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Sample records for human donors vary

  1. Telomere erosion varies during in vitro aging of normal human fibroblasts from young and adult donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, R; Lindenmaier, H; Hergenhahn, M; Nielsen, K V; Boukamp, P

    2000-06-01

    The life span of normal fibroblasts in vitro (Hayflick limit) depends on donor age, and telomere shortening has been proposed as a potential mechanism. By quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization and Southern blot analysis, we show progressive telomere loss to about 5 kb mean telomere restriction fragment length in fibroblasts from two adult donors within 40 population doublings, whereas in fibroblasts from two infant donors, telomere erosion is reduced, leaving a mean telomere restriction fragment length of approximately 7 kb at senescence (after approximately 60 population doublings). Aging of fibroblasts from both infant and adult donors was not accompanied by chromosomal abnormalities but was correlated with increased telomere repeat-binding factor 2 expression at both the protein and transcriptional level.

  2. Donor human milk for preterm infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arslanoglu, Sertac; Corpeleijn, Willemijn; Moro, Guido

    2013-01-01

    guidelines. Storage and processing of human milk reduces some biological components, which may diminish its health benefits. From a nutritional point of view, DHM, like HM, does not meet the requirements of preterm infants, necessitating a specific fortification regimen to optimize growth. Future research......The Committee on Nutrition of the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition aims to document the existing evidence of the benefits and common concerns deriving from the use of donor human milk (DHM) in preterm infants. The comment also outlines gaps in knowledge...... and gives recommendations for practice and suggestions for future research directions. Protection against necrotizing enterocolitis is the major clinical benefit deriving from the use of DHM when compared with formula. Limited data also suggest unfortified DHM to be associated with improved feeding...

  3. Human decellularized bone scaffolds from aged donors show improved osteoinductive capacity compared to young donor bone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A Smith

    Full Text Available To improve the safe use of allograft bone, decellularization techniques may be utilized to produce acellular scaffolds. Such scaffolds should retain their innate biological and biomechanical capacity and support mesenchymal stem cell (MSC osteogenic differentiation. However, as allograft bone is derived from a wide age-range, this study aimed to determine whether donor age impacts on the ability an osteoinductive, acellular scaffold produced from human bone to promote the osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow MSCs (BM-MSC. BM-MSCs from young and old donors were seeded on acellular bone cubes from young and old donors undergoing osteoarthritis related hip surgery. All combinations resulted in increased osteogenic gene expression, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP enzyme activity, however BM-MSCs cultured on old donor bone displayed the largest increases. BM-MSCs cultured in old donor bone conditioned media also displayed higher osteogenic gene expression and ALP activity than those exposed to young donor bone conditioned media. ELISA and Luminex analysis of conditioned media demonstrated similar levels of bioactive factors between age groups; however, IGF binding protein 1 (IGFBP1 concentration was significantly higher in young donor samples. Additionally, structural analysis of old donor bone indicated an increased porosity compared to young donor bone. These results demonstrate the ability of a decellularized scaffold produced from young and old donors to support osteogenic differentiation of cells from young and old donors. Significantly, the older donor bone produced greater osteogenic differentiation which may be related to reduced IGFBP1 bioavailability and increased porosity, potentially explaining the excellent clinical results seen with the use of allograft from aged donors.

  4. Human body donation in Thailand: Donors at Khon Kaen University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techataweewan, N; Panthongviriyakul, C; Toomsan, Y; Mothong, W; Kanla, P; Chaichun, A; Amarttayakong, P; Tayles, N

    2018-03-01

    Culture, society and spirituality contribute to variability in the characteristics of human body donors and donation programmes worldwide. The donors and the body donation programme at Khon Kaen University, northeast Thailand, reflect all these aspects of Thailand, including the status accorded to the donors and the ceremonial acknowledgement of the donors and their families. Data from the programme records and from surveys of samples of currently registering donors and recently received donor bodies are analysed to define the characteristics of both registering and received donors, including motivation, demography, socio-economic status, health, and use of the bodies. The body donation programme at Khon Kaen University currently has a very high rate of registration of body donors, with gender and age differences in the patterns of donation. Registrants include more females than males, a long-standing pattern, and are an average age of 50 years. The bodies of 12% of registrants are received after death and include more males than females. Both sexes are of an average age of 69 years. Males had registered their donation eight years prior to death and females ten years prior. Current registrants identified altruistic motives for their decision to donate, although the coincidence of body donation by a highly revered monk with a surge in donations in 2015 suggests that Buddhism plays a primary role in motivation. The opportunity to make merit for donors and their families, and respect shown to donors and the nature of the ceremonies acknowledging the donors and their families, including the use of the Royal Flame at the cremation ceremony, all contribute to decisions to donate. The characteristics of body donors and the body donation programme at Khon Kaen University are reflective of Thai society and the centrality of Buddhism to Thai culture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of Fetal Intestinal Cell Growth and Antimicrobial Biofunctionalities of Donor Human Milk After Preparative Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaprach, Pasinee; Pongsakul, Nutkridta; Apiwattanakul, Nopporn; Muanprasat, Chatchai; Supapannachart, Sarayut; Nuntnarumit, Pracha; Chutipongtanate, Somchai

    2018-04-01

    Donor human milk is considered the next best nutrition following mother's own milk to prevent neonatal infection and necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants who are admitted at neonatal intensive care unit. However, donor milk biofunctionalities after preparative processes have rarely been documented. To evaluate biofunctionalities preserved in donor milk after preparative processes by cell-based assays. Ten pools of donor milk were produced from 40 independent specimens. After preparative processes, including bacterial elimination methods (holder pasteurization and cold-sterilization microfiltration) and storage conditions (-20°C freezing storage and lyophilization) with varied duration of storage (0, 3, and 6, months), donor milk biofunctionalities were examined by fetal intestinal cell growth and antimicrobial assays. At baseline, raw donor milk exhibited 193.1% ± 12.3% of fetal intestinal cell growth and 42.4% ± 11.8% of antimicrobial activities against Escherichia coli. After bacteria eliminating processes, growth promoting activity was better preserved in pasteurized donor milk than microfiltrated donor milk (169.5% ± 14.3% versus 146.0% ± 11.8%, respectively; p pasteurized donor milk was further examined for the effects of storage conditions at 3 and 6 months. Freezing storage, but not lyophilization, could preserve higher growth-promoting activity during 6 months of storage (163.0% ± 9.4% versus 72.8% ± 6.2%, respectively; p < 0.005). Nonetheless, antimicrobial activity was lost at 6 months, regardless of the storage methods. This study revealed that fetal intestinal cell growth and antimicrobial assays could be applied to measure donor milk biofunctionalities and support the utilization of donor milk within 3 months after preparative processes.

  6. The content of bone morphogenetic proteins in platelets varies greatly between different platelet donors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalen, Anders; Wahlstroem, Ola; Linder, Cecilia Halling; Magnusson, Per

    2008-01-01

    Platelet derivates and platelet rich plasma have been used to stimulate bone formation and wound healing because of the rich content of potent growth factors. However, not all reports have been conclusive since some have not been able to demonstrate a positive effect. We investigated the interindividual variation of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) in platelets from healthy donors, and the pH-dependent effect on the release of BMPs in preparations of lysed platelets in buffer (LPB). Platelet concentrates from 31 healthy donors were prepared in pH 4.3 and pH 7.4 buffers and investigated with respect to BMP-2, -4, -6, and -7. BMP-2 and BMP-4 were significantly more common in acidic LPBs in comparison with neutral preparations. We also observed a considerable variation among platelet donors with respect to the release of BMPs at pH 4.3 and 7.4. In conclusion, a considerable variation was found among platelet donors, which may be of importance considering the ambiguous results previously reported on osteoblast proliferation and differentiation

  7. The Human Tissue Act 2004 and the child donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baston, Jenny

    2009-05-01

    In 2001, the inquiry panel appointed to investigate the removal, retention and disposal of human organs and tissues at the Royal Liverpool Children's Hospital published its report. The panel's recommendations led to a new approach to consent for organ removal and storage under the new Human Tissue Act 2004. For child bone marrow donors, the new consent process requires all donor children or their parent to undergo a separate assessment before the bone marrow donation. They must be assessed by an accredited assessor who will submit a recommendation to the Human Tissue Authority for consideration. The unfortunate circumstances highlighted in the inquiry have led to changes to law, practice and culture that are benefiting other children and families.

  8. Sutureless human sclera donor patch graft for Ahmed glaucoma valve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeppa, Lucio; Romano, Mario R; Capasso, Luigi; Tortori, Achille; Majorana, Mara A; Costagliola, Ciro

    2010-01-01

    To report the safety and effectiveness of a sutureless human sclera donor patch graft covering the subconjunctival portion of glaucoma drainage implant tube to prevent its erosion throughout the overlying conjunctiva. This was a prospective pilot study. Fifteen eyes of 15 consecutive patients not responsive to medical and to not-implant surgical glaucoma treatment underwent Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) implant surgery with sutureless human sclera donor patch graft. The surgical procedure included AVG implant placed 8 mm behind the corneal limbus and fixed to the sclera with two 9-0 black nylon sutures. The tube was passed through the scleral tunnel, parallel to the corneal limbus, and shortened at the desired length. The anterior part of the tube was covered with human donor scleral graft and kept in place with fibrin glue (Tissue Coll) under the conjunctiva. Examinations were scheduled at baseline and then at 1 week and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery. At 12-month follow-up, the best-corrected visual acuity did not significantly improve from baseline 0.78+/-1.2 logMAR, whereas mean intraocular pressure significantly decreased from preoperative values of 29.8 (SD 8.4) mmHg. In all cases, the scleral patch was found in place at each check during the follow-up period. No conjunctival erosion over the AGV tube nor sign of endophthalmitis was recorded at any time during the follow-up period. AVG implant surgery with sutureless human sclera donor patch graft represents an effective and relatively safe surgical procedure for complicated glaucomas, avoiding conjunctival erosions over the AGV tube.

  9. Benefits of donor human milk for preterm infants: current evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertino, Enrico; Giuliani, Francesca; Occhi, Luciana; Coscia, Alessandra; Tonetto, Paola; Marchino, Federica; Fabris, Claudio

    2009-10-01

    It's undoubted that optimum nutrition for term infants is breastfeeding, exclusive for the first six months, then followed by a complementary diet and carried on, if possible, for the first year of life or even more. During the last decades several data confirmed the great advantages of fresh mother's milk use also for feeding very low and extremely low birthweight preterm infants. When mother's milk is unavailable or in short supply, pasteurized donor breast milk is widely used in neonatal intensive care units. Pasteurization partially affects nutritional and immunological properties of breast milk, however it is known that pasteurized milk maintains some biological properties and clinical benefits. The substantial benefits of mother's own milk feeding of preterm infants are supported by strong evidence. However, there is increasing evidence also on specific benefits of donor breast milk. Future research is needed to compare formula vs. nutrient fortified donor breast milk, to compare formula and DM as supplements to maternal milk rather than as sole diet and to compare effects of different methods of heat treatments on donor human milk quality.

  10. Seroprevalence of human parvovirus B19 in healthy blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Satish; Gupta, R M; Sen, Sourav; Sarkar, R S; Philip, J; Kotwal, Atul; Sumathi, S H

    2013-07-01

    Human parvovirus B19 is an emerging transfusion transmitted infection. Although parvovirus B19 infection is connected with severe complications in some recipients, donor screening is not yet mandatory. To reduce the risk of contamination, plasma-pool screening and exclusion of highly viraemic donations are recommended. In this study the prevalence of parvovirus B19 in healthy blood donors was detected by ELISA. A total of 1633 samples were screened for IgM and IgG antibodies against parvovirus B19 by ELISA. The initial 540 samples were screened for both IgM and IgG class antibodies and remaining 1093 samples were screened for only IgM class antibodies by ELISA. Net prevalence of IgM antibodies to human parvovirus B19 in our study was 7.53% and prevalence of IgG antibodies was 27.96%. Dual positivity (IgG and IgM) was 2.40%. The seroprevalence of human parvovirus B19 among blood donor population in our study is high, and poses an adverse transfusion risk especially in high-risk group of patients who have no detectable antibodies to B19. Studies with large sample size are needed to validate these results.

  11. Modelling antecedents of blood donation motivation among non-donors of varying age and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmens, K P H; Abraham, C; Ruiter, R A C; Veldhuizen, I J T; Dehing, C J G; Bos, A E R; Schaalma, H P

    2009-02-01

    Understanding blood donation motivation among non-donors is prerequisite to effective recruitment. Two studies explored the psychological antecedents of blood donation motivation and the generalisability of a model of donation motivation across groups differing in age and educational level. An older well-educated population and a younger less well-educated population were sampled. The studies assessed the role of altruism, fear of blood/needles and donation-specific cognitions including attitudes and normative beliefs derived from an extended theory of planned behaviour (TPB). Across both samples, results showed that affective attitude, subjective norm, descriptive norm, and moral norm were the most important correlates of blood donation intentions. Self-efficacy was more important among the younger less well-educated group. Altruism was related to donation motivation but only indirectly through moral norm. Similarly, fear of blood/needles only had an indirect effect on motivation through affective attitude and self-efficacy. Additional analyses with the combined data set found no age or education moderation effects, suggesting that this core model of donation-specific cognitions can be used to inform future practical interventions recruiting new blood donors in the general population.

  12. Cost and Cost-Effectiveness of Donor Human Milk to Prevent Necrotizing Enterocolitis: Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckle, Abigail; Taylor, Celia

    2017-11-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a costly gastrointestinal disorder that mainly affects preterm and low-birth-weight infants and can lead to considerable morbidity and mortality. Mother's own milk is protective against NEC but is not always available. In such cases, donor human milk has also been shown to be protective (although to a lesser extent) compared with formula milk, but it is more expensive. This systematic review aimed at evaluating the cost of donor milk, the cost of treating NEC, and the cost-effectiveness of exclusive donor milk versus formula milk feeding to reduce the short-term health and treatment costs of NEC. We systematically searched five relevant databases to find studies with verifiable costs or charges of donor milk and/or treatment of NEC and any economic evaluations comparing exclusive donor milk with exclusive formula milk feeding. All search results were double screened. Seven studies with verifiable donor milk costs and 17 with verifiable NEC treatment costs were included. The types of cost or charge included varied considerably across studies, so quantitative synthesis was not attempted. Estimates of the incremental length of stay associated with NEC were ∼18 days for medical NEC and 50 days for surgical NEC. Two studies claimed to report economic evaluations but did not do so in practice. It is likely that donor milk provides short-term cost savings by reducing the incidence of NEC. Future studies should provide more details on cost components included and a full economic evaluation, including long-term outcomes, should be undertaken.

  13. An Adoptive Mother Who Became a Human Milk Donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Antón, Beatriz; García-Lara, Nadia Raquel; Pallás-Alonso, Carmen Rosa

    2017-05-01

    Inducing lactation in the absence of pregnancy (nonpuerperal lactation) is not always successful and, in many cases, only partial breastfeeding is achieved. Different protocols have been described, but scientific evidence and research are lacking in this area. The authors describe the case of a woman with a history of a miscarriage, for whom the lactation induction process was so effective that she became a milk donor even before she received her adopted child. She had not previously used hormone treatment. She was given domperidone as a galactogogue for 1 month. The pumping protocol began with a double electric breast pump combined with manual pumping 6 months before her child was delivered, and 3 months later, she was accepted as a donor by our milk bank. This highlights the importance of regular stimulation as a milk production mechanism. This is the first case of human milk donation in an adoptive mother described in the literature.

  14. Responses to recipient and donor B cells by genetically donor T cells from human haploidentical chimeras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiff, S.; Sampson, H.; Buckley, R.

    1986-01-01

    Following administration of haploidentical stem cells to infants with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), mature T cells of donor karyotype appear later in the recipient without causing graft-versus-host disease. To investigate the effect of the host environment on the responsiveness of these genetically donor T cells, blood B and T lymphocytes from 6 SCID recipients, their parental donors and unrelated controls were purified by double SRBC rosetting. T cells were stimulated by irradiated B cells at a 1:1 ratio in 6 day cultures. Engrafted T cells of donor karyotype gave much smaller responses to irradiated genetically recipient B cells than did fresh donor T cells. Moreover, engrafted T cells of donor karyotype from two of the three SCIDs who are longest post-transplantation responded more vigorously (14,685 and 31,623 cpm) than fresh donor T cells (5141 and 22,709 cpm) to donor B cells. These data indicate that T lymphocytes which have matured from donor stem cells in the recipient microenvironment behave differently from those that have matured in the donor

  15. Time-resolved autofluorescence imaging of human donor retina tissue from donors with significant extramacular drusen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweitzer, Dietrich; Gaillard, Elizabeth R; Dillon, James; Mullins, Robert F; Russell, Stephen; Hoffmann, Birgit; Peters, Sven; Hammer, Martin; Biskup, Christoph

    2012-06-08

    Time and spectrally resolved measurements of autofluorescence have the potential to monitor metabolism at the cellular level. Fluorophores that emit with the same fluorescence intensity can be discriminated from each other by decay time of fluorescence intensity after pulsed excitation. We performed time-resolved autofluorescence measurements on fundus samples from a donor with significant extramacular drusen. Tissue sections from two human donors were prepared and imaged with a laser scanning microscope. The sample was excited with a titanium-sapphire laser, which was tuned to 860 nm, and frequency doubled by a BBO crystal to 430 nm. The repetition rate was 76 MHz and the pulse width was 170 femtoseconds (fs). The time-resolved autofluorescence was recorded simultaneously in 16 spectral channels (445-605 nm) and bi-exponentially fitted. RPE can be discriminated clearly from Bruch's membrane, drusen, and choroidal connective tissue by fluorescence lifetime. In RPE, bright fluorescence of lipofuscin could be detected with a maximum at 510 nm and extending beyond 600 nm. The lifetime was 385 ps. Different types of drusen were found. Most of them did not contain lipofuscin and exhibited a weak fluorescence, with a maximum at 470 nm. The lifetime was 1785 picoseconds (ps). Also, brightly emitting lesions, presumably representing basal laminar deposits, with fluorescence lifetimes longer than those recorded in RPE could be detected. The demonstrated differentiation of fluorescent structures by their fluorescence decay time is important for interpretation of in vivo measurements by the new fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) ophthalmoscopy on healthy subjects as well as on patients.

  16. Knowledge, attitude, and beliefs of young, college student blood donors about Human immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Anju; Sonker, Atul; Chaudhary, Rajendra K

    2014-01-01

    Young people, who tend to be healthy, idealistic, and motivated, are an excellent pool of potential voluntary unpaid blood donors. Recruiting and retaining young blood donors improves the long term safety and sufficiency of a country's blood supply. Knowledge, attitude, and beliefs about Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) should play an important role in prevention of disease transmission. This study was a questionnaire based survey, conducted to explore the levels of knowledge, attitude, and beliefs about HIV in young college student blood donors. The results showed that the proportion of participants with comprehensive knowledge of HIV prevention and transmission was lesser than expected. Increase in education level and male gender was found to be significantly associated with high HIV-related knowledge. The responses on the different aspects of HIV-related attitude were also varied and there is still stigma associated with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) even in the educated groups. There was a spectrum of myths and misperceptions emphasizing the need of education that recognizes the social context of attitude towards HIV. Results from this study may contribute to the development of appropriate educational and training material for this group of donors which in turn, may assist in achieving the elusive goal of safe blood supply in future.

  17. Knowledge, attitude, and beliefs of young, college student blood donors about Human immunodeficiency virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anju Dubey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Young people, who tend to be healthy, idealistic, and motivated, are an excellent pool of potential voluntary unpaid blood donors. Recruiting and retaining young blood donors improves the long term safety and sufficiency of a country′s blood supply. Knowledge, attitude, and beliefs about Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV should play an important role in prevention of disease transmission. Materials and Methods: This study was a questionnaire based survey, conducted to explore the levels of knowledge, attitude, and beliefs about HIV in young college student blood donors. Results: The results showed that the proportion of participants with comprehensive knowledge of HIV prevention and transmission was lesser than expected. Increase in education level and male gender was found to be significantly associated with high HIV-related knowledge. The responses on the different aspects of HIV-related attitude were also varied and there is still stigma associated with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS even in the educated groups. Discussion: There was a spectrum of myths and misperceptions emphasizing the need of education that recognizes the social context of attitude towards HIV. Results from this study may contribute to the development of appropriate educational and training material for this group of donors which in turn, may assist in achieving the elusive goal of safe blood supply in future.

  18. Inactivation of high-risk human papillomaviruses by Holder pasteurization: implications for donor human milk banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donalisio, Manuela; Cagno, Valeria; Vallino, Marta; Moro, Guido E; Arslanoglu, Sertac; Tonetto, Paola; Bertino, Enrico; Lembo, David

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have recently reported the detection of oncogenic human papillomaviruses (HPV) in human milk of a minority of lactating mothers. These findings raised safety concerns in the context of human donor milk banking given the potential risk of HPV transmission to recipient infants. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the Holder pasteurization, a procedure currently in use in human donor milk banks for milk pasteurization, completely inactivates high-risk and low-risk HPV. HPV pseudoviruses (PsV) were generated, spiked into cell culture medium or donor human milk and subjected to thermal inactivation. HPV PsV infectivity and morphological integrity was analyzed by cell-based assay and by electron microscopy, respectively. The Holder pasteurization completely inactivated the infectivity of high-risk (types 16 and 18) and low-risk (type 6) HPV both in cell culture medium and in human milk causing PsV particle disassembly. The results presented here indicate that the Holder pasteurization is an efficient procedure to inactivate high-risk and low-risk HPV thus preventing the potential risk of their transmission through human donor milk.

  19. Best practice guidelines for the operation of a donor human milk bank in an Australian NICU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, B T; Pang, W W; Keil, A D; Hartmann, P E; Simmer, K

    2007-10-01

    Until the establishment of the PREM Bank (Perron Rotary Express Milk Bank) donor human milk banking had not occurred in Australia for the past 20 years. In re-establishing donor human milk banking in Australia, the focus of the PREM Bank has been to develop a formal and consistent approach to safety and quality in processing during the operation of the human milk bank. There is currently no existing legislation in Australia that specifically regulates the operation of donor human milk banks. For this reason the PREM Bank has utilised existing and internationally recognised management practices for managing hazards during food production. These tools (specifically HACCP) have been used to guide the development of Standard Operating Procedures and Good Manufacturing Practice for the screening of donors and processing of donor human milk. Donor screening procedures are consistent with those recommended by other human milk banks operating internationally, and also consistent with the requirements for blood and tissue donation in Australia. Controlled documentation and record keep requirements have also been developed that allow complete traceability from individual donation to individual feed dispensed to recipient and maintain a record of all processing and storage conditions. These operational requirements have been developed to reduce any risk associated with feeding pasteurised donor human milk to hospitalised preterm or ill infants to acceptable levels.

  20. Using optical coherence tomography (OCT) to evaluate the status of human donor kidneys (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Peter M.; Konkel, Brandon; Anderson, Erik; Stein, Matthew; Cooper, Matthew; Verbesey, Jennifer E.; Ghasemian, Seyed; Chen, Yu

    2016-02-01

    The main cause of delayed renal function following the transplant of donor kidneys is ischemic induced acute tubular necrosis (ATN). The ability to determine the degree of ATN suffered by donor kidneys prior to their transplant would enable transplant surgeons to use kidneys that might otherwise be discarded and better predict post-transplant renal function. Currently, there are no reliable tests to determine the extent of ATN of donor kidneys prior to their transplant. In ongoing clinical trials, we have been using optical coherence tomography (OCT) to non-invasively image the superficial proximal tubules of human donor kidneys prior to and following transplant, and correlate these observations with post-transplant renal function. Thus far we have studied over 40 living donor kidneys and 10 cadaver donor kidneys, and demonstrated that this imaging can be performed in a sterile and expeditious fashion in the operating room (OR). Because of many variables associated with a diverse population of donors/recipients and transplant operation parameters, more transplant data must be collected prior to drawing definite conclusions. Nevertheless, our observations have thus far mirrored our previously published laboratory results indicating that damage to the kidney proximal tubules as indicated by tubule swelling is a good measure of post-transplant ATN and delayed graft function. We conclude that OCT is a useful procedure for analyzing human donor kidneys.

  1. Characterization of human organ donors testing positive for type 1 diabetes-associated autoantibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiberg, A; Granstam, A; Ingvast, S; Härkönen, T; Knip, M; Korsgren, O; Skog, O

    2015-01-01

    In this study we aim to describe the characteristics of non-diabetic organ donors with circulating diabetes-associated autoantibodies collected within the Nordic Network for Islet Transplantation. One thousand and thirty organ donors have been screened in Uppsala for antibodies against glutamic acid decarboxylase (GADA) and islet antigen-2 (IA-2A). The 32 non-diabetic donors that tested positive for GADA (3·3% of all non-diabetic donors) were studied in more detail, together with 32 matched controls. Mean age among the autoantibody-positive donors was 52·6 (range 21–74), family history of type 1 diabetes (T1D) was unknown, and no donor was genetically predisposed for T1D regarding the human leucocyte antigen (HLA) locus. Subjects were analysed for islet cell antibodies (ICA), insulin autoantibodies (IAA) and zinc transporter 8 antibodies (ZnT8A), and pancreas morphology and clinical data were examined. Eight non-diabetic donors tested positive for two antibodies and one donor tested positive for four antibodies. No insulitis or other signs of a diabetic process were found in any of the donors. While inflammatory cells were present in all donors, subjects with high GADA titres had significantly higher CD45 cell numbers in exocrine tissue than controls. The extent of fibrosis was more pronounced in autoantibody-positive donors, even in subjects with lower GADA titres. Notably, it is possible that events not related directly to T1D (e.g. subclinical pancreatitis) may induce autoantibodies in some cases. PMID:26313035

  2. Determination of an unrelated donor pool size for human leukocyte antigen-matched platelets in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Bonet Bub

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: Successful transfusion of platelet refractory patients is a challenge. Many potential donors are needed to sustain human leukocyte antigen matched-platelet transfusion programs because of the different types of antigens and the constant needs of these patients. For a highly mixed population such as the Brazilian population, the pool size required to provide adequate platelet support is unknown. Methods: A mathematical model was created to estimate the appropriate size of an unrelated donor pool to provide human leukocyte antigen-compatible platelet support for a Brazilian population. A group of 154 hematologic human leukocyte antigen-typed patients was used as the potential patient population and a database of 65,500 human leukocyte antigen-typed bone marrow registered donors was used as the donor population. Platelet compatibility was based on the grading system of Duquesnoy. Results: Using the mathematical model, a pool containing 31,940, 1710 and 321 donors would be necessary to match more than 80% of the patients with at least five completely compatible (no cross-reactive group, partial compatible (one cross-reactive group or less compatible (two cross-reactive group donors, respectively. Conclusion: The phenotypic diversity of the Brazilian population has probably made it more difficulty to find completely compatible donors. However, this heterogeneity seems to have facilitated finding donors when cross-reactive groups are accepted as proposed by the grading system of Duquesnoy. The results of this study may help to establish unrelated human leukocyte antigen-compatible platelet transfusions, a procedure not routinely performed in most Brazilian transfusion services.

  3. Identification of multiple HPV types on spermatozoa from human sperm donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaspersen, Maja D; Larsen, Peter B; Ingerslev, Hans Jakob

    2011-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPV) may cause sexually transmitted disease. High-risk types of HPV are involved in the development of cervical cell dysplasia, whereas low-risk types may cause genital condyloma. Despite the association between HPV and cancer, donor sperm need not be tested for HPV...... according to European regulations. Consequently, the potential health risk of HPV transmission by donor bank sperm has not been elucidated, nor is it known how HPV is associated with sperm. The presence of 35 types of HPV was examined on DNA from semen samples of 188 Danish sperm donors using a sensitive...

  4. Characteristics of the regional human milk bank in Poland - donors, recipients and nutritional value of human milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbarska, Olga; Zielińska, Monika; Pawlus, Beata; Wesołowska, Aleksandra

    In case of shortage of breast milk despite proper lactation care or the poor state of the mother’s health, breast milk from human milk bank is recommended for feeding preterm infants This study retrospectively evaluated the first year of the operation of the Regional Human Milk Bank Data concerning donors was collected in the human milk bank during the cooperation. The clinical characteristics of the recipients was made on the basis of medical documentation from the Holy Family Hospital in Warsaw, Poland. Analysis of nutritional value was performed with the human milk analyzer (MIRIS AB) In the first year of activity, 45 voluntary donors established cooperation, donating from 650 to 32030 ml of human milk. The content of nutrients in milk provided by donors was variable - protein 0.4-1.5 g / 100 ml, fat 1.1-7.4 g / 100 ml, carbohydrates 6.3-7.9 g / 100 ml. The average length of using donated human milk was 4 days and the average volume of milk for one infant was 282 ml The donor profiles have a significant impact on the milk composition form HMB. The nutritional value can be improved by recruitment donors from mothers that gave birth prematurely and by beginning donation at earlier stages of lactation as soon as lactation is stabilized. In case of shortage of mothers own milk the immediate implementation of donors milk as a short-term support can significantly reduce the food intolerance incidence in the group of prematurely born infants

  5. Knowledge, attitude, and beliefs of young, college student blood donors about Human immunodeficiency virus

    OpenAIRE

    Dubey, Anju; Sonker, Atul; Chaudhary, Rajendra K.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Young people, who tend to be healthy, idealistic, and motivated, are an excellent pool of potential voluntary unpaid blood donors. Recruiting and retaining young blood donors improves the long term safety and sufficiency of a country′s blood supply. Knowledge, attitude, and beliefs about Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) should play an important role in prevention of disease transmission. Materials and Methods: This study was a questionnaire based survey, conducted to explore t...

  6. Donor age of human platelet lysate affects proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Lohmann

    Full Text Available The regenerative potential declines upon aging. This might be due to cell-intrinsic changes in stem and progenitor cells or to influences by the microenvironment. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC raise high hopes in regenerative medicine. They are usually culture expanded in media with fetal calf serum (FCS or other serum supplements such as human platelet lysate (HPL. In this study, we have analyzed the impact of HPL-donor age on culture expansion. 31 single donor derived HPLs (25 to 57 years old were simultaneously compared for culture of MSC. Proliferation of MSC did not reveal a clear association with platelet counts of HPL donors or growth factors concentrations (PDGF-AB, TGF-β1, bFGF, or IGF-1, but it was significantly higher with HPLs from younger donors (45 years. Furthermore, HPLs from older donors increased activity of senescence-associated beta-galactosidase (SA-βgal. HPL-donor age did not affect the fibroblastoid colony-forming unit (CFU-f frequency, immunophenotype or induction of adipogenic differentiation, whereas osteogenic differentiation was significantly lower with HPLs from older donors. Concentrations of various growth factors (PDGF-AB, TGF-β1, bFGF, IGF-1 or hormones (estradiol, parathormone, leptin, 1,25 vitamin D3 were not associated with HPL-donor age or MSC growth. Taken together, our data support the notion that aging is associated with systemic feedback mechanisms acting on stem and progenitor cells, and this is also relevant for serum supplements in cell culture: HPLs derived from younger donors facilitate enhanced expansion and more pronounced osteogenic differentiation.

  7. Donor Age of Human Platelet Lysate Affects Proliferation and Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmann, Michael; Walenda, Gudrun; Hemeda, Hatim; Joussen, Sylvia; Drescher, Wolf; Jockenhoevel, Stefan; Hutschenreuter, Gabriele; Zenke, Martin; Wagner, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    The regenerative potential declines upon aging. This might be due to cell-intrinsic changes in stem and progenitor cells or to influences by the microenvironment. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) raise high hopes in regenerative medicine. They are usually culture expanded in media with fetal calf serum (FCS) or other serum supplements such as human platelet lysate (HPL). In this study, we have analyzed the impact of HPL-donor age on culture expansion. 31 single donor derived HPLs (25 to 57 years old) were simultaneously compared for culture of MSC. Proliferation of MSC did not reveal a clear association with platelet counts of HPL donors or growth factors concentrations (PDGF-AB, TGF-β1, bFGF, or IGF-1), but it was significantly higher with HPLs from younger donors (45 years). Furthermore, HPLs from older donors increased activity of senescence-associated beta-galactosidase (SA-βgal). HPL-donor age did not affect the fibroblastoid colony-forming unit (CFU-f) frequency, immunophenotype or induction of adipogenic differentiation, whereas osteogenic differentiation was significantly lower with HPLs from older donors. Concentrations of various growth factors (PDGF-AB, TGF-β1, bFGF, IGF-1) or hormones (estradiol, parathormone, leptin, 1,25 vitamin D3) were not associated with HPL-donor age or MSC growth. Taken together, our data support the notion that aging is associated with systemic feedback mechanisms acting on stem and progenitor cells, and this is also relevant for serum supplements in cell culture: HPLs derived from younger donors facilitate enhanced expansion and more pronounced osteogenic differentiation. PMID:22662236

  8. Effect of Holder pasteurization on macronutrients and immunoglobulin profile of pooled donor human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhisivam, B; Vishnu Bhat, B; Rao, Krishna; Kingsley, S M; Plakkal, Nishad; Palanivel, C

    2018-03-27

    The objective of this study was to study the effect of Holder pasteurization on macronutrients and immunoglobulin profile of pooled donor human milk. This descriptive study was conducted in a Human Milk Bank of a tertiary care teaching institute in south India. Thirty random paired pooled donor human milk samples (before and after pasteurization) were analyzed for macronutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrates) using infrared spectroscopy. Similarly, immunoglobulin profile (IgA and IgG) before and after pasteurization was quantified using ELISA. The mean values of protein, fat, and carbohydrates in pooled donor milk pre-pasteurization were 1.6, 3.6, and 6.1 g/dl compared with post-pasteurization values 1.4, 2.7, and 5.9 g/dl, respectively. Pasteurization reduced protein, fat, and energy content of pooled donor milk by 12.5%, 25%, and 16%, respectively. However, carbohydrates were not significantly reduced. Pasteurization decreased IgA by 30% and IgG by 60%. Holder pasteurization of pooled donor human milk decreases protein, fat, and energy content and also reduces the levels of IgA and IgG.

  9. Human milk peptides differentiate between the preterm and term infant and across varying lactational stages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dingess, Kelly A.; de Waard, Marita; Boeren, Sjef; Vervoort, Jacques; Lambers, Tim T.; van Goudoever, Johannes B.; Hettinga, Kasper

    2017-01-01

    Variations in endogenous peptide profiles, functionality, and the enzymes responsible for the formation of these peptides in human milk are understudied. Additionally, there is a lack of knowledge regarding peptides in donor human milk, which is used to feed preterm infants when mother's own milk is

  10. [Role of donor human milk feeding in preventing nosocomial infection in very low birth weight infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Hong-Juan; Xu, Jing; Wei, Qiu-Fen

    2018-02-01

    To investigate the role of donor human milk in the prevention of nosocomial infection in very low birth weight infants. MeETHODS: A total of 105 hospitalized preterm infants with a very low birth weight were enrolled. They were classified into mother's own milk feeding group, donor human milk feeding group, and preterm formula feeding group, with 35 infants in each group. The three groups were compared in terms of incidence rates of nosocomial infection, necrotizing enterocolitis, and feeding intolerance, time to full enteral feeding, and early growth indices. Compared with the preterm formula feeding group, the donor human milk feeding group and the mother's own milk feeding group had significantly lower incidence rates of nosocomial infection and necrotizing enterocolitis and shorter time to full enteral feeding (Pmilk can be used in case of a lack of mother's own milk and may help to reduce nosocomial infection.

  11. Effects of pasteurization on adiponectin and insulin concentrations in donor human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ley, Sylvia H; Hanley, Anthony J; Stone, Debbie; O'Connor, Deborah L

    2011-09-01

    Although pasteurization is recommended before distributing donor human milk in North America, limited data are available on its impact on metabolic hormones in milk. We aimed to investigate the effects of pasteurization on adiponectin and insulin concentrations in donor human milk. The study investigates concentrations of components in donor human milk before and after Holder pasteurization. After the guidelines of the Human Milk Bank Association of North America, human milk samples were pooled to produce 17 distinct batches (4 individuals per batch) and pasteurized at 62.5°C for 30 min. Adiponectin, insulin, energy, fat, total protein, and glucose concentrations were measured pre- and postpasteurization. Pasteurization reduced milk adiponectin and insulin by 32.8 and 46.1%, respectively (both p Pasteurization effects on milk hormone concentrations remained significant after adjusting for fat and energy (beta ± SEE: -4.11 ± 1.27, p = 0.003 for adiponectin; -70.0 ± 15.0, p pasteurization reduced adiponectin and insulin concentrations in donor human milk. In view of emerging knowledge on the importance of milk components, continued work to find the optimal pasteurization process that mitigates risks but promotes retention of bioactive components is needed.

  12. Do Matrix Metalloproteases and Tissue Inhibitors of Metalloproteases in Tenocytes of the Rotator Cuff Differ with Varying Donor Characteristics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franka Klatte-Schulz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available An imbalance between matrix metalloproteases (MMPs and the tissue inhibitors of metalloproteases (TIMPs may have a negative impact on the healing of rotator cuff tears. The aim of the project was to assess a possible relationship between clinical and radiographic characteristics of patients such as the age, sex, as well as the degenerative status of the tendon and the MMPs and TIMPs in their tenocyte-like cells (TLCs. TLCs were isolated from ruptured supraspinatus tendons and quantitative Real-Time PCR and ELISA was performed to analyze the expression and secretion of MMPs and TIMPs. In the present study, MMPs, mostly gelatinases and collagenases such as MMP-2, -9 and -13 showed an increased expression and protein secretion in TLCs of donors with higher age or degenerative status of the tendon. Furthermore, the expression and secretion of TIMP-1, -2 and -3 was enhanced with age, muscle fatty infiltration and tear size. The interaction between MMPs and TIMPs is a complex process, since TIMPs are not only inhibitors, but also activators of MMPs. This study shows that MMPs and TIMPs might play an important role in degenerative tendon pathologies.

  13. Seroprevalence of human T-cell lymphotropic virus-1/2 in blood donors in northern pakistan: implication for blood donor screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niazi, S.K.

    2015-01-01

    To determine the seroprevalence of Human T-cell Lymphotropic Virus-1/2 (HTLV-1/2) in blood donors in Northern Pakistan. Study Design: Descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Armed Forces Institute of Transfusion, Rawalpindi, from July to August 2013. Methodology:A total of 2100 blood donors were screened for anti-HTLV-1/2 antibodies during the study period, in a pool of six, on a highly sensitive, Chemiluminiscent Microparticle Immunoassay (CMIA) based system. The screening test reactive donors were recalled, counseled and interviewed, and a fresh sample was obtained for confirmatory testing. Confirmation was performed using additional immunoassays including Line Immunoassay (LIA); with additional testing for HTLV-1 pvDNAPCR. Frequency and percentages were determined. Results: Four donors (0.19%) were repeatedly screening test-reactive and were subsequently confirmed to be HTLV-1 infected by line immunoassay and HTLV-1 pvDNAPCR. All four donors were male with mean age of 27 ± 6.27 years. Two (50%) of the positive donors gave history of Multiple Sexual Partners (MSP). Conclusion: HTLV-1 seroprevalence in Northern Pakistan blood donors was determined to be 0.19%. Large scale studies, including the cost effectiveness of screening blood donations for anti-HTLV-1/2 in Pakistan, are recommended. (author)

  14. Risk factors for human immunodeficiency virus among blood donors in Cameroon: evidence for the design of an Africa-specific donor history questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagny, Claude T; Nguefack-Tsague, Georges; Fopa, Diderot; Ashu, Celestin; Tante, Estel; Ngo Balogog, Pauline; Donfack, Olivier; Mbanya, Dora; Laperche, Syria; Murphy, Edward

    2017-08-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa improving the deferral of at-risk blood donors would be a cost-effective approach to reducing transfusion-transmitted human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections. We performed a pilot case-control study to identify the risk factors for HIV infection and to develop an adapted donor history questionnaire (DHQ) for sub-Saharan Africa. We recruited 137 HIV-positive donors (cases) and 256 HIV-negative donors (controls) and gathered risk factor data using audio computer-assisted self-interview. Variables with univariate associations were entered into a logistic regression model to assess independent associations. A scoring scheme to distinguish between HIV-positive and HIV-negative donors was developed using receiver operating characteristics curves. We identified 16 risk factors including sex with sex worker, past history or treatment for sexually transmitted infections, and having a partner who used injected or noninjected illegal drugs. Two novel risks were related to local behavior: polygamy (odds ratio [OR], 22.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.9-86.7) and medical or grooming treatment on the street (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.0-3.0). Using the 16 selected items the mean scores (>100) were 82.6 ± 6.7 (range, 53.2-95.1) and 85.1 ± 5.2 for HIV-negative donors versus 77.9 ± 6.8 for HIV-positive ones (p = 0.000). Donors who scored between 80 and 90 were more likely to be HIV negative than those who scored less (OR, 31.4; 95% CI, 3.1-313.9). We identified both typical and novel HIV risk factors among Cameroonian blood donors. An adapted DHQ and score that discriminate HIV-negative donors may be an inexpensive means of reducing transfusion-transmitted HIV through predonation screening. © 2017 AABB.

  15. [Profile of human milk bank donors and relationship with the length of the donation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra Colomina, G; García Lara, N; Escuder Vieco, D; Vázquez Román, S; Cabañes Alonso, E; Pallás Alonso, C R

    2014-04-01

    The promotion of Human Milk Banks is an important social service. The Human Milk Banks depend on donors, and knowing the profile of donors seems quite important. To study the demographics and lifestyles of the donors, the reasons or influences for donating, and to associate these variables with the length of the donation. This is a descriptive, cross-sectional study conducted on 168 mothers who answered the written questionnaire when they agreed to become donors. 98 (58%) responded to the telephone interview. The mean age was 33.1 ± 4.5 years. Of the total 27.9% lived outside Madrid and 21.4% were immigrants, with 23.7% working full time, 65.3% had a university education, and 96.2% had a stable partner. The main reasons for donating were too much milk (77%), and to help others (75%). The main obstacle was transportation to the Human Milk Bank for 20% of the donors, and for 61% the main reason for terminating donation was due to reaching the end of lactation. A longer donation is associated with: having a term newborn, with birth weight over 1500 g, starting donating early and reconciling the donation to the work situation. The most common donor profile was a young woman, with university education and a stable partner. Having a term new born, starting donating early, and the conciliation with work is associated with longer donations. Milk pick-up at home would make donation easier. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. Donor Human Milk for the High-Risk Infant: Preparation, Safety, and Usage Options in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The use of donor human milk is increasing for high-risk infants, primarily for infants born weighing Pasteurized donor milk may be considered in situations in which the supply of maternal milk is insufficient. The use of pasteurized donor milk is safe when appropriate measures are used to screen donors and collect, store, and pasteurize the milk and then distribute it through established human milk banks. The use of nonpasteurized donor milk and other forms of direct, Internet-based, or informal human milk sharing does not involve this level of safety and is not recommended. It is important that health care providers counsel families considering milk sharing about the risks of bacterial or viral contamination of nonpasteurized human milk and about the possibilities of exposure to medications, drugs, or herbs in human milk. Currently, the use of pasteurized donor milk is limited by its availability and affordability. The development of public policy to improve and expand access to pasteurized donor milk, including policies that support improved governmental and private financial support for donor milk banks and the use of donor milk, is important. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  17. Use of Donor Human Milk and Maternal Breastfeeding Rates: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Thomas; Nair, Harish; Simpson, Judith; Embleton, Nicholas

    2016-05-01

    The number of human milk banks is growing worldwide. The introduction of donor human milk (DHM) to neonatal units has been advocated as a strategy to promote maternal breastfeeding. However, concern has been raised that the introduction of DHM may actually lead to a decrease in maternal breastfeeding. To address this question, we conducted a systematic literature review of studies that assessed maternal breastfeeding rates before and after the introduction of DHM. We searched 7 electronic databases, carried out citation tracking, and contacted experts in the field. Where data for breastfeeding rates before and after the introduction of DHM were directly comparable, a relative risk was calculated. Our search identified 286 studies, of which 10 met the inclusion criteria. Definitions of patient populations and study outcomes varied, limiting meaningful comparison. Where possible, relative risks (RR) were calculated on aggregated data. The introduction of DHM had a significant positive impact on any breastfeeding on discharge (RR, 1.19; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06-1.35;P= .005) but none on exclusive maternal breastfeeding on discharge (RR, 1.12; 95% CI, 0.91-1.40;P= .27) or on exclusive administration of own mother's milk (OMM) days 1 to 28 of life (RR, 1.08; 95% CI, 0.78-1.49; P= .65). A single-center study demonstrated a significant decrease in the percentage of feeds that were OMM after the introduction of DHM. In conclusion, the available data demonstrate some evidence of positive and negative effects on measures of maternal breastfeeding when DHM is introduced to a neonatal unit. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Randomized controlled trial of docosahexaenoic acid supplementation in midwestern U.S. human milk donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Christina J; Morrow, Georgia; Pennell, Michael; Morrow, Ardythe L; Hodge, Amanda; Haban-Bartz, Annette; Collins, Kristin; Rogers, Lynette K

    2013-02-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is a long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid important for neonatal neurodevelopment and immune homeostasis. Preterm infants fed donor milk from a Midwestern source receive only 20% of the intrauterine accretion of DHA. We tested the hypothesis that DHA supplementation of donor mothers would provide preterm infants with DHA intake equivalent to fetal accretion. After Institutional Review Board approval and informed consent, human milk donors to the Mother's Milk Bank of Ohio were randomized to receive 1 g of DHA (Martek(®) [now DSM Nutritional Lipids, Columbia, MD]) or placebo soy oil. Dietary intake data were collected and analyzed by a registered dietitian. Fatty acids were measured by gas chromatography/flame ionization detection. Statistical analysis used linear mixed models. Twenty-one mothers were randomly assigned to either the DHA group (n=10) or the placebo group (n=11). Donor age was a median of 31 years in both groups with a mean lactational stage of 19 weeks. Dietary intake of DHA at baseline in both groups was a median of 23 mg/day (range, 0-194 mg), significantly (p<0.0001) less than the minimum recommended intake of 200 mg/day. The DHA content of milk increased in the DHA-supplemented group (p<0.05). The women enrolled in this study had low dietary DHA intake. Supplementation with preformed DHA at 1 g/day resulted in increased DHA concentrations in the donor milk with no adverse outcomes. Infants fed donor milk from supplemented women receive dietary DHA levels that closely mimic normal intrauterine accretion during the third trimester.

  19. The safety of donor skin preserved with glycerol - Evaluating the Euro Skin Bank preservation procedures of human donor skin against the prEN 12442 standard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geertsma RE; Wassenaar C; LGM

    2000-01-01

    The procedures for preservation of human donor skin with glycerol, as applied by the Euro Skin Bank (ESB), were evaluated against the prEN 12442 standard: animal tissues and their derivatives used in the manufacture of medical devices. The focus chosen for this review is on risks related to the

  20. Lactational Stage of Pasteurized Human Donor Milk Contributes to Nutrient Limitations for Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina J. Valentine

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Mother’s own milk is the first choice for feeding preterm infants, but when not available, pasteurized human donor milk (PDM is often used. Infants fed PDM have difficulties maintaining appropriate growth velocities. To assess the most basic elements of nutrition, we tested the hypotheses that fatty acid and amino acid composition of PDM is highly variable and standard pooling practices attenuate variability; however, total nutrients may be limiting without supplementation due to late lactational stage of the milk. Methods. A prospective cross-sectional sampling of milk was obtained from five donor milk banks located in Ohio, Michigan, Colorado, Texas-Ft Worth, and California. Milk samples were collected after Institutional Review Board (#07-0035 approval and informed consent. Fatty acid and amino acid contents were measured in milk from individual donors and donor pools (pooled per Human Milk Banking Association of North America guidelines. Statistical comparisons were performed using Kruskal–Wallis, Spearman’s, or Multivariate Regression analyses with center as the fixed factor and lactational stage as co-variate. Results. Ten of the fourteen fatty acids and seventeen of the nineteen amino acids analyzed differed across Banks in the individual milk samples. Pooling minimized these differences in amino acid and fatty acid contents. Concentrations of lysine and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA were not different across Banks, but concentrations were low compared to recommended levels. Conclusions. Individual donor milk fatty acid and amino acid contents are highly variable. Standardized pooling practice reduces this variability. Lysine and DHA concentrations were consistently low across geographic regions in North America due to lactational stage of the milk, and thus not adequately addressed by pooling. Targeted supplementation is needed to optimize PDM, especially for the preterm or volume restricted infant.

  1. Donor human milk versus mother's own milk in preterm VLBWIs: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, F; Prandi, G; Coscia, A; Cresi, F; Di Nicola, P; Raia, M; Sabatino, G; Occhi, L; Bertino, E

    2012-01-01

    As for term infants, over the past decades there has been increasing evidence of the benefits of human milk in the feeding of Very Low Birth Weight Infants (VLBWI), influencing not only short-term health outcomes but also long-term neurodevelopmental, metabolic outcomes, and growth. Mother's own milk is the first choice for all neonates including preterm infants, when it is unavailable or in short supply, pasteurized donor breast milk offers a safe alternative and is considered the next best choice. The main aim of this case-control retrospective analysis was to evaluate short term advantages of mother's own milk as a sole diet compared to donor milk as a sole diet, in terms of growth, antiinfectious properties, feeding tolerance, NEC and ROP prevention in a population of VLBWI born in a tertiary center. We did not find significant differences in clinical outcome from mother's own milk compared with pasteurized donor milk. Only a slight and statistically not significant difference in growth could be observed, in favour of maternal milk. We conclude that the maximum effort should always be put in supporting and promoting breastfeeding and donor milk used not only as an alternative to mother's milk but also as a breastfeeding promotion and support strategy.

  2. Seroprevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Hepatitis B Virus, Hepatitis C Virus, and Treponema pallidum Infections among Blood Donors on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-De Xie

    Full Text Available Regular screening of transfusion-transmissible infections (TTIs, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus (HBV and HCV, respectively, and Treponema pallidum, in blood donors is essential to guaranteeing clinical transfusion safety. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of four TTIs among blood donors on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea (EG.A retrospective survey of blood donors from January 2011 to April 2013 was conducted to assess the presence of HIV, HBV, HCV and T. pallidum. The medical records were analyzed to verify the seroprevalence of these TTIs among blood donations stratified by gender, age and geographical region.Of the total 2937 consecutive blood donors, 1098 (37.39% had a minimum of one TTI and 185 (6.29% harbored co-infections. The general seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV and T. pallidum were 7.83%, 10.01%, 3.71% and 21.51%, respectively. The most frequent TTI co-infections were HBV-T. pallidum 60 (2.04% and HIV-T. pallidum 46 (1.57%. The seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV and T. pallidum were highest among blood donors 38 to 47 years, 18 to 27 years and ≥ 48 years age, respectively (P<0.05. The seroprevalence of TTIs varied according to the population from which the blood was collected on Bioko Island.Our results firstly provide a comprehensive overview of TTIs among blood donors on Bioko Island. Strict screening of blood donors and improved hematological examinations using standard operating procedures are recommended.

  3. Iron concentrations in breast milk and selected maternal factors of human milk bank donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello-Neto, Julio; Rondó, Patrícia H C; Morgano, Marcelo A; Oshiiwa, Marie; Santos, Mariana L; Oliveira, Julicristie M

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between iron concentration in mature breast milk and characteristics of 136 donors of a Brazilian milk bank. Iron, vitamin A, zinc, and copper concentrations were assessed in human milk and maternal blood. Data were collected on maternal anthropometrics, obstetric, socioeconomic, demographic, and lifestyle factors. Iron, zinc, and copper in milk and zinc and copper in blood were detected by spectrophotometry. Vitamin A in milk and blood was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Hemoglobin was measured by electronic counting and serum iron and ferritin by colorimetry and chemoluminescence, respectively. Transferrin and ceruloplasmin were determined by nephelometry. According to multivariate linear regression analysis, iron in milk was positively associated with vitamin A in milk and with smoking but negatively associated with timing of breast milk donation (P milk of Brazilian donors may be influenced by nutritional factors and smoking.

  4. Ultraviolet-C Irradiation: A Novel Pasteurization Method for Donor Human Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christen, Lukas; Lai, Ching Tat; Hartmann, Ben; Hartmann, Peter E; Geddes, Donna T

    2013-01-01

    Holder pasteurization (milk held at 62.5°C for 30 minutes) is the standard treatment method for donor human milk. Although this method of pasteurization is able to inactivate most bacteria, it also inactivates important bioactive components. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate ultraviolet irradiation as an alternative treatment method for donor human milk. Human milk samples were inoculated with five species of bacteria and then UV-C irradiated. Untreated and treated samples were analysed for bacterial content, bile salt stimulated lipase (BSSL) activity, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and fatty acid profile. All five species of bacteria reacted similarly to UV-C irradiation, with higher dosages being required with increasing concentrations of total solids in the human milk sample. The decimal reduction dosage was 289±17 and 945±164 J/l for total solids of 107 and 146 g/l, respectively. No significant changes in the fatty acid profile, BSSL activity or ALP activity were observed up to the dosage required for a 5-log10 reduction of the five species of bacteria. UV-C irradiation is capable of reducing vegetative bacteria in human milk to the requirements of milk bank guidelines with no loss of BSSL and ALP activity and no change of FA.

  5. [Cloning goat producing human lactoferrin with genetically modified donor cells selected by single or dual markers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Liyou; Yuan, Yuguo; Yu, Baoli; Yang, Tingjia; Cheng, Yong

    2012-12-01

    We compared the efficiency of cloning goat using human lactoferrin (hLF) with genetically modified donor cells marked by single (Neo(r)) or double (Neo(r)/GFP) markers. Single marker expression vector (pBLC14) or dual markers expression vector (pAPLM) was delivered to goat fetal fibroblasts (GFF), and then the transgenic GFF was used as donor cells to produce transgenic goats. Respectively, 58.8% (20/34) and 86.7% (26/30) resistant cell lines confirmed the transgenic integration by PCR. Moreover, pAPLM cells lines were subcultured with several passages, only 20% (6/30) cell lines was observed fluorescence from each cell during the cell passage. Somatic cell nuclear transfer using the donor cells harbouring pBLC14 or pAPLM construct, resulting in a total of 806 reconstructed embryos, a pregnancy rate at 35 d (53.8%, 39.1%) and 60 d (26.9%, 21.7%), and an offspring birth rate (1.9%, 1.4%) with 5 and 7 newborn cloned goats, respectively. Transgene was confirmed by PCR and southern-blot in all cloned offspring. There were no significant differences at the reconstructed embryo fusion rates, pregnancy rates and the birth rate (P > 0.05) between single and double markers groups. The Neo(r)/GFP double markers could improve the reliability for accurately and efficiently selecting the genetically modified donor cells. No adverse effect was observed on the efficiency of transgenic goat production by SCNT using somatic cells transfected with double (Neo(r)/GFP) markers vector.

  6. Prevalence of human T-lymphotropic virus type I and type II antibody among blood donors in Eastern Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ul-Hassan, Zahoor; Al-Bahrani, Ahmad T; Panhotra, Bodh R

    2004-10-01

    Human T-cell leukemia/lymphoma virus type I and type II (HTLV-I/II) infections can be transfusion associated, leading to tropical paraparesis, myelopathy and other neurological disorders. The aim of this study is to circumvent the risk of transmission through blood transfusion and to describe the prevalence of HTLV-I/II antibody among blood donors of Al-Hasa region and the cost effectiveness of screening blood donors. The study was conducted at the Department of Laboratory and Blood Bank, King Fahad Hospital, Al-Hofuf, Al-Hasa, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during the period of 1997 to 2003. A total of 47426 blood donors were screened for HTLV-I/II antibody by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test, during the 7 years of study period. The positive samples were confirmed by western blot analysis. Overall, HTLV-I antibody positivity (confirmed by western blot) was 3/47426 (0.006%). Out of 3 donors positive for HTLV-I antibody during 1997 to 1998, 2 were expatriates (Indian) and one was native Saudi donor. Human T-cell leukemia/lymphoma virus type I antibody positivity among the native Saudi donors was 1/47426 (0.002%) (2/100000 blood donors). None of the donor were positive for HTLV-II antibody. During the last 5 consecutive years of the study period (1999-2003), none of the donor was positive for HTLV-I/II antibody. Al-Hasa region is non-endemic for HTLV-I/II virus infections. Screening of native Saudi blood donors for these viruses does not appear to be cost effective.

  7. Long-term persistence of human donor alveolar macrophages in lung transplant recipients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eguíluz-Gracia, Ibon; Schultz, Hans Henrik Lawaetz; Sikkeland, Liv I. B.

    2016-01-01

    and life span of human AMFs is scarce. METHODS: To follow the origin and longevity of AMFs in patients with lung transplantation for more than 100 weeks, we obtained transbronchial biopsies from 10 gender-mismatched patients with lung transplantation. These were subjected to combined in situ hybridisation...... transplantation we found that recipient monocytes seeded the alveoli early after transplantation, and showed subsequent phenotypical changes consistent with differentiation into proliferating mature AMFs. This resulted in a stable mixed chimerism between donor and recipient AMFs throughout the 2-year period...

  8. [Effect of freezing on the "creamatocrit" measurement of the lipid content of human donor milk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Román, S; Alonso-Díaz, C; García-Lara, N R; Escuder-Vieco, D; Pallás-Alonso, C R

    2014-09-01

    To determine, by the creamatocrit measurement, the effect on the fat content of raw and pasteurized donor milk of freezing during 3 months at -20 °C. The evolution of the creamatocrit measurement (following Lucas technique) on frozen (-20 °C), raw and pasteurized human milk, was analyzed during 3 months. The fat content of raw milk (n=44) was 3.19 g/dl at the beginning and 2.86 g/dl after 3 months frozen (p=0.02). In pasteurized milk (n=36) fat content at the first determination was 2.59 g/dl and 2.20 g/dl after 1 month frozen (p=0.01). Afterwards there were no significant changes up to 3 months frozen. Variability was observed in the intermediate values. A reduction on the fat content measurement of raw and pasteurized donor human milk after freezing was observed. Freezing does not inactivate the milk lipase but does destroy the fat globule. Creamatocrit measurement may not be the best method to determine the fat content of processed human milk. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seropositivity and hepatitis B surface antigenemia (HBSAG) among blood donors in Benin city, Edo state, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umolu, Patience Idia; Okoror, Lawrence Ehis; Orhue, Philip

    2005-03-01

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis B virus are blood borne pathogens that can be transmitted through blood transfusion and could pose a huge problem in areas where mechanisms of ensuring blood safety are suspect. This study became necessary in a population where most of the blood for transfusion is from commercial blood donors. A total of 130 donors comprising 120 commercial donors and 10 voluntary donors were tested for antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis B surface antigen in Benin city using Immunocomb HIV - 1 and 2 Biospot kit and Quimica Clinica Aplicada direct latex agglutination method respectively. Thirteen (10%) samples were HIV seropositive and 7(5.8%) were HBsAg positive. The age bracket 18 - 25years had the highest numbers of donors and also had the highest number of HBsAg positive cases (7.8%) while the age group 29 - 38years had highest number of HIV seropositive cases. High prevalence of HIV antibodies and Hepatitis B surface antigen was found among commercial blood donors. Appropriate and compulsory screening of blood donors using sensitive methods, must be ensured to prevent post transfusion hepatitis and HIV.

  10. Alternative Donor Graft Sources for Adults with Hematologic Malignancies: A Donor for All Patients in 2017!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindwall-Keller, Tamila L; Ballen, Karen K

    2017-09-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) is potentially curative for a wide variety of malignant diseases, including acute and leukemias, lymphoma, and myelodysplasia. Choice of a stem cell donor is dependent on donor availability, donor compatibility and health, recipient disease type, and recipient condition. Current sources of stem cell donation for HSCT are matched sibling donors (MSDs), matched unrelated donors (MUDs), 1-antigen mismatched unrelated donors (MMUDs), haploidentical donors (haplo), and umbilical cord blood (UCB) units. Historically, preferred donors for HSCT have been human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched sibling donors; however, only about 30% of U.S. patients will have a MSD available. The majority of patients referred for HSCT will require an alternative donor graft: MUD, MMUD, UCB, or haplo. The likelihood of finding a MUD varies depending on the ethnicity of the recipient. White Caucasians of European descent have the greatest chance of finding a MUD. Chances of finding a MUD are significantly less for African-American or Hispanic recipients due to HLA polymorphisms. Therefore, MMUD, UCB, and haplo donor graft sources expand the donor pool for recipients who do not have a MSD or MUD available. Given the variety of different donor stem cell sources available today, nearly every patient who needs an allogeneic HSCT has a potential donor in 2017. All transplant-eligible patients with hematologic malignancies should be evaluated by a transplant center to determine if HSCT is a viable treatment option for their underlying disease process. The goal of this review is to increase the awareness of oncology practitioners to the availability of alternative donor stem cell transplants for patients with hematologic malignancies. Despite new agents, stem cell transplant remains the only curative therapy for many patients with acute and chronic leukemia, myelodysplasia, and lymphoma. Given the variety of different donor stem cell sources available today

  11. Multilineage potential and proteomic profiling of human dental stem cells derived from a single donor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, Rajreddy; Kumar, B. Mohana; Lee, Won-Jae; Jeon, Ryoung-Hoon; Jang, Si-Jung; Lee, Yeon-Mi; Park, Bong-Wook; Byun, June-Ho; Ahn, Chun-Seob; Kim, Jae-Won; Rho, Gyu-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Dental tissues provide an alternative autologous source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for regenerative medicine. In this study, we isolated human dental MSCs of follicle, pulp and papilla tissue from a single donor tooth after impacted third molar extraction by excluding the individual differences. We then compared the morphology, proliferation rate, expression of MSC-specific and pluripotency markers, and in vitro differentiation ability into osteoblasts, adipocytes, chondrocytes and functional hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs). Finally, we analyzed the protein expression profiles of undifferentiated dental MSCs using 2DE coupled with MALDI-TOF-MS. Three types of dental MSCs largely shared similar morphology, proliferation potential, expression of surface markers and pluripotent transcription factors, and differentiation ability into osteoblasts, adipocytes, and chondrocytes. Upon hepatogenic induction, all MSCs were transdifferentiated into functional HLCs, and acquired hepatocyte functions by showing their ability for glycogen storage and urea production. Based on the proteome profiling results, we identified nineteen proteins either found commonly or differentially expressed among the three types of dental MSCs. In conclusion, three kinds of dental MSCs from a single donor tooth possessed largely similar cellular properties and multilineage potential. Further, these dental MSCs had similar proteomic profiles, suggesting their interchangeable applications for basic research and call therapy. - Highlights: • Isolated and characterized three types of human dental MSCs from a single donor. • MSCs of dental follicle, pulp and papilla had largely similar biological properties. • All MSCs were capable of transdifferentiating into functional hepatocyte-like cells. • 2DE proteomics with MALDI-TOF/MS identified 19 proteins in three types of MSCs. • Similar proteomic profiles suggest interchangeable applications of dental MSCs

  12. Donor-Specific Anti-HLA Antibodies in Huntington's Disease Recipients of Human Fetal Striatal Grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porfirio, Berardino; Paganini, Marco; Mazzanti, Benedetta; Bagnoli, Silvia; Bucciantini, Sandra; Ghelli, Elena; Nacmias, Benedetta; Putignano, Anna Laura; Rombolà, Giovanni; Saccardi, Riccardo; Lombardini, Letizia; Di Lorenzo, Nicola; Vannelli, Gabriella B; Gallina, Pasquale

    2015-01-01

    Fetal grafting in a human diseased brain was thought to be less immunogenic than other solid organ transplants, hence the minor impact on the efficacy of the transplant. How much prophylactic immune protection is required for neural allotransplantation is also debated. High-sensitive anti-HLA antibody screening in this field has never been reported. Sixteen patients with Huntington's disease underwent human fetal striatal transplantation in the frame of an open-label observational trial, which is being carried out at Florence University. All patients had both brain hemispheres grafted in two separate robotic-stereotactic procedures. The trial started in February 2006 with the first graft to the first patient (R1). R16 was given his second graft on March 2011. All patients received triple immunosuppressive treatment. Pre- and posttransplant sera were analyzed for the presence of anti-HLA antibodies using the multiplexed microsphere-based suspension array Luminex xMAP technology. Median follow-up was 38.5 months (range 13-85). Six patients developed anti-HLA antibodies, which turned out to be donor specific. Alloimmunization occurred in a time window of 0-49 months after the first neurosurgical procedure. The immunogenic determinants were non-self-epitopes from mismatched HLA antigens. These determinants were both public epitopes shared by two or more HLA molecules and private epitopes unique to individual HLA molecules. One patient had non-donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies in her pretransplant serum sample, possibly due to previous sensitization events. Although the clinical significance of donor-specific antibodies is far from being established, particularly in the setting of neuronal transplantation, these findings underline the need of careful pre- and posttransplant immunogenetic evaluation of patients with intracerebral grafts.

  13. Multilineage potential and proteomic profiling of human dental stem cells derived from a single donor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, Rajreddy; Kumar, B. Mohana; Lee, Won-Jae; Jeon, Ryoung-Hoon; Jang, Si-Jung; Lee, Yeon-Mi [Department of Theriogenology and Biotechnology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Bong-Wook; Byun, June-Ho [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Medicine and Institute of Health Science, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-702 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Chun-Seob; Kim, Jae-Won [Department of Microbiology, Division of Life Sciences, Research Institute of Life Science, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of); Rho, Gyu-Jin, E-mail: jinrho@gnu.ac.kr [Department of Theriogenology and Biotechnology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute of Life Sciences, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-01

    Dental tissues provide an alternative autologous source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for regenerative medicine. In this study, we isolated human dental MSCs of follicle, pulp and papilla tissue from a single donor tooth after impacted third molar extraction by excluding the individual differences. We then compared the morphology, proliferation rate, expression of MSC-specific and pluripotency markers, and in vitro differentiation ability into osteoblasts, adipocytes, chondrocytes and functional hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs). Finally, we analyzed the protein expression profiles of undifferentiated dental MSCs using 2DE coupled with MALDI-TOF-MS. Three types of dental MSCs largely shared similar morphology, proliferation potential, expression of surface markers and pluripotent transcription factors, and differentiation ability into osteoblasts, adipocytes, and chondrocytes. Upon hepatogenic induction, all MSCs were transdifferentiated into functional HLCs, and acquired hepatocyte functions by showing their ability for glycogen storage and urea production. Based on the proteome profiling results, we identified nineteen proteins either found commonly or differentially expressed among the three types of dental MSCs. In conclusion, three kinds of dental MSCs from a single donor tooth possessed largely similar cellular properties and multilineage potential. Further, these dental MSCs had similar proteomic profiles, suggesting their interchangeable applications for basic research and call therapy. - Highlights: • Isolated and characterized three types of human dental MSCs from a single donor. • MSCs of dental follicle, pulp and papilla had largely similar biological properties. • All MSCs were capable of transdifferentiating into functional hepatocyte-like cells. • 2DE proteomics with MALDI-TOF/MS identified 19 proteins in three types of MSCs. • Similar proteomic profiles suggest interchangeable applications of dental MSCs.

  14. Growth in VLBW infants fed predominantly fortified maternal and donor human milk diets: a retrospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background To determine the effect of human milk, maternal and donor, on in-hospital growth of very low birthweight (VLBW) infants. We performed a retrospective cohort study comparing in-hospital growth in VLBW infants by proportion of human milk diet, including subgroup analysis by maternal or donor milk type. Primary outcome was change in weight z-score from birth to hospital discharge. Methods Retrospective cohort study. Results 171 infants with median gestational age 27 weeks (IQR 25.4, 28.9) and median birthweight 899 g (IQR 724, 1064) were included. 97% of infants received human milk, 51% received > 75% of all enteral intake as human milk. 16% of infants were small-for-gestational age (SGA, 75% human milk had a greater negative change in weight z-score from birth to discharge compared to infants receiving human milk fortifier was related to human milk intake (p = 0.04). Among infants receiving > 75% human milk, there was no significant difference in change in weight z-score by milk type (donor −0.84, maternal −0.56, mixed −0.45, p = 0.54). Infants receiving >75% donor milk had higher rates of SGA status at discharge than those fed maternal or mixed milk (56% vs. 35% (maternal), 21% (mixed), p = 0.08). Conclusions VLBW infants can grow appropriately when fed predominantly fortified human milk. However, VLBW infants fed >75% human milk are at greater risk of poor growth than those fed less human milk. This risk may be highest in those fed predominantly donor human milk. PMID:22900590

  15. Comparison of seropositivity of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and syphilis among Hospital Cornea Retrieval Programme-Donors versus voluntary cornea donors at a large eye bank in Eastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basak, Soham; Basak, Samar K; Biswas, Bani

    2017-11-01

    To compare the serology profile of donors from Hospital Cornea Retrieval Programme-donors (HCRP-D) and voluntary cornea donors (VC-D) from a large eye bank in Eastern India. This is a retrospective analysis of donor details from January 2011 to December 2016. Donor demographics, cause of death, and serology reports were compiled. Postmortem blood was tested for human immunodeficiency virus 1 and 2 (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and syphilis using government-approved kits as per the National Programme for Control of Blindness Standards of Eye Banking. Donors for whom serology was not possible were excluded. A total of 4300 of 4353 donors were included of which 74.3% were hospital donors and 25.7% were voluntary donors. A total of 93 (2.2%) donors with 94 seropositive reports were noted: 79 (84.9%) from HCRP-D and 14 (15.1%) from VC-D which was statistically significantly higher (P = 0.02). Among seropositive reports, HIV, HBV, HCV, and syphilis accounted for 12 (12.8%), 38 (40.4%), 36 (38.3%), and eight (8.5%), respectively. There was no correlation between the cause of death and seropositivity. A statistically significant decreasing trend in seroprevalence among hospital donors was observed over the years (5.3% in 2011 to 1.4% in 2016; P = 0.004). Two (0.47%) of 421 hospital donors with prior negative serology were found to be seropositive. Seropositive rates are significantly higher among hospital donors in spite of medical prescreening compared to nonscreened voluntary donors. Serology should be repeated even when prior reports are available.

  16. Comparison of seropositivity of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and syphilis among Hospital Cornea Retrieval Programme-Donors versus voluntary cornea donors at a large eye bank in Eastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soham Basak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare the serology profile of donors from Hospital Cornea Retrieval Programme-donors (HCRP-D and voluntary cornea donors (VC-D from a large eye bank in Eastern India. Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of donor details from January 2011 to December 2016. Donor demographics, cause of death, and serology reports were compiled. Postmortem blood was tested for human immunodeficiency virus 1 and 2 (HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV, hepatitis C virus (HCV, and syphilis using government-approved kits as per the National Programme for Control of Blindness Standards of Eye Banking. Donors for whom serology was not possible were excluded. Results: A total of 4300 of 4353 donors were included of which 74.3% were hospital donors and 25.7% were voluntary donors. A total of 93 (2.2% donors with 94 seropositive reports were noted: 79 (84.9% from HCRP-D and 14 (15.1% from VC-D which was statistically significantly higher (P = 0.02. Among seropositive reports, HIV, HBV, HCV, and syphilis accounted for 12 (12.8%, 38 (40.4%, 36 (38.3%, and eight (8.5%, respectively. There was no correlation between the cause of death and seropositivity. A statistically significant decreasing trend in seroprevalence among hospital donors was observed over the years (5.3% in 2011 to 1.4% in 2016; P = 0.004. Two (0.47% of 421 hospital donors with prior negative serology were found to be seropositive. Conclusion: Seropositive rates are significantly higher among hospital donors in spite of medical prescreening compared to nonscreened voluntary donors. Serology should be repeated even when prior reports are available.

  17. Human immunodeficiency virus/human parvovirus B19 co-infection in blood donors and AIDS patients in Sichuan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Miao; Zhu, Jiang; Yin, Huimin; Ke, Ling; Gao, Lei; Pan, Zhihong; Yang, Xiuhua; Li, Wuping

    2012-01-01

    Background Human parvovirus B19 (B19) is a common pathogen which causes a variety of diseases. Persistent B19 infection is related to the degree of host immunodeficiency in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. However, the existence, loading, virus evolution and distribution of B19 in Chinese HIV-positive patients have not been determined. Materials and methods. We investigated 573 HIV-positive blood donors and AIDS patients in Sichuan, China in the last two decades. Bl9-specific serology and quantitative polymerase chain reaction were used to determine the prevalence of B19/HIV co-infection. Viral genome fragments were subjected to phylogeny and haplotype analysis. Results B19 genomic DNA was found in 26 of 573 (4.5%) HIV-positive individuals, a higher prevalence than in blood donors. DNA levels ranged from 5.3×102–1.1×105 copies/mL. The seroprevalence of IgG was significantly lower in HIV-positive samples than in HIV-negative blood donors, indicating deficient production of B19-specific IgG in the former. The B19 isolates were genotype-1 subtype B19-1A which formed a monophyletic group; seven distinct haplotypes were discovered with 60% of the B19/HIV co-infected variants sharing one central haplotype. Discussion. This study on the prevalence, phylogeny and distribution of human parvovirus B19 in Sichuan, China, demonstrates the persistence of B19 in the circulation of both immunocompetent and immunocompromised subjects, with implications for blood safety. PMID:22790259

  18. Norovirus-specific memory T cell responses in adult human donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Malm

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Norovirus (NoV is a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis in people of all ages worldwide. NoV specific serum antibodies which block the binding of NoV virus-like particles (VLPs to the cell receptors have been thoroughly investigated. In contrast, only a few publications are available on the NoV capsid VP1 protein-specific T cell responses in humans naturally infected with the virus. Freshly isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells of eight healthy adult human donors previously exposed to NoV were stimulated with purified VLPs derived from NoV GII.4-1999, GII.4-2012 (Sydney, and GI.3, and IFN-g production was measured by an ELISPOT assay. In addition, 76 overlapping synthetic peptides spanning the entire 539 amino acid sequence of GII.4 VP1 were pooled into two-dimensional matrices and used to identify putative T cell epitopes. Seven of the eight subjects produced IFN-g in response to the peptides and five subjects produced IFN-g in response to the VLPs of the same origin. In general, stronger T cell responses were induced with the peptides in each donor compared to the VLPs. A CD8+ T cell epitope in the shell domain of the VP1 (134SPSQVTMFPHIIVDVRQL151 was identified in two subjects, both having human leukocyte antigen (HLA-A*02:01 allele. To our knowledge, this is the first report using synthetic peptides to study NoV-specific T cell responses in human subjects and identify T cell epitopes.

  19. Profile of Heart Donors from the Human Valve Bank of the Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Curitiba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Renata Maria; da Costa, Marise Teresinha Brenner Affonso; Canciglieri Junior, Osiris; Sant'Anna, Ângelo Márcio Oliveira

    2016-04-01

    Human heart valves are used as replacement valves and have satisfactory functional results compared with conventional prostheses. Characterize the profile of effective heart donors from the human valve bank of the santa casa de misericórdia de curitiba and analyze the association between the profile variables. It consists of a retrospective and quantitative study of electronic medical records from heart donors for heart valves. every heart donation made to the bank between january 2004 and december 2014 was studied. 2,149 donations were analyzed, from donors aged 0 to 71 years old, with an average of 34.9 ± 15.03 years old. most donors were male 65.7% (n=1,411) and 34.3% (n=738) were female. among the most frequent causes of the donors' death are trauma at 53% (n=1,139) and cerebral vascular accident at 34.2% (n=735). there was significant statistical association between the analyzed variables. There has been an improvement in brazil's donation rate, being essential that the tissue banks work together with the state and federal district centers for notification, procurement and distribution of organs in order to increase the number of donors.

  20. Human milk peptides differentiate between the preterm and term infant and across varying lactational stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingess, Kelly A; de Waard, Marita; Boeren, Sjef; Vervoort, Jacques; Lambers, Tim T; van Goudoever, Johannes B; Hettinga, Kasper

    2017-10-18

    Variations in endogenous peptide profiles, functionality, and the enzymes responsible for the formation of these peptides in human milk are understudied. Additionally, there is a lack of knowledge regarding peptides in donor human milk, which is used to feed preterm infants when mother's own milk is not (sufficiently) available. To assess this, 29 human milk samples from the Dutch Human Milk Bank were analyzed as three groups, preterm late lactation stage (LS) (n = 12), term early (n = 8) and term late LS (n = 9). Gestational age (GA) groups were defined as preterm (24-36 weeks) and term (≥37 weeks). LS was determined as days postpartum as early (16-36 days) or late (55-88 days). Peptides, analyzed by LC-MS/MS, and parent proteins (proteins from matched peptide sequences) were identified and quantified, after which peptide functionality and the enzymes responsible for protein cleavage were determined. A total of 16 different parent proteins were identified from human milk, with no differences by GA or LS. We identified 1104 endogenous peptides, of which, the majority were from the parent proteins β-casein, polymeric immunoglobulin receptor, α s1 -casein, osteopontin, and κ-casein. The absolute number of peptides differed by GA and LS with 30 and 41 differing sequences respectively (p milk peptides. These results explain some of the variation in endogenous peptides in human milk, leading to future targets that may be studied for functionality.

  1. Low prevalence of antibodies to human T-lymphotropic virus-I/II among blood donors in eastern Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawaz, Naglaa A; Tamim, Hala; Almawi, Wassim Y

    2005-04-01

    The seroprevalence of human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV)-I/II was assessed in 13,443 consecutive blood donors in eastern Saudi Arabia between 1998 and 2001. Screening by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and confirmation by Western blot resulted in 8 (0.060%) positive cases, of which 5 (0.056%) belonged to Saudi and 3 (0.113%) to non-Saudi donors. The majority of the HTLV-positive donations (6/8) were for patients, and none had a history of known risk factor for HTLV-I/II transmission. Although the very low prevalence of HTLV-I/II among Saudi donors does not support routine screening, screening of donors from other nationalities may be initiated, especially those from HTLV-I/II endemic areas.

  2. Novel genotype of Ehrlichia canis detected in samples of human blood bank donors in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouza-Mora, Laura; Dolz, Gaby; Solórzano-Morales, Antony; Romero-Zuñiga, Juan José; Salazar-Sánchez, Lizbeth; Labruna, Marcelo B; Aguiar, Daniel M

    2017-01-01

    This study focuses on the detection and identification of DNA and antibodies to Ehrlichia spp. in samples of blood bank donors in Costa Rica using molecular and serological techniques. Presence of Ehrlichia canis was determined in 10 (3.6%) out of 280 blood samples using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the ehrlichial dsb conserved gene. Analysis of the ehrlichial trp36 polymorphic gene in these 10 samples revealed substantial polymorphism among the E. canis genotypes, including divergent tandem repeat sequences. Nucleotide sequences of dsb and trp36 amplicons revealed a novel genotype of E. canis in blood bank donors from Costa Rica. Indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) detected antibodies in 35 (35%) of 100 serum samples evaluated. Thirty samples showed low endpoint titers (64-256) to E. canis, whereas five sera yielded high endpoint titers (1024-8192); these five samples were also E. canis-PCR positive. These findings represent the first report of the presence of E. canis in humans in Central America. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Growth in VLBW infants fed predominantly fortified maternal and donor human milk diets: a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colaizy Tarah T

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine the effect of human milk, maternal and donor, on in-hospital growth of very low birthweight (VLBW infants. We performed a retrospective cohort study comparing in-hospital growth in VLBW infants by proportion of human milk diet, including subgroup analysis by maternal or donor milk type. Primary outcome was change in weight z-score from birth to hospital discharge. Methods Retrospective cohort study. Results 171 infants with median gestational age 27 weeks (IQR 25.4, 28.9 and median birthweight 899 g (IQR 724, 1064 were included. 97% of infants received human milk, 51% received > 75% of all enteral intake as human milk. 16% of infants were small-for-gestational age (SGA, th percentile at birth, and 34% of infants were SGA at discharge. Infants fed >75% human milk had a greater negative change in weight z-score from birth to discharge compared to infants receiving 75% human milk, there was no significant difference in change in weight z-score by milk type (donor −0.84, maternal −0.56, mixed −0.45, p = 0.54. Infants receiving >75% donor milk had higher rates of SGA status at discharge than those fed maternal or mixed milk (56% vs. 35% (maternal, 21% (mixed, p = 0.08. Conclusions VLBW infants can grow appropriately when fed predominantly fortified human milk. However, VLBW infants fed >75% human milk are at greater risk of poor growth than those fed less human milk. This risk may be highest in those fed predominantly donor human milk.

  4. Dual Extended Kalman Filter for the Identification of Time-Varying Human Manual Control Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovici, Alexandru; Zaal, Peter M. T.; Pool, Daan M.

    2017-01-01

    A Dual Extended Kalman Filter was implemented for the identification of time-varying human manual control behavior. Two filters that run concurrently were used, a state filter that estimates the equalization dynamics, and a parameter filter that estimates the neuromuscular parameters and time delay. Time-varying parameters were modeled as a random walk. The filter successfully estimated time-varying human control behavior in both simulated and experimental data. Simple guidelines are proposed for the tuning of the process and measurement covariance matrices and the initial parameter estimates. The tuning was performed on simulation data, and when applied on experimental data, only an increase in measurement process noise power was required in order for the filter to converge and estimate all parameters. A sensitivity analysis to initial parameter estimates showed that the filter is more sensitive to poor initial choices of neuromuscular parameters than equalization parameters, and bad choices for initial parameters can result in divergence, slow convergence, or parameter estimates that do not have a real physical interpretation. The promising results when applied to experimental data, together with its simple tuning and low dimension of the state-space, make the use of the Dual Extended Kalman Filter a viable option for identifying time-varying human control parameters in manual tracking tasks, which could be used in real-time human state monitoring and adaptive human-vehicle haptic interfaces.

  5. Nutrient Fortification of Human Donor Milk Affects Intestinal Function and Protein Metabolism in Preterm Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Jing; Li, Yanqi; Nguyen, Duc Ninh

    2018-01-01

    (BC) may be an alternative nutrient fortifier, considering its high content of protein and milk bioactive factors. Objective: We investigated whether BC was superior to an FF product based on processed bovine milk and vegetable oil to fortify donor human milk (DHM) for preterm pigs, used as a model......) and DHM with or without FF or BC fortification (+4.6 g protein ⋅ kg-1 ⋅ d-1). Results: DPM-fed pigs showed higher growth (10-fold), protein synthesis (+15-30%), villus heights, lactase and peptidase activities (+30%), and reduced intestinal cytokines (-50%) relative to DHM pigs (all P ....05). Fortification increased protein synthesis (+20-30%), but with higher weight gain and lower urea and cortisol concentrations for DHM+BC compared with DHM+FF pigs (2- to 3-fold differences, all P ≤ 0.06). DHM+FF pigs showed more diarrhea and reduced lactase and peptidase activities, hexose uptake, and villus...

  6. Molecular profile and cellular characterization of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells: donor influence on chondrogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicione, Claudia; Díaz-Prado, Silvia; Muiños-López, Emma; Hermida-Gómez, Tamara; Blanco, Francisco J

    2010-01-01

    The use of autologous or allogenic stem cells has recently been suggested as an alternative therapeutic approach for treatment of cartilage defects. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) are well-characterized multipotent cells that can differentiate into different cell types. Understanding the potential of these cells and the molecular mechanisms underlying their differentiation should lead to innovative protocols for clinical applications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of surface antigen selection of BM-MSCs and to understand the mechanisms underlying their differentiation. MSCs were isolated from BM stroma and expanded. CD105+ subpopulation was isolated using a magnetic separator. We compared culture-expanded selected cells with non-selected cells. We analyzed the phenotypic profiles, the expression of the stem cell marker genes Nanog, Oct3/4, and Sox2 and the multi-lineage differentiation potential (adipogenic, osteogenic, and chondrogenic). The multi-lineage differentiation was confirmed using histochemistry, immunohistochemistry and/or real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) techniques. The selected and non-selected cells displayed similar phenotypes and multi-lineage differentiation potentials. Analyzing each cell source individually, we could divide the six donors into two groups: one with a high percentage of CD29 (β1-integrin) expression (HL); one with a low percentage of CD29 (LL). These two groups had different chondrogenic capacities and different expression levels of the stem cell marker genes. This study showed that phenotypic profiles of donors were related to the chondrogenic potential of human BM-MSCs. The chondrogenic potential of donors was related to CD29 expression levels. The high expression of CD29 antigen seemed necessary for chondrogenic differentiation. Further investigation into the mechanisms responsible for these differences in BM-MSCs chondrogenesis is therefore warranted. Understanding the mechanisms

  7. Adhesion of cultured human endothelial cells onto methacrylate polymers with varying surface wettability and charge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wachem, P.B.; Hogt, A.H.; Beugeling, T.; Feijen, Jan; Bantjes, A.; Detmers, J.P.; van Aken, W.G.

    1987-01-01

    The adhesion of human endothelial cells (HEC) onto a series of well-characterized methacrylate polymer surfaces with varying wettabilities and surface charges was studied either in serum-containing (CMS) or in serum-free (CM) culture medium. HEC adhesion in CMS onto (co)polymers * of hydroxyethyl

  8. Broad neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies against influenza virus from vaccinated healthy donors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubota-Koketsu, Ritsuko; Mizuta, Hiroyuki [Department of Virology, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Oshita, Masatoshi; Ideno, Shoji [Osaka Research Laboratory, Benesis Corporation, Yodogawa-ku, Osaka 532-6505 (Japan); Yunoki, Mikihiro [Osaka Research Laboratory, Benesis Corporation, Yodogawa-ku, Osaka 532-6505 (Japan); Department of Virology, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Kuhara, Motoki [Ina Laboratory, Medical and Biological Laboratories Corporation, Ltd., Ina, Nagano 396-0002 (Japan); Yamamoto, Naomasa [Department of Biochemistry, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ohu University, Koriyama, Fukushima 963-8611 (Japan); Okuno, Yoshinobu [Kanonji Institute, The Research Foundation for Microbial Diseases of Osaka University, Kanonji, Kagawa 768-0061 (Japan); Ikuta, Kazuyoshi, E-mail: ikuta@biken.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Virology, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2009-09-11

    Human monoclonal antibodies (HuMAbs) prepared from patients with viral infections could provide information on human epitopes important for the development of vaccines as well as potential therapeutic applications. Through the fusion of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from a total of five influenza-vaccinated volunteers, with newly developed murine-human chimera fusion partner cells, named SPYMEG, we obtained 10 hybridoma clones stably producing anti-influenza virus antibodies: one for influenza A H1N1, four for influenza A H3N2 and five for influenza B. Surprisingly, most of the HuMAbs showed broad reactivity within subtype and four (two for H3N2 and two for B) showed broad neutralizing ability. Importantly, epitope mapping revealed that the two broad neutralizing antibodies to H3N2 derived from different donors recognized the same epitope located underneath the receptor-binding site of the hemagglutinin globular region that is highly conserved among H3N2 strains.

  9. Broad neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies against influenza virus from vaccinated healthy donors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota-Koketsu, Ritsuko; Mizuta, Hiroyuki; Oshita, Masatoshi; Ideno, Shoji; Yunoki, Mikihiro; Kuhara, Motoki; Yamamoto, Naomasa; Okuno, Yoshinobu; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi

    2009-01-01

    Human monoclonal antibodies (HuMAbs) prepared from patients with viral infections could provide information on human epitopes important for the development of vaccines as well as potential therapeutic applications. Through the fusion of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from a total of five influenza-vaccinated volunteers, with newly developed murine-human chimera fusion partner cells, named SPYMEG, we obtained 10 hybridoma clones stably producing anti-influenza virus antibodies: one for influenza A H1N1, four for influenza A H3N2 and five for influenza B. Surprisingly, most of the HuMAbs showed broad reactivity within subtype and four (two for H3N2 and two for B) showed broad neutralizing ability. Importantly, epitope mapping revealed that the two broad neutralizing antibodies to H3N2 derived from different donors recognized the same epitope located underneath the receptor-binding site of the hemagglutinin globular region that is highly conserved among H3N2 strains.

  10. Donor-Derived Regulatory Dendritic Cell Infusion Maintains Donor-Reactive CD4+CTLA4hi T Cells in Non-Human Primate Renal Allograft Recipients Treated with CD28 Co-Stimulation Blockade

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed B. Ezzelarab; Lien Lu; William F. Shufesky; Adrian E. Morelli; Adrian E. Morelli; Angus W. Thomson; Angus W. Thomson

    2018-01-01

    Donor-derived regulatory dendritic cell (DCreg) infusion before transplantation, significantly prolongs renal allograft survival in non-human primates. This is associated with enhanced expression of the immunoregulatory molecules cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen (Ag) 4 (CTLA4) and programmed cell death protein 1 (PD1) by host donor-reactive T cells. In rodents and humans, CD28 co-stimulatory pathway blockade with the fusion protein CTLA4:Ig (CTLA4Ig) is associated with reduced differ...

  11. Human leukocyte antigen in the allocation of kidneys from cadaveric donors in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Alan; Edwards, Leah Bennett

    2004-02-27

    Minorities wait longer for a cadaveric donor kidney transplant than whites. For example, the median waiting time to transplant for candidates listed from 1997 to 1998 was 874 days for whites, 1,493 days for blacks, 1,281 days for Hispanics, 1,491 days for Asians, and 1,466 days for others. The current allocation algorithm has been criticized as contributing to decreased access to transplants for racial minorities. There are two levels in the current algorithm: The first is mandatory national sharing between donors and patients with zero human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A, B, and DR mismatches. The second occurs if there are no candidates and local placement is accomplished based on an algorithm with an HLA component that assigns seven, five, and two points to zero, one, and two HLA-B and DR mismatches, respectively. An analysis of the data shows that a higher percentage of white recipients (21%) received zero antigen mismatched kidneys compared with other races: blacks (7%), Hispanics (14%), and Asians (7%). Whites also received the highest percentage of kidneys with zero B and DR mismatches and one B and DR mismatch compared with the other races. These data indicate that the current algorithm favors whites over minorities, and it is most likely that giving points for HLA-B matching is a strong contributory factor. To address this inequity, the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network and United Network for Organ Sharing Board of Directors approved a recommendation in November 2002 to change the HLA points to award two points for zero DR mismatches and one point for one DR mismatch. Obviously it will take some time to gather sufficient data to allow meaningful analysis of the effect of the policy change.

  12. Human Donor Milk or Formula: A Qualitative Study of Maternal Perspectives on Supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowitz, Molly R; Kair, Laura R; Sipsma, Heather L; Phillipi, Carrie A; Larson, Ilse A

    2018-04-01

    Breastfeeding is fundamental to maternal and child health and is the most cost-effective intervention to reduce child mortality. Pasteurized human donor milk (HDM) is increasingly provided for term newborns requiring temporary supplementation. Few studies examine maternal perspectives on supplementation of term newborns. We conducted semistructured in-person interviews with mothers of term newborns (n = 24) during postpartum hospitalization. Mothers were asked whether they had chosen or would choose to supplement with HDM versus infant formula, if medically indicated, and why. Data were gathered to saturation and analyzed inductively by consensus. Emerging semantic themes were compared between mothers who chose or would choose HDM and those who chose or would choose infant formula. Most mothers had concerns about HDM, including uncertainty regarding screening and substances passed through HDM. Experiences with prior children influenced decision-making. Mothers who chose or would choose HDM (56%, n = 14) praised it as "natural," and some felt suspicious of infant formula as "synthetic." Mothers who chose or would choose infant formula (44%, n = 10) did not know enough about HDM to choose it, and many viewed infant formula as a short-term solution to supply concerns. Mothers unanimously mistrusted online milk purchasing sources, although the majority felt positively about using a friend or family member's milk. Counseling regarding term newborn supplementation should focus on HDM education, specifically on areas of greatest concern and uncertainty such as donor selection, screening, transmission of substances, and mother's milk supply. Research is needed to assess the long-term impact of attitudes and choices on breastfeeding.

  13. Results from a horizon scan on risks associated with transplantation of human organs, tissues and cells: from donor to patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herberts, C A; Park, M V D Z; Pot, J W G A; de Vries, C G J C A

    2015-03-01

    The successful transplantation of human materials such as organs, tissues and cells into patients does not only depend on the benefits, but also on the mitigation of risks. To gain insight into recent publications on risks associated with the process of transferring human materials from donor to recipient we performed a horizon scan by reviewing scientific literature and news websites of 2011 on this subject. We found there is ample information on how extended donor criteria, such as donor age, affect the survival rates of organs or patients. Interestingly, gender mismatch does not appear to be a major risk factor in organ rejection. Data on risks of donor tumor transmission was very scarce; however, risk categories for various tumor types have been suggested. In order to avoid rejection, a lot of research is directed towards engineering tissues from a patient's own tissues and cells. Some but not all of these developments have reached the clinic. Developments in the field of stem cell therapy are rapid. However, many hurdles are yet to be overcome before these cells can be applied on a large scale in the clinic. The processes leading to genetic abnormalities in cells differentiated from stem cells need to be identified in order to avoid transplantation of aberrant cells. New insights have been obtained on storage and preservation of human materials, a critical step for success of their clinical use. Likewise, quality management systems have been shown to improve the quality and safety of human materials used for transplantation.

  14. MicroRNA Levels as Prognostic Markers for the Differentiation Potential of Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Donors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Georgi, Nicole; Taipaleenmaeki, H.; Raiss, C.C.; Groen, N.; Portalska, K.K.; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; de Boer, Jan; Post, Janine Nicole; van Wijnen, A.; Karperien, Hermanus Bernardus Johannes

    2015-01-01

    The ability of human mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (hMSCs) to differentiate into various mesenchymal cell lineages makes them a promising cell source for the use in tissue repair strategies. Because the differentiation potential of hMSCs differs between donors, it is necessary to establish

  15. Pasteurization Procedures for Donor Human Milk Affect Body Growth, Intestinal Structure, and Resistance against Bacterial Infections in Preterm Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yanqi; Duc Ninh Nguyen; de Waard, Marita

    2017-01-01

    Background: Holder pasteurization (HP) destroys multiple bioactive factors in donor human milk (DM), and UV-C irradiation (UVC) is potentially a gentler method for pasteurizing DM for preterm infants. Objective: We investigated whether UVC-treated DM improves gut maturation and resistance toward...

  16. Semen parameters of a semen donor before and after infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1: Case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, E.; Cornelissen, M.; de Vries, J. W.; Lowe, S. H.; Jurriaans, S.; Repping, S.; van der Veen, F.

    2004-01-01

    Semen samples from a donor who seroconverted for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) during the period that he was donating at our clinic were stored before and after infection. Semen analysis was done on all of these samples before cryopreservation. Retrospectively, both qualitative and

  17. Donor Human Milk Protects against Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamor-Martínez, Eduardo; Pierro, Maria; Cavallaro, Giacomo; Mosca, Fabio; Kramer, Boris W; Villamor, Eduardo

    2018-02-20

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is the most common complication after preterm birth. Pasteurized donor human milk (DHM) has increasingly become the standard of care for very preterm infants over the use of preterm formula (PF) if the mother's own milk (MOM) is unavailable. Studies have reported beneficial effects of DHM on BPD. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies on the effects of DHM on BPD and other respiratory outcomes. Eighteen studies met the inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis of RCTs could not demonstrate that supplementation of MOM with DHM reduced BPD when compared to PF (three studies, risk ratio (RR) 0.89, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.60-1.32). However, meta-analysis of observational studies showed that DHM supplementation reduced BPD (8 studies, RR 0.78, 95% CI 0.67-0.90). An exclusive human milk diet reduced the risk of BPD, compared to a diet with PF and/or bovine milk-based fortifier (three studies, RR 0.80, 95% CI 0.68-0.95). Feeding raw MOM, compared to feeding pasteurized MOM, protected against BPD (two studies, RR 0.77, 95% CI 0.62-0.96). In conclusion, our data suggest that DHM protects against BPD in very preterm infants.

  18. Development of a human cadaver model for training in laparoscopic donor nephrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Erica R H; Billeter, Adrian; Druen, Devin; Roberts, Henry; Rice, Jonathan

    2017-06-01

    The organ procurement network recommends a surgeon record 15 cases as surgeon or assistant for laparoscopic donor nephrectomies (LDN) prior to independent practice. The literature suggests that the learning curve for improved perioperative and patient outcomes is closer to 35 cases. In this article, we describe our development of a model utilizing fresh tissue and objective, quantifiable endpoints to document surgical progress, and efficiency in each of the major steps involved in LDN. Phase I of model development focused on the modifications necessary to maintain visualization for laparoscopic surgery in a human cadaver. Phase II tested proposed learner-based metrics of procedural competency for multiport LDN by timing procedural steps of LDN in a novice learner. Phases I and II required 12 and nine cadavers, with a total of 35 kidneys utilized. The following metrics improved with trial number for multiport LDN: time taken for dissection of the gonadal vein, ureter, renal hilum, adrenal and lumbrical veins, simulated warm ischemic time (WIT), and operative time. Human cadavers can be used for training in LDN as evidenced by improvements in timed learner-based metrics. This simulation-based model fills a gap in available training options for surgeons. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Donor Human Milk Protects against Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Villamor-Martínez

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD is the most common complication after preterm birth. Pasteurized donor human milk (DHM has increasingly become the standard of care for very preterm infants over the use of preterm formula (PF if the mother’s own milk (MOM is unavailable. Studies have reported beneficial effects of DHM on BPD. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs and observational studies on the effects of DHM on BPD and other respiratory outcomes. Eighteen studies met the inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis of RCTs could not demonstrate that supplementation of MOM with DHM reduced BPD when compared to PF (three studies, risk ratio (RR 0.89, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.60–1.32. However, meta-analysis of observational studies showed that DHM supplementation reduced BPD (8 studies, RR 0.78, 95% CI 0.67–0.90. An exclusive human milk diet reduced the risk of BPD, compared to a diet with PF and/or bovine milk-based fortifier (three studies, RR 0.80, 95% CI 0.68–0.95. Feeding raw MOM, compared to feeding pasteurized MOM, protected against BPD (two studies, RR 0.77, 95% CI 0.62–0.96. In conclusion, our data suggest that DHM protects against BPD in very preterm infants.

  20. Zero risk tolerance costs lives: loss of transplantable organs due to human immunodeficiency virus nucleic acid testing of potential donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, Teresa J; Schkade, David; Schkade, Lawrence; Geier, Steven S; Orlowski, Jeffrey P; Klintmalm, Goran

    2011-09-01

    Patients' deaths due to the organ donor shortage make it imperative that every suitable organ be transplanted. False-positive results of tests for infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) result in lost organs. A survey of US organ procurement organizations collected the numbers of donors and ruled-out potential donors who had a positive result on an HIV test from January 1,2006, to October 31, 2008. Sixty-two percent of US organ procurement organizations participated. Of the 12397 donor/nondonor cases, 56 (0.45%) had an initial positive result on an HIV antibody or HIV nucleic acid test, and only 8 (14.3%) of those were confirmed positive. Of the false-positive results, 50% were from HIV antibody tests and 50% were from HIV nucleic acid tests. Organs are a scarce, finite, and perishable resource. Use of HIV antibody testing has produced a remarkably safe track record of avoiding HIV transmission, with 22 years of nonoccurrence between transmissions. Because false positives occur with any test, including the HIV Ab test, adding nucleic acid testing to the standard donor testing panel doubles the number of false-positive HIV test results and thus the number of medically suitable donors lost. The required HIV antibody test is 99.99% effective in preventing transmission of the HIV virus. Adding the HIV nucleic acid test to routine organ donor screening could result in as many as 761 to 1551 unnecessary deaths of patients between HIV transmission events because medically suitable organs are wasted.

  1. Seroepidemiology of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type-I in blood donors of Northeastern Iran, Sabzevar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahtab Maghsudlu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type-I (HTLV-I infection is considered as a public health challenge in endemic areas. The virus is associated with severe diseases, such as adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma, and HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis. One of the major routes of the HTLV-I transmission includes blood transfusion. Sabzevar is located in the endemic region of HTLV-I infection. The aim of the present study was to determine the seroprevalence of HTLV-I infection in the blood donors in Sabzevar. Materials and Methods: A total of 35,067 blood donors in Sabzevar from March 2009 to April 2012 who were screened with HTLV-I on the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay screening test were included in this survey. Reactive samples that confirmed by western blot were considered to be seropositive cases. The required data were obtained from blood donors′ database of blood transfusion service. Results: The overall prevalence of HTLV-1 based on the positive result of western blot test was 0.14%. The seropositive donors aged 17-59 years with a mean age of 38.10 ± 11.82. The prevalence rates of HTLV-I infection in 3 years of study were 0.19%, 0.14%, and 0.09%, respectively. A significant relation between age, sex, educational level, and history of blood donation was observed with seropositivity of HTLV-I. Conclusion: The improvement of donor selection and laboratory screening caused a decline in the prevalence of infection in blood donors. Given the lower prevalence of infection in regular donors with lower age and higher educational level, more efforts should be done to attract blood donors from these populations.

  2. Prevalence of Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 and 2 among blood donors in Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Poinho EncarnaçÃo de Morais

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 and 2 (HTLV-1/2 is endemic in Brazil, but few studies have investigated the seroprevalence of HTLV and its subtypes among blood donors in the capital city Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil. Aim: To estimate the seroprevalence of HTLV-1/2 and to identify circulating subtypes among blood donors in Manaus. Materials and Methods: Blood donors (2001-2003 were screened for HTLV-1/2 antibodies by ELISA. Positive results were confirmed and subtyped by Western blot assays. Prevalence rates were calculated and compared with demographic data. Results: Among the 87,402 individuals screened, 116 (0.13% were seropositive for HTLV-1/2. A second sample (76/116 was collected and retested by HTLV-1/2 ELISA, of which only 41/76 were positive. Western blot confirmed HTLV infection in 24/41 retested blood donors [HTLV-1 (n=16, HTLV-2 (n=5 and HTLV-untypable (n=3]. Discussion: HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 are prevalent among blood donors in Manaus. However, additional studies are needed to comprehend the epidemiology of HTLV-1/2 in Amazonas not only to understand the pathophysiology of the disease providing adequate medical assistance, but also to reduce or block virus transmission.

  3. Sperm donation: implications of Canada's Assisted Human Reproduction Act 2004 for recipients, donors, health professionals, and institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, K; Feyles, V; Nisker, J; Perez-Y-Perez, M; Newton, C; Parker, J A; Tekpetey, F; Haase, J

    2006-07-01

    On April 22, 2004, the Assisted Human Reproduction Act came into force, prohibiting the purchase of sperm or eggs from donors in Canada. In response to the concerns of medical professionals and some consumers that prohibiting payment would lead to a decline in the number of gamete donors, Health Canada commissioned research on altruistic donor recruitment and recruitment strategies. Twenty-two studies of sperm donors were located and their findings reviewed. The studies spanned 23 years (1980-2003), were undertaken in a range of countries, and were chosen on the merit of their relevance to the development of recruitment strategies within a policy of altruistic sperm donation. Observations were derived from assessing and comparing the purposes, findings, and implications of the 22 studies. Payment for providing sperm was made in all but three studies, although participants in 15 studies indicated clearly that their motivations were primarily altruistic. Observations indicate that men who are more willing to be identified to offspring in the future share demographic characteristics, such as age and parental status, with those who are prepared to donate altruistically. These characteristics appear to be a factor in motivation to donate altruistically. The studies show that there are men who are prepared to donate sperm without financial payment. The findings suggest that a change is required in the culture of sperm donation, specifically the adoption of a new approach to donor recruitment.

  4. High-Temperature Short-Time Pasteurization System for Donor Milk in a Human Milk Bank Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Escuder-Vieco

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Donor milk is the best alternative for the feeding of preterm newborns when mother's own milk is unavailable. For safety reasons, it is usually pasteurized by the Holder method (62.5°C for 30 min. Holder pasteurization results in a microbiological safe product but impairs the activity of many biologically active compounds such as immunoglobulins, enzymes, cytokines, growth factors, hormones or oxidative stress markers. High-temperature short-time (HTST pasteurization has been proposed as an alternative for a better preservation of some of the biological components of human milk although, at present, there is no equipment available to perform this treatment under the current conditions of a human milk bank. In this work, the specific needs of a human milk bank setting were considered to design an HTST equipment for the continuous and adaptable (time-temperature combination processing of donor milk. Microbiological quality, activity of indicator enzymes and indices for thermal damage of milk were evaluated before and after HTST treatment of 14 batches of donor milk using different temperature and time combinations and compared to the results obtained after Holder pasteurization. The HTST system has accurate and simple operation, allows the pasteurization of variable amounts of donor milk and reduces processing time and labor force. HTST processing at 72°C for, at least, 10 s efficiently destroyed all vegetative forms of microorganisms present initially in raw donor milk although sporulated Bacillus sp. survived this treatment. Alkaline phosphatase was completely destroyed after HTST processing at 72 and 75°C, but γ-glutamil transpeptidase showed higher thermoresistance. Furosine concentrations in HTST-treated donor milk were lower than after Holder pasteurization and lactulose content for HTST-treated donor milk was below the detection limit of analytical method (10 mg/L. In conclusion, processing of donor milk at 72°C for at least 10 s in

  5. High-Temperature Short-Time Pasteurization System for Donor Milk in a Human Milk Bank Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escuder-Vieco, Diana; Espinosa-Martos, Irene; Rodríguez, Juan M; Corzo, Nieves; Montilla, Antonia; Siegfried, Pablo; Pallás-Alonso, Carmen R; Fernández, Leónides

    2018-01-01

    Donor milk is the best alternative for the feeding of preterm newborns when mother's own milk is unavailable. For safety reasons, it is usually pasteurized by the Holder method (62.5°C for 30 min). Holder pasteurization results in a microbiological safe product but impairs the activity of many biologically active compounds such as immunoglobulins, enzymes, cytokines, growth factors, hormones or oxidative stress markers. High-temperature short-time (HTST) pasteurization has been proposed as an alternative for a better preservation of some of the biological components of human milk although, at present, there is no equipment available to perform this treatment under the current conditions of a human milk bank. In this work, the specific needs of a human milk bank setting were considered to design an HTST equipment for the continuous and adaptable (time-temperature combination) processing of donor milk. Microbiological quality, activity of indicator enzymes and indices for thermal damage of milk were evaluated before and after HTST treatment of 14 batches of donor milk using different temperature and time combinations and compared to the results obtained after Holder pasteurization. The HTST system has accurate and simple operation, allows the pasteurization of variable amounts of donor milk and reduces processing time and labor force. HTST processing at 72°C for, at least, 10 s efficiently destroyed all vegetative forms of microorganisms present initially in raw donor milk although sporulated Bacillus sp. survived this treatment. Alkaline phosphatase was completely destroyed after HTST processing at 72 and 75°C, but γ-glutamil transpeptidase showed higher thermoresistance. Furosine concentrations in HTST-treated donor milk were lower than after Holder pasteurization and lactulose content for HTST-treated donor milk was below the detection limit of analytical method (10 mg/L). In conclusion, processing of donor milk at 72°C for at least 10 s in this HTST system

  6. High-Temperature Short-Time Pasteurization System for Donor Milk in a Human Milk Bank Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escuder-Vieco, Diana; Espinosa-Martos, Irene; Rodríguez, Juan M.; Corzo, Nieves; Montilla, Antonia; Siegfried, Pablo; Pallás-Alonso, Carmen R.; Fernández, Leónides

    2018-01-01

    Donor milk is the best alternative for the feeding of preterm newborns when mother's own milk is unavailable. For safety reasons, it is usually pasteurized by the Holder method (62.5°C for 30 min). Holder pasteurization results in a microbiological safe product but impairs the activity of many biologically active compounds such as immunoglobulins, enzymes, cytokines, growth factors, hormones or oxidative stress markers. High-temperature short-time (HTST) pasteurization has been proposed as an alternative for a better preservation of some of the biological components of human milk although, at present, there is no equipment available to perform this treatment under the current conditions of a human milk bank. In this work, the specific needs of a human milk bank setting were considered to design an HTST equipment for the continuous and adaptable (time-temperature combination) processing of donor milk. Microbiological quality, activity of indicator enzymes and indices for thermal damage of milk were evaluated before and after HTST treatment of 14 batches of donor milk using different temperature and time combinations and compared to the results obtained after Holder pasteurization. The HTST system has accurate and simple operation, allows the pasteurization of variable amounts of donor milk and reduces processing time and labor force. HTST processing at 72°C for, at least, 10 s efficiently destroyed all vegetative forms of microorganisms present initially in raw donor milk although sporulated Bacillus sp. survived this treatment. Alkaline phosphatase was completely destroyed after HTST processing at 72 and 75°C, but γ-glutamil transpeptidase showed higher thermoresistance. Furosine concentrations in HTST-treated donor milk were lower than after Holder pasteurization and lactulose content for HTST-treated donor milk was below the detection limit of analytical method (10 mg/L). In conclusion, processing of donor milk at 72°C for at least 10 s in this HTST system

  7. Effect of brain death on gene expression and tissue activation in human donor kidneys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijboer, WN; Schuurs, TA; van der Hoeven, JAB; Fekken, S; Wiersema-Buist, J; Leuvenink, HGD; Hofker, Hendrik; Homan van der Heide, J; van Son, WJ; Ploeg, RJ

    2004-01-01

    Background. After kidney transplantation, decreased graft survival is seen in grafts from brain dead (BD) donors compared with living donors. This might result partly from a progressive nonspecific inflammation in the graft. In this study, we focused on the effects of BD on inflammatory response

  8. Effect of brain death on gene expression and tissue activation in human donor kidneys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijboer, Willemijn N.; Schuurs, Theo A.; van der Hoeven, Joost A. B.; Fekken, Susan; Wiersema-Buist, Janneke; Leuvenink, Henri G. D.; Hofker, Sijbrand; Homan van der Heide, Jaap J.; van Son, Willem J.; Ploeg, Rutger J.

    2004-01-01

    After kidney transplantation, decreased graft survival is seen in grafts from brain dead (BD) donors compared with living donors. This might result partly from a progressive nonspecific inflammation in the graft. In this study, we focused on the effects of BD on inflammatory response (adhesion

  9. Do senescence markers correlate in vitro and in situ within individual human donors?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waaijer, Mariëtte E C; Gunn, David A; van Heemst, Diana

    2018-01-01

    Little is known on how well senescence markers in vitro and in situ correlate within individual donors. We studied correlations between the same and different in vitro markers. Furthermore, we tested correlations between in vitro markers with in situ p16INK4a positivity.From 100 donors (20-91 yea...

  10. The nutritive and immunoprotective quality of human milk beyond 1 year postpartum: are lactation-duration-based donor exclusions justified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Maryanne Tigchelaar; Fogleman, April; Allen, Jonathan C

    2013-08-01

    Donor human milk is critical for the fragile preterm infant who does not have access to his or her mother's milk, improving survival rates and quality of survival and decreasing hospital stay. Despite the opening of donor milk banks around the world, shortages continue as demand for donor milk exceeds supply. One potential means of increasing supply is by reducing exclusion criteria that prohibit mothers from donating milk based on duration of lactation. Minimal research has been done on the composition of human milk during the second year of lactation, with most research focusing on the nutritive compounds and not the immunoprotective compounds. Several immunoprotective compounds, including lysozyme, lactoferrin, secretory immunoglobulin A, and oligosaccharides, are abundant in human milk compared to bovine-based infant formula and are partially or fully retained during Holder pasteurization, making them an important differentiating feature of donor milk. A PubMed search was conducted to review studies in human milk composition during the second year of lactation. Limitations of existing research include sample collection protocols, small study sizes, and use of populations that may have been at risk for nutritional deficiencies. Stable concentrations of several components were reported including protein, lactose, iron, copper, lactoferrin, and secretory immunoglobulin A. Lysozyme concentration increased during extended lactation, while zinc and calcium concentrations declined into the second year. Conflicting findings were reported on fat content, and no information was available regarding oligosaccharide content. More research is needed to create evidence-based guidelines regarding the nutritive and immunoprotective value of donor milk throughout the course of lactation.

  11. Building local human resources to implement SLMTA with limited donor funding: The Ghana experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkrumah, Bernard; van der Puije, Beatrice; Bekoe, Veronica; Adukpo, Rowland; Kotey, Nii A; Yao, Katy; Fonjungo, Peter N; Luman, Elizabeth T; Duh, Samuel; Njukeng, Patrick A; Addo, Nii A; Khan, Fazle N; Woodfill, Celia J I

    2014-11-03

    In 2009, Ghana adopted the Strengthening Laboratory Management Toward Accreditation (SLMTA) programme in order to improve laboratory quality. The programme was implemented successfully with limited donor funding and local human resources. To demonstrate how Ghana, which received very limited PEPFAR funding, was able to achieve marked quality improvement using local human resources. Local partners led the SLMTA implementation and local mentors were embedded in each laboratory. An in-country training-of-trainers workshop was conducted in order to increase the pool of local SLMTA implementers. Three laboratory cohorts were enrolled in SLMTA in 2011, 2012 and 2013. Participants from each cohort attended in a series of three workshops interspersed with improvement projects and mentorship. Supplemental training on internal audit was provided. Baseline, exit and follow-up audits were conducted using the Stepwise Laboratory Quality Improvement Process Towards Accreditation (SLIPTA) checklist. In November 2013, four laboratories underwent official SLIPTA audits by the African Society for Laboratory Medicine (ASLM). The local SLMTA team successfully implemented three cohorts of SLMTA in 15 laboratories. Seven out of the nine laboratories that underwent follow-up audits have reached at least one star. Three out of the four laboratories that underwent official ASLM audits were awarded four stars. Patient satisfaction increased from 25% to 70% and sample rejection rates decreased from 32% to 10%. On average, $40 000 was spent per laboratory to cover mentors' salaries, SLMTA training and improvement project support. Building in-country capacity through local partners is a sustainable model for improving service quality in resource-constrained countries such as Ghana. Such models promote country ownership, capacity building and the use of local human resources for the expansion of SLMTA.

  12. Building local human resources to implement SLMTA with limited donor funding: The Ghana experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Nkrumah

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: In 2009, Ghana adopted the Strengthening Laboratory Management Toward Accreditation (SLMTA programme in order to improve laboratory quality. The programme was implemented successfully with limited donor funding and local human resources. Objectives: To demonstrate how Ghana, which received very limited PEPFAR funding, was able to achieve marked quality improvement using local human resources. Method: Local partners led the SLMTA implementation and local mentors were embedded in each laboratory. An in-country training-of-trainers workshop was conducted in order to increase the pool of local SLMTA implementers. Three laboratory cohorts were enrolled in SLMTA in 2011, 2012 and 2013. Participants from each cohort attended in a series of three workshops interspersed with improvement projects and mentorship. Supplemental trainingon internal audit was provided. Baseline, exit and follow-up audits were conducted using the Stepwise Laboratory Quality Improvement Process Towards Accreditation (SLIPTA checklist. In November 2013, four laboratories underwent official SLIPTA audits by the African Society for Laboratory Medicine (ASLM. Results: The local SLMTA team successfully implemented three cohorts of SLMTA in 15 laboratories. Seven out of the nine laboratories that underwent follow-up audits have reached at least one star. Three out of the four laboratories that underwent official ASLM audits were awarded four stars. Patient satisfaction increased from 25% to 70% and sample rejection rates decreased from 32% to 10%. On average, $40 000 was spent per laboratory to cover mentors’salaries, SLMTA training and improvement project support. Conclusion: Building in-country capacity through local partners is a sustainable model for improving service quality in resource-constrained countries such as Ghana. Such modelspromote country ownership, capacity building and the use of local human resources for the expansion of SLMTA.

  13. Heterologous, Fresh, Human Donor Sclera as Patch Graft Material in Glaucoma Drainage Device Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoukanas, Dimitrios; Xanthopoulou, Paraskevi; Charonis, Alexandros C; Theodossiadis, Panagiotis; Kopsinis, Gerasimos; Filippopoulos, Theodoros

    2016-07-01

    To determine the safety and efficacy of fresh, human sclera allografts as a patch graft material in glaucoma drainage device (GDD) surgery. Retrospective, noncomparative, interventional, consecutive case series. All GDD cases operated between 2008 and 2013 in which fresh human corneoscleral rims were used immediately after the central corneal button was used for penetrating or endothelial keratoplasty. Surgery was performed by 2 surgeons at 2 facilities. The Ahmed Glaucoma Valve (FP-7) was used exclusively in this cohort. Sixty-four eyes of 60 patients were identified; demographic data were recorded along with intraocular pressure (IOP), medication requirements, visual acuity, complications, and subsequent interventions. Incidence of complications. IOP and medication requirements at the last follow-up. Quilified success utilizing Tube Versus Trabeculectomy study criteria. The mean age of the cohort was 66.2±19.1 years; the average preoperative IOP was 33.2±11.1 mm Hg on 4.2±1.3 IOP-lowering agents before GDD surgery. IOP decreased significantly to 14.1±4.7 mm Hg (Pendophthalmitis, and there was 1 case of conjunctival erosion and tube/plate exposure (1.6%) occurring 30 days after surgery. Qualified success was estimated as 90.5% and 81% at 1 and 2 years, respectively, using Tube Versus Trabeculectomy study criteria. Heterologous, fresh, human donor sclera appears to be a safe material for GDD tube coverage. It provides a cost-efficient alternative compared with traditional patch graft materials associated with a low risk of pathogen transmission.

  14. Banco de leite humano: uma análise das diferenças entre doadoras adultas e adolescentes Human milk bank: an analysis of the differences between adult and adolescent donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosangela Santana

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos do estudo foram realizar a análise do perfil da população e salientar as diferenças entre doadoras adultas e adolescentes. Foi um estudo transversal, analítico, realizado no Banco de Leite Humano (BLH de Maringá, Estado do Paraná. A população foi o total de doadoras cadastradas em 2004 (443 e a fonte de dados a Ficha de Inscrição de Doadoras. Foram analisadas variáveis sócio-econômicas, demográficas e perinatais. A variável idade foi dividida em doadoras adolescentes (= 20 anos e a partir daí a condição de ser doadora adolescente foi considerada como variável dependente, sendo testadas interações e diferenças entre esta e as outras variáveis do estudo. Observou-se frequência de 16,35% de adolescentes e associação estatisticamente significativa (p The objectives of the study were to analyze the population profile and point out differences among adult and adolescent donors. It was a cross sectional, analytic study carried out at the Human Milk Bank (HMB of Maringá, Paraná State. The population of the study consisted of all registered donors in the year 2004 (443, and the source of the data was the Donor Registration Record. Socioeconomic, demographic and perinatal variables related to breast milk donation were analyzed. The age variable was divided into adolescent donors (< 20 years old and adult donors (≥ 20 years old; from that, the condition of being an adolescent donor was considered a dependent variable, testing interactions and differences between this and the other variables of the study. A frequency of 16.35% of adolescents was observed. A significant statistical association (p < 0.001 was found between adolescents and low family income, living without companion, prematurity and cesarean childbirth. Results show that adolescent donors need greater incentive for the practice of breastfeeding, as they present unfavorable socioeconomic and perinatal conditions. The adolescent group was quite

  15. Human umbilical cord derived mesenchymal stem cells promote interleukin-17 production from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells of healthy donors and systemic lupus erythematosus patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, S; Hu, J; Chen, Y; Yuan, T; Hu, H; Li, S

    2016-03-01

    Inflammation instigated by interleukin (IL)-17-producing cells is central to the development and pathogenesis of several human autoimmune diseases and animal models of autoimmunity. The expansion of IL-17-producing cells from healthy donors is reportedly promoted by mesenchymal stem cells derived from fetal bone marrow. In the present study, human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) were examined for their effects on lymphocytes from healthy donors and from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Significantly higher levels of IL-17 were produced when CD4(+) T cells from healthy donors were co-cultured with hUC-MSCs than those that were cultured alone. Blocking experiments identified that this effect might be mediated partially through prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) and IL-1β, without IL-23 involvement. We then co-cultured hUC-MSCs with human CD4(+) T cells from systemic lupus erythematosus patients. Ex-vivo inductions of IL-17 by hUC-MSCs in stimulated lymphocytes were significantly higher in SLE patients than in healthy donors. This effect was not observed for IL-23. Taken together, our results represent that hUC-MSCs can promote the IL-17 production from CD4(+) T cells in both healthy donor and SLE patients. PGE2 and IL-1β might also be partially involved in the promotive effect of hUC-MSCs. © 2015 British Society for Immunology.

  16. Gestational surrogacy for a human immunodeficiency virus seropositive sperm donor: what are the ethics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Karen E

    2003-01-01

    Clinics that provide assisted reproductive technology (ART) are guided by general guidelines set forth by the American Society for Reproductive Medicine and its Ethics Committee and are free to set their own policies within those guidelines. This article presents a case in which a university clinic was presented with a novel request. A same-sex male couple, both positive for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), asked to use one of the couple's sperm to establish a pregnancy in an unrelated gestational surrogate through in vitro fertilization, intracytoplasmic sperm injection, and embryo transfer. The couple's argument in favor of such a plan was that no documented case of HIV seroconversion had so far occurred in recipients of gametes from HIV-positive donors. Since gestational surrogates routinely accept the risks inherent in pregnancy and childbearing, an informed surrogate should be allowed to accept the risks of such an arrangement. They further argued that if no clinic were willing to provide such services, data regarding seroconversion would never be obtained. The university ethics committee examined the fertility clinic's policies and found the clinic's refusal to provide such services to be completely consistent with its policy that allows providing services to HIV-discordant couples, same-sex couples, and gestational surrogates, but that always acts to protect the surrogate from exposure to infectious risk.

  17. Radiation cytogenetic in vitro studies on human donors in the development of a suitable biological dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barjaktarovic, N.

    1988-02-01

    The final report is on the work carried out under the Agency research contract 3173/RB entitled ''Radiation cytogenetic in vitro studies on human donors in the development of a suitable biological dosimeter'', at the Clinical Hospital Centre ''Zvezdara'' in Belgrade, Yugoslavia. In co-operation and co-ordination dissemination with an international team of cytogeneticists under the IAEA CRP, the development of a suitable biological dosimetry system has been accomplished at the national institute to assist reliably in the absorbed radiation-dose assessment of accidentally-over-exposed personnel. The quantitative yield of asymmetrical chromosomal aberrations, such as dicentrics, rings and fragments consequent to exposure(s) to radiation overdose, help in such estimation of vital prognostic and radiation protection significance. This biological dosimeter system is particularly essential where the exposed person was not wearing any physical dosemeter during the accident. Prerequisite for implementation of an effective biological dosimetry is the availability of a reliable standard dose-response curve and an adherence to a protocol for lymphocytic chromosome analysis in first division phase of lymphocytes. The validation of the reported biological dosimeter is established through its successful analysis of a simulated over-exposure incident, with the associated error of less than 10%. Analytical cytogenetic methods for whole- and part-body acute exposures have been discussed. Part of the results have been reported in the publications under the CRP concerned

  18. Prediction of graft-versus-host disease in humans by donor gene-expression profiling.

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    Chantal Baron

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD results from recognition of host antigens by donor T cells following allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (AHCT. Notably, histoincompatibility between donor and recipient is necessary but not sufficient to elicit GVHD. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that some donors may be "stronger alloresponders" than others, and consequently more likely to elicit GVHD. METHODS AND FINDINGS: To this end, we measured the gene-expression profiles of CD4(+ and CD8(+ T cells from 50 AHCT donors with microarrays. We report that pre-AHCT gene-expression profiling segregates donors whose recipient suffered from GVHD or not. Using quantitative PCR, established statistical tests, and analysis of multiple independent training-test datasets, we found that for chronic GVHD the "dangerous donor" trait (occurrence of GVHD in the recipient is under polygenic control and is shaped by the activity of genes that regulate transforming growth factor-beta signaling and cell proliferation. CONCLUSIONS: These findings strongly suggest that the donor gene-expression profile has a dominant influence on the occurrence of GVHD in the recipient. The ability to discriminate strong and weak alloresponders using gene-expression profiling could pave the way to personalized transplantation medicine.

  19. Breast Milk and Hair Testing to Detect Illegal Drugs, Nicotine, and Caffeine in Donors to a Human Milk Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escuder-Vieco, Diana; Garcia-Algar, Óscar; Joya, Xavier; Marchei, Emilia; Pichini, Simona; Pacifici, Roberta; Pallás-Alonso, Carmen Rosa

    2016-08-01

    The use of illegal drugs and tobacco is an exclusion criteria for accepting a nursing mother as a milk donor. The detection window for human milk testing is typically a few hours. Hair testing has been considered the gold standard to assess chronic exposure to these toxic substances. The aim of this study was to determine the levels of illegal drugs, nicotine, and caffeine in breast milk and hair samples from donors to assess whether these substances were being used during the donation period and the months leading up to it. Thirty-six samples of hair and breast milk were obtained from 36 donors. The tests performed identified nicotine, caffeine, morphine, cocaine, cannabis, amphetamines, codeine, methadone, and other substances derived therefrom. No illegal drugs were found in any of the samples analyzed. Nicotine and cotinine were found in 33.3% (12/36) of all hair samples. Among these 12 samples, 10 had cotinine concentrations consistent with cutoff values for unexposed nonsmokers, 1 had concentrations consistent with cutoff values for passive smokers, and 1 had concentrations consistent with cutoff values for active smokers. Caffeine was found in 77.7% of the hair samples and in 50% of the donor milk samples. The correlation for caffeine between donor milk and hair samples was r = 0.288, P = .0881. Donors do not use illegal drugs during either the donation period or the months leading up to it. They are occasionally exposed to tobacco smoke and almost all of them consume caffeine. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Donor-recipient human leukocyte antigen matching practices in vascularized composite tissue allotransplantation: a survey of major transplantation centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashvetiya, Tamara; Mundinger, Gerhard S; Kukuruga, Debra; Bojovic, Branko; Christy, Michael R; Dorafshar, Amir H; Rodriguez, Eduardo D

    2014-07-01

    Vascularized composite tissue allotransplant recipients are often highly sensitized to human leukocyte antigens because of multiple prior blood transfusions and other reconstructive operations. The use of peripheral blood obtained from dead donors for crossmatching may be insufficient because of life support measures taken for the donor before donation. No study has been published investigating human leukocyte antigen matching practices in this field. A survey addressing human leukocyte antigen crossmatching methods was generated and sent to 22 vascularized composite tissue allotransplantation centers with active protocols worldwide. Results were compiled by center and compared using two-tailed t tests. Twenty of 22 centers (91 percent) responded to the survey. Peripheral blood was the most commonly reported donor sample for vascularized composite tissue allotransplant crossmatching [78 percent of centers (n=14)], with only 22 percent (n=4) using lymph nodes. However, 56 percent of the 18 centers (n=10) that had performed vascularized composite tissue allotransplantation reported that they harvested lymph nodes for crossmatching. Of responding individuals, 62.5 percent (10 of 16 individuals) felt that lymph nodes were the best donor sample for crossmatching. A slight majority of vascularized composite tissue allotransplant centers that have performed clinical transplants have used lymph nodes for human leukocyte antigen matching, and centers appear to be divided on the utility of lymph node harvest. The use of lymph nodes may offer a number of potential benefits. This study highlights the need for institutional review board-approved crossmatching protocols specific to vascularized composite tissue allotransplantation, and the need for global databases for sharing of vascularized composite tissue allotransplantation experiences.

  1. Sero-prevalence of Human Cytomegalovirus among blood donors in Lahore, Pakistan

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    Chahat Batool Rizvi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Transfusion-transmitted cytomegalovirus (TT-CMV infection can cause severe illness and even death among immunocompromised patients; therefore, the spread of CMV through blood products should be prevented. To our knowledge, no study has been carried out in Pakistan to determine the seroprevalence of CMV in general population as well as among blood donors. The goal of this study was to determine CMV seropositivity among blood donors at the blood bank of INMOL Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan. Methods: A sero-epidemiological cross-sectional study was conducted. Sera from 91 blood donors were screened for CMV specific IgG antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA based kit. Results: The CMV-specific IgG antibodies were detected in 89 blood donors, which gave seroprevalence rate of 97.8%. The statistical analysis of results was done using pearson chi-square test and appeared non-significant with values 0.625 and 0.705 for different age groups and blood groups of donors. Conclusion: Because of high seroprevalence in this study area, an adequate supply of CMV seronegative blood is difficult to maintain. Therefore, we propose that the future strategies for the prevention of post-transfusion CMV infection in recipients should include the transfusion of leukoreduced blood products. Further a prospective study with much greater population can be done to identify major causative risk factors for such highest prevalence rate.

  2. Biological dosimetry of heavy ion induced chromosome lesions in human peripheral blood lymphocytes of different healthy donors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groesser, T.; Rydberg, B.; Ritter, S.; Hessel, P.; Kraft, G.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: In the presented work the effect of sparsely ionizing X-rays or densely ionizing carbon ions on human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) from healthy donors regarding the fluctuations in radiosensitivity within the same donor and between different donors was examined. This is not only of special interest for physicians and radiation biologists but also plays an important role in space flights because such fluctuations in the radiation response would reduce the accuracy of the biological dosimetry. In this context, biological changes in the aberration rate of metaphase cells as well as in cell proliferation and the mitotic index were measured. Since chromosome analyses are presently the most powerful biological method to quantify radiation exposure, the study focused on the measurements of chromosome aberrations in first-metaphase cells. The investigations showed that the aberration yield after 400 MeV/u carbon ion exposure (LET = 11 keV/micrometer) was higher than after X-irradiation. The aberration yield in first mitotic cells as well as the proportion of damaged cells was stable over the examined period up to 72h after exposure to X-rays or carbon ions. Furthermore, the results of the presented work revealed pronounced fluctuations in the measured parameters in the same donor as well as between different donors. If the dose effect curves of such parameters were used as calibration curves for radiation dose assessment these fluctuations will decrease their potential of use for dose estimation. This demonstrates that a general calibration curve for dose assessment might not be sufficiently precise and individual calibration curves might improve the accuracy of the biological dosimetry

  3. Preterm Gut Microbiome Depending on Feeding Type: Significance of Donor Human Milk

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    Anna Parra-Llorca

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Preterm microbial colonization is affected by gestational age, antibiotic treatment, type of birth, but also by type of feeding. Breast milk has been acknowledged as the gold standard for human nutrition. In preterm infants breast milk has been associated with improved growth and cognitive development and a reduced risk of necrotizing enterocolitis and late onset sepsis. In the absence of their mother’s own milk (MOM, pasteurized donor human milk (DHM could be the best available alternative due to its similarity to the former. However, little is known about the effect of DHM upon preterm microbiota and potential biological implications. Our objective was to determine the impact of DHM upon preterm gut microbiota admitted in a referral neonatal intensive care unit (NICU. A prospective observational cohort study in NICU of 69 neonates <32 weeks of gestation and with a birth weight ≤1,500 g was conducted. Neonates were classified in three groups according to feeding practices consisting in their MOM, DHM, or formula. Fecal samples were collected when full enteral feeding (defined as ≥150 cc/kg/day was achieved. Gut microbiota composition was analyzed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Despite the higher variability, no differences in microbial diversity and richness were found, although feeding type significantly influenced the preterm microbiota composition and predictive functional profiles. Preterm infants fed MOM showed a significant greater presence of Bifidobacteriaceae and lower of Staphylococcaceae, Clostridiaceae, and Pasteurellaceae compared to preterm fed DHM. Formula fed microbial profile was different to those observed in preterm fed MOM. Remarkably, preterm infants fed DHM showed closer microbial profiles to preterm fed their MOM. Inferred metagenomic analyses showed higher presence of Bifidobacterium genus in mother’s milk group was related to enrichment in the Glycan biosynthesis and metabolism pathway that was not identified in

  4. Generation of human induced pluripotent stem cells from urinary cells of a healthy donor using a non-integration system

    OpenAIRE

    Uhm, Kyung-Ok; Jo, Eun Hee; Go, Gue Youn; Kim, So-Jung; Choi, Hye Young; Im, Young Sam; Ha, Hye-Yeong; Jung, Ji-Won; Koo, Soo Kyung

    2017-01-01

    Urinary cells can be an ideal source for generating hiPSCs and progenitors, as they are easily accessible, non-invasive, and universally available. We generated human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) from the urinary cells of a healthy donor using a Sendai virus-based gene delivery method. The generated hiPSC line, KSCBi001-A, has a normal karyotype (46,XY). The pluripotency and capacity of multilineage differentiation were characterized by comparison with those of a human embryonic st...

  5. Human perception of fear in dogs varies according to experience with dogs.

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    Michele Wan

    Full Text Available To investigate the role of experience in humans' perception of emotion using canine visual signals, we asked adults with various levels of dog experience to interpret the emotions of dogs displayed in videos. The video stimuli had been pre-categorized by an expert panel of dog behavior professionals as showing examples of happy or fearful dog behavior. In a sample of 2,163 participants, the level of dog experience strongly predicted identification of fearful, but not of happy, emotional examples. The probability of selecting the "fearful" category to describe fearful examples increased with experience and ranged from.30 among those who had never lived with a dog to greater than.70 among dog professionals. In contrast, the probability of selecting the "happy" category to describe happy emotional examples varied little by experience, ranging from.90 to.93. In addition, the number of physical features of the dog that participants reported using for emotional interpretations increased with experience, and in particular, more-experienced respondents were more likely to attend to the ears. Lastly, more-experienced respondents provided lower difficulty and higher accuracy self-ratings than less-experienced respondents when interpreting both happy and fearful emotional examples. The human perception of emotion in other humans has previously been shown to be sensitive to individual differences in social experience, and the results of the current study extend the notion of experience-dependent processes from the intraspecific to the interspecific domain.

  6. Donor-Derived Regulatory Dendritic Cell Infusion Maintains Donor-Reactive CD4+CTLA4hi T Cells in Non-Human Primate Renal Allograft Recipients Treated with CD28 Co-Stimulation Blockade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzelarab, Mohamed B; Lu, Lien; Shufesky, William F; Morelli, Adrian E; Thomson, Angus W

    2018-01-01

    Donor-derived regulatory dendritic cell (DCreg) infusion before transplantation, significantly prolongs renal allograft survival in non-human primates. This is associated with enhanced expression of the immunoregulatory molecules cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen (Ag) 4 (CTLA4) and programmed cell death protein 1 (PD1) by host donor-reactive T cells. In rodents and humans, CD28 co-stimulatory pathway blockade with the fusion protein CTLA4:Ig (CTLA4Ig) is associated with reduced differentiation and development of regulatory T cells (Treg). We hypothesized that upregulation of CTLA4 by donor-reactive CD4 + T cells in DCreg-infused recipients treated with CTLA4Ig, might be associated with higher incidences of donor-reactive CD4 + T cells with a Treg phenotype. In normal rhesus monkeys, allo-stimulated CD4 + CTLA4 hi , but not CD4 + CTLA4 med/lo T cells exhibited a regulatory phenotype, irrespective of PD1 expression. CTLA4Ig significantly reduced the incidence of CD4 + CTLA4 hi , but not CD4 + CTLA4 med/lo T cells following allo-stimulation, associated with a significant reduction in the CD4 + CTLA4 hi /CD4 + CTLA4 med/lo T cell ratio. In CTLA4Ig-treated renal allograft recipient monkeys, there was a marked reduction in circulating donor-reactive CD4 + CTLA4 hi T cells. In contrast, in CTLA4Ig-treated monkeys with DCreg infusion, no such reduction was observed. In parallel, the donor-reactive CD4 + CTLA4 hi /CD4 + CTLA4 med/lo T cell ratio was reduced significantly in graft recipients without DCreg infusion, but increased in those given DCreg. These observations suggest that pre-transplant DCreg infusion promotes and maintains donor-reactive CD4 + CTLA4 hi T cells with a regulatory phenotype after transplantation, even in the presence of CD28 co-stimulation blockade.

  7. Downregulation of Type II Diabetes Mellitus and Maturity Onset Diabetes of Young Pathways in Human Pancreatic Islets from Hyperglycemic Donors

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    Jalal Taneera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although several molecular pathways have been linked to type 2 diabetes (T2D pathogenesis, it is uncertain which pathway has the most implication on the disease. Changes in the expression of an entire pathway might be more important for disease pathogenesis than changes in the expression of individual genes. To identify the molecular alterations in T2D, DNA microarrays of human pancreatic islets from donors with hyperglycemia n=20 and normoglycemia n=58 were subjected to Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA. About 178 KEGG pathways were investigated for gene expression changes between hyperglycemic donors compared to normoglycemic. Pathway enrichment analysis showed that type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM and maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY pathways are downregulated in hyperglycemic donors, while proteasome and spliceosome pathways are upregulated. The mean centroid of gene expression of T2DM and MODY pathways was shown to be associated positively with insulin secretion and negatively with HbA1c level. To conclude, downregulation of T2DM and MODY pathways is involved in islet function and might be involved in T2D. Also, the study demonstrates that gene expression profiles from pancreatic islets can reveal some of the biological processes related to regulation of glucose hemostats and diabetes pathogenesis.

  8. Evaluation of Human Amniotic Membrane as a Wound Dressing for Split-Thickness Skin-Graft Donor Sites

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    Denys J. Loeffelbein

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Human amniotic membrane (HAM has been used as a biomaterial in various surgical procedures and exceeds some qualities of common materials. We evaluated HAM as wound dressing for split-thickness skin-graft (STSG donor sites in a swine model (Part A and a clinical trial (Part B. Part A: STSG donor sites in 4 piglets were treated with HAM or a clinically used conventional polyurethane (PU foil (n=8 each. Biopsies were taken on days 5, 7, 10, 20, 40, and 60 and investigated immunohistochemically for alpha-smooth muscle actin (αSMA: wound contraction marker, von Willebrand factor (vWF: angiogenesis, Ki-67 (cell proliferation, and laminin (basement membrane integrity. Part B: STSG donor sites in 45 adult patients (16 female/29 male were treated with HAM covered by PU foam, solely by PU foam, or PU foil/paraffin gauze (n=15 each. Part A revealed no difference in the rate of wound closure between groups. HAM showed improved esthetic results and inhibitory effects on cicatrization. Angioneogenesis was reduced, and basement membrane formation was accelerated in HAM group. Part B: no difference in re-epithelialization/infection rate was found. HAM caused less ichor exudation and less pruritus. HAM has no relevant advantage over conventional dressings but might be a cost-effective alternative.

  9. Sociology and behaviour of West African blood donors: the impact of religion on human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allain, J-P; Anokwa, M; Casbard, A; Owusu-Ofori, S; Dennis-Antwi, J

    2004-11-01

    Ghana is one of the countries of sub-Saharan Africa where the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence in blood donors ranges between 1 and 4%. Considering the social importance of religion and the very high level of religious practice observed in Ghana, the hypothesis that these factors may play a role in containing HIV was tested. Consenting HIV-infected candidate blood donors, and two age- and gender-matched seronegative control donors, were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding their religious and sexual behaviour. Multivariable conditional logistic regression was used. Irrespective of their HIV status or religion, 95% of the respondents believed that extra-marital sex was a sin, and 79% of those tempted to have an extra-marital affair considered that their religious beliefs helped them to abstain. In the multivariable models, having a formal role in church activities was associated with reduced odds of HIV [odds ratio (OR) = 0.41; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.21-0.80]. Worshipping at the same location for more than 20 years was associated with a reduced risk (OR = 0.30; 95% CI: 0.08-1.10). In addition to other factors limiting HIV spread, such as male circumcision, relatively high level of education and an absence of armed conflicts in Ghana, the use of condoms conferred a reduced risk. An active role in religion, and reporting a lengthy duration of worship at the same place was beneficial. Collecting blood at places of worship with a strict behavioural code and from donors practicing in the community of their birth might improve blood safety.

  10. Donor assists acceptor binding and catalysis of human α1,6-fucosyltransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kötzler, Miriam P; Blank, Simon; Bantleon, Frank I; Wienke, Martin; Spillner, Edzard; Meyer, Bernd

    2013-08-16

    α1,6-Core-fucosyltransferase (FUT8) is a vital enzyme in mammalian physiological and pathophysiological processes such as tumorigenesis and progress of, among others, non-small cell lung cancer and colon carcinoma. It was also shown that therapeutic antibodies have a dramatically higher efficacy if the α1,6-fucosyl residue is absent. However, specific and potent inhibitors for FUT8 and related enzymes are lacking. Hence, it is crucial to elucidate the structural basis of acceptor binding and the catalytic mechanism. We present here the first structural model of FUT8 in complex with its acceptor and donor molecules. An unusually large acceptor, i.e., a hexasaccharide from the core of N-glycans, is required as minimal structure. Acceptor substrate binding of FUT8 is being dissected experimentally by STD NMR and SPR and theoretically by molecular dynamics simulations. The acceptor binding site forms an unusually large and shallow binding site. Binding of the acceptor to the enzyme is much faster and stronger if the donor is present. This is due to strong hydrogen bonding between O6 of the proximal N-acetylglucosamine and an oxygen atom of the β-phosphate of GDP-fucose. Therefore, we propose an ordered Bi Bi mechanism for FUT8 where the donor molecule binds first. No specific amino acid is present that could act as base during catalysis. Our results indicate a donor-assisted mechanism, where an oxygen of the β-phosphate deprotonates the acceptor. Knowledge of the mechanism of FUT8 is now being used for rational design of targeted inhibitors to address metastasis and prognosis of carcinomas.

  11. Reduced reactivation from dormancy but maintained lineage choice of human mesenchymal stem cells with donor age.

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    Verena Dexheimer

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC are promising for cell-based regeneration therapies but up to date it is still controversial whether their function is maintained throughout ageing. Aim of this study was to address whether frequency, activation in vitro, replicative function, and in vitro lineage choice of MSC is maintained throughout ageing to answer the question whether MSC-based regeneration strategies should be restricted to younger individuals. MSC from bone marrow aspirates of 28 donors (5-80 years were characterized regarding colony-forming unit-fibroblast (CFU-F numbers, single cell cloning efficiency (SSCE, osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic differentiation capacity in vitro. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity, mineralization, Oil Red O content, proteoglycan- and collagen type II deposition were quantified. While CFU-F frequency was maintained, SSCE and early proliferation rate decreased significantly with advanced donor age. MSC with higher proliferation rate before start of induction showed stronger osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic differentiation. MSC with high osteogenic capacity underwent better chondrogenesis and showed a trend to better adipogenesis. Lineage choice was, however, unaltered with age. CONCLUSION: Ageing influenced activation from dormancy and replicative function of MSC in a way that it may be more demanding to mobilize MSC to fast cell growth at advanced age. Since fast proliferation came along with high multilineage capacity, the proliferation status of expanded MSC rather than donor age may provide an argument to restrict MSC-based therapies to certain individuals.

  12. The concept of milk kinship in Islam: issues raised when offering preterm infants of Muslim families donor human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Khuffash, Afif; Unger, Sharon

    2012-05-01

    Research has documented health benefits associated with donor human milk (DHM). Offering DHM to people of the Muslim faith raises important religious concerns for these families. Knowledge of these beliefs and an understanding of the rationale for these beliefs enable the health care team to establish rapport and build a foundation of trust with patients and their families, thereby paving the way to developing a treatment plan that is in the best interest of the patients without compromising care. This article describes the issues and a rationale for them and provides physicians caring for preterm infants of Muslim families with information to facilitate advocating DHM to those families.

  13. Stepping responses to treadmill perturbations vary with severity of motor deficits in human SCI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Virginia Way Tong; Hornby, T George; Schmit, Brian D

    2018-04-18

    In this study, we investigated the responses to tread perturbations during human stepping on a treadmill. Our approach was to test the effects of perturbations to a single leg using a split-belt treadmill in healthy participants and in participants with varying severity of spinal cord injury (SCI). We recruited 11 people with incomplete SCI and 5 noninjured participants. As participants walked on an instrumented treadmill, the belt on one side was stopped or accelerated briefly during mid to late stance. A majority of participants initiated an unnecessary swing when the treadmill was stopped in mid stance, although the likelihood of initiating a step was decreased in participants with more severe SCI. Accelerating or decelerating one belt of the treadmill during stance altered the characteristics of swing. We observed delayed swing initiation when the belt was decelerated (i.e. the hip was in a more flexed position at time of swing) and advanced swing initiation with acceleration (i.e. hip extended at swing initiation). Further, the timing and leg posture of heel strike appeared to remain constant, reflected by a sagittal plane hip angle at heel strike that remained the same regardless of the perturbation. In summary, our results supported the current understanding of the role of sensory feedback and central drive in the control of stepping in participants with incomplete SCI and noninjured participants. In particular, the observation of unnecessary swing during a stop perturbation highlights the interdependence of central and sensory drive in walking control.

  14. PERT: A Method for Expression Deconvolution of Human Blood Samples from Varied Microenvironmental and Developmental Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csaszar, Elizabeth; Yu, Mei; Morris, Quaid; Zandstra, Peter W.

    2012-01-01

    The cellular composition of heterogeneous samples can be predicted using an expression deconvolution algorithm to decompose their gene expression profiles based on pre-defined, reference gene expression profiles of the constituent populations in these samples. However, the expression profiles of the actual constituent populations are often perturbed from those of the reference profiles due to gene expression changes in cells associated with microenvironmental or developmental effects. Existing deconvolution algorithms do not account for these changes and give incorrect results when benchmarked against those measured by well-established flow cytometry, even after batch correction was applied. We introduce PERT, a new probabilistic expression deconvolution method that detects and accounts for a shared, multiplicative perturbation in the reference profiles when performing expression deconvolution. We applied PERT and three other state-of-the-art expression deconvolution methods to predict cell frequencies within heterogeneous human blood samples that were collected under several conditions (uncultured mono-nucleated and lineage-depleted cells, and culture-derived lineage-depleted cells). Only PERT's predicted proportions of the constituent populations matched those assigned by flow cytometry. Genes associated with cell cycle processes were highly enriched among those with the largest predicted expression changes between the cultured and uncultured conditions. We anticipate that PERT will be widely applicable to expression deconvolution strategies that use profiles from reference populations that vary from the corresponding constituent populations in cellular state but not cellular phenotypic identity. PMID:23284283

  15. Probability of Finding Marrow Unrelated Donor (MUD) for an Indian patient in a Multi-national Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Aseem K; Bhati-Kushwaha, Himakshi; Kukreja, Pooja; Mishra, Vikash C; Tyagi, Neetu; Sharma, Ashish; Raina, Vimarsh

    2015-06-01

    With an increase in the number of transplants happening globally, hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) transplantation from matched unrelated donor (MUD) has begun. The increasing trend of MUD transplants across countries has been largely facilitated with the conspicuous growth of volunteer HSC donor noted in the last decade i.e. 8 million HSC donors in 2002 to more than 22 million in 2013 registered in 71 member registries of the Bone Marrow Donor Worldwide (BMDW). Some populations of the world are still very poorly represented in these registries. Since, the chances of successful engraftment and disease free survival are directly proportional to the HLA compatibility between the recipient and the prospective donor, the diversity of the HLA system at the antigenic and allelic level and the heterogeneity of HLA data of the registered donors has a bearing on the probability of finding a volunteer unrelated HSC donor for patients from such populations. In the present study 126 patients were identified suffering from hematological diseases requiring MUD transplant. Their HLA typing was performed and search was done using BMDW database. The search results for these Indian patients in the multinational registry as well as in the Indian Registries were analyzed using mean, range, standard deviation and finally evaluated in terms of probability for finding matched donor (MUD). Total Asian population is only 11 % in the BMDW making it difficult to find a MUD for an Asian patient. The current study supports this, experimentally; revealing that the probability of finding an allele match for an Indian patient in the multinational Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) registries is 16 % and a dismal 0.008 % in the Indian registries (donors in Indian registries is just 33,678 as compared to 22.5 million in BMDW). This greatly, emphasizes on enhancing the number of Indian donors in Indian and multi-national registries.

  16. Human Milk Processing: A Systematic Review of Innovative Techniques to Ensure the Safety and Quality of Donor Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peila, Chiara; Emmerik, Nikki E; Giribaldi, Marzia; Stahl, Bernd; Ruitenberg, Joost E; van Elburg, Ruurd M; Moro, Guido E; Bertino, Enrico; Coscia, Alessandra; Cavallarin, Laura

    2017-03-01

    Pasteurization, performed at 62.5°C for 30 minutes (holder pasteurization), is currently recommended in all international human milk banks guidelines, but it affects some human milk bioactive and nutritive components. The present systematic review is aimed at critically reviewing evidence on the suitability of human milk processing techniques other than holder pasteurization, both thermal and nonthermal, to ensure microbiological safety, and on the effects of these techniques on biologically active donor milk components. A systematic review of English and non-English articles using Medline, PubMed, Embase, SCOPUS, and CAB Abstracts, with no restriction in publication date was performed. Search terms included: human, breast, donor, or banked milk, breastmilk, breast fed, breastfed, breastfeed; HTST, Flash, High Pressure, UV, ultrasonic or nonthermal; process, pasteuris, pasteuriz. Only primary research articles published in peer-reviewed journals were included, providing or not a comparison with holder pasteurized human milk, provided that the pasteurization technique was clearly described, and not intended for domestic use. Additional studies were identified by searching bibliographies of relevant articles. Twenty-six studies were identified as being relevant. Two examined both High Pressure Processing and High-Temperature-Short-Time pasteurization; 10 only examined High Pressure Processing; 10 only examined High-Temperature-Short-Time; 2 articles examined ultraviolet irradiation; 2 articles examined (thermo-)ultrasonic processing. The results indicate that data about safety for microbiological control are still scarce for most of the novel technologies, and that consensus on processing conditions is necessary for nonthermal technologies, before any conclusions on the qualitative and nutritional advantages of these techniques can be drawn.

  17. Survival of chlamydiae in human semen prepared for artificial insemination by donor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Poul; Møller, Birger R.; Halkier-Sørensen, Lars

    1991-01-01

    Semen specimens from 21 men with urethral infection with Chlamydia trachomatis were tested for the presence of the organism before and after cryopreservation for 3 weeks of storage at -196 degrees C. Five specimens were chlamydia-positive before preservation and four of them were still positive...... after storage when examined by enzyme immunoassay (Chlamydiazyme). When examined by cell culture, four proved chlamydia- positive before storage and two afterwards. The results indicate that testing for C. trachomatis has to be performed from the urethra of all donors of semen used for artificial...

  18. Generation of human induced pluripotent stem cells from urinary cells of a healthy donor using a non-integration system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhm, Kyung-Ok; Jo, Eun Hee; Go, Gue Youn; Kim, So-Jung; Choi, Hye Young; Im, Young Sam; Ha, Hye-Yeong; Jung, Ji-Won; Koo, Soo Kyung

    2017-05-01

    Urinary cells can be an ideal source for generating hiPSCs and progenitors, as they are easily accessible, non-invasive, and universally available. We generated human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) from the urinary cells of a healthy donor using a Sendai virus-based gene delivery method. The generated hiPSC line, KSCBi001-A, has a normal karyotype (46,XY). The pluripotency and capacity of multilineage differentiation were characterized by comparison with those of a human embryonic stem cell line. This cell line is registered and available from National Stem Cell Bank, Korea National Institute of Health. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Human mesenchymal stem cells suppress donor CD4(+) T cell proliferation and reduce pathology in a humanized mouse model of acute graft-versus-host disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, L M; Healy, M E; English, K; Mahon, B P

    2013-05-01

    Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) is a life-threatening complication following allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), occurring in up to 30-50% of patients who receive human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-matched sibling transplants. Current therapies for steroid refractory aGVHD are limited, with the prognosis of patients suboptimal. Mesenchymal stem or stromal cells (MSC), a heterogeneous cell population present in many tissues, display potent immunomodulatory abilities. Autologous and allogeneic ex-vivo expanded human MSC have been utilized to treat aGVHD with promising results, but the mechanisms of therapeutic action remain unclear. Here a robust humanized mouse model of aGVHD based on delivery of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) to non-obese diabetic (NOD)-severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) interleukin (IL)-2rγ(null) (NSG) mice was developed that allowed the exploration of the role of MSC in cell therapy. MSC therapy resulted in the reduction of liver and gut pathology and significantly increased survival. Protection was dependent upon the timing of MSC therapy, with conventional MSC proving effective only after delayed administration. In contrast, interferon (IFN)-γ-stimulated MSC were effective when delivered with PBMC. The beneficial effect of MSC therapy in this model was not due to the inhibition of donor PBMC chimerism, as CD45(+) and T cells engrafted successfully in this model. MSC therapy did not induce donor T cell anergy, FoxP3(+) T regulatory cells or cause PBMC apoptosis in this model; however, it was associated with the direct inhibition of donor CD4(+) T cell proliferation and reduction of human tumour necrosis factor-α in serum. © 2012 British Society for Immunology.

  20. ELECTROLYTE AND MINERAL COMPOSITION OF TERM DONOR HUMAN MILK BEFORE AND AFTER PASTEURIZATION AND OF RAW MILK OF PRETERM MOTHERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codo, Carla Regina Bianchi; Caldas, Jamil Pedro de Siqueira; Peixoto, Rafaella Regina Alves; Sanches, Vitor Lacerda; Guiraldelo, Tamara Cristina; Cadore, Solange; Marba, Sérgio Tadeu Martins

    2018-02-22

    To determine and compare the concentrations of electrolytes and minerals in three different types of maternal milk samples: term donor milk before pasteurization, term donor milk after pasteurization and raw milk of mothers of preterm newborns at bedside. Descriptive cross-sectional study. Concentrations of calcium (Ca), phosphorous (P), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na) and potassium (K) were measured in random samples of three human breast milk groups. Samples were analyzed using acid mineralization assisted by microwave radiation and further analysis by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Concentrations were expressed in mg/L, described as mean and standard deviation. The one-way ANOVA and Tukey's post-test were applied to determine the variability between the means of each group. Significance level was set at 5%. There was a significant reduction in the content of Ca (259.4±96.8 vs. 217.0±54.9; p=0.003), P (139.1±51.7 vs. 116.8±33.3; p=0.004) and K (580.8±177.1 vs. 470.9±109.4; ppasteurization. Samples of raw milk presented higher contents of Na than the donated milk (twice). The elements P and Ca would only reach the daily intake levels recommended by the European Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition if at least 60 mL of milk could be offered every 3 hours. Mg levels were not different between the three groups. There was a significant reduction in Ca, P and K levels in samples after pasteurization. The Na value in raw milk, collected at bedside, was higher than in the samples of donor's milk before pasteurization.

  1. Donor-Derived Regulatory Dendritic Cell Infusion Maintains Donor-Reactive CD4+CTLA4hi T Cells in Non-Human Primate Renal Allograft Recipients Treated with CD28 Co-Stimulation Blockade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed B. Ezzelarab

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Donor-derived regulatory dendritic cell (DCreg infusion before transplantation, significantly prolongs renal allograft survival in non-human primates. This is associated with enhanced expression of the immunoregulatory molecules cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen (Ag 4 (CTLA4 and programmed cell death protein 1 (PD1 by host donor-reactive T cells. In rodents and humans, CD28 co-stimulatory pathway blockade with the fusion protein CTLA4:Ig (CTLA4Ig is associated with reduced differentiation and development of regulatory T cells (Treg. We hypothesized that upregulation of CTLA4 by donor-reactive CD4+ T cells in DCreg-infused recipients treated with CTLA4Ig, might be associated with higher incidences of donor-reactive CD4+ T cells with a Treg phenotype. In normal rhesus monkeys, allo-stimulated CD4+CTLA4hi, but not CD4+CTLA4med/lo T cells exhibited a regulatory phenotype, irrespective of PD1 expression. CTLA4Ig significantly reduced the incidence of CD4+CTLA4hi, but not CD4+CTLA4med/lo T cells following allo-stimulation, associated with a significant reduction in the CD4+CTLA4hi/CD4+CTLA4med/lo T cell ratio. In CTLA4Ig-treated renal allograft recipient monkeys, there was a marked reduction in circulating donor-reactive CD4+CTLA4hi T cells. In contrast, in CTLA4Ig-treated monkeys with DCreg infusion, no such reduction was observed. In parallel, the donor-reactive CD4+CTLA4hi/CD4+CTLA4med/lo T cell ratio was reduced significantly in graft recipients without DCreg infusion, but increased in those given DCreg. These observations suggest that pre-transplant DCreg infusion promotes and maintains donor-reactive CD4+CTLA4hi T cells with a regulatory phenotype after transplantation, even in the presence of CD28 co-stimulation blockade.

  2. Effects of donor proliferation in development aid for health on health program performance: A conceptual framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallas, Sarah Wood; Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2017-02-01

    Development aid for health increased dramatically during the past two decades, raising concerns about inefficiency and lack of coherence among the growing number of global health donors. However, we lack a framework for how donor proliferation affects health program performance to inform theory-based evaluation of aid effectiveness policies. A review of academic and gray literature was conducted. Data were extracted from the literature sample on study design and evidence for hypothesized effects of donor proliferation on health program performance, which were iteratively grouped into categories and mapped into a new conceptual framework. In the framework, increases in the number of donors are hypothesized to increase inter-donor competition, transaction costs, donor poaching of recipient staff, recipient control over aid, and donor fragmentation, and to decrease donors' sense of accountability for overall development outcomes. There is mixed evidence on whether donor proliferation increases or decreases aid volume. These primary effects in turn affect donor innovation, information hoarding, and aid disbursement volatility, as well as recipient country health budget levels, human resource capacity, and corruption, and the determinants of health program performance. The net effect of donor proliferation on health will vary depending on the magnitude of the framework's competing effects in specific country settings. The conceptual framework provides a foundation for improving design of aid effectiveness practices to mitigate negative effects from donor proliferation while preserving its potential benefits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Prevalence of human T-cell lymphotropic virus types 1 and 2 in blood donors of the Caruaru Blood Center (Hemope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleska Mayara Gomes de Lima

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is difficulty in gathering data on the prevalence of human T-cell lymphotropic virus in blood donors as confirmatory testing is not mandatory in Brazil. This suggests there may be an underreporting of the prevalence. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of human T-cell lymphotropic virus types 1 and 2 in donors of a blood bank in Caruaru, Brazil. METHODS: This was an observational, epidemiological, descriptive, longitudinal and retrospective study with information about the serology of donors of the Caruaru Blood Center, Fundação de Hematologia e Hemoterapia de Pernambuco (Hemope from May 2006 to December 2010. The data were analyzed using the Excel 2010 computer program (Microsoft Office(r. RESULTS: Of 61,881 donors, 60 (0.096% individuals were identified as potential carriers of human T-cell lymphotropic virus types 1 and 2. Of these, 28 (0.045% were positive and 32 (0.051% had inconclusive results in the serological screening. Forty-five (0.072% were retested; 17 were positive (0.027% and 3 inconclusive (0.005%. After confirmatory tests, 8 were positive (0.013%. Six (75% of the confirmed cases were women. CONCLUSION: Epidemiological surveys like this are very important in order to create campaigns to attract donors and reduce the costs of laboratory tests.

  4. Prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 p24 antigen in U.S. blood donors--an assessment of the efficacy of testing in donor screening. The HIV-Antigen Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, H J; Epstein, J S; Swenson, S G; VanRaden, M J; Ward, J W; Kaslow, R A; Menitove, J E; Klein, H G; Sandler, S G; Sayers, M H

    1990-11-08

    We performed a multicenter study in 1989 to determine whether screening whole-blood donors for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) p24 antigen would improve transfusion safety by identifying carriers of the virus who are seronegative for HIV-1 antibody. More than 500,000 donations were tested at 13 U.S. blood centers with test kits from two manufacturers. Units found repeatedly reactive were retested in a central laboratory; if the results were positive, they were confirmed by a neutralization assay. A subgroup of units was also tested for HIV-1 by the polymerase chain reaction. Selected donors confirmed or not confirmed as having p24 antigen were contacted for follow-up interviews to identify risk factors and undergo retesting for HIV-1 markers. Positive tests for p24 antigen were confirmed by neutralization in five donors (0.001 percent of all donations tested), all of whom were also positive for HIV-1 antibody and HIV-1 by polymerase chain reaction. Three of the antigen-positive donors had other markers of infectious disease that would have resulted in the exclusion of their blood; two had risk factors for HIV-1 that should have led to self-exclusion. Of 220 blood units with repeatedly reactive p24 antigen whose presence could not be confirmed by neutralization (0.04 percent of the donations studied), none were positive for HIV-1 antibody, HIV-1 by polymerase chain reaction (120 units tested), or virus culture (76 units tested)--attesting to the specificity of confirmatory neutralization. The finding that no donation studied was positive for p24 antigen and negative for HIV-1 antibody suggests that screening donors for p24 antigen with tests of the current level of sensitivity would not add substantially to the safety of the U.S. blood supply.

  5. Generation of human induced pluripotent stem cells from a Bombay individual: Moving towards 'universal-donor' red blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifinejad, Ali; Taei, Adeleh; Totonchi, Mehdi; Vazirinasab, Hamed; Hassani, Seideh Nafiseh; Aghdami, Nasser; Shahbazi, Ebrahim; Yazdi, Reza Salman; Salekdeh, Ghasem Hosseini; Baharvand, Hossein

    2010-01-01

    Bombay phenotype is one of the rare phenotypes in the ABO blood group system that fails to express ABH antigens on red blood cells. Nonsense or missense mutations in fucosyltransfrase1 (FUT1) and fucosyltransfrase2 (FUT2) genes are known to create this phenotype. This blood group is compatible with all other blood groups as a donor, as it does not express the H antigen on the red blood cells. In this study, we describe the establishment of human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from the dermal fibroblasts of a Bombay blood-type individual by the ectopic expression of established transcription factors Klf4, Oct4, Sox2, and c-Myc. Sequence analyses of fibroblasts and iPSCs revealed a nonsense mutation 826C to T (276 Gln to Ter) in the FUT1 gene and a missense mutation 739G to A (247 Gly to Ser) in the FUT2 gene in the Bombay phenotype under study. The established iPSCs resemble human embryonic stem cells in morphology, passaging, surface and pluripotency markers, normal karyotype, gene expression, DNA methylation of critical pluripotency genes, and in-vitro differentiation. The directed differentiation of the iPSCs into hematopoietic lineage cells displayed increased expression of the hematopoietic lineage markers such as CD34, CD133, RUNX1, KDR, α-globulin, and γ-globulin. Such specific stem cells provide an unprecedented opportunity to produce a universal blood group donor, in-vitro, thus enabling cellular replacement therapies, once the safety issue is resolved.

  6. The osteogenic response of undifferentiated human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) to mechanical strain is inversely related to body mass index of the donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedl, Gerald; Windhager, Reinhard; Schmidt, Helena; Aigner, Reingard

    2009-08-01

    While the importance of physical factors in the maintenance and regeneration of bone tissue has been recognized for many years and the mechano-sensitivity of bone cells is well established, there is increasing evidence that body fat constitutes an independent risk factor for complications in bone fracture healing and aseptic loosening of implants. Although mechanical causes have been widely suggested, we hypothesized that the osteogenic mechano-response of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) may be altered in obese patients. We determined the phenotypic and genotypic response of undifferentiated hMSCs of 10 donors to cyclic tensile strain (CTS) under controlled in vitro conditions and analyzed the potential relationship relevant to the donor's anthropomorphometric and biochemical parameters related to donor's fat and bone metabolism. The osteogenic marker genes were all statistically significantly upregulated by CTS, which was accompanied by a significant increase in cell-based ALP activity. Linear correlation analysis revealed that there was a significant correlation between phenotypic CTS response and the body mass index of the donor (r = -0.91, p < 0.001) and phenotypic CTS response was also significantly related to leptin levels (r = -0.68) and estradiol levels (r = 0.67) within the bone marrow microenvironment of the donor. Such an upstream imprinting process mediated by factors tightly related to the donor's fat metabolism, which hampers the mechanosensitivity of hMSCs in obese patients, may be of pathogenetic relevance for the complications associated with obesity that are seen in orthopedic surgery.

  7. Seroprevalence of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B and C viruses and syphilis infections among blood donors at the Muhimbili National Hospital in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyamuya Eligius F

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background According to the latest Tanzanian National AIDS Control Programme (NACP report a total of 147,271 individuals donated blood during the year 2002. However, blood safety remains an issue of major concern in transfusion medicine in Tanzania where national blood transfusion services and policies, appropriate infrastructure, trained personnel and financial resources are inadequate. Most of the donated blood is screened for HIV alone. Methods We determined among blood donors at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH, the seroprevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg and syphilis by donor type, sex and age and to determine association, if any, in the occurrence of the pathogens. The sample included 1599 consecutive donors, 1424(89.1% males and 175 (10.9% females, who donated blood between April 2004 and May, 2005. Most of them 1125 (70.4% were replacement donors and a few 474 (29.6% voluntary donors. Their age (in years ranged from 16 to 69, and most (72.2% were between 20–39 years. Results Two hundred and fifty four (15.9% of the donated blood had serological evidence of infection with at least one pathogen and 28 (1.8% had multiple infections. The current seroprevalence of HIV, HBsAg, HCV and syphilis among blood donors at MNH in Dar es Salaam was found to be 3.8%, 8.8%, 1.5% and 4.7%, respectively. Respective seroprevalences among HIV seronegative blood donors were 8.7% for HBV, 1.6% for HCV and 4.6% for syphilis. The differences in the prevalence of HIV and syphilis infections between replacement and voluntary donors were statistically significant (P 2 = 58.5 df = 5, P Conclusion The high (15.9% seroprevalence of blood-borne infections in blood donated at MNH calls for routine screening of blood donors for HBV, HCV, HIV and syphilis and for strict selection criteria of donors, with emphasis on getting young voluntary donors and for establishment of strict guidelines

  8. Human skeletal muscle perilipin 2 and 3 expression varies with insulin sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigelsø Hansen, Andreas; Prats Gavalda, Clara; Ploug, Thorkil

    2013-01-01

    Background: Impaired insulin sensitivity may partly arise from a dysregulated lipid metabolism in human skeletal muscle. This study investigates the expression levels of perilipin 2, 3, and 5, and four key lipases in human skeletal muscle from the subjects that exhibit a range from normal to very...

  9. Human Platelet Antigen Alleles in 998 Taiwanese Blood Donors Determined by Sequence-Specific Primer Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun-Chung Pai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymorphism of human platelet antigens (HPAs leads to alloimmunizations and immune-mediated platelet disorders including fetal-neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT, posttransfusion purpura (PTP, and platelet transfusion refractoriness (PTR. HPA typing and knowledge of antigen frequency in a population are important in particular for the provision of HPA-matched blood components for patients with PTR. We have performed allele genotyping for HPA-1 through -6 and -15 among 998 platelet donors from 6 blood centers in Taiwan using sequence-specific primer polymerase chain reaction. The HPA allele frequency was 99.55, and 0.45% for HPA-1a and -1b; 96.49, and 3.51% for HPA-2a and -2b; 55.81, and 44.19% for HPA-3a and -3b; 99.75, and 0.25% for HPA-4a and -4b; 98.50, and 1.50% for HPA-5a and -5b; 97.75 and 2.25% for HPA-6a and -6b; 53.71 and 46.29% for HPA-15a and -15b. HPA-15b and HPA-3a, may be considered the most important, followed by HPA-2, -6, -1, -5, and -4 systems, as a cause of FNAIT, PTP, and PTR based on allele frequency. HPA-4b and HPA-5b role cannot be excluded based on their immunogenicity. A larger-scale study will now be conducted to confirm these hypotheses and to establish an apheresis donor database for the procurement of HPA-matched apheresis platelets for patients with PTR.

  10. Effects of calcium, inorganic phosphate, and pH on isometric force in single skinned cardiomyocytes from donor and failing human hearts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velden, J.; Klein, L. J.; Zaremba, R.; Boontje, N. M.; Huybregts, M. A.; Stooker, W.; Eijsman, L.; de Jong, J. W.; Visser, C. A.; Visser, F. C.; Stienen, G. J.

    2001-01-01

    During ischemia, the intracellular calcium and inorganic phosphate (P(i)) concentrations rise and pH falls. We investigated the effects of these changes on force development in donor and failing human hearts to determine if altered contractile protein composition during heart failure changes the

  11. Bovine colostrum improves neonatal growth, digestive function, and gut immunity relative to donor human milk and infant formula in preterm pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Stine Ostenfeldt; Martin, Lena; Østergaard, Mette Viberg

    2016-01-01

    Mother's own milk is the optimal first diet for preterm infants, but donor human milk (DM) or infant formula (IF) is used when supply is limited. We hypothesized that a gradual introduction of bovine colostrum (BC) or DM improves gut maturation, relative to IF during the first 11 days after preterm...

  12. Donor cell type can influence the epigenome and differentiation potential of human induced pluripotent stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kitai; Zhao, Rui; Doi, Akiko; Ng, Kitwa; Unternaehrer, Juli; Cahan, Patrick; Hongguang, Huo; Loh, Yuin-Han; Aryee, Martin J.; Lensch, M. William; Li, Hu; Collins, James J.; Feinberg, Andrew P.; Daley, George Q.

    2012-01-01

    We compared bona-fide human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) derived from umbilical cord blood (CB) and neonatal keratinocytes (K). As a consequence of both incomplete erasure of tissue-specific methylation and aberrant de novo methylation, CB-iPSC and K-iPSC are distinct in genome-wide DNA methylation profiles and differentiation potential. Extended passage of some iPSC clones in culture didn't improve their epigenetic resemblance to ESC, implying that some human iPSC retain a residual “epigenetic memory” of their tissue of origin. PMID:22119740

  13. Religion, human rights and democratisation : A mapping of faith-based organisations and donor initiatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartelink, Brenda; Petersen, Marie; Christiansen, Catrine

    2015-01-01

    This research report was commissioned by the Swedish Agency for International Development and carried out by the Danish Institute for Human Rights, the Nordic Consulting Group and the Knowledge Centre Religion and Development. The internal report was informed by literature analysis, document

  14. The Human Figure Drawing with Donor and Nondonor Siblings of Pediatric Bone Marrow Transplant Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packman, Wendy L.; Beck, Vanessa L.; VanZutphen, Kelly H.; Long, Janet K.; Spengler, Gisele

    2003-01-01

    There is little research on the psychological impact of bone marrow transplantation (BMT) on family members. This study uses the Human Figure Drawing (HFD) to measure siblings' emotional distress toward BMT. Among the siblings, feelings of isolation, anger, depression, anxiety, and low self-esteem emerged as major themes. Findings indicate the…

  15. "It's Somebody Else's Milk": Unraveling the Tension in Mothers of Preterm Infants Who Provide Consent for Pasteurized Donor Human Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquerra-Zwiers, Anita; Rossman, Beverly; Meier, Paula; Engstrom, Janet; Janes, Judy; Patel, Aloka

    2016-02-01

    Pasteurized donor human milk (DHM), rather than preterm infant formula, is recommended for premature infants when mother's milk is not available. This study explored the maternal decision-making process in providing consent for DHM feedings. In-depth semistructured interviews were conducted with 20 mothers of premature (mean gestational age = 27 weeks, birth weight = 942 grams) infants hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in this qualitative, descriptive study. Conventional content analysis was used to analyze the data. Although only 1 mother had any previous knowledge of DHM, all mothers provided consent for DHM because they "wanted what is best for my baby." Mothers trusted that DHM was better than formula when their infant's feeding requirements exceeded their own milk supply. However, most mothers described a tension between wanting their infants to receive only "their" milk and DHM being "somebody else's milk." This desire to be the only provider of human milk was more common than concerns about the quality and safety of DHM. The mothers' tension was mediated by trusting the NICU clinicians' recommendations, having adequate time to make an informed decision, observing the positive outcomes of DHM, and feeling empowered that they made the best decision for their infant. The experiences of these mothers reflect the importance of approaching mothers for consent only when DHM is needed, respecting mothers' beliefs and values about DHM, and providing help in mediating any tension with regard to their infants receiving "somebody else's milk." © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. DNA repair in human fibroblasts, as reflected by host-cell reactivation of a transfected UV-irradiated luciferase gene, is not related to donor age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merkle, Thomas J.; O'Brien, Katherine; Brooks, Philip J.; Tarone, Robert E.; Robbins, Jay H.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of donor age on the ability of mammalian cells to repair ultraviolet (UV)-induced DNA damage has been studied using several approaches, most recently via assays that measure the host-cell reactivation (HCR) of UV-irradiated reporter gene-containing plasmid vectors following their transfection into cells. Plasmid HCR assays indirectly quantify a cell line's ability to perform nucleotide excision repair (NER) by measuring the enzyme activity of the repaired reporter gene, e.g., chloramphenical acetyltransferase (cat) or luciferase (luc), and are useful in studies investigating whether increasing age may be a risk factor for the deficient repair of potentially cancer-causing, sunlight-induced, DNA lesions in skin cells. In our study, we quantified the DNA repair ability of cultured, nontransformed, human skin fibroblast lines through their HCR of a transfected UV-C-irradiated plasmid containing luc. HCR was measured at various times after transfection in five lines from normal donors of ages 21-96 years, and from one donor who had xeroderma pigmentosum (XP). The normal lines displayed increasing HCR at successive post-transfection time points and showed no significant correlation between HCR and donor age. The XP-A line, known to be markedly deficient in NER of UV-induced DNA damage, showed minimal evidence of HCR compared to the normal lines. To further assess potential variation in HCR with donor age, fibroblast lines from five old donors, ages 84-94 years, were compared with lines from five young donors, ages 17-26 years. While significant differences in HCR were found between some lines, no significant difference was found between the young and old age groups (P=0.44). Our study provides no indication that the higher incidence of skin cancer observed with increasing age is due to an age-related decrease in the ability to repair UV-induced DNA damage

  17. DNA repair in human fibroblasts, as reflected by host-cell reactivation of a transfected UV-irradiated luciferase gene, is not related to donor age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merkle, Thomas J.; O' Brien, Katherine; Brooks, Philip J.; Tarone, Robert E.; Robbins, Jay H

    2004-10-04

    The effect of donor age on the ability of mammalian cells to repair ultraviolet (UV)-induced DNA damage has been studied using several approaches, most recently via assays that measure the host-cell reactivation (HCR) of UV-irradiated reporter gene-containing plasmid vectors following their transfection into cells. Plasmid HCR assays indirectly quantify a cell line's ability to perform nucleotide excision repair (NER) by measuring the enzyme activity of the repaired reporter gene, e.g., chloramphenical acetyltransferase (cat) or luciferase (luc), and are useful in studies investigating whether increasing age may be a risk factor for the deficient repair of potentially cancer-causing, sunlight-induced, DNA lesions in skin cells. In our study, we quantified the DNA repair ability of cultured, nontransformed, human skin fibroblast lines through their HCR of a transfected UV-C-irradiated plasmid containing luc. HCR was measured at various times after transfection in five lines from normal donors of ages 21-96 years, and from one donor who had xeroderma pigmentosum (XP). The normal lines displayed increasing HCR at successive post-transfection time points and showed no significant correlation between HCR and donor age. The XP-A line, known to be markedly deficient in NER of UV-induced DNA damage, showed minimal evidence of HCR compared to the normal lines. To further assess potential variation in HCR with donor age, fibroblast lines from five old donors, ages 84-94 years, were compared with lines from five young donors, ages 17-26 years. While significant differences in HCR were found between some lines, no significant difference was found between the young and old age groups (P=0.44). Our study provides no indication that the higher incidence of skin cancer observed with increasing age is due to an age-related decrease in the ability to repair UV-induced DNA damage.

  18. Detecting memory and structure in human navigation patterns using Markov chain models of varying order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Philipp; Helic, Denis; Taraghi, Behnam; Strohmaier, Markus

    2014-01-01

    One of the most frequently used models for understanding human navigation on the Web is the Markov chain model, where Web pages are represented as states and hyperlinks as probabilities of navigating from one page to another. Predominantly, human navigation on the Web has been thought to satisfy the memoryless Markov property stating that the next page a user visits only depends on her current page and not on previously visited ones. This idea has found its way in numerous applications such as Google's PageRank algorithm and others. Recently, new studies suggested that human navigation may better be modeled using higher order Markov chain models, i.e., the next page depends on a longer history of past clicks. Yet, this finding is preliminary and does not account for the higher complexity of higher order Markov chain models which is why the memoryless model is still widely used. In this work we thoroughly present a diverse array of advanced inference methods for determining the appropriate Markov chain order. We highlight strengths and weaknesses of each method and apply them for investigating memory and structure of human navigation on the Web. Our experiments reveal that the complexity of higher order models grows faster than their utility, and thus we confirm that the memoryless model represents a quite practical model for human navigation on a page level. However, when we expand our analysis to a topical level, where we abstract away from specific page transitions to transitions between topics, we find that the memoryless assumption is violated and specific regularities can be observed. We report results from experiments with two types of navigational datasets (goal-oriented vs. free form) and observe interesting structural differences that make a strong argument for more contextual studies of human navigation in future work.

  19. Detecting memory and structure in human navigation patterns using Markov chain models of varying order.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Singer

    Full Text Available One of the most frequently used models for understanding human navigation on the Web is the Markov chain model, where Web pages are represented as states and hyperlinks as probabilities of navigating from one page to another. Predominantly, human navigation on the Web has been thought to satisfy the memoryless Markov property stating that the next page a user visits only depends on her current page and not on previously visited ones. This idea has found its way in numerous applications such as Google's PageRank algorithm and others. Recently, new studies suggested that human navigation may better be modeled using higher order Markov chain models, i.e., the next page depends on a longer history of past clicks. Yet, this finding is preliminary and does not account for the higher complexity of higher order Markov chain models which is why the memoryless model is still widely used. In this work we thoroughly present a diverse array of advanced inference methods for determining the appropriate Markov chain order. We highlight strengths and weaknesses of each method and apply them for investigating memory and structure of human navigation on the Web. Our experiments reveal that the complexity of higher order models grows faster than their utility, and thus we confirm that the memoryless model represents a quite practical model for human navigation on a page level. However, when we expand our analysis to a topical level, where we abstract away from specific page transitions to transitions between topics, we find that the memoryless assumption is violated and specific regularities can be observed. We report results from experiments with two types of navigational datasets (goal-oriented vs. free form and observe interesting structural differences that make a strong argument for more contextual studies of human navigation in future work.

  20. Human herpesvirus-6A/B binds to spermatozoa acrosome and is the most prevalent herpesvirus in semen from sperm donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaspersen, Maja Døvling; Larsen, Peter B.; Kofod-Olsen, Emil

    2012-01-01

    An analysis of all known human herpesviruses has not previously been reported on sperm from normal donors. Using an array-based detection method, we determined the cross-sectional frequency of human herpesviruses in semen from 198 Danish sperm donors. Fifty-five of the donors had at least one...... ejaculate that was positive for one or more human herpesvirus. Of these 27.3% (n = 15) had a double herpesvirus infection. If corrected for the presence of multiple ejaculates from some donors, the adjusted frequency of herpesviruses in semen was 27.2% with HSV-1 in 0.4%; HSV-2 in 0.1%; EBV in 6.3%; HCMV...... not necessarily remain positive over time. For the most frequently found herpesvirus, HHV-6A/B, we examined its association with sperm. For HHV-6A/B PCR-positive semen samples, HHV-6A/B could be detected on the sperm by flow cytometry. Conversely, PCR-negative semen samples were negative by flow cytometry. HHV-6B...

  1. Erythroid differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells is independent of donor cell type of origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorn, Isabel; Klich, Katharina; Arauzo-Bravo, Marcos J; Radstaak, Martina; Santourlidis, Simeon; Ghanjati, Foued; Radke, Teja F; Psathaki, Olympia E; Hargus, Gunnar; Kramer, Jan; Einhaus, Martin; Kim, Jeong Beom; Kögler, Gesine; Wernet, Peter; Schöler, Hans R; Schlenke, Peter; Zaehres, Holm

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetic memory in induced pluripotent stem cells, which is related to the somatic cell type of origin of the stem cells, might lead to variations in the differentiation capacities of the pluripotent stem cells. In this context, induced pluripotent stem cells from human CD34(+) hematopoietic stem cells might be more suitable for hematopoietic differentiation than the commonly used fibroblast-derived induced pluripotent stem cells. To investigate the influence of an epigenetic memory on the ex vivo expansion of induced pluripotent stem cells into erythroid cells, we compared induced pluripotent stem cells from human neural stem cells and human cord blood-derived CD34(+) hematopoietic stem cells and evaluated their potential for differentiation into hematopoietic progenitor and mature red blood cells. Although genome-wide DNA methylation profiling at all promoter regions demonstrates that the epigenetic memory of induced pluripotent stem cells is influenced by the somatic cell type of origin of the stem cells, we found a similar hematopoietic induction potential and erythroid differentiation pattern of induced pluripotent stem cells of different somatic cell origin. All human induced pluripotent stem cell lines showed terminal maturation into normoblasts and enucleated reticulocytes, producing predominantly fetal hemoglobin. Differences were only observed in the growth rate of erythroid cells, which was slightly higher in the induced pluripotent stem cells derived from CD34(+) hematopoietic stem cells. More detailed methylation analysis of the hematopoietic and erythroid promoters identified similar CpG methylation levels in the induced pluripotent stem cell lines derived from CD34(+) cells and those derived from neural stem cells, which confirms their comparable erythroid differentiation potential. Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  2. The impact of outsourcing on investments in firm-specific human capital under varying contract regimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bråd Nielsen, Lars

    knowledge and skills, thus requiring continuous updating of employee competences. This paper develops a two-period agency model to show how the threat of layoff (outsourcing of job tasks to a third party supplier) can help a company trigger or ease employee investments in .firm-speci.c human capital...

  3. Radiobiological studies with a series of human cell lines of varying glutathione content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astor, M.B.

    1984-01-01

    Radiation responses of a series of four human fibroblast lines obtained from a family affected with 5-oxoprolinuria were determined. Cell suspensions were irradiated under hypoxic conditions and the oxygen enhancement ratio was determined for each cell line. Results are compared with previous studies

  4. Phenotype and Functional Features of Human Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase Immortalized Human Airway Smooth Muscle Cells from Asthmatic and Non-Asthmatic Donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, J K; Ketheson, A; Faiz, A; Limbert Rempel, K A; Oliver, B G; Ward, J P T; Halayko, A J

    2018-01-16

    Asthma is an obstructive respiratory disease characterised by chronic inflammation with airway hyperresponsiveness. In asthmatic airways, there is an increase in airway smooth muscle (ASM) cell bulk, which differs from non-asthmatic ASM in characteristics. This study aimed to assess the usefulness of hTERT immortalisation of human ASM cells as a research tool. Specifically we compared proliferative capacity, inflammatory mediator release and extracellular matrix (ECM) production in hTERT immortalised and parent primary ASM cells from asthmatic and non-asthmatic donors. Our studies revealed no significant differences in proliferation, IL-6 and eotaxin-1 production, or CTGF synthesis between donor-matched parent and hTERT immortalised ASM cell lines. However, deposition of ECM proteins fibronectin and fibulin-1 was significantly lower in immortalised ASM cells compared to corresponding primary cells. Notably, previously reported differences in proliferation and inflammatory mediator release between asthmatic and non-asthmatic ASM cells were retained, but excessive ECM protein deposition in asthmatic ASM cells was lost in hTERT ASM cells. This study shows that hTERT immortalised ASM cells mirror primary ASM cells in proliferation and inflammatory profile characteristics. Moreover, we demonstrate both strengths and weaknesses of this immortalised cell model as a representation of primary ASM cells for future asthma pathophysiological research.

  5. Ex-vivo perfusion of donor hearts for human heart transplantation (PROCEED II): a prospective, open-label, multicentre, randomised non-inferiority trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardehali, Abbas; Esmailian, Fardad; Deng, Mario; Soltesz, Edward; Hsich, Eileen; Naka, Yoshifumi; Mancini, Donna; Camacho, Margarita; Zucker, Mark; Leprince, Pascal; Padera, Robert; Kobashigawa, Jon

    2015-06-27

    The Organ Care System is the only clinical platform for ex-vivo perfusion of human donor hearts. The system preserves the donor heart in a warm beating state during transport from the donor hospital to the recipient hospital. We aimed to assess the clinical outcomes of the Organ Care System compared with standard cold storage of human donor hearts for transplantation. We did this prospective, open-label, multicentre, randomised non-inferiority trial at ten heart-transplant centres in the USA and Europe. Eligible heart-transplant candidates (aged >18 years) were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive donor hearts preserved with either the Organ Care System or standard cold storage. Participants, investigators, and medical staff were not masked to group assignment. The primary endpoint was 30 day patient and graft survival, with a 10% non-inferiority margin. We did analyses in the intention-to-treat, as-treated, and per-protocol populations. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00855712. Between June 29, 2010, and Sept 16, 2013, we randomly assigned 130 patients to the Organ Care System group (n=67) or the standard cold storage group (n=63). 30 day patient and graft survival rates were 94% (n=63) in the Organ Care System group and 97% (n=61) in the standard cold storage group (difference 2·8%, one-sided 95% upper confidence bound 8·8; p=0·45). Eight (13%) patients in the Organ Care System group and nine (14%) patients in the standard cold storage group had cardiac-related serious adverse events. Heart transplantation using donor hearts adequately preserved with the Organ Care System or with standard cold storage yield similar short-term clinical outcomes. The metabolic assessment capability of the Organ Care System needs further study. TransMedics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. SENIEUR status of the originating cell donor negates certain 'anti-immunosenescence' effects of ebselen and N-acetyl cysteine in human T cell clone cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marthandan, Shiva; Freeburn, Robin; Steinbrecht, Susanne; Pawelec, Graham; Barnett, Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    Damage to T cells of the immune system by reactive oxygen species may result in altered cell function or cell death and thereby potentially impact upon the efficacy of a subsequent immune response. Here, we assess the impact of the antioxidants Ebselen and N-acetyl cysteine on a range of biological markers in human T cells derived from a SENIEUR status donor. In addition, the impact of these antioxidants on different MAP kinase pathways in T cells from donors of different ages was also examined. T cell clones were derived from healthy 26, 45 and SENIEUR status 80 year old people and the impact of titrated concentrations of Ebselen or N-acetyl cysteine on their proliferation and in vitro lifespan, GSH:GSSG ratio as well as levels of oxidative DNA damage and on MAP kinase signaling pathways was examined. In this investigation neither Ebselen nor N-acetyl cysteine supplementation had any impact on the biological endpoints examined in the T cells derived from the SENIEUR status 80 year old donor. This is in contrast to the anti-immunosenescent effects of these antioxidants on T cells from donors of 26 or 45 years of age. The analysis of MAP kinases showed that pro-apoptotic pathways become activated in T cells with increasing in vitro age and that Ebselen or N-acetyl cysteine could decrease activation (phosphorylation) in T cells from 26 or 45 year old donors, but not from the SENIEUR status 80 year old donor. The results of this investigation demonstrate that the biological phenotype of SENIEUR status derived human T cells negates the anti-immunosenescence effects of Ebselen and also N-acetyl cysteine. The results highlight the importance of pre-antioxidant intervention evaluation to determine risk-benefit.

  7. Parameterization using Fourier series expansion of the diffuse reflectance of human skin to vary the concentration of the melanocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narea, J. Freddy; Muñoz, Aarón A.; Castro, Jorge; Muñoz, Rafael A.; Villalba, Caroleny E.; Martinez, María. F.; Bravo, Kelly D.

    2013-11-01

    Human skin has been studied in numerous investigations, given the interest in knowing information about physiology, morphology and chemical composition. These parameters can be determined using non invasively optical techniques in vivo, such as the diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The human skin color is determined by many factors, but primarily by the amount and distribution of the pigment melanin. The melanin is produced by the melanocytes in the basal layer of the epidermis. This research characterize the spectral response of the human skin using the coefficients of Fourier series expansion. Simulating the radiative transfer equation for the Monte Carlo method to vary the concentration of the melanocytes (fme) in a simplified model of human skin. It fits relating the Fourier series coefficient a0 with fme. Therefore it is possible to recover the skin biophysical parameter.

  8. Osteopontin Levels in Human Milk vary Across Countries and within Lactation Period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Signe; Jacobsen, Lotte Neergaard; Ze, Xiaolei

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Osteopontin (OPN) is a multifunctional protein expressed in many cell types, tissues and body fluids with the highest concentrations found in milk; significantly higher in human than in bovine milk. Intervention studies have indicated beneficial effects of supplementing infant formula...... with bovine OPN. In this multicenter study, we determined the OPN content in human milk samples from 629 Chinese, Danish, Japanese and Korean mothers. METHODS: At each study site, milk samples were collected and analyzed for OPN and protein concentration using ELISA and infrared spectroscopy, respectively....../L in Korean to 266.2 mg/L in Chinese mothers (p mothers delivering more than one sample, multilevel (mixed model) linear regression analysis showed...

  9. Desperately seeking donors: the 'saviour sibling' decision in Quintavalle v Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (UK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, Barbara Ann; Guy, Scott

    2005-08-01

    The recent House of Lords decision in Quintavalle v Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority has raised difficult and complex issues regarding the extent to which embryo selection and reproductive technology can be used as a means of rectifying genetic disorders and treating critically ill children. This comment outlines the facts of Quintavalle and explores how the House of Lords approached the legal, ethical and policy issues that arose out of the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority's (UK) decision to allow reproductive and embryo technology to be used to produce a 'saviour sibling' whose tissue could be used to save the life of a critically ill child. Particular attention will be given to the implications of the decision in Quintavalle for Australian family and medical law and policy. As part of this focus, the comment explores the current Australian legislative and policy framework regarding the use of genetic and reproductive technology as a mechanism through which to assist critically ill siblings. It is argued that the present Australian framework would appear to impose significant limits on the medical uses of genetic technology and, in this context, would seem to reflect many of the principles that were articulated by the House of Lords in Quintavalle.

  10. Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas fluorescens Species Group Recovery from Human Homes Varies Seasonally and by Environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna K Remold

    Full Text Available By shedding light on variation in time as well as in space, long-term biogeographic studies can help us define organisms' distribution patterns and understand their underlying drivers. Here we examine distributions of Pseudomonas in and around 15 human homes, focusing on the P. putida and P. fluorescens species groups. We describe recovery from 10,941 samples collected during up to 8 visits per home, occurring on average 2.6 times per year. We collected a mean of 141 samples per visit, from sites in most rooms of the house, from the surrounding yards, and from human and pet occupants. We recovered Pseudomonas in 9.7% of samples, with the majority of isolates being from the P. putida and P. fluorescens species groups (approximately 62% and 23% of Pseudomonas samples recovered respectively. Although representatives of both groups were recovered from every season, every house, and every type of environment sampled, recovery was highly variable across houses and samplings. Whereas recovery of P. putida group was higher in summer and fall than in winter and spring, P. fluorescens group isolates were most often recovered in spring. P. putida group recovery from soils was substantially higher than its recovery from all other environment types, while higher P. fluorescens group recovery from soils than from other sites was much less pronounced. Both species groups were recovered from skin and upper respiratory tract samples from healthy humans and pets, although this occurred infrequently. This study indicates that even species that are able to survive under a broad range of conditions can be rare and variable in their distributions in space and in time. For such groups, determining patterns and causes of stochastic and seasonal variability may be more important for understanding the processes driving their biogeography than the identity of the types of environments in which they can be found.

  11. Testicular oocytes in smallmouth bass in northeastern Minnesota in relation to varying levels of human activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadlec, Sarah M; Johnson, Rodney D; Mount, David R; Olker, Jennifer H; Borkholder, Brian D; Schoff, Patrick K

    2017-12-01

    Testicular oocytes (TOs) have been found in black bass (Micropterus spp.) from many locations in North America. The presence of TOs is often assumed to imply exposure to estrogenic endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs); however, a definitive causal relationship has yet to be established, and TO prevalence is not consistently low in fish from areas lacking evident EDC sources. This might indicate any of a number of situations: 1) unknown or unidentified EDCs or EDC sources, 2) induction of TOs by other stressors, or 3) testicular oocytes occurring spontaneously during normal development. In the present study, we analyzed TO occurrence in smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) from 8 populations in northeastern Minnesota watersheds with differing degrees of human development and, hence, presumed likelihood of exposure to anthropogenic chemicals. Three watersheds were categorized as moderately developed, based on the presence of municipal wastewater discharges and higher human population density (4-81 per km 2 ), and 5 watersheds were minimally developed, with very low human population density (0-1 per km 2 ) and minimal built environment. Testicular tissues from mature fish were evaluated using a semiquantitative method that estimated TO density, normalized by cross-sectional area. Testicular oocyte prevalence and density among populations from moderately developed watersheds was higher than in populations from minimally developed watersheds. However, TO prevalence was unexpectedly high and variable (7-43%) in some populations from minimally developed watersheds, and only weak evidence was found for a relationship between TO density and watershed development, suggesting alternative or more complex explanations for TO presence in smallmouth bass from this region. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:3424-3435. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  12. Caloric compensation for lunches varying in fat and carbohydrate content by humans in a residential laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foltin, R W; Fischman, M W; Moran, T H; Rolls, B J; Kelly, T H

    1990-12-01

    Two groups of three subjects participated in a residential study that assessed the effects of varying the macronutrient and caloric content of a required lunch meal on subsequent food choice and intake. Lunches contained 431 or 844 kcal, with the caloric differential created by manipulating the calories derived from either fat or carbohydrate (CHO). Each lunch condition (high-fat, high-CHO, low-fat, and low-CHO) was examined for 3 consecutive days. Subjects controlled their own patterns of food intake and could consume any item or number of items at any time during the day or night. There were no significant differences in total daily caloric intake across conditions, indicating that subjects compensated for the caloric content of the lunch regardless of the macronutrient content. Total daily caloric intake under the high-fat and high-CHO conditions was 2824 +/- 151 (mean +/- SEM) and 2988 +/- 187 kcal, respectively, whereas intake under the low-fat and low-CHO conditions was 2700 +/- 131 and 2890 +/- 247 kcal, respectively.

  13. Assessment of metal contamination in the biota of four rivers experiencing varying degrees of human impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielmyer-Fraser, Gretchen K; Waters, Matthew Neal; Duckworth, Christina G; Patel, Pratik P; Webster, Benjamin Cole; Blocker, Amber; Crummey, Cliff Hunter; Duncan, Aundrea Nicole; Nwokike, Somuayiro Nadia; Picariello, Codie Richard; Ragan, James T; Schumacher, Erika L; Tucker, Rebecca Lea; Tuttle, Elizabeth Ann; Wiggins, Charlie Rufus

    2017-01-01

    Urbanization, agriculture, and other land transformations can affect water quality, decrease species biodiversity, and increase metal and nutrient concentrations in aquatic systems. Metal pollution, in particular, is a reported consequence of elevated anthropogenic inputs, especially from urbanized areas. The objectives of this study were to quantify metal (Cu, Al, Cd, Ni, and Pb) concentrations in the waters and biota of four streams in South Georgia, USA, and relate metal concentrations to land use and abiotic and biotic stream processes. Additionally, macrophytes, invertebrates, and fish were identified to assess biodiversity at each site. Metal concentrations in the three trophic levels differed among sites and species, correlating to differences in land use surrounding the rivers. The highest metal concentrations (except Al) were found in the streams most impacted by urbanization and development. Al concentrations were highest in streams surrounded by land dominated by forested areas. Metal content in macrophytes reflected metal concentrations in the water and was at least three orders of magnitude higher than any other trophic level. Despite metal concentration differences, all four streams contained similar water quality and were healthy based on macroinvertebrate community structure. This study provides insight into the impact of urbanization and the fate and effects of metals in river ecosystems with varying degrees of anthropogenic impact.

  14. Efficient CRISPR/Cas9-Mediated Versatile, Predictable, and Donor-Free Gene Knockout in Human Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhongliang; Hui, Yi; Shi, Lei; Chen, Zhenyu; Xu, Xiangjie; Chi, Liankai; Fan, Beibei; Fang, Yujiang; Liu, Yang; Ma, Lin; Wang, Yiran; Xiao, Lei; Zhang, Quanbin; Jin, Guohua; Liu, Ling; Zhang, Xiaoqing

    2016-09-13

    Loss-of-function studies in human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) require efficient methodologies for lesion of genes of interest. Here, we introduce a donor-free paired gRNA-guided CRISPR/Cas9 knockout strategy (paired-KO) for efficient and rapid gene ablation in hPSCs. Through paired-KO, we succeeded in targeting all genes of interest with high biallelic targeting efficiencies. More importantly, during paired-KO, the cleaved DNA was repaired mostly through direct end joining without insertions/deletions (precise ligation), and thus makes the lesion product predictable. The paired-KO remained highly efficient for one-step targeting of multiple genes and was also efficient for targeting of microRNA, while for long non-coding RNA over 8 kb, cleavage of a short fragment of the core promoter region was sufficient to eradicate downstream gene transcription. This work suggests that the paired-KO strategy is a simple and robust system for loss-of-function studies for both coding and non-coding genes in hPSCs. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The Effect of Holder Pasteurization on Nutrients and Biologically-Active Components in Donor Human Milk: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peila, Chiara; Moro, Guido E; Bertino, Enrico; Cavallarin, Laura; Giribaldi, Marzia; Giuliani, Francesca; Cresi, Francesco; Coscia, Alessandra

    2016-08-02

    When a mother's milk is unavailable, the best alternative is donor milk (DM). Milk delivered to Human Milk Banks should be pasteurized in order to inactivate the microbial agents that may be present. Currently, pasteurization, performed at 62.5 °C for 30 min (Holder Pasteurization, HoP), is recommended for this purpose in international guidelines. Several studies have been performed to investigate the effects of HoP on the properties of DM. The present paper has the aim of reviewing the published papers on this topic, and to provide a comparison of the reported variations of biologically-active DM components before and after HoP. This review was performed by searching the MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINHAL and Cochrane Library databases. Studies that clearly identified the HoP parameters and compared the same DM samples, before and after pasteurization, were focused on. A total of 44 articles satisfied the above criteria, and were therefore selected. The findings from the literature report variable results. A possible explanation for this may be the heterogeneity of the test protocols that were applied. Moreover, the present review spans more than five decades, and modern pasteurizers may be able to modify the degradation kinetics for heat-sensitive substances, compared to older ones. Overall, the data indicate that HoP affects several milk components, although it is difficult to quantify the degradation degree. However, clinical practices demonstrate that many beneficial properties of DM still persist after HoP.

  16. Remote sensing captures varying temporal patterns of vegetation between human-altered and natural landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Misha; Roderick, George K

    2015-01-01

    Global change has led to shifts in phenology, potentially disrupting species interactions such as plant-pollinator relationships. Advances in remote sensing techniques allow one to detect vegetation phenological diversity between different land use types, but it is not clear how this translates to other communities in the ecosystem. Here, we investigated the phenological diversity of the vegetation across a human-altered landscape including urban, agricultural, and natural land use types. We found that the patterns of change in the vegetation indices (EVI and NDVI) of human-altered landscapes are out of synchronization with the phenology in neighboring natural California grassland habitat. Comparing these findings to a spatio-temporal pollinator distribution dataset, EVI and NDVI were significant predictors of total bee abundance, a relationship that improved with time lags. This evidence supports the importance of differences in temporal dynamics between land use types. These findings also highlight the potential to utilize remote sensing data to make predictions for components of biodiversity that have tight vegetation associations, such as pollinators.

  17. Andes virus infections in the rodent reservoir and in humans vary across contrasting landscapes in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Pérez, Fernando; Palma, R. Eduardo; Hjelle, Brian; Ferres, Marcela; Cook, Joseph A.

    2009-01-01

    Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) is an emerging infectious disease first reported in Chile in 1995. Andes hantavirus (ANDV) is responsible for the more than 500 cases of HCPS reported in Chile. Previous work showed that ANDV is genetically differentiated in Chile across contrasting landscapes. To determine whether the reservoir rodent (Oligoryzomys longicaudatus) populations are also geographically segregated, we conducted range-wide spatial genetic analyses of O. longicaudatus in Chile using the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b gene. Given that landscape structure influences the incidence of hantavirus infections, we also tested 772 O. longicaudatus specimens for antibodies to ANDV captured during the period 2000 − 2006. Population genetic analyses of O. longicaudatus are largely congruent with those reported for ANDV, with the host primarily differentiated according to three defined ecoregions, Mediterranean, Valdivian rain forest and North Patagonian rain forest. Significant differences in the relative prevalence of anti-ANDV antibodies in rodent samples also were found across the three ecoregions. We relate these results to the number of reported human HCPS cases in Chile, and discuss the importance of landscape differences in light of ANDV transmission to humans and among rodent populations. PMID:19632357

  18. Pasteurization Procedures for Donor Human Milk Affect Body Growth, Intestinal Structure, and Resistance against Bacterial Infections in Preterm Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanqi; Nguyen, Duc Ninh; de Waard, Marita; Christensen, Lars; Zhou, Ping; Jiang, Pingping; Sun, Jing; Bojesen, Anders Miki; Lauridsen, Charlotte; Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Dalsgaard, Trine Kastrup; Bering, Stine Brandt; Sangild, Per Torp

    2017-06-01

    Background: Holder pasteurization (HP) destroys multiple bioactive factors in donor human milk (DM), and UV-C irradiation (UVC) is potentially a gentler method for pasteurizing DM for preterm infants. Objective: We investigated whether UVC-treated DM improves gut maturation and resistance toward bacterial infections relative to HP-treated DM. Methods: Bacteria, selected bioactive components, and markers of antioxidant capacity were measured in unpasteurized donor milk (UP), HP-treated milk, and UVC-treated milk (all from the same DM pool). Fifty-seven cesarean-delivered preterm pigs (91% gestation; ratio of males to females, 30:27) received decreasing volumes of parental nutrition (average 69 mL · kg -1 · d -1 ) and increasing volumes of the 3 DM diets ( n = 19 each, average 89 mL · kg -1 · d -1 ) for 8-9 d. Body growth, gut structure and function, and systemic bacterial infection were evaluated. Results: A high bacterial load in the UP (6×10 5 colony forming units/mL) was eliminated similarly by HP and UVC treatments. Relative to HP-treated milk, both UVC-treated milk and UP showed greater activities of lipase and alkaline phosphatase and concentrations of lactoferrin, secretory immunoglobulin A, xanthine dehydrogenase, and some antioxidant markers (all P < 0.05). The pigs fed UVC-treated milk and pigs fed UP showed higher relative weight gain than pigs fed HP-treated milk (5.4% and 3.5%), and fewer pigs fed UVC-treated milk had positive bacterial cultures in the bone marrow (28%) than pigs fed HP-treated milk (68%) ( P < 0.05). Intestinal health was also improved in pigs fed UVC-treated milk compared with those fed HP-treated milk as indicated by a higher plasma citrulline concentration (36%) and villus height (38%) ( P < 0.05) and a tendency for higher aminopeptidase N (48%) and claudin-4 (26%) concentrations in the distal intestine ( P < 0.08). The gut microbiota composition was similar among groups except for greater proportions of Enterococcus in pigs

  19. Production of intravenous human dengue immunoglobulin from Brazilian-blood donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Leite Gouveia

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Dengue represents an important health problem in Brazil and therefore there is a great need to develop a vaccine or treatment. The neutralization of the dengue virus by a specific antibody can potentially be applied to therapy. The present paper describes, for the first time, the preparation of Immunoglobulin specific for the dengue virus (anti-DENV IgG, collected from screened Brazilian blood-donations. Production was performed using the classic Cohn-Oncley process with minor modifications. The anti-DENV IgG was biochemically and biophysically characterized and fulfilled the requirements defined by the European Pharmacopoeia. The finished product was able to neutralize different virus serotypes (DENV-1, DENV-2, and DENV-3, while a commercial IgG collected from American blood donations was found to have low anti-dengue antibody titers. Overall, this anti-DENV IgG represents an important step in the study of the therapeutic potential and safety of a specific antibody that neutralizes the dengue virus in humans.

  20. Radiobiological studies with a series of human cell lines of varying glutathione content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astor, M.B.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of decreased levels of intracellular glutathione (GSH) on the radiosensitivity of aerated and hypoxic cells was studied using human skin fibroblasts obtained from patients affected with the inborn error of metabolism, 5-oxoprolinuria. The oxygen enhancement ratios (OER) were determined for four cell lines obtained from a single family, SR and SUR (heterozygous parents) and GM3877 and GM3878 (affected homozygous siblings). Glutathione values ranged from 7.4 to 130% of control values. Only GM3877 with a GSH value 7.4% of control exhibited a reduced OER of 1.9 compared with a control value of 3. These results suggest that a reduction in OER is observed only when GSH levels reach extremely low values. (author)

  1. Radiobiological studies with a series of human cell lines of varying glutathione content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Astor, M.B. (Columbia Univ., New York (USA). Radiological Research Lab.)

    1984-08-01

    The effect of decreased levels of intracellular glutathione (GSH) on the radiosensitivity of aerated and hypoxic cells was studied using human skin fibroblasts obtained from patients affected with the inborn error of metabolism, 5-oxoprolinuria. The oxygen enhancement ratios (OER) were determined for four cell lines obtained from a single family, SR and SUR (heterozygous parents) and GM3877 and GM3878 (affected homozygous siblings). Glutathione values ranged from 7.4 to 130% of control values. Only GM3877 with a GSH value 7.4% of control exhibited a reduced OER of 1.9 compared with a control value of 3. These results suggest that a reduction in OER is observed only when GSH levels reach extremely low values.

  2. Estimation of gastric residence time of the Heidelberg capsule in humans: effect of varying food composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mojaverian, P.; Ferguson, R.K.; Vlasses, P.H.; Rocci, M.L. Jr.; Oren, A.; Fix, J.A.; Caldwell, L.J.; Gardner, C.

    1985-01-01

    In animal and human studies, the gastric emptying of large (greater than 1 mm) indigestible solids is due to the activity of the interdigestive migrating myoelectric complex. The gastric residence time (GRT) of an orally administered, nondigestible, pH-sensitive, radiotelemetric device (Heidelberg capsule) was evaluated in three studies in healthy volunteers. In 6 subjects, the GRT of the Heidelberg capsule was compared with the half-emptying time (t1/2) of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid labeled with technetium 99m after a 4-ml/kg liquid fatty meal. The mean (+/-SD) GRT (4.3 +/- 1.4 h) was significantly (p less than 0.001) longer than the mean t1/2 (1.1 +/- 0.3 h); the GRT was prolonged compared with the t1/2 in each subject. In a randomized, crossover trial in 10 subjects, frequent feeding caused a dramatic prolongation in mean GRT of the capsule compared with the fasting state (greater than 14.5 vs. 0.5 h, p less than 0.005). In another crossover study in 6 subjects, the GRT of the capsule was evaluated after an overnight fast, a standard breakfast including solid food, and a liquid meal (i.e., 200 ml of diluted light cream). The mean GRT was 2.6 +/- 0.9 h after the liquid meal vs. 1.2 +/- 0.8 h after fasting (p less than 0.025). The mean GRT after the breakfast was 4.8 +/- 1.5 h, which was significantly greater than that after fasting (p less than 0.001) and after the liquid meal (p less than 0.01). These data suggest that the GRT of the Heidelberg capsule is a marker of the interdigestive migrating myoelectric complex in humans, the interdigestive migrating myoelectric complex can be markedly delayed by frequent feedings with solids, and the interdigestive migrating myoelectric complex is delayed by both liquid and solid meals

  3. Estimation of gastric residence time of the Heidelberg capsule in humans: effect of varying food composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mojaverian, P.; Ferguson, R.K.; Vlasses, P.H.; Rocci, M.L. Jr.; Oren, A.; Fix, J.A.; Caldwell, L.J.; Gardner, C.

    1985-08-01

    In animal and human studies, the gastric emptying of large (greater than 1 mm) indigestible solids is due to the activity of the interdigestive migrating myoelectric complex. The gastric residence time (GRT) of an orally administered, nondigestible, pH-sensitive, radiotelemetric device (Heidelberg capsule) was evaluated in three studies in healthy volunteers. In 6 subjects, the GRT of the Heidelberg capsule was compared with the half-emptying time (t1/2) of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid labeled with technetium 99m after a 4-ml/kg liquid fatty meal. The mean (+/-SD) GRT (4.3 +/- 1.4 h) was significantly (p less than 0.001) longer than the mean t1/2 (1.1 +/- 0.3 h); the GRT was prolonged compared with the t1/2 in each subject. In a randomized, crossover trial in 10 subjects, frequent feeding caused a dramatic prolongation in mean GRT of the capsule compared with the fasting state (greater than 14.5 vs. 0.5 h, p less than 0.005). In another crossover study in 6 subjects, the GRT of the capsule was evaluated after an overnight fast, a standard breakfast including solid food, and a liquid meal (i.e., 200 ml of diluted light cream). The mean GRT was 2.6 +/- 0.9 h after the liquid meal vs. 1.2 +/- 0.8 h after fasting (p less than 0.025). The mean GRT after the breakfast was 4.8 +/- 1.5 h, which was significantly greater than that after fasting (p less than 0.001) and after the liquid meal (p less than 0.01). These data suggest that the GRT of the Heidelberg capsule is a marker of the interdigestive migrating myoelectric complex in humans, the interdigestive migrating myoelectric complex can be markedly delayed by frequent feedings with solids, and the interdigestive migrating myoelectric complex is delayed by both liquid and solid meals.

  4. Twenty-Year Evolution of Hepatitis B Virus and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevalence and Incidence in Voluntary Blood Donors in Côte d'Ivoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seri, Benjamin; Minga, Albert; Gabillard, Delphine; Dembele, Bamori; Konate, Seidou; Le Carrou, Jérôme; Dohoun, Lambert; Abo, Yao; Karcher, Sophie; Coffie, Patrick; N'Dri-Yoman, Thérèse; Attia, Alain; Eholié, Serge P; Danel, Christine; Lacombe, Karine; Anglaret, Xavier; Boyd, Anders

    2018-04-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) share common risk factors. The parallel description of their frequency over time may help capture their similarities and differences. Using data from the National Transfusion Center of Abidjan, we estimated the following over a 20-year period: (1) the prevalence of HIV and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positivity at first contact; and (2) the incidence of HIV and HBsAg seroconversion in negative first-time blood donors. Between 1992 and 2012, 422319 donors (men [M] = 74%) provided 1063825 blood donations. For first-time donors, HIV prevalence decreased from 7.1% (M = 5.9%, women [W] =11.0%) in 1992-1994 to 1.1% (M = 0.8%, W = 2.0%) in 2010-2012. Prevalence of HBsAg positivity remained stable at 10.8% (M = 11.7%, W = 7.3%) in 1992-1994 to 11.1% (M = 12.5%, W = 7.1%) in 2010-2012. Among regular donors (N = 129256), the incidence of becoming HIV or HBsAg positive, respectively, decreased from 4.9 per 100 (M = 4.5, W = 8.6) and 7.3 per 100 person-years (M = 7.8, W = 2.3) in 1992-1994 to 0.07 (M = 0.06, W = 0.11) and 0.2 per 100 person-years (M = 0.2, W = 0.2) in 2010-2012. Human immunodeficiency virus prevalence and incidence decreased dramatically over time, whereas HBV prevalence remained stable. Incidence of HBsAg seroconversion, although decreasing, still reached unexpected levels, suggesting that the risk of HBV infection in adults may be higher than expected. Hepatitis B surface antigen-negative blood-donors should be offered HBV vaccination.

  5. Twenty-Year Evolution of Hepatitis B Virus and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevalence and Incidence in Voluntary Blood Donors in Côte d’Ivoire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seri, Benjamin; Minga, Albert; Gabillard, Delphine; Dembele, Bamori; Konate, Seidou; Le Carrou, Jérôme; Dohoun, Lambert; Abo, Yao; Karcher, Sophie; Coffie, Patrick; N’Dri-Yoman, Thérèse; Attia, Alain; Eholié, Serge P; Danel, Christine; Lacombe, Karine; Anglaret, Xavier; Boyd, Anders

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) share common risk factors. The parallel description of their frequency over time may help capture their similarities and differences. Methods Using data from the National Transfusion Center of Abidjan, we estimated the following over a 20-year period: (1) the prevalence of HIV and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positivity at first contact; and (2) the incidence of HIV and HBsAg seroconversion in negative first-time blood donors. Results Between 1992 and 2012, 422319 donors (men [M] = 74%) provided 1063825 blood donations. For first-time donors, HIV prevalence decreased from 7.1% (M = 5.9%, women [W] =11.0%) in 1992–1994 to 1.1% (M = 0.8%, W = 2.0%) in 2010–2012. Prevalence of HBsAg positivity remained stable at 10.8% (M = 11.7%, W = 7.3%) in 1992–1994 to 11.1% (M = 12.5%, W = 7.1%) in 2010–2012. Among regular donors (N = 129256), the incidence of becoming HIV or HBsAg positive, respectively, decreased from 4.9 per 100 (M = 4.5, W = 8.6) and 7.3 per 100 person-years (M = 7.8, W = 2.3) in 1992–1994 to 0.07 (M = 0.06, W = 0.11) and 0.2 per 100 person-years (M = 0.2, W = 0.2) in 2010–2012. Conclusions Human immunodeficiency virus prevalence and incidence decreased dramatically over time, whereas HBV prevalence remained stable. Incidence of HBsAg seroconversion, although decreasing, still reached unexpected levels, suggesting that the risk of HBV infection in adults may be higher than expected. Hepatitis B surface antigen-negative blood-donors should be offered HBV vaccination. PMID:29644251

  6. Longitudinal elastic properties and porosity of cortical bone tissue vary with age in human proximal femur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malo, M K H; Rohrbach, D; Isaksson, H; Töyräs, J; Jurvelin, J S; Tamminen, I S; Kröger, H; Raum, K

    2013-04-01

    Tissue level structural and mechanical properties are important determinants of bone strength. As an individual ages, microstructural changes occur in bone, e.g., trabeculae and cortex become thinner and porosity increases. However, it is not known how the elastic properties of bone change during aging. Bone tissue may lose its elasticity and become more brittle and prone to fractures as it ages. In the present study the age-dependent variation in the spatial distributions of microstructural and microelastic properties of the human femoral neck and shaft were evaluated by using acoustic microscopy. Although these properties may not be directly measured in vivo, there is a major interest to investigate their relationships with the linear elastic measurements obtained by diagnostic ultrasound at the most severe fracture sites, e.g., the femoral neck. However, before the validity of novel in vivo techniques can be established, it is essential to understand the age-dependent variation in tissue elastic properties and porosity at different skeletal sites. A total of 42 transverse cross-sectional bone samples were obtained from the femoral neck (Fn) and proximal femoral shaft (Ps) of 21 men (mean±SD age 47.1±17.8, range 17-82years). Samples were quantitatively imaged using a scanning acoustic microscope (SAM) equipped with a 50MHz ultrasound transducer. Distributions of the elastic coefficient (c33) of cortical (Ct) and trabecular (Tr) tissues and microstructure of cortex (cortical thickness Ct.Th and porosity Ct.Po) were determined. Variations in c33 were observed with respect to tissue type (c33Trc33(Ct.Fn)=35.3GPa>c33(Tr.Ps)=33.8GPa>c33(Tr.Fn)=31.9GPa), and cadaver age (R(2)=0.28-0.46, pbone tissue were observed. These findings may explain in part the increase in susceptibility to suffer low energy fractures during aging and highlight the potential of ultrasound in clinical osteoporosis diagnostics. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Why individual thermo sensation and pain perception varies? Clue of disruptive mutations in TRPVs from 2504 human genome data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Arijit; Kaur, Navneet; Kumar, Abhishek; Goswami, Chandan

    2016-09-02

    Every individual varies in character and so do their sensory functions and perceptions. The molecular mechanism and the molecular candidates involved in these processes are assumed to be similar if not same. So far several molecular factors have been identified which are fairly conserved across the phylogenetic tree and are involved in these complex sensory functions. Among all, members belonging to Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) channels have been widely characterized for their involvement in thermo-sensation. These include TRPV1 to TRPV4 channels which reveal complex thermo-gating behavior in response to changes in temperature. The molecular evolution of these channels is highly correlative with the thermal response of different species. However, recent 2504 human genome data suggest that these thermo-sensitive TRPV channels are highly variable and carry possible deleterious mutations in human population. These unexpected findings may explain the individual differences in terms of complex sensory functions.

  8. Expression of a Chimeric Antigen Receptor Specific for Donor HLA Class I Enhances the Potency of Human Regulatory T Cells in Preventing Human Skin Transplant Rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boardman, D A; Philippeos, C; Fruhwirth, G O; Ibrahim, M A A; Hannen, R F; Cooper, D; Marelli-Berg, F M; Watt, F M; Lechler, R I; Maher, J; Smyth, L A; Lombardi, G

    2017-04-01

    Regulatory T cell (Treg) therapy using recipient-derived Tregs expanded ex vivo is currently being investigated clinically by us and others as a means of reducing allograft rejection following organ transplantation. Data from animal models has demonstrated that adoptive transfer of allospecific Tregs offers greater protection from graft rejection compared to polyclonal Tregs. Chimeric antigen receptors (CAR) are clinically translatable synthetic fusion proteins that can redirect the specificity of T cells toward designated antigens. We used CAR technology to redirect human polyclonal Tregs toward donor-MHC class I molecules, which are ubiquitously expressed in allografts. Two novel HLA-A2-specific CARs were engineered: one comprising a CD28-CD3ζ signaling domain (CAR) and one lacking an intracellular signaling domain (ΔCAR). CAR Tregs were specifically activated and significantly more suppressive than polyclonal or ΔCAR Tregs in the presence of HLA-A2, without eliciting cytotoxic activity. Furthermore, CAR and ΔCAR Tregs preferentially transmigrated across HLA-A2-expressing endothelial cell monolayers. In a human skin xenograft transplant model, adoptive transfer of CAR Tregs alleviated the alloimmune-mediated skin injury caused by transferring allogeneic peripheral blood mononuclear cells more effectively than polyclonal Tregs. Our results demonstrated that the use of CAR technology is a clinically applicable refinement of Treg therapy for organ transplantation. © 2016 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  9. One window-period donation in two years of individual donor-nucleic acid test screening for hepatitis B, hepatitis C and human immunodeficiency virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Eduardo Levi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe general data on nucleic acid/serology testing and report the first hepatitis B-nucleic acid testing yield case of an immunized donor in Brazil. Methods: A total of 24,441 donations collected in 2010 and 2011 were submitted to individual nucleic acid testing for hepatitis B, hepatitis C and human immunodeficiency virus using the TaqMan® MPX kit (Roche on the Cobas s201 platform, in addition to routine screening for serological markers. Nucleic acid testing-reactive donations were further evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction using Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus and human immunodeficiency virus tests. Results: Thirty-two donations were reactive by nucleic acid testing, 31 were also serologically reactive and one first-time donor was identified as having hepatitis B in the window period. Follow-up samples showed increasing titers of anti-HBs rising from 19 UI/mL in the index donation to 109 IU/mL seven months later attributable to his vaccination history. Curiously, this donor was never reactive for HbsAg nor for anti-HBc. In the yield donation, he was concomitantly reactive for syphilis (enzyme immunoassay and fluorescent treponemal antibody-absorption; venereal disease research laboratory non-reactive. Overall, six donors (0.02% were characterized as occult hepatitis B. A total of 35% of the confirmed (recombinant immunoblot assay positive hepatitis C donations were nucleic acid testing non-reactive and no human immunodeficiency virus "elite controller" was identified. Conclusion: The yield rate (1:24,441; 95% confidence interval: 1:9,537 - 1:89,717 contrasts to the North American rate (1:410,540 donations and strongly advocates the adoption of nucleic acid testing for hepatitis B in Brazil despite the increasing rate of anti-HBs reactive subjects due to the successful immunization program.

  10. A2 to B Blood Type Incompatible Deceased Donor Kidney Transplantation in a Recipient Infected with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, R C; DeMers, A; Concepcion, B P; Moore, D R; Schaefer, H M; Shaffer, D

    With the introduction of the Kidney Allocation System in the United States in December 2014, transplant centers can list eligible B blood type recipients for A2 organ offers. There have been no prior reports of ABO incompatible A2 to B deceased donor kidney transplantation in human immunodeficiency virus-positive (HIV+) recipients to guide clinicians on enrolling or performing A2 to B transplantations in HIV+ candidates. We are the first to report a case of A2 to B deceased donor kidney transplantation in an HIV+ recipient with good intermediate-term results. We describe an HIV+ 39-year-old African American man with end-stage renal disease who underwent A2 to B blood type incompatible deceased donor kidney transplantation. Prior to transplantation, he had an undetectable HIV viral load. The patient was unsensitized, with his most recent anti-A titer data being 1:2 IgG and 1:32 IgG/IgM. Induction therapy of basiliximab and methylprednisolone was followed by a postoperative regimen of plasma exchange, intravenous immunoglobulin, and rituximab with maintenance on tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and prednisone. He had delayed graft function without rejection on allograft biopsy. Nadir serum creatinine was 2.0 mg/dL. He continued to have an undetectable viral load on the same antiretroviral therapy adjusted for renal function. To our knowledge, this is the first report of A2 to B deceased donor kidney transplantation in an HIV+ recipient with good intermediate-term results, suggesting that A2 donor kidneys may be considered for transplantation into HIV+ B-blood type wait list candidates. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Persistent oscillations and backward bifurcation in a malaria model with varying human and mosquito populations: implications for control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngonghala, Calistus N; Teboh-Ewungkem, Miranda I; Ngwa, Gideon A

    2015-06-01

    We derive and study a deterministic compartmental model for malaria transmission with varying human and mosquito populations. Our model considers disease-related deaths, asymptomatic immune humans who are also infectious, as well as mosquito demography, reproduction and feeding habits. Analysis of the model reveals the existence of a backward bifurcation and persistent limit cycles whose period and size is determined by two threshold parameters: the vectorial basic reproduction number Rm, and the disease basic reproduction number R0, whose size can be reduced by reducing Rm. We conclude that malaria dynamics are indeed oscillatory when the methodology of explicitly incorporating the mosquito's demography, feeding and reproductive patterns is considered in modeling the mosquito population dynamics. A sensitivity analysis reveals important control parameters that can affect the magnitudes of Rm and R0, threshold quantities to be taken into consideration when designing control strategies. Both Rm and the intrinsic period of oscillation are shown to be highly sensitive to the mosquito's birth constant λm and the mosquito's feeding success probability pw. Control of λm can be achieved by spraying, eliminating breeding sites or moving them away from human habitats, while pw can be controlled via the use of mosquito repellant and insecticide-treated bed-nets. The disease threshold parameter R0 is shown to be highly sensitive to pw, and the intrinsic period of oscillation is also sensitive to the rate at which reproducing mosquitoes return to breeding sites. A global sensitivity and uncertainty analysis reveals that the ability of the mosquito to reproduce and uncertainties in the estimations of the rates at which exposed humans become infectious and infectious humans recover from malaria are critical in generating uncertainties in the disease classes.

  12. Long-term human immune system reconstitution in non-obese diabetic (NOD)-Rag (-)-γ chain (-) (NRG) mice is similar but not identical to the original stem cell donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, D T; Badowski, M; Balamurugan, A; Yang, O O

    2013-12-01

    The murine immune system is not necessarily identical to it human counterpart, which has led to the construction of humanized mice. The current study analysed whether or not a human immune system contained within the non-obese diabetic (NOD)-Rag1(null) -γ chain(null) (NRG) mouse model was an accurate representation of the original stem cell donor and if multiple mice constructed from the same donor were similar to one another. To that end, lightly irradiated NRG mice were injected intrahepatically on day 1 of life with purified cord blood-derived CD34(+) stem and progenitor cells. Multiple mice were constructed from each cord blood donor. Mice were analysed quarterly for changes in the immune system, and followed for periods up to 12 months post-transplant. Mice from the same donor were compared directly with each other as well as with the original donor. Analyses were performed for immune reconstitution, including flow cytometry, T cell receptor (TCR) and B cell receptor (BCR) spectratyping. It was observed that NRG mice could be 'humanized' long-term using cord blood stem cells, and that animals constructed from the same cord blood donor were nearly identical to one another, but quite different from the original stem cell donor immune system. © 2013 British Society for Immunology.

  13. Methyl donor deficient diets cause distinct alterations in lipid metabolism but are poorly representative of human NAFLD [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus J. Lyall

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is a global health issue. Dietary methyl donor restriction is used to induce a NAFLD/non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH phenotype in rodents, however the extent to which this model reflects human NAFLD remains incompletely understood. To address this, we undertook hepatic transcriptional profiling of methyl donor restricted rodents and compared these to published human NAFLD datasets.              Methods: Adult C57BL/6J mice were maintained on control, choline deficient (CDD or methionine/choline deficient (MCDD diets for four weeks; the effects on methyl donor and lipid biology were investigated by bioinformatic analysis of hepatic gene expression profiles followed by a cross-species comparison with human expression data of all stages of NAFLD. Results: Compared to controls, expression of the very low density lipoprotein (VLDL packaging carboxylesterases (Ces1d, Ces1f, Ces3b and the NAFLD risk allele Pnpla3 were suppressed in MCDD; with Pnpla3 and the liver predominant Ces isoform, Ces3b, also suppressed in CDD. With respect to 1-carbon metabolism, down-regulation of Chka, Chkb, Pcty1a, Gnmt and Ahcy with concurrent upregulation of Mat2a suggests a drive to maintain S-adenosylmethionine levels. There was minimal similarity between global gene expression patterns in either dietary intervention and any stage of human NAFLD, however some common transcriptomic changes in inflammatory, fibrotic and proliferative mediators were identified in MCDD, NASH and HCC. Conclusions: This study suggests suppression of VLDL assembly machinery may contribute to hepatic lipid accumulation in these models, but that CDD and MCDD rodent diets are minimally representative of human NAFLD at the transcriptional level.

  14. Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) from Triton X-100 to 4-benzothiazol-2-yl-phenol: Varying FRET efficiency with CMC of the donor (Triton X-100)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, Bijan Kumar; Ganguly, Aniruddha; Karmakar, Saswati; Guchhait, Nikhil

    2013-01-01

    A heterocyclic compound viz., 4-benzothiazol-2-yl-phenol (4B2YP) has been synthesized and its photophysics have been examined through steady-state absorption, emission and time resolved emission spectroscopic techniques, in brief. Then 4B2YP has been exploited as an acceptor in the Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) process from photoexcited benzene aromatic nucleus of Triton X-100 (TX-100) surfactant. Dependence of the energy transfer efficiency on the donor concentration with respect to its critical micelle concentration (CMC) is clearly reflected in the study. High values of Stern–Volmer constant (K SV ) for quenching of the donor fluorescence in the presence of the acceptor suggest the operation of long-range dipole–dipole interaction in the course of energy transfer process, while the inference is aptly supported from time resolved fluorescence decay results. Experimental results show maximum FRET efficiency at the CMC of the donor (TX-100). -- Highlights: • FRET from neutral surfactant Triton X-100 to chromophore 4-benzothiazol-2-yl-phenol. • Steady state and time resolved spectroscopy. • Long-range dipole–dipole interaction responsible for FRET. • FRET efficiency as a measure of CMC of surfactant

  15. Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) from Triton X-100 to 4-benzothiazol-2-yl-phenol: Varying FRET efficiency with CMC of the donor (Triton X-100)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, Bijan Kumar, E-mail: bijan.paul.chem.cu@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, University of Calcutta, 92 A.P.C. Road, Calcutta 700009 (India); Ganguly, Aniruddha [Department of Chemistry, University of Calcutta, 92 A.P.C. Road, Calcutta 700009 (India); Karmakar, Saswati [Department of Chemistry, Sree Chaitanya College, Habra, North 24 Parganas (India); Guchhait, Nikhil, E-mail: nguchhait@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, University of Calcutta, 92 A.P.C. Road, Calcutta 700009 (India)

    2013-11-15

    A heterocyclic compound viz., 4-benzothiazol-2-yl-phenol (4B2YP) has been synthesized and its photophysics have been examined through steady-state absorption, emission and time resolved emission spectroscopic techniques, in brief. Then 4B2YP has been exploited as an acceptor in the Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) process from photoexcited benzene aromatic nucleus of Triton X-100 (TX-100) surfactant. Dependence of the energy transfer efficiency on the donor concentration with respect to its critical micelle concentration (CMC) is clearly reflected in the study. High values of Stern–Volmer constant (K{sub SV}) for quenching of the donor fluorescence in the presence of the acceptor suggest the operation of long-range dipole–dipole interaction in the course of energy transfer process, while the inference is aptly supported from time resolved fluorescence decay results. Experimental results show maximum FRET efficiency at the CMC of the donor (TX-100). -- Highlights: • FRET from neutral surfactant Triton X-100 to chromophore 4-benzothiazol-2-yl-phenol. • Steady state and time resolved spectroscopy. • Long-range dipole–dipole interaction responsible for FRET. • FRET efficiency as a measure of CMC of surfactant.

  16. Production and characterization of human anti-V3 monoclonal antibodies from the cells of HIV-1 infected Indian donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrabi Raiees

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Analysis of human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs developed from HIV-1 infected donors have enormously contributed to the identification of neutralization sensitive epitopes on the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein. The third variable region (V3 is a crucial target on gp120, primarily due to its involvement in co-receptor (CXCR4 or CCR5 binding and presence of epitopes recognized by broadly neutralizing antibodies. Methods Thirty-three HIV-1 seropositive drug naive patients (18 males and 15 females within the age range of 20–57 years (median = 33 years were recruited in this study for mAb production. The mAbs were selected from EBV transformed cultures with conformationally constrained Cholera-toxin-B containing V3C (V3C-CTB fusion protein. We tested the mAbs for their binding with HIV-1 derived proteins and peptides by ELISA and for neutralization against HIV-1 viruses by TZM-bl assays. Results We isolated three anti-V3 mAbs, 277, 903 and 904 from the cells of different individuals. The ELISA binding revealed a subtype-C and subtype-A specific binding of antibody 277 and 903 while mAb 904 exhibited cross reactivity also with subtype-B V3. Epitope mapping of mAbs with overlapping V3 peptides showed exclusive binding to V3 crown. The antibodies displayed high and low neutralizing activity against 2/5 tier 1 and 1/6 tier 2 viruses respectively. Overall, we observed a resistance of the tier 2 viruses to neutralization by the anti-V3 mAbs, despite the exposure of the epitopes recognized by these antibodies on two representative native viruses (Du156.12 and JRFL, suggesting that the affinity of mAb might equally be crucial for neutralization, as the epitope recognition. Conclusions Our study suggests that the anti-V3 antibodies derived from subtype-C infected Indian patients display neutralization potential against tier 1 viruses while such activity may be limited against more resistant tier 2 viruses. Defining the fine epitope

  17. Genetic diversity through human leukocyte antigen typing in end-stage renal disease patients and prospective donors of North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohit Chowdhry

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As the incidence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD is rapidly increasing, the demand for dialysis and transplantation has dramatically increased, which has led to concerns about the availability and equitable allocation of kidneys for transplantation. The distribution of HLA-A, B and DR alleles in 148 renal transplant recipients and 191 live related prospective donors from 2009 to 2010 were analyzed. Allele frequencies and haplotype frequencies were calculated in recipients and donors. The prospective donors were further analyzed on the basis of their relationship to the patients and according to the sex ratio. A significant female preponderance was noted in the prospective donor population, most of whom were either siblings or parents of the recipients. On the contrary, the recipient population predominantly comprised of males. The most frequent HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-DRB1 alleles in renal transplant patients were HLA-AFNx0111, AFNx0102, AFNx0101, AFNx0124; HLA-BFNx0135, BFNx0140, BFNx0144, BFNx0115, BFNx0152, and HLA-DRB1FNx0115, DRB1FNx0107, DRB1FNx0113, DRB1FNx0111 respectively. The most frequent HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-DRB1 alleles in prospective donors were HLA-AFNx0102, AFNx0111, AFNx0133, AFNx0124; HLA-BFNx0135, BFNx0144, BFNx0140, BFNx0115 and HLA-DRB1FNx0115, DRB1FNx0107, DRB1FNx0111, DRB1FNx0113 respectively. AFNx0111-BFNx0135, AFNx0102-DRB1FNx0115, BFNx0140-DRB1FNx0115 were the most common HLA A-B , HLA A-DR, HLA B-DR haplotypes respectively in renal transplant patients, whereas, AFNx0111-BFNx0135, AFNx0111-DRB1FNx0115, BFNx0144-DRB1FNx0107 were the most common haplotypes in renal donors. In three locus haplotype, HLA-AFNx0102-BFNx0140-DRB1FNx0115 was the most frequent haplotype in patients, whereas, in prospective renal donors HLA-AFNx0133-BFNx0144-DRB1FNx0107 was the most frequent haplotype.

  18. Donor transplant programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu Bakar Sulaiman

    1999-01-01

    The transplantation of organs and tissues from one human to another human has become an essential and well established form of therapy for many types of organ and tissue failure. In Malaysia, kidney, cornea and bone marrow transplantation are well established. Recently, liver, bone and heart transplanation have been performed. Unfortunately, because of the lack of cadaveric organ donation, only a limited number of solid organ transplantation have been performed. The cadaveric organ donor rate in Malaysia is low at less than one per million population. The first tissue transplanted in Malaysia was the cornea which was performed in the early 1970s. At that time and even now the majority of corneas came from Sri Lanka. The first kidney transplant was performed in 1975 from a live related donor. The majority of the 629 kidney transplants done at Hospital Kuala Lumpur to date have been from live related donors. Only 35 were from cadaver donors. Similarly, the liver transplantation programme which started in 1995 are from live related donors. A more concerted effort has been made recently to increase the awareness of the public and the health professionals on organ and tissue donation. This national effort to promote organ and tissue donation seems to have gathered momentum in 1997 with the first heart transplant successfully performed at the National Heart Institute. The rate of cadaveric donors has also increased from a previous average of I to 2 per year to 6 per year in the last one year. These developments are most encouraging and may signal the coming of age of our transplantati on programme. The Ministry of Health in conjunction with various institutions, organizations and professional groups, have taken a number of proactive measures to facilitate the development of the cadaveric organ donation programme. Efforts to increase public awareness and to overcome the negative cultural attitude towards organ donation have been intensified. Equally important are efforts

  19. The effects of an invasive seaweed on native communities vary along a gradient of land-based human impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Bulleri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The difficulty in teasing apart the effects of biological invasions from those of other anthropogenic perturbations has hampered our understanding of the mechanisms underpinning the global biodiversity crisis. The recent elaboration of global-scale maps of cumulative human impacts provides a unique opportunity to assess how the impact of invaders varies among areas exposed to different anthropogenic activities. A recent meta-analysis has shown that the effects of invasive seaweeds on native biota tend to be more negative in relatively pristine than in human-impacted environments. Here, we tested this hypothesis through the experimental removal of the invasive green seaweed, Caulerpa cylindracea, from rocky reefs across the Mediterranean Sea. More specifically, we assessed which out of land-based and sea-based cumulative impact scores was a better predictor of the direction and magnitude of the effects of this seaweed on extant and recovering native assemblages. Approximately 15 months after the start of the experiment, the removal of C. cylindracea from extant assemblages enhanced the cover of canopy-forming macroalgae at relatively pristine sites. This did not, however, result in major changes in total cover or species richness of native assemblages. Preventing C. cylindracea re-invasion of cleared plots at pristine sites promoted the recovery of canopy-forming and encrusting macroalgae and hampered that of algal turfs, ultimately resulting in increased species richness. These effects weakened progressively with increasing levels of land-based human impacts and, indeed, shifted in sign at the upper end of the gradient investigated. Thus, at sites exposed to intense disturbance from land-based human activities, the removal of C. cylindracea fostered the cover of algal turfs and decreased that of encrusting algae, with no net effect on species richness. Our results suggests that competition from C. cylindracea is an important determinant of

  20. The effects of an invasive seaweed on native communities vary along a gradient of land-based human impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulleri, Fabio; Badalamenti, Fabio; Iveša, Ljiljana; Mikac, Barbara; Musco, Luigi; Jaklin, Andrej; Rattray, Alex; Vega Fernández, Tomás; Benedetti-Cecchi, Lisandro

    2016-01-01

    The difficulty in teasing apart the effects of biological invasions from those of other anthropogenic perturbations has hampered our understanding of the mechanisms underpinning the global biodiversity crisis. The recent elaboration of global-scale maps of cumulative human impacts provides a unique opportunity to assess how the impact of invaders varies among areas exposed to different anthropogenic activities. A recent meta-analysis has shown that the effects of invasive seaweeds on native biota tend to be more negative in relatively pristine than in human-impacted environments. Here, we tested this hypothesis through the experimental removal of the invasive green seaweed, Caulerpa cylindracea, from rocky reefs across the Mediterranean Sea. More specifically, we assessed which out of land-based and sea-based cumulative impact scores was a better predictor of the direction and magnitude of the effects of this seaweed on extant and recovering native assemblages. Approximately 15 months after the start of the experiment, the removal of C. cylindracea from extant assemblages enhanced the cover of canopy-forming macroalgae at relatively pristine sites. This did not, however, result in major changes in total cover or species richness of native assemblages. Preventing C. cylindracea re-invasion of cleared plots at pristine sites promoted the recovery of canopy-forming and encrusting macroalgae and hampered that of algal turfs, ultimately resulting in increased species richness. These effects weakened progressively with increasing levels of land-based human impacts and, indeed, shifted in sign at the upper end of the gradient investigated. Thus, at sites exposed to intense disturbance from land-based human activities, the removal of C. cylindracea fostered the cover of algal turfs and decreased that of encrusting algae, with no net effect on species richness. Our results suggests that competition from C. cylindracea is an important determinant of benthic assemblage

  1. Recruitment of feces donors among blood donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl Jørgensen, Simon Mark; Erikstrup, Christian; Dinh, Khoa Manh

    2018-01-01

    As the use of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has gained momentum, an increasing need for continuous access to healthy feces donors has developed. Blood donors constitute a healthy subset of the general population and may serve as an appropriate group for recruitment. In this study, we...... investigated the suitability of blood donors as feces donors. In a prospective cohort study, we recruited blood donors onsite at a public Danish blood bank. Following their consent, the blood donors underwent a stepwise screening process: First, blood donors completed an electronic pre-screening questionnaire...... to rule out predisposing risk factors. Second, eligible blood donors had blood and fecal samples examined. Of 155 blood donors asked to participate, 137 (88%) completed the electronic pre-screening questionnaire, 16 declined, and 2 were excluded. Of the 137 donors who completed the questionnaire, 79 (58...

  2. The egg-sharing model for human therapeutic cloning research: managing donor selection criteria, the proportion of shared oocytes allocated to research, and amount of financial subsidy given to the donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Boon Chin; Tong, Guo Qing; Stojkovic, Miodrag

    2006-01-01

    Recent advances in human therapeutic cloning made by Hwang and colleagues have opened up new avenues of therapy for various human diseases. However, the major bottleneck of this new technology is the severe shortage of human donor oocytes. Egg-sharing in return for subsidized fertility treatment has been suggested as an ethically justifiable and practical solution to overcome the shortage of donor oocytes for therapeutic cloning. Because the utilization of shared oocytes in therapeutic cloning research does not result in any therapeutic benefit to a second party, this would necessitate a different management strategy compared to their use for the assisted conception of infertile women who are unable to produce any oocytes of their own. It is proposed that the pool of prospective egg-sharers in therapeutic cloning research be limited only to younger women (below 30 years of age) with indications for either male partner sub-fertility or tubal blockage. With regards to the proportion of the shared gametes being allocated to research, a threshold number of retrieved oocytes should be set that if not exceeded, would result in the patient being automatically removed from the egg-sharing scheme. Any excess supernumerary oocyte above this threshold number can be contributed to science, and allocation should be done in a randomized manner. Perhaps, a total of 10 retrieved oocytes from the patient may be considered a suitable threshold, since the chances of conception are unlikely to be impaired. With regards to the amount of subsidy being given to the patient, it is suggested that the proportion of financial subsidy should be equal to the proportion of the patient's oocytes being allocated to research. No doubt, the promise of future therapeutic benefit may be offered to the patient instead of financial subsidy. However, this is ethically controversial because therapeutic cloning has not yet been demonstrated to be a viable model of clinical therapy and any promises made to

  3. High-Temperature Short-Time Pasteurization System for Donor Milk in a Human Milk Bank Setting

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Escuder-Vieco; Irene Espinosa-Martos; Juan M. Rodríguez; Nieves Corzo; Antonia Montilla; Pablo Siegfried; Carmen R. Pallás-Alonso; Carmen R. Pallás-Alonso; Leónides Fernández

    2018-01-01

    Donor milk is the best alternative for the feeding of preterm newborns when mother's own milk is unavailable. For safety reasons, it is usually pasteurized by the Holder method (62.5°C for 30 min). Holder pasteurization results in a microbiological safe product but impairs the activity of many biologically active compounds such as immunoglobulins, enzymes, cytokines, growth factors, hormones or oxidative stress markers. High-temperature short-time (HTST) pasteurization has been proposed as an...

  4. Detection and Phylogenetic Analysis of Human Pegivirus (GBV-C) Among Blood Donors and Patients Infected With Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) in Qatar

    OpenAIRE

    AbuOdeh, Raed O.; Al-Absi, Enas; Ali, Nadima H.; Khalili, Makiyeh; Al-Mawlawi, Naema; Hadwan, Tameem A.; Al Thani, Asmaa A.; Nasrallah, Gheyath K.

    2015-01-01

    Human Pegivirus (HPgV), formerly GB virus-C/ Hepatitis G virus (GBV-C/HGV), collectively known as GBV-C, is widely spread and has been reported to be associated with non-A–E hepatitis. To our knowledge, no previous study was conducted about HPgV in Qatar. Thus, the objectives of this study were as follows: (i) to determine the rates of HPgV infection in Qatar among healthy blood donors and HBV-infected patients, and (ii) to determine the most predominant HPgV gen...

  5. DNA-mediated gene transfer into human diploid fibroblasts derived from normal and ataxia-telangiectasia donors: parameters for DNA transfer and properties of DNA transformants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debenham, P.G.; Webb, M.B.T.; Masson, W.K.; Cox, R.

    1984-01-01

    An investigation was made of the feasibility of DNA-mediated gene transfer into human diploid fibroblasts derived from patients with the radiation sensitive syndrome ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) and from a normal donor. Although they are markedly different in their growth characteristics, both normal and A-T strains give similar frequencies for DNA transfer in a model system using the recombinant plasmid pSV2-gpt. pSV2-gpt DNA transformants arise with a frequency between 10 -5 and 10 -4 per viable cell. Analysis of such transformants, although possible, is severely handicapped by the limited clonal life span of diploid human cells. Despite these problems it may be concluded that diploid human fibroblasts are competent recipients for DNA-mediated gene transfer and the putative repair deficiency of A-T does not markedly effect the efficiency of this process. (author)

  6. The Effect of Varying Jaw-elevator Muscle Forces on a Finite Element Model of a Human Cranium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro-Ibacache, Viviana; O'Higgins, Paul

    2016-07-01

    Finite element analyses simulating masticatory system loading are increasingly undertaken in primates, hominin fossils and modern humans. Simplifications of models and loadcases are often required given the limits of data and technology. One such area of uncertainty concerns the forces applied to cranial models and their sensitivity to variations in these forces. We assessed the effect of varying force magnitudes among jaw-elevator muscles applied to a finite element model of a human cranium. The model was loaded to simulate incisor and molar bites using different combinations of muscle forces. Symmetric, asymmetric, homogeneous, and heterogeneous muscle activations were simulated by scaling maximal forces. The effects were compared with respect to strain distribution (i.e., modes of deformation) and magnitudes; bite forces and temporomandibular joint (TMJ) reaction forces. Predicted modes of deformation, strain magnitudes and bite forces were directly proportional to total applied muscle force and relatively insensitive to the degree of heterogeneity of muscle activation. However, TMJ reaction forces and mandibular fossa strains decrease and increase on the balancing and working sides according to the degree of asymmetry of loading. These results indicate that when modes, rather than magnitudes, of facial deformation are of interest, errors in applied muscle forces have limited effects. However the degree of asymmetric loading does impact on TMJ reaction forces and mandibular fossa strains. These findings are of particular interest in relation to studies of skeletal and fossil material, where muscle data are not available and estimation of muscle forces from skeletal proxies is prone to error. Anat Rec, 299:828-839, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Testing UK blood donors for exposure to human parvovirus 4 using a time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay to screen sera and Western blot to confirm reactive samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maple, Peter A C; Beard, Stuart; Parry, Ruth P; Brown, Kevin E

    2013-10-01

    Human parvovirus 4 (ParV4), a newly described member of the family Parvoviridae, like B19V, has been found in pooled plasma preparations. The extent, and significance, of ParV4 exposure in UK blood donors remain to be determined and reliable detection of ParV4 immunoglobulin (Ig)G, using validated methods, is needed. With ParV4 virus-like particles a ParV4 IgG time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay (TRFIA) was developed. There is no gold standard or reference assay for measuring ParV4 IgG and the utility of the TRFIA was first examined using a panel of sera from people who inject drugs (PWIDS)--a high-prevalence population for ParV4 infection. Western blotting was used to confirm the specificity of TRFIA-reactive sera. Two cohorts of UK blood donor sera comprising 452 sera collected in 1999 and 156 sera collected in 2009 were tested for ParV4 IgG. Additional testing for B19V IgG, hepatitis C virus antibodies (anti-HCV), and ParV4 DNA was also undertaken. The rate of ParV4 IgG seroprevalence in PWIDS was 20.7% and ParV4 IgG was positively associated with the presence of anti-HCV with 68.4% ParV4 IgG-positive sera testing anti-HCV-positive versus 17.1% ParV4 IgG-negative sera. Overall seropositivity for ParV4 IgG, in 608 UK blood donors was 4.76%. The ParV4 IgG seropositivity for sera collected in 1999 was 5.08%, compared to 3.84% for sera collected in 2009. No ParV4 IgG-positive blood donor sera had detectable ParV4 DNA. ParV4 IgG has been found in UK blood donors and this finding needs further investigation. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.

  8. Evolution of human cytomegalovirus-seronegative donor/-seropositive recipient high-risk combination frequency in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantations at Institute of Hematology and Blood Transfusion during 1995-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeckova, S; Sroller, V; Stastna-Markova, M

    2016-04-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) establishes lifelong latent infection that can result in severe life-threatening disease in immunosuppressed patients after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). An HCMV-seropositive transplant recipient who receives a graft from a seronegative donor (R+/D-) is at high risk of recurrent HCMV reactivation. To assess the incidence of R+/D- combination, we retrospectively evaluated HCMV-seronegative donors for 746 allogeneic HSCT treatments carried out at our center during 1995-2014. In our cohort, 20% HCMV-seronegative HSCT recipients, 21% HCMV-seronegative related graft donors, and 52% HCMV-seronegative unrelated graft donors were included. Analyses of the HCMV serostatus of hematopoietic stem cell donors during 2 consecutive calendar periods (1995-2005 and 2006-2014) showed a significant increase in the proportion of seronegative donors (odds ratio [OR] = 1.947). In addition, the number of HSCT treatments using an unrelated donor increased (OR = 2.376). Finally, the use of grafts from countries with a very low HCMV prevalence increased. This increase in HCMV seronegativity in unrelated donors and the increased proportion of unrelated donors were responsible for the increased occurrence of the high-risk combination R+/D- (OR = 1.680). If the reduction in the rate of HCMV-seropositive graft donors continues, an increased frequency of HCMV reactivation events in our transplant recipients can be expected, because of the increasing occurrence of the high-risk R+/D- combination. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Prisoners as Living Donors: A Vulnerabilities Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Lainie Friedman; Thistlethwaite, J Richard

    2018-01-01

    Although national guidelines exist for evaluating the eligibility of potential living donors and for procuring their informed consent, no special protections or considerations exist for potential living donors who are incarcerated. Human research subject protections in the United States are codified in the Federal Regulations, 45 CFR 46, and special protections are given to prisoners. Living donor transplantation has parallels with human subject research in that both activities are performed with the primary goal of benefiting third parties. In this article, we describe what special considerations should be provided to prisoners as potential living donors using a vulnerabilities approach adapted from the human research subject protection literature.

  10. Genus beta human papillomavirus E6 proteins vary in their effects on the transactivation of p53 target genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Elizabeth A; Walther, Johanna; Javanbakht, Hassan; Howley, Peter M

    2014-08-01

    The genus beta human papillomaviruses (beta HPVs) cause cutaneous lesions and are thought to be involved in the initiation of some nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSCs), particularly in patients with the genetic disorder epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV). We have previously reported that at least two of the genus beta HPV E6 proteins bind to and/or increase the steady-state levels of p53 in squamous epithelial cells. This is in contrast to a well-characterized ability of the E6 proteins of cancer-associated HPVs of genus alpha HPV, which inactivate p53 by targeting its ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis. In this study, we have investigated the ability of genus beta E6 proteins from eight different HPV types to block the transactivation of p53 target genes following DNA damage. We find that the E6 proteins from diverse beta HPV species and types vary in their capacity to block the induction of MDM2, p21, and proapoptotic genes after genotoxic stress. We conclude that some genus beta HPV E6 proteins inhibit at least some p53 target genes, although perhaps not by the same mechanism or to the same degree as the high-risk genus alpha HPV E6 proteins. This study addresses the ability of various human papillomavirus E6 proteins to block the activation of p53-responsive cellular genes following DNA damage in human keratinocytes, the normal host cell for HPVs. The E6 proteins encoded by the high-risk, cancer-associated HPV types of genus alpha HPV have a well-established activity to target p53 degradation and thereby inhibit the response to DNA damage. In this study, we have investigated the ability of genus beta HPV E6 proteins from eight different HPV types to block the ability of p53 to transactivate downstream genes following DNA damage. We find that some, but not all, genus beta HPV E6 proteins can block the transactivation of some p53 target genes. This differential response to DNA damage furthers the understanding of cutaneous HPV biology and may help to explain the

  11. Cost-effective master cell bank validation of multiple clinical-grade human pluripotent stem cell lines from a single donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devito, Liani; Petrova, Anastasia; Miere, Cristian; Codognotto, Stefano; Blakely, Nicola; Lovatt, Archie; Ogilvie, Caroline; Khalaf, Yacoub; Ilic, Dusko

    2014-10-01

    Standardization guidelines for human pluripotent stem cells are still very broadly defined, despite ongoing clinical trials in the U.S., U.K., and Japan. The requirements for validation of human embryonic (hESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) in general follow the regulations for other clinically compliant biologics already in place but without addressing key differences between cell types or final products. In order to realize the full potential of stem cell therapy, validation criteria, methodology, and, most importantly, strategy, should address the shortfalls and efficiency of current approaches; without this, hESC- and, especially, iPSC-based therapy will not be able to compete with other technologies in a cost-efficient way. We addressed the protocols for testing cell lines for human viral pathogens and propose a novel strategy that would significantly reduce costs. It is highly unlikely that the multiple cell lines derived in parallel from a tissue sample taken from one donor would have different profiles of endogenous viral pathogens; we therefore argue that samples from the Master Cell Banks of sibling lines could be safely pooled for validation. We illustrate this approach with tiered validation of two sibling clinical-grade hESC lines, KCL033 and KCL034 (stage 1, sterility; stage 2, specific human pathogens; and stage 3, nonspecific human pathogens). The results of all tests were negative. This cost-effective strategy could also be applied for validation of Master Cell Banks of multiple clinical-grade iPSC lines derived from a single donor. ©AlphaMed Press.

  12. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Using Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis and Human Leukocyte Antigen Typing for Human Leukocyte Antigen-Matched Sibling Donor: A Turkish Multicenter Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurekci, Emin; Küpesiz, Alphan; Anak, Sema; Öztürk, Gülyüz; Gürsel, Orhan; Aksoylar, Serap; Ileri, Talia; Kuşkonmaz, Barış; Eker, İbrahim; Cetin, Mualla; Tezcan Karasu, Gülsün; Kaya, Zühre; Fışgın, Tunç; Ertem, Mehmet; Kansoy, Savaş; Yeşilipek, Mehmet Akif

    2017-05-01

    Preimplantation genetic diagnosis involves the diagnosis of a genetic disorder in embryos obtained through in vitro fertilization, selection of healthy embryos, and transfer of the embryos to the mother's uterus. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis has been used not only to avoid the risk of having an affected child, but it also offers, using HLA matching, preselection of potential HLA-genoidentical healthy donor progeny for an affected sibling who requires bone marrow transplantation. Here, we share the hematopoietic stem cell transplantation results of 52 patients with different benign and malign hematological or metabolic diseases or immunodeficiencies whose donors were siblings born with this technique in Turkey since 2008. The median age of the patients' at the time of the transplantation was 8 years (range, 3 to 16 years) and the median age of the donors was 2 years (range, .5 to 6 years). The most common indication for HSCT was thalassemia major (42 of all patients, 80%). The stem cell source in all of the transplantations was bone marrow. In 37 of the transplantations, umbilical cord blood of the same donor was also used. In 50 of the 52 patients, full engraftment was achieved with a mean of 4.6 × 10 6 CD 34 + cells per kg of recipient weight. Ninety-six percent of the patients have been cured through hematopoietic stem cell transplantation without any complication. Primary engraftment failure was seen in only 2 patients with thalassemia major. All of the donors and the patients are alive with good health status. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis with HLA matching offers a life-saving chance for patients who need transplantation but lack an HLA genoidentical donor. Copyright © 2017 The American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Seasonal dynamics of phytoplankton in two tropical rivers of varying size and human impact in Southeast Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okechukwu Idumah Okogwu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Phytoplankton occurrence and dynamics in rivers are mainly shaped by hydrophysical conditions and nutrient availability. Phytoplankton main structuring factors have been poorly studied in West African rivers, and this study was undertaken to identify these conditions in two tropical rivers that vary in size and human impact. For this, environmental variables and phytoplankton monthly samples were collected from the middle reaches of Asu and Cross rivers during an 18 months survey from March 2005-July 2006. Phytoplankton biomass (F=11.87, p=0.003, Shannon-Weiner diversity and species richness (F=5.93, p=0.003 showed significant seasonality in Asu but not in Cross River. Data was analyzed with Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA and showed environmental differences between the two rivers, nitrate in Asu River (5.1-15.5mg/L was significantly higher than Cross River (0.03-1.7mg/L, while PO4 (0.2-0.9mg/L was significantly lower in Asu River compared to Cross River (0.03-2.6mg/L (p<0.05. Eutrophic factors (NO3 determined primarily phytoplankton dynamics in Asu River, especially during the dry season, whereas hydrophysical factors (depth, transparency and temperature shaped phytoplankton in Cross River. Taxa indicative of an eutrophic condition, such as Euglena, Chlorella, Chlorococcus, Ceratium, Peridinium, Anabaena, Aphanizomenon, Closterium, Scenedesmus and Pediastrum spp., were frequently encountered in the shallow impounded Asu River, while riverine species, such as Frustulia rhomboids, Gyrosigma sp., Opephora martyr and Surirella splendida dominated Cross River. A succession pattern was observed in the functional groups identified: Na/MP→TB→P (rainy→dry season was observed in Asu River, whereas MP/D predominated in Cross River for both seasons. We concluded that, if nutrients predominate hydrophysical factors in shaping phytoplankton during dry season (half of the year then, they are as important as hydrophysical factors structuring

  14. Utilization of mixed ligands to construct diverse Ni(II)-coordination polymers based on terphenyl-2,2′,4,4′-tetracarboxylic acid and varied N-donor co-ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Chao; Zhao, Jun; Xia, Liang; Wu, Xue-Qian; Wang, Jian-Fang; Dong, Wen-Wen; Wu, Ya-Pan

    2016-01-01

    Three new coordination polymers, namely, {[Ni(H 2 L)(bix)(H 2 O) 2 ]·2h 2 O} n (1), {[Ni(HL)(Hdpa)(H 2 O) 2 ]·H 2 O} n (2), {[Ni(L) 0.5 (bpp)(H 2 O)]·H 2 O} n (3) (H 4 L=terphenyl-2,2′,4,4′-tetracarboxylic acid; bix=1,4-bis(imidazol-1-ylmethyl)benzene; dpa =4,4′-dipyridylamine; bpp=1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane), based on rigid H 4 L ligand and different N-donor co-ligands, have been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions. Compound 1 features a 3D 4-connected 6 6 -dia-type framework with H 4 L ligand adopts a μ 2 -bridging mode with two symmetry-related carboxylate groups in μ 1 -η 1 :η 0 monodentate mode. Compound 2 displays a 1D [Ni(HL)(Hdpa)] n ribbon chains motif, in which the H 4 L ligand adopts a μ 2 -bridging mode with two carboxylate groups in μ 1 -η 1 :η 1 and μ 1 -η 1 :η 0 monodentate modes, while 3 possesses a (4,4)-connected 3D frameworks with bbf topology, with H 4 L ligand displays a μ 4 -bridging coordination mode. The H 4 L ligand displays not only different deprotonated forms but also diverse coordination modes and conformations. The structural diversities among 1–3 have been carefully discussed, and the roles of N-donor co-ligands in the self-assembly of coordination polymers have been well documented. - Graphical abstract: Three nickel coordination polymers with different architectures based on mixed ligand system were synthesized and structurally characterized. Topology analyses indicate that 1 shows the 4-connected 6 6 -dia net, 1D ribbon chains for 2 and 3D (4,4)-connected bbf network for 3. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Three Ni-based coordination polymers with distinct features have been prepared. • Compound 1 features a 3D 4-connected 66-dia-type framework, 2 displays a 1D [Ni(HL)(Hdpa)] n ribbon chains motif, while 3 possesses a (4,4)-connected 3D frameworks with bbf topology. • The “mixed ligand assembled” strategy is significant potential for network design.

  15. Utilization of mixed ligands to construct diverse Ni(II)-coordination polymers based on terphenyl-2,2′,4,4′-tetracarboxylic acid and varied N-donor co-ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chao [College of Materials and Chemical Engineering, Key Laboratory of Inorganic Nonmetallic Crystalline and Energy Conversion Materials, Hubei Provincial Collaborative Innovation Center for New Energy Microgrid, China Three Gorges University, Yichang 443002 (China); Zhao, Jun, E-mail: junzhao08@126.com [College of Materials and Chemical Engineering, Key Laboratory of Inorganic Nonmetallic Crystalline and Energy Conversion Materials, Hubei Provincial Collaborative Innovation Center for New Energy Microgrid, China Three Gorges University, Yichang 443002 (China); State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 35002 (China); Xia, Liang [College of Materials and Chemical Engineering, Key Laboratory of Inorganic Nonmetallic Crystalline and Energy Conversion Materials, Hubei Provincial Collaborative Innovation Center for New Energy Microgrid, China Three Gorges University, Yichang 443002 (China); State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 35002 (China); Wu, Xue-Qian; Wang, Jian-Fang; Dong, Wen-Wen; Wu, Ya-Pan [College of Materials and Chemical Engineering, Key Laboratory of Inorganic Nonmetallic Crystalline and Energy Conversion Materials, Hubei Provincial Collaborative Innovation Center for New Energy Microgrid, China Three Gorges University, Yichang 443002 (China)

    2016-06-15

    Three new coordination polymers, namely, {[Ni(H_2L)(bix)(H_2O)_2]·2h_2O}{sub n} (1), {[Ni(HL)(Hdpa)(H_2O)_2]·H_2O}{sub n} (2), {[Ni(L)_0_._5(bpp)(H_2O)]·H_2O}{sub n} (3) (H{sub 4}L=terphenyl-2,2′,4,4′-tetracarboxylic acid; bix=1,4-bis(imidazol-1-ylmethyl)benzene; dpa =4,4′-dipyridylamine; bpp=1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane), based on rigid H{sub 4}L ligand and different N-donor co-ligands, have been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions. Compound 1 features a 3D 4-connected 6{sup 6}-dia-type framework with H{sub 4}L ligand adopts a μ{sub 2}-bridging mode with two symmetry-related carboxylate groups in μ{sub 1}-η{sup 1}:η{sup 0} monodentate mode. Compound 2 displays a 1D [Ni(HL)(Hdpa)]{sub n} ribbon chains motif, in which the H{sub 4}L ligand adopts a μ{sub 2}-bridging mode with two carboxylate groups in μ{sub 1}-η{sup 1}:η{sup 1} and μ{sub 1}-η{sup 1}:η{sup 0} monodentate modes, while 3 possesses a (4,4)-connected 3D frameworks with bbf topology, with H{sub 4}L ligand displays a μ{sub 4}-bridging coordination mode. The H{sub 4}L ligand displays not only different deprotonated forms but also diverse coordination modes and conformations. The structural diversities among 1–3 have been carefully discussed, and the roles of N-donor co-ligands in the self-assembly of coordination polymers have been well documented. - Graphical abstract: Three nickel coordination polymers with different architectures based on mixed ligand system were synthesized and structurally characterized. Topology analyses indicate that 1 shows the 4-connected 6{sup 6}-dia net, 1D ribbon chains for 2 and 3D (4,4)-connected bbf network for 3. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Three Ni-based coordination polymers with distinct features have been prepared. • Compound 1 features a 3D 4-connected 66-dia-type framework, 2 displays a 1D [Ni(HL)(Hdpa)]{sub n} ribbon chains motif, while 3 possesses a (4,4)-connected 3D frameworks with bbf topology. • The “mixed ligand assembled

  16. Detection and phylogenetic analysis of human pegivirus (GBV-C) among blood donors and patients infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) in Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbuOdeh, Raed O; Al-Absi, Enas; Ali, Nadima H; Khalili, Makiyeh; Al-Mawlawi, Naema; Hadwan, Tameem A; Althani, Asmaa A; Nasrallah, Gheyath K

    2015-12-01

    Human Pegivirus (HPgV), formerly GB virus-C/Hepatitis G virus (GBV-C/HGV), collectively known as GBV-C, is widely spread and has been reported to be associated with non-A-E hepatitis. To our knowledge, no previous study was conducted about HPgV in Qatar. Thus, the objectives of this study were as follows: (i) to determine the rates of HPgV infection in Qatar among healthy blood donors and HBV-infected patients, and (ii) to determine the most predominant HPgV genotype in Qatar. A total of 714 blood plasma samples from healthy donors (612) and HBV-infected patients (102) were collected. RNA was extracted, reversed transcribed, and then subjected for HPgV detection by two round-nested PCR using primers amplifying a 208 bp of 5'-UTR of the HPgV. For genotyping, the 5'-UTR PCR products (from 25 randomly picked samples) were cloned and sequenced. The overall infection rate of HPgV in Qatar was 13.3%. There was no significant difference (P = 0.41) in the infection rates between healthy donor (13.7%) and in HBV-infected patients (10.7%). Moreover, we did not find any significant association between HPgV infection rates and nationality, sex, or age (P > 0.05). Sequence analysis of 40 5'-UTR PCR amplicons yielded the European genotype 2 as most predominant in Qatar, although other genotypes (5 and 7) were also present. Our results indicate that there is no strong correlation between HPgV infection rate, condition, nationality, age, and sex, and genotype 2 is most predominant in Qatar. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Combined cord blood and bone marrow transplantation from the same human leucocyte antigen-identical sibling donor for children with malignant and non-malignant diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucunduva, Luciana; Volt, Fernanda; Cunha, Renato; Locatelli, Franco; Zecca, Marco; Yesilipek, Akif; Caniglia, Maurizio; Güngör, Tayfun; Aksoylar, Serap; Fagioli, Franca; Bertrand, Yves; Addari, Maria Carmen; de la Fuente, Josu; Winiarski, Jacek; Biondi, Andrea; Sengeloev, Henrik; Badell, Isabel; Mellgren, Karin; de Heredia, Cristina Díaz; Sedlacek, Petr; Vora, Ajay; Rocha, Vanderson; Ruggeri, Annalisa; Gluckman, Eliane

    2015-04-01

    Umbilical cord blood (UCB) from an human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-identical sibling can be used for transplantation of patients with malignant and non-malignant diseases. However, the low cellular content of most UCB units represents a limitation to this approach. An option to increase cell dose is to harvest bone marrow (BM) cells from the same donor and infuse them along with the UCB. We studied 156 children who received such a combined graft between 1992 and 2011. Median age was 7 years and 78% of patients (n = 122) were transplanted for non-malignant diseases, mainly haemoglobinopathies. Acute leukaemia (n = 26) was the most frequent malignant diagnosis. Most patients (91%) received myeloablative conditioning. Median donor age was 1·7 years, median infused nucleated cell dose was 24·4 × 10(7) /kg and median follow-up was 41 months. Sixty-days neutrophil recovery occurred in 96% of patients at a median of 17 d. The probabilities of grade-II-IV acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) were 19% and 10%, respectively. Four-year overall survival was 90% (68% malignant; 97% non-malignant diseases) with 3% probability of death. In conclusion, combined UCB and BM transplantation from an HLA-identical sibling donor is an effective treatment for children with malignant and non-malignant disorders with high overall survival and low incidence of GVHD. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Birth and death of human β-cells in pancreas from cadaver donors, autopsies, surgical specimens, and islets transplanted into mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, Francisco; Siniakowicz, Karolina; Jennifer-Hollister-Lock; Duran, Luisa; Katsuta, Hitoshi; Yamada, Takatsugu; Lei, Ji; Deng, Shaoping; Westermark, Gunilla T.; Markmann, James; Bonner-Weir, Susan; Weir, Gordon C.

    2013-01-01

    There is great interest in the potential of the human endocrine pancreas for regeneration by β-cell replication or neogenesis. Our aim was to explore this potential in adult human pancreases and in both islet and exocrine tissue transplanted into mice. The design was to examine pancreases obtained from cadaver donors, autopsies and fresh surgical specimens and compare these findings with those obtained from islet and duct tissue grafted into the kidney. Islets and exocrine tissue were transplanted into normoglycemic ICR/SCID mice and studied 4 and 14 wk later. β-cell replication as assessed by double staining for insulin and Ki67 was 0.22 ± 0.03 % at 4 wk and 0.13 ± 0.03 % at 14 wk. In contrast, no evidence of β-cell replication could be found in 11 cadaver donor and 10 autopsy pancreases. However, Ki67 staining of β-cells in frozen sections obtained at surgery was comparable to that found in transplanted islets. Evidence for neogenesis in transplanted pancreatic exocrine tissue was supported by finding β-cells within the duct epithelium, and the presence of cells double stained for insulin and cytokeratin 19 (CK19). However, β-cells within the ducts never constituted more than 1% of the CK19 positive cells. With confocal microscopy, 7 of 12 examined cells expressed both markers, consistent with a neogeneic process. Mice with grafts containing islet or exocrine tissue were treated with various combinations exendin-4, gastrin and epidermal growth factor; none increased β-cell replication or stimulated neogenesis. In summary, human β-cells replicate at a low level in islets transplanted into mice and in surgical pancreatic frozen sections but rarely in cadaver donor or autopsy pancreases. The absence of β-cell replication in many adult cadaver or autopsy pancreases could, in part, be an artifact of the postmortem state. Thus, it appears that adult human β-cells maintain a low level of turnover through replication and neogenesis. PMID:23321263

  19. Birth and death of human β-cells in pancreases from cadaver donors, autopsies, surgical specimens, and islets transplanted into mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, Francisco; Siniakowicz, Karolina; Hollister-Lock, Jennifer; Duran, Luisa; Katsuta, Hitoshi; Yamada, Takatsugu; Lei, Ji; Deng, Shaoping; Westermark, Gunilla T; Markmann, James; Bonner-Weir, Susan; Weir, Gordon C

    2014-02-01

    There is great interest in the potential of the human endocrine pancreas for regeneration by β-cell replication or neogenesis. Our aim was to explore this potential in adult human pancreases and in both islet and exocrine tissue transplanted into mice. The design was to examine pancreases obtained from cadaver donors, autopsies, and fresh surgical specimens and compare these findings with those obtained from islet and duct tissue grafted into the kidney. Islets and exocrine tissue were transplanted into normoglycemic ICR-SCID mice and studied 4 and 14 weeks later. β-Cell replication, as assessed by double staining for insulin and Ki67, was 0.22 ± 0.03% at 4 weeks and 0.13 ± 0.03% at 14 weeks. In contrast, no evidence of β-cell replication could be found in 11 cadaver donor and 10 autopsy pancreases. However, Ki67 staining of β-cells in frozen sections obtained at surgery was comparable to that found in transplanted islets. Evidence for neogenesis in transplanted pancreatic exocrine tissue was supported by finding β-cells within the duct epithelium and the presence of cells double stained for insulin and cytokeratin 19 (CK19). However, β-cells within the ducts never constituted more than 1% of the CK19-positive cells. With confocal microscopy, 7 of 12 examined cells expressed both markers, consistent with a neogeneic process. Mice with grafts containing islet or exocrine tissue were treated with various combinations of exendin-4, gastrin, and epidermal growth factor; none increased β-cell replication or stimulated neogenesis. In summary, human β-cells replicate at a low level in islets transplanted into mice and in surgical pancreatic frozen sections, but rarely in cadaver donor or autopsy pancreases. The absence of β-cell replication in many adult cadaver or autopsy pancreases could, in part, be an artifact of the postmortem state. Thus, it appears that adult human β-cells maintain a low level of turnover through replication and neogenesis.

  20. The effect of UV-C pasteurization on bacteriostatic properties and immunological proteins of donor human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christen, Lukas; Lai, Ching Tat; Hartmann, Ben; Hartmann, Peter E; Geddes, Donna T

    2013-01-01

    Human milk possesses bacteriostatic properties, largely due to the presence of immunological proteins. Heat treatments such as Holder pasteurization reduce the concentration of immunological proteins in human milk and consequently increase the bacterial growth rate. This study investigated the bacterial growth rate and the immunological protein concentration of ultraviolet (UV-C) irradiated, Holder pasteurized and untreated human milk. Samples (n=10) of untreated, Holder pasteurized and UV-C irradiated human milk were inoculated with E. coli and S. aureus and the growth rate over 2 hours incubation time at 37°C was observed. Additionally, the concentration of sIgA, lactoferrin and lysozyme of untreated and treated human milk was analyzed. The bacterial growth rate of untreated and UV-C irradiated human milk was not significantly different. The bacterial growth rate of Holder pasteurized human milk was double compared to untreated human milk (ppasteurization, resulting in bacteriostatic properties similar to those of untreated human milk.

  1. Salivary agglutinin and lung scavenger receptor cysteine-rich glycoprotein 340 have broad anti-influenza activities and interactions with surfactant protein D that vary according to donor source and sialylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartshorn, Kevan L.; Ligtenberg, Antoon; White, Mitchell R.

    2006-01-01

    We previously found that scavenger receptor cysteine-rich gp-340 (glycoprotein-340), isolated from lung or saliva, directly inhibits human IAVs (influenza A viruses). We now show that salivary gp-340 has broad antiviral activity against human, equine and porcine IAV strains. Although lung...

  2. Ionizing radiation and nitric oxide donor sensitize Fas-induced apoptosis via up-regulation of Fas in human cervical cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, In Chul; Woo, Sang Hyeok; Park, Myung Jin; Lee, Hyung Chahn; Lee Su Jae; Hong, Young Joon; Lee, Seung Hoon; Hong, Seok II; Rhee, Chang Hun

    2004-01-01

    Fas/CD95/Apo1 is a transmembrane receptor known to trigger apoptotic cell death in several cell types. In the present study, we showed that ionizing radiation (IR) and NO donor, S-nitroso-N-acetyl-penicillamine (SNAP), sensitized Fas-induced apoptotic cell death of HeLa human cervical cancers. Suboptimal dose of IR and SNAP up-regulated cell-surface Fas antigen, detected by FACScan using FITC-anti-Fas antibody. When combined with IR or SNAP, agonistic anti-Fas antibody CH-11 resulted in marked enhancement of apoptosis. This sensitization was completely abrogated by anti-Fas neutralizing antibody ZB4. During the IR and SNAP sensitized Fas-induced apoptosis, mitochondria permeabilization, cytochrome c release, and DNA fragmentation were detected. Furthermore, combined treatment of IR and SNAP additively up-regulated the surface Fas protein expression and sensitized Fas-induced apoptosis. Our finding demonstrate that sensitization of HeLa cervical cells to Fas-mediated apoptosis by IR and NO donor is most likely due to the up-regulation of Fas expression and also provides a means with which to sensitize tumors to the killing effects of cancer therapy via the Fas receptor

  3. Vitamin concentrations in human milk vary with time within feed, circadian rhythm, and single-dose supplementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Importance: Human milk is the subject of many nutrition studies but methods for representative sample collection are not established. Our recently improved, validated methods for analyzing micronutrients in human milk now enable systematic study of factors affecting their concentration. Objective...

  4. Inalienably Yours? The new case for an inalienable property right in human biological material: Empowerment of sample donors or a recipe for a tragic Anti-Commons?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasper A. Bovenberg

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern biomedical research into the genetic component of common diseases calls for broad access to existing and novel collections of samples of human biological material, aka Biobanks. Groups of donors of these samples, however, increasingly claim a property right in their samples. They perceive the recognition of a personal property right in their biological material as the best means to serve two goals: to secure ongoing control over their samples after donation and to underpin their claim for a share in the proceeds that the research on their samples may yield. Given the objective of ensuring ongoing control, this property right is claimed to be inalienable. Recognition of a personal property right in one’s biological material is problematic, especially where the requirement of inalienability seems at odds with the claim for a share of the profits. Yet, property rights in human biological material may be justified in a certain context, e.g. to enable subsets of patients to negotiate the terms and conditions of the research into their specific disorders. Biobanks, however, contain so many samples, which can be used for so many research purposes, that the unrestricted exercise of personal property rights by the sample donors will lead to a proliferation of rights. This proliferation is likely to deter or slow down both the creation of de novo Biobanks and the use of existing sample collections. Thus, recognising inalienable property rights in human biological material may lead to suboptimal use of these resources and create a classic ‘anticommons property’ scenario. It would also undermine the current trend to simplify existing informed consent requirements which aims to facilitate broad and previously unanticipated research on de novo and existing Biobanks. In addition, the tradition of altruistic participation in research and the notion that large-scale collections of human biological material are global public goods are arguments against

  5. Generation of human induced pluripotent stem cells from a Bombay individual: Moving towards 'universal-donor' red blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seifinejad, Ali; Taei, Adeleh [Department of Stem Cells and Developmental Biology, Royan Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Technology, P.O. Box 19395-4644, ACECR, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Totonchi, Mehdi; Vazirinasab, Hamed [Department of Genetics, Royan Institute for Reproductive Biomedicine, ACECR, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hassani, Seideh Nafiseh [Department of Stem Cells and Developmental Biology, Royan Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Technology, P.O. Box 19395-4644, ACECR, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Aghdami, Nasser [Department of Stem Cells and Developmental Biology, Royan Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Technology, P.O. Box 19395-4644, ACECR, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Regenerative Biomedicine, Royan Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Technology, ACECR, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahbazi, Ebrahim [Department of Stem Cells and Developmental Biology, Royan Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Technology, P.O. Box 19395-4644, ACECR, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Yazdi, Reza Salman [Department of Genetics, Royan Institute for Reproductive Biomedicine, ACECR, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Salekdeh, Ghasem Hosseini, E-mail: Salekdeh@royaninstitute.org [Department of Molecular Systems Biology, Royan Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Technology, ACECR, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Systems Biology, Agricultural Biotechnology Research Institute of Iran, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Baharvand, Hossein, E-mail: Baharvand@royaninstitute.org [Department of Stem Cells and Developmental Biology, Royan Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Technology, P.O. Box 19395-4644, ACECR, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Regenerative Biomedicine, Royan Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Technology, ACECR, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Developmental Biology, University of Science and Culture, ACECR, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-01-01

    Bombay phenotype is one of the rare phenotypes in the ABO blood group system that fails to express ABH antigens on red blood cells. Nonsense or missense mutations in fucosyltransfrase1 (FUT1) and fucosyltransfrase2 (FUT2) genes are known to create this phenotype. This blood group is compatible with all other blood groups as a donor, as it does not express the H antigen on the red blood cells. In this study, we describe the establishment of human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from the dermal fibroblasts of a Bombay blood-type individual by the ectopic expression of established transcription factors Klf4, Oct4, Sox2, and c-Myc. Sequence analyses of fibroblasts and iPSCs revealed a nonsense mutation 826C to T (276 Gln to Ter) in the FUT1 gene and a missense mutation 739G to A (247 Gly to Ser) in the FUT2 gene in the Bombay phenotype under study. The established iPSCs resemble human embryonic stem cells in morphology, passaging, surface and pluripotency markers, normal karyotype, gene expression, DNA methylation of critical pluripotency genes, and in-vitro differentiation. The directed differentiation of the iPSCs into hematopoietic lineage cells displayed increased expression of the hematopoietic lineage markers such as CD34, CD133, RUNX1, KDR, {alpha}-globulin, and {gamma}-globulin. Such specific stem cells provide an unprecedented opportunity to produce a universal blood group donor, in-vitro, thus enabling cellular replacement therapies, once the safety issue is resolved.

  6. Nyretransplantation med levende donor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, A L; Løkkegaard, H; Rasmussen, F

    2000-01-01

    In recent years transplantation from living donors has accounted for 25-30% of all kidney transplants in Denmark corresponding to 40-45 per year. Most of these living donors are parents or siblings, although internationally an increasing number are unrelated donors. Donor nephrectomy is associate...... in cadaver transplantation. The ethical and psychological aspects related to transplantation from a living donor are complex and need to be carefully evaluated when this treatment is offered to the patients....

  7. Rapid milk group classification by 1H NMR analysis of Le and H epitopes in human milk oligosaccharide donor samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Sander S; Schoemaker, Ruud J W; Gerwig, Gerrit J; van Leusen-van Kan, Ellen J M; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert; Kamerling, Johannis P

    Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are a major constituent of human breast milk and play an important role in reducing the risk of infections in infants. The structures of these HMOs show similarities with blood group antigens in protein glycosylation, in particular in relation to fucosylation in

  8. The role of corneal endothelial morphology in graft assessment and prediction of endothelial cell loss during organ culture of human donor corneas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermel, Martin; Salla, Sabine; Fuest, Matthias; Walter, Peter

    2017-03-01

    Endothelial assessment is crucial in the release of corneas for grafting. We retrospectively analysed the role of endothelial morphology parameters in predicting endothelial cell loss during organ culture. Human donor corneas were cultured in minimal essential medium with 2% fetal calf serum and antibiotics. Initial endothelial morphology was assessed microscopically using score parameters polymegethism (POL), pleomorphism (PLE), granulation (GRA), vacuolization (VAC), segmentation of cell membranes (SEG), Descemet's folds (DF), trypan blue-positive cells (TBPC) and endothelial cell-free areas (ECFA). Some corneas were primarily rejected based on endothelial assessment. Endothelial cell density (ECD) was assessed at the beginning (I-ECD) and end of culture. Corneas were then placed in dehydration medium (as above + 5% dextran 500). In a subgroup, ECD was reassessed after dehydration. Endothelial cell loss during culture (ECL@Culture) and culture+dehydration (ECL-Culture&Dehydration) were calculated. Data were given as mean ± SD and analysed using multiple linear and logistic regression. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. I-ECD was 2812 ± 360/mm 2 (n = 2356). The decision to reject a cornea due to endothelial assessment was associated negatively with I-ECD (OR = 0.77/100 cells, CI 0.7-0.82) and positively with ECFA (OR = 2.7, CI 1.69-4.35), SEG (OR =1.3, CI 1.01-1.68) and donor age (OR = 1.26/decade, CI 1.33-1.41). ECL@Culture was 153 ± 201/mm 2 (n = 1277), ECL@Culture&Dehydration was 169 ± 183/mm 2 (n = 918). ECL@Culture was associated positively with donor age, I-ECD, GRA and TBPC, and negatively with PLE, and DF. ECL@Culture&Dehydration was associated positively with age, sex, initial ECD, POL, PLE, VAC and TBPC. Morphological parameters displayed associations with the exclusion of corneas from culture and with endothelial cell loss. Appropriate parameter selection for screening purposes may help improve

  9. Effect of various pre-crash braking strategies on simulated human kinematic response with varying levels of driver attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooij, L. van

    2011-01-01

    In this study, human kinematic response resulting from various pre-crash braking scenarios is quantified. The underlying question is what kind of effect do pre-crash braking systems have on the driver or the front seat passenger.

  10. Seroepidemiology of Human Brucellosis Among Blood Donors in Southern Ethiopia: Calling Attention to a Neglected Zoonotic Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workalemahu, Bereket; Sewunet, Tsegaye; Astatkie, Ayalew

    2017-01-11

    Human brucellosis is neglected in southern Ethiopia. Although traditional food processing practices and animal husbandry which increase the risk of brucellosis are common, it has not been properly studied yet. This study was conducted to determine the seroepidemiology of brucellosis among apparently healthy individuals in southern Ethiopia. In the study, blood samples were collected to screen for serum agglutinins reactive to stained antigen of Brucella abortus Standard tube titration was performed for reactive serum to determine the titer of the agglutinin. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data on possible risk factors for brucellosis. The seroprevalence of human brucellosis in this study was found to be 10.6% (95% confidence interval = 7.0, 14.0). Possession of domestic ruminant animals, contact with ruminant animals, and husbandry practices at home were associated with seropositivity. The higher seroprevalence of human brucellosis in the study area needs attention and additional confirmatory investigation. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  11. Time-varying impedance of the human ankle in the sagittal and frontal planes during straight walk and turning steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficanha, Evandro M; Ribeiro, Guilherme A; Knop, Lauren; Rastgaar, Mo

    2017-07-01

    This paper describes the methods and experiment protocols for estimation of the human ankle impedance during turning and straight line walking. The ankle impedance of two human subjects during the stance phase of walking in both dorsiflexion plantarflexion (DP) and inversion eversion (IE) were estimated. The impedance was estimated about 8 axes of rotations of the human ankle combining different amounts of DP and IE rotations, and differentiating among positive and negative rotations at 5 instants of the stance length (SL). Specifically, the impedance was estimated at 10%, 30%, 50%, 70% and 90% of the SL. The ankle impedance showed great variability across time, and across the axes of rotation, with consistent larger stiffness and damping in DP than IE. When comparing straight walking and turning, the main differences were in damping at 50%, 70%, and 90% of the SL with an increase in damping at all axes of rotation during turning.

  12. Assembled microneedle arrays enhance the transport of compounds varying over a large range of molecular weight across human dermatomed skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbaan, F.J.; Bal, S.M.; van den Berg, D.J.; Groenink, W.H.H.; Verpoorten, H.; Lüttge, Regina; Bouwstra, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrate the feasibility to use microneedle arrays manufactured from commercially available 30G hypodermal needles to enhance the transport of compounds up to a molecular weight of 72 kDa. Piercing of human dermatomed skin with microneedle arrays was studied by Trypan Blue

  13. Biomechanical analysis of a salt-modified polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel for knee meniscus applications, including comparison with human donor samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Jennifer C; Curley, Colin; Tierney, Paul; Kennedy, James E

    2016-03-01

    The primary objective of this research was the biomechanical analysis of a salt-modified polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel, in order to assess its potential for use as an artificial meniscal implant. Aqueous polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) was treated with a sodium sulphate (Na2SO4) solution to precipitate out the polyvinyl alcohol resulting in a pliable hydrogel. The freeze-thaw process, a strictly physical method of crosslinking, was employed to crosslink the hydrogel. Development of a meniscal shaped mould and sample housing unit allowed the production of meniscal shaped hydrogels for direct comparison to human meniscal tissue. Results obtained show that compressive responses were slightly higher in PVA/Na2SO4 menisci, displaying maximum compressive loads of 2472N, 2482N and 2476N for samples having undergone 1, 3 and 5 freeze-thaw cycles respectively. When compared to the human meniscal tissue tested under the same conditions, an average maximum load of 2467.5N was observed. This suggests that the PVA/Na2SO4 menisci are mechanically comparable to the human meniscus. Biocompatibility analysis of PVA/Na2SO4 hydrogels revealed no acute cytotoxicity. The work described herein has innovative potential in load bearing applications, specifically as an alternative to meniscectomy as replacement of critically damaged meniscal tissue in the knee joint where repair is not viable. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium occurrence in Australian sea lions (Neophoca cinerea) exposed to varied levels of human interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delport, Tiffany C; Asher, Amy J; Beaumont, Linda J; Webster, Koa N; Harcourt, Robert G; Power, Michelle L

    2014-12-01

    Giardia and Cryptosporidium are amongst the most common protozoan parasites identified as causing enteric disease in pinnipeds. A number of Giardia assemblages and Cryptosporidium species and genotypes are common in humans and terrestrial mammals and have also been identified in marine mammals. To investigate the occurrence of these parasites in an endangered marine mammal, the Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea), genomic DNA was extracted from faecal samples collected from wild populations (n = 271) in Southern and Western Australia and three Australian captive populations (n = 19). These were screened using PCR targeting the 18S rRNA of Giardia and Cryptosporidium. Giardia duodenalis was detected in 28 wild sea lions and in seven captive individuals. Successful sequencing of the 18S rRNA gene assigned 27 Giardia isolates to assemblage B and one to assemblage A, both assemblages commonly found in humans. Subsequent screening at the gdh and β-giardin loci resulted in amplification of only one of the 35 18S rRNA positive samples at the β-giardin locus. Sequencing at the β-giardin locus assigned the assemblage B 18S rRNA confirmed isolate to assemblage AI. The geographic distribution of sea lion populations sampled in relation to human settlements indicated that Giardia presence in sea lions was highest in populations less than 25 km from humans. Cryptosporidium was not detected by PCR screening in either wild colonies or captive sea lion populations. These data suggest that the presence of G. duodenalis in the endangered Australian sea lion is likely the result of dispersal from human sources. Multilocus molecular analyses are essential for the determination of G. duodenalis assemblages and subsequent inferences on transmission routes to endangered marine mammal populations.

  15. Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium occurrence in Australian sea lions (Neophoca cinerea exposed to varied levels of human interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany C. Delport

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Giardia and Cryptosporidium are amongst the most common protozoan parasites identified as causing enteric disease in pinnipeds. A number of Giardia assemblages and Cryptosporidium species and genotypes are common in humans and terrestrial mammals and have also been identified in marine mammals. To investigate the occurrence of these parasites in an endangered marine mammal, the Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea, genomic DNA was extracted from faecal samples collected from wild populations (n = 271 in Southern and Western Australia and three Australian captive populations (n = 19. These were screened using PCR targeting the 18S rRNA of Giardia and Cryptosporidium. Giardia duodenalis was detected in 28 wild sea lions and in seven captive individuals. Successful sequencing of the 18S rRNA gene assigned 27 Giardia isolates to assemblage B and one to assemblage A, both assemblages commonly found in humans. Subsequent screening at the gdh and β-giardin loci resulted in amplification of only one of the 35 18S rRNA positive samples at the β-giardin locus. Sequencing at the β-giardin locus assigned the assemblage B 18S rRNA confirmed isolate to assemblage AI. The geographic distribution of sea lion populations sampled in relation to human settlements indicated that Giardia presence in sea lions was highest in populations less than 25 km from humans. Cryptosporidium was not detected by PCR screening in either wild colonies or captive sea lion populations. These data suggest that the presence of G. duodenalis in the endangered Australian sea lion is likely the result of dispersal from human sources. Multilocus molecular analyses are essential for the determination of G. duodenalis assemblages and subsequent inferences on transmission routes to endangered marine mammal populations.

  16. Dengue antibodies in blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas-Silva, Rejane Cristina; Eid, Andressa Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Dengue is an urban arbovirus whose etiologic agent is a virus of the genus Flavorius with four distinct antigen serotypes (DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3 and DENV-4) that is transmitted to humans through the bite of the mosquito Aedes aegypti. The Campo Mourão region in Brazil is endemic for dengue fever. OBTECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of IgG and IgM antibodies specific to the four serotypes of dengue in donors of the blood donor service in the city of Campo Mourão. Epidemiological records were evaluated and 4 mL of peripheral blood from 213 blood donors were collected in tubes without anticoagulant. Serum was then obtained and immunochromatographic tests were undertaken (Imuno-Rápido Dengue IgM/IgG(TM)). Individuals involved in the study answered a social and epidemiological questionnaire on data which included age, gender and diagnosis of dengue. Only three (1.4%) of the 213 blood tests were positive for IgG anti-dengue antibodies. No donors with IgM antibody, which identifies acute infection, were identified. The results of the current analysis show that the introduction of quantitative or molecular serological methods to determine the presence of anti-dengue antibodies or the detection of the dengue virus in blood donors in endemic regions should be established so that the quality of blood transfusions is guaranteed.

  17. Interactions of donor sources and media influence the histo-morphological quality of full-thickness skin models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Julia; Weil, Frederik; Riegler, Christoph; Groeber, Florian; Rebhan, Silke; Kurdyn, Szymon; Alb, Miriam; Kneitz, Hermann; Gelbrich, Götz; Walles, Heike; Mielke, Stephan

    2016-10-01

    Human artificial skin models are increasingly employed as non-animal test platforms for research and medical purposes. However, the overall histopathological quality of such models may vary significantly. Therefore, the effects of manufacturing protocols and donor sources on the quality of skin models built-up from fibroblasts and keratinocytes derived from juvenile foreskins is studied. Histo-morphological parameters such as epidermal thickness, number of epidermal cell layers, dermal thickness, dermo-epidermal adhesion and absence of cellular nuclei in the corneal layer are obtained and scored accordingly. In total, 144 full-thickness skin models derived from 16 different donors, built-up in triplicates using three different culture conditions were successfully generated. In univariate analysis both media and donor age affected the quality of skin models significantly. Both parameters remained statistically significant in multivariate analyses. Performing general linear model analyses we could show that individual medium-donor-interactions influence the quality. These observations suggest that the optimal choice of media may differ from donor to donor and coincides with findings where significant inter-individual variations of growth rates in keratinocytes and fibroblasts have been described. Thus, the consideration of individual medium-donor-interactions may improve the overall quality of human organ models thereby forming a reproducible test platform for sophisticated clinical research. Copyright © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Immunoglobulin production in human mixed lymphocyte cultures: implications for co-cultures of cells from patients and healthy donors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruemke, H.C.; Terpstra, F.G.; Huis, B.; Out, T.A.; Zeijlemaker, W.P.

    1982-01-01

    When human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) are cultured in the presence of irradiated allogeneic lymphocytes, the resulting mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) leads to the secretion into the supernatant of substantial amounts of IgM and IgG, derived from nonirradiated responder B lymphocytes. Our data indicate that stimulation to Ig production by responder B cells may result from different types of of interactions. First, B cells and monocytes among the irradiated stimulator cells activate T responder B cells to produce Ig; second, ''responder'' B cells activate irradiated ''stimulator'' T cells, leading to a ''helper'' signal, back to the responder B cells and leading to Ig production. The latter system is radiosensitive, because allogeneic T cells, irradiated at a dose of 4000 rad or more, failed to induce Ig production by responder B cells. In some combinations of human allogeneic lymphocytes, the co-culture of the cells leads to inhibition of Ig production, both in the presence and in the absence of PWM. Thus, co-culture of allogeneic cells may cause ''positive'' as well as ''negative'' allogeneic effects. The implications of these findings for the interpretation of co-cultures that are aimed at establishing defects in lymphocytes from patients with, for example, immunodeficiencies, who fail to produce Ig in the presence of PWM are discussed

  19. Air and Water Processes Do Not Produce the Same High-Quality Pasteurization of Donor Human Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffin, Rachel; Pradat, Pierre; Trompette, Jocelyne; Ndiaye, Isabelle; Basson, Eliane; Jordan, Isabelle; Picaud, Jean-Charles

    2017-11-01

    Holder pasteurization is the most commonly used technique in milk banks worldwide, but higher temperatures and longer pasteurization time have been associated with damage to the immune components of human milk. Research aim: This study aimed to assess the detailed pattern of pasteurization temperature using two water pasteurizers (WP1 and WP2) and one air pasteurizer (AP). The milk temperature during each phase of the pasteurization cycle was recorded using 6 to 9 probes, depending on the number of bottles, in the pasteurizers. We used 90 to 200 ml bottles to assess the effect of volume on milk temperature. The time to heat the milk from room temperature to 58°C was 12.4, 12.9, and 64.5 min, respectively, for WP1, WP2, and the AP ( p pasteurizer in our study was exposed to higher temperatures and for longer periods of time than the water pasteurizers we employed. Regular qualification of pasteurizers is requested when evaluating the effect of pasteurization on milk components and for routine treatment of human milk in milk banks.

  20. Intrauterine human chorionic gonadotropin infusion in oocyte donors promotes endometrial synchrony and induction of early decidual markers for stromal survival: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strug, Michael R; Su, Renwei; Young, James E; Dodds, William G; Shavell, Valerie I; Díaz-Gimeno, Patricia; Ruíz-Alonso, Maria; Simón, Carlos; Lessey, Bruce A; Leach, Richard E; Fazleabas, Asgerally T

    2016-07-01

    Does a single intrauterine infusion of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) at the time corresponding to a Day 3 embryo transfer in oocyte donors induce favorable molecular changes in the endometrium for embryo implantation? Intrauterine hCG was associated with endometrial synchronization between endometrial glands and stroma following ovarian stimulation and the induction of early decidual markers associated with stromal cell survival. The clinical potential for increasing IVF success rates using an intrauterine hCG infusion prior to embryo transfer remains unclear based on previously reported positive and non-significant findings. However, infusion of CG in the non-human primate increases the expression of pro-survival early decidual markers important for endometrial receptivity, including α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and NOTCH1. Oocyte donors (n=15) were randomly assigned to receive an intrauterine infusion of 500 IU hCG (n=7) or embryo culture media vehicle (n=8) 3 days following oocyte retrieval during their donor stimulation cycle. Endometrial biopsies were performed 2 days later, followed by either RNA isolation or tissue fixation in formalin and paraffin embedding. Reverse transcription of total RNA from endometrial biopsies generated cDNA, which was used for analysis in the endometrial receptivity array (ERA; n = 5/group) or quantitative RT-PCR to determine relative expression of ESR1, PGR, C3 and NOTCH1. Tissue sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin followed by blinded staging analysis for dating of endometrial glands and stroma. Immunostaining for ESR1, PGR, α-SMA, C3 and NOTCH1 was performed to determine their tissue localization. Intrauterine hCG infusion was associated with endometrial synchrony and reprograming of stromal development following ovarian stimulation. ESR1 and PGR were significantly elevated in the endometrium of hCG-treated patients, consistent with earlier staging. The ERA did not predict an overall positive impact of

  1. 20 CFR 401.200 - Blood donor locator service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood donor locator service. 401.200 Section... AND INFORMATION Disclosure of Official Records and Information § 401.200 Blood donor locator service... donors whose blood donations show that they are or may be infected with the human immunodeficiency virus...

  2. Skeletal Muscle Differentiation on a Chip Shows Human Donor Mesoangioblasts' Efficiency in Restoring Dystrophin in a Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serena, Elena; Zatti, Susi; Zoso, Alice; Lo Verso, Francesca; Tedesco, F Saverio; Cossu, Giulio; Elvassore, Nicola

    2016-12-01

    : Restoration of the protein dystrophin on muscle membrane is the goal of many research lines aimed at curing Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Results of ongoing preclinical and clinical trials suggest that partial restoration of dystrophin might be sufficient to significantly reduce muscle damage. Different myogenic progenitors are candidates for cell therapy of muscular dystrophies, but only satellite cells and pericytes have already entered clinical experimentation. This study aimed to provide in vitro quantitative evidence of the ability of mesoangioblasts to restore dystrophin, in terms of protein accumulation and distribution, within myotubes derived from DMD patients, using a microengineered model. We designed an ad hoc experimental strategy to miniaturize on a chip the standard process of muscle regeneration independent of variables such as inflammation and fibrosis. It is based on the coculture, at different ratios, of human dystrophin-positive myogenic progenitors and dystrophin-negative myoblasts in a substrate with muscle-like physiological stiffness and cell micropatterns. Results showed that both healthy myoblasts and mesoangioblasts restored dystrophin expression in DMD myotubes. However, mesoangioblasts showed unexpected efficiency with respect to myoblasts in dystrophin production in terms of the amount of protein produced (40% vs. 15%) and length of the dystrophin membrane domain (210-240 µm vs. 40-70 µm). These results show that our microscaled in vitro model of human DMD skeletal muscle validated previous in vivo preclinical work and may be used to predict efficacy of new methods aimed at enhancing dystrophin accumulation and distribution before they are tested in vivo, reducing time, costs, and variability of clinical experimentation. This study aimed to provide in vitro quantitative evidence of the ability of human mesoangioblasts to restore dystrophin, in terms of protein accumulation and distribution, within myotubes derived from

  3. The magnitude and rate of reduction in strength, dexterity and sensation in the human hand vary with ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, Jocelyn L; McNulty, Penelope A

    2013-08-01

    Cutaneous sensation and motor performance of the hand decline with age. It is not known if motor performance declines are influenced by reductions in cutaneous sensation, or if motor performance deteriorates at a consistent rate across motor tasks. Handgrip strength, finger-tapping frequency and grooved-pegboard performance were assessed for both hands of 70 subjects (20-88 years), 10 per decade. Motor declines were compared to reductions in perceptual cutaneous sensation tested at 10 hand sites using calibrated von Frey filaments. Motor performance decreased with age for all motor tasks (psensation also decreased with age, measured as increased von Frey thresholds of 0.04 g [0.02-0.07] to 0.16 g [0.04-0.4] (psensation varied with sex, side-tested and site. Reductions in grip-based tasks were associated with sensory declines in the palm, but elsewhere there was little correlation among motor tasks and cutaneous sensation in the hand. Grooved-pegboard performance was the best predictor of age-related declines in motor performance regardless of sex or side-tested. Our results suggest age-related declines in motor function cannot be inferred from, or provide information about, changes in cutaneous sensation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The Impact of Oxidative Stress Factors on the Viability, Senescence, and Methylation Status of Olfactory Bulb-Derived Glial Cells Isolated from Human Cadaver Donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marycz, Krzysztof; Kornicka, Katarzyna; Grzesiak, Jakub; Tomaszewski, Krzysztof A; Szarek, Dariusz; Kopacz, Paweł

    2017-01-01

    The olfactory bulb (OB) is a unique structure in the central nervous system that retains the ability to create new neuronal connections. Glial cells isolated from the OB have been recently considered as a novel and promising tool to establish an effective therapy for central nervous system injuries. Due to the hindered access to autologous tissue for cell isolation, an allogeneic source of tissues obtained postmortem has been proposed. In this study, we focused on the morphological and molecular characteristics of human OB-derived glial cells isolated postmortem, at different time points after a donor's death. We evaluated the proliferative activity of the isolated cells, and investigated the ultrastructure of the mitochondria, the accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species, and the activity of superoxide dismutase. The data obtained clearly indicate that the duration of ischemia is crucial for the viability/senescence rate of OB-derived glial cells. The OB can be isolated during autopsy and still stand as a source of viable glial cells, but ischemia duration is a major factor limiting its potential usefulness in therapies. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Human Infection with Fusobacterium necrophorum without Jugular Venous Thrombosis: A Varied Presentation of Lemierre’s Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Asim Rana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lemierre’s syndrome is also known as postangina septicemia, which is commonly caused by Fusobacterium necrophorum also known as Necrobacillus and also by other microorganisms like Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Peptostreptococcus, and Bacteroides. Though the disease starts as an upper respiratory tract infection, it may spread and cause thrombophlebitis of the internal jugular vein. It may present itself through cranial nerve palsy or sepsis involving distant organs like the lungs or bones. It is also known as forgotten disease because of its rarity. Fusobacterium necrophorum usually causes infection in animals and rarely affects humans. We hereby present a case of Necrobacillus infection which did not cause any thrombophlebitis but resulted in severe pneumonia and acute kidney injury, leading to respiratory failure and requiring mechanical ventilation.

  6. The impact of seasonal varied human activity on characteristics and sources of heavy metals in metropolitan road dusts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Men, Cong; Liu, Ruimin; Wang, Qingrui; Guo, Lijia; Shen, Zhenyao

    2018-10-01

    Due to significant human activity, road dust is becoming contaminated by heavy metals in many cities. To comprehensively investigate the variation of contamination level and sources of heavy metals in road dust, 10 heavy metals in road dust samples from Beijing, China, in both summer and winter, were evaluated by spatial analysis using geographic information system (GIS) mapping technology and the positive matrix factorization (PMF) Model. Although the concentrations of some heavy metals between summer and winter had similarities, the differences of others and spatial distributions of heavy metals between summer and winter were considerable. The mean concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, and Fe were lower in winter, while those of Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn were higher. According to the values of the Pollution Index (PI) and Nemerow Integrated Pollution Index (NIPI), there were no obvious differences between summer and winter, but the range between different sites in winter was nearly twice that of summer. Based on the PMF model, four sources of heavy metals in the dust samples were identified. Although the types of sources were consistent, the relative contributions of each source differed between summer and winter. Non-exhaust vehicle emissions was the most important source in summer (34.47 wt%), while fuel combustion contributed the largest proportion to the total heavy metals in winter (32.40 wt%). The impact of each source also showed spatial variation different trends in summer and winter. With the alteration of seasons, intensity of human activities also changed, such as the number of tourists, energy needs for building temperature regulation, construction, and the amount of pesticides and fertilizer. That might be the reason for the variation of heavy metal concentrations and relative contribution of their sources between summer and winter. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of lipid and calorie loss from donor human milk among 3 methods of simulated gavage feeding: one-hour, 2-hour, and intermittent gravity feedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Christine; Vickers, Amy Manning; Aryal, Subhash

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the differences in lipid loss from 24 samples of banked donor human milk (DHM) among 3 feeding methods: DHM given by syringe pump over 1 hour, 2 hours, and by bolus/gravity gavage. Comparative, descriptive. There were no human subjects. Twenty-four samples of 8 oz of DHM were divided into four 60-mL aliquots. Timed feedings were given by Medfusion 2001 syringe pumps with syringes connected to narrow-lumened extension sets designed for enteral feedings and connected to standard silastic enteral feeding tubes. Gravity feedings were given using the identical syringes connected to the same silastic feeding tubes. All aliquots were analyzed with the York Dairy Analyzer. Univariate repeated-measures analyses of variance were used for the omnibus testing for overall differences between the feeding methods. Lipid content expressed as grams per deciliter at the end of each feeding method was compared with the prefed control samples using the Dunnett's test. The Tukey correction was used for other pairwise multiple comparisons. The univariate repeated-measures analysis of variance conducted to test for overall differences between feeding methods showed a significant difference between the methods (F = 58.57, df = 3, 69, P gravity feeding methods (P = .3296). Pairwise comparison using the Tukey correction revealed a significant difference between both gravity and 1-hour feeding methods (P gravity and 2-hour feeding method (P gravity feedings, the timed feedings resulted in a statistically significant loss of fat as compared with their controls. These findings should raise questions about how those infants in the neonatal intensive care unit are routinely gavage fed.

  8. Kinetics of EGFR expression during fractionated irradiation varies between different human squamous cell carcinoma lines in nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eicheler, Wolfgang; Krause, Mechthild; Hessel, Franziska; Zips, Daniel; Baumann, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Background and purpose: Preclinical and clinical data indicate that high pretherapeutic EGFR expression is associated with poor local tumour control, possibly caused by a high repopulation rate of clonogenic cells during radiotherapy in these tumours. Previous data reported from our laboratory showed a correlation between EGFR expression and acceleration of repopulation in poorly differentiated FaDu human squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) during fractionated irradiation. To test whether this is a general phenomenon, two further SCC were investigated in the present study. Patients and methods: GL and UT-SCC-14, two moderately well differentiated and keratinising hSCC, were grown as xenografts in nude mice. Functional data on the repopulation kinetics during fractionated irradiation for these tumour models have been previously determined. The expression of EGFR during fractionation was analysed by immunohistochemistry. Endpoints were the membrane-staining score and the proportion of EGFR-positive cells (EGFR labelling index). Results: Different kinetics of EGFR expression during fractionated RT were found. In UT-SCC-14, EGFR staining score and labelling index increased significantly during radiotherapy. In GL SCC, the EGFR expression was unchanged. Both tumours are characterized by a small but significant repopulation rate during radiotherapy. Conclusions: The expression of EGFR may change significantly during fractionated irradiation. No clear correlation between EGFR expression and the repopulation kinetics of clonogenic tumour cells during fractionated irradiation was found. The changes in EGFR expression during irradiation warrant further investigation on their prognostic implications and on their importance for therapeutic interventions

  9. DNA from radiation resistant human tumor cells transfers resistance to NIH/3T3 cells with varying degrees of penetrance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasid, U.; Dritschilo, A.; Weichselbaum, R.

    1987-01-01

    Experimental evidence suggests that clinical radiation resistance may correlate with in vitro radiation survival parameters. Specifically, they isolated several cell lines from radioresistant head and neck carcinomas with D/sub 0/ values greater than 2 Gy. The authors co-transfected DNA from cell line SQ2OB (D/sub 0/ = 2.4 Gy) with the rhoSVNeO plasmid into NIH/3T3 cells (D/sub 0/ = 1.7 Gy). Antibiotic G418 resistant, transformed clones were isolated and confirmed by Southern blotting to contain human alu, as well as rhoSVNeO sequences. Screening for radiation resistance with 8Gy (Cs-137) revealed that 3 of 4 tested hybrid clones show a radiation survival intermediate between NIH/3T3 and SQ2OB. This suggests that radiation resistance is a dominant, transfectable phenotype of mammalian cells and can be expressed in more sensitive cells. Karyotyping of resistant hybrid clones shows the presence of double minute chromosomes. Secondary transfection results and experiments to clone the genetic factors responsible for radiation resistance are in progress and results will be reported

  10. Varied behavioral responses induced by morphine in the tree shrew: a possible model for human opiate addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang eShen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Tree shrews represent a suitable animal model to study the pathogenesis of human diseases as they are phylogenetically close to primates and have a well-developed central nervous system that possesses many homologies with primates. Therefore, in our study, we investigated whether tree shrews can be used to explore the addictive behaviors induced by morphine. Firstly, to investigate the psychoactive effect of morphine on tree shrews’ behavior, the number of jumping and shuttling, which represent the vertical and horizontal locomotor activity respectively, was examined following the injection of different dosage of morphine. Our results showed intramuscular (IM injection of morphine (5 or 10 mg/kg significantly increased the locomotor activity of tree shrews 30-60 min post-injection. Then, using the conditioned place preference/aversion (CPP/CPA paradigm, we found morphine-conditioned tree shrews exhibited place preference in the morphine-paired chamber on the test day. In addition, naloxone-precipitated withdrawal induced place aversion in the chronic morphine-dependent tree shrews. We evaluated the craving for morphine drinking by assessing the break point that reflects the maximum effort animals will expend to get the drug. Our data showed the break point was significantly increased when compared to the baseline on the 1st, 7th and 14th day after the abstinence. Moreover, in the intravenous morphine self-administration experiment, tree shrews conditioned with morphine responded on the active lever significantly more frequently than on the inactive lever after training. These results suggest that tree shrew may be a potential candidate for study the addictive behaviors and the underling neurological mechanisms.

  11. Expectations and experiences of gamete donors and donor-conceived adults searching for genetic relatives using DNA linking through a voluntary register.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Akker, O B A; Crawshaw, M A; Blyth, E D; Frith, L J

    2015-01-01

    What are the experiences of donor-conceived adults and donors who are searching for a genetic link through the use of a DNA-based voluntary register service? Donor-conceived adults and donors held positive beliefs about their search and although some concerns in relation to finding a genetically linked relative were reported, these were not a barrier to searching. Research with donor-conceived people has consistently identified their interest in learning about-and in some cases making contact with-their donor and other genetic relatives. However, donor-conceived individuals or donors rarely have the opportunity to act on these desires. A questionnaire was administered for online completion using Bristol Online Surveys. The survey was live for 3 months and responses were collected anonymously. The survey was completed by 65 donor-conceived adults, 21 sperm donors and 5 oocyte donors who had registered with a DNA-based voluntary contact register in the UK. The questionnaire included socio-demographic questions, questions specifically developed for the purposes of this study and the standardized Aspects of Identity Questionnaire (AIQ). Motivations for searching for genetic relatives were varied, with the most common reasons being curiosity and passing on information. Overall, participants who were already linked and those awaiting a link were positive about being linked and valued access to a DNA-based register. Collective identity (reflecting self-defining feelings of continuity and uniqueness), as assessed by the AIQ, was significantly lower for donor-conceived adults when compared with the donor groups (P 0.05) for donor-conceived adults. Participants were members of a UK DNA-based registry which is unique. It was therefore not possible to determine how representative participants were of those who did not register for the service, those in other countries or of those who do not seek information exchange or contact. This is the first survey exploring the

  12. Altered bioenergetics and enhanced resistance to oxidative stress in human retinal pigment epithelial cells from donors with age-related macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah A. Ferrington

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is the leading cause of blindness among older adults. It has been suggested that mitochondrial defects in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE underlies AMD pathology. To test this idea, we developed primary cultures of RPE to ask whether RPE from donors with AMD differ in their metabolic profile compared with healthy age-matched donors. Analysis of gene expression, protein content, and RPE function showed that these cultured cells replicated many of the cardinal features of RPE in vivo. Using the Seahorse Extracellular Flux Analyzer to measure bioenergetics, we observed RPE from donors with AMD exhibited reduced mitochondrial and glycolytic function compared with healthy donors. RPE from AMD donors were also more resistant to oxidative inactivation of these two energy-producing pathways and were less susceptible to oxidation-induced cell death compared with cells from healthy donors. Investigation of the potential mechanism responsible for differences in bioenergetics and resistance to oxidative stress showed RPE from AMD donors had increased PGC1α protein as well as differential expression of multiple genes in response to an oxidative challenge. Based on our data, we propose that cultured RPE from donors phenotyped for the presence or absence of AMD provides an excellent model system for studying “AMD in a dish”. Our results are consistent with the ideas that (i a bioenergetics crisis in the RPE contributes to AMD pathology, and (ii the diseased environment in vivo causes changes in the cellular profile that are retained in vitro.

  13. Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Nitin

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Of the various options for patients with end stage renal disease, kidney transplantation is the treatment of choice for a suitable patient. The kidney for transplantation is retrieved from either a cadaver or a live donor. Living donor nephrectomy has been developed as a method to address the shortfall in cadaveric kidneys available for transplantation. Laparoscopic living donor nephrectomy (LLDN, by reducing postoperative pain, shortening convalescence, and improving the cosmetic outcome of the donor nephrectomy, has shown the potential to increase the number of living kidney donations further by removing some of the disincentives inherent to donation itself. The technique of LLDN has undergone evolution at different transplant centers and many modifications have been done to improve donor safety and recipient outcome. Virtually all donors eligible for an open surgical procedure may also undergo the laparoscopic operation. Various earlier contraindications to LDN, such as right donor kidney, multiple vessels, anomalous vasculature and obesity have been overcome with increasing experience. Laparoscopic live donor nephrectomy can be done transperitoneally or retroperitoneally on either side. The approach is most commonly transperitoneal, which allows adequate working space and easy dissection. A review of literature and our experience with regards to standard approach and the modifications is presented including a cost saving model for the developing countries. An assessment has been made, of the impact of LDN on the outcome of donor and the recipient.

  14. Donor milk: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliani F

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Francesca Giuliani,1 Ilaria Rovelli,1 Chiara Peila,1 Stefania Alfonsina Liguori,2 Enrico Bertino,1 Alessandra Coscia1 1SCDU Neonatologia, Dipartimento di Scienze Pediatriche e dell'Adolescenza, Università degli Studi di Torino, Torino, Italy; 2SC Neonatologia, Ospedale Maria Vittoria, Torino, Italy Abstract: Mother's own milk is widely recognized as the optimal feeding for term infants, but increasing evidence exists of its benefits also for sick and preterm infants in neonatal intensive care units. However, the nutritional needs for appropriate growth and neurodevelopmental outcomes of such a particular population of infants should be attentively evaluated, considering also the indication to an appropriate fortification of human milk. The target is to achieve growth potential for preterm newborns while ensuring good metabolic outcomes and normal neurological development. When mother's milk is unavailable or in short supply, donor human milk (DHM represents the second best choice and, although somewhat modified by the Holder pasteurization process, it preserves many benefits when compared to formula, as documented by more and more reports, randomized controlled trials, and meta-analyses published in the past few years. Evidence exists of the protection exerted by DHM from necrotizing enterocolitis, while further studies are required to look at possible beneficial effects regarding infections, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, long-term cardiovascular risk factors, feeding tolerance, neurological outcome, and allergy. Finally, the concern that the use of DHM might decrease preterm infant breastfeeding is being raised. Conversely, publications exist showing that the use of DHM in the neonatal unit increases breastfeeding rates at discharge for infants of very low birth weight. Keywords: human milk, preterm infant feeding, milk bank, breast milk, mother's own milk, pasteurized human milk, fortification

  15. Elucidative analysis and sequencing of two respiratory health monitoring methods to study the impact of varying atmospheric composition on human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Amit; Hothi, Navjot; Kaur, Prabhjot; Singh, Nirankar; Chakraborty, Monojit; Bansal, Sangeeta

    2017-12-01

    Atmospheric composition of ambient air consists of different gases in definite proportion that affect the earth's climate and its ecological system. Due to varied anthropogenic reasons, this composition is changed, which ultimately have an impact on the health of living beings. For survival, the human respiratory system is one of the sensitive systems, which is easily and closely affected by the change in atmospheric composition of an external environment. Many studies have been conducted to quantify the effects of atmospheric pollution on human health by using different approaches. This article presents different scenario of studies conducted to evaluate the effects on different human groups. Differences between the studies conducted using spirometry and survey methods are presented in this article to extract a better sequence between these two methodologies. Many studies have been conducted to measure the respiratory status by evaluating the respiratory symptoms and hospital admissions. Limited numbers of studies are found with repeated spirometry on the same subjects for long duration to nullify the error arising due to decrease in efforts by the same subjects during manoeuvre of pulmonary function tests. Present study reveals the importance of methodological sequencing in order to obtain more authentic and reliable results. This study suggests that impacts of deteriorating atmospheric composition on human health can be more significantly studied if spirometry is done after survey analysis. The article also proposes that efficiency and authenticity of surveys involving health impacts will increase, if medical data information of patients is saved in hospitals in a proper format.

  16. Donor Telomere Length SAA

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new NCI study has found that, among patients with severe aplastic anemia who received a hematopoietic cell transplant from an unrelated donor, those whose donor white blood cells had longer telomeres had higher survival rates five-years after transplant

  17. Systems of donor transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.T. de Charro (Frank); J.E.M. Akveld (Hans); E. Hessing (Ellen)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractThe development of medical knowledge has resulted in a demand in society for donor organs, but the recruitment of donor organs for transplantation is difficult. This paper aims to provide some general insights into the complex interaction processes involved. A laissez-faire policy, in

  18. 21 CFR 1271.80 - What are the general requirements for donor testing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION HUMAN CELLS, TISSUES, AND CELLULAR AND TISSUE-BASED PRODUCTS Donor Eligibility § 1271.80 What are... mother instead of a specimen from the donor. (b) Timing of specimen collection. You must collect the donor specimen for testing at the time of recovery of cells or tissue from the donor; or up to 7 days...

  19. Effect of low-dose-rate irradiation on the division potential of cells in vitro. V. Human skin fibroblasts from donors with a high risk of cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diatloff, C.; Macieira-Coelho, A.

    1979-01-01

    Skin fibroblasts from normal donors, donors with ataxia-telanglectasia or Fanconi's anemia, and from 1 cancer patient were treated with repeated γ radiation at about 16 rads per hour. The remaining division potential of all fibroblasts, except for the Fanconi's anemia cells, was reduced to different extents by radiation. The growth potential of Fanconl's anemia cells was increased in all the irradiated cultures. The increase was 54% in the group that survived the longest. These results were identical to those obtained with fibroblasts from certain species that have a high probability of transformation

  20. Viremic blood donor found by a rapid screening method in a season of high human parvovirus B19 activity in Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Setúbal

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Erythrovirus B19 infection is usually benign but may have serious consequences in patients with hemolytic anemia (transient aplastic crisis, immunodeficiency (in whom persistent infection can lead to chronic bone marrow failure with anemia, or who are in the first or second trimester of gestation (spontaneous abortion, hydrops fetalis, and fetal death. Being non-enveloped, B19 resists most inactivation methods and can be transmitted by transfusion. B19 is difficult to cultivate and native virus is usually obtained from viremic blood. As specific antibodies may be absent, and there is no reliable immunological method for antigen detection, hybridization or polymerase chain reaction are needed for detecting viremia. A rapid method, gel hemagglutination (Diamed ID-Parvovirus B19 Antigen Test, can disclose highly viremic donations, whose elimination lessens the viral burden in pooled blood products and may even render them non-infectious. In order to obtain native antigen and to determine the frequency of viremic donors, we applied this test to blood donors in a period of high viral activity in our community. Positive or indeterminate results were re-tested by dot-blot hybridization. We tested 472 donors in 1998 and 831 ones in 1999. One viremic donor was found in 1999. We suggest that in periods of high community viral activity the gel hemagglutination test may be useful in avoiding highly viremic blood being added to plasma pools or directly transfused to patients under risk.

  1. Marginal kidney donor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh Gopalakrishnan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal transplantation is the treatment of choice for a medically eligible patient with end stage renal disease. The number of renal transplants has increased rapidly over the last two decades. However, the demand for organs has increased even more. This disparity between the availability of organs and waitlisted patients for transplants has forced many transplant centers across the world to use marginal kidneys and donors. We performed a Medline search to establish the current status of marginal kidney donors in the world. Transplant programs using marginal deceased renal grafts is well established. The focus is now on efforts to improve their results. Utilization of non-heart-beating donors is still in a plateau phase and comprises a minor percentage of deceased donations. The main concern is primary non-function of the renal graft apart from legal and ethical issues. Transplants with living donors outnumbered cadaveric transplants at many centers in the last decade. There has been an increased use of marginal living kidney donors with some acceptable medical risks. Our primary concern is the safety of the living donor. There is not enough scientific data available to quantify the risks involved for such donation. The definition of marginal living donor is still not clear and there are no uniform recommendations. The decision must be tailored to each donor who in turn should be actively involved at all levels of the decision-making process. In the current circumstances, our responsibility is very crucial in making decisions for either accepting or rejecting a marginal living donor.

  2. Live donor transplantation--the incompetent donor: comparative law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfman, Samuel; Shaked, Tali

    2008-12-01

    Informed consent of the patient to medical treatment is an essential prerequisite for any invasive medical procedure. However in emergency cases, when the patient is unable to sign a consent form due to unconsciousness or to psychotic state, than the primary medical consideration shall take place. In such a case, in order to save life or even prevent a major medical hazard to the patient, doctors are allowed, in certain cases and in accordance with well accepted medical practice, to perform invasive procedures, major surgery or risky pharmacological treatment, without the explicit consent of the patient. All the above refers to the cases when avoidance of such non-consented treatment may harm severely the health and wellbeing of the patient and there is no doubt that such treatment is for the ultimate benefit of the patient. The question, however, shall arise when such a medical procedure is not necessarily for the benefit of the patient, but rather for the benefit of somebody else. Such is the case in the transplantation area and the question of living donor-donee relationship. This paper shall analyze the legal situation in cases of non competent donors whose consent cannot be considered legal consent given in full understanding and out of free will. It will also compare three legal systems, the Israeli, the American and the traditional Jewish law, with regard to the different approaches to this human problem, where the autonomy of the donor may be sacrificed for the purpose of saving life of another person.

  3. Neutralizing activities of human immunoglobulin derived from donors in Japan against mosquito-borne flaviviruses, Japanese encephalitis virus, West Nile virus, and dengue virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunoki M

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Mikihiro Yunoki,1-3 Takeshi Kurosu,2 Ritsuko Kubota Koketsu,2,4 Kazuo Takahashi,5 Yoshinobu Okuno,4 Kazuyoshi Ikuta2,4 1Research and Development Division, Japan Blood Products Organization, Tokyo, 2Department of Virology, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Osaka, 3Pathogenic Risk Evaluation, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Rakuno Gakuen University, Hokkaido, 4Research and Development Division, The Research Foundation for Microbial Diseases of Osaka University, Kagawa, 5Osaka Prefectural Institute of Public Health, Osaka, Japan Abstract: Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV, West Nile virus (WNV, and dengue virus (DenV are causal agents of Japanese encephalitis, West Nile fever, and dengue fever, respectively. JEV is considered to be indigenized and widespread in Japan, whereas WNV and DenV are not indigenized in Japan. Globulin products seem to reflect the status of the donor population according to antivirus neutralization activity. However, the anti-JEV, -WNV, and -DenV neutralization activities of globulin products derived from donors in Japan have not been clarified. Furthermore, potential candidates for the development of an effective immunotherapeutic drug for encephalitis caused by JEV, WNV, or DenV have also not been identified. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the overall status of the donor population in Japan based on globulin products by evaluating anti-JEV, -WNV, and -DenV neutralizing activities of intravenous immunoglobulin. Overall, intravenous immunoglobulin products showed stable neutralizing activity against JEV but showed no or only weak activity against WNV or DenV. These results suggest that the epidemiological level against WNV and DenV in the donor population of Japan is still low, suggesting that these viruses are not yet indigenized. In addition, JEV vaccinations and/or infections in the donor population do not induce a cross-reactive antibody against WNV. Keywords

  4. National Marrow Donor Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Setterholm, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    ... a nationwide contingency response plan. 2. Rapid Identification of Matched Donors : Increase operational efficiencies that accelerate the search process and increase patient access are key to preparedness in a contingency event. pa 3...

  5. Human Leukocyte Antigen-A, B, C, DRB1, and DQB1 Allele and Haplotype Frequencies in a Subset of 237 Donors in the South African Bone Marrow Registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mqondisi Tshabalala

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Human leukocyte antigen- (HLA- A, HLA-B, HLA-C, HLA-DRB1, and HLA-DQB1 allele and haplotype frequencies were studied in a subset of 237 volunteer bone marrow donors registered at the South African Bone Marrow Registry (SABMR. Hapl-o-Mat software was used to compute allele and haplotype frequencies from individuals typed at various resolutions, with some alleles in multiple allele code (MAC format. Four hundred and thirty-eight HLA-A, 235 HLA-B, 234 HLA-DRB1, 41 HLA-DQB1, and 29 HLA-C alleles are reported. The most frequent alleles were A∗02:02g (0.096, B∗07:02g (0.082, C∗07:02g (0.180, DQB1∗06:02 (0.157, and DRB1∗15:01 (0.072. The most common haplotype was A∗03:01g~B∗07:02g~C∗07:02g~DQB1∗06:02~DRB1∗15:01 (0.067, which has also been reported in other populations. Deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were observed in A, B, and DRB1 loci, with C~DQB1 being the only locus pair in linkage disequilibrium. This study describes allele and haplotype frequencies from a subset of donors registered at SABMR, the only active bone marrow donor registry in Africa. Although the sample size was small, our results form a key resource for future population studies, disease association studies, and donor recruitment strategies.

  6. Evaluation of surrogate markers for human immunodeficiency virus infection among blood donors at the blood bank of "Hospital Universitário Regional Norte do Paraná", Londrina, PR, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiche Edna Maria Vissoci

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the usefulness of the anti-HBc, hepatitis C virus antibodies (anti-HCV, human T cell lymphotropic virus I and II antibodies (anti-HTLV I/II, serologic tests for syphilis, and surface antigen of hepatitis B virus (HBsAg as surrogate markers for the risk for HIV infection in 80,284 serum samples from blood donors from the Blood Bank of "Hospital Universitário Regional Norte do Paraná", Londrina, Paraná State, Brazil, analyzed from July 1994 to April 2001. Among 39 blood donors with positive serology for HIV, 12 (30.8% were anti-HBc positive, 10 (25.6% for anti-HCV, 1 (2.6% for anti-HTLV I/I, 1 (2.6% was positive for syphilis, and 1 (2.6% for HBsAg. Among the donors with negative serology for HIV, these markers were detected in 8,407 (10.5%, 441 (0.5%, 189 (0.2%, 464 (0.6%, and 473 (0.6% samples, respectively. The difference was statistically significant (p < 0.001 for anti-HBc and anti-HCV. Although the predictive positive value for these surrogate markers were low for HIV infection, the results confirmed the anti-HBc and anti-HCV as useful surrogate markers for HIV infection thus reinforcing the maintenance of them in the screening for blood donors contributing to the prevention of the small number of cases in which HIV is still transmitted by transfusion.

  7. Inter-donor variation in cell subset specific immune signaling responses in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Diane M; Louie, Brent; Wang, Ena; Pos, Zoltan; Marincola, Francesco M; Hawtin, Rachael E; Cesano, Alessandra

    2012-01-01

    Single cell network profiling (SCNP) is a multi-parameter flow cytometry based approach that allows for the simultaneous interrogation of intracellular signaling pathways in multiple cell subpopulations within heterogeneous tissues, without the need for individual cell subset isolation. Thus, the technology is extremely well-suited for characterizing the multitude of interconnected signaling pathways and immune cell subpopulations that regulate the function of the immune system. Recently, SCNP was applied to generate a functional map of the healthy human immune cell signaling network by profiling immune signaling pathways downstream of 12 immunomodulators in 7 distinct immune cell subsets within peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 60 healthy donors. In the study reported here, the degree of inter-donor variation in the magnitude of the immune signaling responses was analyzed. The highest inter-donor differences in immune signaling pathway activity occurred following perturbation of the immune signaling network, rather than in basal signaling. When examining the full panel of immune signaling responses, as one may expect, the overall degree of inter-donor variation was positively correlated (r = 0.727) with the magnitude of node response (i.e. a larger median signaling response was associated with greater inter-donor variation). However, when examining the degree of heterogeneity across cell subpopulations for individual signaling nodes, cell subset specificity in the degree of inter-donor variation was observed for several nodes. For such nodes, relatively weak correlations between inter-donor variation and the magnitude of the response were observed. Further, within the phenotypically distinct subpopulations, a fraction of the immune signaling responses had bimodal response profiles in which (a) only a portion of the cells had elevated phospho-protein levels following modulation and (b) the proportion of responsive cells varied by donor. These data

  8. Peer-to-peer milk donors' and recipients' experiences and perceptions of donor milk banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribble, Karleen D

    2013-07-01

    To explore the intersection of peer-to-peer milk sharing and donor milk banks. A descriptive survey design containing closed and open-ended questions was used to examine women's perceptions of peer-to-peer milk sharing and milk banking. Closed-ended questions were analyzed using descriptive statistics and conventional qualitative content analysis was used to analyze open-ended responses. Participants were recruited via the Facebook sites of two online milk-sharing networks (Human Milk 4 Human Babies and Eats on Feet). Ninety-eight milk donors and 41 milk recipients who had donated or received breast milk in an arrangement that was facilitated via the Internet. One half of donor recipients could not donate to a milk bank because there were no banks local to them or they did not qualify as donors. Other respondents did not donate to a milk bank because they viewed the process as difficult, had philosophical objections to milk banking, or had a philosophical attraction to peer sharing. Most donor respondents felt it was important to know the circumstances of their milk recipients. No recipient respondents had obtained milk from a milk bank; it was recognized that they would not qualify for banked milk or that banked milk was cost prohibitive. Peer-to-peer milk donors and recipients may differ from milk bank donors and recipients in significant ways. Cooperation between milk banks and peer sharing networks could benefit both groups. © 2013 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  9. Lipid domains in intact fiber-cell plasma membranes isolated from cortical and nuclear regions of human eye lenses of donors from different age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raguz, Marija; Mainali, Laxman; O'Brien, William J; Subczynski, Witold K

    2015-03-01

    The results reported here clearly document changes in the properties and the organization of fiber-cell membrane lipids that occur with age, based on electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) analysis of lens membranes of clear lenses from donors of age groups from 0 to 20, 21 to 40, and 61 to 80 years. The physical properties, including profiles of the alkyl chain order, fluidity, hydrophobicity, and oxygen transport parameter, were investigated using EPR spin-labeling methods, which also provide an opportunity to discriminate coexisting lipid domains and to evaluate the relative amounts of lipids in these domains. Fiber-cell membranes were found to contain three distinct lipid environments: bulk lipid domain, which appears minimally affected by membrane proteins, and two domains that appear due to the presence of membrane proteins, namely boundary and trapped lipid domains. In nuclear membranes the amount of boundary and trapped phospholipids as well as the amount of cholesterol in trapped lipid domains increased with the donors' age and was greater than that in cortical membranes. The difference between the amounts of lipids in domains uniquely formed due to the presence of membrane proteins in nuclear and cortical membranes increased with the donors' age. It was also shown that cholesterol was to a large degree excluded from trapped lipid domains in cortical membranes. It is evident that the rigidity of nuclear membranes was greater than that of cortical membranes for all age groups. The amount of lipids in domains of low oxygen permeability, mainly in trapped lipid domains, were greater in nuclear than cortical membranes and increased with the age of donors. These results indicate that the nuclear fiber cell plasma membranes were less permeable to oxygen than cortical membranes and become less permeable to oxygen with age. In clear lenses, age-related changes in the lens lipid and protein composition and organization appear to occur in ways that increase fiber

  10. A new perspective on human health risk assessment: Development of a time dependent methodology and the effect of varying exposure durations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siirila, Erica R.; Maxwell, Reed M.

    2012-01-01

    We present a new Time Dependent Risk Assessment (TDRA) that stochastically considers how joint uncertainty and inter-individual variability (JUV) associated with human health risk change as a function of time. In contrast to traditional, time independent assessments of risk, this new formulation relays information on when the risk occurs, how long the duration of risk is, and how risk changes with time. Because the true exposure duration (ED) is often uncertain in a risk assessment, we also investigate how varying the magnitude of fixed size durations (ranging between 5 and 70 years) of this parameter affects the distribution of risk in both the time independent and dependent methodologies. To illustrate this new formulation and to investigate these mechanisms for sensitivity, an example of arsenic contaminated groundwater is used in conjunction with two scenarios of different environmental concentration signals resulting from rate dependencies in geochemical reactions. Cancer risk is computed and compared using environmental concentration ensembles modeled with sorption as 1) a linear equilibrium assumption (LEA) and 2) first order kinetics (Kin). Results show that the information attained in the new time dependent methodology reveals how the uncertainty in other time-dependent processes in the risk assessment may influence the uncertainty in risk. We also show that individual susceptibility also affects how risk changes in time, information that would otherwise be lost in the traditional, time independent methodology. These results are especially pertinent for forecasting risk in time, and for risk managers who are assessing the uncertainty of risk. - Highlights: ► A human health, Time Dependent Risk Assessment (TDRA) methodology is presented. ► TDRA relays information on the magnitude, duration, and fluxes of risk in time. ► Kinetic and equilibrium concentration signals show sensitivity in TDRA results. ► In the TDRA results, individual susceptibility

  11. Successful transportation of human corneal endothelial tissues without cool preservation in varying Indian tropical climatic conditions and in vitro cell expansion using a novel polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Srinivas K; Sudhakar, John; Parikumar, Periyasamy; Natarajan, Sundaram; Insaan, Aditya; Yoshioka, Hiroshi; Mori, Yuichi; Tsukahara, Shigeo; Baskar, Subramani; Manjunath, Sadananda Rao; Senthilkumar, Rajappa; Thamaraikannan, Paramasivam; Srinivasan, Thangavelu; Preethy, Senthilkumar; Abraham, Samuel J K

    2014-02-01

    Though the transplantation of human corneal endothelial tissue (CET) separated from cadaver cornea is in practice, its transportation has not been reported. We report the successful transportation of CET in varying Indian climatic conditions without cool preservation and the in vitro expansion of Human Corneal Endothelial Precursor Cells (HCEPCs) using a novel Thermo-reversible gelation polymer (TGP). CET from cadaver corneas (n = 67), unsuitable for transplantation, were used. In phase I, CET was transported in Basal Culture Medium (Group I) and TGP (Group II) and in Phase II, in TGP cocktail alone, from three hospitals 250-2500 km away, to a central laboratory. The transportation time ranged from 6 h to 72 h and the outdoor temperature between 20°C and 41°C. On arrival, CET were processed, cells were expanded upto 30 days in basal culture medium (Group A) and TGP scaffold (Group B). Cell viability and morphology were documented and Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) characterization undertaken. In Phase I, TGP yielded more viable cells (0.11 × 10(6) cells) than Group I (0.04 × 10(6) cells). In Phase II, the average cell count was 5.44 × 10(4) cells. During expansion, viability of HCEPCs spheres in TGP was maintained for a longer duration. The cells from both the groups tested positive for B-3 tubulin and negative for cytokeratins K3 and K12, thereby proving them to be HCEPCs. TGP preserves the CET during transportation without cool preservation and supports in vitro expansion, with a higher yield of HCEPCs, similar to that reported in clinical studies.

  12. Successful transportation of human corneal endothelial tissues without cool preservation in varying Indian tropical climatic conditions and in vitro cell expansion using a novel polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas K Rao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Though the transplantation of human corneal endothelial tissue (CET separated from cadaver cornea is in practice, its transportation has not been reported. We report the successful transportation of CET in varying Indian climatic conditions without cool preservation and the in vitro expansion of Human Corneal Endothelial Precursor Cells (HCEPCs using a novel Thermo-reversible gelation polymer (TGP. Materials and Methods: CET from cadaver corneas (n = 67, unsuitable for transplantation, were used. In phase I, CET was transported in Basal Culture Medium (Group I and TGP (Group II and in Phase II, in TGP cocktail alone, from three hospitals 250-2500 km away, to a central laboratory. The transportation time ranged from 6 h to 72 h and the outdoor temperature between 20°C and 41°C. On arrival, CET were processed, cells were expanded upto 30 days in basal culture medium (Group A and TGP scaffold (Group B. Cell viability and morphology were documented and Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR characterization undertaken. Results: In Phase I, TGP yielded more viable cells (0.11 × 10 6 cells than Group I (0.04 × 10 6 cells. In Phase II, the average cell count was 5.44 × 10 4 cells. During expansion, viability of HCEPCs spheres in TGP was maintained for a longer duration. The cells from both the groups tested positive for B-3 tubulin and negative for cytokeratins K3 and K12, thereby proving them to be HCEPCs. Conclusion: TGP preserves the CET during transportation without cool preservation and supports in vitro expansion, with a higher yield of HCEPCs, similar to that reported in clinical studies.

  13. 21 CFR 640.3 - Suitability of donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suitability of donor. 640.3 Section 640.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS... determination shall be made on the day of collection from the donor by means of medical history, a test for...

  14. 21 CFR 640.63 - Suitability of donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suitability of donor. 640.63 Section 640.63 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS... determination shall be made on the day of collection from the donor by means of a medical history, tests, and...

  15. Improved survival after transplantation of more donor plasmacytoid dendritic or naïve T cells from unrelated-donor marrow grafts: results from BMTCTN 0201.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Edmund K; Logan, Brent R; Harris, Wayne A C; Devine, Steven M; Porter, David L; Mineishi, Shin; McCarty, John M; Gonzalez, Corina E; Spitzer, Thomas R; Krijanovski, Oleg I; Linenberger, Michael L; Woolfrey, Ann; Howard, Alan; Wu, Juan; Confer, Dennis L; Anasetti, Claudio

    2014-08-01

    To characterize relationships between specific immune cell subsets in bone marrow (BM) or granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-mobilized peripheral blood (PB) stem cells collected from unrelated donors and clinical outcomes of patients undergoing transplantation in BMTCTN 0201. Fresh aliquots of 161 BM and 147 PB stem-cell allografts from North American donors randomly assigned to donate BM or PB stem cells and numbers of transplanted cells were correlated with overall survival (OS), relapse, and graft-versus-host disease (GvHD). Patients with evaluable grafts were similar to all BMTCTN 0201 patients. The numbers of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) and naïve T cells (Tns) in BM allografts were independently associated with OS in multivariable analyses including recipient and donor characteristics, such as human leukocyte antigen mismatch, age, and use of antithymocyte globulin. BM recipients of > median number of pDCs, naïve CD8(+) T cells (CD8Tns), or naïve CD4(+) T cells (CD4Tns) had better 3-year OS (pDCs, 56% v 35%; P = .025; CD8Tns, 56% v 37%; P = .012; CD4Tns, 55% v 37%; P = .009). Transplantation of more BM Tns was associated with less grade 3 to 4 acute GvHD but similar rates of relapse. Transplantation of more BM pDCs was associated with fewer deaths resulting from GvHD or from graft rejection. Analysis of PB grafts did not identify a donor cell subset significantly associated with OS, relapse, or GvHD. Donor immune cells in BM but not PB stem-cell grafts were associated with survival after unrelated-donor allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation. The biologic activity of donor immune cells in allogeneic transplantation varied between graft sources. Donor grafts with more BM-derived Tns and pDCs favorably regulated post-transplantation immunity in allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation. © 2014 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  16. Ancestral genomic duplication of the insulin gene in tilapia: An analysis of possible implications for clinical islet xenotransplantation using donor islets from transgenic tilapia expressing a humanized insulin gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrytsenko, Olga; Pohajdak, Bill; Wright, James R

    2016-07-03

    Tilapia, a teleost fish, have multiple large anatomically discrete islets which are easy to harvest, and when transplanted into diabetic murine recipients, provide normoglycemia and mammalian-like glucose tolerance profiles. Tilapia insulin differs structurally from human insulin which could preclude their use as islet donors for xenotransplantation. Therefore, we produced transgenic tilapia with islets expressing a humanized insulin gene. It is now known that fish genomes may possess an ancestral duplication and so tilapia may have a second insulin gene. Therefore, we cloned, sequenced, and characterized the tilapia insulin 2 transcript and found that its expression is negligible in islets, is not islet-specific, and would not likely need to be silenced in our transgenic fish.

  17. A new perspective on human health risk assessment: Development of a time dependent methodology and the effect of varying exposure durations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siirila, Erica R., E-mail: esiirila@mymail.mines.edu [Hydrologic Science and Engineering Program, Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois St., Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Department of Geology and Geological Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois St., Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Maxwell, Reed M., E-mail: rmaxwell@mines.edu [Hydrologic Science and Engineering Program, Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois St., Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Integrated Groundwater Modeling Center (IGWMC), Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois St., Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Department of Geology and Geological Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois St., Golden, CO 80401 (United States)

    2012-08-01

    We present a new Time Dependent Risk Assessment (TDRA) that stochastically considers how joint uncertainty and inter-individual variability (JUV) associated with human health risk change as a function of time. In contrast to traditional, time independent assessments of risk, this new formulation relays information on when the risk occurs, how long the duration of risk is, and how risk changes with time. Because the true exposure duration (ED) is often uncertain in a risk assessment, we also investigate how varying the magnitude of fixed size durations (ranging between 5 and 70 years) of this parameter affects the distribution of risk in both the time independent and dependent methodologies. To illustrate this new formulation and to investigate these mechanisms for sensitivity, an example of arsenic contaminated groundwater is used in conjunction with two scenarios of different environmental concentration signals resulting from rate dependencies in geochemical reactions. Cancer risk is computed and compared using environmental concentration ensembles modeled with sorption as 1) a linear equilibrium assumption (LEA) and 2) first order kinetics (Kin). Results show that the information attained in the new time dependent methodology reveals how the uncertainty in other time-dependent processes in the risk assessment may influence the uncertainty in risk. We also show that individual susceptibility also affects how risk changes in time, information that would otherwise be lost in the traditional, time independent methodology. These results are especially pertinent for forecasting risk in time, and for risk managers who are assessing the uncertainty of risk. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A human health, Time Dependent Risk Assessment (TDRA) methodology is presented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TDRA relays information on the magnitude, duration, and fluxes of risk in time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Kinetic and equilibrium concentration signals show

  18. BLOOD DONORS CAMPAIGN

    CERN Document Server

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    Tuesday 19 March 2002 in restaurant nr 2, from 9.00 to 16.30 hrs A blood donors campaign, organized by the Centre de Transfusion sanguine of Geneva If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

  19. BLOOD DONORS CAMPAIGN

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    A blood donors campaign, organized by the Centre de Transfusion Sanguine of Geneva will be held at CERN on Tuesday 13 March 2001 in restaurant nr 2, from 9.00 to 16.30 hrs If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

  20. BLOOD DONORS CAMPAIGN

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    Wednesday 13 November 2002 in restaurant nr 2, from 8.30 to 16.30 hrs will be held a blood donors campaign, organized by the Etablissement de Transfusion de Haute-Savoie If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

  1. BLOOD DONORS CAMPAIGN

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    A blood donors campaign, organized by the Établissement de Transfusion de Rhône-Alpes will be held at CERN on Tuesday 14 November 2000 in restaurant nr 2, from 8.30 to 16.30 hrs If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

  2. BLOOD DONORS CAMPAIGN

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    A blood donors campaign, organized by the Centre de Transfusion d'Annemasse will be held at CERN on Tuesday 14 November 2001 in restaurant nr 2, from 9.00 to 16.30 hrs If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

  3. DNA damages induced in human lymphocytes by UV or X-rays and repair capacities of healthy donors and skin cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cebulska-Wasilewska, A.; Dyga, W.; Budzanowska, E.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare variation in the individual susceptibility of various donors to the induction of the DNA damage by genotoxic agents and their cellular capabilities to repair induced damage. DNA damages induced by UV or X-rays in lymphocytes and cellular repair capability of healthy donors and persons bearing various categories of skin cancer cells were investigated. Fresh blood was collected by venipuncture from 35 individuals (including nine prior to skin cancer treatment). All cancer patients were nonsmoking males, however 42.3 % of them were former smokers. All healthy donors were also males, an average age was 38.6 y and among them 68% were recent or former smokers. Immediately after collecting samples, lymphocytes were isolated and stored at -70 o C for further studies in vitro. Previously cryopreserved lymphocytes were defrosted and viability of the cells was investigated. The single cell gel electrophoresis assay (SCGE), known as a Comet assay, was performed in defrozen lymphocytes to evaluate individual DNA damage levels presented in lymphocytes at the time of sample's collection. To compare individual susceptibility to the induction of DNA damage by UV and ionizing radiation, lymphocytes were exposed to dose of 6 J/m 2 of UV or 2 Gy of X-rays and DNA damages were detected again with an application of the Comet assay. Additionally, to study variation in the individuals cellular capability to repair damages induced, prior to the DNA damage analysis an incubation of cells exposed was also done in presence or absence of phytohemagglutinin (cell divisions processes starting agent). Results showed in untreated lymphocytes of skin cancer patients significantly higher than in the reference group levels of the DNA damages. Significantly different responses to UV and significantly lower capabilities to repair UV induced damage in skin cancer patients were observed. On the average, no differences between reference group and skin cancer patients

  4. Compliance with donor age recommendations in oocyte donor recruitment advertisements in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta, Hillary B; Berry, Roberta M; Levine, Aaron D

    2013-04-01

    IVF using donated oocytes offers benefits to many infertile patients, yet the technique also raises a number of ethical concerns, including worries about potential physical and psychological risks to oocyte donors. In the USA, oversight of oocyte donation consists of a combination of federal and state regulations and self-regulatory guidelines promulgated by the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. This study assesses compliance with one of these self-regulatory guidelines - specifically, ASRM's preferred minimum age for donors of 21. To assess compliance, 539 oocyte donor recruitment advertisements from two recruitment channels (Craigslist and college newspapers) were collected and evaluated. Of these, 61% in the Craigslist dataset and 43% in the college newspaper dataset listed minimum ages between 18 and 20, which is inconsistent with ASRM's preferred minimum age recommendation of 21. Advertisements placed by oocyte donor recruitment agencies were more likely than advertisements placed by clinics to specify minimum ages between 18 and 20. These results indicate that ASRM should evaluate and consider revising its donor age guidelines. IVF using donated human eggs can help many patients who have difficulty having children. However, the technique also raises ethical concerns, including concerns about potential physical and psychological harms to egg donors. In the USA, oversight of egg donation relies on a combination of federal and state regulation and professional self-regulation. Governmental regulations address only limited aspects of egg donation, such as the potential spread of infectious diseases and the reporting of success rates, leaving voluntary guidelines developed by an association of medical professionals to address most issues, including ethical concerns raised by the practice. One of these voluntary guidelines recommends that egg donors should be at least 21 years of age. In this article, we analysed 539 egg donor recruitment advertisements

  5. Media appeals by pediatric patients for living donors and the impact on a transplant center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verghese, Priya S; Garvey, Catherine A; Mauer, Michael S; Matas, Arthur J

    2011-03-27

    Little is published regarding the effect of advertising for kidney donors on transplant centers. At our center, families of nine children used media appeals. Per candidate, there were 8 to 260 potential donor calls, 92 (11.6%) were medically ineligible, 326 (41.1%) voluntarily did not proceed or an alternate donor had been approved, 38 (4.8%) were ABO incompatible, and 327 (41.1%) had positive crossmatch or unsuitable human leukocyte antigens. Media appeals resulted in four living donor transplants and five nondirected donors to other candidates, and we made directed changes in our center. The ethical debate of advertising for organ donors continues.

  6. Optimal screening and donor management in a public stool bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazerouni, Abbas; Burgess, James; Burns, Laura J; Wein, Lawrence M

    2015-12-17

    Fecal microbiota transplantation is an effective treatment for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection and is being investigated as a treatment for other microbiota-associated diseases. To facilitate these activities, an international public stool bank has been created, which screens donors and processes stools in a standardized manner. The goal of this research is to use mathematical modeling and analysis to optimize screening and donor management at the stool bank. Compared to the current policy of screening active donors every 60 days before releasing their quarantined stools for sale, costs can be reduced by 10.3 % by increasing the screening frequency to every 36 days. In addition, the stool production rate varies widely across donors, and using donor-specific screening, where higher producers are screened more frequently, also reduces costs, as does introducing an interim (i.e., between consecutive regular tests) stool test for just rotavirus and C. difficile. We also derive a donor release (i.e., into the system) policy that allows the supply to approximately match an exponentially increasing deterministic demand. More frequent screening, interim screening for rotavirus and C. difficile, and donor-specific screening, where higher stool producers are screened more frequently, are all cost-reducing measures. If screening costs decrease in the future (e.g., as a result of bringing screening in house), a bottleneck for implementing some of these recommendations may be the reluctance of donors to undergo serum screening more frequently than monthly.

  7. Human progenitor cells rapidly mobilized by AMD3100 repopulate NOD/SCID mice with increased frequency in comparison to cells from the same donor mobilized by granulocyte colony stimulating factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hess, David A; Bonde, Jesper; Craft, Timothy P

    2007-01-01

    ) or purified CD34(+) cells was compared at limiting dilution into NOD/SCID mice. Human AMD3100-mobilized MNC possessed enhanced repopulating frequency in comparison to G-CSF-mobilized MNC from paired donors, and purified CD34(+) progenitors were at least as efficient as the G-CSF mobilized cells....... The frequencies of NOD/SCID repopulating cells (SRC) were 1 SRC in 8.7 x 10(6) AMD3100-mobilized MNC compared to 1 SRC in 29.0 x 10(6) G-CSF-mobilized MNC, and 1 SRC in 1.2 x 10(5) AMD3100-mobilized CD34(+) cells compared to 1 SRC in 1.8 x 10(5) G-CSF-mobilized CD34(+) cells. Hematopoietic differentiation...

  8. Perfil das doadoras de leite do banco de leite humano de um hospital universitário = Profile of breast milk donors at the human milk bank of a university hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Talita dos Santos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa tem como objetivo conhecer o perfil socioeconômico dasdoadoras de leite do Banco de Leite Humano do Hospital Universitário de Londrina, Estado do Paraná (BLH/HUL. Trata-se de um estudo transversal, em que foram coletados dados a partir de formulário aplicado às doadoras externas do BLH/HUL no período de junho a agosto de 2005. Constatou-se que 11% são adolescentes. Com relação àescolaridade, 41,8% possuem segundo grau completo ou superior incompleto. De acordo com a literatura, quanto maior a escolaridade das mães, mais informações elas absorvem por meio das orientações e das campanhas que são realizadas sobre aleitamento materno. Dototal das doadoras, 37,4% receberam informações sobre doação de leite e sobre os serviços do BLH/HU de Londrina por intermédio dos profissionais dos serviços de saúde. O conhecimento do perfil das doadoras permitirá direcionar as informações sobre doação deleite em nível local e regional, otimizando o trabalho realizado pelo Banco de Leite Humano do HU/L.This objective of this research is to understand the socioeconomic profile of the milk donors at the Human Milk Bank of the University Hospital of Londrina, Paraná State (BLH/HUL. It is a cross-sectional study in which data was collected by means of a questionnaire applied to the external donors of the BLH/ HUL, between June and Augustof 2005. It was observed that 11.0% are adolescents. According to the study, 41.8% have at least some high school education. According to the literature, the higher the educational level of the donors, the more information they are able to absorb through orientations andcampaigns on breastfeeding. Of the total, 37.4% had received information on breast milk donation and the services offered by the BLH/HUL from the health professionals. The knowledge of the donors’ profile will allow the HU/Londrina Human Milk Bank to directinformation on milk donation at the local and regional levels, thus

  9. Are drowned donors marginal donors? A single pediatric center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumm, Kayla R; Galván, N Thao N; Koohmaraie, Sarah; Rana, Abbas; Kueht, Michael; Baugh, Katherine; Hao, Liu; Yoeli, Dor; Cotton, Ronald; O'Mahony, Christine A; Goss, John A

    2017-09-01

    Drowning, a common cause of death in the pediatric population, is a potentially large donor pool for OLT. Anecdotally, transplant centers have deemed these organs high risk over concerns for infection and graft dysfunction. We theorized drowned donor liver allografts do not portend worse outcomes and therefore should not be excluded from the donation pool. We reviewed our single-center experience of pediatric OLTs between 1988 and 2015 and identified 33 drowned donor recipients. These OLTs were matched 1:2 to head trauma donor OLTs from our center. A chart review assessed postoperative peak AST and ALT, incidence of HAT, graft and recipient survival. Recipient survival at one year between patients with drowned donor vs head trauma donor allografts was not statistically significant (94% vs 97%, P=.63). HAT incidence was 6.1% in the drowned donor group vs 7.6% in the control group (P=.78). Mean postoperative peak AST and ALT was 683 U/L and 450 U/L for drowned donors vs 1119 U/L and 828 U/L in the matched cohort. These results suggest drowned donor liver allografts do not portend worse outcomes in comparison with those procured from head trauma donors. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Factors affecting the serological testing of cadaveric donor cornea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuradha Raj

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the serological profile of the eye donors and to study the influence of various factors on serological test results. Methods: A cross-sectional, observational study was conducted, and data of 509 donors were reviewed from the records of eye bank from December 2012 to June 2017. Various details of donors analyzed included the age, sex of the donor, cause of death, source of tissue, time since blood collection after death, macroscopic appearance of blood sample, and details of discarded tissues. Serological examination of blood was performed for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus (HCV, venereal disease research laboratory (VDRL, and serology reports reactive or nonreactive were analyzed. Results: Among the 509 donors, 295 (58% were male, and 420 (82.50% belonged to age group ≥60 years. Most donors (354, 69.5% died due to cardiac arrest. Macroscopically, sera were normal in the majority of 488 (95.9% cases. Among 509 donors, 475 (93.3% were nonreactive, 12 (2.4% donors were found to be reactive to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg, and 1 (0.2% was reactive to HCV, but no donor serology was reactive to HIV or VDRL. Twenty-one (4.12% donors' sera were not fit for serological testing. Among all donors, 475 (93.32% donors were accepted and 34 (6.67% were rejected or discarded on the basis of serological testing. Cause of death and macroscopic aspect of sera influenced the serological results in a highly significant manner (P = 0.00. Acceptance or rejection of the donor was significantly influenced by the serological results of the donor (P = 0.00. Conclusion: The seroprevalence among eye donor for HBsAg and HCV was 12 (2.4% and 1 (0.2%, respectively. Factors such as cause of death and macroscopic aspect of sera influence the serological results. Time since blood collection or sampling will not show any impact on viral serological results if postmortem sampling

  11. Factors affecting the serological testing of cadaveric donor cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Anuradha; Mittal, Garima; Bahadur, Harsh

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the serological profile of the eye donors and to study the influence of various factors on serological test results. A cross-sectional, observational study was conducted, and data of 509 donors were reviewed from the records of eye bank from December 2012 to June 2017. Various details of donors analyzed included the age, sex of the donor, cause of death, source of tissue, time since blood collection after death, macroscopic appearance of blood sample, and details of discarded tissues. Serological examination of blood was performed for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus (HCV), venereal disease research laboratory (VDRL), and serology reports reactive or nonreactive were analyzed. Among the 509 donors, 295 (58%) were male, and 420 (82.50%) belonged to age group ≥60 years. Most donors (354, 69.5%) died due to cardiac arrest. Macroscopically, sera were normal in the majority of 488 (95.9%) cases. Among 509 donors, 475 (93.3%) were nonreactive, 12 (2.4%) donors were found to be reactive to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), and 1 (0.2%) was reactive to HCV, but no donor serology was reactive to HIV or VDRL. Twenty-one (4.12%) donors' sera were not fit for serological testing. Among all donors, 475 (93.32%) donors were accepted and 34 (6.67%) were rejected or discarded on the basis of serological testing. Cause of death and macroscopic aspect of sera influenced the serological results in a highly significant manner (P = 0.00). Acceptance or rejection of the donor was significantly influenced by the serological results of the donor (P = 0.00). The seroprevalence among eye donor for HBsAg and HCV was 12 (2.4%) and 1 (0.2%), respectively. Factors such as cause of death and macroscopic aspect of sera influence the serological results. Time since blood collection or sampling will not show any impact on viral serological results if postmortem sampling will be done in donor cornea.

  12. Iron deficiency in blood donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Delfini Cançado

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Blood donation results in a substantial loss of iron (200 to 250 mg at each bleeding procedure (425 to 475 ml and subsequent mobilization of iron from body stores. Recent reports have shown that body iron reserves generally are small and iron depletion is more frequent in blood donors than in non-donors. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of iron deficiency in blood donors and to establish the frequency of iron deficiency in blood donors according to sex, whether they were first-time or multi-time donors, and the frequency of donations per year. DESIGN: From September 20 to October 5, 1999, three hundred blood donors from Santa Casa Hemocenter of São Paulo were studied. DIAGNOSTIC TESTS: Using a combination of biochemical measurements of iron status: serum iron, total iron-binding capacity, transferrin saturation index, serum ferritin and the erythrocyte indices. RESULTS: The frequency of iron deficiency in blood donors was 11.0%, of whom 5.5% (13/237 were male and 31.7% (20/63 female donors. The frequency of iron deficiency was higher in multi-time blood donors than in first-time blood donors, for male blood donors (7.6% versus 0.0%, P < 0.05 and female ones (41.5% versus 18.5%, P < 0.05. The frequency of iron deficiency found was higher among the male blood donors with three or more donations per year (P < 0.05 and among the female blood donors with two or more donations per year (P < 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that blood donation is a very important factor for iron deficiency in blood donors, particularly in multi-time donors and especially in female donors. The high frequency of blood donors with iron deficiency found in this study suggests a need for a more accurate laboratory trial, as hemoglobin or hematocrit measurement alone is not sufficient for detecting and excluding blood donors with iron deficiency without anemia.

  13. Accumulation of GC donor splice signals in mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koonin Eugene V

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The GT dinucleotide in the first two intron positions is the most conserved element of the U2 donor splice signals. However, in a small fraction of donor sites, GT is replaced by GC. A substantial enrichment of GC in donor sites of alternatively spliced genes has been observed previously in human, nematode and Arabidopsis, suggesting that GC signals are important for regulation of alternative splicing. We used parsimony analysis to reconstruct evolution of donor splice sites and inferred 298 GT > GC conversion events compared to 40 GC > GT conversion events in primate and rodent genomes. Thus, there was substantive accumulation of GC donor splice sites during the evolution of mammals. Accumulation of GC sites might have been driven by selection for alternative splicing. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Jerzy Jurka and Anton Nekrutenko. For the full reviews, please go to the Reviewers' Reports section.

  14. Meet the donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olejaz, Maria; Hoeyer, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    motivations, but rather as something made meaningful in the light of how donors understand their bodies; their social relations; and their societal position and experiences as patients in the healthcare system. The article thus contributes to the field by investigating the nature of the relationship between......For centuries, gross anatomy teaching and anatomical dissection have been fundamental elements in the training of medical doctors and surgeons across the world. Anatomy education and research rely on a stable and reliable supply of bodies in order to take place. Based on qualitative in...

  15. VENOUS AIR-EMBOLISM, PRESERVATION REPERFUSION INJURY, AND THE PRESENCE OF INTRAVASCULAR AIR COLLECTIONS IN HUMAN DONOR LIVERS - A RETROSPECTIVE CLINICAL-STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WOLF, RFE; SLUITER, WJ; BALLAST, A; VANDAM, RM; SLOOFF, MJH

    In human liver transplantation, air embolism is seldom encountered after graft reperfusion. Nevertheless, despite adequate flushing and clamping routines, air emboli have been reported in transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) studies performed during the reperfusion phase, We retrospectively

  16. Socio-demographic and fertility-related characteristics and motivations of oocyte donors in eleven European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennings, G; de Mouzon, J; Shenfield, F; Ferraretti, A P; Mardesic, T; Ruiz, A; Goossens, V

    2014-05-01

    Do the socio-demographic and fertility-related characteristics and motivations of oocyte donors differ in European countries? The socio-demographic and fertility-related characteristics and motivations of oocyte donors differ considerably across countries. There have been no other international studies comparing the characteristics of oocyte donors. Regarding their motivations, most studies indicate mixed motives. The proposed study was a transversal epidemiological study. Data were collected from 63 voluntarily participating assisted reproduction technology centres practising oocyte donation in 11 European countries (Belgium, Czech Republic, Finland, France, Greece, Poland, Portugal, Russia, Spain, UK and Ukraine). The survey was conducted between September 2011 and June 2012 and ran for 1-6 calendar months depending on the number of cycles of oocyte donation performed at the centre. The sample size was computed in order to allow an estimate of the percentage of a relatively rare characteristic (∼2%) with a precision (95% confidence interval) of 1%. The calculation gave 1118 donors. In total, 1423 forms were obtained from oocyte donors. All consecutive donors in these centres filled out an anonymous questionnaire when they started their hormonal stimulation, asking for their socio-demographic and fertility-related characteristics, their motivations and compensation. Population characteristics were described and compared by country of donation. Motives for donation and mean amount of money were compared between countries and according to the donors characteristics. The socio-demographic and fertility-related characteristics and motivations of oocyte donors varied enormously across European countries. The number of received forms corresponded with a participation rate of 61.9% of the cycles performed by the participating centres. Mean age was 27.4 years. About 49% of donors were fully employed, 16% unemployed and 15% student. The motivation in the total group of

  17. Serologic Evaluation of Cornea Donors and Microbiologic Evaluation of Cornea Storage Media in an Eye Bank from Izmir, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palamar, Melis; Degirmenci, Cumali; Sertoz, Ruchan; Aydemir, Sohret; Egrilmez, Sait; Yagci, Ayse

    2017-12-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the serologic positivity of cornea donors and microbiologic positivity of cornea storage media at the Ege University Tissue and Cornea Bank, Izmir, Turkey. We retrospectively investigated the serologic blood sample and microbiological culture media analysis results of all cornea donors at Ege University Tissue and Cornea Bank between 2007 and 2015 with reference to age, sex, and cause of death of each donor. Mean age of the 955 deceased donors was 43.19 ± 15.89 years (range, 2-65 y). The mean postmortem time to blood sample removal and excision of the cornea tissue was 8.4 hours (range, 4-12 h). Serologic analyses showed that 855 donors (89.5%) were seronegative. The remaining donors were seropositive for hepatitis B (54 donors; 5.7%), human immunodeficiency (27 donors; 2.8%), hepatitis C (14 donors; 1.5%), and syphilis (5 donors; 0.5%) virus infections. Microbiologic analyses of the storage media were negative, with no microorganisms shown in 855 samples (89.5%). Candida species (32 donors; 3.4%), Escherichia coli (14 donors; 1.5%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (11 donors; 1.2%), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (11 donors; 1.2%), Enterobacter species (11 donors; 1.2%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (7 donors; 0.7%), Acinetobacter baumannii (6 donors; 0.6%), Proteus species (5 donors; 0.5%), and Corynebacterium species (3 donors; 0.3%) were the detected microorganisms in the infected storage media. False-positive serologic results among cornea donors were high. The incidence of false-positive results might be decreased by earlier blood removal from deceased donors and testing of all potential donors in intensive care units. Although rare, endophthalmitis after keratoplasty might be a devastating problem. In addition to serologic testing, microbiologic analyses of cornea storage media before transplant may be an effective way to prevent postoperative infectious complications.

  18. Unconfirmed reactive screening tests and their impact on donor management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, M.; Khan, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    To determine the percentage of false positive testing for transfusion transmitted infections (TTIs) using immunochromatographic test (ICT) as first line of screening tests and its effect on loss of volunteer blood donors. Over a period of three months, samples from blood bags of donors undergoing phlebotomy at teaching hospital blood banks in Lahore were screened for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV) by immunochromatographic tests. Those found positive on initial screening were re-tested by ELISA method at the screening laboratory of the Institute of Haematology and Blood Transfusion Service, Punjab. Lahore. Out of a total of 62090 voluntary blood donors, 469 donors were found to be initially reactive for either HIV, HBV or HCV. Amongst these 96 (0.15%) blood donors were found to have tested falsely positive for HIV, HBV or HCV as compared to testing by ELISA. False positive testing rate of 0.15% or 96 out of a total of 62090 donors is rather small in terms of loss of voluntary donors and appropriate utilization of available resources. Although immunochromatographic testing is not the gold standard, however it serves an important purpose of initial donor screening. (author)

  19. Iron deficiency among blood donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rigas, A S; Pedersen, O B; Magnussen, K

    2017-01-01

    Blood components collected from blood donors are an invaluable part of modern-day medicine. A healthy blood donor population is therefore of paramount importance. The results from the Danish Blood Donor Study (DBDS) indicate that gender, number of previous donations, time since last donation...... and menopausal status are the strongest predictors of iron deficiency. Only little information on the health effects of iron deficiency in blood donors exits. Possibly, after a standard full blood donation, a temporarily reduced physical performance for women is observed. However, iron deficiency among blood...... donors is not reflected in a reduced self-perceived mental and physical health. In general, the high proportion of iron-deficient donors can be alleviated either by extending the inter-donation intervals or by guided iron supplementation. The experience from Copenhagen, the Capital Region of Denmark...

  20. Experience of German Red Cross blood donor services with nucleic acid testing: results of screening more than 30 million blood donations for human immunodeficiency virus-1, hepatitis C virus, and hepatitis B virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hourfar, Michael K; Jork, Christine; Schottstedt, Volkmar; Weber-Schehl, Marijke; Brixner, Veronika; Busch, Michael P; Geusendam, Geert; Gubbe, Knut; Mahnhardt, Christina; Mayr-Wohlfart, Uschi; Pichl, Lutz; Roth, W Kurt; Schmidt, Michael; Seifried, Erhard; Wright, David J

    2008-08-01

    The risk of transfusion-transmitted human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections is predominantly attributable to donations given during the early stage of infection when diagnostic tests may fail. In 1997, nucleic acid amplification technique (NAT)-testing was introduced at the German Red Cross (GRC) blood donor services to reduce this diagnostic window period (WP). A total of 31,524,571 blood donations collected from 1997 through 2005 were screened by minipool NAT, predominantly with pool sizes of 96 donations. These donations cover approximately 80 percent of all the blood collected in Germany during that period. Based on these data, the WP risk in the GRC blood donor population was estimated by using a state-of-the-art mathematic model. During the observation period, 23 HCV, 7 HIV-1, and 43 HBV NAT-only-positive donations were detected. On the basis of these data and estimated pre-NAT infectious WPs, the residual risk per unit transfused was estimated at 1 in 10.88 million for HCV (95% confidence interval [CI], 7.51-19.72 million), 1 in 4.30 million for HIV-1 (95% CI, 2.39-21.37 million), and 1 in 360,000 for HBV (95% CI, 0.19-3.36 million). Based on observed cases of breakthrough infections, the risk of transfusion-related infections may be even lower. The risk of a blood recipient becoming infected with HCV, HIV-1, or HBV has reached an extremely low level. Introduction of individual donation testing for HCV and HIV-1 would have a marginal effect on interception of WP donations.

  1. Impact of using different blood donor subpopulations and models on the estimation of transfusion transmission residual risk of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapako, Tonderai; Janssen, Mart P; Mvere, David A; Emmanuel, Jean C; Rusakaniko, Simbarashe; Postma, Maarten J; van Hulst, Marinus

    2016-06-01

    Various models for estimating the residual risk (RR) of transmission of infections by blood transfusion have been published mainly based on data from high-income countries. However, to obtain the data required for such an assessment remains challenging for most developing settings. The National Blood Service Zimbabwe (NBSZ) adapted a published incidence-window period (IWP) model, which has less demanding data requirements. In this study we assess the impact of various definitions of blood donor subpopulations and models on RR estimates. We compared the outcomes of two published models and an adapted NBSZ model. The Schreiber IWP model (Model 1), an amended version (Model 2), and an adapted NBSZ model (Model 3) were applied. Variably the three models include prevalence, incidence, preseroconversion intervals, mean lifetime risk, and person-years at risk. Annual mean RR estimates and 95% confidence intervals for each of the three models for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) were determined using NBSZ blood donor data from 2002 through 2011. The annual mean RR estimates for Models 1 through 3 were 1 in 6542, 5805, and 6418, respectively for HIV; 1 in 1978, 2027, and 1628 for HBV; and 1 in 9588, 15,126, and 7750, for HCV. The adapted NBSZ model provided comparable results to the published methods and these highlight the high occurrence of HBV in Zimbabwe. The adapted NBSZ model could be used as an alternative to estimate RRs when in settings where two repeat donations are not available. © 2016 AABB.

  2. Donor conversion and procurement failure: the fate of our potential organ donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, Bernardino C; Inaba, Kenji; Lam, Lydia; Salim, Ali; Barmparas, Galinos; Teixeira, Pedro G R; Talving, Peep; Demetriades, Demetrios

    2011-02-01

    Donor availability remains the primary limiting factor for organ transplantation today. The purpose of this study was to examine the causes of procurement failure amongst potential organ donors. After Institutional Review Board approval, all surgical intensive care unit (SICU) patients admitted to the LAC+USC Medical Center from 01/2006 to 12/2008 who became potential organ donors were identified. Demographics, clinical data, and procurement data were abstracted. In non-donors, the causes of procurement failure were documented. During the 3-year study period, a total of 254 patients were evaluated for organ donation. Mean age was 44.8±18.7 years; 191 (75.2%) were male, 136 (53.5%) were Hispanic, and 148 (58.3%) were trauma patients. Of the 254 patients, 116 (45.7%) were not eligible for donation: 34 had multi-system organ failure, 24 did not progress to brain death and had support withdrawn, 18 had uncontrolled sepsis, 15 had malignancy, 6 had human immunodeficiency virus or hepatitis B or C, and 19 patients had other contraindications to organ donation. Of the remaining 138 eligible patients, 83 (60.2%) did not donate: 56 because the family denied consent, 9 by their own choice. In six, next of kin could not be located, five died because of hemodynamic instability before organ procurement was possible, four had organs that could not be placed, and three had their organs declined by the organ procurement organization. The overall consent rate was 57.5% (n=67). From the 55 donors, 255 organs were procured (yield 4.6 organs/donor). Of all patients screened for organ donation, only a fifth actually donated. Denial of consent was the major potentially preventable cause of procurement failure, whereas hemodynamic instability accounted for only a small percentage of donor losses. With such low conversion rates, the preventable causes of procurement failure warrant further study.

  3. Role of Alternative Donor Allogeneic Transplants in the Therapy of Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmariah, Hany; Pratz, Keith W

    2017-07-01

    Adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is often associated with a poor prognosis, with allogeneic transplantation representing the greatest chance of cure for eligible patients. Historically, the preferred donor source is a human leukocyte antigen-matched blood relative, although only approximately 30% of patients have access to such a donor. Alternative donor sources, including matched unrelated donors, umbilical cord blood, and haploidentical related donors, are available for almost every patient and are increasingly being used for patients without a matched related donor. Survival outcomes with these alternative donor sources now approximate those of matched related donor transplants. Given the safety and success of alternative donor transplants, comparative trials are needed to reassess the optimal donor source for patients with AML. This review summarizes the available data on these alternative donor transplants. Further investigation is needed to contemporize donor selection algorithms, but, in the current era, donor availability should no longer preclude a patient's eligibility for an allogeneic blood or marrow transplant. Copyright © 2017 by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network.

  4. Concordant but Varied Phenotypes among Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Patient-Specific Myoblasts Derived using a Human iPSC-Based Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, In Young; Lim, HoTae; Estrellas, Kenneth; Mula, Jyothi; Cohen, Tatiana V; Zhang, Yuanfan; Donnelly, Christopher J; Richard, Jean-Philippe; Kim, Yong Jun; Kim, Hyesoo; Kazuki, Yasuhiro; Oshimura, Mitsuo; Li, Hongmei Lisa; Hotta, Akitsu; Rothstein, Jeffrey; Maragakis, Nicholas; Wagner, Kathryn R; Lee, Gabsang

    2016-06-07

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) remains an intractable genetic disease. Althogh there are several animal models of DMD, there is no human cell model that carries patient-specific DYSTROPHIN mutations. Here, we present a human DMD model using human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). Our model reveals concordant disease-related phenotypes with patient-dependent variation, which are partially reversed by genetic and pharmacological approaches. Our "chemical-compound-based" strategy successfully directs hiPSCs into expandable myoblasts, which exhibit a myogenic transcriptional program, forming striated contractile myofibers and participating in muscle regeneration in vivo. DMD-hiPSC-derived myoblasts show disease-related phenotypes with patient-to-patient variability, including aberrant expression of inflammation or immune-response genes and collagens, increased BMP/TGFβ signaling, and reduced fusion competence. Furthermore, by genetic correction and pharmacological "dual-SMAD" inhibition, the DMD-hiPSC-derived myoblasts and genetically corrected isogenic myoblasts form "rescued" multi-nucleated myotubes. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate the feasibility of establishing a human "DMD-in-a-dish" model using hiPSC-based disease modeling. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Concordant but Varied Phenotypes among Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Patient-Specific Myoblasts Derived using a Human iPSC-Based Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In Young Choi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD remains an intractable genetic disease. Althogh there are several animal models of DMD, there is no human cell model that carries patient-specific DYSTROPHIN mutations. Here, we present a human DMD model using human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs. Our model reveals concordant disease-related phenotypes with patient-dependent variation, which are partially reversed by genetic and pharmacological approaches. Our “chemical-compound-based” strategy successfully directs hiPSCs into expandable myoblasts, which exhibit a myogenic transcriptional program, forming striated contractile myofibers and participating in muscle regeneration in vivo. DMD-hiPSC-derived myoblasts show disease-related phenotypes with patient-to-patient variability, including aberrant expression of inflammation or immune-response genes and collagens, increased BMP/TGFβ signaling, and reduced fusion competence. Furthermore, by genetic correction and pharmacological “dual-SMAD” inhibition, the DMD-hiPSC-derived myoblasts and genetically corrected isogenic myoblasts form “rescued” multi-nucleated myotubes. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate the feasibility of establishing a human “DMD-in-a-dish” model using hiPSC-based disease modeling.

  6. Serum levels of human MIC-1/GDF15 vary in a diurnal pattern, do not display a profile suggestive of a satiety factor and are related to BMI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsai, Vicky Wang-Wei; Macia, Laurence; Feinle-Bisset, Christine

    2015-01-01

    The TGF-b superfamily cytokine MIC-1/GDF15 circulates in the blood of healthy humans. Its levels rise substantially in cancer and other diseases and this may sometimes lead to development of an anorexia/cachexia syndrome. This is mediated by a direct action of MIC-1/GDF15 on feeding centres...

  7. Establishment of a high-resolution 2-D reference map of human spermatozoal proteins from 12 fertile sperm-bank donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling-Wei; Fan, Li-Qing; Zhu, Wen-Bing; Nien, Hong-Chuan; Sun, Bo-Lan; Luo, Ke-Li; Liao, Ting-Ting; Tang, Le; Lu, Guang-Xiu

    2007-05-01

    To extend the analysis of the proteome of human spermatozoa and establish a 2-D gel electrophoresis (2-DE) reference map of human spermatozoal proteins in a pH range of 3.5-9.0. In order to reveal more protein spots, immobilized pH gradient strips (24 cm) of broad range of pH 3-10 and the narrower range of pH 6-9, as well as different overlapping narrow range pH immobilized pH gradient (IPG) strips, including 3.5-4.5, 4.0-5.0, 4.5-5.5, 5.0-6.0 and 5.5-6.7, were used. After 2-DE, several visually identical spots between the different pH range 2-D gel pairs were cut from the gels and confirmed by mass spectrometry and used as landmarks for computer analysis. The 2-D reference map with pH value from 3.5 to 9.0 was synthesized by using the ImageMaster analysis software. The overlapping spots were excluded, so that every spot was counted only once. A total of 3872 different protein spots were identified from the reference map, an approximately 3-fold increase compared to the broad range pH 3-10 IPG strip (1306 spots). The present 2-D pattern is a high resolution 2-D reference map for human fertile spermatozoal protein spots. A comprehensive knowledge of the protein composition of human spermatozoa is very meaningful in studying dysregulation of male fertility.

  8. A review of piscine islet xenotransplantation using wild-type tilapia donors and the production of transgenic tilapia expressing a "humanized" tilapia insulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, James R; Yang, Hua; Hyrtsenko, Olga; Xu, Bao-You; Yu, Weiming; Pohajdak, Bill

    2014-01-01

    Most islet xenotransplantation laboratories have focused on porcine islets, which are both costly and difficult to isolate. Teleost (bony) fish, such as tilapia, possess macroscopically visible distinct islet organs called Brockmann bodies which can be inexpensively harvested. When transplanted into diabetic nude mice, tilapia islets maintain long-term normoglycemia and provide human-like glucose tolerance profiles. Like porcine islets, when transplanted into euthymic mice, they are rejected in a CD4 T-cell-dependent manner. However, unlike pigs, tilapia are so phylogenetically primitive that their cells do not express α(1,3)Gal and, because tilapia are highly evolved to live in warm stagnant waters nearly devoid of dissolved oxygen, their islet cells are exceedingly resistant to hypoxia, making them ideal for transplantation within encapsulation devices. Encapsulation, especially when combined with co-stimulatory blockade, markedly prolongs tilapia islet xenograft survival in small animal recipients, and a collaborator has shown function in diabetic cynomolgus monkeys. In anticipation of preclinical xenotransplantation studies, we have extensively characterized tilapia islets (morphology, embryologic development, cell biology, peptides, etc.) and their regulation of glucose homeostasis. Because tilapia insulin differs structurally from human insulin by 17 amino acids, we have produced transgenic tilapia whose islets stably express physiological levels of humanized insulin and have now bred these to homozygosity. These transgenic fish can serve as a platform for further development into a cell therapy product for diabetes. © 2014 The Authors. Xenotransplantation Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Effects of a donor on the bond property of quantum-dot molecules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Li-Min; Luo Ying; Ma Ben-Kun; Duan Su-Qing; Zhao Xian-Geng

    2004-01-01

    Within the framework of effective mass approximation, we have calculated the electronic structure of the two laterally coupled quantum dots with a donor by the finite element method. The calculated results show that the bond states of quantum-dot molecules are quite sensitive to the donor positions. By varying the donor position, the transition from covalent to ionic bond state is realized for some electronic states. Some extreme cases are also discussed for comparison.

  10. Donor selection criteria and procurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agcaoili, N.R.

    1999-01-01

    Donor selection is one of the most important aspects of tissue banking practice. Without a good donor selection criteria, the results of any effort of trying to preserve tissues will have disastrous outcome for the recipient of these tissues. While with a very good and strict donor selection the Tissue Bank can guarantee safe and effective tissue allografts. There are significant aspects in the history and physical examination of the donor that must be emphasized. A donor exclusion criteria has also been formulated together with a list of all the needed laboratory examinations to eliminate possible diseases that may be transferred from the donor. The methods of procurement of tissue allografts from living and cadaver donors will be described. The limitations and advantages of each will be taken.There are also special restrictions that are important in the practice of removing the tissues from the donors. All the necessary equipment should be ready and the potential risk on the personnel should be known to all doing Tissue Banking

  11. The Dirt on the Donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Mary Margaret

    1996-01-01

    A discussion of donor records in college and university fund-raising programs looks at a variety of issues, including who sees them (administrators, donors, volunteers, and members of the legal profession), how access to them is controlled, and what is kept in them. Suggestions are offered for managing such records, and the experiences of a number…

  12. Heart transplantation from older donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Poptsov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current situation of the shortage of suitable donor organs, heart transplantation from older donors is one of the ways to increase the performance of more heart transplants, particularly, in patients with urgent need of transplantation. While planning a heart transplantation from older donor one should consider increased risk of early cardiac allograft dysfunction, preexisting coronary artery disease, accelerated transplant vasculopathy which may adversely affect early and long-term survival of recipients. Subject to careful selection of donor–recipient pairs, effective prevention and treatment of early cardiac allograft dysfunction, pre-existing atherosclerosis and transplant vasculopathy the early and long-term survival of heart transplant recipients from older donors is comparable to heart transplantation from young donors.

  13. Differences in genotoxic activity of alpha-Ni3S2 on human lymphocytes from nickel-hypersensitized and nickel-unsensitized donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrouijal, F Z; Marzin, D; Hildebrand, H F; Pestel, J; Haguenoer, J M

    1992-05-01

    The genotoxic activity of alpha-Ni3S2 was assessed on human lymphocytes from nickel-hypersensitized (SSL) and nickel-unsensitized (USL) subjects. Three genotoxicity tests were performed: the sister chromatid exchange (SCE) test, the metaphase analysis test and the micronucleus test. (i) The SCE test (3-100 micrograms/ml) showed a weak but statistically significant increase in the number of SCE in both lymphocyte types with respect to controls, USL presenting a slightly higher SCE incidence but only at one concentration. (ii) The metaphase analysis test demonstrated a high dose-dependent clastogenic activity of alpha-Ni3S2 in both lymphocyte types. The frequency of chromosomal anomalies was significantly higher in USL than in SSL for all concentrations applied. (iii) The micronucleus test confirmed the dose-dependent clastogenic activity of alpha-Ni3S2 and the differences already observed between USL and SSL, i.e. the number of cells with micronuclei was statistically higher in USL. Finally, the incorporation study with alpha-63Ni3S2 showed a higher uptake of its solubilized fraction by USL. This allows an explanation of the different genotoxic action of nickel on the two cell types. In this study we demonstrated that hypersensitivity has an influence on the incorporation of alpha-Ni3S2 and subsequently on the different induction of chromosomal aberrations in human lymphocytes.

  14. Human nitric oxide biomarker as potential NO donor in conjunction with superparamagnetic iron oxide @ gold core shell nanoparticles for cancer therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nimisha; Patel, Khushbu; Sahoo, Suban K; Kumar, Rajender

    2018-03-01

    Nitric oxide releasing superparamagnetic (Fe 3 O 4 -Au@NTHP) nanoparticles were synthesized by conjugation of human biomarker of nitric oxide, N-nitrosothioproline with iron oxide-gold (Fe 3 O 4 -Au) core shell nanoparticles. The structure and morphology of the prepared nanoparticles were confirmed by ATR-FTIR, HR-TEM, EDAX, XPS, DLS and VSM measurements. N-nitrosothioproline is a natural molecule and nontoxic to humans. Thus, the core shell nanoparticles prepared were highly biocompatible. The prepared Fe 3 O 4 -Au@NTHP nanoparticles also provided an excellent release of nitric oxide in dark and upon light irradiation for cancer treatment. The amount of NO release was controllable with the wavelength of light and time of irradiation. The developed nanoparticles provided efficient cellular uptake and good cytotoxicity in picomolar range when tested on HeLa cancerous cells. These nanoparticles on account of their controllable NO release can also be used to release small amount of NO for killing cancerous cells without any toxic effect. Furthermore, the magnetic and photochemical properties of these nanoparticles provides dual platform for magneto therapy and phototherapy for cancer treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A new luminescence dating chronology for the Rhafas cave site (NE Morocco): Insights into Palaeolithic human cultural change under varying palaeoenvironmental conditions in the Maghreb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dörschner, Nina; Fitzsimmons, Kathryn E.; Ditchfield, Peter; McLaren, Sue J.; Steele, Teresa E.; Zielhofer, Christoph; McPherron, Shannon P.; Bouzouggar, Abdeljalil; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2016-04-01

    Archaeological sites in northern Africa provide a rich record that is of increasing importance for current debates relating to the origins of modern human behaviour and to Out of Africa human dispersal events. Particular interest is placed on the cultural transition between the North African Middle Stone Age (MSA) and Late Stone Age (LSA), and the need for accurately defined chronologies, however the timing and nature of Palaeolithic human behaviour and dispersal across north-western Africa (the Maghreb) and potential correlation with environmental conditions remain poorly understood. The inland cave site of Rhafas (Morocco) preserves a long stratified sequence providing valuable chronological information about cultural changes in the Maghreb spanning the North African MSA through to the Neolithic. In this study, we apply optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating on sand-sized quartz grains to the cave deposits of Rhafas as well as to a section on the terrace in front of the cave entrance. Single grain OSL dating reliably constrains the timing of technocomplexes beyond the limits of radiocarbon by directly dating sediment associated with archaeological traces. We combine OSL dating with multi-proxy geological investigations (XRF, grain size analyses, stable isotopes, thin sections) to investigate site formation processes and reconstruct palaeoenvironmental conditions during human occupation phases at Rhafas. Our results indicate that the occupation of the site started at least in MIS 6 during a phase of relatively arid environmental conditions. Climatic amelioration after c.140 ka is associated with a change in sediment geochemistry at the site, most likely linked to a change in sediment source due to shifting wind directions. Tanged pieces - typical for the classical Aterian technocomplex - start to occur in the archaeological sequence in MIS 5, consistent with previously published chronological data from the Maghreb. From 55 ka, climatic conditions were

  16. Caloric, but not macronutrient, compensation by humans for required-eating occasions with meals and snack varying in fat and carbohydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foltin, R W; Rolls, B J; Moran, T H; Kelly, T H; McNelis, A L; Fischman, M W

    1992-02-01

    Six subjects participated in a residential study assessing the effects of covert macronutrient and energy manipulations during three required-eating occasions (breakfast, lunch, and afternoon snack) on total macronutrient and energy intakes. Overall, energy content of the occasions varied between approximately 3000 and approximately 7000 kJ (approximately 700 and approximately 1700 kcal) with the majority of the differential derived from either fat or carbohydrate (CHO). Each condition (high, medium, and low fat; high, medium, and low CHO; and no required eating) was examined for 2 d. Subjects compensated for the energy content of the required occasions such that only under the low-CHO condition (11,297 +/- 3314 kJ) was total daily energy intake lower than that observed in the absence of required occasions (13,297 +/- 1356 kJ). Only total energy intake under the high-fat condition (12,326 +/- 2548 kJ) was significantly different from its matched CHO condition (high-CHO condition: 14,665 +/- 2686 kJ). In contrast to the clear evidence for caloric compensation, there were no differential effects of condition on macronutrient intake, ie, there was no macronutrient compensation.

  17. The bystander cell-killing effect mediated by nitric oxide in normal human fibroblasts varies with irradiation dose but not with radiation quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Yuichiro; Funayama, Tomoo; Mutou-Yoshihara, Yasuko; Ikeda, Hiroko; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the dependence of the bystander cell-killing effect on radiation dose and quality, and to elucidate related molecular mechanisms. Normal human fibroblast WI-38 cells were irradiated with 0.125 - 2 Gy of γ-rays or carbon ions and were co-cultured with non-irradiated cells. Survival rates of bystander cells were investigated using the colony formation assays, and nitrite concentrations in the medium were measured using the modified Saltzman method. Survival rates of bystander cells decreased with doses of γ-rays and carbon ions of ≤ 0.5 Gy. Treatment of the specific nitric oxide (NO) radical scavenger prevented reductions in survival rates of bystander cells. Moreover, nitrite concentrations increased with doses of less than 0.25 Gy (γ-rays) and 1 Gy (carbon ions). The dose responses of increased nitrite concentrations as well as survival reduction were similar between γ-rays and carbon ions. In addition, negative relationships were observed between survival rates and nitrite concentrations. The bystander cell-killing effect mediated by NO radicals in normal human fibroblasts depends on irradiation doses of up to 0.5 Gy, but not on radiation quality. NO radical production appears to be an important determinant of γ-ray- and carbon-ion-induced bystander effects.

  18. seroprevalence of parvovirus bi9 antibody in blood donors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    immunological and infectious complications. Accurate epidemiologic data on the frequency of. Parvovirus ... chronic illness e.g. Hypertension, Diabetes, Asthma; commercial sex workers and Intravenous drug users. Inclusion ..... reported 0% in Spanish blood donors (20). The seroprevalence of PVB 19 may vary with the.

  19. Serum Levels of Human MIC-1/GDF15 Vary in a Diurnal Pattern, Do Not Display a Profile Suggestive of a Satiety Factor and Are Related to BMI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicky Wang-Wei Tsai

    Full Text Available The TGF-b superfamily cytokine MIC-1/GDF15 circulates in the blood of healthy humans. Its levels rise substantially in cancer and other diseases and this may sometimes lead to development of an anorexia/cachexia syndrome. This is mediated by a direct action of MIC-1/GDF15 on feeding centres in the hypothalamus and brainstem. More recent studies in germline gene deleted mice also suggest that this cytokine may play a role in physiological regulation of energy homeostasis. To further characterize the role of MIC-1/GDF15 in physiological regulation of energy homeostasis in man, we have examined diurnal and food associated variation in serum levels and whether variation in circulating levels relate to BMI in human monozygotic twin pairs. We found that the within twin pair differences in serum MIC-1/GDF15 levels were significantly correlated with within twin pair differences in BMI, suggesting a role for MIC-1/GDF15 in the regulation of energy balance in man. MIC-1/GDF15 serum levels altered slightly in response to a meal, but comparison with variation its serum levels over a 24 hour period suggested that these changes are likely to be due to bimodal diurnal variation which can alter serum MIC-1/GDF15 levels by about plus or minus 10% from the mesor. The lack of a rapid and substantial postprandial increase in MIC-1/GDF15 serum levels suggests that MIC1/GDF15 is unlikely to act as a satiety factor. Taken together, our findings suggest that MIC-1/GDF15 may be a physiological regulator of energy homeostasis in man, most probably due to actions on long-term regulation of energy homeostasis.

  20. Analyses of 123 Peripheral Human Immune Cell Subsets: Defining Differences with Age and between Healthy Donors and Cancer Patients Not Detected in Analysis of Standard Immune Cell Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren M. Lepone

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in human immunology have led to the identification of novel immune cell subsets and the biological function of many of these subsets has now been identified. The recent US Food and Drug Administration approval of several immunotherapeutics for the treatment of a variety of cancer types and the results of ongoing immunotherapy clinical studies requires a more thorough interrogation of the immune system. We report here the use of flow cytometry-based analyses to identify 123 immune cell subsets of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The use of these panels defines multiple differences in younger (< 40 years vs. older (≥ 40 years individuals and between aged-matched apparently healthy individuals and metastatic cancer patients, aspects not seen in the analysis of the following standard immune cell types: CD8, CD4, natural killer, natural killer-T, regulatory T, myeloid derived suppressor cells, conventional dendritic cells (DCs, plasmacytoid DCs and B cells. The use of these panels identifying 123 immune cell subsets may aid in the identification of patients who may benefit from immunotherapy, either prior to therapy or early in the immunotherapeutic regimen, for the treatment of cancer or other chronic or infectious diseases.

  1. Live or Let Die: Epithelial Flap Vitality and Keratocyte Proliferation Following LASEK and Epi-LASIK in Human Donor and Porcine Eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angunawela, Romesh I; Winkler von Mohrenfels, Christoph; Kumar, Anupma; O'Brart, David P S; Marshall, John

    2011-02-01

    To determine the relationship between epithelial flap vitality and stromal keratocyte proliferation following two epithelial refractive techniques: epi-LASIK and laser epithelial keratomileusis (LASEK). Human corneas were maintained in organ culture and underwent standard -6.00-diopter ablation. Rates of stromal keratocyte proliferation were detected 1 week postoperative using a Ki67 antibody specific to proliferating cells. Images were captured with a laser scanning confocal microscope and analyzed by a masked observer. Epithelial flap vitality was determined with propidium iodide using fresh porcine corneas. Epithelial flaps were created with Gebauer Epikeratome epi-LASIK or alcohol-assisted LASEK method. Flaps treated with 100% alcohol and uninjured corneas were used as controls. The number of proliferating keratocytes was greatest at 1 week in the epi-LASIK corneas (Pvitality was greatest in the epi-LASIK flaps and declined in the LASEK and 100% alcohol flaps (Plive cells. There is also a greater number of proliferating stromal cells following epi-LASIK at 1 week. Based on these in vitro observations, epi-LASIK may result in greater levels of haze compared to LASEK. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  2. Anesthesia Management of Organ Donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Victor W; Braunfeld, Michelle

    2017-09-01

    The shortage of suitable organs is the biggest obstacle for transplants. At present, most organs for transplant in the United States are from donation after neurologic determination of death (brain death). Potential organs for transplant need to maintain their viability during a series of insults, including the original disease, physiologic derangements during the dying process, ischemia, and reperfusion. Proper donor management before, during, and after procurement has potential to increase the number and quality of organs from donors. Anesthesiologists need to understand the physiologic derangements associated with brain death and the updated donor management during the periprocurement period. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. New hydrogen donors in germanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokotilo, Yu.M.; Petukh, A.N.; Litvinov, V.V.

    2003-01-01

    The electrophysical properties of the n-type conductivity germanium, irradiated through protons, is studied by the volt-farad method. It is shown that the heat treatment of the implanted germanium at the temperature of 200-300 deg C leads to formation of the fast-diffusing second-rate donors. It is established that the diffusion coefficient of the identified donors coincides with the diffusion coefficient of the atomic hydrogen with an account of the capture on the traps. The conclusion is made, that the atomic hydrogen is the second-rate donor center in germanium [ru

  4. Higher prevalence of human papillomavirus infection in adolescent and young adult girls belonging to different Indian tribes with varied socio-sexual lifestyle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirti Sharma

    Full Text Available Despite high prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV infection and cervical cancer in Indian women, no study has been done in tribal populations whose socio-sexual lifestyle is different. Therefore, HPV screening has been carried out in pre-adolescent, adolescent and young adult tribal girls using self-collected urine samples.20-35 ml self-collected midstream urine samples were obtained from a total of 2278 healthy tribal girls (9-25 years comprising pre-adolescent, adolescent and young adults from three Indian states: Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh. β-globin positive 2034 samples were employed for HPV detection and genotyping.The overall prevalence of HPV infection in tribal girls was 12.9% (262/2034. More than 65% (172/262 of them were infected with HR-HPV types of which HPV16 was the most predominant type (54%. Young adult girls aged 18-25 years showed a significantly higher prevalence of HPV infection (19.2%; OR = 3.36; 95% CI 2.97-6.34, P<0.001 as compared to that in adolescent (11.4%; OR = 1.82; 95% CI 1.20-2.76, P<0.01 or pre-adolescent girls (6.6%.This is a first study showing significantly a very high prevalence of HPV infection in adolescent and young adult tribal girls possibly due to different socio-sexual behavior, indicating a serious health concern for Indian tribal women.

  5. Phosphodiesterase profile of human B lymphocytes from normal and atopic donors and the effects of PDE inhibition on B cell proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantner, Florian; Götz, Christine; Gekeler, Volker; Schudt, Christian; Wendel, Albrecht; Hatzelmann, Armin

    1998-01-01

    CD19+ B lymphocytes were purified from the peripheral blood of normal and atopic subjects to analyse and compare the phosphodiesterase (PDE) activity profile, PDE mRNA expression and the importance of PDE activity for the regulation of B cell function.The majority of cyclic AMP hydrolyzing activity of human B cells was cytosolic PDE4, followed by cytosolic PDE7-like activity; marginal PDE3 activity was found only in the particulate B cell fraction. PDE1, PDE2 and PDE5 activities were not detected.By cDNA-PCR analysis mRNA of the PDE4 subtypes A, B (splice variant PDE4B2) and D were detected. In addition, a weak signal for PDE3A was found.No differences in PDE activities or mRNA expression of PDE subtypes were found in B cells from either normal or atopic subjects.Stimulation of B lymphocytes with the polyclonal stimulus lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced a proliferative response in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, which was increased in the presence of interleukin-4 (IL-4). PDE4 inhibitors (rolipram, piclamilast) led to an increase in the cellular cyclic AMP concentration and to an augmentation of proliferation, whereas a PDE3 inhibitor (motapizone) was ineffective, which is in accordance with the PDE profile found. The proliferation enhancing effect of the PDE4 inhibitors was partly mimicked by the cyclic AMP analogues dibutyryl (db) cyclic AMP and 5,6-dichloro-1-β-D-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole-3′,5′-cyclic monophosphorothioate, Sp-isomer (dcl-cBIMPS), respectively. However, at concentrations exceeding 100 μM db-cyclic AMP suppressed B lymphocyte proliferation, probably as a result of cytotoxicity. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, 1 μM) and forskolin (10 μM) did not affect B cell proliferation, even when given in combination with rolipram.Inhibition of protein kinase A (PKA) by differentially acting selective inhibitors (KT 5720, Rp-8-Br-cyclic AMPS) decreased the proliferative response of control cells and reversed the proliferation enhancing effects

  6. Blood donor show behaviour after an invitation to donate : The influence of collection site factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merz, E.-M.; Zijlstra, B.J.H.; de Kort, W.L.A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives Show behaviour after invitation to donate varies considerably across donors. More insight into this variation is important for blood banks in achieving stable stocks. This study examined individual factors determining intended show behaviour. Most importantly, however, this

  7. Blood donor show behavior after an invitation to donate: The influence of collection site factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merz, E.M.; Zijlstra, Bonne; De Kort, Wim L.A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives Show behaviour after invitation to donate varies considerably across donors. More insight into this variation is important for blood banks in achieving stable stocks. This study examined individual factors determining intended show behaviour. Most importantly, however, this

  8. Clinical, virological and immunological features from patients infected with re-emergent avian-origin human H7N9 influenza disease of varying severity in Guangdong province.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zi Feng Yang

    Full Text Available The second wave of avian influenza H7N9 virus outbreak in humans spread to the Guangdong province of China by August of 2013 and this virus is now endemic in poultry in this region.Five patients with H7N9 virus infection admitted to our hospital during August 2013 to February 2014 were intensively investigated. Viral load in the respiratory tract was determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR and cytokine levels were measured by bead-based flow cytometery.Four patients survived and one died. Viral load in different clinical specimens was correlated with cytokine levels in plasma and broncho-alveolar fluid (BALF, therapeutic modalities used and clinical outcome. Intravenous zanamivir appeared to be better than peramivir as salvage therapy in patients who failed to respond to oseltamivir. Higher and more prolonged viral load was found in the sputum or endotracheal aspirates compared to throat swabs. Upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines IP-10, MCP-1, MIG, MIP-1α/β, IL-1β and IL-8 was found in the plasma and BALF samples. The levels of cytokines in the plasma and viral load were correlated with disease severity. Reactivation of herpes simplex virus type 1(HSV-1 was found in three out of five patients (60%.Expectorated sputum or endotracheal aspirate specimens are preferable to throat swabs for detecting and monitoring H7N9 virus. Severity of the disease was correlated to the viral load in the respiratory tract as well as the extents of cytokinemia. Reactivation of HSV-1 may contribute to clinical outcome.

  9. Evaluating Controlled Human Malaria Infection in Kenyan Adults with Varying Degrees of Prior Exposure to Plasmodium falciparum using sporozoites administered by intramuscular injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Helena Hodgson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Controlled human malaria infection (CHMI studies are a vital tool to accelerate vaccine and drug development. As CHMI trials are performed in a controlled environment, they allow unprecedented, detailed evaluation of parasite growth dynamics (PGD and immunological responses. However, CHMI studies have not been routinely performed in malaria-endemic countries or used to investigate mechanisms of naturally-acquired immunity (NAI to Plasmodium falciparum. Methods: We conducted an open-label, randomized CHMI pilot-study using aseptic, cryopreserved P. falciparum sporozoites (PfSPZ Challenge to evaluate safety, infectivity and PGD in Kenyan adults with low to moderate prior exposure to P. falciparum (Pan African Clinical Trial Registry: PACTR20121100033272. Results: All participants developed blood-stage infection confirmed by qPCR. However one volunteer (110 remained asymptomatic and blood-film negative until day 21 post-injection of PfSPZ Challenge. This volunteer had a reduced parasite multiplication rate (PMR (1.3 in comparison to the other 27 volunteers (median 11.1. A significant correlation was seen between PMR and screening anti-schizont ELISA OD (p=0.044, R=-0.384 but not when volunteer 110 was excluded from the analysis (p=0.112, R=-0.313. Conclusions: PfSPZ Challenge is safe and infectious in malaria-endemic populations and could be used to assess the efficacy of malaria vaccines and drugs in African populations. Whilst our findings are limited by sample size, our pilot study has demonstrated for the first time that NAI may impact on PMR post-CHMI in a detectable fashion, an important finding that should be evaluated in further CHMI studies.

  10. Higher Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus Infection in Adolescent and Young Adult Girls Belonging to Different Indian Tribes with Varied Socio-Sexual Lifestyle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Kirti; Kathait, Atul; Jain, Asha; Kujur, Karmila; Raghuwanshi, Shirish; Bharti, Alok Chandra; Saklani, Asha Chandola; Das, Bhudev Chandra

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite high prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and cervical cancer in Indian women, no study has been done in tribal populations whose socio-sexual lifestyle is different. Therefore, HPV screening has been carried out in pre-adolescent, adolescent and young adult tribal girls using self-collected urine samples. Methods 20–35 ml self-collected midstream urine samples were obtained from a total of 2278 healthy tribal girls (9–25 years) comprising pre-adolescent, adolescent and young adults from three Indian states: Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh. β-globin positive 2034 samples were employed for HPV detection and genotyping. Results The overall prevalence of HPV infection in tribal girls was 12.9% (262/2034). More than 65% (172/262) of them were infected with HR-HPV types of which HPV16 was the most predominant type (54%). Young adult girls aged 18–25 years showed a significantly higher prevalence of HPV infection (19.2%; OR = 3.36; 95% CI 2.97–6.34, P<0.001) as compared to that in adolescent (11.4%; OR = 1.82; 95% CI 1.20–2.76, P<0.01) or pre-adolescent girls (6.6%). Conclusion This is a first study showing significantly a very high prevalence of HPV infection in adolescent and young adult tribal girls possibly due to different socio-sexual behavior, indicating a serious health concern for Indian tribal women. PMID:25954813

  11. Governance, resource curse and donor

    OpenAIRE

    Wiig, Arne

    2008-01-01

    Plan Part 1. Governance What is good governance? Why is it important? How can we measure good governance? Part 2. The resource curse and the importance of governance in resource rich countries Focus on political economy (PE) models of the resource curse Policy implications Some donor initiatives Transparency and the EITI Petroleum related aid - Window dressing initiatives or research based? Conclusion Governance, resource curse and donor

  12. Deceased Organ Donors and PHS Risk Identification: Impact on Organ Usage and Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruett, Timothy L; Clark, Marissa A; Taranto, Sarah E

    2017-07-01

    In 2013, the public health service (PHS) changed the criteria intended to identify organ donors that put the associated organ recipients at increased risk for acquiring human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV). The changing donor demographics, organ utilization, and outcomes associated with this change are not known. A review of the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network database was performed to assess the impact of PHS donor designation on organ utilization and outcomes. After the 2013 modification, over 20% of all deceased organ donors in the United States were identified as PHS increased risk. Compared with the standard risk deceased organ donor, the PHS donor was younger, male, died from anoxia, more likely to be HCV and antibody reacting to hepatitis B core antigen+, and less likely to have diabetes or hypertension. Organs from the 18- to 34-year-old deceased donors with PHS risks (but relatively few medical comorbidities) and tested negative for HCV were less frequently transplanted compared with the standard risk donors (3.9 vs 4.2 organs transplanted per donor). However, the transplant patient and graft survival as well as risk of unexpected transmission of HIV, HBV, and HCV were equivalent, irrespective of PHS donor status. The rationale of using PHS donor designation that negatively impacts utilization of high-quality organs without the benefit of identifying the subset of organs with demonstrable proclivity to transmit HIV, HBV, or HCV needs to be reexamined.

  13. Predonation screening of candidate donors and prevention of window period donations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieshout-Krikke, Ryanne W; Zaaijer, Hans L; van de Laar, Thijs J W

    2015-02-01

    Infectious window period donations slip through routine donor screening procedures. To explore the potential value of predonation screening of candidate donors, we compared the proportion of incident transfusion-transmissible infections in candidate donors, in first-time donors, and in repeat donors. A retrospective analysis was performed of all incident hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections in candidate, first-time, and repeat donors in the Netherlands during the period 2009 to 2013. In total, 176,716 candidate donors, 144,226 first-time donations, and 4,143,455 repeat donations were screened for HBV, HCV, and HIV infection. Acute HBV infection was identified in the predonation sample of six candidate donors. One first-time donor, testing HIV-negative at predonation screening, tested positive for anti-HIV and HIV RNA in the first donation 29 days later. Among repeat donations we identified 15, one, and six incident HBV, HCV and HIV infections, respectively. The proportion of incident infections among candidate donors/first-time donations/repeat donations was for HBV, 3.40/0/0.36; for HCV, 0/0/0.02; and for HIV 0/0.69/0.14 per 100,000, respectively. Predonation screening of candidate donors very likely causes a loss of donations, but it might prevent undetected window period donations. Further studies are necessary to determine the value of predonation screening as an additional safety measure. © 2014 AABB.

  14. Time-varying BRDFs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bo; Sunkavalli, Kalyan; Ramamoorthi, Ravi; Belhumeur, Peter N; Nayar, Shree K

    2007-01-01

    The properties of virtually all real-world materials change with time, causing their bidirectional reflectance distribution functions (BRDFs) to be time varying. However, none of the existing BRDF models and databases take time variation into consideration; they represent the appearance of a material at a single time instance. In this paper, we address the acquisition, analysis, modeling, and rendering of a wide range of time-varying BRDFs (TVBRDFs). We have developed an acquisition system that is capable of sampling a material's BRDF at multiple time instances, with each time sample acquired within 36 sec. We have used this acquisition system to measure the BRDFs of a wide range of time-varying phenomena, which include the drying of various types of paints (watercolor, spray, and oil), the drying of wet rough surfaces (cement, plaster, and fabrics), the accumulation of dusts (household and joint compound) on surfaces, and the melting of materials (chocolate). Analytic BRDF functions are fit to these measurements and the model parameters' variations with time are analyzed. Each category exhibits interesting and sometimes nonintuitive parameter trends. These parameter trends are then used to develop analytic TVBRDF models. The analytic TVBRDF models enable us to apply effects such as paint drying and dust accumulation to arbitrary surfaces and novel materials.

  15. Philanthropic Motivations of Community College Donors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Linnie S.; Duggan, Molly H.

    2011-01-01

    This descriptive study surveyed current, lapsed, and major gift donors to explore the impact of college communications on donors' decisions to contribute to the college, the likelihood of donor financial support for various college projects, and the philanthropic motivation profiles of the donors of a midsized, multicampus community college in…

  16. Kidney transplant outcomes from older deceased donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pippias, Maria; Jager, Kitty J; Caskey, Fergus

    2018-01-01

    As the median age of deceased kidney donors rises, updated knowledge of transplant outcomes from older deceased donors in differing donor-recipient age groups is required. Using ERA-EDTA Registry data we determined survival outcomes of kidney allografts donated from the same older deceased donor...

  17. Evaluation of an Oxygen-Diffusion Dressing for Accelerated Healing of Donor-Site Wounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    wounds in humans,8 but requires visits to facilities with trained personnel and is limited by oxygen toxicity issues. Compared with hyperbaric oxygen...open-label study to compare the effectiveness of OxyBand and Xeroform dress- ings used as dressings for autogenous skin donor sites in burn patients...donor sites. Epinephrine in lactated Ringer’s solu- tion at a concentration of 1:106 was injected subcu- taneously to prepare both donor sites for

  18. Living related donor liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C L; Chen, Y S; Liu, P P; Chiang, Y C; Cheng, Y F; Huang, T L; Eng, H L

    1997-10-01

    Living related liver transplantation (LRLT) has been developed in response to the paediatric organ donor shortage. According to the International Living Donor Registry, 521 transplants had been performed in 515 patients between December 8 1988 and January 19 1996 in 30 centres worldwide. The overall actuarial patient and graft survival rates were 82.7 and 80%, respectively. Between June 17 1994 and November 30 1996, the authors performed 11 LRLT at the Chung Gung Memorial Hospital. The living donors consisted of 10 mothers and one father. The mean graft weight was 303 g and the mean graft recipient weight ratio was 2.2%. Donor hepatectomy was performed without vascular inflow occlusion. The intra-operative blood loss ranged from 30 mL to 120 mL with an average of 61 mL, and blood transfusion was not required in all donors both intra-operatively and during the postoperative period. Underlying diseases of the recipients were biliary atresia (n = 10) and glycogen storage disease (n = 1). The mean graft cold ischaemia time was 106 min, the mean second warm ischaemia time was 51 min and the mean interval between portal and arterial reperfusion was 81 min. The initial LRLT results were promising with all donors having been discharged without complication. The recipients experienced a few complications, all of which were manageable with early intervention. All 11 recipients are alive and well. These are encouraging results and the authors hope to expand the use of live donors for liver transplantation to cope with demand.

  19. Xenotransplantation: A Potential Solution to the Critical Organ Donor Shortage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Howe Sim

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The success of allotransplantation as a treatment for end-stage organ failure has resulted in the need for an increasing number of organ donors. Attempts to meet this need include the use of organs from living related and unrelated donors, financial or other incentives for the donor family, and even the reuse of transplanted organs. Despite these initiatives, the supply of organs for transplantation still falls far short of the demand, as evidenced by longer waiting times for transplantation and decreasing transplantation rates. Even if Canada were able to increase its organ donor rate to that of Spain (40 to 50/million, where organ donation is governed by ‘presumed consent’ legislation, this would not alleviate the problem of donor shortage. Interest in xenotransplantation stems from the need to overcome this increasingly severe shortage of human organs. Indeed, some argue that xenotransplantation is the only potential way of addressing this shortage. As immunological barriers to xenotransplantation are better understood, those hurdles are being addressed through genetic engineering of donor animals and the development of new drug therapies. However, before xenotransplantation can be fully implemented, both the scientific/medical communities and the general public must seriously consider and attempt to resolve the many complex ethical, social and economic issues that it presents.

  20. Recruitment and retention of blood donors in four Canadian cities: an analysis of the role of community and social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, André; Matthews, Ralph; Fiddler, Jay

    2013-12-01

    This study approaches the decision to donate blood as a dynamic process involving interplay between blood donors' personal motives, donors' social contexts, and the donor recruitment and retention activities of blood collection agencies. Data were gathered from four blood donation clinics using in-depth interviews with Canadian Blood Services employees, donors, and nondonors in 25 organizations participating in Life Link, a donor recruitment program that supports organizations to educate employees about the benefits of blood donation. Further data were obtained from ethnographic observations of blood collection and donor recruitment activities. Thematic analysis resulted in three umbrella themes: leveraging social networks, embedding the clinic in the community, and donating blood and social reciprocity. Donor recruitment activities at all four clinics enhanced awareness of blood donation in the workplace by using experienced donors to motivate their coworkers in making a first-time donation. Clinic employees reported varying success in improving awareness of blood donation in the broader community, in part because of varying employee engagement in community-wide activities and celebrations. Altruistic motives were mentioned by experienced donors, who also identified a desire to reciprocate to their community as another strong motive. This study contextualizes donor recruitment and retention as involving activities that tie blood donation to meaningful aspects of donors' social networks and community. The findings point to the need for further analyses of the institutional dimensions of blood donation to develop effective strategies beyond appeals to altruism. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.

  1. [Lack of donor organs as an argument for living donors?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirste, G

    2010-09-01

    In Germany more than 12,000 patients are presently waiting for an organ donation. Living donation makes sense for the long waiting time for a kidney, but it is not a permanent solution for the lack of organ donations. In the future topics which should be discussed are intensified public relations, a better family care and the allocation of rights and duties at the German coordinating agency. For all the prospects of success after a living donation the high standards of quality and security, which are targeted by the German donor organization in recipient protection, responsible evaluation of the expanded donor criteria and immunosuppressive therapy are all in favor of post-mortem organ donation. For all the phenomenal chance of success the priority of the post-mortem organ donation is regulated by law. The living donation remains an individual decision of the donor and the personal situation of life.

  2. Why Should Donors Care about Corruption?

    OpenAIRE

    Kolstad, Ivar

    2008-01-01

    Corruption is bad for donor business. Corruption reduces popular support for aid in donor countries. However, aid agencies should pay attention to corruption because it is the right thing to do, rather than just the smart thing to do. Donor anti-corruption policies require a strong grounding in ethics. Corruption produces bad development outcomes. This is the reasoning largely underlying donor anti-corruption efforts. The focus on consequences of corruption makes donor anticorruptioneffo...

  3. Organ utilization from increased infectious risk donors: An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'Huillier, Arnaud G; Humar, Atul; Payne, Clare; Kumar, Deepali

    2017-12-01

    Donors with an increased risk of transmitting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), or hepatitis C virus (HCV) (increased risk donors [IRDs]) are a potential source of organs for transplant. Organs from IRDs can be utilized with appropriate recipient consent and post-transplant follow-up. We reviewed the characteristics and utilization of IRDs in our Organ Procurement Organization (OPO) over a 2-year period. Donor information from April 1, 2013 to March 31, 2015 was obtained through the OPO database. Only consented donors were included. Donors were categorized as IRDs according to Health Canada/Canadian Standards Association (CSA) criteria. A total of 494 potential donors were identified, of which 92 (18.6%) were IRDs. Of these, at least one organ was transplanted from 76 (82.6%). Risk factors for IRDs included injection drug user (IDU) (12%), men having sex with men (MSM) (7%), commercial sex worker (CSW) (4%), and incarceration (24%). Fifty-nine percent (253/429) of IRD organs were utilized. The most frequently used organ was kidney, followed by liver. Median number of organs recovered per IRD was 3 (interquartile range: 2-5). Nucleic acid testing (NAT) was performed in 18.5% (17/92) of IRDs. Reasons for NAT were IDU (n = 2), MSM (n = 2), CSW (n = 2), and previous incarceration (n = 7). Organ utilization from donors that had NAT was similar to donors who did not (94% vs 80%, P = .29). Follow-up NAT was done in multiple factors contribute to the perception of infectious risk from such organs. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Breast milk donation and social support: reports of women donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Alencar, Lucienne Christine Estevez; Seidl, Eliane Maria Fleury

    2010-01-01

    The study aimed to characterize the behavior of human milk donation and to describe the informal social and formal institutional support, according to reports from women donors. It is an exploratory, cross-sectional, descriptive study using domicile interviews based on structured and semi-structured scripts. The participants were 36 women enrolled in two human milk banks of the public health system of the Federal District. Statistical analysis of quantitative data and categorical content analysis of qualitative data were performed. Categories of reasons that most influenced the frequency of expressing were: food, time availability, negative emotions and fluid intake. The manual expressing technique was reported as predominant. The use of breast shells was cited by almost a third of the donors. Most frequent suggestions for improving institutional support were more attention and support from the milk banks for the donor. The study may serve as a stimulus for the implementation of technical and political strategies to encourage this practice.

  5. Function following Living Donor Nephrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Heldt

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. While tobacco use by a renal transplant recipient has been shown to negatively affect graft and patient survival, the effect of smoking on the part of the kidney donor remains unknown. Methods. 29 smoking donors (SD and their recipients (SD-R as well as 71 non-smoking donors (ND and their recipients (ND-R were retrospectively reviewed. Preoperative demographics and perioperative variables including serum creatinine (Cr and glomerular filtration rate (GFR were calculated and stratified by amount of tobacco exposure in pack-years. Clinical outcomes were analyzed with a Student's t-test, chi-square, and multiple linear regression analysis (=0.05. Results. At most recent followup, SD-R's had a significantly smaller percent decrease in postoperative Cr than ND-R's (−57% versus −81%; =0.015 and lower calculated GFR's (37.0 versus 53.0 mL/min per 1.73 m2; <0.001. SD's had a larger percent increase in Cr than ND's at most recent followup (57% versus 40%; <0.001, with active smokers having a larger increase than those who quit, although this difference was not statistically significant (68% versus 52%; =0.055. Conclusions. Use of tobacco by kidney donors is associated with decreased posttransplant renal function, although smoking cessation can improve outcomes. Kidneys from donors who smoke should be used with caution.

  6. Human response to varying concentrations of toluene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bælum, Jesper; Lundqvist, G R; Mølhave, Lars

    1990-01-01

    less than 0.1) towards irritation in the throat, headache and dizziness. In the four performance tests there was a tendency towards a lower score in a vigilance test while no effect of toluene exposure was seen in a peg board test, a five choice serial reaction test, or a colour test, indicating only...

  7. Donor Outcomes in Living Donor Liver Transplantation-Analysis of 275 Donors From a Single Centre in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimhan, Gomathy; Safwan, Mohamed; Kota, Venugopal; Reddy, Mettu S; Bharathan, Anand; Dabora, Abderrhaim; Kaliamoorthy, Ilankumaran; Kanagavelu, Rathnavel G; Srinivasan, Vijaya; Rela, Mohamed

    2016-06-01

    Live donor liver transplantation is the predominant form of liver transplantation in India and in most Asian countries. Donor outcome reports are an important source of information to be shared with prospective donors at the time of informed consent. This is the first donor outcome series from India. Analysis of donor characteristics and morbidity of 275 live donors from a single large volume center is documented. Two hundred seventy-five patients donated from November 2009 to October 2014, 144 were women and 131 were men, 180 donated to adults and 95 donated to children. Right lobe donors were majority at 62.2% followed by left lateral segment 28%. Two thirds of the live donors did not have any morbidity; 114 complications were encountered in 85 patients. The complications were graded as per Clavien 5 tier grading and major morbidity (grade III b, grade IV grade V) was 4.36%. Postoperative biliary complication was seen in 3 donors. This large single-center study is the first donor outcome report from India, and the results are comparable to other published donor series. Documentation and regular audit of donor outcomes is important to help improve the safety of donor hepatectomy and to provide a database for informed consent of prospective donors.

  8. Gamete donation: parents' experiences of searching for their child's donor siblings and donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, T; Jadva, V; Kramer, W; Golombok, S

    2009-03-01

    This study investigates the new phenomenon of parents of donor offspring searching for and contacting their child's 'donor siblings' (i.e. donor offspring conceived by the same donor) and donor. Online questionnaires were completed by 791 parents (39% lone-mother, 35% lesbian-couple, 21% heterosexual-couple, 5% non-specified) recruited via the Donor Sibling Registry; a US-based international registry that facilitates contact between donor conception families who share the same donor. Data were collected on parents' reasons for searching for their child's donor siblings and/or donor, the outcome of these searches and parents' and their child's experiences of any resulting contact. Parents' principal motivation for searching for their child's donor siblings was curiosity and for their donor, enhancing their child's sense of identity. Some parents had discovered large numbers of donor siblings (maximum = 55). Most parents reported positive experiences of contacting and meeting their child's donor siblings and donor. This study highlights that having access to information about a child's donor origins is important for some parents and has potentially positive consequences. These findings have wider implications because the removal of donor anonymity in the UK and elsewhere means that increasing numbers of donor offspring are likely to seek contact with their donor relations in the future.

  9. Achieving donor management goals before deceased donor procurement is associated with more organs transplanted per donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinoski, Darren J; Daly, Michael C; Patel, Madhukar S; Oley-Graybill, Chrystal; Foster, Clarence E; Salim, Ali

    2011-10-01

    There is a national shortage of organs available for transplantation. Implementation of preset donor management goals (DMGs) to improve outcomes is recommended, but uniform practices and data are lacking. We hypothesized that meeting DMGs before organ procurement would result in more organs transplanted per donor (OTPD). The eight organ procurement organization in United Network for Organ Sharing Region 5 selected 10 critical care end points as DMGs. Each organ procurement organization submitted retrospective data from 40 standard criteria donors. "DMGs met" was defined as achieving any eight DMGs before procurement. The primary outcome was ≥4 OTPD. Binary logistic regression was used to determine independent predictors of ≥4 OTPD with a pdonors had 3.6±1.6 OTPD. Donors with DMGs met had more OTPD (4.4 vs. 3.3, p50% (OR=4.0), Pao2:FIO2>300 (OR=4.6), and serum sodium 135 to 160 mEq/L (OR=3.4). Meeting DMGs before procurement resulted in more OTPD. Donor factors and critical care end points are independent predictors of organ yield. Prospective studies are needed to determine the true impact of each DMG on the number and function of transplanted organs.

  10. Bone density in apheresis donors and whole blood donors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, C.L.; Luken, J.S.; van den Burg, P.J.M.; de Kort, W.L.A.M.; Koopman, M.M.W.; Vrielink, H.; van Schoor, N.M.; den Heijer, M.; Lips, P.

    2015-01-01

    Apheresis donation using citrate causes acute decrease in serum calcium and increase in serum parathyroid hormone. Long-term consequences, such as decrease in bone mineral density (BMD), are not known. In this study, we compared the BMD of 20 postmenopausal apheresis donors (mean donation number 115

  11. Suicidal hanging donors for lung transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananiadou, Olga; Schmack, Bastian; Zych, Bartlomiej; Sabashnikov, Anton; Garcia-Saez, Diana; Mohite, Prashant; Weymann, Alexander; Mansur, Ashham; Zeriouh, Mohamed; Marczin, Nandor; De Robertis, Fabio; Simon, Andre Rüdiger; Popov, Aron-Frederik

    2018-01-01

    Abstract In the context of limited donor pool in cardiothoracic transplantation, utilization of organs from high risk donors, such as suicidal hanging donors, while ensuring safety, is under consideration. We sought to evaluate the outcomes of lung transplantations (LTx) that use organs from this group. Between January 2011 and December 2015, 265 LTx were performed at our center. Twenty-two recipients received lungs from donors after suicidal hanging (group 1). The remaining 243 transplantations were used as a control (group 2). Analysis of recipient and donor characteristics as well as outcomes was performed. No statistically significant difference was found in the donor characteristics between analyzed groups, except for higher incidence of cardiac arrest, younger age and smoking history of hanging donors (P donor cause of death is not associated with poor mid-term survival or chronic lung allograft dysfunction following transplantation. These results encourage assessment of lungs from hanging donors, and their consideration for transplantation. PMID:29620623

  12. 42 CFR 482.102 - Condition of participation: Patient and living donor rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... health, disability, or life insurance may be affected; (8) The donor's right to opt out of donation at... donor rights. 482.102 Section 482.102 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION CONDITIONS OF PARTICIPATION FOR...

  13. Use and Outcomes of Kidneys from Donation after Circulatory Death Donors in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, John; Rose, Caren; Lesage, Julie; Joffres, Yayuk; Gill, Jagbir; O'Connor, Kevin

    2017-12-01

    Donation after circulatory death (DCD) donors are an important source of kidneys for transplantation, but DCD donor transplantation is less common in the United States than in other countries. In this study of national data obtained between 2008 and 2015, recovery of DCD kidneys varied substantially among the country's 58 donor service areas, and 25% of DCD kidneys were recovered in only four donor service areas. Overall, 20% of recovered DCD kidneys were discarded, varying from 3% to 33% among donor service areas. Compared with kidneys from neurologically brain dead (NBD) donors, DCD kidneys had a higher adjusted odds ratio of discard that varied from 1.25 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.16 to 1.34) in kidneys with total donor warm ischemic time (WIT) of 10-26 minutes to 2.67 (95% CI, 2.34 to 3.04) in kidneys with total donor WIT >48 minutes. Among the 12,831 DCD kidneys transplanted, kidneys with WIT≤48 minutes had survival similar to that of NBD kidneys. DCD kidneys with WIT>48 minutes had a higher risk of allograft failure (hazard ratio, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.07 to 1.41), but this risk was limited to kidneys with cold ischemia time (CIT) >12 hours. We conclude that donor service area-level variation in the recovery and discard of DCD kidneys is large. Additional national data collection is needed to understand the potential to increase DCD donor transplantation in the United States. Strategies to minimize cold ischemic injury may safely allow increased use of DCD kidneys with WIT>48 minutes. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  14. Varying coefficients model with measurement error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liang; Greene, Tom

    2008-06-01

    We propose a semiparametric partially varying coefficient model to study the relationship between serum creatinine concentration and the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) among kidney donors and patients with chronic kidney disease. A regression model is used to relate serum creatinine to GFR and demographic factors in which coefficient of GFR is expressed as a function of age to allow its effect to be age dependent. GFR measurements obtained from the clearance of a radioactively labeled isotope are assumed to be a surrogate for the true GFR, with the relationship between measured and true GFR expressed using an additive error model. We use locally corrected score equations to estimate parameters and coefficient functions, and propose an expected generalized cross-validation (EGCV) method to select the kernel bandwidth. The performance of the proposed methods, which avoid distributional assumptions on the true GFR and residuals, is investigated by simulation. Accounting for measurement error using the proposed model reduced apparent inconsistencies in the relationship between serum creatinine and GFR among different clinical data sets derived from kidney donor and chronic kidney disease source populations.

  15. Health Education about AIDS among Seropositive Blood Donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Paul D.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    This article reviews the theoretical and empirical work that resulted in the New York Blood Center health education and psychosocial support program for blood donors who are notified that they are HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) antibody positive. Also describes how the program is being implemented. (Author/CT)

  16. For Donors Who Have Everything.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shubeck, Theresa

    1990-01-01

    Most major donors don't need another plaque or formal dinner. Development officers need to be more imaginative and less materialistic in expressing their institution's thanks, personalizing them by tying the gesture in with something distinctive about the institution or the gift. Development office teamwork and care help promote donor…

  17. Being a Living Donor: Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to know FAQ Living donation What is living donation? Organs Types Being a living donor First steps Being ... are considering one of these types of living donation, please talk to your transplant center about the organ-specific risks. Psychological concerns You may also have ...

  18. varying elastic parameters distributions

    KAUST Repository

    Moussawi, Ali

    2014-12-01

    The experimental identication of mechanical properties is crucial in mechanics for understanding material behavior and for the development of numerical models. Classical identi cation procedures employ standard shaped specimens, assume that the mechanical elds in the object are homogeneous, and recover global properties. Thus, multiple tests are required for full characterization of a heterogeneous object, leading to a time consuming and costly process. The development of non-contact, full- eld measurement techniques from which complex kinematic elds can be recorded has opened the door to a new way of thinking. From the identi cation point of view, suitable methods can be used to process these complex kinematic elds in order to recover multiple spatially varying parameters through one test or a few tests. The requirement is the development of identi cation techniques that can process these complex experimental data. This thesis introduces a novel identi cation technique called the constitutive compatibility method. The key idea is to de ne stresses as compatible with the observed kinematic eld through the chosen class of constitutive equation, making possible the uncoupling of the identi cation of stress from the identi cation of the material parameters. This uncoupling leads to parametrized solutions in cases where 5 the solution is non-unique (due to unknown traction boundary conditions) as demonstrated on 2D numerical examples. First the theory is outlined and the method is demonstrated in 2D applications. Second, the method is implemented within a domain decomposition framework in order to reduce the cost for processing very large problems. Finally, it is extended to 3D numerical examples. Promising results are shown for 2D and 3D problems.

  19. Associations of health status with subsequent blood donor behavior-An alternative perspective on the Healthy Donor Effect from Donor InSight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hurk, Katja; Zalpuri, Saurabh; Prinsze, Femmeke J.; Merz, Eva-Maria; de Kort, Wim L. A. M.

    2017-01-01

    In donor health research, the 'Healthy Donor Effect' (HDE) often biases study results and hampers their interpretation. This refers to the fact that donors are a selected 'healthier' subset of a population due to both donor selection procedures and self-selection. Donors with long versus short donor

  20. Can donor aid for health be effective in a poor country? Assessment of prerequisites for aid effectiveness in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliet, Nabyonga Orem; Freddie, Ssengooba; Okuonzi, Sam

    2009-10-22

    Inadequate funding for health is a challenge to attaining health-related Millennium Development Goals. Significant increase in health funding was recommended by the Commission for Macroeconomics and Health. Indeed Official Development Assistance has increased significantly in Uganda. However, the effectiveness of donor aid has come under greater scrutiny. This paper scrutinizes the prerequisites for aid effectiveness. The objective of the study was to assess the prerequisites for effectiveness of donor aid, specifically, its proportion to overall health funding, predictability, comprehensiveness, alignment to country priorities, and channeling mechanisms. Secondary data obtained from various official reports and surveys were analyzed against the variables mentioned under objectives. This was augmented by observations and participation in discussions with all stakeholders to discuss sector performance including health financing. Between 2004-2007, the level of aid increased from US$6 per capita to US$11. Aid was found to be unpredictable with expenditure varying between 174-8722;360 percent from budgets. More than 50% of aid was found to be off budget and unavailable for comprehensive planning. There was disproportionate funding for some items such as drugs. Key health system elements such as human resources and infrastructure have not been given due attention in investment. The government's health funding from domestic sources grew only modestly which did not guarantee fiscal sustainability. Although donor aid is significant there is need to invest in the prerequisites that would guarantee its effective use.

  1. Can donor aid for health be effective in a poor country? Assessment of prerequisites for aid effectiveness in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ssengooba Freddie

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inadequate funding for health is a challenge to attaining health-related Millennium Development Goals. Significant increase in health funding was recommended by the Commission for Macroeconomics and Health. Indeed Official Development Assistance has increased significantly in Uganda. However, the effectiveness of donor aid has come under greater scrutiny. This paper scrutinizes the prerequisites for aid effectiveness. The objective of the study was to assess the prerequisites for effectiveness of donor aid, specifically, its proportion to overall health funding, predictability, comprehensiveness, alignment to country priorities, and channeling mechanisms. Methods:Secondary data obtained from various official reports and surveys were analyzed against the variables mentioned under objectives. This was augmented by observations and participation in discussions with all stakeholders to discuss sector performance including health financing. Results:Between 2004−2007, the level of aid increased from US$6 per capita to US$11. Aid was found to be unpredictable with expenditure varying between 174−360 percent from budgets. More than 50% of aid was found to be off budget and unavailable for comprehensive planning. There was disproportionate funding for some items such as drugs. Key health system elements such as human resources and infrastructure have not been given due attention in investment. The government’s health funding from domestic sources grew only modestly which did not guarantee fiscal sustainability. Conclusion: Although donor aid is significant there is need to invest in the prerequisites that would guarantee its effective use.

  2. Preventing Mitochondrial Diseases: Embryo-Sparing Donor-Independent Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adashi, Eli Y; Cohen, I Glenn

    2018-05-01

    Mutant mitochondrial DNA gives rise to a broad range of incurable inborn maladies. Prevention may now be possible by replacing the mutation-carrying mitochondria of zygotes or oocytes at risk with donated unaffected counterparts. However, mitochondrial replacement therapy is being held back by theological, ethical, and safety concerns over the loss of human zygotes and the involvement of a donor. These concerns make it plain that the identification, validation, and regulatory adjudication of novel embryo-sparing donor-independent technologies remains a pressing imperative. This Opinion highlights three emerging embryo-sparing donor-independent options that stand to markedly allay theological, ethical, and safety concerns raised by mitochondrial replacement therapy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Protecting the interests of the child bone marrow donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Louise M; Campbell, Anne

    2004-01-01

    At a time when designer babies have been created to act as cord blood donors to sick siblings, ethical debate has focused predominantly on the extent to which it is acceptable to create one human being to assist another. However, children are frequently used this way, by their families and doctors who extract their bone marrow, to try to save the life of another, usually a sibling. With any life-threatening illness, there is the possibility that the urgency of the sick sibling's need means that the short-term welfare of the donor child receives less attention than it should by parents and doctors. This article suggests ways to protect the interests of such children and empower them within the decision-making process and concludes that the drive to save life must be tempered by recognition of the intrinsic worth of donor children and their rights not to be exploited.

  4. Human milk sharing practices in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmquist, Aunchalee E L; Doehler, Kirsten

    2016-04-01

    The primary objective of this study is to describe human milk sharing practices in the U.S. Specifically, we examine milk sharing social networks, donor compensation, the prevalence of anonymous milk sharing interactions, recipients' concerns about specific milk sharing risks, and lay screening behaviors. Data on human milk sharing practices were collected via an online survey September 2013-March 2014. Chi-square analyses were used to test the association between risk perception and screening practices. A total of 867 (661 donors, 206 recipients) respondents were included in the analyses. Most (96.1%) reported sharing milk face-to-face. Only 10% of respondents reported giving or receiving milk through a non-profit human milk bank, respectively. There were no reports of anonymous purchases of human milk. A small proportion of recipients (4.0%) reported that their infant had a serious medical condition. Screening of prospective donors was common (90.7%) but varied with social relationship and familiarity. Likewise, concern about specific milk sharing risks was varied, and risk perception was significantly associated (P-values = 0.01 or less) with donor screening for all risk variables except diet. Understanding lay perceptions of milk sharing risk and risk reduction strategies that parents are using is an essential first step in developing public health interventions and clinical practices that promote infant safety. © 2015 The Authors. Maternal & Child Nutrition published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Donor body mass index is an important factor that affects peripheral blood progenitor cell yield in healthy donors after mobilization with granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian; Burns, Kevin M; Babic, Aleksandar; Carrum, George; Kennedy, Martha; Segura, Francisco J; Garcia, Salvador; Potts, Sandra; Leveque, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    The use of hematopoietic progenitor cell (HPC) transplantation has rapidly expanded in recent years. Currently, several sources of HPCs are available for transplantation including peripheral blood HPCs (PBPCs), cord blood cells, and marrow cells. Of these, PBPC collection has become the major source of HPCs. An important variable in PBPC collection is the response to PBPC mobilization, which varies significantly and sometime causes mobilization failure. A retrospective study of 69 healthy donors who underwent PBPC donation by leukapheresis was performed. All of these donors received 10 μg/kg/day or more granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) for 5 days before PBPC harvest. Donor factors were evaluated and correlated with mobilization responses, as indicated by the precollection CD34 count (pre-CD34). Donors with a pre-CD34 of more than 100 × 10(6) /L had higher body mass index (BMI) compared with donors whose pre-CD34 was 38 × 10(6) to 99 × 10(6) /L or less than 38 × 10(6) /L (32.0 ± 1.04 kg/m(2) vs. 28.7 ± 0.93 kg/m(2) vs. 25.9 ± 1.27 kg/m(2) , respectively; p donors with high BMIs had higher pre-CD34 on a per-kilogram-of-body-weight basis compared with donors with low BMIs. BMI is an important factor that affects donor's response to mobilization and consequently the HPC yield. This effect may be due to a relatively high dose of G-CSF administered to donors with higher BMI or due to the presence of unknown intrinsic factors affecting mobilization that correlate with the amount of adipose tissue in each donor. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.

  6. Influence of donor-donor transport on excitation energy transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, K K; Joshi, H C; Pant, T C [Kumaun University, Nainital (India). Department of Physics

    1989-01-01

    Energy migration and transfer from acriflavine to rhodamine B and malachite green in poly (methylmethacrylate) have been investigated using the decay function analysis. It is found that the influence of energy migration in energy transfer can be described quite convincingly by making use of the theories of Loring, Andersen and Fayer (LAF) and Huber. At high acceptor concentration direct donor-acceptor transfer occurs through Forster mechanism. (author). 17 refs., 5 figs.

  7. Establishment of an oocyte donor program. Donor screening and selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, M M; Collins, R L; Schover, L R

    1991-01-01

    IVF with donated oocytes, followed by embryo placement in the uterus of a recipient who has been primed with exogenous steroids, is a successful treatment for special cases of infertility. Preliminary results indicate that the success rate in this situation is even greater than that usually seen with normal IVF (with placement of the embryos back into the uteri of the women from whom the oocytes were recovered). Although different sources for donated oocytes have been identified, the use of "excess" oocytes from IVF cycles and the attempted collection of oocytes at the time of otherwise indicated pelvic surgery have ethical and practical problems associated with their use. We have herein described the establishment of a successful program relying on anonymous volunteers who go through ovarian stimulation, monitoring, and oocyte recovery procedures solely to donate oocytes. The potential donors go through an exhaustive screening and education process before they are accepted in the program. Psychological evaluation of our potential donors indicated a great degree of turmoil in their backgrounds and a wide variety of motivations for actually participating. Despite the extensive educational and screening process, a substantial percentage of the donors did not complete a donation cycle, having either voluntarily withdrawn or been dropped because of lack of compliance. Further investigation of the psychological aspects of participating in such a program is certainly warranted. The use of donated oocytes to alleviate specific types of infertility is quite successful, but the application of this treatment is likely to be limited by the relative unavailability of suitable oocyte donors.

  8. [Characteristics of the Chinese human milk banks' operation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-02

    Objective: To assess the operation status of human milk banks in the mainland of China. Method: This retrospective study included a consecutive series of 14 human milk banks in the mainland of China from March 2013 to December 2016. The opened date, condition of donated breast milk, characteristics of donors and clinical application of donated breast milk were analyzed. Result: There were 14 human milk banks successively founded in mainland China from March 2013 to December 2016. The number of human milk banks, the amount of donated breast milk, the number of eligible donors and the times of donation had increased each year. Howere, the operation status among these milk banks varied greatly. Among them, one human milk bank has newly opened without relevant data, 6 banks could accept frozen breast milk, and the remaining 7 banks could only collect breast milk by the nurses in the bank. Among the 3 121 eligible donors, 1 404 (45.0%) donated less than 3 times, 2 553 (81.8%) aged 25 to 35 years, 2 828 (90.6%) had term delivery, 2 409 (77.2%) began donation one month after birth, 1 798 (57.6%) were company employees and housewives and 1 891 (60.6%) had bachelor or higher degree. The use of donor breast milk, the number of recipients and the average received amount of breast milk every person varied greatly among these banks. Conclusion: The human milk banking developed quickly in the mainland of China. Howere, the number of donors and the amount of donated breast milk which could not meet the clinical demands should be improved. And it was urgent to establish the standards or guidelines of the human milk banking as soon as possible in China.

  9. Vasovagal reactions in whole blood donors at 3 REDS-II blood centers in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncalez, T. T.; Sabino, E. C.; Schlumpf, K.S.; Wright, D.J.; Leao, S.; Sampaio, D.; Takecian, P. L.; Carneiro-Proietti, AB; Murphy, E.; Busch, M.; Custer, B.

    2013-01-01

    Background In Brazil little is known about adverse reactions during donation and the donor characteristics that may be associated with such events. Donors are offered snacks and fluids prior to donating and are required to consume a light meal after donation. For these reasons the frequency of reactions may be different than those observed in other countries. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted of eligible whole blood donors at three large blood centers located in Brazil between July 2007 and December 2009. Vasovagal reactions (VVRs) along with donor demographic and biometric data were collected. Reactions were defined as any presyncopal or syncopal event during the donation process. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify predictors of VVRs. Results Of 724,861 donor presentations, 16,129 (2.2%) VVRs were recorded. Rates varied substantially between the three centers: 53, 290 and 381 per 10,000 donations in Recife, São Paulo and Belo Horizonte, respectively. Although the reaction rates varied, the donor characteristics associated with VVRs were similar [younger age (18–29), replacement donors, first time donors, low estimated blood volume (EBV)]. In multivariable analysis controlling for differences between the donor populations in each city younger age, first-time donor status and lower EBV were the factors most associated with reactions. Conclusion Factors associated with VVRs in other locations are also evident in Brazil. The difference in VVR rates between the three centers might be due to different procedures for identifying and reporting the reactions. Potential interventions to reduce the risk of reactions in Brazil should be considered. PMID:22073941

  10. Donor Selection for Allogenic Hemopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: Clinical and Ethical Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Riezzo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Allogenic hematopoietic progenitor cell transplantation (allo-HSCT is an established treatment for many diseases. Stem cells may be obtained from different sources: mobilized peripheral blood stem cells, bone marrow, and umbilical cord blood. The progress in transplantation procedures, the establishment of experienced transplant centres, and the creation of unrelated adult donor registries and cord blood banks gave those without an human leucocyte antigen- (HLA- identical sibling donor the opportunity to find a donor and cord blood units worldwide. HSCT imposes operative cautions so that the entire donation/transplantation procedure is safe for both donors and recipients; it carries with it significant clinical, moral, and ethical concerns, mostly when donors are minors. The following points have been stressed: the donation should be excluded when excessive risks for the donor are reasonable, donors must receive an accurate information regarding eventual adverse events and health burden for the donors themselves, a valid consent is required, and the recipient’s risks must be outweighed by the expected benefits. The issue of conflict of interest, when the same physician has the responsibility for both donor selection and recipient care, is highlighted as well as the need of an adequate insurance protection for all the parties involved.

  11. Alternative allogeneic donor sources for transplantation for childhood diseases: unrelated cord blood and haploidentical family donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairo, Mitchell S; Rocha, Vanderson; Gluckman, Eliane; Hale, Gregory; Wagner, John

    2008-01-01

    Allogeneic stem cell transplantation has been demonstrated to be curative in a wide variety of pediatric malignant and nonmalignant diseases, and can be traced back over 50 years ago to the original report of Thomas et al. HLA matched sibling donors have been the gold standard for pediatric recipients requiring allogeneic donors for both nonmalignant and malignant conditions. However, only 25% of potential pediatric recipients possesses an HLA-matched sibling donor, and the frequency is even less in those with genetic nonmalignant conditions because of genetically affected other siblings within the family. Therefore, 75% to 90% of potential pediatric recipients require alternative allogeneic donor cells for treatment of their underlying conditions. Potential alternative allogeneic donor sources include unrelated cord blood donors, unrelated adult donors, and haploidentical family donors. In this article we review the experience of both unrelated cord blood donor and haploidentical family donor transplants in selected pediatric malignant and nonmalignant conditions.

  12. Blood donor: nursing care plan

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Antonio Zapata Sampedro; Laura Castro Varela

    2008-01-01

    The standardized nursing care plan can be used as a means through which the nurse will assess and identify the particular needs of the blood donor.To draw up the care plan, we have conducted the evaluation on the basis of the Marjory Gordon’s functional health patterns.The more prevailing diagnosis according to the NANDA taxonomy have been identified, results have been established according to the NOC (Nursing Outcomes Classification) taxonomy, and nursing interventions have been suggested ac...

  13. Comparison of long-term outcomes between spousal transplants and other living unrelated donor transplants: single-center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hye Eun; Song, Joon Chang; Hyoung, Bok Jin; Hwang, Hyeon Seok; Lee, So Young; Jeon, Youn Joo; Park, Sun Cheol; Choi, Bum Soon; Kim, Yong Soo; Moon, In Sung; Yang, Chul Woo

    2009-01-01

    The greater use of living unrelated donors (LUDs) as kidney donors is a worldwide trend in the current era of organ shortage, and spouses are an important source of LUDs. This study was to compare the long-term outcomes of spousal donor grafts with other LUD grafts. Among 445 LUD grafts, 77 were spouses and 368 were other LUDs. The clinical characteristics and long-term survival rates for spousal transplants were compared with those for other LUD transplants, and risk factors affecting graft survival were assessed. Spousal donors had a significantly higher average number of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) mismatches (4.2 vs. 3.4, p HLA mismatching, the spousal donor type or donor age did not affect the graft survival. Renal transplants from spousal donors show similar long-term outcomes to those from better HLA-matched and younger LUDs. (c) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Partial phenotyping in voluntary blood donors of Gujarat State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maitrey Gajjar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Partial phenotyping of voluntary blood donors has vital role in transfusion practice, population genetic study and in resolving legal issues.The Rh blood group is one of the most complex and highly immunogenic blood group known in humans. The Kell system, discovered in 1946, is the third most potent system at triggering hemolytic transfusion reactions and consists of 25 highly immunogenic antigens. Knowledge of Rh & Kell phenotypes in given population is relevant for better planning and management of blood bank; the main goal is to find compatible blood for patients needing multiple blood transfusions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of Rh & Kell phenotype of voluntary donors in Gujarat state. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted by taking 5670 samples from random voluntary blood donors coming in blood donation camp. Written consent was taken for donor phenotyping. The antigen typing of donors was performed by Qwalys-3(manufacturer: Diagast by using electromagnetic technology on Duolys plates. Results: Out of 5670 donors, the most common Rh antigen observed in the study population was e (99.07% followed by D (95.40%, C (88.77%, c (55.89% and E (17.88%. The frequency of the Kell antigen (K was 1.78 %. Discussion: The antigen frequencies among blood donors from Gujarat were compared with those published for other Indian populations. The frequency of D antigen in our study (95.4% and north Indian donors (93.6 was significantly higher than in the Caucasians (85% and lower than in the Chinese (99%. The frequencies of C, c and E antigens were dissimilar to other ethnic groups while the ′e′ antigen was present in high frequency in our study as also in the other ethnic groups. Kell antigen (K was found in only 101 (1.78 % donors out of 5670. Frequency of Kell antigen in Caucasian and Black populations is 9% & 2% respectively. The most common Kell phenotype was K-k+, not just in Indians (96.5% but

  15. The Stem Cell Club: a model for unrelated stem cell donor recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fingrut, Warren; Parmar, Simran; Cuperfain, Ari; Rikhraj, Kiran; Charman, Erin; Ptak, Emilie; Kahlon, Manjot; Graham, Alice; Luong, Susan; Wang, Yongjun George; Yu, Janice; Arora, Neha; Suppiah, Roopa; Li, Edward W; Lee, Anna; Welsh, Christopher; Benzaquen, Menachem; Thatcher, Alicia; Baharmand, Iman; Ladd, Aedan; Petraszko, Tanya; Allan, David; Messner, Hans

    2017-12-01

    Patients with blood, immune, or metabolic diseases may require a stem cell transplant as part of their treatment. However, 70% of patients do not have a suitable human leukocyte antigen match in their family, and need an unrelated donor. Individuals can register as potential donors at stem cell drives, where they provide consent and a tissue sample for human leukocyte antigen typing. The ideal donors are young, male, and from a diversity of ethnic backgrounds. However, in Canada, non-Caucasian males ages 17 to 35 years represent only 8.8% of listed donors. The Stem Cell Club is a non-profit organization founded in 2011 in Canada that aims to augment recruitment of the most needed donors. The initiative published a recruitment toolkit online (www.stemcellclub.ca). Currently, there are 12 chapters at universities across Canada. To date, the Stem Cell Club has recruited 6585 potential registrants, representing 1.63% of donors on Canada's donor-database. Of the recruited registrants, 58.3% were male; 60.3% of males self-reported as non-Caucasian, and 78.5% were ages 17 to 25 years. From 2015 to 2016, the initiative recruited 13.7% of all ethnically diverse males ages 17 to 35 years listed in Canada's donor database. Data from this initiative demonstrate sustainability and performance on key indicators of stem cell drive quality. The Stem Cell Club has developed a capacity to recruit 2600 donors annually, with the majority being males with a high degree of ethnic diversity. The initiative enhances the quality of Canada's unrelated donor-database, improving the chances that patients in need of an unrelated donor will find a match for transplant. The Stem Cell Club is a model relevant to recruitment organizations around the world. © 2017 AABB.

  16. How do characteristics of donors and their children influence volume and composition of banked milk?

    OpenAIRE

    Pasqua Anna Quitadamo; Giuseppina Palumbo; Alberto Gatta; Liliana Cianti; Massimiliano Copetti; Maria Assunta Gentile; Pierpaolo Cristalli

    2018-01-01

    When own mother’s milk is not available, donor human milk (DHM) is the first choice in preterm infant feeding. Although worldwide strong efforts have been made to implement human milk (HM) donation, there is currently little available research on donors characteristics and their influence on volume and composition of DHM. The present study aimed to evaluate the relationship between social-demographic variables of donating mothers (age, residence, job, number of children), as well as gestation...

  17. The difference between fingerstick and venous hemoglobin and hematocrit varies by sex and iron stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cable, Ritchard G; Steele, Whitney R; Melmed, Russell S; Johnson, Bryce; Mast, Alan E; Carey, Patricia M; Kiss, Joseph E; Kleinman, Steven H; Wright, David J

    2012-05-01

    Fingerstick blood samples are used to estimate donor venous hemoglobin (Hb). Fingerstick Hb or hematocrit (Hct) was determined routinely for 2425 selected donors at six blood centers, along with venous Hb. Using sex and measures of iron status including absent iron stores (AIS; ferritin < 12 ng/mL), linear regression models were developed to predict venous Hb from fingerstick. Across all subjects, fingerstick Hb was higher than venous Hb in the higher part of the clinical range, but lower in the lower part of the range. The relationship varied by sex and iron status. Across centers, a female donor had on average a venous Hb result 0.5 to 0.8 g/dL lower than a male donor with the same fingerstick Hb and iron status. Similarly, a donor with AIS had on average a venous Hb result 0.3 to 1.1 g/dL lower than an iron-replete donor with the same fingerstick value and sex. An iron-replete male donor with a fingerstick result at the cutoff (Hb 12.5 g/dL) had an acceptable expected venous Hb (12.8 to 13.8 g/dL). A female donor with AIS with a fingerstick result at the cutoff had an expected venous Hb below 12.5 g/dL (11.7 to 12.4 g/dL). Of females with AIS, 40.2% donated blood when their venous Hb was less than 12.5 g/dL. Fingerstick is considered a useful estimator of venous Hb. However, in some donor groups, particularly female donors with AIS, fingerstick overestimates venous Hb at the donation cutoff. This significant limitation should be considered in setting donor fingerstick Hb or Hct requirements. © 2011 American Association of Blood Banks.

  18. Renal Transplantation from Elderly Living Donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob A. Akoh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acceptance of elderly living kidney donors remains controversial due to the higher incidence of comorbidity and greater risk of postoperative complications. This is a review of publications in the English language between 2000 and 2013 about renal transplantation from elderly living donors to determine trends and effects of donation, and the outcomes of such transplantation. The last decade witnessed a 50% increase in living kidney donor transplants, with a disproportionate increase in donors >60 years. There is no accelerated loss of kidney function following donation, and the incidence of established renal failure (ERF and hypertension among donors is similar to that of the general population. The overall incidence of ERF in living donors is about 0.134 per 1000 years. Elderly donors require rigorous assessment and should have a predicted glomerular filtration rate of at least 37.5 mL/min/1.73 m2 at the age of 80. Though elderly donors had lower glomerular filtration rate before donation, proportionate decline after donation was similar in both young and elderly groups. The risks of delayed graft function, acute rejection, and graft failure in transplants from living donors >65 years are significantly higher than transplants from younger donors. A multicentred, long-term, and prospective database addressing the outcomes of kidneys from elderly living donors is recommended.

  19. Development of Organ-Specific Donor Risk Indices

    OpenAIRE

    Akkina, Sanjeev K.; Asrani, Sumeet K.; Peng, Yi; Stock, Peter; Kim, Ray; Israni, Ajay K.

    2012-01-01

    Due to the shortage of deceased donor organs, transplant centers accept organs from marginal deceased donors, including older donors. Organ-specific donor risk indices have been developed to predict graft survival using various combinations of donor and recipient characteristics. We will review the kidney donor risk index (KDRI) and liver donor risk index (LDRI) and compare and contrast their strengths, limitations, and potential uses. The Kidney Donor Risk Index has a potential role in devel...

  20. Calcium in drinking water: effect on iron stores in Danish blood donors-results from the Danish Blood Donor Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigas, Andreas S; Ejsing, Benedikte H; Sørensen, Erik; Pedersen, Ole B; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Erikstrup, Christian; Ullum, Henrik

    2018-03-25

    Studies confirm that calcium inhibits iron absorption. Danish tap water comes from groundwater, which contains varying amounts of calcium depending on the subsoil. We investigated the association of calcium in drinking water with iron levels in Danish blood donors. We used data on Danish blood donors including dietary and lifestyle habits, blood donation history, and physiologic characteristics including measures of ferritin levels along with information on area of residence from The Danish Blood Donor Study. Data on calcium levels in groundwater ("water hardness") were obtained through the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland. We performed multiple linear and logistic regression analyses to evaluate the effect of water hardness on ferritin levels and risk of having iron deficiency (defined as ferritin levels water hardness and ferritin levels in both men and women. Risk of iron deficiency was correspondingly increased in both men (odds ratio [OR], 1.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.14-2.12) and women (OR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.03-1.40) with increasing water hardness. In analyses restricted to individuals who received supplemental iron tablets no significant association between groundwater hardness and ferritin levels was observed. As measured by ferritin levels, residential drinking water calcium content is associated with blood donors- iron levels and risk of iron deficiency. However, effect sizes are small. © 2018 AABB.

  1. An Algorithm Measuring Donor Cell-Free DNA in Plasma of Cellular and Solid Organ Transplant Recipients That Does Not Require Donor or Recipient Genotyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul MK Gordon

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cell-free DNA (cfDNA has significant potential in the diagnosis and monitoring of clinical conditions but accurately and easily distinguishing the relative proportion of DNA molecules in a mixture derived from two different sources (i.e. donor and recipient tissues after transplantation is challenging. In human cellular transplantation there is currently no useable method to detect in vivo engraftment and blood-based non-invasive tests for allograft rejection in solid organ transplantation are either non-specific (e.g. creatinine in kidney transplantation, liver enzymes in hepatic transplantation or absent (i.e. heart transplantation. Elevated levels of donor cfDNA have been shown to correlate with solid organ rejection but complex methodology limits implementation of this promising biomarker. We describe a cost-effective method to quantify donor cfDNA in recipient plasma using a panel of high-frequency single nucleotide polymorphisms, next-generation (semiconductor sequencing and a novel mixture model algorithm. In vitro, our method accurately and rapidly determined donor/recipient DNA admixture. For in vivo testing, donor cfDNA was serially quantified in an infant with a urea cycle disorder after receiving six daily infusions of donor liver cells. Donor cfDNA isolated from 1-2 ml of recipient plasma was detected as late as 24 weeks after infusion suggesting engraftment. The percentage of circulating donor cfDNA was also assessed in pediatric and adult heart transplant recipients undergoing routine endomyocardial biopsy with levels observed to be stable over time and generally measuring <1% in cases without moderate or severe cellular rejection. Unlike existing non-invasive methods used to define the proportion of donor cfDNA in solid organ transplant patients, our assay does not require sex mismatch, donor genotyping or whole-genome sequencing and potentially has broad application to detect cellular engraftment or allograft injury after

  2. A Comparison of Nutritional Antioxidant Content in Breast Milk, Donor Milk, and Infant Formulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Corrine; Lyden, Elizabeth; Furtado, Jeremy; Van Ormer, Matthew; Anderson-Berry, Ann

    2016-10-28

    Human milk is the optimal food for human infants, including infants born prematurely. In the event that a mother of a hospitalized infant cannot provide breast milk, donor milk is considered an acceptable alternative. It is known that the macronutrient composition of donor milk is different than human milk, with variable fat content and protein content. However, much less is known about the micronutrient content of donor milk, including nutritional antioxidants. Samples of breast milk from 12 mothers of infants hospitalized in the Newborn Intensive Care Unit until were collected and analyzed for concentrations of nutritional antioxidants, including α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, lutein + zeaxanthin, retinol, and α-tocopherol. Additionally, a homogenized sample of donor milk available from a commercial milk bank and samples of infant formulas were also analyzed. Concentrations of nutritional antioxidants were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. Compared to breast milk collected from mothers of hospitalized infants, commercially available donor milk had 18%-53% of the nutritional antioxidant content of maternal breast milk. As donor milk is becoming a common nutritional intervention for the high risk preterm infant, the nutritional antioxidant status of donor milk-fed premature infants and outcomes related to oxidative stress may merit further investigation.

  3. A Comparison of Nutritional Antioxidant Content in Breast Milk, Donor Milk, and Infant Formulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrine Hanson

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Human milk is the optimal food for human infants, including infants born prematurely. In the event that a mother of a hospitalized infant cannot provide breast milk, donor milk is considered an acceptable alternative. It is known that the macronutrient composition of donor milk is different than human milk, with variable fat content and protein content. However, much less is known about the micronutrient content of donor milk, including nutritional antioxidants. Samples of breast milk from 12 mothers of infants hospitalized in the Newborn Intensive Care Unit until were collected and analyzed for concentrations of nutritional antioxidants, including α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, lutein + zeaxanthin, retinol, and α-tocopherol. Additionally, a homogenized sample of donor milk available from a commercial milk bank and samples of infant formulas were also analyzed. Concentrations of nutritional antioxidants were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. Compared to breast milk collected from mothers of hospitalized infants, commercially available donor milk had 18%–53% of the nutritional antioxidant content of maternal breast milk. As donor milk is becoming a common nutritional intervention for the high risk preterm infant, the nutritional antioxidant status of donor milk–fed premature infants and outcomes related to oxidative stress may merit further investigation.

  4. Influence of postmortem time on the outcome of blood cultures among cadaveric tissue donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saegeman, V; Verhaegen, J; Lismont, D; Verduyckt, B; De Rijdt, T; Ectors, N

    2009-02-01

    Tissue banks provide tissues of human cadaver donors for transplantation. The maximal time limit for tissue retrieval has been set at 24 h postmortem. This study aimed at evaluating the evidence for this limit from a microbiological point of view. The delay of growth in postmortem blood cultures, the identification of the species isolated and clinical/environmental factors were investigated among 100 potential tissue donors. No significant difference was found in the rate of donors with grown blood cultures within (25/65=38%) compared with after (24/65=37%) 24 h of death. Coagulase-negative staphylococci and gastro-intestinal microorganisms were isolated within and after 24 h of death. Two factors--antimicrobial therapy and "delay before body cooling"--were significantly inversely related with donors' blood culture results. From a microbiological point of view, there is no evidence for avoiding tissue retrieval among donors after 24 h of death.

  5. Laparoscopic nephrectomy in live donor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitre Anuar I.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To present the initial experience of videolaparoscopic nephrectomy in live renal donor. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the period from April 2000 to August 2003, 50 left nephrectomies in live donor were performed by videolaparoscopy for transplantation. Twenty-eight patients were male (56% and 22 female (44%. Mean age was 37.2 years, and the mean body mass index (BMI was 27.1 kg/m². RESULTS: Mean surgical time was 179.5 minutes, and warm ischemia time of the graft was 3.79 minutes. The mean estimated bleeding was 141 mL. There was no need of blood transfusion or conversion to open surgery. In 42 cases (84%, the vascular portion of the graft was considered good by the recipient's surgical team and in all cases, the ureter was considered of proper size, though in one of them (2% its vascularization was considered improper. The transplanted kidneys produced urine still in the surgical room in 46 of the 50 transplantations considered. In only 2 cases opioid was required for analgesia. In average, 3.1 doses of dipyrone were used for each patient during hospital stay, and hospital discharge occurred, in average, after 3.2 days post-operatively. Two patients required re-operations and one of them evolved to death. CONCLUSIONS: The laparoscopic nephrectomy in live donor for renal transplantation is an alternative to conventional open surgery. In relation to the graft, no alteration, either anatomic or functional, was detected. Though there is already a large documentation in the international literature regarding this procedure, in our setting a prospective randomized study with the usual surgical study is still necessary in order to prove the advantages and disadvantages of the method.

  6. Laparoscopic nephrectomy in live donor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuar I. Mitre

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To present the initial experience of videolaparoscopic nephrectomy in live renal donor. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the period from April 2000 to August 2003, 50 left nephrectomies in live donor were performed by videolaparoscopy for transplantation. Twenty-eight patients were male (56% and 22 female (44%. Mean age was 37.2 years, and the mean body mass index (BMI was 27.1 kg/m². RESULTS: Mean surgical time was 179.5 minutes, and warm ischemia time of the graft was 3.79 minutes. The mean estimated bleeding was 141 mL. There was no need of blood transfusion or conversion to open surgery. In 42 cases (84%, the vascular portion of the graft was considered good by the recipient's surgical team and in all cases, the ureter was considered of proper size, though in one of them (2% its vascularization was considered improper. The transplanted kidneys produced urine still in the surgical room in 46 of the 50 transplantations considered. In only 2 cases opioid was required for analgesia. In average, 3.1 doses of dipyrone were used for each patient during hospital stay, and hospital discharge occurred, in average, after 3.2 days post-operatively. Two patients required re-operations and one of them evolved to death. CONCLUSIONS: The laparoscopic nephrectomy in live donor for renal transplantation is an alternative to conventional open surgery. In relation to the graft, no alteration, either anatomic or functional, was detected. Though there is already a large documentation in the international literature regarding this procedure, in our setting a prospective randomized study with the usual surgical study is still necessary in order to prove the advantages and disadvantages of the method.

  7. Molecular blood grouping of donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Louis, Maryse

    2014-04-01

    For many decades, hemagglutination has been the sole means to type blood donors. Since the first blood group gene cloning in the early 1990s, knowledge on the molecular basis of most red blood cell, platelet and neutrophil antigens brought the possibility of using nucleotide-based techniques to predict phenotype. This review will summarized methodologies available to genotype blood groups from laboratory developed assays to commercially available platforms, and how proficiency assays become more present. The author will also share her vision of the transfusion medicine future. The field is presently at the crossroads, bringing new perspectives to a century old practice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Donor free radical explosive composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Franklin E. [15 Way Points Rd., Danville, CA 94526; Wasley, Richard J. [4290 Colgate Way, Livermore, CA 94550

    1980-04-01

    An improved explosive composition is disclosed and comprises a major portion of an explosive having a detonation velocity between about 1500 and 10,000 meters per second and a minor amount of a donor additive comprising an organic compound or mixture of organic compounds capable of releasing low molecular weight free radicals or ions under mechanical or electrical shock conditions and which is not an explosive, or an inorganic compound or mixture of inorganic compounds capable of releasing low molecular weight free radicals or ions under mechanical or electrical shock conditions and selected from ammonium or alkali metal persulfates.

  9. Living donor risk model for predicting kidney allograft and patient survival in an emerging economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Mirza Naqi; Wong, Germaine; Aziz, Tahir; Abbas, Khawar; Adibul Hasan Rizvi, S

    2018-03-01

    Living donor kidney is the main source of donor organs in low to middle income countries. We aimed to develop a living donor risk model that predicts graft and patient survival in an emerging economy. We used data from the Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation (SIUT) database (n = 2283 recipients and n = 2283 living kidney donors, transplanted between 1993 and 2009) and conducted Cox proportional hazard analyses to develop a composite score that predicts graft and patient survivals. Donor factors age, creatinine clearance, nephron dose (estimated by donor/recipient body weight ratio) and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) match were included in the living donor risk model. The adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for graft failures among those who received a kidney with living donor scores (reference to donor score of zero) of 1, 2, 3 and 4 were 1.14 (95%CI: 0.94-1.39), 1.24 (95%CI:1.03-1.49), 1.25 (95%CI:1.03-1.51) and 1.36 (95%CI:1.08-1.72) (P-value for trend =0.05). Similar findings were observed for patient survival. Similar to findings in high income countries, our study suggests that donor characteristics such as age, nephron dose, creatinine clearance and HLA match are important factors that determine the long-term patient and graft survival in low income countries. However, other crucial but undefined factors may play a role in determining the overall risk of graft failure and mortality in living kidney donor transplant recipients. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  10. Seroprevalence, molecular epidemiology and quantitation of parvovirus B19 DNA levels in Iranian blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadsar, Maryam; Aghakhani, Arezoo; Banifazl, Mohammad; Kazemimanesh, Monireh; Tabatabaei Yazdi, Seyed Morteza; Mamishi, Setareh; Bavand, Anahita; Sadat Larijani, Mona; Ramezani, Amitis

    2018-04-16

    Human parvovirus B19 (B19) infection is common among blood donors, and healthy blood donors can transmit virus via transfusion. Due to resistance of B19 to viral inactivation methods, there is a potential concern regarding transfusion safety in blood products. We aimed to determine the seroprevalence, molecular epidemiology, and quantitation of B19 DNA levels in blood donors in Tehran, Iran. A total of 500 blood donors from Blood Transfusion Research Center were studied. ELISA was used for detection of B19 IgG and IgM and nested PCR was carried out for detection of B19 DNA. PCR products were subjected to direct sequencing. B19 viral load was determined by real time PCR. B19 IgG, IgM, and DNA were detected in 27.6, 2.6, and 1.2% of donors respectively. Ten samples (2%) were positive for both antibodies while in four cases (0.8%), B19 IgG and DNA detected simultaneously. One case had B19 IgM, IgG, and viremia concurrently. The titers of B19 DNA in four of six donors were more than 10 6  IU/mL (high level viremia) and all four cases had IgG simultaneously. All B19 isolates categorized in genotype 1A. Our findings indicated that prevalence of B19 DNA in Iranian blood donors was comparable with previous studies throughout the world. High level B19 viremia found in 0.8% of our donors and all viremic donors revealed neutralizing B19 antibody. Therefore implementation of a B19 screening test for each volunteer blood donor does not appear to be necessary but B19 testing for plasma-derived products seems important in Iranian donors. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. [Demography and donation frequencies of blood and plasma donor populations in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Sabine; Willand, L; Reinhard, B; Offergeld, R; Hamouda, O

    2008-08-01

    According to Article 22 of the Transfusion Act, the Robert Koch Institute collects and evaluates nationwide data on the prevalence and incidence of transfusion-relevant infections among blood and plasma donors in Germany. Due to revision of the Transfusion Act in 2005 not only the number of donations but also the number of donors has become available for analysis. Here we give a detailed account on the demographic profile and donation frequencies of German whole blood, plasma and platelet donors in 2006. Overall, 4 % of the German population eligible to donate were active as repeat whole blood donors in 2006; 0.3 % repeatedly donated plasma or platelets. Irrespective of the type of donation, the percentage of donors among the general population was highest among the youngest age group (18 to 24 years). While the age distribution of whole blood repeat donors roughly resembled that of the general population, with the greatest number among those aged 35 to 44, younger age groups were overrepresented among repeat plasma donors. Donation frequency varied depending on donor age and sex, with an average of 1.9 per year for whole blood donations, 11.9 for plasmapheresis and 4.0 for plateletpheresis. With the exception of the latter, men donated more frequently than women. For both sexes, donation frequency increased with age. Detailed knowledge of the demographic profile and changes in the composition of donor populations are essential for planning adequate blood supply. The data presented may serve as reference for assessing the consequences of measures that affect the number of donors and/or donations (for example changing deferral criteria) in Germany.

  12. Control of charge transfer by conformational and electronic effects: Donor-donor and donor-acceptor phenyl pyrroles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neubauer, Antje; Bendig, Juergen; Rettig, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    Derivatives of N-pyrrolobenzene with a para-donor and a para-acceptor substituent on the benzene ring are compared. It is shown that by a suitable increase of the donor strength of the pyrrolo group, CT fluorescence can be achieved even for donor-donor-substituted benzenes. The ICT emission for sterically hindered compounds is more forbidden than that of unhindered phenyl pyrroles. This suggests conformational effects which induce a narrower twist angle distribution around a perpendicular minimum in the excited state.

  13. 21 CFR 1271.75 - How do I screen a donor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., including: (i) Human immunodeficiency virus; (ii) Hepatitis B virus; (iii) Hepatitis C virus; (iv) Human... diseases, including Human T-lymphotropic virus. (c) Donors of reproductive cells or tissue. In addition to... this section; or (2) Any communicable disease risk associated with xenotransplantation. (e) Abbreviated...

  14. Global trends and challenges in deceased donor kidney allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Diana A; Watson, Christopher J; Bradley, J Andrew; Johnson, Rachel J; Forsythe, John L; Oniscu, Gabriel C

    2017-06-01

    Worldwide, the number of patients able to benefit from kidney transplantation is greatly restricted by the severe shortage of deceased donor organs. Allocation of this scarce resource is increasingly challenging and complex. Striking an acceptable balance between efficient use of (utility) and fair access to (equity) the limited supply of donated kidneys raises controversial but important debates at ethical, medical, and social levels. There is no international consensus on the recipient and donor factors that should be considered in the kidney allocation process. There is a general trend toward a reduction in the influence of human leukocyte antigen mismatch and an increase in the importance of other factors shown to affect posttransplant outcomes, such as cold ischemia, duration of dialysis, donor and recipient age, and comorbidity. Increased consideration of equity has led to improved access to transplantation for disadvantaged patient groups. There has been an overall improvement in the transparency and accountability of allocation policies. Novel and contentious approaches in kidney allocation include the use of survival prediction scores as a criterion for accessing the waiting list and at the point of organ offering with matching of predicted graft and recipient survival. This review compares the diverse international approaches to deceased donor kidney allocation and their evolution over the last decade. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Initial Experience with ABO-incompatible Live Donor Renal Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Kun Tsai

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The serious shortage of cadaveric organs has prompted the development of ABO-incompatible live donor renal transplantation. We report our experience of the initial two live donor ABO incompatible renal transplants at our hospital. The first patient was a 55-year-old type A female who received a kidney from her AB type husband. The second patient was a 27-year-old type O male who received renal transplantation from his type A father. Preconditioning immunosuppressive therapy in the two patients with tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil and methylprednisolone was started 7 days before transplantation. During the period of preconditioning, double filtration plasmapheresis (DFPP was employed to remove anti-A and -B antibodies. Laparoscopic splenectomy and renal transplantation were performed after the anti-donor ABO antibodies were reduced to a titer of 1:4. Rituximab, a humanized monoclonal anti-CD20 antibody, was administered to the second patient due to a rebound in the anti-A antibody titer during the preconditioning period. Under a tacrolimus-based immunosuppressive regimen, both patients recovered very well without any evidence of rejection. Serum creatinine levels were 1.0 and 1.4 mg/dL at 6 and 3 months after transplantation, respectively. These cases illustrate that with new immunosuppressive agents, DFPP and splenectomy, ABO-incompatible renal transplantation can be successfully conducted in end-stage renal disease patients whose only available live donors are blood group incompatible.

  16. Indian egg donors' characteristics, motivations and feelings towards the recipient and resultant child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadva, V; Lamba, N; Kadam, K; Golombok, S

    2015-12-01

    This is the first study to examine characteristics, motivations and experiences of Indian egg donors. In-depth interviews were conducted with 25 egg donors who had donated during the previous 8 months at a fertility clinic in Mumbai. The semi-structured interviews were conducted in Hindi and English. In addition to demographic information, data were collected on donors' motivations for donating, with whom they had discussed donation, and feelings towards the recipients. The response rate was 66%. All participants were literate and had attended school. Twenty (80%) egg donors had children and five (20%) did not. The most common motivation (19, 76%) for donating was financial need. Egg donors had discussed their donation with their husband or with close family/friends, with almost all mentioning that wider society would disapprove. The majority (20, 80%) had no information about the recipients and 11 (44%) preferred not to. The findings highlight the similarities and differences between egg donors from India and those from other countries and that egg donors are of a more varied demographic background than surrogates in India. Given that India has been a popular destination for fertility treatment, the findings have important implications for regulation and practice within India and internationally.

  17. Advising potential recipients on the use of organs from donors with primary central nervous system tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrens, Anthony N; Birch, Rhiannon; Collett, David; Daraktchiev, Maren; Dark, John H; Galea, George; Gronow, Katie; Neuberger, James; Hilton, David; Whittle, Ian R; Watson, Christopher J E

    2012-02-27

    Deciding to use an organ from a donor with a primary central nervous system (CNS) tumor necessitates offsetting the risk of tumor transmission with the chances of survival if the patient waits for another offer of a transplant. Published data vary in the quoted risk of tumor transmission. We used data obtained by reviewing 246 UK recipients of organs taken from donors with CNS tumors and found no evidence of a difference in overall patient mortality for recipients of a kidney, liver, or cardiothoracic organ, compared with recipients of organs from donors without a CNS tumor. Recent publication of the UK experience of transplanting organs from CNS tumor donors found no transmission in 448 recipients of organs from 177 donors with a primary CNS tumor (Watson et al., Am J Transplant 2010; 10: 1437). This 0% transmission rate is associated with an upper 95% confidence interval limit of 1.5%. Using a series of assumptions of risk, we compared the risks of dying as a result of the transmission of a primary brain tumor with the risks of dying if not transplanted. On this basis, the use of kidneys from a donor with a primary CNS tumor provides a further 8 years of life over someone who waited for a donor who did not have a primary CNS tumor, in addition to the life years gained by the transplant itself. The benefits for the recipients of livers and cardiothoracic organs were less, but there was no disadvantage in the impact on life expectancy.

  18. Causes of discontinuity of blood donation among donors in Shiraz, Iran: cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Kasraian

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: The adequacy of blood depends on blood donation rates and numbers of blood donors. To prepare adequate blood supplies, it is essential to investigate the barriers and factors that stop individuals from donating. This study aimed to identify the causes of lapsed donation at our center. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study of volunteer blood donors in Shiraz, Iran. METHODS: We selected 850 donors who had donated between January 1, 2005 and June 1, 2005, but had not donated again by June 2008. The participants were recruited by letter and telephone, and were interviewed using a specially designed questionnaire that contained items on demographic characteristics, donor motivations and reasons for not returning to donate. We used the chi-square test to identify associations between lapsed donor characteristics and reasons for declining to donate. RESULTS: The greatest motivation for donation was altruism. The most frequent reasons for lapsed donation were lack of time because of work and self-exclusion for medical reasons. Among first-time donors, the most frequent reasons were unsuitability for donation and lack of time. CONCLUSIONS: The reasons for not returning to donate are varied and may correlate with demographic characteristics. In this study, the main reason for not returning was lack of time. Changing donation hours so that donors can donate after work, providing mobile teams at workplaces, and shortening the duration of the donation process may help increase repeat donation rates.

  19. Imaging evaluation of potential donors in living-donor liver transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low, G.; Wiebe, E.; Walji, A.H.; Bigam, D.L.

    2008-01-01

    Liver transplants, originally obtained from deceased donors, can now be harvested from living donors as well. This technique, called living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT), provides an effective alternative means of liver transplantation and is a method of expanding the donor pool in light of the demand and supply imbalance for organ transplants. Imaging plays an important role in LDLT programmes by providing robust evaluation of potential donors to ensure that only anatomically suitable donors with no significant co-existing pathology are selected and that crucial information that allows detailed preoperative planning is available. Imaging evaluation helps to improve the outcome of LDLT for both donors and recipients, by improving the chances of graft survival and reducing the postoperative complication rate. In this review, we describe the history of LDLT and discuss in detail the application of imaging in donor assessment with emphasis on use of modern computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques

  20. Breast milk donors in France: a portrait of the typical donor and the utility of milk banking in the French breastfeeding context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azema, Emilie; Callahan, Stacey

    2003-05-01

    Although information regarding attitudes and characteristics of human blood donors has been researched, little is known about the motivations and demographic and personality characteristics of women who choose to donate their breast milk. Eight milk banks in France participated in a study examining donor characteristics, providing data on 103 women. The results showed that the donors were women of average childbearing age with strong support at home. Almost half did not work outside of the home, compared to the national average of 80% of women in this age group; similarly, a large number (currently working or not) were from the health and social services fields. Reasons for donation were largely altruistic, and a general optimistic attitude prevailed within the participants. The results of this study provide useful information for the recruitment of potential donors as well as information on how to facilitate and provide optimal service through milk donation.

  1. Blood donors' perceptions, motivators and deterrents in Sub-Saharan Africa - a scoping review of evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asamoah-Akuoko, Lucy; Hassall, Oliver W; Bates, Imelda; Ullum, Henrik

    2017-06-01

    Achieving an adequate blood supply in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) through donor mobilization and retention is crucial. Factors that motivate or deter blood donors vary according to beliefs and social norms. Understanding the factors that influence blood donation behaviour in SSA is vital to developing effective strategies to address blood donor motivation and retention. This review of 35 studies from 16 SSA countries collates available evidence concerning the perceptions, motivators and deterrents that influence blood donors in SSA. The review revealed a common understanding that blood and blood donation save lives. The main deterrent to blood donation was fear due to lack of knowledge and discouraging spiritual, religious and cultural perceptions of blood donation. The main motivators for blood donation were altruism, donating blood for family and incentives. The findings support the need for targeted, culturally sensitive education, recruitment and retention strategies to improve the blood supply in SSA. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Blood donors' perceptions, motivators and deterrents in Sub-Saharan Africa - a scoping review of evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asamoah-Akuoko, Lucy; Hassall, Oliver W; Bates, Imelda

    2017-01-01

    Achieving an adequate blood supply in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) through donor mobilization and retention is crucial. Factors that motivate or deter blood donors vary according to beliefs and social norms. Understanding the factors that influence blood donation behaviour in SSA is vital to developing...... effective strategies to address blood donor motivation and retention. This review of 35 studies from 16 SSA countries collates available evidence concerning the perceptions, motivators and deterrents that influence blood donors in SSA. The review revealed a common understanding that blood and blood donation...... save lives. The main deterrent to blood donation was fear due to lack of knowledge and discouraging spiritual, religious and cultural perceptions of blood donation. The main motivators for blood donation were altruism, donating blood for family and incentives. The findings support the need for targeted...

  3. Nanographenes as electron-deficient cores of donor-acceptor systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Min; Hou, Hao; Zhou, Yan-Zhen; Zhao, Xin-Jing; Tang, Chun; Tan, Yuan-Zhi; Müllen, Klaus

    2018-05-15

    Conjugation of nanographenes (NGs) with electro-active molecules can establish donor-acceptor π-systems in which the former generally serve as the electron-donating moieties due to their electronic-rich nature. In contrast, here we report a series of reversed donor-acceptor structures are obtained by C-N coupling of electron-deficient perchlorinated NGs with electron-rich anilines. Selective amination at the vertexes of the NGs is unambiguously shown through X-ray crystallography. By varying the donating ability of the anilino groups, the optical and assembly properties of donor-acceptor NGs can be finely modulated. The electron-deficient concave core of the resulting conjugates can host electron-rich guest molecules by intermolecular donor-acceptor interactions and gives rise to charge-transfer supramolecular architectures.

  4. Living Donor Uterus Transplant and Surrogacy: Ethical Analysis According to the Principle of Equipoise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, G; Koon, E C; Johannesson, L

    2017-04-01

    The uterus is the most recent addition to the list of organs that can be successfully transplanted in humans. This article analyzes living donor uterus transplantation according to the ethical principle of equipoise. A comparison is made between living donor uterus transplantation and gestational surrogate motherhood. Both are solutions to absolute uterine infertility that allow the transfer of genetic material from intended parents to a child. The analysis concludes that living donor uterus transplantation does not violate the ethical principle of equipoise and should be considered an ethically acceptable solution to absolute uterine infertility. © 2016 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  5. Differences in social representation of blood donation between donors and non-donors: an empirical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarnaccia, Cinzia; Giannone, Francesca; Falgares, Giorgio; Caligaris, Aldo Ozino; Sales-Wuillemin, Edith

    2015-11-04

    Both donors and non-donors have a positive image of blood donation, so donors and non-donors do not differ regarding their views on donation but do differ in converting their opinion into an active deed of donation. Several studies have identified altruism and empathy as the main factors underlying blood donation. However, a mixture of various motivational factors mould the complex behaviour of donation. This paper presents an exploratory study on differences of social representations of blood donation between blood donors and non-donors, in order to understand the reasons that bring someone to take the decision to become a blood donor. Participants filled in the Adapted Self-Report Altruism Scale, Toronto Empathy Questionnaire and answered a test of verbal association. Descriptive and correlation analyses were carried out on quantitative data, while a prototypic analysis was used for qualitative data. The study was carried out on a convenience sample of 786 individuals, 583 donors (mean age: 35.40 years, SD: 13.01 years; 39.3% female) and 203 non-donors (mean age: 35.10 years, SD: 13.30 years; 67.5% female). Social representations of donors seem to be more complex and articulated than those of non-donors. The terms that appear to be central were more specific in donors (life, needle, blood, help, altruism were the words most associated by non-donors; life, aid, altruism, solidarity, health, love, gift, generosity, voluntary, control, needed, useful, needle were the words most associated by donors). Furthermore, non-donors associated a larger number of terms referring to negative aspects of blood donation. Aspects related to training and the accuracy of any information on blood donation seem to be important in the decision to become a donor and stabilise the behaviour of donation over time, thus ensuring the highest levels of quality and safety in blood establishments.

  6. alpha-1-Antitrypsin (AAT)-modified donor cells suppress GVHD but enhance the GVL effect: a role for mitochondrial bioenergetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcondes, A.M.; Karoopongse, E.; Lesnikova, M.; Margineantu, D.; Welte, T.; Dinarello, C.A.; Hockenbery, D.; Janciauskiene, S.; Deeg, H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Hematopoietic cell transplantation is curative in many patients. However, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), triggered by alloreactive donor cells, has remained a major complication. Here, we show an inverse correlation between plasma alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT) levels in human donors and the

  7. Experiences of offspring searching for and contacting their donor siblings and donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadva, Vasanti; Freeman, Tabitha; Kramer, Wendy; Golombok, Susan

    2010-04-01

    This study investigates a new phenomenon whereby individuals conceived by donor insemination are searching for and contacting their donor and/or 'donor siblings' (i.e. donor offspring conceived by the same donor who are their genetic half siblings). On-line questionnaires were completed by members of the Donor Sibling Registry (DSR), a US-based registry that facilitates contact between donor conception families who share the same donor. Of the 165 donor offspring who completed the survey, 15% were searching for their donor siblings, 13% were searching for their donor, and 64% were searching for both. Differences were found according to family type and age of disclosure. Fewer offspring from heterosexual couple families had told their father about their search when compared with offspring from lesbian couple families who had told their co-parent. Offspring who had found out about their conception after age 18 were more likely to be searching for medical reasons, whereas those who had found out before age 18 tended to be searching out of curiosity. Some offspring had discovered large numbers of half siblings (maximum=13). The majority of offspring who had found their donor relations reported positive experiences and remained in regular contact with them. Copyright (c) 2010 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. BLOODR: blood donor and requester mobile application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatikonda, Vamsi Krishna; El-Ocla, Hosam

    2017-01-01

    With rapid increase in the usage of social networks sites across the world, there is also a steady increase in blood donation requests as being noticed in the number of posts on these sites such as Facebook and twitter seeking blood donors. Finding blood donor is a challenging issue in almost every country. There are some blood donor finder applications in the market such as Blood app by Red Cross and Blood Donor Finder application by Neologix. However, more reliable applications that meet the needs of users are prompted. Several software technologies including languages and framework are used to develop our blood-donor web application known as BLOODR application. These technologies comprise Ruby programming language (simply known as Ruby) along with JavaScript and PostgreSQL for database are used. Ruby on Rails (simply known as Rails) is an open source Web framework that makes it possible to quickly and easily create data-based web applications. We show screenshots for the BLOODR application for different types of users including requester, donor, and administrator. Various features of the application are described and their needs of use are analyzed. If a patient needs a blood at a clinic, blood donors in vicinity can be contacted through using a clinic management service provided in this application. Registered donors will get notification for the blood requests only if their blood group is compatible with the requested blood type and in the same city/region. Then matching blood donors can go to the requesting clinic and donate. BLOODR application provides a reliable platform to connect local blood donors with patients. BLOODR creates a communication channel through authenticated clinics whenever a patient needs blood donation. It is a useful tool to find compatible blood donors who can receive blood request posts in their local area. Clinics can use this web application to maintain the blood donation activity. Future improvement of the BLOODR is explained.

  9. The Meaning of Being a Living Kidney, Liver, or Stem Cell Donor-A Meta-Ethnography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisch, Annika M; Forsberg, Anna; Fridh, Isabell; Almgren, Matilda; Lundmark, Martina; Lovén, Charlotte; Flodén, Anne; Nilsson, Madeleine; Karlsson, Veronika; Lennerling, Annette

    2018-05-01

    Studies on living donors from the donors' perspective show that the donation process involves both positive and negative feelings involving vulnerability. Qualitative studies of living kidney, liver, and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell donors have not previously been merged in the same analysis. Therefore, our aim was to synthesize current knowledge of these donors' experiences to deepen understanding of the meaning of being a living donor for the purpose of saving or extending someone's life. The meta-ethnography steps presented by Noblit and Hare in 1988 were used. Forty-one qualitative studies from 1968 to 2016 that fulfilled the inclusion criteria were analyzed. The studies comprised experiences of over 670 donors. The time since donation varied from 2 days to 29 years. A majority of the studies, 25 of 41, were on living kidney donors. The synthesis revealed that the essential meaning of being a donor is doing what one feels one has to do, involving 6 themes; A sense of responsibility, loneliness and abandonment, suffering, pride and gratitude, a sense of togetherness, and a life changing event. The main issue is that one donates irrespective of what one donates. The relationship to the recipient determines the motives for donation. The deeper insight into the donors' experiences provides implications for their psychological care.

  10. Absence of beta-amyloid in cortical cataracts of donors with and without Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Ralph; Rosandić, Jurja; Montenegro, Gustavo A; Lobato, Elvira; Tresserra, Francisco; Barraquer, Rafael I; Vrensen, Gijs F J M

    2013-01-01

    Eye lenses from human donors with and without Alzheimer's disease (AD) were studied to evaluate the presence of amyloid in cortical cataract. We obtained 39 lenses from 21 postmortem donors with AD and 15 lenses from age-matched controls provided by the Banco de Ojos para Tratamientos de la Ceguera (Barcelona, Spain). For 17 donors, AD was clinically diagnosed by general physicians and for 4 donors the AD diagnosis was neuropathologically confirmed. Of the 21 donors with AD, 6 had pronounced bilateral cortical lens opacities and 15 only minor or no cortical opacities. As controls, 7 donors with pronounced cortical opacities and 8 donors with almost transparent lenses were selected. All lenses were photographed in a dark field stereomicroscope. Histological sections were analyzed using a standard and a more sensitive Congo red protocol, thioflavin staining and beta-amyloid immunohistochemistry. Brain tissue from two donors, one with cerebral amyloid angiopathy and another with advanced AD-related changes and one cornea with lattice dystrophy were used as positive controls for the staining techniques. Thioflavin, standard and modified Congo red staining were positive in the control brain tissues and in the dystrophic cornea. Beta-amyloid immunohistochemistry was positive in the brain tissues but not in the cornea sample. Lenses from control and AD donors were, without exception, negative after Congo red, thioflavin, and beta-amyloid immunohistochemical staining. The results of the positive control tissues correspond well with known observations in AD, amyloid angiopathy and corneas with lattice dystrophy. The absence of staining in AD and control lenses with the techniques employed lead us to conclude that there is no beta-amyloid in lenses from donors with AD or in control cortical cataracts. The inconsistency with previous studies of Goldstein et al. (2003) and Moncaster et al. (2010), both of which demonstrated positive Congo red, thioflavin, and beta

  11. Improving preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) reliability by selection of sperm donor with the most informative haplotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcov, Mira; Gold, Veronica; Peleg, Sagit; Frumkin, Tsvia; Azem, Foad; Amit, Ami; Ben-Yosef, Dalit; Yaron, Yuval; Reches, Adi; Barda, Shimi; Kleiman, Sandra E; Yogev, Leah; Hauser, Ron

    2017-04-26

    The study is aimed to describe a novel strategy that increases the accuracy and reliability of PGD in patients using sperm donation by pre-selecting the donor whose haplotype does not overlap the carrier's one. A panel of 4-9 informative polymorphic markers, flanking the mutation in carriers of autosomal dominant/X-linked disorders, was tested in DNA of sperm donors before PGD. Whenever the lengths of donors' repeats overlapped those of the women, additional donors' DNA samples were analyzed. The donor that demonstrated the minimal overlapping with the patient was selected for IVF. In 8 out of 17 carriers the markers of the initially chosen donors overlapped the patients' alleles and 2-8 additional sperm donors for each patient were haplotyped. The selection of additional sperm donors increased the number of informative markers and reduced misdiagnosis risk from 6.00% ± 7.48 to 0.48% ±0.68. The PGD results were confirmed and no misdiagnosis was detected. Our study demonstrates that pre-selecting a sperm donor whose haplotype has minimal overlapping with the female's haplotype, is critical for reducing the misdiagnosis risk and ensuring a reliable PGD. This strategy may contribute to prevent the transmission of affected IVF-PGD embryos using a simple and economical procedure. All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. DNA testing of donors was approved by the institutional Helsinki committee (registration number 319-08TLV, 2008). The present study was approved by the institutional Helsinki committee (registration number 0385-13TLV, 2013).

  12. Development of Organ-Specific Donor Risk Indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkina, Sanjeev K.; Asrani, Sumeet K.; Peng, Yi; Stock, Peter; Kim, Ray; Israni, Ajay K.

    2012-01-01

    Due to the shortage of deceased donor organs, transplant centers accept organs from marginal deceased donors, including older donors. Organ-specific donor risk indices have been developed to predict graft survival using various combinations of donor and recipient characteristics. We will review the kidney donor risk index (KDRI) and liver donor risk index (LDRI) and compare and contrast their strengths, limitations, and potential uses. The Kidney Donor Risk Index has a potential role in developing new kidney allocation algorithms. The Liver Donor Risk Index allows for greater appreciation of the importance of donor factors, particularly for hepatitis C-positive recipients; as the donor risk index increases, rates of allograft and patient survival among these recipients decrease disproportionately. Use of livers with high donor risk index is associated with increased hospital costs independent of recipient risk factors, and transplanting livers with high donor risk index into patients with Model for End-Stage Liver Disease scores Donor Risk Index has limited this practice. Significant regional variation in donor quality, as measured by the Liver Donor Risk Index, remains in the United States. We also review other potential indices for liver transplant, including donor-recipient matching and the retransplant donor risk index. While substantial progress has been made in developing donor risk indices to objectively assess donor variables that affect transplant outcomes, continued efforts are warranted to improve these indices to enhance organ allocation policies and optimize allograft survival. PMID:22287036

  13. Projections in donor organs available for liver transplantation in the United States: 2014-2025.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Neehar D; Hutton, David; Marrero, Wesley; Sanghani, Kunal; Xu, Yongcai; Lavieri, Mariel

    2015-06-01

    With the aging US population, demographic shifts, and obesity epidemic, there is potential for further exacerbation of the current liver donor shortage. We aimed to project the availability of liver grafts in the United States. We performed a secondary analysis of the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network database of all adult donors from 2000 to 2012 and calculated the total number of donors available and transplanted donor livers stratified by age, race, and body mass index (BMI) group per year. We used National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention historical data to stratify the general population by age, sex, race, and BMI. We then used US population age and race projections provided by the US Census Bureau and the Weldon Cooper Center for Public Service and made national and regional projections of available donors and donor liver utilization from 2014 to 2025. We performed sensitivity analyses and varied the rate of the rise in obesity, proportion of Hispanics, population growth, liver utilization rate, and donation after cardiac death (DCD) utilization. The projected adult population growth in the United States from 2014 to 2025 will be 7.1%. However, we project that there will be a 6.1% increase in the number of used liver grafts. There is marked regional heterogeneity in liver donor growth. Projections were significantly affected by changes in BMI, DCD utilization, and liver utilization rates but not by changes in the Hispanic proportion of the US population or changes in the overall population growth. Overall population growth will outpace the growth of available donor organs and thus potentially exacerbate the existing liver graft shortage. The projected growth in organs is highly heterogeneous across different United Network for Organ Sharing regions. Focused strategies to increase the liver donor pool are warranted. © 2015 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  14. Deconstructing the risk for malaria in United States donors deferred for travel to Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Bryan; Kleinman, Steven; Custer, Brian; Cable, Ritchard; Wilkinson, Susan L; Steele, Whitney; High, Patrick M; Wright, David

    2011-11-01

    More than 66,000 blood donors are deferred annually in the United States due to travel to malaria-endemic areas of Mexico. Mexico accounts for the largest share of malaria travel deferrals, yet it has extremely low risk for malaria transmission throughout most of its national territory, suggesting a suboptimal balance between blood safety and availability. This study sought to determine whether donor deferral requirements might be relaxed for parts of Mexico without compromising blood safety. Travel destination was recorded from a representative sample of presenting blood donors deferred for malaria travel from six blood centers during 2006. We imputed to these donors reporting Mexican travel a risk for acquiring malaria equivalent to Mexican residents in the destination location, adjusted for length of stay. We extrapolated these results to the overall US blood donor population. Risk for malaria in Mexico varies significantly across endemic areas and is greatest in areas infrequently visited by study donors. More than 70% of blood donor deferrals were triggered by travel to the state of Quintana Roo on the Yucatán Peninsula, an area of very low malaria transmission. Eliminating the travel deferral requirement for all areas except the state of Oaxaca might result in the recovery of almost 65,000 blood donors annually at risk of approximately one contaminated unit collected every 20 years. Deferral requirements should be relaxed for presenting donors who traveled to areas within Mexico that confer exceptionally small risks for malaria, such as Quintana Roo. © 2011 American Association of Blood Banks.

  15. Normothermic machine perfusion for donor liver preservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolboom, H.

    2012-01-01

    Currently, liver transplantation is the only treatment for end-stage liver failure. Unfortunately, a sever shortage of donor organs causes significant mortality amongst patients awaiting transplantation. The donor organ shortage could be alleviated by using organs that are normally not accepted for

  16. Predictors of hemoglobin in Danish blood donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotzé, Sebastian R; Pedersen, Ole B; Petersen, Mikkel S

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is well known that blood donors are at increased risk of iron deficiency and subsequent development of iron deficiency anemia. We aimed to investigate the effect of factors influencing hemoglobin (Hb) levels. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Initiated in 2010, the Danish Blood Donor Study...

  17. True HIV seroprevalence in Indian blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, N; Ayagiri, A; Ray, V L

    2000-03-01

    The National AIDS Control Organization (NACO), the apex body for controlling AIDS in India, projected that HIV seroprevalence would increase from 7/1000 in 1995 to 21.2/1000 in 1997. A high incidence (8.2%) of HIV was observed in blood donors. This study was carried out to find out the true HIV positivity in Indian blood donors. Blood donors from our centre were followed for more than 5 years to determine the true HIV seroprevalence and our result was compared with similar studies from India. Voluntary and relative blood donors who visited the SGPGIMS, Lucknow, since 1993 to June 1998 were included. They were screened for HIV 1/2 by ELISA kits (WHO approved). First-time HIV-positive samples were preserved frozen for further study (stage-I). They were repeated in duplicate and retested with other kits. If found positive, the sample was labelled as ELISA positive (stage-II). ELISA-positive samples were confirmed by Western Blot (WB) at stage-III. A total of 65 288 donors were included and 834 (12.8/1000) were reactive at stage-I. But 1.1/1000 donors were found to be ELISA positive at stage-II, and 0.28/1000 donors were positive by WB at stage-III. The 'seropositivity' rate from the NACO was significantly (P commercial blood banks. The HIV prevalence of blood donors (and national prevalence) is to be reassessed.

  18. Negotiating boundaries: Accessing donor gametes in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widge, A; Cleland, J

    2011-01-01

    This paper documents how couples and providers access donor materials for conception in the Indian context and perceptions about using them. The objective is to facilitate understanding of critical issues and relevant concerns. A postal survey was conducted with a sample of 6000 gynaecologists and in-depth interviews were -conducted with 39 gynaecologists in four cities. Donor gametes are relatively more acceptable than a few years ago, especially if confidentiality can be -maintained, though lack of availability of donor materials is sometimes an impediment to infertility treatment. Donor sperms are usually accessed from in-house or commercial sperm banks, pathology laboratories, IVF centres, -professional donors, relatives or friends. There is scepticism about screening procedures of sperm banks. Donor eggs are usually accessed from voluntary donors, friends, relatives, egg sharing programmes, donation from other patients, advertising and commercial donors. There are several concerns regarding informed consent for using donated gametes, using -relatives and friends gametes, the unregulated use of gametes and embryos, record keeping and documentation, -unethical and corrupt practices and commercialisation. These issues need to be addressed by patients, providers and regulatory authorities by providing -information, counselling, ensuring informed consent, addressing exploitation and commercialisation, ensuring -monitoring, proper documentation and transparency.

  19. Posttransplantation Disseminated Coccidioidomycosis Acquired from Donor Lungs

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Melissa B.; Hendren, Ryan; Gilligan, Peter H.

    2004-01-01

    A North Carolinian developed fatal coccidioidomycosis immediately after bilateral lung transplantation. The donor had previously traveled to Mexico, and the recipient had no travel history to an area where Coccidioides immitis is endemic. Immunosuppresive therapy of the transplant recipient likely reactivated latent Coccidioides infection in the donor lungs, leading to posttransplant coccidioidomycosis.

  20. Psychosocial counselling in donor sperm treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, M.

    2018-01-01

    For decades, donor sperm treatment is offered to men and women to build a family. In daily life, parents, children and donors have to deal with the consequences of this treatment. The studies of this thesis show that there are gaps in knowledge about specialist psychosocial counselling and guidance

  1. Organ donors: deceased or alive? Quo vadis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozental, R

    2006-01-01

    Irrespectively of universal shortage of donor organs there is a tendency of increasing the number of transplantations from living and deceased donors. Each of these two methods has positive and negative features. The main obstacles using living donors are health hazard, necessity to solve certain donor's social and psychological problems, possibility of organ trade and moving. The main problems connected with organ retrieval from deceased donors are possible conflicts with public opinion: difficulties in interpretation of brain death, legislation, obtaining of informed consent from donor's relatives, etc. Future progress in organ transplantation may take place through activation of organ retrieval from deceased donors. The most perspective ways are change to presumed consent in all countries, establishing of centralized system of donor detection and registration, intensification of transplant coordination, active contacts with mass-media, etc. It is necessary to increase (enhance) participation of the members of the public in organ donation process, to develop solidarity among the public members and to involve public authorities to deal with this problem. Bioethical standards should be put in accordance with common progress and some ethical traditions should be changed.

  2. [Demography and donation frequencies of blood and plasma donor populations in Germany. Update 2010 and 5-year comparison].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, S; Hamouda, O; Offergeld, R

    2012-08-01

    The Robert Koch Institute collects and evaluates nationwide data on the incidence and prevalence of transfusion-relevant infections among blood and plasma donors in Germany. Since 2006 data not only on the number of donations tested but also on the number of the respective donors have become available. The demographic profile and donation frequencies of German whole blood, plasma and platelet donors in 2010 and the percentages among the general population are described and compared to data from 2006. Although the general population eligible to donate blood is on the decline since 2003, with a loss of 2% between 2006 and 2010, this has not led to a decrease in the number of blood donors and donations. Instead, the number of new and repeat whole blood donors increased by 8% and 7%, respectively. At the same time, the number of new plasma donors grew by 23%, that of repeat plasma donors by 41%. In 2010 more than 4.3% of the population aged 18-68 years was active as repeat whole blood donors; 0.4% repeatedly donated plasma or platelets. Since 2006 the percentage of donors among the general population increased significantly, especially among the youngest age group (18-24 years). Donation frequency varied depending on donor age and sex, with an average of 1.9 per year for whole blood donations, 12.5 for plasmapheresis and 5.0 for plateletpheresis. While the donation frequency for whole blood remained unchanged since 2006, the frequency of apheresis donations increased, especially among older donors. By recruiting more new donors and retaining and reactivating existing ones more effectively, the number of whole blood and apheresis donations was augmented.

  3. Seropositivity for hepatitis B and C in voluntary blood donors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, S.M.A.; Ali, A.

    2010-01-01

    After the introduction of blood banks and better storage techniques blood is more widely used in patients for various indications. In Pakistan more than 1.5 million pints of blood are collected each year. Hepatitis B and C virus infections are known to occur in the general population and due to their mode of transmission through blood and blood products, it has made safe blood transfusion difficult and screening of blood absolutely necessary. Objectives of this study were to estimate frequency of Hepatitis B and C in blood donors of local area and recommend measures for safe blood transfusion. Methods: This retrospective cross-sectional study was conduced at the Blood Bank, Department of Pathology, Khyber Teaching Hospital, Peshawar from January 01, 2007 to December 31, 2008. It was carried out on 32,042 voluntary, non-remunerated healthy blood donors. They were screened for Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and anti-hepatitis C antibodies (anti-HCV antibodies) by ELISA. The patients' age ranged from 18-52 years. They were all males. Results: Out of 32,042 donors, 632 (1.97%) patients were positive for HBsAg, and 502 (1.57%).were positive for anti-HCV antibodies. Conclusion: Incidence of Hepatitis B and C is varying in different areas. It is recommended that properly screened blood only, using a reliable method like ELISA, be transfused to the patients. (author)

  4. Potential organ donor audit in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hegarty, M

    2010-11-01

    As increasing demand for organs is a challenge for transplant services worldwide it is essential to audit the process of organ donation. To address this, a national audit of potential organ donors was undertaken across hospitals with Intensive Care Units (N = 36). Questionnaires were returned on all patients (n = 2073) who died in these units from 1\\/9\\/07-31\\/8\\/08; 200 (10%) of these patients were considered for Brain Stem Testing (BST), 158 patients (79%) were diagnosed Brain Stem Dead (BSD) and 138 patients (87%) became potential donors. Consent for donation was given by 92 (69%) next of kin and 90 potential donors (65%) became organ donors. There was no evidence of a large number of potential organ donors being missed. Recommendations included completion of BSTs on all appropriate patients, development of support on BST, referral of all BSD patients to the Organ Procurement Service; enhanced co-ordination within hospitals and sustained information\\/education campaigns.

  5. PATHOMORPHOLOGY OF ZERO BIOPSIES OF DONOR KIDNEYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Arefjev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is well known fact that kidney transplants from Extended Criteria Donors may increase risk of De- layed Graft Function and Primary Non-Function of transplants. We have collected and tested 65 «zero» kidney biopsies from cadaver donors aged from 19 to 71 years old. In the pool of elderly donors who died from cerebrovascular accident the frequency of nephrosclerosis presentation was higher than in donors of yonger age who died from craniocephalic trauma. Nevertheless in the general donor pool the number of sclerosed glomeruli was no more than 12%. We did not meet at all in the whole volume of material any bi- opsy with the severe degree of arteriosclerosis. The «zero» biopsies of cadaver kidneys is quite usable and unexpensive tool to measure the degree of nephrosclerosis in order to exclude kidneys which are not fitable for transplantation. 

  6. Polyfluorophore Excimers and Exciplexes as FRET Donors in DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Yin Nah; Kool, Eric T.

    2009-01-01

    We describe studies aimed at testing whether oligomeric exciplex- and excimer fluorophores conjugated to DNA have the potential to act as donors for energy transfer by the Förster mechanism. Oligodeoxyfluorosides (ODFs) are composed of stacked, electronically interacting fluorophores replacing the bases on a DNA scaffold. The monomer chromophores in the twenty tetramer-length ODFs studied here include pyrene (Y), benzopyrene (B), perylene (E), dimethylaminostilbene (D), and a nonfluorescent spacer (S); these are conjugated in varied combinations at the 3’ end of a 14mer DNA probe sequence. In the absence of an acceptor chromophore, many of the ODF-DNAs show broad, unstructured long-wavelength emission peaks characteristic of excimer and exciplex excited states, similar to what has been observed for unconjugated ODFs. Although such delocalized excited states have been widely studied, we know of no prior report of their use in FRET. We tested the ability of the twenty ODFs to donate energy to Cy5 and TAMRA dyes conjugated to a complementary strand of DNA, with these acceptors oriented either at the near or far end of the ODF-conjugated probes. Results showed that a number of the ODF fluorophores exhibited relatively efficient energy transfer characteristic of the Förster mechanism, as judged by drops in donor emission quantum yield and fluorescence lifetime, accompanied by increases in intensity of acceptor emission bands. Excimer/exciplex bands in the donors were selectively quenched while shorter-wavelength monomer emission stayed relatively constant, consistent with the notion that the delocalized excited states, rather than individual fluorophores, are the donors. Interestingly, only specific sequences of ODFs were able to act as donors, while others did not, even though their emission wavelengths were similar. The new FRET donors possess large Stokes shifts, which can be beneficial for multiple applications. In addition, all ODFs can be excited at a single

  7. Possibility of using combined treatment of processing and ionizing radiation to eliminate contaminated viruses from non-screened donor of tissue allografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazly Hilmy; Paramita Pandansari

    2008-01-01

    Full text: New emerging and re- emerging infectious diseases caused by viruses are outbreak and re- outbreak around the world. Most of the viruses come from animals ( zoonoses) and jump to human beings ( host jumping ) such as corona virus ( SARS), HIV, bird flu/ Avian flu H5N1, hepatitis viruses, Dengue fever virus, West Nile virus/WNV, Hantavirus, Marburg haemorrhagic fever virus, Hendra virus, Nipah virus etc. Transmission of those diseases through transplantation of contaminated tissue allograft to recipient can happened if the donor could not be screened properly. The donor can be well screened from some of those viruses such as HIV, hepatitis viruses and WNV. Processing of tissue allografts by pasteurization, washing and soaking in H 2 O 2 and soap can eliminate contaminated viruses to a certain amount, have been reported by several authors. Viruses are very small microbes, they have DNA/RNA, resistant to radiation but to a certain degree they can be well eliminated by radiation. Their D10 - values vary from 4 to 13 kGy. This paper discribes briefly the possibility of using combined treatment of processing, lyophilization and sterilisation by radiation to overcome problems of non screened donor from some contaminated viruses. (Author)

  8. Donor, dad, or…? Young adults with lesbian parents' experiences with known donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Abbie E; Allen, Katherine R

    2013-06-01

    In this exploratory qualitative study of 11 young adults, ages 19-29 years, we examine how young people who were raised by lesbian parents make meaning out of and construct their relationships with known donors. In-depth interviews were conducted to examine how participants defined their family composition, how they perceived the role of their donors in their lives, and how they negotiated their relationships with their donors. Findings indicate that mothers typically chose known donors who were family friends, that the majority of participants always knew who their donors were, and that their contact with donors ranged from minimal to involved. Further, participants perceived their donors in one of three ways: as strictly donors and not members of their family; as extended family members but not as parents; and as fathers. The more limited role of donors in participants' construction of family relationships sheds light on how children raised in lesbian, gay, and bisexual families are contributing to the redefinition and reconstruction of complex kinship arrangements. Our findings hold implications for clinicians who work with lesbian-mother families, and suggest that young adulthood is an important developmental phase during which interest in and contact with the donor may shift, warranting a transfer of responsibility from mother to offspring in terms of managing the donor-child relationship. © FPI, Inc.

  9. Correlation between donor age and organs transplanted per donor: our experience in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashikari, J; Omiya, K; Konaka, S; Nomoto, K

    2014-05-01

    The shortage of available organs for transplantation is a worldwide issue. To maximize the number of transplantations, increasing the number of organs transplanted per donor (OTPD) is widely recognized as an important factor for improving the shortage. In Japan, we have had 211 donors, 1112 organs transplanted, and 924 recipients receiving the transplants, resulting in 4.4 ± 1.4 recipients receiving transplants per donor and 5.3 ± 1.6 OTPD as of February 2013. Because donor age is a well-recognized factor of donor suitability, we analyzed the correlation between donor age group and OTPD. Only the age group 60 to 69 years and the age group 70 to 79 years were significantly different (P donor under age 70 years has the potential to donate 4.6 to 6.7 organs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Best Practices to Limit Contamination of Donor Milk in a Milk Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froh, Elizabeth B; Vanderpool, Jill; Spatz, Diane L

    2018-01-02

    Human milk donated to a milk bank can become contaminated in a number of ways, but processes exist to eradicate pathogenic bacterial growth. Donor human milk may be cultured before or after pasteurization or both. The purpose of this article is to describe standard operations of the Mothers' Milk Bank of the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, best practices to limit the bacterial contamination of donor human milk, and implications for future research. Copyright © 2018 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Interplay of alternative conjugated pathways and steric interactions on the electronic and optical properties of donor-acceptor conjugated polymers

    KAUST Repository

    Lima, Igo T.; Risko, Chad; Aziz, Saadullah Gary; Da Silva Filho, Demé trio A Da Silva; Bredas, Jean-Luc

    2014-01-01

    Donor-acceptor π-conjugated copolymers are of interest for a wide range of electronic applications, including field-effect transistors and solar cells. Here, we present a density functional theory (DFT) study of the impact of varying the conjugation pathway on the geometric, electronic, and optical properties of donor-acceptor systems. We consider both linear ("in series"), traditional conjugation among the donor-acceptor moieties versus structures where the acceptor units are appended orthogonally to the linear, donor-only conjugated backbone. Long-range-corrected hybrid functionals are used in the investigation with the values of the tuned long-range separation parameters providing an estimate of the extent of conjugation as a function of the oligomer architecture. Considerable differences in the electronic and optical properties are determined as a function of the nature of the conjugation pathway, features that should be taken into account in the design of donor-acceptor copolymers.

  12. Management of blood donors and blood donations from individuals found to have a positive direct antiglobulin test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Judith L

    2012-04-01

    The medical literature is replete with articles addressing the diagnosis and management of patients with a positive direct antiglobulin test (DAT). However, there is scant information addressing the management of blood donors and blood donations found to have a positive DAT. Practices vary considerably between countries and blood suppliers within countries, and there is no standardized approach to the management of these blood donors or the blood products prepared from their donations. Recent evidence from Israel suggests that the finding of a positive DAT in a blood donor may not be as benign as previously thought. Therefore, it may be prudent for blood collection agencies to periodically reexamine their approach to the management of blood donors with a positive DAT and their donations. This article reviews the available literature and explores options for the management of DAT-positive blood donors and their blood donations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. LONG-TERM OUTCOMES OF DECEASED DONOR LIVER TRANSPLANTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Gautier

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study was to evaluate patient and graft survival after liver transplantation (LT and to determine if primary disease diagnosis, early graft dysfunction or other factors affect it. Furthermore, we analyzed the reasonsof short-term and long-term deaths or retransplantations.Materials and methods. 192 LTs from donors with brain death were performed from December 2004 until June 2014. Recipient age varied from 5 to 71 years. Most frequent diagnosis was liver cirrhosis (mainly due to hepatitis C, then hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, liver graft dysfunction, etc.Results and discussion. 1-year patient survival is 89.5%, graft survival is 87.7%, 3-year –87% and 84.6%, respectively, and 5-year – 83.5% and 83.0%, respectively. Early mortality (in fi rst 30 days after transplantation was 8%, long-term mortality – 5.9%. Primary non-function graft (PNF was the reason of 66.7% early deaths. In the long term, infections and oncology were the reasons of death with the same frequency – 36.4%. Early graft dysfunction including primary non-function signifi cantly decreases short term survival (p = 0.0002. Nevertheless, in the majority of cases graft function improves and doesn’t affect survival. Donor factors play role in outcomes: early dysfunction is higher (40.6% in extended criteria donor group than in standard donor group (р = 0.0431. PNF has the same trend – 8.5% and 0.0%, respectively, but without signifi cance (р =0.0835. 5-year survival is remarkably lower in HCC group 40.8% (p = 0.003 than in other groups.Conclusion: survival after liver transplantation in our Center is comparable with the results of the world’s centers.

  14. Economic crisis and blood donation: How are donors' motivations changing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfieri, Sara; Guiddi, Paolo; Marta, Elena; Saturni, Vincenzo

    2016-06-01

    The economic crisis has exasperated people's feelings of loneliness; job instability often does not allow people to commit to voluntary work. The present work proposes to examine whether the motivations to donate blood have changed before and during the period of economic crisis, taking into consideration donors' gender. We adopted Omoto & Snyder's functionalist approach, which states that blood donation serves different functions for any one person, who may have different motivations from those held by other people. We compared six-year pre-post (t1 "pre-crisis": 2008 - t2 "during the crisis": 2014) data on a sample of blood donors in a single blood donation center situated in Northern Italy. T-test was used for data analysis. Three hundred thirty donors (age range 18-60, M = 32.6, SD = 9.53; 54.5% male) were administered a survey at t1 and 444 (age range 18-60, M = 37.8, SD = 10.16; 68% male) six years later at t2. In both surveys, participants were administered a questionnaire with socio-demographic items and a version of Omoto & Snyder's Motivations to Volunteer scale adapted to blood donation. Donors' motivation priorities did not vary over time. Values and Self-enhancement motivations are the most prevalent. Knowledge and Ego-protection motivations decreased with the upsurge of the crisis. Women, in general, report higher mean values than men do for Values and Ego-protection motivations. These results can offer valuable clues for the agencies that manage blood collection. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Trends in Transfusion Transmitted Infections Among Replacement Blood Donors in Karachi, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Mohammad Irfan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of Hepatitis-B, Hepatitis-C and Human Immunodeficiency infections in replacement blood donors. METHODS: From January 2004 to December 2011, 108,598 apparently healthy donors donated blood at our Blood Bank. Screening was done by Microparticle Enzyme Immuno Assay (MEIA method on Axsym System (Abbott Diagnostic, USA and in year 2011 by Chemiluminescent Immunoassay (CIA method on Architect i2000 (Abbott Diagnostic, USA. From 2010 onward, HIV reactive donors were advised for confirmatory tests and reported back with the results. RESULTS: Of the 108,598 total donors, 108,393 (99.8% were replacement donors with a mean age of 28.92 (17-55 years. Of this, only 164 (0.15% were females. Among the replacement donors, 4,906 (4.5% were found to be reactive for Hepatitis-B, C and Human Immunodeficiency Virus. All the reactive patients, except one, were males. HbsAg was positive in 2,068 (1.90% and anti-HCV in 2832 (2.61% donors, while 111 (0.10% were positive for Human Immunodeficiency Virus. Co-infectivity was observed in 103 (0.09% cases. The prevalence appeared to be higher in younger age group (17-30 yrs. Only 16.6% cases should be patients returned with results of the confirmatory tests for HIV and were found positive. CONCLUSION: Hepatitis-B and C sero-prevalence in our series of replacement donors appears high compared to most studies from neighboring countries and relatively low in comparison to earlier studies from Pakistan. Prevalence of HIV, however, appears low and turn out of HIV positive cases for confirmatory tests is low.

  16. MR imaging: a 'One Stop Shop' Modality for Preoperative Evaluation of Potential Living Kidney-Donors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. Hussain (Shahid); M.C.J.M. Kock (Marc); P.M.T. Pattynama (Peter); M.G.M. Hunink (Myriam); G.P. Krestin (Gabriel); J.N.M. IJzermans (Jan)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractAt many institutions, magnetic resonance (MR) angiography is the technique of choice for assessment of the renal arteries and renal parenchyma in potential living kidney donors. The renal arteries and renal veins have a varied anatomy and may consist of one or more

  17. Donor registration, college major, and prosociality: Differences among students of economics, medicine and psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Andel, C.E.E.; Tybur, J.M.; van Lange, P.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    The demand for organ transplants far exceeds supply. Underlying this shortfall is the fact that some people choose to register as organ donors, whereas many others decide not to. Why do people vary in their attitudes and choices regarding organ donation? We hypothesize that attitudes toward organ

  18. Applying self-determination theory to the blood donation context: The blood donor competence, autonomy, and relatedness enhancement (Blood Donor CARE) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, Christopher R; France, Janis L; Carlson, Bruce W; Frye, Victoria; Duffy, Louisa; Kessler, Debra A; Rebosa, Mark; Shaz, Beth H

    2017-02-01

    The Blood Donor Competency, Autonomy, and Relatedness Enhancement (Blood Donor CARE) project was designed as a practical application of self-determination theory to encourage retention of first-time donors. Self-determination theory proposes that people are more likely to persist with behaviors that are internally-motivated, and that externally-motivated behavior can evolve and become internalized given the appropriate socio-environmental conditions. According to self-determination theory, motivation to engage in blood donation may become increasingly self-determined if the behavior satisfies fundamental human needs for competence (a sense of self-efficacy to achieve specific goals), autonomy (a sense of volitional control over one's behavior), and relatedness (a sense of connection to a larger group). The primary aim of this randomized controlled trial is to examine the effect of competence, autonomy, and/or relatedness interventions on donor retention. Using a full factorial design, first-time donors will be assigned to a control condition or one of seven intervention conditions. Donation competence, autonomy, and relatedness, along with additional constructs associated with return donation, will be assessed before and after the intervention using online surveys, and donation attempts will be tracked for one-year using blood center donor databases. We hypothesize that, compared to the control condition, the interventions will increase the likelihood of a subsequent donation attempt. We will also examine intervention-specific increases in competence, autonomy, and relatedness as potential mediators of enhanced donor retention. By promoting first-time donor competence, autonomy, and relatedness our goal is to enhance internal motivation for giving and in so doing increase the likelihood of future donation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Perfil das doadoras de leite do banco de leite humano de um hospital universitário - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v31i1.891 Profile of breast milk donors at the human milk bank of a university hospital - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v31i1.891

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Maria Benevenuto Oliveira

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa tem como objetivo conhecer o perfil socioeconômico das doadoras de leite do Banco de Leite Humano do Hospital Universitário de Londrina, Estado do Paraná (BLH/HUL. Trata-se de um estudo transversal, em que foram coletados dados a partir de formulário aplicado às doadoras externas do BLH/HUL no período de junho a agosto de 2005. Constatou-se que 11% são adolescentes. Com relação à escolaridade, 41,8% possuem segundo grau completo ou superior incompleto. De acordo com a literatura, quanto maior a escolaridade das mães, mais informações elas absorvem por meio das orientações e das campanhas que são realizadas sobre aleitamento materno. Do total das doadoras, 37,4% receberam informações sobre doação de leite e sobre os serviços do BLH/HU de Londrina por intermédio dos profissionais dos serviços de saúde. O conhecimento do perfil das doadoras permitirá direcionar as informações sobre doação de leite em nível local e regional, otimizando o trabalho realizado pelo Banco de Leite Humano do HU/L.This objective of this research is to understand the socioeconomic profile of the milk donors at the Human Milk Bank of the University Hospital of Londrina, Paraná State (BLH/HUL. It is a cross-sectional study in which data was collected by means of a questionnaire applied to the external donors of the BLH/ HUL, between June and August of 2005. It was observed that 11.0% are adolescents. According to the study, 41.8% have at least some high school education. According to the literature, the higher the educational level of the donors, the more information they are able to absorb through orientations and campaigns on breastfeeding. Of the total, 37.4% had received information on breast milk donation and the services offered by the BLH/HUL from the health professionals. The knowledge of the donors’ profile will allow the HU/Londrina Human Milk Bank to direct information on milk donation at the local and regional levels

  20. Adult-to-Adult Living Donor Liver Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimul A Shah

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The present review outlines the principles of living donor liver transplantation, donor workup, procedure and outcomes. Living donation offers a solution to the growing gap between the need for liver transplants and the limited availability of deceased donor organs. With a multidisciplinary team focused on donor safety and experienced surgeons capable of performing complex resection/reconstruction procedures, donor morbidity is low and recipient outcomes are comparable with results of deceased donor transplantation.

  1. Seroprevalence of HTLV -I/II amongst Blood Donors in Osogbo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: HTLV type I/II is a blood borne infection that can be transmitted via blood transfusion. Objective: To determine the seroprevalence of human T – lymphotropic virus among blood donors in Osogbo, Nigeria. Methods: Diagnosis of Human T. Lymphotropic virus antigen was carried out on 372 serum samples ...

  2. Perylene-Diimide Based Donor-Acceptor-Donor Type Small-Molecule Acceptors for Solution-Processable Organic Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesamoorthy, Ramasamy; Vijayaraghavan, Rajagopalan; Sakthivel, Pachagounder

    2017-12-01

    Development of nonfullerene acceptors plays an important role in the commercial availability of plastic solar cells. We report herein synthesis of bay-substituted donor-acceptor-donor (D-A-D)-type perylene diimide (PDI)-based small molecules (SM-1 to SM-4) by Suzuki coupling method and their use as acceptors in bulk heterojunction organic solar cells (BHJ-OSCs) with poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) polymer donor. We varied the number of electron-rich thiophene units and the solubilizing side chains and also evaluated the optical and electrochemical properties of the small molecules. The synthesized small molecules were confirmed by Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and high-resolution mass spectroscopy (HR-MS). The small molecules showed extensive and strong absorption in the ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) region up to 750 nm, with bandgap (E_{{g}}^{{opt}} ) reduced below use as electron-accepting materials. The small molecules showed good thermal stability up to 300°C. BHJ-OSCs with SM-1 and P3HT polymer donor showed maximum power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 0.19% with V oc of 0.30 V, J sc of 1.72 mA cm-2, and fill factor (FF) of 37%. The PCE decreased with the number of thiophene units. The PCE of SM-2 was lower than that of SM-1. This difference in PCE can be explained by the higher aggregation tendency of the bithiophene compared with the thiophene unit. Introduction of the solubilizing group in the bay position increased the aggregation property, leading to much lower PCE than for the small molecules without solubilizing group.

  3. Catalase activity of IgG antibodies from the sera of healthy donors and patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermakov, Evgeny A; Smirnova, Ludmila P; Bokhan, Nikolay A; Semke, Arkadiy V; Ivanova, Svetlana A; Buneva, Valentina N; Nevinsky, Georgy A

    2017-01-01

    We present first evidence showing that some electrophoretically homogeneous IgGs from the sera of patients with schizophrenia (36.4%) and their Fab and F(ab)2 fragments as well as from healthy donors (33.3%) possess catalase activity. The relative catalase activity of IgGs from the sera of individual schizophrenia patients (and healthy donors) significantly varied from patient to patient, but the activity of IgGs from healthy donors is on average 15.8-fold lower than that for schizophrenia patients. After extensive dialysis of purified IgGs against EDTA chelating metal ions, the relative catalase activity of IgGs decreases on average approximately 2.5-3.7-fold; all IgGs possess metal-dependent and independent catalase activity. The addition of external Me2+ ions to dialyzed and non-dialyzed IgGs leads to a significant increase in their activity. The best activator of dialyzed and non-dialyzed IgGs is Co2+, the activation by Cu2+, Mn2+, and Ni2+ ions were rare and always lower than by Co2+. Every IgG preparation demonstrates several individual sets of very well expressed pH optima in the pH range from 4.0 to 9.5. These data speak for the individual repertoire of catalase IgGs in every person and an extreme diversity of abzymes in their pH optima and activation by different metal ions. It is known that antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutases, catalases, and glutathione peroxidases represent critical defense mechanisms preventing oxidative modifications of DNA, proteins, and lipids. Catalase activity of human IgGs could probably also play a major role in the protection of organisms from oxidative stress and toxic compounds.

  4. The impact of disclosure on donor gamete participants: donors, intended parents and offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfeld, Dorothy A

    2008-06-01

    The present review examines recent publications that provide insight into how the trend toward nonanonymity and disclosure in gamete donation impacts donors, intended parents, and their donor-conceived children. Recent findings show an increase in donor programs that offer open-identity between donors and offspring. The psychological needs of gamete donors and their attitudes toward disclosure are increasingly given consideration. Qualitative research on how parents of donor gamete offspring make decisions about disclosure reveals that even when couples initially disagree about disclosing to offspring, most ultimately come to a united disclosure decision. The literature on the impact of disclosure on donor gamete offspring has extended to include children conceived through embryo donation and children born as a result of surrogacy. The absence of genetic or gestational link between parents and their child does not have a negative impact on parent-child relationships. Parents through surrogacy tend to disclose the method of family creation to their child, whereas parents through embryo donation tend to be secretive about their child's origins. The trend toward greater openness in gamete donation has been accompanied by an increase in programs offering open-identity donation. In addition, the psychological needs of gamete donors and their attitudes toward disclosure are increasingly being given consideration. Parents of donor gamete offspring give careful thought to their disclosure decisions, and the psychological well being of donor-conceived children does not seem to be impacted by those decisions.

  5. Inter- and Intrapersonal Barriers to Living Donor Kidney Transplant among Black Recipients and Donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, LaShara A; Grogan, Tracy M; Cox, Joy; Weng, Francis L

    2017-08-01

    End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is more common among Blacks, but Blacks are less likely to receive a live donor kidney transplant (LDKT). The objective of this study is to identify barriers and coping mechanisms that Black LDKT recipients and donors experienced while receiving or donating a kidney. A qualitative study was conducted using structured interviews. Thematic analysis was used for data interpretation. All 20 participants identified as Black, with two participants identifying themselves as multiracial. The mean age for the 14 recipients was 60, and the average age for the 6 living donors was 47. Themes emerging from the data suggest both recipients and donors faced barriers in the LDKT experience. Recipients faced barriers associated with their denial and avoidance of the severity of their ESRD, their desire to maintain the privacy of their health status, and their refusal to approach potential donors. Donors encountered negative responses from others about the donors' desire to donate and the initial refusal of recipients to accept a LDKT offer. Recipients identified faith as a coping mechanism, while donors identified normalization of donation as their method of coping. Various types of social support helped donors and recipients navigate the transplant process. Black LDKT recipients and donors must overcome barriers prior to receiving or donating a kidney. Most of these barriers arise from communication and interactions with others that are either lacking or undesirable. Future interventions to promote LDKT among Blacks may benefit by specifically targeting these barriers.

  6. Donor Retention in Online Crowdfunding Communities: A Case Study of DonorsChoose.org.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althoff, Tim; Leskovec, Jure

    2015-05-01

    Online crowdfunding platforms like DonorsChoose.org and Kick-starter allow specific projects to get funded by targeted contributions from a large number of people. Critical for the success of crowdfunding communities is recruitment and continued engagement of donors. With donor attrition rates above 70%, a significant challenge for online crowdfunding platforms as well as traditional offline non-profit organizations is the problem of donor retention. We present a large-scale study of millions of donors and donations on DonorsChoose.org, a crowdfunding platform for education projects. Studying an online crowdfunding platform allows for an unprecedented detailed view of how people direct their donations. We explore various factors impacting donor retention which allows us to identify different groups of donors and quantify their propensity to return for subsequent donations. We find that donors are more likely to return if they had a positive interaction with the receiver of the donation. We also show that this includes appropriate and timely recognition of their support as well as detailed communication of their impact. Finally, we discuss how our findings could inform steps to improve donor retention in crowdfunding communities and non-profit organizations.

  7. Donor-derived HLA antibody production in patients undergoing SCT from HLA antibody-positive donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, K; Yoshihara, S; Maruya, E; Ikegame, K; Kaida, K; Hayashi, K; Kato, R; Inoue, T; Fujioka, T; Tamaki, H; Okada, M; Onuma, T; Fujii, N; Kusunoki, Y; Soma, T; Saji, H; Ogawa, H

    2012-10-01

    Pre-existing donor-specific HLA antibodies in patients undergoing HLA-mismatched SCT have increasingly been recognized as a risk factor for primary graft failure. However, the clinical implications of the presence of HLA antibodies in donors remain unknown. We prospectively examined 123 related donors for the presence of HLA antibodies by using a Luminex-based single antigen assay. Of these, 1/57 (1.8%) male, 6/27 (22%) parous female and 0/39 (0%) nonparous female donors were HLA antibody-positive. Then, we determined the presence of HLA antibodies in seven patients who received SCT from antibody-positive donors. Of these, four became HLA antibody-positive after SCT. The specificities of the antibodies that emerged in the patients closely resembled those of the antibodies found in the donors, indicating their production by donor-derived plasma cells. Moreover, the kinetics of the HLA antibody levels were similar in all four patients: levels started increasing within 1 week after SCT and peaked at days 10-21, followed by a gradual decrease. These results suggest that donor-derived HLA antibody production frequently occurs in patients undergoing SCT from antibody-positive donors. Further studies are warranted for clarifying the clinical significance of donor-derived HLA antibodies, including the role of these antibodies in post transplant platelet transfusion refractoriness.

  8. Being a haematopoietic stem cell donor for a sick sibling: Adult donors' experiences prior to donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisch, Annika; Bolmsjö, Ingrid; Lenhoff, Stig; Bengtsson, Mariette

    2015-10-01

    There is a lack of knowledge about sibling stem cell donors' experiences pre-donation and the waiting period before the donation might have been long. The donors and their corresponding sibling recipients were simultaneously included in two different interview studies. The results from the recipient study have been presented in a separate paper. The aim was to explore the experiences of being a stem cell donor for a sibling, prior to donation. Ten adult sibling donors were interviewed prior to stem cell donation. The interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim and subjected to qualitative content analysis. The main theme Being a cog in a big wheel describes the complex process of being a sibling donor prior to donation, covering a mixture of emotions and thoughts. The four subthemes Being available, Being anxious, Being concerned and Being obliged cover the various experiences. The sibling donors' experiences are influenced by the quality of the relationship with the sick sibling. Sibling stem cell donors go through a complex process once they have accidentally got involved in. They have been asked to become a donor; it was not a voluntary choice. In caring for sibling stem cell donors the nurses should be aware of the complexity of the process they experience and take into consideration their personal situation and needs. Providing optimal care for both sibling donors and their corresponding recipients is a challenge, and further improvement and exploration are needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Pediatric transplantation using hearts refused on the basis of donor quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Leonard L; Razzouk, Anees J; Hasaniya, Nahidh W; Chinnock, Richard E

    2009-06-01

    There is always more demand than supply of organs in pediatric heart transplantation. Yet, potential donor organs are regularly declined for a variety of reasons, among them donor organ quality as determined by United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) refusal code 830 or its equivalent. For the study group institutional and UNOS databases (July 2000 to December 2008) were reviewed to examine outcomes of pediatric heart transplantation using donor hearts that had been previously refused one or more times because of organ quality. Variation between outcomes of this cohort and recipients who received primarily offered heart grafts in a single institution was analyzed. In 29 recipients, transplantation or retransplantation was with heart grafts previously declined on the basis of quality. Recovery distances (p actuarial survival was 74% +/- 10.5%. At the present time, 24 of the 29 recipients (83%) are alive. These results do not vary statistically from those experienced by 84 recipients of 86 primarily offered donor organs during the same time. Despite longer distance recovery (ie, longer graft cold ischemic times), outcomes of pediatric heart transplantation using donor heart grafts refused on the basis of organ quality are highly competitive. Pediatric donor hearts should seldom be declined on the basis of organ quality (UNOS code 830).

  10. Reduced ischemia-reperfusion injury with isoproterenol in non-heart-beating donor lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D R; Hoffmann, S C; Sellars, M; Egan, T M

    1997-05-01

    Transplantation of lungs retrieved from non-heart-beating donors could expand the donor pool. Recent studies suggest that the ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) to the lung can be attenuated by increasing intracellular cAMP concentrations. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of IRI on capillary permeability, as measured by Kfc, in lungs retrieved from non-heart-beating donors and reperfused with or without isoproterenol (iso). Using an in situ isolated perfused lung model, lungs were retrieved from non-heart-beating donor rats ventilated with O2 or not at varying intervals after death. The lungs were reperfused with or without iso (10 microM). Kfc, lung viability, and pulmonary hemodynamics were measured, and tissue levels of adenine nucleotides and cAMP were measured by HPLC. Iso-reperfusion decreased Kfc significantly (P Kfc in non-iso-reperfused (r = 0.65) and iso-perfused (r = 0.84) lungs. cAMP levels increased significantly with iso-reperfusion. cAMP levels correlated with Kfc (r = 0.87) in iso-reperfused lungs. Iso-reperfusion of lungs retrieved from non-heart-beating donor rats results in decreased capillary permeability and increased lung tissue cAMP levels. Pharmacologic augmentation of tissue TAN and cAMP levels may further ameliorate the increased capillary permeability seen in lungs retrieved from non-heart-beating donors.

  11. Shallow hydrogen-related donors in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartung, J.; Weber, J.

    1993-01-01

    Photothermal ionization spectroscopy on neutron-irradiated and subsequently hydrogen-plasma-treated silicon reveals the existence of new shallow donors. The binding energies of the observed effective-mass-like donors are between 34 and 53 meV. The optical dipole transitions of the different donors are shifted towards higher energies by ΔE=0.1--0.2 cm -1 , when deuterium is used in the plasma instead of hydrogen. This isotope shift of the optical dipole transitions between the electronic levels of the defects is direct proof of the incorporation of hydrogen in these defects

  12. Donor policy rules and aid effectiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars

    2008-01-01

    The present paper examines the macroeconomic impact of aid, by introducing endogenous aid allocations into a neoclassical growth framework. On this basis it is shown that donor policies can have important implications for the trajectory of recipients' GDP per capita. Depending on specific donor...... policy choices, aid disbursements may lead to faster transitional growth, stagnation or cyclical growth. Moreover, the analysis also suggests that donor policies may be part of the reason why foreign aid is not found to be uniformly effective in raising long-run productivity across recipients...

  13. Kidney for sale by live donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahams, D

    1989-02-04

    The capacity to consent to bodily harm is explored in relation to the trade in kidneys obtained from impoverished healthy live donors for cash. The British medical profession has unambiguously condemned the practice, but the law in Britain allows a donor to consent to serious injury where the act had some social purpose, recognized by the law as valid. Allegations against the private Humana Hospital Wellington that indigent Turks were brought to Britain to be paid kidney donors, and similar practices elsewhere, are discussed. Questions are raised about the illegality of such contracts in Britain and the possibility of a Parliamentary Act making brokerage and involvement with such cash transactions a criminal offense.

  14. Informed consent in research to improve the number and quality of deceased donor organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Michael M; Ware, Lorraine B; Matthay, Michael A; Bernard, Gordon R; McGuire, Amy L; Caplan, Arthur L; Halpern, Scott D

    2011-02-01

    Improving the management of potential organ donors in the intensive care unit could meet an important public health goal by increasing the number and quality of transplantable organs. However, randomized clinical trials are needed to quantify the extent to which specific interventions might enhance organ recovery and outcomes among transplant recipients. Among several barriers to conducting such studies are the absence of guidelines for obtaining informed consent for such studies and the fact that deceased organ donors are not covered by extant federal regulations governing oversight of research with human subjects. This article explores the underexamined ethical issues that arise in the context of donor management studies and provides ethical guidelines and suggested regulatory oversight mechanisms to enable such studies to be conducted ethically. We conclude that both the respect that is traditionally accorded to the prior wishes of the dead and the possibility of postmortem harm support a role for surrogate consent of donors in such randomized controlled trials. Furthermore, although recipients will often be considered human subjects under federal regulations, several ethical arguments support waiving requirements for recipient consent in donor management randomized controlled trials. Finally, we suggest that new regulatory mechanisms, perhaps linked to existing regional and national organ donation and transplantation infrastructures, must be established to protect patients in donor management studies while limiting unnecessary barriers to the conduct of this important research.

  15. Association of Donor Age and Sex With Survival of Patients Receiving Transfusions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edgren, Gustaf; Ullum, Henrik; Rostgaard, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Importance: Following animal model data indicating the possible rejuvenating effects of blood from young donors, there have been at least 2 observational studies conducted with humans that have investigated whether donor age affects patient outcomes. Results, however, have been conflicting...... and Denmark who received at least 1 red blood cell transfusion of autologous blood or blood from unknown donors between January 1, 2003, and December 31, 2012. Patients were followed up from the first transfusion until death, emigration, or end of follow-up. Data analysis was performed from September 15...... to November 15, 2016. Exposures: The number of transfusions from blood donors of different age and sex. Exposure was treated time dependently throughout follow-up. Main Outcomes and Measures: Hazard ratios (HRs) for death and adjusted cumulative mortality differences, both estimated using Cox proportional...

  16. Genetic factors influencing ferritin levels in 14,126 blood donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Erik; Rigas, Andreas S; Thørner, Lise W

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many biologic functions depend on sufficient iron levels, and iron deficiency is especially common among blood donors. Genetic variants associated with iron levels have been identified, but the impact of genetic variation on iron levels among blood donors remains unclear. STUDY DESIGN...... AND METHODS: The effect of six single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on ferritin levels in 14,126 blood donors were investigated in four genes: in Human Hemochromatosis Protein gene (HFE; rs1800562 and rs179945); in Transmembrane Protease gene, Serine 6 (TMPRSS6-regulating hepcidin; rs855791); in BTB domain...... with iron deficiency in women. Results for all other genetic variants were insignificant. CONCLUSION: Genetic variants associated with hemochromatosis may protect donors against depleted iron stores. In addition, we showed that presence of the T-allele at rs855791 in TMPRSS6 was associated with lower iron...

  17. Outcomes of hematopoietic cell transplantation using donors or recipients with inherited chromosomally integrated HHV-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Joshua A; Magaret, Amalia S; Hall-Sedlak, Ruth; Mikhaylova, Anna; Huang, Meei-Li; Sandmaier, Brenda M; Hansen, John A; Jerome, Keith R; Zerr, Danielle M; Boeckh, Michael

    2017-08-24

    Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) species have a unique ability to integrate into chromosomal telomeres. Mendelian inheritance via gametocyte integration results in HHV-6 in every nucleated cell. The epidemiology and clinical effect of inherited chromosomally integrated HHV-6 (iciHHV-6) in hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients is unclear. We identified 4319 HCT donor-recipient pairs (8638 subjects) who received an allogeneic HCT and had archived pre-HCT peripheral blood mononuclear cell samples. We screened these samples for iciHHV-6 and compared characteristics of HCT recipients and donors with iciHHV-6 with those of recipients and donors without iciHHV-6, respectively. We calculated Kaplan-Meier probability estimates and Cox proportional hazards models for post-HCT outcomes based on recipient and donor iciHHV-6 status. We identified 60 HCT recipients (1.4%) and 40 donors (0.9%) with iciHHV-6; both recipient and donor harbored iciHHV-6 in 13 HCTs. Thus, there were 87 HCTs (2%) in which the recipient, donor, or both harbored iciHHV-6. Acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) grades 2-4 was more frequent when recipients or donors had iciHHV-6 (adjusted hazard ratios, 1.7-1.9; P = .004-.001). Cytomegalovirus viremia (any and high-level) was more frequent among recipients with iciHHV-6 (adjusted HRs, 1.7-3.1; P = .001-.040). Inherited ciHHV-6 status did not significantly affect risk for chronic GVHD, hematopoietic cell engraftment, overall mortality, or nonrelapse mortality. Screening for iciHHV-6 could guide donor selection and post-HCT risk stratification and treatment. Further study is needed to replicate these findings and identify potential mechanisms. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.

  18. Distribution of blood groups in blood donors in the blood bank of Jagdalpur, Bastar district, Chhattisgarh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin A Badge

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: The incidence of ABO and rhesus (Rh groups varies markedly in different races, ethnic groups, and socioeconomic groups in different parts of the world. The frequencies of ABO and Rh blood groups vary from one population to another and time to time in the same region. The present study was carried out to find the distribution of blood group in rural and tribal populations of Bastar district of Chhattisgarh. Materials and Methods: The present retrospective study was carried out at late Shri Baliram Kashyap Memorial Government Medical College and Maharani Hospital blood bank, Jagdalpur, Bastar district, Chhattisgarh, India, during the 2-year period from January 2014 to December 2015. The blood collections were taken from the voluntary donors at outdoor blood donation camp and in-house blood bank as well as from replacement donors at blood bank. Totally 12,852 donors were considered medically fit and accepted for blood donation during the study period. Results: Out of the total 12,852 donors, most of the donors, i.e., 3996 (31.09% were with blood Group O followed by B (30.44%, A (24.95%, and AB (13.52%. Out of the 12,852 blood donors, majority, i.e., 12,779 (99.43% were male and 73 (0.57% were female. Maximum blood donors, i.e., 12,777 (99.42% were Rh positive while only 75 (0.58% were Rh negative. Conclusion: The knowledge of distribution of ABO and Rh blood groups at local and regional levels is helpful in effective management of blood banks and safe blood transfusion services.

  19. Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy versus open donor nephrectomy: Recipient′s perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tukaram E Jamale

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (LDN on graft function, especially early post-transplant, have been controversial. To assess and compare early and late graft function in kidneys procured by open and laparoscopic methods, a retrospective observational study was carried out on 37 recipients-donors who underwent LDN after introduction of this technique in February 2007 at our center, a tertiary care nephrology referral center. Demographic, immunological and intraoperative variables as well as immunosuppressive protocols and number of human leukocyte antigen (HLA mismatches were noted. Early graft function was assessed by serum creatinine on Days two, five, seven, 14 and 28 and at the time of discharge. Serum creatinine values at three months and at one year post-transplant were considered as the surrogates of late graft function. Data obtained were compared with the data from 33 randomly selected kidney transplants performed after January 2000 by the same surgical team, in whom open donor nephrectomy was used. Pearson′s chi square test, Student′s t test and Mann-Whitney U test were used for statistical analysis. Early graft function (serum creatinine on Day five 2.15 mg/dL vs 1.49 mg/dL, P = 0.027 was poorer in the LDN group. Late graft function as assessed by serum creatinine at three months (1.45 mg/dL vs 1.31 mg/dL, P = 0.335 and one year (1.56 mg/dL vs 1.34 mg/dL, P = 0.275 was equivalent in the two groups. Episodes of early acute graft dysfunction due to acute tubular necrosis were significantly higher in the LDN group (37.8% vs 12.1%, Z score 2.457, P = 0.014. Warm ischemia time was significantly prolonged in the LDN group (255 s vs 132.5 s, P = 0.002. LDN is associated with slower recovery of graft function and higher incidence of early acute graft dysfunction due to acute tubular necrosis. Late graft function at one year is however comparable.

  20. Time-varying Crash Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Feunoua, Bruno; Jeon, Yoontae

    We estimate a continuous-time model with stochastic volatility and dynamic crash probability for the S&P 500 index and find that market illiquidity dominates other factors in explaining the stock market crash risk. While the crash probability is time-varying, its dynamic depends only weakly on re...

  1. Eestlased Karlovy Varys / J. R.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    J. R.

    2007-01-01

    Ilmar Raagi mängufilm "Klass" osaleb 42. Karlovy Vary rahvusvahelise filmifestivali võistlusprogrammis "East of the West" ja Asko Kase lühimängufilm "Zen läbi prügi" on valitud festivali kõrvalprogrammi "Forum of Independents"

  2. Esmaklassiline Karlovy Vary / Jaanus Noormets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Noormets, Jaanus

    2007-01-01

    Ilmar Raagi mängufilm "Klass" võitis 42. Karlovy Vary rahvusvahelise filmifestivalil kaks auhinda - ametliku kõrvalvõistlusprogrammi "East of the West" eripreemia "Special mention" ja Euroopa väärtfilmikinode keti Europa Cinemas preemia. Ka Asko Kase lühifilmi "Zen läbi prügi linastumisest ning teistest auhinnasaajatest ning osalejatest

  3. Optimistlik Karlovy Vary / Jaan Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Jaan, 1938-2017

    2007-01-01

    42. Karlovy Vary rahvusvahelise filmifestivali auhinnatud filmidest (žürii esimees Peter Bart). Kristallgloobuse sai Islandi-Saksamaa "Katseklaasilinn" (režii Baltasar Kormakur), parimaks režissööriks tunnistati norralane Bard Breien ("Negatiivse mõtlemise kunst"). Austraallase Michael James Rowlandi "Hea õnne teekond" sai žürii eripreemia

  4. West Nile Virus workshop: scientific considerations for tissue donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brubaker, Scott A; Robert Rigney, P

    2012-08-01

    This report contains selected excerpts, presented as a summary, from a public workshop sponsored by the American Association of Tissue Banks (AATB) held to discuss West Nile Virus (WNV) and scientific considerations for tissue donors. The daylong workshop was held 9 July 2010 at the Ritz-Carlton Hotel at Tyson's Corner in McLean, Virginia, United States (U.S.). The workshop was designed to determine and discuss scientific information that is known, and what is not known, regarding WNV infection and transmission. The goal is to determine how to fill gaps in knowledge of WNV and tissue donation and transplantation by pursuing relevant scientific studies. This information should ultimately support decisions leading to appropriate tissue donor screening and testing considerations. Discussion topics were related to identifying these gaps and determining possible solutions. Workshop participants included subject-matter experts from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Health Canada, the Public Health Agency of Canada, AATB-accredited tissue banks including reproductive tissue banks, accredited eye banks of the Eye Bank Association of America, testing laboratories, and infectious disease and organ transplantation professionals. After all presentations concluded, a panel addressed this question: "What are the scientific considerations for tissue donors and what research could be performed to address those considerations?" The slide presentations from the workshop are available at: http://www.aatb.org/2010-West-Nile-Virus-Workshop-Presentations.

  5. Desensitization Protocol in Recipients of Deceased Kidney Donor With Donor-Specific Antibody-Low Titers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter Berga, J; Sancho Calabuig, A; Gavela Martinez, E; Puig Alcaraz, N; Avila Bernabeu, A; Crespo Albiach, J; Molina Vila, P; Beltrán Catalan, S; Pallardó Mateu, L

    2016-11-01

    Kidney transplantation is the better option for end-stage renal disease (ESRD), but for patients with human leukocyte antigen (HLA) sensitization, the wait times are significantly longer than for patients without antibodies. Many desensitization protocols have been described involving strong immunosuppression, the use of apheresis, and B-cell-modulating therapies. We have designed a desensitization protocol from day 0 for deceased donor kidney transplantation. Our aim was to present our initial experience with five kidney transplant patients. All patients had a negative complement-dependent cytotoxicity cross-match. The desensitization protocol included five to seven doses of thymoglobulin (1.25 mg/kg) and three sessions of plasmapheresis (PP) within the first week after transplantation, with intravenous immunoglobulin (500 mg/kg) after each PP session and one dose of rituximab on day 8. The presence of donor-specific antibodies (DSA) was analyzed by use of Luminex technology; levels between 1000 and 3000 mean fluorescence intensity were considered for desensitization. The median age was 44 years and median renal replacement therapy time was 9 years. All recipients presented 1 to 3 DSA specificities. There were no severe side effects related to PP, infusion of intravenous immunoglobulin, or rituximab. The median follow-up period was 19.3 months. Median serum creatinine level at last follow-up was 1.7 mg/dL. A kidney biopsy was performed in all patients. Graft and patient survival was 100%. Until now, few data are available concerning whether HLA-incompatible kidney transplantation after desensitization would benefit patients with ERSD. The desensitization strategy using the combination of PP, low doses of intravenous immunoglobulin, and rituximab at our center resulted in a satisfactory clinical outcome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy increases the supply of living donor kidneys: a center-specific microeconomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, P C; Johnson, L B

    2000-05-27

    A tenet of microeconomics is that new technology will shift the supply curve to the right. Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (LDN) is a new technique for removal of living donor kidneys. Centers performing this procedure have noted an increased number of patients presenting for donor evaluation. This has not been previously studied. The records of all LDN performed from May 1998 to February 1999 were reviewed. The following variables were examined: sex, age, related vs. unrelated donation, estimated blood loss, i.v. analgesia, length of stay, and time out of work. Donors undergoing traditional open donor nephrectomy during January 1997 to May 1998 served as the control group. A composite cost index was constructed. LDN significantly decreased length of stay, pain, and time out of work; the supply function shifted to the right. Telephone interviews revealed that 47% donated solely because of the LDN procedure. LDN increases the supply of living donor kidneys.

  7. Donor-Derived Myeloid Sarcoma in Two Kidney Transplant Recipients from a Single Donor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amudha Palanisamy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the rare occurrence of donor-derived myeloid sarcoma in two kidney transplant patients who received organs from a single deceased donor. There was no evidence of preexisting hematologic malignancy in the donor at the time of organ recovery. Both recipients developed leukemic involvement that appeared to be limited to the transplanted organ. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH and molecular genotyping analyses confirmed that the malignant cells were of donor origin in each patient. Allograft nephrectomy and immediate withdrawal of immunosuppression were performed in both cases; systemic chemotherapy was subsequently administered to one patient. Both recipients were in remission at least one year following the diagnosis of donor-derived myeloid sarcoma. These cases suggest that restoration of the immune system after withdrawal of immunosuppressive therapy and allograft nephrectomy may be sufficient to control HLA-mismatched donor-derived myeloid sarcoma without systemic involvement.

  8. A simplified donor risk index for predicting outcome after deceased donor kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Christopher J E; Johnson, Rachel J; Birch, Rhiannon; Collett, Dave; Bradley, J Andrew

    2012-02-15

    We sought to determine the deceased donor factors associated with outcome after kidney transplantation and to develop a clinically applicable Kidney Donor Risk Index. Data from the UK Transplant Registry on 7620 adult recipients of adult deceased donor kidney transplants between 2000 and 2007 inclusive were analyzed. Donor factors potentially influencing transplant outcome were investigated using Cox regression, adjusting for significant recipient and transplant factors. A United Kingdom Kidney Donor Risk Index was derived from the model and validated. Donor age was the most significant factor predicting poor transplant outcome (hazard ratio for 18-39 and 60+ years relative to 40-59 years was 0.78 and 1.49, respectively, Pinformed consent.

  9. RESULTS OF THE SPECIAL BLOOD DONOR DAY

    CERN Document Server

    SC Unit

    2008-01-01

    Responding to the HUG (Hôpitaux Universitaires de Genève) hospitals’ urgent appeal for blood donations during this summer season, the CERN medical staff organised a day of blood donations for the Swiss bloodbank CTS on 30 July. They were supported by NOVAE (Restaurant No. 1), who provided donors with a free snack. This specially arranged campaign was a success, as the 135 volunteers included 66 first-time donors, and a total of 99 standard bags of blood was collected. (Swiss hospitals need 1300 bags every day!) The CTS and CERN’s medical staff want to thank the donors and all others who helped make the event a success. Upcoming blood donor days at CERN: 12 November 2008 and 10 March 2009.

  10. RESULTS OF THE SPECIAL BLOOD DONOR DAY

    CERN Document Server

    SC Unit

    2008-01-01

    Responding to the HUG (Hôpitaux Universitaires de Genève) hospitals’ urgent appeal for blood donations during this summer season, the CERN medical staff organised a day of blood donations for the Swiss bloodbank CTS on 30 July. They were supported by NOVAE (Restaurant No. 1), who provided donors with a free snack. This specially arranged campaign was a success, as the 135 volunteers included 66 first-time donors, and a total of 99 standard bags of blood were collected. (Swiss hospitals need 1300 bags every day!) The CTS and CERN’s medical staff wish to thank the donors and all others who helped make the event a success. Upcoming blood donor days at CERN: 12 November 2008 and 10 March 2009.

  11. FORUM Paediatric living donor liver transplantation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    879 November 2012, Vol. 102, No. 11 SAMJ. REVIEW. Paediatric living donor liver transplantation ... been excellent after left lateral segmentectomy, with a usually quoted ... has led to the development of new surgical techniques to increase.

  12. Desensitization Using Bortezomib and High-dose Immunoglobulin Increases Rate of Deceased Donor Kidney Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jong Cheol; Jambaldorj, Enkthuya; Kwon, Hyuk Yong; Kim, Myung-Gyu; Im, Hye Jin; Jeon, Hee Jung; In, Ji Won; Han, Miyeun; Koo, Tai Yeon; Chung, Junho; Song, Eun Young; Ahn, Curie; Yang, Jaeseok

    2016-02-01

    Combination therapy of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and rituximab showed a good transplant rate in highly sensitized wait-listed patients for deceased donor kidney transplantation (DDKT), but carried the risk of antibody-mediated rejection. The authors investigated the impact of a new combination therapy of bortezomib, IVIG, and rituximab on transplantation rate.This study was a prospective, open-labeled clinical trial. The desensitization regimen consisted of 2 doses of IVIG (2  g/kg), a single dose of rituximab (375  mg/m), and 4 doses of bortezomib (1.3  mg/m). The transplant rate was analyzed. Anti-Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) DRB antibodies were determined by a Luminex solid-phase bead assay at baseline and after 2, 3, and 6 months in the desensitized patients.There were 19 highly sensitized patients who received desensitization and 17 patients in the control group. Baseline values of class I and II panel reactive antibody (%, peak mean fluorescence intensity) were 83  ±  16.0 (14952  ±  5820) and 63  ±  36.0 (10321  ±  7421), respectively. Deceased donor kidney transplantation was successfully performed in 8 patients (42.1%) in the desensitization group versus 4 (23.5%) in the control group. Multivariate time-varying covariate Cox regression analysis showed that desensitization increased the probability of DDKT (hazard ratio, 46.895; 95% confidence interval, 3.468-634.132; P = 0.004). Desensitization decreased mean fluorescence intensity values of class I panel reactive antibody by 15.5% (20.8%) at 2 months. In addition, a liberal mismatch strategy in post hoc analysis increased the benefit of desensitization in donor-specific antibody reduction. Desensitization was well tolerated, and acute rejection occurred only in the control group.In conclusion, a desensitization protocol using bortezomib, high-dose IVIG, and rituximab increased the DDKT rate in highly sensitized, wait-listed patients.

  13. [Psychological specificities of living donor kidney transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papeloux-Heitzmann, Élodie

    2016-12-01

    For people with end-stage kidney disease, a transplant is the promise of a future without dialysis. Living donor kidney transplantation comprises many specificities and is distinct from cadaveric donor transplantation. Some psychological aspects explain these specificities. They may be subconscious and difficult to access, but it is essential to decipher them in order to adapt the support provided to these people. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Promoting Organ Donor Registries Through Public Education: What Is the Cost of Securing Organ Donors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razdan, Manik; Smith, Kenneth J; Bryce, Cindy L; Degenholtz, Howard B

    2016-06-01

    Transplant medicine's impact on America's public health is seriously limited by acute shortage of transplantable organs. Consequently, the United Sates has witnessed considerable investment in the promotion of organ donor registries. Although there is no evidence to support that donor registry promotion alleviates organ shortage, this belief continues to drive investments into registry promotion. In this study, return on investment in donor registry promotion was examined using cost-outcomes analysis. Cost of promoting the donor registry was estimated in US dollars whereas the outcome was measured as the number of individuals who join the registry (registrants) and their value in terms of organ donors. The study was conducted from the perspective of a regional Organ Procurement Organization (OPO). Costs were directly obtained from the OPO. The number of new registrants was obtained from the OPO and the departments of motor vehicles that maintain the donor registry. The value of registrants in terms of organ donors was computed based on a registrant's age-dependent risk of dying and age-dependent probability of becoming an organ donor. Six thousand seven hundred eight individuals joined the organ donor registry (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 5429-7956) at a cost of $455 per registrant (95% CI, US $383-US $562). These individuals result in 4.2 present-day donors (95% CI, 2.5-6.6) at a cost of US $726 000 (95% CI, US $462000-US $1.2 million). Because the cost per registrant and cost per donor is less than society's willingness to pay, donor registry promotion offers positive return on investment. Investment in registry promotion should at the minimum be maintained at current levels.

  15. Female-partnered and single women's contact motivations and experiences with donor-linked families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, A E; Scheib, J E

    2015-06-01

    -sharing were conducted with parents from one American donor insemination program. Findings are limited to individuals who were open enough to share their experiences and able to take the time to do so. As donor-linking services become established independently (e.g. donor insemination program registries) or by the government (e.g. Victoria, Australia's Voluntary Register), these findings provide evidence that linking services are valued by individuals affected by donor conception. Caution is warranted, however, in that some participants reported mismatched expectations, both across donor-linked families and within families (e.g. between partners), suggesting the need for information and guidance both during and after matching. Overall, the range and balance of reported positives and negatives indicate that donor-linking can provide individuals with support and donor origins information-which are particularly important when these are not available elsewhere. Clark University provided support. No competing interests. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Secrets and disclosure in donor conception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frith, Lucy; Blyth, Eric; Crawshaw, Marilyn; van den Akker, Olga

    2018-01-01

    This article considers the disclosure, sharing and exchange of information on being donor conceived within families, drawing on data from a study undertaken with donor-conceived adults registered with UK Donor Link (a voluntary DNA-linking register). This paper considers the narratives of how respondents found out they were donor-conceived and what events triggered disclosure of this information. This paper then goes on to examine the role secrecy played in their family life and uses the concept of 'display' to explore how secrecy affected their relationships with their immediate and extended family. Secrets are notoriously 'leaky' and we found complex patterns of knowing and uncertainty about whom in the family knew that the person was donor-conceived. We argue that what is kept secret and from whom provides insights into the multifaceted web of social relationships that can be created by donor-conception, and how knowledge can be managed and controlled in attempts to display and maintain family narratives of biogenetic connection. © 2017 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.

  17. How to optimize the lung donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Gabriele; Costamagna, Andrea; Fanelli, Vito; Boffini, Massimo; Pugliese, Francesco; Mascia, Luciana; Brazzi, Luca

    2018-02-01

    Over the last two decades, lung transplantation emerged as the standard of care for patients with advanced and terminal lung disease. Despite the increment in lung transplantation rates, in 2016 the overall mortality while on waiting list in Italy reached 10%, whereas only 39% of the wait-list patients were successfully transplanted. A number of approaches, including protective ventilatory strategy, accurate management of fluid balance, and administration of a hormonal resuscitation therapy, have been reported to improve lung donor performance before organ retrieval. These approaches, in conjunction with the use of ex-vivo lung perfusion technique contributed to expand the lung donor pool, without affecting the harvest of other organs and the outcomes of lung recipients. However, the efficacy of issues related to the ex-vivo lung perfusion technique, such as the optimal ventilation strategy, the ischemia-reperfusion induced lung injury management, the prophylaxis of germs transmission from donor to recipient and the application of targeted pharmacologic therapies to treat specific donor lung injuries are still to be explored. The main objective of the present review is to summarize the "state-of-art" strategies to optimize the donor lungs and to present the actual role of ex-vivo lung perfusion in the process of lung transplant. Moreover, different approaches about the technique reported in literature and several issues that are under investigation to treat specific donor lung injury will be discussed.

  18. The 'A' genome donor of Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn. (Gramineae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiremath, S C; Salimath, S S

    1992-08-01

    In an attempt to discover 'A' and 'B' genome donor(s) to finger millet, Eleusine coracana, or its progenitor species, E. africana (both allotetraploid 2n=4x=36), five diploid species, E. Indica, E. Floccifolia, E. multiflora, E. tristachya and E. intermedia, were crossed to finger millet and its progenitor taxon. Crosses were successful only with E. coracana. Three combinations of triploid hybrids E. coracana x E. indica, E. coracana x E. floccifolia, and E. coracana x E. multiflora were obtained and analysed. Meiotic behaviour was perfectly normal in parental species. The regular number of 18 bivalents in E. coracana, 9 bivalents in E. indica, E. intermedia, E. tristachya and E. floccifolia and 8 bivalents in E. multiflora were invariably noticed. In E. coracana x E. indica hybrids a mean chromosome pairing of 8.84I+8.80II+0.03III+0.10IV per cell was found. About 86.5% of the cells showed the typical 9I+9II configuration, suggesting that E. indica (AA) is one of the diploid genome donors to cultivated species E. coracana. A mean chromosome pairing of 11.08I+7.63II+0.16III+0.04IV per cell was found in E. coracana x E. floccifolia hybrids. Two to ten bivalents and varying numbers of univalents were seen in 55% of the cells. About 45% of the cells showed the 9I+9II configuration. Various evidence suggests that perennial E. floccifolia is a primitive member of the 'A' genome group of Eleusine species, and it may not be a genome donor to E. coracana. In E. coracana x E. multiflora hybrids (2n=26) mean chromosome pairing of 21.45I+1.97II+0.13III+0.04IV per cell was found. About 91% of the cells were observed to have 20-26 univalents. Only a small percentage of the cells contained bivalents or multivalents. This pairing behaviour indicates that E. multiflora lacks genomic homology with the 'A' or 'B' genome of E. coracana. Genomically E. multiflora is a distinct species and a genomic symbol of 'C' is assigned to it. Identification of the 'B' genome donor species to

  19. Expanding the live kidney donor pool: ethical considerations regarding altruistic donors, paired and pooled programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Shaneel Rajendra; Chadha, Priyanka; Papalois, Vassilios

    2011-06-01

    In renal transplant, there is a well-known deficiency in organ supply relative to demand. Live donation provides superior results when compared with deceased donation including a better rate of graft success and fewer immunologic complications. This deficiency in organs leads to significant morbidity and mortality rates. Alternative avenues have been extensively explored that may expand the live donor pool. They include altruistic donation as well as paired and pooled exchange programs. Altruistic donation is a truly selfless act from a donor unknown to the recipient. Kidney paired donation involves 2 incompatible donor-recipient pairs swapping donors to produce compatibility. Pooled donation involves at least 2 pairs, and can take the form of domino chains in which altruistic input sets up a chain of transplants, in which each recipient's incompatible donor makes a donation for the next recipient. Despite application of these various methods, there lie extensive ethical issues surrounding them. Misconceptions frequently occur; for instance, the perceived benefit that donating an organ to a loved one is greater for a related donor than for an altruistic one. Additionally, it is frequently believed that immunologic incompatibility offers coerced donors liberation from surgery, and that overcoming these barriers by introducing exchange programs provides vulnerable donors less protection. This article explores these and other complex ethical issues surrounding the various methods of expanding the donor pool. The authors offer opinions that challenge the ethical issues and attempt to overcome those views that hinder progress in the field.

  20. Influence of kinship on donors' mental burden in living donor liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erim, Yesim; Beckmann, Mingo; Kroencke, Sylvia; Sotiropoulos, Georgios C; Paul, Andreas; Senf, Wolfgang; Schulz, Karl-Heinz

    2012-08-01

    In the context of living donor liver transplantation (LDLT), German transplantation law stipulates that donor candidates should primarily be relatives of the recipients or persons with distinct and close relationships. In this study, we investigated the influence of the relationship between the donor and the recipient on the donor's emotional strain before transplantation. Donors were categorized according to the following subgroups: (1) parents donating for their children, (2) children donating for their parents, (3) siblings, (4) spouses, (5) other relatives, and (6) nonrelatives. The sample consisted of 168 donor candidates. Anxiety (F = 2.8, P = 0.02), depression (F = 2.6, P = 0.03), and emotional quality of life (F = 3.1, P = 0.01) differed significantly according to the relationship between the donor and the recipient. In comparison with healthy controls, parents donating for their children were significantly less stressed before LDLT and demonstrated fewer anxiety (P depression symptoms (P < 0.05). Adult children donating for their parents demonstrated the highest mental burden and the lowest emotional quality of life. However, this was not due to the responsibility of these children for their own families because differences between donors with children and donors without children could not be ascertained. This group should be given special attention before LDLT and during follow-up visits, and psychological help should be provided when it is necessary. Copyright © 2012 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  1. West Nile virus lineage 2 infection in a blood donor from Vienna, Austria, August 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungbauer, C; Hourfar, M K; Stiasny, K; Aberle, S W; Cadar, D; Schmidt-Chanasit, J; Mayr, W R

    2015-03-01

    Eastern Austria is neighbouring regions with ongoing West Nile virus (WNV) transmissions. Three human WNV infections had been diagnosed during the past decade in Austria. The Austrian Red Cross Blood Service (ARC-BS) started a first voluntary screening for WNV in blood donors from Eastern Austria by Nucleic Acid Testing (NAT) in June 2014. This is also the most extensive WNV surveillance programme in humans in Austria so far. In August 2014, one autochthonous WNV infection was detected in a blood donor from Vienna. By now, one in 67,800 whole blood donations was found to be positive for WNV RNA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Genetic polymorphisms in varied environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, J R

    1971-12-03

    Thirteen experimenital populationis of Drosophila willistoni were maintained in cages, in some of which the environments were relatively constant and in others varied. After 45 weeks, the populations were assayed by gel electrophoresis for polymorphisms at 22 protein loci. The average heterozygosity per individual and the average unmber of alleles per locus were higher in populations maintained in heterogeneous environments than in populations in more constant enviroments.

  3. Prevalence of malaria parasitaemia among blood donors in Owerri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study of the prevalence of malaria parasitaemia among blood donors in the Federal Medical Centre, Owerri, Imo State, was carried out between December, 2003 and April, 2004. A total of 500 blood samples were collected from blood donors consisting of 262 commercial donors and 238 relation-donors, using ...

  4. Parvovirus B19 viraemia in Dutch blood donors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaaijer, H. L.; Koppelman, M. H. G. M.; Farrington, C. P.

    2004-01-01

    Blood, donated by asymptomatic donors, may contain and transmit parvovirus B19. To investigate the dynamics of parvovirus viraemia in asymptomatic blood donors, we studied the amounts of parvovirus DNA in pools of donor plasma, the prevalence of parvovirus antibodies among blood donors in relation

  5. First UK case report of kidney transplantation from an HIV-infected deceased donor to two HIV-infected recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Eileen; Karydis, Nikolaos; Drage, Martin; Hilton, Rachel

    2018-04-01

    Kidney transplantation is now considered the treatment of choice for many human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Graft survival rates using HIV-negative donors and carefully selected HIV-positive ESRD patients are similar to those observed in HIV-uninfected kidney transplant recipients. To address the relative shortfall in donated organs it has been proposed that organs from HIV-infected deceased donors might be allocated to HIV-infected patients on the transplant waiting list. Preliminary experience in South Africa reports promising short-term outcomes in a small number of HIV-infected recipients of kidney transplants from HIV-infected donors. We sought to replicate this experience in the UK by accepting kidney offers from HIV infected deceased donors for patients with HIV-infection on the kidney transplant waiting list. Here we report the UK's first cases of kidney transplantation between HIV-positive donors and recipients.

  6. Cancer risk in children born after donor ART.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C L; Bunch, K J; Murphy, M F G; Stiller, C A; Botting, B J; Wallace, W H; Davies, M C; Sutcliffe, A G

    2018-01-01

    observational study, it is not possible to adjust for all potential confounders; we have instead used stratification to explore potential moderating and mediating factors, where data were available. This is the first study to investigate cancer risk in children born after donor ART. Although based on small numbers, results are reassuring for families and clinicians. The small but significant increased risk of hepatoblastoma detected was associated with low birthweight, a known risk factor for this tumour type. It should be emphasized that the absolute risks are very small. However, on-going investigation with a longer follow-up is needed. This work was funded by Cancer Research UK (C36038/A12535) and the National Institute for Health Research (405526) and supported by the National Institute for Health Research Biomedical Research Centre at Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust and University College London. The work of the Childhood Cancer Research Group (CCRG) was supported by the charity CHILDREN with CANCER UK, the National Cancer Intelligence Network, the Scottish Government and the Department of Health for England and Wales. There are no competing interests. N/A. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  7. Does age of the sperm donor influence live birth outcome in assisted reproduction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghuman, N K; Mair, E; Pearce, K; Choudhary, M

    2016-03-01

    miscarriages per 100 women commencing treatment) was 1.3% in 18-34 year old women, 1.9% in 35-37 year old women and 1.9% in 38-50 year old women undergoing donor insemination treatment. In the sperm donation IVF/ICSI treatment group, these figures were 5.7, 8.4 and 6.8% respectively. The results were not suggestive of any unfavourable effect of advancing sperm donor age on the odds of miscarriage occurrence (P > 0.05). As sperm donors are a select population based on good semen indices, the generalization of results to the paternal population at large may not be possible. Although the study subgroups were controlled for female age, treatment modality and effect of previous treatment cycles, adjustments for certain potential compounding factors, such as smoking status, BMI of women and stimulation protocol used in IVF/ICSI treatment cycles, were not possible. Live birth and miscarriage occurrence following assisted reproduction weren't adversely affected by increasing sperm donor age up to 45 years. In view of the increasing demand for donor sperm, further studies may be required to ascertain the safe upper age limit for sperm donors. No funding was received from any individual or funding agency. NG was on a Commonwealth Scholarship for the duration of the study. The authors do not have any conflicts of interest to declare. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.