainali, Laxman; O'Brien, William J; Subczynski, Witold K

    2015-03-01

    The results reported here clearly document changes in the properties and the organization of fiber-cell membrane lipids that occur with age, based on electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) analysis of lens membranes of clear lenses from donors of age groups from 0 to 20, 21 to 40, and 61 to 80 years. The physical properties, including profiles of the alkyl chain order, fluidity, hydrophobicity, and oxygen transport parameter, were investigated using EPR spin-labeling methods, which also provide an opportunity to discriminate coexisting lipid domains and to evaluate the relative amounts of lipids in these domains. Fiber-cell membranes were found to contain three distinct lipid environments: bulk lipid domain, which appears minimally affected by membrane proteins, and two domains that appear due to the presence of membrane proteins, namely boundary and trapped lipid domains. In nuclear membranes the amount of boundary and trapped phospholipids as well as the amount of cholesterol in trapped lipid domains increased with the donors' age and was greater than that in cortical membranes. The difference between the amounts of lipids in domains uniquely formed due to the presence of membrane proteins in nuclear and cortical membranes increased with the donors' age. It was also shown that cholesterol was to a large degree excluded from trapped lipid domains in cortical membranes. It is evident that the rigidity of nuclear membranes was greater than that of cortical membranes for all age groups. The amount of lipids in domains of low oxygen permeability, mainly in trapped lipid domains, were greater in nuclear than cortical membranes and increased with the age of donors. These results indicate that the nuclear fiber cell plasma membranes were less permeable to oxygen than cortical membranes and become less permeable to oxygen with age. In clear lenses, age-related changes in the lens lipid and protein composition and organization appear to occur in ways that increase fiber

  18. Systems of donor transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Charro, F T; Akveld, H E; Hessing, D J

    1993-10-01

    The development of medical knowledge has resulted in a demand in society for donor organs, but the recruitment of donor organs for transplantation is difficult. This paper aims to provide some general insights into the complex interaction processes involved. A laissez-faire policy, in which market forces are relied on, is not acceptable from an ethical and legal point of view in most western European countries. Especially at the demand side of the exchange of donor organs, commercialism is to be opposed. We judge the use of commercial incentives at the supply side less unacceptable in theory but not feasible in western European countries. Since market forces are deemed unacceptable as instruments for coordinating demand and supply of donor organs, donor procurement has to be considered as a collective good, and therefore governments are faced with the responsibility of making sure that alternative interaction and distribution mechanisms function. The role of organ procurement agencies (OPAs) in societal interaction concerning postmortem organ donation is described using a two-dimensional conceptualisation scheme. Medical aspects of living organ donation are described. An international comparative description of legal systems to regulate living organ donation in western European countries completes this survey.

  19. Successful transportation of human corneal endothelial tissues without cool preservation in varying Indian tropical climatic conditions and in vitro cell expansion using a novel polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas K Rao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Though the transplantation of human corneal endothelial tissue (CET separated from cadaver cornea is in practice, its transportation has not been reported. We report the successful transportation of CET in varying Indian climatic conditions without cool preservation and the in vitro expansion of Human Corneal Endothelial Precursor Cells (HCEPCs using a novel Thermo-reversible gelation polymer (TGP. Materials and Methods: CET from cadaver corneas (n = 67, unsuitable for transplantation, were used. In phase I, CET was transported in Basal Culture Medium (Group I and TGP (Group II and in Phase II, in TGP cocktail alone, from three hospitals 250-2500 km away, to a central laboratory. The transportation time ranged from 6 h to 72 h and the outdoor temperature between 20°C and 41°C. On arrival, CET were processed, cells were expanded upto 30 days in basal culture medium (Group A and TGP scaffold (Group B. Cell viability and morphology were documented and Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR characterization undertaken. Results: In Phase I, TGP yielded more viable cells (0.11 × 10 6 cells than Group I (0.04 × 10 6 cells. In Phase II, the average cell count was 5.44 × 10 4 cells. During expansion, viability of HCEPCs spheres in TGP was maintained for a longer duration. The cells from both the groups tested positive for B-3 tubulin and negative for cytokeratins K3 and K12, thereby proving them to be HCEPCs. Conclusion: TGP preserves the CET during transportation without cool preservation and supports in vitro expansion, with a higher yield of HCEPCs, similar to that reported in clinical studies.

  20. Retroperitoneal less donor nephrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Van Der Merwe

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Donor nephrectomy with laparo-endoscopic single site (LESS surgery has been reported via the transperitoneal approach. We describe a novel technique of retroperitoneal donor nephrectomy using a single surgical incision in the groin, below the abdominal skin crease or "bikini line". The LESS groin incision offers superior cosmesis, while the retroperitoneal approach has distinct advantages, such as the ability to identify the renal vessels early. The new procedure has been performed in two obese patients (body mass index 32 and 33 kg/m2, respectively. The operative times were 4 and 5 hours, warm ischemic times 135 and 315 seconds, blood loss 100 and 250 mL, and hospitalization 3 and 2 days, respectively. Retroperitoneal LESS donor nephrectomy through a single, inconspicuous groin incision is feasible and safe. Further evaluation of the technique in a larger patient cohort is indicated.

  1. BLOOD DONORS CAMPAIGN

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    A blood donors campaign, organized by the Centre de Transfusion Sanguine of Geneva will be held at CERN on Tuesday 13 March 2001 in restaurant nr 2, from 9.00 to 16.30 hrs If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

  2. BLOOD DONORS CAMPAIGN

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    A blood donors campaign, organized by the Centre de Transfusion d'Annemasse will be held at CERN on Tuesday 14 November 2001 in restaurant nr 2, from 9.00 to 16.30 hrs If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

  3. BLOOD DONORS CAMPAIGN

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    Tuesday 19 March 2002 in restaurant nr 2, from 9.00 to 16.30 hrs A blood donors campaign, organized by the Centre de Transfusion sanguine of Geneva If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

  4. BLOOD DONORS CAMPAIGN

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    A blood donors campaign, organized by the Établissement de Transfusion de Rhône-Alpes will be held at CERN on Tuesday 14 November 2000 in restaurant nr 2, from 8.30 to 16.30 hrs If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

  5. BLOOD DONORS CAMPAIGN

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    Wednesday 13 November 2002 in restaurant nr 2, from 8.30 to 16.30 hrs will be held a blood donors campaign, organized by the Etablissement de Transfusion de Haute-Savoie If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

  6. Nyretransplantation med levende donor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, A L; Løkkegaard, H; Rasmussen, F

    2000-01-01

    with only few complications. The long-term outcome for kidney donors is good without increase in mortality or risk for development of hypertension and renal failure; proteinuria may be seen. Living kidney transplantation is the optimal treatment of end-stage renal disease with better graft survival than...

  7. 21 CFR 640.3 - Suitability of donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suitability of donor. 640.3 Section 640.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS... determination shall be made on the day of collection from the donor by means of medical history, a test...

  8. 滨州市无偿献血者人类免疫缺陷病毒感染情况调查分析%Investigation and analysis of human immunodeficiency virus infection status of unpaid blood donors in Binzhou City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李洪波; 王静; 孙春莲

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection status of unpaid blood donors in Binzhou City Shandong Province,and to discuss the development trend of HIV infection rate of Binzhou City's unpaid donors,and thus putting forward corresponding countermeasures.Methods From January 2004 to December 2013,a total of 346 424 unpaid blood donors who donated blood in Binzhou Blood Center were chosen as research objects.Among them,there were 226 215 cases of men blood donors and 120 209 cases of women blood donors.The age was ranged from 18 to 55 years old,and the average age was 32.5 years old.All blood donors met the requirement of the Health Inspection Requirements of Blood Donors.Informed consent was obtained from all blood donors before blood collection,and they all signed in the column of informed consent.In order to guarantee the authenticity of the inspection findings,enzymelinked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tests were conducted to test blood samples twice.The results were tested and verified again by testing blood in the same test tube and blood in the blood bag if there was one reagent positive reaction in the first test.It was positive if one of two holes showed positive reaction in two-hole experiment,and then the blood samples were sent to Shandong Center for Disease Control and Prevention for HIV confirmation experiment.HIV positive incidence,patient occupation,educational level,age and gender ratio were analyzed by statistical methods.Results The infection rate of HIV in unpaid blood donors in Binzhou from 2004 to 2013 was 6.35/100 000 which was in low infective trend,but it was in a rising trend year by year.Among all the umpaid blood donors,the infection rate of HIV in peasant and unemployed were much higher than those of other occupations,the lower education level,the higher infection rate of HIV,the infection rate of HIV in unpaid blood donors of ≤ 35 years old was higher than those of > 35 years old,and the infection rate of HIV

  9. A1ATVar: a relational database of human SERPINA1 gene variants leading to alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency and application of the VariVis software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaimidou, Sophia; van Baal, Sjozef; Smith, Timothy D; Mitropoulos, Konstantinos; Ljujic, Mila; Radojkovic, Dragica; Cotton, Richard G; Patrinos, George P

    2009-03-01

    We have developed a relational database of human SERPINA1 gene mutations, leading to alpha(1)-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency, called A(1)ATVar, which can be accessed over the World Wide Web at www.goldenhelix.org/A1ATVar. Extensive information has been extracted from the literature and converted into a searchable database, including genotype information, clinical phenotype, allelic frequencies for the commonest AAT variant alleles, methods of detection, and references. Mutation summaries are automatically displayed and user-generated queries can be formulated based on fields in the database. A separate module, linked to the FINDbase database for frequencies of inherited disorders allows the user to access allele frequency information for the three most frequent AAT alleles, namely PiM, PiS, and PiZ. The available experimental protocols to detect AAT variant alleles at the protein and DNA levels have been archived in a searchable format. A visualization tool, called VariVis, has been implemented to combine A(1)ATVar variant information with SERPINA1 sequence and annotation data. A direct data submission tool allows registered users to submit data on novel AAT variant alleles as well as experimental protocols to explore SERPINA1 genetic heterogeneity, via a password-protected interface. Database access is free of charge and there are no registration requirements for querying the data. The A(1)ATVar database is the only integrated database on the Internet offering summarized information on AAT allelic variants and could be useful not only for clinical diagnosis and research on AAT deficiency and the SERPINA1 gene, but could also serve as an example for an all-in-one solution for locus-specific database (LSDB) development and curation.

  10. Living Kidney Donors and ESRD

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, Lainie Friedman

    2015-01-01

    There are over 325 living kidney donors who have developed end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and have been listed on the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN)/United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) deceased donor kidney wait list. The OPTN/UNOS database records where these kidney donors are listed and, if they donated after April 1994, where that donation occurred. These two locations are often not the same. In this commentary, I examine whether a national living donor registry s...

  11. Evaluation of high-risk living kidney donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangdhanakanond, Kawin; Mandelbrot, Didier

    2015-01-01

    Careful evaluation of potential living kidney donors is crucial to assure the well being of the donors, especially because they do not gain any direct medical benefit from donation. This process also helps assess the quality and safety of the organs donated to the recipients. While all programs share these goals, donor selection criteria vary significantly among U.S. transplant centers. In part, this is due to the limited data that exists as to long-term outcomes among donors who are medically complex, or at higher risk for complications, such as those with hypertension, obesity, or lower kidney function. This article reviews available evidence regarding outcomes after living donation and current trends in U.S. practices, and seeks to provide practical guidance in evaluating high-risk potential living kidney donors.

  12. Compliance with donor age recommendations in oocyte donor recruitment advertisements in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta, Hillary B; Berry, Roberta M; Levine, Aaron D

    2013-04-01

    IVF using donated oocytes offers benefits to many infertile patients, yet the technique also raises a number of ethical concerns, including worries about potential physical and psychological risks to oocyte donors. In the USA, oversight of oocyte donation consists of a combination of federal and state regulations and self-regulatory guidelines promulgated by the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. This study assesses compliance with one of these self-regulatory guidelines - specifically, ASRM's preferred minimum age for donors of 21. To assess compliance, 539 oocyte donor recruitment advertisements from two recruitment channels (Craigslist and college newspapers) were collected and evaluated. Of these, 61% in the Craigslist dataset and 43% in the college newspaper dataset listed minimum ages between 18 and 20, which is inconsistent with ASRM's preferred minimum age recommendation of 21. Advertisements placed by oocyte donor recruitment agencies were more likely than advertisements placed by clinics to specify minimum ages between 18 and 20. These results indicate that ASRM should evaluate and consider revising its donor age guidelines. IVF using donated human eggs can help many patients who have difficulty having children. However, the technique also raises ethical concerns, including concerns about potential physical and psychological harms to egg donors. In the USA, oversight of egg donation relies on a combination of federal and state regulation and professional self-regulation. Governmental regulations address only limited aspects of egg donation, such as the potential spread of infectious diseases and the reporting of success rates, leaving voluntary guidelines developed by an association of medical professionals to address most issues, including ethical concerns raised by the practice. One of these voluntary guidelines recommends that egg donors should be at least 21 years of age. In this article, we analysed 539 egg donor recruitment advertisements

  13. Human leukocyte antigen supertype matching after myeloablative hematopoietic cell transplantation with 7/8 matched unrelated donor allografts: a report from the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazaryan, Aleksandr; Wang, Tao; Spellman, Stephen R.; Wang, Hai-Lin; Pidala, Joseph; Nishihori, Taiga; Askar, Medhat; Olsson, Richard; Oudshoorn, Machteld; Abdel-Azim, Hisham; Yong, Agnes; Gandhi, Manish; Dandoy, Christopher; Savani, Bipin; Hale, Gregory; Page, Kristin; Bitan, Menachem; Reshef, Ran; Drobyski, William; Marsh, Steven GE; Schultz, Kirk; Müller, Carlheinz R.; Fernandez-Viña, Marcelo A.; Verneris, Michael R.; Horowitz, Mary M.; Arora, Mukta; Weisdorf, Daniel J.; Lee, Stephanie J.

    2016-01-01

    The diversity of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I and II alleles can be simplified by consolidating them into fewer supertypes based on functional or predicted structural similarities in epitope-binding grooves of HLA molecules. We studied the impact of matched and mismatched HLA-A (265 versus 429), -B (230 versus 92), -C (365 versus 349), and -DRB1 (153 versus 51) supertypes on clinical outcomes of 1934 patients with acute leukemias or myelodysplasia/myeloproliferative disorders. All patients were reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research following single-allele mismatched unrelated donor myeloablative conditioning hematopoietic cell transplantation. Single mismatched alleles were categorized into six HLA-A (A01, A01A03, A01A24, A02, A03, A24), six HLA-B (B07, B08, B27, B44, B58, B62), two HLA-C (C1, C2), and five HLA-DRB1 (DR1, DR3, DR4, DR5, DR9) supertypes. Supertype B mismatch was associated with increased risk of grade II–IV acute graft-versus-host disease (hazard ratio =1.78, P=0.0025) compared to supertype B match. Supertype B07-B44 mismatch was associated with a higher incidence of both grade II–IV (hazard ratio=3.11, P=0.002) and III–IV (hazard ratio=3.15, P=0.01) acute graft-versus-host disease. No significant associations were detected between supertype-matched versus -mismatched groups at other HLA loci. These data suggest that avoiding HLA-B supertype mismatches can mitigate the risk of grade II–IV acute graft-versus-host disease in 7/8-mismatched unrelated donor hematopoietic cell transplantation when multiple HLA-B supertype-matched donors are available. Future studies are needed to define the mechanisms by which supertype mismatching affects outcomes after alternative donor hematopoietic cell transplantation. PMID:27247320

  14. Identification of Donor Origin and Condition of Transplanted Islets In Situ in the Liver of a Type 1 Diabetic Recipient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Torren, Cornelis R; Suwandi, Jessica S; Lee, DaHae; Van't Wout, Ernst-Jan T; Duinkerken, Gaby; Swings, Godelieve; Mulder, Arend; Claas, Frans H J; Ling, Zhidong; Gillard, Pieter; Keymeulen, Bart; In't Veld, Peter; Roep, Bart O

    2017-01-24

    Transplantation of islet allografts into type 1 diabetic recipients usually requires multiple pancreas donors to achieve insulin independence. This adds to the challenges of immunological monitoring of islet transplantation currently relying on surrogate immune markers in peripheral blood. We investigated donor origin and infiltration of islets transplanted in the liver of a T1D patient who died of hemorrhagic stroke 4 months after successful transplantation with two intraportal islet grafts combining six donors. Immunohistological staining for donor HLA using a unique panel of human monoclonal HLA-specific alloantibodies was performed on liver cryosections after validation on cryopreserved kidney, liver, and pancreas and compared with auto- and alloreactive T-cell immunity in peripheral blood. HLA-specific staining intensity and signal-to-noise ratio varied between tissues from very strong on kidney glomeruli, less in liver, kidney tubuli, and endocrine pancreas to least in exocrine pancreas, complicating the staining of inflamed islets in an HLA-disparate liver. Nonetheless, five islets from different liver lobes could be attributed to donors 1, 2, and 5 by staining patterns with multiple HLA types. All islets showed infiltration with CD8+ cytotoxic T cells that was mirrored by progressive alloreactive responses in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to donors 1, 2, and 5 after transplantation. Stably low rates of peripheral islet autoreactive T-cell responses after islet infusion fit with a complete HLA mismatch between grafts and recipient and exclude the possibility that the islet-infiltrating CD8 T cells were autoreactive. HLA-specific immunohistochemistry can identify donor origin in situ and differentiate graft dysfunction and immunological destruction.

  15. Time Varying Feature Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echterhoff, J.; Simonis, I.; Atkinson, R.

    2012-04-01

    The infrastructure to gather, store and access information about our environment is improving and growing rapidly. The increasing amount of information allows us to get a better understanding of the current state of our environment, historical processes and to simulate and predict the future state of the environment. Finer grained spatial and temporal data and more reliable communications make it easier to model dynamic states and ephemeral features. The exchange of information within and across geospatial domains is facilitated through the use of harmonized information models. The Observations & Measurements (O&M) developed through OGC and standardised by ISO is an example of such a cross-domain information model. It is used in many domains, including meteorology, hydrology as well as the emergency management. O&M enables harmonized representation of common metadata that belong to the act of determining the state of a feature property, whether by sensors, simulations or humans. In addition to the resulting feature property value, information such as the result quality but especially the time that the result applies to the feature property can be represented. Temporal metadata is critical to modelling past and future states of a feature. The features, and the semantics of each property, are defined in domain specific Application Schema using the General Feature Model (GFM) from ISO 19109 and usually encoded following ISO 19136. However, at the moment these standards provide only limited support for the representation and handling of time varying feature data. Features like rivers, wildfires or gas plumes have a defined state - for example geographic extent - at any given point in time. To keep track of changes, a more complex model for example using time-series coverages is required. Furthermore, the representation and management of feature property value changes via the service interfaces defined by OGC and ISO - namely: WFS and WCS - would be rather complex

  16. Donor and recipient sex in allogeneic stem cell transplantation: what really matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Haesook T.; Zhang, Mei-Jie; Woolfrey, Ann E.; St. Martin, Andrew; Chen, Junfang; Saber, Wael; Perales, Miguel-Angel; Armand, Philippe; Eapen, Mary

    2016-01-01

    We investigated whether and how recipient-donor sex affects transplantation outcomes of 11,797 patients transplanted between 2008 and 2010. Thirty-seven percent were male recipients with male donors, 21% male recipients with female donors, 25% female recipients with male donors, and 17% female recipients with female donors. In multivariable analyses, male recipients had inferior overall survival and progression-free survival compared to females regardless of donor sex, with an 11% relative increase in the hazard of death (P<0.0001) and a 10% relative increase in the hazard of death or relapse (P<0.0001). The detrimental effect of male recipients varied by donor sex. For male recipients with male donors, there was a 12% relative increase in the subdistribution hazard of relapse compared with female recipients with male donors (P=0.0036) and male recipients with female donors (P=0.0037). For male recipients with female donors, there was a 19% relative increase in the subdistribution hazard of non-relapse mortality compared with male recipients with male donors (P<0.0001) and a 22% relative increase compared with female recipients with male donors (P=0.0003). In addition, male recipients with female donors showed a 21% relative increase in the subdistribution hazard of chronic graft-versus-host disease (P<0.0001) compared with female recipients with male donors. Donor sex had no effect on outcomes for female recipients. Transplantation of grafts from male and female donors was associated with inferior overall survival and progression-free survival in male recipients with differing patterns of failure. Recipient sex is an important prognostic factor independent of donor sex. PMID:27354023

  17. Donor Heart Utilization following Cardiopulmonary Arrest and Resuscitation: Influence of Donor Characteristics and Wait Times in Transplant Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Quader

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Procurement of hearts from cardiopulmonary arrest and resuscitated (CPR donors for transplantation is suboptimal. We studied the influences of donor factors and regional wait times on CPR donor heart utilization. Methods. From UNOS database (1998 to 2012, we identified 44,744 heart donors, of which 4,964 (11% received CPR. Based on procurement of heart for transplantation, CPR donors were divided into hearts procured (HP and hearts not procured (HNP groups. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify predictors of heart procurement. Results. Of the 4,964 CPR donors, 1,427 (28.8% were in the HP group. Donor characteristics that favored heart procurement include younger age (25.5 ± 15 yrs versus 39 ± 18 yrs, P≤0.0001, male gender (34% versus 23%, P≤0.0001, shorter CPR duration (30 min, P≤0.0001, and head trauma (60% versus 15%. Among the 11 UNOS regions, the highest procurement was in Region 1 (37% and the lowest in Region 3 (24%. Regional transplant volumes and median waiting times did not influence heart procurement rates. Conclusions. Only 28.8% of CPR donor hearts were procured for transplantation. Factors favoring heart procurement include younger age, male gender, short CPR duration, and traumatic head injury. Heart procurement varied by region but not by transplant volumes or wait times.

  18. Perfil das doadoras de leite do banco de leite humano de um hospital universitário = Profile of breast milk donors at the human milk bank of a university hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Talita dos Santos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa tem como objetivo conhecer o perfil socioeconômico dasdoadoras de leite do Banco de Leite Humano do Hospital Universitário de Londrina, Estado do Paraná (BLH/HUL. Trata-se de um estudo transversal, em que foram coletados dados a partir de formulário aplicado às doadoras externas do BLH/HUL no período de junho a agosto de 2005. Constatou-se que 11% são adolescentes. Com relação àescolaridade, 41,8% possuem segundo grau completo ou superior incompleto. De acordo com a literatura, quanto maior a escolaridade das mães, mais informações elas absorvem por meio das orientações e das campanhas que são realizadas sobre aleitamento materno. Dototal das doadoras, 37,4% receberam informações sobre doação de leite e sobre os serviços do BLH/HU de Londrina por intermédio dos profissionais dos serviços de saúde. O conhecimento do perfil das doadoras permitirá direcionar as informações sobre doação deleite em nível local e regional, otimizando o trabalho realizado pelo Banco de Leite Humano do HU/L.This objective of this research is to understand the socioeconomic profile of the milk donors at the Human Milk Bank of the University Hospital of Londrina, Paraná State (BLH/HUL. It is a cross-sectional study in which data was collected by means of a questionnaire applied to the external donors of the BLH/ HUL, between June and Augustof 2005. It was observed that 11.0% are adolescents. According to the study, 41.8% have at least some high school education. According to the literature, the higher the educational level of the donors, the more information they are able to absorb through orientations andcampaigns on breastfeeding. Of the total, 37.4% had received information on breast milk donation and the services offered by the BLH/HUL from the health professionals. The knowledge of the donors’ profile will allow the HU/Londrina Human Milk Bank to directinformation on milk donation at the local and regional levels, thus

  19. Peptide-mediated delivery of donor mitochondria improves mitochondrial function and cell viability in human cybrid cells with the MELAS A3243G mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jui-Chih; Hoel, Fredrik; Liu, Ko-Hung; Wei, Yau-Huei; Cheng, Fu-Chou; Kuo, Shou-Jen; Tronstad, Karl Johan; Liu, Chin-San

    2017-09-06

    The cell penetrating peptide, Pep-1, has been shown to facilitate cellular uptake of foreign mitochondria but further research is required to evaluate the use of Pep-1-mediated mitochondrial delivery (PMD) in treating mitochondrial defects. Presently, we sought to determine whether mitochondrial transplantation rescue mitochondrial function in a cybrid cell model of mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) disease. Following PMD, recipient cells had internalized donor mitochondria after 1 h, and expressed higher levels of normal mitochondrial DNA, particularly at the end of the treatment and 11 days later. After 4 days, mitochondrial respiratory function had recovered and biogenesis was evident in the Pep-1 and PMD groups, compared to the untreated MELAS group. However, only PMD was able to reverse the fusion-to-fission ratio of mitochondrial morphology, and mitochondria shaping proteins resembled the normal pattern seen in the control group. Cell survival following hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress was also improved in the PMD group. Finally, we observed that PMD partially normalized cytokine expression, including that of interleukin (IL)-7, granulocyte macrophage-colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), in the MELAS cells. Presently, our data further confirm the protective effects of PMD as well in MELAS disease.

  20. Identification of human herpes virus in blood donors by nested-polymerase chain reaction%巢式聚合酶链反应检测人疱疹病毒在人群中的感染情况∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明月; 李凌云; 沈曦月; 周帅; 罗笛; 巢嘉婧; 冯纯; 姚堃; 冯东举; 周锋

    2015-01-01

    目的:调查人群中人疱疹病毒(HHV),包括人巨细胞病毒(HCMV)、EB病毒(EBV)、HHV-6和 HHV-7的感染情况。方法收集55例南京市无偿献血者的外周血标本,提取全血DNA,巢氏PCR扩增 HCMV、EBV、HHV-6和 HHV-7特异性序列,1%琼脂糖凝胶电泳鉴定。结果55例献血者中 EBV、HCMV、HHV-6和 HHV-7的阳性感染率分别为50.9%、5.5%、49.1%和21.8%,并且存在多种病毒混合感染。结论 HHV筛查对临床相关疾病的诊治具有十分重要的意义,应引起医务工作者的重视。%Objective To investigate the prevalence of four kinds of human herpes viruses (HHV)in the blood of blood donors, including human cytomegalovirus (HCMV),epstein-barr virus (EBV),HHV-6,HHV-7.Methods DNA was prepared in whole blood samples collected from 55 blood donors.The presence of DNA of EBV,HCMV,HHV-6,HHV-7 were examined by specific nested-polymerase chain reaction.Results Prevalence of EBV,HCMV,HHV-6 and HHV-7 in whole blood were 50.9%,5.5%, 49.1% and 21.8% respectively.Multi-infections were observed in some objects.Conclusion The examination of HHV infection is useful in diagnosis and treatment of HHV related disease.

  1. Iron deficiency in blood donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Cortés

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Context: Blood donation results in a substantial loss of iron (200 to 250 mg at each bleeding procedure (425 to 475 ml and subsequent mobilization of iron from body stores. Recent reports have shown that body iron reserves generally are small and iron depletion is more frequent in blood donors than in non-donors. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of iron deficiency in blood donors and to establish the frequency of iron deficiency in blood donors according to sex, whether they were first-time or multi-time donors. Design: From march 20 to April 5, 2004, three hundred potential blood donors from Hemocentro del Café y Tolima Grande were studied. Diagnostic tests: Using a combination of biochemical measurements of iron status: serum ferritin (RIA, ANNAR and the hemoglobin pre and post-donation (HEMOCUE Vital technology medical . Results: The frequency of iron deficiency in potential blood donors was 5%, and blood donors accepted was 5.1%; in blood donors rejected for low hemoglobin the frequency of iron deficiency was 3.7% and accepted blood donors was 1.7% in male and 12.6% in female. The frequency of iron deficiency was higher in multi-time blood donors than in first-time blood donors, but not stadistic significative. Increase nivel accepted hemoglobina in 1 g/dl no incidence in male; in female increase of 0.5 g/dl low in 25% blood donors accepted with iron deficiency, but increased rejected innecesary in 16.6% and increased is 1 g/dl low blood donors female accepted in 58% (7/12, but increased the rejected innecesary in 35.6%. Conclusions: We conclude that blood donation not is a important factor for iron deficiency in blood donors. The high frequency of blood donors with iron deficiency found in this study suggests a need for a more accurate laboratory trial, as hemoglobin or hematocrit measurement alone is not sufficient for detecting and excluding blood donors with iron deficiency without anemia, and ajustes hacia

  2. National Marrow Donor Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    this quarter. for Selected Donors er P iod 4 Activity: IIB 1 Task 6: Maintain a Quality Control Program – This task is closed. National Marrow...interpret incoming SBT typings and process version 3 nomenclature on incoming typings. • Code moved to production on March 30th, 2011. IIB. Rapid...as DRB3/4/5 typing intent is known. • Calculated 6-locus A~C~B~DRB3/4/5~DRB1~DQB1 haplotype frequencies for HapLogic III evaluation. In contrast

  3. NADH:Cytochrome b5 Reductase and Cytochrome b5 Can Act as Sole Electron Donors to Human Cytochrome P450 1A1-Mediated Oxidation and DNA Adduct Formation by Benzo[a]pyrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiborová, Marie; Indra, Radek; Moserová, Michaela; Frei, Eva; Schmeiser, Heinz H; Kopka, Klaus; Philips, David H; Arlt, Volker M

    2016-08-15

    Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is a human carcinogen that covalently binds to DNA after activation by cytochrome P450 (P450). Here, we investigated whether NADH:cytochrome b5 reductase (CBR) in the presence of cytochrome b5 can act as sole electron donor to human P450 1A1 during BaP oxidation and replace the canonical NADPH:cytochrome P450 reductase (POR) system. We also studied the efficiencies of the coenzymes of these reductases, NADPH as a coenzyme of POR, and NADH as a coenzyme of CBR, to mediate BaP oxidation. Two systems containing human P450 1A1 were utilized: human recombinant P450 1A1 expressed with POR, CBR, epoxide hydrolase, and cytochrome b5 in Supersomes and human recombinant P450 1A1 reconstituted with POR and/or with CBR and cytochrome b5 in liposomes. BaP-9,10-dihydrodiol, BaP-7,8-dihydrodiol, BaP-1,6-dione, BaP-3,6-dione, BaP-9-ol, BaP-3-ol, a metabolite of unknown structure, and two BaP-DNA adducts were generated by the P450 1A1-Supersomes system, both in the presence of NADPH and in the presence of NADH. The major BaP-DNA adduct detected by (32)P-postlabeling was characterized as 10-(deoxyguanosin-N(2)-yl)-7,8,9-trihydroxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydro-BaP (assigned adduct 1), while the minor adduct is probably a guanine adduct derived from 9-hydroxy-BaP-4,5-epoxide (assigned adduct 2). BaP-3-ol as the major metabolite, BaP-9-ol, BaP-1,6-dione, BaP-3,6-dione, an unknown metabolite, and adduct 2 were observed in the system using P450 1A1 reconstituted with POR plus NADPH. When P450 1A1 was reconstituted with CBR and cytochrome b5 plus NADH, BaP-3-ol was the predominant metabolite too, and an adduct 2 was also generated. Our results demonstrate that the NADH/cytochrome b5/CBR system can act as the sole electron donor both for the first and second reduction of P450 1A1 during the oxidation of BaP in vitro. They suggest that NADH-dependent CBR can replace NADPH-dependent POR in the P450 1A1-catalyzed metabolism of BaP.

  4. 75 FR 58400 - Donor Management Research: Improvements in Clinical Management of Deceased Organ Donors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Donor Management Research: Improvements in... management practices, but further investigation is needed. Upon review of research possibilities being... management study to be accomplished by contract or targeted research questions that will be incorporated into...

  5. Donor demographic and laboratory predictors of single donor platelet yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Arun

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Platelet transfusions are essential to prevent morbidity and mortality in patients who are severely thrombocytopenic and are at risk of spontaneous bleeding. Platelets are currently obtained either by fractionation of whole blood or by platelet apheresis. The quality of single donor platelets (SDP in terms of yield influences platelet recovery in the recipient and allows prolonging intervals between transfusions. Material and Methods: Donor demographic and laboratory data were analyzed prior to performing plateletpheresis to identify donor factors that influence platelet yield. The study was conducted on 130 healthy, first-time plateletpheresis donors over a period of 4 years. The plateletpheresis procedures were performed using Fresenius Kabi COM.TEC and Hemonetics MCS plus separator. A relationship between pre-donation donor variables and yield of platelets was studied using the Pearson correlation. Results: The mean platelet yield was 3.160.62x1011 per unit. A positive correlation was observed between platelet yield and pre-donation platelet count, body mass index (BMI; Kg/m2 of the donor, while a negative correlation was observed between age and the platelet yield. Conclusion: Donor pre-donation platelet count, BMI and donor age influence platelet yield. Young healthy donors with a high platelet count and better BMI can give a better platelet yield in the SDP.

  6. Influence factors of macronutrients and energy content of donor human milk%捐赠母乳宏量营养素和能量的影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈慧敏; 肖妮蓉; 刘喜红; 孙静; 吴锦晖; 萧敏华

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To explore the effect of holder pasteurization, frozen storage time and thawing methods on macronutrients and energy content of donor human milk, and to provide theoretical basis for the rational use of breast milk. Methods Thirty-three samples of donor human milk were collected and an aliquot of each sample was analyzed before and after pasteurization. The remaining milk after pasteurization was split into 9 aliquot , and frozen at -20 ℃. After 30, 60, and 90 days, the milk was thawed by three different methods of room tempe-rature, 4 ℃ refrigeration, and 37 ℃ water bath, respectively. The nutrient components of each aliquot were analyzed and compared. Results We observed a mild reduction in fat and energy content after pasteurization (P <0.05). A significant decrease of fat, protein and energy content with the prolonged storage time was observed (P <0.01), and during the whole process (pasteurization + frozen storage), the decrease of fat, protein and energy content was 36.6%, 32.6%and 22.6%, respectively. The protein was influenced mostly by different thawing methods and the content of protein reached highest while thawed at 4 ℃ refrigeration. Conclusions Holder pasteurization and frozen storage at-20℃significantly reduce fat, protein and energy content of donor human milk. The donor milk should be used as quickly as possible when applied for preterm infants and thawing at 4 ℃ refrigeration is recommended before delivery to newborn infants.%目的:探讨巴氏消毒、储存时间及解冻方式对捐赠母乳宏量营养素和能量的影响,为母乳库捐赠母乳的合理应用提供理论依据。方法:收集33例捐赠母乳样本,在巴氏消毒前后分析营养成分;将消毒后的每份样本平均分为9份,于-20℃冷冻储存30、60、90 d 时各取3份,分别用室温条件、4℃冷藏条件、37℃水浴快速解冻3种方式将母乳解冻后,测定营养成分并进行比较分析。结果:巴氏

  7. A Comparison of Nutritional Antioxidant Content in Breast Milk, Donor Milk, and Infant Formulas

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Human milk is the optimal food for human infants, including infants born prematurely. In the event that a mother of a hospitalized infant cannot provide breast milk, donor milk is considered an acceptable alternative. It is known that the macronutrient composition of donor milk is different than human milk, with variable fat content and protein content. However, much less is known about the micronutrient content of donor milk, including nutritional antioxidants. Samples of breast milk from 12...

  8. Accumulation of GC donor splice signals in mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koonin Eugene V

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The GT dinucleotide in the first two intron positions is the most conserved element of the U2 donor splice signals. However, in a small fraction of donor sites, GT is replaced by GC. A substantial enrichment of GC in donor sites of alternatively spliced genes has been observed previously in human, nematode and Arabidopsis, suggesting that GC signals are important for regulation of alternative splicing. We used parsimony analysis to reconstruct evolution of donor splice sites and inferred 298 GT > GC conversion events compared to 40 GC > GT conversion events in primate and rodent genomes. Thus, there was substantive accumulation of GC donor splice sites during the evolution of mammals. Accumulation of GC sites might have been driven by selection for alternative splicing. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Jerzy Jurka and Anton Nekrutenko. For the full reviews, please go to the Reviewers' Reports section.

  9. VENOUS AIR-EMBOLISM, PRESERVATION REPERFUSION INJURY, AND THE PRESENCE OF INTRAVASCULAR AIR COLLECTIONS IN HUMAN DONOR LIVERS - A RETROSPECTIVE CLINICAL-STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WOLF, RFE; SLUITER, WJ; BALLAST, A; VANDAM, RM; SLOOFF, MJH

    In human liver transplantation, air embolism is seldom encountered after graft reperfusion. Nevertheless, despite adequate flushing and clamping routines, air emboli have been reported in transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) studies performed during the reperfusion phase, We retrospectively

  10. VENOUS AIR-EMBOLISM, PRESERVATION REPERFUSION INJURY, AND THE PRESENCE OF INTRAVASCULAR AIR COLLECTIONS IN HUMAN DONOR LIVERS - A RETROSPECTIVE CLINICAL-STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WOLF, RFE; SLUITER, WJ; BALLAST, A; VANDAM, RM; SLOOFF, MJH

    1995-01-01

    In human liver transplantation, air embolism is seldom encountered after graft reperfusion. Nevertheless, despite adequate flushing and clamping routines, air emboli have been reported in transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) studies performed during the reperfusion phase, We retrospectively invest

  11. Whole genome comparison of donor and cloned dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hak-Min; Cho, Yun Sung; Kim, Hyunmin; Jho, Sungwoong; Son, Bongjun; Choi, Joung Yoon; Kim, Sangsoo; Lee, Byeong Chun; Bhak, Jong; Jang, Goo

    2013-10-21

    Cloning is a process that produces genetically identical organisms. However, the genomic degree of genetic resemblance in clones needs to be determined. In this report, the genomes of a cloned dog and its donor were compared. Compared with a human monozygotic twin, the genome of the cloned dog showed little difference from the genome of the nuclear donor dog in terms of single nucleotide variations, chromosomal instability, and telomere lengths. These findings suggest that cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer produced an almost identical genome. The whole genome sequence data of donor and cloned dogs can provide a resource for further investigations on epigenetic contributions in phenotypic differences.

  12. New potential uroselective NO-donor alpha1-antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschi, Donatella; Tron, Gian Cesare; Di Stilo, Antonella; Fruttero, Roberta; Gasco, Alberto; Poggesi, Elena; Motta, Gianni; Leonardi, Amedeo

    2003-08-14

    A recent uroselective alpha(1)-adrenoceptor antagonist, REC15/2739, has been joined with nitrooxy and furoxan NO-donor moieties to give new NO-donor alpha(1)-antagonists. All the compounds studied proved to be potent and selective ligands of human cloned alpha(1a)-receptor subtype. Derivatives 6 and 7 were able to relax the prostatic portion of rat vas deferens contracted by (-)-noradrenaline because of both their alpha(1A)-antagonist and their NO-donor properties.

  13. Serum levels of human MIC-1/GDF15 vary in a diurnal pattern, do not display a profile suggestive of a satiety factor and are related to BMI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsai, Vicky Wang-Wei; Macia, Laurence; Feinle-Bisset, Christine;

    2015-01-01

    The TGF-b superfamily cytokine MIC-1/GDF15 circulates in the blood of healthy humans. Its levels rise substantially in cancer and other diseases and this may sometimes lead to development of an anorexia/cachexia syndrome. This is mediated by a direct action of MIC-1/GDF15 on feeding centres...

  14. Expression stability of reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR of healthy and diseased pituitary tissue samples varies between humans, mice, and dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijn, Sarah J; Riemers, Frank M; van den Heuvel, Douwe; Wolfswinkel, Jeannette; Hofland, Leo; Meij, Björn P; Penning, Louis C

    2014-01-01

    Pituitary surgery generates pituitary tissue for histology, immunohistochemistry, and molecular biological research. In the last decade, the pathogenesis of pituitary adenomas has been extensively studied in humans, and to a lesser degree in dogs, and tumor oncogenesis has been studied in knock-out

  15. Concordant but Varied Phenotypes among Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Patient-Specific Myoblasts Derived using a Human iPSC-Based Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In Young Choi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD remains an intractable genetic disease. Althogh there are several animal models of DMD, there is no human cell model that carries patient-specific DYSTROPHIN mutations. Here, we present a human DMD model using human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs. Our model reveals concordant disease-related phenotypes with patient-dependent variation, which are partially reversed by genetic and pharmacological approaches. Our “chemical-compound-based” strategy successfully directs hiPSCs into expandable myoblasts, which exhibit a myogenic transcriptional program, forming striated contractile myofibers and participating in muscle regeneration in vivo. DMD-hiPSC-derived myoblasts show disease-related phenotypes with patient-to-patient variability, including aberrant expression of inflammation or immune-response genes and collagens, increased BMP/TGFβ signaling, and reduced fusion competence. Furthermore, by genetic correction and pharmacological “dual-SMAD” inhibition, the DMD-hiPSC-derived myoblasts and genetically corrected isogenic myoblasts form “rescued” multi-nucleated myotubes. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate the feasibility of establishing a human “DMD-in-a-dish” model using hiPSC-based disease modeling.

  16. The effect of a varying Mg2+free concentration upon the kinetic behaviour of human liver L-type pyruvate kinase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprengers, E.D.; Staal, Gerard E.J.

    1979-01-01

    We have proposed negative cooperativity for human liver L-type pyruvate kinase, a phenomenon also observed in: Lineweaver-Burk plots V⁻¹ versus [phosphoenolpyruvatel]⁻¹ were straight lines at low phosphoenolpyruvate concentrations, and bent downward near they axis (high phosphoenolpyruvate concentra

  17. Serum levels of human MIC-1/GDF15 vary in a diurnal pattern, do not display a profile suggestive of a satiety factor and are related to BMI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsai, Vicky Wang-Wei; Macia, Laurence; Feinle-Bisset, Christine

    2015-01-01

    The TGF-b superfamily cytokine MIC-1/GDF15 circulates in the blood of healthy humans. Its levels rise substantially in cancer and other diseases and this may sometimes lead to development of an anorexia/cachexia syndrome. This is mediated by a direct action of MIC-1/GDF15 on feeding centres in th...

  18. Using geographically weighted regression (GWR) to explore spatial varying relationships of immature mosquitoes and human densities with the incidence of dengue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Chia-Hsien; Wen, Tzai-Hung

    2011-01-01

    of entomology and dengue cases in the cities of Kaohsiung and Fengshan in 2002. Our findings indicate that dengue-mosquito and dengue-human relationships were significantly spatially non-stationary. This means that in some areas higher dengue incidences were associated with higher vector/host densities...

  19. Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli infection has donor-dependent effect on human gut microbiota and may be antagonized by probiotic yeast during interaction with Peyer's patches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thévenot, J; Cordonnier, C; Rougeron, A; Le Goff, O; Nguyen, H T T; Denis, S; Alric, M; Livrelli, V; Blanquet-Diot, S

    2015-11-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) are major food-borne pathogens responsible for serious infections ranging from mild diarrhea to hemorrhagic colitis and life-threatening complications. Shiga toxins (Stxs) are the main virulence factor of EHEC. The antagonistic effect of a prophylactic treatment with the probiotic strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae against EHEC O157:H7 was investigated using complementary in vitro human colonic model and in vivo murine ileal loop assays. In vitro, the probiotic treatment had no effect on O157:H7 survival but favorably influenced gut microbiota activity through modulation of short-chain fatty acid production, increasing acetate production and decreasing that of butyrate. Both pathogen and probiotic strains had individual-dependent effects on human gut microbiota. For the first time, stx expression was followed in human colonic environment: at 9 and 12 h post EHEC infection, probiotic treatment significantly decreased stx mRNA levels. Besides, in murine ileal loops, the probiotic yeast specifically exerted a trophic effect on intestinal mucosa and inhibited O157:H7 interactions with Peyer's patches and subsequent hemorrhagic lesions. Taken together, the results suggest that S. cerevisiae may be useful in the fight against EHEC infection and that host associated factors such as microbiota could influence clinical evolution of EHEC infection and the effectiveness of probiotics.

  20. A review of piscine islet xenotransplantation using wild-type tilapia donors and the production of transgenic tilapia expressing a "humanized" tilapia insulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, James R; Yang, Hua; Hyrtsenko, Olga; Xu, Bao-You; Yu, Weiming; Pohajdak, Bill

    2014-01-01

    Most islet xenotransplantation laboratories have focused on porcine islets, which are both costly and difficult to isolate. Teleost (bony) fish, such as tilapia, possess macroscopically visible distinct islet organs called Brockmann bodies which can be inexpensively harvested. When transplanted into diabetic nude mice, tilapia islets maintain long-term normoglycemia and provide human-like glucose tolerance profiles. Like porcine islets, when transplanted into euthymic mice, they are rejected in a CD4 T-cell-dependent manner. However, unlike pigs, tilapia are so phylogenetically primitive that their cells do not express α(1,3)Gal and, because tilapia are highly evolved to live in warm stagnant waters nearly devoid of dissolved oxygen, their islet cells are exceedingly resistant to hypoxia, making them ideal for transplantation within encapsulation devices. Encapsulation, especially when combined with co-stimulatory blockade, markedly prolongs tilapia islet xenograft survival in small animal recipients, and a collaborator has shown function in diabetic cynomolgus monkeys. In anticipation of preclinical xenotransplantation studies, we have extensively characterized tilapia islets (morphology, embryologic development, cell biology, peptides, etc.) and their regulation of glucose homeostasis. Because tilapia insulin differs structurally from human insulin by 17 amino acids, we have produced transgenic tilapia whose islets stably express physiological levels of humanized insulin and have now bred these to homozygosity. These transgenic fish can serve as a platform for further development into a cell therapy product for diabetes.

  1. Heart transplantation from older donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Poptsov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current situation of the shortage of suitable donor organs, heart transplantation from older donors is one of the ways to increase the performance of more heart transplants, particularly, in patients with urgent need of transplantation. While planning a heart transplantation from older donor one should consider increased risk of early cardiac allograft dysfunction, preexisting coronary artery disease, accelerated transplant vasculopathy which may adversely affect early and long-term survival of recipients. Subject to careful selection of donor–recipient pairs, effective prevention and treatment of early cardiac allograft dysfunction, pre-existing atherosclerosis and transplant vasculopathy the early and long-term survival of heart transplant recipients from older donors is comparable to heart transplantation from young donors.

  2. Whole genome comparison of donor and cloned dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hak-Min; Cho, Yun Sung; Kim, Hyunmin; Jho, Sungwoong; Son, Bongjun; Choi, Joung Yoon; Kim, Sangsoo; Lee, Byeong Chun; Bhak, Jong; Jang, Goo

    2013-01-01

    Cloning is a process that produces genetically identical organisms. However, the genomic degree of genetic resemblance in clones needs to be determined. In this report, the genomes of a cloned dog and its donor were compared. Compared with a human monozygotic twin, the genome of the cloned dog showed little difference from the genome of the nuclear donor dog in terms of single nucleotide variations, chromosomal instability, and telomere lengths. These findings suggest that cloning by somatic ...

  3. Evaluation of sustainable electron donors for nitrate removal in different water media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowdar, Harsha S; Hatt, Belinda E; Breen, Peter; Cook, Perran L M; Deletic, Ana

    2015-11-15

    An external electron donor is usually included in wastewater and groundwater treatment systems to enhance nitrate removal through denitrification. The choice of electron donor is critical for both satisfactory denitrification rates and sustainable long-term performance. Electron donors that are waste products are preferred to pure organic chemicals. Different electron donors have been used to treat different water types and little is known as to whether there are any electron donors that are suitable for multiple applications. Seven different carbon rich waste products, including liquid and solid electron donors, were studied in comparison to pure acetate. Batch-scale tests were used to measure their ability to reduce nitrate concentrations in a pure nutrient solution, light greywater, secondary-treated wastewater and tertiary-treated wastewater. The tested electron donors removed oxidised nitrogen (NOx) at varying rates, ranging from 48 mg N/L/d (acetate) to 0.3 mg N/L/d (hardwood). The concentrations of transient nitrite accumulation also varied across the electron donors. The different water types had an influence on NOx removal rates, the extent of which was dependent on the type of electron donor. Overall, the highest rates were recorded in light greywater, followed by the pure nutrient solution and the two partially treated wastewaters. Cotton wool and rice hulls were found to be promising electron donors with good NOx removal rates, lower leachable nutrients and had the least variation in performance across water types.

  4. From Glacier to Sauna: RNA-Seq of the Human Pathogen Black Fungus Exophiala dermatitidis under Varying Temperature Conditions Exhibits Common and Novel Fungal Response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Blasi

    Full Text Available Exophiala dermatitidis (Wangiella dermatitidis belongs to the group of the so-called black yeasts. Thanks in part to its thick and strongly melanized cell walls, E. dermatitidis is extremely tolerant to various kinds of stress, including extreme pH, temperature and desiccation. E. dermatitidis is also the agent responsible for various severe illnesses in humans, such as pneumonia and keratitis, and might lead to fatal brain infections. Due to its association with the human environment, its poly-extremophilic lifestyle and its pathogenicity in humans, E. dermatitidis has become an important model organism. In this study we present the functional analysis of the transcriptional response of the fungus at 1°C and 45°C, in comparison with that at 37°C, for two different exposition times, i.e. 1 hour and 1 week. At 1°C, E. dermatitidis uses a large repertoire of tools to acclimatize, such as lipid membrane fluidization, trehalose production or cytoskeleton rearrangement, which allows the fungus to remain metabolically active. At 45°C, the fungus drifts into a replicative state and increases the activity of the Golgi apparatus. As a novel finding, our study provides evidence that, apart from the protein coding genes, non-coding RNAs, circular RNAs as well as fusion-transcripts are differentially regulated and that the function of the fusion-transcripts can be related to the corresponding temperature condition. This work establishes that E. dermatitidis adapts to its environment by modulating coding and non-coding gene transcription levels and through the regulation of chimeric and circular RNAs.

  5. From Glacier to Sauna: RNA-Seq of the Human Pathogen Black Fungus Exophiala dermatitidis under Varying Temperature Conditions Exhibits Common and Novel Fungal Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasi, Barbara; Tafer, Hakim; Tesei, Donatella; Sterflinger, Katja

    2015-01-01

    Exophiala dermatitidis (Wangiella dermatitidis) belongs to the group of the so-called black yeasts. Thanks in part to its thick and strongly melanized cell walls, E. dermatitidis is extremely tolerant to various kinds of stress, including extreme pH, temperature and desiccation. E. dermatitidis is also the agent responsible for various severe illnesses in humans, such as pneumonia and keratitis, and might lead to fatal brain infections. Due to its association with the human environment, its poly-extremophilic lifestyle and its pathogenicity in humans, E. dermatitidis has become an important model organism. In this study we present the functional analysis of the transcriptional response of the fungus at 1°C and 45°C, in comparison with that at 37°C, for two different exposition times, i.e. 1 hour and 1 week. At 1°C, E. dermatitidis uses a large repertoire of tools to acclimatize, such as lipid membrane fluidization, trehalose production or cytoskeleton rearrangement, which allows the fungus to remain metabolically active. At 45°C, the fungus drifts into a replicative state and increases the activity of the Golgi apparatus. As a novel finding, our study provides evidence that, apart from the protein coding genes, non-coding RNAs, circular RNAs as well as fusion-transcripts are differentially regulated and that the function of the fusion-transcripts can be related to the corresponding temperature condition. This work establishes that E. dermatitidis adapts to its environment by modulating coding and non-coding gene transcription levels and through the regulation of chimeric and circular RNAs.

  6. A new luminescence dating chronology for the Rhafas cave site (NE Morocco): Insights into Palaeolithic human cultural change under varying palaeoenvironmental conditions in the Maghreb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dörschner, Nina; Fitzsimmons, Kathryn E.; Ditchfield, Peter; McLaren, Sue J.; Steele, Teresa E.; Zielhofer, Christoph; McPherron, Shannon P.; Bouzouggar, Abdeljalil; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2016-04-01

    Archaeological sites in northern Africa provide a rich record that is of increasing importance for current debates relating to the origins of modern human behaviour and to Out of Africa human dispersal events. Particular interest is placed on the cultural transition between the North African Middle Stone Age (MSA) and Late Stone Age (LSA), and the need for accurately defined chronologies, however the timing and nature of Palaeolithic human behaviour and dispersal across north-western Africa (the Maghreb) and potential correlation with environmental conditions remain poorly understood. The inland cave site of Rhafas (Morocco) preserves a long stratified sequence providing valuable chronological information about cultural changes in the Maghreb spanning the North African MSA through to the Neolithic. In this study, we apply optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating on sand-sized quartz grains to the cave deposits of Rhafas as well as to a section on the terrace in front of the cave entrance. Single grain OSL dating reliably constrains the timing of technocomplexes beyond the limits of radiocarbon by directly dating sediment associated with archaeological traces. We combine OSL dating with multi-proxy geological investigations (XRF, grain size analyses, stable isotopes, thin sections) to investigate site formation processes and reconstruct palaeoenvironmental conditions during human occupation phases at Rhafas. Our results indicate that the occupation of the site started at least in MIS 6 during a phase of relatively arid environmental conditions. Climatic amelioration after c.140 ka is associated with a change in sediment geochemistry at the site, most likely linked to a change in sediment source due to shifting wind directions. Tanged pieces - typical for the classical Aterian technocomplex - start to occur in the archaeological sequence in MIS 5, consistent with previously published chronological data from the Maghreb. From 55 ka, climatic conditions were

  7. Bone density in apheresis donors and whole blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boot, C L; Luken, J S; van den Burg, P J M; de Kort, W L A M; Koopman, M M W; Vrielink, H; van Schoor, N M; den Heijer, M; Lips, P

    2015-11-01

    Apheresis donation using citrate causes acute decrease in serum calcium and increase in serum parathyroid hormone. Long-term consequences, such as decrease in bone mineral density (BMD), are not known. In this study, we compared the BMD of 20 postmenopausal apheresis donors (mean donation number 115 times in up to 15 years) with that of 20 whole blood donors (for 15 years or more) aged 55-70. BMD in the lumbar spine was not lower in apheresis donors than in blood donors (mean ± SD 1.00 ± 0.18 vs. 0.92 ± 0.12, P = 0.09). In the hip, BMD was not different between the groups.

  8. Alternative donor allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for hemoglobinopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfraih, Feras; Aljurf, Mahmoud; Fitzhugh, Courtney D; Kassim, Adetola A

    2016-04-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) offers a curative therapy for patients with hemoglobinopathies, mainly severe sickle cell disease (SCD) and thalassemia (TM). However, the applicability of HSCT has been limited mainly by donor availability, with a less than 25%-30% of eligible patients having human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched sibling donors. Previous outcomes using alternate donor options have been markedly inferior due to increased regimen-related toxicity, transplant-related mortality, graft failure, and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Advances in transplant technology, including high-resolution HLA typing, improved GVHD prophylactic approaches with tolerance induction, and better supportive care over the last decade, are addressing these historical challenges, resulting in increasing donor options. Herein, we review alternate donor HSCT approaches for severe SCD and TM using unrelated donors, umbilical cord blood units, or related haploidentical donors. Though this is an emerging field, early results are promising and in selected patients, this may be the preferred option to mitigate against the age-related morbidity and early mortality associated with these disorders.

  9. The bystander cell-killing effect mediated by nitric oxide in normal human fibroblasts varies with irradiation dose but not with radiation quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Yuichiro; Funayama, Tomoo; Mutou-Yoshihara, Yasuko; Ikeda, Hiroko; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the dependence of the bystander cell-killing effect on radiation dose and quality, and to elucidate related molecular mechanisms. Normal human fibroblast WI-38 cells were irradiated with 0.125 - 2 Gy of γ-rays or carbon ions and were co-cultured with non-irradiated cells. Survival rates of bystander cells were investigated using the colony formation assays, and nitrite concentrations in the medium were measured using the modified Saltzman method. Survival rates of bystander cells decreased with doses of γ-rays and carbon ions of ≤ 0.5 Gy. Treatment of the specific nitric oxide (NO) radical scavenger prevented reductions in survival rates of bystander cells. Moreover, nitrite concentrations increased with doses of less than 0.25 Gy (γ-rays) and 1 Gy (carbon ions). The dose responses of increased nitrite concentrations as well as survival reduction were similar between γ-rays and carbon ions. In addition, negative relationships were observed between survival rates and nitrite concentrations. The bystander cell-killing effect mediated by NO radicals in normal human fibroblasts depends on irradiation doses of up to 0.5 Gy, but not on radiation quality. NO radical production appears to be an important determinant of γ-ray- and carbon-ion-induced bystander effects.

  10. MUC1 positive, Kras and Pten driven mouse gynecologic tumors replicate human tumors and vary in survival and nuclear grade based on anatomical location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirodkar, Tejas S; Budiu, Raluca A; Elishaev, Esther; Zhang, Lixin; Mony, Jyothi T; Brozick, Joan; Edwards, Robert P; Vlad, Anda M

    2014-01-01

    Activating mutations of Kras oncogene and deletions of Pten tumor suppressor gene play important roles in cancers of the female genital tract. We developed here new preclinical models for gynecologic cancers, using conditional (Cre-loxP) mice with floxed genetic alterations in Kras and Pten. The triple transgenic mice, briefly called MUC1KrasPten, express human MUC1 antigen as self and carry a silent oncogenic KrasG12D and Pten deletion mutation. Injection of Cre-encoding adenovirus (AdCre) in the ovarian bursa, oviduct or uterus activates the floxed mutations and initiates ovarian, oviductal, and endometrial cancer, respectively. Anatomical site-specific Cre-loxP recombination throughout the genital tract of MUC1KrasPten mice leads to MUC1 positive genital tract tumors, and the development of these tumors is influenced by the anatomical environment. Endometrioid histology was consistently displayed in all tumors of the murine genital tract (ovaries, oviducts, and uterus). Tumors showed increased expression of MUC1 glycoprotein and triggered de novo antibodies in tumor bearing hosts, mimicking the immunobiology seen in patients. In contrast to the ovarian and endometrial tumors, oviductal tumors showed higher nuclear grade. Survival for oviduct tumors was significantly lower than for endometrial tumors (p = 0.0015), yet similar to survival for ovarian cancer. Oviducts seem to favor the development of high grade tumors, providing preclinical evidence in support of the postulated role of fallopian tubes as the originating site for high grade human ovarian tumors.

  11. How to Motivate Whole Blood Donors to Become Plasma Donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaston Godin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study tested the efficacy of interventions to recruit new plasma donors among whole blood donors. A sample of 924 donors was randomized to one of three conditions: control; information only by nurse; and information plus self-positive image message by nurse (SPI. Participants in the control condition only received a leaflet describing the plasma donation procedure. In the two experimental conditions the leaflet was explained face-to-face by a nurse. The dependent variables were the proportion of new plasma donors and the number of donations at six months. Overall, 141 (15.3% new plasma donors were recruited at six months. There were higher proportions of new plasma donors in the two experimental conditions compared to the control condition (P<.001; the two experimental conditions did not differ. Also, compared to the control condition, those in the experimental conditions (all Ps<.001 gave plasma more often (information only by nurse:  d=.26; SPI: d=.32; the SPI intervention significantly outperformed (P<.05 the information only by nurse condition. The results suggest that references to feelings of SPI such as feeling good and being proud and that giving plasma is a rewarding personal experience favor a higher frequency of plasma donation.

  12. Serum Levels of Human MIC-1/GDF15 Vary in a Diurnal Pattern, Do Not Display a Profile Suggestive of a Satiety Factor and Are Related to BMI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicky Wang-Wei Tsai

    Full Text Available The TGF-b superfamily cytokine MIC-1/GDF15 circulates in the blood of healthy humans. Its levels rise substantially in cancer and other diseases and this may sometimes lead to development of an anorexia/cachexia syndrome. This is mediated by a direct action of MIC-1/GDF15 on feeding centres in the hypothalamus and brainstem. More recent studies in germline gene deleted mice also suggest that this cytokine may play a role in physiological regulation of energy homeostasis. To further characterize the role of MIC-1/GDF15 in physiological regulation of energy homeostasis in man, we have examined diurnal and food associated variation in serum levels and whether variation in circulating levels relate to BMI in human monozygotic twin pairs. We found that the within twin pair differences in serum MIC-1/GDF15 levels were significantly correlated with within twin pair differences in BMI, suggesting a role for MIC-1/GDF15 in the regulation of energy balance in man. MIC-1/GDF15 serum levels altered slightly in response to a meal, but comparison with variation its serum levels over a 24 hour period suggested that these changes are likely to be due to bimodal diurnal variation which can alter serum MIC-1/GDF15 levels by about plus or minus 10% from the mesor. The lack of a rapid and substantial postprandial increase in MIC-1/GDF15 serum levels suggests that MIC1/GDF15 is unlikely to act as a satiety factor. Taken together, our findings suggest that MIC-1/GDF15 may be a physiological regulator of energy homeostasis in man, most probably due to actions on long-term regulation of energy homeostasis.

  13. MUC1 positive, Kras and Pten driven mouse gynecologic tumors replicate human tumors and vary in survival and nuclear grade based on anatomical location.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tejas S Tirodkar

    Full Text Available Activating mutations of Kras oncogene and deletions of Pten tumor suppressor gene play important roles in cancers of the female genital tract. We developed here new preclinical models for gynecologic cancers, using conditional (Cre-loxP mice with floxed genetic alterations in Kras and Pten. The triple transgenic mice, briefly called MUC1KrasPten, express human MUC1 antigen as self and carry a silent oncogenic KrasG12D and Pten deletion mutation. Injection of Cre-encoding adenovirus (AdCre in the ovarian bursa, oviduct or uterus activates the floxed mutations and initiates ovarian, oviductal, and endometrial cancer, respectively. Anatomical site-specific Cre-loxP recombination throughout the genital tract of MUC1KrasPten mice leads to MUC1 positive genital tract tumors, and the development of these tumors is influenced by the anatomical environment. Endometrioid histology was consistently displayed in all tumors of the murine genital tract (ovaries, oviducts, and uterus. Tumors showed increased expression of MUC1 glycoprotein and triggered de novo antibodies in tumor bearing hosts, mimicking the immunobiology seen in patients. In contrast to the ovarian and endometrial tumors, oviductal tumors showed higher nuclear grade. Survival for oviduct tumors was significantly lower than for endometrial tumors (p = 0.0015, yet similar to survival for ovarian cancer. Oviducts seem to favor the development of high grade tumors, providing preclinical evidence in support of the postulated role of fallopian tubes as the originating site for high grade human ovarian tumors.

  14. Geographic determinants of access to pediatric deceased donor kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Peter P; Hwang, Hojun; Potluri, Vishnu; Abt, Peter L; Shults, Justine; Amaral, Sandra

    2014-04-01

    Children receive priority in the allocation of deceased donor kidneys for transplantation in the United States, but because allocation begins locally, geographic differences in population and organ supply may enable variation in pediatric access to transplantation. We assembled a cohort of 3764 individual listings for pediatric kidney transplantation in 2005-2010. For each donor service area, we assigned a category of short (270 days) median waiting time and calculated the ratio of pediatric-quality kidneys to pediatric candidates and the percentage of these kidneys locally diverted to adults. We used multivariable Cox regression analyses to examine the association between donor service area characteristics and time to deceased donor kidney transplantation. The Kaplan-Meier estimate of median waiting time to transplantation was 284 days (95% confidence interval, 263 to 300 days) and varied from 14 to 1313 days across donor service areas. Overall, 29% of pediatric-quality kidneys were locally diverted to adults. Compared with areas with short waiting times, areas with long waiting times had a lower ratio of pediatric-quality kidneys to candidates (3.1 versus 5.9; Preference areas with ≥5:1 kidneys/candidates; Ppediatric deceased donor kidney transplantation exists and is highly associated with local supply and demand factors. Future organ allocation policy should address this geographic inequity.

  15. The binding assessment with human serum albumin of novel six-coordinate Pt(IV) complexes, containing bidentate nitrogen donor/methyl ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Reza; Taheri-Kafrani, Asghar; Nabavizadeh, Sayed Masoud; Pouryasin, Zahra; Shahsavani, Mohammad Bagher; Khoshaman, Kazem; Rashidi, Mehdi

    2015-12-01

    The interactions between platinum complexes and human serum albumin (HSA) play crucial roles in the distribution, metabolism, and activity of platinum-based anticancer drugs. Octahedral platinum (IV) complexes represent a significant class of anticancer agents that display molecular pharmacological properties different from cisplatin. In this study, the interaction between two Pt(IV) complexes with the general formula [Pt(X)2Me2 (tbu2bpy)], where tbu2bpy = 4,4'-ditert-butyl-2,2'-bipyridine, with two leaving groups of X = Cl (Com1) or Br (Com2), and HSA were investigated, using Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, circular dichroism (CD) and molecular docking simulation. The spectroscopic and thermodynamic data revealed that the HSA/Pt(IV) complexes interactions were spontaneous process and Com2 demonstrated stronger interaction and binding constant in comparison with Com1. Also, the results suggest approximately similar structural alteration of HSA in the presence of these Pt complexes. Molecular docking revealed that both Pt(IV) complexes bind with HSA in subdomain IB, literally the same as each other. This study suggests that variation in the leaving group, displaying differing departure rate, has no significant contribution in denaturing prosperities of the Pt(IV) complexes against HSA.

  16. Synthesis of biologically active cadmium (II complex with tridentate N2O donor Schiff base: DFT study, binding mechanism of serum albumins (bovine, human and fluorescent nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhumita Hazra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The photophysical properties of luminescent tetra-coordinated cadmium (II complex formulated as [Cd(LCl],HL = (1-[(3-methyl-pyridine-2-ylimino-methyl]-naphthalen-2-ol were synthesized and characterized by analytical and spectroscopic methods. The density function theory calculations are used to investigate the electronic structures of the ligand and its complex. The interactions of cadmium (II complex towards bovine serum albumin (BSA and human serum albumin (HSA were investigated using absorption and fluorescence spectroscopic techniques at pH 7.4. The quenching constants, binding constants and number of binding sites were determined by fluorescence quenching method. The calculated thermodynamic parameters (ΔG, ΔH, and ΔS confirmed that the binding reaction is mainly entropy-driven and hydrophobic forces played an important role in the reaction. Here, we proposed a new synthetic procedure for the preparation of BSA and HSA with cadmium complex nanowires. The scanning electron microscopy images show that BSA and HSA with cadmium complex product are wire-like in structure. The complex shows enhanced antibacterial activity compared with the free ligand and standard antibiotic chloramphenicol. Antioxidant studies showed that the complex has significant antioxidant activity against DPPH. The obtained IC50 value of the DPPH activity for complex (IC50 = 138 μg/ml showed excellent scavenging property compared to standard ascorbic acid.

  17. Fluorosis varied treatment options

    OpenAIRE

    Sherwood I

    2010-01-01

    Fluorosis has been reported way back in 1901. The treatment options for fluorosis are varied depending upon individual cases. This article comes from Madurai in India where its surrounding towns are fluorosis-prone zones. The purpose of this article is to report various treatment options available for dental fluorosis; this is the first time that complete full mouth rehabilitation for dental fluorosis is being reported. This article also dwells on the need for the dentists to be aware of thei...

  18. Behaviour of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Neural Progenitors on Collagen Scaffolds Varied in Freezing Temperature and Laminin Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh Khayyatan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Biomaterial technology, when combined with emerging human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC technology, provides a promising strategy for patient-specific tissue engineering. In this study, we have evaluated the physical effects of collagen scaffolds fabricated at various freezing temperatures on the behavior of hiPSC-derived neural progenitors (hiPSC-NPs. In addition, the coating of scaffolds using different concentrations of laminin was examined on the cells. Materials and Methods: Initially, in this experimental study, the collagen scaffolds fabricated from different collagen concentrations and freezing temperatures were characterized by determining the pore size, porosity, swelling ratio, and mechanical properties. Effects of cross-linking on free amine groups, volume shrinkage and mass retention was also assessed. Then, hiPSC-NPs were seeded onto the most stable three-dimensional collagen scaffolds and we evaluated the effect of pore structure. Additionally, the different concentrations of laminin coating of the scaffolds on hiPSC-NPs behavior were assessed. Results: Scanning electron micrographs of the scaffolds showed a pore diameter in the range of 23-232 μm for the scaffolds prepared with different fabrication parameters. Also porosity of all scaffolds was >98% with more than 94% swelling ratio. hiPSC-NPs were subsequently seeded onto the scaffolds that were made by different freezing temperatures in order to assess for physical effects of the scaffolds. We observed similar proliferation, but more cell infiltration in scaffolds prepared at lower freezing temperatures. The laminin coating of the scaffolds improved NPs proliferation and infiltration in a dose-dependent manner. Immunofluorescence staining and scanning electron microscopy confirmed the compatibility of undifferentiated and differentiated hiPSC-NPs on these scaffolds. Conclusion: The results have suggested that the pore structure and laminin coating of

  19. Evaluating Controlled Human Malaria Infection in Kenyan Adults with Varying Degrees of Prior Exposure to Plasmodium falciparum using sporozoites administered by intramuscular injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Helena Hodgson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Controlled human malaria infection (CHMI studies are a vital tool to accelerate vaccine and drug development. As CHMI trials are performed in a controlled environment, they allow unprecedented, detailed evaluation of parasite growth dynamics (PGD and immunological responses. However, CHMI studies have not been routinely performed in malaria-endemic countries or used to investigate mechanisms of naturally-acquired immunity (NAI to Plasmodium falciparum. Methods: We conducted an open-label, randomized CHMI pilot-study using aseptic, cryopreserved P. falciparum sporozoites (PfSPZ Challenge to evaluate safety, infectivity and PGD in Kenyan adults with low to moderate prior exposure to P. falciparum (Pan African Clinical Trial Registry: PACTR20121100033272. Results: All participants developed blood-stage infection confirmed by qPCR. However one volunteer (110 remained asymptomatic and blood-film negative until day 21 post-injection of PfSPZ Challenge. This volunteer had a reduced parasite multiplication rate (PMR (1.3 in comparison to the other 27 volunteers (median 11.1. A significant correlation was seen between PMR and screening anti-schizont ELISA OD (p=0.044, R=-0.384 but not when volunteer 110 was excluded from the analysis (p=0.112, R=-0.313. Conclusions: PfSPZ Challenge is safe and infectious in malaria-endemic populations and could be used to assess the efficacy of malaria vaccines and drugs in African populations. Whilst our findings are limited by sample size, our pilot study has demonstrated for the first time that NAI may impact on PMR post-CHMI in a detectable fashion, an important finding that should be evaluated in further CHMI studies.

  20. Prevalence and factors associated with hepatitis C virus infection among Myanmar blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myo-Khin; San-San-Oo; Oo, Khin May; Shimono, Kunio; Koide, Norio; Okada, Shigeru

    2010-10-01

    We studied the prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection among blood donors from 3 hospitals of Central Myanmar and 7 hospitals of Lower Myanmar in the Yangon area, and analyzed the factors associated with the infection. The study period was from November, 2005 to June, 2007. A pre-tested questionnaire was used to obtain information on age, ethnic group, marital status, tattooing, body piercing, history of receiving transfusions, and liver diseases in self and in sexual partners. Data on seropositivity to hepatitis C, hepatitis B and human immunodeficiency virus infections were recorded. A total of 65,240 blood donors participated in the study. Their ages ranged from 18 years to 60 years (mean±SD=29.5±9.3). The male-to-female ratio was 6:1. The prevalence of the antibody to hepatitis C was found to be 0.95% with varying rates (0.34 to 2.03) among hospitals. Females had a slightly higher rate (1.06%) than males (0.93%) (p=0.237). Multivariate analyses revealed the following factors to be related to HCV infection:HIV infection, odds ratio (OR)=3.0 (p=0.003); history of liver disease, OR=8.9 (p=0.001);and age 30 years and above, OR=2.6 (p=0.001). We discuss the varying prevalences of HCV around the world.

  1. Fluorosis varied treatment options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherwood I

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluorosis has been reported way back in 1901. The treatment options for fluorosis are varied depending upon individual cases. This article comes from Madurai in India where its surrounding towns are fluorosis-prone zones. The purpose of this article is to report various treatment options available for dental fluorosis; this is the first time that complete full mouth rehabilitation for dental fluorosis is being reported. This article also dwells on the need for the dentists to be aware of their local indigenous pathologies to treat it in a better manner.

  2. Health-related quality of life in living liver donors after transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pei-Xian Chen; Lu-NanYan

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) has recently emerged as an effective therapeutic alternative for patients with end-stage liver disease. In the meantime, the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of the donors is becoming better appreciated. Here we aimed to review the current literature and summarize the effects of liver donation on the long-term HRQoL of living donors. DATA SOURCES: A literature search of PubMed using "donors","living donor liver transplantation", "health-related quality of life", and "donation" was performed, and all the information was collected. RESULTS: The varied postoperative outcomes of liver donors are attributive to the different evaluation instruments used. On the whole, donors experienced good long-term physical and mental well-being with a few complaining of compromised quality of life due to mild symptoms or psychiatric problems. The psychosocial dimension has received increasing attention with the vocational, interpersonal and financial impact of liver donation on donors mostly studied. CONCLUSIONS: Generally, donors have a good HRQoL after LDLT. Nevertheless, to achieve an ideal donor outcome, further work is necessary to minimize the negative effects as well as to incorporate recent progress in regenerative medicine.

  3. Transmission of donor melanoma to multiple organ transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris-Stiff, G; Steel, A; Savage, P; Devlin, J; Griffiths, D; Portman, B; Mason, M; Jurewicz, W A

    2004-03-01

    Malignant melanoma represents the most common tumour responsible for donor-derived post transplantation malignancies. We report the varied presentation and outcome of three graft recipients (two kidney and hepatic) who developed metastatic melanoma following cadaveric organ transplantation from a single multiorgan donor. Two of the recipients presented with symptomatic metastatic lesions and the third patient, despite being carefully monitored, developed evidence of metastatic cutaneous melanoma. Two of the patients died as a direct result of their melanomas. The recipients of corneal and cardiac grafts remain disease-free. We conclude that despite careful screening, donor-derived tumours remain a not uncommon clinical entity. The identification of a lesion in one recipient should prompt immediate examination and investigation of the remaining recipients of multiorgan donations.

  4. Xenotransplantation: A Potential Solution to the Critical Organ Donor Shortage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Howe Sim

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The success of allotransplantation as a treatment for end-stage organ failure has resulted in the need for an increasing number of organ donors. Attempts to meet this need include the use of organs from living related and unrelated donors, financial or other incentives for the donor family, and even the reuse of transplanted organs. Despite these initiatives, the supply of organs for transplantation still falls far short of the demand, as evidenced by longer waiting times for transplantation and decreasing transplantation rates. Even if Canada were able to increase its organ donor rate to that of Spain (40 to 50/million, where organ donation is governed by ‘presumed consent’ legislation, this would not alleviate the problem of donor shortage. Interest in xenotransplantation stems from the need to overcome this increasingly severe shortage of human organs. Indeed, some argue that xenotransplantation is the only potential way of addressing this shortage. As immunological barriers to xenotransplantation are better understood, those hurdles are being addressed through genetic engineering of donor animals and the development of new drug therapies. However, before xenotransplantation can be fully implemented, both the scientific/medical communities and the general public must seriously consider and attempt to resolve the many complex ethical, social and economic issues that it presents.

  5. Ethical aspects of renal transplantation from living donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruzzone, P; Berloco, P B

    2007-01-01

    Kidney transplantation from living donors is widely performed all over the world. Living nephrectomy for transplantation has no direct advantages for the donor other than increased self-esteem, but it at least remains an extremely safe procedure, with a worldwide overall mortality of 0.03%. This theoretical risk for the donor seems to be justified by the socioeconomic advantages and increased quality of life of the recipient, especially in selected cases, such as pediatric patients, when living donor kidney transplantation can be performed in a preuremic phase, avoiding the psychological and physical stress of dialysis, which in children is not well tolerated and cannot prevent retarded growth. According to the Ethical Council of the Transplantation Society, commercialism must be effectively prevented, not only for ethical but also medical reasons. The risks are too high, not only for the donors, but also for the recipients, as a consequence of poor donor screening and evaluation with consequent transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or other infective agents, as well as of inappropriate medical and surgical management of donors and also recipients, who are often discharged too early. Most public or private insurance companies consider kidney donation a safe procedure without long-term impairment and therefore do not increase the premium, whereas recipient insurance of course should cover hospital fees for the donors. "Rewarded gifting" or other financial incentives to compensate for the inconvenience and loss of income related to the donation are not advisable, at least in our opinion. Our Center does not perform anonymous living organ donation or "cross-over" transplantation.

  6. Ethical considerations on kidney transplantation from living donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruzzone, P; Pretagostini, R; Poli, L; Rossi, M; Berloco, P B

    2005-01-01

    Kidney transplantation from living donors is widely performed all over the world. Living nephrectomy for transplantation has no direct advantage for the donor other than increased self-esteem, but at least remains an extremely safe procedure, with a worldwide overall mortality rate of 0.03%. This theoretical risk to the donor seems to be justified by the socioeconomic advantages and increased quality of life of the recipient, especially in selected cases, such as pediatric patients, when living donor kidney transplantation can be performed in a preuremic phase, avoiding the psychological and physical stress of dialysis, which in children is not well tolerated and cannot prevent retarded growth. According to the Ethical Council of the Transplantation Society, commercialism must be prevented, not only for ethical but also medical reasons. The risks are too high not only for the donors, but also for the recipients, as a consequence of poor donor screening and evaluation with consequent transmission of human immunodeficiency virus or other infectious agents, as well as inappropriate medical and surgical management of donors and also of recipients, who are often discharged too early. Most public or private insurance companies are considering kidney donation a safe procedure without long-term impairment and, therefore, do not increase the premium, whereas recipient insurance of course should cover hospital fees for the donors. "Rewarded gifting" or other financial incentives to compensate for the inconvenience and loss of income related to the donation are not advisable, at least in our opinion. Our center does not perform anonymous living organ donation or "cross-over" transplantation.

  7. [Living donor transplantation. Surgical complications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, Georges

    2008-02-01

    Although nephrectomy by open surgery is the most used technique for the extraction of kidney transplants in the living donor, nephrectomy under laparaoscopy is increasingly practiced. Laparoscopic nephrectomy is less invasive and performed under videoscopy control, after insufflation of the peritoneal cavity. Three to four incisions are done in order to enter the surgical instruments. The kidney is extracted through a horizontal sus-pubic incision. The exposition is either exclusively transperitoneal, retroperitoneal or hand assisted. The advantages of laparoscopy are esthetical, financial due to a shorter hospitalisation and a quicker recovery, as well a confort for the donor. The disadvantages are a longer warm ischemia time and possibly a higher risk of delayed graft function. Randomised studies having compared laparoscopy and open surgery in the living donor have not find any significant difference regarding the per- and perioperative in the complications.

  8. Human response to varying concentrations of toluene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bælum, Jesper; Lundqvist, G R; Mølhave, Lars

    1990-01-01

    less than 0.1) towards irritation in the throat, headache and dizziness. In the four performance tests there was a tendency towards a lower score in a vigilance test while no effect of toluene exposure was seen in a peg board test, a five choice serial reaction test, or a colour test, indicating only...

  9. varying elastic parameters distributions

    KAUST Repository

    Moussawi, Ali

    2014-12-01

    The experimental identication of mechanical properties is crucial in mechanics for understanding material behavior and for the development of numerical models. Classical identi cation procedures employ standard shaped specimens, assume that the mechanical elds in the object are homogeneous, and recover global properties. Thus, multiple tests are required for full characterization of a heterogeneous object, leading to a time consuming and costly process. The development of non-contact, full- eld measurement techniques from which complex kinematic elds can be recorded has opened the door to a new way of thinking. From the identi cation point of view, suitable methods can be used to process these complex kinematic elds in order to recover multiple spatially varying parameters through one test or a few tests. The requirement is the development of identi cation techniques that can process these complex experimental data. This thesis introduces a novel identi cation technique called the constitutive compatibility method. The key idea is to de ne stresses as compatible with the observed kinematic eld through the chosen class of constitutive equation, making possible the uncoupling of the identi cation of stress from the identi cation of the material parameters. This uncoupling leads to parametrized solutions in cases where 5 the solution is non-unique (due to unknown traction boundary conditions) as demonstrated on 2D numerical examples. First the theory is outlined and the method is demonstrated in 2D applications. Second, the method is implemented within a domain decomposition framework in order to reduce the cost for processing very large problems. Finally, it is extended to 3D numerical examples. Promising results are shown for 2D and 3D problems.

  10. Dead bodies matter: gift giving and the unveiling of body donor monuments in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolt, Sophie

    2012-12-01

    Body donors are people who voluntarily donate their entire body, after death, to anatomical science. Based on anthropological fieldwork in the Netherlands this article explores the construction of body donor monuments since 2007. These developments are analyzed by means of gift-giving theories. Body donation is a practice in which the medical and scientific value of the donor bodies has always been praised. Increasingly the fact that the bodies represent real human beings who have mourning relatives has also been acknowledged. This change in attitude has resulted in a desire on the part of anatomical professionals to give back a monument, not only for the donors themselves but also, in particular, for the donors' relatives. The great public interest in the monuments has revealed that many of the bereaved, in the absence of having the physical body of the donor, need a symbolic final resting place for their loved ones.

  11. HIV, HBV, HCV and T. pallidum infections among blood donors and Transfusion-related complications among recipients at the Laquintinie hospital in Douala, Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eboumbou Moukoko, Carole Else; Ngo Sack, Françoise; Essangui Same, Estelle Géraldine; Mbangue, Madeleine; Lehman, Léopold Gustave

    2014-02-12

    Transfusion-transmissible infections (TTIs) pose a major health risk in Cameroon given the high prevalence of such pathogens and increased demands for blood donations in the local communities. This study aims at establishing the prevalence of commonly encountered TTIs among blood donors and transfusion-related complications among recipients in an urban center of Cameroon. A total of 477 blood donors and 83 blood recipients were recruited by consecutive sampling at the Laquintinie Hospital in Douala (LHD), Cameroon. Serum samples from blood donors were tested by quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and/or using various Rapid diagnostic test (RDT) for presence of Hepatits B (HBV) viral antigens, and antibodies to human immunodeficiency (HIV-1/2), Hepatits B (HCV) and Treponema pallidum. Recipient's medical records were also analyzed for possible transfusion-associated complications. The male/female sex ratio of the blood donors was 4/1 with a mean age of 30.2 (Sd = 8.3) years. Of all blood donors, 64/467 (13.7%) were infected by at least one of the four TTIs. Infected volunteer donors represented 8.3% while infected family donors comprised 14.3% of the donor population. The prevalence of HCV, HIV, HBV and T. pallidum were 1.3%, 1.8%, 3.5%, and 8.1%, respectively. More than half of the blood recipients were female (78.3%) and the mean age was 20.6 (SD = 16.1) years. The causes of severe anemia indicative of transfusion in recipients varied with wards (postpartum hemorrhage, caesarean section, uterine or cervical lacerations, abortions, urinary tract infections, severe malaria, vaso-occlusive attacks, wounds and gastrointestinal bleeding). The most frequent complications were chills and hematuria, which represented 46.1% of all observed complications. Other complications such as nausea, vomiting, jaundice, sudden diarrhea, anxiety, tachycardia, or hyperthermia were also found in recipients. Three cases of deaths occurred during the study

  12. [What strategy to improve the recruitment of gamete donors?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Lannou, D

    2013-12-01

    To a high demand for donated gametes, sperm and oocytes, centers often face difficulties in recruiting enough donors. To increase the number of donors are needed financial and human resources to accommodate them in good conditions, information and a strong promotion to motivate approaches donations, diversify recruitment methods. In France, the gametes donation comes from couples with children and is free. The opening of the gift for men and women without children and remuneration of these gifts are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. An HLA matched donor! An HLA matched donor? What do you mean by: HLA matched donor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rood, J J; Oudshoorn, M

    1998-07-01

    The term 'an HLA matched donor' is in general used without giving exact information on the level of resolution of the HLA typing. This can lead to misunderstandings. A proposal is formulated to agree on using six match categories according to the HLA typing technique used to indicate the level of confidence of the matching.

  14. Effect of donor CTLA-4 alleles and haplotypes on graft-versus-host disease occurrence in Tunisian patients receiving a human leukocyte antigen-identical sibling hematopoietic stem cell transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellami, Mohamed Hichem; Bani, Meriem; Torjemane, Lamia; Kaabi, Houda; Ladeb, Saloua; Ben Othmane, Tarek; Hmida, Slama

    2011-02-01

    The CTLA-4 genetic variation, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) may be critical and can affect the functional activity of cells that initiate the graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) effects. The aim of this study is to examine the effect of donor CTLA-4 alleles and haplotypes for the -318C>T and the 49A>G polymorphisms on the occurrence of GVHD in Tunisians recipients of HSCs. A total of 112 patients and their 112 respective sibling donors of HSCs were enrolled in this study. All patients had either grades 0-I or grades II-IV acute GVHD, or chronic GVHD. The SNPs genotyping assay was performed using sets of sequence specific primers (SSP-PCR). The single marker association analysis showed that the 49G allele, in a genetic recessive model, may be a potential risk factor only for the chronic GVHD (p = 0.032, odds ratio [OR] = 2.58, 95% confidence interval = 1.05-6.32). The haplotypes analyses showed that the CTLA-4 -318C49G nucleotide combination is significantly associated with the incidence of chronic GVHD (p = 0.043, χ² = 3.27). Donor CTLA-4 -318C49G haplotype may be a significant risk factor for developing chronic GVHD after allo-stem cell transplantation. We suppose that donor T cells expressing this haplotype in a homozygous state have higher proliferation than those expressing other haplotypes, especially after recognition of the recipient's minor histocompatibility antigens.

  15. Can donor aid for health be effective in a poor country? Assessment of prerequisites for aid effectiveness in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliet, Nabyonga Orem; Freddie, Ssengooba; Okuonzi, Sam

    2009-10-22

    Inadequate funding for health is a challenge to attaining health-related Millennium Development Goals. Significant increase in health funding was recommended by the Commission for Macroeconomics and Health. Indeed Official Development Assistance has increased significantly in Uganda. However, the effectiveness of donor aid has come under greater scrutiny. This paper scrutinizes the prerequisites for aid effectiveness. The objective of the study was to assess the prerequisites for effectiveness of donor aid, specifically, its proportion to overall health funding, predictability, comprehensiveness, alignment to country priorities, and channeling mechanisms. Secondary data obtained from various official reports and surveys were analyzed against the variables mentioned under objectives. This was augmented by observations and participation in discussions with all stakeholders to discuss sector performance including health financing. Between 2004-2007, the level of aid increased from US$6 per capita to US$11. Aid was found to be unpredictable with expenditure varying between 174-8722;360 percent from budgets. More than 50% of aid was found to be off budget and unavailable for comprehensive planning. There was disproportionate funding for some items such as drugs. Key health system elements such as human resources and infrastructure have not been given due attention in investment. The government's health funding from domestic sources grew only modestly which did not guarantee fiscal sustainability. Although donor aid is significant there is need to invest in the prerequisites that would guarantee its effective use.

  16. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

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    Full Text Available ... total__ Find out why Close Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor NCIcancertopics Loading... Unsubscribe from NCIcancertopics? Cancel Unsubscribe ... Ever considered becoming a bone marrow or blood stem cell donor? Follow this true story of a former ...

  17. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

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    Full Text Available ... total__ Find out why Close Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor NCIcancertopics Loading... Unsubscribe from NCIcancertopics? Cancel Unsubscribe ... Ever considered becoming a bone marrow or blood stem cell donor? Follow this true story of a former ...

  18. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... total__ Find out why Close Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor NCIcancertopics Loading... Unsubscribe from NCIcancertopics? Cancel Unsubscribe ... Ever considered becoming a bone marrow or blood stem cell donor? Follow this true story of a former ...

  19. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Marrow Donor Program® (NMDP), a federally funded nonprofit organization that maintains an international registry of volunteers willing ... her German stem cell donor for the first time in Germany. #priceless - Duration: 1:04. Jacque Brohawn ...

  20. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

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    Full Text Available ... Find out why Close Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor NCIcancertopics Loading... Unsubscribe from NCIcancertopics? Cancel Unsubscribe ... considered becoming a bone marrow or blood stem cell donor? Follow this true story of a former ...

  1. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Find out why Close Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor NCIcancertopics Loading... Unsubscribe from NCIcancertopics? Cancel Unsubscribe ... considered becoming a bone marrow or blood stem cell donor? Follow this true story of a former ...

  2. Protecting the interests of the child bone marrow donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Louise M; Campbell, Anne

    2004-01-01

    At a time when designer babies have been created to act as cord blood donors to sick siblings, ethical debate has focused predominantly on the extent to which it is acceptable to create one human being to assist another. However, children are frequently used this way, by their families and doctors who extract their bone marrow, to try to save the life of another, usually a sibling. With any life-threatening illness, there is the possibility that the urgency of the sick sibling's need means that the short-term welfare of the donor child receives less attention than it should by parents and doctors. This article suggests ways to protect the interests of such children and empower them within the decision-making process and concludes that the drive to save life must be tempered by recognition of the intrinsic worth of donor children and their rights not to be exploited.

  3. Synthesis and exploratory photophysical investigation of donor-brige-acceptor systems derived from N-substituted 4-piperidones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherer, T.; Hielkema, W.; Krijnen, B.; Hermant, R.M.; Eijckelhoff, C.; Kerkhof, F.; Verhoeven, J.W.; Verleg, R.; Brouwer, A.M.

    1993-01-01

    We report a two-step synthesis for N-aryl- and N-alkyl-substituted 4-piperidones, in which the N substituent can easily be varied. A number of intramolecular donor-acceptor systems was synthesized from these piperidones by conversion of the carbonyl functionality. The influence of the N-aryl donor

  4. Toxoplasma gondii Seroprevalence Among Blood Donors in Zahedan, Southeastern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafari Modrek

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Blood transfusion is one of the many ways, through which Toxoplasma Gondii (T. gondii, a protozoan parasite, can be transmitted to humans. Objectives This cross sectional study aimed to evaluate the seroprevalence of toxoplasma infection and related epidemiological features among healthy blood donors. Materials and Methods A total of 375 blood samples from donors were tested for specific T. gondii antibodies (IgG and IgM by ELISA method, in Blood Transfusion Organization, Zahedan, Iran. Positive samples for T. gondii IgG were further tested for T. gondii IgM. A positive IgG test with a negative or positive IgM test was interpreted as a chronic or acute toxoplasmosis case, respectively. Results From the total 375 blood donors, 94 samples (25% were T. gondii IgG positive. No positive cases of anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies were found. The difference between age and presence of anti-Toxoplasma antibodies was statistically significant (P < 0.05. Other characteristics of blood donors, including male gender, ABO blood groups and having a history of blood transfusion showed no association with infection. Conclusions Our results highlighted that 25% of blood donors were infected by Toxoplasma, prior to the sampling and it can relapse, when facing a decreased immunity level.

  5. Alternative donor transplants for severe aplastic anemia: current experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacigalupo, Andrea; Sica, Simona

    2016-04-01

    Patients with acquired severe aplastic anemia (SAA), who lack a human leukocyte antigen (HLA) identical sibling donor (SIB), have two therapeutic options: immunosuppressive therapy with anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) and cyclosporine (CsA), or a transplant from an alternative donor. In these patients, the current guidelines of the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) call for a course of ATG + CsA first and transplantation in case of no response. The alternative donor source can be an unrelated donor (UD), a cord blood (CB) unit, or a family mismatched member, in most instances genetically HLA haplo-mismatched (HAPLO). In the present review, we will discuss recent results of transplants from matched UD and SIB donors, with significantly improved outcome, especially with UD in the past decade. We will also be looking at CB transplants, and the problems of limited stem cell dose. Finally HAPLO grafts have been explored in patients lacking or having rejected an unrelated or CB graft: early results seem encouraging, though the procedure should still be considered experimental.

  6. Blood donor: nursing care plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Zapata Sampedro

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The standardized nursing care plan can be used as a means through which the nurse will assess and identify the particular needs of the blood donor.To draw up the care plan, we have conducted the evaluation on the basis of the Marjory Gordon’s functional health patterns.The more prevailing diagnosis according to the NANDA taxonomy have been identified, results have been established according to the NOC (Nursing Outcomes Classification taxonomy, and nursing interventions have been suggested according to the NIC (Nursing Interventions Classification taxonomy. Also, certain potential complications, which are infrequent, must be observed and controlled in the blood donation process. Our main aim with this article has been to offer to professionals resources that grant to the caring activity scientific rigor, professional recognition and an unique and valid tool to evaluate the assistance with the best levels of quality for the blood donor.

  7. Amphiphilic NO-donor antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chegaev, Konstantin; Lazzarato, Loretta; Rolando, Barbara; Marini, Elisabetta; Lopez, Gloria V; Bertinaria, Massimo; Di Stilo, Antonella; Fruttero, Roberta; Gasco, Alberto

    2007-02-01

    Models of amphiphilic NO-donor antioxidants 24-26 were designed and synthesized. The products were obtained by linking a lipophilic tail (C(6), C(8), C(10)) with a polar head constituted by the 2,6-dimethoxyphenol antioxidant joined to the NO-donor 3-furoxancarboxamide substructure through a bridge containing a quaternary ammonium group. Compound 23, containing the shortest C(2)-alkyl chain, was also studied as a reference. The antioxidant properties (TBARS and LDL oxidation assays) and the vasodilator properties of the compounds were studied in vitro. The ability of these products to interact with phospholipid vesicles was also investigated by NMR techniques. The results indicate that both activities are modulated by the ability of the compounds to accumulate on phospholipid layers.

  8. Donor conversion rates depend on the assessment tools used in the evaluation of potential organ donors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y.J. de Groot (Yorick); E.F.M. Wijdicks (Eelco); M. van der Jagt (Mathieu); J. Bakker (Jan); B. Roozenbeek (Bob); J.N.M. IJzermans (Jan); E.J.O. Kompanje (Erwin)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: It is desirable to identify a potential organ donor (POD) as early as possible to achieve a donor conversion rate (DCR) as high as possible which is defined as the actual number of organ donors divided by the number of patients who are regarded as a potential organ donor. The DC

  9. Identification of miR-31-5p, miR-141-3p, miR-200c-3p, and GLT1 as human liver aging markers sensitive to donor-recipient age-mismatch in transplants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capri, Miriam; Olivieri, Fabiola; Lanzarini, Catia; Remondini, Daniel; Borelli, Vincenzo; Lazzarini, Raffaella; Graciotti, Laura; Albertini, Maria Cristina; Bellavista, Elena; Santoro, Aurelia; Biondi, Fiammetta; Tagliafico, Enrico; Tenedini, Elena; Morsiani, Cristina; Pizza, Grazia; Vasuri, Francesco; D'Errico, Antonietta; Dazzi, Alessandro; Pellegrini, Sara; Magenta, Alessandra; D'Agostino, Marco; Capogrossi, Maurizio C; Cescon, Matteo; Rippo, Maria Rita; Procopio, Antonio Domenico; Franceschi, Claudio; Grazi, Gian Luca

    2017-04-01

    To understand why livers from aged donors are successfully used for transplants, we looked for markers of liver aging in 71 biopsies from donors aged 12-92 years before transplants and in 11 biopsies after transplants with high donor-recipient age-mismatch. We also assessed liver function in 36 age-mismatched recipients. The major findings were the following: (i) miR-31-5p, miR-141-3p, and miR-200c-3p increased with age, as assessed by microRNAs (miRs) and mRNA transcript profiling in 12 biopsies and results were validated by RT-qPCR in a total of 58 biopsies; (ii) telomere length measured by qPCR in 45 samples showed a significant age-dependent shortage; (iii) a bioinformatic approach combining transcriptome and miRs data identified putative miRs targets, the most informative being GLT1, a glutamate transporter expressed in hepatocytes. GLT1 was demonstrated by luciferase assay to be a target of miR-31-5p and miR-200c-3p, and both its mRNA (RT-qPCR) and protein (immunohistochemistry) significantly decreased with age in liver biopsies and in hepatic centrilobular zone, respectively; (iv) miR-31-5p, miR-141-3p and miR-200c-3p expression was significantly affected by recipient age (older environment) as assessed in eleven cases of donor-recipient extreme age-mismatch; (v) the analysis of recipients plasma by N-glycans profiling, capable of assessing liver functions and biological age, showed that liver function recovered after transplants, independently of age-mismatch, and recipients apparently 'rejuvenated' according to their glycomic age. In conclusion, we identified new markers of aging in human liver, their relevance in donor-recipient age-mismatches in transplantation, and offered positive evidence for the use of organs from old donors.

  10. Designing shallow donors in diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussa, Jonathan

    2015-03-01

    The production of n-type semiconducting diamond has been a long-standing experimental challenge. The first-principles simulation of shallow dopants in semiconductors has been a long-standing theoretical challenge. A desirable theoretical goal is to identify impurities that will act as shallow donors in diamond and assess their experimental viability. I will discuss this identification process for the LiN4 donor complex. It builds a scientific argument from several models and computational results in the absence of computational tools that are both trustworthy and computationally tractable for this task. I will compare the theoretical assessment of viability with recent experimental efforts to co-dope diamond with lithium and nitrogen. Finally, I discuss the computational tools needed to facilitate future work on this problem and some preliminary simulations of donors near diamond surfaces. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program lab managed and operated by Sandia Corp., a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corp., for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  11. Hyperbilirubinemia in normal healthy donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arora Veena

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out in B.A.R.C. Hospital Blood Bank over a span of five years, and includes 2734 donors. All the bags were screened for HIV, HBsAg, HCV and VDRL and the plasma in the pilot tubes of the blood bags was observed to detect any abnormality in color. In 27 cases plasma was found to be icteric and liver function tests were carried out on these samples. Two donors showed higher SGPT level, and were excluded. No significant increases in liver enzymes were recorded in the others. Causes of icteric plasma in these apparently healthy donors are discussed. Differential diagnosis includes Gilbert′s disease, hemolytic anemia, drug-induced anemia and other hepatic causes of hyperbilirubinemia, of which Gilbert′s disease is most probable cause with a prevalence of 0.91% in our population. As there are no studies to document the safety of the recipients receiving such abnormal colored plasma as well as to document the hazards in its transfusion, the question arises whether to transfuse such units or not. This study highlights this dilemma. A reassessment of existing policies and regulations is merited.

  12. Human milk sharing practices in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmquist, Aunchalee E L; Doehler, Kirsten

    2016-04-01

    The primary objective of this study is to describe human milk sharing practices in the U.S. Specifically, we examine milk sharing social networks, donor compensation, the prevalence of anonymous milk sharing interactions, recipients' concerns about specific milk sharing risks, and lay screening behaviors. Data on human milk sharing practices were collected via an online survey September 2013-March 2014. Chi-square analyses were used to test the association between risk perception and screening practices. A total of 867 (661 donors, 206 recipients) respondents were included in the analyses. Most (96.1%) reported sharing milk face-to-face. Only 10% of respondents reported giving or receiving milk through a non-profit human milk bank, respectively. There were no reports of anonymous purchases of human milk. A small proportion of recipients (4.0%) reported that their infant had a serious medical condition. Screening of prospective donors was common (90.7%) but varied with social relationship and familiarity. Likewise, concern about specific milk sharing risks was varied, and risk perception was significantly associated (P-values = 0.01 or less) with donor screening for all risk variables except diet. Understanding lay perceptions of milk sharing risk and risk reduction strategies that parents are using is an essential first step in developing public health interventions and clinical practices that promote infant safety.

  13. Hematopoietic SCT in Europe 2013: recent trends in the use of alternative donors showing more haploidentical donors but fewer cord blood transplants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passweg, J R; Baldomero, H; Bader, P; Bonini, C; Cesaro, S; Dreger, P; Duarte, R F; Dufour, C; Falkenburg, J H F; Farge-Bancel, D; Gennery, A; Kröger, N; Lanza, F; Nagler, A; Sureda, A; Mohty, M

    2015-04-01

    A record number of 39,209 HSCT in 34,809 patients (14,950 allogeneic (43%) and 19,859 autologous (57%)) were reported by 658 centers in 48 countries to the 2013 survey. Trends include: more growth in allogeneic than in autologous HSCT, increasing use of sibling and unrelated donors and a pronounced increase in haploidentical family donors when compared with cord blood donors for those patients without a matched related or unrelated donor. Main indications were leukemias, 11,190 (32%; 96% allogeneic); lymphoid neoplasias, 19,958 (57%; 11% allogeneic); solid tumors, 1543 (4%; 4% allogeneic); and nonmalignant disorders, 1975 (6%; 91% allogeneic). In patients without a matched sibling or unrelated donor, alternative donors are used. Since 2010 there has been a marked increase of 96% in the number of transplants performed from haploidentical relatives (802 in 2010 to 1571 in 2013), whereas the number of unrelated cord blood transplants has slightly decreased (789 in 2010 to 666 in 2013). The use of donor type varies greatly throughout Europe.

  14. Combat organ trafficking – reward the donor or regulate sales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Slabbert

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available There is an acute shortage of transplantable human organs worldwide. The current systems of organ procurement cannot supply in the demand. A new approach is imperative. While countries struggle to find ways of motivating more people to become organ donors, the international illegal black market is thriving. A possible solution to the problem in South Africa might be to change current legislation by confirming human organ trafficking a specific crime as is the case in the United Kingdom. However, more available organs for transplantation in the current recognised system are also essential. To achieve this, it is proposed that donors should be rewarded more effectively, or a regulated market in human organs should be allowed.

  15. Partial phenotyping in voluntary blood donors of Gujarat State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maitrey Gajjar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Partial phenotyping of voluntary blood donors has vital role in transfusion practice, population genetic study and in resolving legal issues.The Rh blood group is one of the most complex and highly immunogenic blood group known in humans. The Kell system, discovered in 1946, is the third most potent system at triggering hemolytic transfusion reactions and consists of 25 highly immunogenic antigens. Knowledge of Rh & Kell phenotypes in given population is relevant for better planning and management of blood bank; the main goal is to find compatible blood for patients needing multiple blood transfusions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of Rh & Kell phenotype of voluntary donors in Gujarat state. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted by taking 5670 samples from random voluntary blood donors coming in blood donation camp. Written consent was taken for donor phenotyping. The antigen typing of donors was performed by Qwalys-3(manufacturer: Diagast by using electromagnetic technology on Duolys plates. Results: Out of 5670 donors, the most common Rh antigen observed in the study population was e (99.07% followed by D (95.40%, C (88.77%, c (55.89% and E (17.88%. The frequency of the Kell antigen (K was 1.78 %. Discussion: The antigen frequencies among blood donors from Gujarat were compared with those published for other Indian populations. The frequency of D antigen in our study (95.4% and north Indian donors (93.6 was significantly higher than in the Caucasians (85% and lower than in the Chinese (99%. The frequencies of C, c and E antigens were dissimilar to other ethnic groups while the ′e′ antigen was present in high frequency in our study as also in the other ethnic groups. Kell antigen (K was found in only 101 (1.78 % donors out of 5670. Frequency of Kell antigen in Caucasian and Black populations is 9% & 2% respectively. The most common Kell phenotype was K-k+, not just in Indians (96.5% but

  16. Partial phenotyping in voluntary blood donors of Gujarat State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajjar, Maitrey; Patel, Tarak; Bhatnagar, Nidhi; Patel, Kruti; Shah, Mamta; Prajapati, Amit

    2016-01-01

    Partial phenotyping of voluntary blood donors has vital role in transfusion practice, population genetic study and in resolving legal issues. The Rh blood group is one of the most complex and highly immunogenic blood group known in humans. The Kell system, discovered in 1946, is the third most potent system at triggering hemolytic transfusion reactions and consists of 25 highly immunogenic antigens. Knowledge of Rh & Kell phenotypes in given population is relevant for better planning and management of blood bank; the main goal is to find compatible blood for patients needing multiple blood transfusions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of Rh & Kell phenotype of voluntary donors in Gujarat state. The present study was conducted by taking 5670 samples from random voluntary blood donors coming in blood donation camp. Written consent was taken for donor phenotyping. The antigen typing of donors was performed by Qwalys-3(manufacturer: Diagast) by using electromagnetic technology on Duolys plates. Out of 5670 donors, the most common Rh antigen observed in the study population was e (99.07%) followed by D (95.40%), C (88.77%), c (55.89%) and E (17.88%). The frequency of the Kell antigen (K) was 1.78 %. The antigen frequencies among blood donors from Gujarat were compared with those published for other Indian populations. The frequency of D antigen in our study (95.4%) and north Indian donors (93.6) was significantly higher than in the Caucasians (85%) and lower than in the Chinese (99%). The frequencies of C, c and E antigens were dissimilar to other ethnic groups while the 'e' antigen was present in high frequency in our study as also in the other ethnic groups. Kell antigen (K) was found in only 101 (1.78 %) donors out of 5670. Frequency of Kell antigen in Caucasian and Black populations is 9% & 2% respectively. The most common Kell phenotype was K-k+, not just in Indians (96.5%) but also in Caucasians (91%), Blacks (98%) and Chinese (100%). Phenotype

  17. Heteroaromatic donors in donor-acceptor-donor based fluorophores facilitate zinc ion sensing and cell imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreejith, Sivaramapanicker; Divya, Kizhumuri P; Jayamurthy, Purushothaman; Mathew, Jomon; Anupama, V N; Philips, Divya Susan; Anees, Palappuravan; Ajayaghosh, Ayyappanpillai

    2012-11-01

    The excited state intra molecular charge transfer (ICT) property of fluorophores has been extensively used for the design of fluorescent chemosensors. Herein, we report the synthesis and properties of three donor–π-acceptor–π-donor (D–π-A–π-D) based molecular probes BP, BT and BA. Two heteroaromatic rings, pyrrole (BP), and thiophene (BT) and a non-heteroaromatic ring N-alkoxy aniline (BA) were selected as donor moieties which were linked to a bipyridine binding site through a vinylic linkage. The heteroaromatic systems BP and BT perform selective and ratiometric emission signalling for zinc ions whereas the non-heteroaromatic probe BA does not. The advantages of the D–π-A–π-D design strategy in the design of ICT based probes for the selective fluorescent ratiometric signalling of zinc ions in biological media is discussed. Further, the use of BP, BT and BA for imaging Zn(2+) ions from MCF-7 cell lines is demonstrated.

  18. Donor Selection for Allogenic Hemopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: Clinical and Ethical Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Riezzo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Allogenic hematopoietic progenitor cell transplantation (allo-HSCT is an established treatment for many diseases. Stem cells may be obtained from different sources: mobilized peripheral blood stem cells, bone marrow, and umbilical cord blood. The progress in transplantation procedures, the establishment of experienced transplant centres, and the creation of unrelated adult donor registries and cord blood banks gave those without an human leucocyte antigen- (HLA- identical sibling donor the opportunity to find a donor and cord blood units worldwide. HSCT imposes operative cautions so that the entire donation/transplantation procedure is safe for both donors and recipients; it carries with it significant clinical, moral, and ethical concerns, mostly when donors are minors. The following points have been stressed: the donation should be excluded when excessive risks for the donor are reasonable, donors must receive an accurate information regarding eventual adverse events and health burden for the donors themselves, a valid consent is required, and the recipient’s risks must be outweighed by the expected benefits. The issue of conflict of interest, when the same physician has the responsibility for both donor selection and recipient care, is highlighted as well as the need of an adequate insurance protection for all the parties involved.

  19. Renal Transplantation from Elderly Living Donors

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    Jacob A. Akoh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acceptance of elderly living kidney donors remains controversial due to the higher incidence of comorbidity and greater risk of postoperative complications. This is a review of publications in the English language between 2000 and 2013 about renal transplantation from elderly living donors to determine trends and effects of donation, and the outcomes of such transplantation. The last decade witnessed a 50% increase in living kidney donor transplants, with a disproportionate increase in donors >60 years. There is no accelerated loss of kidney function following donation, and the incidence of established renal failure (ERF and hypertension among donors is similar to that of the general population. The overall incidence of ERF in living donors is about 0.134 per 1000 years. Elderly donors require rigorous assessment and should have a predicted glomerular filtration rate of at least 37.5 mL/min/1.73 m2 at the age of 80. Though elderly donors had lower glomerular filtration rate before donation, proportionate decline after donation was similar in both young and elderly groups. The risks of delayed graft function, acute rejection, and graft failure in transplants from living donors >65 years are significantly higher than transplants from younger donors. A multicentred, long-term, and prospective database addressing the outcomes of kidneys from elderly living donors is recommended.

  20. The identification of potential cadaveric organ donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, J F; McCosker, C J; Hibberd, A D; Chapman, J R; Compton, J S; Mahony, J F; Mohacsi, P J; MacDonald, G J; Spratt, P M

    1995-02-01

    Most Australian transplantation programs are severely restricted in their activities by a limited availability of cadaveric donor organs. To investigate possible reasons for this problem, an audit was undertaken over three 12-month periods of all deaths in 13 hospitals in New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory. From 7406 deaths, 271 patients were classified as having been realistic, medically suitable potential donors. Of these, only 60 (22%) became actual donors. In the other 211 patients, donation did not occur because of unsuccessful resuscitation (30%), permission refusal by relatives (34%), and failure to identify or support the potential donors (36%). If the impediments to organ donation which were identified in this study could be overcome, allowing a greater number of potential donors to become actual donors, the chronic shortage of cadaveric donor organs for transplantation could be at least partly relieved.

  1. [Characteristics of the Chinese human milk banks' operation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-02

    Objective: To assess the operation status of human milk banks in the mainland of China. Method: This retrospective study included a consecutive series of 14 human milk banks in the mainland of China from March 2013 to December 2016. The opened date, condition of donated breast milk, characteristics of donors and clinical application of donated breast milk were analyzed. Result: There were 14 human milk banks successively founded in mainland China from March 2013 to December 2016. The number of human milk banks, the amount of donated breast milk, the number of eligible donors and the times of donation had increased each year. Howere, the operation status among these milk banks varied greatly. Among them, one human milk bank has newly opened without relevant data, 6 banks could accept frozen breast milk, and the remaining 7 banks could only collect breast milk by the nurses in the bank. Among the 3 121 eligible donors, 1 404 (45.0%) donated less than 3 times, 2 553 (81.8%) aged 25 to 35 years, 2 828 (90.6%) had term delivery, 2 409 (77.2%) began donation one month after birth, 1 798 (57.6%) were company employees and housewives and 1 891 (60.6%) had bachelor or higher degree. The use of donor breast milk, the number of recipients and the average received amount of breast milk every person varied greatly among these banks. Conclusion: The human milk banking developed quickly in the mainland of China. Howere, the number of donors and the amount of donated breast milk which could not meet the clinical demands should be improved. And it was urgent to establish the standards or guidelines of the human milk banking as soon as possible in China.

  2. Laparoscopic nephrectomy in live donor

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    Mitre Anuar I.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To present the initial experience of videolaparoscopic nephrectomy in live renal donor. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the period from April 2000 to August 2003, 50 left nephrectomies in live donor were performed by videolaparoscopy for transplantation. Twenty-eight patients were male (56% and 22 female (44%. Mean age was 37.2 years, and the mean body mass index (BMI was 27.1 kg/m². RESULTS: Mean surgical time was 179.5 minutes, and warm ischemia time of the graft was 3.79 minutes. The mean estimated bleeding was 141 mL. There was no need of blood transfusion or conversion to open surgery. In 42 cases (84%, the vascular portion of the graft was considered good by the recipient's surgical team and in all cases, the ureter was considered of proper size, though in one of them (2% its vascularization was considered improper. The transplanted kidneys produced urine still in the surgical room in 46 of the 50 transplantations considered. In only 2 cases opioid was required for analgesia. In average, 3.1 doses of dipyrone were used for each patient during hospital stay, and hospital discharge occurred, in average, after 3.2 days post-operatively. Two patients required re-operations and one of them evolved to death. CONCLUSIONS: The laparoscopic nephrectomy in live donor for renal transplantation is an alternative to conventional open surgery. In relation to the graft, no alteration, either anatomic or functional, was detected. Though there is already a large documentation in the international literature regarding this procedure, in our setting a prospective randomized study with the usual surgical study is still necessary in order to prove the advantages and disadvantages of the method.

  3. Donor killer immunoglobulin-like receptor genes and reactivation of cytomegalovirus after HLA-matched hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation: HLA-C allotype is an essential cofactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn E. Behrendt

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Natural Killer (NK cells whose killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR recognize human leukocyte antigen (HLA ligand are licensed for activity. In contrast, non-licensed NK cells display KIRs for which ligand is absent from the self genotype and are usually hyporesponsive. Surprisingly, non-licensed cells are active in tumor control after hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT and dominate NK response to murine cytomegalovirus (CMV infection. From those reports, we hypothesized that control of human CMV early after HSCT is influenced by donor KIR genes whose HLA ligand is absent-from-genotype of HLA-matched donor and recipient. To investigate, we studied CMV reactivation through Day 100 after grafts involving CMV-seropositive donor and/or recipient. A multivariate proportional rates model controlled for variability in surveillance and established covariates including acute graft-versus-host disease; statistical significance was adjusted for testing of multiple KIRs with identified HLA class I ligand (2DL1, 2DL2/3, 2DS1, 2DS2, full-length 2DS4, 3DL1/3DS1, 3DL2. Among HSCT recipients (n=286, CMV reactivation-free survival time varied with individual donor KIR genes evolutionarily-specific for HLA-C: when ligand was absent from the donor/recipient genotype, inhibitory KIRs 2DL2 (P<0.0001 and 2DL1 (P=0.015 each predicted inferior outcome, and activating KIRs 2DS2 (P<0.0001, 2DS1 (P=0.016, and 2DS4 (P=0.016 each predicted superior outcome. Otherwise, with ligand present-in-genotype, donor KIR genes had no effect. In conclusion, early after HLA-matched HSCT, individual inhibitory and activating KIR genes have qualitatively different effects on risk of CMV reactivation; unexpectedly, absence of HLA-C ligand from the donor/recipient genotype constitutes an essential cofactor in these associations. Being KIR and HLA-C specific, these findings are independent of licensing via alternate NK cell receptors (NKG2A, NKG2C that recognize HLA-E.

  4. Absence or presence? Complexities in the donor narratives of single mothers using sperm donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadeh, S.; Freeman, T.; Golombok, S.

    2016-01-01

    research on donor conception. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS The study offers greater insight into the factors influencing the donor narratives produced in single-mother families. It has implications for the counselling and treatment of single women seeking fertility treatment with donor gametes in both anonymous and identity-release programmes. Given that the number of clinics offering identity-release programmes worldwide seems to be increasing, the finding that single women may have varying preferences with regard to donor type, and varying interest levels with regard to donor information, is important. It is recommended that clinicians and other fertility clinic staff guard against making assumptions about such preferences and any thoughts and feelings about the donor or donor information on the basis of marital status. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S) This study was funded by the Wellcome Trust [097857/Z/11/Z]. The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare. PMID:26545622

  5. A Comparison of Nutritional Antioxidant Content in Breast Milk, Donor Milk, and Infant Formulas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Corrine; Lyden, Elizabeth; Furtado, Jeremy; Van Ormer, Matthew; Anderson-Berry, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Human milk is the optimal food for human infants, including infants born prematurely. In the event that a mother of a hospitalized infant cannot provide breast milk, donor milk is considered an acceptable alternative. It is known that the macronutrient composition of donor milk is different than human milk, with variable fat content and protein content. However, much less is known about the micronutrient content of donor milk, including nutritional antioxidants. Samples of breast milk from 12 mothers of infants hospitalized in the Newborn Intensive Care Unit until were collected and analyzed for concentrations of nutritional antioxidants, including α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, lutein + zeaxanthin, retinol, and α-tocopherol. Additionally, a homogenized sample of donor milk available from a commercial milk bank and samples of infant formulas were also analyzed. Concentrations of nutritional antioxidants were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. Compared to breast milk collected from mothers of hospitalized infants, commercially available donor milk had 18%–53% of the nutritional antioxidant content of maternal breast milk. As donor milk is becoming a common nutritional intervention for the high risk preterm infant, the nutritional antioxidant status of donor milk–fed premature infants and outcomes related to oxidative stress may merit further investigation. PMID:27801820

  6. Testing for HTLV 1 and HTLV 2 among blood donors in Western Saudi Arabia: prevalence and cost considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindawi, S; Badawi, M; Fouda, F; Mallah, B; Mallah, B; Rajab, H; Madani, T A

    2017-06-28

    Screening all blood donors for human T-cell lymphotropic viruses 1 and 2 (HTLV 1 and HTLV 2) is mandatory in Saudi Arabia. The aim of this study is to evaluate the results and costs associated with the current testing policy for HTLV 1 and HTLV 2 in blood donors at King Abdulaziz University Hospital (KAUH), Jeddah. Donor-testing results from Blood Transfusion Services at KAUH were reviewed over a 10-year period, from January 2006 through December 2015. All donors were screened using chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay. Reactive samples were then tested by Western blot for confirmation. Costs associated with testing were calculated. Data of 107 419 donations in the study period were reviewed. Saudi nationals constituted 51 168 donors (47·6%). Of 107 419 blood donors tested for HTLV 1 and HTLV 2 antibody, and 95 (0·088%) donors were reactive to screening tests. None of the samples found to be reactive to screening tests was positive by Western blot. The average cost of testing was US$ 171 870 per year. No donors were confirmed to have HTLV 1 and HTLV 2 in this cohort exceeding 100 000 donors. We propose changes to the policy mandating universal testing by replacing it with universal leukodepletion coupled with targeted screening to donors coming from endemic area or donors at risk. Such changes are expected to lead to a reduction of testing cost without affecting safety. © 2017 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  7. Bouncing universes with varying constants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrow, John D [DAMTP, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, Cambridge University, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); Kimberly, Dagny [Theoretical Physics, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom); Magueijo, Joao [Theoretical Physics, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom)

    2004-09-21

    We investigate the behaviour of exact closed bouncing Friedmann universes in theories with varying constants. We show that the simplest BSBM varying alpha theory leads to a bouncing universe. The value of alpha increases monotonically, remaining approximately constant during most of each cycle, but increasing significantly around each bounce. When dissipation is introduced we show that in each new cycle the universe expands for longer and to a larger size. We find a similar effect for closed bouncing universes in Brans-Dicke theory, where G also varies monotonically in time from cycle to cycle. Similar behaviour occurs also in varying speed of light theories.

  8. Bouncing Universes with Varying Constants

    CERN Document Server

    Barrow, J D; Magueijo, J; Barrow, John D.; Kimberly, Dagny; Magueijo, Joao

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the behaviour of exact closed bouncing Friedmann universes in theories with varying constants. We show that the simplest BSBM varying-alpha theory leads to a bouncing universe. The value of alpha increases monotonically, remaining approximately constant during most of each cycle, but increasing significantly around each bounce. When dissipation is introduced we show that in each new cycle the universe expands for longer and to a larger size. We find a similar effect for closed bouncing universes in Brans-Dicke theory, where $G$ also varies monotonically in time from cycle to cycle. Similar behaviour occurs also in varying speed of light theories.

  9. Influence of postmortem time on the outcome of blood cultures among cadaveric tissue donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saegeman, V; Verhaegen, J; Lismont, D; Verduyckt, B; De Rijdt, T; Ectors, N

    2009-02-01

    Tissue banks provide tissues of human cadaver donors for transplantation. The maximal time limit for tissue retrieval has been set at 24 h postmortem. This study aimed at evaluating the evidence for this limit from a microbiological point of view. The delay of growth in postmortem blood cultures, the identification of the species isolated and clinical/environmental factors were investigated among 100 potential tissue donors. No significant difference was found in the rate of donors with grown blood cultures within (25/65=38%) compared with after (24/65=37%) 24 h of death. Coagulase-negative staphylococci and gastro-intestinal microorganisms were isolated within and after 24 h of death. Two factors--antimicrobial therapy and "delay before body cooling"--were significantly inversely related with donors' blood culture results. From a microbiological point of view, there is no evidence for avoiding tissue retrieval among donors after 24 h of death.

  10. Association of Donor Age and Sex With Survival of Patients Receiving Transfusions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edgren, Gustaf; Ullum, Henrik; Rostgaard, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Importance: Following animal model data indicating the possible rejuvenating effects of blood from young donors, there have been at least 2 observational studies conducted with humans that have investigated whether donor age affects patient outcomes. Results, however, have been conflicting....... Objective: To study the association of donor age and sex with survival of patients receiving transfusions. Design, Setting, and Participants: A retrospective cohort study based on the Scandinavian Donations and Transfusions database, with nationwide data, was conducted for all patients from Sweden...... number of transfusions and mortality revealed a nonlinear pattern. After adjustments to accommodate nonlinearity, donor age and sex were no longer associated with patient mortality. Conclusions and Relevance: Donor age and sex were not associated with patient survival and need not be considered in blood...

  11. Donor Considerations in Fecal Microbiota Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Danielle; Park, K T

    2017-03-01

    Tremendous acceleration has been made in understanding the gut microbiota in the past decade and, with it, further understanding of the pathologic role of dysbiosis and the use of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) as therapy. FMT has been studied in many disease states including the most common indication of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), though many questions regarding stool donor selection remain. Though traditionally, one donor has provided stool for one patient, research is underway to explore many donor selection considerations from the use of pooled donor stool to selection of a high diversity donor. It is well-known that dietary intake shapes the gut microbiota and the potential implications of this on FMT donor selection are being explored. Though further high-quality research is needed, optimizing the fecal microbiota inoculum holds great promise.

  12. Motivation in Italian whole blood donors and the role of commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bani, Marco; Strepparava, Maria Grazia

    2011-12-01

    The literature contains numerous reports on motivation in blood donors, although none of these are specific to blood donation in Italy and almost all of them focus on altruism and the desire to help others. Altruism is important, but a comprehensive analysis of donor motivation should examine all the factors affecting the decision to donate, including commitment to voluntary blood donor organizations. The aims of this paper are to verify if the motivational factors that influence the choice to donate blood in Italy are generally consistent with the findings from other countries reported in the literature and to focus on commitment to donor organizations as an additional factor. A sample of 895 whole blood donors completed a self-report questionnaire containing questions about: reasons for beginning to donate, people who influenced this choice, and level of commitment to voluntary blood donor organizations. The most frequently reported reasons for giving blood for the first time were "to help others" (56%), "influence of family/friends" (22%), and "social/moral obligation" (11.2%); commitment did not vary as a function of the leading motivation reported. Differences emerged between males, who more frequently reported having been influenced by parents and friends, and females, who referred more often to altruistic motives. The opportunity to check one's own state of health also played an important role (6.9%), especially for male donors. Overall, however, the decision to donate was primarily a personal choice (41.3%), although influence was also attributed to relatives (21.8%), friends (22.3%), and voluntary blood donor organizations (21.8%). The reported level of commitment to the donor organization was positively correlated with the number of total and annual donations made and number of new donors recruited.

  13. Clinical Practice Guidelines for Potential Donors Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roque Nodal Arruebarrena

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Clinical Practice Guidelines for Potential Donors Management. It has been defined as the patient in Glasgow coma with scale higher or equal to 8 who doesn´t present contradictions for transplant (possible donor and who has been diagnosed of encephalic death. This document reviews and updates concepts, lists indications and contraindications for different organs donation, clinical assessment of the donor and its treatment. It includes assessment guidelines focused on the most important aspects to be accomplished.

  14. Clomiphene based ovarian stimulation in a commercial donor program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to compare an extended clomiphene-based ovarian stimulation regimen with the conventional antagonist protocol in donor-recipient cycles. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 170 (N donors were stimulated between January 2013 and December 2013. Conventional antagonist protocol (group I was employed in (n1 = 31 cycles, and clomiphene was used in (n2 = 139 donor cycles (group II. 50 mg clomiphene was given simultaneously with gonadotropins from day 2 of the cycle until the day of trigger. The analysis was performed retrospectively for oocytes retrieved, fertilization rates, cycle cancelation, blastocyst formation, and pregnancy rates. The dosages, cost, and terminal E2 (estradiol were also compared between the two groups. RESULTS: The donor age groups were comparable in both the groups. There were no unsuccessful egg retrievals with clomiphene. The pregnancy rate (positive beta human chorionic gonadotropin was significantly higher in the clomiphene group (odds ratio: 2.453; P = 0.02. Similarly, fertilization rate was significantly higher in the clomiphene group (59.5/50.5, P = 0.04. Eggs retrieved were similar in both groups, but the terminal E2 was significantly higher in the clomiphene group (P = 0.001. Average gonadotropin used was also significantly lower in clomiphene group (P < 0.001. CONCLUSION: Clomiphene can effectively prevent luteinizing hormone surge and limit the dose of gonadotropins thus bringing down the costs and its negative impact on the endometrium and oocyte quality.

  15. The ethical debate on donor insemination in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Juhong; Dessein, Bart; Pennings, Guido

    2010-06-01

    This article gives an overview of the ethical thinking about donor insemination among Chinese ethicists. We analysed the ethical arguments dedicated to the use of donor spermatozoa published in the important bioethics journals of China of the last 15 years. On the one hand, the general Confucian values strongly favour the genetic link as it fits with the traditional importance attached to the continuation of the family line. Therefore, artificial insemination by donor (AID) is highly controversial in China because the involvement of a third party (the donor) severs the genetic link between the husband and his family. On the other hand, procreation is regarded as an important aspect of Confucian filial piety and it is a basic right of every human being to enjoy a family life. AID should be thought of as a means to help infertile couples to overcome infertility. Nowadays, Chinese bioethicists are trying to reinterpret Confucianism in order to adapt it to modernity. One such reinterpretation focuses on the affectionate rather than the genetic tie between parents and child. As the application is still new in China, more discussion and open debate on ethical aspects is needed. Copyright 2010 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Donor Centers in a Gaussian Potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Wen-Fang

    2007-01-01

    We study a neutral donor center (D0) and a negatively charged donor center (D-) trapped by a quantum dot, which is subjected to a Gaussian potential confinement. Calculations are made by using the method of numerical diagonalization of Hamiltonian within the effective-mass approximation. The dependence of the ground state of the neutral shallow donor and the negatively charged donor on the dot size and the potential depth is investigated. The same calculations performed with the parabolic approximation of the Gaussian potential lead to the results that are qualitatively and quantitatively different from each other.

  17. Gamete donation: ethical implications for donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenfield, Francoise

    1999-01-01

    The interests of gamete donors have only recently been recognized in assisted reproduction; traditionally, the interests of the patients (typically a couple) and the prospective child are paramount. However, assisted reproduction would not be possible without donors, and the simple utilitarian view would be to place their interests first to maximize the availability of the practice. There are several ethical issues on both sides of the donor--recipient equation, some of which are mutual and others are in conflict. For example, the word 'donation' implies there is no payment. Informed consent for donation is essential if the autonomy of the donor is to be respected, and includes information about the results of screening. This is a sensitive issue, especially when pathology is found in a donor who is not being screened for his or her own immediate benefit. Counselling may result in donors refusing to take part, but may also lead to selection by the person recruiting the donors, sometimes as a consequence of examining the motivation of the donor. In this case, the main problem is the ethical basis of the selection process. Other aspects of gamete donation may lead to a conflict of interests between the donor, the recipients and even the prospective child, particularly in terms of anonymity and the information that is made available about the specific circumstances of donation. Implications and support counselling are essential tools in achieving an acceptable balance for all parties involved.

  18. [Living donor liver transplantation in adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, U P; Neuhaus, P; Schmeding, M

    2010-09-01

    The worldwide shortage of adequate donor organs implies that living donor liver transplantation represents a valuable alternative to cadaveric transplantation. In addition to the complex surgical procedure the correct identification of eligible donors and recipients plays a decisive role in living donor liver transplantation. Donor safety must be of ultimate priority and overrules all other aspects involved. In contrast to the slightly receding numbers in Europe and North America, in recent years Asian programs have enjoyed constantly increasing living donor activity. The experience of the past 15 years has clearly demonstrated that technical challenges of both bile duct anastomosis and venous outflow of the graft significantly influence postoperative outcome. While short-term in-hospital morbidity remains increased compared to cadaveric transplantation, long-term survival of both graft and patient are comparable or even better than in deceased donor transplantation. Especially for patients expecting long waiting times under the MELD allocation system, living donor liver transplantation offers an excellent therapeutic alternative. Expanding the so-called "Milan criteria" for HCC patients with the option for living donor liver transplantation is currently being controversially debated.

  19. Historical perspective of living donor liver transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    See Ching Chan; Sheung Tat Fan

    2008-01-01

    Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) has gone through its formative years and established as a legitimate treatment when a deceased donor liver graft is not timely or simply not available at all. Nevertheless,LDLT is characterized by its technical complexity and ethical controversy. These are the consequences of a single organ having to serve two subjects, the donor and the recipient, instantaneously. The transplant community has a common ground on assuring donor safety while achieving predictable recipient success. With this background, a reflection of the development of LDLT may be appropriate to direct future research and patient- care efforts on this life-saving treatment alternative.

  20. Use of Participatory Systems Dynamics Modelling to Generate User-Friendly Decision Support Systems for the Design of Management Policies for Complex Human-Environmental Systems: A Case Study from the Varied Socio-environmental Landscape of Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malard, J. J.; Baig, A. I.; Carrera, J.; Mellini, L.; Pineda, P.; Monterroso, O.; Melgar-Quiñonez, H.; Adamowski, J. F.; Halbe, J.; Monardes, H.; Gálvez, J.

    2014-12-01

    The design of effective management policies for socioenvironmental systems requires the development of comprehensive, yet sufficiently simple, decision support systems (DSS) for policy makers. Guatemala is a particularly complex case, combining an enormous diversity of climates, geographies, and agroecosystems within a very small geographical scale. Although food insecurity levels are very high, indicating a generally inadequate management of the varied agroecosystems of the country, different regions have shown vastly different trends in food insecurity over the past decade, including between regions with similar geophysical and climatic characteristics and/or governmental programmes (e.g., agricultural support). These observations suggest two important points: firstly, that not merely environmental conditions but rather socio-environmental interactions play a crucial role in the successful management of human-environmental systems, and, secondly, that differences in the geophysical and climatic environments between the diverse regions significantly impact the success or failure of policies. This research uses participatory systems dynamic modelling (SDM) to build a DSS that allows local decision-makers to (1) determine the impact of current and potential policies on agroecosystem management and food security, and (2) design sustainable and resilient policies for the future. The use of participatory SDM offers several benefits, including the active involvement of the end recipients in the development of the model, greatly increasing its acceptability; the integration of physical (e.g., precipitation, crop yield) and social components in one model; adequacy for modelling long-term trends in response to particular policy decisions; and the inclusion of local stakeholder knowledge on system structure and trends through the participatory process. Preliminary results suggest that there is a set of common variables explaining the generally high levels of food insecurity

  1. The evolution of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) envelope molecular properties and coreceptor use at all stages of infection in an HIV-1 donor-recipient pair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edo-Matas, Diana; Rachinger, Andrea; Setiawan, Laurentia C; Boeser-Nunnink, Brigitte D; van 't Wout, Angélique B; Lemey, Philippe; Schuitemaker, Hanneke

    2012-01-05

    To trace the evolutionary patterns underlying evolution of coreceptor use within a host, we studied an HIV-1 transmission pair involving a donor who exclusively harbored CCR5-using (R5) variants throughout his entire disease course and a recipient who developed CXCR4-using variants. Over time, R5 variants in the donor optimized coreceptor use, which was associated with an increased number of potential N-linked glycosylation sites (PNGS) and elevated V3 charge in the viral envelope. Interestingly, R5 variants that were transmitted to the recipient preserved the viral characteristics of this late stage genotype and phenotype. Following a selective sweep, CXCR4-using variants subsequently emerged in the recipient coinciding with a further increase in the number of PNGS and V3 charge in the envelope of R5 viruses. Although described in a single transmission pair, the transmission and subsequent persistence of R5 variants with late stage characteristics demonstrate the potential for coreceptor use adaptation at the population level. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Prevalence of iron deficiency anaemia among blood donors in Sokoto, North Western, Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Buhari Hauwa Ali; Yeldu Mohammed Haruna; Erhabor Osaro; Imrana Sani; Abubakar Wase; Onuigwe Festus; Okwesili Augustine; Isaac Zama; Yakubu Abdulrahaman; Dallatu Kabiru

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the prevalence and socio-demographic factors associated with iron deficiency anaemia among blood donors in Sokoto, North Western, Nigeria using a combination of haemoglobin haematocrit and serum ferritin measurements. Methods: One hundred and fifty consecutively recruited whole blood donors, comprising of 148 (98.7%) family replacement donors and 2 (1.3%) voluntary non-remunerated donors aged 18-60 years and mean age 39±21 years constituted the subjects for this study. The full blood count was carried out using Mythic 22 CT fully automated haematology analyser (Orphee SA, Switzerland). Serum was tested for ferritin using a human ferritin enzyme immunoassay kit-ACCU Diag™ ELISA Ferritin kit (Diagnostic Automation/Cortez Diagnostic Inc. California, USA). Results: The prevalence of anaemia (haemoglobin<11.0 g/dL) was evident in 24 (16%) and iron deficiency anaemia (serum ferritin<12 ng/mL+haemoglobin<11 g/dL) in 5 (10%) of donors. The haemoglobin and ferritin levels was significantly lower among regular voluntary remunerated blood donors (13.50±0.00 and 34.88±0.00) compared to family replacement donors (14.10±2.40 and 74.12±45.20) respectively (P=0.01 and 0.05 respectively). The mean haemoglobin and ferritin level was compared among donors based on gender. The haemoglobin and ferritin was significantly higher among male donors (14.20±2.00, 78.02±49.10) compared to female donors (12.35±2.5 and 42.20±32.13) (P=0.01). The mean haemoglobin and ferritin level was compared among donors based on occupational groups. The haemoglobin and ferritin was significantly higher among civil servants compared to farmers and students (P=0.01). Conclusions: Iron deficiency anaemia is prevalent among blood donors in Sokoto, North Western, Nigeria. There is need to include routine ferritin in the blood donor testing protocol in the area to enable the diagnosis of donors with latent iron deficiency anaemia to facilitate iron supplementation for regular

  3. Prevalence of iron deficiency anaemia among blood donors in Sokoto, North Western, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buhari Hauwa Ali

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the prevalence and socio-demographic factors associated with iron deficiency anaemia among blood donors in Sokoto, North Western, Nigeria using a combination of haemoglobin haematocrit and serum ferritin measurements. Methods: One hundred and fifty consecutively recruited whole blood donors, comprising of 148 (98.7% family replacement donors and 2 (1.3% voluntary non-remunerated donors aged 18-60 years and mean age 39±21 years constituted the subjects for this study. The full blood count was carried out using Mythic 22 CT fully automated haematology analyser (Orphee SA, Switzerland. Serum was tested for ferritin using a human ferritin enzyme immunoassay kitACCU Diag™ ELISA Ferritin kit (Diagnostic Automation/Cortez Diagnostic Inc. California, USA. Results: The prevalence of anaemia (haemoglobin<11.0 g/dL was evident in 24 (16% and iron deficiency anaemia (serum ferritin<12 ng/mL+haemoglobin<11 g/dL in 5 (10% of donors. The haemoglobin and ferritin levels was significantly lower among regular voluntary remunerated blood donors (13.50±0.00 and 34.88±0.00 compared to family replacement donors (14.10±2.40 and 74.12±45.20 respectively (P=0.01 and 0.05 respectively. The mean haemoglobin and ferritin level was compared among donors based on gender. The haemoglobin and ferritin was significantly higher among male donors (14.20±2.00, 78.02±49.10 compared to female donors (12.35±2.5 and 42.20±32.13 (P=0.01. The mean haemoglobin and ferritin level was compared among donors based on occupational groups. The haemoglobin and ferritin was significantly higher among civil servants compared to farmers and students (P=0.01. Conclusions: Iron deficiency anaemia is prevalent among blood donors in Sokoto, North Western, Nigeria. There is need to include routine ferritin in the blood donor testing protocol in the area to enable the diagnosis of donors with latent iron deficiency anaemia to facilitate iron supplementation for

  4. Imaging evaluation of potential donors in living-donor liver transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Low, G. [Department of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging, University of Alberta Hospital (Canada)], E-mail: timgy@yahoo.com; Wiebe, E. [Department of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging, University of Alberta Hospital (Canada); Walji, A.H. [Division of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Alberta (Canada); Bigam, D.L. [Department of Surgery, University of Alberta Hospital (Canada)

    2008-02-15

    Liver transplants, originally obtained from deceased donors, can now be harvested from living donors as well. This technique, called living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT), provides an effective alternative means of liver transplantation and is a method of expanding the donor pool in light of the demand and supply imbalance for organ transplants. Imaging plays an important role in LDLT programmes by providing robust evaluation of potential donors to ensure that only anatomically suitable donors with no significant co-existing pathology are selected and that crucial information that allows detailed preoperative planning is available. Imaging evaluation helps to improve the outcome of LDLT for both donors and recipients, by improving the chances of graft survival and reducing the postoperative complication rate. In this review, we describe the history of LDLT and discuss in detail the application of imaging in donor assessment with emphasis on use of modern computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques.

  5. Blood donors' perceptions, motivators and deterrents in Sub-Saharan Africa - a scoping review of evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asamoah-Akuoko, Lucy; Hassall, Oliver W; Bates, Imelda

    2017-01-01

    save lives. The main deterrent to blood donation was fear due to lack of knowledge and discouraging spiritual, religious and cultural perceptions of blood donation. The main motivators for blood donation were altruism, donating blood for family and incentives. The findings support the need for targeted......Achieving an adequate blood supply in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) through donor mobilization and retention is crucial. Factors that motivate or deter blood donors vary according to beliefs and social norms. Understanding the factors that influence blood donation behaviour in SSA is vital to developing...... effective strategies to address blood donor motivation and retention. This review of 35 studies from 16 SSA countries collates available evidence concerning the perceptions, motivators and deterrents that influence blood donors in SSA. The review revealed a common understanding that blood and blood donation...

  6. Durable coexistence of donor and recipient strains after fecal microbiota transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Simone S; Zhu, Ana; Benes, Vladimir; Costea, Paul I; Hercog, Rajna; Hildebrand, Falk; Huerta-Cepas, Jaime; Nieuwdorp, Max; Salojärvi, Jarkko; Voigt, Anita Y; Zeller, Georg; Sunagawa, Shinichi; de Vos, Willem M; Bork, Peer

    2016-04-29

    Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has shown efficacy in treating recurrent Clostridium difficile infection and is increasingly being applied to other gastrointestinal disorders, yet the fate of native and introduced microbial strains remains largely unknown. To quantify the extent of donor microbiota colonization, we monitored strain populations in fecal samples from a recent FMT study on metabolic syndrome patients using single-nucleotide variants in metagenomes. We found extensive coexistence of donor and recipient strains, persisting 3 months after treatment. Colonization success was greater for conspecific strains than for new species, the latter falling within fluctuation levels observed in healthy individuals over a similar time frame. Furthermore, same-donor recipients displayed varying degrees of microbiota transfer, indicating individual patterns of microbiome resistance and donor-recipient compatibilities. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  7. Low-pressure pneumoperitoneum during laparoscopic donor nephrectomy to optimize live donors' comfort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warle, M.C.; Berkers, A.W.; Langenhuijsen, J.F.; Jagt, M.F.P. van der; Dooper, P.M.M.; Kloke, H.J.; Pilzecker, D.; Renes, S.H.; Wever, K.E.; Hoitsma, A.J.; Vliet, J.A. van der; D'Ancona, F.C.H.

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (LDN) has become the gold standard to procure live donor kidneys. As the relationship between donor and recipient loosens, it becomes of even greater importance to optimize safety and comfort of the surgical procedure. Low-pressure pneumoperitoneum has been s

  8. Focus on the donor : aspects of stem cell donation and the donor search process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walraven, Suzanna Maria van

    2015-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the experience of haematopoietic stem cell donation by unrelated and related donors (minors and adults), aspects of donor care management, and the process of the unrelated donor search. The theme linking these topics is providing patients in need of haematopoietic stem cell

  9. Varying c and Particle Horizons

    CERN Document Server

    Chimento, L P; Pavón, D; Chimento, Luis P; Jakubi, Alejandro S; Pavon, Diego

    2001-01-01

    We explore what restrictions may impose the second law of thermodynamics on varying speed of light theories. We find that the attractor scenario solving the flatness problem is consistent with the generalized second law at late time.

  10. Disparity for the minor histocompatibility antigen HA-1 is associated with an increased risk of acute graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) but it does not affect chronic GvHD incidence, disease-free survival or overall survival after allogeneic human leucocyte antigen-identical sibling donor transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, D; Aróstegui, J I; Balas, A; Torres, A; Caballero, D; Carreras, E; Brunet, S; Jiménez, A; Mataix, R; Serrano, D; Vallejo, C; Sanz, G; Solano, C; Rodríguez-Luaces, M; Marín, J; Baro, J; Sanz, C; Román, J; González, M; Martorell, J; Sierra, J; Martín, C; de la Cámara, R; Grañena, A

    2001-09-01

    Disparity for the minor histocompatibility antigen HA-1 between patient and donor has been associated with an increased risk of acute graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) after allogeneic human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-identical sibling donor stem cell transplantation (SCT). However, no data concerning the impact of such disparity on chronic GvHD, relapse or overall survival are available. A retrospective multicentre study was performed on 215 HLA-A2-positive patients who received an HLA-identical sibling SCT, in order to determine the differences in acute and chronic GvHD incidence on the basis of the presence or absence of the HA-1 antigen mismatch. Disease-free survival and overall survival were also analysed. We detected 34 patient-donor pairs mismatched for HA-1 antigen (15.8%). Grades II-IV acute GvHD occurred in 51.6% of the HA-1-mismatched pairs compared with 37.1% of the non-mismatched. The multivariate logistic regression model showed statistical significance (P: 0.035, OR: 2.96, 95% CI: 1.07-8.14). No differences were observed between the two groups for grades III-IV acute GvHD, chronic GvHD, disease-free survival or overall survival. These results confirmed the association between HA-1 mismatch and risk of mild acute GvHD, but HA-1 mismatch was not associated with an increased incidence of chronic GvHD and did not affect relapse or overall survival.

  11. Should antibody to hepatitis B core antigen be tested in routine screening of donor corneas for transplant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattern, R M; Cavanagh, H D

    1997-03-01

    A review of the literature on transfusion-transmitted infectious diseases shows that antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) is not presently viewed as helpful for hepatitis C or hepatitis non-ABC screening of blood donors. Its utility as a screen for hepatitis B or human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) is controversial among experts. We compare relevant aspects of the screening of blood donations and the screening of cornea transplant donors to assess implications for the screening of donor corneas. We conclude that there is not sufficient evidence to warrant introducing anti-HBc as a routine screening test for cornea donors.

  12. Fecal microbiota transplantation and donor standardization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Casey; Broussard, Elizabeth; Surawicz, Christina

    2013-09-01

    Clostridium difficile diarrhea is a common and severe infectious disease. Antibiotics, which are standard initial treatment, are less effective for treating refractory or recurrent infection. Fecal microbiota transplantation, where healthy donor stool is transplanted into a patient, is an alternative to antibiotic therapy that requires standardization for donors and patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Donor policy rules and aid effectiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars

    2008-01-01

    The present paper examines the macroeconomic impact of aid, by introducing endogenous aid allocations into a neoclassical growth framework. On this basis it is shown that donor policies can have important implications for the trajectory of recipients' GDP per capita. Depending on specific donor...

  14. Electrical properties of donors in gallium phosphide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poedoer, B. (Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest. Research Lab. for Inorganic Chemistry); Pfeiffer, J.; Csontos, L.; Nador, N. (Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest. Research Inst. for Technical Physics); Deak, F. (Eoetvoes Lorand Tudomanyegyetem, Budapest (Hungary). Atomfizikai Tanszek)

    1983-04-16

    The thermal ionization energies of S, Te, and Si donors in GaP and their dependences on impurity concentration are determined from an anlysis of Hall effect data. An ellipsoidal six-valley model is used incorporating the effects of valley-orbit splitting of the ground state of the P-site donors. A careful characterization of the samples ensures that results are obtained on samples containing only one type of dominant donor. The thermal ionization energies of the above donors extrapolated to infinite dilution are (105.0 +- 5.7), (94.1 +- 2.6), and (83.5 +- 1.7) meV, respectively. The valley-orbit splitting energies of S and Te donors are also obtained, amounting to (34 +- 9) and (23.5 +- 9) meV, respectively.

  15. Potential organ donor audit in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hegarty, M

    2010-11-01

    As increasing demand for organs is a challenge for transplant services worldwide it is essential to audit the process of organ donation. To address this, a national audit of potential organ donors was undertaken across hospitals with Intensive Care Units (N = 36). Questionnaires were returned on all patients (n = 2073) who died in these units from 1\\/9\\/07-31\\/8\\/08; 200 (10%) of these patients were considered for Brain Stem Testing (BST), 158 patients (79%) were diagnosed Brain Stem Dead (BSD) and 138 patients (87%) became potential donors. Consent for donation was given by 92 (69%) next of kin and 90 potential donors (65%) became organ donors. There was no evidence of a large number of potential organ donors being missed. Recommendations included completion of BSTs on all appropriate patients, development of support on BST, referral of all BSD patients to the Organ Procurement Service; enhanced co-ordination within hospitals and sustained information\\/education campaigns.

  16. PATHOMORPHOLOGY OF ZERO BIOPSIES OF DONOR KIDNEYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Arefjev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is well known fact that kidney transplants from Extended Criteria Donors may increase risk of De- layed Graft Function and Primary Non-Function of transplants. We have collected and tested 65 «zero» kidney biopsies from cadaver donors aged from 19 to 71 years old. In the pool of elderly donors who died from cerebrovascular accident the frequency of nephrosclerosis presentation was higher than in donors of yonger age who died from craniocephalic trauma. Nevertheless in the general donor pool the number of sclerosed glomeruli was no more than 12%. We did not meet at all in the whole volume of material any bi- opsy with the severe degree of arteriosclerosis. The «zero» biopsies of cadaver kidneys is quite usable and unexpensive tool to measure the degree of nephrosclerosis in order to exclude kidneys which are not fitable for transplantation. 

  17. Projections in donor organs available for liver transplantation in the United States: 2014-2025.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Neehar D; Hutton, David; Marrero, Wesley; Sanghani, Kunal; Xu, Yongcai; Lavieri, Mariel

    2015-06-01

    With the aging US population, demographic shifts, and obesity epidemic, there is potential for further exacerbation of the current liver donor shortage. We aimed to project the availability of liver grafts in the United States. We performed a secondary analysis of the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network database of all adult donors from 2000 to 2012 and calculated the total number of donors available and transplanted donor livers stratified by age, race, and body mass index (BMI) group per year. We used National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention historical data to stratify the general population by age, sex, race, and BMI. We then used US population age and race projections provided by the US Census Bureau and the Weldon Cooper Center for Public Service and made national and regional projections of available donors and donor liver utilization from 2014 to 2025. We performed sensitivity analyses and varied the rate of the rise in obesity, proportion of Hispanics, population growth, liver utilization rate, and donation after cardiac death (DCD) utilization. The projected adult population growth in the United States from 2014 to 2025 will be 7.1%. However, we project that there will be a 6.1% increase in the number of used liver grafts. There is marked regional heterogeneity in liver donor growth. Projections were significantly affected by changes in BMI, DCD utilization, and liver utilization rates but not by changes in the Hispanic proportion of the US population or changes in the overall population growth. Overall population growth will outpace the growth of available donor organs and thus potentially exacerbate the existing liver graft shortage. The projected growth in organs is highly heterogeneous across different United Network for Organ Sharing regions. Focused strategies to increase the liver donor pool are warranted.

  18. Deconstructing the Risk for Malaria in United States Donors Deferred for Travel to Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Bryan; Kleinman, Steven; Custer, Brian; Cable, Ritchard; Wilkinson, Susan L; Steele, Whitney; High, Patrick M; Wright, David

    2013-01-01

    Background More than 66,000 blood donors are deferred annually in the U.S. due to travel to malaria-endemic areas of Mexico. Mexico accounts for the largest share of malaria travel deferrals, yet it has extremely low risk for malaria transmission throughout most of its national territory, suggesting a suboptimal balance between blood safety and availability. This study sought to determine whether donor deferral requirements might be relaxed for parts of Mexico without compromising blood safety. Study Design and Methods Travel destination was recorded from a representative sample of presenting blood donors deferred for malaria travel from six blood centers during 2006. We imputed to these donors reporting Mexican travel a risk for acquiring malaria equivalent to Mexican residents in the destination location, adjusted for length of stay. We extrapolated these results to the overall U.S. blood donor population. Results Risk for malaria in Mexico varies significantly across endemic areas and is greatest in areas infrequently visited by study donors. Over 70% of blood donor deferrals were triggered by travel to the state of Quintana Roo on the Yucatán Peninsula, an area of very low malaria transmission. Eliminating the travel deferral requirement for all areas except the state of Oaxaca might result in the recovery of almost 65,000 blood donors annually at risk of approximately one contaminated unit collected every 20 years. Conclusion Deferral requirements should be relaxed for presenting donors who travelled to areas within Mexico that confer exceptionally small risks for malaria, such as Quintana Roo. PMID:21564102

  19. Absence of beta-amyloid in cortical cataracts of donors with and without Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Ralph; Rosandić, Jurja; Montenegro, Gustavo A; Lobato, Elvira; Tresserra, Francisco; Barraquer, Rafael I; Vrensen, Gijs F J M

    2013-01-01

    Eye lenses from human donors with and without Alzheimer's disease (AD) were studied to evaluate the presence of amyloid in cortical cataract. We obtained 39 lenses from 21 postmortem donors with AD and 15 lenses from age-matched controls provided by the Banco de Ojos para Tratamientos de la Ceguera (Barcelona, Spain). For 17 donors, AD was clinically diagnosed by general physicians and for 4 donors the AD diagnosis was neuropathologically confirmed. Of the 21 donors with AD, 6 had pronounced bilateral cortical lens opacities and 15 only minor or no cortical opacities. As controls, 7 donors with pronounced cortical opacities and 8 donors with almost transparent lenses were selected. All lenses were photographed in a dark field stereomicroscope. Histological sections were analyzed using a standard and a more sensitive Congo red protocol, thioflavin staining and beta-amyloid immunohistochemistry. Brain tissue from two donors, one with cerebral amyloid angiopathy and another with advanced AD-related changes and one cornea with lattice dystrophy were used as positive controls for the staining techniques. Thioflavin, standard and modified Congo red staining were positive in the control brain tissues and in the dystrophic cornea. Beta-amyloid immunohistochemistry was positive in the brain tissues but not in the cornea sample. Lenses from control and AD donors were, without exception, negative after Congo red, thioflavin, and beta-amyloid immunohistochemical staining. The results of the positive control tissues correspond well with known observations in AD, amyloid angiopathy and corneas with lattice dystrophy. The absence of staining in AD and control lenses with the techniques employed lead us to conclude that there is no beta-amyloid in lenses from donors with AD or in control cortical cataracts. The inconsistency with previous studies of Goldstein et al. (2003) and Moncaster et al. (2010), both of which demonstrated positive Congo red, thioflavin, and beta

  20. Impact of nucleic acid amplification test on screening of blood donors in Northern Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niazi, Saifullah Khan; Bhatti, Farhat Abbas; Salamat, Nuzhat; Ghani, Eijaz; Tayyab, Muhammad

    2015-07-01

    The Armed Forces Institute of Transfusion located in Rawalpindi, Northern Pakistan, acts as a regional blood center with more than 50,000 donations collected annually. Nucleic acid amplification testing (NAT) was introduced in our institution in September 2012 for screening all seronegative blood donors. The study was conducted from September 21, 2012, to September 20, 2013. Samples from the seronegative donors were run on cobas s 201 platform (Roche) in pools of six. Reactive donors were followed up for further confirmatory testing to rule out false-positive results. Viral load estimation was done for all NAT-reactive donors. After serologic screening of 56,772 blood donors, 2334 were found to be reactive; 719 (1.27%) were reactive for hepatitis B surface antigen, 1046 (1.84%) for antibody to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV), 12 (0.02%) for antibody to human immunodeficiency virus, and 557 (0.98%) for syphilis antibodies. A total of 27 NAT-reactive donors were confirmed after testing 54,438 seronegative donors, with an overall NAT yield of one in 2016 donors: 23 for hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA (HBV NAT yield, 1:2367) and four for HCV RNA (HCV NAT yield, 1:13,609). The residual risk after NAT implementation, calculated for the first-time blood donors, was 62.5 and 4.4 per million donors for HBV and HCV, respectively. NAT has improved the safety of blood products at our transfusion institution. Confirmation of NAT results must always be done either on follow-up samples or on samples from the retrieved frozen plasma bag. © 2015 AABB.

  1. Donor Conception and "Passing," or; Why Australian Parents of Donor-Conceived Children Want Donors Who Look Like Them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Karen-Anne

    2017-03-01

    This article explores the processes through which Australian recipients select unknown donors for use in assisted reproductive technologies and speculates on how those processes may affect the future life of the donor-conceived person. I will suggest that trust is an integral part of the exchange between donors, recipients, and gamete agencies in donor conception and heavily informs concepts of relatedness, race, ethnicity, kinship, class, and visibility. The decision to be transparent (or not) about a child's genetic parentage affects recipient parents' choices of donor, about who is allowed to "know" children's genetic backgrounds, and how important it is to be able to "pass" as an unassisted conception. In this way, recipients must trust the process, institutions, and individuals involved in their treatment, as well as place trust in the future they imagine for their child. The current market for donor gametes reproduces normative conceptions of the nuclear family, kinship, and relatedness by facilitating "matching" donors to recipients by phenotype and cultural affinities. Recipient parents who choose not to prioritize "matching," and actively disclose the process of children's conceptions, may embark on a project of queering heteronormative family structures and place great trust in both their own children and changing social attitudes to reduce stigma and generate acceptance for non-traditional families.

  2. Counseling blood donors seropositive for human T-lymphotropic virus types I and II in a developing country Aconselhando o doador de sangue soropositivo para o Vírus Linfotrópico Humano tipo I/II em um país em desenvolvimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria M. A. Passos

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Human T-lymphotropic virus types I and II (HTLV-I/II are blood-transmitted retroviruses associated with leukemia, myelopathy, and uveitis. From 51,135 eligible blood donors at the Fundação Hemominas tested in 1993, 689 (1.35% were repeatedly reactive to HTLV-I/II antibodies by enzyme immunoassay and were notified accordingly. Routes of transmission and preventive measures were emphasized in the orientation. Supplementary laboratory tests should be available and free of cost. Health services should recommend the use of latex condoms and make them available. Avoiding shared use of needles or syringes is important for both the seropositive donor and public health in general. In a country with such widespread malnutrition, the benefits of breast-feeding usually outweigh the risks of virus transmission. Based on our experience, we recommend that: 1 identical orientation be given to donors by all health professionals involved in counseling; 2 level of schooling be considered and information provided accordingly; 3 donors be assisted in understanding and assessing available information; 4 psychological assistance be provided to anxious or depressed donors; and 5 joint counseling be offered to donors with stable partners.Os vírus linfotrópico humano tipos I e II (HTLV-I/II são retrovírus transmitidos por componentes celulares sanguíneos e associados à ocorrência de leucemia, mielopatia e uveíte. De 51.135 doadores de sangue da Fundação Hemominas testados em 1993, 689 (1,35% foram repetidamente reativos a anticorpos contra HTLV-I/II no ensaio imunoenzimático e foram devidamente notificados. As vias de transmissão e medidas de controle foram enfatizadas na orientação. Testes laboratoriais suplementares devem ser disponíveis e gratuitos. O uso de preservativos deve ser recomendado e os mesmos serem disponíveis nos serviços de saúde. O doador soropositivo e os serviços de saúde não devem reutilizar agulhas e seringas. Sendo a desnutri

  3. Screening of deceased organ donors: no easy answers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Robert C; Fishman, Jay A

    2011-01-27

    Transmission of infection to recipients of solid organs is uncommon but well documented. Improved technologies for the diagnosis of infectious diseases suggest possible changes to paradigms used in the screening of organ donors to prevent disease transmission with transplantation. Available microbiologic assays, including molecular tests, are generally designed for use as diagnostic tools in individuals believed to have a specific infection based on clinical or epidemiological criteria. By contrast, these assays often lack the performance characteristics required for screening of deceased organ donors. This challenge is apparent with the analysis of assays for human T-cell lymphotropic virus-I and -II in low-risk populations. Changing epidemiologic patterns associated with the spread of novel pathogens or altered patterns of immigration will necessitate flexibility in the "list" of potential pathogens. Individual benefits from transplantation generally outweigh the risk of transmission of infection. However, this favorable experience will not obviate the need to continuously improve screening practices.

  4. Benefits of donor milk in the feeding of preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertino, Enrico; Giuliani, Francesca; Baricco, Marta; Di Nicola, Paola; Peila, Chiara; Vassia, Cristina; Chiale, Federica; Pirra, Alice; Cresi, Francesco; Martano, Claudio; Coscia, Alessandra

    2013-10-01

    Mother's own milk is widely recognized as the optimal feeding for term infants, but also provides health benefits that are of vital importance for sick and preterm infants in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs), even though the growth and neurodevelopmental needs of very premature infants are best met by appropriate fortification of human milk (HM). When mother's milk is unavailable or in short supply, donor milk (DM) represents the second best alternative and, although some nutritional elements are inactivated by the pasteurization process, it still has documented advantages compared to formula. Occasionally, the concern that the use of DM might decrease breastfeeding is being raised, but reports exist in literature showing that the use of donor HM in the NICU increases breastfeeding rates at discharge for VLBW infants. The demonstrated benefits of HM highlight the importance of educating health care professionals in breastfeeding support.

  5. A comparative study of reduced dose alemtuzumab in matched unrelated donor and related donor reduced intensity transplants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardine, Laura; Publicover, Amy; Bigley, Venetia; Hale, Geoff; Pearce, Kim; Dickinson, Anne; Jackson, Graham; Collin, Matthew

    2015-03-01

    In vivo T cell depletion with 100 mg alemtuzumab prevents graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in reduced intensity conditioned transplants but is associated with delayed immune reconstitution, a higher risk of infection and relapse. De-escalation studies have shown that a reduced dose of 30 mg is as effective as 100 mg in preventing GVHD in matched related donor (MRD) transplants. Dose reduction in matched unrelated donor (MUD) transplants is feasible but the comparative efficacy of alemtuzumab in this setting is not known and opinions vary widely concerning the optimal level of GVHD prophylaxis that should be achieved. Through retrospective analysis we made an objective comparison of MUD transplants receiving an empirically reduced dose of 60 mg, with MRD transplants receiving a 30 mg dose. We observed proportionate levels of alemtuzumab according to dose but an inverse relationship with body surface area particularly in MRD transplants. MUD transplants experienced more acute and chronic GVHD, higher T cell chimerism, more sustained use of ciclosporin and less need for donor lymphocyte infusion than MRD transplants. Thus, doubling the dose of alemtuzumab to 60 mg did not provide equivalent prevention of GVHD after MUD transplant although there was no difference in non-relapse mortality or survival compared with MRD transplants.

  6. Oocyte cryopreservation for donor egg banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobo, Ana; Remohí, José; Chang, Ching-Chien; Nagy, Zsolt Peter

    2011-09-01

    Oocyte donation is an efficient alternative to using own oocytes in IVF treatment for different indications. Unfortunately, 'traditional' (fresh) egg donations are challenged with inefficiency, difficulties of synchronization, very long waiting periods and lack of quarantine measures. Given the recent improvements in the efficiency of oocyte cryopreservation, it is reasonable to examine if egg donation through oocyte cryopreservation has merits. The objective of the current manuscript is to review existing literature on this topic and to report on the most recent outcomes from two established donor cryobank centres. Reports on egg donation using slow freezing are scarce and though results are encouraging, outcomes are not yet comparable to a fresh egg donation treatment. Vitrification on the other hand appears to provide high survival rates (90%) of donor oocytes and comparable fertilization, embryo development, implantation and pregnancy rates to traditional (fresh) egg donation. Besides the excellent outcomes, the ease of use for both donors and recipients, higher efficiency, lower cost and avoiding the problem of synchronization are all features associated with the benefit of a donor egg cryobank and makes it likely that this approach becomes the future standard of care. Oocyte donation is one of the last resorts in IVF treatment for couples challenged with infertility problems. However, traditional (fresh) egg donation, as it is performed today, is not very efficient, as typically all eggs from one donor are given to only one recipient, it is arduous as it requires an excellent synchronization between the donor and recipient and there are months or years of waiting time. Because of the development of an efficient oocyte cryopreservation technique, it is now possible to cryo-store donor (as well as non-donor) eggs, maintaining their viability and allowing their use whenever there is demand. Therefore, creating a donor oocyte cryobank would carry many advantages

  7. Donor deactivation in silicon nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björk, Mikael T.; Schmid, Heinz; Knoch, Joachim; Riel, Heike; Riess, Walter

    2009-02-01

    The operation of electronic devices relies on the density of free charge carriers available in the semiconductor; in most semiconductor devices this density is controlled by the addition of doping atoms. As dimensions are scaled down to achieve economic and performance benefits, the presence of interfaces and materials adjacent to the semiconductor will become more important and will eventually completely determine the electronic properties of the device. To sustain further improvements in performance, novel field-effect transistor architectures, such as FinFETs and nanowire field-effect transistors, have been proposed as replacements for the planar devices used today, and also for applications in biosensing and power generation. The successful operation of such devices will depend on our ability to precisely control the location and number of active impurity atoms in the host semiconductor during the fabrication process. Here, we demonstrate that the free carrier density in semiconductor nanowires is dependent on the size of the nanowires. By measuring the electrical conduction of doped silicon nanowires as a function of nanowire radius, temperature and dielectric surrounding, we show that the donor ionization energy increases with decreasing nanowire radius, and that it profoundly modifies the attainable free carrier density at values of the radius much larger than those at which quantum and dopant surface segregation effects set in. At a nanowire radius of 15 nm the carrier density is already 50% lower than in bulk silicon due to the dielectric mismatch between the conducting channel and its surroundings.

  8. Hemochromatosis: the new blood donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitman, Susan F

    2013-01-01

    Hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) due to homozygosity for the C282Y mutation in the HFE gene is a common inherited iron overload disorder in whites of northern European descent. Hepcidin deficiency, the hallmark of the disorder, leads to dysregulated intestinal iron absorption and progressive iron deposition in the liver, heart, skin, endocrine glands, and joints. Survival is normal if organ damage is prevented by early institution of phlebotomy therapy. HH arthropathy is the symptom most affecting quality of life and can be debilitating. Genotype screening in large population studies has shown that the clinical penetrance of C282Y homozygosity is highly variable and can be very low, with up to 50% of women and 20% of men showing a silent phenotype. Targeted population screening for the HFE C282Y mutation is not recommended at present, but might be reconsidered as a cost-effective approach to management if counseling and care were better organized and standardized. Referral of patients to the blood center for phlebotomy therapy and use of HH donor blood for transfusion standardizes treatment, minimizes treatment costs, and may benefit society as a whole. Physician practices should be amended such that HH subjects are more frequently referred to the blood center for therapy.

  9. Interplay of alternative conjugated pathways and steric interactions on the electronic and optical properties of donor-acceptor conjugated polymers

    KAUST Repository

    Lima, Igo T.

    2014-01-01

    Donor-acceptor π-conjugated copolymers are of interest for a wide range of electronic applications, including field-effect transistors and solar cells. Here, we present a density functional theory (DFT) study of the impact of varying the conjugation pathway on the geometric, electronic, and optical properties of donor-acceptor systems. We consider both linear ("in series"), traditional conjugation among the donor-acceptor moieties versus structures where the acceptor units are appended orthogonally to the linear, donor-only conjugated backbone. Long-range-corrected hybrid functionals are used in the investigation with the values of the tuned long-range separation parameters providing an estimate of the extent of conjugation as a function of the oligomer architecture. Considerable differences in the electronic and optical properties are determined as a function of the nature of the conjugation pathway, features that should be taken into account in the design of donor-acceptor copolymers.

  10. hiv prevalence and demographic risk factors in blood donors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2002-02-02

    Feb 2, 2002 ... blood donors were pre-test counselled and 90% were post test counselled in 200Ö. Conclusions: HIV ... Counselling and serological methods: All potential donors ..... counselling blood donors adds an important advantage in.

  11. Our experience with deceased organ donor maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Meena

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Deceased organ donors in an intensive care unit (ICU are the richest source of organs for transplantation. Careful donor maintenance plays a vital role in the successful functioning of the organ in the recipient. Aims : Early identification of brain stem death (BSD in the ICU, problems and management in donor maintenance till retrieval are the main objectives. Materials and Methods : BSD was identified in a level I trauma center over a period of eight years (1996-2004 using UK code. After screening for fitness, they were maintained to achieve normothermia, systolic BP > 90 mm Hg, CVP 8-10 cm water, urine output > 80 ml/hour and normal acid base balance. Results: 168 cases of BSD were maintained, 30 with identity unknown. Common transient complications noted were hypotension (68%, hypokalemia (62%, hypothermia (12%, diabetes insipidus (70%. Brain stem death was identified early and resuscitated to maintain normal tissue perfusion. 17 (12.3% consent for organ donation was obtained. Organs (24 kidneys and one liver were retrieved from 12 donors. Four donors sustained cardiac arrest before retrieval. Conclusion: Early recognition of brain stem death and prompty correction of hemodyanamic instability is the key to deceased donor maintenance. Optimal care of potential donor translates to care of multiple recipients.

  12. Trends in Transfusion Transmitted Infections Among Replacement Blood Donors in Karachi, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Mohammad Irfan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of Hepatitis-B, Hepatitis-C and Human Immunodeficiency infections in replacement blood donors. METHODS: From January 2004 to December 2011, 108,598 apparently healthy donors donated blood at our Blood Bank. Screening was done by Microparticle Enzyme Immuno Assay (MEIA method on Axsym System (Abbott Diagnostic, USA and in year 2011 by Chemiluminescent Immunoassay (CIA method on Architect i2000 (Abbott Diagnostic, USA. From 2010 onward, HIV reactive donors were advised for confirmatory tests and reported back with the results. RESULTS: Of the 108,598 total donors, 108,393 (99.8% were replacement donors with a mean age of 28.92 (17-55 years. Of this, only 164 (0.15% were females. Among the replacement donors, 4,906 (4.5% were found to be reactive for Hepatitis-B, C and Human Immunodeficiency Virus. All the reactive patients, except one, were males. HbsAg was positive in 2,068 (1.90% and anti-HCV in 2832 (2.61% donors, while 111 (0.10% were positive for Human Immunodeficiency Virus. Co-infectivity was observed in 103 (0.09% cases. The prevalence appeared to be higher in younger age group (17-30 yrs. Only 16.6% cases should be patients returned with results of the confirmatory tests for HIV and were found positive. CONCLUSION: Hepatitis-B and C sero-prevalence in our series of replacement donors appears high compared to most studies from neighboring countries and relatively low in comparison to earlier studies from Pakistan. Prevalence of HIV, however, appears low and turn out of HIV positive cases for confirmatory tests is low.

  13. Perylene-Diimide Based Donor-Acceptor-Donor Type Small-Molecule Acceptors for Solution-Processable Organic Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesamoorthy, Ramasamy; Vijayaraghavan, Rajagopalan; Sakthivel, Pachagounder

    2017-08-01

    Development of nonfullerene acceptors plays an important role in the commercial availability of plastic solar cells. We report herein synthesis of bay-substituted donor-acceptor-donor (D-A-D)-type perylene diimide (PDI)-based small molecules (SM-1 to SM-4) by Suzuki coupling method and their use as acceptors in bulk heterojunction organic solar cells (BHJ-OSCs) with poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) polymer donor. We varied the number of electron-rich thiophene units and the solubilizing side chains and also evaluated the optical and electrochemical properties of the small molecules. The synthesized small molecules were confirmed by Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and high-resolution mass spectroscopy (HR-MS). The small molecules showed extensive and strong absorption in the ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) region up to 750 nm, with bandgap (E_{{g}}^{{opt}} ) reduced below polymer donor showed maximum power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 0.19% with V oc of 0.30 V, J sc of 1.72 mA cm-2, and fill factor (FF) of 37%. The PCE decreased with the number of thiophene units. The PCE of SM-2 was lower than that of SM-1. This difference in PCE can be explained by the higher aggregation tendency of the bithiophene compared with the thiophene unit. Introduction of the solubilizing group in the bay position increased the aggregation property, leading to much lower PCE than for the small molecules without solubilizing group.

  14. Time-varying Crash Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Feunoua, Bruno; Jeon, Yoontae

    We estimate a continuous-time model with stochastic volatility and dynamic crash probability for the S&P 500 index and find that market illiquidity dominates other factors in explaining the stock market crash risk. While the crash probability is time-varying, its dynamic depends only weakly on re...

  15. Mass Varying Neutrinos in Supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Rossi-Torres, F; de Holanda, P C; Peres, O L G

    2010-01-01

    We study limits for the mass varying neutrino model, using constrains from supernova neutrinos placed by the r-process condition, $Y_e<0.5$. Also, we use this model in a supernova environment to study the regions of survival probability in the oscillation space parameter ($\\tan^2\\theta$ and $\\Delta m^2_0$), considering the channel $\

  16. Time-varying Crash Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Feunoua, Bruno; Jeon, Yoontae

    We estimate a continuous-time model with stochastic volatility and dynamic crash probability for the S&P 500 index and find that market illiquidity dominates other factors in explaining the stock market crash risk. While the crash probability is time-varying, its dynamic depends only weakly...... on return variance once we include market illiquidity as an economic variable in the model....

  17. Esmaklassiline Karlovy Vary / Jaanus Noormets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Noormets, Jaanus

    2007-01-01

    Ilmar Raagi mängufilm "Klass" võitis 42. Karlovy Vary rahvusvahelise filmifestivalil kaks auhinda - ametliku kõrvalvõistlusprogrammi "East of the West" eripreemia "Special mention" ja Euroopa väärtfilmikinode keti Europa Cinemas preemia. Ka Asko Kase lühifilmi "Zen läbi prügi linastumisest ning teistest auhinnasaajatest ning osalejatest

  18. Optimistlik Karlovy Vary / Jaan Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Jaan, 1938-2017

    2007-01-01

    42. Karlovy Vary rahvusvahelise filmifestivali auhinnatud filmidest (žürii esimees Peter Bart). Kristallgloobuse sai Islandi-Saksamaa "Katseklaasilinn" (režii Baltasar Kormakur), parimaks režissööriks tunnistati norralane Bard Breien ("Negatiivse mõtlemise kunst"). Austraallase Michael James Rowlandi "Hea õnne teekond" sai žürii eripreemia

  19. Eestlased Karlovy Varys / J. R.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    J. R.

    2007-01-01

    Ilmar Raagi mängufilm "Klass" osaleb 42. Karlovy Vary rahvusvahelise filmifestivali võistlusprogrammis "East of the West" ja Asko Kase lühimängufilm "Zen läbi prügi" on valitud festivali kõrvalprogrammi "Forum of Independents"

  20. Esmaklassiline Karlovy Vary / Jaanus Noormets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Noormets, Jaanus

    2007-01-01

    Ilmar Raagi mängufilm "Klass" võitis 42. Karlovy Vary rahvusvahelise filmifestivalil kaks auhinda - ametliku kõrvalvõistlusprogrammi "East of the West" eripreemia "Special mention" ja Euroopa väärtfilmikinode keti Europa Cinemas preemia. Ka Asko Kase lühifilmi "Zen läbi prügi linastumisest ning teistest auhinnasaajatest ning osalejatest

  1. Adult-to-Adult Living Donor Liver Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimul A Shah

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The present review outlines the principles of living donor liver transplantation, donor workup, procedure and outcomes. Living donation offers a solution to the growing gap between the need for liver transplants and the limited availability of deceased donor organs. With a multidisciplinary team focused on donor safety and experienced surgeons capable of performing complex resection/reconstruction procedures, donor morbidity is low and recipient outcomes are comparable with results of deceased donor transplantation.

  2. Applying self-determination theory to the blood donation context: The blood donor competence, autonomy, and relatedness enhancement (Blood Donor CARE) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, Christopher R; France, Janis L; Carlson, Bruce W; Frye, Victoria; Duffy, Louisa; Kessler, Debra A; Rebosa, Mark; Shaz, Beth H

    2017-02-01

    The Blood Donor Competency, Autonomy, and Relatedness Enhancement (Blood Donor CARE) project was designed as a practical application of self-determination theory to encourage retention of first-time donors. Self-determination theory proposes that people are more likely to persist with behaviors that are internally-motivated, and that externally-motivated behavior can evolve and become internalized given the appropriate socio-environmental conditions. According to self-determination theory, motivation to engage in blood donation may become increasingly self-determined if the behavior satisfies fundamental human needs for competence (a sense of self-efficacy to achieve specific goals), autonomy (a sense of volitional control over one's behavior), and relatedness (a sense of connection to a larger group). The primary aim of this randomized controlled trial is to examine the effect of competence, autonomy, and/or relatedness interventions on donor retention. Using a full factorial design, first-time donors will be assigned to a control condition or one of seven intervention conditions. Donation competence, autonomy, and relatedness, along with additional constructs associated with return donation, will be assessed before and after the intervention using online surveys, and donation attempts will be tracked for one-year using blood center donor databases. We hypothesize that, compared to the control condition, the interventions will increase the likelihood of a subsequent donation attempt. We will also examine intervention-specific increases in competence, autonomy, and relatedness as potential mediators of enhanced donor retention. By promoting first-time donor competence, autonomy, and relatedness our goal is to enhance internal motivation for giving and in so doing increase the likelihood of future donation.

  3. Donor Retention in Online Crowdfunding Communities: A Case Study of DonorsChoose.org.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althoff, Tim; Leskovec, Jure

    2015-05-01

    Online crowdfunding platforms like DonorsChoose.org and Kick-starter allow specific projects to get funded by targeted contributions from a large number of people. Critical for the success of crowdfunding communities is recruitment and continued engagement of donors. With donor attrition rates above 70%, a significant challenge for online crowdfunding platforms as well as traditional offline non-profit organizations is the problem of donor retention. We present a large-scale study of millions of donors and donations on DonorsChoose.org, a crowdfunding platform for education projects. Studying an online crowdfunding platform allows for an unprecedented detailed view of how people direct their donations. We explore various factors impacting donor retention which allows us to identify different groups of donors and quantify their propensity to return for subsequent donations. We find that donors are more likely to return if they had a positive interaction with the receiver of the donation. We also show that this includes appropriate and timely recognition of their support as well as detailed communication of their impact. Finally, we discuss how our findings could inform steps to improve donor retention in crowdfunding communities and non-profit organizations.

  4. Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy versus open donor nephrectomy: Recipient′s perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tukaram E Jamale

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (LDN on graft function, especially early post-transplant, have been controversial. To assess and compare early and late graft function in kidneys procured by open and laparoscopic methods, a retrospective observational study was carried out on 37 recipients-donors who underwent LDN after introduction of this technique in February 2007 at our center, a tertiary care nephrology referral center. Demographic, immunological and intraoperative variables as well as immunosuppressive protocols and number of human leukocyte antigen (HLA mismatches were noted. Early graft function was assessed by serum creatinine on Days two, five, seven, 14 and 28 and at the time of discharge. Serum creatinine values at three months and at one year post-transplant were considered as the surrogates of late graft function. Data obtained were compared with the data from 33 randomly selected kidney transplants performed after January 2000 by the same surgical team, in whom open donor nephrectomy was used. Pearson′s chi square test, Student′s t test and Mann-Whitney U test were used for statistical analysis. Early graft function (serum creatinine on Day five 2.15 mg/dL vs 1.49 mg/dL, P = 0.027 was poorer in the LDN group. Late graft function as assessed by serum creatinine at three months (1.45 mg/dL vs 1.31 mg/dL, P = 0.335 and one year (1.56 mg/dL vs 1.34 mg/dL, P = 0.275 was equivalent in the two groups. Episodes of early acute graft dysfunction due to acute tubular necrosis were significantly higher in the LDN group (37.8% vs 12.1%, Z score 2.457, P = 0.014. Warm ischemia time was significantly prolonged in the LDN group (255 s vs 132.5 s, P = 0.002. LDN is associated with slower recovery of graft function and higher incidence of early acute graft dysfunction due to acute tubular necrosis. Late graft function at one year is however comparable.

  5. Aromatic fumaronitrile core-based donor-linker-acceptor-linker-donor (D-pi-A-pi-D) compounds: synthesis and photophysical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panthi, Krishna; Adhikari, Ravi M; Kinstle, Thomas H

    2010-04-01

    A new class of aromatic fumaronitrile core-based compounds with different donors and linkers has been synthesized and well characterized. Compounds 1 and 2 have indole and 2-phenylindole groups as electron donors, respectively. Compounds 3 and 4 have a diphenylamino group as the electron donor, and compound 5 has a 3,6-di-tert-butylcarbazole group as an electron donor. These compounds absorb in the blue-to-green region and emit in the blue-to-red region depending on the electron donor, linker, and solvents. The quantum yields of fluorescence of these compounds in solution are measured and found to be moderate, but in solid states, they are high. These compounds display strong emission solvatochromism that is reflected by a large shift in their fluorescence emission maxima on changing the solvents. This change is accompanied by a successive decrease in fluorescence intensity. The fluorescence lifetimes of these compounds are measured in different solvent and found to vary from compounds with solvents, concentration, and excitation energy have been studied. The correlation between the functional group and optical properties has been established to some extent. The ability of these compounds to function as colorimetric and luminescence pH sensors is demonstrated with color changes and luminescence switching upon the addition of trifluoroacetic acid. The potentiality of these compounds for application in optoelectronics has been optically assessed.

  6. Distribution of blood groups in blood donors in the blood bank of Jagdalpur, Bastar district, Chhattisgarh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin A Badge

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: The incidence of ABO and rhesus (Rh groups varies markedly in different races, ethnic groups, and socioeconomic groups in different parts of the world. The frequencies of ABO and Rh blood groups vary from one population to another and time to time in the same region. The present study was carried out to find the distribution of blood group in rural and tribal populations of Bastar district of Chhattisgarh. Materials and Methods: The present retrospective study was carried out at late Shri Baliram Kashyap Memorial Government Medical College and Maharani Hospital blood bank, Jagdalpur, Bastar district, Chhattisgarh, India, during the 2-year period from January 2014 to December 2015. The blood collections were taken from the voluntary donors at outdoor blood donation camp and in-house blood bank as well as from replacement donors at blood bank. Totally 12,852 donors were considered medically fit and accepted for blood donation during the study period. Results: Out of the total 12,852 donors, most of the donors, i.e., 3996 (31.09% were with blood Group O followed by B (30.44%, A (24.95%, and AB (13.52%. Out of the 12,852 blood donors, majority, i.e., 12,779 (99.43% were male and 73 (0.57% were female. Maximum blood donors, i.e., 12,777 (99.42% were Rh positive while only 75 (0.58% were Rh negative. Conclusion: The knowledge of distribution of ABO and Rh blood groups at local and regional levels is helpful in effective management of blood banks and safe blood transfusion services.

  7. Desensitization Protocol in Recipients of Deceased Kidney Donor With Donor-Specific Antibody-Low Titers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter Berga, J; Sancho Calabuig, A; Gavela Martinez, E; Puig Alcaraz, N; Avila Bernabeu, A; Crespo Albiach, J; Molina Vila, P; Beltrán Catalan, S; Pallardó Mateu, L

    2016-11-01

    Kidney transplantation is the better option for end-stage renal disease (ESRD), but for patients with human leukocyte antigen (HLA) sensitization, the wait times are significantly longer than for patients without antibodies. Many desensitization protocols have been described involving strong immunosuppression, the use of apheresis, and B-cell-modulating therapies. We have designed a desensitization protocol from day 0 for deceased donor kidney transplantation. Our aim was to present our initial experience with five kidney transplant patients. All patients had a negative complement-dependent cytotoxicity cross-match. The desensitization protocol included five to seven doses of thymoglobulin (1.25 mg/kg) and three sessions of plasmapheresis (PP) within the first week after transplantation, with intravenous immunoglobulin (500 mg/kg) after each PP session and one dose of rituximab on day 8. The presence of donor-specific antibodies (DSA) was analyzed by use of Luminex technology; levels between 1000 and 3000 mean fluorescence intensity were considered for desensitization. The median age was 44 years and median renal replacement therapy time was 9 years. All recipients presented 1 to 3 DSA specificities. There were no severe side effects related to PP, infusion of intravenous immunoglobulin, or rituximab. The median follow-up period was 19.3 months. Median serum creatinine level at last follow-up was 1.7 mg/dL. A kidney biopsy was performed in all patients. Graft and patient survival was 100%. Until now, few data are available concerning whether HLA-incompatible kidney transplantation after desensitization would benefit patients with ERSD. The desensitization strategy using the combination of PP, low doses of intravenous immunoglobulin, and rituximab at our center resulted in a satisfactory clinical outcome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... on the use of BMT and PBSCT, see http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/fa... If you are ... registry of volunteers willing to be donors at http://www.marrow.org . Category Science & Technology License Standard ...

  9. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Queue __count__/__total__ Find out why Close Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor NCIcancertopics Loading... Unsubscribe from ... later? Sign in to add this video to a playlist. Sign in Share More Report Need to ...

  10. A Time for Flexible Donor Agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Gerald B.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses why volatile markets and new donor expectations make now a good time to rework payout rates and gift agreements to bolster financial and strategic performance. Suggests seven options for action. (EV)

  11. Management of the multiple organ donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebenik, C R; Hinds, C J

    1987-07-01

    The need for cadaveric organs for transplantation is increasing. This article provides guidelines for the identification of potential organ donors and suggests suitable principles of management. The physiological changes after brain death are briefly reviewed.

  12. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... been rented. This feature is not available right now. Please try again later. Published on Jul 19, ... her German stem cell donor for the first time in Germany. #priceless - Duration: 1:04. Jacque Brohawn ...

  13. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Queue __count__/__total__ Find out why Close Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor NCIcancertopics Loading... Unsubscribe from ... later? Sign in to add this video to a playlist. Sign in Share More Report Need to ...

  14. RESULTS OF THE SPECIAL BLOOD DONOR DAY

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Unit

    2008-01-01

    Responding to the HUG (Hôpitaux Universitaires de Genève) hospitals’ urgent appeal for blood donations during this summer season, the CERN medical staff organised a day of blood donations for the Swiss bloodbank CTS on 30 July. They were supported by NOVAE (Restaurant No. 1), who provided donors with a free snack. This specially arranged campaign was a success, as the 135 volunteers included 66 first-time donors, and a total of 99 standard bags of blood was collected. (Swiss hospitals need 1300 bags every day!) The CTS and CERN’s medical staff want to thank the donors and all others who helped make the event a success. Upcoming blood donor days at CERN: 12 November 2008 and 10 March 2009.

  15. RESULTS OF THE SPECIAL BLOOD DONOR DAY

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Unit

    2008-01-01

    Responding to the HUG (Hôpitaux Universitaires de Genève) hospitals’ urgent appeal for blood donations during this summer season, the CERN medical staff organised a day of blood donations for the Swiss bloodbank CTS on 30 July. They were supported by NOVAE (Restaurant No. 1), who provided donors with a free snack. This specially arranged campaign was a success, as the 135 volunteers included 66 first-time donors, and a total of 99 standard bags of blood were collected. (Swiss hospitals need 1300 bags every day!) The CTS and CERN’s medical staff wish to thank the donors and all others who helped make the event a success. Upcoming blood donor days at CERN: 12 November 2008 and 10 March 2009.

  16. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... on the use of BMT and PBSCT, see http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/fa... If you are ... registry of volunteers willing to be donors at http://www.marrow.org . Category Science & Technology License Standard ...

  17. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be donors at http://www.marrow.org . Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License ... - Duration: 49:19. Children's Health 33,509 views 49:19 Stem Cell Fraud: ...

  18. Donor-Derived Myeloid Sarcoma in Two Kidney Transplant Recipients from a Single Donor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amudha Palanisamy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the rare occurrence of donor-derived myeloid sarcoma in two kidney transplant patients who received organs from a single deceased donor. There was no evidence of preexisting hematologic malignancy in the donor at the time of organ recovery. Both recipients developed leukemic involvement that appeared to be limited to the transplanted organ. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH and molecular genotyping analyses confirmed that the malignant cells were of donor origin in each patient. Allograft nephrectomy and immediate withdrawal of immunosuppression were performed in both cases; systemic chemotherapy was subsequently administered to one patient. Both recipients were in remission at least one year following the diagnosis of donor-derived myeloid sarcoma. These cases suggest that restoration of the immune system after withdrawal of immunosuppressive therapy and allograft nephrectomy may be sufficient to control HLA-mismatched donor-derived myeloid sarcoma without systemic involvement.

  19. Donor Transmission of Melanoma Following Renal Transplant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn T. Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Donor transmission of melanoma is one of the more common and lethal of recipient malignancies, often presenting with systemic disease. Although some patients may receive durable remission of melanoma following explantation of the allograft and withdrawal of immunosuppression, donor transmission of melanoma is fatal in most patients. Here we present a case of a 44-year-old male who developed metastatic melanoma following renal transplant.

  20. Donor transmission of melanoma following renal transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kathryn T; Olszanski, Anthony; Farma, Jeffrey M

    2012-01-01

    Donor transmission of melanoma is one of the more common and lethal of recipient malignancies, often presenting with systemic disease. Although some patients may receive durable remission of melanoma following explantation of the allograft and withdrawal of immunosuppression, donor transmission of melanoma is fatal in most patients. Here we present a case of a 44-year-old male who developed metastatic melanoma following renal transplant.

  1. Increasing demands on today's blood donors

    OpenAIRE

    McClelland, W. M.

    1985-01-01

    Recently in Northern Ireland there has been a rapid increase in demand for a variety of blood components. To meet this need a large proportion of routine blood donations must be processed at the Transfusion Centre. In addition, several blood components are collected direct from donors by apheresis techniques. Apheresis is currently restricted to the collection of components from highly selected donors, but in future this method is likely to be employed for collection of some routine component...

  2. Stimulated emission from donor transitions in silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov; Zhukavin; Orlova; Shastin; Kirsanov; Hubers; Auen; Riemann

    2000-05-29

    The observation of far-infrared stimulated emission from shallow donor transitions in silicon is reported. Lasing with a wavelength of 59 &mgr;m due to the neutral donor intracenter 2p(0)-->1s(E) transition in Si:P pumped by CO2 laser radiation is obtained. Populations of D0 and D- center states and the balance of the radiation absorption and amplification are theoretically analyzed.

  3. Increasing demands on today's blood donors

    OpenAIRE

    McClelland, W. M.

    1985-01-01

    Recently in Northern Ireland there has been a rapid increase in demand for a variety of blood components. To meet this need a large proportion of routine blood donations must be processed at the Transfusion Centre. In addition, several blood components are collected direct from donors by apheresis techniques. Apheresis is currently restricted to the collection of components from highly selected donors, but in future this method is likely to be employed for collection of some routine component...

  4. Is Antibiotic Usage Necessary after Donor Nephrectomy? A Single Center Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zomorrodi Afshar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Proper management of living kidney donors is a very important aspect of all renal transplants. To date, approximately 60,000 living donor nephrectomies have been performed worldwide and about 20 deaths directly related to the operation have been reported. The most common cause of death has been pulmonary embolism. Wound infection following surgery is the third most common nosocomial infection, and is dependent on the surgeon and his/her team, the operating room, number and virulence of contaminated bacteria, patient characteristics (immunity and defense, as well as time and duration of administration of antibiotics. Approach to the prophylaxis of wound infection in kidney donors varies in different transplant centers. This study was conducted at the Emam Hospital, Tabriz, Iran in order to delineate the protocol regarding antibiotic usage after donor nephrectomy. One hundred kidney donors were enrolled in the study. They were classified randomly in two groups: Group-1, comprising 50 donors, who received antibiotics immediately following surgery and for at least seven days thereafter. Group-2, comprised of 50 donors, in whom one gram of cephazoline was injected intravenously before anesthesia and continued for 24 hours after surgery. The patients were followed-up for one month with particular emphasis on occurrence of wound infection. One patient in Group-1, and two in Group-2 had wound infection; the difference was not statistically significant (p = > 0.5. Our study suggests that antibiotic prophylaxis started before incision and continued for 24 hours after donor nephrectomy is safe and effective in preventing wound infection.

  5. Ex Situ Normothermic Machine Perfusion of Donor Livers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimian, Negin; Matton, Alix P.M.; Westerkamp, Andrie C.; Burlage, Laura C.; op den Dries, Sanna; Leuvenink, Henri G.D.; Lisman, Ton; Uygun, Korkut; Markmann, James F.; Porte, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to conventional static cold preservation (0-4 °C), ex situ machine perfusion may provide better preservation of donor livers. Continuous perfusion of organs provides the opportunity to improve organ quality and allows ex situ viability assessment of donor livers prior to transplantation. This video article provides a step by step protocol for ex situ normothermic machine perfusion (37 °C) of human donor livers using a device that provides a pressure and temperature controlled pulsatile perfusion of the hepatic artery and continuous perfusion of the portal vein. The perfusion fluid is oxygenated by two hollow fiber membrane oxygenators and the temperature can be regulated between 10 °C and 37 °C. During perfusion, the metabolic activity of the liver as well as the degree of injury can be assessed by biochemical analysis of samples taken from the perfusion fluid. Machine perfusion is a very promising tool to increase the number of livers that are suitable for transplantation. PMID:26067131

  6. Desensitization Using Bortezomib and High-dose Immunoglobulin Increases Rate of Deceased Donor Kidney Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jong Cheol; Jambaldorj, Enkthuya; Kwon, Hyuk Yong; Kim, Myung-Gyu; Im, Hye Jin; Jeon, Hee Jung; In, Ji Won; Han, Miyeun; Koo, Tai Yeon; Chung, Junho; Song, Eun Young; Ahn, Curie; Yang, Jaeseok

    2016-02-01

    Combination therapy of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and rituximab showed a good transplant rate in highly sensitized wait-listed patients for deceased donor kidney transplantation (DDKT), but carried the risk of antibody-mediated rejection. The authors investigated the impact of a new combination therapy of bortezomib, IVIG, and rituximab on transplantation rate.This study was a prospective, open-labeled clinical trial. The desensitization regimen consisted of 2 doses of IVIG (2  g/kg), a single dose of rituximab (375  mg/m), and 4 doses of bortezomib (1.3  mg/m). The transplant rate was analyzed. Anti-Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) DRB antibodies were determined by a Luminex solid-phase bead assay at baseline and after 2, 3, and 6 months in the desensitized patients.There were 19 highly sensitized patients who received desensitization and 17 patients in the control group. Baseline values of class I and II panel reactive antibody (%, peak mean fluorescence intensity) were 83  ±  16.0 (14952  ±  5820) and 63  ±  36.0 (10321  ±  7421), respectively. Deceased donor kidney transplantation was successfully performed in 8 patients (42.1%) in the desensitization group versus 4 (23.5%) in the control group. Multivariate time-varying covariate Cox regression analysis showed that desensitization increased the probability of DDKT (hazard ratio, 46.895; 95% confidence interval, 3.468-634.132; P = 0.004). Desensitization decreased mean fluorescence intensity values of class I panel reactive antibody by 15.5% (20.8%) at 2 months. In addition, a liberal mismatch strategy in post hoc analysis increased the benefit of desensitization in donor-specific antibody reduction. Desensitization was well tolerated, and acute rejection occurred only in the control group.In conclusion, a desensitization protocol using bortezomib, high-dose IVIG, and rituximab increased the DDKT rate in highly sensitized, wait-listed patients.

  7. Expanding the live kidney donor pool: ethical considerations regarding altruistic donors, paired and pooled programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Shaneel Rajendra; Chadha, Priyanka; Papalois, Vassilios

    2011-06-01

    In renal transplant, there is a well-known deficiency in organ supply relative to demand. Live donation provides superior results when compared with deceased donation including a better rate of graft success and fewer immunologic complications. This deficiency in organs leads to significant morbidity and mortality rates. Alternative avenues have been extensively explored that may expand the live donor pool. They include altruistic donation as well as paired and pooled exchange programs. Altruistic donation is a truly selfless act from a donor unknown to the recipient. Kidney paired donation involves 2 incompatible donor-recipient pairs swapping donors to produce compatibility. Pooled donation involves at least 2 pairs, and can take the form of domino chains in which altruistic input sets up a chain of transplants, in which each recipient's incompatible donor makes a donation for the next recipient. Despite application of these various methods, there lie extensive ethical issues surrounding them. Misconceptions frequently occur; for instance, the perceived benefit that donating an organ to a loved one is greater for a related donor than for an altruistic one. Additionally, it is frequently believed that immunologic incompatibility offers coerced donors liberation from surgery, and that overcoming these barriers by introducing exchange programs provides vulnerable donors less protection. This article explores these and other complex ethical issues surrounding the various methods of expanding the donor pool. The authors offer opinions that challenge the ethical issues and attempt to overcome those views that hinder progress in the field.

  8. Outcomes of shipped live donor kidney transplants compared with traditional living donor kidney transplants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treat, Eric G; Miller, Eric T; Kwan, Lorna; Connor, Sarah E; Maliski, Sally L; Hicks, Elisabeth M; Williams, Kristen C; Whitted, Lauren A; Gritsch, Hans A; McGuire, Suzanne M; Mone, Thomas D; Veale, Jeffrey L

    2014-11-01

    The disparity between kidney transplant candidates and donors necessitates innovations to increase organ availability. Transporting kidneys allows for living donors and recipients to undergo surgery with a familiar transplant team, city, friends, and family. The effect of shipping kidneys and prolonged cold ischemia time (CIT) with living donor transplantation outcomes is not clearly known. This retrospective matched (age, gender, race, and year of procedure) cohort study compared allograft outcomes for shipped live donor kidney transplants and nonshipped living donor kidney transplants. Fifty-seven shipped live donor kidneys were transplanted from 31 institutions in 26 cities. The mean shipping distance was 1634 miles (range 123-2811) with mean CIT of 12.1 ± 2.8 h. The incidence of delayed graft function in the shipped cohort was 1.8% (1/57) compared to 0% (0/57) in the nonshipped cohort. The 1-year allograft survival was 98% in both cohorts. There were no significant differences between the mean serum creatinine values or the rates of serum creatinine decline in the immediate postoperative period even after adjusted for gender and differences in recipient and donor BMI. Despite prolonged CITs, outcomes for shipped live donor kidney transplants were similar when compared to matched nonshipped living donor kidney transplants.

  9. Transplantation of solid organs procured from influenza A H1N1 infected donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockbain, Andrew J; Jacob, Matthew; Ecuyer, Clare; Hostert, Lutz; Ahmad, Niaz

    2011-12-01

    Following the influenza A H1N1 (swine flu) pandemic, there remains little evidence informing the safety of transplanting organs from donors suspected or diagnosed with H1N1. Limited guidelines from the major transplant societies leave the use of such organs at the discretion of individual transplant centres, and practice varies considerably both nationally and internationally. We present the largest published series of outcome following transplantation of organs from H1N1 positive donors and demonstrate that these organs can be transplanted safely and with good short-term outcome. We discuss our local policy for treatment of recipients with Oseltamivir.

  10. Pulmonary artery patch for an inadequate donor atrial cuff in the absence of donor pericardium in lung transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Seiichiro; Yamane, Masaomi; Miyoshi, Kentaroh; Kurosaki, Takeshi; Otani, Shinji; Miyoshi, Shinichiro; Oto, Takahiro

    2017-03-01

    In cadaveric lung transplantation (LTx), a donor lung with an inadequate donor left atrial cuff is considered a "surgically marginal donor lung". The donor pericardium is commonly applied to reconstruct the inadequate donor left atrial cuff; however, in some cases, the donor pericardium is inadvertently removed during the lung procurement. We devised an alternative technique for reconstruction to overcome the absence of pericardium in a donor lung with an inadequate atrial cuff, using a patch of the donor pulmonary artery (PA) in single lung transplantation. In a recent case of lung transplantation in which the donor pericardium had been removed, we harvested a segment of the right PA distal to the main PA of the donor and used a PA patch to repair the inadequate donor left atrial cuff. No vascular complications were encountered in the recipient, who remains in good health after the transplantation.

  11. Harmonic functions with varying coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Dziok

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Complex-valued harmonic functions that are univalent and sense preserving in the open unit disk can be written in the form f = h + g ‾ $f=h+\\overline{g}$ , where h and g are analytic. In this paper we investigate some classes of univalent harmonic functions with varying coefficients related to Janowski functions. By using the extreme points theory we obtain necessary and sufficient convolution conditions, coefficients estimates, distortion theorems, and integral mean inequalities for these classes of functions. The radii of starlikeness and convexity for these classes are also determined.

  12. Linearized Bekenstein Varying Alpha Models

    CERN Document Server

    Pina-Avelino, P; Oliveira, J C

    2004-01-01

    We study the simplest class of Bekenstein-type, varying $\\alpha$ models, in which the two available free functions (potential and gauge kinetic function) are Taylor-expanded up to linear order. Any realistic model of this type reduces to a model in this class for a certain time interval around the present day. Nevertheless, we show that no such model is consistent with all existing observational results. We discuss possible implications of these findings, and in particular clarify the ambiguous statement (often found in the literature) that ``the Webb results are inconsistent with Oklo''.

  13. Linearized Bekenstein varying α models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avelino, P. P.; Martins, C. J.; Oliveira, J. C.

    2004-10-01

    We study the simplest class of Bekenstein-type, varying α models, in which the two available free functions (potential and gauge kinetic function) are Taylor-expanded up to linear order. Any realistic model of this type reduces to a model in this class for a certain time interval around the present day. Nevertheless, we show that no such model is consistent with all existing observational results. We discuss possible implications of these findings, and, in particular, clarify the ambiguous statement (often found in the literature) that “the Webb results are inconsistent with Oklo.”

  14. Time-varying cosmological term

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socorro, J.; D'oleire, M.; Pimentel, Luis O.

    2015-11-01

    We present the case of time-varying cosmological term using the Lagrangian formalism characterized by a scalar field ϕ with standard kinetic energy and arbitrary potential V(ϕ). This model is applied to Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW)cosmology. Exact solutions of the field equations are obtained by a special ansats to solve the Einstein-Klein-Gordon equation and a particular potential for the scalar field and barotropic perfect fluid. We present the evolution on this cosmological term with different scenarios.

  15. West Nile virus lineage 2 infection in a blood donor from Vienna, Austria, August 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungbauer, C; Hourfar, M K; Stiasny, K; Aberle, S W; Cadar, D; Schmidt-Chanasit, J; Mayr, W R

    2015-03-01

    Eastern Austria is neighbouring regions with ongoing West Nile virus (WNV) transmissions. Three human WNV infections had been diagnosed during the past decade in Austria. The Austrian Red Cross Blood Service (ARC-BS) started a first voluntary screening for WNV in blood donors from Eastern Austria by Nucleic Acid Testing (NAT) in June 2014. This is also the most extensive WNV surveillance programme in humans in Austria so far. In August 2014, one autochthonous WNV infection was detected in a blood donor from Vienna. By now, one in 67,800 whole blood donations was found to be positive for WNV RNA.

  16. Donor-to-Donor vs Donor-to-Acceptor Interfacial Charge Transfer States in the Phthalocyanine-Fullerene Organic Photovoltaic System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myeong H; Dunietz, Barry D; Geva, Eitan

    2014-11-06

    Charge transfer (CT) states formed at the donor/acceptor heterointerface are key for photocurrent generation in organic photovoltaics (OPV). Our calculations show that interfacial donor-to-donor CT states in the phthalocyanine-fullerene OPV system may be more stable than donor-to-acceptor CT states and that they may rapidly recombine, thereby constituting a potentially critical and thus far overlooked loss mechanism. Our results provide new insight into processes that may compete with charge separation, and suggest that the efficiency for charge separation may be improved by destabilizing donor-to-donor CT states or decoupling them from other states.

  17. Varying Constants, Gravitation and Cosmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Philippe Uzan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Fundamental constants are a cornerstone of our physical laws. Any constant varying in space and/or time would reflect the existence of an almost massless field that couples to matter. This will induce a violation of the universality of free fall. Thus, it is of utmost importance for our understanding of gravity and of the domain of validity of general relativity to test for their constancy. We detail the relations between the constants, the tests of the local position invariance and of the universality of free fall. We then review the main experimental and observational constraints that have been obtained from atomic clocks, the Oklo phenomenon, solar system observations, meteorite dating, quasar absorption spectra, stellar physics, pulsar timing, the cosmic microwave background and big bang nucleosynthesis. At each step we describe the basics of each system, its dependence with respect to the constants, the known systematic effects and the most recent constraints that have been obtained. We then describe the main theoretical frameworks in which the low-energy constants may actually be varying and we focus on the unification mechanisms and the relations between the variation of different constants. To finish, we discuss the more speculative possibility of understanding their numerical values and the apparent fine-tuning that they confront us with.

  18. Varying Constants, Gravitation and Cosmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzan, Jean-Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Fundamental constants are a cornerstone of our physical laws. Any constant varying in space and/or time would reflect the existence of an almost massless field that couples to matter. This will induce a violation of the universality of free fall. Thus, it is of utmost importance for our understanding of gravity and of the domain of validity of general relativity to test for their constancy. We detail the relations between the constants, the tests of the local position invariance and of the universality of free fall. We then review the main experimental and observational constraints that have been obtained from atomic clocks, the Oklo phenomenon, solar system observations, meteorite dating, quasar absorption spectra, stellar physics, pulsar timing, the cosmic microwave background and big bang nucleosynthesis. At each step we describe the basics of each system, its dependence with respect to the constants, the known systematic effects and the most recent constraints that have been obtained. We then describe the main theoretical frameworks in which the low-energy constants may actually be varying and we focus on the unification mechanisms and the relations between the variation of different constants. To finish, we discuss the more speculative possibility of understanding their numerical values and the apparent fine-tuning that they confront us with.

  19. Varying Constants, Gravitation and Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzan, Jean-Philippe

    2011-12-01

    Fundamental constants are a cornerstone of our physical laws. Any constant varying in space and/or time would reflect the existence of an almost massless field that couples to matter. This will induce a violation of the universality of free fall. Thus, it is of utmost importance for our understanding of gravity and of the domain of validity of general relativity to test for their constancy. We detail the relations between the constants, the tests of the local position invariance and of the universality of free fall. We then review the main experimental and observational constraints that have been obtained from atomic clocks, the Oklo phenomenon, solar system observations, meteorite dating, quasar absorption spectra, stellar physics, pulsar timing, the cosmic microwave background and big bang nucleosynthesis. At each step we describe the basics of each system, its dependence with respect to the constants, the known systematic effects and the most recent constraints that have been obtained. We then describe the main theoretical frameworks in which the low-energy constants may actually be varying and we focus on the unification mechanisms and the relations between the variation of different constants. To finish, we discuss the more speculative possibility of understanding their numerical values and the apparent fine-tuning that they confront us with.

  20. Human progenitor cells rapidly mobilized by AMD3100 repopulate NOD/SCID mice with increased frequency in comparison to cells from the same donor mobilized by granulocyte colony stimulating factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hess, David A; Bonde, Jesper; Craft, Timothy P

    2007-01-01

    AMD3100 inhibits the interaction between SDF-1 and CXCR4, and rapidly mobilizes hematopoietic progenitors for clinical transplantation. However, the repopulating function of human cells mobilized with AMD3100 has not been characterized in comparison to cells mobilized with granulocyte-colony stim......AMD3100 inhibits the interaction between SDF-1 and CXCR4, and rapidly mobilizes hematopoietic progenitors for clinical transplantation. However, the repopulating function of human cells mobilized with AMD3100 has not been characterized in comparison to cells mobilized with granulocyte...

  1. Comparison between spousal donor transplantation treated with anti-thymocyte globulin induction therapy and, living related donor transplantation treated with standard immunosuppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkan Demir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The worldwide shortage of organs available for transplantation has led to the use of living-unrelated kidney donors. In this context, spouses represent an important source of organ donors. We compared the allograft outcomes of spousal donor transplantation (SDT with anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG induction therapy and living related donor transplantation (LRDT with triple immonosuppression and basiliximab, in addition. Among the 335 living and deceased donor kidney transplantations performed between April 2001 and June 2010, there were 274 living donor kidney transplantations including 34 SDT and 240 LRDT. The minimum follow-up period was 36 months. All recipients of SDT received ATG (1.5 mg/kg induction therapy, which was stopped five to seven days after surgery. Maintenance immunosuppression included tacrolimus (TAC, mycophenolate mofetil (MMF and prednisolone. LRDT recipients received triple immunosuppressive protocol consisting of cyclosporine or TAC, MMF and prednisolone, in addition to basiliximab. There was a significant difference between the two groups in recipient age, while pre-operative duration on dialysis, recipient sex and donor age and sex were not significantly different. There was also a significant difference between the two groups in the number of human leukocyte antigen (HLA mismatches. The 1-, 3- and 5-year graft survival rates of SDT were 94.1%, 88.2% and 79.4%, respectively, and the frequency of acute rejection episodes was 5.8% (two cases. The 1-, 3- and 5-year graft survival rates of LRDT were 95.8%, 91.6% and 83.3%, respectively, with the frequency of acute rejection being 16.2%. The graft survival rates of SDT were as good as LRDT, while the acute rejection rates in SDT were lower than in LRDT, although the difference was not statistically different (P = 0.13.

  2. Prevalence of seroreactivity among blood donors in rural population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonwane B

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The seroreactivity pattern amongst blood donors in rural population was studied at S.R.T. Rural Medical College and Hospital, Ambajogai (M. S.. The study period was from January 1996 to December 2001. A total number of 12,240 blood donors were screened. The voluntary donation was 36.98% and replacement donors were 63.02%. No professional donor is bled in our blood bank. The HIV seroreactivity among voluntary donors was 1.56% and 2.11% in replacement donors. The HBsAg seroreactivity was 2.78% in voluntary donors and 4.84% in replacement donors. VDRL seroreactivity is 1.12% in replacement donors. No malarial parasite and HCV seroreactive donor was found in our study period. We have found the magnitude of hepatitis to be far more than that of HIV. Hence testing for HCV routinely is mandatory, besides HBsAg.

  3. Serum ferritin in plateletpheresis and whole blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggan, Frances; O'Sullivan, Kathleen; Power, Joan P; Healy, Michael; Murphy, William G

    2016-08-01

    We performed a prospective analysis of iron status in plateletpheresis donors, using whole blood donors as a control group, to assess the haematinic effects of regular anti-coagulated extracorporeal circulation and platelet collection. Ferritin levels were measured in samples from 31 regular male plateletpheresis donors and from 14 first time male whole blood donors, immediately before and immediately after donation, and immediately before the next donation. An additional 33 regular male plateletpheresis donors and 17 first time male whole blood donors had serum ferritin levels checked predonation. Male plateletpheresis donors had a statistically significant fall in serum ferritin after donation (P = 0.005)*. In addition, male platelet donors had significantly lower serum ferritin levels than first time male blood donors: ferritin serum ferritin measurement in apheresis donor management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Donor-transmitted, donor-derived, and de novo cancer after liver transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Jeremy R; Lynch, Stephen V

    2014-03-01

    Cancer is the third most common cause of death (after cardiovascular disease and infection) for patients who have a functioning kidney allograft. Kidney and liver transplant recipients have similar cancer risks because of immunosuppression but different risks because of differences in primary diseases that cause renal and hepatic failure and the inherent behavior of cancers in the liver. There are 4 types of cancer that may develop in liver allograft recipients: (1) recurrent cancer, (2) donor-transmitted cancer, (3) donor-derived cancer, and (4) de novo cancer. Identification of potential donor cancer transmission may occur at postmortem examination of a deceased donor or when a probable donor-transmitted cancer is identified in another recipient. Donor-transmitted cancer after liver transplant is rare in Australia, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Aging of the donor pool may increase the risk of subclinical cancer in donors. Liver transplant recipients have a greater risk of de novo cancer than the general population, and risk factors for de novo cancer in liver transplant recipients include primary sclerosing cholangitis, alcoholic liver disease, smoking, and increased age. Liver transplant recipients may benefit from cancer screening because they have a high risk, are clearly identifiable, and are under continuous medical supervision.

  5. Reimbursement for Living Kidney Donor Follow-Up Care: How Often Does Donor Insurance Pay?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kher, Ajay; Rodrigue, James; Ajaimy, Maria; Wasilewski, Marcy; Ladin, Keren; Mandelbrot, Didier

    2014-01-01

    Background Currently, many transplantation centers do not follow former living kidney donors on a long-term basis. Several potential barriers have been identified to provide this follow-up of former living kidney donors, including concerns that donor insurance will not reimburse transplantation centers or primary care physicians for this care. Here, we report the rates at which different insurance companies reimbursed our transplantation center for follow-up visits of living donors. Methods We collected data on all yearly follow-up visits of living donors billed from January 1, 2007, to December 31, 2010, representing 82 different donors. Concurrent visits of their recipients were available for 47 recipients and were used as a control group. Results We find that most bills for follow-up visits of living kidney donors were paid by insurance companies, at a rate similar to the reimbursement for recipient follow-up care. Conclusions Our findings suggest that, for former donors with insurance, inadequate reimbursement should not be a barrier in providing follow-up care. PMID:23060280

  6. Reimbursement for living kidney donor follow-up care: how often does donor insurance pay?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kher, Ajay; Rodrigue, James; Ajaimy, Maria; Wasilewski, Marcy; Ladin, Keren; Mandelbrot, Didier

    2012-11-27

    Currently, many transplantation centers do not follow former living kidney donors on a long-term basis. Several potential barriers have been identified to provide this follow-up of former living kidney donors, including concerns that donor insurance will not reimburse transplantation centers or primary care physicians for this care. Here, we report the rates at which different insurance companies reimbursed our transplantation center for follow-up visits of living donors. We collected data on all yearly follow-up visits of living donors billed from January 1, 2007, to December 31, 2010, representing 82 different donors. Concurrent visits of their recipients were available for 47 recipients and were used as a control group. We find that most bills for follow-up visits of living kidney donors were paid by insurance companies, at a rate similar to the reimbursement for recipient follow-up care. Our findings suggest that, for former donors with insurance, inadequate reimbursement should not be a barrier in providing follow-up care.

  7. Fear, fascination and the sperm donor as 'abjection' in interviews with heterosexual recipients of donor insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burr, Jennifer

    2009-07-01

    The background to this article is the medical regulation of sperm donation in the UK and the recent policy change so that children born from sperm, eggs or embryos donated after April 2005 have the right to know their donor's identity. I draw upon data from interviews with ten women and seven joint interviews with couples who received donor insemination from an anonymous sperm donor and were the parents of donor insemination children. I explore the symbolic presence of the donor and his potential to disrupt social and physical boundaries using the theoretical conceptions of boundaries and pollution as articulated by Mary Douglas and Julia Kristeva. I present data to argue that the anonymous donor manifests in various figures; the shadowy and ambiguous figure of 'another man'; the intelligent medical student; the donor as a family man, with children of his own who wants to help infertile men father children. In addition participants perceive the donor's physical characteristics, but also see their husband's physical characteristics, in their children. In conclusion I argue that anonymisation preserves features of conventional family life, maintains the idea of exclusivity within the heterosexual relationship and affirms the legal father's insecurity about his infertility.

  8. [Surgical complications of nephrectomy in living donors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabii, R; Joual, A; Fekak, H; Moufid, K; el Mrini, M; Benjelloun, S; Khaleq, K; Idali, B; Harti, A; Barrou, L; Fatihi, M; Benghanem, M; Hachim, J; Ramdani, B; Zaid, D

    2002-05-01

    Renal transplantation from a living donor is now considered the best treatment for chronic renal failure. We reviewed the operative complications in 38 living related donor nephrectomies performed at our institution over the past 14 years. The mean age of our donors was 30 years old with age range between 18 and 58 years old and female predominance (55.2%). These swabs were realized by a posterolateral lumbar lombotomy with resection of the 11 third. The left kidney was removed in 34 donors (90%), surgical complications were noted in 39.4% of the cases: one case of wound of inferior vena cava (2.6%), one case of release of the renal artery clamp (2.6%), four cases of pleural grap (10.5%), one case of pneumothorax (2.6%), one case of pleurisy (2.6%), three cases of urinary infection (7.8%), three cases of parietal infection (7.8%) and one case of patient pain at the level of the wound (2.6%). There were no mortalities. We conclude that the morbidity of living donor nephrectomy is negligible compared with the advantages for the recipient.

  9. Local Varying-Alpha Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Barrow, John D

    2014-01-01

    In a recent paper we demonstrated how the simplest model for varying alpha may be interpreted as the effect of a dielectric material, generalized to be consistent with Lorentz invariance. Unlike normal dielectrics, such a medium cannot change the speed of light, and its dynamics obey a Klein-Gordon equation. This work immediately suggests an extension of the standard theory, even if we require compliance with Lorentz invariance. Instead of a wave equation, the dynamics may satisfy a local algebraic relation involving the permittivity and the properties of the electromagnetic field, in analogy with more conventional dielectric (but still preserving Lorentz invariance). We develop the formalism for such theories and investigate some phenomenological implications. The problem of the divergence of the classical self-energy can be solved, or at least softened, in this framework. Some interesting new cosmological solutions for the very early universe are found, including the possibility of a bounce, inflation and e...

  10. Varying constants, Gravitation and Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Uzan, Jean-Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Fundamental constants are a cornerstone of our physical laws. Any constant varying in space and/or time would reflect the existence of an almost massless field that couples to matter. This will induce a violation of the universality of free fall. It is thus of utmost importance for our understanding of gravity and of the domain of validity of general relativity to test for their constancy. We thus detail the relations between the constants, the tests of the local position invariance and of the universality of free fall. We then review the main experimental and observational constraints that have been obtained from atomic clocks, the Oklo phenomenon, Solar system observations, meteorites dating, quasar absorption spectra, stellar physics, pulsar timing, the cosmic microwave background and big bang nucleosynthesis. At each step we describe the basics of each system, its dependence with respect to the constants, the known systematic effects and the most recent constraints that have been obtained. We then describ...

  11. Exploration of Periodically Varying Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Flocchini, Paola; Santoro, Nicola

    2009-01-01

    We study the computability and complexity of the exploration problem in a class of highly dynamic graphs: periodically varying (PV) graphs, where the edges exist only at some (unknown) times defined by the periodic movements of carriers. These graphs naturally model highly dynamic infrastructure-less networks such as public transports with fixed timetables, low earth orbiting (LEO) satellite systems, security guards' tours, etc. We establish necessary conditions for the problem to be solved. We also derive lower bounds on the amount of time required in general, as well as for the PV graphs defined by restricted classes of carriers movements: simple routes, and circular routes. We then prove that the limitations on computability and complexity we have established are indeed tight. In fact we prove that all necessary conditions are also sufficient and all lower bounds on costs are tight. We do so constructively presenting two worst case optimal solution algorithms, one for anonymous systems, and one for those w...

  12. Time-Varying Fundamental Constants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olive, Keith

    2003-04-01

    Recent data from quasar absorption systems can be interpreted as arising from a time variation in the fine-structure constant. However, there are numerous cosmological, astro-physical, and terrestrial bounds on any such variation. These includes bounds from Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (from the ^4He abundance), the Oklo reactor (from the resonant neutron capture cross-section of Sm), and from meteoretic lifetimes of heavy radioactive isotopes. The bounds on the variation of the fine-structure constant are significantly strengthened in models where all gauge and Yukawa couplings vary in a dependent manner, as would be expected in unified theories. Models which are consistent with all data are severly challenged when Equivalence Principle constraints are imposed.

  13. Weighted approximation with varying weight

    CERN Document Server

    Totik, Vilmos

    1994-01-01

    A new construction is given for approximating a logarithmic potential by a discrete one. This yields a new approach to approximation with weighted polynomials of the form w"n"(" "= uppercase)P"n"(" "= uppercase). The new technique settles several open problems, and it leads to a simple proof for the strong asymptotics on some L p(uppercase) extremal problems on the real line with exponential weights, which, for the case p=2, are equivalent to power- type asymptotics for the leading coefficients of the corresponding orthogonal polynomials. The method is also modified toyield (in a sense) uniformly good approximation on t