WorldWideScience

Sample records for human developmental disorders

  1. Developmental disorders of vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galaburda, Albert M; Duchaine, Bradley C

    2003-08-01

    This review of developmental disorders of vision focuses on only a few of the many disorders that disrupt visual development. Given the enormity of the human visual system in the primate brain and complexity of visual development, however, there are likely hundreds or thousands of types of disorders affecting high-level vision. The rapid progress seen in developmental dyslexia and WMS demonstrates the possibilities and difficulties inherent in researching such disorders, and the authors hope that similar progress will be made for congenital prosopagnosia and other disorders in the near future.

  2. Developmental coordination disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001533.htm Developmental coordination disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Developmental coordination disorder is a childhood disorder. It leads to ...

  3. Neutral versus Emotional Human Stimuli Processing in Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders not Otherwise Specified

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannetzel, Leonard; Chaby, Laurence; Cautru, Fabienne; Cohen, David; Plaza, Monique

    2011-01-01

    Pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) represents up to two-thirds of autism spectrum disorders; however, it is usually described in terms of the symptoms not shared by autism. The study explores processing of neutral and emotional human stimuli (by auditory, visual and multimodal channels) in children with PDD-NOS (n =…

  4. Chromatin remodeling by the CHD7 protein is impaired by mutations that cause human developmental disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Bouazoune, Karim; Kingston, Robert Edward

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in the CHD7 gene cause human developmental disorders including CHARGE syndrome. Genetic studies in model organisms have further established CHD7 as a central regulator of vertebrate development. Functional analysis of the CHD7 protein has been hampered by its large size. We used a dual-tag system to purify intact recombinant CHD7 protein and found that it is an ATP-dependent nucleosome remodeling factor. Biochemical analyses indicate that CHD7 has characteristics distinct from SWI/S...

  5. Chromatin remodeling by the CHD7 protein is impaired by mutations that cause human developmental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouazoune, Karim; Kingston, Robert E

    2012-11-20

    Mutations in the CHD7 gene cause human developmental disorders including CHARGE syndrome. Genetic studies in model organisms have further established CHD7 as a central regulator of vertebrate development. Functional analysis of the CHD7 protein has been hampered by its large size. We used a dual-tag system to purify intact recombinant CHD7 protein and found that it is an ATP-dependent nucleosome remodeling factor. Biochemical analyses indicate that CHD7 has characteristics distinct from SWI/SNF- and ISWI-type remodelers. Further investigations show that CHD7 patient mutations have consequences that range from subtle to complete inactivation of remodeling activity, and that mutations leading to protein truncations upstream of amino acid 1899 of CHD7 are likely to cause a hypomorphic phenotype for remodeling. We propose that nucleosome remodeling is a key function for CHD7 during developmental processes and provide a molecular basis for predicting the impact of disease mutations on that function.

  6. Developmental dyspraxia and developmental coordination disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyahara, M; Möbs, I

    1995-12-01

    This article discusses the role developmental dyspraxia plays in developmental coordination disorder (DCD), based upon a review of literature on apraxia, developmental dyspraxia, and DCD. Apraxia and dyspraxia have often been equated with DCD. However, it is argued that apraxia and dyspraxia primarily refer to the problems of motor sequencing and selection, which not all children with DCD exhibit. The author proposes to distinguish developmental dyspraxia from DCD. Other issues discussed include the assessment, etiology, and treatment of developmental dyspraxia and DCD, and the relationship between DCD and learning disabilities. A research agenda is offered regarding future directions to overcome current limitation.

  7. Impairments in Monkey and Human Face Recognition in 2-Year-Old Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Developmental Delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawarska, Katarzyna; Volkmar, Fred

    2007-01-01

    Face recognition impairments are well documented in older children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD); however, the developmental course of the deficit is not clear. This study investigates the progressive specialization of face recognition skills in children with and without ASD. Experiment 1 examines human and monkey face recognition in…

  8. [Development and developmental disorders of the human brain. III. Neuronal migration disorders of the cerebrum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkelaar, H.J. ten; Lammens, M.M.Y.; Wesseling, P.; Thijssen, H.O.M.; Renier, W.O.; Gabreëls, F.J.M.

    2001-01-01

    Neuronal migration disorders of the cerebral cortex form a heterogeneous group of abnormalities, characterised by mental retardation, epilepsy and hypotonia. They are prevalent in 1% of the population and in 20-40% of the untreatable forms of epilepsy. Disorders at the start of the migration result

  9. [Neurotransmission in developmental disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Yoshihiro

    2008-11-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) is a heterogeneous developmental disorder with an etiology that is not fully understood. AD/HD has been considered to occur due to a disturbance in cathecholaminergic neurotransmission, with particular emphasis on dopamine. The neurotransmission of dopamine in subcortical regions such as the basal ganglia and limbic areas is synaptic; on the other hand, dopamine neurotransmission in the frontal cortex is quite different, because there are very few dopamine transporters (DAT) in the frontal cortex that allow dopamine to diffuse away from the dopamine synapse ("volume transmission"). It is now clear that noradrenergic neurons play a key regulatory role in dopaminergic function in the frontal cortex. Furthermore, serotonergic neurons exert an inhibitory effect on midbrain dopamine cell bodies, and they have an influence on dopamine release in terminal regions. There is accumulating neurobiological evidence pointing toward a role of the serotonin system in AD/HD. The etiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is still unclear, but information from genetics, neuropathology, brain imaging, and basic neuroscience has provided insights into the understanding of this developmental disorder. In addition to abnormal circuitry in specific limbic and neocortical areas of the cerebral cortex, impairments in brainstem, cerebellar, thalamic, and basal ganglia connections have been reported. Numerous studies have pointed to abnormalities in serotonin and glutamate neurotransmission. Three important aspects involved in the pathophysiology of ASD have been proposed. The first is cell migration, the second is unbalanced excitatory-inhibitory networks, and the third is synapse formation and pruning, the key factors being reelin, neurexin, and neuroligin. Serotonin is considered to play an important role in all of these aspects of the pathophysiology of ASD. Finally, I would like to emphasize that it is crucial in the field of child

  10. Autism Spectrum Disorders (Pervasive Developmental Disorders)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strock, Margaret

    2007-01-01

    This booklet focuses on classic autism, pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), and Asperger syndrome, with brief descriptions of Rett syndrome and childhood disintegrative disorder. The booklet describes possible indicators of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), their diagnosis, available aids, treatment options, adults…

  11. DEVELOPMENTAL COORDINATION DISORDER IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeideh MIRAFKHAMI

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveIn this article, a motor skill disorder called developmental coordination disorder (DCD, that is usually first diagnosed during childhood, is explained and discussed. In the year 1987, DCD was formally recognized as a distinct disorder in children by the American Psychiatric Association  (APA. DCD is a generalized term for the children who have some degrees of impairment in the development of motor coordination and therefore have difficulties with physical skills which significantly interfere with their academic achievements and /or performing everyday activities. As they develop, other age-related tasks are also below average. Because these impairment & conditions are often associated with emotional distress, they can seriously interfere with the person's everyday life and social relationships. Reviews indicate that most of the training rocedures have only a limited effect on the development of general coordination, and that they have no effect at all on academic progress.This includes approaches based on assumed underlying deficiencies such as sensory integration deficits and kinesthetic functioning deficits, as well as the more traditional perceptual - motor training. One new approach is Cognitive Orientation to daily Occupational Performance (CO-OP, based on problem - solving strategies and guided discovery of the child and task specific strategies. The aim of this article was to inform, promote and disseminate more information about some difficulties in applying the diagnostic criteria for DCD. Also, a brief review of the researches on the intervention methods is presented.Keywords: Developmental coordination disorder, Motor skills disorder, Childhood disorder, Intervention methods

  12. [Non-autistic pervasive developmental disorders: Rett syndrome, disintegrative disorder and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mercadante, M.T.; Gaag, R.J. van der; Schwartzman, J.S.

    2006-01-01

    The category "Pervasive Developmental Disorders" includes autistic disorder, Asperger's syndrome, Rett's syndrome, childhood disintegrative disorder, and a residual category, named pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified. In this review, Rett's syndrome and childhood disintegrative

  13. [Development and the developmental disorders of human brain. I. Early development of the cerebrum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkelaar, H.J. ten; Wesseling, P.; Lammens, M.M.Y.; Renier, W.O.; Mullaart, R.A.; Thijssen, H.O.M.

    2001-01-01

    The recent discovery of many genes that regulate brain development is revolutionizing our knowledge of neuroembryology and, moreover, our understanding of how gene defects cause human birth defects. The first 8 weeks of the development of the cerebrum can be subdivided into 23 stages, with early

  14. DEVELOPMENTAL COORDINATION DISORDER IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeideh MIRAFKHAMI

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveIn this article, a motor skill disorder called developmental coordination disorder (DCD, that is usually first diagnosed during childhood, is explained and discussed. In the year 1987, DCD was formally recognized as a distinct disorder in children by the American Psychiatric Association (APA. DCD is a generalized term for the children who have some degrees of impairment in the development of motor coordination and therefore have difficulties with physical skills which significantly interfere with their academic achievements and /or performing everyday activities. As they develop, other age-related tasks are also below average. Because these impairment & conditions are often associated with emotional distress, they can seriously interfere with the person's everyday life and social relationships. Reviews indicate that most of the training rocedures have only a limited effect on the development of general coordination, and that they have no effect at all on academic progress.This includes approaches based on assumed underlying deficiencies such as sensory integration deficits and kinesthetic functioning deficits, as well as the more traditional perceptual - motor training. One new approach is Cognitive Orientation to daily Occupational Performance (CO-OP, based on problem - solving strategies and guided discovery of the child and task specific strategies. The aim of this article was to inform, promote and disseminate more information about some difficulties in applying the diagnostic criteria for DCD. Also, a brief review of the researches on the intervention methods is presented.

  15. Dyslexia: a developmental language disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, S

    2000-09-01

    The acquisition of literacy in an alphabetic script such as English makes heavy demands on linguistic skills. The relation between spoken and written language however, is far from straightforward. This article reviews the research that suggests that phonological processing skills are crucial in the translation of symbols to sounds, and the development of rapid and automatic decoding skills. It examines research that indicates that children whose phonological processing skills are compromised in some way, are at-risk of experiencing difficulties in the acquisition of literacy; it supports the suggestion that dyslexia can be viewed as lying on the continuum of developmental language disorders. It goes on to relate theory to practice and discusses the responsibilities of health care professionals in relation to the early identification of dyslexia, and makes suggestions regarding intervention. In particular, it looks at the responsibilities of speech and language therapy services in the care and management of children with dyslexia.

  16. Static balance and developmental coordination disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geuze, RH

    2003-01-01

    The development of static balance is a basic characteristic of normal motor development. Most of the developmental motor tests include a measure of static balance. Children with a developmental coordination disorder (DCD) often fail this item. Twenty-four children at risk for DCD with balance proble

  17. [Gender dysphoria in pervasive developmental disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tateno, Masaru; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Saito, Toshikazu

    2011-01-01

    Pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) are characterized by two essential symptoms: impairment in social interaction, and restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests, and activities. PDD include autistic disorder, Asperger's disorder, and PDD-Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS). These three disorders are sometimes termed autism spectrum disorders. A recent epidemiological survey demonstrated that the rate of PDD may be almost 1% and that many PDD cases might not be diagnosed properly in childhood. Erik Erikson described eight stages of psychosocial development through which a normally developing human should pass from infancy to adulthood. In the theory, an adolescent shows 'Identity vs. Role Confusion'. It has been reported that individuals with PDD often have identity crises which sometimes include gender dysphoria. This phenomenon might be related to the so-called identity diffusion in youth. When they reach their young youth, it has been said that subjects with PDD realize their uniqueness and differences compared to others, and, as a result, they may develop confusion of identity which could be exhibited as gender identity disorder. A recent study demonstrated that, amongst 204 children and adolescents who visited a GID clinic in the Netherlands, 7.8% were diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders after a careful diagnostic procedure by a multi-disciplinary team. Taken together, PDD and GID seem closely related to each other. In this paper, we present four PDD cases with gender dysphoria and related symptoms: 1) a girl with PDD who repeatedly asserted gender identity disorder (GID) symptoms in response to social isolation at school, 2) a junior high school boy with PDD and transvestism, 3) a boy diagnosed with Asperger's disorder who developed a disturbance of sexual orientation, and 4) a boy with Asperger's disorder and comorbid childhood GID. Many of the clinical symptoms related to gender dysphoria might be explained by the

  18. Practitioner Review: Early Adversity and Developmental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Eric; Rogers, Jody Warner

    2005-01-01

    Background: Knowledge of genetic influences, on developmental disorders such as autism spectrum, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and learning disabilities, has increased the opportunities for understanding the influences of the early environment. Methods: This paper provides a selective, narrative review for clinicians of the effects of…

  19. The Impact of Obesity on Developmental Coordination Disorder in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Matthias Oliver; Kastner, Julia; Petermann, Franz; Jekauc, Darko; Worth, Annette; Bos, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) as well as overweight and obesity are of increasing importance in the study of human development. Data on the relation between DCD and obesity in adolescence are of particular interest because both phenomena are unlikely to disappear with age. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of…

  20. The Impact of Obesity on Developmental Coordination Disorder in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Matthias Oliver; Kastner, Julia; Petermann, Franz; Jekauc, Darko; Worth, Annette; Bos, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) as well as overweight and obesity are of increasing importance in the study of human development. Data on the relation between DCD and obesity in adolescence are of particular interest because both phenomena are unlikely to disappear with age. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of…

  1. Developmental coordination disorder: what is it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewey, D; Wilson, B N

    2001-01-01

    This paper begins with a discussion of the historical basis for the concept of developmental coordination disorder (DCD). The definition of this disorder as it appears in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV (DSM-IV) is then provided. The four diagnostic criteria proposed by the DSM-IV are used to describe the disorder. Problems associated with the assessment of DCD are discussed and suggestions for further research are identified. This is followed by a discussion of intervention approaches that can be used with children identified with DCD.

  2. [Effect of developmental disorders on personality and personality disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Hideo

    2013-01-01

    Developmental disorders (DD) are now so common that it is even more necessary to investigate the relationship between DD and personality disorders (PD). Despite the lack of studies, DD and PD have much in common. For research on personality and its disorders, direct, real-time observation by researchers themselves on the "black box" of temperament and its interaction with the environment is needed. For research on DD, especially in those with mild DD symptoms, how developmental characteristics and their interaction with the environment affect the personality in adulthood should be investigated.

  3. EARLY DIAGNOSIS OF PERVASIVE DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelica ERCEG-DJURACIC

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Pervasive developmental disorders represent obviously a heterogeneous group of disorders, whose clinical expressions, courses and prospects differ significantly. Common to all these disorders, expect essential diagnostic characteristics, is the fact that they are life-long problems, thus, these are disorders without possibility of complete relief. Although measures of secondary prevention in these disorders do exert a limited effect, it is possible to achieve indubitable improvements in three fields:· well-timed application of adequate treatment may influence the essential characteristics of a disorder in the direction of adaptation to requirements of social environment, improvement of communication and enrichment of poor activity repertoire;· slowing down and delaying of unfavorable disorder evolution and· helping in understanding, accepting and adapting of child’s family to a pervasive developmental disorder.Value of early established diagnosis is not reflected only in foundation of organized adequate treatment. Early established diagnosis enables a well-timed giving of genetic advice to the family which is, as a rule, young, and without genetic load. On the other hand, well-timed diagnosis enables planning of life-long complete care for the patient with the disorder.

  4. Developmental coordination disorder: evaluation and treatment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leemrijse, C.

    2003-01-01

    A child's popularity is often related to his or her proficiency in sports and games, and children value physical competence highly. The movement difficulties of children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) often invite ridicule from their peers. Children with DCD have a poor motor perform

  5. Prisms Throw Light on Developmental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, Rebecca L.; Nicolson, Roderick I.; Fawcett, Angela J.

    2007-01-01

    Prism adaptation, in which the participant adapts to prismatic glasses that deflect vision laterally, is a specific test of cerebellar function. Fourteen dyslexic children (mean age 13.5 years); 14 children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD): 6 of whom had comorbid dyslexia; and 12 control children matched for age and IQ underwent…

  6. Epidemiology of autistic disorder and other pervasive developmental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fombonne, Eric

    2005-01-01

    Is the incidence of autistic disorder and other pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs) increasing? Recent epidemiological surveys of autistic disorder and other PDDs have heightened awareness of and concern about the prevalence of these disorders; however, differences in survey methodology, particularly changes in case definition and case identification over time, have made comparisons between surveys difficult to perform and interpret. Recent surveys suggest that the rate of all PDDs is about 60 per 10,000. The prevalence of autism today is estimated at 13 per 10,000, Asperger's disorder is approximately 3 per 10,000, and childhood disintegrative disorder is very rare at about 0.2 per 10,000. The assessment process, sample size, publication year, and geographic location of studies all have an effect on prevalence estimates. In addition, data from many of these surveys indicate correlates of autistic disorder and other PDDs with IQ, gender, and other medical disorders.

  7. [Pervasive developmental disorders: controversies concerning the classification of autism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisula, E

    2000-01-01

    Autistic Disorder was described by Leo Kanner in 1943. Since that time not only the name of this disorder (initially early infantile autism) has changed but also it's relation to other disorders. DSM-IV includes autism together with Rett's Disorder, Childhood Disintegrative Disorder, Asperger's Disorder and Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified into one category: Pervasive Developmental Disorders. The definition and contents of Pervasive Developmental Disorders raise many controversies. Differentiation between particular disorders within this category is also difficult. This paper discusses some of these problems.

  8. Developmental psychopathology: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Sören; Petermann, Franz

    2009-09-17

    Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), formerly regarded as a typical childhood disorder, is now known as a developmental disorder persisting over the lifespan. Starting in preschool-age, symptoms vary depending on the age group affected. According to the variability of ADHD-symptoms and the heterogeneity of comorbid psychiatric disorders, a broad review of recent studies was performed. These findings were summarized in a developmental psychopathological model, documenting relevant facts on a timeline. Based on a genetic disposition and a neuropsychological deregulation, there is evidence for factors which persist across the lifespan, change age-dependently, or show validity in a specific developmental phase. Qualitative changes can be found for children in preschool-age and adults. These differences have implications for clinical practice as they can be used for prevention, diagnostic proceedings, and therapeutic intervention as well as for planning future studies. The present article is a translated and modified version of the German article "Entwicklungspsychopathologie der ADHS", published in Zeitschrift für Psychiatrie, Psychologie und Psychotherapie, 56, 2008, S. 265-274.

  9. Developmental psychopathology: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD

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    Petermann Franz

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD, formerly regarded as a typical childhood disorder, is now known as a developmental disorder persisting over the lifespan. Starting in preschool-age, symptoms vary depending on the age group affected. Method According to the variability of ADHD-symptoms and the heterogeneity of comorbid psychiatric disorders, a broad review of recent studies was performed. These findings were summarized in a developmental psychopathological model, documenting relevant facts on a timeline. Results Based on a genetic disposition and a neuropsychological deregulation, there is evidence for factors which persist across the lifespan, change age-dependently, or show validity in a specific developmental phase. Qualitative changes can be found for children in preschool-age and adults. Conclusion These differences have implications for clinical practice as they can be used for prevention, diagnostic proceedings, and therapeutic intervention as well as for planning future studies. The present article is a translated and modified version of the German article "Entwicklungspsychopathologie der ADHS", published in Zeitschrift für Psychiatrie, Psychologie und Psychotherapie, 56, 2008, S. 265-274.

  10. Learning about Developmental Disorders for Actual Support not only Knowing

    OpenAIRE

    今野, 博信

    2013-01-01

    People are paying more attention these days to developmental disorders. To reinforce this, the Act on Support for Persons with Developmental Disabilities was established in 2005. Over forty students attended the author's class ‘Learning and Developmental Theory’ in the teacher-training course of Muroran Institute of Technology in 2011. The class included learning about developmental disorders. But only being knowledgeable about the disorders may not be sufficient. What was more expected from ...

  11. Developmental coordination disorders: state of art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaivre-Douret, L

    2014-01-01

    In the literature, descriptions of children with motor coordination difficulties and clumsy movements have been discussed since the early 1900s. According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV), it is a marked impairment in the development of fine or global motor coordination, affecting 6% of school-age children. All these children are characterized for developmental coordination disorder (DCD) in motor learning and new motor skill acquisition, in contrast to adult apraxia which is a disorder in the execution of already learned movements. No consensus has been established about etiology of DCD. Intragroup approach through factor and cluster analysis highlights that motor impairment in DCD children varies both in severity and nature. Indeed, most studies have used screening measures of performance on some developmental milestones derived from global motor tests. A few studies have investigated different functions together with standardized assessments, such as neuromuscular tone and soft signs, qualitative and quantitative measures related to gross and fine motor coordination and the specific difficulties -academic, language, gnosic, visual motor/visual-perceptual, and attentional/executive- n order to allow a better identification of DCD subtypes with diagnostic criteria and to provide an understanding of the mechanisms and of the cerebral involvement.

  12. Risk factors of ophthalmic disorders in children with developmental delay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandfeld, L.N.; Jensen, H.; Skov, L.

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: To identify diagnoses that increase the risk of ophthalmic disorders in developmentally delayed children. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 1126 Danish children with developmental delay (IQ Udgivelsesdato: 2008/12......PURPOSE: To identify diagnoses that increase the risk of ophthalmic disorders in developmentally delayed children. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 1126 Danish children with developmental delay (IQ Udgivelsesdato: 2008/12...

  13. Developmental Disorders as Pathological Resilience Domains

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    Rodrick Wallace

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystem resilience theory permits novel exploration of developmental psychiatric and chronic physical disorders. Structured psychosocial stress, and similar noxious exposures, can write distorted images of themselves onto child growth, and, if sufficiently powerful, adult development as well, initiating a punctuated life course trajectory to characteristic forms of comorbid mind/body dysfunction. For an individual, within the linked network of broadly cognitive psysiological and mental subsystems, this occurs in a manner almost exactly similar to resilience domain shifts affecting a stressed ecosystem, suggesting that reversal or palliation may often be exceedingly difficult. Thus resilience theory may contribute significant new perspectives to the understanding, remediation, and prevention, of these debilitating conditions.

  14. Developmental antecedents of borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgeland, Margareth I; Torgersen, Svenn

    2004-01-01

    Developmental antecedents of borderline personality disorders (BPDs) were examined in 25 DSM-IV-diagnosed subjects with BPD and 107 non-borderline control subjects on the basis of medical records and 28 years follow-up. Abuse, neglect, environmental instability, paternal psychopathology, and lower score on protective factors differentiated significantly between the groups. Environmental instability and lower score on protective factors such as artistic talents, superior school performance, above average intellectual skills, and talents in other areas were found to be independent predictors of BPD diagnosis. The results of this study suggest that both abuse and neglect, unpredictable and unstable early environment, as well as deficit in protective factors may substantially contribute to the development of BPD in persons constitutionally predisposed for the disorder. The results of the study also suggest that future research should address the impact of social and cultural context, as well as the absence of protective factors, on the development of the BPD.

  15. Epigenetics in Developmental Disorder: ADHD and Endophenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Trevor; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Blum, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Heterogeneity in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), with complex interactive operations of genetic and environmental factors, is expressed in a variety of disorder manifestations: severity, co-morbidities of symptoms, and the effects of genes on phenotypes. Neurodevelopmental influences of genomic imprinting have set the stage for the structural-physiological variations that modulate the cognitive, affective, and pathophysiological domains of ADHD. The relative contributions of genetic and environmental factors provide rapidly proliferating insights into the developmental trajectory of the condition, both structurally and functionally. Parent-of-origin effects seem to support the notion that genetic risks for disease process debut often interact with the social environment, i.e., the parental environment in infants and young children. The notion of endophenotypes, markers of an underlying liability to the disorder, may facilitate detection of genetic risks relative to a complex clinical disorder. Simple genetic association has proven insufficient to explain the spectrum of ADHD. At a primary level of analysis, the consideration of epigenetic regulation of brain signalling mechanisms, dopamine, serotonin, and noradrenaline is examined. Neurotrophic factors that participate in the neurogenesis, survival, and functional maintenance of brain systems, are involved in neuroplasticity alterations underlying brain disorders, and are implicated in the genetic predisposition to ADHD, but not obviously, nor in a simple or straightforward fashion. In the context of intervention, genetic linkage studies of ADHD pharmacological intervention have demonstrated that associations have fitted the “drug response phenotype,” rather than the disorder diagnosis. Despite conflicting evidence for the existence, or not, of genetic associations between disorder diagnosis and genes regulating the structure and function of neurotransmitters and brain-derived neurotrophic

  16. Motor profile of children with developmental speech and language disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visscher, Chris; Houwen, Suzanne; Scherder, Erik J. A.; Moolenaar, Ben; Hartman, Esther

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. The purpose of this study was to investigate the motor profile of 125 children with developmental speech and language disorders and to test for differences, if any, in motor profile among subgroups of children with developmental speech and language disorders. METHODS. The participants we

  17. Motor profile of children with developmental speech and language disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visscher, Chris; Houwen, Suzanne; Scherder, Erik J. A.; Moolenaar, Ben; Hartman, Esther

    OBJECTIVES. The purpose of this study was to investigate the motor profile of 125 children with developmental speech and language disorders and to test for differences, if any, in motor profile among subgroups of children with developmental speech and language disorders. METHODS. The participants

  18. Reflections on multiple personality disorder as a developmentally complex adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, J G

    1994-01-01

    Recent advances in the understanding of multiple personality disorder provide the groundwork for its creative reconciliation with psychoanalysis. This paper uses psychoanalytic, modern developmental, and psychological assessment perspectives to conceptualize multiple personality disorder as a developmentally protective response to chronic childhood trauma. Implications of this theory for clinical work with these patients are discussed.

  19. Structural plasticity mechanisms and developmental psychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique eMuller

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Synaptic plasticity mechanisms are usually discussed in terms of changes in synaptic strength. The capacity of excitatory synapses to rapidly modify the membrane expression of glutamate receptors in an activity-dependent manner plays a critical role in learning and memory processes by re-distributing activity within neuronal networks. Recent work has however also shown that functional plasticity properties are associated with a rewiring of synaptic connections and a selective stabilization of activated synapses. These structural aspects of plasticity have the potential to continuously modify the organization of synaptic networks and thereby introduce specificity in the wiring diagram of cortical circuits. Recent work has started to unravel some of the molecular mechanisms that underlie these properties of structural plasticity, highlighting an important role of signaling pathways that are also major candidates for contributing to developmental psychiatric disorders. We review here some of these recent advances and discuss the hypothesis that alterations of structural plasticity could represent a common mechanism contributing to the cognitive and functional defects observed in diseases such as intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia.

  20. Psychological Diagnostics of Developmental Disorders: A New Concept

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    Lubovsky V.I.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The authors propose a fundamentally new, theoretically grounded and empirically supported approach to psycho-pedagogical diagnostics of developmental disorders. It is shown that in Russia psychological diagnostics of developmental disorders still has no proper theoretical foundations and is carried out rather intuitively and empirically, even on the stage of differential diagnosis. The situation abroad is quite similar despite the use of standardized intelligence tests as they can only measure quantitative differences in subjects’ performance. The authors emphasize core components of cognitive activity different correlation of which determines the differences between various types of intellectual disorders that are similar in presentation. The proposed approach allows us to fully use the relevant characteristics of different types of developmental disorders. Features of the dynamics of cognitive activity, which are identified in observations and ignored in testing, significantly complement the psychological characteristics of developmental disorders.

  1. Cranioplasty for isolated trigonocephaly with developmental disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimabukuro, Satoshi; Shimoji, Takeyoshi [Okinawa Prefectural Naha Hospital (Japan); Sugama, Seiichi

    2001-11-01

    We reported 50 cases of mild to moderate trigonocephaly (most isolated type) treated by cranioplasty. All of them had clinical symptoms such as severe hyperactivity, speech delay, inability to communicate with others, self-mutilation (head banging), irritability, temper tantrum and mental retardation. Pre-operative CT scan and MRI showed no abnormal findings in the brain except for constricted frontal lobes. The 3D-CT scan showed the most important diagnostic findings: a ridge of the metopic suture and narrow anterior fossa. TcECD SPECT was performed on 43 patients, and demonstrated in 31 cases some degree of decreased cerebral blood flow (CBF), mainly in the bilateral frontal lobes. Post-operatively, most patients improved to some degrees. The results were compared to those of trigonocephaly patients without cranioplasty. The operated group showed better improvement in the above clinical symptoms, especially, hyperactivity, indifference to others, understanding of verbal communication, self-mutilation, irritability and temper tantrum. The post-operative SPECT represented the increased CBF in 30 out of the 31 cases. MRI and CT scan revealed expanded frontal lobes. Thus, cranioplasty may alleviate the symptoms of patients with mild to moderate trigonocephaly and developmental disorders. (author)

  2. Is Rett Syndrome a Subtype of Pervasive Developmental Disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Luke Y.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reviews whether Rett syndrome is a subtype of pervasive developmental disorders (PDD). The paper analyzes internal and external diagnostic validity and discusses whether Rett syndrome is a neurological disorder or a mental disorder. The paper concludes that data support the idea of classifying Rett syndrome as a subtype of PDD.…

  3. Stagering: Een ontwikkelingspuzzel [The challenge of staging developmental disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaag, R.J. van der; Wijngaarden-Cremers, P.J. van; Staal, W.G.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: On the basis of our current knowledge, developmental disorders can be divided into the following stages: stage 0: normal variation, stage 1: simple disorder of moderate severity, stage 2: complicating co-morbidity and/or harmful background circumstances, and stage 3: serious disorder wit

  4. Attachment in Toddlers with Autism and Other Developmental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naber, Fabienne B. A.; Swinkels, Sophie H. N.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Dietz, Claudine; van Daalen, Emma; van Engeland, Herman

    2007-01-01

    Attachment was assessed in toddlers with Autistic Disorder (n = 20), Pervasive Developmental Disorder (n = 14), Mental Retardation (n = 12), Language Development Disorder (n = 16), and a non-clinical comparison group (n = 18), using the Strange Situation Procedure (SSP). Children in the clinical groups were more often disorganized and less often…

  5. Attachment in toddlers with autism and other developmental disorders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naber, F.; Swinkels, S.H.N.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, M.J.; IJzendoorn, M.H. van; Dietz, C.; Daalen, E. van; Engeland, H. van

    2007-01-01

    Attachment was assessed in toddlers with Autistic Disorder (n=20), Pervasive Developmental Disorder (n=14), Mental Retardation (n=12), Language Development Disorder (n=16), and a non-clinical comparison group (n=18), using the Strange Situation Procedure (SSP). Children in the clinical groups were m

  6. Developmental disorders: what can be learned from cognitive neuropsychology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castles, Anne; Kohnen, Saskia; Nickels, Lyndsey; Brock, Jon

    2014-01-01

    The discipline of cognitive neuropsychology has been important for informing theories of cognition and describing the nature of acquired cognitive disorders, but its applicability in a developmental context has been questioned. Here, we revisit this issue, asking whether the cognitive neuropsychological approach can be helpful for exploring the nature and causes of developmental disorders and, if so, how. We outline the key features of the cognitive neuropsychological approach, and then consider how some of the major challenges to this approach from a developmental perspective might be met. In doing so, we distinguish between challenges to the methods of cognitive neuropsychology and those facing its deeper conceptual underpinnings. We conclude that the detailed investigation of patterns of both associations and dissociations, and across both developmental and acquired cases, can assist in describing the cognitive deficits within developmental disorders and in delineating possible causal pathways to their acquisition.

  7. Perceptual skills of children with developmental coordination disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoemaker, M.M.; van der Wees, M.; Flapper, B.; Verheij-Jansen, N.; Scholten-Jaegers, S.; Geuze, R.H.

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether children with a Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) experience problems in the processing of visual, proprioceptive or tactile information. Different aspects of visual perception were tested with the Developmental Test of Visual Perception

  8. Perceptual skills of children with developmental coordination disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoemaker, M.M.; van der Wees, M.; Flapper, B.; Verheij-Jansen, N.; Scholten-Jaegers, S.; Geuze, R.H.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether children with a Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) experience problems in the processing of visual, proprioceptive or tactile information. Different aspects of visual perception were tested with the Developmental Test of Visual Perception (DTVP

  9. Developmental Coordination Disorder in School-Age Children

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of developmental coordination disorder (DCD) in children, at 7 years of age, in a large UK birth cohort was determined using DSM-IV criteria, in a study at the University of Bristol, UK; and Utrecht University, Netherlands.

  10. A Comparison of Motor Delays in Young Children: Autism Spectrum Disorder, Developmental Delay, and Developmental Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provost, Beth; Lopez, Brian R.; Heimerl, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    This study assessed motor delay in young children 21-41 months of age with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and compared motor scores in children with ASD to those of children without ASD. Fifty-six children (42 boys, 14 girls) were in three groups: children with ASD, children with developmental delay (DD), and children with developmental concerns…

  11. Motor Performance and Rhythmic Perception of Children with Intellectual and Developmental Disability and Developmental Coordination Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartasidou, Lefkothea; Varsamis, Panagiotis; Sampsonidou, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Professionals who work with children presenting intellectual and developmental disability (IDD) and developmental coordination disorder (DCD) are concerned with their motor development and their rhythmic perception. The aim of this study is to investigate the correlation between a motor performance test and a music rhythmic test that measures…

  12. Leiter-R versus developmental quotient for estimating cognitive function in preschoolers with pervasive developmental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portoghese, Claudia; Buttiglione, Maura; De Giacomo, Andrea; Lafortezza, Mariaelena; Lecce, Paola A; Martinelli, Domenico; Lozito, Vito; Margari, Lucia

    2010-09-07

    The utility of the developmental quotient (DQ) obtained with the Psychoeducational Profile Revised (PEP-R) was assessed as a means of estimating cognitive ability in young children with pervasive developmental disorders. Data from the PEP-R were analysed in a sample of 44 children aged from 2.0 to 5.9 years (mean 3.46 ± 1), 13 with an autistic disorder and 31 with a pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified. DQ scores were compared with scores from the Leiter International Performance Scale Revised-Visualization and Reasoning Battery (Leiter-R) in the same 44 children. Overall and domain DQs on the PEP-R were significantly correlated with Leiter-R scores. This study suggests that DQ scores obtained from the PEP-R in preschool children with pervasive developmental disorders may be a viable alternative to the Leiter-R as an assessment tool.

  13. Psychological Diagnostics of Developmental Disorders: A New Concept

    OpenAIRE

    Lubovsky V.I.; Korobeynikov I.A.,; Valyavko S.M.,

    2017-01-01

    The authors propose a fundamentally new, theoretically grounded and empirically supported approach to psycho-pedagogical diagnostics of developmental disorders. It is shown that in Russia psychological diagnostics of developmental disorders still has no proper theoretical foundations and is carried out rather intuitively and empirically, even on the stage of differential diagnosis. The situation abroad is quite similar despite the use of standardized intelligence tests as they can only measur...

  14. [Prevalence of pervasive developmental disorders. A review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenoir, P; Bodier, C; Desombre, H; Malvy, J; Abert, B; Ould Taleb, M; Sauvage, D

    2009-02-01

    Estimates of the prevalence of autism and pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) are discordant and are moving towards an apparent increase in rates. The studies carried out since 1966 illustrate the variability of the protocols used and explanatory hypotheses put forward. These investigations are difficult, sparse, but still growing at the same time that a debate develops on the possible increase in actual prevalence. Indeed, the rate initially admitted for classic autism was 5/10,000, then 1/1000 with an expanded definition to the forms, but the current figures are very different (almost 0.7% for all PDD), and this increase raises questions. The arguments in favour of an apparent increase are primarily methodological. Several biases are encountered when one compares the recent publications with those of previous years. First, autism is better known and recognized than 30 or 40 years ago. Then, the diagnostic criteria used over time are changing variables, and comparisons difficult. Recent studies using the criteria of a broader definition of autism, polyhandicap with severe retardation and autism signs of lighter forms. The fact that children with autism are diagnosed more frequently in the younger age could also occasionally lead to an artificial increase in the number of cases identified in new surveys in populations of young children. Other factors are cited to explain the current increase. There could be higher rates of autism (and mental retardation) among children of migrants from distant countries, with the aetiological hypothesis of maternal infections, more frequent due to immune deficiency against infectious agents depending on the environment, metabolic decompensations also related to changes in surroundings, or more births from unions among migrant mothers and men with Asperger syndrome (with increased risk of paternity of a child with autism). Other theories relate to pollution, vaccinations, a growing number of premature babies; all assumptions

  15. Developmental disorders of the female genital tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... genitals: Developmental problems may lead to a swollen clitoris or fused labia (when the folds of tissue ... genital area or a single rectal opening Swollen clitoris The belly area may be swollen or a ...

  16. Mathematical Problems in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieters, Stefanie; Desoete, Annemie; Van Waelvelde, Hilde; Vanderswalmen, Ruth; Roeyers, Herbert

    2012-01-01

    Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is a heterogeneous disorder, which is often co-morbid with learning disabilities. However, mathematical problems have rarely been studied in DCD. The aim of this study was to investigate the mathematical problems in children with various degrees of motor problems. Specifically, this study explored if the…

  17. Challenging and Offending Behaviour by Adults with Developmental Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, A. J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the assessment of psychiatric and behavior disorders occurring in people with developmental disorders and the problems arising when such behavior results in offenses against the law. The paper argues that a multidisciplinary approach is needed in such cases, given the complex interaction among possible brain pathology,…

  18. The FOXP2-Driven Network in Developmental Disorders and Neurodegeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz Oswald

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The transcription repressor FOXP2 is a crucial player in nervous system evolution and development of humans and songbirds. In order to provide an additional insight into its functional role we compared target gene expression levels between human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y stably overexpressing FOXP2 cDNA of either humans or the common chimpanzee, Rhesus monkey, and marmoset, respectively. RNA-seq led to identification of 27 genes with differential regulation under the control of human FOXP2, which were previously reported to have FOXP2-driven and/or songbird song-related expression regulation. RT-qPCR and Western blotting indicated differential regulation of additional 13 new target genes in response to overexpression of human FOXP2. These genes may be directly regulated by FOXP2 considering numerous matches of established FOXP2-binding motifs as well as publicly available FOXP2-ChIP-seq reads within their putative promoters. Ontology analysis of the new and reproduced targets, along with their interactors in a network, revealed an enrichment of terms relating to cellular signaling and communication, metabolism and catabolism, cellular migration and differentiation, and expression regulation. Notably, terms including the words “neuron” or “axonogenesis” were also enriched. Complementary literature screening uncovered many connections to human developmental (autism spectrum disease, schizophrenia, Down syndrome, agenesis of corpus callosum, trismus-pseudocamptodactyly, ankyloglossia, facial dysmorphology and neurodegenerative diseases and disorders (Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, and Huntington’s diseases, Lewy body dementia, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Links to deafness and dyslexia were detected, too. Such relations existed for single proteins (e.g., DCDC2, NURR1, PHOX2B, MYH8, and MYH13 and groups of proteins which conjointly function in mRNA processing, ribosomal recruitment, cell–cell adhesion (e.g., CDH4, cytoskeleton

  19. Static Balance Ability in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Mitsiou; Paraskevi Giagazoglou; Maria Sidiropoulou; Georgios Kotsikas; Vasileios Tsimaras; Eleni Fotiadou

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the current study was the examination of disorders in motor coordination of 8/9-year-old school aged children and the detection of possible differences in balance performance between those children assessed with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) and matched peers. It was found that 20 children out of the total number of 200 participating in this study, exhibited definite motor difficulties indicating a DCD disorder.The 20 students diagnosed with DCD were matc...

  20. Postural Control in Children With Developmental Coordination Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Geuze, Reint H.

    2005-01-01

    The development of static balance is a basic characteristic of normal motor development. Most developmental motor tests include a measure of static balance. Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) often fail this item. This study reviews the balance problems of children with DCD. The general conclusion is drawn that under normal conditions static balance control is not a problem for children with DCD. Only in difficult, unattended, or novel situations such children seem to suf...

  1. Relationship between sexual offences and mental and developmental disorders: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Martins Valença

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sexual violence is a serious public health problem that concerns and faces our society. The prevalence, magnitude and consequences of this problem have merited growing attention by health researchers and human rights scholars. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a review of the literature regarding the relationship between mental disorders, sexual offences and those of development. METHODS: A bibliographic research was performed in PubMed, Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO and Lilacs, employing the terms "sexual crime", "sexual offence", "mental disorder", "mental retardation", "developmental disability" and its combinations. RESULTS: The mental disorders and developmental disorders more frequently related to the perpetration of sexual offences were schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and mental retardation. DISCUSSION: The detection and treatment of psychiatric morbidity among sexual offenders in health and criminal justice systems, which may contribute to a lower risk of recidivism of this sexual behaviour, is important.

  2. Dyspraxia or developmental coordination disorder? Unravelling the enigma

    OpenAIRE

    Gibbs, John; Appleton, Jeanette; Appleton, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Dyspraxia is an enigma to many people, both professional and lay alike—what is it, how does it relate to developmental coordination disorder and associated conditions, how common is it, how is it recognised and diagnosed and how should it be managed? This article attempts to unravel this enigma by: dealing with the terminology of coordination difficulties from the “clumsy child syndrome” through “dyspraxia” to “developmental coordination disorder (DCD)”; briefly examining the debate as to whe...

  3. Leiter-R versus developmental quotient for estimating cognitive function in preschoolers with pervasive developmental disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Portoghese

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Claudia Portoghese1, Maura Buttiglione1, Andrea De Giacomo1, Mariaelena Lafortezza1, Paola A Lecce1, Domenico Martinelli2, Vito Lozito1, Lucia Margari11Child Neurological and Psychiatric Unit, Department of Neurological and Psychiatric Sciences, 2Department of Biomedical Science and Oncology, University of Bari, ItalyAbstract: The utility of the developmental quotient (DQ obtained with the Psychoeducational Profile Revised (PEP-R was assessed as a means of estimating cognitive ability in young children with pervasive developmental disorders. Data from the PEP-R were analysed in a sample of 44 children aged from 2.0 to 5.9 years (mean 3.46 ± 1, 13 with an autistic disorder and 31 with a pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified. DQ scores were compared with scores from the Leiter International Performance Scale Revised-Visualization and Reasoning Battery (Leiter-R in the same 44 children. Overall and domain DQs on the PEP-R were significantly correlated with Leiter-R scores. This study suggests that DQ scores obtained from the PEP-R in preschool children with pervasive developmental disorders may be a viable alternative to the Leiter-R as an assessment tool.Keywords: autism, pervasive development disorder, PEP-R, assessment, cognitive function

  4. Withdrawal Study of Memantine in Pediatric Patients With Autism, Asperger's Disorder, or Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified Previously Treated With Memantine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD); Autism; Autistic Disorder; Asperger's Disorder; Asperger's; Pediatric Autism; Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS); Pervasive Child Development Disorder

  5. Mood impairments in adults previously diagnosed with Developmental Coordination Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Background: Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) affects up to 6% of the population and is diagnosed on the basis of poor motor coordination. While we know rather little about its lifetime consequences, clear and significant difficulties remain through the lifespan for the majority. Reduced physical activity and, outside of the motor domain, significant mental health issues exist for many with DCD. Aims: This study provides the first investigation of the presence of mood disorders in ...

  6. Impaired Visuo-Motor Sequence Learning in Developmental Coordination Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheysen, Freja; Van Waelvelde, Hilde; Fias, Wim

    2011-01-01

    The defining feature of Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) is the marked impairment in the development of motor coordination (DSM-IV-TR, American Psychiatric Association, 2000). In the current study, we focused on one core aspect of motor coordination: learning to correctly sequence movements. We investigated the procedural, visuo-motor…

  7. Self-Concept of Boys with Developmental Coordination Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocks, Neralie; Barton, Belinda; Donelly, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) experience difficulties in motor coordination. During the last decade there has been increasing interest in the psychosocial aspects of children with motor coordination difficulties. To date, the majority of studies have focused on the perceived competence and global self-worth of children…

  8. Roadside Judgments in Children with Developmental Co-ordination Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Catherine; Wann, John P.; Wilmut, Kate; Poulter, Damian

    2011-01-01

    As pedestrians, the perceptual ability to accurately judge the relative rate of approaching vehicles and select a suitable crossing gap requires sensitivity to looming. It also requires that crossing judgments are synchronized with motoric capabilities. Previous research has suggested that children with Developmental Co-ordination Disorder (DCD)…

  9. Motor Skill Learning in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Jin; Lee, Chi-Mei

    2013-01-01

    Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) are characterized as having motor difficulties and learning impairment that may last well into adolescence and adulthood. Although behavioral deficits have been identified in many domains such as visuo-spatial processing, kinesthetic perception, and cross-modal sensory integration, recent…

  10. Everyday Memory in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, I-Chen; Tsai, Pei-Luen; Hsu, Yung-Wen; Ma, Hui-Ing; Lai, Hsuan-An

    2013-01-01

    Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) have deficits in working memory, but little is known about the everyday memory of these children in real-life situations. We investigated the everyday memory function in children with DCD, and explored the specific profile of everyday memory across different domains. Nineteen children with…

  11. From Single to Multiple Deficit Models of Developmental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Bruce F.

    2006-01-01

    The emerging etiological model for developmental disorders, like dyslexia, is probabilistic and multifactorial while the prevailing cognitive model has been deterministic and often focused on a single cognitive cause, such as a phonological deficit as the cause of dyslexia. So there is a potential contradiction in our explanatory frameworks for…

  12. Physical Fitness in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, Nadja; Alof, Verena; Hultsch, Daniela; Meermann, Dagmar

    2007-01-01

    The protective effects of physical activity and fitness on cardiovascular health have clearly been shown among normally developed children. However, data are currently lacking pertaining to children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). The purpose of this study was to examine differences in fitness measures, body composition, and…

  13. Sensory Contributions to Balance in Boys with Developmental Coordination Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deconinck, Frederik J. A.; De Clercq, Dirk; Van Coster, Rudy; Oostra, Ann; Dewitte, Griet; Savelsbergh, Geert J. P.; Cambier, Dirk; Lenoir, Matthieu

    2008-01-01

    This study examined and compared the control of posture during bilateral stance in ten boys with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) of 6-8 years old and ten matched typically developing boys in four sensory conditions (with or without vision, on a firm or complaint surface). In all conditions mean postural sway velocity was larger for the…

  14. Motor Assessment in Developmental Coordination Disorder: From Identification to Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Anna L.

    2008-01-01

    A description of Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) is included in the "Diagnostic Manual of the American Psychiatric Association" fourth edition ("DSM-IV-TR"). The major feature of this condition is impairment in motor skill, which has a negative impact on the performance of everyday life tasks. The present review outlines major issues…

  15. Developmental Disorders of Language and Literacy: Special Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Chloe R.; Messaoud-Galusi, Souhila

    2010-01-01

    Language and literacy are cognitive skills of exceptional complexity. It is therefore not surprising that they are at risk of impairment either during development or as a result of damage (e.g. stroke) later in life. Impaired language and literacy can arise from a general learning impairment. However, two developmental disorders, specific language…

  16. Metabolic Syndrome in Children with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahi, Gita; LeBlanc, Paul J.; Hay, John A.; Faught, Brent E.; O'Leary, Debra; Cairney, John

    2011-01-01

    Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) have higher rates of obesity compared to children with typical motor development, and, as a result may be at increased risk for developing metabolic syndrome (MetS). The purpose of this study was to determine the presence of MetS and its components among children with and without DCD. This…

  17. Intact Procedural Motor Sequence Learning in Developmental Coordination Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejeune, Caroline; Catale, Corinne; Willems, Sylvie; Meulemans, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to explore the possibility of a procedural learning deficit among children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). We tested 34 children aged 6-12 years with and without DCD using the serial reaction time task, in which the standard keyboard was replaced by a touch screen in order to minimize the impact…

  18. Parameterization of Movement Execution in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Waelvelde, Hilde; De Weerdt, Willy; De Cock, Paul; Janssens, Luc; Feys, Hilde; Engelsman, Bouwien C. M. Smits

    2006-01-01

    The Rhythmic Movement Test (RMT) evaluates temporal and amplitude parameterization and fluency of movement execution in a series of rhythmic arm movements under different sensory conditions. The RMT was used in combination with a jumping and a drawing task, to evaluate 36 children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) and a matched…

  19. Developmental Coordination Disorder in School-Age Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of developmental coordination disorder (DCD in children, at 7 years of age, in a large UK birth cohort was determined using DSM-IV criteria, in a study at the University of Bristol, UK; and Utrecht University, Netherlands.

  20. Attachment and Externalizing Disorders: A Developmental Psychopathology Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttmann-Steinmetz, Sarit; Crowell, Judith A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Attachment theory offers an intriguing formulation of protection and risk that ties together key aspects of behavior, emotion, and cognition. The authors present links among attachment status, other developmental domains, and the development and maintenance of externalizing disorders to illustrate an approach to integrating attachment…

  1. A review of the nature and treatment of sleep disorders in individuals with developmental disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Didden, H.C.M.; Sigafoos, J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes research on the prevalence, correlates, and treatment of sleep disorders in individuals with developmental disabilities. A significant number of individuals with developmental disabilities have disordered sleep, although prevalence estimates vary from 13% to 86%. Constitutional

  2. Many human accelerated regions are developmental enhancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capra, John A; Erwin, Genevieve D; McKinsey, Gabriel; Rubenstein, John L R; Pollard, Katherine S

    2013-12-19

    The genetic changes underlying the dramatic differences in form and function between humans and other primates are largely unknown, although it is clear that gene regulatory changes play an important role. To identify regulatory sequences with potentially human-specific functions, we and others used comparative genomics to find non-coding regions conserved across mammals that have acquired many sequence changes in humans since divergence from chimpanzees. These regions are good candidates for performing human-specific regulatory functions. Here, we analysed the DNA sequence, evolutionary history, histone modifications, chromatin state and transcription factor (TF) binding sites of a combined set of 2649 non-coding human accelerated regions (ncHARs) and predicted that at least 30% of them function as developmental enhancers. We prioritized the predicted ncHAR enhancers using analysis of TF binding site gain and loss, along with the functional annotations and expression patterns of nearby genes. We then tested both the human and chimpanzee sequence for 29 ncHARs in transgenic mice, and found 24 novel developmental enhancers active in both species, 17 of which had very consistent patterns of activity in specific embryonic tissues. Of these ncHAR enhancers, five drove expression patterns suggestive of different activity for the human and chimpanzee sequence at embryonic day 11.5. The changes to human non-coding DNA in these ncHAR enhancers may modify the complex patterns of gene expression necessary for proper development in a human-specific manner and are thus promising candidates for understanding the genetic basis of human-specific biology.

  3. Dyspraxia or developmental coordination disorder? Unravelling the enigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, John; Appleton, Jeanette; Appleton, Richard

    2007-06-01

    Dyspraxia is an enigma to many people, both professional and lay alike--what is it, how does it relate to developmental coordination disorder and associated conditions, how common is it, how is it recognised and diagnosed and how should it be managed? This article attempts to unravel this enigma by: dealing with the terminology of coordination difficulties from the "clumsy child syndrome" through "dyspraxia" to "developmental coordination disorder (DCD)"; briefly examining the debate as to whether dyspraxia or DCD should be regarded as a medical or social disorder; discussing the differential diagnosis of dyspraxia or DCD; considering the assessment of children with dyspraxia or DCD; reviewing the range of current treatment approaches in the UK.

  4. A sensorimotor approach to the training of manual actions in children with developmental coordination disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snapp-Childs, Winona; Mon-Williams, Mark; Bingham, Geoffrey P

    2013-02-01

    Developmental coordination disorder affects a relatively large proportion (5%-6%) of the childhood population. Severity of the disorder varies but there is a great need for therapeutic intervention. We propose a method for the training of manual actions in children with developmental coordination disorder. Our solution is achieved by applying haptic virtual reality technology to attack the difficulties that children with developmental coordination disorder evidence. Our results show that children with developmental coordination disorder are able to learn complex motor skills if proper training methods are employed. These findings conflict with reports of impaired motor learning in developmental coordination disorder because of underactivation of cerebellar and parietal networks.

  5. Predicting developmental disorder in infants using an artificial neural network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farin Soleimani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Early recognition of developmental disorders is an important goal, and equally important is avoiding misdiagnosing a disorder in a healthy child without pathology. The aim of the present study was to develop an artificial neural network using perinatal information to predict developmental disorder at infancy. A total of 1,232 mother-child dyads were recruited from 6,150 in the original data of Karaj, Alborz Province, Iran. Thousands of variables are examined in this data including basic characteristics, medical history, and variables related to infants.  The validated Infant Neurological International Battery test was employed to assess the infant's development. The concordance indexes showed that true prediction of developmental disorder in the artificial neural network model, compared to the logistic regression model, was 83.1% vs. 79.5% and the area under ROC curves, calculated from testing data, were 0.79 and 0.68, respectively. In addition, specificity and sensitivity of the ANN model vs. LR model was calculated 93.2% vs. 92.7% and 39.1% vs. 21.7%. An artificial neural network performed significantly better than a logistic regression model.

  6. Predicting Developmental Disorder in Infants Using an Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farin Soleimani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Early recognition of developmental disorders is an important goal, and equally important is avoiding misdiagnosing a disorder in a healthy child without pathology. The aim of the present study was to develop an artificial neural network using perinatal information to predict developmental disorder at infancy. A total of 1,232 mother–child dyads were recruited from 6,150 in the original data of Karaj, Alborz Province, Iran. Thousands of variables are examined in this data including basic characteristics, medical history, and variables related to infants. The validated Infant Neurological International Battery test was employed to assess the infant’s development. The concordance indexes showed that true prediction of developmental disorder in the artificial neural network model, compared to the logistic regression model, was 83.1% vs. 79.5% and the area under ROC curves, calculated from testing data, were 0.79 and 0.68, respectively. In addition, specificity and sensitivity of the ANN model vs. LR model was calculated 93.2% vs. 92.7% and 39.1% vs. 21.7%. An artificial neural network performed significantly better than a logistic regression model.

  7. Predicting developmental disorder in infants using an artificial neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleimani, Farin; Teymouri, Robab; Biglarian, Akbar

    2013-07-13

    Early recognition of developmental disorders is an important goal, and equally important is avoiding misdiagnosing a disorder in a healthy child without pathology. The aim of the present study was to develop an artificial neural network using perinatal information to predict developmental disorder at infancy. A total of 1,232 mother-child dyads were recruited from 6,150 in the original data of Karaj, Alborz Province, Iran. Thousands of variables are examined in this data including basic characteristics, medical history, and variables related to infants.  The validated Infant Neurological International Battery test was employed to assess the infant's development. The concordance indexes showed that true prediction of developmental disorder in the artificial neural network model, compared to the logistic regression model, was 83.1% vs. 79.5% and the area under ROC curves, calculated from testing data, were 0.79 and 0.68, respectively. In addition, specificity and sensitivity of the ANN model vs. LR model was calculated 93.2% vs. 92.7% and 39.1% vs. 21.7%. An artificial neural network performed significantly better than a logistic regression model.

  8. Fine Motor Skills in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Developmental Coordination Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The manual dexterity subtests of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children, and handwriting and computerized graphomotor tasks were used to investigate motor skills of a group of 12 children (11 males, 1 female; mean age 9 years 7 months with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and developmental coordination disorder (DCD and 12 controls at University Medical Centre Groningen, the Netherlands.

  9. A controlled study of formal thought disorder in children with autism and multiple complex developmental disorders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaag, R.J. van der; Caplan, R.; Engeland, H. van; Loman, F.

    2005-01-01

    Along with well-defined categories in classification systems (e.g., autistic disorders and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)), practitioners are confronted with many children showing mixed forms of developmental psychopathology. These clusters of symptoms are on the borderlines of more

  10. Strength training for a child with suspected developmental coordination disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menz, Stacy M; Hatten, Kristin; Grant-Beuttler, Marybeth

    2013-01-01

    Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) demonstrate difficulty with feedforward motor control and use varied compensatory strategies. To examine gross motor function changes following strength training in a child with motor control difficulties. A girl aged 6 years 11 months, with apraxia and hypotonia, and demonstrating motor delays consistent with DCD. Twenty-four strength training sessions were completed using a universal exercise unit. Postintervention scores significantly improved on the Bruininks-Oseretsky test of motor proficiency, second edition, and the Canadian occupational performance measure scores and raised the developmental coordination disorder questionnaire, revised 2007, scores above the range where DCD is suspected. Nonsignificant changes in strength were observed. Improved function and significant gains in manual coordination were observed following blocked practice of isolated, simple joint movements during strength training. Improved motor skills may be because of effective use of feedforward control and improved stabilization. Strength training does not rehearse skills using momentum, explaining nonsignificant changes in locomotor or locomotion areas.

  11. Basic information processing in children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Gitte

    Background: Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD) is a diagnostic term covering a group of neuropsychiatric disorders marked by a core triad of impairments consisting of qualitative disturbances in social interaction and communication, and by stereotypical behaviour. Some children diagnosed...... of the psychophysiological tests, to differentiate sub-groups within the spectrum of PDD. 3. To compare potential subgroup within the spectrum of PDD with known schizophrenic subgroups. Material and methodology: A case-control study consisting of two groups of children 8-12 years old matched as to age and gender: 1...

  12. [Epigenetics, genomic imprinting and developmental disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bouc, Yves; Rossignol, Sylvie; Azzi, Salah; Brioude, Frédéric; Cabrol, Sylvie; Gicquel, Christine; Netchine, Irène

    2010-02-01

    Epigenetic phenomena play a key role in regulating gene expression. One of the most widely studied epigenetic modification is DNA methylation at cytosine residues of CpG dinucleotides in gene promoters, transposons and imprinting control regions (ICR). Genomic imprinting refers to epigenetic marking of genes that results in monoallelic expression depending on the parental origin. Several genes encoding key hormones involved in embryonic and fetal growth are imprinted. There are two critical periods of epigenetic reprogramming: gametogenesis and early preimplantation development. Major reprogramming takes place in primordial germ cells, in which parental imprints are erased and totipotency is restored. Imprint marks are then re-established during spermatogenesis or oogenesis, depending on gender. Upon fertilization, genome-wide demethylation is followed by a wave of de novo methylation, both processes being resisted by imprinted loci. Disruption of imprinting can cause growth defects such as the Beckwith-Wiedemann overgrowth syndrome (BWS) and the Russell-Silver (RSS) intrauterine and postnatal growth retardation syndrome. These growth disorders are caused by abnormal DNA methylation in the 11p15 imprinted region encompassing many imprinted genes, such as IGF2. BWS has been linked to loss of methylation (LOM) in the centromeric ICR2/KCNQIOT1 region of the maternal allele, or gain of methylation in the telomeric ICR1/IGF2/H19 region of the maternal allele. This latter epigenetic defect is associated with an increased risk of tumors such as nephroblastoma. LOM in the telomeric ICR1 region of the paternal allele has been detected in RSS. Early embryogenesis is a critical period of epigenetic regulation, and is sensitive to environmental factors. Individuals conceived with the help of assisted reproductive technology (ART) are over-represented among BWS patients, suggesting that ART may favor altered imprinting at the imprinted centromeric 11p15 locus (LOM in the

  13. Developmental biomechanics of the human cervical spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuckley, David J; Linders, David R; Ching, Randal P

    2013-04-05

    Head and neck injuries, the leading cause of death for children in the U.S., are difficult to diagnose, treat, and prevent because of a critical void in our understanding of the biomechanical response of the immature cervical spine. The objective of this study was to investigate the functional and failure biomechanics of the cervical spine across multiple axes of loading throughout maturation. A correlational study design was used to examine the relationships governing spinal maturation and biomechanical flexibility curves and tolerance data using a cadaver human in vitro model. Eleven human cadaver cervical spines from across the developmental spectrum (2-28 years) were dissected into segments (C1-C2, C3-C5, and C6-C7) for biomechanical testing. Non-destructive flexibility tests were performed in tension, compression, flexion, extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation. After measuring their intact biomechanical responses, each segment group was failed in different modes to measure the tissue tolerance in tension (C1-C2), compression (C3-C5), and extension (C5-C6). Classical injury patterns were observed in all of the specimens tested. Both the functional (pcervical spine throughout maturation and elucidated age, spinal level, and mode of loading specificity. These data support our understanding of the child cervical spine from a developmental perspective and facilitate the generation of injury prevention or management schema for the mitigation of child spine injuries and their deleterious effects.

  14. Architects of the genome: CHD dysfunction in cancer, developmental disorders and neurological syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wangzhi; Mills, Alea A

    2014-01-01

    Chromatin is vital to normal cells, and its deregulation contributes to a spectrum of human ailments. An emerging concept is that aberrant chromatin regulation culminates in gene expression programs that set the stage for the seemingly diverse pathologies of cancer, developmental disorders and neurological syndromes. However, the mechanisms responsible for such common etiology have been elusive. Recent evidence has implicated lesions affecting chromatin-remodeling proteins in cancer, developmental disorders and neurological syndromes, suggesting a common source for these different pathologies. Here, we focus on the chromodomain helicase DNA binding chromatin-remodeling family and the recent evidence for its deregulation in diverse pathological conditions, providing a new perspective on the underlying mechanisms and their implications for these prevalent human diseases.

  15. [Basic disorders in human communication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñaloza-López, Y; Gutiérrez-Silva, J; Andrade-Illañez, E N; Fierro-Evans, M A; Hernández-López, X

    1989-01-01

    This paper specifies the areas and disorders that concern human communication medicine. The frequency of the diverse disorders is analyzed in relation to age and sex, and the distribution in group ages of several disabling diseases is also discussed.

  16. Speech Perception and Short-Term Memory Deficits in Persistent Developmental Speech Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Mary Kay; Barac-Cikoja, Dragana; Finnegan, Kimberly; Jeffries, Neal; Ludlow, Christy L.

    2006-01-01

    Children with developmental speech disorders may have additional deficits in speech perception and/or short-term memory. To determine whether these are only transient developmental delays that can accompany the disorder in childhood or persist as part of the speech disorder, adults with a persistent familial speech disorder were tested on speech…

  17. CEREBELLUM: LINKS BETWEEN DEVELOPMENT, DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS AND MOTOR LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario U Manto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of the links and interactions between development and motor learning has noticeable implications for the understanding and management of neurodevelopmental disorders. This is particularly relevant for the cerebellum which is critical for sensorimotor learning. The olivocerebellar pathway is a key pathway contributing to learning of motor skills. Its developmental maturation and remodelling are being unravelled. Advances in genetics have led to major improvements in our appraisal of the genes involved in cerebellar development, especially studies in mutant mice. Cerebellar neurogenesis is compartmentalized in relationship with neurotransmitter fate. The Engrailed-2 gene is a major actor of the specification of cerebellar cell types and late embryogenic morphogenesis. Math1, expressed by the rhombic lip (RL, is required for the genesis of glutamatergic neurons. Mutants deficient for the transcription factor Ptf1a display a lack of Purkinje cells and gabaergic interneurons. Rora gene contributes to the developmental signalling between granule cells and Purkinje neurons. The expression profile of SHH (Sonic hedgehog in postnatal stages determines the final size/shape of the cerebellum. Genes affecting the development impact upon the physiological properties of the cerebellar circuits. For instance, receptors are developmentally regulated and their action interferes directly with developmental processes. Another field of research which is expanding relates to very preterm neonates. They are at risk for cerebellar lesions, which may themselves impair the developmental events. Very preterm neonates often show sensori-motor deficits, highlighting another major link between impaired development and learning deficiencies. Pathways playing a critical role in cerebellar development are likely to become therapeutical targets for several neurodevelopmental disorders.

  18. Cerebellum: links between development, developmental disorders and motor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manto, Mario U; Jissendi, Patrice

    2012-01-01

    The study of the links and interactions between development and motor learning has noticeable implications for the understanding and management of neurodevelopmental disorders. This is particularly relevant for the cerebellum which is critical for sensorimotor learning. The olivocerebellar pathway is a key pathway contributing to learning of motor skills. Its developmental maturation and remodeling are being unraveled. Advances in genetics have led to major improvements in our appraisal of the genes involved in cerebellar development, especially studies in mutant mice. Cerebellar neurogenesis is compartmentalized in relationship with neurotransmitter fate. The Engrailed-2 gene is a major actor of the specification of cerebellar cell types and late embryogenic morphogenesis. Math1, expressed by the rhombic lip, is required for the genesis of glutamatergic neurons. Mutants deficient for the transcription factor Ptf1a display a lack of Purkinje cells and gabaergic interneurons. Rora gene contributes to the developmental signaling between granule cells and Purkinje neurons. The expression profile of sonic hedgehog in postnatal stages determines the final size/shape of the cerebellum. Genes affecting the development impact upon the physiological properties of the cerebellar circuits. For instance, receptors are developmentally regulated and their action interferes directly with developmental processes. Another field of research which is expanding relates to very preterm neonates. They are at risk for cerebellar lesions, which may themselves impair the developmental events. Very preterm neonates often show sensori-motor deficits, highlighting another major link between impaired developments and learning deficiencies. Pathways playing a critical role in cerebellar development are likely to become therapeutical targets for several neurodevelopmental disorders.

  19. Cerebellum: links between development, developmental disorders and motor learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manto, Mario U.; Jissendi, Patrice

    2012-01-01

    The study of the links and interactions between development and motor learning has noticeable implications for the understanding and management of neurodevelopmental disorders. This is particularly relevant for the cerebellum which is critical for sensorimotor learning. The olivocerebellar pathway is a key pathway contributing to learning of motor skills. Its developmental maturation and remodeling are being unraveled. Advances in genetics have led to major improvements in our appraisal of the genes involved in cerebellar development, especially studies in mutant mice. Cerebellar neurogenesis is compartmentalized in relationship with neurotransmitter fate. The Engrailed-2 gene is a major actor of the specification of cerebellar cell types and late embryogenic morphogenesis. Math1, expressed by the rhombic lip, is required for the genesis of glutamatergic neurons. Mutants deficient for the transcription factor Ptf1a display a lack of Purkinje cells and gabaergic interneurons. Rora gene contributes to the developmental signaling between granule cells and Purkinje neurons. The expression profile of sonic hedgehog in postnatal stages determines the final size/shape of the cerebellum. Genes affecting the development impact upon the physiological properties of the cerebellar circuits. For instance, receptors are developmentally regulated and their action interferes directly with developmental processes. Another field of research which is expanding relates to very preterm neonates. They are at risk for cerebellar lesions, which may themselves impair the developmental events. Very preterm neonates often show sensori-motor deficits, highlighting another major link between impaired developments and learning deficiencies. Pathways playing a critical role in cerebellar development are likely to become therapeutical targets for several neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:22291620

  20. Transition from Pervasive Developmental Disorders to Autism Spectrum Disorder: Proposed Changes for the Upcoming DSM-5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu Tortamis Ozkaya

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available American Psychiatry Assosiation has scheduled to release The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5 in May 2013. According to the main changes being proposed about autism, there will be one unified Autism Spectrum Disorder diagnosis in the DSM-5 classification. This unified diagnosis will eliminate the distinct diagnostic categories under Pervasive Developmental Disorders in the DSM-IV-TR, namely autistic disorder, asperger syndrome, pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified, and childhood disintegrative disorder. Rett syndrome will be excluded from autism spectrum disorder due to its genetic basis. In addition, severity of symptoms will be measured among individuals with autism spectrum disorder based on the support level required due to the impairment in their lives. The basic rationale behind this revision is that it is better to conceptualize autism as a spectrum including various individuals whose symptoms in different developmental areas range from mild to severe. It is aimed to increase the specificity of autism diagnosis by using one single diagnostic category with its specified severity rather than differentiating several subtypes. The major concern raised over the DSM-5 proposal has been the possibility that some of the individuals who were diagnosed with pervasive developmental disorder according to the DSM-IV-TR might not get a diagnosis in this new system. After the DSM-5 is released, clinical, legal, and educational rearrengements regarding the use of new autism spectrum disorder diagnostic criteria are expected to accelerate worldwide and in Turkey. This paper aims to review briefly the upcoming autism spectrum disorder diagnosis planned to appear in the DSM-5, the rationale of the proposed revision, main critics to the DSM-5 draft that has been publicized, and some of the regulations expected to occur in practice after the changes.

  1. A Study of The diagnosis assessment On Developmental Disorders and Reactive attachment disorders.

    OpenAIRE

    吉田, ゆり; 若本, 純子

    2012-01-01

    On the other hand of attention to developmental disorders, diagnosis and evaluation of developmental disabilities easy has been a concern. In this paper, given an overview of current diagnostic criteria, diagnostic aid tool, a measure of a structured interview.A preliminary study about the tool structured interviews to clarify autism spectrum is suspected, that specializes in assessment of Psychology preliminary study was carried out for development.

  2. Study of defensive methods and mechanisms in developmental, emotional (internalization), and disruptive behavior (externalization) disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamilian, H R; Zamani, N; Darvishi, M; Khansari, M R

    2014-09-18

    We need to find a way for adaptation with inherent unpleasantness of being human condition and conflicts that it caused, as we did not fail. Methods that we used for adaptation are named defense. This research have performed with the aim of study and compare defensive mechanisms and methods of Developmental, Emotional (Internalization), and Disruptive behavior (Externalization) disorders. Method, sample of this research included 390 family that are by available sampling method are selected. Tools of research were structured clinical interview of forth cognitive and statistical guide of psychopathic disorders for axis I and the way used for assess defensive mechanisms is defensive method 40 question's questionnaires of Andrews (1993). The data are compared by statistical methods comparison of averages and one way variance analysis and HSD tests and results show that undeveloped defensive mechanisms in by developmental disorder family (25.2 ± 3.7) mean and standard deviation, it is most used mechanism and in disruptive behavior disorder family by (11.2 ± 1.9) mean and standard deviation is used least mechanism and in developed mechanism of emotional disorder family by (7.8 ± 3.1) mean and standard deviation is most used mechanism and in developmental disorder family by (4.3 ± 1.5) mean and standard deviation is least mechanism in neuroticism patient, social phobia affected emotional disorder family (15.6 ± 2.6) and disruptive behavior disorder family have least mean and standard deviation (9.2 ± 1.7) (p< 0.005). Recent research shows significant of study defensive mechanism in psychopathic family of disorder children that affecting on the way of life of persons and interpersonal and intrapersonal relations and method of solving problem in family of them in life, so defensive mechanisms require more attention.

  3. Global prevalence of autism and other pervasive developmental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsabbagh, Mayada; Divan, Gauri; Koh, Yun-Joo; Kim, Young Shin; Kauchali, Shuaib; Marcín, Carlos; Montiel-Nava, Cecilia; Patel, Vikram; Paula, Cristiane S; Wang, Chongying; Yasamy, Mohammad Taghi; Fombonne, Eric

    2012-06-01

    We provide a systematic review of epidemiological surveys of autistic disorder and pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs) worldwide. A secondary aim was to consider the possible impact of geographic, cultural/ethnic, and socioeconomic factors on prevalence estimates and on clinical presentation of PDD. Based on the evidence reviewed, the median of prevalence estimates of autism spectrum disorders was 62/10 000. While existing estimates are variable, the evidence reviewed does not support differences in PDD prevalence by geographic region nor of a strong impact of ethnic/cultural or socioeconomic factors. However, power to detect such effects is seriously limited in existing data sets, particularly in low-income countries. While it is clear that prevalence estimates have increased over time and these vary in different neighboring and distant regions, these findings most likely represent broadening of the diagnostic concets, diagnostic switching from other developmental disabilities to PDD, service availability, and awareness of autistic spectrum disorders in both the lay and professional public. The lack of evidence from the majority of the world's population suggests a critical need for further research and capacity building in low- and middle-income countries.

  4. Cerebral creatine deficiencies: a group of treatable intellectual developmental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockler-Ipsiroglu, Sylvia; van Karnebeek, Clara D M

    2014-07-01

    Currently there are 91 treatable inborn errors of metabolism that cause intellectual developmental disorders. Cerebral creatine deficiencies (CDD) comprise three of these: arginine: glycine amidinotransferase [AGAT], guanidinoacetate methyltransferase [GAMT], and X-linked creatine transporter deficiency [SLC6A8]. Intellectual developmental disorder and cerebral creatine deficiency are the hallmarks of CDD. Additional clinical features include prominent speech delay, autism, epilepsy, extrapyramidal movement disorders, and signal changes in the globus pallidus. Patients with GAMT deficiency exhibit the most severe clinical spectrum. Myopathy is a distinct feature in AGAT deficiency. Guanidinoacetate (GAA) is the immediate product in the creatine biosynthetic pathway. Low GAA concentrations in urine, plasma, and cerebrospinal fluid are characteristic diagnostic markers for AGAT deficiency, while high GAA concentrations are characteristic markers for GAMT deficiency. An elevated ratio of urinary creatine /creatinine excretion serves as a diagnostic marker in males with SLC6A8 deficiency. Treatment strategies include oral supplementation of high-dose creatine-monohydrate for all three CDD. Guanidinoacetate-reducing strategies (high-dose ornithine, arginine-restricted diet) are additionally employed in GAMT deficiency. Supplementation of substrates for intracerebral creatine synthesis (arginine, glycine) has been used additionally to treat SLC6A8 deficiency. Early recognition and treatment improves outcomes. Normal outcomes in neonatally ascertained siblings from index families with AGAT and GAMT deficiency suggest a potential benefit of newborn screening for these disorders.

  5. Eating disorders in adolescence: attachment issues from a developmental perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gander, Manuela; Sevecke, Kathrin; Buchheim, Anna

    2015-01-01

    In the present article we review findings from an emerging body of research on attachment issues in adolescents with eating disorders from a developmental perspective. Articles for inclusion in this review were identified from PsychINFO (1966-2013), Sciencedirect (1970-2013), Psychindex (1980-2013), and Pubmed (1980-2013). First, we will outline the crucial developmental changes in the attachment system and discuss how they might be related to the early onset of the disease. Then we will report on the major results from attachment studies using self-report and narrative instruments in that age group. Studies with a developmental approach on attachment will be analyzed in more detail. The high incidence of the unresolved attachment pattern in eating disorder samples is striking, especially for patients with anorexia nervosa. Interestingly, this predominance of the unresolved category was also found in their mothers. To date, these transgenerational aspects are still poorly understood and therefore represent an exciting research frontier. Future studies that include larger adolescent samples and provide a more detailed description including symptom severity and comorbidity would contribute to a better understanding of this complex and painful condition.

  6. Eating disorders in adolescence: attachment issues from a developmental perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela eGander

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present article we review findings from an emerging body of research on attachment issues in adolescents with eating disorders from a developmental perspective. First, we will outline the crucial developmental changes in the attachment system and discuss how they might be related to the early onset of the disease. Then we will report on the major results from attachment studies using self-report and narrative instruments in that age group. Studies with a developmental approach on attachment will be analyzed in more detail. The high incidence of the unresolved attachment pattern in eating disorder samples is striking, especially for patients with anorexia nervosa. Interestingly, this predominance of the unresolved category was also found in their mothers. To date, these transgenerational aspects are still poorly understood and therefore represent an exciting research frontier. Future studies that include larger adolescent samples and provide a more detailed description including symptom severity and comorbidity would contribute to a better understanding of this complex and painful condition.

  7. Abstracts of the 11th International Conference on Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD11)

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: DCD11 – Developmental coordination disorder and other neurodevelopmental disorders: a focus on comorbidity; Toulouse, France, July 2-4, 2015 Comorbidity refers to the presence of two or more disorders in the same person (especially DCD, dyslexia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in terms of developmental disorders). There has been growing interest in the presence of comorbidity in persons with neurodevelopmental disorders. Many recent studies suggest th...

  8. Language cannot be reduced to biology: Perspectives from neuro-developmental disorders affecting language learning

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D Vasanta

    2005-02-01

    The study of language knowledge guided by a purely biological perspective prioritizes the study of syntax. The essential process of syntax is recursion – the ability to generate an infinite array of expressions from a limited set of elements. Researchers working within the biological perspective argue that this ability is possible only because of an innately specified genetic makeup that is specific to human beings. Such a view of language knowledge may be fully justified in discussions on biolinguistics, and in evolutionary biology. However, it is grossly inadequate in understanding language-learning problems, particularly those experienced by children with neurodevelopmental disorders such as developmental dyslexia, Williams syndrome, specific language impairment and autism spectrum disorders. Specifically, syntax-centered definitions of language knowledge completely ignore certain crucial aspects of language learning and use, namely, that language is embedded in a social context; that the role of envrironmental triggering as a learning mechanism is grossly underestimated; that a considerable extent of visuo-spatial information accompanies speech in day-to-day communication; that the developmental process itself lies at the heart of knowledge acquisition; and that there is a tremendous variation in the orthographic systems associated with different languages. All these (socio-cultural) factors can influence the rate and quality of spoken and written language acquisition resulting in much variation in phenotypes associated with disorders known to have a genetic component. Delineation of such phenotypic variability requires inputs from varied disciplines such as neurobiology, neuropsychology, linguistics and communication disorders. In this paper, I discuss published research that questions cognitive modularity and emphasises the role of the environment for understanding linguistic capabilities of children with neuro-developmental disorders. The discussion

  9. Developmental Learning Disorders: From Generic Interventions to Individualized Remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eMoreau

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Developmental learning disorders affect many children, impairing their experience in the classroom and hindering many aspects of their life. Once a bleak sentence associated with life-long difficulties, several learning disorders can now be successfully alleviated, directly benefiting from promising interventions. In this review, we focus on two of the most prevalent learning disorders, dyslexia and ADHD. Recent advances have refined our understanding of the specific neural networks that are altered in these disorders, yet questions remain regarding causal links between neural changes and behavioral improvements. After briefly reviewing the theoretical foundations of dyslexia and ADHD, we explore their distinct and shared characteristics, and discuss the comorbidity of the two disorders. We then examine current interventions, and consider the benefits of approaches that integrate remediation within other activities to encourage sustained motivation and improvements. Finally, we conclude with a reflection on the potential for remediation programs to be personalized by taking into account the specificities and demands of each individual. The effective remediation of learning disorders is critical to modern societies, especially considering the far-reaching ramifications of successful early interventions.

  10. Developmental Coordination Disorder and cerebral palsy: categories or a continuum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearsall-Jones, Jillian G; Piek, Jan P; Levy, Florence

    2010-10-01

    Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) is a movement disorder affecting between 1.7% and 6% of children aged 5-11 years. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition Text Revision codes DCD as an Axis I Clinical Disorder. If there is neurological involvement, as is the case for cerebral palsy, the movement disorder would be coded as an Axis III General Medical Condition. What little is known of the aetiology of DCD implicates neurological involvement. In a previous co-twin control study of monozygotic twins concordant and discordant for DCD, seven of the nine twins who met criteria for DCD on the McCarron Assessment of Neuromuscular Development experienced perinatal oxygen perfusion problems, while another experienced prenatal complications. This supported findings in an earlier study of a relationship between environmental factors and DCD, and strengthened the hypothesis that DCD and cerebral palsy have similar causal pathways and may fall on a continuum of movement disorder rather than being discrete categories. In the present paper, this hypothesis is tested by application of the nine principles identified by Sir Austin Bradford Hill as important when considering observed associations between two variables. Implications for prevention, clinical intervention, policy, and classification systems are discussed.

  11. Van der Woude syndrome with unusual developmental disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar Ambaldhage

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Van der Woude syndrome is a rare developmental disorder characterized by a combination of congenital lower lip pits, cleft palate alone or with cleft lip in some cases, and hypodontia. It occurs in approximately 2% of the population with facial clefts. Its prevalence varies from one in 100,000 to 200,000 births. This case report details a unique case of Vander Woude syndrome in a seven-year-old girl and her mother, with median lip pits, cleft lip and cleft palate, missing lateral incisors, and retained deciduous teeth, along with transposition of teeth.

  12. "Too Withdrawn" or "Too Friendly": Considering Social Vulnerability in Two Neuro-Developmental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawaid, A.; Riby, D. M.; Owens, J.; White, S. W.; Tarar, T.; Schulz, P. E.

    2012-01-01

    In some neuro-developmental disorders, the combined effect of intellectual disability and atypicalities of social cognition may put individuals at increased vulnerability in their social environment. The neuro-developmental disorders Williams syndrome, characterised by "hypersociability", and autism spectrum disorders, characterised by "social…

  13. The Development and Standardization of the Adult Developmental Co-Ordination Disorders/Dyspraxia Checklist (ADC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Amanda; Edwards, Lisa; Sugden, David; Rosenblum, Sara

    2010-01-01

    Developmental Co-ordination Disorder (DCD), also known as Dyspraxia in the United Kingdom (U.K.), is a developmental disorder affecting motor co-ordination. In the past this was regarded as a childhood disorder, however there is increasing evidence that a significant number of children will continue to have persistent difficulties into adulthood.…

  14. "Too Withdrawn" or "Too Friendly": Considering Social Vulnerability in Two Neuro-Developmental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawaid, A.; Riby, D. M.; Owens, J.; White, S. W.; Tarar, T.; Schulz, P. E.

    2012-01-01

    In some neuro-developmental disorders, the combined effect of intellectual disability and atypicalities of social cognition may put individuals at increased vulnerability in their social environment. The neuro-developmental disorders Williams syndrome, characterised by "hypersociability", and autism spectrum disorders, characterised by "social…

  15. Developmental language disorders: cognitive processes, semantics, pragmatics, phonology, and syntax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromer, R F

    1981-03-01

    Five areas of research concerned with language acquisition--cognitive processes, semantics, pragmatics, phonology, and syntax--are reviewed in terms of their contribution to understanding language disorders. Two views of cognitive processes are discussed. One of these, emphasizing cognitive mechanisms such as short-term memory, is seen as providing possible explanations for some types of language deficits. The other, a concern with conceptual knowledge, is subjected to a critical analysis questioning how complete an explanation it is able to offer for some aspects of language acquisition. Problems of definition are also discussed when semantic aspects of language are considered. Problems in the pragmatic component of language are seen as providing an explanation for particular aspects of language disorder in some autistic children. The importance of focusing on phonology as a central grammatical process is discussed and linked to dyslexia and to spelling disorders. Finally, it is argued that the acquisition of syntactic structure is not yet understood. Impairments such as a hierarchical planning order deficit may affect syntactic ability and lead to disordered language, as found in some types of developmentally aphasic children. It is concluded that it is important to study all five areas of the title, and their interrelationships, if various language disorders are to be adequately understood.

  16. Childhood developmental disorders: an academic and clinical convergence point for psychiatry, neurology, psychology and pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, Allan L

    2009-01-01

    Significant advances in understanding brain development and behavior have not been accompanied by revisions of traditional academic structure. Disciplinary isolation and a lack of meaningful interdisciplinary opportunities are persistent barriers in academic medicine. To enhance clinical practice, research, and training for the next generation, academic centers will need to take bold steps that challenge traditional departmental boundaries. Such change is not only desirable but, in fact, necessary to bring about a truly innovative and more effective approach to treating disorders of the developing brain. I focus on developmental disorders as a convergence point for transcending traditional academic boundaries. First, the current taxonomy of developmental disorders is described with emphasis on how current diagnostic systems inadvertently hinder research progress. Second, I describe the clinical features of autism, a phenomenologically defined condition, and Rett and fragile X syndromes, neurogenetic diseases that are risk factors for autism. Finally, I describe how the fields of psychiatry, psychology, neurology, and pediatrics now have an unprecedented opportunity to promote an interdisciplinary approach to training, research, and clinical practice and, thus, advance a deeper understanding of developmental disorders. Research focused on autism is increasingly demonstrating the heterogeneity of individuals diagnosed by DSM criteria. This heterogeneity hinders the ability of investigators to replicate research results as well as progress towards more effective, etiology-specific interventions. In contrast, fragile X and Rett syndromes are 'real' diseases for which advances in research are rapidly accelerating towards more disease-specific human treatment trials. A major paradigm shift is required to improve our ability to diagnose and treat individuals with developmental disorders. This paradigm shift must take place at all levels - training, research and clinical

  17. Developmental origins of brain disorders: roles for dopamine

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    Kelli M Money

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Neurotransmitters and neuromodulators, such as dopamine, participate in a wide range of behavioral and cognitive functions in the adult brain, including movement, cognition, and reward. Dopamine-mediated signaling plays a fundamental neurodevelopmental role in forebrain differentiation and circuit formation. These developmental effects, such as modulation of neuronal migration and dendritic growth, occur before synaptogenesis and demonstrate novel roles for dopaminergic signaling beyond neuromodulation at the synapse. Pharmacologic and genetic disruptions demonstrate that these effects are brain region- and receptor subtype-specific. For example, the striatum and frontal cortex exhibit abnormal neuronal structure and function following prenatal disruption of dopamine receptor signaling. Alterations in these processes are implicated in the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders, and emerging studies of neurodevelopmental disruptions may shed light on the pathophysiology of abnormal neuronal circuitry in neuropsychiatric disorders.

  18. Enabling occupation through facilitating the diagnosis of developmental coordination disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missiuna, Cheryl; Pollock, Nancy; Egan, Mary; DeLaat, Denise; Gaines, Robin; Soucie, Helen

    2008-02-01

    The largest proportion of children seen within school-based occupational therapy is referred for handwriting difficulties. Many of these children have Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD), a disorder that often goes undiagnosed, making if difficult for children, parents, and teachers to access resources. The purpose of this article is to outline the important role of occupational therapists in recognizing and facilitating the diagnosis of DCD. In this paper, a case is made for an expansion of the role of school-based occupational therapists in facilitating diagnosis for children with DCD. Through a review of the literature, we establish the importance of a diagnosis for children and families and critically reflect on issues that may make therapists reluctant to become involved in facilitating this diagnosis. Occupational therapists working in schools are able to recognize children with DCD, an important first step in accessing key resources useful to improve occupational performance and quality of life.

  19. Hospital admissions and morbidity in people with intellectual developmental disorders

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    Rubén José Bernal-Celestino

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective. People with intellectual developmental disorders (IDD have worse health statuses in comparison with general population. The objective of this paper is to compare access and hospital morbimortality in people with IDD and general population. Material and methods. We conducted aretrospective cross-sectional analytical study and analyzed data on admissions and discharges between IDD patients and the rest of them, in Ciudad Real, España. Results. Out of 51 325 hospital admissions, 441 (0.9% belonged to the group of persons with IDD. The IDD group had fewer programmed hospitalization than the general population and fewer surgical interventions. They presented more admissions for mental disorders and respiratory system diseases. Conclusions.The data presented confirm TDI population have different patterns of disease. Furthermore, this study reveal potential difficulties in access to health care in this population.

  20. Neonatal diabetes mellitus due to pancreatic agenesis and pervasive developmental disorder

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    Giannattasio Alessandro

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent studies suggested a link between type 1 diabetes mellitus and pervasive developmental disorder. Moreover, permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus due to pancreatic agenesis can be associated with neurological deficit involving cerebellar functions, but no association with pervasive developmental disorder has been described so far. Clinical and neuropsychological evaluation of a child with pancreatic agenesis, mental retardation and pervasive developmental disorder is reported.

  1. Spanish translation Questionnaire of the Developmental Coordination Disorder

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    Salamanca LM

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The developmental coordination disorder can be recognized by motor difficulties that affect the performance in daily and school activities; therefore, it is necessary to get its early diagnosis in order to initiate early intervention. A tool for diagnosis is the Developmental coordination disorder questionnaire’07, DCDQ’07. Objective: the translation and cultural adaptation of the DCDQ’07 into Spanish. Materials and methods: three independent translators translated the questionnaire into Spanish. Its items were classified according to their equivalent or non-equivalent problems in some words, and also according to their experiential, semantic, conceptual or idioms equivalence. Results: 8 items out of 15 questionnaire items were classified as equivalent 8, 6 of them presented problems in a few words and only one was classified as non-equivalent, 10 items correspond to experiential equivalence translation, 4 items were classified as semantic equivalent and only one got two equivalents. The author agreed the Spanish version. Also, the parent´s opinions about the questionnaire were positive. Conclusions: most of the items of the questionnaire did not have translation difficulties. It allowed its translation and cultural adaptation into Spanish as well as its validation continuity and reliability process

  2. Developmental pesticide exposure reproduces features of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Jason R; Taylor, Michele M; Shalat, Stuart L; Guillot, Thomas S; Caudle, W Michael; Hossain, Muhammad M; Mathews, Tiffany A; Jones, Sara R; Cory-Slechta, Deborah A; Miller, Gary W

    2015-05-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is estimated to affect 8-12% of school-age children worldwide. ADHD is a complex disorder with significant genetic contributions. However, no single gene has been linked to a significant percentage of cases, suggesting that environmental factors may contribute to ADHD. Here, we used behavioral, molecular, and neurochemical techniques to characterize the effects of developmental exposure to the pyrethroid pesticide deltamethrin. We also used epidemiologic methods to determine whether there is an association between pyrethroid exposure and diagnosis of ADHD. Mice exposed to the pyrethroid pesticide deltamethrin during development exhibit several features reminiscent of ADHD, including elevated dopamine transporter (DAT) levels, hyperactivity, working memory and attention deficits, and impulsive-like behavior. Increased DAT and D1 dopamine receptor levels appear to be responsible for the behavioral deficits. Epidemiologic data reveal that children aged 6-15 with detectable levels of pyrethroid metabolites in their urine were more than twice as likely to be diagnosed with ADHD. Our epidemiologic finding, combined with the recapitulation of ADHD behavior in pesticide-treated mice, provides a mechanistic basis to suggest that developmental pyrethroid exposure is a risk factor for ADHD.

  3. Allostatic load in parents of children with developmental disorders: moderating influence of positive affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jieun; Mailick, Marsha R; Ryff, Carol D; Coe, Christopher L; Greenberg, Jan S; Hong, Jinkuk

    2014-02-01

    This study examines whether parents of children with developmental disorders are at risk of elevated allostatic load relative to control parents and whether positive affect moderates difference in risk. In all, 38 parents of children with developmental disorders and 38 matched comparison parents were analyzed. Regression analyses revealed a significant interaction between parent status and positive affect: parents of children with developmental disorders had lower allostatic load when they had higher positive affect, whereas no such association was evident for comparison parents. The findings suggest that promoting greater positive affect may lower health risks among parents of children with developmental disorders.

  4. Defining the genetic architecture of human developmental language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Bartlett, Christopher W

    2012-04-09

    Language is a uniquely human trait, which poses limitations on animal models for discovering biological substrates and pathways. Despite this challenge, rapidly developing biotechnology in the field of genomics has made human genetics studies a viable alternative route for defining the molecular neuroscience of human language. This is accomplished by studying families that transmit both normal and disordered language across generations. The language disorder reviewed here is specific language impairment (SLI), a developmental deficiency in language acquisition despite adequate opportunity, normal intelligence, and without any apparent neurological etiology. Here, we describe disease gene discovery paradigms as applied to SLI families and review the progress this field has made. After review the evidence that genetic factors influence SLI, we discuss methods and findings from scans of the human chromosomes, including the main replicated regions on chromosomes 13, 16 and 19 and two identified genes, ATP2C2 and CMIP that appear to account for the language variation on chromosome 16. Additional work has been done on candidate genes, i.e., genes chosen a priori and not through a genome scanning studies, including several studies of CNTNAP2 and some recent work implicating BDNF as a gene x gene interaction partner of genetic variation on chromosome 13 that influences language. These recent developments may allow for better use of post-mortem human brain samples functional studies and animal models for circumscribed language subcomponents. In the future, the identification of genetic variation associated with language phenotypes will provide the molecular pathways to understanding human language. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. High-resolution SNP array analysis of patients with developmental disorder and normal array CGH results

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    Siggberg Linda

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diagnostic analysis of patients with developmental disorders has improved over recent years largely due to the use of microarray technology. Array methods that facilitate copy number analysis have enabled the diagnosis of up to 20% more patients with previously normal karyotyping results. A substantial number of patients remain undiagnosed, however. Methods and Results Using the Genome-Wide Human SNP array 6.0, we analyzed 35 patients with a developmental disorder of unknown cause and normal array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH results, in order to characterize previously undefined genomic aberrations. We detected no seemingly pathogenic copy number aberrations. Most of the vast amount of data produced by the array was polymorphic and non-informative. Filtering of this data, based on copy number variant (CNV population frequencies as well as phenotypically relevant genes, enabled pinpointing regions of allelic homozygosity that included candidate genes correlating to the phenotypic features in four patients, but results could not be confirmed. Conclusions In this study, the use of an ultra high-resolution SNP array did not contribute to further diagnose patients with developmental disorders of unknown cause. The statistical power of these results is limited by the small size of the patient cohort, and interpretation of these negative results can only be applied to the patients studied here. We present the results of our study and the recurrence of clustered allelic homozygosity present in this material, as detected by the SNP 6.0 array.

  6. Acquisition of Turkish grammatical morphology by children with developmental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acarlar, Funda; Johnston, Judith R

    2011-01-01

    Many children with specific language impairment, Down syndrome or autism spectrum disorder have difficulty learning grammatical morphology, especially forms associated with the verb phrase. However, except for Hebrew, the evidence thus far has come from Indo-European languages. This study investigates the acquisition of grammatical morphology by Turkish-speaking children with developmental disorders. Syntactic, perceptual and usage features of this non-Indo-European language were predicted to lead to patterns of atypical learning that would challenge and broaden current views. Language samples were collected from 30 preschoolers learning Turkish: ten with developmental disorders, ten matched by age and ten by length of utterance. T-SALT then generated mean length of utterance, the total number of noun errors, the total number of verb errors and the per cent use in obligatory contexts for noun suffixes. Analyses also looked at the potential effects of input frequency on order of acquisition. Turkish children in the MLU-W control group, aged 3;4, used noun and verb suffixes with virtually no errors. Children in the group with atypical language showed more, and more persistent, morphological errors than either age or language peers, especially on noun suffixes. Children in the ALD and MLU-W groups were acquiring noun case suffixes in an order that is strongly related to input frequencies. These findings seem to reflect the influence of salience, regularity and frequency on language learning. Typical child-adult discourse patterns as well as the canonical SOV Turkish word order make verb suffixes perceptually salient, available in working memory and frequently repeated. The findings support the view that the language patterns seen in children with atypical development will differ from one language type to the next. They also suggest that regardless of language or syntactic class, children will have greater difficulty with those features of grammar that have higher

  7. [The Battelle developmental inventory screening test for early detection of developmental disorders in cerebral palsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraleda-Barreno, E; Romero-López, M; Cayetano-Menéndez, M J

    2011-12-01

    Cerebral palsy is usually associated with motor, cognitive, and language deficits, and with other disorders that cause disability in daily living skills, personal independence, social interaction and academic activities. Early detection of these deficits in the clinical setting is essential to anticipate and provide the child with the necessary support for adapting to the environment in all possible areas. The main objective of this study is to demonstrate that these deficits can be detected at an early age and comprehensively through the use of a brief development scale. We studied 100 children between 4 and 70 months old, half of them with cerebral palsy and the other half without any disorder. All subjects were evaluated using the Battelle Developmental Inventory screening test. We compared the developmental quotients in both groups and between the subjects with different motor impairments, using a simple prospective ex post facto design. The test detected statistically significant differences between the clinical group and the control group at all age levels. Statistically significant differences were also found between tetraplegia and other motor disorders. There were no differences by gender. The deficit in development associated with cerebral palsy can be quantified at early ages through the use of a brief development scale, thus we propose that the systematic implementation of protocols with this screening tool would be helpful for treatment and early intervention. This would also help in anticipating and establishing the means for the multidisciplinary actions required, and could provide guidance to other health professionals, to provide adequate school, social, and family support,. Copyright © 2011 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. Developmental malformation of the corpus callosum: a review of typical callosal development and examples of developmental disorders with callosal involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Lynn K

    2011-03-01

    This review provides an overview of the involvement of the corpus callosum (CC) in a variety of developmental disorders that are currently defined exclusively by genetics, developmental insult, and/or behavior. I begin with a general review of CC development, connectivity, and function, followed by discussion of the research methods typically utilized to study the callosum. The bulk of the review concentrates on specific developmental disorders, beginning with agenesis of the corpus callosum (AgCC)-the only condition diagnosed exclusively by callosal anatomy. This is followed by a review of several genetic disorders that commonly result in social impairments and/or psychopathology similar to AgCC (neurofibromatosis-1, Turner syndrome, 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, Williams yndrome, and fragile X) and two forms of prenatal injury (premature birth, fetal alcohol syndrome) known to impact callosal development. Finally, I examine callosal involvement in several common developmental disorders defined exclusively by behavioral patterns (developmental language delay, dyslexia, attention-deficit hyperactive disorder, autism spectrum disorders, and Tourette syndrome).

  9. Disorder in Complex Human System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdeniz, K. Gediz

    2011-11-01

    Since the world of human and whose life becomes more and more complex every day because of the digital technology and under the storm of knowledge (media, internet, governmental and non-governmental organizations, etc...) the simulation is rapidly growing in the social systems and in human behaviors. The formation of the body and mutual interactions are left to digital technological, communication mechanisms and coding the techno genetics of the body. Deconstruction begins everywhere. The linear simulation mechanism with modern realities are replaced by the disorder simulation of human behaviors with awareness realities. In this paper I would like to introduce simulation theory of "Disorder Sensitive Human Behaviors". I recently proposed this theory to critique the role of disorder human behaviors in social systems. In this theory the principle of realty is the chaotic awareness of the complexity of human systems inside of principle of modern thinking in Baudrillard's simulation theory. Proper examples will be also considered to investigate the theory.

  10. Static Balance Ability in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Mitsiou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was the examination of disorders in motor coordination of 8/9-year-old school aged children and the detection of possible differences in balance performance between those children assessed with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD and matched peers. It was found that 20 children out of the total number of 200 participating in this study, exhibited definite motor difficulties indicating a DCD disorder.The 20 students diagnosed with DCD were matched one by one with typically developing children participated in a detailed study of balance control. The main finding of the present study was the ability to control balance in both Anterior Posterior (A/P and Medio Lateral (M/L directions was inferior in students with DCD than in typically developing children. The findings reinforce the need for the evaluation of balance performance in school-aged children, in order specific individual motor profiles to be established for optimizing and adapting appropriate intervention programs.

  11. Nativism versus Neuroconstructivism: Rethinking the Study of Developmental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmiloff-Smith, Annette

    2009-01-01

    This article argues that one dominant position in psychology, linguistics, neuroscience, and philosophy about how genetic disorders point to the innate specification of dissociated modules in the human brain should be replaced by a dynamic, neuroconstructivist approach in which genes, brain, cognition, and environment interact multidirectionally.…

  12. Perceptual skills of children with developmental coordination disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoemaker, M M; van der Wees, M; Flapper, B; Verheij-Jansen, N; Scholten-Jaegers, S; Geuze, R H

    2001-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether children with a Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) experience problems in the processing of visual, proprioceptive or tactile information. Different aspects of visual perception were tested with the Developmental Test of Visual Perception (DTVP-2), tactile perception was assessed with the Tactual Performance Test (TPT), and a manual pointing task was employed to measure the ability to use visual and proprioceptive information in goal-directed movements. Nineteen children with DCD and nineteen age and sex-matched controls participated in this study. Differences between groups were most pronounced in the subtests measuring visual-motor integration of the DTVP-2, and in two subtests measuring visual perception (visual closure and position in space). On average the children with DCD performed slightly below the norm for tactile perception, with only three children failing the norm. On the manual pointing task, children with DCD made inconsistent responses towards the targets in all three conditions (visual, visual-proprioceptive and proprioceptive condition). No significant differences between groups were found for absolute error. Inspection of the individual data revealed that only two children failed on the majority of perceptual tasks in the three modalities. Across tasks, no consistent pattern of deficits appeared, illustrating the heterogeneity of the problems of children with DCD.

  13. Terminology used in research reports of developmental coordination disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Lívia C; Missiuna, Cheryl; Wong, Shirley

    2006-11-01

    A systematic search was performed of all articles from January 1995 to December 2005 published in peer-reviewed journals on children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). Criteria were applied to ensure that articles included DCD so 319 articles were included in the analysis. Since the publication of a systematic search conducted in 1994, the number of publications in this field has greatly increased across countries and disciplines. The term DCD was used in 52.7% of the articles. Other terms were used less frequently: clumsy children (7.2%), developmental dyspraxia (3.5%), handwriting problems (3.1%), hand-eye coordination problems (2.8%), sensory integration dysfunction (2.5%), deficits in attention, motor control, and perception (2.5%), minor neurological dysfunction (2.2%), and several other scattered terms (23.5%). The data indicated that progress has been made in the usage of the term DCD, but a standardized approach has not yet been achieved. Without consistent use of the term DCD, there is limited communication of research results internationally, slowed progress in understanding the condition, and limited development of intervention and management programmes for children with DCD.

  14. Mechanisms that underlie coordination in children with developmental coordination disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Jane Clifford; Williams, Harriet G; Bundy, Anita; Lyons, Jim; Mittal, Amita

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined potential mechanisms underlying motor coordination in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). Because children with DCD experience difficulty processing visual, auditory, and vibrotactile information, the authors explored patterns of choice reaction time (RT) in young (6-7 years) and older (9-10 years) children with and without DCD by using a compatibility-incompatibility paradigm and different sensory modalities. Young children responded more slowly than older children to visual, auditory, and vibrotactile stimuli. Children with DCD took longer than typical children to process visual and vibrotactile stimuli under more complex stimulus-response mappings. Young children with DCD responded more slowly than typical children to visual and vibrotactile information under incompatible conditions. Children with DCD responded faster than unaffected children to auditory stimuli. The results suggest that there is a developmental nature in the processing of visual and auditory input and imply that the vibrotactile sensory modality may be key to the motor coordination difficulties of children with DCD.

  15. Recent advances in the developmental aspects of borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Carla; Kim, Sohye

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the current paper was to review the most recent advances in the developmental aspects of borderline personality disorder (BPD) over the last 3 years to highlight the most significant trends in the field. In so doing, we identify and discuss two exciting new trends: (a) an emphasis on the biological basis of adolescent BPD and (b) empirical evidence in support of long-held theories of the development of BPD. Together, these trends suggest that for the first time, empirical findings are beginning to emerge in support of complex and reciprocal biology × environment interactions over time in the development of BPD. We discuss the emerging literature and highlight the translational impact of this work for the assessment and intervention of adolescent BPD.

  16. [Intraocular lens implantation in developmental lens disorders in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanigowska, Krystyna; Grałek, Mirosława; Kepa, Beata; Chipczyńska, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    The pediatric cataract surgery in eyes with developmental disorders, stay with still considerable challenge. At children, the lasting vision development extorts necessity quick settlement of refraction defect formed after operation. The intraocular lens old boy with cataract in microspherophakia and 12 years old boy with cataract in lens with coloboma. One-piece flexible and rigid PMMA intraocular lens was placed with success at posterior chamber without scleral fixations and without using capsular tension ring in this cases. After 3 years of observation there were no decentration or dislocation of intraocular lens in both children. Authors concluded that in some cases posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation despite defective zonular or capsular support, can make up the effective method of surgical treatment without risk of early dislocation.

  17. Young adults with developmental coordination disorder: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal-Saban, Miri; Ornoy, Asher; Parush, Shula

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a longitudinal study to assess the continuing influence of developmental coordination disorder (DCD) on quality of life and participation. Ninety-six participants (25 in the DCD group, 30 in the borderline group, and 41 in the control group) ages 22-29 yr who had been screened for DCD 3-4 yr previously completed the Participation in Every Day Activities of Life, the Life-Satisfaction Questionnaire, and the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF) instrument. Multivariate analysis of variance revealed a significant between-groups difference, F(7, 95) = 2.89, p = .001, η = 0.173, and post hoc analyses revealed that participants in the DCD and borderline groups scored lower overall on participation, quality of life, and life satisfaction. Linear regression found the Psychological Health domain of the WHOQOL-BREF to be a significant predictor of life satisfaction (B = 0.533; p = .001).

  18. [Developmental coordination disorder: relations between deficits in movement and cognition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastner, Julia; Petermann, F

    2010-01-01

    Different studies confirm that children with developmental coordination disorders (DCD) feature additionally cognitive deficits in areas of visual perception, memory and processing speed. The aim of the present study was to explore, whether or not children suffering from DCD have specific performance profiles in the WISC-IV. For this purpose, the WISC-IV results of 40 children with DCD (diagnosed using the Movement ABC-2), mean age 7,60, were compared with a control group matched according to age und gender. The children in the clinical group offered a homogenous performance profile, scoring below average in each of the four indices (verbal comprehension, perception reasoning, working memory and processing speed) and general IQ. Therefore, in clinical practice the WISC-IV is an appropriate instrument to detect cognitive deficits that can appear in conjunction with DCD.

  19. Psychological interventions in pervasive developmental disorder: An overview

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    Shuvabrata Poddar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs are characterized by several impairments in the domains of social communication, social interaction and expression of social attachment, and other aspects of development like symbolic play. As the role of drugs in treating these impairments is extremely limited, a variety of psychological interventions have been developed to deal with them. Some of these have strong empirical support, while others are relatively new and hence controversial. Though it may prove to be a daunting task to begin with, the final reward of being able to improve the life of a child with PDD is enormous and hugely satisfying. Therefore, knowledge of these psychological interventions is important for a mental health professional, in order to be effective in the profession. Present paper presents an overview of these techniques in the management of PDD.

  20. Determinants of developmental coordination disorder in 7-year-old children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faebo Larsen, Rikke; Hvas Mortensen, Laust; Martinussen, Torben;

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate early life determinants of developmental coordination disorder (DCD) in 7-year-old children.......The aim of this study was to investigate early life determinants of developmental coordination disorder (DCD) in 7-year-old children....

  1. Neuropsychological effects of risperidone in children with pervasive developmental disorders : A blinded discontinuation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Troost, Pieter W.; Althaus, Monika; Lahuis, Bertine E.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Little is known about the neuropsychological effects of risperidone in children with pervasive developmental disorders. Method: Twenty-four children (aged 5-17 years) with pervasive developmental disorders and co-morbid disruptive behavior who responded favorably to open-label treatment

  2. Neuropsychological effects of risperidone in children with pervasive developmental disorders: a blinded discontinuation study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Troost, P.W.; Althaus, M.; Lahuis, B.E.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Minderaa, R.B.; Hoekstra, P.J.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Little is known about the neuropsychological effects of risperidone in children with pervasive developmental disorders. METHOD: Twenty-four children (aged 5-17 years) with pervasive developmental disorders and co-morbid disruptive behavior who responded favorably to open-label treatment w

  3. Autism spectrum disorders in siblings of children with a developmental language disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, Svend Erik; Hauschild, Karen-Marie

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Little is known about the familial characteristics of children diagnosed during childhood as having a developmental language disorder (DLD). This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in siblings of probands diagnosed during childhood as having a DLD....... In order to estimate the prevalence of ASD, 908 siblings of 469 probands diagnosed during childhood as having a DLD, and 3,802 siblings of 2,345 controls from the general population, without a known history of DLD, were screened for ASD through the nationwide Danish Psychiatric Central Register (DPCR...

  4. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and developmental coordination disorder: Two separate disorders or do they share a common etiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulardins, Juliana B; Rigoli, Daniela; Licari, Melissa; Piek, Jan P; Hasue, Renata H; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Oliveira, Jorge A

    2015-10-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been described as the most prevalent behavioral disorder in children. Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is one of the most prevalent childhood movement disorders. The overlap between the two conditions is estimated to be around 50%, with both substantially interfering with functioning and development, and leading to poorer psychosocial outcomes. This review provides an overview of the relationship between ADHD and DCD, discussing the common presenting features, etiology, neural basis, as well as associated deficits in motor functioning, attention and executive functioning. It is currently unclear which specific motor and cognitive difficulties are intrinsic to each disorder as many studies of ADHD have not been screened for DCD and vice-versa. The evidence supporting common brain underpinnings is still very limited, but studies using well defined samples have pointed to non-shared underpinnings for ADHD and DCD. The current paper suggests that ADHD and DCD are separate disorders that may require different treatment approaches.

  5. Developmental changes in human dopamine neurotransmission: cortical receptors and terminators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rothmond Debora A

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dopamine is integral to cognition, learning and memory, and dysfunctions of the frontal cortical dopamine system have been implicated in several developmental neuropsychiatric disorders. The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC is critical for working memory which does not fully mature until the third decade of life. Few studies have reported on the normal development of the dopamine system in human DLPFC during postnatal life. We assessed pre- and postsynaptic components of the dopamine system including tyrosine hydroxylase, the dopamine receptors (D1, D2 short and D2 long isoforms, D4, D5, catechol-O-methyltransferase, and monoamine oxidase (A and B in the developing human DLPFC (6 weeks -50 years. Results Gene expression was first analysed by microarray and then by quantitative real-time PCR. Protein expression was analysed by western blot. Protein levels for tyrosine hydroxylase peaked during the first year of life (p O-methyltransferase (p = 0.024 were significantly higher in neonates and infants as was catechol-O-methyltransferase protein (32 kDa, p = 0.027. In contrast, dopamine D1 receptor mRNA correlated positively with age (p = 0.002 and dopamine D1 receptor protein expression increased throughout development (p Conclusions We find distinct developmental changes in key components of the dopamine system in DLPFC over postnatal life. Those genes that are highly expressed during the first year of postnatal life may influence and orchestrate the early development of cortical neural circuitry while genes portraying a pattern of increasing expression with age may indicate a role in DLPFC maturation and attainment of adult levels of cognitive function.

  6. Diverse developmental disorders from The One Ring: distinct molecular pathways underlie the cohesinopathies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia eHorsfield

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The multi-subunit protein complex, cohesin, is responsible for sister chromatid cohesion during cell division. The interaction of cohesin with DNA is controlled by a number of additional regulatory proteins. Mutations in cohesin, or its regulators, cause a spectrum of human developmental syndromes known as the ‘cohesinopathies’. Cohesinopathy disorders include Cornelia de Lange Syndrome and Roberts Syndrome. The discovery of novel roles for chromatid cohesion proteins in regulating gene expression led to the idea that cohesinopathies are caused by dysregulation of multiple genes downstream of mutations in cohesion proteins. Consistent with this idea, Drosophila, mouse and zebrafish cohesinopathy models all show altered expression of developmental genes. However, there appears to be incomplete overlap among dysregulated genes downstream of mutations in different components of the cohesion apparatus. This is surprising because mutations in all cohesion proteins would be predicted to affect cohesin’s roles in cell division and gene expression in similar ways. Here we review the differences and similarities between genetic pathways downstream of components of the cohesion apparatus, and discuss how such differences might arise, and contribute to the spectrum of cohesinopathy disorders. We propose that mutations in different elements of the cohesion apparatus have distinct developmental outcomes that can be explained by sometimes subtly different molecular effects.

  7. Mechanisms of developmental programming of the metabolic syndrome and related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhong-Cheng; Xiao, Lin; Nuyt, Anne-Monique

    2010-07-15

    There is consistent epidemiological evidence linking low birth weight, preterm birth and adverse fetal growth to an elevated risk of the metabolic syndrome (obesity, raised blood pressure, raised serum triglycerides, lowered serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and impaired glucose tolerance or insulin resistance) and related disorders. This "fetal or developmental origins/programming of disease" concept is now well accepted but the "programming" mechanisms remain poorly understood. We reviewed the major evidence, implications and limitations of current hypotheses in interpreting developmental programming and discuss future research directions. Major current hypotheses to interpret developmental programming include: (1) thrifty phenotype; (2) postnatal accelerated or catch-up growth; (3) glucocorticoid effects; (4) epigenetic changes; (5) oxidative stress; (6) prenatal hypoxia; (7) placental dysfunction; and (8) reduced stem cell number. Some hypothetical mechanisms (2, 4 and 8) could be driven by other upstream "driver" mechanisms. There is a lack of animal studies addressing multiple mechanisms simultaneously and a lack of strong evidence linking clinical outcomes to biomarkers of the proposed programming mechanisms in humans. There are needs for (1) experimental studies addressing multiple hypothetical mechanisms simultaneously; and (2) prospective pregnancy cohort studies linking biomarkers of the proposed mechanisms to clinical outcomes or surrogate biomarker endpoints. A better understanding of the programming mechanisms is a prerequisite for developing early life interventions to arrest the increasing epidemic of the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and other related disorders.

  8. Comparative developmental psychology: how is human cognitive development unique?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Alexandra G; Wobber, Victoria; Hughes, Kelly; Santos, Laurie R

    2014-04-29

    The fields of developmental and comparative psychology both seek to illuminate the roots of adult cognitive systems. Developmental studies target the emergence of adult cognitive systems over ontogenetic time, whereas comparative studies investigate the origins of human cognition in our evolutionary history. Despite the long tradition of research in both of these areas, little work has examined the intersection of the two: the study of cognitive development in a comparative perspective. In the current article, we review recent work using this comparative developmental approach to study non-human primate cognition. We argue that comparative data on the pace and pattern of cognitive development across species can address major theoretical questions in both psychology and biology. In particular, such integrative research will allow stronger biological inferences about the function of developmental change, and will be critical in addressing how humans come to acquire species-unique cognitive abilities.

  9. Comparative Developmental Psychology: How is Human Cognitive Development Unique?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra G. Rosati

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The fields of developmental and comparative psychology both seek to illuminate the roots of adult cognitive systems. Developmental studies target the emergence of adult cognitive systems over ontogenetic time, whereas comparative studies investigate the origins of human cognition in our evolutionary history. Despite the long tradition of research in both of these areas, little work has examined the intersection of the two: the study of cognitive development in a comparative perspective. In the current article, we review recent work using this comparative developmental approach to study non-human primate cognition. We argue that comparative data on the pace and pattern of cognitive development across species can address major theoretical questions in both psychology and biology. In particular, such integrative research will allow stronger biological inferences about the function of developmental change, and will be critical in addressing how humans come to acquire species-unique cognitive abilities.

  10. Two distinct pathways for developmental coordination disorder: persistence and resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantell, Marja H; Smyth, Mary M; Ahonen, Timo P

    2003-11-01

    This article describes the perceptual motor, educational and social outcome of early motor delay in a group of 17-18 year old Finnish adolescents who were originally evaluated at age 5. The study group consisted of 65 adolescents: 22 with significant motor problems (or developmental coordination disorder, DCD), 23 with minor motor problems (intermediate group) and 20 controls. The goal of this study was to reassess the results obtained when they were age 15 and to determine whether the variables used earlier could still discriminate the adolescents at age 17. The results showed that at age 17 all perceptual motor tasks differentiated the three groups. The DCD group performed less well than the control group on all tasks, with the intermediate group situated between these two. Discriminant function analyses showed that more classification errors occurred between the control and intermediate groups at age 17 than at age 15, suggesting that the distinction between these groups becomes more difficult with age. In the educational domain, similar to the findings at age 15, the adolescents with DCD had the lowest WAIS scores and shortest school careers of the three groups. In the social domain, as found two years earlier, the DCD group had the lowest perceptions of athletic and scholastic competence while the intermediate and control groups did not differ. In addition, the interview results indicated that the three groups were in different stages of identity development. In sum, the outcome at age 17 was a replication of the results obtained at age 15 and suggests two developmental paths for those with early perceptual motor problems: 'persistence' and 'catching up'.

  11. Developmental changes in lateralized inhibition of symmetric movements in children with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallet, Jessica; Albaret, Jean-Michel; Barral, Jérôme

    2013-09-01

    The present study investigates developmental changes in selective inhibition of symmetric movements with a lateralized switching task from bimanual to unimanual tapping in typically developing (TD) children and with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) from 7 to 10 years old. Twelve right-handed TD children and twelve gender-matched children with DCD and probable DCD produce a motor switching task in which they have (1) to synchronize with the beat of an auditory metronome to produce bimanual symmetrical tapping and (2) to selectively inhibit their left finger's tapping while continuing their right finger's tapping and conversely. We assess (1) the development of the capacity to inhibit the stopping finger (number of supplementary taps after the stopping instruction) and (2) the development of the capacity to maintain the continuing finger (changes in the mean tempo and its variability for the continuing finger's tapping) and (3) the evolution of performance through trials. Results indicate that (1) TD children present an age-related increase in the capacity to inhibit and to maintain the left finger's tapping, (2) DCD exhibits persistent difficulties to inhibit the left finger's tapping, and (3) both groups improve their capacity to inhibit the left finger's movements through trials. In conclusion, the lateralized switching task provides a simple and fine tool to reveal differences in selective inhibition of symmetric movements in TD children and children with DCD. More theoretically, the specific improvement in selective inhibition of the left finger suggests a progressive development of inter-hemispheric communication during typical development that is absent or delayed in children with DCD.

  12. Onto-clust--a methodology for combining clustering analysis and ontological methods for identifying groups of comorbidities for developmental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg, Mor; Asbeh, Nuaman; Kuflik, Tsvi; Schertz, Mitchell

    2009-02-01

    Children with developmental disorders usually exhibit multiple developmental problems (comorbidities). Hence, such diagnosis needs to revolve on developmental disorder groups. Our objective is to systematically identify developmental disorder groups and represent them in an ontology. We developed a methodology that combines two methods (1) a literature-based ontology that we created, which represents developmental disorders and potential developmental disorder groups, and (2) clustering for detecting comorbid developmental disorders in patient data. The ontology is used to interpret and improve clustering results and the clustering results are used to validate the ontology and suggest directions for its development. We evaluated our methodology by applying it to data of 1175 patients from a child development clinic. We demonstrated that the ontology improves clustering results, bringing them closer to an expert generated gold-standard. We have shown that our methodology successfully combines an ontology with a clustering method to support systematic identification and representation of developmental disorder groups.

  13. Comparative Developmental Psychology: How is Human Cognitive Development Unique?

    OpenAIRE

    Rosati, Alexandra G.; Victoria Wobber; Kelly Hughes; Santos, Laurie R

    2014-01-01

    The fields of developmental and comparative psychology both seek to illuminate the roots of adult cognitive systems. Developmental studies target the emergence of adult cognitive systems over ontogenetic time, whereas comparative studies investigate the origins of human cognition in our evolutionary history. Despite the long tradition of research in both of these areas, little work has examined the intersection of the two: the study of cognitive development in a comparative perspective. In th...

  14. Physical and Mental Health of Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Caçola

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD is a neurodevelopmental condition characterized by poor motor proficiency that interferes with an individual’s activities of daily living. These problems in motor coordination are prevalent despite children’s intelligence levels. Common symptoms include marked delays in achieving motor milestones and clumsiness, typically associated with poor balance, coordination, and especially handwriting skills. Currently, DCD is said to impact about 2-7% of school-age children. More importantly, DCD is considered to be one of the major health problems among school-aged children worldwide, with unique consequences to physical and mental health. Because these children and adolescents often experience difficulties participating in typical childhood activities (e.g., riding a bike, they tend be more sedentary, more overweight/obese, at a higher risk for coronary vascular disease, and have lower cardiorespiratory and physical fitness than their typically developing peers. From another perspective, the motor difficulties have also been linked to an increased risk for mental health issues, such as higher anxiety and depression. The understanding of the health consequences associated with DCD offers practical applications for the understanding of the mechanisms and intervention protocols that can improve the consequences of this condition. In this review, I will explore such consequences and provide evidence for the implementation of interventions that focus on improving physical and mental health in this population.

  15. Impaired socio-emotional processing in a developmental music disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, César F.; Brancatisano, Olivia; Fancourt, Amy; Müllensiefen, Daniel; Scott, Sophie K.; Warren, Jason D.; Stewart, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    Some individuals show a congenital deficit for music processing despite normal peripheral auditory processing, cognitive functioning, and music exposure. This condition, termed congenital amusia, is typically approached regarding its profile of musical and pitch difficulties. Here, we examine whether amusia also affects socio-emotional processing, probing auditory and visual domains. Thirteen adults with amusia and 11 controls completed two experiments. In Experiment 1, participants judged emotions in emotional speech prosody, nonverbal vocalizations (e.g., crying), and (silent) facial expressions. Target emotions were: amusement, anger, disgust, fear, pleasure, relief, and sadness. Compared to controls, amusics were impaired for all stimulus types, and the magnitude of their impairment was similar for auditory and visual emotions. In Experiment 2, participants listened to spontaneous and posed laughs, and either inferred the authenticity of the speaker’s state, or judged how much laughs were contagious. Amusics showed decreased sensitivity to laughter authenticity, but normal contagion responses. Across the experiments, mixed-effects models revealed that the acoustic features of vocal signals predicted socio-emotional evaluations in both groups, but the profile of predictive acoustic features was different in amusia. These findings suggest that a developmental music disorder can affect socio-emotional cognition in subtle ways, an impairment not restricted to auditory information. PMID:27725686

  16. Gait patterns in children with Developmental Coordination Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmut, K; Du, W; Barnett, A L

    2016-06-01

    Previous research has shown that adults with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) show increased variability of foot placement measures and movement of the centre of mass (CoM) while walking. The current study considered the gait patterns of young and older children with DCD. Fourteen young children with DCD (7-12 years), 15 older children with DCD (12-17 years) and 29 age- and gender-matched typically developing children took part. Children were asked to walk up and down a flat 10-m-long pathway for 1 min, while the movement of their feet and trunk was recorded using motion analysis. The gait pattern of children with DCD was characterised by wider steps, elevated variability in the time spent in double support and stride time and greater medio-lateral velocity and acceleration compared to their peers. An elevated variability in medio-lateral acceleration was also seen in the young but not the older children with DCD. In addition, the young children showed a greater variability in velocity and acceleration in all three directions compared to the older children. The data suggest that the high incidence of trips and falls seen in children with DCD may be due to differences in the control of the CoM.

  17. Understanding the mechanisms of cognitive impairments in developmental coordination disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shining; Li, Wei-Guang; Ding, Jing; Wu, Jinlin; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Li, Fei; Shen, Xiaoming

    2014-01-01

    Developmental coordination disorder (DCD), a neurodevelopmental disability in which a child's motor coordination difficulties significantly interfere with activities of daily life or academic achievement, together with additional symptoms of diseases with childhood sensorimotor impairments, increases the risk of many cognitive problems. This exhibits the dynamic interplay between sensorimotor and cognition systems. However, the brain structures and pathways involved have remained unknown over the past decades. Here, we review developments in recent years that elucidate the neural mechanisms involved in the sensorimotor-cognitive difficulties. First, we briefly address the clinical and epidemiological discoveries in DCD as well as its comorbidities. Subsequently, we group the growing evidence including our findings that support the notion that sensorimotor manipulation indeed affects the cognition development at systematic, circuitry, cellular, and molecular levels. This corresponds to changes in diverse brain regions, synaptic plasticity, and neurotransmitter and receptor activity during development under these effects. Finally, we address the treatment potentials of task-oriented sensorimotor enhancement, as a new therapeutic strategy for cognitive rehabilitation, based on our current understanding of the neurobiology of cognitive-sensorimotor interaction.

  18. Cognitive process-based subtypes of developmental coordination disorder (DCD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asonitou, Katerina; Koutsouki, Dimitra

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify the cognitive subtypes demonstrated by children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) using the Planning-Attention-Simultaneous-Successive Processing (PASS) theory and the Cognitive Assessment System (D-N CAS). Participants were 108 children aged 5- and 6-years old, 54 with DCD and 54 without DCD, all attending typical kindergartens. They were examined on 31 cognitive-motor variables. Hierarchical-agglomerative and iterative partitioning cluster analyses including 9 motor and 7 cognitive variables revealed the following six subtypes: o C1 = children at risk (having considerable difficulty with jumping and minor difficulty with manual dexterity and simultaneous coding); o C2 = children on the mean (all cognitive-motor scores close to the mean); o C3 = free from cognitive-motor problems (all scores above average); o C4 = manual dexterity, planning and simultaneous coding difficulties; o C5 = manual dexterity, dynamic balance, and planning difficulties; o C6 = generalized cognitive-motor dysfunction (all scores considerably below average). It is well known that DCD is a heterogeneous condition. However, whenever cognitive processes were lower than average, cognitive-motor relationship was evident in subgroups C1, C4, C5 and C6. Early identification of task-specific cognitive-motor difficulties may be essential for early educational intervention practices in order to anticipate and improve learning, academic and performing difficulties.

  19. Is anorexia nervosa a neuropsychiatric developmental disorder? An illustrative case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerbeshian, Jacob; Burd, Larry

    2009-01-01

    We propose the concept that anorexia nervosa is a neuropsychiatric developmental disorder. In support of the concept we present a case report of a 12-year-old girl with high functioning autistic disorder who developed Tourette syndrome and obsessive-compulsive disorder. She subsequently experienced

  20. Evidence to Practice Commentary: New Evidence in Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Iona

    2013-01-01

    Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is frequently under-recognized, but in fact, it occurs in as many as 5-6% of children. DCD is a disorder of motor coordination that is not explained by intellectual disability or any congenital or acquired neurological disorder. Families seek physical and occupational therapy (OT) to ameliorate a child…

  1. The Validity of Psychiatric Diagnoses: The Case of "Specific" Developmental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyck, Murray J.; Piek, Jan P.; Patrick, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    We tested whether developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and mixed receptive expressive language disorder (RELD) are valid diagnoses by assessing whether they are separated from each other, from other childhood disorders, and from normality by natural boundaries termed zones of rarity. Standardized measures of intelligence, language, motor…

  2. Is anorexia nervosa a neuropsychiatric developmental disorder? An illustrative case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerbeshian, Jacob; Burd, Larry

    2009-01-01

    We propose the concept that anorexia nervosa is a neuropsychiatric developmental disorder. In support of the concept we present a case report of a 12-year-old girl with high functioning autistic disorder who developed Tourette syndrome and obsessive-compulsive disorder. She subsequently experienced

  3. The role of developmental plasticity and epigenetics in human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluckman, Peter D; Hanson, Mark A; Low, Felicia M

    2011-03-01

    Considerable epidemiological, experimental and clinical data have amassed showing that the risk of developing disease in later life is dependent on early life conditions, mainly operating within the normative range of developmental exposures. This relationship reflects plastic responses made by the developing organism as an evolved strategy to cope with immediate or predicted circumstances, to maximize fitness in the context of the range of environments potentially faced. There is now increasing evidence, both in animals and humans, that such developmental plasticity is mediated in part by epigenetic mechanisms. However, recognition of the importance of developmental plasticity as an important factor in influencing later life health-particularly within the medical and public health communities-is low, and we argue that this indifference cannot be sustained in light of the growing understanding of developmental processes and the rapid rise in the prevalence of obesity and metabolic disease globally. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. A microbial perspective of human developmental biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonneau, Mark R; Blanton, Laura V; DiGiulio, Daniel B; Relman, David A; Lebrilla, Carlito B; Mills, David A; Gordon, Jeffrey I

    2016-07-07

    When most people think of human development, they tend to consider only human cells and organs. Yet there is another facet that involves human-associated microbial communities. A microbial perspective of human development provides opportunities to refine our definitions of healthy prenatal and postnatal growth and to develop innovative strategies for disease prevention and treatment. Given the dramatic changes in lifestyles and disease patterns that are occurring with globalization, we issue a call for the establishment of 'human microbial observatories' designed to examine microbial community development in birth cohorts representing populations with diverse anthropological characteristics, including those undergoing rapid change.

  5. Stability and Composition of Functional Synergies for Speech Movements in Children with Developmental Speech Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terband, H.; Maassen, B.; van Lieshout, P.; Nijland, L.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the consistency and composition of functional synergies for speech movements in children with developmental speech disorders. Kinematic data were collected on the reiterated productions of syllables spa(/spa[image omitted]/) and paas(/pa[image omitted]s/) by 10 6- to 9-year-olds with developmental speech…

  6. Effect of Developmental Quotient on Symptoms of Inattention and Impulsivity among Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; Mahan, Sara; Hess, Julie A.; Fodstad, Jill C.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of developmental quotient on symptoms of inattention and impulsivity was examined among 198 toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorders. There were two levels of developmental quotient: (1) low (less than or equal to 70; n = 80), and (2) typical (greater than 70; n = 118). Symptoms of inattention and impulsivity were assessed using 14 items…

  7. Stability and Composition of Functional Synergies for Speech Movements in Children with Developmental Speech Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terband, H.; Maassen, B.; van Lieshout, P.; Nijland, L.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the consistency and composition of functional synergies for speech movements in children with developmental speech disorders. Kinematic data were collected on the reiterated productions of syllables spa(/spa[image omitted]/) and paas(/pa[image omitted]s/) by 10 6- to 9-year-olds with developmental speech…

  8. Changes in dynamic balance control over time in children with and without Developmental Coodination Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jelsma, L.D.; Smits-Engelsman, B.C.M.; Geuze, R.H.

    2015-01-01

    Changes in dynamic balance control over time in children with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder L.D. Jelsma1, B.C.M. Smits-Engelsman2 & R.H. Geuze1 1Clinical and Developmental Neuropsychology, University of Groningen, Grote Kruisstraat 2-1, 9712 TS Groningen, the Netherlands. l.d.jelsm

  9. Health-Related Physical Fitness in Dutch Children With Developmental Coordination Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hoek, Frouwien D.; Stuive, Ilse; Reinders-Messelink, Heleen A.; Holty, Lian; de Blecourt, Alida C. E.; Maathuis, Carel G. B.; van Weert, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare components of health-related physical fitness between Dutch children with clinically diagnosed developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and typically developing children (TDC), and to examine associations between motor performance problems and components of health-related

  10. Health-Related Physical Fitness in Dutch Children With Developmental Coordination Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hoek, Frouwien D.; Stuive, Ilse; Reinders-Messelink, Heleen A.; Holty, Lian; de Blecourt, Alida C. E.; Maathuis, Carel G. B.; van Weert, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare components of health-related physical fitness between Dutch children with clinically diagnosed developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and typically developing children (TDC), and to examine associations between motor performance problems and components of health-related fitn

  11. Relationship between physical activity and physical fitness in school-aged children with developmental language disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Niet, Anneke G.; Hartman, Esther; Moolenaar, Ben J.; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Children with developmental language disorders (DLD) often experience difficulty in understanding and engaging in interactive behavior with other children, which may lead to reduced daily physical activity and fitness levels. The present study evaluated the physical activity and physical fitness

  12. Does subtype of developmental coordination disorder count: is there a differential effect on outcome following intervention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, D; Chambers, M E; Sugden, D A

    2008-04-01

    It is well known that developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is a heterogeneous condition in which children frequently present with co-occurring conditions in addition to their motor difficulties. This study considered whether there would be a differential effect of a group treatment program on subtypes of perceptual and movement problems or associated co-occurring conditions. A subset of children (n=43) from a larger clinical sample (n=100) with DCD participated in a 214 year cross-over intervention study which followed the cognitive orientation to daily occupational performance (CO-OP) approach. Original subtypes were determined by contrasting the current sample with previously published subtyping studies in DCD [Hoare, D. (1994). Subtypes of developmental coordination disorder. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 11, 158-169; Macnab, J. J., Miller, L. T., & Polatajko, H. J. (2001). The search for subtypes of DCD: Is cluster analysis the answer? Human Movement Science, 20, 49-72]. No advantage was conferred to any subtype although children with more profound and complex difficulties at initial assessment, despite progress following intervention, were most likely to have continuing difficulties at the end of the project.

  13. Sensory and sensorimotor gating in children with multiple complex developmental disorders (MCDD) and autism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oranje, Bob; Lahuis, Bertine; van Engeland, Herman

    2013-01-01

    Multiple Complex Developmental Disorder (MCDD) is a well-defined and validated behavioral subtype of autism with a proposed elevated risk of developing a schizophrenic spectrum disorder. The current study investigated whether children with MCDD show the same deficits in sensory gating that are co......Multiple Complex Developmental Disorder (MCDD) is a well-defined and validated behavioral subtype of autism with a proposed elevated risk of developing a schizophrenic spectrum disorder. The current study investigated whether children with MCDD show the same deficits in sensory gating...

  14. Physical fitness in children with developmental coordination disorder: measurement matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Gillian D; Aertssen, Wendy F M; Rameckers, Eugene A A; Jelsma, Jennifer; Smits-Engelsman, Bouwien C M

    2014-05-01

    Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) experience considerable difficulties coordinating and controlling their body movements during functional motor tasks. Thus, it is not surprising that children with DCD do not perform well on tests of physical fitness. The aim of this study was to determine whether deficits in motor coordination influence the ability of children with DCD to perform adequately on physical fitness tests. A case-control study design was used to compare the performance of children with DCD (n=70, 36 boys, mean age=8 y 1 mo) and Typically Developing (TD) children (n=70, 35 boys, mean age=7 y 9 mo) on measures of isometric strength (hand-held dynamometry), functional strength, i.e. explosive power and muscular endurance (Functional Strength Measurement), aerobic capacity (20 m Shuttle Run Test) and anaerobic muscle capacity, i.e. muscle power (Muscle Power Sprint Test). Results show that children with DCD were able to generate similar isometric forces compared to TD children in isometric break tests, but were significantly weaker in three-point grip strength. Performance on functional strength items requiring more isolated explosive movement of the upper extremities, showed no significant difference between groups while items requiring muscle endurance (repetitions in 30s) and items requiring whole body explosive movement were all significantly different. Aerobic capacity was lower for children with DCD whereas anaerobic performance during the sprint test was not. Our findings suggest that poor physical fitness performance in children with DCD may be partly due to poor timing and coordination of repetitive movements.

  15. Refining developmental coordination disorder subtyping with multivariate statistical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalanne Christophe

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With a large number of potentially relevant clinical indicators penalization and ensemble learning methods are thought to provide better predictive performance than usual linear predictors. However, little is known about how they perform in clinical studies where few cases are available. We used Random Forests and Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis to select the most salient impairments in Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD and assess patients similarity. Methods We considered a wide-range testing battery for various neuropsychological and visuo-motor impairments which aimed at characterizing subtypes of DCD in a sample of 63 children. Classifiers were optimized on a training sample, and they were used subsequently to rank the 49 items according to a permuted measure of variable importance. In addition, subtyping consistency was assessed with cluster analysis on the training sample. Clustering fitness and predictive accuracy were evaluated on the validation sample. Results Both classifiers yielded a relevant subset of items impairments that altogether accounted for a sharp discrimination between three DCD subtypes: ideomotor, visual-spatial and constructional, and mixt dyspraxia. The main impairments that were found to characterize the three subtypes were: digital perception, imitations of gestures, digital praxia, lego blocks, visual spatial structuration, visual motor integration, coordination between upper and lower limbs. Classification accuracy was above 90% for all classifiers, and clustering fitness was found to be satisfactory. Conclusions Random Forests and Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis are useful tools to extract salient features from a large pool of correlated binary predictors, but also provide a way to assess individuals proximities in a reduced factor space. Less than 15 neuro-visual, neuro-psychomotor and neuro-psychological tests might be required to provide a sensitive and

  16. Atomoxetine for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms in children with pervasive developmental disorders: a pilot study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Troost, P.W.; Steenhuis, M.P.; Tuynman-Qua, H.G.; Kalverdijk, L.J.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Minderaa, R.B.; Hoekstra, P.J.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This pilot study examined the effects of atomoxetine on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and autistic features in children with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD). METHOD: Twelve children (aged 6-14 years) with PDD accompanied by ADHD symptoms entered a 10-wee

  17. Atomoxetine for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms in children with pervasive developmental disorders : A pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Troost, Pieter W.; Steenhuis, Mark-Peter; Tuynman-Qua, Hanneke G.; Kalverdijk, Luuk J.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This pilot study examined the effects of atomoxetine on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and autistic features in children with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD). Method: Twelve children (aged 6-14 years) with PDD accompanied by ADHD symptoms entered a 10-wee

  18. Atomoxetine for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms in children with pervasive developmental disorders: a pilot study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Troost, P.W.; Steenhuis, M.P.; Tuynman-Qua, H.G.; Kalverdijk, L.J.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Minderaa, R.B.; Hoekstra, P.J.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This pilot study examined the effects of atomoxetine on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and autistic features in children with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD). METHOD: Twelve children (aged 6-14 years) with PDD accompanied by ADHD symptoms entered a 10-wee

  19. Common and Unique Impairments in Facial-Expression Recognition in Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified and Asperger's Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uono, Shota; Sato, Wataru; Toichi, Motomi

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to identify specific difficulties and associated features related to the problems with social interaction experienced by individuals with pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) using an emotion-recognition task. We compared individuals with PDD-NOS or Asperger's disorder (ASP) and typically…

  20. Overlapping Phenotypes in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Developmental Coordination Disorder: A Cross-Syndrome Comparison of Motor and Social Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Emma; Leonard, Hayley C.; Hill, Elisabeth L.

    2016-01-01

    Motor and social difficulties are often found in children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and with developmental coordination disorder (DCD), to varying degrees. This study investigated the extent of overlap of these problems in children aged 7-10 years who had a diagnosis of either ASD or DCD, compared to typically-developing controls.…

  1. Atomoxetine for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms in children with pervasive developmental disorders : A pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Troost, Pieter W.; Steenhuis, Mark-Peter; Tuynman-Qua, Hanneke G.; Kalverdijk, Luuk J.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This pilot study examined the effects of atomoxetine on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and autistic features in children with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD). Method: Twelve children (aged 6-14 years) with PDD accompanied by ADHD symptoms entered a 10-wee

  2. Common and Unique Impairments in Facial-Expression Recognition in Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified and Asperger's Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uono, Shota; Sato, Wataru; Toichi, Motomi

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to identify specific difficulties and associated features related to the problems with social interaction experienced by individuals with pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) using an emotion-recognition task. We compared individuals with PDD-NOS or Asperger's disorder (ASP) and typically…

  3. Influence of Methylphenidate on Motor Performance and Attention in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bart, Orit; Daniel, Liron; Dan, Orrie; Bar-Haim, Yair

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) often have coexisting developmental coordination disorder (DCD). The positive therapeutic effect of methylphenidate on ADHD symptoms is well documented, but its effects on motor coordination are less studied. We assessed the influence of methylphenidate on motor performance in children…

  4. Fine motor skills and effects of methylphenidate in children with attention-deficit - Hyperactivity disorder and developmental coordination disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flapper, Boudien C.T.; Houwen, Suzanne; Schoemaker, Marina M.

    2006-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate fine motor skills of children with both attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and those of a control group, and to examine the effects of methylphenidate on these skills. A group of 12 children with AD

  5. Influence of Methylphenidate on Motor Performance and Attention in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bart, Orit; Daniel, Liron; Dan, Orrie; Bar-Haim, Yair

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) often have coexisting developmental coordination disorder (DCD). The positive therapeutic effect of methylphenidate on ADHD symptoms is well documented, but its effects on motor coordination are less studied. We assessed the influence of methylphenidate on motor performance in children…

  6. Why Bother About Clumsiness? The Implications of Having Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD)

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is a common motor problem affecting—even in rather severe form—several percent of school age children. In the past, DCD has usually been called ‘clumsy child syndrome’ or ‘non-cerebralpalsy motor-perception dysfunction’. This disorder is more common in boys than in girls and is very often associated with psychopathology, particularly with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorders/ autistic-type problems. Conversely,...

  7. Consequences of comorbidity of developmental coordination disorders and learning disabilities for severity and pattern of perceptual-motor dysfunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongmans, MJ; Smits-Engelsman, BCM; Schoemaker, MM

    2003-01-01

    Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) have difficulty learning and performing age-appropriate perceptual-motor skills in the absence of diagnosable neurological disorders. Descriptive studies have shown that comorbidity of DCD exists with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

  8. Developmentally-faithful and effective human erythropoiesis in immunodeficient and Kit mutant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorini, Claudia; Abdulhay, Nour J; McFarland, Sean K; Munschauer, Mathias; Ulirsch, Jacob C; Chiarle, Roberto; Sankaran, Vijay G

    2017-09-01

    Immunodeficient mouse models have been valuable for studies of human hematopoiesis, but high-fidelity recapitulation of erythropoiesis in most xenograft recipients remains elusive. Recently developed immunodeficient and Kit mutant mice, however, have provided a suitable background to achieve higher-level human erythropoiesis after long-term hematopoietic engraftment. While there has been some characterization of human erythropoiesis in these models, a comprehensive analysis from various human developmental stages has not yet been reported. Here, we have utilized cell surface phenotypes, morphologic analyses, and molecular studies to fully characterize human erythropoiesis from multiple developmental stages in immunodeficient and Kit mutant mouse models following long-term hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell engraftment. We show that human erythropoiesis in such models demonstrates complete maturation and enucleation, as well as developmentally appropriate globin gene expression. These results provide a framework for future studies to utilize this model system for interrogating disorders affecting human erythropoiesis and for developing improved therapeutic approaches. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Applied Developmental Biology: Making Human Pancreatic Beta Cells for Diabetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton, Douglas A

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the genes and signaling pathways that determine the differentiation and fate of a cell is a central goal of developmental biology. Using that information to gain mastery over the fates of cells presents new approaches to cell transplantation and drug discovery for human diseases including diabetes. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Reliability and Diagnostic Efficiency of the Diagnostic Inventory for Disharmony (DID) in Youths with Pervasive Developmental Disorder and Multiple Complex Developmental Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Jean; Vannetzel, Leonard; Viaux, Sylvie; Leroy, Arthur; Plaza, Monique; Tordjman, Sylvie; Mille, Christian; Bursztejn, Claude; Cohen, David; Guile, Jean-Marc

    2011-01-01

    The Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS) category is a psychopathological entity few have described and is poorly, and mainly negatively, defined by autism exclusion. In order to limit PDD-NOS heterogeneity, alternative clinical constructs have been developed. This study explored the reliability and the diagnostic…

  11. Developmental Coordination Disorder and Other Motor Control Problems in Girls with Autism Spectrum Disorder and/or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Svenny; Beckung, Eva; Gillberg, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Examine the rate, predictors, and effect on daily life skills of developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and other motor control difficulties in school age girls with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and/or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), in preschool age girls with ASD referred to a neuropsychiatric clinic, and in a community…

  12. Developmental Coordination Disorder and Other Motor Control Problems in Girls with Autism Spectrum Disorder and/or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Svenny; Beckung, Eva; Gillberg, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Examine the rate, predictors, and effect on daily life skills of developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and other motor control difficulties in school age girls with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and/or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), in preschool age girls with ASD referred to a neuropsychiatric clinic, and in a community…

  13. Human pluripotent stem cells: an emerging model in developmental biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zengrong; Huangfu, Danwei

    2013-02-01

    Developmental biology has long benefited from studies of classic model organisms. Recently, human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), including human embryonic stem cells and human induced pluripotent stem cells, have emerged as a new model system that offers unique advantages for developmental studies. Here, we discuss how studies of hPSCs can complement classic approaches using model organisms, and how hPSCs can be used to recapitulate aspects of human embryonic development 'in a dish'. We also summarize some of the recently developed genetic tools that greatly facilitate the interrogation of gene function during hPSC differentiation. With the development of high-throughput screening technologies, hPSCs have the potential to revolutionize gene discovery in mammalian development.

  14. Spelling performance of students with developmental dyslexia and with developmental dyslexia associated to attention deficit disorder and hyperactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Débora Cristina; Casella, Erasmo Barbante; Ferraro, Alexandre Arcanjo

    2016-04-01

    Purpose to analyze and classify the spelling performance according to the semiology of spelling error of children with developmental dyslexia (DD) and with developmental dyslexia associated to attention deficit disorder and hyperactivity(DD and ADHD) comparing them to a group of children without learning process complaints. Methods Seventy students, from the third to fifth grade, participated in this study divided as follows: 32 children without complaints of learning difficulties (GI), mean age 9.5 years; 22 students with developmental dyslexia (GII), mean age 10 years; 16 scholars with developmental dyslexia associated to attention deficit disorders and hyperactivity (GIII), mean age 9.9. Spelling skills were assessed through a standardized word dictation task. Results Data indicated that GII and GIII children presented lower performance when compared with typically developed children. There was no statistical difference between the performance of GII and GIII children regarding the score reached in spelling, although GIII children presented the lowest performance. We observed differences between GII and GIII only in the type of misspelling. Conclusion Data from this research contribute to develop better programs for intervention in the studied population.

  15. Mouse models for understanding human developmental anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Generoso, W.M.

    1989-01-01

    The mouse experimental system presents an opportunity for studying the nature of the underlying mutagenic damage and the molecular pathogenesis of this class of anomalies by virtue of the accessibility of the zygote and its descendant blastomeres. Such studies could contribute to the understanding of the etiology of certain sporadic but common human malformations. The vulnerability of the zygotes to mutagens as demonstrated in the studies described in this report should be a major consideration in chemical safety evaluation. It raises questions regarding the danger to human zygotes when the mother is exposed to drugs and environmental chemicals.

  16. Developmental neuroimaging of the human ventral visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grill-Spector, Kalanit; Golarai, Golijeh; Gabrieli, John

    2008-04-01

    Here, we review recent results that investigate the development of the human ventral stream from childhood, through adolescence and into adulthood. Converging evidence suggests a differential developmental trajectory across ventral stream regions, in which face-selective regions show a particularly long developmental time course, taking more than a decade to become adult-like. We discuss the implications of these recent findings, how they relate to age-dependent improvements in recognition memory performance and propose possible neural mechanisms that might underlie this development. These results have important implications regarding the role of experience in shaping the ventral stream and the nature of the underlying representations.

  17. The two fold role of oxytocin in social developmental disorders: A cause and a remedy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefevre, Arthur; Sirigu, Angela

    2016-04-01

    Oxytocin is widely used by obstetricians to induce or facilitate labor. The long lasting consequences of oxytocin administration remain however unknown. Here, we discuss recent evidence suggesting a link between oxytocin labor induction and developmental social impairments such as autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Because these associations are methodologically questionable, we provide a review of animal studies investigating the long term effects of neonatal injection of oxytocin to shed light on the biological mechanisms that mediate the contribution of early oxytocin supplementation on the development of social impairments. In contrast to this potential negative impact on development, oxytocin has been shown to ameliorate social skills of ASD patients. However, results of chronic oxytocin administration from animal experiments are contradictory. We also review recent studies looking at chronic oxytocin effects in animal and in humans. Obstetric and psychiatric uses of exogenous oxytocin both impact on oxytocinergic neurotransmission but the effects may be sharply dissimilar.

  18. A Heme Oxygenase-1 Transducer Model of Degenerative and Developmental Brain Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyman M. Schipper

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 is a 32 kDa protein which catalyzes the breakdown of heme to free iron, carbon monoxide and biliverdin. The Hmox1 promoter contains numerous consensus sequences that render the gene exquisitely sensitive to induction by diverse pro-oxidant and inflammatory stimuli. In “stressed” astroglia, HO-1 hyperactivity promotes mitochondrial iron sequestration and macroautophagy and may thereby contribute to the pathological iron deposition and bioenergetic failure documented in Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease and certain neurodevelopmental conditions. Glial HO-1 expression may also impact neuroplasticity and cell survival by modulating brain sterol metabolism and the proteasomal degradation of neurotoxic proteins. The glial HO-1 response may represent a pivotal transducer of noxious environmental and endogenous stressors into patterns of neural damage and repair characteristic of many human degenerative and developmental CNS disorders.

  19. Quality of Life of Adults with Pervasive Developmental Disorders and Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, F.; Baud, M. A.; Giroud, M.; Carminati, G. Galli

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to observe quality of life (QoL) and global evolution of persons with Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD) in three different groups. Individualized programs for PDD were compared to traditional programs for intellectual disabilities. Behavioural disorders were repeatedly evaluated using the Aberrant Behaviour…

  20. Emerging Adulthood in Developmental Co-Ordination Disorder: Parent and Young Adult Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, A.; Edwards, L.; Sugden, D.

    2011-01-01

    Recent research widely acknowledges that developmental co-ordination disorder (DCD) is a pervasive and enduring disorder, which persists into adolescence and adulthood ([Cousins and Smyth, 2003] and [Kirby et al., 2008]). However, few studies have given detailed consideration to the range and level of functioning difficulties in emerging adults…

  1. The Co-Occurrence of Nonaffective Psychosis and the Pervasive Developmental Disorders: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padgett, Fiona E.; Miltsiou, Eleni; Tiffin, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs) were originally conceptualised as a form of ("infantile") psychosis. Recently, the disorders have been viewed as separate constructs. However, there is evidence of overlapping psychopathology, pathophysiology, and occurrence of the two syndromes. Methods: A historical overview is provided. A…

  2. Effects of Methylphenidate on Quality of Life in Children with Both Developmental Coordination Disorder and ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flapper, Boudien C. T.; Schoemaker, Marina M

    2008-01-01

    Measurement of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) gives a more complete picture of day-to-day functioning and treatment effects than behavioural rating alone. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the impact of the combined diagnoses of developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and…

  3. Finding Susceptibility Genes for Developmental Disorders of Speech: The Long and Winding Road.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felsenfeld, Susan

    2002-01-01

    This article explores the gene-finding process for developmental speech disorders (DSDs), specifically disorders of articulation/phonology and stuttering. It reviews existing behavioral genetic studies of these phenotypes, discusses roadblocks that may impede the molecular study of DSDs, and reviews the findings of the small number of molecular…

  4. Do Developmental Communication Disorders Exist in the Signed Modality? Perspectives from Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinto-Pozos, David; Forber-Pratt, Anjali J.; Singleton, Jenny L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study focused on whether developmental communication disorders exist in American Sign Language (ASL) and how they might be characterized. ASL studies is an emerging field; educators and clinicians have minimal access to descriptions of communication disorders of the signed modality. Additionally, there are limited resources for…

  5. Developmental and Communication Disorders in Children with Intellectual Disability: The Place Early Intervention for Effective Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Udeme Samuel; Olisaemeka, Angela Nneka; Edozie, Isioma Sitamalife

    2015-01-01

    The paper attempts to discuss the place of intervention in the developmental and communication disorders of children with intellectual disability for the purpose of providing effective inclusion programme. The definition of early intervention was stated, areas affected by children communication disorder such as language comprehension, fluency,…

  6. Infancy predictors of hyperkinetic and pervasive developmental disorders at ages 5-7 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elberling, Hanne; Linneberg, Allan; Olsen, Else Marie

    2014-01-01

    birth to age 10 months. Data on the perinatal period were obtained from Danish National Registers. Mental health outcome at age 5-7 years was investigated in 1,585 children who were assessed by the Developmental and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA) and diagnosed according to the ICD-10. RESULTS: Predictors.......20 (95% CI: 1.55-17.47). No significant infancy predictors were found regarding emotional and behavioural disorders at age 5-7 years. CONCLUSION: Predictors of autism spectrum/pervasive developmental disorders and hyperkinetic disorders at child age 5-7 years were identified between birth and child age...

  7. The etiology and molecular genetics of human pigmentation disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Laura L; Pavan, William J

    2013-01-01

    Pigmentation, defined as the placement of pigment in skin, hair, and eyes for coloration, is distinctive because the location, amount, and type of pigmentation provides a visual manifestation of genetic heterogeneity in pathways regulating the pigment-producing cells, melanocytes. The scope of this genetic heterogeneity in humans ranges from normal to pathological pigmentation phenotypes. Clinically, normal human pigmentation encompasses a variety of skin and hair color as well as punctate pigmentation such as melanocytic nevi (moles) or ephelides (freckles), while abnormal human pigmentation exhibits markedly reduced or increased pigment levels, known as hypopigmentation and hyperpigmentation, respectively. Elucidation of the molecular genetics underlying pigmentation has revealed genes important for melanocyte development and function. Furthermore, many pigmentation disorders show additional defects in cells other than melanocytes, and identification of the genetic insults in these disorders has revealed pleiotropic genes, where a single gene is required for various functions in different cell types. Thus, unravelling the genetics of easily visualized pigmentation disorders has identified molecular similarities between melanocytes and less visible cell types/tissues, arising from a common developmental origin and/or shared genetic regulatory pathways. Herein we discuss notable human pigmentation disorders and their associated genetic alterations, focusing on the fact that the developmental genetics of pigmentation abnormalities are instructive for understanding normal pathways governing development and function of melanocytes. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. PTK7 marks the first human developmental EMT in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David N Chan

    Full Text Available Epithelial to mesenchymal transitions (EMTs are thought to be essential to generate diversity of tissues during early fetal development, but these events are essentially impossible to study at the molecular level in vivo in humans. The first EMT event that has been described morphologically in human development occurs just prior to generation of the primitive streak. Because human embryonic stem cells (hESCs and induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs are thought to most closely resemble cells found in epiblast-stage embryos prior to formation of the primitive streak, we sought to determine whether this first human EMT could be modeled in vitro with pluripotent stem cells. The data presented here suggest that generating embryoid bodies from hESCs or hiPSCs drives a procession of EMT events that can be observed within 24-48 hours after EB generation. These structures possess the typical hallmarks of developmental EMTs, and portions also display evidence of primitive streak and mesendoderm. We identify PTK7 as a novel marker of this EMT population, which can also be used to purify these cells for subsequent analyses and identification of novel markers of human development. Gene expression analysis indicated an upregulation of EMT markers and ECM proteins in the PTK7+ population. We also find that cells that undergo this developmental EMT retain developmental plasticity as sorting, dissociation and re-plating reestablishes an epithelial phenotype.

  9. Development and Psychometric Properties of A Screening Tool for Assessing Developmental Coordination Disorder in Adults

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Background: Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder affecting motor coordination. Evidence suggests this disorder persists into adulthood and may be associated with biomechanical dysfunction and pain. We report on the development and initial validation of a questionnaire to assess for DCD in adults. Methods: An initial item pool (13 items) was derived from the American Psychiatric Association criteria and World Health Organisation definition for DCD. An expe...

  10. Neural changes associated to procedural learning and automatization process in Developmental Coordination Disorder and/or Developmental Dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biotteau, Maëlle; Péran, Patrice; Vayssière, Nathalie; Tallet, Jessica; Albaret, Jean-Michel; Chaix, Yves

    2017-03-01

    Recent theories hypothesize that procedural learning may support the frequent overlap between neurodevelopmental disorders. The neural circuitry supporting procedural learning includes, among others, cortico-cerebellar and cortico-striatal loops. Alteration of these loops may account for the frequent comorbidity between Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) and Developmental Dyslexia (DD). The aim of our study was to investigate cerebral changes due to the learning and automatization of a sequence learning task in children with DD, or DCD, or both disorders. fMRI on 48 children (aged 8-12) with DD, DCD or DD + DCD was used to explore their brain activity during procedural tasks, performed either after two weeks of training or in the early stage of learning. Firstly, our results indicate that all children were able to perform the task with the same level of automaticity, but recruit different brain processes to achieve the same performance. Secondly, our fMRI results do not appear to confirm Nicolson and Fawcett's model. The neural correlates recruited for procedural learning by the DD and the comorbid groups are very close, while the DCD group presents distinct characteristics. This provide a promising direction on the neural mechanisms associated with procedural learning in neurodevelopmental disorders and for understanding comorbidity. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Psychological distress in children with developmental coordination disorder and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missiuna, Cheryl; Cairney, John; Pollock, Nancy; Campbell, Wenonah; Russell, Dianne J; Macdonald, Kathryn; Schmidt, Louis; Heath, Nancy; Veldhuizen, Scott; Cousins, Martha

    2014-05-01

    This study explored whether or not a population-based sample of children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD), with and without comorbid attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), experienced higher levels of psychological distress than their peers. A two-stage procedure was used to identify 244 children: 68 with DCD only, 54 with ADHD only, 31 with comorbid DCD and ADHD, and 91 randomly selected typically developing (TD) children. Symptoms of depression and anxiety were measured by child and parent report. Child sex and caregiver ethnicity differed across groups, with a higher ratio of boys to girls in the ADHD only group and a slightly higher proportion of non-Caucasian caregivers in the TD group. After controlling for age, sex, and caregiver ethnicity, there was significant variation across groups in both anxiety (by parent report, F(3,235)=8.9, pdisorder groups had significantly higher levels of symptoms than TD children, but most pairwise differences among those three groups were not significant. The one exception was the higher level of depressive symptoms noted by parent report in the ADHD/DCD group. In conclusion, children identified on the basis of motor coordination problems through a population-based screen showed significantly more symptoms of depression and anxiety than typically developing children. Children who have both DCD and ADHD are particularly at heightened risk of psychological distress.

  12. Subtypes of developmental coordination disorder: research on their nature and etiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaivre-Douret, Laurence; Lalanne, Christophe; Ingster-Moati, Isabelle; Boddaert, Nathalie; Cabrol, Dominique; Dufier, Jean-Louis; Golse, Bernard; Falissard, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) are a group embracing clumsiness and developmental dyspraxia. Our study provides a better understanding of the nature of DCD and its etiology, and identifies subtypes of dyspraxia. Forty-three children with DCD (5-15 years) were enrolled on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed. [DSM-IV-TR]; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) criteria. Extensive standardized evaluations were conducted. We distinguished from two patterns of "pure" developmental dyspraxia: ideomotor and visual-spatial/visual-constructional, and mix dyspraxia with more co-morbidities. Our study provides a better understanding of the nature of DCD, and sheds light on its etiology and brain dysfunction, so as to identify subtypes of developmental DCD/dyspraxia with specific clinical criteria.

  13. How Neuropsychology Informs Our Understanding of Developmental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Bruce F.

    2009-01-01

    This review includes 1) an explanation of what neuropsychology is, 2) a brief history of how developmental cognitive neuroscience emerged from earlier neuropsychological approaches to understanding atypical development, 3) three recent examples that illustrate the benefits of this approach, 4) issues and challenges this approach must face, and 5)…

  14. Developmental Personality Styles: An Attachment Theory Conceptualization of Personality Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyddon, William J.; Sherry, Alissa

    2001-01-01

    Using K. Bartholomew's (1990) 4-dimensional model of adult attachment as an organizational framework, 10 developmental personality styles are differentiated regarding their unique attachment experiences, working models of self and other, and feedforward beliefs. Implications of an attachment theory framework for counseling clients with problematic…

  15. Parameterization of movement execution in children with developmental coordination disorder.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waelvelde, H. van; Weerdt, W. de; Cock, P. de; Janssens, L.; Feys, H.; Engelsman, B.C.M.

    2006-01-01

    The Rhythmic Movement Test (RMT) evaluates temporal and amplitude parameterization and fluency of movement execution in a series of rhythmic arm movements under different sensory conditions. The RMT was used in combination with a jumping and a drawing task, to evaluate 36 children with Developmental

  16. Bilingualism in children with developmental disorders: A narrative review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kay-Raining Bird, E.; Genesee, F.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2016-01-01

    Children with developmental disabilities (DD) often need and sometimes opt to become bilingual. The context for bilingual acquisition varies considerably and can impact outcomes. In this first article of the special issue, we review research on the timing and amount of bilingual exposure and

  17. Bilingualism in children with developmental disorders: A narrative review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kay-Raining Bird, E.; Genesee, F.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2016-01-01

    Children with developmental disabilities (DD) often need and sometimes opt to become bilingual. The context for bilingual acquisition varies considerably and can impact outcomes. In this first article of the special issue, we review research on the timing and amount of bilingual exposure and outcome

  18. How Neuropsychology Informs Our Understanding of Developmental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Bruce F.

    2009-01-01

    This review includes 1) an explanation of what neuropsychology is, 2) a brief history of how developmental cognitive neuroscience emerged from earlier neuropsychological approaches to understanding atypical development, 3) three recent examples that illustrate the benefits of this approach, 4) issues and challenges this approach must face, and 5)…

  19. Parameterization of movement execution in children with developmental coordination disorder.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waelvelde, H. van; Weerdt, W. de; Cock, P. de; Janssens, L.; Feys, H.; Engelsman, B.C.M.

    2006-01-01

    The Rhythmic Movement Test (RMT) evaluates temporal and amplitude parameterization and fluency of movement execution in a series of rhythmic arm movements under different sensory conditions. The RMT was used in combination with a jumping and a drawing task, to evaluate 36 children with Developmental

  20. The Association between EEG Abnormality and Behavioral Disorder: Developmental Delay in Phenylketonuria

    OpenAIRE

    Parvaneh Karimzadeh; Hadi Zarafshan; Mohammad Reza Alaee

    2012-01-01

    Background. Brain defect leading to developmental delay is one of the clinical manifestations of phenylketonuria. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between EEG abnormality and developmental delay/behavioral disorders in phenylketonuria. Patients and Methods. 105 phenylketonuria patients, who were diagnosed through newborn screening tests or during follow-up evaluation, were enrolled. Patients who were seizure-free for at least six months before the study were included. The...

  1. Developmental Coordination Disorder: Disruption of the Cerebello-Cerebral Network evidenced by SPECT

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the neurobiological substrate of developmental coordination disorder (DCD), a neuro-developmental syndrome with significant, negative impact on the motor, cognitive and affective level throughout lifespan. This paper reports the clinical, neurocognitive and neuroradiological findings of a 19-year-old patient with typical DCD. As demonstrated by mild ataxia and a close semiological correspondence with the recently acknowledged ‘cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome’, cl...

  2. Co-Occurrence of Developmental Disorders: The Case of Developmental Dyscalculia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinsten, Orly

    2009-01-01

    Five to seven percent of children experience severe difficulties in learning mathematics and/or reading. Current trials that are focused on identifying biological markers suggest that these learning disabilities, known as Developmental Dyscalculia (DD) and Dyslexia (for reading), are due to underlying brain dysfunctions. One ongoing controversy…

  3. Co-Occurrence of Developmental Disorders: The Case of Developmental Dyscalculia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinsten, Orly

    2009-01-01

    Five to seven percent of children experience severe difficulties in learning mathematics and/or reading. Current trials that are focused on identifying biological markers suggest that these learning disabilities, known as Developmental Dyscalculia (DD) and Dyslexia (for reading), are due to underlying brain dysfunctions. One ongoing controversy…

  4. Developmental coordination disorders and sensory processing and integration: Incidence, associations and co-morbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Susan; Casey, Jackie

    2017-09-01

    Children with developmental coordination disorder or sensory processing and integration difficulties face challenges to participation in daily living. To date there has been no exploration of the co-occurrence of developmental coordination disorders and sensory processing and integration difficulties. Records of children meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual - V criteria for developmental coordination disorder (n = 93) age 5 to 12 years were examined. Data on motor skills (Movement Assessment Battery for Children - 2) and sensory processing and integration (Sensory Processing Measure) were interrogated. Of the total sample, 88% exhibited some or definite differences in sensory processing and integration. No apparent relationship was observed between motor coordination and sensory processing and integration. The full sample showed high rates of some difficulties in social participation, hearing, body awareness, balance and motion, and planning and ideation. Further, children with co-morbid autistic spectrum disorder showed high rates of difficulties with touch and vision. Most, but not all, children with developmental coordination disorder presented with some difficulties in sensory processing and integration that impacted on their participation in everyday activities. Sensory processing and integration difficulties differed significantly between those with and without co-morbid autistic spectrum disorder.

  5. Developmental disorders of speech and language: from genes to brain structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Kate

    2011-01-01

    Functional and structural brain imaging studies of developmental disorders provide insights into their neural correlates and have potential to bridge the gap between genotype and phenotype. We have used such techniques to investigate the neural correlates of two developmental disorders of speech and language, in which a genetic etiology is either known or strongly suspected. The first disorder is one shared by the affected members of the KE family who have a mutation in the FOXP2 gene. The brain structural and functional correlates of this disorder help clarify the nature of the behavioral impairment. They confirm that a deficit in auditory-motor learning of articulation patterns is core to the behavioral phenotype. In the second disorder, developmental stuttering, brain imaging data reveal functional abnormalities consistent with theories that it is caused by a basal ganglia deficit and structural differences consistent with an impairment in auditory-motor integration necessary for fluent speech. The common finding of basal ganglia abnormality in two developmental disorders of speech and language is discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The Developmental Brain Disorders Database (DBDB): a curated neurogenetics knowledge base with clinical and research applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaa, Ghayda M; Millen, Kathleen J; Barkovich, A James; Dobyns, William B; Paciorkowski, Alex R

    2014-06-01

    The number of single genes associated with neurodevelopmental disorders has increased dramatically over the past decade. The identification of causative genes for these disorders is important to clinical outcome as it allows for accurate assessment of prognosis, genetic counseling, delineation of natural history, inclusion in clinical trials, and in some cases determines therapy. Clinicians face the challenge of correctly identifying neurodevelopmental phenotypes, recognizing syndromes, and prioritizing the best candidate genes for testing. However, there is no central repository of definitions for many phenotypes, leading to errors of diagnosis. Additionally, there is no system of levels of evidence linking genes to phenotypes, making it difficult for clinicians to know which genes are most strongly associated with a given condition. We have developed the Developmental Brain Disorders Database (DBDB: https://www.dbdb.urmc.rochester.edu/home), a publicly available, online-curated repository of genes, phenotypes, and syndromes associated with neurodevelopmental disorders. DBDB contains the first referenced ontology of developmental brain phenotypes, and uses a novel system of levels of evidence for gene-phenotype associations. It is intended to assist clinicians in arriving at the correct diagnosis, select the most appropriate genetic test for that phenotype, and improve the care of patients with developmental brain disorders. For researchers interested in the discovery of novel genes for developmental brain disorders, DBDB provides a well-curated source of important genes against which research sequencing results can be compared. Finally, DBDB allows novel observations about the landscape of the neurogenetics knowledge base.

  7. Sensory integration and activities of daily living in children with developmental coordination disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elbasan Bülent

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The aim of our study was to evaluate sensory integration and activities of daily living in children with developmental coordination disorder Subjects and methods 37 cases with developmental coordination disorder and 35 healthy age-matched peers were included in this study. Ayres Southern California Sensory Integration Test was used for evaluating the sensory integration and Functional Independence Measure for Children (WeeFIM was used for evaluating the activities of daily living. Results Significant differences were found in the visual shape perception, position in space, and design copying (p p p p p = 0.002 between the groups. Discussion Special education and rehabilitation programs including sensory integration therapy and motor performance will increase independence in the activities of daily living in children with developmental coordination disorder.

  8. Visual and Proprioceptive Cue Weighting in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder, Autism Spectrum Disorder and Typical Development

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Accurate movement of the body and the perception of the body's position in space usually rely on both visual and proprioceptive cues. These cues are weighted differently depending on task, visual conditions and neurological factors. Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) and often also children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have movement deficits, and there is evidence that cue weightings may differ between these groups. It is often reported that ASD is linked to an inc...

  9. Developmental Coordination Disorder, An Umbrella Term for Motor Impairments in Children: Nature and Co-Morbid Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background: Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) defines a heterogeneous class of children exhibiting marked impairment in motor coordination as a general group of deficits in fine and gross motricity (subtype mixed group) common to all research studies, and with a variety of other motor disorders that have been little investigated. No consensus about symptoms and etiology has been established. Methods: Data from 58 children aged 6 to 13 years with DCD were collected on DSM-IV criteria, ...

  10. Large-scale discovery of novel genetic causes of developmental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-12

    Despite three decades of successful, predominantly phenotype-driven discovery of the genetic causes of monogenic disorders, up to half of children with severe developmental disorders of probable genetic origin remain without a genetic diagnosis. Particularly challenging are those disorders rare enough to have eluded recognition as a discrete clinical entity, those with highly variable clinical manifestations, and those that are difficult to distinguish from other, very similar, disorders. Here we demonstrate the power of using an unbiased genotype-driven approach to identify subsets of patients with similar disorders. By studying 1,133 children with severe, undiagnosed developmental disorders, and their parents, using a combination of exome sequencing and array-based detection of chromosomal rearrangements, we discovered 12 novel genes associated with developmental disorders. These newly implicated genes increase by 10% (from 28% to 31%) the proportion of children that could be diagnosed. Clustering of missense mutations in six of these newly implicated genes suggests that normal development is being perturbed by an activating or dominant-negative mechanism. Our findings demonstrate the value of adopting a comprehensive strategy, both genome-wide and nationwide, to elucidate the underlying causes of rare genetic disorders.

  11. Childhood Gender Identity...Disorder? Developmental, Cultural, and Diagnostic Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragowski, Eliza A.; Scharron-del Rio, Maria R.; Sandigorsky, Amy L.

    2011-01-01

    Childhood gender identity development is reviewed in the context of biological, environmental, cultural, and diagnostic factors. With the upcoming 5th revision of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders," the authors offer a critical consideration of childhood gender identity disorder, along with proposed diagnostic changes.…

  12. Metacognitive, Cognitive and Developmental Predictors of Generalised Anxiety Disorder Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Shary; Moulding, Richard; Nedeljkovic, Maja; Kyrios, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) is the most significant and common of the anxiety disorders. Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) and negative metacognitive beliefs are two prominent cognitive factors in models of GAD, however only one study to date has examined the relative contribution of these factors. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate…

  13. Implications of the idea of neurodiversity for understanding the origins of developmental disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masataka, Nobuo

    2017-03-01

    Neurodiversity, a term initially used mostly by civil and human rights movements since the 1990s, refers to the notion that cognitive as well as emotional properties characteristic of developmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are not necessarily deficits, but fall within normal behavioural variations exhibited by humans. The purpose of the present article is to examine the relevance of this notion to scientific research on ASD. On the assumption that one crucial survival advantage of intelligent activity is vigilance toward dangers in the external world, and such vigilance must work in the social domain as well as in the non-social domain, the author argues that the pattern of operation of an individual person's mind can be categorized according to the domain toward which that individual is more oriented. Individuals with ASD, overall, do not rely upon their social relationships but rather are predisposed to process perceived non-social objects in more depth, which manifests itself as hyper-sensation and hyper-attention to detail. It can be assumed that underconnectivity among cortical areas and subcortical areas underlies such mental operation neurologically. One of the main predictions based on this assumption is that all facets of psychological function are susceptible to disruption in ASD. Indeed, it has traditionally been thought that there are such general deficits in this disorder. However, contrary to the prevalent belief that people with ASD lack empathy, in fact people with ASD are capable of empathizing with the minds of others if those others are people with ASD. Thus, the neurological underconnectivity in ASD certainly leads some processing of information in the mind to work with less coordination, but has in fact contributed to providing Homo sapiens with behavioural variants. Finally, the clinical implications of the advantages of viewing ASD as a variation in neurodiversity are discussed.

  14. Risk for developmental coordination disorder correlates with gestational age at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jin Liang; Olsen, Jørn; Olesen, Annette W

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies suggest that children born very preterm have a high risk of developmental coordination disorder (DCD). We examined the relation between the larger spectrum of gestational age at birth and the risk of DCD. METHODS:   We used the 7-year follow-up data from 22898 singletons...... in the Danish National Birth Cohort. We calculated a total score from the Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire (DCDQ), incorporated in the 7-year follow-up, and defined children with a score of 46 or below as having probable DCD. Information on gestational age was obtained from the Medical Birth...

  15. Socialization and behavioral problems of elementary school pupils with developmental coordination disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanioglou, Aggelos; Tsorbatzoudis, Haralambos; Barkoukis, Vassilis

    2005-08-01

    The present study examined the role of the developmental coordination disorder in 154 children's socialization and the expression of deviant behaviors in the context of Greek primary education. For assessment of their motor coordination, the Movement Assessment Battery for Children of Henderson and Sugden was used. The peer nomination method (sociogram) was used for the estimation of children's social status, and the expression of deviant behaviors was assessed via Conners' Teacher Questionnaire. Analyses showed that developmental coordination disorder was associated with poor socialization and the expression of deviant behaviors. These findings support the development of educational programs to include children with poor motor coordination.

  16. Evolutionary Developmental Biology and Human Language Evolution: Constraints on Adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2012-12-01

    A tension has long existed between those biologists who emphasize the importance of adaptation by natural selection and those who highlight the role of phylogenetic and developmental constraints on organismal form and function. This contrast has been particularly noticeable in recent debates concerning the evolution of human language. Darwin himself acknowledged the existence and importance of both of these, and a long line of biologists have followed him in seeing, in the concept of "descent with modification", a framework naturally able to incorporate both adaptation and constraint. Today, the integrated perspective of modern evolutionary developmental biology ("evo-devo") allows a more subtle and pluralistic approach to these traditional questions, and has provided several examples where the traditional notion of "constraint" can be cashed out in specific, mechanistic terms. This integrated viewpoint is particularly relevant to the evolution of the multiple mechanisms underlying human language, because of the short time available for novel aspects of these mechanisms to evolve and be optimized. Comparative data indicate that many cognitive aspects of human language predate humans, suggesting that pre-adaptation and exaptation have played important roles in language evolution. Thus, substantial components of what many linguists call "Universal Grammar" predate language itself. However, at least some of these older mechanisms have been combined in ways that generate true novelty. I suggest that we can insightfully exploit major steps forward in our understanding of evolution and development, to gain a richer understanding of the principles that underlie human language evolution.

  17. DSM-V diagnostic criteria for bereavement-related disorders in children and adolescents: developmental considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplow, Julie B; Layne, Christopher M; Pynoos, Robert S; Cohen, Judith A; Lieberman, Alicia

    2012-01-01

    Two bereavement-related disorders are proposed for the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V): Adjustment Disorder Related to Bereavement, to be located in the main body of the text as an official diagnostic entity; and Bereavement-Related Disorder, including a Traumatic Death Specifier, to be located in the Appendix as an invitation for further research. These diagnoses currently do not include developmentally informed criteria, despite the importance of developmental processes in the ways children and adolescents grieve. In this article, we draw upon a selective review of the empirical literature and expert clinical knowledge to recommend developmentally informed modifications and specifiers of the proposed criteria for both bereavement disorders and strategies to improve future research. This article is derived from an invited report submitted to the DSM-V Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Trauma, and Dissociative Disorders Sub-Work Group, and suggested modifications have received preliminary approval to be incorporated into the DSM-V at the time of this writing. Adoption of these proposals will have far-reaching consequences, given that DSM-V criteria will influence both critical treatment choices for bereaved youth and the next generation of research studies.

  18. [Cognitive Profiles of Preschool Children with Developmental Coordination Disorders and ADHD].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jascenoka, Julia; Korsch, Franziska; Petermann, Franz; Petermann, Ulrike

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive Profiles of Preschool Children with Developmental Coordination Disorders and ADHD Studies confirm that developmental coordination disorders (DCD) are often accompanied by ADHD. It is important to know why children with combined disorders show a special profile in a common intelligence test (WPPSI-III). For this purpose, the WPPSI-III results of a total of 125 children aged five to six years with diagnosed isolated DCD, isolated ADHD, combined disorders and a normative sample were compared. Children with isolated ADHD showed the best cognitive profile. Children of all three diagnosis subgroups presented significantly poorer abilities in all WPPSI-III scales than the normative sample. In comparison with preschoolers showing isolated ADHD, children with DCD and ADHD have a significant lower Processing Speed Quotient.

  19. Abstracts of the 11th International Conference on Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DCD11 Congress Delegates

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available CD11 – Developmental coordination disorder and other neurodevelopmental disorders: a focus on comorbidity; Toulouse, France, July 2-4, 2015 Comorbidity refers to the presence of two or more disorders in the same person (especially DCD, dyslexia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in terms of developmental disorders. There has been growing interest in the presence of comorbidity in persons with neurodevelopmental disorders. Many recent studies suggest that up to half of all individuals diagnosed with a psychiatric or neurodevelopmental disorder have more than one condition. Comorbidity not only impacts patient outcomes but can also create a significant strain on both family and school life. It can also complicate diagnosis and healthcare organization. The 11th congress on DCD aimed to address some of the important issues surrounding comorbidity in neurodevelopmental disorders. Three main topics were covered during oral and poster presentations: (1 assessment and diagnostic criteria, (2 underlying processes, causal factors, and prognostic markers, and (3 intervention and management of DCD and associated disorders.

  20. Understanding the complex etiologies of developmental disorders: behavioral and molecular genetic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willcutt, Erik G; Pennington, Bruce F; Duncan, Laramie; Smith, Shelley D; Keenan, Janice M; Wadsworth, Sally; Defries, John C; Olson, Richard K

    2010-09-01

    This article has 2 primary goals. First, a brief tutorial on behavioral and molecular genetic methods is provided for readers without extensive training in these areas. To illustrate the application of these approaches to developmental disorders, etiologically informative studies of reading disability (RD), math disability (MD), and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are then reviewed. Implications of the results for these specific disorders and for developmental disabilities as a whole are discussed, and novel directions for future research are highlighted. Previous family and twin studies of RD, MD, and ADHD are reviewed systematically, and the extensive molecular genetic literatures on each disorder are summarized. To illustrate 4 novel extensions of these etiologically informative approaches, new data are presented from the Colorado Learning Disabilities Research Center, an ongoing twin study of the etiology of RD, ADHD, MD, and related disorders. RD, MD, and ADHD are familial and heritable, and co-occur more frequently than expected by chance. Molecular genetic studies suggest that all 3 disorders have complex etiologies, with multiple genetic and environmental risk factors each contributing to overall risk for each disorder. Neuropsychological analyses indicate that the 3 disorders are each associated with multiple neuropsychological weaknesses, and initial evidence suggests that comorbidity between the 3 disorders is due to common genetic risk factors that lead to slow processing speed.

  1. On Expression Patterns and Developmental Origin of Human Brain Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Lior; Chechik, Gal

    2016-08-01

    Anatomical substructures of the human brain have characteristic cell-types, connectivity and local circuitry, which are reflected in area-specific transcriptome signatures, but the principles governing area-specific transcription and their relation to brain development are still being studied. In adult rodents, areal transcriptome patterns agree with the embryonic origin of brain regions, but the processes and genes that preserve an embryonic signature in regional expression profiles were not quantified. Furthermore, it is not clear how embryonic-origin signatures of adult-brain expression interplay with changes in expression patterns during development. Here we first quantify which genes have regional expression-patterns related to the developmental origin of brain regions, using genome-wide mRNA expression from post-mortem adult human brains. We find that almost all human genes (92%) exhibit an expression pattern that agrees with developmental brain-region ontology, but that this agreement changes at multiple phases during development. Agreement is particularly strong in neuron-specific genes, but also in genes that are not spatially correlated with neuron-specific or glia-specific markers. Surprisingly, agreement is also stronger in early-evolved genes. We further find that pairs of similar genes having high agreement to developmental region ontology tend to be more strongly correlated or anti-correlated, and that the strength of spatial correlation changes more strongly in gene pairs with stronger embryonic signatures. These results suggest that transcription regulation of most genes in the adult human brain is spatially tuned in a way that changes through life, but in agreement with development-determined brain regions.

  2. Development and Validation of the Functional Difficulties Questionnaire for Assessing Developmental Coordination Disorder in Adults

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to describe the development and preliminary psychometric evaluation of the Functional Difficulties Questionnaire (FDQ-9), an instrument designed to aid clinicians in the assessment of developmental coordination disorder (DCD) in adults. RELEVANCE: There are currently no tools to assess DCD in adults with musculoskeletal pain. DCD is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by functional motor impairments described in childhood that, for some, persist ...

  3. Executive difficulties in Developmental Coordination Disorder: Methodological issues and future directions

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Motor skills and cognition have often been studied separately, but there is increasing understanding of the close relationship between these abilities over development. Motor coordination difficulties are central to the diagnosis of Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD), and recent evidence suggests that certain cognitive processes, known as ‘executive functions’, may be affected in individuals with this neurodevelopmental disorder. In this article, we review the research concerning execu...

  4. Assessment of Body Composition Using Whole Body Air-Displacement Plethysmography in Children with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairney, John; Hay, John; Veldhuizen, Scott; Faught, Brent

    2011-01-01

    Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is a neuro-developmental disorder characterized by poor fine and/or gross motor coordination. Children with DCD are hypothesized to be at increased risk for overweight and obesity from inactivity due to their motor coordination problems. Although previous studies have found evidence to support this…

  5. Health-related quality of life, developmental milestones, and self-esteem in young adults with bleeding disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Limperg, P.F. (P. F.); L. Haverman (Lotte); H. Maurice-Stam (Heleen); M. Coppens; Valk, C. (C.); M.J.H.A. Kruip (Marieke); J.C.J. Eikenboom (Jeroen); M. Peters; M.A. Grootenhuis (Martha)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The treatment of bleeding disorders improved in the last decades. However, the effect of growing up with bleeding disorders on developmental, emotional, and social aspects is understudied. Therefore, this study assesses HRQOL, developmental milestones, and self-esteem in

  6. European-French cross-cultural adaptation of the developmental coordination disorder questionnaire and pretest in French-speaking Switzerland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ray-Kaeser, S.; Satink, T.J.; Andresen, M.; Martini, R.; Thommen, E.; Bertrand, A.M.

    2015-01-01

    The Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire (DCDQ'07) is a Canadian-English instrument recommended for screening children aged 5 to 15 years who are at risk for developmental coordination disorder. While a Canadian-French version of the DCDQ'07 presently exists, a European-French version d

  7. Medication treatment of bipolar disorder in developmentally disabled children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutkovich, Z A; Carlson, G A

    2008-02-01

    The authors conducted a literature search using major databases covering the period from 1950 to June 2007 on the somatic treatment of bipolar disorder (BD) in normally developing and developmentally disabled youth. BD is an under-recognized condition in patients with developmental disabilities (DD) that further impairs the functioning of patients who already suffer from severe disability. However, while core symptoms of developmental disability cannot be cured, symptoms of BD in this population do respond to appropriate treatments. Moreover, successful treatment of bipolar spectrum disorder may improve social reciprocity or even cognitive functioning in certain patients. Diagnosis and treatment of BD present specific challenges as manifestation of symptoms may differ from people with normal cognitive functioning as may tolerability and side effect profile of conventional treatments. Systematic review and analysis of the literature allow tentative guidelines for treating BD in this vulnerable population. Clinical trials are clearly needed to further accumulate data for evidence-based treatment.

  8. Strategies for reversing the effects of metabolic disorders induced as a consequence of developmental programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark H Vickers

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and the metabolic syndrome have reached epidemic proportions worldwide with far-reaching health care and economic implications. The rapid increase in the prevalence of these disorders suggests that environmental and behavioural influences, rather than genetic causes, are fuelling the epidemic. The developmental origins of health and disease hypothesis has highlighted the link between the periconceptual, fetal and early infant phases of life and the subsequent development of metabolic disorders in later life. In particular, the impact of poor maternal nutrition on susceptibility to later life metabolic disease in offspring is now well documented. Several studies have now shown, at least in experimental animal models, that some components of the metabolic syndrome, induced as a consequence of developmental programming, are potentially reversible by nutritional or targeted therapeutic interventions during windows of developmental plasticity. This review will focus on critical windows of development and possible therapeutic avenues that may reduce metabolic and obesogenic risk following an adverse early life environment.

  9. Gastrointestinal Symptoms in a Sample of Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nikolov, Roumen N.; Bearss, Karen E.; Lettinga, Jelle; Erickson, Craig; Rodowski, Maria; Aman, Michael G.; McCracken, James T.; McDougle, Christopher J.; Tierney, Elaine; Vitiello, Benedetto; Arnold, L. Eugene; Shah, Bhavik; Posey, David J.; Ritz, Louise; Scahill, Lawrence

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate gastrointestinal (GI) problems in a large, well-characterized sample of children with pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs). Methods One hundred seventy two children entering one of two trials conducted by the Research Units on Pediatric Psychopharmacology (RUPP) Autism Netw

  10. The Nature and Control of Postural Adaptations of Boys with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przysucha, Eryk P.; Taylor, M. Jane; Weber, Douglas

    2008-01-01

    This study compared the nature of postural adaptations and control tendencies, between 7 (n = 9) and 11-year-old boys (n = 10) with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) and age-matched, younger (n = 10) and older (n = 9) peers in a leaning task. Examination of anterior-posterior, medio-lateral, maximum and mean area of sway, and path length…

  11. Face recognition in children with a pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serra, M; Althaus, M; de Sonneville, LMJ; Stant, AD; Jackson, AE; Minderaa, RB

    2003-01-01

    This study investigates the accuracy and speed of face recognition in children with a Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PDDNOS; DSM-IV, American Psychiatric Association [APA], 1994). The study includes a clinical group of 26 nonretarded 7- to 10-year-old children with PDDNOS

  12. Nonspeech Oral Motor Treatment Issues Related to Children with Developmental Speech Sound Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruscello, Dennis M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This article examines nonspeech oral motor treatments (NSOMTs) in the population of clients with developmental speech sound disorders. NSOMTs are a collection of nonspeech methods and procedures that claim to influence tongue, lip, and jaw resting postures; increase strength; improve muscle tone; facilitate range of motion; and develop…

  13. Stability and composition of functional synergies for speech movements in children with developmental speech disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terband, H.R.; Maassen, B.A.M.; Lieshout, P. van; Nijland, L.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the consistency and composition of functional synergies for speech movements in children with developmental speech disorders. Kinematic data were collected on the reiterated productions of syllables spa(/spa/) and paas(/pas/) by 10 6- to 9-year-olds with

  14. Stability and composition of functional synergies for speech movements in children with developmental speech disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terband, H.; Maassen, B.; van Lieshout, P.; Nijland, L.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the consistency and composition of functional synergies for speech movements in children with developmental speech disorders. Kinematic data were collected on the reiterated productions of syllables spa (/spa:/) and paas (/pa:s/) by 10 6- to 9-year-olds with

  15. Neurological Soft Signs in Indian Children with Specific Developmental Disorders of Scholastic Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadhu, Raja; Mehta, Manju; Kalra, Veena; Sagar, Rajesh; Mongia, Monica

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To compare the occurrence of neurological soft signs (NSS) in children with specific developmental disorders of scholastic skills (SDDSS) and normal children. Methods: 36 cases of SDDSS were compared with 30 control children regarding sociodemographic and clinical variables and neurological soft signs. Results: Children with SDDSS had…

  16. EMOTIONAL ROLE-TAKING ABILITIES OF CHILDREN WITH A PERVASIVE DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDER NOT OTHERWISE SPECIFIED

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serra, M.; Minderaa, R.B; Van Geert, P. L. C.; Jackson, A.E.; Althaus, M.; Til, R.

    Seven to 12-year-old children with a Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PDDNOS) were compared with normal, healthy children of the same age and sex on three different emotional role-taking tasks. In these tasks, children had to use person-specific information to make an

  17. Open-label study of olanzapine in children with pervasive developmental disorder.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemner, C.; Swinkels, S.H.N.; Jonge, M.J.A. de; Tuynman-Qua, H.G.; Engeland, H.M. van

    2002-01-01

    The effects of olanzapine on the symptomatology of children with pervasive developmental disorder with emphasis on problems of communication and the safety of the drug were investigated in a 3-month open-label, open-dosage study. Participating in the study were 25 children age 6 to 16 years with a d

  18. Interventions for Challenging Behaviours of Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Developmental Disabilities: A Synthesis Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Janine; Martin, Toby; Shooshtari, Shahin; Stoesz, Brenda M.; Heinrichs, Dustin J.; North, Sebastian; Dodson, Lindsay; Senkow, Quinn; Douglas, Joyce

    2014-01-01

    This synthesis paper summarizes research literature addressing challenging behaviours in children and youth with autism spectrum disorders and developmental disabilities in school settings. We conducted a comprehensive literature review to identify relevant peer-reviewed articles published between the years 2000 and 2011. The methodological…

  19. An Open-Label Trial of Escitalopram in Pervasive Developmental Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owley, Thomas; Walton, Laura; Salt, Jeff; Guter, Stephen J., Jr.; Winnega, Marrea; Leventhal, Bennett L.; Cook, Edwin H., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effect of escitalopram in the treatment of pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs). Method: This 10-week study had a forced titration, open-label design. Twenty-eight subjects (mean age 125.1 [+ or -] 33.5 months) with a PDD received escitalopram at a dose that increased weekly to a maximum dose of 20 mg as tolerated. The…

  20. Receptive Vocabulary in Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Cross-Sectional Developmental Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kover, Sara T.; McDuffie, Andrea S.; Hagerman, Randi J.; Abbeduto, Leonard

    2013-01-01

    In light of evidence that receptive language may be a relative weakness for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), this study characterized receptive vocabulary profiles in boys with ASD using cross-sectional developmental trajectories relative to age, nonverbal cognition, and expressive vocabulary. Participants were 49 boys with ASD…

  1. Characterization of Motor Control in Handwriting Difficulties in Children with or without Developmental Coordination Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shao-Hsia; Yu, Nan-Ying

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to characterize handwriting deficits in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) using computerized movement analyses. Method: Seventy-two children (40 females, 32 males; mean age 7y, SD 7mo; range 6y 2mo to 7y 11mo) with handwriting deficits (33 with DCD, 39 without DCD); and 22 age- and…

  2. Functional Performance of Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder at Home and at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tien-Ni; Tseng, Mei-Hui; Wilson, Brenda N.; Hu, Fu-Chang

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the functional performance of daily activities at home and at school in a population-based sample of children with different degrees of motor coordination impairment and competence. Sixteen children (seven males, nine females; mean age 8y, SD 9mo) with developmental coordination disorder (DCD), 25 with suspected DCD ([sDCD]…

  3. Comparing Activity Patterns, Biological, and Family Factors in Children with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutum, Monique Natalie; Cordier, Reinie; Bundy, Anita

    2013-01-01

    The association between motor proficiency and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) suggests children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) may be susceptible to inactivity-related conditions such as cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to compare children with and without DCD on physical activity patterns, activity…

  4. A Prospective Cohort Study Comparing Workload in Children with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivilis, Irina; Liu, Jian; Cairney, John; Hay, John A.; Klentrou, Panagiota; Faught, Brent E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this prospective cohort study was to assess how cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) of children with probable developmental coordination disorder (DCD) changes over a period of 4.7 years relative to a group of typically developing controls. A school-based sample of children in a large region of Ontario, Canada with 75 out of a possible…

  5. Motivating Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder in School Physical Education: The Self-Determination Theory Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katartzi, Ermioni S.; Vlachopoulos, Symeon P.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the current article is to highlight the potential of self-determination theory (SDT) to inform the teaching practices of physical education (PE) teachers. Such practices may enhance motivational levels for participation in physical activity (PA) for children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). First, we review the…

  6. Activities and Participation in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhaes, L. C.; Cardoso, A. A.; Missiuna, C.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To systematically review all literature published in peer reviewed journals from January 1995 to July 2008 in order to summarize and describe the activity limitations and participation restrictions of children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). Methods: Multiple databases were systematically searched for articles related to…

  7. Physical Activity and Fitness in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivilis, Irina; Hay, John; Cairney, John; Klentrou, Panagiota; Liu, Jian; Faught, Brent E.

    2011-01-01

    Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is a neurodevelopmental condition characterized by poor motor proficiency that interferes with a child's activities of daily living. Activities that most young children engage in such as running, walking, and jumping are important for the proper development of fitness and overall health. However, children…

  8. Motor and Cognitive Performance Differences between Children with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asonitou, Katerina; Koutsouki, Dimitra; Kourtessis, Thomas; Charitou, Sofia

    2012-01-01

    The current study adopts the PASS theory of information processing to investigate the probable differences in specific motor and cognitive abilities between children with and without developmental coordination disorder (DCD). Participants were 108 5- and 6-year-old preschoolers (54 children with DCD and 54 children without DCD). The Movement…

  9. Baroreflex Sensitivity Is Reduced in Adolescents with Probable Developmental Coordination Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coverdale, Nicole S.; O'Leary, Deborah D.; Faught, Brent E.; Chirico, Daniele; Hay, John; Cairney, John

    2012-01-01

    Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is a neurodevelopmental condition characterized by poor motor skills leading to a significant impairment in activities of daily living. Compared to typically developing children, those with DCD are less fit and physically active, and have increased body fat. This is an important consequence as both…

  10. Grip Force Control Is Dependent on Task Constraints in Children with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Sui-Heung; Lo, Sing Kai; Chow, Susanna; Cheing, Gladys L.Y.

    2011-01-01

    Excessive grip force (GF) is often found in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). However, their GF control may vary when task constraints are imposed upon their motor performance. This study aimed to investigate how their GF control changes in response to task demands, and to examine their tactile sensitivity. Twenty-one…

  11. Wisconsin Card Sorting Test Performance in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuang, Yee-Pay; Su, Chwen-Yng; Su, Jui-Hsing

    2011-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to investigate and compare the executive functions measured by the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) between children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and age-matched normal controls. A second purpose was to examine the relations between executive functions and school functions in DCD children.…

  12. Movement Coordination in Ball Catching: Comparison between Boys with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przysucha, Eryk P.; Maraj, Brian K. V.

    2010-01-01

    This investigation examined the catching coordination of 12 boys (M age = 9.9 years, SD = 0.8) with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD; M age = 10.5 years, SD = 0.8), under different task constraints. Participants attempted a total of 60 catches in central and lateral locations, under blocked and randomized conditions. No effect…

  13. Developmental Coordination Disorder, Gender, and Body Weight: Examining the Impact of Participation in Active Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairney, John; Kwan, Matthew Y. W.; Hay, John A.; Faught, Brent E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: To examine whether differences in participation in active play (PAP) can account for gender differences in the relationship between Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) and body weight/fat (BMI and percentage fat) in youth. Methods: A cross-sectional investigation of students in grades four through eight (n = 590). Height, weight…

  14. Neuromotor Deficits in Developmental Coordination Disorder: Evidence from a Reach-to-Grasp Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biancotto, Marina; Skabar, Aldo; Bulgheroni, Maria; Carrozzi, Marco; Zoia, Stefania

    2011-01-01

    Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) has been classified as a specific learning disability, nonetheless the underlying cognitive mechanisms are still a matter of discussion. After a summary of the main hypotheses on the principal neuromotor causes of DCD, this study applies a causal model framework to describe the possible coexistence of more…

  15. Comparing Language Profiles: Children with Specific Language Impairment and Developmental Coordination Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibald, Lisa M. D.; Alloway, Tracy Packiam

    2008-01-01

    Background: Although it is widely recognized that substantial heterogeneity exists in the cognitive profiles of children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD), very little is known about the language skills of this group. Aims: To compare the language abilities of children with DCD with a group whose language impairment has been well…

  16. Longitudinal Assessment of Left Ventricular Structure and Function in Adolescents with Developmental Coordination Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirico, Daniele; O'Leary, Deborah; Cairney, John; Haluka, Karen; Coverdale, Nicole S.; Klentrou, Panagiota; Hay, John; Faught, Brent E.

    2012-01-01

    Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) are more likely to develop cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors such as obesity and reduced cardio-respiratory fitness. It has also been shown that adolescents with probable DCD (p-DCD) have elevated cardiac output (CO) and stroke volume (SV) compared to typically developing (TD)…

  17. Working Memory and Learning in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder and Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alloway, Tracy Packiam; Archibald, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    The authors compared 6- to 11-year-olds with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and those with specific language impairment (SLI) on measures of memory (verbal and visuospatial short-term and working memory) and learning (reading and mathematics). Children with DCD with typical language skills were impaired in all four areas of memory…

  18. Dissecting Online Control in Developmental Coordination Disorder: A Kinematic Analysis of Double-Step Reaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Christian; Wilson, Peter H.

    2011-01-01

    In a recent study, children with movement clumsiness (or Developmental Coordination Disorder--DCD) were shown to have difficulties making rapid online corrections when reaching, demonstrated by slower and less accurate movements to double-step targets (Hyde & Wilson, 2011). These results suggest that children with DCD have difficulty using…

  19. Statistically Characterizing Intra- and Inter-Individual Variability in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Bradley R.; Harring, Jeffrey R.; Oliveira, Marcio A.; Clark, Jane E.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research investigating children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) has consistently reported increased intra- and inter-individual variability during motor skill performance. Statistically characterizing this variability is not only critical for the analysis and interpretation of behavioral data, but also may facilitate our…

  20. Driving Skills of Young Adults with Developmental Coordination Disorder: Regulating Speed and Coping with Distraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Rita F.; Wann, John P.

    2011-01-01

    In two experiments, we used an automatic car simulator to examine the steering control, speed regulation and response to hazards of young adults with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and limited driving experience. In Experiment 1 participants either used the accelerator pedal to regulate their speed, or used the brake pedal when they…

  1. Developmental Co-Ordination Disorder (DCD) in Adolescents and Adults in Further and Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Amanda; Sugden, David; Beveridge, Sally; Edwards, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    Few studies have looked at the strengths and weaknesses and needs of students with developmental co-ordination disorder (DCD). This paper describes a cohort of 93 UK students currently studying at further or higher education and who have reported motor difficulties present since childhood. The study group consisted of 21 reporting to have DCD…

  2. Left Ventricular Structure and Function in Children with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirico, Daniele; O'Leary, Deborah; Cairney, John; Klentrou, Panagiota; Haluka, Karen; Hay, John; Faught, Brent

    2011-01-01

    Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) are more likely to develop cardiovascular disease risk factors such as obesity and reduced cardio-respiratory fitness. However, there is limited data using laboratory measures for assessing the risk of cardiovascular disease associated with DCD. The purpose of this study was to examine…

  3. The Developmental Trajectories of Executive Function of Children and Adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Ying; Shuai, Lan; Chan, Raymond C. K.; Qian, Qiu-Jin; Wang, Yufeng

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the developmental trajectories of executive function (EF) of children and adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Han Chinese. Five hundred and fifteen children and adolescents with ADHD and 249 healthy controls took part in this study. All of them were administered four EF tests capturing…

  4. Gastrointestinal Symptoms in a Sample of Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nikolov, Roumen N.; Bearss, Karen E.; Lettinga, Jelle; Erickson, Craig; Rodowski, Maria; Aman, Michael G.; McCracken, James T.; McDougle, Christopher J.; Tierney, Elaine; Vitiello, Benedetto; Arnold, L. Eugene; Shah, Bhavik; Posey, David J.; Ritz, Louise; Scahill, Lawrence

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate gastrointestinal (GI) problems in a large, well-characterized sample of children with pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs). Methods One hundred seventy two children entering one of two trials conducted by the Research Units on Pediatric Psychopharmacology (RUPP) Autism Netw

  5. Brief Report: Representational Momentum for Dynamic Facial Expressions in Pervasive Developmental Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uono, Shota; Sato, Wataru; Toichi, Motomi

    2010-01-01

    Individuals with pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) have difficulty with social communication via emotional facial expressions, but behavioral studies involving static images have reported inconsistent findings about emotion recognition. We investigated whether dynamic presentation of facial expression would enhance subjective perception of…

  6. Aquatic Physical Therapy for Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillier, Susan; McIntyre, Auburn; Plummer, Leanne

    2010-01-01

    Aquatic therapy is an intervention for children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) that has not been investigated formally. This was a pilot randomized controlled trial to investigate the feasibility and preliminary effectiveness of an aquatic therapy program to improve motor skills of children with DCD. Thirteen children (mean age 7…

  7. An exploration of person perception abilities in children with a pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serra, M.; Minderaa, R.B; Van Geert, P. L. C.; Jackson, A.E.

    1995-01-01

    This explorative study investigates differences in person perception abilities between a group of children diagnosed as having a Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PDDNOS) and a group of normal children of the same age and sex. Person perception, a social-cognitive skill,

  8. Audiovisual Speech Perception in Children with Developmental Language Disorder in Degraded Listening Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meronen, Auli; Tiippana, Kaisa; Westerholm, Jari; Ahonen, Timo

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The effect of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) on the perception of audiovisual speech in children with and without developmental language disorder (DLD) was investigated by varying the noise level and the sound intensity of acoustic speech. The main hypotheses were that the McGurk effect (in which incongruent visual speech alters the…

  9. Abnormalities on the Neurological Examination and EEG in Young Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akshoomoff, Natacha; Farid, Nikdokht; Courchesne, Eric; Haas, Richard

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the nature and frequency of neurological and EEG abnormalities in 60 young children (ages 2-6 years) with pervasive developmental disorders. A number of standard neurological functions could not be adequately assessed due to the young age of the children and/or limited comprehension and cooperation. The most common neurological…

  10. Crisis on Campus: Eating Disorder Intervention from a Developmental-Ecological Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Julia V.; Gibson, Donna M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this article is to review a crisis intervention using the developmental-ecological protocol (Collins and Collins, 2005) with a college student presenting with symptomatology of an active eating disorder. Participants: Participants included University Wellness Center employees responding to the crisis. Methods: Methods…

  11. Social Outcomes in Childhood Brain Disorder: A Heuristic Integration of Social Neuroscience and Developmental Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeates, Keith Owen; Bigler, Erin D.; Dennis, Maureen; Gerhardt, Cynthia A.; Rubin, Kenneth H.; Stancin, Terry; Taylor, H. Gerry; Vannatta, Kathryn

    2007-01-01

    The authors propose a heuristic model of the social outcomes of childhood brain disorder that draws on models and methods from both the emerging field of social cognitive neuroscience and the study of social competence in developmental psychology/psychopathology. The heuristic model characterizes the relationships between social adjustment, peer…

  12. Sleep Correlates of Pervasive Developmental Disorders: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollway, Jill A.; Aman, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    Sleep disturbance is a significant problem in the general pediatric population, and it occurs even more frequently in children with pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs). Much time and energy have been spent examining the characteristics that predispose children to insomnia and it is likely that equivalent factors influence sleep in PDDs.…

  13. Psychosis and autism as two developmental windows on a disordered social brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijn, Sophie; Swaab, Hanna; Aleman, Andre

    2008-01-01

    With regard to social-cognitive deficits in autism and psychosis, Crespi & Badcock's (C&B's) theory does not incorporate the developmental context of the disorders. We propose that there is significant overlap in social-cognitive impairments, but that the exact manifestation of social-cognitive defi

  14. Changes in dynamic balance control over time in children with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jelsma, L.D.; Smits-Engelsman, B. C. M.; Krijnen, W. P.; Geuze, R.H.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine differences in underlying adaptations of dynamic balance in children with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) during a Wii Fit game and to measure changes over time and after intervention. Twenty-eight children with DCD and 21 typically developi

  15. Referral for Occupational Therapy after Diagnosis of Developmental Disorder by German Child Psychiatrists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, Marcel; Drosselmeyer, Julia; Kostev, Karel

    2016-01-01

    Aims: The aims of this study were to assess how many patients received occupational therapy after diagnosis of developmental disorder (DD) in child psychiatrist practices in Germany and which factors influenced the prescription of occupational therapy. Methods: This study was a retrospective database analysis in Germany utilising the Disease…

  16. Prevalence of pervasive developmental disorders in children and adolescents with mental retardation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bildt, A; Sytema, S; Kraijer, D; Minderaa, R

    2005-01-01

    Background: Insight into the prevalence of pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) in children and adolescents with mental retardation (MR) is known to be of clinical importance. However, estimating this prevalence is complicated. The literature reports prevalence rates ranging from 3% through 50%. T

  17. Using Virtual Reality Environment to Improve Joint Attention Associated with Pervasive Developmental Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yufang; Huang, Ruowen

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this study is using data glove to practice Joint attention skill in virtual reality environment for people with pervasive developmental disorder (PDD). The virtual reality environment provides a safe environment for PDD people. Especially, when they made errors during practice in virtual reality environment, there is no suffering or…

  18. Changes in dynamic balance control over time in children with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jelsma, L.D.; Smits-Engelsman, B. C. M.; Krijnen, W. P.; Geuze, R.H.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine differences in underlying adaptations of dynamic balance in children with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) during a Wii Fit game and to measure changes over time and after intervention. Twenty-eight children with DCD and 21 typically

  19. Pervasive developmental disorder, behavior problems, and psychotropic drug use in children and adolescents with mental retardation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bildt, Annelies; Mulder, Erik J.; Scheers, Tom; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Tobi, Hilde

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. This study investigated the interrelationship between psychopharmaco-therapy in general and the use of specific psychotropic drugs and pervasive developmental disorder and other behavior problems in children and adolescents with mental retardation. METHODS. A total of 862 participants 4 t

  20. Parent and Teacher Agreement in the Assessment of Pervasive Developmental Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szatmari, P.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Parents and teachers of 83 young children diagnosed with a pervasive developmental disorder rated each child on the Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC) and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS). Although there was good agreement between informants on the VABS, there was virtually no agreement on the ABC, with parents reporting more autistic and…

  1. Testing predictive control of movement in children with developmental coordination disorder using converging operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adams, I.L.J.; Lust, J.M.; Wilson, P.H.; Steenbergen, B.

    2017-01-01

    Recent systematic reviews (Wilson et al., 2013, Dev. Med. Child Neurol., 55, 217; Adams et al., 2014, Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev., 47C, 225) suggest that a common underlying problem in developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is the internal modelling deficit. The study presented here is

  2. Factors Associated with the Empowerment of Japanese Families Raising a Child with Developmental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakimizu, Rie; Fujioka, Hiroshi; Yoneyama, Akira; Iejima, Atsushi; Miyamoto, Shinya

    2011-01-01

    We identified factors associated with the empowerment of Japanese families using the Family Empowerment Scale (FES) to contribute to the improvement of empowerment in Japanese families raising a child with developmental disorders (DDs). The study was conducted in 350 caregivers who raised children aged 4-18 years with DDs in urban and suburban…

  3. Impaired Letter-String Processing in Developmental Dyslexia: What Visual-to-Phonology Code Mapping Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdois, Sylviane; Lassus-Sangosse, Delphine; Lobier, Muriel

    2012-01-01

    Poor parallel letter-string processing in developmental dyslexia was taken as evidence of poor visual attention (VA) span, that is, a limitation of visual attentional resources that affects multi-character processing. However, the use of letter stimuli in oral report tasks was challenged on its capacity to highlight a VA span disorder. In…

  4. Can Gymnastic Teacher Predict Leisure Activity Preference among Children with Developmental Coordination Disorders (DCD)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel-Yeger, Batya; Hanna-Kassis, Amany; Rosenblum, Sara

    2012-01-01

    The aims of the study were to analyze: (1) whether significant differences exist between children with typical development and children with developmental coordination disorders (DCD) in their preference to participate in leisure activities (2) whether the teacher estimation of activity form (TEAF) evaluation predicts participation preference.…

  5. Facial Electromyographic Responses to Emotional Information from Faces and Voices in Individuals with Pervasive Developmental Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnee, Maurice J. C. M.; de Gelder, Beatrice; van Engeland, Herman; Kemner, Chantal

    2007-01-01

    Background: Despite extensive research, it is still debated whether impairments in social skills of individuals with pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) are related to specific deficits in the early processing of emotional information. We aimed to test both automatic processing of facial affect as well as the integration of auditory and visual…

  6. Motor imagery training for children with developmental coordination disorder: Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adams, I.L.J.; Steenbergen, B.; Lust, J.M.; Smits-Engelsman, B.C.M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have shown that the predictive control of movements is impaired in children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD), most likely due to a deficit in the internal modeling of movements. Motor imagery paradigms have been used to test this internal modeling deficit.

  7. Referral for Occupational Therapy after Diagnosis of Developmental Disorder by German Child Psychiatrists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, Marcel; Drosselmeyer, Julia; Kostev, Karel

    2016-01-01

    Aims: The aims of this study were to assess how many patients received occupational therapy after diagnosis of developmental disorder (DD) in child psychiatrist practices in Germany and which factors influenced the prescription of occupational therapy. Methods: This study was a retrospective database analysis in Germany utilising the Disease…

  8. A test of motor (not executive) planning in developmental coordination disorder and autism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Swieten, L.M.; van Bergen, E.; Williams, J.H.G.; Wilson, A.D.; Plumb, M.S.; Kent, S.W.; Mon-Williams, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    Grip selection tasks have been used to test "planning" in both autism and developmental coordination disorder (DCD). We differentiate between motor and executive planning and present a modified motor planning task. Participants grasped a cylinder in 1 of 2 orientations before turning it clockwise or

  9. Anticipatory Postural Adjustments in a Bimanual Load-Lifting Task in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jover, Marianne; Schmitz, Christina; Centelles, Laurie; Chabrol, Brigitte; Assaiante, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Postural control is a fundamental component of action in which deficits have been shown to contribute to motor difficulties in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). The purpose of this study was to examine anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) in children with DCD in a bimanual load-lifting task. Method: Sixteen children…

  10. Developmental Pathways to Conduct Disorder: Implications for Future Directions in Research, Assessment, and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Paul J.

    2012-01-01

    Research has indicated that there are several common pathways through which children and adolescents develop conduct disorder, each with different risk factors and each with different underlying developmental mechanisms leading to the child's aggressive and antisocial behavior. The current article briefly summarizes research on these pathways,…

  11. An exploration of person perception abilities in children with a pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serra, M.; Minderaa, R.B; Van Geert, P. L. C.; Jackson, A.E.

    1995-01-01

    This explorative study investigates differences in person perception abilities between a group of children diagnosed as having a Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PDDNOS) and a group of normal children of the same age and sex. Person perception, a social-cognitive skill, conc

  12. Fatty Acid Dietary Supplements in Treatment of Developmental Coordination Disorder and ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The effects of dietary supplementation with fish oil and evening primrose oil (in a ratio of 80% to 20% compared to placebo were assessed in a randomized, controlled trial in 117 children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD, aged 5-12 years, at the University of Oxford, UK.

  13. Pervasive Developmental Disorder Behavior in Adolescents with Intellectual Disability and Co-Occurring Somatic Chronic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeseburg, B.; Groothoff, J. W.; Dijkstra, G. J.; Reijneveld, S. A.; Jansen, D. E. M. C.

    2010-01-01

    Evidence on the association between somatic chronic diseases in ID-adolescents and the full range of pervasive developmental disorder behavior (PDD behavior) is scarce. The aim of the present study is to assess the association between somatic chronic diseases in ID-adolescents and mild PDD behavior. We obtained data on 1044 ID-adolescents, aged…

  14. Changes in dynamic balance control over time in children with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jelsma, L.D.; Smits-Engelsman, B. C. M.; Krijnen, W. P.; Geuze, R.H.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine differences in underlying adaptations of dynamic balance in children with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) during a Wii Fit game and to measure changes over time and after intervention. Twenty-eight children with DCD and 21 typically developi

  15. Short-term motor learning of dynamic balance control in children with probable Developmental Coordination Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jelsma, Dorothee; Ferguson, Gilian D.; Smits-Engelsman, Bouwien C.M.; Geuze, Reint H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the differences in learning a dynamic balance task between children with and without probable Developmental Coordination Disorder (p-DCD) from different cultural backgrounds. Participants: Twenty-eight Dutch children with DCD (p-DCD-NL), a similar group of 17 South African childr

  16. Sensory Organization of Balance Control in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Shirley S. M.; Lee, Velma Y. L.; Pang, Marco Y. C.

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to (1) compare functional balance performance and sensory organization of postural control between children with and without developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and (2) determine the association between postural control and participation diversity among children with DCD. We recruited 81 children with DCD and 67 typically…

  17. Hot executive function in children with developmental coordination disorder: Evidence for heightened sensitivity to immediate reward

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahimi-Golkhandan, S.; Piek, J.P.; Steenbergen, B.; Wilson, P.H.

    2014-01-01

    Deficits of cool executive function (EF) have been shown in children with motor problems (or Developmental Coordination Disorder – DCD), but little is known of hot EF in this group. Given some evidence of poor self-regulation in DCD, we predicted poorer performance on a measure of hot EF, the Hungry

  18. Right Hemisphere Contribution to Developmental Language Disorder: Neuroanatomical and Behavioral Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, Elena; Boliek, Carol; Mahendra, Nidhi; Story, Jill; Glaspey, Kristen

    2001-01-01

    This study examined the co-occurrence of both verbal and nonverbal deficits in adults with developmental language disorder (DLD). Comparison with adults without DLD revealed replicable differences between groups on both verbal and nonverbal tasks. Also, an association was found between performance on tests sensitive to facial affect and spatial…

  19. Neuromotor task training for children with developmental coordination disorder: a controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niemeijer, A.S.; Smits-Engelsman, B.C.M.; Schoemaker, M.M.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate neuromotor task training (NTT), a recently developed child-centred and task-oriented treatment programme for children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). A treatment and a non-treatment control group of children with DCD were included. Children were

  20. Hot executive function in children with developmental coordination disorder: Evidence for heightened sensitivity to immediate reward

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahimi-Golkhandan, S.; Piek, J.P.; Steenbergen, B.; Wilson, P.H.

    2014-01-01

    Deficits of cool executive function (EF) have been shown in children with motor problems (or Developmental Coordination Disorder – DCD), but little is known of hot EF in this group. Given some evidence of poor self-regulation in DCD, we predicted poorer performance on a measure of hot EF, the Hungry

  1. Obesity and Motor Coordination Ability in Taiwanese Children with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yi-Ching; Wu, Sheng K.; Cairney, John

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations between obesity and motor coordination ability in Taiwanese children with and without developmental coordination disorder (DCD). 2029 children (1078 boys, 951 girls) aged nine to ten years were chosen randomly from 14 elementary schools across Taiwan. We used bioelectrical impedance…

  2. Deficits of hot executive function in developmental coordination disorder: Sensitivity to positive social cues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahimi-Golkhandan, S.; Steenbergen, B.; Piek, J.P.; Wilson, P.H.

    2014-01-01

    Recent research shows that children with motor coordination problems (or developmental coordination disorder – DCD) show deficits in not only cool executive function (EF), but also hot EF. We aimed to determine whether this deficit of hot EF is due to heightened sensitivity to rewarding stimuli, spe

  3. Deficits of hot executive function in developmental coordination disorder: Sensitivity to positive social cues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahimi-Golkhandan, S.; Steenbergen, B.; Piek, J.P.; Wilson, P.H.

    2014-01-01

    Recent research shows that children with motor coordination problems (or developmental coordination disorder - DCD) show deficits in not only cool executive function (EF), but also hot EF. We aimed to determine whether this deficit of hot EF is due to heightened sensitivity to rewarding stimuli, spe

  4. Postural Responses to a Moving Room in Children with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hyun Chae; Stoffregen, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    Children (10 or 11 years old) with and without developmental coordination disorder (DCD) were exposed to imposed optic flow in a moving room. We manipulated the amplitude and frequency of oscillatory room motion, and we evaluated the coupling of standing body sway with room oscillations. The results revealed that standing sway of both children…

  5. Timing Abilities among Children with Developmental Coordination Disorders (DCD) in Comparison to Children with Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, Sara; Regev, Noga

    2013-01-01

    Timing ability is essential for common everyday performance. The aim of the study was to compare timing abilities and temporal aspects of handwriting performance and relationships between these two components among children with Developmental Coordination Disorders (DCD) and a control group. Forty two children, 21 diagnosed as DCD and 21 with…

  6. Identifying play characteristics of pre-school children with developmental coordination disorder via parental questionnaires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, Sara; Waissman, Pola; Diamond, Gary W

    2016-11-18

    Motor coordination deficits that characterize children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) affect their quality of participation. The aim of the current study was to identify play characteristics of young children with DCD, compared to those of children with typical development in three dimensions: activity and participation, environmental factors and children's impairments.

  7. Aquatic Physical Therapy for Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillier, Susan; McIntyre, Auburn; Plummer, Leanne

    2010-01-01

    Aquatic therapy is an intervention for children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) that has not been investigated formally. This was a pilot randomized controlled trial to investigate the feasibility and preliminary effectiveness of an aquatic therapy program to improve motor skills of children with DCD. Thirteen children (mean age 7…

  8. Postural Responses to a Suprapostural Visual Task among Children with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, F. C.; Tsai, C. L.; Stoffregen, T. A.; Wade, M. G.

    2011-01-01

    We sought to determine the effects of varying the perceptual demands of a suprapostural visual task on the postural activity of children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD), and typically developing children (TDC). Sixty-four (32 per group) children aged between 9 and 10 years participated. In a within-participants design, each child…

  9. Postural Adaptations to a Suprapostural Memory Task among Children with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fu-Chen; Tsai, Chia-Liang; Stoffregen, Thomas A.; Chang, Chihu-Hui; Wade, Michael G.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The present study investigated the effects of varying the cognitive demands of a memory task (a suprapostural task) while recording postural motion on two groups of children, one diagnosed with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and an age-matched group of typically developing children. Method: Two groups, each comprising 38 child…

  10. Strategies to Accommodate Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder in Physical Education Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caçola, Priscila; Romero, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) affects 2-7 percent of school-age children and is characterized by low motor proficiency associated with poor balance, coordination and handwriting skills. Because of their motor difficulties, children with DCD suffer from anxiety, low self-esteem and are often less sociable than typically developing…

  11. Concurrent Validity of the Battelle Developmental Inventory for Speech and Language Disordered Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mott, Stacey E.

    1987-01-01

    Investigated the concurrent validity of the Battelle Developmental Inventory (BDI) with speech and language disordered preschool children. Used the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised (PPVT-R), Preschool Language Scale-Revised (PLS-R), and Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale-Revised (AAPS-R). Significant correlations were found for…

  12. Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center: An ABA Program for Children and Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handleman, Jan S.; Harris, Sandra L.

    2005-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) is an effective, and often superior, method to teach children with Autism Spectrum Disorders ASD), than other methods. The Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center of Rutgers University (DDDC) has been using ABA for more than thirty years to teach toddlers, young children,…

  13. Cognitive Strategy Use in School-Aged Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernie, Charmaine; Rodger, Sylvia

    2004-01-01

    Over the past decade, cognitive approaches with children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) have been investigated. Although studies have focused on intervention outcomes, few have documented the components of the approach that support the enhancement of children's performance. This study used systematic observation of videotaped…

  14. Using Virtual Reality Environment to Improve Joint Attention Associated with Pervasive Developmental Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yufang; Huang, Ruowen

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this study is using data glove to practice Joint attention skill in virtual reality environment for people with pervasive developmental disorder (PDD). The virtual reality environment provides a safe environment for PDD people. Especially, when they made errors during practice in virtual reality environment, there is no suffering or…

  15. Automatic Processing of Emotional Faces in High-Functioning Pervasive Developmental Disorders: An Affective Priming Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamio, Yoko; Wolf, Julie; Fein, Deborah

    2006-01-01

    This study examined automatic processing of emotional faces in individuals with high-functioning Pervasive Developmental Disorders (HFPDD) using an affective priming paradigm. Sixteen participants (HFPDD and matched controls) were presented with happy faces, fearful faces or objects in both subliminal and supraliminal exposure conditions, followed…

  16. Open-label study of olanzapine in children with pervasive developmental disorder.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemner, C.; Swinkels, S.H.N.; Jonge, M.J.A. de; Tuynman-Qua, H.G.; Engeland, H.M. van

    2002-01-01

    The effects of olanzapine on the symptomatology of children with pervasive developmental disorder with emphasis on problems of communication and the safety of the drug were investigated in a 3-month open-label, open-dosage study. Participating in the study were 25 children age 6 to 16 years with a

  17. Pervasive developmental disorder, behavior problems, and psychotropic drug use in children and adolescents with mental retardation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bildt, Annelies; Mulder, Erik J.; Scheers, Tom; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Tobi, Hilde

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. This study investigated the interrelationship between psychopharmaco-therapy in general and the use of specific psychotropic drugs and pervasive developmental disorder and other behavior problems in children and adolescents with mental retardation. METHODS. A total of 862 participants 4

  18. Face Recognition in Children with a Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, M.; Althaus, M.; de Sonneville, L. M. J.; Stant, A. D.; Jackson, A. E.; Minderaa, R. B.

    2003-01-01

    A study investigated the accuracy and speed of face recognition in 26 children (ages 7-10) with Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified. Subjects needed an amount of time to recognize the faces that almost equaled the time they needed to recognize abstract patterns that were difficult to distinguish. (Contains references.)…

  19. Stability and composition of functional synergies for speech movements in children with developmental speech disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terband, H.; Maassen, B.; van Lieshout, P.; Nijland, L.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the consistency and composition of functional synergies for speech movements in children with developmental speech disorders. Kinematic data were collected on the reiterated productions of syllables spa (/spa:/) and paas (/pa:s/) by 10 6- to 9-year-olds with

  20. Audiovisual Speech Perception in Children with Developmental Language Disorder in Degraded Listening Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meronen, Auli; Tiippana, Kaisa; Westerholm, Jari; Ahonen, Timo

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The effect of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) on the perception of audiovisual speech in children with and without developmental language disorder (DLD) was investigated by varying the noise level and the sound intensity of acoustic speech. The main hypotheses were that the McGurk effect (in which incongruent visual speech alters the…

  1. A longitudinal study of schizophrenia- and affective spectrum disorders in individuals diagnosed with a developmental language disorder as children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, Svend Erik Birkebæk; Hauschild, K.M.

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence and types of schizophrenia- and affective spectrum disorders were studied in 469 individuals with a developmental language disorder (DLD), assessed in the same clinic during a period of 10 years, and 2,345 controls from the general population. All participants were screened through...... the nationwide Danish Psychiatric Central Register (DPCR). The mean length of follow-up was 34.7 years, and the mean age at follow-up 35.8 years. The results show an excess of schizophrenia spectrum disorders (F20-F29) within participants with DLD when compared with controls from the overall population (6.4% vs....... 1.8%; P language disorder was significantly associated with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder diagnosis in the DPCR. There was no significant increase in affective...

  2. A longitudinal study of schizophrenia- and affective spectrum disorders in individuals diagnosed with a developmental language disorder as children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, Svend Erik; Hauschild, Karen-Marie

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence and types of schizophrenia- and affective spectrum disorders were studied in 469 individuals with a developmental language disorder (DLD), assessed in the same clinic during a period of 10 years, and 2,345 controls from the general population. All participants were screened through...... the nationwide Danish Psychiatric Central Register (DPCR). The mean length of follow-up was 34.7 years, and the mean age at follow-up 35.8 years. The results show an excess of schizophrenia spectrum disorders (F20-F29) within participants with DLD when compared with controls from the overall population (6.4% vs....... 1.8%; P language disorder was significantly associated with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder diagnosis in the DPCR. There was no significant increase in affective spectrum...

  3. Epidemiological Findings of Pervasive Developmental Disorders in a Venezuelan Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montiel-Nava, Cecilia; Pena, Joaquin A.

    2008-01-01

    The study aims to determine the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) for children receiving services in Maracaibo County, Venezuela. Children aged 3-9 with diagnosis of any ASD were recruited. We ascertained area, referral process, and definitions of ASD for each patient. A total of 430 children were identified, and 76.5 percent were…

  4. Language Acquisition in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Developmental Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eigsti, Inge-Marie; de Marchena, Ashley B.; Schuh, Jillian M.; Kelley, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the complex literature on language acquisition in the autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Because of the high degree of interest in ASD in the past decade, the field has been changing rapidly, with progress in both basic science and applied clinical areas. In addition, psycholinguistically-trained researchers have increasingly…

  5. Language Acquisition in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Developmental Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eigsti, Inge-Marie; de Marchena, Ashley B.; Schuh, Jillian M.; Kelley, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the complex literature on language acquisition in the autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Because of the high degree of interest in ASD in the past decade, the field has been changing rapidly, with progress in both basic science and applied clinical areas. In addition, psycholinguistically-trained researchers have increasingly…

  6. Short faces, big tongues: developmental origin of the human chin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Coquerelle

    Full Text Available During the course of human evolution, the retraction of the face underneath the braincase, and closer to the cervical column, has reduced the horizontal dimension of the vocal tract. By contrast, the relative size of the tongue has not been reduced, implying a rearrangement of the space at the back of the vocal tract to allow breathing and swallowing. This may have left a morphological signature such as a chin (mental prominence that can potentially be interpreted in Homo. Long considered an autopomorphic trait of Homo sapiens, various extinct hominins show different forms of mental prominence. These features may be the evolutionary by-product of equivalent developmental constraints correlated with an enlarged tongue. In order to investigate developmental mechanisms related to this hypothesis, we compare modern 34 human infants against 8 chimpanzee fetuses, whom development of the mandibular symphysis passes through similar stages. The study sets out to test that the shared ontogenetic shape changes of the symphysis observed in both species are driven by the same factor--space restriction at the back of the vocal tract and the associated arrangement of the tongue and hyoid bone. We apply geometric morphometric methods to extensive three-dimensional anatomical landmarks and semilandmarks configuration, capturing the geometry of the cervico-craniofacial complex including the hyoid bone, tongue muscle and the mandible. We demonstrate that in both species, the forward displacement of the mental region derives from the arrangement of the tongue and hyoid bone, in order to cope with the relative horizontal narrowing of the oral cavity. Because humans and chimpanzees share this pattern of developmental integration, the different forms of mental prominence seen in some extinct hominids likely originate from equivalent ontogenetic constraints. Variations in this process could account for similar morphologies.

  7. Developmental evidence for obstetric adaptation of the human female pelvis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huseynov, Alik; Zollikofer, Christoph P E; Coudyzer, Walter; Gascho, Dominic; Kellenberger, Christian; Hinzpeter, Ricarda; Ponce de León, Marcia S

    2016-05-10

    The bony pelvis of adult humans exhibits marked sexual dimorphism, which is traditionally interpreted in the framework of the "obstetrical dilemma" hypothesis: Giving birth to large-brained/large-bodied babies requires a wide pelvis, whereas efficient bipedal locomotion requires a narrow pelvis. This hypothesis has been challenged recently on biomechanical, metabolic, and biocultural grounds, so that it remains unclear which factors are responsible for sex-specific differences in adult pelvic morphology. Here we address this issue from a developmental perspective. We use methods of biomedical imaging and geometric morphometrics to analyze changes in pelvic morphology from late fetal stages to adulthood in a known-age/known-sex forensic/clinical sample. Results show that, until puberty, female and male pelves exhibit only moderate sexual dimorphism and follow largely similar developmental trajectories. With the onset of puberty, however, the female trajectory diverges substantially from the common course, resulting in rapid expansion of obstetrically relevant pelvic dimensions up to the age of 25-30 y. From 40 y onward females resume a mode of pelvic development similar to males, resulting in significant reduction of obstetric dimensions. This complex developmental trajectory is likely linked to the pubertal rise and premenopausal fall of estradiol levels and results in the obstetrically most adequate pelvic morphology during the time of maximum female fertility. The evidence that hormones mediate female pelvic development and morphology supports the view that solutions of the obstetrical dilemma depend not only on selection and adaptation but also on developmental plasticity as a response to ecological/nutritional factors during a female's lifetime.

  8. Neuropsychological status of French children with developmental dyslexia and/or developmental coordination disorder: Are both necessarily worse than one?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biotteau, Maëlle; Albaret, Jean-Michel; Lelong, Sandrine; Chaix, Yves

    2017-05-01

    Developmental dyslexia (DD) and developmental coordination disorder (DCD) co-occur frequently, raising the underlying question of shared etiological bases. We investigated the cognitive profile of children with DD, children with DCD, and children with the dual association (DD + DCD) to determine the inherent characteristics of each disorder and explore the possible additional impact of co-morbidity on intellectual, attentional, and psychosocial functioning. The participants were 8- to 12-year-olds (20 DD, 22 DCD, and 23 DD + DCD). Cognitive abilities were assessed by the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) and the Continuous Performance Test - Second Edition (CPT-II) and behavioral impairments were evaluated by the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). No differences were found between the three groups on attention testing (CPT-II) or psychosocial characteristics (CBCL), but a higher percentage of DD + DCD children had pathological scores on psychosocial scales. Significant between-group differences were observed on Processing Speed Index scores and the block design and symbol search subtests, where DD children fared better than DCD children. No significant differences were evident between the co-morbid vs. the pure groups. Our results clearly show significant differences between children with DD only and children with DCD only. In particular, visuo-spatial disabilities and heterogeneity of intellectual profile seem to be good markers of DCD. However, it should be noted that despite these distinct and separate characteristics, a common cognitive profile (weaknesses and strengths) is likely shared by both neurodevelopmental disorders. Surprisingly, concerning co-morbidity, DD + DCD association is not associated with a decrease in intellectual or attentional capacities.

  9. Amniotic fluid pregnancy-specific beta 1-glycoprotein (SP1) in fetal developmental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikinheimo, M; Jalanko, H; Leisti, J; Kolho, K L; Salonen, R; Von Koskull, H; Aula, P

    1984-01-01

    Concentration of pregnancy-specific beta 1-glycoprotein (SP1) was studied in second and third trimester amniotic fluid from pregnancies with various fetal developmental disorders. The material consisted of 26 cases with chromosomal disorders and 19 cases with non-chromosomal fetal malformations. The SP1 concentration was elevated in two cases of Meckel's syndrome (mean +2.7-4.0 S.D.) as well as in one case of fetal triploidy (mean +22 S.D.), while it was normal in all other 14 different fetal disorders.

  10. Development of the uncinate fasciculus: Implications for theory and developmental disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid R. Olson

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The uncinate fasciculus (UF is a long-range white matter tract that connects limbic regions in the temporal lobe to the frontal lobe. The UF is one of the latest developing tracts, and continues maturing into the third decade of life. As such, individual differences in the maturational profile of the UF may serve to explain differences in behavior. Indeed, atypical macrostructure and microstructure of the UF have been reported in numerous studies of individuals with developmental and psychiatric disorders such as social deprivation and maltreatment, autism spectrum disorders, conduct disorder, risk taking, and substance abuse. The present review evaluates what we currently know about the UF's developmental trajectory and reviews the literature relating UF abnormalities to specific disorders. Additionally, we take a dimensional approach and critically examine symptoms and behavioral impairments that have been demonstrated to cluster with UF aberrations, in an effort to relate these impairments to our speculations regarding the functionality of the UF. We suggest that developmental disorders with core problems relating to memory retrieval, reward and valuation computation, and impulsive decision making may be linked to aberrations in uncinate microstructure.

  11. Perception of facial expression and facial identity in subjects with social developmental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefter, Rebecca L; Manoach, Dara S; Barton, Jason J S

    2005-11-22

    It has been hypothesized that the social dysfunction in social developmental disorders (SDDs), such as autism, Asperger disorder, and the socioemotional processing disorder, impairs the acquisition of normal face-processing skills. The authors investigated whether this purported perceptual deficit was generalized to both facial expression and facial identity or whether these different types of facial perception were dissociated in SDDs. They studied 26 adults with a variety of SDD diagnoses, assessing their ability to discriminate famous from anonymous faces, their perception of emotional expression from facial and nonfacial cues, and the relationship between these abilities. They also compared the performance of two defined subgroups of subjects with SDDs on expression analysis: one with normal and one with impaired recognition of facial identity. While perception of facial expression was related to the perception of nonfacial expression, the perception of facial identity was not related to either facial or nonfacial expression. Likewise, subjects with SDDs with impaired facial identity processing perceived facial expression as well as those with normal facial identity processing. The processing of facial identity and that of facial expression are dissociable in social developmental disorders. Deficits in perceiving facial expression may be related to emotional processing more than face processing. Dissociations between the perception of facial identity and facial emotion are consistent with current cognitive models of face processing. The results argue against hypotheses that the social dysfunction in social developmental disorder causes a generalized failure to acquire face-processing skills.

  12. Developmental coordination disorder: core sensori-motor deficits, neurobiology and etiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Alice; Sirigu, Angela

    2015-12-01

    Among developmental disorders, DCD is one of the least studied and less understood one (Bishop, 2010). This review summarizes the current understanding of developmental coordination disorder in neuropsychology with a focus mainly on high level sensorimotor impairments, its etiology and its neural bases. We summarize these core deficits in the framework of an influent motor control model (Blakemore et al., 2002). DCD has several environmental risk factors which probably interplay with genetic factors but those have not been sufficiently identified. High-level sensori-motor deficits are probably multifactorial in DCD and involve predictive coding deficits as well as weaknesses in perceptual and sensory integration. At the brain level, DCD is associated with impaired structure and functions within the motor network. Throughout the review we highlight exciting new findings as well as potential future lines of research to provide a more comprehensive understanding of this disorder.

  13. Substance Use Disorders: Findings from a Longitudinal Study of Individuals with and without a History of Developmental Language Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, Svend Erik; Hauschild, Karen-Marie

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study the prevalence and types of substance use disorders (SUDs) in adults diagnosed during childhood as having a developmental language disorder (DLD). Patients and Methods: The prevalence rates and types of SUDs in a clinical sample of 469 individuals diagnosed during childhood...... as having a DLD were compared with SUDs in 2,345 matched controls from the general population without a known history of DLD using data from the nationwide Danish Psychiatric Central Register (DPCR). The average observation time was 34.7 years, and the mean age at follow-up was 35.8 years. Results.......03). Variables at assessment in childhood, i.e. gender, IQ, the presence of a receptive language disorder, and the degrees of receptive and expressive language disorders were not associated with an SUD diagnosis in the DPCR at follow-up. Conclusion: Our findings do not support the hypothesis that DLD is a risk...

  14. Human embryonic stem cells carrying mutations for severe genetic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frumkin, Tsvia; Malcov, Mira; Telias, Michael; Gold, Veronica; Schwartz, Tamar; Azem, Foad; Amit, Ami; Yaron, Yuval; Ben-Yosef, Dalit

    2010-04-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (HESCs) carrying specific mutations potentially provide a valuable tool for studying genetic disorders in humans. One preferable approach for obtaining these cell lines is by deriving them from affected preimplantation genetically diagnosed embryos. These unique cells are especially important for modeling human genetic disorders for which there are no adequate research models. They can be further used to gain new insights into developmentally regulated events that occur during human embryo development and that are responsible for the manifestation of genetically inherited disorders. They also have great value for the exploration of new therapeutic protocols, including gene-therapy-based treatments and disease-oriented drug screening and discovery. Here, we report the establishment of 15 different mutant human embryonic stem cell lines derived from genetically affected embryos, all donated by couples undergoing preimplantation genetic diagnosis in our in vitro fertilization unit. For further information regarding access to HESC lines from our repository, for research purposes, please email dalitb@tasmc.health.gov.il.

  15. Differences in adjustment by child developmental stage among caregivers of children with disorders of sex development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hullmann Stephanie E

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The current study sought to compare levels of overprotection and parenting stress reported by caregivers of children with disorders of sex development at four different developmental stages. Methods Caregivers (N = 59 of children with disorders of sex development were recruited from specialty clinics and were asked to complete the Parent Protection Scale and Parenting Stress Index/Short Form as measures of overprotective behaviors and parenting stress, respectively. Results Analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs were conducted to examine differences between caregiver report of overprotection and parenting stress. Results revealed that caregivers of infants and toddlers exhibited more overprotective behaviors than caregivers of children in the other age groups. Further, caregivers of adolescents experienced significantly more parenting stress than caregivers of school-age children, and this effect was driven by personal distress and problematic parent-child interactions, rather than having a difficult child. Conclusions These results suggest that caregivers of children with disorders of sex development may have different psychosocial needs based upon their child's developmental stage and based upon the disorder-related challenges that are most salient at that developmental stage.

  16. Toward an understanding of developmental coordination disorder: terminological and diagnostic issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Sheila E; Henderson, Leslie

    2003-01-01

    Awareness of children who experience unexpected difficulty in the acquisition of motor skills has increased dramatically over the last twenty years. Although the positing of a distinct syndrome has proven seminal in provoking further questions, several basic terminological problems remain unresolved. In this paper, we conduct a component analysis of the three, principal competing labels for this disorder, two of them being elements derived from systematic diagnostic frameworks. Our preference for the DSM IV term Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) is stated and justified. Problems in diagnosis are discussed, especially in relation to the etiology-dominated medical model. We argue that an attempt should be made to identify (pathological) positive signs that can reliably be detected rather than relying entirely on normative evidence of a lack of skills exhibited by other children of the same age. The high degree of overlap between DCD and other developmental disorders suggests that DCD might not constitute a distinct syndrome. In this context, we emphasize the need to determine whether incoordination takes a different form when it occurs alone or whether it is combined with general developmental delay or with other specific disorders in children of normal intelligence.

  17. Human Genetic Disorders of Axon Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, Elizabeth C.

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews symptoms and signs of aberrant axon connectivity in humans, and summarizes major human genetic disorders that result, or have been proposed to result, from defective axon guidance. These include corpus callosum agenesis, L1 syndrome, Joubert syndrome and related disorders, horizontal gaze palsy with progressive scoliosis, Kallmann syndrome, albinism, congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles type 1, Duane retraction syndrome, and pontine tegmental cap dysplasia. Genes mutated in these disorders can encode axon growth cone ligands and receptors, downstream signaling molecules, and axon transport motors, as well as proteins without currently recognized roles in axon guidance. Advances in neuroimaging and genetic techniques have the potential to rapidly expand this field, and it is feasible that axon guidance disorders will soon be recognized as a new and significant category of human neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:20300212

  18. Developmental gene expression profiles of the human pathogen Schistosoma japonicum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobert, Geoffrey N; Moertel, Luke; Brindley, Paul J; McManus, Donald P

    2009-01-01

    Background The schistosome blood flukes are complex trematodes and cause a chronic parasitic disease of significant public health importance worldwide, schistosomiasis. Their life cycle is characterised by distinct parasitic and free-living phases involving mammalian and snail hosts and freshwater. Microarray analysis was used to profile developmental gene expression in the Asian species, Schistosoma japonicum. Total RNAs were isolated from the three distinct environmental phases of the lifecycle – aquatic/snail (eggs, miracidia, sporocysts, cercariae), juvenile (lung schistosomula and paired but pre-egg laying adults) and adult (paired, mature males and egg-producing females, both examined separately). Advanced analyses including ANOVA, principal component analysis, and hierarchal clustering provided a global synopsis of gene expression relationships among the different developmental stages of the schistosome parasite. Results Gene expression profiles were linked to the major environmental settings through which the developmental stages of the fluke have to adapt during the course of its life cycle. Gene ontologies of the differentially expressed genes revealed a wide range of functions and processes. In addition, stage-specific, differentially expressed genes were identified that were involved in numerous biological pathways and functions including calcium signalling, sphingolipid metabolism and parasite defence. Conclusion The findings provide a comprehensive database of gene expression in an important human pathogen, including transcriptional changes in genes involved in evasion of the host immune response, nutrient acquisition, energy production, calcium signalling, sphingolipid metabolism, egg production and tegumental function during development. This resource should help facilitate the identification and prioritization of new anti-schistosome drug and vaccine targets for the control of schistosomiasis. PMID:19320991

  19. Developmental gene expression profiles of the human pathogen Schistosoma japonicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McManus Donald P

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The schistosome blood flukes are complex trematodes and cause a chronic parasitic disease of significant public health importance worldwide, schistosomiasis. Their life cycle is characterised by distinct parasitic and free-living phases involving mammalian and snail hosts and freshwater. Microarray analysis was used to profile developmental gene expression in the Asian species, Schistosoma japonicum. Total RNAs were isolated from the three distinct environmental phases of the lifecycle – aquatic/snail (eggs, miracidia, sporocysts, cercariae, juvenile (lung schistosomula and paired but pre-egg laying adults and adult (paired, mature males and egg-producing females, both examined separately. Advanced analyses including ANOVA, principal component analysis, and hierarchal clustering provided a global synopsis of gene expression relationships among the different developmental stages of the schistosome parasite. Results Gene expression profiles were linked to the major environmental settings through which the developmental stages of the fluke have to adapt during the course of its life cycle. Gene ontologies of the differentially expressed genes revealed a wide range of functions and processes. In addition, stage-specific, differentially expressed genes were identified that were involved in numerous biological pathways and functions including calcium signalling, sphingolipid metabolism and parasite defence. Conclusion The findings provide a comprehensive database of gene expression in an important human pathogen, including transcriptional changes in genes involved in evasion of the host immune response, nutrient acquisition, energy production, calcium signalling, sphingolipid metabolism, egg production and tegumental function during development. This resource should help facilitate the identification and prioritization of new anti-schistosome drug and vaccine targets for the control of schistosomiasis.

  20. A unique chromatin signature uncovers early developmental enhancers in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rada-Iglesias, Alvaro; Bajpai, Ruchi; Swigut, Tomek; Brugmann, Samantha A; Flynn, Ryan A; Wysocka, Joanna

    2011-02-10

    Cell-fate transitions involve the integration of genomic information encoded by regulatory elements, such as enhancers, with the cellular environment. However, identification of genomic sequences that control human embryonic development represents a formidable challenge. Here we show that in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), unique chromatin signatures identify two distinct classes of genomic elements, both of which are marked by the presence of chromatin regulators p300 and BRG1, monomethylation of histone H3 at lysine 4 (H3K4me1), and low nucleosomal density. In addition, elements of the first class are distinguished by the acetylation of histone H3 at lysine 27 (H3K27ac), overlap with previously characterized hESC enhancers, and are located proximally to genes expressed in hESCs and the epiblast. In contrast, elements of the second class, which we term 'poised enhancers', are distinguished by the absence of H3K27ac, enrichment of histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3), and are linked to genes inactive in hESCs and instead are involved in orchestrating early steps in embryogenesis, such as gastrulation, mesoderm formation and neurulation. Consistent with the poised identity, during differentiation of hESCs to neuroepithelium, a neuroectoderm-specific subset of poised enhancers acquires a chromatin signature associated with active enhancers. When assayed in zebrafish embryos, poised enhancers are able to direct cell-type and stage-specific expression characteristic of their proximal developmental gene, even in the absence of sequence conservation in the fish genome. Our data demonstrate that early developmental enhancers are epigenetically pre-marked in hESCs and indicate an unappreciated role of H3K27me3 at distal regulatory elements. Moreover, the wealth of new regulatory sequences identified here provides an invaluable resource for studies and isolation of transient, rare cell populations representing early stages of human embryogenesis.

  1. Nature and Specificity of Gestural Disorder in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder: A Multiple Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orianne Costini

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Praxis assessment in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD is usually based on tests of adult apraxia, by comparing across types of gestures and input modalities. However, the cognitive models of adult praxis processing are rarely used in a comprehensive and critical interpretation. These models generally involve two systems: a conceptual system and a production system. Heterogeneity of deficits is consistently reported in DCD, involving other cognitive skills such as executive or visual-perceptual and visuospatial functions. Surprisingly, few researches examined the impact of these functions in gestural production. Our study aimed at discussing the nature and specificity of the gestural deficit in DCD using a multiple case study approach.Method: Tasks were selected and adapted from protocols proposed in adult apraxia, in order to enable a comprehensive assessment of gestures. This included conceptual tasks (knowledge about tool functions and actions; recognition of gestures, representational (transitive, intransitive, and non-representational gestures (imitation of meaningless postures. We realized an additional assessment of constructional abilities and other cognitive domains (executive functions, visual-perceptual and visuospatial functions. Data from 27 patients diagnosed with DCD were collected. Neuropsychological profiles were classified using an inferential clinical analysis based on the modified t-test, by comparison with 100 typically developing children divided into five age groups (from 7 to 13 years old.Results: Among the 27 DCD patients, we first classified profiles that are characterized by impairment in tasks assessing perceptual visual or visuospatial skills (n = 8. Patients with a weakness in executive functions (n = 6 were then identified, followed by those with an impaired performance in conceptual knowledge tasks (n = 4. Among the nine remaining patients, six could be classified as having a visual

  2. The validity of psychiatric diagnoses: the case of 'specific' developmental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyck, Murray J; Piek, Jan P; Patrick, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    We tested whether developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and mixed receptive expressive language disorder (RELD) are valid diagnoses by assessing whether they are separated from each other, from other childhood disorders, and from normality by natural boundaries termed zones of rarity. Standardized measures of intelligence, language, motor skills, social cognition, and executive functioning were administered to children with DCD (n = 22), RELD (n = 30), autistic disorder (n = 30), mental retardation (n = 24), attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (n = 53) and to a representative sample of children (n = 449). Discriminant function scores were used to test whether there were zones of rarity between the DCD, RELD, and other groups. DCD and RELD were reliably distinguishable only from the mental retardation group. Cluster and latent class analyses both resulted in only two clusters or classes being identified, one consisting mainly of typical children and the other of children with a disorder. Fifty percent of children in the DCD group and 20% in the RELD group were clustered with typical children. There was no evidence of zones of rarity between disorders. Rather, with the exception of mental retardation, the results imply there are no natural boundaries between disorders or between disorders and normality.

  3. Consequences of comorbidity of developmental coordination disorders and learning disabilities for severity and pattern of perceptual-motor dysfunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongmans, MJ; Smits-Engelsman, BCM; Schoemaker, MM

    2003-01-01

    Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) have difficulty learning and performing age-appropriate perceptual-motor skills in the absence of diagnosable neurological disorders. Descriptive studies have shown that comorbidity of DCD exists with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (A

  4. Psychometric Characteristics of a Measure of Emotional Dispositions Developed to Test a Developmental Propensity Model of Conduct Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahey, Benjamin B.; Applegate, Brooks; Chronis, Andrea M.; Jones, Heather A.; Williams, Stephanie Hall; Loney, Jan; Waldman, Irwin D.

    2008-01-01

    Lahey and Waldman proposed a developmental propensity model in which three dimensions of children's emotional dispositions are hypothesized to transact with the environment to influence risk for conduct disorder, heterogeneity in conduct disorder, and comorbidity with other disorders. To prepare for future tests of this model, a new measure of…

  5. Psychiatric Diagnostic Screening of Social Maladaptive Behaviour in Children with Mild Intellectual Disability: Differentiating Disordered Attachment and Pervasive Developmental Disorder Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giltaij, H. P.; Sterkenburg, P. S.; Schuengel, C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Children with intellectual disability (ID) are at risk for maladaptive development of social relatedness. Controversy exists whether Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD) takes precedence over disordered attachment for describing maladaptive social behaviour. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of disordered attachment…

  6. Stability of Motor Problems in Young Children with or at Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorders, ADHD, and or Developmental Coordination Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Waelvelde, Hilde; Oostra, Ann; DeWitte, Griet; van den Broeck, Christine; Jongmans, Marian J.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the stability of motor problems in a clinically referred sample of children with, or at risk of, autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and/or developmental coordination disorder (DCD). Method: Participants were 49 children (39 males, 10 females; mean age 5y…

  7. Psychiatric Diagnostic Screening of Social Maladaptive Behaviour in Children with Mild Intellectual Disability: Differentiating Disordered Attachment and Pervasive Developmental Disorder Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giltaij, H. P.; Sterkenburg, P. S.; Schuengel, C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Children with intellectual disability (ID) are at risk for maladaptive development of social relatedness. Controversy exists whether Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD) takes precedence over disordered attachment for describing maladaptive social behaviour. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of disordered attachment…

  8. Human Genetic Disorders of Axon Guidance

    OpenAIRE

    Engle, Elizabeth C

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews symptoms and signs of aberrant axon connectivity in humans, and summarizes major human genetic disorders that result, or have been proposed to result, from defective axon guidance. These include corpus callosum agenesis, L1 syndrome, Joubert syndrome and related disorders, horizontal gaze palsy with progressive scoliosis, Kallmann syndrome, albinism, congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles type 1, Duane retraction syndrome, and pontine tegmental cap dysplasia. Gene...

  9. Em busca das origens desenvolvimentais dos transtornos mentais Searching for the developmental origins of mental disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme V. Polanczyk

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A psicopatologia desenvolvimental é uma disciplina que integra perspectivas epidemiológicas, sociais, genéticas, desenvolvimentais e de psicopatologia para entender as origens e o curso dos transtornos mentais. Neste artigo, são discutidos abordagens e conceitos utilizados para compreender as origens desenvolvimentais dos transtornos mentais. RESULTADOS: A psicopatologia desenvolvimental entende que os transtornos mentais são possíveis desfechos do processo de desenvolvimento e são dependentes de influências sociais, genéticas e ambientais. Esses diversos fatores estão inter-relacionados de diferentes formas e em diferentes níveis, exercendo um efeito dimensional. São discutidos: a abordagens para determinar causalidade entre eventos ambientais e transtornos mentais; b a importância de entendimento dos mecanismos biológicos através dos quais fatores ambientais e genéticos atuam; c fatores genéticos predizendo a exposição a estressores ambientais; e d fatores genéticos moderando o efeito de estressores ambientais. CONCLUSÕES: As origens dos transtornos mentais podem ser iluminadas por dados de estudos que utilizam enfoques e conceitos complementares e que integrem influências sociais, genéticas, ambientais e desenvolvimentais.INTRODUCTION: Developmental psychopathology is a discipline that integrates epidemiological, social, genetic, developmental, and psychopathological perspectives to understand the origins and courses of mental disorders. In the present paper, theoretical concepts and approaches applied with the purpose of understanding the developmental origins of mental disorders are discussed. RESULTS: According to developmental psychopathology, mental disorders are possible outcomes of the developmental process that depend upon social, genetic, and environmental influences. These factors are linked in different ways and levels, exerting a dimensional effect. The following factors are addressed: a

  10. Differences in finger length ratio between males with autism, pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified, ADHD, and anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruin, Esther I; Verheij, Fop; Wiegman, T; Ferdinand, Robert F

    2006-12-01

    Children with autism have a relatively shorter index finger (2D) compared with their ring finger (4D). It is often presumed that the 2D:4D ratio is associated with fetal testosterone levels and that high fetal testosterone levels could play a role in the aetiology of autism. It is unknown whether this effect is specific to autism. In this study, 2D:4D ratios of 144 males aged 6 to 14 years (mean age 9y 1 mo [SD 1y 11 mo]) with psychiatric disorders were compared with those of 96 males aged 6 to 13 years from the general population (mean age 9y 1 mo [SD 1y 10 mo]). Psychiatric disorders were divided into autism/Asperger syndrome (n=24), pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS; n=26), attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)/oppositional defiant disorder (ODD; n=68), and anxiety disorders (n=26). Males with autism/Asperger syndrome (pADHD/ODD (pAsperger syndrome had lower ratios than those in the comparison group. These results indicated that higher fetal testosterone levels may play a role, not only in the origin of autism, but also in the aetiology of PDD-NOS and of ADHD/ODD. Males with anxiety disorders might have been exposed to lower prenatal testosterone levels.

  11. Depressive symptomatology in child and adolescent twins with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and/or developmental coordination disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piek, Jan P; Rigoli, Daniela; Pearsall-Jones, Jillian G; Martin, Neilson C; Hay, David A; Bennett, Kellie S; Levy, Florence

    2007-08-01

    Previous research has demonstrated a link between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), developmental coordination disorder (DCD), and depression. The present study utilized a monozygotic (MZ) differences design to investigate differences in depressive symptomatology between MZ twins discordant for ADHD or DCD. This extends previous research as it controls for genetic effects and shared environmental influences and enables the investigation of nonshared environmental influences. In addition, children and adolescents with comorbid ADHD and DCD were compared on their level of depressive symptomatology to those with ADHD only, DCD only, and no ADHD or DCD. The parent-rated Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD Symptoms and Normal Behavior, Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire, and Sad Affect Scale were used to assess ADHD, DCD, and depressive symptomatology respectively. The results revealed higher levels of depressive symptomatology in MZ twins with ADHD or DCD compared to their nonaffected co-twins. In addition, children and adolescents with comorbid ADHD and DCD demonstrated higher levels of depressive symptomatology compared to those with ADHD only, DCD only, and no ADHD or DCD. The implications of these findings are discussed with emphasis on understanding and recognizing the relationship between ADHD, DCD, and depression in the assessment and intervention for children and adolescents with these disorders.

  12. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of the pervasive developmental disorders rating scale for young children with autistic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaves, Ronald C; Williams, Thomas O

    2006-03-01

    In this study, the authors examined the construct validity of the Pervasive Developmental Disorder Rating Scale (PDDRS; R. C. Eaves, 1993), which is a screening instrument used to identify individuals with autistic disorder and other pervasive developmental disorders. The PDDRS is purported to measure 3 factors--arousal, affect, and cognition-that collectively make up the construct of autism. Using scores from 199 children (aged 1-6 years) diagnosed with autistic disorder, the authors submitted data to exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. In the 1st series of analyses, the authors analyzed a user-specified 3-factor solution using principal axis factor analysis with a promax rotation to evaluate the assertion of a correlated 3-factor structure. Next, the authors analyzed 1-factor and 2-factor solutions to determine if they provided a better factor structure for the data. In the 2nd series, the authors conducted confirmatory factor analyses, which compared the theorized hierarchical 2nd-order factor model with 5 plausible competing models. The results of the exploratory analyses supported the 3-factor solution. With the confirmatory analyses, the 2nd-order factor model provided the best fit for the data. The exploratory and confirmatory analyses supported the theoretical assumptions undergirding the development of the PDDRS. The authors discuss theoretical implications, practical implications, and areas for further research.

  13. Phenomenology and diagnosis of bipolar disorder in children, adolescents, and adults: complexities and developmental issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Gabrielle A; Meyer, Stephanie E

    2006-01-01

    This review addresses the phenomenology of mania/bipolar disorder from a developmental psychopathology perspective and uses cases with longitudinal information to illustrate major points. Beginning with a summary of the phenomenology of bipolar illness as it occurs in adults, the authors identify diagnostic complexities unique to children and adolescents. These include the challenges of characterizing elation and grandiosity; differentiating mania from comorbid symptoms, rages, sequelae of maltreatment, and typical developmental phenomena; and the unique manifestations of psychosis. We conclude with the observation that a significant difference between early and later onset bipolar disorder is that, in the former, there appears to be a global delay or arrest in the development of appropriate affect regulation; whereas in adult-onset bipolar illness, emotion dysregulation generally presents as an intermittent phenomenon. At this juncture, the study of childhood bipolar illness would benefit from a developmental psychopathology perspective to move beyond the level of cross-sectional symptom description to begin to study individuals over time, focusing on developmental, environmental, genetic, and neurobiological influences on manifest behavior.

  14. Developmental Trajectories in Children With and Without Autism Spectrum Disorders: The First 3 Years

    OpenAIRE

    Landa, Rebecca J.; Stuart, Elizabeth A.; Gross, Alden L.; Faherty, Ashley

    2012-01-01

    Retrospective studies indicate 2 major classes of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) onset: early and later, after a period of relatively healthy development. This prospective, longitudinal study examined social, language, and motor trajectories in 235 children with and without a sibling with autism, ages 6–36 months. Children were grouped as: ASD identified by 14 months, ASD identified after 14 months, and no ASD. Despite groups’ initial similar developmental level at 6 months, ASD groups exhibi...

  15. Head-Torso-Hand Coordination in Children with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elders, Vera; Sheehan, Sinead; Wilson, Andrew D.; Levesley, Martin; Bhakta, Bipin; Mon-Williams, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Aim: This study investigated the nature of coordination and control problems in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). Method: Seven adults (two males, five females, age range 20-28y; mean 23y, SD 2y 8mo) and eight children with DCD (six males, two females, age range 7-9y; mean 8y, SD 8mo), and 10 without DCD (seven males, three…

  16. The planning and organisation of action and activities of daily living in developmental coordination disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, Elisabeth L.

    2005-01-01

    By the time typical children reach infant school they have in place key movement skills such as running, hopping, jumping, throwing, kicking and writing (Gallahue & Ozmun, 1995; Haywood & Getchell, 2001). While these skills will continue to be refined throughout childhood, they reveal that children possess sophisticated movement planning, organisation and execution skills even at this young age. In this chapter the potential cognitive explanations for developmental coordination disorder, a di...

  17. Simple Mindreading Abilities Predict Complex Theory of Mind: Developmental Delay in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pino, Maria Chiara; Mazza, Monica; Mariano, Melania; Peretti, Sara; Dimitriou, Dagmara; Masedu, Francesco; Valenti, Marco; Franco, Fabia

    2017-01-01

    Theory of mind (ToM) is impaired in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The aims of this study were to: (i) examine the developmental trajectories of ToM abilities in two different mentalizing tasks in children with ASD compared to TD children; and (ii) to assess if a ToM simple test known as eyes-test could predict performance on…

  18. Motor imagery training for children with developmental coordination disorder: Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that the predictive control of movements is impaired in children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD), most likely due to a deficit in the internal modeling of movements. Motor imagery paradigms have been used to test this internal modeling deficit. The aim of the present study is to examine whether a training focused on the mental imagery of motor skills, can help to improve the motor abilities of children with DCD. Methods/Design A pre-post d...

  19. Optimal use of visual information in adolescents and young adults with developmental coordination disorder

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Recent reports offer contrasting views on whether or not the use of online visual control is impaired in individuals with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). This study explored the optimal temporal basis for processing and using visual information in adolescents and young adults with DCD. Participants were 22 adolescents and young adults (12 males and 10 females; M = 19 years, SD = 3). Half had been diagnosed with DCD as children and still performed poorly on the movement assessment b...

  20. Developmental changes in mu suppression to observed and executed actions in autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Oberman, Lindsay M.; McCleery, Joseph P.; Hubbard, Edward M.; Bernier, Raphael; Wiersema, Roeljan; Raymaekers, Ruth; Pineda, Jaime A.

    2012-01-01

    There has been debate over whether disruptions in the mirror neuron system (MNS) play a key role in the core social deficits observed in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). EEG mu suppression during the observation of biological actions is believed to reflect MNS functioning, but understanding of the developmental progression of the MNS and EEG mu rhythm in both typical and atypical development is lacking. To provide a more thorough and direct exploration of the development of mu suppression in ...

  1. Model for Service Delivery for Developmental Disorders in Low-Income Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdani, Syed Usman; Minhas, Fareed Aslam; Iqbal, Zafar; Rahman, Atif

    2015-12-01

    As in many low-income countries, the treatment gap for developmental disorders in rural Pakistan is near 100%. We integrated social, technological, and business innovations to develop and pilot a potentially sustainable service for children with developmental disorders in 1 rural area. Families with developmental disorders were identified through a mobile phone-based interactive voice response system, and organized into "Family Networks." "Champion" family volunteers were trained in evidence-based interventions. An Avatar-assisted Cascade Training and information system was developed to assist with training, implementation, monitoring, and supervision. In a population of ∼30,000, we successfully established 1 self-sustaining Family Network consisting of 10 trained champion family volunteers working under supervision of specialists, providing intervention to 70 families of children with developmental disorders. Each champion was responsible for training and providing ongoing support to 5 to 7 families from his or her village, and the families supported each other in management of their children. A pre-post evaluation of the program indicated that there was significant improvement in disability and socioemotional difficulties in the child, reduction in stigmatizing experiences, and greater family empowerment to seek services and community resources for the child. There was no change in caregivers' well-being. To replicate this service more widely, a social franchise model has been developed whereby the integrated intervention will be "boxed" up and passed on to others to replicate with appropriate support. Such integrated social, technological, and business innovations have the potential to be applied to other areas of health in low-income countries.

  2. Clinical expression of developmental coordination disorder in a large Canadian family

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies of the phenotype of developmental coordination disorder (DCD) have largely concentrated on population-based samples. The present study reports on an in-depth examination of a large Canadian family with eight children, after three children who were suspected to have DCD were referred for evaluation. Subsequently, five of the six children whose motor impairments could be measured, and the mother, met the diagnostic criteria for DCD as per the American Psychiatric Association’s ...

  3. How common are motor problems in children with a developmental disorder: rule or exception?

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Background Few co-morbidity studies have been conducted since the Leeds Consensus Statement on developmental co-ordination disorder (DCD) in 2006. In this Statement, international cut-offs and inclusion criteria were agreed and consequently, the status of DCD changed. Furthermore, most existing co-morbidity studies are small clinical studies, rather than epidemiological studies, resulting in a broad range of co-morbidity rates. DCD has a higher incidence for boys in comparison with girls; que...

  4. Cross-sectional study of executive functioning in children with developmental coordination disorders

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Background Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) have multiple impairments in movement, in learning, and in the activities of daily living. Studies from other countries have associated these impairments with cognitive function, particularly executive functioning, but these findings have not been confirmed in China. Aim Compare the executive functioning of children with DCD with that of normal children. Methods The Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) was administered to 39 chi...

  5. Visual perceptual and handwriting skills in children with Developmental Coordination Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder demonstrate a lack of automaticity in handwriting as measured by pauses during writing. Deficits in visual perception have been proposed in the literature as underlying mechanisms of handwriting difficulties in children with DCD. The aim of this study was to examine whether correlations exist between measures of visual perception and visual motor integration with measures of the handwriting product and process in children with DCD. ...

  6. Children with developmental problems and disorders : selected aspects of motor and multidisciplinary assessment and intervention

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    The general aim of this thesis was to apply a multidisciplinary approach to selected clinical aspects of children with developmental problems and disorders, in order to contribute to the development of assessment and intervention strategies. Motor coordination difficulties were particularly focused. The following aspects were investigated in the separate studies: - Behaviour, cognitive, linguistic and motor skills were assessed in 6-year old children considered at risk with regard to...

  7. High incidence of sleep problems in children with developmental disorders: results of a questionnaire survey in a Japanese elementary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Michiko; Nagamitsu, Shinichiro; Iwasaki, Mizue; Iemura, Akiko; Yamashita, Yushiro; Maeda, Masaharu; Kitani, Shingo; Kakuma, Tatsuyuki; Uchimura, Naohisa; Matsuishi, Toyojiro

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present school-based questionnaire was to analyze the sleep problems of children with developmental disorders, such as pervasive developmental disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The sleep problems of 43 children with developmental disorders were compared with those of 372 healthy children (control group). All children attended one public elementary school in Kurume, Japan; thus, the study avoided the potential bias associated with hospital-based surveys (i.e. a high prevalence of sleep disturbance) and provided a more complete picture of the children's academic performance and family situation compared with a control group under identical conditions. Children's sleep problems were measured with the Japanese version of the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ). Children with developmental disorders had significantly higher total CSHQ scores, as well as mean scores on the parasomnias and sleep breathing subscales, than children in the control group. The total CSHQ score, bedtime resistance, sleep onset delay, and daytime sleepiness worsened with increasing age in children with developmental disorders; in contrast, these parameters were unchanged or became better with age in the control group. In children with developmental disorders, there was a significant association between a higher total CSHQ score and lower academic performance, but no such association was found in the control group. For both groups, children's sleep problems affected their parents' quality of sleep. There were no significant differences in physical, lifestyle, and sleep environmental factors, or in sleep/wake patterns, between the two groups. Children with developmental disorders have poor sleep quality, which may affect academic performance. It is important for physicians to be aware of age-related differences in sleep problems in children with developmental disorders. Further studies are needed to identify the association between sleep quality and

  8. A longitudinal study of personality disorders in individuals with and without a history of developmental language disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, Svend-Erik; Hauschild, Karen-Marie

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally developmental language disorders (DLDs) have been studied with focus on psycholinguistic and cognitive implications, and little is known of the long-term psychosocial outcomes of individuals diagnosed with a DLD as children. The objective of this study was to compare the prevalence...... observation time was 34.7 years, and mean age at follow-up was 35.8 years. Of the 469 individuals with DLD, 23 (4.9%) were known in DPCR with a PD diagnosis, compared with 51/2,345 (2.2%) in the control group (P=0.0007). Variables at assessment in childhood (gender, IQ, presence of a receptive language...... disorder, and degree of receptive and expressive language disorder) were not associated with a PD diagnosis in the DPCR at follow-up. Our results provide additional support to the notion that DLD is a marker of increased vulnerability to the development of a PD in adulthood and emphasizes that more...

  9. Impaired letter-string processing in developmental dyslexia: what visual-to-phonology code mapping disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdois, Sylviane; Lassus-Sangosse, Delphine; Lobier, Muriel

    2012-05-01

    Poor parallel letter-string processing in developmental dyslexia was taken as evidence of poor visual attention (VA) span, that is, a limitation of visual attentional resources that affects multi-character processing. However, the use of letter stimuli in oral report tasks was challenged on its capacity to highlight a VA span disorder. In particular, report of poor letter/digit-string processing but preserved symbol-string processing was viewed as evidence of poor visual-to-phonology code mapping, in line with the phonological theory of developmental dyslexia. We assessed here the visual-to-phonological-code mapping disorder hypothesis. In Experiment 1, letter-string, digit-string and colour-string processing was assessed to disentangle a phonological versus visual familiarity account of the letter/digit versus symbol dissociation. Against a visual-to-phonological-code mapping disorder but in support of a familiarity account, results showed poor letter/digit-string processing but preserved colour-string processing in dyslexic children. In Experiment 2, two tasks of letter-string report were used, one of which was performed simultaneously to a high-taxing phonological task. Results show that dyslexic children are similarly impaired in letter-string report whether a concurrent phonological task is simultaneously performed or not. Taken together, these results provide strong evidence against a phonological account of poor letter-string processing in developmental dyslexia.

  10. Developmental Trajectories of Disordered Eating from Early Adolescence to Young Adulthood: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slane, Jennifer D.; Klump, Kelly L.; McGue, Matthew; Iacono, William G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Research examining changes in eating disorder symptoms across adolescence suggests an increase in disordered eating from early to late adolescence. However, relevant studies have largely been cross-sectional in nature and most have not examined the changes in the attitudinal symptoms of eating disorders (e.g., weight concerns). This longitudinal study aimed to address gaps in the available data by examining the developmental trajectories of disordered eating in females from preadolescence into young adulthood. Method Participants were 745 same-sex female twins from the Minnesota Twin Family Study. Disordered eating was assessed using the Total Score, Body Dissatisfaction subscale, Weight Preoccupation subscale, and a combined Binge Eating and Compensatory Behavior subscale from the Minnesota Eating Behavior Survey assessed at the ages of 11, 14, 18, 21, and 25. Several latent growth models were fit to the data to identify the trajectory that most accurately captures the changes in disordered eating symptoms from 11 to 25 years. Results The best-fitting models for overall levels of disordered eating, body dissatisfaction, and weight preoccupation showed an increase in from 11 through 25 years. In contrast, bulimic behaviors increased to age of 18 and then stabilized to age of 25. Discussion The findings expanded upon extant research by investigating longitudinal, symptom specific, within-person changes and showing an increase in cognitive symptoms into young adulthood and the stability of disordered eating behaviors past late adolescence. PMID:24995824

  11. An Examination of Specific Child Behavior Problems as Predictors of Parenting Stress among Families of Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Allyson L.; Neece, Cameron L.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Studies have shown that parents of children with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) exhibit higher levels of stress than parents of typically developing children or children with other types of developmental delays (DD). This relationship appears to be mediated by elevated levels of behavior problems observed in children with…

  12. Gesture Production in School vs. Clinical Samples of Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) and Typically Developing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinani, Charikleia; Sugden, David A.; Hill, Elisabeth L.

    2011-01-01

    Dyspraxia, a difficulty in executing an operationalised act, has been associated with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD). However, issues relating to the area such as comparisons across modalities, comparisons of school vs. clinical populations, and developmental delay vs. pathology have not been addressed in the same, comprehensive study.…

  13. White matter microstructure and developmental improvement of hyperactive/impulsive symptoms in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francx, W.C.L.; Zwiers, M.P.; Mennes, M.J.J.; Oosterlaan, J.; Heslenfeld, D.J.; Hoekstra, P.J.; Hartman, C.A.; Franke, B.; Faraone, S.V; O'Dwyer, L.G.; Buitelaar, J.

    2015-01-01

    Background A developmental improvement of symptoms in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is frequently reported, but the underlying neurobiological substrate has not been identified. The aim of this study was to determine whether white matter microstructure is related to developmental i

  14. White matter microstructure and developmental improvement of hyperactive/impulsive symptoms in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francx, Winke; Zwiers, Marcel P.; Mennes, Maarten; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Heslenfeld, Dirk; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Franke, Barbara; Faraone, Stephen V.; O'Dwyer, Laurence; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: A developmental improvement of symptoms in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is frequently reported, but the underlying neurobiological substrate has not been identified. The aim of this study was to determine whether white matter microstructure is related to developmental

  15. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in a clinic sample of children and adolescents with pervasive developmental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Douglas O; Ousley, Opal Y

    2006-12-01

    The aims of this systematic chart review were to determine the frequency of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a clinic sample of children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), to compare ADHD symptoms in children with Autistic Disorder, Asperger's Disorder, and pervasive developmental disorders-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), to compare ADHD symptoms in individuals with and without ADHD-related chief complaints, and to determine the correlation between ADHD Rating Scale (ADHD RS) scores and age. This systematic chart review examined data from children and adolescents who were consecutively referred to a university-based autism psychopharmacology program. All individuals were diagnosed by semistructured interview for ASD and ADHD, and ADHD symptoms were assessed using ADHD RS scores. Of 83 children, 78% fulfilled Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV) criteria for ADHD and exceeded the 93rd percentile norm for the ADHD RS. Hyperactivity-impulsivity scores were significantly greater in individuals with autism than those with other ASDs. DSM-IV ADHD diagnosis was represented equally in individuals with and without ADHD as their chief complaints. ADHD RS hyperactivity-impulsivity and total scores were negatively correlated with age. ADHD symptoms are pervasive in clinically referred children and adolescents with ASD.

  16. Developmental regulation of neuroligin genes in Japanese ricefish (Oryzias latipes) embryogenesis maintains the rhythm during ethanol-induced fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haron, Mona H; Khan, Ikhlas A; Dasmahapatra, Asok K

    2014-01-01

    Although prenatal alcohol exposure is the potential cause of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) in humans, the molecular mechanism(s) of FASD is yet unknown. We have used Japanese ricefish (Oryzias latipes) embryogenesis as an animal model of FASD and reported that this model has effectively generated several phenotypic features in the cardiovasculature and neurocranial cartilages by developmental ethanol exposure which is analogous to human FASD phenotypes. As FASD is a neurobehavioral disorder, we are searching for a molecular target of ethanol that alters neurological functions. In this communication, we have focused on neuroligin genes (nlgn) which are known to be active at the postsynaptic side of both excitatory and inhibitory synapses of the central nervous system. There are six human NLGN homologs of Japanese ricefish reported in public data bases. We have partially cloned these genes and analyzed their expression pattern during normal development and also after exposing the embryos to ethanol. Our data indicate that the expression of all six nlgn genes in Japanese ricefish embryos is developmentally regulated. Although ethanol is able to induce developmental abnormalities in Japanese ricefish embryogenesis comparable to the FASD phenotypes, quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) analysis of nlgn mRNAs indicate unresponsiveness of these genes to ethanol. We conclude that the disruption of the developmental rhythm of Japanese ricefish embryogenesis by ethanol that leads to FASD may not affect the nlgn gene expression at the message level.

  17. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Risk of Substance Use Disorder: Developmental Considerations, Potential Pathways, and Opportunities for Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Brooke S.G.; Pelham, William E.

    2014-01-01

    Many opportunities to explain ADHD-related risk of substance use/disorder (SUD) remain available for study. We detail these opportunities by considering characteristics of children with ADHD and factors affecting their outcomes side-by-side with overlapping variables in the developmental literature on SUD etiology. Although serious conduct problems are a known contributor to ADHD-related risk of SUD, few studies have considered their emergence developmentally and in relation to other candidate mediators and moderators that could also explain risk and be intervention targets. Common ADHD-related impairments, such as school difficulties, are in need of research. Heterogeneous social impairments have the potential for predisposing, and buffering, influences. Research on neurocognitive domains should move beyond standard executive function batteries to measure deficits in the interface between cognitive control, reward, and motivation. Ultimately, maximizing prediction will depend, as it has in the SUD literature, on simultaneous consideration of multiple risk factors. PMID:24437435

  18. Parent Report and Actigraphically Defined Sleep in Children with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder; Links with Fatigue and Sleepiness

    OpenAIRE

    Luci Wiggs; Anna Barnett; Masako Sparrowhawk

    2016-01-01

    Background Impaired sleep is associated with negative effects on quality of life and daytime functioning. Higher rates of sleep disturbance are reported in children with various developmental disorders. However, little is known about sleep in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD), a condition characterized by everyday movement difficulties. Previously, in a preliminary study, we found higher rates of parent-reported sleep disturbance in children with DCD compared to controls...

  19. Adaptation and Extension of the European Recommendations (EACD) on Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) for the UK context

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background: Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) affects the learning and performance of everyday motor skills. It commonly co-occurs with other 10 developmental disorders and a range of associated psycho-social impairments. Recent evidence-based guidelines on diagnosis, assessment, and intervention provide valuable information for practitioners. However these are directed primarily at German speaking countries and focus on work with children. Aim: The aim of this project was to cons...

  20. [Non-speech oral motor treatment efficacy for children with developmental speech sound disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ygual-Fernandez, A; Cervera-Merida, J F

    2016-01-01

    In the treatment of speech disorders by means of speech therapy two antagonistic methodological approaches are applied: non-verbal ones, based on oral motor exercises (OME), and verbal ones, which are based on speech processing tasks with syllables, phonemes and words. In Spain, OME programmes are called 'programas de praxias', and are widely used and valued by speech therapists. To review the studies conducted on the effectiveness of OME-based treatments applied to children with speech disorders and the theoretical arguments that could justify, or not, their usefulness. Over the last few decades evidence has been gathered about the lack of efficacy of this approach to treat developmental speech disorders and pronunciation problems in populations without any neurological alteration of motor functioning. The American Speech-Language-Hearing Association has advised against its use taking into account the principles of evidence-based practice. The knowledge gathered to date on motor control shows that the pattern of mobility and its corresponding organisation in the brain are different in speech and other non-verbal functions linked to nutrition and breathing. Neither the studies on their effectiveness nor the arguments based on motor control studies recommend the use of OME-based programmes for the treatment of pronunciation problems in children with developmental language disorders.

  1. Anterior capsulotomy improves persistent developmental stuttering with a psychiatric disorder: a case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang SZ

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Shizhen Zhang,* Peng Li,* Zhujun Zhang, Wei WangDepartment of Neurosurgery, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan Province, People's Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Stuttering is characterized by disrupted fluency of verbal expression, and occurs mostly in children. Persistent developmental stuttering (PDS may occur in adults. Reports of the surgical management of PDS are limited. Here we present the case of a 28-year-old man who had had PDS since the age of 7 years, was diagnosed with depression and anxiety disorder at the age of 24 years, and had physical concomitants. He underwent a bilateral anterior capsulotomy 4 years after the diagnosis. Over one year of follow-up, his physical concomitants resolved, and significant improvements in his psychiatric disorders and PDS were observed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of simultaneous improvement in a patient's PDS and psychiatric disorder after a bilateral anterior capsulotomy.Keywords: persistent developmental stuttering, psychiatric disorders, anterior capsulotomy

  2. Aspects of Piaget's cognitive developmental psychology and neurobiology of psychotic disorders - an integrative model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhardt, Stefan; Grant, Phillip; von Georgi, Richard; Huber, Martin T

    2008-09-01

    Psychological, neurobiological and neurodevelopmental approaches have frequently been used to provide pathogenic concepts on psychotic disorders. However, aspects of cognitive developmental psychology have hardly been considered in current models. Using a hypothesis-generating approach an integration of these concepts was conducted. According to Piaget (1896-1980), assimilation and accommodation as forms of maintenance and modification of cognitive schemata represent fundamental processes of the brain. In general, based on the perceived input stimuli, cognitive schemata are developed resulting in a conception of the world, the realistic validity and the actuality of which is still being controlled and modified by cognitive adjustment processes. In psychotic disorders, however, a disproportion of environmental demands and the ability to activate required neuronal adaptation processes occurs. We therefore hypothesize a failure of the adjustment of real and requested output patterns. As a consequence autonomous cognitive schemata are generated, which fail to adjust with reality resulting in psychotic symptomatology. Neurobiological, especially neuromodulatory and neuroplastic processes play a central role in these perceptive and cognitive processes. In conclusion, integration of cognitive developmental psychology into the existing pathogenic concepts of psychotic disorders leads to interesting insights into basic disease mechanisms and also guides future research in the cognitive neuroscience of such disorders.

  3. Social Outcomes in Childhood Brain Disorder: A Heuristic Integration of Social Neuroscience and Developmental Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeates, Keith Owen; Bigler, Erin D.; Dennis, Maureen; Gerhardt, Cynthia A.; Rubin, Kenneth H.; Stancin, Terry; Taylor, H. Gerry; Vannatta, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    The authors propose a heuristic model of the social outcomes of childhood brain disorder that draws on models and methods from both the emerging field of social cognitive neuroscience and the study of social competence in developmental psychology/psychopathology. The heuristic model characterizes the relationships between social adjustment, peer interactions and relationships, social problem solving and communication, social-affective and cognitive-executive processes, and their neural substrates. The model is illustrated by research on a specific form of childhood brain disorder, traumatic brain injury. The heuristic model may promote research regarding the neural and cognitive-affective substrates of children’s social development. It also may engender more precise methods of measuring impairments and disabilities in children with brain disorder and suggest ways to promote their social adaptation. PMID:17469991

  4. Social outcomes in childhood brain disorder: a heuristic integration of social neuroscience and developmental psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeates, Keith Owen; Bigler, Erin D; Dennis, Maureen; Gerhardt, Cynthia A; Rubin, Kenneth H; Stancin, Terry; Taylor, H Gerry; Vannatta, Kathryn

    2007-05-01

    The authors propose a heuristic model of the social outcomes of childhood brain disorder that draws on models and methods from both the emerging field of social cognitive neuroscience and the study of social competence in developmental psychology/psychopathology. The heuristic model characterizes the relationships between social adjustment, peer interactions and relationships, social problem solving and communication, social-affective and cognitive-executive processes, and their neural substrates. The model is illustrated by research on a specific form of childhood brain disorder, traumatic brain injury. The heuristic model may promote research regarding the neural and cognitive-affective substrates of children's social development. It also may engender more precise methods of measuring impairments and disabilities in children with brain disorder and suggest ways to promote their social adaptation.

  5. Procedural Learning in Children With Developmental Coordination, Reading, and Attention Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magallón, Sara; Crespo-Eguílaz, Nerea; Narbona, Juan

    2015-10-01

    The aim is to assess repetition-based learning of procedures in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD), reading disorder (RD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Participants included 187 children, studied in 4 groups: (a) DCD comorbid with RD and ADHD (DCD+RD+ADHD) (n = 30); (b) RD comorbid with ADHD (RD+ADHD) (n = 48); (c) ADHD (n = 19); and typically developing children (control group) (n = 90). Two procedural learning tasks were used: Assembly learning and Mirror drawing. Children were tested on 4 occasions for each task: 3 trials were consecutive and the fourth trial was performed after an interference task. Task performance by DCD+RD+ADHD children improved with training (P DCD+RD+ADHD improve in their use of cognitive-motor procedures over a short training period. Aims of intervention in DCD+RD+ADHD should be based on individual learning abilities.

  6. Correlation between developmental disorders and MRI findings in very low birth weight infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, Kuniaki; Endo, Shoichi; Goda, Tomoko; Ota, Akira; Akita, Yuji; Furukawa, Seikyo (Kagawa Children' s National Sanatorium, Zentsuji (Japan))

    1994-08-01

    We investigated the prevalence of developmental disorders in very low birth weight infants, their risk factors during the neonatal period, and the correlation between their neurological symptoms and their MRI findings. Seventy-three infants, who were followed up for more than 5 years in the developmental clinic, were enrolled. The developmental disorders included 6 patients with cerebral palsy (CP) and 6 patients with mental retardation (MR). The types of CP were as follows: spastic diplegia (3), spastic quadriplegia (2), athetotic quadriplegia (1). Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and mechanical ventilation (MV) were significant risk factors for CP and MR and retinopathy was also a significant risk factor for MR. Periventricular areas of bright signal intensity on T2 (TR 2000 msec/TE 120 mse) weighted images, compatible with old, small white matter infarcts, gliosis or demyelination, were observed in only three of the seven patients. We measured the width of anterior horns, the maximum diameter of cerebrum, and the minimum thickness of white matter in occipital lobe on T1 (TR 500 msec/TE 20 msec) weighted transaxial images in eight patients (five patients with CP, three patients with MR). The maximum diameters of cerebrums and the minimum thickness of white matters were significantly smaller in patients with CP or MR than those in controls, respectively. The DQ of patients significantly correlated with the maximum diameters of cerebrums and the minimum thickness of white matters in left occipital lobe significantly correlated with DQ. (author).

  7. Editorial: New frontiers in the scientific study of developmental language disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbury, Courtenay Frazier; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund

    2017-10-01

    Developmental language disorders (DLD) are common and have far-reaching developmental consequences. Nevertheless, public awareness of DLD is poor, and one goal of this special issue is to showcase a set of papers that provide a clear and coherent message about the nature and impact of DLD, and the potential of intervention to mitigate these impacts. In this editorial, we highlight seminal papers JCPP has published on language disorders over the last 40 years. Many of the issues raised then are still relevant now; however, the papers that comprise this special issue exemplify how far the field has come in achieving consensus on terminology and diagnostic criteria, and producing highly consistent findings on the stability and impact of DLD, and the potential for language change in response to targeted interventions. The editorial concludes with a road map for future research and clinical priorities that includes the need for randomised controlled trials that specifically address the impact of co-morbidities on response to treatment, impacts of intervention on broader developmental outcomes, and the experiences of adults with DLD. © 2017 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  8. Rhythmic auditory stimulation influences syntactic processing in children with developmental language disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybylski, Lauranne; Bedoin, Nathalie; Krifi-Papoz, Sonia; Herbillon, Vania; Roch, Didier; Léculier, Laure; Kotz, Sonja A; Tillmann, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Children with developmental language disorders have been shown to be impaired not only in language processing (including syntax), but also in rhythm and meter perception. Our study tested the influence of external rhythmic auditory stimulation (i.e., musical rhythm) on syntax processing in children with specific language impairment (SLI; Experiment 1A) and dyslexia (Experiment 1B). Children listened to either regular or irregular musical prime sequences followed by blocks of grammatically correct and incorrect sentences. They were required to perform grammaticality judgments for each auditorily presented sentence. Performance of all children (SLI, dyslexia, and controls) in the grammaticality judgments was better after regular prime sequences than after irregular prime sequences, as shown by d' data. The benefit of the regular prime was stronger for SLI children (partial η2 = .34) than for dyslexic children (partial η2 = .14), who reached higher performance levels. Together with previous findings on deficits in temporal processing and sequencing, as well as with the recent proposition of a temporal sampling (oscillatory) framework for developmental language disorders (U. A. Goswami, 2011, Temporal sampling framework for developmental dyslexia, Trends in Cognitive Sciences, Vol. 15, pp. 3-10), our results point to potential avenues in using rhythmic structures (even in nonverbal materials) to boost linguistic structure processing.

  9. Analysis of the synthetic house-tree-person drawing test for developmental disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Chikako; Okada, Ayumi; Akagi, Tomoko; Shigeyasu, Yoshie; Shimauchi, Aya; Hosogi, Mizuho; Munemori, Eriko; Ocho, Keiko; Morishima, Tsuneo

    2016-01-01

    Some patients cannot draw three subjects on the same page during the synthetic house-tree-person drawing test (S-HTP). We call this phenomenon "no synthetic sign". The aim of this study was to clarify the pathological meaning of no synthetic sign and investigate its use for the early detection of developmental disorders at a pediatric primary care center. We administered the S-HTP to 283 people who consulted the child psychosomatic medical clinic of Okayama University Hospital in 2007-2012. We diagnosed developmental disability based on DSM-IV-TR criteria and compared findings between the different diagnostic groups. A total of 241 patients completed the S-HTP (S-HTP group) and 22 patients were not able to complete the S-HTP, but did complete the HTP (an original version of the S-HTP) or tree test (HTP group). Significantly more people in the HTP group had autism spectrum disorder (ASD) compared with the S-HTP group. Full-scale intelligence quotient was significantly lower in the HTP group compared with the S-HTP group. There were two types of patients with no synthetic sign. The first involved patients with a suspected mental age younger than 5 years 11 months. The second type consisted of patients with ASD. Although drawing ability reflects multiple domains, it may help in early identification of children with developmental problems and facilitate earlier initiation of interventions. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  10. Quality of life domains affected in children with developmental coordination disorder: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwicker, J G; Harris, S R; Klassen, A F

    2013-07-01

    The quality of life (QOL) of children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is largely unknown, but evidence suggests that multiple QOL domains are affected by the disorder. While DCD is primarily considered a motor disorder, multiple studies have reported psychological and social concerns in children with this condition. Our primary aim was to present the current state of the evidence regarding the physical, psychological, and social QOL domains that can be affected in children with DCD. Systematic review of articles from seven databases through November 2010 (MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ERIC, CDSR, DARE) was conducted. Search terms included developmental coordination disorder, dyspraxia, quality of life, life satisfaction, well-being, activities of daily living, and participation. Two independent reviewers screened titles, abstracts, and full-text articles. Studies meeting the following criteria were selected: (1) sample comprised solely of individuals with coordination difficulties consistent with DCD; (2) outcome measures related to physical, psychological, or socials domains of QOL; and (3) articles published in English. Data were extracted by one author and verified by a second. Outcomes were categorized according to physical, psychological and social domains of QOL and study quality was rated by case definitions of DCD based on diagnostic criteria as per the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual - 4th edition. Forty-one articles were included. Most studies reported significantly poorer results in physical, psychological and social functioning in children with DCD compared with peers. Despite the impact of DCD on multiple domains, only one study used a QOL measure as an outcome. Although DCD impacts several QOL domains, the QOL of children with this disorder remains largely unknown. The next critical step is for clinicians and researchers to use QOL measures to gather information on how DCD may affect the QOL of children with this disorder.

  11. Bisphenol A and congenital developmental defects in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guida, Maurizio [Department of Medicine, University of Salerno (Italy); Troisi, Jacopo, E-mail: j.troisi@studenti.unisa.it [Department of Medicine, University of Salerno (Italy); Ciccone, Carla [“G. Moscati” Hospital Avellino (Italy); Granozio, Giovanni; Cosimato, Cosimo [Department of Medicine, University of Salerno (Italy); Sardo, Attilio Di Spiezio; Ferrara, Cinzia [Department of Medicine, “Federico II”, University of Naples (Italy); Guida, Marco [Department of Biology, “Federico II”, University of Naples (Italy); Nappi, Carmine [Department of Medicine, “Federico II”, University of Naples (Italy); Zullo, Fulvio [Department of Medicine, University of Salerno (Italy); Di Carlo, Costantino [Department of Medicine, “Federico II”, University of Naples (Italy)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • We show a correlation between environmental exposure to BPA and fetal malformations in humans. • We show that a reduced ability to metabolize the BPA in the mother can concur to the occurrence of malformations. • The average value of free BPA appears to be nearly three times greater in case of chromosomal malformations than the controls. - Abstract: Over 50% of the causes of fetal malformations in humans are still unknown. Recent evidence suggests the relationship between environmental exposure to endocrine disruptors and fetal malformations. Our study aims to establish the role of Bisphenol A (BPA), if any, in altering human reproduction. We enrolled 151 pregnant women who were divided into two groups: case group (CS, n = 101), women with established diagnosis of developmental defect, and control group (CL, n = 50), pregnant women with normally developed fetus. Total, free and conjugated BPA were measured in their blood using GC–MS with isotopic dilution. The results show a correlation between environmental exposure to BPA and the genesis of fetal malformations. Conjugated BPA, which was higher in the CL, casts light on the hypothesis that a reduced ability to metabolize the chemical in the mother can concur to the occurrence of malformation. In a more detailed manner, in case of chromosomal malformations, the average value of free BPA appears to be nearly three times greater than that of the controls. Similarly, in case of central and peripheral nervous system non-chromosomal malformations, the value of free BPA is nearly two times greater than that of the controls.

  12. [The effect of parent training program on children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorders and/or pervasive developmental disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motoyama, Kazunori; Matsuzaka, Tetsuo; Nagaoka, Tamao; Matsuo, Mitsuhiro

    2012-07-01

    Mothers of 18 children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorders (AD/HD) and 6 with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) underwent a parent training (PT) program. After the program, the Beck Depression Inventory- II (BDI - II) score, which indicates parenting stress, significantly decreased from 15 to 8 (p=0.036). A total of 22 mothers had increased parenting self-esteem, and better parent-child relationships were noted in these cases. An analysis of children's behavior by using Achenbach's Child Behavior Checklist showed that introversion tendency, physical failure, aggressive behavior, and extroversion score improved significantly after PT (pchildren and continued in 5. We conclude that PT for mothers of children with AD/HD and/or high-functioning PDD is effective in improving both the parenting skills of mothers and adaptive behaviors of children.

  13. Modeling human craniofacial disorders in Xenopus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Aditi; Saint-Jeannet, Jean-Pierre

    2017-03-01

    Craniofacial disorders are among the most common human birth defects and present an enormous health care and social burden. The development of animal models has been instrumental to investigate fundamental questions in craniofacial biology and this knowledge is critical to understand the etiology and pathogenesis of these disorders. The vast majority of craniofacial disorders arise from abnormal development of the neural crest, a multipotent and migratory cell population. Therefore, defining the pathogenesis of these conditions starts with a deep understanding of the mechanisms that preside over neural crest formation and its role in craniofacial development. This review discusses several studies using Xenopus embryos to model human craniofacial conditions, and emphasizes the strength of this system to inform important biological processes as they relate to human craniofacial development and disease.

  14. Regression, developmental trajectory and associated problems in disorders in the autism spectrum: the SNAP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Gillian; Charman, Tony; Pickles, Andrew; Chandler, Susie; Loucas, Tom; Meldrum, David; Carcani-Rathwell, Iris; Serkana, Devanitha; Simonoff, Emily

    2008-11-01

    We report rates of regression and associated findings in a population derived group of 255 children aged 9-14 years, participating in a prevalence study of autism spectrum disorders (ASD); 53 with narrowly defined autism, 105 with broader ASD and 97 with non-ASD neurodevelopmental problems, drawn from those with special educational needs within a population of 56,946 children. Language regression was reported in 30% with narrowly defined autism, 8% with broader ASD and less than 3% with developmental problems without ASD. A smaller group of children were identified who underwent a less clear setback. Regression was associated with higher rates of autistic symptoms and a deviation in developmental trajectory. Regression was not associated with epilepsy or gastrointestinal problems.

  15. Human imprinting disorders: Principles, practice, problems and progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, Deborah J G; Temple, I Karen

    2017-11-01

    Epigenetic regulation orchestrates gene expression with exquisite precision, over a huge dynamic range and across developmental space and time, permitting genomically-homogeneous humans to develop and adapt to their surroundings. Every generation, these epigenetic marks are re-set twice: in the germline, to enable differentiation of sperm and eggs, and at fertilisation, to create the totipotent zygote that then begins growth and differentiation into a new human. A small group of genes evades the second, zygotic wave of epigenetic reprogramming, and these genes retain an epigenetic 'imprint' of the parent from whom they were inherited. Imprinted genes are (as a general rule) expressed from one parental allele only. Some imprinted genes are critical regulators of growth and development, and thus disruption of their normal monoallelic expression causes congenital imprinting disorders, with clinical features impacting growth, development, behaviour and metabolism. Imprinting disorders as a group have characteristics that challenge diagnosis and management, including clinical and molecular heterogeneity, overlapping clinical features, somatic mosaicism, and multi-locus involvement. New insights into the biology and epigenomics of the early embryo offers new clues about the origin and importance of imprinting disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparison of motor deficits in autism spectrum disorder and developmental coordination disorder

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is an umbrella term for disorders involving deficits in social interaction, stereotyped behaviours and communication dificulties. A growing area of research has recently focused on motor deficits in ASD, which have been noted in clinical observations and diagnostic criteria since autism was first described. However, motor deficits have traditionally carried little weight in the diagnostic procedure. Until recent changes to diagnostic criteria (Diagnostic and Sta...

  17. Differences in Motor Imagery between Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder with and without the Combined Type of ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Matthew; Vance, Alasdair; Maruff, Paul; Wilson, Peter; Cairney, Sheree

    2008-01-01

    It has been proposed, and questioned, whether motor impairments in attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder, combined type (ADHD-C) alone, developmental coordination disorder (DCD) alone, and ADHD-C and comorbid DCD (ADHD-C/DCD) may arise from disruption to a common set of cognitive functions and their related neural substrate. This study examined…

  18. Locus of Control Fails to Mediate between Stress and Anxiety and Depression in Parents of Children with a Developmental Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlyn-Wright, Sarah; Draghi-Lorenz, Riccardo; Ellis, Jason

    2007-01-01

    Stress, anxiety and depression are raised amongst parents of children with a developmental disorder. However, the processes by which stress leads to depression and anxiety are poorly understood. In a cross-sectional survey, levels of parental stress, depression and anxiety were compared between parents of children with an autistic disorder,…

  19. Neural Dissociation of Phonological and Visual Attention Span Disorders in Developmental Dyslexia: fMRI Evidence from Two Case Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyrin, C.; Lallier, M.; Demonet, J. F.; Pernet, C.; Baciu, M.; Le Bas, J. F.; Valdois, S.

    2012-01-01

    A dissociation between phonological and visual attention (VA) span disorders has been reported in dyslexic children. This study investigates whether this cognitively-based dissociation has a neurobiological counterpart through the investigation of two cases of developmental dyslexia. LL showed a phonological disorder but preserved VA span whereas…

  20. Oral Language Impairments in Developmental Disorders Characterized by Language Strengths: A Comparison of Asperger Syndrome and Nonverbal Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stothers, M. E.; Cardy, J. Oram

    2012-01-01

    Asperger syndrome (AS) and nonverbal learning disabilities (NLD) are developmental disorders in which linguistic ability is reported to be stronger than in disorders from which they must be distinguished for diagnosis. Children and adults with AS and NLD share pragmatic weaknesses, atypical social behaviours, and some cognitive features. To date,…

  1. Differential Language Markers of Pathology in Autism, Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified and Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demouy, Julie; Plaza, Monique; Xavier, Jean; Ringeval, Fabien; Chetouani, Mohamed; Perisse, Didier; Chauvin, Dominique; Viaux, Sylvie; Golse, Bernard; Cohen, David; Robel, Laurence

    2011-01-01

    Language impairment is a common core feature in Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD) and Specific Language Impairment (SLI). Many studies have tried to define the specific language profiles of these disorders, some claiming the existence of overlaps, and others conceiving of them as separate categories. Fewer have sought to determine whether…

  2. Motor Learning : An Analysis of 100 Trials of a Ski Slalom Game in Children with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits-Engelsman, Bouwien C M; Jelsma, Lemke Dorothee; Ferguson, Gillian D; Geuze, Reint H

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Although Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) is often characterized as a skill acquisition deficit disorder, few studies have addressed the process of motor learning. This study examined learning of a novel motor task; the Wii Fit ski slalom game. The main objectives were to determi

  3. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of a Psychosocial Quality-of-Life Questionnaire for Individuals with Autism and Related Developmental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitz, Leslie A.; Reyes, Charina; Embacher, Rebecca A.; Speer, Leslie L.; Roizen, Nancy; Frazier, Thomas W.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the psychometric properties of the Child and Family Quality of Life scale, a measure of psychosocial quality of life in those with autism and related developmental disorders. Parents of 212 children suspected of autism spectrum disorder completed the Child and Family Quality of Life prior to a diagnostic evaluation. Results…

  4. Evaluating Physical Activity Using Accelerometry in Children at Risk of Developmental Coordination Disorder in the Presence of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baerg, Sally; Cairney, John; Hay, John; Rempel, Lynn; Mahlberg, Nadilein; Faught, Brent E.

    2011-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) is compromised in children and adolescents with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). Approximately half of all children with DCD suffer from attention-deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD); a cohort often considered more physically active than typically developing youth. Accelerometry is an effective method of assessing…

  5. Functional connectivity of neural motor networks is disrupted in children with developmental coordination disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Kevin R; Langevin, Lisa Marie; Goodyear, Bradley G; Dewey, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are prevalent childhood disorders that frequently co-occur. Evidence from neuroimaging research suggests that children with these disorders exhibit disruptions in motor circuitry, which could account for the high rate of co-occurrence. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the functional connections of the motor network in children with DCD and/or ADHD compared to typically developing controls, with the aim of identifying common neurophysiological substrates. Resting-state fMRI was performed on seven children with DCD, 21 with ADHD, 18 with DCD + ADHD and 23 controls. Resting-state connectivity of the primary motor cortex was compared between each group and controls, using age as a co-factor. Relative to controls, children with DCD and/or ADHD exhibited similar reductions in functional connectivity between the primary motor cortex and the bilateral inferior frontal gyri, right supramarginal gyrus, angular gyri, insular cortices, amygdala, putamen, and pallidum. In addition, children with DCD and/or ADHD exhibited different age-related patterns of connectivity, compared to controls. These findings suggest that children with DCD and/or ADHD exhibit disruptions in motor circuitry, which may contribute to problems with motor functioning and attention. Our results support the existence of common neurophysiological substrates underlying both motor and attention problems.

  6. Functional connectivity of neural motor networks is disrupted in children with developmental coordination disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin R. McLeod

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Developmental coordination disorder (DCD and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD are prevalent childhood disorders that frequently co-occur. Evidence from neuroimaging research suggests that children with these disorders exhibit disruptions in motor circuitry, which could account for the high rate of co-occurrence. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the functional connections of the motor network in children with DCD and/or ADHD compared to typically developing controls, with the aim of identifying common neurophysiological substrates. Resting-state fMRI was performed on seven children with DCD, 21 with ADHD, 18 with DCD + ADHD and 23 controls. Resting-state connectivity of the primary motor cortex was compared between each group and controls, using age as a co-factor. Relative to controls, children with DCD and/or ADHD exhibited similar reductions in functional connectivity between the primary motor cortex and the bilateral inferior frontal gyri, right supramarginal gyrus, angular gyri, insular cortices, amygdala, putamen, and pallidum. In addition, children with DCD and/or ADHD exhibited different age-related patterns of connectivity, compared to controls. These findings suggest that children with DCD and/or ADHD exhibit disruptions in motor circuitry, which may contribute to problems with motor functioning and attention. Our results support the existence of common neurophysiological substrates underlying both motor and attention problems.

  7. Developmental Coordination Disorder, an umbrella term for motor impairments in children: nature and co-morbid disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence eVaivre-Douret

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background:Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD defines a heterogeneous class of children exhibiting marked impairment in motor coordination as a general group of deficits in fine and gross motricity (subtype mixed group common to all research studies, and with a variety of other motor disorders that have been little investigated. No consensus about symptoms and aetiology has been established. Methods: Data from 58 children aged 6 to 13 years with DCD were collected on DSM-IV criteria, similar to DSM- 5 criteria. They had no other medical condition and inclusion criteria were strict (born full-term, no medication, no occupational /physical therapy. Multivariate statistical methods were used to evidence relevant interactions between discriminant features in a general DCD subtype group and to highlight specific co-morbidities. The study examined age-calibrated standardized scores from completed assessments of psychological, neuropsychological and neuropsychomotor functions, and more specifically the presence of minor neurological dysfunctions (MND including neurological soft signs (NSS, without evidence of focal neurological brain involvement. These were not considered in most previous studies. Results: Findings show the salient DCD markers for the mixed subtype (imitation of gestures, digital perception, digital praxia, manual dexterity, upper and lower limb coordination, versus surprising co-morbidities, with 33% of MND with mild spasticity from phasic stretch reflex (PSR, not associated with the above impairments but rather with sitting tone (p= .004 and dysdiadochokinesia (p= .011. PSR was not specific to a DCD subtype but was related to increased impairment of coordination between upper and lower limbs and manual dexterity. Our results highlight the major contribution of an extensive neuro-developmental assessment (mental and physical. Discussion: The present study provides important new evidence in favour of a complete physical

  8. Developmental coordination disorder in extremely low birth weight children at nine years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holsti, Liisa; Grunau, Ruth V E; Whitfield, Michael F

    2002-02-01

    Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is defined as an impairment in the development of motor coordination that interferes with academic achievement or activities of daily living (DSM-IV). DCD has been reported to affect 5% to 9% of children in the normal population. This study describes the prevalence of DCD in a cohort of extremely low birth weight children (ELBW, DCD. ELBW children with DCD also had significantly lower Performance IQ (PIQ) scores and were more likely (43%) to have a learning difficulty in arithmetic than ELBW children who did not have DCD. This study found that DCD is a common problem in school-aged ELBW children.

  9. The sex ratio of siblings of individuals with a history of developmental language disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, Svend Erik; Hauschild, Karen-Marie

    2010-01-01

    '. The objective of this study was to extend previous studies dealing with the extreme male brain theory and to study the sex ratio (proportion of males) in the siblings of 469 individuals with a developmental language disorder (DLD) who were consecutively assessed in the same clinic during a period of 10 years....... Among their 908 live-born siblings, 503 were males and 405 females. This yields a sex ratio of 0.554, which is significantly higher than the Danish live birth sex ratio of 0.514 over the same period (P = 0.02). Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that male sex hormones may be implicated...

  10. A Latent Class Analysis to Empirically Describe Eating Disorders through Developmental Stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Sonja A.; Horton, Nicholas J.; Crosby, Ross D.; Micali, Nadia; Sonneville, Kendrin R.; Eddy, Kamryn; Field, Alison E.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The current standards for classifying eating disorders were primarily informed by adult, clinical study populations, while it is unknown whether an empirically based classification system can be supported across preadolescence through young adulthood. Using latent class analyses, we sought to empirically classify disordered eating in females from preadolescence to young adulthood, and assess the association between classes and adverse outcomes. Methods Latent class models were fit using observations from the 9,039 girls participating in the Growing Up Today Study, an on-going cohort following participants annually or biennially since 1996 when they were ages 9–14 years. Associations between classes and drug use, binge drinking, and depressive symptoms were assessed using generalized estimating equations. Results Across age groups, there was evidence of six classes: a large asymptomatic class, a class characterized by shape/weight concerns, a class characterized by overeating without loss of control, and three resembling full and subthreshold binge eating disorder, purging disorder, and bulimia nervosa. Relative prevalences of classes varied across developmental stages, with symptomatic classes increasing in prevalence with increasing age. Symptomatic classes were associated with concurrent and incident drug use, binge drinking, and high depressive symptoms. Discussion A classification system resembling broader definitions of DSM-5 diagnoses along with two further subclinical symptomatic classes may be a useful framework for studying disordered eating among adolescent and young adult females. PMID:24909947

  11. Consequences of comorbidity of developmental coordination disorders and learning disabilities for severity and pattern of perceptual-motor dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) have difficulty learning and performing age-appropriate perceptual-motor skills in the absence of diagnosable neurological disorders. Descriptive studies have shown that comorbidity of DCD exists with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and learning disabilities (LD). This study examined the consequences of the comorbidity of DCD and LD for the severity and pattern of perceptual-motor dysfunction. Compared to children with DC...

  12. Atypical within- and between-hemisphere motor network functional connections in children with developmental coordination disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are highly comorbid neurodevelopmental disorders; however, the neural mechanisms of this comorbidity are poorly understood. Previous research has demonstrated that children with DCD and ADHD have altered brain region communication, particularly within the motor network. The structure and function of the motor network in a typically developing brain exhibits hemispheric dominance. It is plausible that...

  13. Brief report: narratives of personal events in children with autism and developmental language disorders: unshared memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Sylvie

    2008-11-01

    Narrative analysis of personal events provides an opportunity for identifying autism specific issues related to language and social impairments. Eight personal events were elicited from three groups of school age children: 14 high-functioning with Autism Spectrum Disorders (HFA), 12 non-autistic with developmental language disorders (DLD), and 12 typically developing matched for chronological age and non-verbal IQ. The coding focused on narrative format (constituents) and style (coherence). The analyses indicate basic knowledge of conventional narrative format in all groups but a consistent lack of high-point in HFA children's stories interpreted as a consequence of their lack of social understanding of narrative. The results suggest novel interventions to foster autobiographical memory in HFA children which may assist in their self-awareness development.

  14. Sleep patterns in children with and without autism spectrum disorders: developmental comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Danelle; Carollo, Tanner M; Lewin, Michael; Hoffman, Charles D; Sweeney, Dwight P

    2014-07-01

    The present study examined age-related changes in the sleep of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) compared to age-related changes in the sleep of typically developing (TD) children. Participants were 108 mothers of children with ASD and 108 mothers of TD children. Participants completed a questionnaire on children's overall sleep quality that also tapped specific sleep-domains (i.e., bedtime resistance, sleep onset delay, sleep duration, sleep anxiety, night wakings, parasomnias, disordered breathing, daytime sleepiness). Results confirm significantly poorer sleep quantity and quality in children with ASD, particularly children age 6-9 years. Unlike TD children, the sleep problems of children with ASD were unlikely to diminish with age. Our findings suggest that it is important to exam specific domains of sleep as well as overall sleep patterns. Finding of significant age-related interactions suggests that the practice of combining children from wide age-ranges into a single category obfuscates potentially important developmental differences.

  15. Pervasive developmental disorder in the children of immigrant parents: comparison of different assessment instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Pereira Ponde

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to describe how the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS behaves in relation to the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS and to clinical diagnosis based on the criteria defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4 th Edition (DSM-IV for children of immigrant parents. Forty-nine children of parents who had immigrated to Canada were evaluated. In this sample, the ADOS and the DSM-IV showed complete agreement. Using the standard cut-off point of 30, the CARS showed high specificity and poor sensitivity. The study proposes a cut-off point for the CARS that would include pervasive developmental disorder – not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS. Reducing the cut-off point to 20/21 increased the specificity of the instrument for this group of children without significantly reducing its sensitivity.

  16. Developmental coordination disorder (dyspraxia): an overview of the state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polatajko, Helene J; Cantin, Noemi

    2005-12-01

    A large number of school-aged children present with motor-based performance problems that have significant negative effects on their ability to participate fully in the daily activities of home, school, and play. These children have a neurodevelopmental disorder most commonly known as developmental coordination disorder (DCD). These children are frequently brought to the attention of the family doctor and referred to health care professionals in search of answers and services. Therapists treating these children have a large number of intervention approaches at their disposal. This paper presents an overview of these approaches and a review of the available evidence. The evidence for the older, deficit-oriented approaches remains inconclusive, at best; whereas the task-oriented approaches, seem to be better supported. While more work is needed to validate the use of the task-oriented approaches, the results suggest that a shift in perspective from a deficit-oriented to a task-oriented perspective would be appropriate.

  17. Atypical developmental trajectory of local spontaneous brain activity in autism spectrum disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaonan; Chen, Heng; Long, Zhiliang; Duan, Xujun; Zhang, Youxue; Chen, Huafu

    2017-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is marked by atypical trajectory of brain maturation, yet the developmental abnormalities in brain function remain unclear. The current study examined the effect of age on amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) in ASD and typical controls (TC) using a cross-sectional design. We classified all the participants into three age cohorts: child (<11 years, 18ASD/20TC), adolescent (11–18 years, 28ASD/26TC) and adult (≥18 years, 18ASD/18TC). Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to ascertain main effects and interaction effects on whole brain ALFF maps. Results exhibited significant main effect of diagnosis in ASD with decreased ALFF in the right precuneus and left middle occipital gyrus during all developmental stages. Significant diagnosis-by-age interaction was observed in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) with ALFF lowered in autistic children but highered in autistic adolescents and adults. Specifically, remarkable quadratic change of ALFF with increasing age in mPFC presented in TC group was absent in ASD. Additionally, abnormal ALFF values in diagnosis-related brain regions predicted the social deficits in ASD. Our findings indicated aberrant developmental patterns of spontaneous brain activity associated with social deficits in ASD and highlight the crucial role of the default mode network in the development of disease. PMID:28057930

  18. Genetic counseling, activism and 'genotype-first' diagnosis of developmental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navon, Daniel

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents a sociological examination of the role of genetic counselors as advocates, not only for patients and their families, but also for genetic conditions themselves. In becoming activists for new disorders, genetic counselors are helping to create new categories that will shape expectations and treatment regimens for both existing patients and those who are yet to be diagnosed. By virtue of their expertise and their position at the intersection of several key professions and constituencies, genetic counselors are likely to play a central role in the way the genetic testing technologies, and especially 'genotype-first' diagnosis, impacts the way we understand and categorize developmental difference. I outline some of the promises and dangers that this kind of activism holds for people with developmental disabilities, and particularly the challenge presented by systemic ascertainment bias in the face of genotype-phenotype uncertainty. I argue that new testing techniques like microarray analysis that do not need to be targeted on the basis of clinical presentation throw these challenges into sharp relief, and that the genetic counseling community should consider how to marry advocacy for new genetic conditions with an emphasis on the indeterminate developmental potential of every child.

  19. A comparison of the play skills of preschool children with and without developmental coordination disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy-Behr, Ann; Rodger, Sylvia; Mickan, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    Play is commonly acknowledged as being important to children's development. School-aged children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) are known to be less involved in play and more socially isolated than their typically developing peers, but little is known about play of preschool children with DCD. Using a quasi-experimental design, developmental play skills and frequency in engagement in play of two independent groups of preschool children aged 4 to 6 years with (n = 32) and without (n = 31) probable DCD were compared. Play skills were assessed using the Revised Knox Preschool Play Scales and the Play Observation Scale based on 30 minutes of videotape of free play at preschool. Preschool children with probable DCD had a lower developmental play age and engaged less frequently in play than their typically developing peers. Given the importance of play, children with DCD need to be identified and supported to enable them to play at preschool similarly to their peers. [OTJR: Occupation, Participation and Health 2013;33(4):198-208.].

  20. Developmental coordination disorder: disruption of the cerebello-cerebral network evidenced by SPECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariën, Peter; Wackenier, Peggy; De Surgeloose, Didier; De Deyn, Peter P; Verhoeven, Jo

    2010-09-01

    Little is known about the neurobiological substrate of developmental coordination disorder (DCD), a neuro-developmental syndrome with significant, negative impact on the motor, cognitive and affective level throughout lifespan. This paper reports the clinical, neurocognitive and neuroradiological findings of a 19-year-old patient with typical DCD. As demonstrated by mild ataxia and a close semiological correspondence with the recently acknowledged 'cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome', clinical and neurocognitive investigations unambiguously indicated functional disruption of the cerebellum. Structural MRI of the brain confirmed cerebellar involvement revealing a slight anterior/superior asymmetry of vermal fissures consistent with rostral vermisdysplasia. Although this abnormality of vermal fissuration is generally considered an incidental neuroradiological finding without any clinical relevance, a potentially subtle impact on the developmental level has never been formally excluded. In addition to a generally decreased perfusion of the cerebellum, a quantified Tc-99m-ECD SPECT disclosed functional suppression of the anatomoclinically suspected supratentorial regions involved in the execution of planned actions, visuo-spatial processing and affective regulation. Based on these findings, it is hypothesised that the cerebellum is crucially implicated in the pathophysiologcial mechanisms of DCD, reflecting disruption of the cerebello-cerebral network involved in the execution of planned actions, visuo-spatial cognition and affective regulation.

  1. Stigma, explanatory models and unmet needs of caregivers of children with developmental disorders in a low-income African country: a cross-sectional facility-based survey

    OpenAIRE

    Tilahun, Dejene; Hanlon, Charlotte; Fekadu, Abebaw; Tekola, Bethlehem; Baheretibeb, Yonas; Hoekstra, Rosa Anna

    2016-01-01

    Background Understanding the perspectives of caregivers of children with developmental disorders living in low-income countries is important to inform intervention programmes. The purpose of this study was to examine the stigma experiences, explanatory models, unmet needs, preferred interventions and coping mechanisms of caregivers of children with developmental disorders in Ethiopia. Methods Participants comprised caregivers (n = 102) of children with developmental disorders attending two ch...

  2. Interpersonal stress regulation and the development of anxiety disorders: an attachment-based developmental framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolte, Tobias; Guiney, Jo; Fonagy, Peter; Mayes, Linda C; Luyten, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Anxiety disorders represent a common but often debilitating form of psychopathology in both children and adults. While there is a growing understanding of the etiology and maintenance of these disorders across various research domains, only recently have integrative accounts been proposed. While classical attachment history has been a traditional core construct in psychological models of anxiety, contemporary attachment theory has the potential to integrate neurobiological and behavioral findings within a multidisciplinary developmental framework. The current paper proposes a modern attachment theory-based developmental model grounded in relevant literature from multiple disciplines including social neuroscience, genetics, neuroendocrinology, and the study of family factors involved in the development of anxiety disorders. Recent accounts of stress regulation have highlighted the interplay between stress, anxiety, and activation of the attachment system. This interplay directly affects the development of social-cognitive and mentalizing capacities that are acquired in the interpersonal context of early attachment relationships. Early attachment experiences are conceptualized as the key organizer of a complex interplay between genetic, environmental, and epigenetic contributions to the development of anxiety disorders - a multifactorial etiology resulting from dysfunctional co-regulation of fear and stress states. These risk-conferring processes are characterized by hyperactivation strategies in the face of anxiety. The cumulative allostatic load and subsequent "wear and tear" effects associated with hyperactivation strategies converge on the neural pathways of anxiety and stress. Attachment experiences further influence the development of anxiety as potential moderators of risk factors, differentially impacting on genetic vulnerability and relevant neurobiological pathways. Implications for further research and potential treatments are outlined.

  3. Interpersonal Stress Regulation and the Development of Anxiety Disorders: An Attachment-Based Developmental Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolte, Tobias; Guiney, Jo; Fonagy, Peter; Mayes, Linda C.; Luyten, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Anxiety disorders represent a common but often debilitating form of psychopathology in both children and adults. While there is a growing understanding of the etiology and maintenance of these disorders across various research domains, only recently have integrative accounts been proposed. While classical attachment history has been a traditional core construct in psychological models of anxiety, contemporary attachment theory has the potential to integrate neurobiological and behavioral findings within a multidisciplinary developmental framework. The current paper proposes a modern attachment theory-based developmental model grounded in relevant literature from multiple disciplines including social neuroscience, genetics, neuroendocrinology, and the study of family factors involved in the development of anxiety disorders. Recent accounts of stress regulation have highlighted the interplay between stress, anxiety, and activation of the attachment system. This interplay directly affects the development of social–cognitive and mentalizing capacities that are acquired in the interpersonal context of early attachment relationships. Early attachment experiences are conceptualized as the key organizer of a complex interplay between genetic, environmental, and epigenetic contributions to the development of anxiety disorders – a multifactorial etiology resulting from dysfunctional co-regulation of fear and stress states. These risk-conferring processes are characterized by hyperactivation strategies in the face of anxiety. The cumulative allostatic load and subsequent “wear and tear” effects associated with hyperactivation strategies converge on the neural pathways of anxiety and stress. Attachment experiences further influence the development of anxiety as potential moderators of risk factors, differentially impacting on genetic vulnerability and relevant neurobiological pathways. Implications for further research and potential treatments are outlined. PMID

  4. Interpersonal stress regulation and the development of anxiety disorders: an attachment-based developmental framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias eNolte

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety disorders represent a common but often debilitating form of psychopathology in both children and adults. While there is a growing understanding of the aetiology and maintainance of these disorders across various research domains, only recently have integrative accounts been proposed. While classical attachment history has been a traditional core construct in psychological models of anxiety, contemporary attachment theory has the potential to integrate neurobiological and behavioral findings within a multidisciplinary developmental framework.The current paper proposes a modern attachment theory-based developmental model grounded in relevant literature from multiple disciplines including social neuroscience, genetics, neuroendocrinology, and the study of family factors involved in the development of anxiety disorders. Recent accounts of stress regulation have highlighted the interplay between stress, anxiety and activation of the attachment system. This interplay directly affects the development of social cognitive and mentalizing capacities that are acquired in the interpersonal context of early attachment relationships. Early attachment experiences are conceptualised as the key organiser of a complex interplay between genetic, environmental and epigentic contributions to the development of anxiety disorders – a multifactorial aetiology resulting from dysfunctional co-regulation of fear and stress states. These risk-conferring processes are characterised by hyperactivation strategies in the face of anxiety.In the model, the cumulative allostatic load and subsequent wear and tear effects associated with hyperactivation strategies converge on the neural pathways of anxiety and stress. Attachment experiences further influence the development of anxiety as potential moderators of risk factors, differentially impacting on genetic vulnerability and relevant neurobiological pathways. Implications for further research and potential treatments

  5. Haploinsufficiency of CELF4 at 18q12.2 is associated with developmental and behavioral disorders, seizures, eye manifestations, and obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christina Halgren; Bache, Iben; Bak, Mads

    2012-01-01

    12 and 18, with borderline IQ, developmental and behavioral disorders, myopia, obesity, and febrile seizures in childhood. We characterized the rearrangement with Affymetrix SNP 6.0 Array analysis and next-generation mate pair sequencing and found truncation of CELF4 at 18q12.2. This second report......, and it adds to the growing evidence, including a transgenic mouse model, that CELF4 is important for human brain development.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 23 May 2012; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2012.92....

  6. Public health monitoring of developmental disabilities with a focus on the autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, C; Schendel, D; Cunniff, C; Doernberg, N

    2004-02-15

    Developmental disabilities (DDs) are conditions characterized by physical, cognitive, psychological, sensory, adaptive, and/or communication impairments manifested during development. Approximately 17% of individuals in the United States 18 years and younger have a DD, and for most children the cause of their condition is unknown. Of particular interest are the autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), characterized by unusual social, communication, and behavioral development. Previously autism was thought to be a rare condition, but the number of children receiving services for an ASD has increased dramatically in the last decade. Concerns about increases in DDs, particularly ASDs, their causes, and the high costs of intervention have highlighted the need for systematic public health monitoring. Service provider data, such as annual reporting of special education services or of state DD programs, do not provide a complete estimate of the rates for DDs, including ASDs. Unlike genetic metabolic disorders or congenital hearing loss (HL) for which newborn screening programs can provide accurate prevalence rates, there are currently no genetic or biologic markers for the ASDs to enable consistent and early identification of affected children. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) Metropolitan Atlanta Developmental Disabilities Surveillance Program (MADDSP) is a model for population monitoring of ASDs/DDs that has been implemented in other states. This article discusses the role of ASD/DD tracking in public health, as well as the challenges of ASD/DD tracking, including case definition and identification, associated conditions, linkages, and data access.

  7. [Early identification of children with developmental language disorders - when and how?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Suchodoletz, Waldemar

    2011-11-01

    Children with developmental language disorders have a high risk for their cognitive, social, and emotional development. Therefore, they should be identified and treated as early as possible. This paper reviews the possibilities and limits of methods for such early identification. Language screenings during the first 3 years of life are described and appraised with respect to their diagnostic accuracy. The overview indicates that the current stage of language development can be estimated with high reliability by means of parent questionnaires. The possibility of identifying children with developmental language disorders early on is limited. Precursors and first steps of language acquisition correlate with later language abilities, although the relationship is weak and predicting further language development in a individual child is not possible. At the end of the second year of life, however, late talkers can be identified; these children are at risk of language impairment. But not until the end of the third year can sufficient detection of language-impaired children succeed. Parent questionnaires are the most reliable screening instruments for evaluating language abilities during the first 3 years.

  8. Developmental trajectories of resting EEG power: an endophenotype of autism spectrum disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne L Tierney

    Full Text Available Current research suggests that autism spectrum disorder (ASD is characterized by asynchronous neural oscillations. However, it is unclear whether changes in neural oscillations represent an index of the disorder or are shared more broadly among both affected and unaffected family members. Additionally, it remains unclear how early these differences emerge in development and whether they remain constant or change over time. In this study we examined developmental trajectories in spectral power in infants at high- or low-risk for ASD. Spectral power was extracted from resting EEG recorded over frontal regions of the scalp when infants were 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 months of age. We used multilevel modeling to assess change over time between risk groups in the delta, theta, low alpha, high alpha, beta, and gamma frequency bands. The results indicated that across all bands, spectral power was lower in high-risk infants as compared to low-risk infants at 6-months of age. Furthermore high-risk infants showed different trajectories of change in spectral power in the subsequent developmental window indicating that not only are the patterns of change different, but that group differences are dynamic within the first two years of life. These findings remained the same after removing data from a subset of participants who displayed ASD related behaviors at 24 or 36 months. These differences in the nature of the trajectories of EEG power represent important endophenotypes of ASD.

  9. Validity and reliability of developmental coordination disorder questionnaire-spanish version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Matilde Salamanca Duque

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Developmental Coordination Disorder is characterized by difficulties that produce consequences on the psychomotor performance in daily and school activities, and requires early diagnosis. The Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire CTDC is used for its diagnosis.The objective of the study was to determinate the psychometric properties of CTDC. Methodology. Descriptive study and instrument validation, with a sample of 41 children aged between 6 to 12 years old, at school, with the application of the CTDC and the Da Fonseca Psychomotor Battery. The study analyzed internal consistency reliability, and intra-rater and concurrent validity through the two instruments. Results. Positive results were obtained: the reliability for the full internal consistency using Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was 0.92, and the intra-rater reliability using Kappa index was 0.82 with ap<0.001, independent items showed values above 0.5; concurrent validity through the Spearman correlation coefficient Rho was 0.6, with ap<0.01. Conclusions. The CTDC has appropriate and strong psychometric properties for its application and clinical use.

  10. Behavioural and developmental interventions for autism spectrum disorder: a clinical systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria B Ospina

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Much controversy exists regarding the clinical efficacy of behavioural and developmental interventions for improving the core symptoms of autism spectrum disorders (ASD. We conducted a systematic review to summarize the evidence on the effectiveness of behavioural and developmental interventions for ASD. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Comprehensive searches were conducted in 22 electronic databases through May 2007. Further information was obtained through hand searching journals, searching reference lists, databases of theses and dissertations, and contacting experts in the field. Experimental and observational analytic studies were included if they were written in English and reported the efficacy of any behavioural or developmental intervention for individuals with ASD. Two independent reviewers made the final study selection, extracted data, and reached consensus on study quality. Results were summarized descriptively and, where possible, meta-analyses of the study results were conducted. One-hundred-and-one studies at predominantly high risk of bias that reported inconsistent results across various interventions were included in the review. Meta-analyses of three controlled clinical trials showed that Lovaas treatment was superior to special education on measures of adaptive behaviour, communication and interaction, comprehensive language, daily living skills, expressive language, overall intellectual functioning and socialization. High-intensity Lovaas was superior to low-intensity Lovaas on measures of intellectual functioning in two retrospective cohort studies. Pooling the results of two randomized controlled trials favoured developmental approaches based on initiative interaction compared to contingency interaction in the amount of time spent in stereotyped behaviours and distal social behaviour, but the effect sizes were not clinically significant. No statistically significant differences were found for: Lovaas versus special

  11. Developmental trauma disorder: pros and cons of including formal criteria in the psychiatric diagnostic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmid Marc

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This article reviews the current debate on developmental trauma disorder (DTD with respect to formalizing its diagnostic criteria. Victims of abuse, neglect, and maltreatment in childhood often develop a wide range of age-dependent psychopathologies with various mental comorbidities. The supporters of a formal DTD diagnosis argue that post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD does not cover all consequences of severe and complex traumatization in childhood. Discussion Traumatized individuals are difficult to treat, but clinical experience has shown that they tend to benefit from specific trauma therapy. A main argument against inclusion of formal DTD criteria into existing diagnostic systems is that emphasis on the etiology of the disorder might force current diagnostic systems to deviate from their purely descriptive nature. Furthermore, comorbidities and biological aspects of the disorder may be underdiagnosed using the DTD criteria. Summary Here, we discuss arguments for and against the proposal of DTD criteria and address implications and consequences for the clinical practice.

  12. Why bother about clumsiness? The implications of having developmental coordination disorder (DCD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillberg, Christopher; Kadesjö, Björn

    2003-01-01

    Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is a common motor problem affecting--even in rather severe form--several percent of school age children. In the past, DCD has usually been called 'clumsy child syndrome' or 'non-cerebral-palsy motor-perception dysfunction'. This disorder is more common in boys than in girls and is very often associated with psychopathology, particularly with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorders/ autistic-type problems. Conversely, children with ADHD and autism spectrum problems, particularly those given a diagnosis of Asperger syndrome, have a very high rate of comorbid DCD. Psychiatrists appear to be unaware of this type of comorbidity in their young patients. Neurologists, on the other hand, usually pay little attention to the striking behavioral and emotional problems shown by so many of their 'clumsy' patients. A need exists for a much clearer focus on DCD-in child psychiatry and in child neurology-both in research and in clinical practice.

  13. Procedural learning in Parkinson's disease, specific language impairment, dyslexia, schizophrenia, developmental coordination disorder, and autism spectrum disorders: A second-order meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Gillian M; Lum, Jarrad A G

    2017-10-01

    The serial reaction time task (SRTT) has been used to study procedural learning in clinical populations. In this report, second-order meta-analysis was used to investigate whether disorder type moderates performance on the SRTT. Using this approach to quantitatively summarise past research, it was tested whether autism spectrum disorder, developmental coordination disorder, dyslexia, Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, and specific language impairment differentially affect procedural learning on the SRTT. The main analysis revealed disorder type moderated SRTT performance (p=0.010). This report demonstrates comparable levels of procedural learning impairment in developmental coordination disorder, dyslexia, Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, and specific language impairment. However, in autism, procedural learning is spared. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Screening for attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorder, and developmental delay in Taiwanese aboriginal preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan HL

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Hsiang-Lin Chan,1,2,* Wen-Sheng Liu,3–6,* Yi-Hsuan Hsieh,1,2 Chiao-Fan Lin,1,2 Tiing-Soon Ling,2,7 Yu-Shu Huang1,2 1Department of Child Psychiatry, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, 2College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, 3Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Taipei City Hospital, Zhong-Xing Branch, Taipei, Taiwan; 4School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan; 5Institute of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan; 6College of Science and Engineering, Fu Jen Catholic University, New Taipei City, Taiwan; 7Department of Family Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan, Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Objectives: This study aimed to estimate the percentages of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and autism spectrum disorder (ASD in Taiwanese aboriginal preschool children. Child development level was compared between the two groups. Methods: Teachers completed screening questionnaires for ADHD, ASD, and development level for 36- to 72-month-old children in kindergartens in Taiwan. The questionnaire results were compared between the aboriginal and nonaboriginal children. One child psychiatrist then interviewed the aboriginal preschool children to determine if they had ADHD and/or ASD. Results: We collected 93 questionnaires from the aboriginal group and 60 from the nonaboriginal group. In the aboriginal group, 5.37% of the children were identified to have ADHD, while 1.08% were identified to have ASD. Significantly fewer aboriginal children had developmental delays for situation comprehension and personal–social development (P=0.012 and 0.002, respectively than nonaboriginal children. Conclusion: Aboriginal children in Taiwan had typical percentages of ADHD and ASD compared to those published in the literature. Aboriginal children showed relative strengths in situation

  15. Open-label atomoxetine for attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder symptoms associated with high-functioning pervasive developmental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posey, David J; Wiegand, Ryan E; Wilkerson, Jennifer; Maynard, Melissa; Stigler, Kimberly A; McDougle, Christopher J

    2006-10-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct an initial evaluation of the efficacy of atomoxetine for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in children with pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs). Children with PDDs and a nonverbal IQ of >or=70 received atomoxetine (target dose 1.2-1.4 mg/kg/day) during the course of an 8-week, open-label, prospective study. Standardized assessments of efficacy and tolerability were collected at regular intervals during the trial. Sixteen children and adolescents (mean age 7.7 +/- 2.2 years, age range 6-14 years) with autistic disorder (n = 7), Asperger's disorder (n = 7), or PDD not otherwise specified (n = 2) received atomoxetine (mean dose 1.2 +/- 0.3 mg/kg/day). Twelve participants (75%) were rated as "much" or "very much improved" on the Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement scale. The most significant improvement was seen in the area of ADHD symptoms as measured by the SNAP-IV and Aberrant Behavior Checklist (effect size = 1.0-1.9). Improvements of lesser magnitude (effect size = 0.4-1.1) were seen in irritability, social withdrawal, stereotypy, and repetitive speech. There were no significant changes on the Conners' Continuous Performance Test. Atomoxetine was well tolerated with the exception of 2 participants (13 %) who stopped medication due to irritability. Weight decreased by a mean of 0.8 kg during the 8-week trial. Placebo-controlled studies are indicated to determine atomoxetine's efficacy for ADHD symptoms in PDDs.

  16. Handwriting measures as reflectors of Executive Functions among adults withDevelopmental Coordination Disorders (DCD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara eRosenblum

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Planning ahead and organizational abilities in time and space are ingredients of high-level cognitive functions labelled as ‘Executive Functions’ (EF required for daily activities such as writing or home management. EF deficits are considered a possible underlying brain mechanism involved in Developmental Coordination Disorders (DCD. The aim of the study was to compare the handwriting process measures and the planning and organizational abilities in space and time of students with DCD with those of matched controls and to find whether handwriting measures can predict daily planning and organizational abilities among students with DCD. Method: 30 students diagnosed with DCD, between the ages of 24-41, and 30 age- and gender-matched controls participated in the study. They filled out the Handwriting Proficiency Screening Questionnaire (HPSQ and the Adult Developmental Co-ordination Disorders Checklist (ADC. Furthermore, they copied a paragraph on a digitizer that is part of a computerized system (ComPET.Results: Significant group differences were found for the HPSQ subscales scores as well as for the temporal and spatial measures of the paragraph copy task. Significant group differences were also found for the planning and organizational abilities in space and time as reflected through the ADC subscales. Significant medium correlations were found in both groups between the mean HPSQ time subscale and the ADC-B subscale mean score (r=.50 /.58 p<.05. Series of regression analyses indicated that two handwriting performance measures (mean HPSQ time subscale and mean stroke duration predicted 19% of planning and organizational abilities as reflected through daily functions (ADC-B (F (3, 54 = 38.37, β= . 40 p<.0001.Conclusion: The results support previous evidence about EF deficits as an underlying brain mechanism involved in motor coordination disorders, their significance as related to theoretical models of handwriting and daily function among

  17. Motor skills in Brazilian children with developmental coordination disorder versus children with motor typical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Ana Amélia; Magalhães, Livia Castro; Rezende, Marcia Bastos

    2014-12-01

    The aims of the study were to compare the performance of children with probable developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and motor typically developing peers on items from the Assessment of Motor Coordination and Dexterity (AMCD), to determine whether age, gender and type of school had significant impact on the scores of the AMCD items, to estimate the frequency of DCD among Brazilian children ages 7 and 8 years and to investigate whether children with DCD exhibit more symptoms of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder than children with motor typical development. A total of 793 children were screened by the Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire - Brazilian version (DCDQ-Brazil); 90 were identified as at risk for DCD; 91 matched controls were selected from the remaining participants. Children in both groups were evaluated with the AMCD, the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC-II) and Raven's coloured progressive matrices. Thirty-four children were classified as probable DCD, as defined by a combination of the DCDQ-Brazil and MABC-II scores (fifth percentile). The final frequency of DCD among children ages 7 and 8 years was 4.3%. There were significant differences between children with and without DCD on the majority of AMCD items, indicating its potential for identifying DCD in Brazilian children. The use of a motor test (MABC-II) that is not validated for the Brazilian children is a limitation of the present study. Further studies should investigate whether the AMCD is useful for identifying DCD in other age groups and in children from different regions of Brazil. The application of the AMCD may potentially contribute in improving occupational therapy practice in Brazil and in identifying children that could benefit from occupational therapy services.

  18. Advances in gene technology: Human genetic disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, W.A.; Ahmad, F.; Black, S.; Schultz, J.; Whelan, W.J.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses the papers presented at the conference on the subject of ''advances in Gene technology: Human genetic disorders''. Molecular biology of various carcinomas and inheritance of metabolic diseases is discussed and technology advancement in diagnosis of hereditary diseases is described. Some of the titles discussed are-Immunoglobulin genes translocation and diagnosis; hemophilia; oncogenes; oncogenic transformations; experimental data on mice, hamsters, birds carcinomas and sarcomas.

  19. A system dynamics modelling approach to studying the increasing prevalence of people with intellectual developmental disorders in New South Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lynette; Heffernan, Mark; McDonnell, Geoffrey; Short, Stephanie D; Naganathan, Vasi

    2016-06-01

    Objective The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence count of people with intellectual developmental disorders (IDD) in New South Wales (NSW) in 2003, by age groups, and to forecast their prevalence until 2043. Methods Administrative data obtained from NSW government departments of education, pensions, health and disability were used to profile the number of people whose characteristics met the criteria for 'intellectual developmental disorders' who had received services in 2003. These figures were compared with published tables of NSW data from the national self-report Survey of Disability, Ageing and Carers (SDAC) of 2003 to estimate the likely prevalence of people with intellectual developmental disorders, by age groups in that year. The results were then used as baseline figures in a computational system dynamics model of the aging chain of people with these disorders, built to project prevalence to 2043. Results The number of people who met the criteria for having intellectual developmental disorder in NSW in 2003 was estimated to be 57000 (a ratio of 85 per 10000), with 32000 aged 0-15 years, 15000 aged 16-39 years, 9000 aged 40-64 years and 1000 aged 65+ years. Using these figures as baseline, the computer simulation predicted a total increase to 77225 people in 2013 and 135905 people by 2043. By 2043, the number of children with intellectual developmental disorders will have doubled, from 32000 to 59480, and the number of adults will have tripled, from 25000 to 76420. Conclusions This modelling technique forecast an increase in the prevalence count of people with intellectual developmental disorders in NSW over the period 2003-43 from 57000 (85 per 10000) to 135905 (135 per 10000). These predictions may have important implications for the planning of specialist health services for this group of people. What is known about the topic? The prevalence ratio of people with intellectual developmental disorders is quoted at lying between 1% and 2% of

  20. Iron deficiency in children with global developmental delay and autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidrak, Samuel; Yoong, Terence; Woolfenden, Susan

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the prevalence of and risk factors for iron deficiency in children with global developmental delay and/or autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A retrospective review was conducted of the files of children referred to community paediatric clinics in South West Sydney from May 2009 to July 2011 who were diagnosed with global developmental delay and/or ASD. Data were extracted on iron studies and potential risk factors. Data were analysed using Pearson's ÷(2) -test and Fisher's exact test. Subjects included 122 children. The prevalence of iron depletion was 2.5% (95% CI 0.5-7.0%); that of iron deficiency was 6.6% (95% CI 2.9-12.5%), and that of iron deficiency anaemia was 4.1% (95% CI 1.3-9.3%). In children with global developmental delay without ASD, the prevalence of iron depletion was 1.8% (95% CI 0-9.7%), that of iron deficiency 5.5% (95% CI 1.1-15.1%) and that of iron deficiency anaemia 5.5% (95% CI 1.1-15.1%). In children with ASD with or without global developmental delay, the prevalence of iron depletion was 3.0% (95% CI 0.4-10.4%), that of iron deficiency 7.5% (95% CI 2.5-16.6%) and that of iron deficiency anaemia 3.0% (95% CI 0.4-10.4%). Univariate analysis demonstrated three significant potential risk factors for iron depletion, iron deficiency and iron deficiency anaemia: problems sucking, swallowing or chewing (P = 0.002); poor eating behaviour (P = 0.008); and inadequate amounts of meat, chicken, eggs or fish (P = 0.002). Iron deficiency and iron deficiency anaemia were more common in this clinical sample of children with global developmental delay and/or ASD than in the general population. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2013 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  1. THE PLACE AND THE ROLE OF THE PSYCHOLOGIST IN THE TEAM DETECTION OF CHILDREN WITH DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. BOJADZIEVA

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available The psychologist has a very complex task in the team detection of children with developmental disorders from easy variations to complex retardation because of the fact that the development of the children is caused by the dynamics, maturation and finally by the environmental influence.The aim of this presentation is to show the results of the team detection of children with developmental disorders among the population of risky born children recorded and observed in the Developmental Advisory Center in Skopje, compared to the chosen control group of “healthy born children” without pre, pri and post natal problems.The research is of longitudinal (1990-1995 and team character and done according to determined calendar, criteria and methodology. The psychological evaluation in most cases is dynamic, structural and predictive.As psychometric instruments, the developmental scores DTC-M and DTC-P developmental test Cuturic at the age of 3 months to 5 years and after the fifth year W 15 C-intellectual test evaluation were used.The results of the early detection of the developmental disorders were shown on table, manifested as:· retardation in the body control and fine manipulative appliance of hands and fingers;· sensor disturbances of various grades (hesitation about the retardation in the answers of the visual stimulus and inadequate or absent answer of auditive stimuli;· retardation in the development of verbal abilities;· retardation in the development of cognitive and sensitive abilities;· weak control of the emotions and social deprivation.All the developmental spheres of various grades are present among children with developmental difficulties.The team detection (clinical records and diagnosis supplemented with psychological findings was carried out very early which gave possibility to start an adequate and prompt treatment.

  2. Non-speech oral motor treatment for children with developmental speech sound disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alice S-Y; Gibbon, Fiona E

    2015-03-25

    Children with developmental speech sound disorders have difficulties in producing the speech sounds of their native language. These speech difficulties could be due to structural, sensory or neurophysiological causes (e.g. hearing impairment), but more often the cause of the problem is unknown. One treatment approach used by speech-language therapists/pathologists is non-speech oral motor treatment (NSOMT). NSOMTs are non-speech activities that aim to stimulate or improve speech production and treat specific speech errors. For example, using exercises such as smiling, pursing, blowing into horns, blowing bubbles, and lip massage to target lip mobility for the production of speech sounds involving the lips, such as /p/, /b/, and /m/. The efficacy of this treatment approach is controversial, and evidence regarding the efficacy of NSOMTs needs to be examined. To assess the efficacy of non-speech oral motor treatment (NSOMT) in treating children with developmental speech sound disorders who have speech errors. In April 2014 we searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Ovid MEDLINE (R) and Ovid MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, EMBASE, Education Resources Information Center (ERIC), PsycINFO and 11 other databases. We also searched five trial and research registers, checked the reference lists of relevant titles identified by the search and contacted researchers to identify other possible published and unpublished studies. Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials that compared (1) NSOMT versus placebo or control; and (2) NSOMT as adjunctive treatment or speech intervention versus speech intervention alone, for children aged three to 16 years with developmental speech sound disorders, as judged by a speech and language therapist. Individuals with an intellectual disability (e.g. Down syndrome) or a physical disability were not excluded. The Trials Search Co-ordinator of the Cochrane Developmental, Psychosocial and

  3. Development and psychometric evaluation of a psychosocial quality-of-life questionnaire for individuals with autism and related developmental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitz, Leslie A; Reyes, Charina; Embacher, Rebecca A; Speer, Leslie L; Roizen, Nancy; Frazier, Thomas W

    2016-10-01

    This study investigated the psychometric properties of the Child and Family Quality of Life scale, a measure of psychosocial quality of life in those with autism and related developmental disorders. Parents of 212 children suspected of autism spectrum disorder completed the Child and Family Quality of Life prior to a diagnostic evaluation. Results indicated that the Child and Family Quality of Life measured six unique quality-of-life constructs (child, family/caregiver, financial, external support, partner relationship, and coping), had good reliability across score ranges and exhibited expected patterns of convergent validity. Caregivers of autism spectrum disorder-affected children reported reduced family quality of life prior to the time of diagnosis relative to caregivers of children with other developmental disabilities. The Child and Family Quality of Life is a brief, reliable measure for assessing psychosocial quality of life in families affected by developmental disability. This study is the first to demonstrate impairments in family quality of life early in the developmental course of autism spectrum disorder, prior to formal diagnosis. In addition to traditional child-focused intervention strategies, families with autism spectrum disorder-affected children require early, broad intervention strategies that positively impact the whole family.

  4. Visual and Proprioceptive Cue Weighting in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder, Autism Spectrum Disorder and Typical Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Miller

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Accurate movement of the body and the perception of the body's position in space usually rely on both visual and proprioceptive cues. These cues are weighted differently depending on task, visual conditions and neurological factors. Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD and often also children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD have movement deficits, and there is evidence that cue weightings may differ between these groups. It is often reported that ASD is linked to an increased reliance on proprioceptive information at the expense of visual information (Haswell et al, 2009; Gepner et al, 1995. The inverse appears to be true for DCD (Wann et al, 1998; Biancotto et al, 2011. I will report experiments comparing, for the first time, relative weightings of visual and proprioceptive information in children aged 8-14 with ASD, DCD and typical development. Children completed the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC-II to assess motor ability and a visual-proprioceptive matching task to assess relative cue weighting. Results from the movement battery provided evidence for movement deficits in ASD similar to those in DCD. Cue weightings in the matching task did not differentiate the clinical groups, however those children with ASD with relatively spared movement skills tended to weight visual cues less heavily than those with DCD-like movement deficits. These findings will be discussed with reference to previous DSM-IV diagnostic criteria and also relevant revisions in the DSM-V.

  5. Epidemiological surveys of autism and other pervasive developmental disorders: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fombonne, Eric

    2003-08-01

    This paper was commissioned by the committee on the Effectiveness of Early Education in Autism of the National Research Council (NRC). It provides a review of epidemiological studies of pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) which updates a previously published article (The epidemiology of autism: a review. Psychological Medicine 1999; 29: 769-786). The design, sample characteristics of 32 surveys published between 1966 and 2001 are described. Recent surveys suggest that the rate for all forms of PDDs are around 30/10,000 but more recent surveys suggest that the estimate might be as high as 60/10,000. The rate for Asperger disorder is not well established, and a conservative figure is 2.5/10,000. Childhood disintegrative disorder is extremely rare with a pooled estimate across studies of 0.2/10,000. A detailed discussion of the possible interpretations of trends over time in prevalence rates is provided. There is evidence that changes in case definition and improved awareness explain much of the upward trend of rates in recent decades. However, available epidemiological surveys do not provide an adequate test of the hypothesis of a changing incidence of PDDs.

  6. Puppets, robots, critics, and actors within a taxonomy of attention for developmental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Maureen; Sinopoli, Katia J; Fletcher, Jack M; Schachar, Russell

    2008-09-01

    This review proposes a new taxonomy of automatic and controlled attention. The taxonomy distinguishes among the role of the attendee (puppet and robot, critic and actor), the attention process (stimulus orienting vs. response control), and the attention operation (activation vs. inhibition vs. adjustment), and identifies cognitive phenotypes by which attention is overtly expressed. We apply the taxonomy to four childhood attention disorders: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, spina bifida meningomyelocele, traumatic brain injury, and acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Variations in attention are related to specific brain regions that support normal attention processes when intact, and produce disordered attention when impaired. The taxonomy explains group differences in behavioral inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsiveness, as well as medication response. We also discuss issues relevant to theories of the cognitive and neural architecture of attention: functional dissociations within and between automatic and controlled attention; the relative importance of type of brain damage and developmental timing to attention profile; cognitive-energetic models of attention and white matter damage; temporal processing deficits, attention deficits and cerebellar damage; and the issue of cognitive phenotypes as candidate endophenotypes.

  7. The interplay between emotion and cognition in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Implications for developmental theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian B Gaigg

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD is a neurodevelopmental disorder that is clinically defined by abnormalities in reciprocal social and communicative behaviours and an inflexible adherence to routinised patterns of thought and behaviour. Laboratory studies repeatedly demonstrate that autistic individuals experience difficulties in recognising and understanding the emotional expressions of others and naturalistic observations show that they use such expressions infrequently and inappropriately to regulate social exchanges. Dominant theories attribute this facet of the ASD phenotype to abnormalities in a social brain network that mediates social-motivational and social-cognitive processes such as face processing, mental state understanding and empathy. Such theories imply that only emotion related processes relevant to social cognition are compromised in ASD but accumulating evidence suggests that the disorder may be characterised by more widespread anomalies in the domain of emotions. In this review I summarise the relevant literature and argue that the social-emotional characteristics of ASD may be better understood in terms of a disruption in the domain-general interplay between emotion and cognition. More specifically I will suggest that ASD is the developmental consequence of early-emerging anomalies in how emotional responses to the environment modulate a wide range of cognitive processes including those that are relevant to navigating the social world.

  8. The Interplay between Emotion and Cognition in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Implications for Developmental Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaigg, Sebastian B

    2012-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that is clinically defined by abnormalities in reciprocal social and communicative behaviors and an inflexible adherence to routinised patterns of thought and behavior. Laboratory studies repeatedly demonstrate that autistic individuals experience difficulties in recognizing and understanding the emotional expressions of others and naturalistic observations show that they use such expressions infrequently and inappropriately to regulate social exchanges. Dominant theories attribute this facet of the ASD phenotype to abnormalities in a social brain network that mediates social-motivational and social-cognitive processes such as face processing, mental state understanding, and empathy. Such theories imply that only emotion related processes relevant to social cognition are compromised in ASD but accumulating evidence suggests that the disorder may be characterized by more widespread anomalies in the domain of emotions. In this review I summarize the relevant literature and argue that the social-emotional characteristics of ASD may be better understood in terms of a disruption in the domain-general interplay between emotion and cognition. More specifically I will suggest that ASD is the developmental consequence of early emerging anomalies in how emotional responses to the environment modulate a wide range of cognitive processes including those that are relevant to navigating the social world.

  9. Female reproductive disorders: the roles of endocrine-disrupting compounds and developmental timing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crain, D.A.; Janssen, S.J.; Edwards, T.M.

    2008-01-01

    , and pregnancy loss), breast (breast cancer, reduced duration of lactation), and pubertal timing were identified, reviewed, and summarized at a workshop. CONCLUSION(S): The data reviewed illustrate that EDCs contribute to numerous human female reproductive disorders and emphasize the sensitivity of early life...

  10. [Prospective assessment of children with pervasive developmental disorder after 2 years of day-hospital treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poinso, F; Dubois, B; Chatel, C; Viellard, M; Bastard-Rosset, D; Girardot, A-M; Grandgeorge, P; De Martino, S; Sokolowsky, M; Salle-Collemiche, X; Da Fonseca, D

    2013-01-01

    The treatment of children with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) has not been systematically assessed in French day-care units. In this prospective study, 11 children with a diagnosis of PDD were followed up for 2years in a day-care unit in the Marseille university hospital. The treatment they received is based on an initial assessment by the "Centre Ressources Autisme" (CRA PACA) and further included a continued observation of the child and an assessment of the child's abilities and needs. This treatment used various therapeutic approaches 10h weekly and also included parental counseling and coordinated work with schools. Treatment in our day-care unit can be categorized as eclectic, non-intensive therapy. It is based on methods such as TEACCH (Treatment and Education of Autistic and related Communication handicapped Children), Floor Time Play, speech and language therapy, developmental therapy, and psychotherapy. International studies on intensive behavioral therapies suggest that this treatment is superior to non-behavioral and/or non-intensive treatment. They suggest its efficiency is due both to the nature of the treatment (behavioral) and to its intensity (more than 25h a week). In this study, the CRA diagnosed children using the ADI and ADOS. The 11 children (mean age, 3years 5months) were tested twice, with the Vineland and CARS scales. The first assessment was on admission to the day hospital and the second was 2years later. The results showed developmental progress with a mean increase of 13.5 months at the Vineland Scale, and a decrease of the autism severity score on the CARS. The treatment presented here proves to be efficient; if compared to similar results in international studies, we obtained better results than their eclectic intensive or non-intensive treatment comparison group.

  11. An Attachment Theoretical Framework for Understanding Personality Disorders: Developmental, Neuroscience, and Psychotherapeutic Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth N. Levy

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose that John Bowlby's attachment theory provides a theoretically coherent, empirically based, and clinically useful model for understanding personality pathology. This theoretical framework brings parsimony and breadth to the conceptualization of the etiology, maintenance, and treatment of personality disorders (PDs. Attachment theory can explain both the intrapersonal and interpersonal difficulties common in those with PDs and is consistent with findings from studies across multiple domains of knowledge, including evolutionary biology, ethology/comparative psychology, developmental psychology, experimental social-personality psychology, and neuroscience.PDs are characterized by significant interpersonal challenges. Recently, these challenges have been hypothesized to stem from underlying maladaptive attachment schemas. Our goal is to outline and elaborate on attachment theory as a foundation for the etiology and pathology of PDs and to highlight the implications of this theory for treatment. We begin with a brief review of attachment, describing its conceptualization and assessment in both children and adults in order to examine PD development. This theoretical foundation is supported by a body of empirical research, from which we present findings from neurobiological and developmental literatures linking attachment and PDs. We then examine the role of attachment in the psychotherapy process and in treatment outcome. Further, we outline research reporting changes in attachment patterns as a result of treatment. Finally, we summarize the implications of attachment theory for understanding PDs and present possible directions for future research.

  12. Motor and cognitive performance differences between children with and without developmental coordination disorder (DCD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asonitou, Katerina; Koutsouki, Dimitra; Kourtessis, Thomas; Charitou, Sofia

    2012-01-01

    The current study adopts the PASS theory of information processing to investigate the probable differences in specific motor and cognitive abilities between children with and without developmental coordination disorder (DCD). Participants were 108 5- and 6-year-old preschoolers (54 children with DCD and 54 children without DCD). The Movement Assessment Battery for Children assessed motor function. Running speed and agility were measured using the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency. Finally, the Planning, Attention and Simultaneous Scales from the Das-Naglieri Cognitive Assessment System evaluated cognitive ability. Children with DCD differed significantly from those without DCD performing at a lower level on all motor and cognitive tasks. A correlation analysis revealed significant relationships between cognitive processes and motor skills. Simultaneous cognitive processing and manual dexterity were significantly correlated for both groups. Furthermore, a significant relationship was revealed between planning cognitive processing and balance for the non-DCD group. Thus, early assessment might identify specific cognitive-motor difficulties. Furthermore, early intervention might prevent some of the developmental comorbidities in the academic and everyday lives of children with movement difficulties.

  13. Lorazepam, fluoxetine and packing therapy in an adolescent with pervasive developmental disorder and catatonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consoli, Angèle; Gheorghiev, Charles; Jutard, Claire; Bodeau, Nicolas; Kloeckner, Anja; Pitron, Victor; Cohen, David; Bonnot, Olivier

    2010-12-01

    Packing therapy is an adjunct symptomatic treatment used for autism and/or catatonia. Here, we report the case of a 15-year-old boy with pervasive developmental disorder who developed catatonia. At admission, catatonic symptoms were severe and the patient required a feeding tube. Lorazepam up to 15 mg/day moderately improved the catatonic symptoms. On day 36 we added fluoxetine and on day 62 we added packing therapy (twice per week, 10 sessions). After three packing sessions, the patient showed a significant clinical improvement (Ppsychoanalysis and neuroscience. Indeed, better body representation following packing sessions, as shown in patient's drawing, paralleled clinical improvement, and supports the concept of embodied self. This concept may serve as a link between psychoanalysis and attachment theory, developmental psychology with the early description of "sense of self", and cognitive neurosciences that more and more support the concept of embodied cognition. Further clinical studies are necessary to clarify the efficacy and underlying mechanism of packing treatment and to understand how patient's experience may illustrate the concept of embodied self.

  14. Maxillofacial Developmental and Occlusion Disorders in Children with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Torres Molina

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is a highly prevalent disease that affects approximately 2% of children and is considered a complex entity due to its somatic and cognitive impact. Occlusion and mouth, skull and facial alterations associated with this syndrome are a matter of concern both for specialists in maxillofacial surgery and orthodontists, who are playing an important role in the diagnosis and final treatment of this disease. Guilleminault scoring system allows to evaluate the severity of the anomalies of the facial skeleton and the dental occlusion in these patients, by relying on the physical examination and the cephalometry. Early diagnosis and appropriate therapy reverse maxillofacial developmental disorders in most of the cases.

  15. Fecal microbiota and metabolome of children with autism and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Angelis, Maria; Piccolo, Maria; Vannini, Lucia; Siragusa, Sonya; De Giacomo, Andrea; Serrazzanetti, Diana Isabella; Cristofori, Fernanda; Guerzoni, Maria Elisabetta; Gobbetti, Marco; Francavilla, Ruggiero

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the fecal microbiota and metabolome of children with Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS) and autism (AD) in comparison to healthy children (HC). Bacterial tag-encoded FLX-titanium amplicon pyrosequencing (bTEFAP) of the 16S rDNA and 16S rRNA analyses were carried out to determine total bacteria (16S rDNA) and metabolically active bacteria (16S rRNA), respectively. The main bacterial phyla (Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Fusobacteria and Verrucomicrobia) significantly (PCanonical Discriminant Analysis of Principal Coordinates, the levels of free amino acids and volatile organic compounds of fecal samples were markedly affected in PDD-NOS and, especially, AD children. If the gut microbiota differences among AD and PDD-NOS and HC children are one of the concomitant causes or the consequence of autism, they may have implications regarding specific diagnostic test, and/or for treatment and prevention.

  16. Social behaviour in pervasive developmental disorders: effects of informant, group and "theory-of-mind".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, C; Soares-Boucaud, I; Hochmann, J; Frith, U

    1997-12-01

    Theory of mind skills and a range of social behaviour in everyday life were assessed in a sample of 21 children with pervasive developmental disorders and 22 normally-developing preschoolers. Parents, teachers and therapists were interviewed using the Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scales and a new supplementary scale, the "Echelle d'Adaptation Sociale pour Enfants" (EASE). Teachers and therapists were able to differentiate subtle forms of social problems in everyday life between subgroups of children diagnosed later to have either autism (n = 13) or PDDNOS (n = 8), according to DSM-III-R (1) criteria. This study offers a (small) cross-cultural replication of recent work suggesting that differences in the mentalising skills of children with autism are reflected in the everyday social behaviour of this group. A significant effect of informant was found for the PDD group, and this effect was particularly pronounced when children with autism were considered separately. The implications of informant differences are discussed.

  17. Developmental Coordination Disorder Affects the Processing of Action-Related Verbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirabella, Giovanni; Del Signore, Sara; Lakens, Daniel; Averna, Roberto; Penge, Roberta; Capozzi, Flavia

    2017-01-01

    Processing action-language affects the planning and execution of motor acts, which suggests that the motor system might be involved in action-language understanding. However, this claim is hotly debated. For the first time, we compared the processing of action-verbs in children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD), a disease that specifically affects the motor system, with children with a typical development (TD). We administered two versions of a go/no-go task in which verbs expressing either hand, foot or abstract actions were presented. We found that only when the semantic content of a verb has to be retrieved, TD children showed an increase in reaction times if the verb involved the same effector used to give the response. In contrast, DCD patients did not show any difference between verb categories irrespective of the task. These findings suggest that the pathological functioning of the motor system in individuals with DCD also affects language processing. PMID:28119585

  18. Deciphering the mechanisms of developmental disorders: phenotype analysis of embryos from mutant mouse lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robert; McGuire, Christina; Mohun, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    The Deciphering the Mechanisms of Developmental Disorders (DMDD) consortium is a research programme set up to identify genes in the mouse, which if mutated (or knocked-out) result in embryonic lethality when homozygous, and initiate the study of why disruption of their function has such profound effects on embryo development and survival. The project uses a combination of comprehensive high resolution 3D imaging and tissue histology to identify abnormalities in embryo and placental structures of embryonic lethal lines. The image data we have collected and the phenotypes scored are freely available through the project website (http://dmdd.org.uk). In this article we describe the web interface to the images that allows the embryo data to be viewed at full resolution in different planes, discuss how to search the database for a phenotype, and our approach to organising the data for an embryo and a mutant line so it is easy to comprehend and intuitive to navigate.

  19. Treatment of developmental stress disorder: mind, body and brain - analysis and pharmacology coupled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, Joseph

    2017-11-01

    The schism between psychiatry, psychology and analysis, while long present, has widened even more in the past half-century with the advances in psychopharmacology. With the advances in electronic brain imaging, particularly in developmental and post-traumatic stress disorders, there has emerged both an understanding of brain changes resulting from severe, chronic stress and an ability to target brain chemistry in ways that can relieve clinical symptomatology. The use of alpha-1 adrenergic brain receptor antagonists decreases many of the manifestations of PTSD. Additionally, this paper discusses the ways in which dreaming, thinking and the analytic process are facilitated with this concomitant treatment and hypervigilence and hyper-arousal states are signficiantly decreased. © 2017, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  20. Developmental Coordination Disorder: Validation of a Qualitative Analysis Using Statistical Factor Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy Ahern

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates triangulation of the findings of a qualitative analysis by applying an exploratory factor analysis to themes identified in a phenomenological study. A questionnaire was developed from a phenomenological analysis of parents' experiences of parenting a child with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD. The questionnaire was administered to 114 parents of DCD children and data were analyzed using an exploratory factor analysis. The extracted factors provided support for the validity of the original qualitative analysis, and a commentary on the validity of the process is provided. The emerging description is of the compromises that were necessary to translate qualitative themes into statistical factors, and of the ways in which the statistical analysis suggests further qualitative study.

  1. Assessment of physical fitness and exercise tolerance in children with developmental coordination disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhat, Faiçal; Hsairi, Ines; Baiti, Hamza; Cairney, John; Mchirgui, Radhouane; Masmoudi, Kaouthar; Padulo, Johnny; Triki, Chahinez; Moalla, Wassim

    2015-01-01

    Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) have been shown to be less physically fit when compared to their typically developing peers. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationships among body composition, physical fitness and exercise tolerance in children with and without DCD. Thirty-seven children between the ages of 7 and 9 years participated in this study. Participants were classified according to results obtained on the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC) and were divided in 2 groups: 19 children with DCD and 18 children without DCD. All children performed the following physical fitness tests: The five-jump test (5JT), the triple-hop distance (THD) and the modified agility test (MAT). Walking distance was assessed using the 6-min walking test (6MWT). Children with DCD showed higher scores than children without DCD in all MABC subscale scores, as well as in the total score (pcoordination on motor control.

  2. Perception of Object Length Via Manual Wielding in Children With and Without Developmental Coordination Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Michael G; Tsai, Chia-Liang; Stoffregen, Thomas; Chang, Chih-Hui; Chen, Fu-Chen

    2016-01-01

    The authors compared haptic perception via active manual wielding in children with and without developmental coordination disorder (DCD). Forty-eight children, 11-12 years old, participated as volunteers. Twenty-four were typically developing children (TDC), and 24 had been diagnosed with DCD. Individually, children held and wielded unseen rods of five lengths (20, 45, 60, 75, or 90 cm). Based on this wielding, children judged the length of each rod. Judgments of rod length were shorter in the DCD group than in the TDC group. In addition, significant interactions revealed that the difference between the 2 groups was progressively greater for longer rods. The results provide support for the hypothesis that DCD includes deficits in the ability to use manual wielding in the perception of object length. In addition, the results suggest that the deficit is not general, but is greater for longer objects.

  3. Face and Word Recognition Can Be Selectively Affected by Brain Injury or Developmental Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robotham, Ro J.; Starrfelt, Randi

    2017-01-01

    face recognition deficit, and pure alexia, a selective word recognition deficit. Together, the patterns of impaired reading with preserved face recognition and impaired face recognition with preserved reading constitute a double dissociation. The existence of these selective deficits has been...... also have deficits in the other. The implications of this would be immense, with most textbooks in cognitive neuropsychology requiring drastic revisions. In order to evaluate the evidence for dissociations, we review studies that specifically investigate whether face or word recognition can...... be selectively affected by acquired brain injury or developmental disorders. We only include studies published since 2004, as comprehensive reviews of earlier studies are available. Most of the studies assess the supposedly preserved functions using sensitive measurements. We found convincing evidence...

  4. Psychological characteristics of emotional intelligence of teachers working with children with developmental disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KHRISTINA SAYKO

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses emotional intelligence as a factor of effective teaching. Emotional intelligence, in broad interpretation, is defined as the ability to differentiate between positive and negative emotions, and the ability to change one’s emotional condition from a poor to a better one. Internal and external components are inherent in the emotional component, and they can provide stress protecting and adaptive functions of this integral concept. Also it highlights psychological characteristics of teachers working with children with developmental disorders. Psychological requirements for specialists who work with individuals with special educational needs include psychological willingness of a personality for this work. This willingness can be considered as an integrated quality of a personality including a system of motivation, knowledge, skills, certain experience, personal qualities that ensure successful activity. Keywords: ; ; ; ;

  5. Nature of spatial coupling in children with and without developmental coordination disorder in ball catching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przysucha, Eryk P; Maraj, Brian K V

    2013-07-01

    The nature of intra- and interlimb (bimanual) coordination was examined in ten boys with (M = 10.5 years, SD = 1.0) and without DCD (M = 10.8 years, SD = .9) in a two-handed catching task. Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) caught significantly fewer balls (MDCD = 56%, SD = 17.6 vs. MnoDCD = 93%, SD = 7.5), and both groups solved the "degrees of freedom problem" differently at intralimb level of coordination. Typically developing children coupled and decoupled the respective spatial relations, whereas the majority of children with DCD segmented their actions. At interlimb level, both groups exhibited a comparable degree of spatial symmetry. However, individual profiles also showed that children with varying degrees of movement issues exhibited movement patterns that were qualitatively and functionally diverse. Overall, in the context of previous research on interlimb coordination it appears that spatial, in addition to temporal organization, may be jeopardized in at least some children with DCD.

  6. Sensory Pattern Contributions to Developmental Performance in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomchek, Scott D; Little, Lauren M; Dunn, Winnie

    2015-01-01

    Sensory processing differences in preschool-age children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) affect their engagement in everyday activities, thereby influencing opportunities to practice and develop skills such as social communication and adaptive behavior. The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which specific sensory processing patterns relate to aspects of development (i.e., adaptive behavior, expressive and receptive language, fine and gross motor skills, social behavior) in a sample of preschool-age children with ASD (N=400). A retrospective chart review was used to gather clinical data. Results suggest that sensory processing patterns differentially affect children's developmental skills and adaptive behavior. Certain sensory processing patterns predicted children's development of language, motor, and adaptive skills. These findings have clear implications for occupational therapy practice with young children with ASD. Practitioners should consider how sensory processing in ASD both supports and limits children's ability to engage in social communication and learning opportunities.

  7. Frequency of anticipatory trunk muscle onsets in children with and without developmental coordination disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Kyra; Barden, John

    2014-02-01

    This study used electromyography to compare the frequency of anticipatory postural adjustments for three bilateral trunk muscles and unilateral tibialis anterior muscle between children with and without developmental coordination disorder (DCD; n = 22, ages 7 to 14 years) during three tasks (kicking a ball, stepping onto a step, standing on one foot). Between-group comparisons demonstrated significantly less frequent anticipatory activation of ipsilateral tibialis anterior, ipsilateral transversus abdominis/internal oblique, and bilateral external oblique muscles in children with DCD. Odds ratios indicated that children with DCD utilized anticipatory contractions of these muscles one half to one quarter as often as the typically developing children did, while performing the same tasks. These results suggest that the movement difficulties experienced by children with DCD may be associated with less frequent anticipatory adjustments. For these children, inconsistent preparatory activation may contribute to postural control difficulties, excessive movement variability and poor movement quality.

  8. Pharmacologic treatment of behavioral symptoms in autism and pervasive developmental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findling, Robert L

    2005-01-01

    Autism and other pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs) are associated with various dysfunctional and problematic behaviors, in addition to the core features of language and social skills dysfunction that define these conditions. Although there is currently no pharmacologic cure for the core features of PDDs, some of the behavioral symptoms may be treated pharmacologically. In addition to relieving some of the daily stress in the lives of patients and their families, improvement of these behavioral symptoms, which include hyperactivity, aggression, tantrums, and self-injury, removes some of the hindrances to other rehabilitative efforts. This article discusses the efficacy and tolerability of various medications and alternative interventions in addressing the symptoms of autism and other PDDs.

  9. Motivating children with developmental coordination disorder in school physical education: the self-determination theory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katartzi, Ermioni S; Vlachopoulos, Symeon P

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the current article is to highlight the potential of self-determination theory (SDT) to inform the teaching practices of physical education (PE) teachers. Such practices may enhance motivational levels for participation in physical activity (PA) for children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). First, we review the research in PE demonstrating links between teachers' interpersonal style, teaching methods, and outcomes relating to both students' motivation and motor skill improvement. Second, we outline the SDT mechanism through which the practices employed by PE teachers to support students' psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness may effect positive changes in the motivation and the physical activity behaviour of children with DCD. Third, we present an overview of findings on the effectiveness of need-supporting practices used by PE teachers. Fourth, we provide directions for future motivational research using the SDT principles in school physical education for children with DCD.

  10. Mapping real-world to online vulnerability in young people with developmental disorders : illustrations from autism and Williams syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Lough, E.; Flynn, E.; Riby, D.M.

    2014-01-01

    The Internet poses a new kind of threat, especially for those individuals already vulnerable in society. The current paper draws on the social phenotypes associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and Williams syndrome (WS) to propose that individuals with some developmental disorders face an elevated level of risk whilst online. Many individuals with ASD struggle to maintain social relations and are frequent users of screen-based technology, using the Internet to seek out social connecti...

  11. Preschool-Age Male Psychiatric Patients with Specific Developmental Disorders and Those Without: Do They Differ in Behavior Problems and Treatment Outcome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achtergarde, Sandra; Becke, Johanna; Beyer, Thomas; Postert, Christian; Romer, Georg; Müller, Jörg Michael

    2014-01-01

    Specific developmental disorders of speech, language, and motor function in children are associated with a wide range of mental health problems. We examined whether preschool-age psychiatric patients with specific developmental disorders and those without differed in the severity of emotional and behavior problems. In addition, we examined whether…

  12. Dyslexia and Developmental Co-Ordination Disorder in Further and Higher Education--Similarities and Differences. Does the "Label" Influence the Support Given?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Amanda; Sugden, David; Beveridge, Sally; Edwards, Lisa; Edwards, Rachel

    2008-01-01

    Developmental co-ordination disorder (DCD) is a developmental disorder affecting motor co-ordination. The "Diagnostics Statistics Manual"--IV classification for DCD describes difficulties across a range of activities of daily living, impacting on everyday skills and academic performance in school. Recent evidence has shown that…

  13. Autismo e doenças invasivas de desenvolvimento Autism and pervasive developmental disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Gadia

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Revisar os aspectos neurobiológicos do autismo e das doenças invasivas de desenvolvimento. Oferecer ao pediatra informações atualizadas sobre diagnóstico e tratamento. FONTES DOS DADOS: Revisão bibliográfica, abordando o tema por meio do sistema MEDLINE e procura direta. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: Conforme dados da literatura, o autismo é a terceira mais comum desordem no desenvolvimento, ocorrendo em 40 a 130 casos por 100.000. O diagnóstico é clínico, baseado nos critérios do DSM-IV. Os exames de neuroimagem e neurofetologia e os estudos genéticos contribuem para o melhor entendimento da neurobiologia do autismo. CONCLUSÃO: O pediatra é o primeiro médico a entrar em contato com o paciente autista e deve estar apto para reconhecer os desvios do desenvolvimento e orientar a investigação e o tratamento multidisciplinar.OBJECTIVE: To review the current knowledge on neurobiological aspects of autism and pervasive developmental disorders, as well as to provide pediatricians with up to date information on diagnosis and treatment of autism. SOURCES OF DATA: Review of MEDLINE and Internet. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: Autism is the 3rd developmental disorder, with an incidence of 40 to 130/100,000 individuals. Diagnosis is based on clinical findings, following DSM IV criteria. Neuroimaging, investigation of fetal neurological status, and genetic investigation contribute towards a better understanding of the neurobiology of autism. CONCLUSION: Pediatricians are the first health professional to come in contact with patients with autism. Thus, they should be able to diagnose and to coordinate the multidisciplinary treatment of these patients.

  14. Surveying parental experiences of receiving a diagnosis of developmental coordination disorder (DCD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso Soriano, Claudia; Hill, Elisabeth L; Crane, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Receiving a diagnosis of a developmental disorder has a major impact on an individual and their family. However, little is known about parental experiences of having a child diagnosed with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). In this study, 228 parents completed an online survey about their experiences of obtaining a diagnosis of DCD for their child in the United Kingdom. Results demonstrated that, on average, a diagnosis was confirmed two and a half years after parents initially sought professional help in relation to their child's motor difficulties. Satisfaction with the overall diagnostic process was mixed: 45% of parents were dissatisfied (26%=very dissatisfied, 19%=quite dissatisfied) and 39% were satisfied (16%=very satisfied, 23%=quite satisfied). Four factors were predictive of parental satisfaction with the overall diagnostic process: the stress of the diagnostic process; the manner of the diagnosing professional; satisfaction with post-diagnostic support; and the time taken to get a diagnosis. Post-diagnostic provision was the area in which parents reported most dissatisfaction; an unsurprising finding given that 43% of parents were not offered any practical help or support during the diagnostic process or in follow up appointments (although there was an indication that this was improving). Based on these findings (as well as previous research), we propose three key areas in which improvements in the diagnostic process for DCD are needed: (1) greater awareness about DCD in order to facilitate earlier recognition; (2) implementation of clear referral pathways, to reduce the time taken to receive a diagnosis; and (3) increased post-diagnostic support within health and educational systems.

  15. Shared Decision Making in the Care of Children with Developmental and Behavioral Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipstein, Ellen A.; Lindly, Olivia J.; Anixt, Julia S.; Britto, Maria T.; Zuckerman, Katharine E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Shared decision making (SDM) is most needed when there are multiple treatment options and no “right” choice. As with quality and experience of care, frequency of SDM may vary by health condition. The objectives of this study were (1) to compare parent report of SDM between a physical and a behavioral health condition and; (2) to compare parent report of SDM between two different behavioral health conditions. Methods Data on children age 3–17 years with asthma, attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and /or autism spectrum disorder (ASD) were drawn from the 2009/10 National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs. Weighted logistic regression was used to compare a parent-reported, composite measure of SDM. Analyses controlled for sociodemographic factors that may influence experience of SDM. Results Compared to parents of children with asthma, parents of children with ADHD were significantly less likely to report experiencing consistent SDM (aOR 0.73). Compared to parents of children with ADHD, those of children with ASD had significantly lower odds of experiencing consistent SDM (aOR 0.59). Those with both ADHD and ASD had the same odds as those with ASD alone of experiencing consistent SDM. Conclusion Use of SDM is particularly limited in developmental and behavioral conditions, such as ADHD and ASD. These data suggest that challenges to implementing SDM may include disease type, complexity, and use of specialty care. Research to identify specific barriers and facilitators of SDM is needed to inform interventions that will promote SDM in developmental and behavioral conditions. PMID:26518006

  16. Psychometric properties of the Italian version of the Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire (DCDQ-Italian).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravale, Barbara; Baldi, Silvia; Capone, Luca; Presaghi, Fabio; Balottin, Umberto; Zoppello, Marina

    2014-11-14

    A valid tool that contributes to the diagnosis of Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) is represented by the Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire 2007 (DCDQ'07). Recently we developed the Italian version of DCDQ (DCDQ-Italian). The aim of this study was to further analyze the psychometric properties in a sample of Italian school children aged 5-12 years and to establish cut-off scores with respect to age groups. A total of 698 parents completed the DCDQ-Italian and 45 of them repeated it after 2 weeks for test-retest reliability. One hundred and seventeen children were tested using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children. Confirmatory factor analysis supported this version to be consistent with the original. Cronbach's alpha for the total score was 0.89 and test-retest reliability was 0.88. Two-ways ANOVA for total and single subscales showed a significant main effect for age group only and not for gender. Sensitivity and specificity for our community based sample were 59% and 65% respectively, considering the cut-off scores for the 15th percentile of M-ABC and increasing when age groups were taken into account (ROC curve=0.62). The agreement with the original was good if 15th is considered. This is the first study on the psychometric property of DCDQ in a community sample of Italian children. The DCDQ-Italian could be used as a screening tool for motor coordination difficulties in Italian children. Slight differences in cut-offs should be considered when using this version. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. INCLUSION OF CHILDREN WITH DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS IN DAY CARE INSTITUTION ESTREA MARA IN BITOLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. SOTIROVSKA-SIRVINI

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available The Day Care Institutions for children are forms of organized protection for improvement of the psycho-physical, emotional and social development of children. In this period, the growth and development are in their most intensive phase when the outside influence plays an extraordinary role both in a positive and in negative a direction. Directed and well-organized protection is of a great importance. By inclusion of children with developmental disorders in the group and with special, individual treatment of each child by adequate specialized staff, their socialization and stimulus for developmental acceleration is achieved.Many years ago, by recommendation of the Advisory Institution for Development, the doctors from the Advisory Institution for small children, the public-health nurses or by the parents initiative, the kindergartens accept children with Down syndrome, children with limited and lower level backwardness, with disharmonious development, with lower level forms of cerebral paralysis and with speech disorders.Children at the earliest age of one month are resided at the Advisory Institu­­tion for Development and receive treatment until they are categorized and are ready to start school, but certain children are sent to the kindergartens at the age of 3.In the previous years, out of five children with Down syndrome treated in the Advisory Institution for Development, four were sent to the kindergarten. Now, one of these children attends the fifth grade and two attend the first grade in a regular elementary school and one attends the special school. Three children with Spastic dyplegia, four children with lower level of retardation, two with surdomutitas and four with disharmonious development are still in the kindergarten.

  18. [Anxiety in children and adolescents with pervasive developmental disorder without mental retardation: review of literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soussana, M; Sunyer, B; Pry, R; Baghdadli, A

    2012-02-01

    Anxiety is highly prevalent in Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD) without mental retardation but is too often misdiagnosed. The authors suggest a critical review of current data of the PDD without mental retardation in children and adolescents, in order to summarize research published in this field. After describing specific features, this article tackles the issue of prevalence of anxiety among this population, then deals with present-time assessment and treatments of comorbid anxiety. This review was based on a systematic search of the main online databases (Science Direct, PsychInfo, Medline and Pubmed) in order to compile surveys published on Asperger syndrome and high-functioning autism-related anxiety among children and adolescents. This study focuses on papers published between 1995 and 2010, using strict diagnostic criteria for anxiety and PDD, and a controlled group, with the exception of pharmacological studies because none are controlled. We found seven studies assessing the prevalence of anxiety among children and adolescents with PDD, four assessment tools and 12 treatments. Anxiety disorders were shown in 42% of children and adolescents with PDD without mental retardation. This disorder is related to age and level of cognitive functioning and is likely to affect PDD without mental retardation as children and adolescents with anxiety disorder without PDD. This review highlights a major problem: assessment of anxiety in PDD without mental retardation. Actually, only two PDD adapted instruments have been found: the Autism Co-Morbidity Interview Present and Lifetime Version (ACI-PI) and the Stress Survey Schedule (SSS) for persons with autism. Such tools being methodologically limited, the diagnosis of anxiety disorder is all the more difficult to establish. Consequently, considering suitable treatment is not always proposed. Recent surveys show how profitable pharmacological treatment and behavioral intervention like Cognitive-Behavior Therapy (CBT

  19. Promoting positive human development and social justice: Integrating theory, research and application in contemporary developmental science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Richard M

    2015-06-01

    The bold claim that developmental science can contribute to both enhancing positive development among diverse individuals across the life span and promoting social justice in their communities, nations and regions is supported by decades of theoretical, methodological and research contributions. To explain the basis of this claim, I describe the relational developmental systems (RDS) metamodel that frames contemporary developmental science, and I present an example of a programme of research within the adolescent portion of the life span that is associated with this metamodel and is pertinent to promoting positive human development. I then discuss methodological issues associated with using RDS-based models as frames for research and application. Finally, I explain how the theoretical and methodological ideas associated with RDS thinking may provide the scholarly tools needed by developmental scientists seeking to contribute to human thriving and to advance social justice in the Global South. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  20. Finding susceptibility genes for developmental disorders of speech: the long and winding road.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felsenfeld, Susan

    2002-01-01

    Finding susceptibility genes for complex disorders is the next major challenge facing genetics researchers. The purpose of this paper is to stimulate creative thinking about the gene-finding process for developmental speech disorders (DSDs), specifically disorders of articulation/phonology and stuttering. The paper will begin with a review of existing behavioral genetic studies of these phenotypes. This will be followed by a discussion of roadblocks that may impede the molecular study of DSDs, research that is in very early stages of development. As a third objective, the small number of molecular genetic studies of DSDs that have been published or presented will be described. The paper concludes with a discussion of research strategies that may maximize the success of molecular studies of speech phenotypes. It will be argued that progress will most likely be enhanced if theories about biological systems and processes can be used to narrow the search for candidate susceptibility genes. The reader will be introduced to findings and conceptual issues that relate to the behavioral and molecular genetic investigation of DSDs. After completing this paper, readers should be able to (a) identify key epidemiological findings for the three speech phenotypes that were discussed (DAS, speech delay, and stuttering); (b) summarize the findings of the behavioral genetic studies of speech disorders that were presented; (c) identify four specific challenges that may impede future molecular genetic studies of these phenotypes; (d) describe the methodological sequence that led to the discovery of the FOXP2 gene; and (e) summarize the two research strategies that were presented to potentially reduce sample heterogeneity for future molecular genetics research.